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Full text of "Field book of North American mammals; descriptions of every mammal known north of the Rio Grande, together with brief accounts of habits, geographical ranges, etc."

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PUTNAM'S 
NATURE FIELD BOOKS 

Companion books to this one 

Mathews American Wild Flowers 

American Trees and Shrubs 
Wild Birds and their Music 

Durand Wild Flowers in Homes and Gardens 

My Wild Flower Garden 
Common Ferns 

Lutz Insects 

Loomis Rocks and Minerals 

Eliot Birds of the Pacific Coast 

Armstrong Western Wild Flowers 

Alexander Birds of the Ocean 

Anthony North American Mammals 

Thomas Common Mushrooms 

Sturgis Birds of the Panama Canal Zone 

Miner Seashore Life 

Breader Marine Fishes of Atlantic Coast 

Morgan Ponds and Streams 

Longyear Rocky Mountain Trees and Shrubs 



Each in One Volume 

fully illustrated 

including many 

Colored 

Plates 



Plate I 




FIELD BOOK OF 



nDescriptions of every mammal krwwn 

north of the ^io Qrande, together 

with brief accounts of habits, 

geographical ranges, etc. 

H. E. ANTHONY, MA. 

Curator, Dept. of Mammals, American 
Museum of Natural History 



l£)ith 32 coloured plates and 175 p 
pen-and-ink sketches and 



G, P. PUTNAM^S 

NEW YORK — LONDON 
1928 




FIELD BOOK OF 
NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS 



Copyright, 1928 

by 
H. E. Anthony 



First Edition 



yi^<^ 




Made in the United States of America 




INTRODUCTION 

Need for a Field Book 

Many books and papers have been written about North 
American mammals. Some of these have been written for 
the layman; by far the greater number have been penned for 
a very limited circle of readers, the mammalogists or scientific 
students of mammalogy. While the study of mammals has 
been going on for centuries, the field has been by no means 
worked out ; there are many mammals today of which we know 
almost nothing, aside from their physical appearance. In 
common with all sciences, the intensive study of mammals has 
made great progress in recent years. We go to the older 
works, such as Audubon and Bachman, because they are 
classics, but in the light of present-day knowledge they fall 
short of our requirements. We have discovered so many new 
species which were unknown at that time, or we have so altered 
the system of classification in the attempt to improve the 
science, that the earlier writings do not bridge the gaps. It 
may be stated that there is no single publication today which 
attempts to give a full and adequate synopsis, with geographi- 
ical distribution and notes on habits, of every North American 
mammal. The United States National Museum has published 
a very excellent check-list of North American mammals, 
written by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., of which more will be said 
later, which is invaluable to students of rnammals, but this 
volume by itself will not carry the layman far because it 
contains no descriptions and but few common names. There 
are complete descriptions, names, habits, etc., for the mam- 
mals of certain favored districts, and several very useful and 
valuable publications on the mammals of the country at large, 
the outstanding example of which is the recent four- volume 
work by Seton, the very finest book on mammals ever written 
for the layman. This latter is a limited, de luxe edition of a 
size to be used only in the library and, complete as it is, it 
does not deal with all of the smaller mammals^ O /I A 



INTRODUCTION 



From the foregoing it can be seen that there is a real and 
definite need for a work of field book size which will give some 
space, brief though it may be, to each and every recognized 
species and subspecies of North American mammal. No 
single volume can be expected to contain all the data required 
by scientist and layman, and in this field book the layman is 
considered first. Early in planning the scope of the work I 
encountered obvious difficulties. These should be briefly 
explained to justify the plan which has been followed. 

Scope of this Field Book 

There are 1,445 species and subspecies treated in the follow- 
ing pages. In dealing with this large number so much space 
has been used that the individual treatments have been con- 
densed to the limit. The intention has been to give at least 
one full and detailed description in each group, and then by 
comparison or reference to this data hold the synopses of the 
other forms of the group to the minimum of space. Often the 
basis for separation of one species from another is of such a 
technical nature or so subtle in character that it is most 
difficult to describe for a lay reader. To omit completely all 
of the forms which fall into this category would create unde- 
sirable gaps in the field book. However, by using the geograph- 
ical distribution as a key, one frequently is able to identify 
these troublesome, closely related forms, because we have had 
the distributions of the various groups worked out from large 
series of specimens and it is fairly well known where most of 
these animals belong. For the sake of providing a compre- 
hensive catalogue, every North American mammal is therefore 
listed,^ using the term North America to include all of the 
continent north of the Rio Grande and following Miller's List 
of North American Recent Mammals as authority. Maps to 
show the geographical distribution of many of the species are 
given as an aid in identification. 

Unless he be a specialist, the reader will only be confused 
by discussions of the skull characters of mammals, and they 
are omitted, although the greater part of the classification of 
mammals is based upon skull characters. Frequently the 

"^ With the exception of certain of the Bears of the genus Ursus, as 
explained on page 78. 



INTRODUCTION 



superficial characters given in this field book are not exclusively 
diagnostic, but under the circumstances they must suffice, and 
they will be found serviceable when taken in conjunction with 
the known geographical range. Apart from making the book 
too technical, the inclusion of skull characters for every form 
would require a work of not one but several volumes. Upon 
rare occasions, when a species has been so dependent upon 
cranial characters that superficial characters were too obvi- 
ously inadequate, it has become necessary to employ these 
internal data. Many lovers of mammals see their specimens 
in the flesh and a description of external features is what is 
wanted. The more technical reader is referred to the con- 
stantly cited revisions which are given in the text and most of 
which are to be found in well-stocked libraries throughout 
the country. For anyone wishing to go beyond the handbook 
stage in his study of mammals, these revisions are not only 
helpful but an absolute essential. 

Standard List of Species and Subspecies 

Descriptions of new species and subspecies are continually 
being published. Since work on this field book began,- quite 
a few such papers have appeared and it has become necessary 
to revise manuscript to include changes. For the purposes 
of the field book it has seemed advisable to draw a dividing 
line somewhere; otherwise the manuscript would have been 
unduly delayed by going back over copy to bring it up to 
date. Miller's List of North American Recent Mammals offered 
a satisfactory solution for this problem and the 1923 edition 
was chosen as the basis for this field book. However, I have 
used all subsequent papers for data other than new names and 
have attempted to consult every source up to the time of going 
to press; also the new names and changes of nomenclature in 
important revisions since 1923 have been used. 

Sources of Data Used 

Wherever possible, I have compiled the data for the synopses 
from the different revisions or monographs which have been 
written on North American mammals. These monographs 
are the published results of years of study and are based upon 



INTRODUCTION 



the accumulated collections of all the large museums. The 
reviser has borrowed all the available material he could find, 
and the insight he has secured makes his conclusions of much 
greater value than those of one who works with only a few 
specimens. I have cited these monographs throughout the 
book, and it may be stated that in many cases I have quoted 
or paraphrased directly from these works. The reviser, with 
his wealth of material, has chosen the most typical specimens 
as the basis for each description, and this is an aid in avoiding 
extreme examples. The description may be regarded more 
or less as a norm which is as often exceeded as not reached in 
the development of any character. Incidentally, I have had 
access to the fairly large and complete collection of North 
American mammals in the American Museum and have taken 
much data directly from the skins. 

Common Names 

While every mammal known to science has a scientific name, 
it does not follow that it has a vernacular or common name. 
On the contrary, only a small percentage of our mammals have 
good, distinctive, common names that serve to identify the 
different species and subspecies in large groups which may be 
represented by half a hundred species and subspecies. For 
example, consider the Chipmunks. Even a casual observer 
will recognize, in visiting different parts of the country, that 
there are many distinct varieties of Chipmunks. Yet he will 
find that in most sections the people know only the one name 
for the creature — 'Chipmunk. Popular interest in precise, 
common names for mammals has not reached the stage where 
qualifying adjectives have been applied to the group names. 
Wherever common names exist and can be used to clearly 
designate mammals, they have been taken for this volume. 
Some mammalogists, when they describe a species new to 
science and properly label it with a Latin name, have given 
at the same time an English common name. But most mam- 
mals either have not received convenient popular names or 
have been christened with stilted or poorly chosen names such 
as are little likely to come into general usage. A common 
name, to come into popular favor, must be sufficiently apt 
and descriptive to make recollection an easy matter; it must 

vi 



INTRODUCTION 



not be too long, and if there is something catchy about it so 
much the better. "Chipmunk" illustrates this point for it 
has become a fixed term all over North America, whereas a 
name such as "Little Striped Ground Squirrel" not only does 
not live long, but is confusing because there are "Little 
Striped Ground Squirrels" of several different genera, quite 
distinct mammals. It is no easy matter to create diagnostic 
common names which mean anything and yet find popular 
approval. In fact, there are very good arguments against 
giving each and every scientific form a vernacular or trivial 
name, and I have done so in the full knowledge that my action 
will be open to criticism. My answer will be that this field 
book is primarily for the layman and he will want common 
names; for others there are Latin names, and the common 
names may be ignored. Indian names are useful and from 
them we have taken "Woodchuck," "Sewellel," "Cacomistl," 
and "Jaguar," and so forth. Where it has been necessary to 
create a common name or select one from names already 
created, the attempt has been made to get a name as nearly 
as possible conforming to the requirements of brevity, signifi- 
cance and everyday usage. 

Mammalogy as a Science 

And now, having called attention to the difficulties of 
classification in popular terms and the lack of common names, 
it should be stated that the study of mammals as carried on by 
specialists is by no means inexact or unscientific, but is 
precise and regulated to the last degree. Naturalists have 
formulated regular rules for the basis of classification and the 
creation of scientific names, and taking the tenth edition of 
Linnaeus' Systema Natures, 1758, as the starting point, they 
have developed the study of mammals along definitely pre- 
scribed and universally (more or less) accepted laws. The 
classification of mammals is not just a game with highly 
artificial rules; wherever possible arbitrary assumptions and 
the personal equation have been eliminated, although these 
factors can never be completely eliminated. And this brings 
us to the methods employed to standardize results and to 
enable us to compare the data gathered by one worker with 
that brought together by all other workers. 



INTRODUCTION 



Measurements 



Measurements are habitually made in millimeters by mam- 
malogists because of the widespread acceptance of the metric 
system in the fields of science. These measurements have 
been converted to inches in the field book, since most of the 
readers are accustomed to think in terms of inches. The basis 
of conversion from millimeters to inches is twenty-five ; that is, 
twenty-five millimeters equal one inch (this is approximate, 
but so nearly exact that it serves our purpose) . The measure- 
ments of mammals usually taken are total length, length of 
tail vertebrae, and length of hind foot. 

The total length is the distance in a straight line from the 
tip of the nose to the tip of the tail, not including the hair on 
the end of the tail. This length is taken by a steel tape or 
ruler along the back of the mammal, with the body in a 
straight line, head, neck, and tail extended to give the exact 
length. 

The length of the tail vertebras is taken from the dorsal root 
of the tail to the fleshy tip of the tail, the hair on the end of the 
tail not being included. A common method of securing this 
dimension is to extend the tail upward at right angles from 
the back and measure from the rump, at the base of the tail, 
to the last bit of skin on the tail, the tail vertebrae to be kept 
perfectly straight. This measurement may also be taken by 
dividers which are applied to the specimen and then laid on a 
tape. 

The length of the hind foot is taken from the edge of the heel 
to the tip of the longest claw, the foot extended and kept fiat 
so that the curvature of the toes is straightened out. 

These three measurements usually afford a very good index 
to the size of the mammal. Another useful measurement in 
some species is the height of the ear, measured either from the 
crown of the head or from the notch in the lowest part of the 
basal external margin. The method of taking the ear measure- 
ment is always stated "from crown" or "from notch." The 
length of head and body is often important and, of course, can 
be obtained from the basic measurements always taken, by 
subtracting the length of the tail vertebras from the total 
length. 

Weights of mammals are important. This data has not 



INTRODUCTION 



been very consistently gathered and is especially desirable in 
the case of large mammals. It is often very inconvenient and, 
because of the lack of the proper equipment, even impossible 
to take the weights of Deer, Bear, Mountain Lion, etc., but if 
sportsmen could secure the weights of their game it would not 
only help to fill in gaps in our knowledge of North American 
mammals, but it would also serve to correct the prevalent ideas 
of fabulous weights for our larger game mammals. It has been 
truthfully stated that, for some reason or another, the geo- 
graphical ranges of the exceptionally large mammals never 
seem to coincide with the range of the Fairbanks scales. 



Description of Color 

The description of the color of a mammal presents several 
difficulties, the most obvious being the determination of the 
actual color by the describer himself and the definition of the 
color in terms which will convey the correct color perception 
to the reader. Most mammals have color patterns made up 
of a blending of several colors or shades. The individual hairs 
may have two or three distinct color bands and the pelage 
may be made up of two or more types of hairs differently 
colored. The eye receives a general color impression from the 
blending of all of these, or upon closer inspection the general 
impression may be resolved into its components. In some 
cases the color descriptions in this field book apply to the tones 
and shades of the individual hairs, but when a pattern is 
plainly predominated by a single color, the description refers 
to the general impression. 

Precise color nomenclature calls for a terminology which 
would often be troublesome for the average reader. Most 
mammalogists use color terms as set forth in Ridgway's 
Color Standards and Nomenclature, comparing directly with the 
charts given in that book. Wherever Ridgway's terms are 
more or less self-explanatory they have been used in this 
field book. Occasionally I have drawn upon more general and 
less restricted terms, either because the nomenclature of the 
precise shade is too technical or because the color pattern of 
the animal in question was so variable that the looser term 
best suited it. 



INTRODUCTION 



Acknowledgments 

To almost everyone who has written upon North American 
mammals I owe acknowledgment, for I have helped myself 
liberally wherever I found data. To the authorities of the 
American Museum of Natural History I am profoundly grate- 
ful, for without their permission to use collections, library, and 
other facilities I could not have undertaken this field book. 
To my colleagues. Dr. Frank M. Chapman and Dr. Frank E. 
Lutz, I am greatly indebted for advice on various matters 
which their experience with popular handbooks has quahfied 
them to give. The members of my own department in the 
Museum have been of assistance in helping with some of the 
details which pile up in the work of this sort. The artists 
whose illustrations appear, Miss Olive Otis for color plates, 
Mr. Francis B. vShields for line cuts, and Mr. Frank Vitolo for 
maps, have worked under my direction and done much to 
relieve a lengthy text. In answer to my appeal for photo- 
graphs, the naturalists whose work is shown have responded 
most generously and I am greatly obligated to them for their 
cooperation. In conclusion, I tender my sincerest thanks to 
my secretary, Miss Ida Grobe, whose unfailing interest, 
patience, and diligence have been of the greatest value to me 
and without whose help the long-suffering publishers would 
still be calling for copy. 

I know that errors will be discovered in this book. I hope 
they will not be many. I have striven to keep the number 
as low as possible and when they do appear I take full credit, 
or discredit, for them. I shall be glad to have my attention 
drawn to such errors, not because I shall be pleased to learn 
of their existence, but because with this knowledge I shall be 
warned against their repetition. 



WHAT IS A MAMMAL? 

Mammals are warm-blooded vertebrates possessing twelve 
pairs of cranial nerves, a four-chambered heart, double circu- 
latory system, thoracic cavity separated from abdominal cavity 
by a muscular diaphragm, skull articulating with atlas at two 
occipital condyles, lower jaw (a single bone on each side) 
articulating directly with skull, bodies covered by hair (if not 
in the adult stage at least during some part of the embryonic 
development) and two pairs of limbs (hind limbs lost or 
vestigial in Cetacea and Sirenia); they bear the young alive 
and nurse them at the breast. The name mammal is derived 
from this method of feeding the young at the mammas or 
breasts. The chief distinctions between mammals and birds 
are the hairy covering, non-nucleate red blood corpuscles, and 
the bearing of live young nursed at the breast. 

Early Mammals 

The earliest known mammal has been found as a fossil in the 
depositsof the Triassic epoch, about 150,000,000 to 180,000,000 
years ago.^ Although comparatively few specimens of mam- 
mals have been discovered as far back as the Triassic, Jurassic, 
and Cretaceous, a large number are known from the Eocene, 
the following geological epoch, some 50,000,000 to 60,000,000 
years ago, and scientists are able to trace the major develop- 
ment of most of our present-day mammals from these ancient 
ancestors. 

Most of these ancestral forms seem to have been quite well- 
developed mammals and already very distinct from other 
quadrupeds. The mammals are believed to have been derived 
from reptile-like ancestors and the very first mammals are 
thought to have evolved from Cynodont reptiles early in the 
Triassic epoch. This places the birth of the class Mammalia 
so far back, roughly 200,000,000 years, that the time element 

^ Figures taken from Arthur Holmes, The Age of the Earth, 1927; and 
Joseph Barrel, Rhythms and the Measurements of Geologic Time, Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Amer., 1917. 

xi 



WHAT IS A MAMMAL? 



I 



is beyond our complete comprehension. We may be certain 
that if typical well-specialized mammals lived in early 
Tertiary times we must look very much deeper into the past to 
find the very first mammal-like quadrupeds. Palaeontology 
has a remarkable record of mammal history from the Eocene 
to the Recent, by no means complete, but full enough to reveal 
much data bearing on the appearance and development of the 
orders, families, and genera of present-day mammals. 

Classification of Mammals 

Our modem system of the classification of mammals is based 
upon the external and internal structure, anatomy, of living 
mammals, and the internal structure of the fossil mammals of 
bygone epochs. As a rule, only the hard parts of mammals 
are preserved as fossils, and we have no certain knowledge of 
the external appearance of these mammals, drawing conclu- 
sions as to what they looked like alive only by analogy. For 
purposes of classification, most external data are of importance 
only in separating species and subspecies, since the truly 
fundamental characters of relationship are to be found under 
the hair and skin. The general scheme of this classification 
is to start with the large groups of mammals all possessing 
certain important characters. These large groups are in turn 
split up into smaller groups on the basis of common characters 
within each smaller group and certain differences in structure 
which distinguish one group from all the other groups. By a 
series of such reductions of the larger groups, eventually the 
scheme arrives at a very small group, which includes only one 
unit, the species or subspecies, as the case may be, which 
differs in some character or characters from all the other unit 
groups, but is related through the larger groupings to many 
other mammals. 

We have then the largest group within the Animal Kingdom, 
which includes all the mammals and excludes all other quad- 
rupeds, and this is called the Class Mammalia. For the sake 
of example, let us start down through the lesser groups toward 
some particular species, the Star-nosed Mole, and we encounter 
successively the Subclass Eutheria (all the mammals except 
the Monotremes or egg-laying mammals), the Order Insec- 
tivora (mammals of small size, primitive structure, and special- 



WHAT IS A MAMMAL? 



ization for an insect diet) , the Family Talpidce (all the Moles) , 
the Genus Condylura (Moles with highly-developed, fleshy 
fringe about end of muzzle), and the Species cristata (the Star- 
nosed Mole). Thus, step by step, the system has ruled out 
the mammals which bear a remote relationship to the Star- 
nosed Mole, while preserving at the same time the ties of close 
relationship, and a definite position has been created for the 
one species of Mole which differs from all the other Moles and 
yet is a true Mole, an insectivore, a viviparous mammal, and 
a mammal in the largest and most inclusive sense. When we 
write the scientific name for the Star-nosed Mole we use only 
the genus and species name, thus — Condylura cristata — and 
all of the rest of it is understood, if we follow the generally 
accepted classification. 

If there were several creatures, all obviously Star-nosed 
Moles, but differing from one another by some comparatively 
trivial character such as color of pelage or difference in size, 
then in order to indicate just which one of these particular 
varieties we had in mind it would be necessary to add some 
thing to our two-word name, Condylura cristata, and split up 
the species into subspecies, forming a name such as Condylura ■ 
cristata alpha or Condylura cristata beta, or what-not, depend- 
ing upon what name the describer of the subspecies selects. 

At the end of the scientific name of the mammal the name 
of the describer or author of the name is written. If the 
author's name is placed within parentheses it indicates a 
change from the original form in which the scientific name was 
written. 

The old criterion of a species was its inability to cross or 
hybridize successfully with other closely related members of 
the same large group. Proof of successful mating indicated 
that the parents were of the same species. This test is still 
accepted as one of the best checks against the naming of too 
many species. On the other hand, the recognition of sub- 
species implies that the particular variety designated by the 
third term in the name does successfully cross with other 
individuals which have the common characters indicated by 
the second term of the name. To illustrate — the Eastern 
Chipmunk is Tamias striatus which is recognized to occur as 
five different subspecies. The typical form is Tamias striatus 
striatus, the term striatus being repeated in the name to show 



WHAT IS A MAMMAL? 



that this particular subspecies or variety served as the type 
for the species. Tamias striatus fisheri is a variety which 
differs sHghtly from typical striatus but is so closely related 
to it that it interbreeds with it and we find examples where the 
ranges of the two forms meet which are just as much typical 
striatus as they are fisheri. This intergrading may extend 
through a chain of several subspecies where subspecies A inter- 
grades with B, B with C, C with D, et cetera. Although the 
geographical range of subspecies A may not touch that of 
subspecies D, so that A and D never actually intergrade 
directly, nevertheless the subspecific relationship is well shown 
by the intermediate members of the series and A, B, C, and 
D are all to be considered as subspecies of the same species. 

Variability of Mammals 

Mammals vary in size, coloration, and proportion of parts. 
This variation is usually within close limits, but sometimes 
variation in color may cover a wide range. The descriptions 
in this field book are intended to apply, as far as possible, to 
the average individual of any given species and the measure- 
ments, colors, etc., must not be regarded as narrowly restrictive. 
Individuals may vary as much as ten per cent or more in size, 
from the figures given, and when identifying a mammal due 
consideration must be made for individual variation. Atten- 
tion is generally directed to the most variable characters, in 
the synopsis. 

Life-Histories of Mammals 

The study of the life-histories of mammals is a fascinating 
subject and one that is by no means exhausted. While we 
know many interesting facts about the behavior of mammals, 
there are many details which we can only suspect, and 
probably as many more of which we do not even have a 
suspicion. Nor does one need to go to a far frontier to look 
for these facts; some of our commonest mammals are today 
only superficially known. The Mole, secreted in its subter- 
ranean fortress, the Shrew, favored by small size and under- 
cover activity, the Flying Squirrel, coming forth only at night, 
and many other nocturnal wanderers have successfully con- 
cealed many intimate details of behavior. Bats are an enigma 



WHAT IS A MAMMAL? 



well worth the solving, with their mastery of flight, their 
possession (?) of a sixth sense, and their super-organization of 
the nervous system. The great waves of rodent increase which 
come in cycles in Rabbits and Meadow Mice or Lemmings 
present unusual opportunities for observation. 

Hunters and sportsmen learn many facts of life-history in 
looking for game and because of this we know more today 
about some of the large mammals than we do of the much more 
abundant, small mammals. It can not be too strongly recom- 
mended that persons who are out-of-doors, with opportunities 
for observation, keep a journal or record of what they see of 
mammal behavior. Not only will this practice give direction 
and purpose to what may otherwise be random study, but it 
will make natural history all the more fascinating and may 
supj)ly some new and valuable data. 

Life Zones 

It will be noted that there are frequent references to "Life 
Zones" in the geographical ranges in this field book. These 
are the "Zones" used so extensively by the U. S. Biological 
Survey. They are based upon the studies of Dr. C. H. 
Merriam and others of the Survey and were set forth in their 
earliest form by Dr. J. A. Allen, in 1871. Lack of space 
prevents more than a passing reference to this scheme, but a 
colored map is bound into the inner cover of this book and 
several titles are mentioned in the bibliography at the close 
of the book for the readers who are unfamiliar with these 
useful terms. 

The attention of the reader is directed to the legend under 
the colored map which points out that the "Zones" which are 
known as Alleghenian, Carolinian, and Austroriparian in the 
east become the Transition, Upper Sonoran, and Lower 
Sonoran west of the looth meridian. 



^;^^ 



XV 




HOW TO USE THIS FIELD BOOK 

How may one study mammals and what is the best way to 
use this field book? Assuming that the observer is within a 
short distance of wild land or areas where dwellings are far 
enough apart to permit wild creatures to live in the meadows, 
brushy areas, or forests in between, the only requisites are 
good eyes and ears and a fair amount of patience. Even about 
our large cities there are many tracts of land where mammals 
live in their wild and unmolested state, and practically every- 
where away from the cities a fairly extensive mammal popula- 
tion may be found if one knows how and where to seek it. 

The average person may not wish to capture or disturb the 
mammals he is observing and in that event he must depend 
upon what long range observation will give him. In the case 
of some mammals, such as the Squirrels and most of the larger 
mammals which he may be fortunate enough to see, there 
should be little difficulty in identification. The markings, 
size, and form of these mammals are so distinctive that usually 
there will be little doubt as to which large, general group the 
mammal belongs. That is to say, one will recognize that he is 
looking at some species of Squirrel, Weasel, Rabbit, Fox, Deer, 
et cetera, and the additional information to seek will be the 
particular one of the group he has noted. Is it a Red Squirrel, 
a Gray Squirrel, or a Fox Squirrel; a Varying Hare or a Cotton- 
tail; a Red Fox or a Gray Fox? By consulting the field book 
and looking over the particular genus involved, the identifi- 
cation is carried out still farther, and by noting from the 
geographical ranges just what form should be found in 
the region in question, the student can then check over the 
brief synopsis of that form to learn whether it describes 
his mammal or not. If the description does not fit, then try 
descriptions of the other forms whose geographical ranges 
would be most likely to bring them into the territory. 

But for nocturnal mammals or those of secretive habits, it 
will be necessary to use traps in order to gain first-hand 
acquaintance. These traps may be of the type that takes 



HOW TO USE THIS FIELD BOOK 



mammals alive or, if a study specimen for the collector's 
cal^inet is desired, the traps may be of the ordinary Newhouse 
pattern or the common, spring mouse- trap. Since we have so 
many details yet to learn about the daily habits and home life 
of mammals, there is much to commend capturing them alive 
and keeping them in comfortable cages under observation. 
JMost small mammals tame readily and are easily cared for, 
and especially is this true of the rodents. 

Although it is not very difficult to find the evidence that 
small rodents are present in a given locality, it is not often that 
one can catch more than a glimpse of the creatures themselves, 
and then they are apt to be alarmed and soon pass from 
observation. Meadow Mice, White-footed Mice, Pocket Mice, 
Jumping Mice, etc., may be fairly abundant in a region and 
yet so seldom seen that trapping is the only recourse. The 
best trap for these small mammals is a box-trap, and for bait 
many things may be used, — apple, raisin, grain, bread, bacon, 
and so forth ; most small mammals are unsuspecting and enter 
traps freely. 

To gain a complete idea of the mammals of a locality it will 
be necessary to set out traps for dead specimens and to skin 
and make up the mammals into so-called "study specimens." 
These are then studied and identified from descriptions in 
books and by direct comparisons with specimens in the large 
museums. One soon gains the knack of preparing these study 
specimens and the building up and serious study of a 
mammal collection is well worth the time devoted to it. The 
sentimental reluctance one naturally feels at killing these wild 
creatures may be set at rest by the realization that the forces 
of the wild environment and the stupendous sacrifice of life 
exacted every twenty-four hours by Dame Nature herself make 
the activity of the collector a very trivial consideration; and it 
is better to devote a few specimens to a serious and lasting 
purpose than to forego the capture and surrender the victim 
to a Snake, Hawk, Weasel or predatory House-cat. The 
collector is usually the least of all the many enemies a mammal 
may have. 

A small, compact set of instructions on the Capture and 
Preservation of Small Mammals for Study is published by the 
American Museum of Natural History, Guide Leaflet No. 6i, 
and is sold at fifteen cents a copy. The United States 



HOW TO USE THIS FIELD BOOK 



National Museum has published a short account, Directions 
for Preparing Specimens of Mammals, by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
which has gone through several editions. 

Briefly set forth, the purpose of a study skin is to show the 
animal in a compact form which can be easily preserved and 
stored. The small species. Mice, Rats, Squirrels, etc., are 
skinned, poisoned with arsenic and alum on the flesh side of the 
skin and then filled out with tow or cotton to somewhat the 
original size. The stuffed skin is dried, with body, legs, and 
tail straight, and if the specimen is stored away from moths 
and bright sunlight, it will remain as a permanent and faithful 
record for a great many years, probably several centuries. It 
is well to adopt a standardized procedure in the preparation 
of skins, since then comparisons may be made without undue 
allowance for such man-made characters as over or under- 
stuffing, distorted limbs, etc. 

Traps may be set in the places most likely to bs frequented 
by the mammals desired ; in this field book the favorite haunts 
for each type of mammal are given, as well as the food of that 
species, and this data will be of service to the collector. 




CONTENTS 



Introduction . . . . . 

What is a Mammal? . . . . 
How TO Use This Field Book 
Opossums (Family Didelphiidse) 
Moles (Family Talpidas) . 
Shrews (Family Soricidsej 
Leaf-nosed Bats (Family Phyllostomidae) 
Bats (Family Vespertilionidai) . 
Free-tailed Bats (Family Molossidas) 
Bears (Family Ursidce) . 
Raccoons (Family Procyonidae) 
Cacomistles (Family Bassariscidaj) . 



Martens, Weasels, and Minks (Subfamily Mustelinaj) ■ 92 
Wolverines (Subfamily Gulonince) . . . .111 

Otters (Subfamily Lutrinae) . . . . .114 

vSea Otters (Subfamily Enhydrinae) . . .118 

Skunks (Subfamily Alephitinae) . . . .120 

Badgers (Subfamily Taxidiinas) . . . -134 

Foxes, Coyotes, and Wolves (Family Canidae) . 137 

Cats (Family Felidse) . . . . . -157 

Eared Seals (Family Otariidae) . . ■ . .170 

Hair Seals (Family Phocidag) . . . .173 

Walruses (Family Odobenidae) . . . .180 

WooDCHUCKs, Ground Squirrels, Prairie-dogs, 
Chipmunks, and Tree Squirrels (Subfamily 
Sciurinas) ........ 183 

Flying Squirrels (Subfamily Pteromyinae) . . 260 

Pocket Gophers (Family Geomyidae) . . . 269 

Pocket Rats and Pocket Mice (Family Heteromyidee) 297 

xxi 



111 

xi 

xvi 

4 
8 

25 
47 
49 
69 

74 
86 
90 



CONTENTS 



Beavers (Family Castoridae) ..... 

Grasshopper Mice, Harvest Mice, White-footed 
Mice, Rice Rats, Cotton Rats, and Wood Rats 
(Subfamily Cricetince) ...... 

Voles, Lemmings, Lemming Mice, Red-backed 
Mice, Meadow Mice, and Muskrats (Subfamily 
Microtinse) ..... 

Introduced Rats and Mice (Family Muridas) 

Mountain Beavers (Family Aplodontiidas) 

Jumping Mice (Family Zapodida?) . . 

Porcupines (Family Erethizontida) . 

PiKAS (Family Ochotonidae) 

Hares and Rabbits (Family Leporidee) 

Peccaries (Family Tayassuidse) 

Deer (Family Cervidae) .... 

Pronghorns (Family Antilocapridae) 

Bisons, Muskoxen, Mountain Sheep, and A-Iou 
Goats (Family Bovidas) .... 

Armadillos (Family Dasypodidee) 

Manatees (Family Trichechidae) 

Right Whales (Family Balaenidae) . 

Gray Whale (Family Rhachianectidae) 

Finbacks, Rorquals, and Humpback Whales (Famil 
Balasnopteridse) ..... 

Sperm Whale (Family Physeteridae) 

Pigmy Sperm Whale (Family Kogiidae) 

Dolphins and Porpoises (Family Delphinidae) 

Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiid£e) . 

Bibliography ..... 

Index 



327 



332 



394 

448 
452 

458 
464 
470 
477 
511 
513 
533 

537 
550 
554 
558 
559 

560 
563 
564 

565 
572 

575 
587 



.\CAc 



>> nOS A/ 



^^3 






I I ^H 



M 



^4Sj 



.^> 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



^ I. K 



(/« color) 

Frontispiece 



PLATE 

I. RocKv Mountain Sheep. 

For text see page 542 

II. Opossum and Armadillo. {In color) 

III. Bats, Shrews, and Moles. {In color) 

IV. Color Phases of the Black Bear. 

{In color) . 

V. Grizzly Bear and Alaska Brown Bear 

{In color) . 

VI. Ring-tailed Cat and Raccoon. (/ 
color) .... 

VII. Marten and Fisher. {In color) 

VIII. Weasels. {In color) 

IX. Mink and Otter. {In color) 

X. Little Spotted Skunk, Hog-nosed 
Skunk, and Common Skunk. (/ 
color) ..... 

XI. Badger and Wolverine. {In color) 

XII. Cross Fox, Red Fox, Silver Fox, ani 
Kit Fox. {In color) -. 

XIII. Arctic Fox, Blue Fox, and Gray Fox 

{In color) ...... 

XIV. Coyote and Gray Wolf. {In color) 
XV. Cougar and Jaguar. {In color) . 

XVI. Jaguarundi and Ocelot. {In color) 

XVII. Bay Lynx or Bobcat. (Photo by Wm 
Lyman Underwood) 



FACING 
PAGE 



76 
80 

86 

96 

104 

108 

120 
136 

140 

144 
152 
160 
162 

164 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



XVIII. Immature Eastern Raccoon. (Photo 
by H. E. Anthony) .... 

For text see page 88 

XIX. Bobcat and Canada Lynx. {In color) 

XX. Prairie-dogs, Mountain Beaver, Wood- 
chuck, AND Hoary Marmot. {In color) 

XXI. Thirteen-striped Ground Squirrel. 
(Photo by H. H. Pittman) 
For text see page 211 

XXII. Lyster Chipmunk. (Photo by A. A. 
Allen) 

For text see page 242 

XXIII. Ground Squirrels. {In color) 

XXIV. Chipmunks. {In color) 

XXV. Arboreal Squirrels. {In color) . 
XXVI. 



ACING 
PAGE 



166 

168 

I S3 
204 

236 

238 
240 

248 

2S8 
330 



Pocket Mouse, Pocket Rats, and 
Pocket Gophers. {In color) 

XXVII. Porcupines, Muskrat, and Beaver. 
{In color) ...... 

XXVIII. Beaver House in a Lake in Southern 

Ontario. (Photo by H. E. Anthony) . 332 

XXIX. Baird White-footed Mouse. (Photo 

by H. H. Pittman) . . . -354 

XXX. Mice and Rice Rat. {In color) . . 364 

XXXI. Prairie Jumping Mouse. (Photo by 

H. H. Pittman) . . . .446 

For text see page 460 

XXXII. Two views of Hibernating Jumping 

M0.USE. (Photo by A. A. Allen) . 446 

,.■••< i ""j •' For text see page 464 

,/' \ ^'. "■■■' ^.vy /'"; 
XXXyij^:- rN^R€>i>ucE:D. .Rats, Wood Rats, and 

/%s >'"' Cotton- 'Rat, {In color) . . . 448 

X:5®^lA^.vI^ACiFic Mountain Beaver. (Photo by 
^"51 H. E. Antlioriy): . . . -456 






XXIV 






ILLUSTRATIONS 



PLATE 

XXXV. 



XXXVI. 
XXXVII. 

XXXVIII. 

XXXIX. 

XL. 

XLI. 

XLII. 
XLIII. 

XLIV. 

XLV. 

XLVI. 

XLVII. 

XLVIII. 



FACING 
PAGE 

Immature Canada Porcupine. (Photo 
by G. Clyde Fisher) . . . .466 

PiKA, Hares and Rabbits. {In color) 470 

FiGGiNS PiKA. (Photo by E. R. Warren) 472 

"Hay" Pile made by Pika, Sawtooth 
Mountains, Idaho. (Photo by H. E. 
Anthony) ..... 476 

Rocky Mountain Snowshoe Rabbit. 
(Photo by E. R. Warren.) Wash- 
ington Jack Rabbit. (Photo by H. E. 
Anthony) . . . . . 482 

Rocky Mountain Bighorn. (Photo by 
E. R, Warren) . . . .510 

For text see page 544 

Collared Peccary and Pronghorn 

Antelope. {In color) . . . 512 

Wapiti and Moose, {In color) . .514 

White-tailed Deer, Buck, Doe and. 
Fawn. {In color) . . . .518 

Black-tailed Deer and Mule Deer 
(the former is the Columbian Black- 
tailed Deer.) {In color) . . . 522 

MusKOX AND Bison. {In color) . , 526 

For text see pages 538 and 540 

Rocky Mountain Goat and Woodland 
Caribou. {In color) .... 530 

Rocky Mountain Goat. (Photo by 
Dan McCowan) . . . .548 

Short-finned Blackfish. (Photo by 
R. C. Murphy) ^^^^^TFlT^;^ ' 570 

(uu 1 1 B - '^ R Y j 33) 



FIELD BOOK OF 
NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS 



Class MAMMALIA 

See definition of the class, on page xi. 

Subclass EUTHERIA 

All mammals exclusive of the Monotremes. 

Order MARSUPIALIA. MARSUPIALS 

Mammals of small to large size, the young of which are born 
at a very incomplete stage of development and are usually 
carried by the mother in an external abdominal pouch. In 
some members of the order the pouch is rudimentary or even 
absent, but in the species found in the United States it is well 
developed. Brain of a low order; a true allantoic placenta 
rarely present (never in American forms); clavicle present; 
mammas always abdominal ; teeth numerous and primitive in 
character; diet varied; habit arboreal, terrestrial, aquatic or 
fossorial. 




Fig. I. Opossum 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Family Didelphiidae. Opossums 

Small to medium-sized marsupials with five toes on fore and 
hind feet; tail usually long and prehensile; teeth fifty in 
number; diet omnivorous, insectivorous, and carnivorous. 



Genus Didelphis 

Dentition: Incisors, f; Canines, 1; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 50 

Opossum. — Didelphis virginiana 

and related forms 

Names. — Opossum; Common Opossum; Eastern Opossum; 
Virginia Opossum. Plate II. 

General Description. — A marsupial mammal with body 
about the size of a House Cat, long naked tail, large naked 
ears, long fur, grizzled gray in color. 

Head long, with slender muzzle; ears prominent; tail pre- 
hensile ; marsupial pouch present ; forefeet with five toes, each 
toe with a nail; hind feet with five toes, the first toe large, 
nailless and opposable; soles naked; pelage composed of very 
long external hairs and short, soft underfur; terrestrial and 
arboreal in habit. 

Color. — Adults: Sexes alike in color; no marked seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts. — Long, outer fur a mixture of coarse black and 
white hairs to give a grizzled appearance, the white hairs very 
long and exceeding the black in length ; head whitish to yellow- 
ish ; cheeks whitish ; black or sooty about top of head and eyes ; 
ears with yellow spot on upper edge, otherwise black. 

Underparts. — A mixture of dark hairs and white hairs, the 
black predominating to give dusky appearance; legs and feet 
dusky ; tail with long body hair running down a short distance 
at base, the naked, scaly portion black at the base, then yellow- 
ish white for rest of its length. Marsupial pouch, found on 
females, a fur-lined opening along lower abdomen. 

Young. — Colors not as contrasting as in adults, general 
appearance lighter. 

Measurements. — Total length, 33 inches; tail vertebras, 
12.5 inches; hind foot, 3 inches. 



Plate II 




)Ossu!n 




^^^5^fc^ 



OPOSSUM 



Geographical Distribution. — From New York to Florida, 
and from Atlantic Coast to the Great Lakes and Texas. 




Fig. 2. Feet of Opossum; forefoot above, hind foot below 



Food. — Omnivorous, but feeding largely on animal life such 
as small birds, mammals, frogs, fish, eggs, and insects, and on 
fruit. 

Enemies. — Great Horned Owls; Wildcats; Foxes; Coyotes; 
Wolves; Cougars; and Bears. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Didelphis 

Virginia Opossum. — Didelphis virginiana virginiana Kerr. 
The animal of the above description, ranging from the 
Hudson valley to northern Texas and almost to the Gulf 
Coast, west to the Great Lakes. 

Florida Opossum. — Didelphis virginiana pigra Bangs. _ 

Smaller, darker, and longer tailed. Total length, 31 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 14 inches; hind foot, 2.7 inches. Known to 
occur in Florida, the lower coast region of Georgia, and 
throughout the low Gulf Coast belt to western Louisiana. 

Texas Opossvun. — Didelphis mesamericana texensis (Allen). 
A large Opossum occurring in two color phases, a gray phase 
quite similar in appearance to the Virginia Opossum, and a 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



black phase in which the long outer hairs are black instead of 
white. Top of head to nose dusky ; dusky stripe from ear 
through eye to nose; tail black for basal half, rest flesh color. 
Total length, 31 inches; tail vertebrae, 15 inches; hind foot, 
2.7 inches. Ranges from coast region of Texas southward, 
from Nueces Bay and the Lower Rio Grande Valley. 
******* 
The Virginia Opossum and its relatives, the Texas Opossum 
and the Florida Opossum, are the only North American repre- 
sentatives of a very ancient order, the Marsupialia, most 
widely represented today in Australia. The Opossums are a 
large family — the Didelphiidas — and range from eastern North 
America south throughout Central and South America, where 
the group has become highly differentiated into many genera 
and a host of species. The species of the genus Didelphis are 
the largest mammals of the family, and the Virginia Opossum 
is about as large as any species of the genus. Didelphis is the 
only genus of North American mammals the members of which 
have abdominal pouches in which the young are carried. 

The Opossum is extremely adaptable to the conditions of its 
environment. Although the hind feet, with grasping great 
toes, and the prehensile tail are arboreal specializations, the 
Opossum is perfectly at home on the ground and may wander 
considerable distance in search of food without taking to the 
trees. 

When cornered by an enemy, this mammal appears to die 
or to feign death, whence the expression "playing 'possum." 
On the basis of careful observation, it would seem that this 
apparently lifeless condition is brought about by a nervous 
shock beyond the control of the animal, and observers have 
noted such a loweringof thevital forces, pulse, heart-beat, etc., 
that they believe the Opossum has "fainted" and is not sham- 
ming. On the other hand, the recovery from the lifeless state 
is rapid enough to hint that the Opossum knows what is going 
on and is ready to take advantage of any opening for escape. 
The Opossum does a little damage when it can get to eggs 
or poultry, but of recent years has attained a value as a fur- 
bearer that much more than offsets this. It is also a game 
mammal of prominence in certain sections of the country and 
is eagerly hunted for the table. 

The young Opossums are very tiny when born and are con- 
siderably less developed than the young of other mammals, 

6 



MURINE OPOSSUM 



being still in the embryonic stage. Opossums are very prolific 
and have from five to fourteen young at a birth. While very 
small they remain attached to the teats in the abdominal 
pouch and are carried about by the mother. 

Opossums are very hardy and tenacious of life. It is due 
to this fact, perhaps, that the animal has been able to hold its 
own so successfully, because it is rather slow and stupid in 
comparison with most other mammals. 

Genus Marmosa 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, | ; Molars, f =50. 

Murine Opossum; Mouse Opossum 

This genus is not found native in the territory included in 
the scope of this volume, but it is not infrequently brought 
into seaports on steamers, especially by fruit steamers where 
it is brought aboard hidden in bunches of bananas. 

The Murine Opossums are all much smaller than members 
of the genus Didelphis, and most of them are truly of mouse 
size, hence the name. The species most apt to be encountered 
as strays come from Central America and are soft-furred, 
yellow or brownish in color, with long, naked prehensile tails, 
large eyes, and broad hands and feet. The females have no 
external abdominal pouches as in the genus Didelphis. If 
the specimen hailed from Panama it is apt to be Marmosa 
isthmica, while Marmosa zeledoni is a species in Costa Rica. 
Females of isthmica average, total length, 12.5 inches; tail, 7 
inches; males, total length, 15 inches; tail, 8 inches. Mar- 
mosa zeledoni is a trifle smaller than isthmica. 



Order INSECTIVORA 

Mammals of small size, primitive dental characters, in- 
sectivorous diet, and presenting many specializations in the 
various families of the Order. Only two families of the 
Insectivora are found in North America, the Talpidee and the 
Soricidas, widely differing from one another in many respects, 
but having the following characters in common: snout long 
and mobile; eyes small or hidden; ears minute; head elongate; 
feet with five claw-bearing toes ; plantigrade or subplantigrade 
in gait; clavicles present; musk glands pfesent; manner active 
and nervous. 

Family Talpidae. Moles' 

Insectivorous mammals of small size, adapted for a sub- 
terranean habitat, with highly specialized forelimbs; soft, 
velvet-like fur; long, pig-like snout; minute eyes; very short 
neck; and strictly insectivorous or carnivorous diet. 

Subfamily Scalopinae 

Genus Scalopus 

Functional dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, J; Premolars, f ; 
Molars, 1 = 36. 

Common Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus 

and related forms 

Names. — Common Mole; Eastern Mole. Plate III. 

General Description. — A small, sturdy mammial with 
greatly enlarged forefeet; soft, velvety fur; naked tail; eyes 
and ears so minute as to escape superficial observation; seldom 
seen above ground, and generally known to be present only 
through the raised ridges and mounds of earth pushed up 
from below. Males somewhat larger than females. 

Color. — Sexes indistinguishable as to color. 

' For the most recent and complete review of the American Moles, 
see H. H. T. Jackson, Norlh American Fauna, No. 38, IQIS- 



Plate III 




Little Brown Bat 



Eastern Mole 



Red Bat 




5hofl-t/ulud Slircv,^ 



Biewer Molt 



Star-nosGcl Mole 




MOLE 



Upperparts. — The soft, close fur, resembling velvet in that 
it has no "set" and may be brushed either backward or for- 
ward, is blackish brown in color, varying in different lights 
from brownish to silvery gray; muzzle naked; feet and tail 




Fig. 3. Common Mole 



whitish; tail thick and practically naked; fur neutral gray at 
base, 

Underparts. — Slightly paler than above, and usually tinged 
with brown on chest. 

Young. — The young, which are very seldom seen in the 
early stages, soon take on the appearance of the adults, but 
while real small are grayer than adults. 

In summer, specimens are somewhat paler than in winter. 
The molt follows a definite sequence, the fresh pelage coming 
in first on the breast and abdomen, and gradually replaces 
the worn pelage below. Above, the new fur appears first 
posteriorly and works forward. The chin and throat usually 
retain the old pelage longest. As a rule the line of demar- 
cation between fresh and worn pelage is quite obvious. 

Measurements. — Total length, males, 7.2 inches, females. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



■go 

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lO 



MOLE 



6.5 inches; length of tail, males, 1.2 inches, females, .9 inch; 
length of hind foot, males, .8 inch, females, .8 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern North America. 

Food. — Strictly animal in nature, insects of various kinds, — 
beetles, larv£e, angle-worms. Meadow Mice. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Scalopus 

Eastern Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus aquaticus (Linnaeus). 
As described above; the darkest form of the genus (in full 
winter pelage). Found in "Eastern United States from 
eastern and southern Massachusetts, southeastern New 
York, and southeastern Pennsylvania, south through 
Virginia, and in the Appalachian ^fountains south through 
western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee. ' ' (Jackson) 

Howell Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus Iwwelli Jackson. 

Paler than typical aquaticus and smaller; total length, males, 

6 inches. Found in "North Carolina (except in Appalach- 
ian Mountains), South Carolina, northern Georgia, thence 
southwest across central Alabama and southern Mississippi 
to Pensacola Bay and the Mississippi River. ' ' (Jackson) 

Florida Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus australis Chapman. 

Smaller than howelli, with relatively short, broad, high 
skull; upperparts (winter) clove-brown to dark fuscous; 
total length, males, 5.8-6 inches, females, 5.6 inches. 
Found in "Southeastern Georgia and the eastern portion 
of peninsular Florida south to Lemon City." (Jackson) 

Anastasia Island Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus anastasce (Bangs), 
Size of australis but above golden sepia in winter pelage, 
with bright orange coloration on face, chin, and wrists. 
Found only on Anastasia Island, Florida. 

Little Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus parvus (Rhoads). 

Smallest form of the genus, colored like australis, with 
shorter tail; total length, males, 5.4 inches. Found in 
"Region north of Tampa Bay, in Hillsboro and Pasco 
Counties, Florida." (Jackson) 

Prairie Mole.^ — Scalopus aquaticus machrinus (Rafinesque). 
The largest form of the genus (total length of males, 8 
inches) ; paler than typical aquaticus and usually more 
reddish brown. Found in "Eastern Iowa, and east of the 
Mississippi River west of the Appalachian Mountains from 
western Wisconsin, northern Illinois, southern Michigan, 
southwestern Ontario (Point Pelee), and northern Ohio, 
south to central Tennessee." (Jackson) 

Missouri Valley Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus machrinoides 
Jackson. 
Size large, exceeded only by machrinus; total length, males, 

7 inches; color grayer than machrinus, in winter clove-brown 
above, in summer light drab. Found "West of the 
Mississippi River, except eastern Iowa, from central 

II 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Minnesota, southeastern South Dakota, and the eastern 
border of Nebraska, south through northeastern Kansas 
to extreme northern Arkansas." (Jackson) 

Arkansas Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus pulcher Jackson. 

Size of typical aquaticus but with larger hind foot and larger 
skull; winter pelage dark fuscous above, with gray-tipped 
hairs. Found in "Humid lowland region of southern and 
eastern Arkansas, southeastern Oklahoma, northwestern 
and central Louisiana, and eastern Texas." (Jackson) 

Northern Plains Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus caryi Jackson. 
In color, the palest form of the genus, size medium; total 
length, males, 6.4 inches. Color, autumn pelage, above, 
light drab, paler on head. Found in "Arid and semiarid 
plains region of central and western Nebraska, northeastern 
Colorado, and northwestern Kansas." (Jackson) 

Southern Plains Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus intermedius 
(Elliot). 
Most like caryi but darker and more ochraceous; color, in 
winter, above, light drab tinged with buff pink; nose and 
wrists ochraceous-buff to zinc-orange; total length, males, 
6.6 inches. Found in "Central and western Oklahoma 
and adjacent parts of northern Texas." (Jackson) 

Texas Mole. — Scalopus aquaticus texanus (Allen). 

Small in size, total length, males, 5.6 inches; color, winter, 
brownish with bronze tinge. Found in "Coast region of 
Texas from Matagorda Bay to Cameron County, north in 
the interior to central and east-central Texas." (Jackson) 

Coppery Mole. — Scalopus cereus (Bangs). 

Distinguished by rich coppery brown pelage; total length, 
females, 6.1 inches. Very rare, known only from the type 
specimen. Found only at Stilwell, Adair County, 
Oklahoma. 



The Eastern Mole has habits very similar to those of the 
Western Mole (see page 17), but does not throw out such 
large mounds of earth. It is very seldom seen out of the 
burrow and is most commonly encountered in loose loam or 
easily moved soil where food is plentiful. It makes a nest 
about six inches in diameter, lined with small roots, grass, or 
leaves, and from a foot to a foot and a half below the surface 
of the ground. The young, from two to five, are born in 
March or April. 

Genus Scapanus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, t; Molars, § = 44. 

12 



MOLE 



Western Mole. — Scapanus townsendi 

and related forms 

General Description. — General form much like that of 
Common Mole, genus Scalopus, but tail thicker, and with more 
teeth (compare dental formulee) ; fore toes and hind toes not 
webbed as in Scalopus, hands as broad as long, (in Scalopus 
broader than long). 




Fig. 



5. Forefoot of Eastern Mole {Scalopus) above, com- 
pared with forefoot of Western Mole (Scapanus) 



Color. — Sexes indistinguishable as to color; some seasonal 
variation. 

Winter. — Upperparts dark, varying from blackish brown to 
almost black, generally showing purplish high-lights; under- 
parts only slightly paler than above and generally tinged with 
brown. 

13 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Summer.' — Slightly paler than winter, with more pro- 
nounced purplish sheen. 

Young. — Paler and more silvery than adults. 

Measurements. — Total length, males, 9 inches, females, 
8,2 inches; tail vertebras, males, 1.6 inches, females, 1.8 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.08 mches, females, 1.07 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Western California, Oregon, 
and Washington. 

Food. — Insect and animal food, angle-worms, larvae of 
beetles, and occasionally Mice, 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Scapanus 

Oregon Mole; Townsend Mole. — Scapanus townsendi (Bach- 
man), Plate III. 
As just described; the largest species of the genus. Found 
in "Extreme northwestern California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington west of the Cascade Mountains." (Jackson) 

Coast Mole. — Scapanus orarius orarius True, 

Noticeably smaller than townsendi (total length, males, 6.8 
inches) ; dark and similar in color to townsendi, with relatively 
smaller feet and claws, Founfl in "Humid coast region 
of northern California (north of Mendocino), Oregon, and 
Washington." (Jackson) 

Schefifer Mole. — Scapanus orarius schefferi Jackson. 

Similar to typical orarius but paler; total length, males, 6.8 
inches; slightly larger feet and claws; color, autumn pelage 
glossy, deep mouse-gray above. Found in "Extreme 
southwestern British Columbia, northwestern Washington 
(east of Puget Sound and north of latitude 48° N.), central 
and southern Washington from the west slopes of the 
Cascade Mountains east to Walla Walla, and both slopes 
of the Cascade Mountains in northern and east-central 
Oregon." (Jackson) 

California Mole. — Scapanus latimanus latimanus (Bachman). 
Size medium; total length, males, 6.8 to 7.2 inches; color, 
winter, above, fuscous black. Distinguished from town- 
sendi by smaller size, and from orarius by its wider, heavier 
skull, larger teeth, and other cranial details. Found in 
"Western California west of the San Jacinto and Sacra- 
mento Valleys, from Santa Maria River north to Cape 
Mendocino, thence northeasterly to Klamath Canyon, 
Siskiyou County." (Jackson) 

San Joaquin Mole. — Scapanus latimanus campi Grinnell and 

Storer. 

Resembling typical latimanus "but smaller, pelage much 

paler and browner, feet and claws smaller," like occultus 

"in color, but decidedly larger in size, especially as regards 

14 



MOLE 




Pig. 6. Distribution of Scapanus townsendi and the more 
widely ranging forms of Scapanus latimanus, after Jackson 

1. Scapanus townsendi 

2. Scapanus latimanus latimanus 

3. Scapanus latimanus occuUus 

4. Scapanus latimanus dilatus 



15 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



feet and claws." Total length, males, 6.8 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found in "river- 
bottom lands of the San Joaquin Valley (California) gener- 
ally, at least on the east side." (Grinnell and Storer) 



'"1 


ji 


y r 


''A 




5 


W^ 




m 





W^- 


fc> 




^ 


C / 


^ \ 


Jw ^*^' 


'^1 

1 


-i 


\^K 




1 
1 

% 




1^ 




Nev. 


1 ij^ 



Fig. 7. Distribution of the subspecies of Scapanus orarius, 
after Jackson 

1. Scapanus orarius orarius 

2. Scapanus orarius schefferi 



Southern California Mole. — Scapanus latimanus occultus 
Grinnell and Swarth. 
Smaller than typical latimanus; total length, males, 6 inches; 
paler and browner in color. Found in "Southern California 
west of the deserts, from Olancha, at the south end of Owens 
Lake, in Inyo County; Sanger, in Fresno County; and 

16 



MOLE 



Santa Barbara, in Santa Barbara County., south to the 
San Diegan region." (Jackson) 
Grinnell Mole. — Scapanus latimanus grinnelli Jackson. 

Darkest in color of the latimanus group, size small, total 
length, males, 6.2 inches. Known only from Independence, 
Inyo County, California, 
Mono Mole. — Scapanus latimanus monoensis Grinnell. 

Resembling grinnelli "but color mouse-gray instead of 
fuscous black, and size slightly less." (Grinnell.) Total 
length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .82 
inch. Found in Mono County, California. 
Yosemite Mole. — Scapanus latimanus sericatiis Jackson. 
Smaller than typical latimanus, darker and more grayish in 
color; total length, females, 6.6 inches. Found in Yosemite 
region, Mariposa County, California. 
Sierra Mole. — Scapanus latimanus minusculus (Bangs). 

Similar to occultus in size and color, but differing in cranial 
characters, skull higher and narrower. Known only from 
Fyffe, El Dorado County, California. 
Klamath Mole. — Scapanus latimanus dilatus (True). 

Paler and slightly smaller than typical latimanus, with 
shorter, higher, and rounder skull. Total length, males, 
6.8 inches; color, summer, mouse-gray above. Found in 
"South-central Oregon and Upper Sonoran and Transition 
Zones of northeastern California and adjacent parts of 
Nevada." (Jackson) 
Mount Mazama Mole. — Scapanus latimanus alpinus 
(Merriam). 
Color of dilatus and size of large specimens of typical 
latimanus. Total length, males, 7.5 inches; color, worn 
summer pelage, above, mouse-gray. Known only from 
Crater Lake, Mount Mazama, Klamath County, Oregon. 

******* 
In spite of the fact that Moles may be quite common in the 
regions where they occur, they are very seldom seen. The 
average person sees a Mole only when in a trap and knows the 
creature best from the visible evidences of its presence, the 
long, raised ridges of earth and the piles of loose soil pushed 
up from below. 

The householder calls down curses upon the Mole whenever 
one crosses his lawn and imagines that this animal does far 
more damage than is actually the case. It is true that the 
ridges and mounds are unsightly objects on a well-kept lawn, 
and it is also true that where the sod has been raised and the 
grass-roots have dried out that dry, yellow grass may appear, 
but it is a mistaken conception to suppose that the Mole 
is feeding on the grass or any other plant food in the yard. 

17 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



The Mole is after worms and other insect food, and starves 
to death if forced to a plant diet. Sometimes Meadow Mice 
follow the runways of the Mole to take advantage of any- 
exposed roots and then, of course, it is only natural that the 
Mole is blamed for the damage. 

Moles are active creatures and in favorable soil make an 
extensive series of runways. Some of these runways may not 
be used more than once and the animal may not traverse 
them again after they are made, others may be used several 
times in twenty-four hours. If all the ridges are pressed 
down with the foot a later visit will show which ones are raised 
and in use. 

The Mole has a central nest-chamber or retreat, deep under 
a stump, stone- wall, or other surface obstacle and from this it 
works as a base, pushing out for considerable distances. 
Most frequently the runway passes so close to the surface of 
the earth that the roof of the tunnel is raised above the 
ground-level; but sometimes this is not the case and the Mole 
must get rid of loose earth in another fashion. From deep 
tunnels the loosened earth is pushed up a short, vertical 
chimney and piles up on the surface as a mound. Moles 
are surprisingly strong and literally swim through the soil. 

The powerful forefeet thrust out sideways to displace the 
earth, and if the soil is mellow the progress is fairly rapid. I 
have stood and watched the large Townsend Mole at work 
just below the surface of a meadow. The soil heaved and 
lifted and the sound of cracking grass-roots was clearly audible 
for several feet. Occasionally the shifting of the sod dis- 
turbed an angle- worm which began to draw itself up out of the 
earth, but presently there would come a subterranean turmoil 
and the worm would be jerked back into the ground and I 
knew that the IMole had pulled it down. From observations 
on Moles in captivity, it has been noted that the snout plays 
an important part, being thrust ahead to make the preliminary 
opening, when one forefoot follows and sweeps outward 
to enlarge the tunnel. 

The head of the Mole is set so close to the shoulders that 
there is almost no neck, and the head and shoulders are capable 
of a powerful upward thrust. For this reason it is doubtless 
easier for the Mole to drive its tunnel just under the surface 
where part of the runway can be broken upward into the air. 

I8 



MOLE 



The tail is a sensitive, tactile organ and serves to guide the 
animal when it moves backwards along a runway. The fact 
that the fur strokes as easily one way as the other would also 
favor progression in either direction. 

It is not difficult to detect Moles at work. If the observer 
treads softly and avoids jarring the earth, it is possible to 
approach very close to the heaving sod which shows where this 
subterranean hunter is active. Jarring the ground warns the 
Mole and it loses no time in retreating. When the animal is 
working near the surface it is a fairly easy matter to approach 
with a shovel, and after giving the moving area a smart rap, to 
thrust the blade down under the Mole and throw out the 




Fig. 



8. Tail of Common IMole (above) compared with tail of 
Hairy-tailed Mole 



stunned animal. This is often simpler than trying to trap the 
Mole, for it pushes so much earth along that the trap is sprung 
before the creature reaches the danger zone. 

Apparently young Moles do not leave the deep, under- 
ground nest until nearly full grown, because the Moles caught 
in traps are never very young animals. About the only way to 
get the young is to dig out the nest, and it was not until the 
American Museum had sent notices all over the country that 
they could secure young animals for a group. The farmer's 
plow occasionally turns out a nest of young Moles, but it is 
an exceptional circumstance to encounter the immature of 
this common mammal. 

In the spring. Moles sometimes become exceedingly active 
and push out runways much longer than usual, even breaking 
out onto the surface and wading about for a distance above the 

19 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



ground. This is probably in search of a mate, for Moles are 
apparently solitary creatures during most of the year and 
seldom more than one in a series of runways. 

Moles probably have only one litter of young a year, the 
usual number being four, born in April or May. 

Genus Parascalops 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 44. 

Hairy-tailed Mole. — Parascalops breweri 

Names. — Hairy-tailed Mole; Brewer Mole. Plate III. 

General Description. — Similar in general appearance to the 
eastern Mole, Scalopus aguaticus, but with hairy tail, con- 
stricted at base; snout shorter, with median longitudinal 
groove above, and nostrils lateral, crescentic; toes not webbed; 
hands as broad as long; fur soft, but coarser than in Scalopus 
and Scapanus. 

Color. — Sexes indistinguishable as to color. 

Upperparts varying from fuscous-black to blackish, with 
browner hairs on nose and tail, which may be white in old 
specimens; underparts paler and grayer than above, sometimes 
with brownish tinge on throat and underparts. 

Measurements. — Total length, males, 6 inches, females, 6; 
tail vertebras, males, 1.2 inches, females, 1.2; hind foot, males, 
.8 inch, females, .75 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — "Southeastern Canada and 
northeastern United States from southern New Brunswick, 
southern Quebec, and eastern Ontario, south to northeastern 
Ohio and southern Pennsylvania, and in the Appalachian 
Mountains to western North Carolina." (Jackson) 

Food. — Insects of different kinds, earthworms, grubs, etc. 

Species of the Genus Parascalops. 

Hairy-tailed Mole. — Parascalops breweri (Bachman). 

As described above; no other forms of the genus known. 

******* 
Although the Hairy-tailed Mole is found over a fairly 
extensive area, it appears to be only locally common and less 

20 



STAR-NOSED MOLE 




Fig. 9. Distribution of Parascalops breweri, after Jackson 

is known about its habits than those of Scalopus or Scapanus. 
In general, the behavior of this Mole is much like that of the 
Eastern Mole. 

Subfamily Condylurinae 

Genus Condylura 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \', Premolars, |; Molars, f = 44- 

Star-nosed Mole. — Condylura cristata 

General Description. — Form, in general, like that of 
Scalopus, the Common Mole, but having a peculiarly deve- 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 




loped snout which terminates in a fringe of twenty-two fleshy 
processes forming a wide, naked nasal disk. These processes 
are symmetrically arranged eleven on each side of a median 
line. Eyes small, but larger than in Scalopus, Scapanus, or 
Parascalops; legs short and weaker than in these genera; 
forefeet hand-like, palm as broad as long, with first four toes 
having three flat, triangular processes on the lower side of 

Fig. io. Head of Star-nosed Mole (left) compared with head 
of Eastern Mole 



their outer edges ; toes not webbed ; tail relatively long, slender 
in summer, but greatly enlarged and thickened in winter, 
covered with coarse, black hairs; fur dense and silky, but 
coarser than that of Scalopus, Scapanus, and Parascalops. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts blackish brown to blackish ; underparts browner 
and paler than above, underside of tail sometimes noticeably 
lighter than upperside. 

Worn pelage paler and browner than pelage just described, 
with frequently a buffy or yellowish ring about wrists. 

In living animals the nasal disk is rose-colored 

Young animals paler and browner than adults. 

Measurements. — Males, total length, 8 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 3.2 inches; hind foot, i.i inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — "Southeastern Canada and 
northeastern United States, from southern Labrador, central 
Quebec and Ontario, and southeastern Manitoba, south to 
northeastern Illinois and northern Indiana and Ohio; in the 
Atlantic coast region south to Virginia (Dismal Swamp) and 
Georgia (Marlow); and in the Appalachian Mountains to 
western North Carolina." (Jackson) 

Food. Same as that of other Moles, insectivorous. 

22 



SHREW MOLE 

Species of the Genus Condylura. 

Star-nosed Mole. — Condylura cristata (Linnceus). Plate III. 

As described, no other forms of the genus known. 
******* 

The Star-nosed Mole is the most distinctive in appearance 
of the American Moles, the peculiar, fleshy nasal fringe serv- 
ing to identify the animal immediately. 

Although this Mole makes subterranean burrows very 
similar to those of the Eastern Mole, they are more irregular 
in their course and are more crooked. The surface ridges 
appear and disappear more often and the tunnels may open 
out to the surface and continue as runways through the grass 
or under the leaves. In winter the Star-nosed IVIole may 
burrow in the snow or run about on top of it. 

This Mole shows a preference for damp meadows or 
marshes, but may be found in the same spots with the Eastern 
Mole, even in the same series of tunnels. The life-history of 
the Star-nosed Mole is very imperfectly known. 

Subfamily Uropsilinae 
Genus Neiirotrichus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, f ; Molars, f =36, 

Shrew Mole. — Neiirotrichus gibbsii 

and related forms 

Names. — Shrew Mole; Gibbs Mole. 

General Description. — Smallest of the American Moles; 
body robust; tail about half as long as head and body, fairly 
thick, constricted at base, distinctly annulated, sparsely 




Fig. II. Head and forefoot of Shrew Mole 
23 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



haired; snout elongated, with naked muzzle; head mole-like; 
forefeet lacking extreme development of the other Moles, 
palms longer than broad; toes not webbed; fur short, fine, with 
iridescent sheen. 

Color. — Sexes alike in color. 

Upperparts dark gray to blackish, with purple or greenish 
iridescence in fresh specimens; underparts similar to upper- 
parts, sometimes lighter in tone. 

Measurements. — Total length, males, 4.5 inches, females, 
4.6; tail vertebras, males, 1.5 inches, females, 1.5; hind foot, 
males and females, .68 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — British Columbia, Washing- 
ton, Oregon and California. 

Food. — Insectivorous. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Neiirotrichus. 

Gibbs Shrew Mole. — Neiirotrichus gihhsii gihhsii (Baird). 
As just described. Found in "Extreme southwestern 
British Columbia, western Washington and Oregon west of 
the Cascade Mountains, south in the coast region to Eureka, 
Humboldt County, Cal., and in the interior, west of the 
Sierra Nevada, to South Yolla Bolly Mountain, Cal." 
(Jackson.) 
Southern Shrew Mole ; Hyacinthine Shrew Mole. — Neiirotri- 
chus gihhsii hyacinthinus Bangs. 
Larger and usually darker colored than typical gihhsii. 
Total length, males, 4.8 inches. Found in "Coast region 
of California from Cuddeback, Humboldt County, south to 
Fremont Peak, Monterey County." (Jackson) 

******* 
The Shrew Mole is the smallest of the American Moles and 
has a less-highly specialized forefoot. It is found in a rather 
restricted zone along the northwest coastal strip and is local in 
distribution. I have trapped specimens on dry hillsides near 
Portland, Oregon, in the same general region with Scapanus 
townsendi, the large Western Mole, but took only two over a 
long period. Jackson states that the Shrew Mole "prefers 
a damp habitat and is seldom found far from swamps, marshes, 
or streams." It makes a small burrow, but seems to spend 
some time on the surface of the ground. Its more generalized 
structure would indicate that this species is not such a sub- 
terranean creature as the larger Moles. But little is known 
of the life-history of the genus Neurotrichus. 

24 



SHREW 



Family Soricidae. Shrews 

Size very small, including the smallest of mammals; muzzle 
elongate; eye small but visible; ear small and often more pr 
less concealed in the fur; form mouse-like; skull long and 
narrow; anterior teeth highly specialized; zygomatic arches 
wanting. 

Subfamily Soricinae 

Genus Sorex^ 
Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, J-; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 32. 

Shrew. — Sorex personatus^ 

' and related forms. 

General Characters. — Size very small, except for Microsorex 
the smallest of North American mammals; muzzle sharp and 
pointed ; eyes minute ; ears nearly hidden in fur ; body slender ; 
hands and feet small and delicate; tail proportionally long, 
covered with hair; pelage soft and rather lax; color brownish 
above, lighter below ; habit terrestrial ; movements quick. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal change in pelage. 

Upperparts practically uniform sepia brown, with very 
faint sprinkling of lighter and darker hairs; hands and feet 
whitish; upperside of tail like back. Underparts grayish to 
buffy and passing gradually into darker color of upperparts; 
underside of tail yellowish white. Pelage everywhere slate- 
colored at base. 

In winter pelage, slightly darker and less brown than in 
summer. 

Immature pelage very much like that of adults. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 4 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .5 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America. 

Food. — Insects, adults and larval forms, and such other 
animal food as it can capture. 

^ For a revision of the shrews see Merriam, North American Fauna, 
No. ID, 1895. This monograph is so old that it can scarcely be con- 
sidered as authoritative today. 

^According to Jackson, Jour. Mammalogy, Feb. 1925, p. 55, Sorex 
personatus should be changed to Sorex cinereus, with corresponding 
changes in all of the subspecies of personatus. 

25 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, and practically all small 
carnivorous mammals such as Weasels, Foxes, Skunks, 
etcetera. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Sorex. 

This is a very large genus distributed throughout the North- 
ern Hemisphere, and a large number of species and subspecies 
are found in North America. Many of these forms are 
separated from one another on cranial characters or dis- 
tinctions difficult to set forth in a field book. As advised for 
the other large and troublesome genera, the geographic range 
will usually give the best clue for a preliminary determination. 

Masked Shrew. — Sarex personatus personatus I. Geoffroy. 
As just described. Found in "Boreal and Transition 
Zones of North America from New England to Alaska, 
except the southern Rocky Mountains and the Cascade- 
Sierra systems ; south in the higher Alleghenies to Tennessee 
and North Carolina." (Merriam) Plate HI. 

Hayden Shrew.- — Sorex personatus haydeni (Baird). 

A scarcely distinguishable subspecies of personatus ranging 
in the prairie section of North and South Dakota and 
adjacent states and provinces. Color above, sepia brown, 
below, ashy gray. Total length, 3.9 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.4 inches; hind foot, .48 inch. 

Labrador Shrew. — Sorex personatus miscix Bangs. 

Larger than typical personatus, color paler and grayer. 
Upperparts (summer) near sepia brown; underparts smoke- 
gray; winter pelage drab gray above. Total length, 4.1 
inches ; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches ; hind foot, .55 inch. Found 
in Labrador. 

Arctic Shrew. — Sorex personatus arcticus^ Merriam. 

Resembling typical personatus but slightly larger, tail 
longer, color paler. Summer pelage pale drab brown above, 
ashy below; winter pelage dusky brownish above, silvery 
white below. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in region about St. 
Michael, Norton Sound, Alaska. 

Streator Shrew. — Sorex personatus streatori Merriam. 

Larger and darker than typical personatus. Above, mixed 
sepia brown and dusky; below, ashy gray; tail sharply bi- 
color, dusky above, whitish below, tip dusky. Total length, 
4.3 inches; tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found 
in southeastern Alaska. 

^ Sorex personatus arcticus should stand as Sorex cinereus hollisteri, 
according to Jackson. 

26 



SHREW 



Maryland Shrew. — Sorex fontinalis Hollister. 

Smaller than typical personatus and with shorter tail, color 
as in personatus. Total length, 3.8 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.25 inches; hind foot, .40 inch. Found in "Sphagnum 
bogs near the District of Columbia." (Miller) 

Preble Shrew. — Sorex preblei Jackson. 

Paler and grayer than typical personatus. Upperparts 
(summer) light brown (hair-brown to olive-drab) ; under- 
parts smoky gray; tail above, olive-buff, below, light brown, 
tip dark. Total length, 3.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; 
hind foot, .44 inch. Found in eastern Oregon, Malheur 
County. 

Big-tailed Shrew.- — Sorex dispar Batchelder. 

Size large ; tail long. Upperparts dark slate-colored ; under- 
parts smoke-gray; tail above somewhat browner than color 
of back. Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; 
hind foot, .6 inch. Found in "Adirondack and Catskill 
Mountains, New York; also in the mountains of West 
Virginia." (Miller) 

Gaspe Shrew. — Sorex gaspensis Anthony and Goodwin. 

Resembling personatus in size and proportions, but much 
darker; most nearly related to dispar. Upperparts slaty 
gray; feet whitish; tail above dark like back, below, whitish, 
tip dark; underparts smoke-gray. Total length, 4.1 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, ,42 inch. Found on 
Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec. 

Richardson Shrew. — Sorex richardsoni^ Bachman. 

Size large ; tail short. Upperparts dark brown ; sides fulvous 
to ochraceous, contrasting with upperparts; underparts 
washed with chestnut; tail above and at tip dusky, below, 
pale brownish. Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .55 inch. Found in "Plains of Saskatche- 
wan and boreal parts of Minnesota and Wisconsin; north 
to lower Mackenzie Valley." (Miller.) 

Sorex sphagnicola = Sorex richardsoni, according to Preble. 

Tundra Shrew. — Sorex tundrensis Merriam. 

Size large, tail rather short. Upperparts (summer) brown; 
sides abruptly paler, pale buffy brown; underparts soiled 
whitish; tail above like back, below buffy, tip dark. Winter 
pelage, brown above, sides and underparts silvery whitish. 
Total length, 4.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot 
.52 inch. Found in region about St. Michael, Norton 
Sound, Alaska. 

Smoky Shrew. — Sorex fumeus fumeus Miller. 

Size large; tail short; ears prominent. Upperparts dark 
slate color; underparts slaty washed with grayish; tail above, 
dusky, below, yellowish white. A brown phase occurs, 
chestnut-brown above, slightly paler below. Total length, 

^ Sorex richardsoni should be known as Sorex arcticus, according to 
Jackson. 

27 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



4.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .52 inch. 
Found in ' ' Canadian and upper part of Transition faunas of 
eastern United States; southward in higher Alleghenies to 
mountains of North CaroHna and Tennessee." (Merriam) 

Northern Smoky Shrew. — Sorex fumeus umbrosus Jackson. 
Larger than typical fumeus and grayer in color. Upper- 
parts (winter) dark gray, with some hairs whitish-tipped; 
underparts slightly paler; tail bicolor, above fuscous, below 
yellowish. Summer pelage somewhat darker and browner. 
Total length, 5.1 inches; tail vertebras, 2.1 inches; hind foot, 
.56 inch. Found in "Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, south- 
eastern Quebec, and Maine." (Jackson) 

Wandering Shrew. — Sorex vagrans vagrans Baird. 

Size small; tail medium. Upperparts dark brown, under- 
parts ashy gray; tail above, dusky, below paler. Total 
length, 4.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .5 
inch. Found in "Southern British Columbia, western 
Washington and Oregon, and northern California (south on 
the coast to Monterey and in the mountains to old Fort 
Crook and Cassel). Restricted to Lower Boreal and Upper 
Transition Zones." (Merriam) 

Dobson Shrew. — Sorex vagrans dobsoni (Merriam). 

Slightly larger than typical vagrans. Upperparts sepia 
brown; underparts ashy to drab; tail bicolor, dark brown 
and drab. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 
inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in "Rocky Mountain 
region in northern Idaho and western Montana; also 
isolated mountains in Montana (Big Snowy and Pryor 
Mountains), Wyoming (Big Horn Mountains), and Utah 
(Wasatch Mountains). Restricted to Lower Boreal and 
Upper Transition Zones." (Merriam) 

Arizona Mountain Shrew. — Sorex vagrans monticola (Mer- 
riam) . 
Resembling typical vagrans in size, but grayish brown in 
color instead of chestnut-brown. Total length, 4.4 inches; 
tail vertebras, 1.9 inches; hind foot, .5 inch. _ Found in 
"Arizona (San Francisco Mountain, Springerville, Chiri- 
cahua Mountains) . ' ' (Miller) 

Salt Marsh Shrew. — Sorex haUcoetes Grinnell. 
Resembling typical vagrans, but much darker in color. 
Upperparts dark seal-brown, nearly black on rump; ears 
Vandyke brown; underparts brownish, chin and throat 
paler; tail unicolor, sepia. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail 
vertebra, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in salt 
marshes of Santa Clara County, California. 

Olympic Shrew. — Sorex setosus Elliot. 
Size rather large, resembling obscurus in color. Upperparts 
brown with scattering light-tipped hairs; underparts ashy, 
washed with buff; tail above, dark brown, below, yellowish 
white. Total length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.2 inches; 

28 



SHREW 



hind foot, .52 inch. Found in Olympic Mountains, 
Washington. 

Sierra Nevada Shrew. — Sorex amcenus Merriam. 

Larger than vagrans. Upperparts sooty brown; sides paler 
brown; underparts buffy whitish; tail above, blackish, 
below, whitish, tip blackish. Total length, 4.1 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in Sierra 
Nevada Mountains of California. 

Vancouver Shrew. — Sorex vancouverensis Merriam. 

Larger than vagrans, with larger forefeet. Upperparts 
mixed dusky and sepia brown; sides lighter than back; 
underparts washed with grayish; tail above, dark brown, 
below paler, tip dark. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .48 inch. Found on Vancouver 
Island, British Columbia. 

Nevada Shrew. — Sorex nevadensis Merriam. 

Resembling vagrans but tail shorter. Upperparts mixed 
slate-black and hoary; sides lighter, buffy to brownish; 
underparts hoary; tail bicolor, dusky and whitish, tip dark. 
Total length, 3.86 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 inches; hind 
foot, .5 inch. Found in "Interior of the Great Basin." 
(Miller) 

Dusky Shrew. — Sorex ohscurus ohscurus Merriam. 

Slightly larger than vagrans; tail longer. Upperparts sepia 
brown; underparts ashy; tail bicolor, above like back, below 
whitish. Total length, 4.4 inches; tail vertebree, 1.8 inches; 
hind foot, .52 inch. Found in "British Columbia' and 
mountains of western Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyom- 
ing, Utah, and Colorado; south along the High Sierra 
Nevada in California to Mount Whitney. Restricted to 
Boreal Zone." (Merriam) 

Wetmore Shrew. — Sorex ohscurus isolatus Jackson. 

Darker than typical ohscurus. Upperparts (winter) dark 
grayish brown; underparts smoke-gray; tail faintly bicolor, 
olive-brown above, buffy brown below. Total length, 4.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, .56 inch. Found 
on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

Warren Island Shrew. — Sorex ohscurus malitiosus Jackson. 
Size large, tail long. Upperparts (summer) mummy- 
brown, slightly darker on rump; underparts smoke-gray; 
tail bicolor, sepia above, buffy brown below. Winter pelage 
darker and grayer. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2.2 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found only on Warren 
Island, Alaska. 

New Mexico Shrew. — Sorex ohscurus neomexicanus Bailey. 
Larger and slightly darker than typical ohscurus; upperparts 
dull sepia brown, with less reddish than in ohscurus; under- 
parts with brownish suffusion. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail 
vertebras, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found in the 
Sacramento Mountains, Otero County, New Mexico. 

29 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



San Bernardino Shrew. — Sorex ohscurus parvidens Jackson. 
Resembling typical ohscurus in size and color, but differing 
in cranial and dental characters. Total length, 4.2 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .52 inch. Found in San 
Bernardino Mountains, California. 

Cascade Shrew.' — Sorex ohscurus permiliensis Jackson. 

Resembling setosus but redder in summer pelage and with 
shorter tail. Upperparts (summer) between snuff-brown 
and sepia; sides slightly paler than back; underparts bufify 
brown to tawny olive; tail very faintly bicolor, above like 
back, below paler. Winter pelage: upperparts light brown. 
Total length, 4.7 inches ; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, 
.56 inch. Found about Mount Jefferson and Mount Hood, 
Cascade Range, Oregon. 

Glacier Bay Shrew. — Sorex glacialis Merriam. 

Size large; tail long. Upperparts dark dusky brown; under- 
parts whitish, clearly differentiated from color of upper- 
parts by a distinct line; tail above, dusky, below bufify, tip 
dark. Total length, 4.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.1 inches; 
hind foot, .54 inch. Found in region about Glacier Bay, 
Alaska. 

Long-tailed Shrew.' — Sorex longicauda longicauda (Merriam). 
Size large; tail long; ears prominent. Upperparts dark 
chestnut-brown; underparts ashy washed with bufify; tail 
bicolor, dark brown above, buffy below. Total length, 
5.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.4 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. 
Found on "Coast of southeast Alaska, from Wrangel south- 
ward; also coast of Washington, including Puget Sound and 
Skagit Valley." (Merriam) 

Queen Charlotte Shrew. — Sorex longicauda elassodon Osgood. 
Resembling typical longicauda but smaller; color as in 
longicauda. Total length, 5.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.2 
inches; hind foot, .56 inch. Found on Moresby Island, 
Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

Prevost Island Shrew. — Sorex longicauda prevostensis 
Osgood. 
Resembling typical longicauda but slightly darker and with 
less contrast in color of upper and lower parts. Total length, 
5.4 inches; tail vertebras, 2.3 inches, hind foot, .60 inch. 
Found on Prevost Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British 
Columbia. 

Yakutat Shrew. — Sorex alascensis alascensis (Merriam) . 

Size large; tail long but not as long as in longicauda. Upper- 
parts sepia brown; underparts grayish; tail bicolor, above, 
dark brown, below whitish, tip dark. Total length, 4.6 
inches; tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, .59 inch. Found 
about Yakutat Bay, Alaska. 

Shumagin Islands Shrew.' — Sorex alascensis shumaginensis 
Merriam. 
Resembling typical alascensis, but slightly smaller and 
paler. Upperparts sepia brown mixed with light-tipped 

30 



SHREW 



hairs; underparts whitish. Total length, 4.5 inches: tail 
vertebras, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .56 inch. Found on Popof 
Island, Shumagin Islands, Alaska. 

Baird Shrew. — Sorex bairdi Merriam. 

Size large, tail long. Upperparts dark chestnut-brown; 
underparts brownish; tail bicolor, above dark brown, below 
flesh color. Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.3 
inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found in western Oregon in 
region about the mouth of the Columbia River and east as 
far as the Willamette Valley. 

Trowbridge Shrew. — Sorex trowhridgii trowhridgii Baird. 
Size large, tail long, color dark. Upperparts blackish slate; 
underparts slaty; tail bicolor, blackish above, whitish below. 
Total length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.3 inches; hind foot, 
.54 inch. Found in "Western Washington and Oregon, 
west of Cascade Range." (Merriam) 

Humboldt Shrew. — Sorex trowhridgii humboldtensis Jackson. 
Resembling typical trowhridgii, but slightly larger. Upper- 
parts (summer) dark slaty gray; underparts slightly paler; 
tail bicolor, blackish above, whitish below. Total length, 
5.3 inches; tail vertebras, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .56. Found 
in "Coast region of Humboldt and northern Mendocino 
Counties, California." (Jackson) 

Monterey Shrew. — Sorex montereyensis montereyensis Mer- 
riam. 
Size large; tail long; ears prominent; resembling typical 
trowhridgii. Upperparts slate-black; underparts slaty to 
dark brown; tail bicolor, blackish and whitish. Total 
length, 4.8 inches, tail vertebrae, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .56 
inch. Found in "Coast strip and Sierra Nevada of Cali- 
fornia; south on the coast at least to Morro and San Luis 
Obispo; south in the Sierra to Sequoia National Park and 
East Fork Kaweah River." (Merriam) 

Yosemite Shrew. — Sorex montereyensis mariposcB Grinnell. 
Closely resembling typical montereyensis but paler and 
grayer. Summer pelage, upperparts, hair-brown mixed 
with drab gray; tail bicolor, above, drab, below, dull white; 
underparts drab gray. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 2 inches; hind foot, .56 inch. Found in the Yosemite 
Valley, in the Transition Zone of the Central Sierra Nevada, 
California. 

Adorned Shrew. — Sorex ornatus Merriam. 

Upperparts ashy gray, abruptly darker on rump; underparts 
whitish; tail faintly bicolor, dark above, paler below, ter- 
minal half dark above and below. Total length, 4.3 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, ,5 inch. Found in 
"Mountains of southern California, from head of Ventura 
River and Mount Pinos easterly to San Bernardino Peak, 
and south through the San Jacinto range to Santa Ysabel." 
(Merriam) 

31 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



California Shrew. — Sorex caUfornicus californicus Merriam. 
Size small. Upperparts grizzled dark ashy gray; under- 
parts slaty, washed with whitish. Total length, 2)-7 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.4 inches; hind foot, .46 inch. Found in 
"Sonoma, Contra Costa, and Alameda Counties, central 
California." (Miller) 

Ashland Shrew. — Sorex trigonirostris Jackson. 

Resembling californicus but differing in cranial characters. 
Upperparts (summer) light grayish brown; sides lighter 
than back; underparts pale smoke-gray; tail olive-brown 
above, buffy below. Total length, 3.8 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 1.4 inches; hind foot, .48 inch. Found in region about 
Ashland, Jackson County, Oregon. 

Suisun Shrew. — Sorex sinuosus Grinnell. 

Closely related to californicus but much darker in color. 
Upperparts blackish along back, with metallic sheen; sides 
and underparts deep clove-brown; tail unicolor, dark seal- 
brown. Total length, 4.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.55 inches; 
hind foot, .5 inch. Found in "the brackish marshes of 
Grizzly Island, bordering Suisun Bay," Solano County, 
California. (Grinnell) 

Shasta Shrew. — Sorex shastensis Merriam. 

Smaller than typical vagrans. Upperparts dull yellowish 
brown in summer; dark slaty gray in winter; underparts 
ashy brown ; tail bicolor, above dusky, below buffy, tip dark. 
Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.4 inches; hind foot, 
.48 inch. Found in the Canadian Zone on Mount Shasta, 
California. 

Inyo Shrew. — Sorex tenellus tenellus Merriam. 

Size small; colors pale. Upperparts pale ash-gray; under- 
parts white; tail bicolor, above dark, below white. Total 
length, 4.0 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .5 
inch. Found in southeastern California. 

Mount Lyell Shrew. — Sorex tenellus lyelli Merriam. 

Resembling typical tenellus but slightly browner above. 
Total length, 4.1 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 inches; hind 
foot, .48 inch. Found on Mount Lyell, Tuolumne County, 
California. 

White Mountain Shrew. — Sorex tenellus myops Merriam. 
Resembling typical tenellus, but slightly smaller, ears larger, 
color paler. Total length, 3.9 inches; tail vertebras, 1.64 
inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in the White Mountains, 
Inyo County, California. 

Dwarf Shrew. — Sorex tenellus nanus Merriam. 

Siz3 very small, one of the smallest of North American 
Shrews. Upperparts sepia brown; sides paler than back; 
underparts ashy; tail bicolorj above like back, below whitish, 
tip dark. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.7 inches; 
hind foot, .40 inch. Found in Estes Park, Larimer County, 
Colorado. 

32 



SHREW 



Carolina Shrew. — Sorex longirostris Bachman. 

Size small ; ears conspicuous ; resembling personatus. Upper- 
parts chestnut-brown; underparts ashy to drab; tail above 
dark, below paler. Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrse, 
1.3 inches; hind foot, .43 inch. Found in " Austroriparian 
fauna of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia ; west 
to southern Illinois; north to the District of Columbia." 
(Miller) 

Fisher Shrew. — Sorex fisher i Merriam. 

Resembling longirostris but larger, coloration duller, ears 
larger. Upperparts dull chestnut-brown; underparts drab 
brown; tail dark above, pale brown below, tip dark; nose 
and ears dark. Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.55 
inches; hind foot, .48 inch. Found in Dismal Swamp, 
Norfolk County, Virginia. 

Pacific Shrew. — Sorex pacificus pacificus Coues. 

Largest Shrew of the genus Sorex; ears prominent. Upper- 
parts cinnamon-rufous, in winter mixed with dark-tipped 
hairs; underparts like upper. Total length, 6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. Found in "A 
narrow belt along the Pacific Coast from Point Reyes, 
California, to Yaquina Bay, Oregon." (Merriam) 

Sonoma Shrew. — Sorex pacificus sonomce Jackson. 

Smaller and somewhat darker than typical pacificus. 
Upperparts (summer) mummy-brown; underparts olive- 
brown to buffy brown. Total length, 5.3 inches; tail verte- 
bras 2.4 inches; hind foot, .64 inch. Found in "Coast 
region of California from Point Arena, Mendocino County, 
south to Point Reyes, Marin County." (Jackson) 

Yaquina Shrew. — Sorex yaquince Jackson, 

Resembling pacificus but smaller and tail shorter. Upper- 
parts fuscous (winter) ; underparts slightly paler than back ; 
tail faintly bicolor, drab above, light drab below. Summer 
pelage redder, upperparts near cinnamon-brown. Total 
length, 5.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; hind foot, .64 
inch. Found in western Oregon in region west of the 
Cascades and north of the Umpqua River. 

Pribilof Shrew.^ — Sorex pribilofensis Merriam. 

Size small; tail short, thick, hairy; ears prominent. Upper- 
parts chocolate-brown; sides ochraceous buff; underparts 
soiled whitish; tail bicolor, brown above, white below. 
Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.4 inches; hind foot^ 
.54 inch. Found on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. 

Merriam Shrew. — Sorex merriami Dobson. 

Size small ; ears prominent ; cranial characters very peculiar. 
Upperparts ashy gray; underparts white; tail above, buffy; 
below, white. Total length, 3.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.4 
inches; hind foot, .44 inch. Very rare and has been found 
on Little Bighorn River near Fort Custer, Montana; near 
Antelope, Oregon; near Medora, North Dakota; in Elko 
County, Nevada; and in Columbia County, Washington. 

33 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



White-chinned Shrew. — Sorex leucogenys Osgood. 

Resembling merriami but larger. Upperparts pale brown- 
ish drab; sides slightly paler; underparts creamy white; 
chin and sides of face below eye to end of nose pure creamy 
white to roots of hair; tail light brownish above, white below, 
tip white. Total length, 4.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 
inches; hind foot, .5 inch. Found in the canyon of Beaver 
River, Beaver County, Utah. 

* * * * * * * 

Shrews are widely distributed and often are quite abundant 
in a region, but for all of that are rather infrequently observed. 
Their small size, quick movements, and habit of working under 
cover do not give one much opportunity to see these least of all 
mammals. Although these tiny creatures seem to be most 
active at night, they are often abroad in full daylight. A trap 
line usually takes a few Shrews between sunrise and sunset, 
but many more will be caught after dark. When one does see 
a Shrew it is usually but a glimpse as the animal rustles among 
fallen leaves or darts from under one log to another. Shrews 
of the genus Sorex may be instantly recognized by their small 
size, very sharp m.uzzle, tiny eyes, and slender form. 

They are such highly organized, nervous creatures that 
they give instant response to any stimulation. Live Shrews 
which I have trapped have started violently when I have 
attempted to give an imitation, rather crudely I fear, of their 
fane, high-pitched squeak, and I have actually had one die in 
my hand from nervous shock. This does not necessarily 
indicate that the Shrew is a timid animal and the records go to 
show quite the contrary. 

These tiny mammals are highly predatory, courageous 
hunters and do not hesitate to attack animals several times 
their own weight. Although living largely on insect food, 
which can not put up much resistance, Shrews undoubtedly 
kill and eat Mice whenever the rodents are encountered under 
circumstances which allow the Shrew to close in a rough-and- 
tumble fight. Mice put into cages with Shrews are dis- 
patched with a celerity that indicates this is by no means a new 
experience for the Shrew at least ; and as a further index to the 
Shrew character there are accounts to tell us that a cage can 
not contain more than one Shrew at a time for one will kill and 
eat the other if two are confined. 

Shrews require an abundance of food and consume a sur- 

34 



WATER SHREW 



prising amount because of a very rapid rate of digestion. 
Deprived of food for even a few hours they starve to death. 

In general, Sorex may be said to favor locaUties where 
moisture and soil conditions support an abundance of vege- 
tation. Fallen logs, rock piles, rank growths of grass, or the 
banks of small streams where shrubbery is thick, all offer suit- 
able home sites. Although these Shrews do not seem to make 
burrows of their own, they frequently use those made by 
Mice or Moles, and the surface runways of Meadow Mice serve 
the Shrews as convenient hunting grounds. 

Shrews are active throughout the year and do not hibernate. 
Cold has no terrors for them and they range north of the 
Arctic Circle. 

Very little is known about the home life of Shrews. The 
number of young is probably four or five. The young must 
stay in the home nest until they reach nearly adult size, for one 
never sees immature Shrews much smaller than their parents. 

Genus Neosorex^ 
Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, J; Premolars, f; Molars, | = 32 

Water Shrew — ^Neosorex palustris 

and related forms 

Names. — Water Shrew; Marsh Shrew; Black and White 
Shrew. Plate III. 

General Description. — A large, long-tailed Shrew special- 
ized for an aquatic life; feet large and broad, hind feet es- 
pecially so, fringed with a row of short, stiff hairs; third and 
fourth toes united at base and somewhat webbed. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike ; seasonal variation not especially 
marked. 

Upperparts dusky, some of the hairs white-tipped to pro- 
duce a frosted appearance ; tail sharply bicolor, blackish above, 
white below, tip dark; feet dark on outer side, whitish on 
inner; underparts white, sometimes darkened on breast and 
inguinal region, sharply differentiated from color of upper- 
parts. 

Immature very much like adults. 

^ See footnote, page 25; also Jackson: Journ. Mamm., Feb., 1926, p. 
57. 

35 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 6.4 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2.7 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Colder portions of North 
America. 

Food. — Insects and other forms of aquatic life. 




Fig. 12. Hind foot of Common Shrew {Sorex), above, 
compared with the hind foot of Water Shrew {Neosorex) 
which is fringed with stiff hairs 

Enemies. — Probably preyed on by Water Snakes and such 
small carnivores as the Mink, but I have no personal observ- 
ations on this point nor have I seen any actual records. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Neosorex. ^ 

Subgenus Neosorex 

Characterized by light-colored underparts in sharp contrast 
to dark- colored upperparts. 

Richardson Water Shrew. — Neosorex palnstris palustris 
(Richardson). 
As described above. Found in "Parts of the Boreal Zone 
from Minnesota to the east base of the Rocky Mountains." 
(Merriam) 

Nova Scotia Water Shrew. — Neosorex palustris gloveralleni 
(Jackson).' 
Resembling typical palustris in size, but color of upperparts 
slightly browner. Upperparts very dark blackish brown ; 
sides slightly paler; underparts soiled whitish, lightly 
^ Neosorex palustris acadicus, of Miller, North American Recent 

Majnmals. 

36 



WATER SHREW 



washed with pale brown on the chest; tail bicolor, upperside 
like back, lower side white, tip dark. Total length, 6.4 
inches; tail vertebras, 2.6 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found 
in Nova Scotia. 

White-chinned Water Shrew. — Neosorex palustris albibarhis 
(Cope). 
Resembling typical palustris in pattern of coloration and in 
size, but underparts washed with dusky. Upperparts 
blackish slate, with light-tipped hairs; chin whitish; under- 
parts suffused with dusky. Total length, 6.2 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 2.7 inches; hind foot, ,76 inch. Found in " Boreal 
parts of eastern North America from mountains of Penn- 
sylvania and New York northward to Labrador." (Merriam) 

Great Lakes Water Shrew. — Neosorex palustris hydrobadistes 
(Jackson). 
Resembling typical palustris in general color, but slightly 
smaller. Coloration more or less intermediate between 
palustris palustris and palustris albibarbis. Total length, 6 
inches; tail vertebrce, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found 
in "Minnesota, Wisconsin, and northern Michigan." 
(Jackson) 

Rocky Mountain Water Shrew. — Neosorex palustris navi- 
gator (Baird). 
Smaller than typical palustris, coloration lighter. Upper- 
parts slaty, mixed with hoary; underparts and tail as in 
typical palustris. Found in "The Rocky Mountains and 
outlying ranges from British Columbia to southern Colorado 
and the Sierra Nevada of California south to the Sequoia 
National Park." (Merriam) 

Alaska Water Shrew. — Neosorex alaskanus (Merriam). 

Smaller than navigator. Upperparts slaty, frosted with 
light-tipped hairs; underparts and feet whitish; tail above, 
dusky, below, whitish, tip dark. Total length, 6 inches; 
tail vertebrce, 2.8 inches; hind foot, .74 inch. Found in 
region about Glacier Bay, Alaska. 

Unalaska Water Shrew. — Neosorex hydrodromns (Dobson) . 
Size very small for a Water Shrew. "Fur reddish brown 
above, yellowish brown beneath; chin, throat, and chest 
with grayish-tipped hairs; the base of the hairs both above 
and beneath dark bluish gray." (Dobson) Total length, 4 
inches; tail vertebrse, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .52 inch. Only 
one specimen has ever been taken, as far as I can tell from 
records, and this came from Unalaska Island, Alaska. 

Subgenus Atophyrax 

Characterized by coloration of underparts differing only 
slightly from that of upperparts; no marked contrasts in color 
(except in case of albiventer) . 

Bendire Water Shrew. — Neosorex bendirii bendirii (Merriam). 
Resembling palustris in general size, but color pattern 

37 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



nearly unicolor. Upperparts dull sooty slate color; tail 
dusky above and below ; underparts only slightly paler than 
upperparts. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.8 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Klamath Basin, 
Oregon and thence northward along east side of Cascade 
range to Puget Sound (Port Moody, British Columbia); 
westward (probably through Klamath River Valley) to 
coast of California, and southward to Sonoma County." 
(Merriam) 

Palmer Water Shrew. — Neosorex hendirii palmeri (Merriam). 
Larger and blacker than typical hendirii. Upperparts 
glossy black; underparts sooty slate color; tail dusky above 
and below. Total length, 6.6 inches; tail vertebra, 2.9 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found along "Coast of Oregon 
and Willamette Valley; limits of range unknown." 
(Merriam) 

Olympic Water Shrew. — Neosorex hendirii alhiventer 
(Merriam). 
Larger than typical hendirii, with longer tail and white 
underparts. Upperparts sooty slate color; underparts 
white, with dusky wash on pectoral region and on belly; 
tail above, blackish, below, slightly paler, no marked color 
line between upper and lower sides. Total length, 6.6 
inches; tail vertebr£e, 3.1 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. 
Found in Olympic Mountains of Washington. 



The Water Shrews are the largest members of the Shrew 
family found in North America and are beautiful little 
creatures. The family characters are readily recognized in 
the long, sharp nose, tiny eyes, simple forefeet, and fine, close 
fur. From the other Shrews they may be distinguished by 
large size, long tail, slaty black upperparts, and broad, fringed, 
hind feet. In size of body they may be equalled or exceeded 
by the species of Blarina, the Short-tailed Shrews, but the total 
length of the Water Shrews is noticeably greater. • 

These Shrews frequent small streams or the shores of 
marshes and are truly aquatic in habit. They are never 
encountered in dry or arid sections and seemingly do not go 
very far from water. Probably a large part, if not most, of 
their food is caught in the water, and the structure of these 
animals indicates that they are well adapted for this type of 
existence. The close pelage keeps the Water Shrew from 
wetting through to the skin, and the large, partly webbed, 
hind feet serve as capable propelling organs. 

There is much to be learned of the life-history of the mem- 

38 



PIGMY SHREW 



bers of the genus Neosorex. They are very seldom seen and 
because of their habits are not easily observed. Available 
records indicate that the young number about six. 

Genus Microsorex^ 

Dentition : Incisors, | ; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, f ; Molars, f = 32. 

Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi 

and related forms 

Names. — Pigmy Shrew; Least Shrew. 

General Description. — A very small Shrew, with short tail; 
except for size, resembling small members of the genus Sorex 
in superficial appearance, but differing in cranial and dental 
characters. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, seasonal variation not very 
marked. 

Upperparts. — Sepia brown; tail bicolor, above dark brown, 
below whitish. 

Underparts. — Ashy with wash of buffy on throat, breast, 
and sometimes on belly. 

Immature pelage very much like adult. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length 3.3 
inches; tail vertebra, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .42 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern North America. 

Food. — Insects, 

Enemies. — Snakes, Owls, Hawks, and small carnivorous 
mammals. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Microsorex 

Hoy Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi hoyi (Baird), 

As described above. Found in the northern United States 
and adjoining Canadian provinces from Nova Scotia, 
Quebec, and New York west to Manitoba and North 
Dakota. 

Thompson Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi thompsoni (Baird), 
Upperparts "dark olive-brown, slightly hoary; paler on 
sides. Beneath, ashy white. No tinge of chestnut or 

^ Although, this genus is treated by Merriam in his synopsis of the 
Shrews, North American Fauna, No. 10, 1895, so little material was avail- 
able that only one form was recognized. Jackson, 1925, lists seven 
forms, but as yet no satisfactory account of distribution has been 
published. 

39 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



reddish orown." (Baird) Total length, 3.25 inches; tail 
vertebras, 1.25 inches; hind foot, .36 inch. Found in vic- 
inity of Burlington, Vermont; also from northern New York. 

Virginia Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi winnemana (Preble) . 
Smaller than typical lioyi. Upperparts (summer) grayish 
brown, slightly tinged with ochraceous about head and face; 
tail bicolor, above like back, below, silvery gray; under- 
parts ashy gray. Total length, 3.12 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1. 12 inches; hind foot, .36 inch. Found in the vicinity of 
the Potomac River, Fairfax County, Virginia. 

Intermediate Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi i?itervectus 
Jackson. 
Resembling typical hoyi but slightly grayer in summer 
pelage. Total length, S-7 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.24 inches; 
hind foot, .40 inch. Found "From Quebec to northern 
Michigan and northern Wisconsin, thence northwest to 
northern Alberta, northwest Territories, and northern 
British Columbia." (Jackson) 

Keewatin Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi alnorum (Preble). 
Larger than typical hoyi. Upperparts sepia brown; under- 
parts ashy, without any suffusion of buffy. Total length, 
3.9 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.4 inches; hind foot, .48 inch. 
Found in vicinity of Robinson Portage, Keewatin, Canada. 

Cook Inlet Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi eximius (Osgood). 
Larger and paler than hoyi. Upperparts uniform grayish 
sepia; underparts pale drab; tail bicolor. Total length, 3.9 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.24 inches; hind foot, .44 inch. 
Found in vicinity of Cook Inlet, Alaska. 

"Washington Pigmy Shrew. — Microsorex hoyi washingtoni 
Jackson. 
"Color more reddish brown (less grayish) than in any other 

• member of the genus." (Jackson) Total_ length, 3.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, i.i inches; hind foot, .36 inch. Found 
in vicinity of Loon Lake, Stevens County, Washington. 



In many respects the Pigmy Shrews resemble the small 
species of Sorex, the common Shrews, except in the matter of 
size. Pigmy Shrews seem to be rare and have never been 
found in even moderate abundance. As an example of the 
difficulty in securing specimens of this genus, it may be pointed 
out that only as recently as 19 10 a new Pigmy Shrew, Micro- 
sorex hoyi winnemana, was described from Virginia. In 
spite of the many years of work and study upon the mammals 
of the Atlantic seaboard, this tiniest of mammals had escaped 
discovery. 

It is to be expected that the life-history of this genus is very 
much the same as for Sorex, although very httle has been 

40 



LITTLE SHREW 



written about its habits. Of recent years enough specimens 
have been secured to indicate that the genus has a much wider 
range than was formerly suspected. 

These Shrews are said to prefer dry clearings and not dark 
woods, nor damp, marshy localities. 

Genus Cryptotis^ 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, J ; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =30. 

Little Shrew. — Cryptotis parva 

and related forms 

Names. — Little Shrew; Little Short-tailed Shrew. 

General Description. — Bearing a close superficial resem- 
blance to the Short-tailed Shrew, but differing in cranial and 
dental characters; smaller in size, smallest of American 
mammals. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, a seasonal variation. 

Upperparts. — Sepia or dark brown, darker in winter than 
summer; tail bicolor, above like back, below like belly. 

Underparts. — Ashy gray. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 3.1 
inches; tail vertebra, .64 inch; hind foot, .42 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern United States. 

Food. — Insects and such animal food as it is able to capture. 

Enemies.' — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, and other small 
carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Cryptotis 

Little Short-tailed Shrew. — Cryptotis parva (Say). 

As described above. Found in "Austral region of the 
eastern United States (including both the Austroriparian 
and Carolinian faunas) from Texas and eastern Nebraska 
eastward to the Atlantic coast from Staten Island south- 
ward." (Miller) 

Florida Short-tailed Shrew. — Cryptotis floridana (Merriam). 
Larger than parva. Upperparts (winter) iron-gray, with 
light-tipped hairs, browner in summer; underparts paler. 
Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrae, .88 inch; hind foot, 
.48 inch. Found in "Peninsular Florida, south of latitude 
29°. Exact limits of range unknown." (Merriam) 

I ^ See Foot-note, p. 25. 

41 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Rio Grande Short-tailed Shrew. — Cryptotis herlandieri^Qaivd). 
Size slightly greater than parva, pelage shorter. Upper- 
parts, in winter, chestnut, in summer, ash-brown; under- 
parts grayish. Total length, 3.3 inches; tail vertebrae, .76 
inch; hind foot, .48 inch. Found in "Lower Rio Grande 
Valley, on both sides of the river, and probably the coast 
region of southern Texas also. Limits of range unknown." 
(Merriam) 



Ths species of the genus Cryptotis are not as abundant north 
of the Rio Grande as they are southward . The group reaches 
its greatest development in Mexico and Central America, 
and a few species have even penetrated into South America. 
The Little Shrew is easily identified by the combination of' 
small size and short tail. In general habits it is much like 
other Shrews, showing a fondness for dark, damp localities 
where there is an abundance of cover and plenty of insect food. 

Genus Blarina' 
Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, J; Premolars, j; Molars, f = 32. 

Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda 

and related forms 

Names. — Short-tailed Shrew; Short-tailed Blarina; JVIole 
Shrew. Plate III. 

General Description. — A short-tailed Shrew with rather 
robust form. External ears very much reduced ; tail less than 
half the length of head and body ; legs short ; pelage soft and 
velvety. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation. 

Upperparts.' — Dark slate-colored in winter, paler in summer, 
glossy in new pelage; tail blackish above, paler below. 

Underparts. — Ashy gray. 

Immature much like adult pelage. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 5 
inches; tail vertebrae, i inch; hind foot, .66 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern half of North America. 

^ For a revision of this genus see Merriam, North American Fauna, 
No. 10, 1895. This monograph is too old to include many of the forms 
known today. 

42 



SHORT-TAILED SHREW 




Fig. 13. Short-tailed Shrew 



Food. — Insects, Mice, and such animal food as it can cap- 
ture; snails. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Skunks, Foxes, 
and other small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Blarina 

Large Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda brevicauda 
(Say) _ 
As described above. Found in Nebraska and Manitoba 
eastward in Upper Austral and Transition Zones. 
Blarina brevicauda talpoides (Gapper) of Ontario, Canada, is 
apparently indistinguishable from typical brevicauda. 

Martha's Vineyard Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda 
aloga Bangs. 
Slightly smaller than typical brevicauda. Upperparts dark 
brownish drab; underparts silvery gray; feet white; tail 
bicolor, dusky above, grayish below. Total length, 4.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, i inch; hind foot, .58 inch. Found 
on Island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. 

Nantucket Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda compacta 
Bangs. 
Resembling aloga but different in color. Upperparts slate- 
gray; underparts very similar to upperparts and no line of 
demarcation; feet grayish; tail unicolor, dusky. Total 
length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebras, .9 inch; hind foot, .58 inch. 
Found on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. 

Carolina Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda carolinensis 
(Bachman). 
Much smaller than typical brevicauda. Upperparts dark 
slaty, in summer tinged with brownish; underparts slightly 
paler. Total length, 4 inches; tail vertebrce, .8 inch; hind 
foot, .5 inch. Found in " Austroriparian fauna from the 
mouth of Chesapeake Bay to Arkansas." (Merriam) 

Everglade Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina brevicauda peninsulce 
(Merriam). 
Resembling carolinensis but hind foot larger and color more 
slaty. Upperparts uniform slate-black, duller below. 

43 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Total length, 3.9 inches; tail vertebras, .8 inch; hind foot, .55 
inch. Found on "Peninsula of Florida, south of latitude 
28°." (Merriam) 

Sylvan Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina hrevicauda hulophaga 
Elliot. 
Resembling carolinensis but lighter colored; tail very short. 
Upperparts uniform silvery gray to light brownish; under- 
parts slightly paler; tail above brown, below brownish white. 
Total length, 3.7 inches; tail vertebrae, .7 inch; hind foot, 
.5 inch. Found in Murray County, Oklahoma. 

Dismal Swamp Short-tailed Shrew. — Blarina telmalestes 
Merriam. 
Resembling typical hrevicauda but hind feet longer and color 
different. Upperparts uniform dark slate-gray, slightly 
darker on nose and rump ; feet and tail blackish ; underparts 
like upperparts. Total length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebrce, i.i 
inches; hind foot, .64 inch. Found in Dismal Swamp, 
Virginia. 



The Short-tailed Shrews, subspecies of Blarina hrevicauda, 
may be told by their robust (for a Shrew) bodies, rather 
large size (comparatively) and short tails. In addition, the 
pelage is very soft and mole-like. 

These Shrews are widely distributed in the eastern states 
and southern Canada, and display that trait which is quite 
characteristic of the family in North America, a preference for 
dark, damp localities. Mossy banks, old logs, leaf-covered 
forest floors all afford shelter and harbor food for these little 
hunters. Although they do not climb above the ground, they 
go everywhere else and scout on the surface and under the 
surface. They follow the runways and use the burrows of 
other mammals and on occasion dig their own subterranean 
paths. They are active throughout the year and although 
seldom seen are about during daylight hours. 

It is a rather peculiar fact that while these Shrews are a 
successful group in eastern North America, they have never 
become established like their relatives, the Long-tailed Shrews 
(Sorex), in western North America. 

The Short-tailed Shrew usually has five young in a litter and 
the nest is in an underground den or under rocks or stumps. 
The female makes a warm nest and lines it with shredded 
material such as grass and leaves. The young may be bom 
from April to fall or even later. 

44 



CRAWFORD SHREW 



Genus Notiosorex 
Dentition: Incisors, | ; Canines, J ; Premolars, {; Molars, | =28 

Crawford Shrew. — Notiosorex crawfordi crawfordi 

Names. — Crawford Shrew; Gray Shrew. 

General Description. — A small Shrew with conspicuous ex- 
ternal ear, relatively short tail, and slender body. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts. — Olive-gray; tail above like back, below like 
underparts. 

Underparts. — Whitish . 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 3.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.24 inches; hind foot, .44 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — "Parts of Lower Sonoran 
Zone from eastern Texas to southern California, and thence 
southward to the cape region of the peninsula of Lower 
California." (Merriam) 

Food. — Same as that of Sorex. 

Enemies. — As for Sorex. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Notiosorex 

Only the one form is known from the United States. Notio- 
sorex crawfordi crawfordi (Coues). 

The Gray Shrew is the rarest of the North American 
Shrews. Unlike the other members of the family, it lives in 
dry regions and not only does it appear to be rather local 
in its distribution, but also exceedingly scarce in the regions 
where it is known to occur. The capture of one of these 
mammals is a noteworthy achievement, and any collector who 
secures data on the life-history of this little-known creature 
should earn a niche in the mammal Hall of Fame. 




45 



Order CHIROPTERA.^ BATS 

Suborder MICROCHIROPTERA (Bats exclusive 
of the Old World Fruit-eating Bats, the 
Megachiroptera) 

Mammals with highly specialized structures for true flight, 
which include modified forelimbs; greatly elongated fingers 
which are joined together and to the sides of body and legs 
by a continuous membrane; shoulder girdle more specialized 
than pelvis, the sternum generally with a keel; knee directed 
backward to allow for rotation of leg. Tragus (a specialized 




Fig. 14. Big Brown Bat 

membranous process within the ear-conch) present in all 
American forms; dentition normally of insectivorous type; 
molar teeth of upper jaw quite different from those of lower. 

^ For a very full and exhaustive treatment of all the known families 
and genera of Bats see G. S. Miller, Jr., The Families and Genera of Bats, 
Bull. 57, U. S. Nat. Mus., 1907. 

46 



BATS 



This is a very large suborder containing a great many forms 
which in their ranges cover most of the Eastern and Western 
Hemispheres. Practically all of the forms are crepuscular or 
nocturnal in habit. While the greater number of Bats in this 
suborder are strictly insectivorous, there are some which are 
frugivorous, and a very small family the members of which 
are sanguivorous and highly specialized for a blood diet. 
Only the insectivorous forms range as far north as the United 
States. 

From many observations, it would appear that all of our 
Bats which have a summer range in a region of cold winters 
either hibernate or migrate to a warmer region during the 
period when insect life is scarce. The fact that these Bats 
take on a layer of fat at the close of summer also points to an 
approaching drain upon the constitution, such as a dormant 
season or an extended flight. 

Under the heading of enemies of Bats, the Owl is listed for 
each species. For only a few of the species are there definite, 
authentic records of Bat skulls taken from Owl pellets, notably 
Eptesicus and Lasionycteris, but after a rather extensive 
examination of Owl pellets collected in tropical America, in 
which I have found the remains of many Bats, covering the 
range from fruit-eating species to the most active insectivorous 
forms, I have reached the conclusion that Owls are quite capa- 
ble of preying on Bats and are real, potential enemies. 

Family Phyllostomidae. American 
Leaf-nosed Bats 

"Tragus present, variously thickened and notched; a simple 
nose-leaf generally present, though occasionally rudimentary 
or absent, 

"The members of the family Phyllostomidas are recogniz- 
able by the presence of three completely bony phalanges in the 
third finger, the entire premaxillary, the slender, incomplete 
fibula, and the well-developed molar teeth. Though some of 
the genera lack cutaneous nasal outgrowths, those which have 
nose-leaves are the only American leaf-nosed bats, and these 
structures are never as highly developed as in some of the 
Old World families." (Miller) 

47 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Subfamily Phyllostominae 
Genus Macrotus 

Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, J-; Premolars, f; Molars, f =34. 

California Leaf-nosed Bat. — Macrotus californicus 
Baird 

General Description. — A medium-sized Bat with tall, 
upright leaf on nose; very large, papery ears which are con- 
nected at their bases by a band which crosses the forehead; 
tragus long, slender, pointed; interfemoral membrane not 
very extensive. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal vari- 
ation. 

Upperparts. — Pelage light-colored, almost white, at base; 
hairs tipped with brown; membranes brownish. 

Underparts. — Like upperparts but slightly paler. 

Measurements. — Total length, 3.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .45 inch; ear from crown, i.i inches; 
wing expanse, 13 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arid sections of the south- 
western United States south into Lower California and Mexico. 

Food. — Insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 



Only one species of the genus Macrotus reaches the United 
States, although other species have a wide distribution in 
tropical America. Writing of the California Leaf-nosed Bat, 
Stephens {California Mammals, p. 276) says: "In California 
they frequent valleys and foothills. They are probably 
migratory. I know of no instance of their occurrence in 
California in winter, and I have failed to find them at all in 
January in a place where I can nearly always find them in 
spring and summer. They probably spend the day in caves, 
crevices in rocks and similar dark places. I have not seen 
them on the wing until all the twilight has faded away. The 
young are bom in June. More than half of the females bear 
two young, the remainder but one." 

48 



BATS 



Family Vespertilionidae ^ 

This family includes most of the species of Bats found in 
North America, north of the Rio Grande. The members of 
the Vespertilionidse are among the most highly specialized of 
the entire order and have progressed farther from terrestrial 
mammals than most of the other families of Bats, with respect 
to the greatly developed flight mechanism. Only two other 
families, the Molossidae and the Mystacopid^e, display an equal 
degree of flight perfection, and even these two families lack the 
extreme subordination of the ulna seen in the Vespertilionidce. 

Species of the Vespertilionidae are characterized by absence 
of leaf -like outgrowths on muzzle and lips; separate ears (in 
most genera), with well-developed tragi which are straight or 
slightly curved; only two bony phalanges in third finger; 
absence of sucking disks on sole and thumb ; wide interf emoral 
membrane; long tail which reaches to edge of interf emoral 
membrane but never extends much beyond it or becomes free. 

The most diagnostic internal characters are a highly de- 
veloped double articulation between scapula and humerus; 
greatly reduced ulna ; shoulder girdle and pelvis unmodified in 
fundamental details ; teeth normal (insectivorous) ; a con- 
spicuous emargination at the anterior end of the bony palate. 

The vespertilionids are mainly small to medium-sized Bats 
and none of them (in North America) attain the size of some 
of the Phyllostomidas of tropical America. The Vespertilio- 
nidae are very widely distributed geographically, cosmopolitan 
in fact, and are found in greatest number of species in the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

While some of the North American species of the Vesperti- 
lionidae are social in habit and may be found associated in 
good-sized colonies, many of the species are found only in small 
numbers, and in temperate regions the Bat population seldom 
appears to be very large. Some of the forms are definitely 
known to be migratory, others are suspected to be so, while 
still others are found hibernating where winters are severe. 

All of the North American members of the Vespertilionids 
are strictly insectivorous in diet. 

^ See G. S. Miller, Jr., North American Fauna, No. 13, 1897, for a 
revision of the Vespertilionidae of North America. Many species have 
been described, however, since this paper was published. 

49 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Subfamily Vespertilioninae 
Genus Myotis 

Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, } ; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =38. 

Little Brown Bat. — Myotis lucifugus 

and related forms 

General Description. — ^A small, delicately- built Bat with 
hairy face, narrow ear, slender tragus, rather ample mem- 
branes, and long tail; pelage fairly long and soft; upper side of 
interfemoral membrane sparsely haired on basal fourth. 

Color.— Adults colored alike; no very noticeable seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts dull brown, the fur slate-colored at base; mem- 
branes brownish. 

Underparts a little paler and more yellowish than upper- 
part .1. 

Measurements. — Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .35 inch; length of forearm, 1.5 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Myotis 

This is a difficult group and a brief written synopsis can not 
take the layman far. Details of the skull, of the ear structure, 
and the finer shades of color distinction can best be shown 
by the actual comparison of specimens, and there is not space 
in this field book to set these differences forth at length. The 
genus has been revised b}^ G. S. Miller, Jr., and G. M. Allen, 
and the forthcoming publication of their studies will supply 
a needed guide to the student. 

Little Brown Bat. — Myotis lucifugus lucifugus (Le Conte). 
As described above; ear about reaching nostril when laid 
forward. Found in "The whole of North America north of 
the southern boundary of the United States, except in the 
Rocky Mountains and on the Pacific coast of California, 
Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and southern 
Alaska." (Miller) Plate III. 

50 



LITTLE BROWN BAT 



Alaskan Little Brown Bat. — Myotis lucijngiis alascensis 
Miller. 
Like typical Incifugus but darker and with longer ears. 
Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, 
.6 inch. Found in "Humid coast district of southern Alaska 
and northern British Columbia," (Miller) 

High Sierra Bat. — Myotis Incifugus altipetens (H. W. Grinnell). 
Somewhat similar to alascensis but yellower, upperparts 
yellowish gray. Total length, 3.4 inches; tail vertebra, 
1.4 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; forearm, 1.4 inches. Found 
in " the central Sierra Nevada, the vicinity of Mount Shasta, 
and the Warner Mountains." (Grinnell). 

White-edged Bat. — Myotis alhicinctus G. M. Allen. 

"A bat of the size and proportions of M. lucifugus but very 
pallid, with conspicuous white border to the wing mem- 
branes, broadest between the fifth finger and tarsus." 
(Allen) Upperparts pale buff; underparts clear white; 
membranes blackish, except for white edging on wings and 
on interfemoral membrane. Total length, 3.5 inches; tail 
vertebras, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .36 inch; forearm, 1,5 
inches. Has been taken on Mt. Whitney, California 
(11,000 feet) and at Mammoth, Mono County, California. 

Alberta Little Brown Bat. — Myotis pernox Hollister. 

Closely resembling typical lucifugus externally, but foot 
larger and membranes blacker. Upperparts uniform 
glossy brown; underparts deep yellowish gray. Total 
length, 2>-7 inches; tail vertebrce, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .46 
inch; forearm, 1.55 inches. Taken at Henry House, 
Alberta. 

Northern Little Brown Bat. — Myotis altifrons Hollister. 

Size of typical lucifugus but differing in color. Wing 
attachment to hind feet at base of toes; tragus long and 
narrow. Upperparts very dark brown; underparts dark 
drab brown; membranes blackish. Total length, 3.6 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .36 inch; forearm, 1.46 
inches. Taken at Henry House, Alberta. 

Least Brown Bat. — Myotis winnemana Nelson. 

Resembling typical lucifugus but differing in shorter fore- 
arm and ear and blackish muzzle. Upperparts dark rufous 
chestnut-brown tinged with golden; blackish on muzzle 
and sides of head; underparts dull grayish brown. Total 
length, 3.3 inches; tail vertebra, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .32 
inch; forearm, 1.22 inches; wing expanse, 11 inches. Taken 
at Plummer Island, Maryland and at Brandon, Vermont. 

Yellowstone Bat. — Myotis carissima Thomas. 

Resembling typical lucifugus (regarded as a subspecies of 
lucifugus by Bailey). "Ears, small and pointed; fur, 
glossy; colors, light hazel-brown above, buffy below; ears 
and membranes, dark brown or blackish; tail membranes, 
edged with gray." (Bailey, N. A. Fauna, No. 49, p. 215). 
Total length, 3.8 inches; tail vertebra, 1.6 inches; hind foot, 

51 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



.4 inch; forearm, 1.5 inches; wing expanse, 10.4 inches. 
Found from "western Montana to the Black Hills and over 
western North Dakota." (Bailey) 

Northwestern Long-legged Bat. — Myotis longicrus longicrus 
(True). 
Resembling typical lucifugus but a trifle larger and with 
proportionally shorter ear and forearm. Upperparts bister 
sprinkled with lighter tipped hairs; underparts washed with 
vinaceous buff. Total length, 4 inches; tail vertebrse, 1,8 
inches; hind foot, .32 inch; length of forearm, 1.5 inches. 
Found in ' ' Boreal and Transition Zones from Puget Sound 
east to Wyoming; south at least to Arizona and southern 
California, and probably much farther. [The range as here 
given is that of the entire species.] " (Miller) 

Interior Long-legged Bat. — Myotis longicrus interior Miller. 
Differing from typical longicrus in being tawny olive instead 
of bister. Has been taken in Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, 
Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

Little California Bat. — Myotis californicus californicus (Audu- 
bon and Bachman). 
Smallest of the Myotis found in the United States and 
characterized by "slender form, delicate membranes, long 
tail and legs, small feet, and pale yellowish color." (Miller) 
Ears reaching just beyond tip of nose when laid forward, 
tragus slender, more or less straight, pointed. Upperparts 
light yellowish gray ; underparts paler ; membranes blackish. 
Total length, 3.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.5 inches; hind foot, 
.25 inch; forearm, 1.25 inches. Found in "Austral Zones 
and lower part of Transition Zone throughout the western 
United vStates and Lower California; east to Wyoming and 
Texas." (Miller) 

Little Pallid Bat. — Myotis californicus pallidus Stephens. 
Resembling typical californicus but slightly _ smaller and 
paler. Upperparts light buff, pelage blackish at base; 
underparts pale buff; membranes light brown. Total 
length, 3.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .3 
inch; forearm, 1.2 inches. Found in California in "Lower 
Sonoran Zone on the Colorado and Mohave deserts, and 
north in Owens Valley at least to Lone Pine." (Grinnell) 

Oak Foliage Bat. — Myotis californicus quercinus H. W. 
Grinnell. 
Intermediate in color between typical californicus and 
pallidus. Upperparts cinnamon; underparts light buff. 
Total length, 3.2 inches; tail vertebra, 1.45 inches; hind 
foot, .24 inch; forearm, 1.3 inches. Found in Southern 
California and the Santa Barbara Islands in Upper Sonoran 
and low Transition Zones. 

Northwestern Little Brown Bat. — Myotis californicus caurinus 
Miller. 
Very much darker than typical californicus. Upperparts 
very dark, "almost blackish sepia throughout, slightly 

52 



LITTLE BROWN BAT 



yellowish on belly, the fur everywhere blackish plumbeous 
at base." (Miller) Total length, 3 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.2 inches; hind foot, .28 inch; forearm, 1.3 inches. Found 
in "The humid coast district of British Columbia, Washing- 
ton, and Oregon, and possibly of northern California also." 
(Miller) 

Prairie Little Brown Bat. — Myotis caUfornicus ciliolahrum 
(Merriam). 
Paler than typical caUfornicus and with slightly larger 
ears ; interf emoral membrane thinly haired on upper surface 
for about half its extent from body, about one-fifth its 
extent on under surface. Upperparts pale yellowish white 
in marked contrast to dark brown of ears, muzzle, and chin. 
Total length, 3.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.4 inches; hind foot, 
.28 inch; forearm, 1.3 inches. Found in Kansas and South 
Dakota; limits of range unknown. 

La GruUa Brown Bat. — Myotis orinomus Elliot. 

Like typical caUfornicus externally but larger and with 
longer thumb ; tragus tall, slender, tapering and rounded at 
tip; pelage soft and silky. Upperparts tawny olive; under- 
parts pale buffy; membranes dark brown. Total length, 

3.4 inches; tail vertebree, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .28 inch; 
forearm, 1.3 inches. Found in southern California in the 
high Upper Sonoran Zone. 

Yuma Bat. — MyoUs yumanensis yumanensis (H. Allen). 

Size small; ear reaching just beyond tip of nose when laid 
forward; tip of ear narrow and abruptly rounded; tragus 
slender, sharply pointed; hind foot proportionally large; 
calcar long. Upperparts pale wood-brown or buff; under- 
parts whitish; membranes light brown and rather thick for 
such a small Bat. Total length, 3.4 inches; tail vertebras, 

1.5 inches; hind foot, .68 inch; forearm, 1.4 inches. Found 
in "Austral Zones and lower edge of Transition Zone from 
the southwestern United States to San Luis Potosi and 
Michoacan, Mexico." (Miller) 

Tejon Bat. — MyoUs yumanensis sociabiUs H. W. Grinnell. 
Intermediate between typical yumanensis and saturatus. 
Upperparts wood-brown; underparts light buff; pelage 
everywhere clove-brown at base. Total length, 3.3 inches; 
tail vertebrce, 1.35 inches; hind foot, .33 inch; forearm, 1.4 
inches. Found in "the semi-arid Transition and Sonoran 
Zones in California west and north of the southeastern 
deserts." (Grinnell); taken also on Mt. Whitney, 11,000 
feet. 

Miller Bat. — MyoUs yumanensis sahiratus Miller. 

Resembling typical yumanensis but with longer fur and 
darker color; smaller than typical lucifugus which it re- 
sembles in color. Upperparts dark glossy yellowish brown ; 
underparts old gold; sides, chin, and throat darker than 
underparts; membranes blackish; pelage everywhere slaty 
black at base. Total length, 3.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.4 

53 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



inches; hind foot, .34 inch; forearm, 1.4 inches. Found in 
"Transition Zone in Oregon, Washington, and British 
Columbia." (Miller) 

Cave Bat. — My oils velifer (Allen). 

The largest species of the genus found in the United States; 
ears short and pointed. Upperparts uniform dull sepia; 
underparts somewhat paler; pelage everywhere slate- 
colored at base. Total length, 4 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; forearm, 1.6 inches. Found 
along the southern border of the United States. 

Bailey Little Brown Bat. — Myotis haileyi HolHster. 

Most like velifer but smaller, forearm shorter; tragus broad 
at base and sharply pointed; larger than occultus, ears. 
larger. Sepia above, smoke-gray below; membranes black. 
Forearm, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Has been taken 
only at Ruidoso and Luna, New Mexico. 

Little Gray Bat. — -Myotis grisescens Howell. 

Most nearly related to velifer but darker in color and wings 
attached to feet at ankle joint instead of at base of toes. 
Upperparts dark mouse-gray, the hairs one color from tips 
to roots; underparts pale smoke-gray, the hairs darker 
basally; membranes black. Total length, 3.7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .42 inch; forearm, 1.65 
inches. Found in Tennessee, Missouri, and Indiana. 

San Antonio Little Brown Bat. — Myotis incautus (Allen). 
A large species about the size of velifer. Upperparts dull 
light brown with a tinge of olive ; underparts grayish washed 
with buffy; membranes blackish brown. Total length 3.75 
inches; tail vertebrse, 1.75 inches; forearm, 1.7 inches; 
expanse, 1 1 . i inches. Known from various localities in 
New Mexico and Texas, from Carlsbad, New Mexico to 
Bexar County, Texas. 

Say Bat. — Myotis suhulatus suhulatus (Say). 

Not unlike typical lucifiigus externally but with longer ears 
which reach well beyond tip of nose when laid forward. 
Darker than evotis and ears narrower; pelage soft and lax. 
Upperparts yellowish brown; underparts slightly paler; 
membranes dark brown. Total length, 3.8 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .36 inch; forearm, 1.5 
inches; wing expanse, 10 inches. Found irregularly dis- 
tributed in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Keen Bat. — Myotis suhulatus keenii (Merriam). 

Darker than typical suhulatus and with longer tail and ears. 
Total length, 3.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, 
.33 inch; forearm, 1.4 inches. Found on Queen Charlotte 
Islands, British Columbia, and probably on adjacent 
mainland. 

Little Long-eared Bat. — Myotis evotis (H. Allen). 

Size medium; ears very large, naked and black; fur glossy, 
soft and lax. Upperparts buffy yellowish; paler, almost 
whitish, on underparts; membranes blackish. Total 

54 



LITTLE BROWN BAT 



length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.7 inches; hind foot, 
.36 inch; forearm, 1.6 inches; ear from notch, .8 inch. 
Found in "Austral and Transition Zones from the Pacific 
coast to the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains; south 
to Vera Cruz, Mexico." (Miller) 

Hollister Bat. — Myotis occuUus Hollister. 

Differs from other North American species of Myotis in low, 
flat braincase and wide, flat rostrum. Upperparts rich 
glossy brown with cinnamon tint; underparts paler, tinged 
with buffy. Total length, 3.6 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found along the west side of 
the Colorado River from Needles, California to Yuma; 
limits of range unknown. 

Fringed Bat. — Myotis thysanodes Miller. 

A large species with moderately long ears (which reach 
about a quarter of an inch beyond tip of nose when laid 
forward), wing attached to hind foot at a point between 
ankle and base of toes, free border of interfemoral membrane 
thickened and densely haired. Upperparts dull yellowish 
brown; underparts paler; membranes dark. Total length, 
3.5 inches; tail vertebras, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .32 inch; 
forearm, 1.65 inches. Found in "Lower Sonoran Zone from 
near the southern border of the United States to San Luis 
Potosi and Michoacan, Mexico." (Miller) 

****** * 

Some species of this genus is usually the commonest small 
Bat of any given region. The genus is almost cosmopolitan 
in distribution, being found over a large part of both the 
Eastern and Western Hemispheres, and some one of the many 
American forms is generally to be seen at dusk anywhere 
in North America where Bats can find flying insects. Myotis 
can generally be told by its small size, the only other North 
American Bat as small being Pipistrellus. These two genera, 
however, can probably not be distinguished on the wing by 
the layman. 

The flight of Myotis is fairly rapid, but because of the ample 
membranes is more a series of full-winged flutterings than the 
rapid beats of some of the more narrow-winged Bats such as 
Tadarida. The flight is quite erratic and as a rule the Bat 
flies at no great height above the ground. It is difficult to 
observe when the light becomes dim because it seldom comes 
against the sky-line unless directly overhead. 

The voice of this Bat is a very fine, wiry squeak, and 
attention is often directed to the presence of Myotis by this 
note which, however, is pitched so high as to be inaudible 
to some individuals. 

55 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Myotis spends the day in caves and, when these are not 
available, in hollow trees or under the eaves and in the roofs 
of buildings where they are not disturbed. 

Myotis may be seen flying iii a great many environments, 
but is observed to best advantage at the edge of a forest 
clearing, over the surface of a lake or a slow-flowing stream, 
or at the opening of any natural tunnel such as a foliage- 
enclosed corridor under the trees, under bridges, or near an 
open shed or bam. This Bat often flies into houses if the 
doors or windows are open, 

I believe that the Bats of this genus generally have but one 
young at a birth. 

Genus Lasionycteris 

Dentition.— Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, f ; Molars, f =36. 

Silver-haired Bat. — Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le 
Conte) 

Names. — Silver-haired Bat; Silvery-haired Bat; Black Bat. 

General Description. — A medium-sized Bat of dark appear- 
ance, the hairs tipped with silvery white. Ear of medium 
size, broad, rounded at tip; tragus short, straight and broad; 
interfemoral membrane well furred on basal half of upper 
surface. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal vari- 
ation. 

Upperparts dark chocolate-brown tipped with silvery white; 
pelage long and lax; membranes dark brown; underparts very- 
much like upperparts but with less light-tipping. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .32 inch; ear from crown, .6 inch; fore- 
arm, 1.6 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — "North America north of 
Mexico, from the Atlantic to the Pacific; probably not breed- 
ing south of the Transition Zone." (Miller) 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

The genus Lasionycteris is peculiar to North America and 
only the one species is known. Although this Bat ranges 
over most of North America its distribution is somewhat 

56 



PIPISTRELLE 



irregular, and over large areas it is absent or very rare. It 
seems to prefer the banks of forested streams or mountain 
meadows where it appears when twilight has set in. 

This Bat migrates southward from the colder parts of its 
range upon the approach of autumn and during this time may- 
be seen occasionally flying during the day. This species 
spends the day in hollow trees, in dense masses of foliage, or 
in caves. 

The young may be one or two in a litter. 

Genus Pipistrellus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 34. 

Pipistrelle. — Pipistrellus subflavus 

and related forms 

Names. — Pipistrelle; various names for the different species, 
such as Western Bat for P. hesperus. 

General Description. — Among the smallest of the North 
American Bats; ear of medium size, broad, rounded at tip; 
tragus straight or slightly curved forward, tip bluntly rounded; 
interfemoral membrane sparingly sprinkled with hair on basal 
third of upper surface; membranes blackish. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal vari- 
ation. 

Upperparts light yellowish brown, underparts very much 
like upper or slightly paler; pelage everywhere slaty black at 
base. 

Measurements. — Total length, 3.4 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .32 inch; forearm, 1.3 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern United »States. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Pipistrellus 

Georgian Bat. — Pipistrellus suhflavus subflavus (F. Cuvier). 
As described above; ear reaching slightly beyond nostril 
when laid forward. Found in the eastern United States 
from Atlantic coast to Iowa and eastern and southern 
Texas, in Austral and occasional parts of Transition Zone. 

New York Pipistrelle. — Pipistrellus subflavus obscurus Miller. 
Duller and less yellow than typical subflavtis and with more 

57 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



dark- tipped hairs on back. Upperparts pale wood-brown; 
underparts pale yellowish gray. Total length, 3.4 inches; 
tail vertebras, 1.55 inches; hind foot, .32 inch; forearm, 1.4 
inches. Found "Along border of Transition Zone and 
Upper Austral Zone in central and eastern New York." 
(Miller) 

Western Bat; Canyon Bat. — Pipistrellus hesperus hesperus 
(H. Allen). 
Smallest of North American Bats ; ear short (barely reaching 
to nostril when laid forward), bluntly rounded; tragus blunt 
and inclined forward at tip. Above and below light yellow- 
ish gray or whitish gray; pelage slate-colored at base. 
Total length, 2.9 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.2 inches; hind foot, 
.22 inch; forearm, 1.2 inches. Found in "Lower Austral 
Zone in the western United States from southern and 
western Texas to the Pacific coast. Limits of range im- 
perfectly known." (Miller) 

Merriam Bat. — Pipistrellus hesperus merriami (Dobson). 
Resembling typical hesperus but darker in color and slightly 
larger. Color above and below warm buff. Total length, 
3 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.2 inches; hind foot, .22 inch; fore- 
arm, 1. 1 5 inches. Found in the Upper Sonoran and 
Transition Zones from the Mexican line northwest through 
California, east of the humid coast belt and west of the 
Sierra Nevada to Butte and Tehama counties. 



The species of Pipistrellus are very small, erratic flyers and 
are often found in large numbers in favored localities. These 
Bats seem to be commonest over the southern part of their 
range and show a preference for cliffs and rocky hillsides. 
They are variously recorded as appearing on the wing soon 
after sunset, at late dusk, and even at 9 a.m. 

The number of young is one or two, more often the latter. 

The North American forms of Pipistrellus live in caves or 
crevices in the rocks. 

Genus Eptesicus 

Dentition: Incisors, f; Canines, \; Premolars, I; Molars, § = 32. 

Brown Bat. — Eptesicus fuscus 

and related forms 

Names. — Brown Bat; Big Brown Bat; House Bat. 

General Description. — A large Bat, brown in color and 
without any peculiar development of nose, ear, or wing 
structure. Ear of medium size, narrowly rounded at tip, ear 

58 



BROWN BAT 



membranes rather tough and leathery; tragus of medium 
height, straight and moderately rounded at tip; pelage soft 
and loose; flight membranes naked; interfemoral membrane 
ample. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation. 

Upperparts uniform brown, varying slightly with in- 
dividuals from sepia almost to cinnamon-brown; pelage 




Fig. 15. Head of Brown Bat 

blackish at base; membranes blackish; face and ears blackish; 
underparts somewhat lighter than upperparts, a paler shade 
of brown with buffy tinge. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; forearm, 1.8 inches; wing ex- 
panse, 12 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Eptesicus 

Common Brown Bat; Big Brown Bat. — Eptesicus fuscus 

fuscus (Beauvois), Plate III. 
As described above. Found in "Austral, Transition, and 
lower edge of Boreal Zones throughout the greater part of 
the United States and adjoining British Provinces." 
(Miller) 

Eptesicus fuscus melanopterus Rehn 

Eptesicus fuscus hernardinus Rhoads 

These two races are listed in Miller's North American 

Recent Mammals, but are probably not to be distinguished 

from typical fuscus. 

59 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Florida Big Brown Bat. — Eptesicus fuscus osceola Rhoads. 

Resembling typical fuscus but darker in color. Upperparts 

cinnamon-brown. Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebras, 

1.8 inches; hind foot, .4 inch. Found in peninsular Florida. 
Colorado Brown Bat; Pale Brown Bat. — Eptesicus fuscus 
pallidus (Young). 

Paler and larger than typical fuscus but otherwise very much 

like it. Upperparts brownish ashy ; underparts silvery gray. 

Total length, 5 inches; tail vertebrse, 2 inches^; hind foot, 

.48 inch. Taken at Boulder, Colorado. 

******* 

Eptesicus is the commonest of the larger Bats found in the 
United States. Its size and fairly steady flight are good 
distinguishing characters. Although its flight traces abrupt 
changes of direction, it is one of the least erratic fliers among 
the North American Bats. It is not infrequently heard to 
utter its high-pitched, squeaky call, and is often seen about 
street lights in large cities where it finds congenial abodes in 
dark nooks in the roofs or inaccessible crannies in the buildings. 

Several observers have stated that in the eastern states 
the Big Brown Bat does not appear until rather late, but in 
the West I have noted them as quite early, very shortly after 
sundown, in fact. This Bat flies fairly high and shows a 
preference for meadows, clearings in the forest, and over 
water-courses. It may enter houses through open doors or 
windows. 

The number of young at a birth is one or two. The Big 
Brown Bat either hibernates or migrates from the regions of 
cold autumns and winters. In New York City it is not an 
uncommon thing to come across the Big Brown Bat hiber- 
nating in some building. 

Genus Nycteris 

Dentition: Incisors, \\ Canines, \; Premolars, |; Molars, f =32. 

Red Bat. — Nycteris borealis 

and its subspecies 

General Description. — A medium-sized Bat of conspicuous 
reddish coloration. Ears low, broad, rounded; tragus broad 
at base, tapering at point; pelage long and lax; interfemoral 
membrane densely furred on upper surface, sparingly furred 

60 



RED BAT 



for about one- third, on under surface; fur on wing membranes 
in region of elbow and wrist above and more extensively along 
arm from body to wrist below. Plate III. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike ; no noticeable seasonal variation. 

Upperparts bright rufous red, the pelage blackish at base, 
sprinkled with minute, whitish tips to give appearance of 
delicate frosting; color varies somewhat and specimens may 
be yellowish gray above, generally with a faint tinge of 
salmon; a yellowish white shoulder patch present; underparts 
paler and less reddish than upperparts. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4.2 inches; tail vertebra, 
2 inches; hind foot, .3 inch; forearm, 1,6 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — North America from Canada 
south. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Nycteris. 

Northern Red Bat. — Nycteris horealis horealis (Miiller). 

As described above. Found in "Boreal, Transition, and 
Austral Zones in eastern North America from Canada to 
Florida and Texas; west at least to Indian Territory and 
Colorado." (Miller) 

Seminole Red Bat. — Nycteris horealis seminola (Rhoads). 
Size of typical horealis but differing in color. Upperparts 
rich mahogany-brown slightly frosted with grayish white; 
whitish areas on throat and chest; whitish shoulder patches. 
Found in "Lower Austral and Tropical Zones from South 
Carolina to southern Texas." (Miller) 

Western Red Bat. — Nycteris horealis teliotis (H. Allen). 

Smaller than typical horealis, with shorter ear and brighter 
color. Upperparts cinnamon reddish to ochraceous buff. 
Total length, 4.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, 
.32 inch; forearm, 1.6 inches. Found "From the head of 
Sacramento Valley, California, south to Comondu, Lower 
California." (Miller) 

Hoary Bat. — Nycteris cinerea (Beauvois) 

Names. — Hoary Bat; Great Northern Bat. 

Similar in general structure to its congener, the Red Bat, 
in the following characters: broad, low ear which is furred 
almost to the tip, rimmed with black; tragus broad basally; 
pelage long and lax; interfemoral membrane heavily furred 

61 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



above; wings furred along forearm as far as wrist on under- 
side. Larger than the Red Bat and gray instead of reddish 
in color. 

Upperparts grayish white, with darker basal color of pelage 
showing through ; hairs brownish black at base, then pale yel- 
lowish brown, followed by a narrow band of chocolate-brown 
and finally tipped with whitish. Underparts yellower and 
without so much of the white tipping except on throat where 
long hairs form a sort of ruff colored like back. Membranes 
brownish black except for a narrow yellowish brown strip 
along forearm and half way down fingers on upperside. 

Total length, 5.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, 
.2 inch; forearm, 2 inches; wing expanse, 16 inches. 

Found in "Boreal North America from Atlantic to Pacific, 
breeding within the Boreal Zone, but in autumn and winter 
migrating at least to southern border of United States." 
(Miller) 

******* 

The Red Bat is more of a tree Bat than the other North 
American Bats and is consequently never found away from the 
forests, except possibly during migration. It spends the day- 
time hanging amongst the leaves and it rather closely re- 
sembles a dead and brown leaf. It is said to be solitary in 
habit and only one or two are found together. 

This Bat appears in the air rather early in the evening and is 
not infrequently seen abroad in the daytime. It enters 
houses in pursuit of insects just as does Eptesicus and Myotis 
and can be readily identified by its very distinctive reddish 
color. 

The Red Bat is a very rapid flyer and follows an erratic 
course fairly well up above the ground. The rapidity of 
flight, large size, and long narrow wings are the best field 
characters. 

Bats of this genus have four mammae and the number of 
young at a birth varies from one to four. If the mother has 
four young the combined weights of her offspring may exceed 
her own weight; and, since she carries them with her until 
they are able to fly for themselves, it indicates very marked 
powers of flight. 

The Hoary Bat is like the Red Bat in its preference for 
forests, its long pointed wing, swift, erratic flight, and the 

62 



YELLOW BAT 



number ot young, (often four), but differs in its greater size, 
gray instead of reddish color, later appearance in the evening, 
and generally higher course of flight. This Bat is not common 
anywhere and does not take to the air until the twilight is 
nearly past. It is one of the least known of our widely rang- 
ing Bats. A specimen in the hand can not be mistaken for 
any other species and it is easily the most handsome North 
American Bat. 

There are many observations on record to show that the 
species of Nycteris migrate with the coming of the autumn 
frosts. 

Genus Dasypterus 

Dentition: Incisors, \\ Canines, \ ; Premolars, |; Molars, f = 30. 

Yellow Bat. — Dasypterus intermedius 

and related species 

General Description. — Very much like Nycteris in general 
characters. Ear of medium height, rather broad and rounded, 
only sparsely sprinkled with hairs on inner surface, furred 
about half way on outer surface; tragus broad basally, taper- 
ing at tip ; interf emoral membrane well haired above for about 
basal third, naked below; a sprinkling of fur on underside of 
volar membranes along forearm to wrist ; pelage long and silky. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, no noticeable seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts pale yellowish brown more or less mottled by 
dusky- tipped hairs; pelage blackish at base; membranes 
brownish to blackish; underparts warmer in tone than up- 
perparts and washed with rusty brown on lower abdomen. 

Measurements. — Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebras, 
2.6 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; forearm, 2.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southern states from Texas 
east. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species of the Genus Dasypterus 

Only two species reach the United States, the genus having 
a wider distribution south of the United States. 

63 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Texan Yellow Bat. — Dasypterus intermedins (H, Allen). 

As described above. Found in "Mexico from Chiapas 
north to extreme southern Texas." (Miller) 

Florida Yellow Bat. — Dasypterus fioridanus Miller. 

Smaller than intermedins but colored the same. Total 
length, 5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .36 
inch; forearm, 1.9 inches. Found in "Florida and Gulf 
coast west to Louisiana." (Miller) 

Very little has been written about this Bat which apparently 
is not very common anywhere. This genus is southern in its 
distribution and ranges down into South America. The 
different species apparently prefer dry, hot country. The 
number of young is two at a birth and they are bom in late 
May (Texas). 

Genus Nycticeius 

Dentition: Incisors, \, Canines, t; Premolars, \', Molars, f= 30. 

Rafinesque Bat. — Nycticeius humeralis 
(Rafinesque) 

Names. — Rafinesque Bat; Evening Bat. 

General Description. — A small to medium-sized Bat with 
very much the external appearance of a large Myotis or a 
small Eptesicus. Ear small, thick and leathery, naked, 
rounded in anterior profile, tip moderately narrow and 
rounded ; tragus short and blunt ; pelage not extending onto 
membranes, rather short. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal variation. 

Upperparts dull brown, the pelage brownish black at base; 
membranes blackish; underparts lighter and more buffy than 
upperparts. 

Measurements. — Total length, 3.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.5 inches; hind foot, .28 inch; forearm, 1.4 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found in "Austral Zones in 
the eastern United States, west to Arkansas and southern 
Texas." (Miller) 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

******* 

64 



SPOTTED BAT 

This Bat is a member of a small genus peculiar in many 
characters which set it off from other North American Bats. 
Not very much has been recorded on the habits of Nycticeius 
and it is apparently not very common over parts of its range, 
although elsewhere it may be fairly abundant, as in eastern 
and southern Texas, 

Harper {Mammals of Okefi^iokee Swamp) writes of this Bat 
in Georgia: 

"These bats have also been found roosting in a hollow tree 
in a cypress bay, as mentioned below. They are observed 
for the most part during the last half hour of daylight, gen- 
erally at a height of perhaps 40 to 75 feet. As darkness falls, 
however, they come much closer to the ground, so that 
occasionally specimens may be knocked down with a reed 
fishing-pole." 

Genus Euderma 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars f; Molars, f = 34. 

Spotted Bat. — Euderma maculata (Allen) 

Names. — Spotted Bat; Jackass Bat. 

General Distribution. — A good-sized Bat with very large 
ears and peculiar spotted coloration. Ears enormous, joined 
across forehead by a low band, marked by transverse ridges, 
about fifteen in number; tragus tall, broad, and bluntly 
rounded at tip; pelage long and soft; membranes thin and 
papery; face without any glandular swellings. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts dark chocolate-brown, almost black, with a 
large, irregular white spot on each shoulder and on rump; 
underparts washed with white over chocolate-brown basal 
pelage; membranes light yellowish brown. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 
inches; hind foot, .36 inch; forearm, 2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southwestern states; a very 
rare Bat of which very few have ever been taken; taken at 
Piru, Ventura County, and Mecca, Riverside County, in 
California ; Yuma in Arizona; and Mesilla Park in New Mexico. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Presumably Owls. 



65 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Very little is known of the habits of this Bat which is the 
rarest of all the Bats found in the United States. The few 
specimens secured have been taken under unusual circum- 
stances, the type specimen was found on a fence, the second 
specimen, taken thirteen years later, was found dead in a bio- 
logical laboratory, and another specimen was found dead lying 
in a puddle formed by an overflow from a railway water tank. 
Apparently there is something peculiar about its hours or 
place of flight to account for the fact that this Bat is not seen 
flying at dusk with other Bats and is only taken as the result of 
some accident. 

The large ears, and peculiar black and white color pattern, 
at once distinguish the Spotted Bat from all other North 
American Bats. 

Genus Corynorhinus^ 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, 1; Premolars, f ; Molars, # = 36. 

Lump-nosed Bat. — Corynorhinus rafinesquii 

and related forms 

Names. — Lump-nosed Bat; Big-eared Bat. 

General Description. — A good-sized Bat with peculiar 
lump-like, warty outgrowth on muzzle, and very large ears. 
Ears much longer than head, joined across forehead, tips 
narrow; tragus long and slender; nostrils opening upward and 
surmounted by prominent glandular masses ; tail less than half 
total length of animal; interfemoral membrane wide; pelage 
soft and color pattern simple. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Clove-brown on back, wood-brown on sides; whitish at base 
of ear ; underparts pale pinkish buff ; pelage everywhere gray or 
slaty gray at base, not strongly contrasted with color on tips 
of hairs. 

Immature pelage dark hair-brown to fuscous above, pale 
hair-brown below, dirty whitish on abdomen. 

Measurements. — Sexes equal in size. Total length, 4.3 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, .48 inch; wing 
expanse, 12.8 inches. 

^ For a full revision of this genus see G. M. Allen, Bulletin Museum 
Comparative Zoology, Vol. LX, pp. 333-356, 1916 

66 



LUMP-NOSED BAT 



Geographical Distribution. — Southeastern states to Van- 
couver Island and south into Mexico on the west. 
Food. — Flying insects. 
Enemies. — Owls, 



vSpecies and Subspecies of the Genus Corynorhinus 

Rafinesque Lump-nosed Bat. — Corynorhinus rafinesquii rafin- 
esquii (Lesson). 
As described above. Found in "Central eastern United 
States from extreme western Virginia, through Kentucky, 
southern Indiana and Illinois, to Kansas, intergrading with 
the race pallescens to the westward." (G. M. Allen) 

Pallid Lump-nosed Bat. — Corynorhinus rafinesquii pallescens 
(Miller). 
Smaller than typical rafinesquii and paler. Upperparts pink- 
ish buff; whitish patch back of ear; underparts pale ochra- 
ceous buff; pelage everywhere gray to slate-gray basally 
except on mid-throat where the hairs are colored alike from 
root to tip. Total length, 4.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; 
hind foot, .36 inch; wing expanse, 12 inches. Found 
in "Western United States from western Texas, Colorado, 
and southwestern South Dakota, to the Pacific coast of 
southern California." (G. M. Allen) 

Townsend Lump-nosed Bat. — Corynorhinus rafinesquii town- 
sendii (Cooper). 
Dark-colored, with base of pelage strongly contrasting in 
color with tip. Upperparts uniform warm sepia, pelage 
dark slaty at base; ear patch whitish; underparts washed 
with pale wood-brown, pelage blackish plumbeous at base. 
Total length, 3.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot 
.48 inch; ear, 1.44 inches. Found in "The humid coast 
region from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, south- 
ward to San Francisco, California, intergrading with 
pallescens here, as well as in north central California. 
Inland it extends over most of (?) Washington, Oregon, and 
the western half of northern California." (G. M, Allen) 

Le Conte Lump-nosed Bat. — Corynorhinus macrotis (Le 
Conte). 
Differing from the foregoing forms by presence of white- 
tipped hairs on abdomen. Upperparts cinnamon-brown, 
pelage slate-colored at base; underparts clear white, basally 
slate-colored; a sharp contrast between colors of base and 
tip of hair on upper and lower parts; a whitish ear patch 
may or may not be present, but usually the posterior base of 
ear is colored like rest of upperparts. Found in "South- 
eastern United States, from North Carolina, Georgia and 
(? northern) Florida, westward through the Southern 

67 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



and Gulf States, into Louisiana, and probably eastern 
Texas." (G. M. Allen) 

Lump-nosed Bats are easily distinguished from other Bats 
by their very large ears and the prominent lump on the nose. 
These Bats prefer to live in caves, although they may use 
any deep, dark recess such as abandoned mine shafts and 
tunnels, or even buildings. In favorable localities they may 
be numerous, and Vernon Bailey found them so in the Carls- 
bad Cavern, New Mexico, on April 15th, when they were still 
deep in the winter sleep. The large ears were curled up in 
spiral coils like a ram's horns, during the dormant period. 
The members of this genus do not appear to migrate. 

The records indicate one young at birth and the time of 
birth as July or earlier. 

Lump-nosed Bats take wing before the twilight is gone. 

Subfamily Nyctophilinae 
Genus Antrozous 

Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, { ; Premolars, h; Molars,| =28. 

Pale Bat. — Antrozous pallidus 

and related forms 

Names. — Pale Bat; Big-eared Bat; Desert Palhd Bat. 

General Description. — A large Bat with big ears and pale 
coloration. Ears large and broad, extending considerably 
beyond end of nose when laid forward, crossed by nine or ten 
fine transverse lines, tip narrowly rounded; tragus tall, slender 
and tapering; membranes tough and strong, naked; feet large 
and strong; nostrils surrounded by a ridge, muzzle rather 
blunt. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no seasonal variation in color. 

Upperparts pale drab gray, with some dusky-tipped hairs; 
pelage light-colored to base; membranes brownish; underparts 
paler than upperparts and lacking the dusky tips to the hairs, 
except on sides. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4.4 inches; tail vertebrse, 
1.8 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; ear from meatus, 1.2 inches; fore- 
arm, 2 inches. 

68 



PALE BAT 



Geographical Distribution. — Western and southwestern 
United States. 
Food. — Insects, 
Enemies. — Owls. 

vSpecies and Subspecies of the Genus Antrozous 

Pale Bat; Desert Pallid Bat. — Antrozous pallidus pallidus 
(Le Conte). 
As described above. Found in "Lower Austral Zone 
in desert region of eastern California, Nevada, Arizona, 
New Mexico, and western Texas." (Miller) 
Pacific Pale Bat. — Antrozous pallidus pacificus Merriam. 
Larger than typical pallidus and slightly darker. Upper- 
parts yellowish drab, with heavy wash of brownish on back. 
Total length, 4.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind 
foot, .5 inch; forearm, 2.2 inches. Found in "Austral 
Zones of the western United States and northwestern 
Mexico." (Miller) 

* ****** 

The forms of Antrozous are well characterized by their 
large size, big ears, pale color, and ridge above the nostrils, 
and are not likely to be confused with any other Bat in the 
United States. 

These Bats live in the roofs of buildings or other darkened 
nooks in bams, churches, etc., and in crevices in cliffs. They 
are common in many places and because of their habit of tak- 
ing up quarters in human habitations may become a nuisance. 
The flight is not as erratic as that of most Bats, although 
rapid. 

There is evidence to show that these Bats catch some of 
their prey, such as Jerusalem Crickets, upon the ground, also 
that they are to some extent, at least, migratory. 

The number of young at birth varies from one to three. 

Family Molossidfie 

This family shares with the Vespertilionidce a very high 
degree of flight specialization. The members of this family 
may be recognized by the blunt, obliquely truncate muzzle 
which is generally set with short, specially modified hairs 
having "spoon-shaped" tips; nostrils terminating in a modified 
pad which may be fringed with dermal excrescences; ears 
variable in size and shape, sometimes joined across forehead; 

69 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



tragus reduced but antitragus generally very large; fifth finger 
greatly reduced ; wing membranes strong, thick, and leathery ; 
the interfemoral membrane narrow, especially so when com- 
pared to the Vespertilionidae ; wing surface narrow; tail pro- 
jecting noticeably beyond interfemoral membrane and earning 
for this group the name of "Free-tailed" Bats; dentition of 
normal insectivorous type. 

This family occupies among American Bats a position more 
or less analogous to that occupied by the Swifts among the 




Fig. 1 6. Free-tailed Bat 



birds, as far as outward manifestations of flight ability are 
concerned. The Free-tailed Bats, with their narrow, pointed 
wings, progress through the air with rapid wing beats which 
appear to travel through a rather restricted arc. Flight is 
very rapid and very erratic, and these Bats can be recognized 
as molossids almost as far as they can be seen. Some of the 
species (of the genera Molossus and Tadarida) take wing very 
early in the evening, often in the late afternoon. 

This family is much more tropical in its distribution than the 
Vespertilionidas and only a very few forms range far enough 
north to enter the United States. The molossids that reach 

70 



FREE-TAILED BAT 



the United States are social in habit, some of them congregat- 
ing, under favorable circumstances, in very large numbers, and 
are characterized by a pronounced, musky odor, rather 
disagreeable in nature. The largest and heaviest of the 
Bats found in the United States is a molossid, Eumops 
caUjornicus. 

Genus Tadarida 

Dentition: Incisors, § or |; Canines, \; Premolars, |; Molars, 
f. =30 or 32. 

Free-tailed Bat. — Tadarida cynocephala 

and related forms 

Names. — Free-tailed Bat, with various qualifying words for 
the different forms. 

General Description.- — A medium-sized Bat with tail only 
partly within the interfemoral membrane and projecting for 
about half its length; ears low, very broad, tough and leathery, 
arising from the same point on forehead; tragus very small, 
flat, truncate; stiff, bristly hairs on face; tiny horny excres- 
cences on inner margins of ears; upper lip wrinkled; wings 
very narrow, interfemoral membrane reduced; pelage soft and 
velvet-like, dark in color; foot with long hairs on toes. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal varia- 
tion. 

Upperparts uniform warm brown, near bister brown, the 
pelage short and with very short, light-colored base; mem- 
branes brownish; underparts lighter than upperparts and with 
more yellow. 

Measurements. — Total length, 4 inches; tail vertebrae, i 
inch; hind foot, .35 inch; forearm, 1.75 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southern states. 

Food. — Flying insects. 

Enemies. — Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Tadarida 

This genus is almost cosmopolitan in its distribution, but is 
essentially a tropical or warm-country group. Only a few forms 
range north into the southern states, although in Central and 
South America the Free-tailed Bats are very abundant. 

71 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Le Conte Free-tailed Bat. — Tadarida cynocephala (Le 

Conte) . 
As described above. Found in the southeastern states 
from Georgia and southern Alabama south and west ; limits 
of range unknown. 

Mexican Free-tailed Bat. — Tadarida mexicana (Saussure). 
Resembling cynocephala in external characters. Upper- 
parts hair-brown, paler on underparts. Total length, 4 
inches; tail vertebrce, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .4 inch; forearm, 
1.7 inches. Found in the southwestern United States from 
Garfield County, Colorado south into Mexico and from 
the Pacific east to the middle of Texas. 

Pocketed Bat. — Tadarida femorosacca (Merriam). 

Similar to mexicana but larger, tail more than half free of 
membrane, a fold of membrane from femur to tibia forming 
pocket. Upperparts dull brown. Total length, 4.1 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; forearm, 1.6 inches. Very few 
specimens of this Bat have ever been taken. The only 
records I have seen are Palm Springs, Riverside County, 
Palm Canon near Palm Springs, California, and Fort 
Huachuca, Arizona. 

Tacubaya Free-tailed Ba.t.~~Tadarida depressa (Ward). 

Size large; ears united at bases; prominent swelling between 

eye and nostril. Upperparts dull brown ; underparts lighter. 

Total length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.60 inches; hind 

foot, .52 inch; forearm, 2.4 inches. Found from Mexico 

City north to Iowa, but has been collected only a few times. 

There are records from Arizona, Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, 

and California, one specimen each, except for Iowa two. 
******* 

The Free-tailed Bats are easily recognized by the mouse-like 
tail which projects beyond the interfemoral membrane, and 
by the very narrow wings. The small species of Tadarida are 
the most rapid flyers of all the North American Bats, rowing 
through the air with rapid wing beats and rather suggestive 
of Swifts in their mode of flight. These Bats are firm and 
compact in build, with heavier bodies than the same-sized 
Bats of the family Vespertilionidae and appear to be more 
highly specialized as aerial projectiles. The flight, while 
broken by abrupt changes of direction, may be quite direct for 
intervals of many yards. 

These Ba'ts are "house" Bats, colonies of many hundreds 
sometimes taking up abodes in buildings where darkened nooks 
are accessible. In San Antonio, Texas, municipal bat roosts 
have been erected to encourage Tadarida mexicana and large 
colonies have established themselves there. The purpose of 
attracting these Bats was to bring in an enemy of the mos- 

72 



CALIFORNIA MASTIFF BAT 



quito. Dr. Charles A. R. Campbell of San Antonio has 
written a book on municipal bat roosts and believes that they 
are an asset, but Dr. E. W. Nelson, formerly Chief of the 
U. S. Biological Survey, and other observers question the 
value of Bats as a mosquito control. 

Genus Eumops 

Dentition: Incisors, ^; Canines, {; Premolars, f or §; Molars, 
1=30 or 28. 

California Mastiff Bat. — Eumops californicus 

(Merriam) 

Names. — California Mastiff Bat; Bonnet Bat. 

General Description. — Largest of the Bats found in the 
United States. Body large and robust, wings small and 
narrow; ears very large, low, broad, and joined to one another 
across forehead; a well-developed keel extending across ear to 
form a broad shelf over eye; tragus small and fiat; ear mem- 
branes tough and leathery; pelage short and velvety to the 
touch; a thin strip of hair along upperside of forearm, mem- 
branes otherwise naked; long hairs on toes. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation. 

Upperparts everywhere sooty brown, pelage lighter at 
base; membranes brownish black; underparts only slightly 
paler than upperparts. 

Measurements. — Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 
inches; hind foot, .72 inch; forearm, 2.9 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found in southern California 
and Arizona east into southern Texas, in the Lower Sonoran 
Zone; rather local in its distribution. 

Only the one species of Eumops is found as far north as the 
United States; this genus is southern in its distribution. The 
California Mastiff Bat is much the largest and strongest Bat 
found in the United States and on the micre basis of size may 
be readily identified. The large ears which overhang and 
completely hide the head and face from above are another 
infallible character. 

This Bat has been taken only at a few localities and appears 
to be sporadic in distribution. Most of the specimens have 
been found in or about buildings. 

73 



Order CARNIVORA. CARNIVOROUS OR 
FLESH-EATING MAMMALS 

Placental mammals, small to large in size, with following 
characters: feet bearing claws; dentition modified for a flesh 
diet; brain rather highly developed (cerebral hemispheres 
showing distinct convolutions); habit typically terrestrial, 
rarely aquatic, semi-arboreal or semi-f ossorial ; condyle of 
lower jaw articulating transversely; clavicle reduced or 
absent; stomach simple. 

Family Ursidae. Bears 

Size large to very large, largest of the carnivorous mammals ; 
form robust; legs stout and rather short; feet plantigrade, 
with five digits ; tail very short ; pelage long and heavy ; molar 
teeth of crushing type with broad, flat crowns; no highly 
specialized carnassial teeth; terrestrial in habit (except for 
the Polar Bear which is semi-aquatic). 

Genus Euarctos 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, |; Molars, f =42. 

Black Bear. — Euarctos americanus 

and related forms 

Names. — Black Bear; American Black Bear; American 
Bear; Common Black Bear; Cinnamon Bear; Brown Bear. 

General Description. — A medium-sized Bear of dark color- 
ation, black or dark brown in color; claws of forefeet curved, 
slightly longer than those of hind feet; facial profile straight, 
not dished; pelage long and moderately soft. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation, chiefly 
in length and glossiness of pelage. 

Upperparts varying with the individual and the season 
from deep glossy black to cinnamon-brown; nose brownish; 
underparts very much the same as upperparts; sometimes 
with spot of white on chest. 

74 



BLACK BEAR 



The pelage is longest and glossiest from the time the Bears 
go into hibernation until soon after they come out in the 
spring; in summer the coat may be ragged and dull. Con- 
siderable variation in color is shown, and in some regions 




Fig. 17. Elack Bear 

the Brown or Cinnamon Bear may be fairly common; else- 
where the Brown may be very scarce and the Black Bear the 
prevailing type. 

Measurements. — Total length, about 60 inches; tail 
vertebras, 5 inches; hind foot, 7.25 inches; height at shoulders, 
25 inches. Weight from about 200 to 450 or 500 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of wooded North 
America, 

Food. — Omnivorous; a great variety of vegetable and 
animal life: grass, fruit, berries, roots, ants, honey, any 
mammals or birds it can catch, fish and frogs, carrion. 

Enemies. — Practically none when full grown, except under 
exceptional circumstances. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Euarctos 

American Black Bear. — Euarctos americanus americanus 
(Pallas). 
As described above. Formerly found over much of eastern 
North America, but now exterminated in many places; 
known today in New York and Pennsylvania south to 
Georgia, north to Ungava, and west to British Columbia 
and Yukon. Plate IV. 

75 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Euarctos cinnamomum (Audubon and Badhman) = Euarctos 
aniericanus americamis 

New Mexico Black Bear. — Euarctos aniericanus amhlycep 
(Baird). 
Resembling typical americanus but with broader skull, color 
brown, with hairs tipped with lighter shade. Found in 
New Mexico. 

Kenai Black Bear. — Euarctos americanus perniger (Allen). 
Very similar to typical americanus but differing in having 
very narrow skull. Color intense black. Found on the 
Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

Dall Island Black ^ear.— Euarctos americanus pugnax 
(Swarth). 
Differing from typical americanus in broad and heavy skull, 
with flattened frontal bones; color black. Found on Dall 
Island, Alaska. 

Queen Charlotte Black Bear.- — Euarctos americanus carlottce 
(Osgood). 
Differing from typical americanus in larger size and various 
cranial characters such as longer skull, more elongate 
rostrum and heavier dentition ; color said to be glossy black 
and the cinnamon phase unknown. Found on Graham 
Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 

Olympic Black Bear. — Euarctos altifrontalis (Elliot). 

This Bear is listed as a full species in Miller's North American 
Recent Mammals, but it is undoubtedly a form of ameri- 
canus. It was described as "black, nose tan color"; fore- 
head broad, high and bulging; and was taken on the shore 
of Lake Crescent, Clallam County, Washington. 

Florida Black Bear; Everglade Bear. — Euarctos floridanus 
(Merriam). 
Larger than typical americanus and wholl}^ black; highly 
arched frontal region. Weight may reach 500 to 600 
pounds. Found from Florida north into Georgia. 

Louisiana Black Bear. — Euarctos luteolus (Griffith). 

Large in size like floridanus but with frontal region flat; 
molar teeth very large; color generally black but occurs 
in the brown phase and may be yellowish brown in worn 
pelage of that phase. Found from Louisiana into eastern 
Texas. 

Glacier Bear; Emmons Bear; Blue Bear.^ — Euarctos em- 
monsii (Dall). Plate IV. 
Small in size, bluish black in color. Claws short and 
strongly curved; pelage only moderately long, a mixture 
of black and gray to give a grizzled appearance; a black 
dorsal line; muzzle brown. Found near Yakutat Bay, 
Alaska, in the glacier region of the St. Elias Alps, south- 
east to Glacier Bay. Said by E. W. Nelson to be only a 
rare color phase of the American Black Bear. 

Kermode Bear. — Euarctos kermodei (Homaday). Plate IV. 
A very small Bear, white in color; by some considered to be 

76 



KermodeBezLT 




Glacier Bear 



Cmnamon Bear 




Black Bear 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Measurements. — Males, total length, 6 feet to 8 feet 6 
inches; tail vertebrae, about 2 inches; hind foot, lo to I2 inches. 
Height at shoulder, 3 feet to nearly 4 feet. Weight 350 to 




Fig. 18. Grizzly Bear 

about 900 pounds ; park animals up to 1 1 50 pounds. Females 
slightly smaller than males. 

Geographical Distribution.— Great Plains region and Rocky 
Mountain region; north into Alaska. 

Food. — Omnivorous; wild game when it can be caught, 
cattle, sheep, hogs, fish, berries, fruit, grass, and roots of 
various species, ants. 

Enemies.' — Hunted only by man. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Ursus 

The group of Grizzly and Big Brown Bears of North 
America is a most troublesome one to include in any handbook. 
The most recent review is by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, who has 
had the benefit of many years of study and large collections of 
specimens. This review lists no less than 86 distinct forms, 
of which 84 are to be found in the geographical area covered 
by this handbook. A great many of these forms are based 
upon skulls; the external characters are unknown. To set 
forth here these 84 species and subspecies of Bears would be to 
swamp the student and discourage him from any attem.pt to 
identify a Grizzly or a Big Brown Bear. Indeed, it is a 

78 



GRIZZLY BEAR 




FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



difficult task for a museum, with a fair-sized collection of 
these animals, to identify specimens. In the attempt to make 
this field book complete, a synopsis, more or less brief, was 
written for each and every one of the 84 forms, but in the 
final analysis it was discarded in favor of a much briefer, more 
comprehensive treatment which is open to criticism, it is 
admitted, but which is far less confusing to the lay reader. 
"The differences formerly supposed to exist between the 
Grizzlies and the Big Brown Bears appear, in the light of the 
material now available, to distinguish certain groups of species 
from certain other groups, rather than the Grizzlies col- 
lectively from the Big Brown Bears collectively. In other 
words, the differences between the Grizzlies on the one hand 
and the Big Brown Bears on the other are neither so great nor 
so constant as at one time believed. And there are species 
which in the present state of knowledge can not be positively 
referred to either group. In fact, it seems at least possible 
that certain species which appear to belong with the Grizzlies 
are closely related to certain other species which clearly belong 
with the Big Brown Bears. The typical Brown Bears differ 
from the typical Grizzlies in peculiarities of color, claws, skull, 
and teeth. The color of the former is more uniform, with less 
of the surface grizzling due to admixture of pale-tipped hairs; 
the claws are shorter, more curved, darker, and scurfy instead 
of smooth; the skull is more massive; the fourth lower premolar 
is conical, lacking the sulcate heel of the true Grizzlies. But 
these are average differences, not one of which holds true 
throughout the group. Most of the specimens in museums 
consist of skulls only, unaccompanied by skins or claws, 
leaving a doubt as to the external characters; and in old bears 
the important fourth lower premolar is likely to be so worn 
that its original form can not be made out. And, worst of all, 
some of the Grizzlies lack the distinctive type of premolar, 
leaving only the skull as a guide to their affinities. ' ' (Merriam, 
North American Fauna, No, 41, p. 12, 1918.) 

Big Plains Grizzly; Silvertip. — Ursns horrihilis horrihilis Ord. 

The animal described above. Found on the Great Plains 

bordering the Missouri River in eastern Montana and 

the Dakotas; limits of range unknown. 
Baird Grizzly. — Ursus horrihilis bairdi (Merriam). 

"Probably a mountain animal, while its neighbor horrihilis 

80 



Plate V 




Griz-zly Beai 




AiasKa BrcjwnBe air 



GRIZZLY BEAR 



was a plains species." (Merriam) Found in "Southern 
Rocky Mountain region from San Juan Mountains, south- 
western Colorado, northward through Wyoming to Mon- 
tana, and perhaps to southeastern British Columbia." 
(Merriam) 

Yakutat Grizzly. — Ursus nortoni Merriam. 

"Head grizzled yellowish or golden brown; muzzle pale 
brown; neck and shoulders to middle of back pale buffy 
from the long whitish buff-tipped hairs, giving the skin 
viewed from behind a decidedly whitish appearance; hinder 
back and rump dark, well washed with pale brown tips; 
lower part of legs and feet dark brown; back of forefeet 
browner and not so dark; underchin and throat pale soiled 
buffy whitish," (Merriam) Found at Yakutat Bay, 
Alaska. 

Black Hills Grizzly. — Ursus rogersi hisonophagus Merriam, 
Size large; claws of moderate length, strongly curved; color 
of male: "muzzle pale brown (apparently old pelage) ; head 
and face blackish, becoming slightly grizzled posteriorly 
and on lower part of cheeks by wash of yellowish-brown- 
tipped hairs; entire bod}^ legs, and feet very dark brown 
overlaid on back by wash of light tips," (Merriam) 
Taken at "Bear Lodge, Sundance National Forest, Black 
Hills, northeastern Wyoming." (Merriam) 

Southern California Grizzly. — Ursus magister Merriam. 

"Size of male huge (estimated weight over 1,400 pounds), 
largest of known Grizzlies, considerably larger than cali- 
foj'fiicus of the IVIonterey region, and even than Jiorribilis, 
the great buffalo-killing Grizzly of the Plains (only equaled 
by the largest alexandrce of Kenai Peninsula) ; sexual dis- 
parity great; skull of female hardly half the bulk of male; 
skull of male of a rather generalized type; not dished. 
Claws of old female from head of Trabuco Canyon, Santa 
Ana Mountains, exceedingly long, strongly curved, mainly 
yellowish above. Color (old female from head of Trabuco 
Canyon) : General color dusky or sooty all over except head 
and grizzling of back. Muzzle gray or mouse-brown, palest 
above; top of head and neck very dark brown, sparsely 
grizzled with pale-tipped hairs; back dusky grizzled with 
grayish; legs and underparts wholly blackish," Known 
from "Santa Ana or Trabuco Mountains, Cuyamaca and 
Santa Rosa Mountains, and probably San Jacinto Moun- 
tains. BeHeved to be extinct." (Merriam) 
"Flesh measurements, — Old male. . . : Height at shoulder 
from flat of foot, 4 ft, . . . ; total length, snout to tail, 9>^ 
ft, . . . ; sole of largest foot without claws: length 12 in. 
. . . . ; breadth, 8 in, . . . Length of old female from 
Trabuco Canyon, measured in the flesh by Andrew Joplin, 
6 ft. 3 in," (Merriam) 

New Mexico Grizzly. — Ursus horricBUs (Baird). 

"Size medium; external characters unknown. Range. — 

81 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Parts of New Mexico, south to Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, 
Mexico; probably extending into eastern Arizona." 
(Merriam) 

Alaska Grizzly. — Ursus alascensis (Merriam). 

Size small. Found in "Norton Sound region, Alaska 
(Unalaklik and Shaktolik Hills), southerly over the Nusha- 
gak and Kuskokwim Rivers to Chinitna on Cook Inlet. 
Limits unknown." (Merriam) 

Barren Ground Bear. — Ursus richardsoni Swainson. 

"Size medium; color variable, from yellowish to grizzly 
brown; foreclaws of medium length, smooth; skull medium 
or small, with broadly spreading zygomata." Taken on 
"Shore of Arctic Ocean, on west side of Bathurst Inlet near 
mouth of Hood River." (Merriam) 

Xanana Grizzly. — Ursus phcBo?iyx (Merriam). 

"Size of male large; of female small (sexual disparity great, 
much greater than in dalli). . . . Upperparts varying 
from creamy or buffy to dark 'grizzly color'; underparts 
and muzzle pale brown; legs very dark brown, varying to 
blackish brown; claws horny and smooth, usually dark but 
sometimes marked with whitish. Last upper molar of 
medium size or rather small." Found in "Tanana Moun- 
tains between Tanana and Yukon Rivers." (Merriam) 

Kidder Bear. — Ursus kidderi kidderi Merriam. 

Size medium, much smaller than gyas, which is found in the 
same region. "June specimens (in left-over winter 
pelage) : General color yellowish brown, darkest on belly 
and legs, legs much darker than body. Most of the Kidder 
bears in the National Zoological Park are pale buffy yellow- 
ish, or yellowish cream color." Found in "Alaska Penin- 
sula for its entire length." (Merriam) 

Alexander Grizzly. — Ursus alexandrcB Merriam. 

' ' Size very large ; skull long and narrow ; rostrum exception- 
ally broad for a grizzly; pelage very uniform in color, 
scarcely or not grizzled ; claws enormous (second foreclaw of 
type specimen measuring: length from upper base, 91 mm.; 
height at base, 25; breadth, 11.5). The longest claw in a 
specimen collected by Wilson Potter measures 120 mm. ; in a 
male killed by Dall DeWeese, no mm. . . . Among the 
grizzlies it stands alone in the great breadth of the rostrum, 
which in bears of its size is only exceeded by the widely 
different kenaiensis. Ursus alexandrce attains the largest 
size known among the grizzly bears, the biggest skulls 
equaling those of the huge magister of Southern California. 
"Color. — Type, very old male, in fresh short fall pelage: 
General color pale, almost grayish brown, becoming yellow- 
ish brown between ears, contrasting with pale brown of 
muzzle; legs and feet only slightly darker than back; entire 
animal remarkably unicolor; under-fur plumbeous, crinkled, 
and wooly. Another male, killed by Wilson Potter, of 
Philadelphia, in May, 1912 (belonging to skull No. 181 102, 

82 



BIG ALASKA BEARS 



presented by Wilson Potter) , is pale buffy inclining to light 
reddish brown throughout, without grizzly appearance; legs 
only slightly darker. One killed by Dall DeWeese, of 
Canyon City, Colorado, September 7, 1897, is described 
by him as 'grayish-yellow,' with legs and sides chocolate- 
brown." (Merriam) Found in Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

Alaska Brown Bear; Dall Brown Bear. — Ursus dalli Merriam. 
"Size very large; skull without very pronounced characters, 
although differing sufficiently from its neighbors. General 
color dark brown, strongly grizzled." Found in "Mala- 
spina Glacier and region northwest of Yakutat Bay, 
Alaska." (Merriam) Plate V. 

Sitka Brown Bear. — Ursus sitkensis Merriam. 

"Size large; coloration very dark; claws of moderate length, 
curved, dark blue-black, scurfy; skull broad and massive. 
Color. — Dark; muzzle dark brown, sometimes chocolate- 
brown or even sooty, paler in faded summer pelage; head 
and body very dark brown or even dusky, varying to dull 
brown in summer, washed on back of head, neck, and 
shoulders with yellowish or golden." (Merriam) Found 
on Baranof and Chichagof Islands, Sitka Islands, Alaska. 

Shiras Brown Bear. — Ursus shirasi Merriam. 

"A huge brown bear larger than the largest sitkensis; head 
highly arched; color black, except muzzle, which is dull 
brown; claws dark blue-black, dull, slightly scurfy (not 
smoothly polished as in the grizzlies), rather strongly curved 
and of moderate length (middle claw over curve, 92 mm.; 
from top of base to apex, 75), fourth and fifth rounded off 
on outer side. Color. — Entire animal, except muzzle, 
coal black, showing when examined closely a brownish wash 
along middle of back; muzzle from nose pad to between 
eyes dull brown. . . . Restricted to Admiralty Island." 
(Merriam) 

Peninsula Giant Bear. — Ursus gyas (Merriam), 

"Size huge, either largest living bear or second only to the 
great Kadiak bear (middendorffi). Claws rather long and 
smooth, dark when young, pale when old. Color variable, 
from grizzled brown to pale yellowish. Skull of male large, 
long, and massive, but not highly arched. Sexual disparity 
great." Found along "Entire length of Alaska Peninsula 
from Cook Inlet to Isanotski Strait and adjacent Unimak 
Island." (Merriam) 

Kadiak Bear. — Ursus middendorffi Merriam, 

Size huge. Found on "Kodiak and adjacent islands, 
Afognak and Shuyak; not known from mainland." (Mer- 
riam) 

Kenai Giant Bear. — Ursus kenaiensis Merriam. 

"Size large; appearance that of a big grizzly; coloration 
rather dark; claws moderately curved, dark, usually marked 
with whitish streaks on sides and near tip; longest claw 
in three adults 82-90 mm. Skull broad and massive, 

83 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



that of male strikingly larger than female. . . . Muzzle 
pale fulvous-brown; cheeks and forehead similar but hairs 
longer and with pale tips; ground color of top of head, neck, 
and back much darker but deeply washed on tips with buffy 
or buffy whitish, giving these parts the look of a grizzly; 
legs and feet (but not belly) much darker." (Merriam) 
Found on Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 
Patriarchal Bear. — Ursus inopinatus (Merriam). 

Size small. "General color varying from whitish buff to 
pale yellowish buff (yellowest on back of head and neck), 
darkening to dull reddish brown on ankles, feet, and median 
line of belly. The pale body color covers the entire body 
from between eyes to base of tail and reaches down over 
thighs and upper parts of legs. Muzzle golden brown, 
becoming dull fulvous-brown around eyes; top of head 
from between eyes posteriorly soiled buff; long hairs of 
cheeks washed with bufTy; ears pale buffy. Fur every- 
where full, soft, and wooly; basal fur of upperparts varying 
from grayish to grayish brown, but distal half or more 
than half, pale buffy, so the animal as a whole appears to be 
buffy whitish." (Merriam) Taken at Rendezvous Lake, 
northeast of Fort Anderson, Mackenzie. 

As in the case of Eiiarctos, the Black Bears, there is little 
need to tell how to identify a member of the genus Ursus. 
Everyone recognizes the Big Bears and the bigger they are the 
more certain one can be that the creature is either a Grizzly 
or an Alaskan Brown. The differences between these two 
groups have been set forth elsewhere, page 80. 

The true Grizzlies of the southern Rocky Mountain districts 
and the western plains have become extinct, or nearly so, in 
most places, but in the north the huge Bears of British Colum- 
bia, Alaska, and the offshore islands are still the prized big 
game of North America. The habits of these Bears have been 
recorded at length by numerous writers and the reader is re- 
ferred to the bibliography at the end of this volume. 

Genus Thalarctos 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \\ Premolars, |; Molars, f =42. 

Polar Bear. — Thalarctos maritimus 

and related forms 

Names. — Polar Bear; White Bear; Water Bear; Ice Bear. 
General Description. — A very large white Bear. Neck 
long, head proportionally small; pelage very dense. 

84 



POLAR BEAR 



Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation. 

Everywhere white with generally a yellowish suffusion; 
sometimes brownish white in summer. 

Immature purer white. 

Measurements. — Males about twenty per cent larger than 
females. Total length, 84-96 inches; tail, 3.5-5 inches; hind 




Polar Bear 



foot, 14.5 inches; weight, 700-1600 pounds, average male 900 
pounds, average female 700 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arctic America. 

Food.— Omnivorous; principally sea food such as Seals, 
fish, shrimp, mollusks, seaweeds; and on land, grass, roots, 
Foxes, Caribou, birds, etc. 

Enemies. — Very few apart from man— the Eskimo; prob- 
ably a few are caught by Killer Whales. 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Thalarctos 

Knottnerus-Meyer has divided the Polar Bears into a 
number of geographical races and since these Bears are all very 
much the same externally the basis of separation is the skull. 
He gives four different subspecies for North America but it is 

85 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



to be doubted whether there are four truly distinguishable 
varieties in the North American Arctic. 

Polar Bear. — Thalarctos maritimus maritimus (Phipps). 

As described above. Found in West Greenland, Ellesmere- 
land, Hudson Bay, and Arctic coast of Alaska. 
Ungava Polar Bear. — Thalarctos maritimus ungavensis (Knott- 
nerus- Meyer). 
Found in the vicinity of Ungava Bay, Ungava, Canada. 
East Greenland Polar Bear. — Thalarctos eogroenlandicus 
(Knottnerus-Meyer) . 
Found in the region of eastern Greenland. 
Labrador Polar Bear. — Thalarctos lahradorensis (Knottnerus- 
Meyer). 

Found in Labrador. 

******* 

The Polar Bear, with his white coat and characteristic body 
form, stands by himself, apart from the other Bears. He has 
cast aside a dependence upon firm land and is at home in the 
sea or on drifting ice. He follows the food supply and 
is unlike the rest of the Ursidae in his behavior toward man. 
Accounts agree that very often the great White Bear shows 
no instinctive fear of man and may even stalk a man the 
same as a Seal or other natural prey. 

The native habitat of the Polar Bear is so far north that 
comparatively few men have ever seen him there, but he is a 
common denizen of zoological parks and a familiar species. 

The number of young born to the Polar Bear is nearly always 
two, and the time varies from late December to early January. 

Family Procyonidae. Raccoons 

Carnivores of small or medium size; five toes on fore- and 
hind feet; feet comparatively long and slender; gait planti- 
grade; pads of feet naked; tail long, bushy, and usually 
annulated; muzzle elongated; molar crowns tuberculate. 

Genus Procyon 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =40 

Raccoon. — Procyon lotor 

and related forms 
Names. — Raccoon; Coon. Plates VI and XVIII. 
General Description. — A robust, fair-sized carnivore with 
long pelage and long, banded, rather bushy, tail. Muzzle long 

86 



Plate VI 





Raccoon 



^^ 



RACCOON 



and slender; head broad across the jowls; ears erect and 
prominent; form thickset; fore- and hind-feet with five toes 
bearing non-retractile claws; soles naked, hind feet planti- 
grade; tail moderately long and bushy, cylindrical; pelage 
thick and heavy; habit somewhat arboreal; nocturnal. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation. 

Upperparts. — Grizzled gray, brown, and black, the pelage 
dull brown at base; a black band across forehead and eyes, 




Fig. 21. Raccoon 



grayish on muzzle and back of ears; ears grayish, with black 
area at posterior base ; sides with less black than dorsal region ; 
tail banded with alternate grayish and blackish, six or seven 
dark rings; gray of upperparts, except that on head, is strongly 
mixed with yellowish; hands and feet yellowish gray. 

Underparts. — Dull brownish, grizzled with yellowish gray. 

Immature very much like adults. 

Measurements. — Total length, about 30 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 10 inches; hind foot, 4.5 inches; weight from 15 pounds 
average up to 49 pounds maximum. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America from 
about 50° latitude south. 

Food. — Practically omnivorous: frogs, fish, shell-fish, small 
mammals, birds, eggs, reptiles, insects, fruit, nuts, com, etc. 

Enemies. — Fisher. 

87 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Procyon 

Subgenus Procyon 

Eastern Raccoon. — Procyon lotor lotor (Linnaeus) 

As described above. Found in United States east of the 
Rocky Mountains from southern Ontario and Manitoba to 
Florida. Plate XVIIL 

Florida Raccoon. — Procyon lotor elucus Bangs. 

Resembling typical lotor in size but with longer tail, more 
rounded ear, more yellowish in color. Upperparts grizzled 
yellowish and black; patch on shoulders deep orange-rufous. 
Total length, 35 inches; tail vertebrae, 11 inches; hind foot, 
5 inches. Found in Florida and eastern Georgia. 

Texas Raccoon; Brown-footed Raccoon. — Procyon lotor 
f use i pes M earns. 
Largest of the Raccoons; resembling typical lotor, usually 
with six black rings on tail; feet dark brown. Upperparts 
pale gray darkened with black-tipped hairs: nape rusty; 
black mark on face very extensive. Total length, 36 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 11.5 inches; hind foot, 5.3 inches. Found 
in southern Texas, from Devils River south into Mexico. 

California Raccoon. — Procyon lotor psora (Gray). 

By some authors this form is considered to be a full species, 
Procyon psora. Upperparts yellowish gray mixed with 
black; general color pattern about as in typical lotor; tail 
with five to seven dark bands which are interrupted on 
lower side except for last two or three; forefeet gray; hind 
feet dusky, gray on toes and inner edge. Total length, 34 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1 1.8 inches; hind foot, 5 inches. Found 
in "Lower Sonoran, Upper Sonoran, and Lower Transition 
Zones throughout California, except the northern border 
and the southeastern deserts." (Grinnell) 

Southwestern Raccoon; San Diego Raccoon. — Procyon lotor 
calif ornicus M earns. 
Resembling psora but smaller and paler. Upperparts soiled 
grayish white mixed with brownish black; nape clay color; 
fore- and hind feet grayish white; dark rings on tail scarcely 
discernible on underside. Total length, 2>^ inches; tail 
vertebra, 12.5 inches; hind foot, 4.5 inches. Found in south- 
western California. 

Pacific Raccoon. — Procyon lotor pacifica (Merriam). 

Similar to psora but darker; black rings on tail not broken 
on underside. Upperparts drab gray thickly mixed with 
black. Total length, 37 inches; tail vertebras, 12.5 inches; 
hind foot, 4.6 inches. Found on the northwest coast from 
Puget Sound and the Cascade Mountains of Washington 
south to Pitt River, Shasta County, California. 

Desert Raccoon ; Pallid Raccoon. — Procyon pallidus Merriam. 
Very pale; tail long and slender; color pattern similar to that 
of psora. Upperparts pale gray mixed with black- tipped 

88 



RACCOON 



hairs; underparts grayish white; hind feet pale gray; dark 
rings on tail narrow. Total length, 34 inches; tail vertebrae, 
12.4 inches; hind foot, 5.2 inches. Found in California in 
"Lower Sonoran Zone on the Colorado Desert, in Imperial 
County, and north along the Colorado River at least to 
Needles." (Grinnell) 

******* 
The Raccoon has a distinctive color pattern and even if it 
was not an animal with which most people have become 
familiar, either through seeing it in Zoos, as fur coats, or as 
sketched in the press, it could be readily identified from a 
written description. The combination of the following char- 
acters, robust form, ringed tail, and black mask across the 
eyes, is found in no other North American mammal. 

Since the vogue in furs has favored the use of Raccoon fur, 
the long, loose, gray and black pelage of this mammal has 
become a favorite for coats. It has long been a popular beast 
of the chase and in some sections of the country "coon" hunt- 
ing at night is the high water mark of the year's sport. As a 
pet the Raccoon takes high rank, although it has somewhat 
of a penchant for getting into mischief and can not be trusted 
too much at large. 

Raccoons prefer the vicinity of streams, lakes, or marshes 
and make their homes in hollow trees, hollow logs, or less often 
in the rocks or in burrows. They are first-class climbers and 
are not found away from trees or brush. A peculiarity which 
shows the fondness of these animals for water is the fact that 
whenever possible they wash their food before eating it. A 
frog drippmg from the stream where it was caught will be 
washed before the Raccoon eats it. 

The Raccoon has a querulous voice which he is not bashful 
in using. Seton gives the common calls as a "churr" when 
squabbling for food, snarls and barks when fighting, "err-err- 
err" when the tame Coon begs for food, and finally a long 
drawn tremulous "whoo-oo-oo-oo" in the deep of the night, 
very similar to the call of a Screech Owl. 

The number of young in a Coon litter usually is four, but 
varies from three to six. The young Coons arrive in April to 
May. Raccoons hibernate during cold weather, remaining 
dormant for about three months, depending upon the latitude, 
or in the southern part of their range they may not hibernate 
at all. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Raccoons are strictly nocturnal in habit and unless disturbed 
do not come out in the daytime. 

The flesh of young Raccoons is said to be good eating, but 
on this point I have no personal experience. 

Family Bassariscidae. Cacomistles 

Resembling the Procyonidse in most external characters, 
but differing in dental characters; canines rounded; incisors 
with small secondary lobes; premolars and molars dog-like, 
with sharp cusps; claws short, sharp, curved; digits fully 
webbed or nearly so; feet densely haired to pads. 

Genus Bassariscus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, | ; Molars, | =40. 

Cacomistle. — Bassariscus astutus flavus 

and related forms 

Names. — Cacomistle; Cacomixtl; Ringtail; Ring-tailed Cat; 
Civet-cat; Coon-cat; Bassarisk. Plate VI. 

General Description. — A small trim-bodied carnivore most 
nearly related to the Raccoons but much smaller, more slender, 




Fig. 22. Cacomistle 

pelage shorter and softer, tail longer, and color pattern quite 
different. Head small; ears large and thinly haired; body 
slender and lithe; tail about as long as head and body, bushy; 

90 



CACOMISTLE 



fore- and hind feet furred to pads; five toes on each foot, claws 
semi-retractile; digitigrade; habit nocturnal. 

Color. — vSexes colored alike; no very great seasonal varia- 
tion. 

Upperparts — General tone grayish brown formed by a 
mixture of buff, gray, and brownish black, darkest on back, 
the sides yellowish gray; pelage dark gray at base; blackish 
about eyes, a small brownish black patch on side of muzzle 
and in front of ear; tail brownish black with seven white bands. 

Underparts. — Buffy white; tail with white bands broader 
than on upper side and running into one another alongmid-line. 

Immature very much like adults. 

Measurements. — Males, total length, 32 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 17 inches; hind foot, 2.8 inches. Weight about 2.5 
pounds. Females somewhat smaller than males. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southern United States from 
Texas west. 

Food. — Small mammals, birds, insects and occasionally 
fruit. 

Enemies. — Probably too active to be caught under ordinary 
circumstances by the larger carnivores which would prey on it 
if they could; possibly caught occasionally by Great Horned 
Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Eassariscus 

Texan Cacomistle. — Bassariscus astutus flaviis Rhoads. 

As described above. Found in the western half of Texas 
north into Colorado and southern Utah and west through 
New Mexico and Arizona; scattered records from as far east 
as Louisiana and Alabama. 

Western Cacomistle; Oregon Ring-tailed Cat. — Bassariscus 
astutus oregonus (Rhoads). [ = Bassarisctis raptor (Baird)] 
Darker than flavus. Upperparts wood-brown mixed with 
blackish; underparts deep buffy. Total length, 30 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 15 inches; hind foot, 2.y inches. Found from 
southern Oregon south through California. 

Nevada Cacomistle. — Bassariscus astutus nevadensis Miller. 
Smaller than oregonus; "color peculiar in the clear gray of 
head in front of ears, and in the reduction of the amount of 
buff in general tint of neck and anterior half of back, this 
entire region appearing more ashy than in any other adult 
specimen in fresh pelage seen; underparts pale cream buff 
behind fore legs, less pallid anteriorly." (Miller) Total 
length, female, 25.6 inches; tail vertebras, 12.4 inches; hind 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



foot, 2.3 inches. Taken in Eldorado Canyon, Clark County, 
southern Nevada. 



The Cacomistle is a beautiful little carnivore somewhat 
suggestive of the Raccoon in the character of banded tail, but 
more like a Marten in its long, slender body and graceful build. 
This mammal has such a restricted range in the United States 
that it is unknown to most people. The name Civet Cat is a 
misnomer, for this term belongs to the members of the Viver- 
ridae, an Old World family of small carnivores, and should not 
be used for any North American mammal. 

The Cacomistle is strictly nocturnal and moves about only 
after sundown. 

The young are three or four in number and are born in A'lay 
or June. The nest is usually in a hole in a tree. 

Family Mustelidae. Weasels, Martens, Minks, 

Otters, Skunks, Badgers 

and Wolverines 

Carnivorous mammals very small to medium in size; 
form typically slender; limbs short; tail variable; feet digiti- 
grade to subplantigrade, digits five in number; anal scent- 
glands usually present and often highly developed; dentition 
of shearing-crushing type, well-developed carnassial teeth 
present; upper molars one on each side; habit terrestrial, semi- 
arboreal, semiaquatic, or semi-fossorial ; pelage often soft 
and dense, and rating high as fur. 

Subfamily Mustelinae. Martens, Weasels, 
and Minks 

Form long and slender; legs short; feet digitigrade, toes 
partly webbed; tail variable in length, slender or bushy; 
pelage dense but not especially long; anal scent-gland fairly 
well developed; habit terrestrial, semi-arboreal or semiaquatic. 

Genus Martes 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, |; Molars, ^ =38 

92 



MARTEN 



Marten. — Martes americana 

and related forms 

Names. — Marten; Pine Marten; American Marten; Ameri- 
can Sable; Hudson Bay Sable. Plate VII. 

General Description. — A small carnivore of weasel-like form, 
a little smaller than a House-cat, with soft, rich pelage, bushy 
tail, and ochraceous or buffy patches on throat and chest. 
Head rather small; ears broad and rounded; body long and 




Fig. 23. Marten 



lithe; limbs short; toes five on each foot, claws sharp and 
slender; soles densely hairy; tail about half as long as head and 
body, bushy, cylindrical; habit more or less arboreal. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no very marked seasonal varia- 
tion in color. 

Upperparts. — Uniform rich yellowish brown mixed with 
hairs which are dark brown ; dark brown on legs and tail ; ears 
edged with whitish; top of head warm brown. Tone of upper- 
parts varies from warm yellowish brown, almost olive, to light 
buffy brown with ochraceous tinge, and top of head from 
brown to almost white. 

93 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Underparts. — Slightly warmer in tone than upperparts and 
without the yellowish tinge to the brown; an irregular area of 
bright ochraceous buff on throat and chest. 

Immature very much like adults. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Total length, 
males, 23-25 inches; tail vertebrae, 7-8 inches; hind foot, 3.3-3.5 
inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Forested parts of northern 
North America. 

Food. — Largely carnivorous; small mammals and birds, such 
as Squirrels, Chipmunks, Mice, Rabbits, Grouse, and also 
some nuts, fruit and berries (mountain ash berries are said to 
be a favorite article of diet), reptiles, frogs, insects, honey. 

Enemies. — Able to escape most of the predatory animals 
that would prey upon it, with the exception of the Fisher, and 
possibly the Lynx and Great Horned Owl. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Martes 
Subgenus Martes 

American Marten. — Martes americana americana (Turton). 
As described above. Found in eastern North America from 
Labrador and the shores of Hudson Bay south to about 
Virginia (in mountains) and west to Minnesota. 

Hudson Bay Marten. — Martes americana ahieticola (Preble). 
Larger than typical americana. Upperparts (winter) "rich 
dark yellowish brown, darkest on middle of back; legs and 
tail darker, the latter almost black at tip; an irregular blotch 
and a small spot on chest, ochraceous; face and cheeks 
grayish brown; ears edged with whitish." (Preble.) Total 
length, males, 26 inches; tail vertebras, 8.5 inches; hmd foot 
3 8 inches. Found in the region from the western shores oi 
Hudson Bay to Saskatchewan and north to the tree limit. 

British Columbia Marten. — Martes americana ahtetmotdes 

Upperparts seal-brown, darkest on legs, feet, tail, and 
middle back; head with more or less grizzling of gray; throat 
patch ochraceous buff. Total length, females, 23.5 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 7 inches; hind foot, 3.5 inches. Found m the 
"Humid interior region of British Columbia, peculiar to the 
Selkirk and Gold Ranges." (Rhoads) 
Alaska Marten. — Martes americana actuosa (Osgood). 

Much larger than typical americana. Upperparts pale 
ochraceous buff mixed with brown on posterior half, becom- 
ing grayer on shoulders; head grizzled grayish and brown; 
chest patch creamy buff; tail brown darkening toward tip. 

94 



MARTEN 



Total length, males, 26 inches; tail vertebra, 8 inches; hind 
foot, 4.4 inches. Found from the Barren Grounds of Alaska 
and Yukon south into British Columbia and from the Coast 
Ranges of British Columbia and Alaska east to meet the 
range of abieticola. 
Kenai Marten. — Martes americana kenaiensis (Elliot). 

Smaller than actuosa, tail longer, feet shorter, color darker • 
often with no yellow patch on throat. Upperparts tawny 
buff mixed with black, darkest on dorsal region, top of head 
grizzled; underparts darker than upperparts. Found on 
the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. 
Newfoundland Marten. — Martes atrata (Bangs). 

Size of americana but color different, suggesting a dark- 
colored Mink. Upperparts deep chocolate, darkest on back 
head, legs, and tail, where it becomes blackish; ear bordered 
with dull white and with patch of yellowish white in front 
of opening; irregular ochraceous blotches on throat and 
belly. Total length, females, 22 inches; tail vertebrae, 7.4 
mches; hind foot, 3.5 inches. Found in Newfoundland 
North Labrador Marten. — Martes brumalis (Bangs). 

Larger than typical americana and darker. Upperparts 
dark brown to almost blackish; head lighter than back 
Total length, males, 27 inches; tail vertebra?, -j.^ inches'; 
hmd foot, 4.6 inches. Found in "Humid coast region of 
northeastern Labrador, Ungava Bay to Straits of Belle Isle " 
(Rhoads) 
Pacific Marten. — Martes caurina caurina (Merriam). 

Resembling americana but color a richer shade of brown 
above and with brighter colored and more extensive throat 
and breast patches. Upperparts rich brown with suggestion 
of cinnamon and sprinkling of white hairs; head pale brown; 
underparts with extensive irregular area of orange-buff frorn 
lower jaw more or less to tail. Total length, males, 27 
inches; tail vertebrce, 10.8 inches; hind foot, 3.6 inches. 
Found in the humid coast belt of northern California, 
Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, east to Cascade 
Range. 
Rocky Mountain Marten. — Martes caurina origenes (Rhoads). 
Differing in color from typical caurina, head darker, iii 
comparison with body color, ears not edged with white. 
Upperparts brown, darkest on middle of back, paling on 
sides; top of head grayish brown; ears edged with ochra- 
ceous buff; legs, feet, and tail dark brown; underparts brown 
marked with extensi^^e irregular areas of buffy ochraceous 
on throat, chest, and belly. Total length, males, 28 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 9 inches; hind foot, 3.4 inches. Found in the 
southern Rocky Mountain region from New Mexico north 
through Colorado. 
Sierra Marten. — Martes caurina sierrce Grinnell and Storer. 
Paler above and below than typical caurina. Sides of face 
paler; extensive patch of pale ochraceous orange on chest. 



95 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Total length, males, 24 inches; tail vertebra, 7.5 inches; 

hind foot, 3.2 inches. Found in the Boreal Zone of the whole 

Sierra Nevada north at least to Mt. Shasta, California. 
Queen Charlotte Marten.— Marten nesophila (Osgood). 

Larger than typical caurina which it resembles. Described 

from skulls only but said to be light colored and short haired. 

Dentition heavier than that of caurina and rostrum shorter. 

Found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. 
******* 

The Marten is the arboreal member of the Weasel family 
and is such an accomplished cHmber that it can prey success- 
fully upon Squirrels. If seen at any distance it would probably 
pass for a large Squirrel in the trees, but near at hand should 
be recognized by the weasel-like face, with white-edged ears, 
cylindrical and not flattened tail, and dark yellowish brown 
color, with orange to yellowish throat patch. 

Because of its preference for an arboreal life, the Marten 
is not found outside of forested areas, and the thicker the 
woods the better from the Marten's point of view. This 
mammal is one of the very first to resent the presence of man, 
and, long before a district is settled, the Martens have dis- 
appeared. 

In addition to the food it may find in the tree tops, the 
Marten has much the same habits as the Weasels on the 
ground and preys on Mice, Hares, Partridges, etc. They are 
said to be both nocturnal and diurnal, but they are so secretive 
that one is very seldom seen. They are easy to trap, however, 
as they are unsuspicious and eager to attack a bait. The fur 
of the Marten sells for high prices and always commands a 
good market. The American Marten is close kin to the famous 
Russian Sable. 

The number of young Martens in a litter varies from one to 
five, with three or four as the average. They are born late in 
April and are stated to be blind for a long time, over four 
weeks. The nest which the female makes, lined with grass 
and moss, is usually in a hollow tree or rarely in a burrow in 
the ground. 

The Marten hisses, growls, snarls, or screeches, according 

to Seton. 

Subgenus Pekania 
Dentition: Incisors, f; Canines, \; Premolars, t ; Molars, \ =38. 

96 



Plate VII 




Mirten 



^u-. 



FISHER 
Fisher. — Martes pennanti 

and related subspecies 

Names. — Fisher; Pekan; Pennant Marten; Black Fox; 
Blackcat. Plate VII. 

General Description.— A large powerful Marten, much 
larger and darker, than the Pine Marten but very similar to it 
in general structure; pelage long and soft. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not con- 
spicuous. General tone varying from grayish brown to warm 
brown, darkest along dorsal region where it may be almost 
black; nose, feet, and tail blackish; top of head grizzled with 
gray which extends down neck to shoulders; dark brown on 
throat, chest, and belly. 

Measurements.— Males larger than females. Alales: total 
length, 36-38 inches; tail vertebrce, 15 inches; hind foot, 4 
inches; weight, 8 to 12 pounds or up to about 18 as a maximum; 
weight of females, about 5 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution.— Northeastern states and Can- 
ada west through Saskatchewan and British Columbia. 

Food. — Small mammals, birds, frogs, fish, with some fruit 
and nuts. 

Enemies. — Few in number aside from man. Too agile to 
be caught by the larger carnivores and said to be able to kill 
Fox, Raccoon, and Lynx. 

Subspecies of Fisher 

Fisher — Martes pennanti pennanti (Erxleben). 

As described. Found formerly from mountains of Virginia 
north into Quebec and thence westward, but probably to 
be found today only in Maine and in forested sections north 
to 50° m Quebec, west through Saskatchewan as far north 
as 60° and thence through British Columbia to the Pacific, 
south along the Rockies to Yellowstone Park. 

Pacific Fisher. — Martes pennanti pacifica (Rhoads). 

"Colors variable, ochraceous, chestnut, blackish, etc., 
lightest on head and shoulders, darkest on rump, tail and 
legs; these usually rich brownish, black or quite black; 
skull large, much constricted interorbitally ; last upper molar 
large." (Stephens) Total length, males, 42 inches; tail 
vertebras, 14 mches; hind foot, 4.6 inches. Found from the 
northern part of California north to British Columbia, in 
forests. 



97 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



The Fisher is a large Marten and is said to have been so 
named, in contradistinction to its smaller relative, the Pine 
Marten, because of its fondness for fish. In appearance it 
looks like an overgrown black Cat or a black Fox. It is one 
of the most powerful of the smaller carnivores and one of the 
most feared members of the Weasel family. 

This animal frequents forests, hunting either in the trees 
or on the ground, and shows some preference for the neighbor- 
hood of water or swamps. It is not as aquatic, however, as 
the Mink. It does not seem to be an abundant mammal 
anywhere, and with the disappearance of the forests is becom- 
ing more scarce. In recent years Fisher fur has been in demand 
and brought such high prices that this animal has been much 
sought by trappers. 

Different observers have paid tribute to the activity of the 
Fisher. It is said to be the most active arboreal mammal in 
North America, able to catch the Pine Marten, and leaping 
from bough to bough with all the agility of a Squirrel. It is 
an equally successful hunter on the ground, pursuing prey 
such as Rabbits, clinging to the trail with persistence until it 
wears down its victim. It is nocturnal in habit and only 
rarely moving about by day. 

Like the Wolverine, the Fisher may rob trap-lines and 
destroy the animals which have been caught. It is wary and 
difficult to trap itself. It is like the Raccoon when chased by 
Dogs and trees when the Dogs overtake it. It is a very fierce 
fighter and dangerous to Dogs. 

It is one of the very few carnivores to prey with impunity 
upon the Porcupine, which it kills by overturning and attack- 
ing on the unprotected underside. 

The young number one to five in a litter, but the usual 
number is three. The young are bom about the first of May 
and the mother Fisher makes a nest, preferably in a hollow 
tree at some distance above the ground. 



Genus Mustela^ 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =34. 

^ For a revision of the Weasels see Merriam, North American Fauna, 
No. II, 1896. 

98 



WEASEL 



Weasel. — Mustela cicognani 

and related forms 

Names. — Weasel; Ermine; Stoat; Ferret. Plate VIII. 

General Description. — A slender, long-bodied, short-legged, 
predatory mammal, small in size. Head small, ears low and 
rounded, tail short, tipped with black, soles of hands and feet 
furry. Pelage composed of soft, close underfur and long, hard, 
glistening, outer hairs; brown of upperparts in sharp contrast 




Fig. 24. Weasel 

to whitish underparts; summer pelage brown above, winter 
pelage white all over except for black tip of tail. Habit 
terrestrial, intensely active, bloodthirsty. Males noticeably 
larger then females; anal musk-gland capable of secreting a 
very powerful and disagreeable odor. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts. — Summer: Uniform chocolate-brown, slightly 
darkened on top of head ; hands and feet touched with yellow- 
ish white; terminal third of tail black. 

Underparts. — Whitish with yellowish suffusion; underside 
of tail same as upperside. 

Winter pelage everywhere white except for the black tip 
on tail; a yellowish tinge on lower back and underparts. 

Immature pelage very much like that of adults. 

99 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Measurements. — Total length, males, ii inches, females, 
9 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 3.2 inches, females, 2.8 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.45 inches, females, 1.22 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Practically all of North Amer- 
ica. 

Food. — Small mamm_als and birds. 

Enemies. — Doubtless caught, on occasion, by Great Horned 
Owls, and probably by other predatory mammals such as Fox, 
Lynx, Alink, Fisher, etc., but so active as to escape most four- 
footed enemies, except under very exceptional circumstances. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Mustela 

Subgenus Mustela 

All the following forms, except rixosa and its subspecies, 
have black-tipped tails, in summer and winter. 

Bonaparte Weasel. — Mustela cicognavi cicognani Bonaparte. 
As described above. Found in "Boreal forest-covered parts 
of North America from New England and Labrador to 
coast of southeastern Alaska (Juneau, Wrangel, and Loring), 
and south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado (Silverton). 
It occurs in the interior of British Columbia (at Sicamous), 
but in the Puget Sound region is replaced by a smaller and 
darker form, P. streatori. In the United States it is common 
in New England and New York, and in the forest-covered 
parts of Minnesota. It probably occurs also in northern 
Michigan and Wisconsin." (Merriam) 

Richardson Weasel. — Mustela cicognani richardsoni (Bona- 
parte). 
Like typical cicognani but larger and with longer tail. 
Total length, males, 15.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.8 inches; 
hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in "Hudsonian timber belt 
from Hudson Bay to interior of Alaska and British 
Columbia." (Merriam) 

Newfoundland Weasel. — Mtistela cicognafii mortigena Bangs. 
Similar to richardso?ii but less brown in summer, tail shorter, 
and less white on hands and feet. Upperparts Front's 
brown in summer. Total length, males, 13 inches, females, 
II inches; tail vertebrae, males, 3.8 inches, females, 3.2 
inches; hind foot, males, 1.9 inches, females, 1.4 inches. 
Found in Newfoundland. 

Juneau Weasel.^ — Mustela cicognani alascensis (Merriam). 
Resembling richardsoni but with more white on feet. Total 
l2n;^th, males, 13.5 inches, females, 11 inches; tail vertebras, 
males, 3.8 inches, females, 3.1 inches; hind foot, males, 1.9 
inches, females, 1.4 inches. Found in the region about 
Juneau, Alaska. 



WEASEL 



Small-eared Weasel. — Mustela microtis (Allen). 

Somewhat resembling richardsoni in color, but smaller; ears 
very small. Upperparts dark brown with slight golden 
tinge; underparts white washed with sulphur-yellow. 
Males, total length, 11.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.3 inches; 
hind foot, 1.5 inches; ear from crown, .76 inch. Found in 
the vicinity of Shesley, British Columbia. 

Puget Sound Weasel. — Mustela streatori streatori (Merriam). 
Smaller and darker than typical cicogna^ii, with dark brown 
of upperparts reaching well onto belly, sometimes meeting 
along mid- line; terminal third of tail black. Winter pelage 
may or may not be white, depending upon locality. Total 
length, males, 11 inches, females, 8.5 inches; tail vertebras, 
males, 3.3 inches, females, 2 inches; hind foot, males, 1.3 
inches, females, i.o inch. Found in "Puget Sound and coast 
region of Washington and Oregon ; south at least to Yaquina 
Bay (Newport), Oregon. Confined to a narrow strip along 
the coast." (Merriam) 

Dwarf Weasel. — Mustela streatori leptus (Merriam). 
Very small in size, less black on tail than in typical streatori. 
Upperparts, summer, dark brown, tip of tail black; under- 
parts white. In winter white without yellowish tinge, tip 
of tail black. Total length, males, 9.8 inches; tail vertebras, 
2.6 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in Rocky Moun- 
tains from Colorado into Alberta. 

Little Weasel ; Sierra Least Weasel. — Mustela muricus (Bangs). 
wSize very small; tail short, black- tipped. Upperparts drab 
brown with tendency toward olivaceous; underparts white. 
Total length, males, 8.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; 
hind foot, 1.24 inches. Known from El Dorado County, 
California. 

Least Weasel; Bangs Weasel. — Mustela rixosa rixosa (Bangs). 
Size very small, smallest of the Weasels; tail short and having 
no black tip; upperparts uniform dark reddish brown; 
underparts white. Winter pelage white, including tip of 
tail. Total length, females, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.2 
inches; hind foot, .9 inch. Found in "Boreal America from 
Hudson Bay to coast of Alaska (St. Michaels) ; south to 
northern Minnesota (Pembina) and Montana (Sun River)." 
(Merriam) Plate VIII. 

Alaskan Least Weasel. — Mustela rixosa eskimo (Stone). 

Similar to typical rixosa, but duller in color. Upperparts 
(summer) brown with slight reddish tinge. Total length, 
males, 11.2 inches, females, 7.4 inches; tail vertebrce, males, 
1.2 inches, females, i.o inch; hind foot, males, .84 inch, 
females, .76 inch. Found in the region about Point 
Barrow, Alaska. 

AUeghenian Least Weasel. — Mustela allegheniensis (Rhoads). 
Resembling rixosa but larger and darker. Upperparts 
(summer) walnut-brown, underparts pure white; tail lacking 
black tip or with only a few black hairs. Winter pelage 

lOI 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



everywhere white. Total length, females, 7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, .8 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in Pennsylvania 
in Allegheny mountains. 

Plains Least WeaseL — Mustela campestris Jackson. 

Like rixosa in color but paler and with more white on under- 
parts. Upperparts (summer) Front's brown, tail without 
black tip ; underparts white, extending onto forefeet. Total 
length, males, 7.4 inches; tail vertebras, 1.3 inches; hind 
foot, .76 inch. Taken at Beemer, Cuming County, 
Nebraska. 

Tundra or Arctic WeaseL — Mustela arctica arctica (Merriam). 
"Size large; ears small; tail short but with very long black 
pencil; underparts yellow (including underside of basal half 
of tail)." Summer pelage dark yellowish brown above; in 
winter, white all over except for black tip of tail and yellow- 
ish suffusion posteriorly. Total length, males, 16 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 2.0 inches. Found on 
"Arctic coast and tundras. Specimens examined from 
Anderson River, Franklin Bay, old Fort Good Hope, lower 
Mackenzie River, Point Barrow, and St. Michaels." 
(Merriam) Plate VIII. 

Polar Weasel. — Mustela arctica polaris (Barrett-Hamilton). 
Resembling typical arctica. Upperparts (summer) golden 
brown; underparts deep "primrose yellow," white on upper 
lip, chin, and upper throat. Found in Hall Land, northern 
Greenland. 

Greenland WeaseL — Mustela audax (Barrett-Hamilton). 
Medium in size; tail short, with definite black pencil, 
Upperparts (summer) wood-brown; underparts white, a 
clear line of demarcation between upper and lower parts. 
Found in North Greenland. 

Kodiak Island Weasel. — Mustela hadiacensis (Merriam). 
Resembling arctica but smaller and differing in cranial 
characters. Total length, males, 12.8 inches; tail vertebrse, 

3.4 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found only on Kodiak 
Island, Alaska. 

Queen Charlotte WeaseL — Mustela haidarum (Preble). 

Resembling kadiacensis but smaller and with more black on 
the tail. Upperparts (summer) very dark brown. In winter 
white, with saffron tinge posteriorly and on underparts. 
Tail black for about sixty per cent of its length. Males, 
total length, 11 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; hind foot, 

1.5 inches. Found on Graham Island, Queen Charlotte 
Islands, British Columbia. 

New York WeaseL — Mustela noveboracensis noveboracensis 
(Emmons). Plate VIII. 
Males large, females much smaller; tail long and bushy, 
with black tip for third to half its length. Upperparts dark, 
rich brown; underparts white, with more or less yellowish 
wash. Winter pelage white except in southern part of its 
range. Total length, males, 16.3 inches, females, 13 inches; 

102 



WEASEL 



tail vertebrae, males, 5.8 inches, females, 4.3 inches; hind 
foot, males, 1.9 inches, females, 1.4 inches. Found in 
"Eastern United States from southern Maine to North 
Carolina, and west to Illinois." (Merriam) 

Southern Weasel. — Mtisiela novehoracensis notia (Bangs). 
Resembling typical novehoracensis but darker brown above 
and yellow below instead of white. Upperparts (summer) 
dark chocolate-brown to seal-brown. Males, total length, 
17 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.8 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches. 
Found from North Carolina to District of Columbia. 

Northern Long-tailed Weasel. — Mustela occisor (Bangs). 
Very large and long-tailed. Tail not as broad as in noveho- 
racensis and black tip very restricted. Color pattern much 
as in novehoracensis. Total length, males, 18 inches, females, 
13.5 inches; tail vertebras, males, 7 inches, females, 4.5 
inches; hind foot, males, 2.1 inches, females, 1.6 inches. 
Taken at Bucksport, Maine. 

Washington Weasel — Mustela washingtoni (Merriam). 

"Similar to P. novehoracensis in size and general appearance, 
but with longer tail and shorter black tip. Female very 
much smaller than male, as in novehoracensis.'' (Merriam) 
Total length, males, 16 inches, females, 14.4 inches; tail 
vertebras, males, 6 inches, females, 4.8 inches; hind foot, 
males, 1.8 inches, females, 1.5 inches. Found in the vicinity 
of Mount Adams, Washington. 

Florida Weasel. — Mustela peninsulce peninsulcB (Rhoads). 
Quite similar to novehoracensis externally but differing in 
cranial characters. Upperparts chocolate-brown; under- 
parts yellowish; white on upper lip and chin; brown spot 
behind comers of mouth. Total length, females, 15 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in the 
"Peninsula of Florida; limits of range unknown." (Mer- 
riam) 

Alabama Weasel. — Mustela peninsula olivacea Howell. 

Resembling typical peninsulce, but color in winter paler 
and more olivaceous and with less yellow on feet. Upper- 
parts (winter) buffy brown; underparts straw-colored; 
black tip of tail about 3 inches. Total length, males, 16.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 5.6 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found 
in Central Alabama. 

Long-tailed Weasel. — Mtistela longicauda longicauda Bona- 
parte. 
Size large; tail long, with relatively short black tip; under- 
parts strongly yellowish. Upperparts pale yellowish brown, 
darker on head; white on upper lip and chin; underparts 
deep buffy yellow to warm ochraceous. White in winter. 
Total length, males, 18 inches, females, 15.5 inches; tail 
vertebras, males, 6.6 inches, females, 5.8 inches; hind foot, 
males, 2 inches, females, 1.8 inches. Found on "Great 
Plains from Kansas northward." (Merriam) 

103 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Mountain Long-tailed WeaseL — Mustela longicauda oribasus 
(Bangs). 
Darker than typical longicauda but equal to it in size. 
Upperparts dark brown, without any tinge of reddish, 
darker about head; underparts buffy yellow; white on upper 
lip and chin and on tops of feet. Total length, females, 15.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found 
in the region about the head of Kettle River, British Columbia. 

Minnesota WeaseL — Mustela longicauda spadix (Bangs). 
Resembling typical longicauda but darker, upperparts 
chocolate-brown. Total length, males, 18.2 inches, females, 

14 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 6.6 inches, females, 5.3 
inches; hind foot, males, 2.2 inches, females, 1.7 inches. 
Found in "Edge of timber belt in Minnesota, along boundary 
between Transition and Boreal Zones." (Merriam) 

Missouri WeaseL — Mustela primulina Jackson. 

A bright- colored member of the longicauda group. Darker 
above than longicauda, underparts yellow, not buif . Upper- 
parts Brussels brown; tail black- tipped ; chin white. Total 
length, females, 13 inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; hind foot, 
1.8 inches. Taken at Avilla, Jasper County, Missouri. 

Cascade Mountain WeaseL — Mustela saturata (Merriam). 
Large, long-tailed, dark. Upperparts dark, raw umber- brown, 
darker on top of head; brown spot at comer of mouth; 
chin white ; underparts yellow to orange. Total length , males, 
17 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.6 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches. 
Found in "Cascade and Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and 
Washington, northward into British Columbia. " (Miller) 

Mountain WeaseL — Mustela arizonensis (Mearns). 

Resembling longicauda in color and markings, but smaller. 
Upperparts raw umber-brown, darker on head; underparts 
yellow to orange, except for white chin and upper lip. 
Total length, males, 15.4 inches, females, 14 inches; tail 
vertebrae, males, 5.8 inches, females, 5.2 inches; hind foot, 
males, 1.8 inches, females, 1.6 inches. Found in "Broadly, 
the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountain systems, reaching 
British Columbia in the Rock>^ Mountain region, but not 
known north of the Siskiyou Mountains in the Sierra- 
Cascade system." (Merriam) 

Black Hills WeaseL — Mustela alleni (Merriam). 

Resembling arizonensis but more yellow on upperparts, 
which are golden to yellowish brown. Total length, males, 

15 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.5 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. 
Found in the "Black Hills, South Dakota." (Merriam) 

California WeaseL — Mustela xafithogenys xanthogenys Gray. 
"Size medium; tail long; face conspicuously marked with 
whitish, but rest of head not black; underparts ochraceous. 
Upperparts from back of head to terminal part of tail in 
summer pelage raw umber-brown, tinged with golden; in 
winter pelage, drab brown, without yellowish suffusion; 
head always darker, becoming dusky over nose; a large 

104 



Plate VIII 




r 

Least Weevsel 



Arct \c Weasel -wiriter- 




Arctic Weasel -sum me r- 



NewYorRVeasel 




Bridled Weasel 



,^ 



^ 



Black-footed Ferret 



WEASEL 



rectangular spot between eyes, and a broad oblique band 
between eye and ear, whitish; end of tail black; a brown 
spot behind comers of mouth; chin white; rest of underparts, 
including forefeet all round and inner side and toes of hind 
feet, varying from buffy ochraceous to ochraceous orange." 
(Merriam) Total length, males, i6 inches, females, 14.7 
inches; tail vertebrae, males, 6.2 inches, females, 5.4 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.7 inches, females, 1.6 inches. Found in 
"Sonoran and Transition faunas of California, on both sides 
of the Sierra Nevada. " (Merriam) 

Redwoods Weasel.^ — Mustela xanthogenys munda (Bangs). 
Resembling typical xanthogenys but smaller and darker. 
Upperparts (winter) dark, rich tawny russet, dusky on top 
of head and nose; underparts deep rich orange-buff. In 
summer darker and duller above, paler below. Males, total 
length, 15 inches; tail vertebrce, 5.6 inches; hind foot, 1.7 
inches. Found in the coast region of northern California. 

Oregon Weasel. — Mustela xanthogenys oregonensis (Merriam). 
Larger, darker, and with more restricted face markings than 
typical xanthogenys. Upperparts pale chocolate-brown ; tail 
without any yellowish tinge, terminal fifth black. Total 
length, females, 16.5 inches; tail vertebras, 6.2 inches; hind 
foot, 1.8 inches. Found in "Rogue River Valley, Oregon; 
limits of range unknown." (Merriam) 

Bridled Weasel. — Mustela frenata frenata Lichtenstein. 

A large, long-tailed Weasel with conspicuous white markings 
on head. Upperparts light brown except for top of head, 
which is blackish, marked by a white band between eye and 
ear and a small white spot between eyes; underparts och- 
raceous yellow, whitish on chin and throat, dark spot behind 
comer of mouth; tail with short black tip. Total length, 
males, 19.5 inches, females, 17.5 inches; tail vertebras, males, 
7.7 inches, females, 7.5 inches; hind foot, males, 2 inches, 
females, 1.7 inches. Found from the Valley of Mexico north 
to southern Texas. Plate VIII. 

New Mexico Bridled Weasel. — Mustela frenata neomexicana 
(Barber and Cockerell). 
Paler than typical frenata, with more white on head. Upper- 
parts pale yellowish ochre ; terminal two inches of tail black ; 
underparts similar to back but paler; head brownish black 
with large whitish patch between eyes, and with broad 
whitish band between eye and ear. Males, total length, 20 
inches; tail vertebras, 8 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found 
in the Mesilla Valley of New Mexico 

Subgenus Putorius 

Black-footed Ferret. — Mustela nigripes (Audubon and Bach- 
man). Plate VIII. 
Size large; more robust than other North American Weasels, 
mink-like. Upperparts pale buffy yellow, with a sprinkling 

105 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



of dark brown hairs on crown and back; underparts buffy 
or cream-colored; hands and feet blackish; a broad black 
band across eyes like a mask; tail short, colored like body, 
except for short blackish tip. Total length, males, 23, 
inches; tail vertebrae, 5.3 inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. 
Female slightly smaller. Found on "Great Plains, from 
western North Dakota and northern Montana to Texas; 
not known west of eastern base of Rocky Mountains." 
(Miller.) 



Weasels are widely distributed over both the Eastern and 
Western Hemispheres, but the group is essentially a northern 
one and the greatest number of species is found north of the 
equator. Throughout North America north of the Rio Grande 
there are no fewer than 36 species and subspecies of this active 
little carnivore, and it would appear as if nature had evolved a 
special type of Weasel to fit each economic niche. 

There ar^ small Weasels, such as rixosa, which feed on 
Meadow Mice and very small rodents, the larger Weasels, 
such as arctica which prey on Hares, and Weasels such as 
novehoracensis and arizonensis which hunt a variety of game 
and are equipped to gain a living from a great many different 
sources. The largest of our Weasels, the Black-footed Ferret, 
preys upon Prairie-dogs. 

Weasels are highly carnivorous and predatory, representing 
an extreme development along these lines. They are intensely 
active and alert, about at all seasons of the year and may be 
seen at any hour of the day. They are probably most active 
at night, however, and rest much of the day. In the regions 
where winters are cold and long the Weasels turn white, but 
in the southern parts of their range they maintain the yellow 
or brown summer pelage throughout the year, only slightly 
different in winter, due to wear and molt. In the winter coat, 
any of the Weasels may be called Ermine, but arctica is most 
nearly related to the true Ermine of the Old World. 

Weasels are essentially terrestrial, although they have been 
known to climb trees, and seem to be sure of themselves above 
the ground; they habitually hunt on the ground or in the 
burrows under the ground. Possessed of good powers of 
smell, sight, and hearing, they are tireless hunters and are 
so remarkably successful that one wonders how small mam- 
mals and ground -nesting birds are able to maintain themselves 

106 



MINK 



against such enemies. The Weasel kills not only for food, but 
seemingly for sheer pleasure, and when in the midst of a 
number of victims slays all. As many as forty chickens have 
been killed in one night by a single Weasel (fide Bachman) and 
Kennicott tells of finding a pile of a hundred or more Rats 
and Mice killed by Weasels. The normal food of Weasels is 
warm blood which is sucked from the neck or base of the skull 
of the victim. 

Weasels are curious and bold. When one is discovered it is 
a simple matter to attract its attention, and even after it has 
disappeared in a rock-pile a squeak will cause it to reappear 
almost instantly. This small hunter is so fearless and confident 
of its powers that it will not hesitate to attack mammals many 
times its own size, and so rapid are its movements it can dodge 
anything less rapid than a bullet. Indeed, it is credited with 
being able to dodge at the flash of a gun and escape even a 
bullet, but all that I ever shot at either did not possess such 
speed or else had very bad luck. 

Weasels are easily trapped and enter a trap without suspic- 
ion. Since they prefer to kill their own game, it is probably 
curiosity more than hunger that takes them into the trap, in 
places where wild life is at all abundant. Even in summer, 
when there was plenty for a Weasel to catch, I have caught 
them on baits far from fresh. A trapped Weasel is the very 
picture of baffled frenzy and rage, a furious creature that 
ounce for ounce would know no master. 

The female Weasel has from four to six or even eight young 
at a birth and the mother is absolutely fearless in protecting 
her litter. 

Subgenus Lutreola ^ 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, i; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =34. 

Mink. — Mustela vison 

and related forms 

Names.— Mink; American Mink. Plate IX. 

General Description.— A weasel-like mammal nearly as 

large as a small House-cat but much more slender. Body 

^ For a synopsis of this subgenus see N. Hollister, Proceedings U. S 
National Museum, Vol. 44, pp. 471-480, 1913. 

107 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



elongate and supple; head sub triangular viewed from above; 
ears small; neck long; legs short; tail about half as long as 
head and body, moderately bushy; feet with five toes; pelage 
composed of soft underfur more or less concealed by long. 




Fig. 25. Mink 

glistening guard-hairs; color dark, glossy brown; anal musk- 
gland well developed; semi-aquatic in habit; alert and active 
in behavior. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no noticeable seasonal variation. 

Upperparts a uniform dark umber-brown, rich and glossy 
in appearance, slightly darker along back and tail ; underparts 
like upperparts except for white area on chin and irregular 
white spots which may be scattered anywhere. 

Immature pelage not quite as dark as adults, and lacking 
most of the long, hard, outer hairs. 

Measurements. — Females noticeably smaller than males. 
Total length, males, 24 inches; tail vertebrae, 8 inches; hind 
foot, 2.5 inches. Weight (large male) 2 pounds; females, 
I pound, 10 ounces. 

Geographical Distribution. — Nearly all of North America, 
from Gulf of Mexico north to Arctic Circle. 

Food. — Strictly carnivorous; fish, frogs, snakes, crayfish, 
small mammals, such as Muskrat, Mice, and Rabbits, and birds. 

Enemies. — Few in number; Great Homed Owl. 
108 



Plate IX 




Mink 



s«^ 










^pv 


\ 


Otter 





i 



MINK 



Species and Subspecies of the Subgenus Lutreola 

^^'Ichre^lf "' ^'"^' ^^^'^ Mmk.~Mustela vison vison 

As described above the smallest of the American Minks 

Found m "Eastern Canada, west to Hudson Bay south in 

interior to Catskill Mountains, New York, and to nSrthem 

l'^^^^- i^^JT^ - ^^^ --^ --^ of 5few 

Common Mink.-l/^^.te/a vison mink (Peale and Beauvois) 

Colored about as m typical vison or slightly darker- larger 

and more robust. Total length, males, 25.5 inches tall 

vertebra, 8.5 inches; hind foot, 2.9 inchts^ Foundin 

Eastern United States, from coast of New England south 

JnH ?1 h^''"''^'"^' ^^^' ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^or, to central Georgia 

Ta nJ^^^T/ ^^stward through southern Pennsylvania 

and Ohio to Missouri and northeastern Texas." (Hoi S 

Florida -^vcik.—Mustela vison lutensis (Bangs) ^"^^''^ster) 

tail1hor?''''"Tn?.M' Pfi!' '"'f ' '° ""^^^ o^ ''^^^'^ brown; 
TL^II u- ll^^ length,_ males, 23 inches; tail vertebrae 
8 mches; hmd foot, 2.8 mches. Found in region along 

to^??Sid1.''^tHXSr^^' '''''' ^^^^ S- '^ C-o^- 
Southern Mink.— 7lf//5/^/a mow vulgivaga (Bangs) 

Resembling ^r/«^ but paler and smaller. Color uniform 
light brown rich and lustrous, darker on end of tail; whi?^ 
on chm and small spot on throat. Total length, Jales 
24.5 mches; tail vertebra, 7.5 inches; hind foot, 2.9 inches' 
fh^M— Coast of Louisiana and Mississippi North in 
(Holl^ter'''''' '"'" ^°"°^' '" northern Louisiana" 
^cSfihTf '^ Mink -^f .,,/./« ,,-,,,, letifera Hollister. 
breast ^Tnf^rr'.r^^ T^^^^ 'P°'' on chin, throat, and 
frf.T 1. w ^^''^^^' "'^^^S' 26 inches; tail vertebr^ 04 
inches; hmd foot, 2.9 inches. Found "From northerifwis 
noXrTlr"'^''" SouthDakota south to northern iTlinoi , 
northern Missouri, and southern Kansas." (Hollister) 
Hudson Bay Mink.-lf «.^,/a vison lacustris (Preble) ^ 
wh ?I ^a^k.^^^ocolate-brown above, a little lighter below- 
white on chm and irregularly distributed on breast Cd 
between hmd legs. Total length, males, 27 inches- tail 
vertebra 8 inches; hind foot, 3 inches. Found n "SerTor 
of Canada from Great Bear Lake and western shores Cf 

Man??nhi^7 '°".l^ '^;r^^. ^^b^^^^' Saskatchewan and 
Manitoba to southern North Dakota." (Hollister) 

(B^n^)"^ '' ^^'"^^ Mink.-M.././. vison :lrTrlumenos 

hlT^i"- ^ ^'l\ "^^.^ ^^ ^olor. Color dark sooty brown 
blackish on tail ; chm white. Total length, males, L inches' 

'4ltem NortVr Y"" '°°^^-9 --hes. p'oundln 

western North America, from northern British Columbia 

109 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



south to the Sierra Nevada Mountains m California and 
Rocky Mountains in New Mexico. ' (Holhster) 
Calif orma Lowland Mink.— Mustela vtson cBstuanna Grinnell. 
ResembUng energumenos but smaller ; separated from 
7n:r^menl chiefly on the basis of c^--^?^aracte^^^^^^^^^ 
paler and pelage not so heavy. Found m The lowlands ot 
west-central California, particularly the delta region at the 
Confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaqum rivers; west 
S Petaluma and Marin Counties. No mmks are known to 
occufon Sfe south side of Golden Gate and San Francisco 
Bay." (Grinnell) 
Island Mivik.—Mustela vison nesolestes (Heller). 

''sSe intermediate between ingens and energumenos- colors 
rather dark'' (Hollister) Color Vandyke brown, lighter 
on cheeks and sides, darker on tail; underparts walnut- 
brown white on chin and irregular white spots or areas on 
throat' clest inner arm, and abdomen. Total length, males, 
^4 s^nche?; tail vertebra 7-3 inches; ^ind, foot 3-2^^^^^^^^ 
Found in "Alexander Archipelago, A aska_ (Hollister) 
Kenai Mink.— Mw5/e/a vison melampeplus (iilhot). 

Darker than energumenos. Color dark chocolate without 
any reddish Unge; underparts slightly paler than upperparts; 
wWte spot on 'chin and sometimes throat. Total length 
males 28 inches; tail vertebrae, 7-2 inches; hind foot, 
^fnches Found in "Kenai Peninsula and Cook Inlet region, 
Alaska " (Hollister) . . .^ .v 

Alaska Mink Big mnk.—Mustela vison ingens (Osgood). 
Larle^ of existing American Minks; re^emhXmz energumenos 
Sgh?er in cofor. Total length, males, 28.8 mches; ta,^ 
vertebrae 7.2 inches; hind foot, 3.0 inches. Found m 
"Northern western, knd central Alaska; northern Yukon 
and nortS;estem Mackenzie; south to the Alaska Peninsula 
and to Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie; east to Anderson 
River." (Holhster) 

******* 

The Mink is merely a large Weasel of somewhat specialized 

habits and shows this relationship rather clearly m its general 

structure It differs from the other Weasels m slightly more 

robust build, uniformly darker coloration, and semiaquatic 

^""tS mammal has a wide range, but prefers the vicinity of 
streams or standing water. It is found in the forests or out 
on the plains where it follows the water- courses. The den 
may be in a burrow in a bank, under logs, m rocks, or m 

anv similar nook. _ ^ 1, x 

Much of the food of the Mink is caught m the water, but 

this animal is not so specialized for an aquatic existence as the 

no 



WOLVERINE 



Otter and does much hunting along the banks of streams 
It IS fully capable of catching active fish such as trout and 
thus Its range of diet runs all the way from mammals such as 
Kabbits and Muskrats, through frogs and less active land dwel- 
ling prey, to any of the highly developed forms of stream life 
There are records to tell of the bloodthirsty temperament of 
the Mmk and apparently it sometimes kills for the sheer love 
of the act, although it is said to be less given to this than the 
smaller Weasels. It has also been stated that the Mink can 
be tamed and makes a very interesting pet. A trapped Mink 
is the triple distilled essence of fury and red-eyed rage. 

The odor of the musk carried by the Mink, as by all the 
Weasels, and set free at moments of great excitement, is very 
powerful and disagreeable, more offensive to the nostrils of 
some people than the musk of the Skunk. 

Although the Mink can and does climb, upon occasion it 
seldom does so. ' 

The fur of the Mink is of high quality, being durable, of 
close texture, and a good natural color. 

The Mink has five or six young in the average litter, the 
number varying from three to ten. They are bom from 
April to May and there is but one brood a season. 

Subfamily Guloninae. Wolverines 

Form heavy and robust; size large; feet subplantigrade • 
tail short and bushy, the hairs drooping; pelage quite long' 
anal scent-glands moderately developed; habit terrestrial. 

Genus Gulo 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, i; Premolars, f ; Molars, i =38. 

Wolverine— Gulo luscus 

and related forms 

Names.— Wolverine; Glutton; Carcajou; Skunk-bear 

General Description.— A sturdy, long-haired member of the 

Weasel family of which it is the largest. Head broad and 

powerful; ears short; form robust and bear-like; legs sturdy 

toes five on fore- and hind feet; claws large and curved, sem'i- 

retractile; soles hairy; semiplantigrade; tail fairly long, heavy, 

III 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



and bushy; pelage long and thick; color pattern dark brown 
with broad, light, lateral band. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no very marked seasonal varia- 
tion in color but great individual variation shown. 

Upperparts. — Dark brown to almost black, marked with 
two broad, pale, lateral bands, brownish white to yellowish 




Fig. 26. Wolverine 

white, which run from just back of shoulder to rump where 
they merge and extend onto basal half of tail above; head 
grizzled gray and brown; muzzle dark. 

Underparts.— Dark brown with an irregular spot or two 
of yellowish white on throat or chest. 

Immature resemble adults in appearance. 

Measurements.— ^lales slightly larger than females. Total . 
length, males, 41 inches, females, 37 inches; tail vertebras, 
males,' 8.5 inches, females, I.2 inches; hind foot, males, 8 
inches, females, 7 inches; weight, males, 30-35 pounds, females, 
22-27 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution.— North America from the Arctic 
Ocean south into the northern United States. 

Food.— Birds, mammals, amphibians, fish, and berries, but 
principally rodents such as Ground Squirrels, Woodchucks, 
Mice, Beaver, etc. ; occasionally even Caribou and Moose. 

Enemies.— Apparently not attacked by any of the larger 
carnivores. 



WOLVERINE 



Species of the Genus Gulo 

Common Wolverine. — Gulo luscus (Linnseus). Plate XI 
As described above. Found from the Arctic Ocean and 
Baffin Bay southward and from the Pacific to the Atlantic, 
reaching the extreme northeastern United States, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and down the Rocky- 
Mountains into Utah and Colorado. 

Mount McKinley Wolverine. — Gulo hylceus Elliot. 

Coloration very dark. "Head, throat, sides of neck and 
body, and base of tail chestnut; hind part of neck, back, 
underparts, legs, and feet black; chest spotted or blotched 
with white or orange, and orange spot on anal region; nose 
darker chestnut than head; tail, except at base, black." 
(Elliot) Found in the region of Mount McKinley, Alaska. 

Southern Wolverine. — Gulo luteus Elliot. 

Rather paler in color than luscus but like it in color pattern. 
Top of head and back of eyes pale gray; buff on sides, and 
upper base of tail; black on nose, legs, feet, and most of tail; 
chestnut on nape, lower back, and rump. Total length, 
38 inches; tail vertebree, 8 inches; hind foot, 6.8 inches. 
Found in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California from 
Tulare County north; limits of range unknown but reported 
from Yakutat Bay, Alaska. 

Giilo auduboni Matschie. Taken in Newfoundland. 

Gulo hairdi Matschie. Taken at Fort Union, North Dakota. 

Gulo katschemakensis Matschie. Taken on the Kenai 

Peninsula, Alaska. 

Gulo niediecki Matschie. Taken at Dease Lake, British 

Columbia. 

The above four species are listed in Miller's North American 
Recent Mammals. They all appear to be synonyms of Gulo 
luscus since they are indistinguishable from that animal. 



The status of the Wolverines is not very satisfactory and the 
genus calls for a revision. It is likely that all of the North 
American Wolverines should be subspecies of one full species, 
lusctis. 

The Wolverine has an unenviable reputation most of which 
it has truly earned, but part of which has been imparted to it 
by fanciful legend. Since it is not a common animal today in 
regions which most of us may visit, we must turn to the 
accounts of the trappers, traders, and explorers who know the 
north country, or to the descriptions of the naturalists who 
knew it before it disappeared from its early range. 

The size and powerful body of the Wolverine set it off from 
the other carnivores for it is the largest of the Weasel family, 

113 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



much larger than the so-called small carnivores but smaller 
than a Black Bear. The long, dark pelage, marked with the 
broad lateral bands of yellowish white, is an unmistakable 
character of identification. 

This big cousin of the Weasel confines its activities to the 
ground; he can climb low trees if need be. Accounts of the 
Wolverine credit it with unusual strength and an aggressive 
disposition before which even the Bear gives way. Upon rare 
occasion it will attack and kill Deer and Caribou, and has been 
known to attack even the Moose. It digs out or breaks into 
the trapper's cache and carries off or scatters and ruins all his 
stores. It follows the trail of the trapper when he makes his 
rounds and destroys every animal it finds in the traps or 
breaks the traps themselves. 

The number of young in a Wolverine family is generally 
two or three but may reach five. They are bom in June to 
July (in high latitudes). The female makes a nest of leaves 
under rocks or in some sheltered cranny. 

The name Glutton has been given to the Wolverine because 
of the supposed greediness of the animal. There is little to 
show that it is any more greedy than other carnivores, which 
are all heavy eaters when food is plentiful. 

Subfamily Lutrinae. Otters 

Form long and slender; head flattened; legs very short; toes 
webbed; claws reduced or absent; tail long and muscular; 
pelage very dense; habit semiaquatic. 

Genus Lutra 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, 1; Premolars, f ; Molars, | =36. 

Otter. — Lutra canadensis 

and related forms 

Names. — Otter: Common Otter; Land Otter; River Otter. 

General Description. — A long, lithe-bodied carnivore, of 
weasel-like form, with webbed feet, and long tail. Size large; 
head rather broad and flat; body long and proportionally 
slender; legs short; fore- and hind feet with five toes, soles 
hairy, forefeet webbed; tail long and tapering, pelage very 



OTTER 

dense and composed of thick, short underfur and long, glisten- 
ing guard-hairs; habit more or less aquatic. Plate IX 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no very marked seasonal varia- 
tion in color. 

Upperparts uniform glossy brown, dark and rich in tone, 
grayish on lips and cheeks; underparts lighter than upperparts, 
with grayish tinge. 




Fig. 27. Otter 



Measurements. — Total length, 40-45 inches; tail vertebrse, 
1 2. 5- 1 5 inches; hind foot, 4-4.7 inches. Weight from 18 to 25 
pounds, about 20 being average. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America. 

Food. — Principally fish and crayfish, but at times birds and 
small mammals such as ducks, poultry, Muskrats, young 
Beaver, etc. ; frogs on occasion. 

Enemies. — Except for man, well able to elude any animal 
powerful enough to be an enemy. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Lutra 

Canada Otter. — Lutra canadensis canadensis (Schreber). 
As described above. Found from Labrador to north of the 
Arctic Circle in Alaska and Yukon, south on the Atlantic 
coast to South Carolina. 

Interior Otter. — Lutra canadensis interior Swenk. 

Paler and larger than typical canadensis. Upperparts 
(summei) dark reddish brown. Total length, 53 inches; 

115 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



tail vertebrae, i8 inches; hind foot, 4.8 inches. Found in 
Nebraska and adjacent states; hmits of range unknown. 

Carolina Otter. — Lutra canadensis lataxina (F. Cuvier). 

Small, lighter in color than typical canadensis, and soles of 
feet less hairy. Upperparts Prout's brown washed with pale 
yellowish on sides of head and neck. Total length, 45 
inches; tail vertebrae, 18 inches. Found in the southeastern 
states — NorthandSouthCarolina — limitsof range unknown. 

Florida Otter. — Lutra canadensis vaga (Bangs). 

Slightly larger than typical canadensis, with longer tail and 
more reddish in color. Upperparts, "Lustrous chestnut- 
brown, somewhat paler below; cheeks, lips, chin, throat, 
and sides of neck grizzled yellowish brown." (Bangs) 
Total length, 51 inches; tail vertebrae, 19.5 inches; hind 
foot, 5.2 inches. Found in Florida and eastern Georgia. 





Fig. 28. Feet of Otter; hind foot at left, forefoot at right. 



Pacific Otter. — Lutra canadensis pacifica (Rhoads). 

Very large; browner than typical canadensis. Upperparts 
ruddy seal-brown; pale wood-brown on sides of head, neck, 
and on breast; underparts much lighter than upperparts. 
Total length, 45 inches; tail vertebrae, 17 inches; hind foot, 
5 inches. Found in the Pacific Northwest from Oregon to 
the coast of Alaska. 

California Otter. — Lutra canadensis hrevipilosus Grinnell. 
"Similar to L. c. pacifica and L. c. periclyzomce but general 
size greater, pelage shorter, coloration paler, ..." (Grin- 
nell) Upperparts bister, grizzled with light-tipped hairs; 
paler on sides and underparts; much paler, buffy brown, on 
throat, chin, and upper lip. Total length, 46 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 1 8 inches; hind foot, 5 inches. Found in California 
on Sacramento and San Joaquin drainages. 



OTTER 



Sonora Otter. — Lutra cmiadensis sonora (Rhoads). 

Large in size, light in color. Upperparts brown, grizzled 
with light- tipped hairs giving impression of pale brown; 
underparts light grayish brown; pale yellowish or cream 
color on sides of head and neck. Total length, 52 inches; 
tail vertebrse, 19 inches; hind foot, 5.8 inches. Found in 
Arizona and southern California. 

Queen Charlotte Otter; Island Otter. — Lutra periclyzomcE 
Elliot. 

Known only from skulls; no descriptions of external char- 
acters have been published. Probably as large or larger 
than pacifica. Found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia. 

Newfoundland Otter. — Lutra degener Bangs. 

Size small; color dark. Upperparts seal-brown to blackish, 
lighter on sides of head and neck. Total length, 40 inches; 
tail vertebras, 14 inches; hind foot, 4.6 inches. Found in 
Newfoundland. 



The Weasel family is versatile and in the Otter it has a 
member which is the finest aquatic specialization, short of the 
Sea Otter, among the mammals which live on the land and 
have four limbs recognizable as legs. The Otter has made 
the most of its dry-land equipment and the broad, webbed 
feet give it such mastery of the streams that it catches the 
swiftest of fish, while the dense fur and subcutaneous layer of 
fat make it indifferent to long immersion. 

The long, lithe body, large size, webbed feet, and long, 
muscular tail are sufficient identifying characters. 

Otters are never far distant from lakes or water-courses 
although they are great travelers and are known to have an 
individual range of many miles. In summer their movements 
are governed by the abundance or scarcity of fish and under 
favorable circumstances food is easy to get, but in winter ice 
may close the streams and the Otter are forced to seek stretches 
where rapids or falls provide open water. Such places may be 
scarce and far apart. 

The Otter is a playful mammal and one of the common 
manifestations of this playfulness is the "otter-slide" which is 
a steep slope down which the animals coast on the breast and 
belly, with the forelegs bent backward out of the way. These 
slides are oftenest noted on the snow in winter, but may also 
be made on slippery clay banks in summer. At the bottom 
of such a slide the Otter dives into the water. The stories told 

117 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



of tame Otter indicate that they make unusual pets, friendly, 
good natured, and with very little of the uncertain temper 
common to the Weasels. 

The Otter is a strong and capable fighter and more than a 
match for a Dog in fair fight on land; in the water the Otter 
is much more than a match for a Dog. 

From one to three young are born to the Otter, with as many 
as five noted in an exceptional instance. The young arrive in 
late April and but one family is reared in a season. It is said 
to have its den in a bank with an under- water entrance, or less 
frequently in a hollow log. 

The Otter is active at all hours. "The species makes a 
variety of noises. It utters a loud sniffmg that sounds like 
clearing its nose of water, and it growls and snarls in menace. 
A female in the National Zoo at Washington, obtained in 
northern New York, often emitted a loud birdy chirp to 
express inquiry, desire, or hunger. Another female that I was 
sketching at the same time (April 28), made a low chatter or 
querulous grumble that seemed to express the same idea. The 
latter was from Florida. A captive Otter kept by J. K. 
MacDonald, of Winnipeg, in 1886, at Bersimis on the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence, used to utter such a piercing whistle that my 
informant repeatedly heard across the river (a mile and a half 
away), as plainly, he said, as he could hear a man whistle if in 
the same room with him. He knew of no other animal sound 
so shrill, save the scream of the eagle or loon." (Seton.) 

The fur of the Otter is valuable and very serviceable, being 
among the most durable of all the furs. 

Subfamily Enhydrinae. Sea Otters 

Characters as given under Enhydra. 
Genus Enhydra 

Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, i =32. 

Sea Otter. — Enhydra lutris 

and subspecies 

Names.^ — vSea Otter; Sea Beaver; Kalan. 
General Description. — A large Otter with specialized struc- 
tures for a marine habitat. Head rather broad and flat; ears 

118 



SEA OTTERS 



almost hidden in fur; body supple; limbs short; forefeet 
proportionally small; hind feet broadly webbed, flipper-like, 
haired on both surfaces; tail short and thick. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation 
in color. 

Upperparts dark brown or brownish black, glossy and 
rich in tone, sprinkled with white- tipped hairs; grayer on top 
of head and neck; underparts same as upperparts. 

Measurements. — Total length, about 4 feet; tail vertebrae, 
12 inches; hind foot, 6 inches long by 4 inches wide. 

Geographical Distribution. — Formerly the north Pacific 
coast south to Lower California. 

Food. — Marine animal life such as fish, crustaceans, shell 
fish, cuttle-fish, sea-urchins, etc. ; said to eat seaweeds and 
kelp when forced to do so, and to eat meat when obtainable. 

Enemies. — Killer Whale and Steller Sea Lion. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Enhydra 

Northern Sea Otter. — Enhydra lutris lutris (Linuceus). 

As described above. Today exterminated over most of its 
range and to be found in North America only in a few 
scattered localities from Vancouver Island north to the 
Alaskan coast and adjacent islands. 

Southern Sea Otter. — Enhydra lutris nereis (Merriam). 

Larger than typical lutris, browner, less black, and with 
fewer white-tipped hairs. Total length, 4 to 6 feet; tail 
vertebrce, 11 inches; hind foot, 6 inches. Found today only 
in very few localities along coast of southern California 
south along lower California, or possibly even extinct. 

* * * * * * jf: 

The Sea Otter is such a rare mammal today, so nearly 
extinct, that there is very little likelihood any of the readers 
of this handbook will ever see one alive. There are only a 
few localities where Sea Otter are known to exist and these 
animals have become so wary that they very seldom come onto 
the land. 

The favorite haunts are kelp beds and shallow waters along 
rocky islands and coves. They get all of their food from the 
sea and are expert swimm.ers, diving to depths of three hundred 
feet or more. 

The young is usually but one to a birth, occasionally two, 
and may be born any month of the year. The mother is very 
affectionate and solicitous of her offspring. 

119 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Subfamily Mephitinae. Skunks 

Form robust; legs short; tail long and very bushy; feet sub- 
plantigrade; anal scent-glands highly developed; pelage quite 
long; color pattern conspicuous black and white; habit 
terrestrial. 

Genus Spilogale^ 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, a= 34. 

Spotted Skunk.— Spilogale putorius 

and related forms 

Names.— Spotted Skunk; Little Spotted Skunk; Polecat- 
Little Striped Skunk. Plate X. 

General Description.— A small Skunk, much less robust 
than Mephitis and more nearly weasel-like, about the size of a 




Fig. 29. Spotted Skunk 

half -grown House-cat. Pelage long; color pattern black and 
white, arranged in conspicuous stripes or connected spots; 
head small and weasel-like, legs short, tail bushy, both fore- 
and hind feet with four tubercles at the bases of the toes. 
Color. — Sexes alike in color. 

^ For a full revision of this genus see A. H. Howell, North American 
Fauna, No. 26, 1906. 

120 




Littly Spotted Skunk 




Hod- nosed Skunk 




Common Skunk 



SPOTTED SKUNK 




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121 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts, — Conspicuously contrasting pattern of alter- 
nate black and white areas: the ground or base color of body 
and tail is black, and white markings occur as follows; white 
spots or irregular areas on forehead between eyes, on each 
side of rump, and on each side of tail at base; four white 
stripes, parallel and running from crown or neck, along the 
upperparts about to middle of body; outer pair of white stripes 
reaches forward to in front of ear; a lateral white stripe reach- 
ing from behind foreleg to rump where it curves up onto back 
to meet or almost meet the dorsal stripe; on rump the white 
dorsal stripes continue as detached spots which are met by 
transverse white bands that pass in front of hips; tail black, 
except for white tip. 

Underparts. — Black. 

Immature marked like adults. 

Measurements. — Males slightly larger than females. Total 
length, males, 19-22.5 inches; females, 17. 5-2 1.8; tail vertebrae, 
males 7.8-8.8, females, 6.6-8.2 inches; hind foot, males, 1.8-2 
inches, females, 1.5- 1.8 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of the United States. 

Food. — Mainly insects, beetles, and grasshoppers but 
varied with small mammals, birds, eggs, lizards, salamianders, 
et cetera, and occasionally fruit. 

Enemies. — Rather free from • molestation by predatory 
creatures because of its musk defense, but sometimes caught 
and eaten by great Homed Owl and Bobcat. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Spilogale 

Alleghenian Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale putorius (Linnaeus). 
The animal of the above description. Found in "Missis- 
sippi, Alabama, western Georgia, western South Carolina, 
and northward along the AUeghenies to northern Virginia; 
western limits of range unknown." (Howell) 

Florida Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale amharvalis Bangs. 

Smaller than putorius, with shorter tail and more white. 
Total length, males, 14-16 inches; tail vertebras, 4.2-5.4 
inches; hind foot, 1.5- 1.7 inches. White dorsal stripes 
about as wide as the black areas they enclose; large, white 
spot on frontal area, white patch in front of ear which runs 
back into outer white dorsal stripe, white on terminal third 
of tail above, and on terminal half below; a strap-shaped 
white patch on tail near base, above. Found in "Eastern 
portion of peninsular Florida, from New Smvrna south to 
Lake Worth." (Howell) 

122 



SPOTTED SKUNK 



Prairie Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale interrupt a (Rafinesque). 
Most like putorius but blacker and without prominent white 
tip to tail. Total length, males, 19.6-2 1.5 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 7.2-8.9 inches; hind foot, 1.8-2 inches. Dorsal 
stripes generally narrow and frequently interrupted and 
broken up into widely separated spots; white frontal spot 
small; white ear spot usually not running into white dorsal 
stripe; tail entirely black or at most with very small terminal 
tuft of white. Found in "Iowa, southern Minnesota, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; south in 
eastern Texas to about the middle of the state." (Howell) 

Gulf Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale indianola Merriam. 

Color pattern resembling the discontinuous striping of 
interrupta, but tail with white tip about equal to one-quarter 
of the upper surface; median pair of white stripes generally 
narrower than outer pair. Total length, males, 17. 6-21 
inches; tail vertebrce, 6.6-8.2 inches; hind foot, 1.8-2 inches; 
Found in "Coast region of Texas and Louisiana; south to 
Victoria, Tamaulipas." (Howell) 

Rio Grande Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale leucoparid Merriam. 
Characterized by extensive white markings. Lateral and 
outer pair of white dorsal stripes very broad; large white 
spots or areas on forehead, in front of ear, and on tail, 
terminal fourth above, terminal two-thirds below. Total 
length, males, 16 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.8 inches; hind foot, 
1.9 inches. Found in "Arid region of western Texas and 
southern New Mexico; south over the eastern side of the 
Mexican table-land to Hidalgo; west to central Arizona." 
(Howell) 

Rocky Mountain Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale tenuis Howell. 
Resembling leucoparia but with narrower white lateral 
stripes; white patch on forehead long and narrow; end of 
tail white for terminal third. Total length, males, 18 inches; 
tail vertebras, 6.6 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found on 
"Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and 
northern New Mexico ; limits of range unknown. ' ' (Howell) 

Canyon Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale gracilis gracilis Merriam. 
Marked about as in leucoparia but with rather less white on 
tail; small size, slender. Total length, males, 13. 4-16 
inches; tail vertebras, 5.2-6.4 inches; hind foot, 1.6-1.8 
inches. Found in "Northern Arizona and desert ranges of 
southeastern California; south in the Sierra Madre to 
Jalisco and Michoacan." (Howell) 

Great Basin Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale gracilis saxatilis (Mer- 
riam). 
Somewhat larger than typical gracilis and generally without 
white lateral stripe, or else with it greatly reduced. Total 
length, males, 16.9-18 inches; tail vertebras, 6.5-7 inches; 
hind foot, 1.8-2 inches. Found in "Utah, western Colorado, 
northern Nevada, southern Idaho, eastern Oregon, and 
northeastern California. " (Howell) 

123 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Chihuahua Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale amhigua (Mearns). 
Marked like gracilis, but with broad, white lateral stripes 
and white band on thighs. Total length, males, 16.5 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5.9 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found 
"from central Arizona south over the western edge of the 
Mexican table-land to Jalisco." (Howell) 

Arizona Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale arizona arizoncB (Mearns). 
A'larked much as in gracilis and leucoparia; broad, white, 
lateral stripe; tail white on terminal upper third and lower 
half. Total length, males, 17.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.4 
inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found in "Central and southern 
Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and adjacent parts of 
Mexico." (Howell) 

California Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale phenax phenax Mer- 
riam. 
Resembling putorius in color pattern and size, but tail 
shorter; white dorsal stripes extending between ears; large 
white spots on forehead and in front of ear; white, curved 
patch on base of tail smaller than in putorius ; white on tail 
for terminal upper fourth and lower half. Total length, 
males, 17- 19.4 inches; tail vertebra, 5.7-7.8 inches; hind 
foot, 1.9-2. 1 inches. Found in "Greater portion of California, 
excepting extreme northern part and southeastern desert 
regions. ' ' (Howell) 

Oregon Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale phenax latifrons Merriam. 
Smaller than typical phenax, with more black; white dorsal 
stripes narrower, median pair usually very slender; lateral 
white stripe reduced or absent; white markings on flanks 
and rump reduced. Total length, males, 15.4- 17.4 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 4.7-5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.8-2 inches. Found 
in "Coast region of Oregon and northern California." 
(Howell) 

Puget Sound Spotted Skunk. — Spilogale phenax olympica 
(Elliot). 
Marked as in latifrons, but with shorter tail, and longer, 
narrower white frontal spot. Total length, males, 16.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches. 
Found in "The Olympic Peninsula and shores of Puget 
Sound; north (probably) to Howe Sound, British Colum- 
bia." (Howell) 

******* 

The Spotted Skunk is not only the smallest of the North 
American Skunks, but it is the handsomest as well. The 
conspicuous color pattern of broken black and white differs 
noticeably from the pattern on the larger Skunks which is 
marked by black and white in broad bands or masses. In 
addition, the Spotted Skunks are more slender and graceful 
in build. They are like their larger relatives, however, in 
their ability to defend tljemselves. 

124 



SPOTTED SKUNK 



The members of the genus Spilogale are found in various 
haunts, although they are essentially plains and desert 
animals. Some species occur in forests and on mountain 
slopes, and others show a preference for rocky canyons cliffs 
and broken country. The Spotted Skunks are more active 
than the big Skunks, and climb trees upon occasion. 

The behavior of these small Skunks when attacked is about 
as described for the genus Mephitis, see page 131. 

Spilogale has the reputation of giving hydrophobia when it 
bites man, and one of the names for the Spotted Skunk in the 
Southwest is "Hydrophobia Skunk" or "Phoby-cat " It is 
well known that both large and small Skunks may contract 
hydrophobia if bitten by a "mad" Coyote, for example, and 
there are authentic cases of deaths from bites given by "mad" 
spilogale. However, this is of very rare occurrence and the 
average Skunk is scarcely more to be dreaded on this score 
than any other wild mammal. During an epidemic of hydro- 
phobia m a given section the Skunks are perhaps more apt to 
be bitten because of the fact that they rely upon their defensive 
equipment which usually protects them, but would be value- 
less against a "mad" Coyote. 

The Spotted Skunk is nocturnal in habit and does not roam 
about during the day. Observers credit this mammal with a 
playful and attractive disposition and find very little to mark 
up against him. 

The young range from two to six in number, the average 
four or five. The maternal den is located in rocks, hollow 
logs, or may be in a burrow dug by the Skunk itself or in a 
deserted burrow of Ground Squirrel, Wood Rat or Burrowine 
Owl. 

Genus Mephitis' 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \- Premolars, f ; Molars, § =34 

Large Striped Skunk.— Mephitis mephitis 

and related forms 
Names.-Large Striped Skunk; Big Skunk; Line-backed 
Skunk; Common Skunk. Plate X. 

A 'J°i^ '7'^^^''?^^ ^'""' ^'^^'''' ^""^^^ "^"^^ °f Chincka) see 
A. H. Howell. North American Fauna, No. 20, 1901. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



General Description.-A heavy-bodied, black and white 
niammal, with large bushy tail, and well-developed scent- 
glands capable of forcibly discharging fluid of penetrating and 
disagreeable odor. Head proportionally small; bofy robust 
about size of House-cat; legs short; tail large and bushy; feet 




Fig. 31. Large Striped Skunk 

semiplantigrade; claws of forefeet well developed for digging; 
pelage composed of long, hard hairs over a short, soft under- 
fur- color pattern conspicuous black and white; nocturnal and 
crepuscular in habit, but may sometimes be seen about m 
daytime; slow-moving and deliberate in behavior. 
Color.— Sexes colored alike. 

Upperpart glistening black, with broad white stripe or 
band from nape to shoulders, continuing to base of tail as a 
pair of lateral stripes enclosing a median black area; a narrow 
white stripe along nose to nape; tail black and white m vary- 
ing proportions, all tail hairs white at base; underparts black. 
Considerable variation from this pattern is shown by 
individuals; some races more variable than others. 
Young striped like adults. 

Measurements.-Males slightly larger than females. Total 
length, males, 24.5 inches, females, 23 inches; tail vertebra, 
males, 7.5 inches, females, 6.6 inches; hmd foot, males, 3-1 

126 



LARGE STRIPED SKUNK 



inches; females, 2.8 inches. Weight, large male, about eight 

pounds. ^ ^ 

Geographical Distribution.-Practically all of United States 
and Canada north to 50° in east and 60° in west 

Food.-Insectivorous and carnivorous; insects, grass- 
hoppers crickets, larva., grubs. Meadow Mice, and any small 
mammals It can catch, eggs, frogs, snakes, crayfish and 
occasionally poultry. 

Enemies.-Very few because of protection given by scent- 
glands-Great Horned Owls are known to catch Skunks and 
probab y carnivorous mammals when pressed by starvation 
may kill an occasional Skunk. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Mephitis 
Subgenus Mephitis 
Canada Skunyi.~ Mephitis mephitis (Schreber) 

t %Ztru ^ °'^'/ ^^' M^ "°^?^^^ ^^ ^'^^^^ Pattern. Found 
n.f. Canada-Nova Scotia, Quebe?, and northern 

watim^^ ThoVcH) "°^^' '' '''^' '^ ^^^^^ House^^Ke^ 
Northern Plains Skunk.-il/,p;„-//, hudsonica (Richardson) 
Size large, tail bushy and heavy, tip broad and w?^^^^^^^ 
white pencil; general color pattern as in mephiHs To^i 
^ngth. males, 29 mches, females, 24 inches; tail vertebiS 
males, 10.5 mches, females, 10 inches; hind foof ma£' 
3.3 inches, females, 2.8 inches. Found in "Western Ca^ad;. 
from Manitoba to British Columbia (east of the Cascades) ' 
M^nesSt^^'^ "InZit'^' ^^ ^°^-^^°' Nebr^Sm- 
Mephitis minnesotcE Brass =M. hudsonica 
Eastern S^un^^ Mephitis nigra (Peale and Beauvois) 

Tail longer than m mephitis, black, tipped with white- white 
dorsal stripes usually broader. Total length males 2! 
mches, females, 23 inches; tail vertebra., male's, Tinches^ 
Wles, 9 inches; hmd foot, males, 2.5 inches females T; 
inches. Found in ''New England and Middle Atlantic 
FlnHM "'^1.'°^^^ ^°. Virginia; west to Indiana." (Howe 1) 
Florida S^un^.—Mephitis elongata (Bangs) ^-^"^^^^^ 

Size medium; tail very long, marked with white on the 
sides, and with a ong white pencil; markings variable bu? 
white stripes usually very broad. " (Howell) Sexes about 
Tf ^^^^^.e- total length, 28 inches; tail verteb?^ i?6 
inches; hmd foot, 3 inches. Found in "FloridrVfrom 
vicinity of Lake Worth) to North Carolina and in th^ 
mountamsto West Virginia; west on the Gulf coast to the 
Mississippi River." (Howell) ^ 

127 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Louisiana Skunk.— Mephitis mesomelas mesomelas Lichten- 

SmalHn size, variable in color; tail short, usually entirely 
black; white stripes may or may not reach to tail. INot 
much difference in size between sexes. Tota length, 23 
inches; tail vertebrae, 9 inches; hind foot, 2.5 inches Found 
on "West side of Mississippi Valley from southern i>ouisiana 
to Missouri; westward along the coast of Texas to Mata- 
gorda Island; and up the Red River Valley as far at least as 
Wichita Falls." (Howell) ■ /-d n 

Illinois Skunk.— Mephitis mesomelas ama (Bangs) 

Resembling typical mesomelas and differing chiefly m skull 
Siara'ters.' Z.l length, 25 inches tail v-tebr. 8 inches; 
hind foot, 2.7 inches. Found m "Prairie region of Illinois, 
western Indiana, and eastern Iowa; boundaries of range 
imperfectly known. " (Howell) 

Long-tailed Texas Skunk.— Mephitis mesomelas varians 

LargeYnd long-tailed; color pattern like that of mephitis; 
tail without white tip; fairly constant m marking. Total 
length males, 30 inches, females, 27 mches; tail vertebrae, 
males 15.7 inches, females, 15 inches; hind foot, males 
^8 Inches, females, 2.8 inches. Found m'' Southern and 
western Texas, eastern New Mexico, and adjacent parts of 
Mexico; north into Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, and 
Nebraska." (Howell) . 

Arizona Skunk.— Mephitis estor Memam. . . -^ 

Smah in size, much white on body and tail; broad white 
dOTsal stripes, in some specimens broad white area across 
fower bacli^ white on upper surface of tail -- yXTi"' 
the black- white pencil at tip of tail. Total length, males, 
25 6 inches; females, 23 inches; tail vertebra., males, 11.4 
fnches females, 11 inches; hind foot, males, 28 inches, 
females 2.5 inches. Found in "Arizona, western New 
Eco Sonora, Chihuahua, and northern Lower California; 
S ?A the Sierra Madre to southern Chihuahua; limits of 
ranp"e unknown. " (Howell) , 7> -n • 1 

California S;k^xnk^Meph^tis ocddentalis occtdaUalis Baird. 
Large in size, tail long; markings fairly constant, pattern 
as fn hudsonica; white stripes of ^^^lum width _Tote^ 
length, males, 32 inches females, 28 ^^^^es taiWertebrae 
males 12 s inches, females, 12 inches; hind foot, males, 3- 1 
h^ches females 3 o inches. Found in "Northern and central 
Sifom^r from vicinity of Monterey Bay northward west 
Sfhe Sierra and Cascades, to the Willamette Valley, 

Pugrt''soU''Tktnk.-M.M^-^- occidentalis spissigrada 

Likftypfcal occidentalis but with more white and shorter 

tail; white stripes on back ^mding abou mi^^^^^ 

and white on tail very extensive. Total length, males, 20 

128 



LARGE STRIPED SKUNK 



inches, females, 25 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 10 inches, 
females, 9.4 inches; hind foot, males, 3.2 inches, females, 
3.0 inches. Found on "Shores of Puget Sound and coast 
region of Washington and northern Oregon." (Howell) 

Cascade Skunk. — Mephitis occidentalis notata (Howell). 

Resembling typical occidentalis but white dorsal stripes 
narrower and separate for entire length, tail shorter; narrow 
white dorsal stripes sometimes interrupted and usually 
joined at nape, but not touching posterior to that region; 
tail black and with Httle or no white. Total length, males, 
25.3 inches, females, 26 inches; tail vertebra, males, 10 
inches, females, 11.4 inches; hind foot, males, 3 inches, 
females, 2.8 inches. Found in "Southern Washington and 
northern Oregon, east of the Cascades; exact limits of range 
unknown." (Howell) 

Great Basin Skunk. — Mephitis occidentalis major (Howell). 
Larger than typical occidentalis, with longer hind foot ; white 
dorsal stripes broad, dividing about middle of back, not 
extending far onto tail; tail largely black. Total length, 
males, 28 inches; tail vertebrae, 12.2 inches; hind foot, 3.4 
inches. Found in "Eastern Oregon, northern California, 
and Nevada; east to the Wasatch Mountains in Utah " 
(Howell) 

Southern California Skunk. — Mephitis occidentalis holzneri 
M earns. 

Not differing appreciably from typical occidentalis in color, 
but smaller in size. Total length, males, 26 inches, females, 
24 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 11.8 inches, females, 11.8 
inches; hind foot, males, 2.8 inches, females, 2.6 inches. 
Found in "Southern California, from vicinity of Monterey 
Bay south into Lower California; east to the Sierra Nevada 
and San Bernardino Range; limits of southward range 
unknown. ' ' (Howell) 

Broad-nosed S^nnk.—Mephitis platyrhina (Howell). 

Resembling typical occidentalis externally but differing in 
cranial characters; white stripes of medium breadth; tail 
black, with indistinct white band on upper surface. Total 
length, males, 30 inches; females, 27 inches; tail vertebrse, 
males, 13 inches, females, 13 inches; hind foot, males, 3.6 
inches, females, 3.2 inches. Found in Kern County, 
California. 

Subgenus Leucomitra. Hooded Skunks 

Northern Hooded Skunk. — Mephitis macroura milleri 
_ (Meams). 
Size medium, markings extremely variable. Two phases 
occur, one in which upperparts are nearly all white, under- 
parts black; the other in which upperparts are chiefly black, 
with narrow white stripes on sides and white on underside 
of tail; various degrees of intergrading between these two 

129 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



extremes may be seen. Total length, males, 27 inches, 
females, 26.5 inches; tail vertebras, males, 14 inches, 
females, 14 inches; hind foot, males, 2.6 inches, females, 
2.4 inches. Found in southern Arizona and south into 
Mexico. 

******* 

The Large Striped Skunks are marked by a revealing color 
pattern, a coat that advertises its owner, and by its very con- 
spicuousness warns. Skunks are not liable to confusion with 
any other mammals since only Skunks (in North America) 
have this black pelage striped with contrasting white, and the 
long bushy tail. The unmistakable character of identification 
is the unique weapon of defense possessed by Skunks and which 
once experienced will never be forgotten. The heavy build, 
large size, and broad, unbroken stripes of white easily dis- 
tinguish this genus from Spilogale. From the other genus of 
large Skunks, Conepatus, they may be told by the differences 
enumerated under the discussion of the Hog-nosed Skunk. 

The Large Striped Skunk is usually encountered about 
clearings, pastures, or open ground near the borders of forest. 
It is also found on the plains and prairies, seeking cover in the 
brush along water-courses or in broken country. The animals 
may be seen upon occasion at any hour of the day, but gen- 
erally begin their hunting late in the afternoon. They are 
most active at night. They are slow-moving and deliberate, 
with great confidence in their powers. Much of their food is 
obtained by digging and rooting about under the sod. They 
dig a burrow or use an old Badger hole or other ready-made 
hole in the ground, and the female makes a grass nest for the 
young. 

These may number as high as ten to a litter, but from four 
to six is the average number. The young are bom the latter 
part of April or early in May. 

The scent of the Skunk is contained in a pair of anal glands 
which are enclosed in a heavy sheath of muscle and under 
control of the animal. These glands discharge through a duct 
which is protruded from the anus when the animal is angered, 
but normally occupies an internal position. By a powerful 
muscular contraction the fluid of the gland is ejected in a fine, 
almost invisible, spray or mist to a distance of eight or ten 
feet. Down wind the spray itself will travel much faither and 
the rapid diffusion of this substance will taint objects for many 

130 



LARGE STRIPED SKUNK 



feet in all directions, on a still day. The Skunk is loathe to 
eject this fluid if it can possibly be avoided and will put up 
with a surprising amount of abuse (sometimes) before losing 
restraint. The usual posture of defense is head low and 
toward the enemy, tail stiffly erect, and the hairs of the tail 
distended. This is an obvious warning and if not crowded 
the Skunk will usually soon assume a less tense attitude. As 
long as the tail is lowered and less rigid the Skunk will not fire. 

The animal can aim the discharge and not only is he 
effective upon an enemy to the rear, but even upon one that is 
facing the Skunk. No position is safe within a circle of two or 
thiee yards. 

The fluid from these scent-glands is a clear yellow in color, 
strongly acid in reaction, and said to be slightly luminous after 
dark. It is exceedingly painful if it falls into the eye and m^ay 
cause temporary or possibly permanent blindness. Clothing 
which has been saturated with this spray will retain an odor 
for days and weeks, although burying the garments in the 
ground will hasten their return to normalcy. One discharge 
from the glands does not empty them; they are capable of a 
number of salvos. 

It is possible to kill a Skunk so that there is no emis- 
sion from the glands. The surest way is to drown the Skunk. 
Shooting usually results in a drenched atmosphere unless the 
spinal cord is cut. It has been stated that if the tail of the 
Skunk can be kept lowered, the animal is defenseless, and 
there are various ways in which the Skunk may be dispatched 
which depend upon this fact for their efficiency. The animal 
may even be caught alive if the tail is grasped and kept down. 
My own experience is that the element of risk is so great, and 
the likelihood of some part of the scheme not developing as 
per schedule so imminent, that I would class these latter 
methods as impractical for the layman. 

Skunks make very interesting pets and Merriam, Seton, 
and others have written accounts of their experiences with 
these mammals which show a surprising side to Skunk nature. 
They are playful and affectionate and show a nice regard as 
to the abuse of their powers. By a bit of minor surgery Skunks 
can be rendered incapable of discharging musk and are then as 
innocuous as Cats. 

Skunks become very fat in the fall and den up during the 

131 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



severe weather. The fur of these mammals has become quite 
popular in recent years and a large traffic is done in Skunk 
pelts. The dark- colored ones fetch the best prices and the fur 
of a prime skin is deep, durable, and handsome. 

Genus Conepatus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, |; Molars, ^ =32. 

Hog-nosed Skunk. — Conepatus mesoleucus mearnsi 

and related forms 

Names. — Hog-nosed Skunk; White-backed Skunk. 
Plate X. 

General Description. — About the same size and build as the 
species of Mephitis; a large, robust Skunk with conspicuous 
black and white coloration; a broad unbroken band of white 
from crown to end of tail ; differs from Mephitis also in having 
a naked, hog-like muzzle and much smaller, less bushy, tail. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation 
but considerable individual variation. 

Upperparts. — From crown to end of tail pure white to white 
with faint yellowish tinge, extending as a band from head to 
shoulders and then widening out to cover nearly the entire 
dorsal region; rest of upperparts brownish black to black. 

Underparts. — Blackish except for tail which is white with a 
few black hairs. 

Immature much like adults. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Total length, 
males, 27 inches, females, 23 inches; tail vertebras, males, 11.6 
inches, females, 9 inches; hind foot, males, 3 inches, females, 
2.8 inches. Weight five to ten pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — From the states along the 
border south into Mexico. 

Food. — Many varieties of insect food such as beetles and 
their larvae, grasshoppers, crickets, grubs, etc.; small rodents; 
small birds and their eggs; fruit of cactus. 

Enemies. — Usually let alone by most predatory animals 
but occasionally killed by Great Horned Owls, and perhaps, in 
times of food scarcity, by Coyotes and Bobcats. 

132 



HOG-NOSED SKUNK 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Conepatus 
Subgenus Oryctogale 

This genus is southern in its distribution, ranging from the 
southern end of South America up through Central America 
and reaching its northern Hmit just north of the Mexican 
boundary. 

Meams Hog-nosed Skunk. — Conepatus mesoleucus mearnsi 
Merriam. 
As described above. Found in western Texas and south 
beyond the Rio Grande, east as far as Austin. 

Swamp Hog-nosed Skunk; White-backed Skunk. — Conepatus 
mesoleucus telmalesies Bailey. 
Resembling meamsi but with lighter dentition and more 
slender skull. "Whole upperparts and tail white, the white 
extending forward on forehead nearly to eyes; lower parts, 
sides, legs, and face black." (Bailey) Total length, males, 
25 inches; tail vertebrae, 10.3 inches; hind foot, 3.1 inches. 
Found in a small section of Texas included in the counties 
of Liberty, Hardin, San Jacinto, Montgomery, and Harris. 

Arizona Hog-nosed Skunk. — Conepatus mesoleucus venaticus 
Goldman. 
Resembling mearnsi in size and color but differing in cranial 
characters. Found in "Southeastern Arizona and adjacent 
parts of New Mexico. ..." (Goldman) 

Texas Hog-nosed Skunk. — Co7iepatus leiiconotus texensis 
Merriam. 
Size large; white dorsal area more restricted than in mearnsi, 
generally only a narrow stripe on rump and sometimes 
completely cut off to leave rump black. Underside of tail 
with much black. Total length, males, 33 inches, females, 
28 inches; tail vertebras, males, 14.5 inches, females, 11.8 
inches; hind foot, males, 3.4 inches, females, 3 inches. 
Found in the "Coast strip of Texas from Rockport, Aransas 
County, to mouth of Rio Grande." (Merriam.) 



The Hog-nosed Skunk is about the same size as the Large 
Striped Skunk and more or less similarly colored, but differs 
in having a hog-like muzzle, a smaller tail, and a single, broad 
band of white down the back instead of a pair of lateral bands 
separated by a black dorsal strip. In general behavior and 
skunk-like attributes the two genera are much alike, except 
that the Hog-nose is more of a digger, as would be indicated 
by the special development of a rooting muzzle. 

133 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Subfamily Taxidiinae. American Badgers 

Form robust; legs short; toes not webbed; claws large and 
strong, fossorial in type; tail moderately short; pelage long 
and loose. 



Genus Taxidea 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, 



Molars. 



34. 



American Badger. — Taxidea taxus 

and related forms 

Names. — American Badger; Common Badger; Blaireau 
(French Canadian). Plate XI. 

General Description. — A large, powerful member of the 
Weasel family, with heavy body; short, bushy tail; long, 




Fig. 32. American Badger 

shaggy pelage; and grizzled gray color. Head comparatively 
small, broad and flat rather than rounded; ears low and 
rounded; neck short; body low and squat, robust; legs short 
and powerful; feet with five toes, claws large and well devel- 
oped, especially on forefeet where they are over an inch in 
length; tail short, thick and bushy; pelage very long and loose; 
habit semifossorial. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked change in color with 
the seasons. 

Upperparts. — Silvery gray grizzled with black in general 
impression, the hairs dirty gray at base, then grayish white 
followed by a narrow black band and tipped with silvery 

134 



BADGER 



white; pelage on head much shorter than on body; a narrow 
whitish stripe from muzzle to shoulders, and whitish patch on 
face below eye and on ear; sides of muzzle, a spot in front of 
ear, top of head, and back of ear dusky gray; fore- and hind 
feet blackish. 

Underparts. — Yellowish white to soiled whitish, the pelage 
much shorter than on back. 

Immature very similar to adults but generally less 
grizzled. 

Measurements. — No marked difference in size between 
sexes. Total length, 28 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.5 inches; hind 
foot, 4 inches; weight, 13-14 pounds average up to maximum 
of 23. 

Geographical Distribution. — Central North America from 
Saskatchewan south. 

Food. — Small mammals such as Ground Squirrels, Prairie- 
dogs, Mice, Pocket Gophers, etc.; birds and eggs; sometimes 
insects. 

Enemies. — Probably able to avoid, under normal circum- 
stances, the only animals powerful enough to prey upon it, 
namely, the large carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Taxidea 

Common Badger. — Taxidea taxus taxus (Schreber). 

As described above. Found from about 55° latitude in 
Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba south to Colorado 
and Kansas, east to Michigan and west across the Rocky 
Mountains. 

Colorado Badger. — Taxidea taxus phippsi Figgins. 

Resembling typical taxus but larger and darker. General 
color as in taxus, but dark areas on head and face extensive 
and black; white stripe down head and neck reaching to 
shoulders. Total length, 30 inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; 
hind foot, 4.7 inches. Found in southern Colorado, limits 
of range unknown. 

Texas Badger; Mexican Badger. — Taxidea taxus berlandieri 
(Baird). 
Resembling typical taxus but with slightly more buff and 
with the white line on head and neck running onto back 
sometimes as far as tail. Found in the western half of Texas, 
west through Arizona into southeastern California. 

California Badger; Western Badger. — Taxidea taxus neglecta 
(Mearns). 
Differing from typical taxus in having less black which is 
replaced by dark brown or dusky ; upperparts grizzled gray 

135 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



and dusky; white stripe on head and neck sometimes to 
shoulders and even to rump; dark markings on head and 
face dusky to blackish; underparts buffy; tail yellowish 
brown above, paler beneath. Total length, 29 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 4 inches. Found in the 
western states from Washington and Oregon south through 
California. 



The low, squat form of the Badger, in conjunction with the 
grizzled grayish color, white face markings, and long pelage, 
is a field character which serves for easy identification of this 
mammal. 

Badgers are creatures of the prairies, plains, and open 
forests. They dig out much of their prey and the range of the 
genus in North America coincides rather closely with the 
region of greatest rodent abundance, the home of the Ground 
Squirrels, Prairie-dogs, etc. The Badger does not go into 
heavy stands of timber, for there would be little there which 
he could hunt ; he can not climb and is not swift in the chase. 

Badgers are most active from late afternoon on, but may be 
noted moving about at any hour of the day. The commonest 
proof of their presence is the abundance of large holes they 
dig. When these animals dig out a Ground Squirrel or a 
Gopher they make a large, deep hole which may remain open 
for a matter of several years before rains or other natural 
causes fill it in. Badgers are industrious and where hunting 
has been good badger-holes are thick. Ranchmen are often 
annoyed by these rodent hunters when they excavate in the 
alfalfa fields or sink pits where a saddle Horse may be tripped 
and have a leg broken. The redeeming feature of this Badger 
activity is that each hole means the death of one or more 
rodent enemies of the rancher. 

The Badger is a fearless little beast and when caught away 
from a hole turns upon an enemy with such snarling fury that 
it commands immediate respect. It is very tough and tena- 
cious of life. Blows that would kill the ordinary mammal 
produce no effect upon a Badger. The heavy pelage is prob- 
ably some protection to the animal under such circumstances, 
but its compact, muscular build enables it to withstand terrific 
shocks. If the Badger is allowed only a moment to dig, it needs 
no weapon of defense, for it can disappear below the surface in 
a surprisingly short time. 

136 



Plate XI 




B adder 



» 




-%&:^^", 



RED FOX 



A Badger that I once came upon as he began digging out a 
Squirrel was only just below the surface and the ejected earth 
was flying forth in leisurely spurts. The Badger sensed my 
footsteps as I drew near and immediately changed his tempo. 
Muttered snarling and rumbling began to pour out of the hole, 
and a geyser of earth leaped up four or five feet into the air. 
As I looked on, the height of this earth column dropped 
almost with the seconds and in a very short time the Badger 
was so deep that no more earth reached the surface and the 
sounds of his subterranean rage were only faintly audible. 

The number of young in a Badger litter is three as an 
average and ranges from one to five. The young are born 
late in the spring, May to early June, In regions of severe 
winters the Badger dens up until the snow has melted. Seton 
gives the period of hibernation in Manitoba as lasting from 
the time the ground freezes until April. 

Badger fur, while thick and handsome in color, is rather 
coarse and is not valued very highly. 

Family Canidae. Wolves, Coyotes and Fcxes 

Medium-sized carnivores of dog-like form; head dog-like, 
with elongate muzzle; legs rather long; feet digitigrade, with 
four or five digits ; claws non-retractile ; tail long and unusually 
bushy; dentition of shearing-crushing type, with well-devel- 
oped camassial teeth; pelage rather long and thick; habit 
terrestrial. 



Subfamily Caninae 
Genus Vulpes 



42. 



Red Fox. ' — Vulpes f ulva 

and related forms 

Names. — Red Fox; Cross Fox; Silver Fox; Black Fox; 
Silver-gray Fox. Plate XII. 

^ For a Preli7ninary Revision of the North American Red Foxes see 
C. H., Merriam, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sciences, Vol. 2, pp. 661-676, Dec, 
1900. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



General Description. — Resembling a small, sharp-nosed 
Dog of slender build; ears large and erect; pupil of eye linear; 
muzzle long and slender; tail long and bushy; claws fairly 
long and sharp; pelage long and soft. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; slight seasonal variation; 
occurring also in several color phases. 

Upperparts. — Bright golden yellowish, slightly darker 
along mid-dorsal region, rump grizzled lightly with whitish; 




Fig. 33. Red Fox 

head reddish yellow, grizzled with whitish; forefeet to elbow 
black; hind feet black; tail ^^ellowish, mixed with black, a 
black spot on upper surface near base, tip white. 

Underparts. — White. 

Immature have blackish on muzzle and back of ears; dusky 
on head and tail; very young dull yellowish brown or drab in 
general color. 

Measurements. — Alales larger than females. Total length, 
males, 41 inches; tail vertebrae, 16 inches; hind foot, 6.5 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of the United States and 
Canada. 

Food. — Birds, small mammals, principally Mice, small 
rodents and Rabbits, fruit and berries. 

Enemies. — Eagles, Wolves, Lynxes, Fishers; other carni- 
vores also catch young Foxes. 

138 



RED FOX 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Vulpes 
There is considerable similarity in general color pattern 
between all the forms of North American Red Foxes. The 
typical pelage for each form is reddish yellow and the varia- 
tions are not sufficient to conceal the very obvious identity of 
the animal. Most of the forms, perhaps all,occur in three 
distinct color phases. The common pelage is the Red phase; 
the rarest is the Black or Silver phase, which is simply a 
melanistic specimen, black with more or less silver-tipped 
hairs. The Cross Fox is an intermediate phase and while 
rare is much more common than the Black phase. The 
Cross Fox is reddish yellow above except for a dark band 
across shoulders which, with the dark dorsal band, forms a 
rough figure like a cross; a broad band of blackish from chin 
down throat and belly. Plate XII. 

These three phases may occur in the same litter and some 
forms of Vulpes seem to produce these color variations oftener 
than others. 

Fulva Group. Red Fox 

Eastern Red Fox.— F«//)e5 /«/m (Desmarest). 

As described above. Found in the northeastern United 
States. 

Long-tailed Red Fox.— Vulpes macroma Baird. 

''Size and general appearance oi fulva, but tail much loneer- 
hind feet larger; black of feet and legs much less extensive " 
Total length, males, 41 inches; tail vertebra, 18.5 inches- 
hind foot 7 inches. Found in "Mountains of Colorado' 
_Utah, and Wyoming." (Merriam) 

High Sierra Red Yox.— Vidpes necator Merriam. 

Resembling fulva in general color, but sides of nose much 
darker less black on legs, dorsal region duller and redder 
lotal length, males, 40 inches; tail vertebrae, 152 inches- 
hind foot, 6.8 inches. Found in "Southern or High Sierra' 
California." (Merriam) ' 

Cascade Red Fox.— Vulpes cascadensis Merriam. 

"A short-tailed small-toothed mountain fox of the fulva 
group, commonest in the 'black-cross' pelage; when in red 
pelage, yellow instead of fulvous." (Merriam) Upper- 
parts straw-yellow, dorsal region golden yellowish; tail very 
pale; black on ears and feet reduced. Total length males 
43 inches; tail vertebras, 16.5 inches; hind foot, 7.1'inches' 
Found m " Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington and 
northern Sierra Nevada in California; northern limit un- 
known." (Merriam) 

139 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Nova Scotia Red Fox. — Vulpes ruhricosa ruhricosa (Bangs). 
"Size rather large; color deepest and darkest of all the red 
foxes; tail large, very broad and bushy, and deep fulvous." 
(Merriam) Upperparts rich dark fulvous; feet black but 
not as extensively so as in fulva. Total length, females, 
43 inches; tail vertebrae, i6 inches; hind foot, 6.6 inches. 
Found in "Nova Scotia — ^limits unknown." (Merriam) 

Labrador Red Fox. — Vulpes ruhricosa bangsi Merriam. 

"Similar externally to fulva but ears smaller; black of ears 
and feet more restricted." Found in "Labrador — limits 
unknown." (Merriam) 

Newfoundland Red Fox. — Vulpes deletrix Bangs. 

"Color very pale — light straw yellow, deepening in places 
to golden yellow or even buffy fulvous; black of feet re- 
stricted; tail pale buffy yellowish with usual admixture of 
black hairs, but without black basal spot. Hind feet and 
claws very large." (Merriam) Total length, females, 
38.4 inches; tail vertebras, 13.5 inches; hind foot, 6.5 
inches. Found in Newfoundland. 

Alaska Red Fox. — Vulpes alascensis alascensis Merriam. 
"A large long-tailed red fox closely related to V. vulpes of 
Scandinavia and Siberia, and also to ruhricosa and hangsi 
of Nova Scotia and Labrador. Color golden fulvous; tail 
very long; ears small ; black of feet greatly restricted ; pelage 
of neck and anterior part of back long and full, almost form- 
ing a ruff; pelage of posterior part of back and rump shorter 
and coarser." Found in "Northern Alaska — limits un- 
known." (Merriam) 

British Columbia Red Fox. — Vulpes alascensis abietorum Mer- 
riam. 
Similar to typical alascensis but differing in longer and more 
slender skull. Found in "Interior of British Columbia and 
probably southeastern Alaska." (Merriam) 

Kenia Red Fox. — Vulpes kenaiensis Merriam. 

vSize large; external characters unknown. Found in "Kenai 
Peninsula; limits of range unknown." (Merriam) 

Kodiak Red Fox. — Vulpes harrimani Merriam. 

"Size large; tail enormous, constricted at base, largest on 
basal fourth and tapering thence to tip ; pelage coarse, wolf- 
like on tail and posterior half of back; hairs of neck and 
shoulders greatly elongated, forming a conspicuous ruff; 
those of posterior half of back abruptly much shorter and 
conspicuously grizzled." (Merriam) Upperparts yellow- 
ish fulvous, brightest on anterior half of back, grizzled on 
head and rump; underparts buffy with grayish buffy on 
chin, throat, and inguinal region; ears black. Total length, 
males, 52 inches; tail vertebrae, 18 inches. Found on 
Kodiak Island, Alaska. 

Northern Plains Red Fox. — Vulpes regalis IVIerriam. 

"Size largest; ears very large and broad; tail very long but 
diameter less than in ruhricosa; sexual difference in size 

140 



Plate XII 




RED FOX 



great; color a beautiful golden yellow, becoming almost 
buffy- white on face and posterior part of back; legs abruptly 
dark fulvous; black of feet very pure but restricted in area." 
(Merriam) Total length, males, 45 inches; tail vertebrae, 
17 inches; hind foot, 7 inches. Found on " Northern Plains 
from Dakota to Alberta; east to Manitoba and Minnesota; 
limits unknown." (Merriam) 

Velox Group. Kit Foxes 

The members of this group are all small, and while belong- 
ing to the same genus as the Red Foxes, they are colored quite 
differently. The Kit Foxes are the smallest of the New World 
Foxes. 

Kit Fox; Swift. — V^dpes velox velox (Say). Plate XII. 

A very small, delicately-built Fox. Upperparts buffy 
yellow, lightly frosted with white-tipped hairs and sprinkled 
with black-tipped hairs; yellowish brown back of ears and 
outer sides of limbs ; a black spot on side of snout ; tail above 
buffy gray, below, yellower, tip black, a black spot on upper- 
side of tail near base; underparts whitish. Total length, 
26 inches ; tail vertebrae, 9 inches ; hind foot 4 inches. Found 
in the Great Plains region from New Mexico north into 
Saskatchewan, Canada. 

Prairie Fox. — Viilpes velox hebes Merriam. 

Larger than typical velox and grayer. Upperparts reddish 
gray m summer, dark buffy gray in winter; blackish on tip 
of tail and sides of nose. Total length, 34 inches; tail ver- 
tebras, 12.5 inches; hind foot, 5.2 inches. Found from 
southeastern British Columbia and southwestern Saskatch- 
ewan south to Wyoming; east into North Dakota. 

Long-eared Kit Fox.— Vulpes macrotis macrotis Merriam. 
Color very pale, size small, ears very large. Upperparts 
pale grayish buff; chestnut or sepia on tip of tail and small 
spot on upperside near base; underparts buffy white, chest 
buffy. Total length, 30 inches; tail vertebrae, 11.6 inches; 
hmd foot, 4.8 inches. Found in southwestern California, 
from Los Angeles County south; Lower Sonoran Zone. 

San Joaquin Kit Fox. — Vulpes macrotis mutica (Merriam). 
Larger than typical macrotis, hind foot and tail longer, back 
browner. Total length, 38 inches; tail vertebra, 14 inches, 
hmd foot, 5 inches. Found in the San Joaquin Valley, 
California; Lower Sonoran Zone. 

Desert Kit Fox. — Vulpes macrotis arsipus (Elliot). 

Differing from typical macrotis in paler color, smaller size, 
and different cranial characters. Upperparts grizzled gray; 
mixed pale gray and light brownish on head ; sides gray with 
buffy tmge; black patch on sides of nose from eye and on 
either side of chin; underparts whitish. Total length, 32.5 

141 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



inches; tail vertebrae, 12.5 inches; hind foot, 5 inches; ear 
from notch, 3.4 inches. Found in Cahfomia on Colorado 
and Mohave Deserts, west to Palm Springs, Riverside 
County, and north into Inyo County; Lower Sonoran Zone. 
New Mexico Desert Fox. — Vulpes macrotis neomexicana 
Merriam. 
Larger than typical macrotis, with larger skull and heavier 
teeth. Total length, 33 inches; tail vertebrae, 12 inches; 
hind foot, 5.4 inches. Found in the Lower Sonoran Zone 
in southern Arizona, New Mexico, and southwestern Texas; 
limits of range unknown. 

******* 

The Red Fox needs little introduction to the layman for it is 
one of the common mammals of literature and zoological parks. 
From .^sops Fables to the daily press the Fox is frequently 
figured or his characteristics referred to in some way. Conse- 
quently most of us know the Fox by reputation at least. 

Regardless of where it is found or which species it repre- 
sents, the Red Fox is easily recognized because of its bright 
reddish or fulvous color and its big, bushy tail. The several 
color phases. Cross, Silver, or Black Foxes, although quite 
different in color from the Red Fox, show all the other typical 
Fox characters so clearly that they should be confused with 
no others of the Canidas. 

Red Foxes prefer areas of diversified topography and en- 
vironment. Although they range over the prairies and 
forested sections they do not haunt the heavy, continuous 
stands of unbroken timber nor do they live on open, brush- 
less plains. Cover of some sort and suitable hunting grounds 
are part of this animal's preferred environment. The indi- 
vidual Fox does not seem to travel over a very extensive 
range, and throughout the year usually does not cover an area 
of more than five to ten miles across. 

Red Foxes are most active at night but move about during 
the day as well and may be encountered at any hour. They 
are alert, wary, and have keen eyes, ears, and noses. The 
track of a Red Fox is very much like that of a small Dog. 
These mammals dig burrows into banks or hillsides or ha^•e 
dens in old hollow logs or stumps. The young are born in 
March or April and number from four to nine. Both parents 
share in the care of the family and are very solicitous of the 
young. 

The Kit Fox is much smaller than the Red Fox and is a 
142 



GRAY FOX 

plains or prairie dweller, spending rather more of its time in 
burrows and is less cunning than its red relative. Its general 
habits are somewhat modified from those of the Red Fox be- 
cause it is an open country animal, but the details of its 
family life are about the same. 

The fur of the Red Fox and its color phases. Cross, Silver, 
and Black, is very valuable and one of the favorites of the fur 
trade. Prime Silver or Black Foxes fetch very high prices and 
are successfully reared on fox farms or ranches. The pelt of 
the Kit Fox is not so valuable and does not command a very 
good figure. 

Foxes have several calls, the commonest a short yapping 
bark, given by Seton as "yap-yurr," a long yell, and a shrill 
squall uttered by the female in the mating season. 

Genus Urocyon 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, f = 42. 

Gray Fox.— Urocyon cinereoargenteus 

and related forms 
Names.— Gray Fox; Colishe; Tree Pox. Plate XIII. 
General Description.— Typically fox-like in appearance- 
muzzle fairly long; ears erect; tail long, bushy, and with a 




:^IG. 34. Tail of Gray Fox, with hair parted to show con- 
cealed mane of stiff hairs 

»ncealed mane of stiff hairs; soles of feet furry; pupil of eye 
dliptical. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike and color pattern not varying 
Quch with season, variation consisting chiefly in longer pelage 
a wmter and slightly brighter shades in fresh pelage. 

143 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts.— Grizzled gray and black, pepper-and-salt, 
lighter on sides, marked with reddish brown about ears, sides 
of neck, sides of forelegs and "ankles"; muzzle blackish, tail 
heavily marked with black; cheek and inside of ear clear 
white. 

Underparts. — White with tawny along lower sides and tail; 
blackish on chin. 

Measurements.— Females approximately same size as 
males. Total length, about 40 inches; tail vertebrae, 12 
inches; hind foot, 5 inches; weight about 8 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution.— United States from region of 
Great Lakes east to Atlantic seaboard, south to Texas; in 
western states along Pacific coast to Washington and north 
in interior to Wyoming. 

Food.— Small mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, fruit, berries, 
acorns, mushrooms; practically omnivorous. 

Enemies. — Not much has been recorded on this point, but 
Tjossibly occasionally caught by Lynx in the northern part of 
i::s range, and young Foxes caught by Eagles, Great Horned 
Owls, Coyotes, Wolves, etc. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Urocyon 

Eastern Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus cinereoargen- 
/gz^5 (Schreber). 
As described. Found in eastern United States from Vir- 
ginia north into New England and west to the Great Lakes 
region, south to meet the range oi floridanus ; limits of range 
unknown. 

Northern Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus boreahs 
Merriam. . . 

Described as considerably larger than typical cinereoargen- 
teus, with different skull and tooth characters. Taken near 
Monadnock, New Hampshire; limits of range unrecorded. 

Florida Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus floridanus 
Rhoads. . , , - , 

Smaller than typical cinereoargenteus, with harsher pelage 
and shorter ears, tail, and hind foot; underparts fulvous. 
Total length, 36 inches; tail vertebrae, 10.5 inches; hmd 
foot 5 inches. Found from Florida west to eastern Texas. 

Wisconsin Gray Fox.— Urocyon cinereoargenteus ocythous 

Larger than typical cinereoargenteus, with longer tail and 
hind foot; general coloration not so gray, more yellowish. 
Total length, 41 inches; tail vertebrae, i5-5 mches; hmd 

144 



Plate XIII 



Arctic Fox 
summer 




Arctic Fox 

wlater 





Blue Fox 



Gr^ 



Fox 



GRAY FOX 



foot, 5.5 inches. Found in the upper Mississippi Valley 
from Wisconsin south; limits of range unknown. 

Arizona Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus scotti (Meams). 
Ears and tail longer than in typical cinereoargenteus, form 
more slender, color grayer and with more yellowish fulvous. 
Total length, 39 inches; tail vertebra?, 16 inches; hind foot, 
5.3 inches. Found from the western half of Texas and 
western New Mexico west through Arizona and southern 
California, north as far as Inyo County. 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus texensis Mearns = U. c. scotti 

Urocyon ^ cinereoargenteus inyoensis Elliot = U. c. scotti 

California Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus calif amicus 
Mearns. 
Smaller than typical cinereoargenteus, ears and tail rela- 
tively longer. Upperparts grizzled gray mixed with black 
and general pattern very much as in cinereoargenteus. Total 
length, 38 inches; tail vertebrae, 15 inches; hind foot, 5.2 
mches. Found in central and southern California in Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones, exclusive of humid coast 
belt and eastern desert tracts. 

Redwood Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoarge^iteus sequoiensis 
(Dixon). 
With more rufous on sides of head, neck, belly, and feet 
than m calif ornicus. Total length, 39 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 16 mches; hind foot, 5.4 inches. Found in the humid 
coast belt of California from Lake County south to Mon- 
terey Bay. 

Townsend Gray Fox. — Urocyon cinereoargenteus townsendi 
(Merriam). 
Large in size; ears smaller than in calif ornicus and with more 
mtense fulvous tints, but not so intense as in sequoiensis. 
Total length, 42 inches; tail vertebrae, 17 inches; hind foot, 
5.8 mches. Found in northern California from the Mount 
Shasta region to the interior of Humboldt County, in Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones. 

San Miguel Island ¥ox.— Urocyon littoralis littoralis (Baird). 
Resemblmg californicus in color pattern but much smaller 
m size. Total length, 29 inches; tail vertebrce, 10 inches- 
hmd foot, 4.4 inches; weight about 4.5 pounds. Found 
only on San Miguel Island, Santa Barbara group, Cali- 
fornia. 

Santa Cruz Island 'Box.— Urocyon littoralis santacruzce 
Merriam. 
Brighter in color than typical littoralis and with different 
skull characters. Total length, 28 inches; tail vertebra 
10.5 inches; hind foot, 4.3 inches. Found only on Santa 
Cruz Island, Santa Barbara group, California. 

San Clemente Island Fox.~ Urocyon clementcB Merriam 

Differing from littoralis in smaller skull, more tapering 
nasals and slender rostrum. Found only on San Clemente 
island, Santa Barbara group, California. 

145 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Santa Catalina Island Fox.- — Urocyon catalincB Merriam. 
Tail longer than in littoralis and with different skull charac- 
ters. Total length, 30 inches; tail vertebrae, 11.4 inches; 
hind foot, 4.5 inches; ear from crown, 2.5 inches. Found 
only on Santa Catalina Island, Santa Barbara group, 
California, 

******* 

The Gray Fox looks very much like his red relative, aside 
from color, but is a trifle longer in the leg. Although the 
ranges of the Gray and Red Foxes overlap, the Gray Foxes 
are more abundant in the warmer parts of North America and 
even are found on deserts, while the Red Foxes show more 
preference for the cool regions. The Gray Fox often climbs 
up into low trees, another point in which he differs from the 
Red Fox, 

The Gray Fox is found in various types of environment. 
In the eastern part of the United States and in parts of the 
West it is a forest-dwelling mammal, but in the Southwest it 
lives on the arid, open plains where it finds sufficient cover 
in the cactus and other desert vegetation. It is also found in 
brushy areas where thickets of low shrubbery afford hunting 
and hiding places. In favorable localities in the West it 
occurs in considerable numbers and is a common animal. It 
is chiefly nocturnal, but may hunt by day occasionally. 

The Gray Fox does not possess the cunning of the Red 
Fox and not only is easier to trap but is far less suspicious of 
man and easier to observe. He will not run before hounds as 
vv^ell as the Red Fox and "trees" when close pressed or may 
seek refuge in some underground burrow. If the Dogs are 
slow the Gray Fox has little difficulty in losing them in rough 
and broken country. This Fox is said to have a series of 
dens, which are caves, fissures in cliffs, or hollow trees. 
Sometimes it digs its own burrows in the ground. These 
dens are used as refuges from enemies or as places to await 
the passing of severe winter weather. In the home den the 
mother Fox raises a litter of three to five young which are 
bom from March to April. After the young are old enough 
to eat solid food the male Fox assists in bringing food to the den. 

The fur of the Gray Fox does not take high rank in the fur 
trade and is much inferior to that of the Red Fox, 

The calls of the Gray Fox, barks or yaps, resemble those of 
the Red Fox, but are a trifle coarser in timbre. 

146 



ARCTIC FOX 



Genus Alopex 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, { ; Premolars, | ; Molars, f =42. 

Arctic Fox. — Alopex lagopus 

and related forms 

Names.— Arctic Fox; White Fox; Blue Fox; Polar Fox. 

General Description. — A small Fox having rather short ears, 
soles of feet heavily furred, and muzzle proportionally shorter 
than in Vulpes; pelage very thick and long, color varying with 
the season; tail bushy. Plate XIII. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; a marked change with the 
seasons. 

Summer. — Upperparts dark brown to slate color, with 
whitish to yellowish white on underparts, sides of neck, and 
flanks. 

Winter. — Everywhere clear white. 

Blue phase. — ^A color phase which bears about the same 
relation to the normal pattern as does the Black or Silver 
phase of the Red Fox to its more common pelage. Every- 
where dark, smoky gray or bluish drab, sometimes with wash 
of sepia on head and feet and with a few white hairs sprinkled 
on throat and face. The "blue" animals do not turn white in 
winter. 

Immature like adults in summer pelage. 

Measurements. — Females very slightly smaller than males. 
Total length, 30 inches; tail vertebrae, 10 inches; hind foot, 
4.5 inches; weight averaging around 10 pounds but varying 
from 5 to 20. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arctic regions of Northern 
Hemisphere. 

Food.— Small mammals, birds, eggs, fish,' carrion, sea- 
urchins, etc. 

Enemies. — Wolves, Polar Bears, and possibly (when young) 
Snowy Owls. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Alopex. 

Since there is such great similarity in color among the 
various forms of the Arctic Fox, the bases for separation are 
principally skull characters or differences in size. 

147 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Arctic Fox. — Alopex lagopus lagopus (Linnaeus). Plate XIII. 
As described. Restricted to Arctic regions of Europe and 
Asia, but said to reach Bering Island in Bering Sea. 

Labrador Arctic Fox. — Alopex lagopus ungava (Merriam), 
Distinguished from typical lagopus by differences in skull 
characters. Taken at Fort Chimo, Ungava, Canada, and 
south almost to 50°, thence ranging north to the Arctic 
Ocean and west to meet the range of innuitus. 

Continental Arctic Fox. — Alopex lagopus innuitus (Merriam). 
Slightly smaller than ungava and with broader braincase 
than in typical lagoptis. Found in Arctic Alaska. 

Greenland Arctic Fox. — Alopex grwnlandicus (Bechstein). 
There is some doubt as to the validity of this name for the 
Greenland Fox. The original description has not been 
available to me, Greenland specimens in the American 
Museum are very similar to ungava. 

Pribilof Fox. — Alopex pribilofensis (Merriam). 

"Largest of the lagopus group. Skull much elongated, re- 
sembling that of a Red Fox more than that of the Arctic 
Foxes;" (Merriam). Blue phase predominating. Found 
on St. George Island and St. Paul Island, Pribilof group, 
Alaska. 

Hall Island Fox. — Alopex hallensis (Merriam). 

Smaller than lagopus and with shorter, broader skull. 
Found on Hall Island, Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Bering Island Fox. — Alopex heringensis (Merriam). 

Nearly equal to pribilofensis in size, with skull larger than 

in typical lagopus. Found on Bering Island, Aleutian 

Islands, Alaska. 

******* 

The Arctic Fox, as its name imphes, is a Fox of the northern 
wastes, and in its range it goes as far north as any mammal, 
being truly circumpolar in its distribution. It comes south 
until it meets the northern tree limit and its chosen home is 
the area of tundras and open, treeless lands where the winters 
are long and bleak and the summers short. The assumption 
of a white winter pelage is one of the adaptations with which 
this Fox meets the Arctic environment. 

The Arctic Fox spends the short summer along the coast 
or on the open plains or rocky hillsides where bird life or small 
mammals are abundant. In winter it goes out on the ice and 
picks up a living on the food the sea affords. During the year 
the Fox may move a considerable distance to take advantage 
of the best feeding grounds and also as a response to over- 
crowding as the families of young grow up at the close of the 
summer. Arctic explorers report a regular migration on the 
part of these Foxes. 

148 



COYOTE 

When the Arctic Fox goes out on the ice in winter it follows 
the Polar Bear and after this big hunter has fed on a Seal it 
feasts on what is left. This Fox does not hibernate and 
because of the difficulty of finding food the year around has 
developed the habit of storing such food as can not be eaten at 
once. Large numbers of Lemmings are killed and piled up in 
crevices in the rocks and other food supplies are hoarded 
against a day of want. The Arctic Fox will eat almost any- 
thing in the way of animal life, killing what it can itself, but 
taking what it finds killed for it. It is cannibalistic and does 
not hesitate to eat one of its own kind that is caught in a trap 
or disabled. 

In disposition the White Fox is much more confiding and 
friendly than its more southerly relatives. It has a weak, dog- 
like bark or yelp and is not afraid to utter it when man appears. 
On the Pribilof Islands these Foxes are said to be very tame 
and to approach closely to parties which visit their home 
territory. This animal is largely nocturnal, but in a region 
where the normal relation of day to night runs such a wide 
range, it must be active to some extent by day as well. It is a 
very easy animal to trap and since the fur is deep and soft, 
it is taken in considerable numbers. The Blue Fox is es- 
pecially valuable and prime skins have brought prices of $ioo 
to $200 apiece in boom years. On some of the islands in 
Bering Sea these Foxes are reared for the fur market. 

The young are generally born in June, the full season 
ranging from May to July, and number from one to eleven, 
with four or five as the average. The home den is located 
amongst the rocks or in burrows in sandy places. 

Genus Canis^ 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, |; Premolars, | ; Molars, f =42. 

Coyote. — Canis latrans 

and related forms 
Names.— Coyote; Prairie Wolf. Plate XIV. 
General Description.— A small, slender Wolf (total length 
about 42 to 48 inches) resembling a Shepherd Dog in many 

^ The Coyotes have been revised by C. H., Merriam, Proceedings 
of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. xi, pp. 19-33, 1897, but the 
much more abundant material on hand today would justify new revision. 

149 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



external characters; pelage fairly long and heavy, especially so 
•n winter; tail large and bushy; easily identified by yapping 
howl. 

Color. — Sexes colored very much alike; some seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts. — Coarsely grizzled buffy, grayish, and black; 
yellowish on muzzle, ears, and outer sides of legs; grizzled gray 
on top of head; tail above like back, below whitish near base, 
then pale yellowish, tip black. 

Underparts. — Whitish, throat with some black hairs. 
Immature pelage duller and grayer than adult. 
Measurements. — Males noticeably larger than females. 
Total length, females, 49 inches; tail vertebrae, 16 inches; hind 
foot, 7.2 inches; weight of males, 35-40 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Western North America. 
Food.— Small mammals, birds, Hzards, snakes, insects, 
fruit, carrion. 

Enemies. — Speed and wariness ordinarily save the Coyote 
from the large carnivores which would prey on it if they could. 
The Gray Wolf, Golden Eagle, and Great Horned Owl catch 
young Coyotes. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Canis 
Subgenus Thos 

This subgenus contains the small Prairie Wolves or Coyotes. 
"The pattern of coloration is the same in all the Coyotes. 
Except in the pale desert forms {pallidus and estor), in which 
the fulvous tints are replaced by buff, the muzzle, backs of 
the ears, outerside (sometimes the whole) of the fore and 
hind feet and legs, and distal half of the underside of the 
tail are some shade of fulvous. The ground color of the back 
also varies from buff, or even buffy-white in the desert forms, 
to dull fulvous in the animal from southern Mexico, and the 
abundance of black-tipped hairs is usually proportionate to 
the intensity of the ground color. The upperside of the tail 
is like the back, and about one-third the distance from root 
to tip it is marked by an elongated black spot. The tip^ is 
always black, although it sometimes contains a tuft of white 
hairs, most often present in C. ochropus. The males are de- 
cidedly larger than the females." (Merriam) 

150 



COYOTE 



Northern Coyote; Brush Wolf; Say Coyote. — Cams latrans 
Say. 
As described above; the largest of the Coyotes. Found on 
"Humid prairies and bordering woodlands of the northern 
Mississippi Valley, in Iowa and Minnesota, and northern 
edge of plains westward to the base of the Rocky Moun- 
tains in the Province of Alberta." (Miller) 

Nebraska Coyote; Prairie Coyote; Prairie Wolf. — Canis ne- 
hracensis nehracensis Merriam [=pallidus]. 
Resembling latrans but smaller and paler; buffy back of 
ears instead of fulvous; no black-tipped hairs in "collar" 
as in latrans. Total length, 48 inches; tail vertebrae, 15 
inches; hind foot, 8.2 inches. Found on "Arid plains from 
eastern Colorado to Montana and Assiniboia." (Miller). 

Texas Coyote. — Canis nebracensis texensis Bailey. 

Upperparts mixed buffy ochraceous and black; muzzle rusty 
reddish; top of head grizzled yellowish and gray; pale yel- 
lowish on nape, ears, and crown; underparts whitish, suf- 
fused with deep buffy on belly; long hairs of throat black- 
tipped; legs and feet yellowish, with mixture of black on 
external face; tail tipped with black. Total length, males, 
46 inches; tail vertebras, 14 inches; hind foot, 7.4 inches. 
Found in "Gulf region of Texas from Nueces Bay north- 
ward; probably throughout the lower Sonoran area of 
Texas, Oklahoma, and Indian Territory." (Miller) 

Great Basin Coyote. — Canis lestes Merriam. 

"Size large (next to latrans); ears and tail large; coloration 
almost as in latrans.'^ Differing in cranial characters. 
Upperparts slightly paler than in latrans, "grayish buffy 
mixed with black hairs." (Merriam) Total length, males 
45 inches; tail vertebrae, 13 inches; hind foot, 8 inches. 
Found in "Transition Zone from the dry interior of south- 
ern British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon southward 
over the higher lands of the Great Basin, the Sierra Nevada, 
and the Rocky Mountains to the plateau of northern 
Arizona, and thence along the continental divide to the 
Mexican boundary." (Miller) 

Small-toothed Coyote. — Canis microdon Merriam. 

"Size small; coloration rather dark; upper surface of hind 
foot whitish; belly sprinkled with black-tipped hairs; car- 
nassial and molar teeth very small." (Merriam) Total 
length, males, 43 inches; tail vertebrae, 13 inches; hind 
foot, 7.4 inches; weight, 28 pounds. Found in "Arid 
tropical or Tamaulipan region of northeastern Mexico 
and the lower Rio Grande region of Texas. ' ' (Miller) 

Mearns Coyote. — Canis mearnsi Merriam. 

"Size small; ears medium; coloration rich and bright, the 
fulvous tints exceedingly bright and covering the whole of 
the fore and hind legs and feet. Skull and teeth small." 
(Merriam) Total length, females, 44 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 13 inches; hind foot, 7.2 inches. Found in "Lower 

151 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Sonoran areas of northern Sonora and southern Arizona." 
(Miller) 

Desert Coyote. — Canis estor Merriam. 

Size small; coloration pale; teeth small, Upperparts buffy, 
with light sprinkling of black hairs; pale yellowish on muz- 
zle; ochraceous buff on nape and ears; legs bright, deep 
buff; underparts whitish, long hairs of throat black-tipped; 
underside of tail ochraceous, black tip short. Total length, 
males, 42 inches; tail vertebras, 12 inches; hind foot, 7.2 
inches. Found in "Lower Sonoran deserts of eastern Cali- 
fornia, Nevada, and Utah." (Miller) 

San Joaquin Valley Coyote. — Canis ochropus Eschscholtz. 
"Externally similar to C. latrans and testes, but smaller, 
darker, and much more highly colored, with very much 
larger ears, and very much smaller skull and teeth." 
(Merriam) Upperparts buffy ochraceous, sprinkled with 
black; tawny ochraceous on ears, legs, and underside of 
tail; muzzle grayish cinnamon; underparts whitish, with 
some buffy tinge; long hairs of throat and breast more or 
less tipped with black. Total length, males, 45 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 12 inches; hind foot, 7.2 inches. Found in 
"Lower Sonoran region of San Joaquin Valley, California." 
(Miller) 

* * * * * * * 

The voice of the Coyote is one of the most characteristic 
and distinctive mammal calls heard on the North American 
continent. Singly, or in twos or threes, these small Wolves 
"tune up" at sunrise or sunset and send a chorus of long 
howls and yapping barks on the still air. The Coyote fre- 
quently howls during the night and sometimes in broad day- 
light, but since he is a cautious beast, he is not so apt to adver- 
tise his presence after the sun is high. There is an indescrib- 
able quality in the howling of the Coyote which, to me, sets it 
apart from the obnoxious disturbance of a night-howling Dog 
and makes it a true voice of the wilderness. 

It is granted that the stockman, the rancher, and the farmer 
may call down curses on the head of the Coyote. To many, 
however, who have heard this ecstatic little Prairie Wolf 
greet their camp-fire from out of the dusk, or have arisen at 
break of dawn and heard his frenzied hymn to the sun, a 
West without the Coyote seems colorless and flat. 

In settled districts the Coyote may become troublesome, 
for he catches poultry and kills sheep. Furthermore, he 
quickly learns to avoid ordinary traps and the devices of the 
average hunter. Instead of retreating before the forces 

152 



Plate XIV 



Coyote 




.^- 





I: 



I'M GrayWolf 



WOLF 



of human occupation, he may merely change his habits and 
mode of Hfe and remain, in spite of conditions which drive out 
the less adaptive mammals. Under these circumstances the 
Coyote will be seldom seen, skulking under cover in the day- 
time and coming out at night. In wilder areas where he has 
not been so impressed with the necessity of avoiding man, this 
little Wolf may be seen trotting through the sagebrush or 
watching from some slight eminence. 

The Coyote bears enough resemblance to a tawny Shepherd 
Dog to be easily mistaken for one at a little distance. He 
can run much faster than the ordinary Dog, however, and only 
the specialized strains of running Dogs can hope to overtake a 
Coyote in fair chase. And once caught, he is more than a 
match for any Dog which is near his own size or weight. 

In various parts of the West individual Coyotes have 
apparently contracted rabies and then has followed a season 
of "Coyote scare." As might be expected, such animals 
behave abnormally, show no fear of man, enter ranch en- 
closures, and become dangerous. Normally the Coyote is 
absolutely harmless, fleeing at the first suspicion of danger, and 
much less to be feared than the average stray Dog. 

Coyotes are prolific and have about five to seven young in a 
litter. The number may vary from three to ten. The den 
is generally a hole in a bank or a hole back- in the rocks, and 
the young are born early in April. Only one family is raised in 
a season. 

Subgenus Canis. Wolves 

The true Wolves of North America are all closely related 
and there are no sharp dividing lines to be drawn between 
them. Many names have been used and there is a great need 
for a revision of the Wolves. They should probably all stand 
as subspecies of mexicanus, the earliest-named North Ameri- 
can Wolf. 

Gray Wolf; Timber Wolf; Lobo; Loafer; Buffalo Wolf.— 

Canis nubilus Say, and related species. Plate XIV. 

Displaying all the characters of the genus Canis as shown in 
the Coyotes, but much larger, heavier, and more powerful. 

Color. — The same in both sexes and not varying much with 
the seasons, although varying much with the individual. 
Usual color pattern gray sprinkled with black or dusky on 

153 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



upperparts; muzzle with light wash of brownish; legs and 
underparts yellowish white; soles of feet brownish. Indi- 
viduals may be rusty red instead of grayish. Immature with 
blackish on muzzle, ears, and tail, but soon taking on gray of 
adult pelage. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Total length, 
males, 64 inches, females, 56 inches; tail vertebree, males, 16 




Timber Wolf 



inches, females, 12 inches; hind foot, males, 10 inches, 
females, 10 inches; weight, males, 75-100 pounds average, to 
150 for exceptional cases; females, 60-80 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — All of temperate and Arctic 
North America except for a small area in the Southwest 
(California, Nevada, and parts of Oregon, Utah, and Arizona). 
Exterminated today over part of this range. 

Food. — Carnivorous by preference, feeding on Deer, 
Moose, Caribou, Pronghorn, domestic stock. Jack Rabbits, 
Prairie-dogs, and all of the smaller mammals and birds it can 
catch; carrion; fish; rarely food of a vegetable nature. 

Enemies. — Comparatively none when adult; when young, 
Eagles. 

Species of the Subgenus Canis 

Gray Wolf; Timber WoU.— Cams nuhilus Say. Plate XIV. 
As described. Limits of range unknown, but found on the 
Great Plains of Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Wyoming, the 
Dakotas, and east to the Great Lakes. 

154 



WOLF 



Northern Gray Wolf. — Canis occidentalis (Richardson). 

A very large Wolf which is normally gray in color, but 
varies and may be dark bluish gray or almost black. Found 
in Mackenzie and the northwestern parts of forested Canada. 

Eastern Timber Wolf. — Ca^iis lycaon Schreber. 

Reddish brown in color, with black- tipped hairs on back, 
i'ound in eastern Canada and the northeastern United 
States; limits of range unknown. 

Florida Wolf. — Canis floridamis Miller. 

Resembling lycaon in general cranial characters; light buffy 
gray mixed with black on upperparts; rusty red tinge on 
muzzle, legs and feet; also occurs as a black phase. Found 
in Florida. 

Mt. McKinley Timber Wolf. — Canis pamhasileus Elliot. 
Variable in color from nearly uniform black to various mix- 
tures of grizzled white and black; size very large. Found 
in the region of Mt. McKinley, Alaska; limits of range un- 
known. 

Texan Red Wolf. — Canis rufus (Audubon and Bachman). 
Smaller than the Gray Wolves; reddish brown in color with 
mixture of black; tail with black tip and much black on 
upper surface. Total length, 48 inches; tail vertebrae, 13 
inches. Found throughout southern Texas, north at least 
to 30°; limits of range unknown. 

Oklahoma Wolf. — Canis frustror Woodhouse. 

A small Wolf most like rufus but not so red in color. Found 
in Oklahoma; limits of range unknown. 

Puget Sound Wolf. — Canis gigas (Townsend). 

A large, red Wolf. Upperparts reddish brown heavily 
sprinkled with black ; underparts grayish ; tail comparatively 
short and tipped with black. Found in the Puget Sound 
Region; south to California (?). 

White Wolf; Tundra Wolf. — Canis tundrarum Miller. 

A large, white Wolf. General color light yellowish white 
with faint sprinkling of dusky on back and tail; brownish 
on muzzle. Individuals may vary to almost black. Total 
length, males, 66.5 inches; tail vertebras, 18.5 inches; hind 
foot, 11.75 inches; height at shoulder, 28 inches, weight, 
90-100 pounds. _ Found on the Barren Grounds and tundras 
of Arctic America. 



The Wolf has been so hunted and trapped by man that there 
are very few places in North America today where it can be 
readily observed. Although in the West there are regions 
where this mammal is yet to be found in fair numbers, the 
attempts to exterminate the Wolf have made him a very wary 
creature and he knows well how to keep out of sight. In the 
far North the big Arctic Wolves are probably as numerous 

155 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



and as bold as they have ever been, for there the conditions 
are different. 

The presence of Wolves will be oftenest noted by their 
big, dog-like tracks, occasionally by the deep, sinister howl, 
and possibly by the discovery of the kills they have made. 
The Wolf is strong enough to prey upon the largest of the non- 
carnivores and in some places is very destructive to domestic 
stock. With the settlement of a district, the establishment of 
farms and ranches, and the disappearance of the game 
animals, the Wolf departs as well. He has no place in the 
modern scheme and is being poisoned, trapped, and shot 
throughout the western states. In most of the eastern states 
the Wolf has been exterminated or is very scarce; in the 
Adirondacks the last Wolf was killed in 1893, in Pennsylvania 
in 1907, and in New Jersey they were all killed early in the 
nineteenth century. 

The hunting range of an individual Wolf is usually very 
extensive. The animal is capable of traveling far and swiftly, 
and it follows the larger mammals which it prefers as prey. 

The Wolf frequents the plains, the broken country where 
plateaus are intersected by canyons and ravines, and the 
forests. It is able to adapt itself to a variety of environ- 
ments, but needs either dense, inaccessible cover or a wide 
expanse of territory where its speed will serve it in place of 
adequate cover. 

The Wolf makes its den in a cave, a hollow log, or in a hole 
in the ground. The location is generally selected near a rise 
of ground from which one of the Wolves can stand guard. 
The young vary in number from three to thirteen, with six or 
seven as the average. The young are born from early March 
to the middle of April. The old Wolves are devoted parents 
and the male helps the female to feed and rear the young. 
When born the pups are blind and the eyes are not fully 
opened until the ninth day. 

Wolves hunt together, usually in small packs. These 
packs may be the individuals of one family or, in winter, 
several families may be represented, and at this time the packs 
are larger; at other seasons large packs are unusual. 

Seton gives several calls for the Wolf. The commonest 
is the "long smooth howl" very much like the howl of a large 
Dog but decidedly eerie, nevertheless. Another howl is on a 

156 



i 



COUGAR 

higher pitch, vibrating on two notes. A third cry is a com- 
bination of a short bark and howl and is given when the Wolf 
is in full cry on a hot scent. 

Family Felidae. Cats 

Carnivorous mammals of medium to large size; form muscu- 
lar and trim; head rounded; limbs of moderate length; feet 
digitigrade, toes five in front, four behind; claws long, sharp, 
retractile; tail short to long; dentition of shearing type with- 
out broad, crushing surfaces; carnassial teeth highly devel- 
oped; tongue with upper surface rasp-like; habit terrestrial 
but able to climb trees; pelage fairly s^ort to moderately long. 

Genus Felis 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars, f ; Molars, J- = 30. 

Cougar, — Felis couguar' 

and related forms 
Names.— Cougar; Puma; Mountain Lion; Panther; Painter. 
General Description.— Largest of the New World unspotted 
Cats; head proportionally rather small; body long and lithe; 
tail long and cylindrical; five toes on forefeet, four on hind 
feet, each with a long, sharp, retractile claw; gait digitigrade; 
ears well developed, not tufted; pelage soft and rather short;' 
color brownish. Plate XV. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation. 
Upperparts dull yellowish brown or tawny; ears blackish 
posteriorly and light-colored internally; taiflike back, dark 
brown at tip; underparts paler than upperparts. 
Immature yellowish brown spotted with blackish. 
Measurements.— Males larger than females. Males, total 
length, about 96 inches; tail vertebras, about 24-30 inches, 
hind foot, 10 inches; weight, about 150 pounds. Females 
about 12 inches shorter in total length. 

Geographical Distribution.— Formerly found over prac- 
tically all of North America as far north as the Great Lakes, 

^ For a preliminary revision of the Pumas see C. H., Merriam Proc 
Wask. Acad. Sci., Vol. iii, pp. 577-600, 1901. This group has not been 
adequately revised, and the geographic ranges given in this field book 
are provisional. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Maine, and southern Alberta; now extinct in much of this 
range. 

Food. — Chiefly the larger mammals when they can be 
found, such as Deer, Wapiti, Mountain Sheep, Antelope, and 




Fig. 36. Cougar 

domestic stock, but preying upon almost all of the smaller 
mammals, birds, and even, it is said, grasshoppers. 
Enemies. — Practically none when mature. 

Species and Subspecies of Cougars. 
The classification of the Cougars is in a condition far from 
satisfactory. Many names are in more or less current usage 
and it is very likely that when these big Cats are revised upon 
the basis of large series of specimens, it will be found that all of 
the North American Cougars are races of the one species. 

Adirondack CougSiT. —Felis couguar Kerr. ^ , ^ ^ 

As described above. Found in "Adirondack Mountams, 
New York Green Mountains, Vermont, and until recently 
higher Alleghenies of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and West 
Virginia, where a few may still occur." (Merriam) j 

Florida Cougar. — Felis coryi Bangs. . • -ul 

Size large; head large; legs and feet long. Upperparts rich^ 
rusty, yellower on sides; black on ears and spot at base ot 

158 



COUGAR 



whiskers; tail dark brown, a dark streak along mid-line 
above, tip black; underparts buffy. Total length, 82 
inches; tail vertebra), 30 inches; hind foot, 11.2 inches. 
Found in Florida. 

Louisiana Cougar. — Felis arundivaga Hollister. 

Resembling coryi but not so reddish in color. Upperparts 
grayish fawn in color, sprinkled with dusky, with a pale, 
indefinite rufous stripe from nape to rump ; blackish on face 
from crown to nose and on side of nose; ears blackish out- 
side, whitish inside; pure white on lips and throat and 
creamy white on breast; grayish on insides of legs; tail 
much darker than back, with short black tip. Total 
length, 84 inches; tail vertebras, 29 inches. Found in 
Louisiana (Concordia Parish and Morehouse Parish); 
limits of range unknown. 

Northwestern Cougar. — Felis oregonensis oregonensis Ra- 
finesque. 
Upperparts reddish brown varying to grayish tawny, face, 
back, and tail darker; ears black on convex side; white to 
whitish on lips, chin, and belly; tip of tail blackish. Total 
length, 85 inches; tail vertebras, 28 inches; hind foot, 10 
inches. Found in Pacific coast region from Northern 
California north to British Columbia. 

Rocky Mountain Cougar. — Felis oregonensis hippolestes 
(Merriam). 
Largest of the North American Cougars; color dull, pale 
yellowish brown; tip of tail black; whitish on chin, lips, 
throat, breast, and inner sides of legs. Total length, males, 
102 inches; tail vertebrcC, 36 inches; hind foot, 10.6 inches; 
weight up to 220 pounds. Found from North Dakota, 
Montana, and Idaho south through Colorado and Utah to 
New Mexico; reported from as far north as the Athabaska 
River, Alberta. 

California Cougar. — Felis oregonensis calif ornica (May). 

Differing from typical oregonensis in slightly paler color and 
more restricted dark markings, as well as in cranial charac- 
ters. Total length, 78 inches; tail vertebras, 30 inches; hind 
foot, II inches. Found in California, throughout most of 
the state, east to the desert areas and the Great Basin dis- 
trict ; limits of range unknown. 

Mexican Cougar. — Felis oregonensis azteca (Merriam). 

Smaller than hippolestes and colored like it, dull fulvous, 
"but tail darker, browner, with longer black tip and no 
white underneath . . . ; ears almost wholly black." 
(Merriam) Total length, 90 inches; tail vertebras, 29 
inches; hind foot, 11 inches. Ranges from Mexico up into 
western Texas; limits of range unknown. 

Yuma Cougar. — Felis oregonensis browni (Merriam). 

Paler and grayer than typical oregone^isis; smaller than 
hippolestes. Total length, 88 inches; tail vertebree, 28 

159 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



inches; weight, 170 pounds. Found along the lower Colo- 
rado River, Arizona, limits of range unknown. 

******* 
The Cougar or Puma is one of the most difficult of wild 
mammals to see under normal circumstances. Men have 
spent years in regions where the tracks of these Cats showed 
the animals to be fairly common and yet have not seen the 
beast itself. The Cougar has been given rather a fearsome 
reputation in literature, and as the "Catamount" or 
"Painter" has figured in more than one thrilling tale. In 
eastern North America especially, it seems to have been a 
greatly feared animal; in the West the ranchers and settlers 
have regarded it very much the same way as they have the 
Wolves and Bears, that is, as harmless unless cornered. 

The Mountain Lion is capable of killing an unarmed person 
without risk to itself, but is normally very much afraid of 
man and anxious to avoid him. When wounded, defending 
young, or driven to bay, this mammal must be respected, and 
there are authentic cases of unprovoked, fatal attacks upon 
children, but they are very rare. 

The Cougar is a widely distributed mammal and prefers 
country where there is plenty of cover such as patches of 
forest, thickets of brush, or the broken topography of canyons 
and ravines. It hunts Deer by preference and where the 
larger mammals are wanting the Cougar is absent. It is a 
wide-ranging hunter and individuals may cover an area in a 
radius of thirty to fifty miles from the home den. The Cougar 
is a highly specialized killer and preys upon most of the 
mammals about him, aside from Porcupine, Skunk, and the 
large carnivores. He is especially destructive to the Deer 
and kills numbers of White-tail Deer, Mule Deer, and Wapiti. 
He has a habit of covering a kill with brush and returning 
to it for a second or third meal. He probably is most active 
after sundown, but sometimes moves about during the day as 
well. 

The Cougar has many of the attributes of the small House- 
cat and, like it, is said to be exceedingly playful. The scream 
of the Cougar is a long, drawn-out cry, weird and startling, well 
calculated to raise the hair of the timid. The observations 
of many naturalists indicate that this animal has a variety 
of screams, cater- waulings, and yells, some of which are terrific. 

160 



Plate XV 




^%^ 



m^^. 



Couda: 















u*us^u.a,i 



JAGUAR 



The Cougar is active throughout the year and does not den 
up in the winter. The home den is usually in a cave or 
fissure in the rocks, but, if these are not available, it may be in 
dense vegetation. The young are usually two in a litter, 
but the number varies from one to five. They are generally 
born in late winter or early spring, but may be born in any 
month of the year. 

Jaguar. — Felis hernandesii (Gray) 

Names. — Jaguar; Tiger; American Leopard. Plate XV. 

General Description. — Largest of the North American 
Felidas; color pattern spotted. Head and body much heavier 
and stronger than in the Cougar; limbs comparatively short 
and powerful; tail of moderate length, thick. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; individual variation very great. 

General pattern of upperparts a ground color of rich buffy 
yellow or tawny marked with black spots or rosettes; under- 
parts whitish spotted with black; spots of varying sizes and 
in some places, the back, chest, and legs, they fuse to form 
short bars; rosettes along back and sides formed of rings 
which generally enclose one or more small spots; tail heavily 
marked with black, especially near tip. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Males, total 
length, 79 inches; tail vertebras, 21 inches; hind foot, 10 inches; 
height at shoulder, 28 inches; weight about 200 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found only in extreme south- 
ern and southwestern states, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

Food. — Large and small mammals. Deer, Peccary, domestic 
stock, wild Turkeys, and smaller game as it is encountered. 

Enemies. — None. 

******* 

Only the one variety of Jaguar is found north of the Rio 
Grande. To the south this big, spotted Cat has a continuous 
range to almost the southern end of South America. 

The Jaguar is so like the Old World Leopard in general 
appearance that it is difficult to distinguish between skins 
of the two animals. The presence of black spots inside the 
rosettes usually marks the Jaguar, which is also a more power- 
ful beast, more heavily built, than the Leopard, and has a 
shorter tail. The Jaguar which reaches the United States is 

161 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



smaller than most of the southern Jaguars and much smaller 
than the big Jaguar of southern Brazil. 

The Jaguar is a formidable beast of prey, quite capable of 
carrying off a man, although the northern variety does not 
seem to be aggressive and the only records of attack upon man 
show provocation. Like most of the Cat family, this animal 
is secretive and wary in habits and is seldom seen. It travels 
long distances in search of prey and the fact that it has been 
reported as far north as central California and Colorado would 
indicate that it may roam far from its usual haunts. 

This Cat is a jungle dweller and prefers dense thickets and 
heavy growths of vegetation. It climbs trees upon occasion, 
but is probably not so given to this as the Cougar. The call 
of the Jaguar is a hoarse cough or short roar suggestive of 
great strength and power, made up of a repetition of guttural 
notes, recorded as "uh, uh, uh, uh." 

The young are born in April or May and number from two 
to four. The cubs are more heavily spotted than the adults 
and their coat is woollier. 

Ocelot. — Felis pardalis grifRthii (Fischer) 

Names. — Ocelot ; Tiger-cat ; Leopard-cat. Plate XVI. 

General Description. — A medium-sized, spotted or marbled 
Cat, with a fairly long tail. Head and body like a large, over- 
grown House-cat; limbs fairly long; tail slightly less than half 
as long as body; pelage short and close; color pattern gray 
and buff marked with much black. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation 
but a wide range of individual variation. 

Upperparts buffy to gray, heavily spotted and marked 
with small rings, blotches, and short bars; underparts white 
spotted with black; tail spotted and ringed with black; black 
markings along back and sides, usually arranged as broken 
lines or chains. 

Immature generally with more black than adults. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Total length, 
males, 50 inches; females, 40 inches; tail vertebras, males, 15 
inches, females, 13 inches; hind foot, males, 5.5 inches, females, 
5 inches; weight about 25-35 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Of southern distribution and! 
crossing into the United States only in southwestern Texas.] 

162 



^^.^r. 



Jaduarundi 



Plate XVI 











V-5; 



#x 



^vfc 






"^.^ 



OCELOT 



Food. — Small mammals, birds, and reptiles. 

Enemies. — Probably very few because of its ability to 

escape. 

******* 

Like the Jaguar, only the one species of Ocelot is known to 
occur north of the Rio Grande. In Central and South 
America the Ocelots are a large and widely distributed group. 

' ' In the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas the tiger-cat is 
rather common, with the eyra-cat, in areas densely overgrown 
with thorny chaparral. Like most of the cat tribe, it is 
strictly nocturnal and by day lies well hidden in its brushy 
shelter. By night it wanders along trails over a considerable 
territory, seeking its prey. Birds of all kinds, including 
domestic poultry, are captured on their roosts, and rabbits, 
wood rats, and mice of many kinds, as well as snakes and 
other reptiles, are on its list of game. 

"The tiger-cat is much more quiet and less fierce in dis- 
position than most felines. . . . 

' ' The tiger-cat brings within our fauna an interesting touch 
of the tropics and its exuberance of animal life. It is found 
in so small a corner of our territory, however, that, despite 
its mainly inoffensive habits, it is certain to be crowded out in 
the near future by the increased occupation of its haunts." 
(Nelson, Wild Animals of North America, p. 416.) 

The scanty records on breeding habits of the Ocelot indi- 
cate but two young to a litter, and the date of birth Septem- 
ber or October. 

Jaguarundi. — Felis cacomitli Berlandier 

Names. — Jaguarundi; Cacomitl Cat; Eyra (in red phase); 
Red and Gray Cat. Plate XVI. 

General Description. — A small, unspotted Cat with long, 
otter-like body; head comparatively small; legs short; body 
slender; tail long. 

Color. — Occurring in two distinct color phases; some sea- 
sonal variation. 

Gray phase. — Everywhere grizzled smoky gray, a mixture 
of black, buff and whitish to give pepper-and-salt appear- 
ance; underparts slightly paler than upperparts but no 
marked contrast between the two; winter pelage with more 
black than in summer. 

163 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Red phase. — Rather uniform rusty red sprinkled with black- 
ish on back; head and legs not so reddish, browner; whitish 
usually on lips and throat. 

Measurements. — Males somewhat larger than females. 
Total length, about 42 inches; tail vertebrse, 20 inches; hind 
foot, 5.5 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southern in distribution and 
reaching the United States only in extreme southern Texas. 

Food. — Small mammals, birds, and possibly some aquatic 
life such as fish, frogs, etc. 

Enemies. — Probably very few because of ability to escape 
the larger carnivores. 

******* 

Only one species of this group of Cats reaches the United 
States, but to the southward the Jaguarundis are found 
throughout Central America and a large part of South America. 

Bailey, in his Biological Survey of Texas, North American 
Fauna, No. 25, p. 168, quoting a letter from F. B. Armstrong, 
writes : 

"Eyra and yaguarundi cats inhabit the densest thickets 
where the timber (mesquite) is not very high, but the under- 
brush — catsclaw and granjeno — is very thick and impene- 
trable for any large-sized animal. Their food is mice, rats, 
birds, and rabbits. Their slender bodies and agile movements 
enable them to capture their prey in the thickest of places. 
They climb trees, as I have shot them out of trees at night by 
'shining their eyes' while deer hunting. I captured them by 
burying traps at intervals along the trails that run through 
these thick places. I don't think they have any regular time 
for breeding, as I have seen young in both summer and winter, 
born probably in August and March. They move around a 
good deal in daytime, as I have often seen them come down to 
a pond to drink at midday, and often see them dart through 
the brush in daytime. They are exceedingly hard to tame. 
Their habitat is from the Rio Grande, 40 miles north of here 
(Brownsville), as far as Tampico, Mexico. Beyond that I 
don't know." 

Genus Lynx 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, ^; Premolars, |; Molars, | = 28. 

164 



PLATE XVII 




■^ 



%A. 



LYNX 



Lynx. — Lynx canadensis 

and related forms 

Names. — Lynx; Bobcat; Wildcat; Loup-cervier (French 
Canadian). Plates XVII and XIX. 

General Description. — A good-sized Cat with prominent, 
tufted ears; very short tail; long limbs; large, broad feet; and 
rather long, loose pelage. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; marked seasonal variation and 
considerable individual variation. 

Upperparts. — Grizzled gray, brown, and blackish; the pelage 
pale drab at base, then buffy brown and finally tipped with 




Fig. 37. Lynx 



light gray, dark brown, or blackish; nose and cheeks grayish; 
crown brownish; ears inside grayish white, edged with buff, 
a gray spot on posterior surface; apex of ear, tuft, and lines 
down margin of ear black; ruff about throat, mixed blackish, 
dark brown, and gray; tail brownish, tipped with black; sides 
and limbs lighter and warmer in tone than back. 

Underparts. — Mixed grayish and light buffy brown, with 
occasional irregular blotches of blackish. 

The above is for November skins in fresh pelage; summer 
pelage is browner and when worn and ragged, as in late 

165 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



summer, most of the colored tips of the hairs are missing and 
the buffy basal pelage predominates. 

Immature spotted and streaked with brown and blackish 
upon a light fawn ground color. 

Measurements." — ^Alales larger than females. Total length 
of males, 36-39 inches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; hind foot, 9.5 
inches; weight, 20-25 pounds, a recorded maximum weight 
of 44 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Boreal North America, south 
in the eastern part of the Great Lakes district and to Penn- 
sylvania and in the west to Colorado (New Mexico?) and 
Oregon {canadensis group). 

Food. — Small mam.mals, birds, sometimes snakes and frogs; 
principally Rabbits, Squirrels, Mice, Partridges; known to 
kill Foxes. 

Enemies. — Probably able to escape, under normal circum- 
stances, from the few large carnivores capable of preying upon 
it. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Lynx. 
Canadensis Group 

Canada Lynx. — Lynx canadensis canadensis Kerr. Plate XIX. 
As described. Found in eastern Canada and northeastern 
United States south to Pennsylvania, west to the Pacific 
Ocean, north to the limit of trees, and south into Oregon and 
Colorado in the mountains. 

Arctic Lynx. — Lynx canadensis mollipilosus Stone. 

"Browner and less gray than true Lynx cajiadensis, with a 
very dense, soft, woolly pelage." (Stone — ^for November 
specimen) Total length, males, 41 inches; tail vertebras, 
5.2 inches; hind foot, 10.4 inches. Found from Point 
Barrow, Alaska, south to British Columbia. 

Newfoundland Lynx. — Lynx suhsolanus Bangs. 

Resembling canadensis in size and general color pattern, 
but darker and richer in tone. Upperparts (summer) 
mixed black and hazel. Found in Newfoundland. 

Rufus Group 

Bay Lynx; Wildcat; Bobcat. — Lynx rufus rufus (Schreber). 
Like Lynx canadensis in general appearance but feet much 
smaller, ears but slightly or not at all tufted, tail not black 
all around at tip; pelage brownish and spotted instead of 
pale grizzled gray; hair not as long. Upperparts variable 

166 



PLATE XVIII 




Photo by H. E. Anthony 

Immature Eastern Raccoon 
(Procyon lotor lotor) 



LYNX 



but usually mixed buff and brown spotted and lined with 
black or brownish black, darkest along dorsal region; sides 
of legs lighter and huffier; crown streaked with black; ear 
marked heavily with black on posterior side, with large 
gray spot; black tuft on ear small; tail above like back, 
tipped with black, below like belly and without black tip; 
underparts whitish, washed with buffy on neck, and heavily 
spotted with black; ruff on chin small. Paler in winter 
than in summer. Total length, 36 inches; tail vertebrae, 
7 inches; hind foot, 7 inches. Found in eastern United 
States from Maine to southern Georgia and west to North 
Dakota. Plates XVII and XIX. 

Florida Bobcat. — Lynx rufus floridanus (Rafinesque) . 

Darker than typical rufus and more lightly built in propor- 
tion to its size; feet smaller; upperparts with heavy mixture 
of black and lacking the reddish brown tinge of typical 
rufus. Total length, 39 inches; tail vertebrce, 7 inches; 
hind foot, 7.5 inches; weight, 17.5 pounds (male, not fat). 
Found in Florida, north to Georgia, west to Louisiana. 

Texas Bobcat. — Lynx rufus texensis (Allen). 

Rather richer in color than typical rufus, heavily spotted. 
Upperparts (Brownsville specimen) rich tawny rufous with- 
out any blackish along dorsal area; underparts thickly 
spotted. Found in southern and eastern Texas. 

California Bobcat. — Lynx rufus californicus Mearns. 

Browner and less spotted than texensis. Reddish bro.wn 
above heavily mixed with gray and blackish, darkest along 
dorsal area; sides and limbs rich buffy; broad collar of pale 
rusty gray spotted with black. Total length, males, 34 
inches; females, 32 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 6.8 inches, 
females, 6 inches; hind foot, males, 6.7 inches, females, 
6.4 inches. Found throughout most of California west of 
the desert areas and east of the northern coast belt, reaching 
to coast throughout southern three-quarters of the state. 

Lynx fasciatus oculeus Bangs = Ly^ix rufus californicus, ac- 
cording to Grinnell and Dixon. 

Desert Bobcat. — Lynx rufus eremicus Mearns. 

Upperparts pale yellowish brown grizzled with gray and 
black, lightly spotted and striped with brown to blackish; 
underparts white; tail with about seven transverse black 
bars on upperside; other details of coloration about as in 
typical rufus, but paler in tone. Total length, 2t7 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 7 inches; hind foot, 7.5 inches. Found in 
the desert areas of California from the Needles in the 
north and San Bernardino County in the west, south into 
Arizona. 

Mountain Bobcat. — Lynx uinta Merriam. 

Largest of the rufus group, hind foot very large; tail very 
long and with two black bands on upper surface in front 
of black tip. Upperparts mixed buffy, gray, and black, 
without distinct spotting or markings; underparts white 

167 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



spotted with black; pale yellowish brown on throat. Total 
length, 41 inches; tail vertebrae, 7.8 inches; hind foot, 8 
inches; weight 31 pounds (male, not fat). Found in the 
mountains of Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico. 

Bailey Bobcat; Plateau Bobcat. — Lynx baileyi Merriam. 
Color pattern made up of soft grays and buffy browns 
somewhat suggestive of Canada Lynx; summer pelage 
sometimes with strong rufous tinge; winter pelage grayer; 
tail with one blackish and one fulvous dorsal band in front 
of black tip. Total length, males, 36 inches; females, 34 
inches; tail vertebrae, males, 7.2 inches, females, 6.8 inches; 
hind foot, males, 7.6 inches, females, 7 inches. Found in 
the southern half of California (eastern portions), Arizona 
and New Mexico, north into Colorado, and east into Texas 
and Oklahoma. 

Barred Bobcat. — Lynx fasciatus fasciatus Rafinesque. 

A richly colored Wildcat; upperparts chestnut-brown to 
rusty, with grizzling of black on dorsal area; legs barred 
with dark brown and blackish ; sides paler than back ; under- 
parts white, heavily marked with black, terminal third of 
tail black. Total length, males, 34.5 inches, females, 32 
inches; tail vertebrse, males, 6.8 inches, females, 6.5 inches; 
hind foot, males, 6.8 inches, females, 6.6 inches. Found in 
northwestern (coastal) California, in Oregon, Washington, 
and southwestern British Columbia; in humid coastal strip 
throughout. 

Pallid Barred Bobcat. — Lynx fasciatus pallescens Merriam. 
Smaller and paler than typical /a5aa/«5, especially on head 
and face; black on ear restricted and gray patch large 
(winter) ; general color hoary gray. Total length, females, 
32 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.6 inches; hind foot, 6 inches. 
Found in "Northeastern California (in Lassen, Modoc, and 
eastern Siskiyou counties) east across northern Nevada and 
northern Utah to Colorado; also north through eastern 
Oregon and eastern Washington, and thence east through 
Idaho into Wyoming and perhaps farther." (Grinnell and 
Dixon) 

Nova Scotia Bobcat. — Lynx gigas Bangs. 

"Very stout and powerfully built; size very large; colors 
rich with much black on upperparts; triangular spot of 
gray on ear very small; skull large and strong." (Bangs) 
Upperparts (winter) mixed cinnamon, gray and blackish; 
tail above, dull cinnamon tipped with black; below, whitish, 
throat patch dull cinnamon; soles of feet_ blackish. Total 
length, males, 40 inches; tail vertebrae, 7 inches; hind foot, 
8 inches. Found in Nova Scotia; limits of range unknown. 



The Lynx is in many respects a big, overgrown House-cat, 
with greater potentialities for killing its prey. It is unlike 

168 



I 



Plate XIX 






P. 



^0 ^^.^^ 




"'^% 



^'r*^"^^" 




Canada b/r 



LYNX AND BOBCAT 



the Common Cat in its long legs, big feet, and short tail, and in 
some of its traits, such as a willingness to take to water. 

The Lynx is a forest creature and prefers the cover of heavy 
woods. It is a wary animal and difficult to observe, mainly 
nocturnal in habit but occasionally about by day. Its chief 
prey is Hares and Rabbits, although it may extend its foraging 
to take in Foxes, young or even adult Deer, and Mountain 
Sheep. In winter the broad feet enable the Lynx to stay on 
top of the snow when most of the other mammals are breaking 
through and at a disadvantage. Like all of the other Cats 
this animal has no dormant period in the winter, but is active 
the year around. 

The Lynx has several calls all more or less like those 
made by a House-cat but magnified. It mews, yowls in 
search of a mate, and cater-wauls and howls when two are 
together. 

The Lynx has from one to four young in a litter and they 
are born from March to June, depending upon the locality. 
The nest is located in a hollow log or hole in the rocks. 

The Bobcat does not differ greatly from the Lynx in habits 
except where it has become a dweller on the arid desert tracts 
of the Southwest. In such places the different nature of the 
environment has caused some modification of behavior. The 
Bobcat is more southern in its distribution than the Lynx. 
There is some overlapping in range, but the Bobcat is essenti- 
ally a Cat of the warmer regions while the Lynx prefers the 
cold to Arctic areas. The Bobcat has learned to live in settled 
districts and does not resent the inroads of civilization as 
does the Lynx. 

The Bobcat is shy and furtive in its behavior and very 
seldom seen. It makes full use of every bit of cover and is 
most active at night. It is an able hunter and takes toll of all 
the small game of its district and even kills animals the size 
of Sheep and Deer. In the Southwest the Bobcat does a 
service to the ranchman in keeping down the numbers of 
Rabbits and small rodents. 

The Bobcat has from two to four young and they are born 
in April or May. 



169 



Order PINNIPEDIA. SEALS and WALRUSES 

Large mammals highly modified for an aquatic habitat, 
but spending part of their existence on the seashore. 

Limbs fin-like, with loss of the normal terrestrial function; 
toes fully webbed for swimming, first toe of forefoot and first 
and fifth toes of hind foot longest; body prostrate in posture; 
tail reduced and rudimentary; ears greatly reduced or absent; 
eyes large, cornea flat; teeth always present, dentition often 
highly specialized; hair varying with genera from coarse 
bristles to the finest fur. 

Family Otariidae. Eared Seals, Sea-lions and 
Fur Seals 

Active Seals with hind limbs capable of rotation forward; 
forelimbs nearly as long as hind limbs; neck long; first and 
fifth toes of hind foot lacking claws; webs of feet extending 
beyond toes; small external ears present; upper incisors 
notched; males larger than females; pelage with or without 
underfur. 

The members of this family are much more active on land 
than the Hair Seals. The family includes the species having 
the greatest commercial value, the Fur Seals, and the common- 
est of the large Seals, the Sea-lions. 

Genus Zalophus 
Dentition.— Incisors, | ; Canines, \ ; Premolars, f ; Molars, { - 34. 

California Sea-lion.— Zalophus californianus 

General Description.— Size very large, males much larger 
than females; no underfur; body form rather slender and 
graceful compared with the Hair Seals; males much thicker 
through shoulders than females and with a prominent, longi- 
tudinal crest from between eyes to occiput. 

170 



SEA-LION 

Color. — Sexes colored very much the same; pelage moder- 
ately coarse, but sleek and shining when wet. 

Yellowish brown above and below, varying sometimes 
through darker shades to dull black. 

Measurements.— Average male: Total length, 98 inches; 
hind flippers, tip to tip outstretched, 37 inches; estimated 




Fig. 38. California Sea-lion 

weight, 500 pounds. Individuals may exceed this; an old 
male in the New York Aquarium was weighed by Dr. C. H. 
Townsend and found to scale 620 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution.— Pacific coast of North America. 

Food. — Fish of many species, crustaceans and squid. 

Enemies. — Killer Whales. 

Species of Sea-Lions 
Genus Zalophus 

California Sea-lion. — Zalophus californianus (Lesson). 

As described above. Found along Pacific coast from south- 
ern Mexico to northern California. 

171 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Genus Eumetopias 

Steller Sea-lion; Northern Sea.-\ion.— Eumetopias jubata 

(Schreber). . 

Externally very much like Zalophus cahformanus but 
larger in size and distinguished by dental characters such as 
a noticeable space between molar and premolars; occipital 
crest of males not greatly developed. Color yellowish 
brown to dark brown. Estimated weight of average male, 
1 500- 1 800 -pounds. Found from Bering Straits south to 
Farallon Islands, Cahfornia. 

^. ***** * 

Sea-lions are the commonest Seals along the Pacific Coast. 
Along the shores of California, Oregon, Washington, and 
British Columbia they outnumber the other pinnipeds, and 
on the score of size and color are easily distinguished from the 
other Seals. 

The California Sea-lion is a common sight off the rocks 
and beaches of California, while farther north this genus is 
replaced by the Steller Sea-lion which is also abundant and 
easily noted. Where Sea-lions are not molested they are 
rather trusting and unsuspicious in the water, loafing on the 
surface within stone's throw of man or swimming quite close if 
one remains motionless. They are not so trusting when 
drawn out on the shore and usually make for the water at the 
first sign of danger. 

Sea-lions have but a single pup at a birth. 

Genus Callorhinus 

Dentition: Incisors, f; Canines, {; Premolars, f; Molars, 
\ or 1 = 34 or 36. 

Alaska Fur Seal.— Callorhinus alascanus Jordan 
and Clark 

Names.— Alaska Fur Seal; Northern Fur Seal; Sea-bear. 

General Description.— Seals of medium size with abundant, 
soft underfur; rostrum short, wide, convex in profile; occipital 
crest not greatly developed; males much larger than females. 
Pelage composed of dense, soft underfur, hidden by longer, 
coarser hairs; underfur light yellowish brown. 

Color.— Sexes differently colored. 
172 



FUR SEAL 



Male. — Upperparts black, gray over shoulders and front of 
neck, brownish on face; flippers reddish brown; underparts 
reddish brown. 

Female. — Upperparts gray; underparts rufous. 

Immature. — Glossy black above, washed with yellowish 
brown below. 

Measurements. — Males much larger than females. Total 
length, males, 75 inches, females, 50 inches; tail vertebrae, 
males, 2 inches, females, 1.5 inches; hind foot, males, 21 
inches, females, 16 inches; weight, males, 300-500 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Pribilof Islands and other 
localities in Bering Sea south to shores of California, in winter. 

Food. — Fish and squid. 

Enemies.' — Killer Whales. 

******* 

So much has been written on the life-history of the Fur 
Seal that there is quite an extended literature on the subject. 
A few of the most comprehensive and easily obtainable 
sources are listed at the close of this handbook. 

Although Fur Seals swing far south of Alaska in winter, 
they stay offshore and are not often seen. During the breed- 
ing season, May to November, they are congregated on the 
Pribilof Islands in large rookeries. The official government 
report of 1926 gave the census of the Fur Seals on the Pribilof 
Islands as 761,281. Fur Seals bear one pup, the baby Seal 
arriving from June 20 to July 20. 

The Alaska Fur Seal of commerce is the plucked, dressed, 
and dyed pelt during which process the long, hard guard-hairs 
are removed to expose the soft, dense underfur. Although a 
large number of these Seals are killed each year, under govern- 
ment supervision, their fur is not as popular as it has been in 
former years. Hudson Seal (dressed Muskrat) has been a 
large factor in driving it from popular favor, and there are 
many other cheaper furs which have come to take its place. 

Family Phocidae. Hair Seals or Earless Seals 

Hind legs incapable of rotation forward, poorly suited for 
progression on land; forelimbs smaller than hind limbs; neck 
short; external ear absent; upper incisors pointed; pelage 
without underfur. This family includes the commonest 
small Seals of temperate waters, the Harbor Seals. 

173 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Genus Phoca 
Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, |; Premolars, |; Molars, j = 34- 

Harbor Seal. — Phoca vitulina concolor 

and related forms 

Names.- — Harbor Seal; Hair Seal; Leopard Seal; Common 
Seal. 

General Description. — A small Seal with short limbs and 
pelage rather coarse and hairy. Head and body typically 
seal-like; color variable. 




Fig. 39. Harbor Seal 



Color. — Sexes colored alike; varying from yellowish gray 
spotted with dark brown to almost black spotted with yellow- 
ish; very young animals are white. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length about 
60 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Atlantic coast from the Caro- 
linas northward. 

Food. — Fish, squid, crustaceans, etc. 

Enemies. — Killer Whale; Sharks; Polar Bear. 

174 



RIBBON SEAL 



Species and wSubspecies of the Genus Phoca 

Subgenus Phoca 

Atlantic Harbor Seal. — Phoca vitulina concolor (DeKay). 

As described. Found from the Carolinas north along 

Atlantic coast into the Arctic Ocean. 
Pacific Harbor Seal. — Phoca richardii richardii (Gray). 

ResemlDling the Atlantic Harbor Seal but characterized by 

slightly different skull characters. Found on Pacific coast 

from Oregon north to the Pribilof Islands of Alaska. 
Pribilof Harbor Seal.— P //oca richardii pribilof ensis Allen. 

Differing from typical richardii in having weaker dentition. 

Found about the Pribilof Islands. 
California Harbor Seal. — Phoca richardii geronimensis Allen. 

Larger than typical richardii and with heavier dentition. 

Found along coast from Oregon south into Mexico. 
******* 

The Harbor Seal is the common, small Seal found in suit- 
able localities along either coast. In addition to the character 
of small size, the spotted color pattern is an aid inidentification. 

This Seal takes its name from its preference for the coast- 
line, being found about bays, harbors, mouths of rivers, and 
sand-bars. It does not go far from land nor migrate like some 
of the other Seals. It may be seen in small herds, but never 
in large rookeries. The young are born in early Spring. 

Subgenus Histriophoca 

Ribbon Seal. — Phoca fasciata Zimmerman 

About the size of the Harbor Seal and like it in external 
build, but color pattern quite different. Pelage brown marked 




Fig. 40. Ribbon Seal 
175 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



with strongly contrasted and clearly outlined bands of yellow 
to ochraceous yellow about neck, shoulder, and rump; some- 
times rings are confluent; females less conspicuously marked 
than males and having only obscure bands. This is not a 
common Seal and is found sparingly about the Aleutian Islands 
and coast of Alaska. 

Subgenus Pusa 

Ringed Seal. — Phoca hispida Schreber 

A medium- sized Seal quite like the Harbor Seal in general 
appearance but colored differently and with different cranial 
characters. First digit of fore-flipper longer than any of the 
others. Upperparts dark brownish to blackish brown faintly 
marked with small, irregular rings or blotches of yellowish; 
underparts yellowish to strong ochraceous yellow. Circum- 
polar in distribution, south to Labrador on Atlantic coast, 
to Bering Sea on Pacific coast. 

Subgenus Pagophilus 

Greenland Seal; Harp Seal; Saddle-back Seal. — 
Phoca groenlandica Erxleben 

Somewhat larger than the Harbor Seal — length up to 72 
inches, weight 600-800 pounds for old males, females a quarter 
smaller — pelage of male bright yellowish, marked with a 
broad band of brown along side which crosses over shoulders 
to meet its fellow from the other side; these bands may also 
meet across lower back; dark brown on head and spots on 
hind limbs. Females not so clearly marked with brown or 
lacking brown completely. Young white. Found in cir- 
cumpolar seas, south to Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

******* 

The Harp Seal is much hunted for its oil, and with the 
Hooded Seal forms the major part of the Seal catch of the 
Newfoundland Seal fisheries. This Seal has a regular period 
of migration and moves south when ice begins to close the 
northern feeding grounds. About the end of September the 
Harp Seal starts south and passes for upwards of nine hundred 
miles to reach the Straits of Belle Isle where the stream of 

176 



BEARDED SEAL 



animals fans out, some to work westward into the Gulf, others 
to continue south along the eastern coast of Newfoundland. 

Early in February the Seals begin the northern movement, 
and in March the young are bom either off the Straits of Belle 
Isle or in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The young are left on 
drifting ice-pans, generally not over a few inches in thickness. 
The old Seals make holes through the ice-sheets by which to 
come and go. Captain Robert A. Bartlett gives the numbers 
of Seals in the two main herds as 300,000 in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and 500,000 off Belle Isle, and comments on the 
ability of the old Seals to find their young after a day's 
absence when the drift has shifted the ice for several miles. 
But one young is born to a mother ; twins are rare. 

After the young Seals are able to leave the ice and take to 
the water, the families move north, eventually to the coast of 
Greenland. 

Bartlett gives the speed of the Seal as twenty miles per 
hour for a limited period, and estimates the time it can re- 
main under water as about twenty minutes. This animal is 
known to eat fish which occur at a depth of about two hundred 
feet. 

Genus Erignathus 

Dentition : Same as for Phoca ; proportionally weak. 

Bearded Seal. — Erignathus barbatus 

and related forms 

General Description. — A large, plain-colored Seal, much 
larger than the Harbor Seal, reaching a length of 10 to 12 
feet. Color everywhere grayish to yellowish (considerable 
individual variation), darkest along back; a prominent tuft of 
long, flattened bristles on each side of muzzle which gives 
animal a "bearded" appearance. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found in polar seas south to 
Newfoundland. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Erignathus. 

Atlantic Bearded Seal. — Erignathus barbatus barbatus 
(Erxleben). 
As described above. Found along northeastern North 
America from Newfoundland north. 

177 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Pacific Bearded SeaL — Erignathus harhatus nauticiis (Pallas). 
Very much like typical harhatus; differing in cranial charac- 
ters, such as short nasals, wider braincase, etc. Found from 
coast of Alaska eastward. 

******* 
The Bearded Seal is an Arctic species and is found only in 
the northern seas. It hauls out on the ice but does not break 
holes in the ice-sheets for this purpose, choosing instead to 
take advantage of natural fissures or openings. It is much 
hunted by the Eskimos. 

Genus Halichoerus 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, |; Molars, x = 34. 

Gray Seal. — Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius) 

General Description. — A very large Seal of plain color 
pattern. Color varying with the individual from silver or 
ashy gray to dusky gray, obscure blackish spots on upperparts 
and sides. Length up to lo or 12 feet. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found along Atlantic coast 
from Nova Scotia to Greenland. 

The Gray Seal prefers rocky localities where the water is 
rough and ocean currents swirl in and out. The males fight 
amongst themselves in the breeding season and often carry 
scars. It is not a common Seal on the American coasts. 

Genus Cystophora 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, \; Premolars, |; Molars, j =30. 

Hooded Seal. — ^Cystophora cristata (Erxleben) 

General Description. — A fairly large Seal, dark in color, 
having on the top of the head (males only) an inflatable bag 
of muscular tissue; upperparts slaty black, sides lighter and 
thickly spotted with whitish; length, 84-96 inches. Young 
white. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found from Newfoundland to 
Greenland and rarely as far south as New England. 

******* 

The Hooded Seal is one of the more abundant vSeals of the 
North Atlantic and ranges over much the same area as the 

178 



HOODED SEAL 



Harp Seal (see page 176). The two Seals are more or less 
associated in their migrations and have somewhat similar 
habits. The Hooded Seal chooses heavier and older ice 
for the whelping ground, and instead of breaking a hole 
through shallow sheets of ice it selects [ice-hummocks 




Fig. 41. Hooded Seal 

that may be approached from the open sea. This Seal does 
not congregate in large, continuous herds but in small, scat- 
tered groups and usually at some distance from the herds of 
Harp Seal. 

The Hooded Seal is more wild and quarrelsome in disposi- 
tion than the Harp and when angered inflates the hood on the 
head. The female Hooded Seal usually fights for its young 
and will die rather than desert it. 

Young Seals, after the first year, are known as "bedlamers" 
in the vernacular of the sealers. 

Genus Mirounga 
Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, l; Premolars, f ; Molars, x = 30 

Elephant Seal; Sea-elephant; Northern Elephant 
Seal. — Mirounga angustirostris (Gill) 

General Description. — A very large Seal, the largest of the 
true Seals; males much larger than females and having a long 
proboscis of cavernous tissue capable of inflation, which is 
somewhat suggestive of an Elephant. Body huge and ponder- 
ous; hind limbs without nails; color brownish to slaty. Males 
reach maximum length of about 1 8feet, females half that length. 

Geographical Distribution. — Now restricted to the Island 
of Guadalupe, Mexico, southwest of San Diego, California, 

179 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



but formerly occurring along the coast and islands of southern 

California as far north as Point Reyes. 

******* 

The Elephant Seal is well characterized by large size and 

long, pendulous nose (in the case of males). This huge Seal is 




Fig. 42. Head of Elephant Seal 

represented by two distinct forms, the Antarctic or Southern 
Elephant Seal, and the Northern Elephant Seal, the latter 
faced with extinction today. Although formerly known from 
many localities along the coast and islands of Lower California 
and southern California, it has been so hunted for its oil that 
it is now extinct north of Mexican territory. The only known 
herd, of several hundred individuals, is on Guadalupe Island 
southwest of San Diego, California. 

Family Odobenidae. Walruses 

Seal-like, marine mammals of very large size, having greatly 
elongated upper canines. 

Genus Odobenus 



Dentition; 



Young, Incisors, f ; Canines, {; Premolars and 

Molars, | = 30 
Adult, Incisors, ^; Canines, {; Premolars, f; 



-5 - 10 
180 



WALRUS 
Walrus. — Odobenus rosmarus 

and related species 

General Description. — A very large, seal-like mammal 
with hairless (almost), wrinkled skin and large, tusk-like 
upper canines. Head proportionally small ; muzzle blunt and 
broad, set with coarse bristles; body gross and ponderous; 




Fig. 43. Walrus 

neck massive; fore-flippers with five toes bearing flat nails; 
hind flippers with fifth toe longest, nails on all five toes but 
those on first and fifth flat, others long and pointed; tail 
vestigial; skin very thick and rugose. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; yellowish brown everywhere 
except for reddish brown on base of flippers and on underparts. 

Measurements. — Males about a third larger than females; 
males 10 to 11 feet in length, weighing from 2000 to 3000 
pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arctic Seas. 

Food. — Principally molluscs, bivalves, starfish, and shrimp. 

Enemies. — Polar Bear and Killer Whale. 

Species of the Genus Odobenus 

Atlantic Walrus; Morse; Sea-horse. — Odobenus rosmarus 
(Linnaeus). 
As described. Found in the North Atlantic and adjacent 
Arctic seas south to coast of Labrador. 

181 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Pacific Walrus.' — Odohenus diver gens (Illiger). 

Resembling the Atlantic Walrus but with longer, heavier 

and more divergent tusks. Found in Bering Sea north 

into Arctic Ocean. 

******* 

The Walrus is so well characterized by its tusks and huge 
size that it will not be confused with any of the marine mam- 
mals. It is not encountered out of northern seas and one 
must go on a special expedition to encounter Walrus. 

These mammals make a fierce and imposing appearance 
and hunting them is said to be attended with some element of 
risk. However, the Eskimos kill them from fragile skin boats, 
and against modern equipment and firearms the odds are 
overwhelmingly against the Walrus. 



,.*-''.:.?', wt.fWr'j 



^■r'v';?^W^^^^'^-^^'>Sfc^ 




182 



Order RODENTIA. RODENTS (exclusive of 
Hares, Rabbits, and Pikas) 

Placental mammals of very small to medium size; non- 
volant, terrestrial, semiaquatic, fossorial or arboreal in 
habit; feet with claws; dentition adapted for cutting and 
grinding vegetable substances; incisors one in each jaw (two 
above, two below), prominent, more or less protruding, grow- 
ing from a persistent pulp; a wide diastema or space (no canine 
teeth) between incisors and molar teeth which have relatively 
fiat crowns; lower jaw capable of more or less longitudinal 
movement; clavicle present but sometimes reduced; form 
various. 

Family Sciuridae. Squirrels 

Form varying from slender to robust; size small to fairly 
large; head rounded; tail without scales, short to long, usually 
flattened, well haired; cheek-teeth at least four on each side; 
molars rooted, tubercular; ribs twelve to thirteen pairs; 
clavicles developed; habit terrestrial, fossorial, or arboreal. 

Subfamily Sciurinae 
Genus Marmota' 

Dentition: Incisors, i; Canines, ^; Premolars, f; Molars, | = 22. 

Woodchuck. — Marmota monax 

and related forms 
Names.— Woodchuck; Marmot; Ground-hog; "vSiffleur" 
(French Canadian) . Plate XX . 

General Description.— A large, terrestrial Squirrel with 
heavy-set body and short tail. Head broad and short; nose 
blunt; ears low, rounded; eyes small; tail well haired, flattened; 

"■ For a full review of the genus Marmota see A. H. Howell North 
American Fauna, No. 37, 1915, 

183 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



claws strong and adapted for digging; thumb small, rudimen- 
tary, with flat nail; pelage long, coarse, with shorter, softer 
underfur. Color above, brownish or yellowish. Living in 
burrows in the ground or in piles of rock. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts. — Brownish, with grayish or reddish wash, 
having a grizzled appearance because of intermixture of 
whitish, buffy, or cinnamon-colored hairs; underfur dark gray 




Fig. 44. Woodchuck 



at base, but tipped with ochraceous or cinnamon; longer hair 
parti- colored, brownish tipped with light buff to white; head 
darker, Vandyke-brown; whitish or buffy areas on sides of 
face, nose, lips, and chin; forelegs and feet black to dark 
brown; hind legs tawny; tail from black to dark brown. 

Underparts. — Varying from, buffy whitish to tawny or 
brownish, the bases of the hairs being blackish brown. 

Young. — Colors not as rich as in adults. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Males: total 
length, 26-27 inches; tail vertebrae, 6 inches; hind foot, 3.5 

184 



WOODCHUCK 



inches. Females: total length, 22 inches; tail vertebra, 5-6 
inches; hind foot, 3 inches. 

Geographical Distribution.— Most of North America from 
35° in the south to 55° in the north, in the west as far north 
as Alaska. 

Food.— Vegetation of various kinds, grass, clover, crops, 
foliage of native species. 

Enemies.— Eagles, large Hawks, Foxes, Wildcats, Moun- 
tain Lions, Coyotes, Wolves, Wolverines, Bears. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Marmota 
Monax Group 

Southern Woodchuck.—Marmoia monax monax (Linnseus) 
As described above Found in "Middle eastern United 
States from Pennsylvania, New Jersey (?), Ohio, Indiana 
illmois, and Iowa south to the northern parts of South 
Carohna Georgia Alabama, and Arkansas; west to eastern 
Kansas. (Howell) 

Riifescent Woodchuck.— il/armoto monax nifescens Howell 
Kesembhng typical 7nonax but redder above and below 
^ound m Eastern North Dakota, central and southern 
Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, southern Ontario 
greater part of New York (including Long Island), and 
higher parts of western Massachusetts." (Howell) 

Howdr"^ Woodchuck.— ilfa^-moto monax preUorum 

Intermediate in color between typical monax and rufes- 
f^«5 smaller than either. Total length, 20 inches. Found 
m Southern New England, from Connecticut to central 
Vermont and New Hampshire and southern Maine." 
(Howell) 

Labrador Woo dchuck.— ikfamoto monax ignava (Bangs) 
Larger than preblorum; total length, 21-22 inches; color re- 
sembling that of rufescens, skull with very broad nasals 
Known on y from vicinity of type locality [Black Bay! 
Inlet " fHmve^ll) ' ^^^^^^°^^ ' Probably north to Hamilton 

C^ada Woodchuck.—Jf armoto mo7iax canadensis (Erxleben) 
bmall m size, sexes approximately equal in size. Total 
ength 20 inches Color strongly reddish above and be- 
low. Found m Greater part of interior of Canada, from 
A W. fp^ 1 ?^^^ f""^ ^^^i" Factory south to southern 
Alberta (Red Deer), central Saskatchewan (Cumberland 
House), northern Minnesota, northern Wisconsin, northern 
Michigan; central Ontario, southern Quebec, New Bruns- 
wick, and Nova Scotia; northern and eastern limits of range 
m Quebec unknown." (Howell) 

185 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



British Coltimbia Woodchuck. — Marmota monax petrensis 
Howell. 
Resembling canadensis but with different cranial characters, 
skull larger and longer. Found in "Interior ranges of 
southern British Columbia and adjacent parts of United 
States, from Barkerville, British Columbia, south to Thomp- 
son Pass, Idaho." (Howell) 



Fig. 45. Distribution of the subspecies of Marmota monax, 
after A. H. Howell 

1. Marmota monax ochracea 

2. Marmota monax petrensis 

3. Marmota monax canadensis 

4. Marmota monax ignava 

5. Marmota monax rufescens 

6. Marmota monax preblorum 

7. Marmota monax monax 



Ochraceous Woodchuck. — Marmota monax ochracea (Swarth). 
Resembling canadensis but with longer and narrower skull. 
Color ochraceous above, tawny to hazel below. Found in 
"Interior mountain ranges of Yukon and northern British 
Columbia, from Fortymile Creek south to the Babine 
Mountains (and Stuart Lake ?)." (Howell) 

186 



WOODCHUCK 




Pig. 46. Distribution of the subspecies of Marmota flavi- 
ventris, after A. H. Howell 



1. Marmota 

2. Marmota 

3. Marmota 

4. Marmota 

5. Marmota 

6. Marmota 

7. Marmota 

8. Marmota 

9. Marmota 
10. Marmota 



flaviventris 
Jlaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 
flaviventris 



flaviventris 

sierra 

avara 

parvula 

engelhardti 

nosophora 

dacota 

luteola 

war rent 

obscura 



187 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Flaviventris Group 

Yellow-bellied Marmot. — Marmota flaviventris flaviventris 

(Audubon and Bachman). 

Size large, total length, males, 28 inches, females 25 mches; 

tail vertebrae, males, 7 inches, females, 6.8 mches; hmd 

foot, males, 3.6 inches, females, 3.2 inches. Upperparts 

grizzled russet and whitish, an indistinct buffy mantle on 

fore-back; underparts ochraceous; feet ochraceous. Found 

in "The Cascade Range in Oregon and the northern Sierra 

in California, south to Lake Tahoe." (Howell) 

Pallid Yellow-bellied Marmot. — Marmota flaviventris avara 

(Bangs). _ . , ,, 

Smaller and paler than typical flaviventris. Total lengtn 

male 22 inches. Found in "Interior valleys and foothills 

of southern British Columbia and eastern Washington and 

Oregon." (Howell) . • tt n 

Southern Sierra Marmot. — Marmota flaviventris sierrce tiowen. 

Redder than typical flaviventris and with buffy mantle 

absent or greatly reduced. Found in "Higher parts of the 

southern Sierra Nevada from upper Kern River north to 

vicinity of Mono Lake." (Howell) 

White Mountains Marmot. — Marmota flaviventris fortirostns 

Grinnell. r 1 11 

Resembling sierrce but smaller and paler; rostrum ot skul 

short and heavy. Total length, males, 22.5 inches, tail 

vertebrae, 6.5 inches; hind foot, 2.9 inches. Found m the 

higher parts of the White Mountains, Mono County, Cah- 

Nevada 'Marmot.— Marmota flaviventris parvula Howell. 
Smaller and darker than avara. Total length, male, 15- 
20 inches, the smallest subspecies of flaviventris. Found 
in "Toyabe and Toquima Ranges, Nev. ; and White Moun- 
tains Cal. (occurring from about 7,800 to 10,000 feet alti- 
tude) ; probably occupies also other desert ranges m cen- 
tral Nevada." (Howell) _ „ J.-/A11 ^ 

Engelhardt MsiTmot.— Marmota flaviventris engelhardti (Allen;. 
Smaller than typical flaviventris, more dark red on upper- 
parts and on feet. Found in " Beaver and Parawan Moun- 
tains, southern Utah; also Midvale, Idaho; exact limits of 
range unknown." (Howell) _ _ 

Golden-mantled Maimot— Marmota flaviventris nosophora 

Howell. , . .^ .1 

Tail longer than that of engelhardti (6.5 inches as com- 
pared to 6 inches) color more ochraceous above and redder 
below, a golden buff mantle on anterior back. Found m 
"Rocky Mountain region of Montana, Idaho, and Wyom- 
ing from Flathead Lake, Mont., south to the Wasatch 
Mountains, Utah, and east to the Bighorn Mountains, 
Wyo.; altitudinal range from about 3,000 to 11,800 feet. 
(Howell) 



Plate XX 




WKile 
Prairie Doff 





Black-tailed 
Prairie Dod 



Mountain Beaver 




WOODCHUCK 



^'si.'^.^f'f ^^"^f--Marmotaflavivenlris dacota (Merriam) 
|dde/ Self Totd' ^'^^:^^t^f ^ 

Park U^Tmot.~Marmota flavive^itris luteola Howell 

Reserablmg /««« ,n size but color different. Upplrmrts 

^f^^".;^^^'""*-"^^™'"''-'^"''"'''""-" «"»'«'««■ Howell 
Like dacota m size but with larger skull, dark red^ta color 

r.rfiefnr*.''"'^- /°""<^ '" "Western Colorado from 
S^n;'i^ui£o"w*=:.?°rHowcflf "^^'^^ ^°""'^^ --' >-'S^°" 
Dusky M^rmot.—Marmota flaviventtis obscura Howell 

ivarger than dacota and equaling typical /at;?z;e«^nV sexes 
wHt^.Tf"^"^^ ;-^ ^^T' '^^^ ^°^^= ^°^°^ above, dark brown wSi 
Poind fr"v^'' ^^'? ^^^^^^jly l\ckmg any white markings 
l^^- \, ^PP5 ^^°P^^ °^ high peaks in northern New 
Mexico and southern Colorado, from'^Pecos Baldy N Mex 
north to Sierra Blanca, vicinity of Fort Garland anrWn 
San Juan Range near Osier, Colo, (formerly in the Man 
zano and Datil Mountains, N Mex • occnr<f in PT,,L • 
and upper Canadian Zones'from aboiii S fe" altituXTo 
the summits of the peaks (13,300-13,700 feet)/' (HoweS 

Caligata Group 

'"'(IsLcfoTt^. "^^^f-^^rnlota cali,ata caU.ata 

fail" verf;h'°'^^ ^^T\ ^^^"' ^^-5 inches, female, 27 inches- 
tail vertebra male, 8.5 inches, female, 7.6 inches hind 
foot, male, 4 mches, female, 3.8 inches. General aoDear 
ance of upperparts grizzled white and black rich bX on 
rump and lower back, black on top of head and face wi?h 
I whitish patch in front of eyes; underparts soM whitT h 
■ tail above buff y tipped with brown, below dark brown- 
forelegs whitish, hind legs buffy; fore-andMnd feet black ' 
^h. Found m "Alaska and Yukon, from the For Lnd 
Canal north on the coast to Bristol Bay, an" in the 2ite?for 
189 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



to the Endicott Range and the mountains lying westward 
of Fort Good Hope, Mackenzie." (Howell) 
Glacier Marmot. — Marmota caligata vigilis (Heller). 

Resembling typical caligata but darker in color, more black 
and brown, variable in color. Known only from type local- 
ity, west shore of Glacier Bay, Alaska. 
Montague Island Marmot. — Marmota caligata sheldoni Howell. 
Smaller than typical caligata and with shorter nasals. 
Total length, male, 26. 8 inches. Known only from the type 
locality, Montague Island, Alaska. 
Robson Hoary Marmot. — Marmota caligata oxytona (Hollister). 
More bla>.,k above than typical caligata; sexes nearly equal 
in size. Total length, male, 30 inches; one of the largest of 
the caligata group, as well as one of the darkest in color. 
Found in "Interior of northern British Columbia, south- 
western Mackenzie (?) ,and southern Yukon, from Teslin 
Lake and Liard River south to Barkerville, British Colum- 
bia, and the Mount Robson region, British Columbia and 
Alberta." (Howell) 
Okanagan Hoary Marmot. — Marfnota caligata okanagana 
(King). 
Almost as dark as oxytona but averaging more white. Total 
length, 28 inches for males. Found in "Gold and Selkirk 
Ranges, British Columbia, and probably main range of the 
Rocky Mountains in Alberta from Banff to Henry House; 
exact limits unknown." (Howell) 
Montana Hoary Marmot. — Marmota caligata nivaria Howell. 
Lightest colored of the caligata series, whiter than the other 
subspecies. Similar in size to oxytona. Found in "Upper 
slopes (at and above timberline) of high mountains of north- 
western Montana and of Bitterroot and Salmon River 
Mountains, Idaho (limits of range imperfectly known). 
(Howell) 
Cascade Hoary Marmot. — Marmota caligata cascadensis 
Howell. 
Size of oxytona but more white and less black above. Found 
in "Cascade Range (at and above timberline) from Mount 
Rainier, Wash., north to southern British Columbia." 
(Howell) 
Olympic Marmot.— Marmota olympus (Merriam). 

Large, total length, male, 29-30 inches. Browner than the 
forms of caligata; above, brownish mixed with white. 
Found in "Upper slopes of the Olympic Mountains, Wash., 
above timberline (from about 4,000 feet altitude to near 
summits of peaks)." (Howell) 
Vancouver Island Marmot.^ — Marmota vancouverensis Swarth. 
"Entire body, legs, and tail dark Vandyke-brown, the 
underfur being of the same color, the long hairs more 
blackish and glossy." (Howell) Total length, male, 26-28 
inches. Found on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 



190 



WOOD CHUCK 







'''* ^^'U^l^l^^'^'r'' ""^ ^^^ 'P^^^^^ ^^^ subspecies of the 
Marmota cahgata group, after A. H. Howell 



Marmota caligata caligata 
Marmota caligata sheldoni 
Marmota caligata oxytona 
Marmota caligata okanagana 
Marmota caligata nivaria 



6. Marmota caligata cascadensis 

1. Marmota caligata vigilis 

S. Marmota olvmpus 

9- Marmota vancouverensis 



191 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



The Woodchuck is the best known of the large terrestrial 
Squirrels. Because of the wide geographic distribution of the 
genus, nearly every one who has spent any amount of time 
out of doors has come into contact with one or more of the 
di^ierent forms of Woodchuck or Ground-hog. 

In the eastern states, the brownish red subspecies of momx 
are common creatures of the farm and country-side where 
their plump, heavy-set figures are known to every f armer s 
boy Here they live in stone-walls, in wood-piles, or in bur- 
rowi which they dig near a clover field or other source of food 
supply The burrows usually have several openings to the 
urface so that the animal may have a choice of more than one 
entrance or exit. Woodchucks occasionally climb up on 
stumps, or a short distance up small trees, but habitually 
soend their existence on the ground. 

Although a Woodchuck will run for its burrow immediately 
on the approach of a Dog, when cornered it is a good match 
for a sma'l Dog and puts up a good fight. Where it is exposed 
to constant persecution in a farming region, it is a cunning and 
wary creature, able to take care of itself. It may be decidedly 
destructive on a farm not only because of what it eats but be- 
cause of the large burrows it makes, which may be m places 
where holes and mounds of earth are obstructions to cultiva- 



tion. 



Woodchucks are not sociable creatures and generally adults 
are found only one to a burrow, and the animals are apt to be 
pretty well scattered over a region rather than concentrated 
i-. one soot as is the case with Prairie-dogs. ,, , , , 

Zr a long summer of successful foraging, the Woodchuck 
becomes very fat and his pelage takes on a richer and more 
glossy appearance. When winter sets in and food is scarce 
?he Woodchuck hibernates, passing a long period in a dormant 
condition not easily distinguished from death. Duringh.be. 
nation the normal bodily activities are suspended and he 
an mal requires so little energy for his long sleep that the 
ZZ lay^ of fat is sufficient; respiration and pulse are feeb^ 
andTluggish, body temperature is low, and the animal is in- 
sensible to is surroundings. If gradually warmed, he W 
s^on revive and take notice of what goes on fo-'^}^-J^^ 
tiZ for hibernation varies with the locality, depending on the 
Cgth and severity of the winter, in the Atlantic States being 



ROCK SQUIRREL 



from October to March. "Ground-hog Day," — February 
2nd — takes its name from the supposition that the Ground- 
hog comes out for its first peep at weather conditions, to see 
if the sun is shining. The reasoning whereby the sight of its 
shadow drives the animal back for an additional six weeks' 
sleep is probably that an open, warm February means a late, 
cold spring! 

In the Rocky Mountain region one finds the larger, gray 
Woodchucks, the Hoary Marmots, which live at high eleva- 
tions. These Woodchucks, or Rock-chucks as they are some- 
times called, live in the huge masses of slide-rock and are quite 
different in appearance from the monax and flaviventer forms. 
They have a loud, piercing whistle and are ever on the alert, 
seldom permitting a close approach. Their eyesight is keen, 
for they must be on the lookout not only for four-footed 
enemies, but for the large birds of prey. 

Woodchucks are not very often eaten by man, but are, 
nevertheless, well flavored and deserving of more attention! 
Old or very fat animals would not fall into this category. 

The fur of some of the Old World Marmots figures as quite 
an item in the fur trade, but skins of American species do not 
seem to have been much exploited, although the fur of the 
northern species is not unattractive. 

Genus Otospermophilus 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, g ; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 22 

Rock Squirrel.— Otospermophilus grammurus 

and related forms 
Names.— Rock Squirrel; Canyon Squirrel; Gray Squirrel; 
Ground Squirrel; Digger. 

General Description.— A large grayish or brownish Squirrel, 
of terrestrial habits, with a long and moderately bushy tail.' 
Size about as in the true Gray Squirrels; ears rather small j 
tail long, flat and bushy, but considerably narrower than the 
tails of the arboreal Squirrels; first upper premolar small and 
peg-like. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not 
conspicuous. 

Upperparts.- Grizzled gray, brown and dusky, grayest 
on shoulders, upper back and sides, brownest on rump to 

193 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



mid-dorsal region; gray appearing in small spots to produce 
dappled effect; top of head light brownish; hands and feet 
light buffy; tail above, mixed gray, yellowish white and dusky, 
below like upperside but with more yellowish white; pelage 
of upperparts blackish at base. 

Underparts. — Dirty grayish white with buffy suffusion. 

Immature much like adults. 

Measurements.- — Sexes of equal size. Total length, i8 
inches; tail vertebr£e, 8 inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Rocky Mountain district and 
western states from Colorado and the Columbia River south 
into Mexico. 

Food. — Seeds, nuts, acorns, grains, fruits, green vegetation, 
and some animal food. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Coyotes, Foxes, Bobcats, Weasels, 
Badgers, and most of the small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Otospermophilus 

Colorado Rock Squirrel. — Otospermophilus grammurus gram- 

murus (Say). 
As described. Found from eastern Colorado south into 
Arizona, New Mexico, and western Texas, west into south- 
eastern California. 
Utah Rock Squirrel.- — Otospermophilus grammurus utah 

(Merriam). 
Very close to typical grammurus but smaller, ears larger, 
and back much redder. Found from the Wasatch Moun- 
tains of Utah eastward into Colorado. 
Texas Rock Squirrel. — Otospermophilus grammurus buckleyi 

(Slack). 
Resembling typical grammurus but with black on the an- 
terior half of the dorsal surface and with much more black 
elsewhere; tail more bushy. Upperparts glossy black from 
nose to lower back and rump; some sprinkling of gray on 
flanks and thighs; hands and feet dark brown grizzled with 
gray; tail mixed gray and black; underparts light grizzled 
gray and dusky. Total length, 20 inches; tail vertebrae, 
8.5 inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. Found in southern and 
western Texas. 
Couch Rock SquirreL — Otospermophilus grammurus couchii' 

(Baird). 
Resembling buckleyi in having much black on upperparts; 
color pattern variable; head black and usually back gray, 
but sometimes entire animal is black, occasionally dark^ 
gray. Found in northeastern Mexico and reaching only 
the southern part of Texas, in the canyons of the Rio 

194 



ROCK SQUIRREL 



Beechey Ground Squirrel; California Ground Squirrel — 

UtospermopMus grammnnis beecheyi (Richardson) 
bhghtly smaller than typical grammurus but resemblinR it 
rather closely m external appearance. Upperparts mixed 
gray, light brown, and dusky m mottled pattern; brownest 
on rump and lower back; a dusky patch between shoulders- 
grayest on neck; two light bands of silver-gray from neck 
runnmg down about to middle of body; top of head li^ht 
gnzzled brown and dusky; ears black on outer side?; hands 
fn tonP nn^^/'^= tail mixed yellowish gray and black, lightS 
tJTI o^ lower side; underparts dirty yellowish gray. 
Total length, 17 inches; tail vertebra, 7 inches; hind foot 
2_2 inches Found m west-central California from San 
Francisco Bay south to Ventura County; in Sacramento 
Valley east of Sacramento River and in northern part of 
San Joaquin Valley. Plate XXIII 

^^^M^Sam)^'^'"''"'"^^*""^^'''^'''"'^^^^^^ ^mmrn^..., fisheri 

naTerSnn^r^'? ^" ^'^^ ^"^ ^^^^^^^ coloration, but 
derf'^Tt "^""'^^'^Zfy Sr^y on sides of neck and shoul- 
ders not so much black on ear. Found in the southern 
San Joaquin Val ey of California, north to Madera County 
east to Panammt Mountains and south to Mexico ^' 

fJ'J.'fSrfsr)"^^ ^^^^— ^-^- 

Color pattern as in beecheyi but with a better- developed 
dark shoulder patch which is blackish or brownish bla^ck 

tal "'Tn^il'''^r '^'''^ ij^^^y J^^^^k b^^^i^g °" hairs of 
tail Total length 19 inches; tail vertebrae, 8 inches- hind 
foot, 2.3 mches. Found from the Columbia River sS 

LftTof^^^Tu^^r^^^^^^ ^-^^ -^^ ^-^-^ "- 

. BiSermgivom beecheyi in darker color and less yellowish 
brown. Top of head and ears black, nose mi^ed WackTnd 
ochraceous; sides of neck grayish with prolongatSn into 
?ni?.H Ki^?^''^ ^^°"^ shoulders; patch between shoulders 
mixed black and tawny ochraceous; tail above and below 
buff mixed with black and bordered with black, lighter Tn 
tone on underside. Total length, 19 inches; tai vfrtebr^ 
7.5 inches; hmd foot, 2.4 inches. Found on Santa Catahna 
Island Santa Barbara Islands, California. ^atalma 

'(Bane^'y) ^^"^^^^•"^^^^^^''^^^^"■^^^ grammurm p^gktns 
Resembling couchii but lacking the black cap on head 

Upperparts dark brownish gray with considerable blackish 
over head and ears, back coarsely variegated with irregular 
black-tipped white crescents or wavy crossbars Lower- 

195 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



parts varying from soiled whitish to rusty ochraceous; feet 
plain ochraceous." (Bailey) Total length, 20 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 9 inches; hind foot, 2.6 inches. Found in the 
Mogollon Mountains of New Mexico. 



The Ground Squirrels of the genus Otospermophilus might 
be easily mistaken for Gray Squirrels (genus Sciurus) at first 
glance, but can be distinguished by their less busy tail and 
spotted or faintly mottled pelage. Furthermore, they run 
into holes in the ground, and if up a tree when danger ap- 
proaches get down to the ground as soon as possible. They 
climb trees to a limited extent, but do not usually go very 
high. Not infrequently one will climb up a few feet to sun 
itself, or watch from the top of a stump or a tall stub. 

These Squirrels haunt semi-open country in the northern 
parts of their range where they may be found in clearings, 
about overgrown fields or wherever brush and logs give good 
cover. Farther south they may occur in open forest or on 
rocky hillsides and shrub-covered slopes. In some sections 
they are known as Rock Squirrels because of their fondness 
for cliffs and rock masses. The members of this genus have 
rather a wide altitudinal range and live from plains at sea- 
level up to 8,000 feet elevation or higher. 

In general, the habits of Otospermophilus are those of the 
genus Citellus, see page 213. These animals are very injurious 
to crops in settled districts and have still other claims upon 
the attention of man because some species, notably the Cali- 
fornia Ground Squirrel, serve as host for the flea which carries 
the bubonic plague. They store up food for periods of bad 
weather, become very fat toward the close of summer, and 
hiijernate in the colder parts of their range. 

The call-note of Otospermophilus is usually a single, loud 
whistle, but sometimes it utters a series of whistles in a de- 
scending scale. These Squirrels are strictly diurnal as are 
all our Ground Squirrels. 



Genus Callospermophilus 

Dentition: Incisors, {-Canines, % ; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 22. 

196 



I 



MANTLED GROUND SQUIRREL 



Say Ground Squirrel.— Callospermophilus lateralis 

and related forms 

Names.— Say Ground Squirrel, and various qualifying 
words applied to "Ground Squirrel"; Big Chipmunk; ^Big 
Striped Chipmunk; Golden Chipmunk; Golden-mantled Chip- 
munk; Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel. Plate XXIII 

General Description.-A small to medium-sized, ground- 
dwelling Squirrel, considerably larger than the Eastern 
Chipmunk (Tamias), but somewhat resembling it in external 
appearance. Body robust, heavier than that of the true 
Chipmunks but not as heavily built as many of the Sper- 
mophiles iCitellus); tail about half as long as head and body 
fiat, narrowly bushy; ears of medium size; first upper premolar 
small. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation 
Upperparts.— Summer: Shoulders to tail grizzled black 
grayish white and buffy; crown of head, sides of neck and 
shoulders washed more or less heavily with rusty yellowish to 
bright chestnut, this area in marked contrast to rest of upper- 
parts and forming a sort of mantle; ring around eye and spot 
back of ear whitish; a pair of sharply defined, narrow, lateral 
stripes of yellowish white or gray extending from shoulders 
to thighs; above each light stripe a short black stripe which is 
usually imperfectly developed and may be absent entirely 
below the light stripe a well-developed black stripe; below this 
lateral black stripe color of sides blends into color of under- 
parts which is yellowish to yellowish white; upper surfaces 
of hands and feet buffy; upperside of tail mixed blackish 
brown and buffy, edged with buffy; lower side of tail light 
ochraceous or deep buffy, banded with black. . 

Winter pelage grayer and with mantle much less con- 
spicuous. Immature like adults but grayer and without 
the bright mantle. 

^ Measurements.— Sexes of equal size. Total length ii 
mches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches 

Geographical Distribution.-Forested mountain slopes 
of the western states from California, Arizona, and New 
Mexico north into British Columbia. 

Food.-Seeds, grains, buds, green vegetation, insects and 
their larvae, occasionally young birds, eggs, and young Mice. 

197 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Enemies. — Hawks, Weasels, Coyotes, Foxes, Badgers, and 
other small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Callospermophilus 

Say Ground Squirrel; Say Mantled Ground Squirrel. — 

Callospermophilus lateralis lateralis (Say). Plate XXIII. 
As described. Found in the mountainous, forested parts of 
Arizona and New Mexico north to Wyoming. 

Gary Mantled Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus lateralis 
caryi Howell. 
Upperparts grayer than in typical lateralis, with more 
strongly contrasting black and white stripes, white of sides 
and underparts clearer, and underside of tail darker; upper- 
parts — summer — vinaceous cinnamon mixed with whitish; 
white dorsal stripes tinged with buff; mantle and top of 
head tawny. Total length, ii inches; tail vertebrae, 3.8 
inches; hind foot, i .6 inches. Found in the Wind River and 
Gros Ventre ranges of Wyoming. 

Charleston Mountain Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus 
lateralis certus Goldman. 
"Distinguished by pale general coloration in combination 
with dark russet under side of tail; ... a dark, rich russet, 
instead of ochraceous-buff or ochraceous-tawny tone." 
Upperparts — summer — ^grizzled grayish brown; mantle 
tawny to tawny-ochraceous; "inner black stripes broad and 
distinct." (Goldman) Total length, 10 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found only in the 
Charleston Mountains in southern Nevada. 

Nevada Mantled Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus later- 
alis trepidiis Taylor. 
Color in summer pelage: Mantle light ochraceous, three 
lateral stripes broad; dorsal area between stripes grizzled 
ochraceous, black and white; sides whitish with faint brown- 
ish tinge; underparts white, pelage slate-colored at base; 
tail above, black sprinkled with light ochraceous, below, 
darker ochraceous, banded with black. Total length, 10.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found 
in the Pine Forest Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada. 

Wortman Mantled Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus lat- 
eralis wortmani (Allen). 
Similar to typical lateralis in size, but paler throughout and 
usually lacking the inner pair of black stripes ; white lateral 
stripe whiter ; mantle a much paler shade of reddish brown ; 
upper surfaces of hands and feet almost white. Found from 
Sweetwater County, Wyoming, south into the northwestern 
corner of Colorado (Routt Co.). 

Montana Mantled Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus later- 
alis cinerascens (Merriam). 
Very similar to lateralis in size and general appearance. 
Inner black stripes present but short; general tone of dorsal 



MANTLED GROUND SQUIRREL 



region grayish; mantle, in summer, dark chestnut-red- tail 
above, black mixed with pale buff, below, pale buff- uiider- 
parts grayish white; outer side of hind limbs pale brownish 
Total length, ii inches; tail vertebra;. 3.8 inches; hind foot 
1.6 inches. Found from Yellowstone Park north through 
Montana and Idaho into Alberta. 

Hollister Mantled Ground SquirTeL—Callospermophilus later- 
alis tescorum Hollister. 
Larger, darker, and more richly colored than cinerascens' 
upperparts grizzled brownish gray; mantle extensive dark 
reddish brown; lateral stripes broad and well defined' espe- 
cially anteriorly; hands, feet, lower sides, and underparts 
creamy white, with buffy tinge on throat and upper foreleg 
Total length, 12 inches; tail vertebrce., 4 inches; hind foot' 
1.8 inches. Found in Alberta and British Columbia in the 
vicinity of the Moose Pass branch of the Smoky River. 

Washington Mantled Ground SquiTreL—Callospermophilus 
lateralis saturatus (Rhoads). 
Differing from typical lateralis in larger size and darker 
color. Summer pelage: Mantle chestnut mixed with black- 
throat, breast, sides, and thighs rusty; dorsal region grizzled 
rusty and black; underparts fulvous; tail above, blackish 
mixed and edged with rusty, below, reddish yellow banded 
with black. Total length, 12.2 inches; tail vertebrae 4 s 
inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in the Cascade Moun- 
tains of Washington; limits of range unknown. 

Chestnut-tailed Ground Squirrel.— Callospermophilns lateralis 

castanurus (Merriam). 
Mantle bright rusty chestnut; inner black stripe nearly as 
well developed as outer; dorsal region grizzled reddish 
brown, black, and yellowish; tail above, black mixed with 
yellow and reddish brown, below, deep chestnut banded 
with black; underparts washed with whitish to yellowish 
white. Total length, 11.5 inches; tail vertebrce, 2>-7 inches- 
hmd foot, 1.7 inches. Found in the Wasatch Mountains 
of Utah north into Wj'oming; limits of range unknown. 
Golden Chipmunk; Sierra Mantled Ground Squirrel; Gilded 

Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophilus chrysodeirus chry- 

sodeirus (Merriam). Plate XXIII. 
Differing from lateralis principally in having much better 
developed inner black stripes. Mantle rusty chestnut 
without any black mixture; dorsal region grizzled gray, 
light brownish and blackish; inner black stripe well de- 
fined, as long as outer; light stripe whitish or yellowish 
white and much longer than black stripes; underparts pale 
grayish white to pale yellowish white; upper surfaces of 
hands and feet washed with yellowish white to ochraceous- 
tail above, mixed black, yellowish, and grayish, below, deep 
ochraceous banded with black. Total length, 11.5 inches- 
tail vertebra;, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in 

199 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



the mountains of southern and eastern Oregon south into 
CaHfomia as far south as Tulare County. 

Callos pernio philus chrysodeirus trinitatis Merriam = Cal- 
lospermophilus chrysodeirus chrysodeirus. 

San Bernardino Mantled Ground Squirrel. — Callospermophi- 
lus chrysodeirus ber?iardinus (Merriam). 
Resembling typical chrysodeirus but mantle duller in tone, 
and with shorter tail and hind foot. _ Mantle dull fulvous, 
top of head darker; otherwise very similar to typical chry- 
sodeirus. Total length, ii inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 inches; 
hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found in the San Bernardino Moun- 
tains of California. 

Inyo Mantled Ground Squirrel.^ — Callospermophilus chryso- 
deirus perpallidus Grinnell. 
A pale desert-range race of chrysodeirus, compared with 
which it has "general coloration paler; middle of back, 
rump and sides, more ashy in tone, head less richly tawny, 
and under surface of body whiter. As a result, the black 
dorsal stripes give an impression of greater sharpness." 
(Grinnell) Total length, 10.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 
inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found in the Inyo Moun- 
tains and the White Mountains of California. 



The Golden Mantled Ground Squirrels, or to reduce a long 
name, the Mantled Ground Squirrels, look and behave very 
much like big Chipmunks. They are found only in the 
western part of North America and their range does not meet 
anywhere with the range of the Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias), 
which they most resemble. From the Western Chipmunks, 
the Mantled Ground Squirrels are readily distinguished on 
the basis of their much larger size, less striped upperparts, 
and reddish or tawny head and shoulders. 

The members of the genus Callospermophilus are true 
Ground Squirrels, or Spermophiles, living on the ground and 
seldom climbing any distance above it. They dig burrows 
in the earth, make use of crevices in the rocks or under logs, 
and are often found living side by side with the smaller Chip- 
munks {Eutamias). They are active, alert little rodents, 
beautiful when in full summer pelage, and are usually rather 
unsuspicious and easily observed. Where they are unmolested 
they quickly become audacious and I have seen them about a 
mining camp become so tame that they would come up to 
take food from the hands of the men. Mantled Ground 
Squirrels run about over the open ground, among the rocks 

200 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



and bushes, and in about fallen tree trunks in their search 
for food, and can be seen at any time from sunrise to sunset. 

These Squirrels hibernate, in the colder parts of their range 
going below ground before the first sharp days of autumn, and 
during the late summer they become exceedingly fat. They 
raise but one family of young a season, usually five or six in 
number. They have a chirping call-note, coarser in quality 
than that of the Chipmunks, and also utter a chattering, 
hurried alarm call when thoroughly frightened. 

Genus Citellus 
Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, g; Premolars, f ; Molars, f = 22 

Ground Squirrel. — Citellus columbianus 

and related forms 

Names. — Ground Squirrel; Spermophile; Gopher; Digger. 

General Description. — A terrestrial, burrowing Squirrel 

of large size and short tail. Head rather rounded and nose 




Fig. 48. Ground Squirrel 

blunt; ears low and rounded; body robust; limbs short; tail a 
little more than one-quarter of total length, flat and moder- 
ately bushy; claws long, slightly curved, strong; first upper 
premolar of small size; living on the ground and very seldom 
climbing up into trees. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not 
2onspicuous. 

201 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts. — Grizzled yellowish, grayish and dusky; nose, 
head, fore and hind limbs rusty yellowish; tail above, rusty 
yellowish or rufous, the hairs banded with black and yellowish 
and tipped with rufous; underside of tail mixed grayish, 
yellowish, rufous and blackish, the black predominating. 

Underparts. — Buffy to rusty yellowish, brightest on chin, 
throat, and base of tail. 

Immature like adults but not as brightly colored. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 15 
inches; tail vertebrfe, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 2.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of western North 
America from Alaska to Mexico and from the Mississippi 
Valley to the Pacific Ocean. 

Food. — Seeds, nuts, grains, green vegetation, roots, insects 
and their larvae, occasionally young birds and mammals, 
eggs. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Weasels, Badgers, Coyotes, Wolves, 
Foxes, Bobcats, and most of the small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Citellus 

This is a very large and widely ranging group, the classi- 
fication of which is in need of considerable revision. The 
differences between closely related forms are often so slight 
that they are difficult to set forth in print and the animals 
must be directly compared in the hand. There are several, 
more or less clearly defined, groups of Spermophiles and the 
arrangement followed in this field book is intended to show 
this grouping. The principal types of Spermophiles are 
easily distinguished from one another, but the intermediate 
varieties are not as well characterized. 

Columbian Ground Squirrel. — Citellus columhianus colum- 
hianus (Ord). 
As described. Found in the mountains from western Mon- 
tana, eastern Oregon and Washington north to western 
Alberta and southern British Columbia. 

Citellus erythrogluteius (Richardson) = Citellus columhianus 
columhianus 

Alberta Ground Squirrel. — Citellus columhianus alhertcB Allen. 
Resembling typical columhianus but differing from it in 
heavier and more massive skull, and slightly paler color. 
Total length, 13 inches; tail vertebrce, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 
2.3 inches. Found in the mountains of southern Alberta; 
vicinity of Canadian National Park. 



GROUND SQUIRREL 

Hudson Bay Ground Squirrel.— a/f-Z/w^ parryii parryii 
(Richardson). 
A large, heavy-bodied Ground Squirrel with short tail. 
Upperparts mixed yellowish brown, gray, and dusky the 
gray m small, irregular spots; top of head and sides of neck 
rich reddish brown to yellowish brown; sides, limbs, and 
underparts warm yellowish brown to ochraceous; tail above 
mixed yellowish brown, grayish and black, with black 
gradually predominating toward the tip, terminal third or 
quarter of tail black; underside of tail yellowish brown to 
rufous edged with black and heavily tipped with black at 
end of tail. Total length, 17 inches; tail vertebra? 46 
inches; hmd foot, 2.6 inches. Found in the Barren Ground 
region from Hudson Bay west to about 116° and from the 
Arctic coast south to about 61° latitude on the western 
shore of Hudson Bay; limits of range unknown. 

Citellus parryii phaognathus {Kichsivdson) = Citellus parryii 
parryii 

Mackenzie Ground S^mrieL—Citelliis parryii kennicottii 

(Ross). 
Much like typical parryii but paler in general color, with 
less dusky on back and without such warm shades of 
ochraceous or brown on head and underparts. Total 
length, 17 inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; hind foot 2 5 
inches. Found on the Barren Grounds from the Copper- 
mine River and Great Bear Lake west into Alaska; limits 
of range unknown. 
Citellus barroiuensis (Merriam) = CitellMs parryii kennicottii 
Kodiak Island Ground Squirrel.— C/V^-Z/mj parryii kodiacensis 
(Allen). 
"A form with cinerous lower parts, less fulvous above and 
more bushy tail. ..." (Allen) -Found on Kodiak 
island, Alaska. 
Yukon Ground Squirrel.— C//e//2/5 osgoodi (Merriam). 

Size large; tail long for the group; very red on underparts in 
summer pelage. Upperparts grayish to yellowish, dorsal 
area with small, irregular spots of whitish; top of head from 
nose to ears, sides of head, limbs and underparts deep ful- 
vous to rusty reddish ; also individuals black all over are not 
uncommon. Males slightly larger than females. Total 
length, 18 inches; tail vertebree, 5.6 inches; hind foot 2 =; 
inches; weight, average iH pounds. Found in Alaska 
along the Upper Yukon. 
Bennett Ground SquiTrel.— Citellus plesius plesius (Osgood) 
Similar to typical parryii but smaller, with less yellowish in 
general coloration; also differing in cranial and dental 
characters. _ Upperparts yellowish gray mixed with black- 
ish and whitish; top of head chestnut mixed with black- 
tail above, grizzled black, yellowish, and whitish, below 
cmnamon-rufous fringed with yellowish white; underparts 
limbs, and sides of neck and face cinnamon-rufous. Totai 



203 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



length, 14 inches; tail vertebrcE, 2,.^ inches; hind foot, 2 
inches. Found from the Stikine River (about latitude 56° 
N.) and the Ogilvie Range (about latitude 65°N.) in 
northern British Columbia and southern Yukon. 

Nushagak Ground Squirrel. — Ci tellies plesiiis ablusus Osgood. 
Larger than typical plesiiis which it resernbles in color; hairs 
of the tail with two or more annulations of black (fall 
pelage). Dorsal region and rump brownish spotted with 
grayish white; sides of head, neck, shoulders, and nape 
grayish; underparts dull grayish white with wash of creamy | 
white on belly; feet creamy white; tail below, with tawny \ 
medial area banded with black; tip of tail grayish white 
(fall pelage). Total length, 16 inches; tail vertebrae, 4 
inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. Found on the base of the 
Alaskan Peninsula on the higher ground ; along the Nusha- 
gak River and down to the tidal mud flats in places. 

Stone Ground Squirrel. — Citellus stonei Allen. 

Very similar to plesiiis ablusus and perhaps indistinguish- 
able from it. Upperparts mixed brownish, grayish, and 
dusky, with small irregular spots of grayish; grayish on 
sides of neck, face, and shoulders; nose to top of head hazel; 
forefeet pale yellowish white; hind feet deep buffy; tail 
above, mixed gray, buff and black, the hairs broadly 
banded with black, underside of tail pale ochraceous banded 
with black and edged with grayish; underparts grayish 
washed with buffy. Total length, 14 inches; tail verte- 
brse, 3.5 inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. Found on the 
Alaska Peninsula in the region of Pavlof Bay; limits of 
range unknown. 7 ,• , 

Shumagin Island Ground Squirrel. — Citellus nebultcola 
Osgood. 
Resembling C. parryii kodiacensis "but smaller, shorter 
tailed and apparently paler colored;" (Osgood) Total 
length, 14 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.3 inches; hmd foot, 2.1 
inches. Found on Nagai Island, Shumagin Islands, Alaska. 

Cape Lisbume Ground SquitTeL— Citellus beringensis (Mer- 

riam). . n • , 

Resembling typical parryii but with more yellowish on 
dorsal region, whitish spotting more distinct, and larger 
nose patch. Upperparts fulvous, palest on back, with dis- 
tinct spotting of buffy whitish ; rusty red on nose and under- 
side of tail. In winter pelage nose patch is brighter. 
Found on Cape Lisbume (Coal Veins) Alaska. 
Richardson Ground Squirrel; ^lickeridiil.— Citellus nchard- 
sonii (Sabine). . , . , •. v 1 . 

A medium-sized Ground Squirrel of rather uniform light 
yellowish to grayish coloration; tail short and not very 
bushy • ears very small. Upperparts buffy yellow to grayish 
washed with buffy ; fine irregular light spots or wavy mottling 
on dorsal region ; sides of neck, limbs and underparts vary- 
ing from rich buffy to grayish; tail above mixed blackish 

204 



PLATE XXI 







O 



« 

XJl 

a 

o 

O 

Q 
W 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



and ochraceous, fringed with buffy, beneath ochraceous. 
Total length, 12 inches; tail vertebras, 3 inches; hind foot,' 
1.8 inches. Found from southern Saskatchewan and 
Alberta to Montana and North Dakota; in North Dakota 
found north and east of the Missouri River. 

Uinta Ground Squirrel. — Citellus armatus (Kennicott). 

A medium-sized, short-tailed Squirrel with fairly soft 
pelage. Upperparts mixed gray and black with wash of 
dark brown on dorsal region; brighter on shoulders and 
thighs; tail above and below mixed gray and black, banded 
with black and fringed with gray; underparts gray washed 
with buffy. Total length, 11 inches; tail vertebrcE, 2.5 
inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in the foothills and 
mountains of Wyoming, IMontana, Idaho, and Utah. 

Wyoming Ground Squirrel; Picket-pin QoyhQr.—Citeilus ele- 
gans (Kennicott). 
A small to medium-sized Squirrel with short, moderately 
bushy tail, small ears, soft pelage, and uniform brownish 
gray coloration. Upperparts mixed gray, buffy, and dusky 
with indistinct mottling; grayish on sides of head, neck and 
body, brownest along dorsal region ; hands and feet grayish 
to pale buffy; tail above, mixed buffy, gray and black, be- 
low, light ochraceous banded with black and fringed with 
grayish; underparts light buffy. Total length, 11 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.7 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in 
Wyoming, northeastern Utah, and northwestern Colorado; 
limits of range unknown. 

Oregon Ground Squirrel.— aVeZ/M^ oregonus (Merriam). 

Resembling armatus in general coloration but underside of 
tail chestnut instead of grizzled gray and black. Upper- 
parts rnixed buff and dusky to give general buffy gray tone, 
with faint wash of pale brownish on head and dorsal region; 
hands and feet buffy; tail above, mixed gray, blackish, and 
light brownish, below, chestnut with subterminal band of 
black and gray edging; underparts buffy to creamy white. 
Total length, 11 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 
1.65 inches. Found in sagebrush plains of southern and 
eastern Oregon and northeastern California; limits of range 
unknown. 

Belding Ground Squirrel. — Citellus heldingi (Merriam). 

Like oregonus in size and general color but browner above. 
Upperparts buffy grayish with broad, poorly defined band 
of chestnut from nose to tail; sides yellower; tail above like 
back, below cinnamon-brown banded with black and edged 
with grayish; underparts yellowish gray to pale brownish. 
Total length, 10.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8 inches; hind 
foot, 1.65 inches. Found in the "Transition and Boreal 
Zones on the Central Sierra Nevada, at least from Nevada 
County to Eldorado County ..." California. (Grinnell) 

Townsend Ground Squirrel. — Citellus townsendi (Bachman). 
Similar to heldingi and to oregonus. Upperparts mixed 

205 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



gray and dusky with dark reddish brown wash on dorsal 
region and outside of Hmbs; tail above mixed black and 
yellowish white, below, reddish; underparts grayish white 
to buffy. Total length, 12 inches; tail vertebriE, 3.6 inches; 
hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found on the plains of the Columbia 
in eastern Washington and on the Snake River plains of 
Idaho; limits of range unknown. 

Mollis Group 

Little Gray Ground Squirrel; Soft-haired Ground Squirrel.— 

Citellus mollis mollis (Kennicott). Plate XXIII. 
Size very small; pelage soft; tail short and narrow; ear 
small ; coloration gray ; claws weak and compressed. Upper- 
parts uniform grayish in general tone, mixed silvery gray, 
yellowish brown and black; tail above mixed yellowish 
brown, black and whitish, below, pale ochraceous frmged 
with whitish; hands and feet grayish white; underparts 
silvery gray washed with pale buffy. Total length, 8 
inches; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, 1.3 mches. 
Found in Utah and Nevada; limits of range unknown. 
Sagebrush Ground Squirrel. — Citellus mollis artemisicB 
Merriam. 
Smaller than typical mollis which it resembles m general 
coloration, but with tail grayer and less buffy fulvous; 
bullai and teeth much smaller. Total length, 7.3 mches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found m 
Idaho, Fremont County to Bingham County; limits of 
range unknown. 
Gray Soft-haired Ground Squirrel.— Q7e//M5 mollis canus 
(Merriam). j -i 

Smaller than typical mollis, with shorter hmd foot and tail; 
grayer. Upperparts finely grizzled gray and dusky with- 
out buffy suffusion; underparts buffy to buffy gray; tail 
grayer and less fulvous than in typical mollis. Total length, 
8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 
Found in Wasco County and adjacent sagebrush plains of 
northern Oregon ; limits of range unknown. 
Lost River Ground Squirrel. — Citellus mollis pessimus 
Merriam. 
Resembling artemisia but larger and darker; tail longer, 
larger, and darker. Total length, 8.2 inches; tail vertebr^, 
I 8 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found along lower Big 
Lost River, Fremont County, Idaho; limits of range un- 
known. ^. „ 7,- ■ -T 

Malheur Soft-haired Ground Squirrel.— Citellus mollis vigihs 

(Merriam). . ^ 1 r ^ 

"Similar in general to canus; color iron-gray, hnely lined, 

much as in canus, but more hoary-whitish." (Merriam) 

Skull characters different. Total length, 8.3 inches; tail 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



vertebras 1.5 inches; hmd foot, 1.2 inches. Found from 
Malheur County, Oregon, south into northeastern Nevada 
Carson Valley Ground Squirrel.— a/e/Zz^^ mollis washoensis 
Mernam. 
"Size large; coloration grizzled gray throughout, resembling 
canus. bkull large, long, and massive. ..." (Merriam) 
Total length, 10.3 inches; tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot 
1.4 mches. Found m Douglas County, Nevada; limits of 
range unknown. 
Stephens Ground SquirreL—Citellus mollis stephensi 
(Merriam). ^ 

Resembling typical mollis, "but in summer pelage head 
and neck to shoulders uniform pinkish buff " (Mer- 

nam) Total length, 8.2 inches; tail vertebr£e, 2 inches- 
hmd foot 1.3 inches. Found in Owens Valley, Esmeralda 
County, Nevada; limits of range unknown. 
Yakima Ground SquiTTeL—Citellus mollis yakimefisis 
(Mernam). 
Resembling typical mollis "in size and general appearance 
but tail slightly shorter; color grayer and less buffy but 
not so gray as canus. Nasal bones very much longer 'than 
in either molks or canus." (Merriam) Total length 8 s 
inches; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches 
l^ound m Yakima County, Washington; limits of range un- 
known. 
Payette Ground Squirrel.— a/eZ/w^ idahoensis Meniam 

Largest of the mollis group. Similar in general to mollis 
but larger, with much stronger tendency to dappling espe- 
cially m young; tail longer, broader, and darker- eyelids 
white; antenor rim of ear usually white. Skull large and 
massive. . _. . '\ (Merriam). Color varying from pale 
hoary grayish faintly suffused with buffy and more or less 
dappled on rump, to strongly suffused with pale buffy and 
distinctly dappled on back. Total length, 10.2 inches- 
tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found 
along Payette River and northern side of Snake River 
-Payette County, and southwestern Idaho. * 

Dwyhee Ground Squirrel.— C//^////^ leurodmi Merriam 

Size rather large, about equaling idahoensis from the oppo- 
site side of Snake River, but with shorter tail. Color gray 
not dappled except in the young. Teeth very large equal- 
ing maximum of idahoensis. ..." (Merriam) ' Total 
length, 9.5 inches; tail vertebras, 1.9 inches; hind foot i 3 
inches. Found m extreme southwestern Idaho, Owyhee 
County; limits of range unknown. 

Spilosoma Group 

;i Paso Spotted Ground Squirrel; Spotted Sand Squirrel.— 

Litellus spilosoma arens (Bailey). 
A small, spotted Squirrel with short tail, about half as long 
207 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



as head and body; ears small; claws long and slender; tail 
round, slightly bushy toward tip; pelage short and harsh; 
iris hazel. Appearing in two color phases. Reddish phase: 
upperparts nearly uniform cinnamon with vinaceous tinge, 
spotted with small, irregular, whitish spots arranged more 
or less in longitudinal series ; tail cinnamon like back above, 
more yellowish below; hands and feet whitish to pale yel- 
lowish; underparts and ring about eye white; iris hazel. 
Grayish phase: like reddish phase but ground color rusty 
brownish gray. Total length, 9.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 
3 2 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in "Sonoran Zone 
in southwestern Texas and the adjacent parts of Mexico 
—the Eastern Desert Tract." (Mearns) West into Lower 
Sonoran of New Mexico. 
Padre Island Ground Squirrel. — Citellus spilosoma annectens 

(Merriam). ,11 • 1 -n j 

"Upperparts dull grayish brown; back beset with ill-de- 
fined buffy spots, margined posteriorly with dusky in un- 
worn pelage; underparts soiled white. Eyehds white. 
Tail concolor with back or a little more fulvous, its distal 
half or two-thirds bordered with a subapical black band, 
beyond which the tips of the hairs are buffy ochraceous." 
(Merriam) Total length, 10 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 
inches- hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found on "Southern coast 
region 'of Texas (Padre Island, Mustang Island, and ad- 
jacent mainland.)" (Mearns) 
Apache Ground Squirrel.— a7e//«5 sptlosoma macrosptlotus ■ 

(Merriam). . , ^^^ <■ v r,^ ^- j 

"Ground color russet-brown, mixed with a tew light-tipped 
hairs Spots large, roundish, and far apart. Tail concolor 
with the body on its proximal half; yellow, ringed with 
black on terminal half; and yellow beneath. Feet and 
undersurface white." (Mearns: Mamni. Mex. Boundary) 
Gray phase: drab gray ground color washed with hoary; 
whitish markings crowded and tending to form transverse 
wavy bars. Total length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 
inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found m the Sonoran 
Zone in the Elevated Central Tract." (Mearns), of south- 
ern Arizona; Lower Sonoran Zone of New Mexico. 
Large Spotted Ground Squirrel. — Citellus spilosoma major 
(Merriam). . ^ ., /^ j 

One of the largest of the subspecies of sptlosoma. Ground 
color of upperparts light brown, spots indistinct and most 
numerous on rump; nose tinged with pale fulvous; tail pale 
reddish brown on proximal half above, buffy brown on ter- 
minal half, with submarginal black band, bordered with 
pale buff below buffy; underparts white. Total length, 
Q s inches; tail vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hmd foot, 1.4 inches. 
Found in Upper Sonoran Zone from eastern New Mexico 
north into Colorado as far as the valley of the Arkansas 
River. 

208 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



Brown Ground Squirrel. — Citellus spilosoma marginatus 
(Bailey). 
Differing from arens in darker color and heavier spotting 
and from major in finer, sharper spotting, "Upperparts 
bright cinnamon-brown, the whole back from ears spotted 
with whitish, the spots conspicuously edged with black." 
(Bailey) Total length, 9 inches; tail vertebra, 2.7 inches; 
hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in the Upper Sonoran Zone 
of the Davis Mountain plateau of Texas. 

Park Ground Squirrel. — Citellus spilosoma pratensis (Aler- 
riam). 
Smaller than arens. Upperparts uniform russet hazel with 
numerous whitish spots which have blackish posterior mar- 
gins; tail above like back but mixed with yellowish and 
blackish hairs on proximal half, blackish bordered with 
yellowish brown on distal half, below, yellowish; underparts 
dirty white. Total length, 7.9 inches; tail vertebra, 2.4 
inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found on the pine plateau 
at north foot of San Francisco IMountain, Coconino County, 
Arizona. 

Dusky Spotted Ground Squirrel.— C//£'//w^ spilosoma obsidi- 
an us (Merriam). 
Closely resembling pratensis but with longer feet and tail 
and darker coloration. Ground color of upperparts dull 
sepia brown, spots whitish but with black edging not very 
conspicuous. Total length, 8.2 inches; tail vertebrce, 2.7 
inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in the Cedar 'belt 
northeast of San Francisco Mountain, Coconino County, 
Arizona; west into Upper Sonoran Zone of New Mexico. 

Desert Ground Squirrel. — Citellus cryptospilotus (Merriam). 
A small, pale form with only faint traces of spotting. Upper- 
parts uniform buffy brown with yellowish or vinaceous 
tinge, without spots; tail above like back, below yellower, 
with subterminal black band which is more or less con- 
cealed; underparts whitish. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail 
vertebras, 2.4 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found on the 
Painted Desert, Coconino County, Arizona. 

Northern Spotted Ground Squirrel; Kennicott Ground 
Squirrel. — Citellus obsoletus (Kennicott). 
Resembling the subspecies of spilosoma in general appear- 
ance but not spotted so conspicuously. Ground color of 
upperparts sandy gray with vinaceous tinge, indistinctly 
spotted with grayish white; hands and feet whitish; tail 
above like back, bushy at tip and banded with black, be- 
low, pale ochraceous, banded with black near tip ' and 
fringed with yellowish ; underparts whitish to creamy white. 
Total length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.5 inches; hind foot* 
1.3 mches. Found from western Nebraska to South 
Dakota, Colorado, and Utah, in sandy country; limits of 
range unknown. 

209 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Tereticaudus Group 

Yuma Round-tailed Ground SquirreL — Citellus tereticaudus 
tereticaudus (Baird). Plate XXIII. 
A small Squirrel with plain, unspotted color pattern, very 
small ears, short, cylindrical tail and hard, coarse pelage. 
Upperparts (summer) uniform cinnamon-brown to pinkish 
buff, the tips of hairs whitish to give finely speckled effect; 
sides of head, Hmbs, and underparts white; tail above like 
back, mixed with blackish toward tip, below, yellowish 
with 'some black near tip. In winter, browner, with less 
cinnamon tinge. Total length, lo inches; tail vertebrae, 
4 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in California from 
as far north as Needles and west as eastern San Diego 
County, south into Mexico ; Lower Sonoran Zone. 

Arizona Round-tailed Ground Squirrel.— Ci/g//w5 tereticaudus 
arizoncB Grinnell. 
Resembling typical tereticaudus but tail shorter and color 
of upperparts redder — deep pinkish cinnamon tipped with 
white. Total length, 9.4 inches; tail vertebras, 3 mches; 
hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in southwestern Arizona. 

Death Valley Round-tailed Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tereti- 
caudus eremonomus (Elliot). 
Differing from typical tereticaudus in slightly different color 
of upperparts which is cinnamon with vinaceous tmge, 
darker than in typical tereticaudus, with dark color of base 
of pelage showing through. Total length, 10 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.5 inches; hind foot, 1.4 mches. Found m 
Death Vallev, Inyo County, California. 

Palm Springs Round-tailed Ground SqvihreX.— Citellus tereti- 
caudus chlorus (Elliot). 
Resembling typical tereticaudus in size but color different. 
Upperparts olive-gray with brownish tinge; upperparts of 
limbs olive-gray; hands brownish, feet whitish; tail above 
hke back, with mixed blackish and brown near tip, below, 
pale brown; underparts grayish white. Total length 10 
inches; tail vertebra?, 4 inches; hmd foot, 1.65 inches. 
Found in Riverside and San Diego Counties, California; 
in Lower Sonoran Zone. 

Mohave Ground Squirrel. — Citellus mohavensis (Merriam). 
Resembling the subspecies of tereticaudus in size, propor- 
tions, and general color pattern but colored differently. 
Upperparts uniform sandy gray with very famt tmge of 
vinaceous, the hairs dusky at base and tipped with whitish 
producing a finely grizzled effect; hands, feet, and under- 
parts white; tail above like back, mixed with dusky on 
terminal half, below whitish near base, mixed grayish and 
dusky for terminal half. Total length, 10 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found m the 
Lower Sonoran Zone of southern California, from Mohave 
Desert northeast to Daggett. 
210 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



Dolans Spring Ground Squirrel. — Citellus neglectus (Merriam). 
Resembling typical tereticaudus but smaller and with shorter 
hind feet and tail. Upperparts grizzled grayish brown; 
underparts white; tail above and below like back, bordered 
with black. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebras, 3 inches; 
hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found at Dolans Spring, Mohave 
County, Arizona. 

Rio Grande Ground Squirrel. — Citellus mexicanus parvidens 
(Mearns). Plate XXIII. 
This Ground Squirrel is more or less intermediate in charac- 
ters between the spilosoma group and the tridecemlineatus 
group; color pattern striped and spotted somewhat as in 
tridecemlineatus; tail fairly long and moderately bushy ; size 
a trifle larger than tridecemlineatus ; pelage rather coarse 
and harsh as in spilosoma. Upperparts marked from nape 
to base of tail with nine longitudinal stripes of whitish upon 
a ground color of pale yellowish brown to olivaceous, these 
white stripes more a series of broken dots than a well-defined 
continuous streak; top of head grizzled yellowish, grayish 
and dusky; ears small; hands and feet pale yellowish; under- 
parts whitish to yellowish white; tail above, grizzled gray 
and black with faint wash of brown near base, below, pale 
yellowish mixed with black and grayish: iris hazel. Total 
length, 12.5 inches; tail vertebras, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.7 
inches. Found in southwestern Texas, in desert areas. 



Tridecemlineatus Group 

Thirteen-striped Ground Squirrel; Thirteen-lined Ground 
Squirrel; Striped Prairie Squirrel; Striped Gopher. — 

Citellus tridecemlineatus tridecemlineatus (Mitchill). 
A small to medium-sized Ground Squirrel with conspicu- 
ously striped and spotted color pattern. Ears very small; 
body slender rather than robust; tail comparatively short; 
less than half of total length, and only narrowly bushy, 
upperparts heavily marked with many alternate longi- 
tudinal stripes of dark brown (with slight chestnut tinge) 
and whitish, the dark stripes with central rows of whitish 
spots; stripes on neck to shoulders solid and unbroken by 
spotting; end of nose yellowish brown; top of head indis- 
tinctly striped; sides of neck, lower sides of body, forelimbs 
and underparts yellowish; pelage of underparts dusky at 
base; tail above, mixed black and buffy, below, buffy mixed 
with black. Total length, 11 inches; tail vertebrse, 4.3 
inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found from southern Illinois 
and northern Missouri to northwestern Ohio, southern 
Michigan and central Wisconsin and west and northwest 
to North Dakota and Saskatchewan. Plates XXI and 
XXIII. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Missouri Thirteen-striped Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tride- 
cemlineatus hadius (Bangs). 
Color of upperparts with more red than in typical tridecem- 
lineatiis. Ground color of upperparts rich chestnut; light 
markings buff; underparts strongly buff; tail above, chest- 
nut at base, the hairs with blackish band and buffy tips, 
below, deep rusty red, tipped with buff. Total length, ii 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3.9 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. 
Found in Missouri and northern Oklahoma. 

Black Hills Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tridecemlineatits oliva- 
ceus (Allen). 
About same size as typical tridecemlhieatus but different in 
color. Ground color of upperparts dusky brown to blackish 
without any dark reddish tinge; pale markings pale buffy 
with slight olivaceous tinge; underparts strong cream buff, 
the hairs not dusky at base. Total length, 10 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 3.5 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in the 
Black Hills, South Dakota; limits of range unknown. 

Pale Striped Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tridecemlineatus pal- 
lidus (Allen). 
Paler in color than typical tridecemlineatus and slightly 
smaller; ground color of upperparts chestnut sparingly 
mixed with black, the light markings creamy white, the 
light stripes nearly as wide as the dark ones; pelage of un- 
derparts pale yellowish white to base. Total length, 9 
inches; tail vertebree, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. 
Found from Montana and southwestern North Dakota 
southeast to Kansas and south to western Texas and eastern 
New A'lexico. 

Small Striped Ground Squirrel.- — Citellus tridecemlineatus par- 
vus (Allen). 
Smaller and paler than typical tridecemlineatus or pallidus. 
Ground color of upperparts russet with a few black-tipped 
hairs; light markings grayish white to pale creamy white; 
underparts grayish white. Total length, 8.2 inches; tail 
vertebra, 3.2 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found from 
southeastern Montana through eastern Wyoming into 
northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. 

Allen Striped Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tridecemlineatus 
alleni (Merriam). 
Nearly as small as parvus but with coloration as dark as in 
typical tridecemlineatus ; tail darker and with less reddish 
than in typical tridecemlineatus. Total length, 8.5 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found on 
the lower slopes of the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming; 
limits of range unknown. 

HoUister Striped Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tridecemlineatus 

hollisteri Bailey. 

"Smaller and darker colored than C. pallidus, larger and 

darker than parvus. In general appearance much like 

alleni, but with darker brown back and crown, and with 

212 



GROUND SQUIRREL 



light stripes of back more continuous." (Bailey) Total 
length, 9.3 inches; tail vertebras, 2.8 inches; hind foot, 1.3 
inches. Found in Lincoln County, New Mexico; limits of 
range unknown. 

Texas Striped Ground Squirrel. — Citellus tridecemlineatus 
texensis (Merriam). 
Smaller than typical tridecemlineatus and redder in color. 
Ground color of upperparts warm chestnut; light markings 
buffy with sprinkling of chestnut; tail above with tinge of 
rusty red on basal half, below strongly marked with rusty 
red; underparts and edging of tail buffy. Total length, 9 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3.4 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. 
Found in a narrow strip, between 96° and 98° (west to 99° 
in northern Texas) through Texas into Oklahoma; limits of 
range unknown. 

Franklin Ground Squirrel; Gray Gopher. — Citellus franklini 
(Sabine). Plate XXIII. 
The only unstriped member of the tridecemlineatus group. 
A fairly large species of rather uniform coloration. Upper- 
parts everywhere mixed dusky, buffy and grayish white, 
the general impression varying from an iron-gray pepper- 
and-salt to brownish marked with small light and dark 
spots; head and neck slightly darker than rest of upperparts; 
hands and feet dark gray; tail mixed black and gray, moder- 
ately bushy; underparts grayish to buffy. Total length, 14 
inches; tail vertebrse, 5 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found 
in "The central United States and Canada, from Oklahoma 
and Illinois to the Athabaska River. . . . "(Bailey) 



Ground Squirrels are so named because they are terrestrial 
in habit as contrasted with the arboreal or tree-dwelling 
Squirrels of the genus Sciurus. Most species of Ground 
Squirrels very seldom or never climb up on trees; in fact, many 
of the species live on deserts or treeless plains where they have 
no opportunity for climbing. Ground Squirrels may be dis- 
tinguished from Tree Squirrels by their shorter and less bushy 
tails and by the fact that the animals seek a refuge under- 
ground. These Squirrels are seldom far from a burrow and 
run for it immediately upon the approach of danger. The 
genus Citellus is large and its members possess the ability to 
find a livelihood in almost any environment. 

The large Arctic forms like parryii live along the river 
banks and plains of the far North. They are found on the 
Barren Grounds, in rocky places, and show an especial fond- 
ness for sandy hillocks. 

Citellus columbiafius and its immediate relatives frequent 
213 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



mountain meadows where grasses, flowering plants, and low 
shrubs grow in the openings in the forests. It has a loud, 
ringing call-note or whistle and when one gives the alarm, 
others take it up, for these Squirrels live in colonies of a dozen 
to fifty or a hundred and more. Columbianus stands stiffly 
upright and emphasizes each call with a twitch of the short 
bushy tail. It is a conspicuous Squirrel because of its bright- 
colored limbs and underparts, as well as its large size. It 
sometimes climbs up onto logs or stumps to sun itself or to 
command a better view of the terrain. By midsummer it 
has become very fat and goes into hibernation very early, 
while there are yet many days of good weather. In the 
mountains of eastern Oregon I have found this species denned 
up by the middle of August and becoming scarce much earlier 
than that. 

The Ground Squirrels of the sagebrush plains are typified 
by armatiis, elga?is or oregonus among the larger species, and by 
the mollis group for the smaller forms. These two groups may 
occur together in a locality, but the larger members are usu- 
ally the more abundant, noisier, and more conspicuous. 
Armatus and its kin stand up like picket-pins, chirp a loud 
alarm note and colonize to some extent. They become very 
fat and hibernate early. Mollis and its subspecies are in- 
clined to be quiet and unobtrusive in habits. The call-note is 
characteristically a Ground Squirrel's, but is a comparatively 
weak whistle that does not carry far. These small Squirrels 
delay hibernating longer than their larger relatives. 

The desert-dwelling Ground Squirrels are represented by 
the spilosoma group, the members of which are light-colored 
and apparently well-specialized for a life in hot and dry sur- 
roundings. They have either very short periods of hiberna- 
tion or, where the winter is not severe, no inactive period. 
They are abundant in sandy districts, and in the hottest 
deserts may be practically the only mammal moving about 
while the sun is out. The call-note is a lisping whistle. 

The Thirteen-striped Ground Squirrels live on the prairies 
and are very easily recognized by their peculiar, much-striped, 
color pattern. They prefer the plains districts and brushy 
areas and do not occur in the forest or on damp ground. They 
are abundant in many places but are often able to escape 
observation because the long grass hides and blends with the 

214 



ANTELOPE GROUND SQUIRREL 



striped pelage. The call-note is a long trilling whistle quite 
unlike the loud, single chirp or yelp of so many of the species 
of Citellus. Members of this group have long periods of 
hibernation, in the northern part of the range six months or 
more. 

Where Ground Squirrels come into contact with agricul- 
ture they may, and generally do, become an economic prob- 
lem. Because of their abundance and their fecundity, the 
rancher or farmer must have recourse to poison, traps, and 
guns to protect the crops. The number of young in a family 
of Citellus may vary from five to as many as thirteen or four- 
teen. Most of the species of Citellus raise but one family a 
year; possibly this holds true for all of the North American 
species. Wherever there is any extended period of hiberna- 
tion, a second litter of young would not have time to store up 
fat for the long sleep. 

Ground Squirrels store up food in their burrows, which is 
used as emergency rations in the spring before other food is 
available and probably for a short time after they enter the 
winter den in the fall. 

Genus Ammospermophilus 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, f ; Molars, I = 22. 

Antelope Ground Squirrel. — Ammospermophilus 
leucurus and related forms 

Names. — Antelope Ground Squirrel; Antelope Squirrel; 
Antelope Chipmunk; White-tailed Chipmunk, Plate XXIII. 

General Description. — A small, terrestrial Squirrel, slightly 
larger than an Eastern Chipmunk, having a' single, longi- 
tudinal, white stripe down each side; tail short, narrow, flat, 
and carried turned up over the back when running; ears 
rather small. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation slight, 
summer pelages somewhat brighter than winter. 

Upperparts. — Mixed dark brown and vinaceous cinnamon 
or finely grizzled with whitish or yellowish, grayest on neck to 
mid-back, brownest on crown, rump, and outer sides of 
Hmbs; pelage blackish at base; a single, well-defined, white 
stripe on each side from shoulder to rump and separated from 

215 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



the white underparts by a band of cinnamon hke rump ; hands 
and feet yellowish white to buffy white; tail blackish, tipped 
with whitish above, white below, narrowly banded with 
black. 

Underparts. — Glistening white. 

Immature striped like adults, but much grayer. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 8.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arid western and southwestern 
states from Oregon south into Mexico. 

Food. — Seeds, grains, and green vegetation; occasionally 
insects; meat when obtainable. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Coyotes, Foxes, Bobcats, 
Weasels, Badgers, and most of the small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Ammospermophilus 

Antelope Ground Squirrel. — Ammospermophilus leucurus leu- 

curiis (Merriam). 
As described. Found in the Sonoran Zone from Mexico 
north to Mono County, California. 

Cinnamon Ground Squirrel. — Ammospermophilus leucurus 
cinnamomeus (Merriam), 
Resembling typical leucurus in size and color pattern, but 
upperparts with a decided cinnamon-brown tone. Total 
length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.6 
inches. Found in northern Arizona, southern Utah, south- 
western Colorado, and northeastern New Mexico; Oregon(?) 

Ammospermophilus leucurus vinnulus (Elliot) = Ammo- 
spermophilus leucurus cinnamomeus. 

El Paso Ground Squirrel; Texas Antelope Squirrel. — Ammo- 
spermophilus leucuriis interpres (Merriam). 
Darker and more richly colored than typical leucurus and 
with more gray on head; pelage longer and more silky. 
Size as in typical leucuriis. Found in the "Sonoran Zone, 
in the Eastern Desert Tract of New Mexico and Texas." 
(Mearns). 

Nelson Ground Squirrel. — Ammospermophilus nelsoni nelsoni 
(Merriam). Plate XXIII. 
Larger and paler than leucurus. Upperparts, in summer, 
dull fulvous or yellowish brown, pelage blackish at base; 
lateral stripe white, with ochraceous tinge; tail above, black 
fringed with white, below, buffy white; underparts buffy 
white. In winter, somewhat darker on upperparts. Total 
length, 9 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.6 
inches. Found in the Lower Sonoron Zone in California 
from vicinity of Bakersfield north into Merced County, 
west to San Luis Obispo County. 

216 



ANTELOPE GROUND SQUIRREL 



Los Baiios Antelope Chipmunk. — Ammospermophilus nelsoni 

am plus Taylor. 
Larger and paler than typical nelsoni and with stripes less 
distinct. In summer color of upperparts light buff, almost 
whitish on sides of face and nape of neck. Total length, 
9.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches! 
Found in the San Joaquin Valley, vicinity of Los Bahos, 
Merced County, California. 
Harris Ground Squirrel; Gray-tailed Antelope Squirrel.^ — 

Ammospermophilus harrisii harrisii (Audubon and 

Bachman). 
Resembling leucurus in general appearance but more 
strongly colored, tail longer and not white below. Upper- 
parts mixed blackish and vinaceous cinnamon, finely 
speckled with whitish to give pepper-and-salt appearance; 
grayest on neck and shoulders; lower sides and outer sides 
of limbs grizzled cinnamon; tail above, blackish, the hairs 
broadly tipped with whitish, below, gray (mixed black and 
white); underparts whitish. Total length, 9.2 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found in the 
Sonoran Zone of Arizona and New Mexico and north to 
southern Utah and Nevada. 
Rock Squirrel. — Ammospermophilus harrisii saxicola (Meams), 
Paler than typical harrisii and with a longer tail ; light mark- 
ings everywhere more extensive. Total length, 9.8 inches; 
tail vertebras, 3.8 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found in 
the bare granite mountain ranges of the Lower Sonoran 
Zone of Arizona, south into Mexico. 

The members of the genus Ammospermophilus are found on 
dry, arid plains, on deserts, or on the lower slopes of mountain 
ranges. They are true Ground Squirrels and Hve among the 
bushes or in the rocks. They take their name of Antelope 
Ground Squirrels from their habit of carrying the tail curled 
up over the back, when the white underside gives the animal 
the appearance of a white rump patch like that of the Prong- 
horn Antelope. By this habit the Antelope Ground Squirrels 
may be easily recognized. They are diurnal in habit and are 
active throughout the day. Over most of their range they do 
not hibernate, but where they encounter a long period of snow 
they are dormant for several months. 

The Antelope Ground Squirrel has a roving disposition and 
wanders extensively in the course of a day's search for food. 
Seeds are carried in the internal cheek-pockets and stored in 
underground burrows. This Squirrel has a chirping call-note, 
a sharp whistle, and a fine trilling call, to suit the various needs 
217 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



for utterance. It sits upright like a Prairie-dog upon occasions 
and often displays great curiosity. Impulsive and nervous in 
behavior, it may come close up to an intruder or become 
suspicious and be very difficult to observe. 

These Squirrels are prolific and rear several families a year, 
the young numbering from four to twelve in a litter. 

Genus Cynomys ^ 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, f ; Molars, f = 22. 

Prairie-dog. — Cynomys ludovicianus 

and related forms 

Names. — Prairie-dog; Barking Squirrel; Burrowing 
Squirrel; Prairie Squirrel; Wishtonwish; Petit Chien. The 




Prairie-dog 



name in most common usage is Prairie-dog, the other names 
listed appearing, for the most part, only in journals and 
narratives of early explorers, such as Lewis and Clark, Pike, 
and Brackenridge. 

General Description. — A heavy-bodied, robust, terrestrial 
Squirrel, short- tailed, social in habit, and with characteristic 

^For a full revision of the Prairie-dogs see N. Hollister, North American 
Fauna, No. 40, 1916. 



PRAIRIE-DOG 




Fig. 50. Distribution of the subspecies of Cy?iomys ludo- 
vicianiis, after Hollister 

1. Cynomys hidovicianus ludovicianus 

2. Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensis 



219 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



"bark." About the size of a small Woodchuck; head broad 
and rounded; ears low and rounded; body stout; tail very 
short, well haired but flat; legs short, wrist and heel well 
furred, with a tuft of hair in center of palm; forefeet with 
five claws; mammse 8 to 12; cheek-pouches present; pelage 
rather coarse; iris hazel. Plate XX. 

Color. — Sexes indistinguishable as to color. 

Upperparts. — Dark pinkish cinnamon with fine grizzling of 
black and buff; whitish or buffy on sides of nose, upper lip, 
and eye-ring; sides, arms, and legs pale ochraceous-cinnamon; 
feet buffy; tail like back except for terminal third, which is 
blackish, underside of tail paler than above. 

Underparts. — Whitish to buffy white. 

Winter pelage fuller, softer, and longer than summer, grayer, 
with blackish on forehead. 

Young. — Above ochraceous-cinnamon, with fewer inter- 
mixed white and black hairs than adults. 

Pelage is molted and replaced by new coat from March to 
May, and August to November. 

Measurements. — Females very slightly smaller than males. 
Males, total length, 14. 5-1 6.5 inches; tail vertebrse, 3-4 
inches; hind foot, 2.5-3.3 inches. Weight, from 2 lbs. 3 oz. 
for females to 3 lbs. for males. 

Geographical Distribution. — Great Plains region. 

Food. — Native vegetation and crops. Grasses and green 
vegetation, roots ; at times more or less omnivorous. 

Enemies. — Large Hawks, Eagle, Raven, Coyote, Badger, 
Black-footed Ferret, and occasionally other carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Cynomys 
Subgenus Cynomys 

Black-tailed Prairie-dog. — Cynomys ludovicianus ludovicianus 
(Ord). Plate XX. 
The animal just described. Found in "Great Plains region 
of western United States, south from near the Canadian 
border in Montana to west-central Texas (Mason County 
to eastern Pecos Valley) ; east to about the ninety-seventh 
meridian in Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma; west to the 
Rocky Mountains in central Montana, Wyoming, and 
Colorado, and in extreme eastern New Mexico. Chiefly 
Upper Sonoran, but also ranging into Transition and Lower 
Sonoran Zones. Introduced colonies exist, or have been 

220 



PRAIRIE-DOG 




'IG. 51. Distribution of the species of the subgenus Leuco- 
crossuromys, after HolHster 

1. Cynomys leucurus 

2. Cynomys parvidens 

3- Cynomys gunnisoni gunnisoni 

4- Cynomys gunnisoni zuniensis 

itltSj"' ^^^ ^^"^^^ ^^^ ''^''^ °f ^' 3. and 4 a little too far to the 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



reported as formerly existing, in Sac County and at Burling- 
ton, Iowa; near Monroe, Louisiana; at Seneca, South 
Carolina; and on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts." 
(HoUister) 
Arizona Prairie-dog. — Cynomys ludovicianus arizonensts 
(Mearns). •.•1.1 

Slightly larger than typical ludovicianus and more brightly 
colored. Found in "Southeastern Arizona, southern and 
central New Mexico, southwestern Texas, and adjacent 
portions of Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. North to San 
Pedro and Santa Rosa, New Mexico; east to the Pecos 
Valley; west to Huachuca, Arizona; south to San Diego and 
Casas Grandes, Chihuahua, and to Presidio County, 
Texas." (HolHster) 

Subgenus Leucocrossuromys 

White-tailed Prairie-dog. — Cynomys leucurus Merriam. 
Plate XX. 
More like a Ground Squirrel (Citellus) m appearance than 
the forms of ludovicianus. Tail less than one-fifth of the 
total length, tipped with white instead of black, hving more 
in the mountains than ludovicianus, which is a plains type. 
Color, above, buffy streaked with blackish, dark brown spots 
above the eye and on cheek; below, clear buffy. Tail clear 
white for terminal half, white banded with blackish above 
for first half. Total length, 13.5-14.8 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.8-2.4 inches; hind foot, 2.4-2.6 inches. Found m "Ir- 
regular areas in the mountainous parts of Montana, Wyom- 
ing, Utah, and Colorado. South from the Bighorn Basm, 
in southern Montana, across central and southwestern 
Wyoming into western Colorado and northeastern Utah; 
Utah east to the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, and into 
North Park, Colorado; south into the lower Gunnison 
Valley; west a few miles across the Bear River Divide into 
extreme northern Utah and, farther south, into the Green 
River Valley. Chiefly Transition Zone." (Hollister) 
Utah Prairie-dog. — Cynomys parvidens Allen. 

Closely resembling leucurus but redder and less buffy above, 
smaller. Upperparts (summer) cinnamon. Total length, 
12,2-15.4 inches. Found in "Mountain valleys of central 
Utah in the Sevier River region ; south from Nephi to Iron 
and Garfield Counties." (Hollister) ^ w-n • jn 

Gunnison Vraxrie-Aog.— Cynomys gunnisoni gunnisoni (Baird). 
Resembling leucurus but darker, with less buffy and less 
sharply marked on cheeks; tail with less white, more like 
back for first half of its length. Total length, 12.2-14.6 
inches. Found in "Rocky Mountain region of central and 
central-southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. 
North into South Park. Colorado; east to El Paso, Fremont, 
and Huerfano Counties, Colorado; south into the Sangre de 

222 



PRAIRIE-DOG 



Cnsto and Jemez Mountains, New Mexico; west to western 
Rio Art^h.^?"^ ^f ' v^' Counties, Colorado, and to westeS 
R o Arriba County, New Mexico. Chiefly Transition Zone, 

Zone '' "^ (HoDfs?er) ^''°'^'' ^""^ ^°^"' P^^'^ °^ ^^^^^^^^ 
Zuni Prairie-dog.— C3'wom3;^ gunnisoni zuniensis Hollister 
bomewhat larger than typical gimnisoni, with larger hind 
aJTd hl.^t^^TT^^°''^'^^°''' ^^^ cinnamon, less yellow 
2 2 2. ?n;hJ if-^ w^^^ 15.2-15. inches; tail vertebrae, 
Hh^'^i T- <S^ ^T^' ^-^-^-^ '^^h^s- Weight, male 
Lstem mTv, "" Southwestern Colorado, extreme 'south: 
nfi Ji ' i^oythwestem and west-central New Mexico 
and north-central Arizona. North in western Colorado to 

Grande Valley to_ Espanola and east to Pecos and the 
Manzano Mountams; south on the west side of the Rio 
Grande Valley to Sierra and Socorro Counties, New MexS 
west m central Arizona to Prescott and the Hualpai Indian 

t^oTzrr-^- (go'iit^ery^^^^ ^°^°^^^' ^^^ ^^- - T--^ 

******* 
The Prairie-dog is a fat, short-tailed Ground Squirrel of 
sociable habits. As part of the name implies, this animal is a 
creature of the prairies and open plains, but the other par+of 
the name is false for he is not even distantly related to the 
Dog. 

_ As may be seen from the map, the range of this genus is 
imited, and Prairie-dogs are found only in western North 
America. The genus is peculiar to the New World and only 
;ix species and subspecies are comprised in the group 

We find early mention of these Squirrels in the journals 
)f Lewis and Clark and other pioneer explorers. The sight of 
he large "dog-towns", covering a great many acres in favor- 
ible localities, so impressed the first settlers that the Prairie- 
bg became a much-discussed feature and no geography or 
•ccount of the West failed to mention the animal, generally 
s part of the trinity-Prairie-dog, Rattlesnake, and Burrow- 
ig Owl. 

Today the West is changing; ranching is breaking up the 
irge dog-towns"; the Prairie-dogs are being exterminated 
1 the agricultural sections; and the belief in the interesting 
:ory of the friendships between mammal, bird, and snake is 
Id y shaken by the discovery that the Burrowing Owl and the 
lake feed on the young "Dogs " when they are lucky enough 
) catch one, and the Prairie-dog may eat a young Owl, or 
223 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



bury a Rattlesnake alive when he gets one down a hole. 
There are still, however, many regions where the Prairie-dog 
is a conspicuous part of the plains life and there are some 
of the large "towns" left. Bailey (N. A. Fauna, No. 25, p. 
90) describes a practically continuous town 100 miles wide by 
250 miles long and containing 400,000,000 individuals (1901). 

The Prairie-dog digs a large burrow, often with a built-up 
rim about the entrance, and as he has sociable habits, all of 
the Prairie-dogs of a given locality will usually be found in the 
one spot. The animals are diurnal, active only by day, and 
under normal circumstances a colony will have part or most 
of its members scattered about feeding within the confines 
of the colony or at a short distance from the outermost bur- 
rows during the morning or afternoon. A few animals may, 
perhaps, be especially on the lookout for enemies. If a man 
approaches, the alarm note, a piercing chirp or whistle, sends 
all of the Prairie-dogs scurrying to the nearest burrows. 
At the verge of safety they all stop and watch, some standing 
up stiff and rigid, and unless the colony has been unduly 
molested many of the animals will delay the dash down the 
burrow until the last possible moment. Meantime the alarm 
note has been caught up and carried throughout the "town" 
and as long as the intruder is in the vicinity the call will be 
given. When the animals nearest the danger pop down out of 
sight, those out of burrows may still keep watch and send 
the alarm. 

Prairie-dogs are always plump, but soon after the summer 
has brought out the grasses, clover, and low- growing plants 
they feed on, they become very fat. In the colder parts of 
the animal's range this fat serves a useful purpose during the 
short period of hibernation. Vegetation is eaten close near a 
Prairie-dog "town" and when the colony is located on the 
borders of a grain-field much damage is done. Aside from the 
material destruction to crops the Prairie-dog proves a nuisance 
because of the many large holes he digs into which a horse 
may step. The Badger visits the towns and digs out the 
Prairie-dogs, making even larger holes to trip a rider. 

The Prairie-dogs have many enemies, but because of the 
excellent watch they keep are often able to escape such 
dangers as Eagles and Coyotes. The Black-footed Ferret 
and the Badger go into the holes after their prey, and against 

224 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



these enemies the Prairie-dog has Httle defense. Its powers of 
reproduction, however, keep its numbers up in spite of such 
attacks. The number of young in a Htter is usually four but 
may run as high as six or eight, and the young are born early in 
Alay. The young are first seen about the burrows in late 
Alay or early June in the north, early May in Texas and 
after a few weeks show a rapid rate of growth. Bv the end 
of the summer they are only slightly smaller than the parents. 

Genus Eutamias 



Dentition: Incisors, i ; Canines, 2; Premolars, f ; Molars, 

Western Chipmunk. 



22. 



-Eutamias quadrivittatus 

and related forms 
Names.— Western Chipmunk; Chipmunk. Plate XXIV 
General Description.-Smaller, more slender than the 
Eastern Chipmunk, with finer stripes and lacking the bright- 




FiG. 52. Western Chipmunk 



colored, reddish rump and hips. Ears narrow, erect and 
covered with short hairs; head somewhat rounded; active and 
dert m behavior; terrestrial in habit. 

Color.— Adults: Sexes colored alike. 

Summer pelage brighter than that of winter and spring, but 
dentical m pattern and essential coloration. 
225 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts. — Conspicuously striped with five dark and four 
light-colored, longitudinal stripes which run from shoulder 
almost or quite to base of tail; the dark stripes are black, 
the light stripes are whitish or buffy; the median stripe, 
down the mid-line of the back from crown to root of tail, is a 
dark stripe, and then on either side there is a succession of 
narrow, longitudinal stripes alternating light and dark; the 
lightest colored stripe is the lowest of the lateral stripes; 
sides grizzled chestnut or rufous; a whitish patch back of ears, 
whitish stripes above and below eye; top of head grayer than 
sides of body; tail, which is about as long as head and bod3% 
moderately bushy, mixed black and ochraceous buff. 

Underparts. — Everywhere whitish, the pelage slate-colored 
at base and showing through to give grayish appearance to 
underparts; underside of tail rufous, the hairs banded with 
black and tipped with ochraceous buff. 

Young.— Like adults, striped, but color pattern less con- 
trasting and colors weaker. 

Measurements.— Total length, 8.5-9.5 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 3.5-4 inches; hind foot, 1.35 inches. 

Geographical Distribution.- Western North America. Un- 
fortunately, detailed geographical ranges of these Chipmunks, 
based upon all the available records, have not been published 
and hence the distributional data given in this handbook must 
be considered as provisional. Mr. A. H. Howell, of the U. S. 
Biological Survey, has worked out the distribution of the 
genus, based upon more than 10,000 specimens, and it is 
hoped that his studies will soon be in published form. 

Food.— Seeds, nuts, buds, fruit of many varieties, some 
insect and animal food, such as birds' eggs. 

Enemies.— Snakes, Hawks, Weasels, Foxes, Coyotes, 
Badgers, and Wildcats. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Eutamias 

This genus is a very large one, containing no less than 
fifty-seven forms, according to the most recent publication 
of Mr. A. H. Howell. » The differences between many of the 
closely related forms are so subtle that they would be of little 
value to the laymen, and lack of space forbids setting them 

I Howell; Journ. Mamm., Aug. 1922, p. 183-185. 
226 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



forth in detail. Since the essential color pattern in each of the 
principal groups does not vary appreciably, the differences 
being mainly in shade or tone, the diagnosis given for each 
form is condensed, it being assumed that the animal in 
question conforms to the standard pattern unless otherwise 
stated. 

The geographical ranges given are by no means compre- 
hensive, for the reason stated above, but will serve as an 
approximate key for distribution. 

Quadrivittatus Group 

^^^ ^?i5'^''v.^; ^«/g^^f° <^^VTnunk.~Eutamias quadrivittaius 
quadrtvtttatus (Say). Plate XXIV 

As described above. Found in forests and brushy areas in 
mountains of Colorado throughout a large part of the state 
and southward into New Mexico, ranging^up to 90000? 
10.000 feet elevation. s s up tu y,ooQ or 

Hopi Oai^mnx^.~Eutamias quadrivittatus hopiensis (Merriam) 
Lighter and brighter colored than typical quadrivittaHci: 
£f'^f "P^^.^^S^^.^estnut in color; median dark stripe with 
faint sprinkling of black; facial stripes and ear patch whitish 

leShT.TnVhr^.'-r^^it' "^d^^-^t^ whitish. Total 
iWw' P ^ '' ^^'^ ^5^^^^^' 3-5 inches; hind foot, 1.25 
Zf.t'r. T"""^ lu southwestern Colorado south into New 
Mexico and northern Arizona, north into southern Utah! 
ranging up to above 7,000 feet elevation. Plate XXIV 
Uinta Lhipmunk.—Eutamias umbrinus (Allen) 
Resembling typical quadrivittatus but larger and outer darker 
stripes reduced or obsolete; color much as in typical S- 
rzvittatus Total length, 10 inches; tail vertebr^^ 4 o 
mches; hmd foot, 1.3 inches. Found in Wasatch and 
Umta Mountains of Utah 'i^citLii ana 

Beaver Mountain Chipmunk.— E^^tomm^ adsitus Allen 

Sm So'inTy,Ttr"- ""^""^ '" ^^""^^ Mountains, Mil- 

^''^Xwdl'^ Cliipmunk.-£z,tomm. ruficatidus ruficaudus 
Similar to umbrinus but more rufescent; head and face with 

unde^r'^^J; St I'f f^"P^' ^""^ ^^^ P^^^^ g^^^^ish white; 
underside of tail dark orange-rufous. Total length 11 
inches; teil vertebras, 4.75 inches; hind foot, 1.36 inches 
Montana. ^^'^ ''^^°" ^"^ Bitterroot Mountains,' 

^"^""Hower^ Chipmunk.-£.,/am.-a^ ruficaudus simulans 

Resembling typical ruficaudus, but paler on sides, under- 
surface, and edging of tail. Total length, 9.9 inches tSl 
vertebra, 4.7 mches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. ^Foundll the 
^ 227 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



mountains of northwestern Montana (west of the main 
divide), northern Idaho, northeastern Washington, and 
southeastern British Columbia. 

Gray-necked Chipmunk. — Eutamias cinereicollis cinereicollis 
(Allen). 
Somewhat similar to umbrinus but grayer on sides of neck 
and shoulders, and with brownish or blackish outer dorsal 
stripes present. Total length, lo inches; tail vertebras, 4 
inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in New Mexico and 
Arizona, in Mogollon Mountains, San Francisco Mountains, 
and White Mountains. 

Gray Chipmunk. — Eutamias cinereicollis cinereus Bailey. 
Paler and grayer than typical cinereicollis, dorsal stripes 
clear and sharply defined, three black, four light stripes 
(2 gray, 2 white) ; crown, shoulders, and rump clear ashy 

' gray; feet buffy. Total length, 9 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 
inches; hind foot, 1.33 inches. Found in the Magdalena 
Mountains, Socorro County, New Mexico. 

Gray-footed Chipmunk. — Eutamias ci^iereicollis canipes Bailey. 
Resembling typical cinereicollis but grayer color through- 
out, not as gray as in cinereus, however. Feet clear gray, 
with no tinge of yellowish. Total length, 9.2 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in the 
Guadalupe Mountains, El Paso County, Texas. 

San Bernardino Chipmunk. — Eutamias speciosus speciosus 
(Merriam). Plate XXIV. 
A handsome, medium-sized Chipmunk with much white or 
gray on upperparts. Outer pair of light stripes broad and 
white; facial stripes and ear patch well defined, whitish; ear 
washed with rufous on anterior base, black on anterior half, 
whitish on posterior half; dark stripes dark brown to black- 
ish, outer pair of dark stripes obsolete; grayish wash on top 
of head and sides of neck; light rufous wash on sides; feet 
gray; tail edged with yellowish, broadly tipped with black 
below. Total length, 9.3 inches; tail vertebras, 4.8 inches; 
hind foot, 1.32 inches. Found in California in "High Tran- 
sition and Boreal Zones on the San Jacinto and San Bernar- 
dino mountains, and on the extreme southern Sierra Nevada 
from Taylor Meadow (near Kern County line), Tulare 
County, north at least to Kearsarge Pass, Inyo County." 
(Grinnell) 

Mt. Pinos Chipmunk. — Eutamias speciosus callipeplus (Mer- 
riam). 
Resembling typical speciosus in size and pattern of colora- 
tion, but has thighs and rump yellowish instead of gray, 
larger and whiter ear patches, and less black on tail. Total 
length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 inches; hind foot, 1.36 
inches. Found on Mt. Pinos, Ventura County, California. 

Sequoia Chipmunk. — Eutamias speciosus sequoiensis Howell. 
Similar to typical speciosus but more brown and less gray 
above; median pair of dark stripes with more cinnamon; 

228 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



rump and hmd feet buffy; tail longer. Total length q6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.44 inches 
l^ound on the upper slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada 

M Al?> •^°^'^''!f r^^'^'^^t, '°.^^^ ^° '^"^^ ^i^e^ and east to 
Mt. Whitney and Olancha Peak." (Howell) 

Inyo Chipmunk.—Eutamias speciosus inyoensis Merriam 
Resembhng typical speciosus but "facial stripes less' oro- 
nounced; post-auricular patches ill defined; rump grizzled 
golden yellowish instead of gray; middle dorsal stripe 
blacker; gray on back of neck more extensive; black tip of 
tail shorter. (Merriam) Total length, 9 inches; tail 
vertebras, 4 inches; hmd foot, 1.35 inches. Found on 
Boreal summits of White and Inyo mountains, CaHfomia " 
(Merriam) 

Tahoe Chipmunk. — Eutamias speciosus frater (Allen) 

Resembling typical speciosus but with dark colors more pro- 
nounced and less black on tail; slightly smaller in size 
lotal length, 9 mches; tail vertebra, 4.8 inches; hind foot 
1.3 mches. Found m California in "Transition and Boreal 
Zones on the Sierra Nevada in the vicinity of Summit, 
Placer County and Lake Tahoe, south to vicinity of Kear- 
sarge Pass, m Inyo County." (Grinnell) 

Palmer Chipmunk. — Eutamias palmeri Merriam. 

About the size of typical quadrivittatus but differing in 
coloration. Dorsal stripes rather short except median dark 
stripe which reaches between ears; much gray on upperparts- 
dark stripes pale rusty, median stripe darker, outer pair 
obsolete; facia stripes faintly developed; ear patch ill 
defined whitish; tail black, edged with yellowish above 
rufous below banded with black, edged with yellowish 
Total length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebra, 3.8 inches; hind foot 
I 32 inches. Found only on the summit of Charleston Peak 
Clark County, Nevada. 

Townsendii Group 
Characterized by large size and (for most part) dark pelage. 

Very large, with dark color pattern; five dark stripes Un- 
perparts varying with season from yellowish olive-gray to a 
rich yellowish brown; dark stripes black or brownish black- 
facial stripes and ear patch grayish ; feet grizzled buffy gray ' 
^-.^^""r}'^^ ^f""^^^ ^a^d^d with black and edged with 
whitish, below, rufous, black and whitish; underparts white 
Total length, 10 mches; tail vertebra, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 
1.44 mches. Found m humid coastal region of Oregon 
Washington, and southwestern British Columbia ' 

Cooper Chipmunk.— EMtomm^ townsendii cooperi (Baird) 
fesemUmg typxcaMownsendii, but lighter colored, grayer. 
Light-colored dorsal stripes grayish instead of brownish; 
229 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



rump grayish. Measurements about as in typical town- 
sendii. Found in Cascade Mountains of Washington where 
it has been taken in Skamania and Kittitas Counties and 
about Mt. Ranier at elevations of 4500 and 5500 feet. 

Redwood Chipmui^k. — Eutamias townsendii ochrogenys Mer- 
riam. 
Somewhat similar to typical townsendii, but duller colored, 
with less conspicuous striping; underparts not white. 
Upperparts grizzled olive-gray and golden; dark stripes 
brownish black, outer pair of dark stripes very faint; outer 
light stripes grayish, inner pair almost same tone as un- 
striped upperparts; ear patch grayish; cheeks and sides of 
nose ochraceous; underparts washed with buffy. Total 
length, 10.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.52 
inches. Found in California in "narrow, humid northwest 
coast strip (Transition and Boreal Zones) from the Oregon 
line south to Cazadero, Sonoma County; interiorly as far as 
Cuddeback, Humboldt County, and Sherwood, Mendocino 
County." (Grinnell) 

Siskiyou Chipmunk. — Eutamias townsendii siskiyou Howell. 
Differing from ochrogenys in grayer coloration; light dorsal 
stripes grayish; sides of head and face with less ochraceous; 
underparts only faintly washed with buff. Total length, 
10.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.46 inches. 
Found in "the Siskiyou Mountain region of northern Cali- 
fornia and southern Oregon, ranging north to the upper 
Rogue River Valley, Oregon." (Howell) 

Allen Chipmunk. — Eutamias townsendii senex (Allen). 

Resembling siskiyou but grayer, especially on rump and 
thighs; underparts white. Upperparts grizzled grayish, 
sides washed with fulvous or rufous; outer light stripes 
grayish white, inner grizzled gray and fulvous; inner dark 
stripes blackish, mixed with rufous; outer stripes rufous; 
face markings rufous and whitish; ear patch gray; feet 
tinged with buffy ; tail edged with whitish. Total length, 10 
inches; tail vertebras, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 1.44 inches. 
Found from Mariposa County, California, north along 
Boreal Zone of Sierra Nevada and Cascade ranges to Crook 
County, Oregon. 

Sonoma Chipmunk. — Eutamias townsendii sonomce (Grinnell). 
Intermediate in color of underparts between typical town- 
sendii and ochrogenys; brighter above than ochrogenys, more 
conspicuously striped. Upperparts bright cinnamon-rufous ; 
median dorsal stripe black, outer dark stripes mixed with 
rusty; light-colored stripes gray obscured with rusty, outer 
pair of light stripes clear ashy gray ; sides cinnamon-rufous, 
ear patch clear white; underparts white, sometimes with 
creamy wash on mid- ventral region. Total length, 10 inches ; 
tail vertebrae, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.44 inches. Found 
in California in Mendocino, Solano, Sonoma, Trinity, and 
Yolo counties at elevations of 500 to 6,000 feet. 

230 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



Marin Chipmunk. — Eutamias townsendii alleni Howell 

Slightly smaller than sonomcB; pelage darker that sonomcB 
but brighter than ochrogenys and more distinctly striped- 
outer pair of light stripes with strong buffy tinge- underparts 
with light wash of buffy. Total length, 9.2 inches- tail 
vertebra;, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.48 inches. Found in 
Coast region of Marin County, California, from Point 
Reyes east to Mount Tamalpais." (Howell) 
Long-eared Chipmunk.— £z//aw /a 5 qnadrimacidatus (Gray) 
A large-eared, bright-colored species. Upperparts grizzled 
grayish and rufous; three internal dark stripes well defined 
black mixed with rufous; outer pair of dark stripes less con- 
spicuous, rufous m color; inner light stripes gray, mixed with 
rufous, outer pair neariy clear whitish; broad, facial stripes 
and large ear patch white; black markings on sides of face 
and head conspicuous; feet buffy; tail above, rufous at base 
ot hairs, banded with black, edged with whitish, below 
broadly rufous, black banded, white edged; underparts 
white. Total length, 10.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.8 inches- 
hmd foot, 1.44 inches. Found in "Upper Transition 
Zone along west slope of Sierra Nevada, from Yosemite 
National Park northward at least to Quincy Plumas 
County." ^ (Grinnell) 
Merriam Chipmunk. — Eutamias merriami merriami (A.llen) 
Size rather large; color pattern dull and grayish. General 
tone of upperparts grizzled grayish and buffy; dark dorsal 
stripes hve m number; inner pair of light stripes colored like 
hanks outer pair light grayish; ear patches inconspicuous 
gray; dark stripe through eye from nose to ear; hairs of tail 
above, black, banded and tipped with buffy to whitish 
below rufous, banded with black, edged with buffy under- 
parts white. Total length, 10 inches; tail vertebrae 46 
inches; hmd foot, 1.3 inches. Found in "Upper Sonoran 
and lower Transition Zones on the mountains of the San 
Diegan district, south to the Cuyamaca and Laguna moun- 
tains, San Diego County; also north and east through the 
1 ehachapi mountains and along the western foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada at least to Raymond, Madera County also 
north through the coast ranges to San Luis Obispo County " 
(Grinnell) Plane XXIV. ^' 

Santa Cruz Chipmunk. — Eutamias merriami pricei (Allen) 
Resembling typical merriami in size and dull type of color 
pattern, but much browner where merriami is gray Upper 
parts mixed brown and gray; dark dorsal stripes mixed hazel 
and black, outer pair of dark stripes with very little black - 
inner light stripes with very little gray; outer pair more 
conspicuously gray; sides warm tawny; underparts white 
lightly tinged with buffy on abdomen. Total length 10 
inches; tail vertebra3, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches 
l^ound m humid Transition and Upper Sonoran in the 
coast region south of San Francisco Bay, from San Mateo 



231 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



County to Monterey County, inclusive . . . ." (Grin- 
nell) 

Kem Basin Chipmunk. — Eutamias merriami kernensis Grinnell 
and Storer, 
Similar to typical merriami but even grayer; ashy gray on 
sides of head and neck; dorsal stripes narrow; underside of 
tail ochraceous tawny. Measurements same as for typical 
merriami. Found in Kern and Tulare Counties, California, 
at altitudes from 2,000 to 7,000 feet, Upper Sonoran and 
Transition Zones. 

Gila Chipmunk; Cliff Chipmunk. — Eutamias dorsalis dorsalis 
(Baird). Plate XXIV. 
A good-sized form with only one prominent dark stripe. 
Upperparts grizzled gray, blackish and tawny; median dark 
stripe brownish black to blackish, other dark stripes so 
faint as to be almost indistinguishable; light stripes only 
faintly defined, mixed with general color of upperparts; 
facial stripes and small ear patch well-defined light gray; 
sides of neck and body tawny; tail above, mixed black, 
yellowish and white, below, ochraceous tawny banded with 
black and edged with white; underparts white. Total 
length, 9.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 1.4 
inches. Found in mountains of western New Mexico and 
of Arizona. 

Utah Cliff Chipmunk. — Eutamias dorsalis utahensis Merriam. 
Resembling typical dorsalis but smaller, paler, and with less 
black in dorsal stripe. Color pattern subdued as in typical 
dorsalis, stripes inconspicuous, three dark stripes and four 
light ones discernible ; upperparts mixed gray and buff ; sides 
tawny; underside of tail fulvous; underparts white. Total 
length, 9 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.1 inches; hind foot, 1.3 
inches. Found in "Utah, eastern Nevada, northern Ari- 
zona, and northwestern Colorado, in the Upper Sonoran and 
Transition Zones." (Warren) 

Amoenus Group 

Klamath Chipmunk. — Eutamias amcenus amoenus (Allen). 
A conspicuously striped form with rich coloration. Five 
dark and four light stripes well defined; three inner dark 
stripes black, sprinkled with rufous, outer pair of dark 
stripes much shorter and mixed with color of sides; inner 
pair of light stripes grizzled grayish, outer pair white; facial 
stripes conspicuous; ears small, ear patch dull gray; crown 
of head mixed gray, rufous, and black; sides warm rufous 
(richest in summer pelage); feet washed with tawny; tail 
above, mixed black and warm buff, below, ochraceous black 
and warm buff; underparts whitish, more or less suffused 
with warm buff. Total length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebras, 3.8 
inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in Transition and 
Boreal Zones from northwestern California north through 
central and eastern Oregon and Washington. Plate XXIV. 

232 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



Ochraceous Chipmunk.— Ew/awm^ amcenus ochraceus Howell 
Larger than typical amosnus, more ochraceous above par- 
ticularly on head and rump, less blackish in dorsal stripes 
tail paler above and below. Found "only in the Siskiyou 
Mountain region of northern California and southern Ore- 
gon. ..." (Howell) 

Mono Chipmunk. — Etitamias amcBniis monoensis Grinnell and 
Storer. 
Resembling typical amcenus but general tone paler and 
grayer, light-colored stripes whiter; size as in typical 
amcenus. Found "on the arid crest and east wall of the 
central Sierra Nevada [California], where it is characteristic 
of the Canadian Zone." (Grinnell) 
Buff-bellied Chi^mniik. ~ Etitamias amcenus luteiventris 
(Allen). 
Very similar in size and proportions to typical amcenus and 
colored very much like it; underparts with strong suffusion 
of ochraceous buff. Found in Transition and Canadian 
Zones from southern Alberta south into Montana and 
Wyoming. 

Bitterroot Valley Chipmunk.— Ewtowm^ amcenus vallicola 
Howell. 
Resembling luteiventris, "but averaging paler throughout 
especially the head, upperparts of body and under surface 
of tail. Total length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebra^ 4 inches- 
hmd foot 1.3 inches. "This subspecies is apparently con- 
fined to the Bitterroot Valley [Montana] and the adjacent 
foothills but the exact limits of its range are not known " 
(Howell) 

Gray-tailed Chi^mnn^.—Eutamias amcenus canicaudus (Mer- 
riam). ^ 

Resembling luteive^itris but with tail edged with gray rather 
than buff; with broad, conspicuous stripes and general tone 
of _ upperparts vmaceous gray. Total length, 92 inches- 
tail vertebr^, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.32 inches. Found in 
i ransition Zone of eastern Washington. 

Columbian Chipmunk. — Eutamias ammius affinis (Allen) 
Closely reseml)ling typical amcenus and superficially 'verv 
similar to typical quadrivittatus. This subspecies is given 
m Howell s list of the forms of Eutamias, but I can discern 
no descnbable external differences between it and tvpical 
amcenus. Found in Transition and Canadian Zones of 
southern British Columbia. 

Hollister Chipmunk. — Eutamias ama^nus ludibundus (Hoi 
lister). ^ 

"A large member of the amcenus group, nearest to 

luteiventris, but with sides of quite a different tint -'darker 
and more tawny, less bright and yellowish. Underparts 
about the yellowish color of luteiventris; tail darker be 
neath." (Hollister) Total length, 8.6 inches; tail verte- 
br^E, 3.8 inches, hmd foot, 1.36 inches. "Found along the 

^Z3 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



boundary line region between Alberta and British Columbia. 

Mt. Baker Chipmunk. — Eutamias amoeniis felix (Rhoads). 
Resembling luteiventris but darker in color, with heavier 
suffusion of ochraceous on sides, cheeks, and underside of 
tail; loroad, heavy, black stripes; much rusty brown on 
upperparts. Total length, 9.8 inches; tail vertebrcE, 4.2 
inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches Found in the Mt. Baker 
Range, British Columbia. 

Olympic Chipmunk. — Eutamias amcenus caurinus (Merriam) . 
Resembling typical amosnus but darker and with larger 
hind foot; ear patch reduced; dark stripes broad and black. 
Total length, 8.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.4 inches; hmd 
foot, 1.36 inches. Found in Olympic Mountains, Washmg- 
ton, up to timber-line. 

Panamint Chipmunk. — Eutamias panamintinus (Merriam). 
A medium- sized species with bright, warm coloration re- 
sembhng speciosus superficially. Dark stripes, five m num- 
ber, chestnut, median stripes with some admixture of black, 
outer pair merging into ochraceous suffusion of sides; inner 
light stripes grizzled gray, outer pair whitish; small ear 
patch gray; facial stripes weak; feet and edging of tail 
ochraceous buff; underside of tail tawny; underparts white. 
Total length, 8.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.8 inches; hmd foot, 
1.28 inches. Found in the Panamint Mountains, Inyo 
County, California. 

Minimus Group 

Characterized by small size, and in most of the forms by 
bright color pattern, and well-defined dorsal stripes. 
Least Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus minimus (Bachman). 
Size small; striping distinct; colors pale. Upperparts 
grizzled sandy gray washed with ochraceous buff on sides; 
dark stripes well defined, mixed rufous and brownish black; 
inner light stripes sandy gray, outer pair white; ear patch 
small, inconspicuous, whitish; facial stripes moderately 
developed; feet grayish; tail above, black and ochraceous 
buff below, ochraceous buff fringed with black and ochra- 
ceous buff; underparts white. Total length, 7.2 inches; 
tail vertebree, 3.2 inches; hind foot, 1.18 inches. Found on 
plains and Sonoran plateaus in Wyoming northeastern 
Utah, and northwestern Colorado. Plate XXIV. _ ^ 

Painted Chipmunk; Sagebrush Chipmvmk.— Eutamias mini- 
mus pi ctus { Allen). Plate XXIV. . ^ , . . 
Resembling typical minimus but shghtly larger m size, 
darker in color, and more heavily striped. Upperparts 
gray mixed whitish, buffy and blackish; dark stripes 
blackish to very dark brown; sides Hghtly \yashed with 
warm buff; underside of tail warm buff, fringed with cream 
color. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebras, 3.6 inches; 
hind foot, 1 .2 inches. Found on sagebrush plains of eastern 

234 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



Washmgton, Oregon Idaho, northeastern California, 
Nevada,^ Wyoming, and Utah. 
Coulee Chipmunk.— Eutamias minimus grisescens Howell 
Resembling pictus but smaller and grayer, with less buffv 
inner pair of light dorsal stripes broader, tail paler and 
grayer. Total length, 7 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.2 inches- 
hmd foot I.I mches Found in the "Coulee" region, east 
ton ^^^'"' -^°^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ Counties, Washing- 

Cary Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus caryi Merriam 

Resembling typical minimus but paler and grayer In 
wmter pelage pale, clear gray on neck, rump, flanks,' and 
inner pair of light dorsal stripes; dark stripes with less dark 
brown; white ear patch fairly conspicuous. Total length 
7-6 inches; tail vertebra?, 1.6 inches; hmd foot, 1.2 inches' 
Found m San Luis Valley, Costilla County, Colorado. 
i^ale Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus pallidus (Allen) 

bimilar to typical minimus in size but slightly paler' Color 
pattern very like that of typical minimus, but flanks a 
lighter shade of buff and upperparts grayish with very little 
admixture of buffy. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebra? 
3.6 inches; hmd foot, 1.24 inches. Found in Montana 
and Wyoming m Great Plains region. 
Bad Lands Chipmunk.— £«/awm5 minimus cacodemus (Cary) 
Ralest of the genus Eutamias. In summer pelage resem- 
bling palidus, but even paler. Dark stripes ochraceous 
butt, median stripe darker but not black; upperparts pale 
grizzled gray washed with buff on sides; ear patch incon- 
spicuous whitish; tail above, black and whitish, below 
cream color, the hairs banded with black and tipped with 
whitish; underparts white. , Total length, 8.6 inches- tail 
vertebr^ 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in the 
m Bad Lands of southwestern South Dakota and the Hat 
Wo f uT^l''-'' ^1 ^^""'^^ ""^ extreme northwestern Nebraska. 
A? u J 1^™^^ ^~^^'^^^^^^ minimus consobrinus (Allen) 
Much darker than typical minimus which it resembles in 
size. Upperparts mixed dusky rufous and gray ; sides bright 
rufous; dark dorsal stripes black, outer stripes black 
sprinkled with rufous; inner light stripes grizzled gray, outer 
pair whitish; ear patch small, grayish white; tail below 
rufous, fringed with ochraceous buff. Total length 76 
inches; tail vertebras, 3.4 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches 
i^ound m northwestern New Mexico, western Colorado" 
and eastern Utah m mountains and plateaus of Canadian 
^and Transition Zones. 
Bighorn Qh.ipmunk.~Eutamias minimus confinis Howell 
Larger than consobrinus but similar to it in color; in summer 
pelage, dark dorsal stripes less blackish, more buffv on 
thighs; m winter more buffy on upperparts. Total length 
8.2 inches; tail vertebras, 3.6 inches; hind foot, 1.^2 inches' 
i^ ound m the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming 



235 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Colorado Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus operarius (Merriam). 
Very similar to consobrinus and also somewhat resembling 
typical amoenus. Dorsal stripes broad and conspicuous; 
inner dark stripes blackish, outer pair blackish, mixed with 
rufous; inner light stripes grizzled gray, outer pair white; 
rest of upperparts mixed gray, blackish and fulvous; sides 
washed with fulvous; small ear patch gray; tail below, 
rufous, fringed with ochraceous buff. Easily confused with 
quadrivittaius from which it may be distinguished by smaller 
size, proportionally longer tail and grayish rump. Total 
length, 8 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.7 inches; hind foot, 1.24 
inches. Found in Colorado; chiefly east of Continental 
Divide from foothills to timber-line. 

Sacramento Mountain Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus atri- 
striatus (Bailey). 
Resembling operarius but somewhat larger and darker. 
Dorsal stripes broad, five black stripes, two rusty and two 
buffy whitish; sides dull grayish fulvous; abdomen with 
yellowish tinge. Total length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebras, 3.8 
inches; hind foot, 1.28 inches. Found in the Sacramento 
Mountains, Lincoln County, New Mexico. 

Arizona Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus arizonensis Howell. 
" Similar in size and cranial characters to Eutamias minimus 
atristriatus ; nearest in color to E. minimus consobrinus, but 
general tone more grayish (less tawny), the shoulders fre- 
quently washed with pale smoke-gray (as in Eutamias 
cinereicollis) ; tail more bushy and color of undersurface 
brighter tawny (about as in operarius) .'^ (Howell) Total 
length, 8 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.8 inches; hind foot, 1.2 
inches. Found in the White Mountains and Prieto Plateau 
of eastern Arizona. 

Timber-line Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus oreocetes (Mer- 
riam) . 
In spring pelage, somewhat resembling typical minimus. 
Upperparts gray, washed with buffy yellow on sides of neck 
and body; ear patch whitish; mid-dorsal stripe black, outer 
dark dorsal stripes blackish and rusty; inner light stripes 
whitish, outer white; feet whitish; tail below, pale fulvous, 
banded with black, edged with ochraceous buff. Total 
length, 8 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6 inches; hind foot, 1.24 
inches. Found near timber-line in mountains of Montana 
and Wyoming. 

Northern Chipmunk. — Eutamias minimus boreal is (Allen). 
About the size of typical minimus but darker in color. 
Upperparts mixed tawny, and gray; sides clear tawny, 
median stripe blackish, other four dark stripes dark brown 
to blackish, mixed with rufous; inner light stripes grizzled 
gray, outer white; tail below, ochraceous, fringed with 
ochraceous buff; underparts white, with light buffy tinge 
in some specimens. Total length, 8.2 inches; tail vertebras, 
3.8 inches; hind foot, 1.28 inches. Found in forests, east 

236 



PLATE XXII 



^B. 




Photo by A. A. Allen 

Lyster Chipmunk 
(Tamias striatus lysteri) 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



of the Rockies, from North Dakota, South Dakota, and 
Montana north to Mackenzie, Canada 
Eutamias minimus neglectus = Eutamias minimus borealis 
according to Howell. ' 

^^^^'oodf ^^ Chipmunk.— £«tomm^ minimus caniceps (Os- 

Resembiing horealis but grayer, ear patch more conspicuous 
underparts clear white. Dark dorsal stripes black and 
conspicuous, outer pair with some ochraceous mixture- 
outer light stripes white, inner gray; top of head grayish- 
sides ochraceous ; feet yellowish white; tail below, clay color' 
edged with gray; underparts white. Total length 8 8 
inches; tail vertebras, 4 inches; hind foot, 1.18 inches. 

fntXiS^ Smb-r °' ^'^ ^^'^^' ^^^'^ ^^^-^^' --^^ 
^^^Ho^^'df"^^ Chipmunk.— £M/amm^ minimus jacksoni 

Resembling So/'m/^-^ '-but upperparts and tail more intense- 
ly_ tawny; head_ and facial stripes slightly darker; median 
pair of dorsal stripes more strongly tinged with sayal brown- 
tail darker, both above and below." (Howell) Total 
length, 8.4 inches; tail vertebra, 3.6 inches; hind foot i ^2 
inches. Found m northern Wisconsin, ^Minnesota,' and 
Ne^'^or "'"'"^'^^'■'^ '""^^ western Ontario and east as far as 

Alpinus Group 
Alpine Chii^munk.—Eutamias alpinus (Merriam) 

tA,Tf^\^''^% ^^^^ rPP^^- Upperparts pale ashy gray, 
with faint suffusion of buff on shoulders and sides- median 
stripe pale rusty, with some dusky admixture, outer dark 
stripes rusty, not very long or conspicuous; inner light 
stripes narrow, grayish, outer pair broader and whiter; facial 

Skh-Til ""'^^f ?:^' prominent; small ear patch . 
whitish; feet gray; tail above, mixed black and gray to 
yellowish, below, clay color and black, edged with gray to 
yellowish; underparts white. Total length, 7.6 inches 
tail vertebrae 34 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. ' Found onlv 
• m the Boreal Zone of the southern Sierra Nevada, Califor- 
nia, Tulare County to Inyo County. 

_ The Chipmunks of the genus Eutamias are confined in their 
iistribution to the western half of North America. Some of 
:he forms reach as far east as Lake Superior and Lake Huron 
Dut the greatest number of species are found in the Rockj^ 
Vlountam region and thence westward. In eastern North 
\menca the genus Tamias seems to take the place of Eutamias 
)ut although members of both genera go by the name of Chip- 
237 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



munk and have a rather close superficial resemblance, there is, 
nevertheless, quite a distinction between the Western and 
Eastern Chipmunks. The fine striping and slender, more 
agile build of a typical Western Chipmunk readily distin- 
guishes it from the broader striped, heavier bodied Tamias, 
which in many characters more nearly resembles some of the 
small western Ground Squirrels {Callo s pernio philus) . 

The Western Chipmunks are a large and much diversified 
group. In the terminology of the mammalogist, they are said 
to be very plastic; that is, there seems to be a distinct type of 
Chipmunk for each change of environment; and one rather 
widely accepted explanation for this is, that the influences of 
the environment find the Chipmunk to be an easily moulded 
organism and have modified its characters. Regardless of 
whether one believes that animals are directly influenced by 
environmental forces or not, no mammalogist can deny that 
there is a close correlation between the color pattern of £w- , 
tamias and the type of country where it is found. ^ 

In the humid, heavily forested, coastal belt of southern 
British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, we 
find the largest and most somber colored of all the Chipmunks, 
the townsendii group. Here the large size is correlated with 
an abundant food supply and congenial environment, and the 
dark color with the humidity of the atmosphere. At the other 
extreme stands the minimus group, living in the open, sun- 
flooded, arid plains and deserts and well characterized by 
small size and pale colors. The difference in the appearance 
of the members of these two groups fully equals the contrast 
between their respective environments. The gap between 
the small, pale Chipmunks and the large, dark Chipmunks is 
bridged over by many variations in size and color pattern. 
There is scarcely any pecuhar ecological association in western 
North America which does not have its own peculiar form of 
Chipmunk, provided the animal can find food there. This 
accounts for the great number of known species and subspecies 
which, however they vary, are yet easily recognized as mem- 
bers of the genus Eutamias. 

Wherever it is found, the Chipmunk is a bright, alert, active 
creature moving about during most of the daylight hours and, 
in most cases, easily observed. In general, the species which 
live on the open plains are shyest, since they are most liable 

238 



Plate XXIII 



ouirrsl 




>ay (jrn)undJSc|Uin-el Littlp. G7*<w- 

- GroLLTid .Sciuirr-cl 




Nelson Groimd Scriiirrel 



Round-tailed 

Gt-oLuid Sauirrel 




Californta Oa-CflMnd S:nj,irr-2 



WESTERN CHIPMUNK 



to attack and can not afford to take chances where the hazards 
of the terrain are against them. On the other hand, the forest- 
dwelling species, with avenues of escape at every turn, are 
often bold, curious, and easily approached. They are also 
most often heard calling or chattering. 

The call-note of the Western Chipmunk does not vary 
greatly throughout the genus and the observer has no difficulty 
in recognizing it whether he has ever seen that particular 
species before or not. The alarm note is a sharp, high-pitched 
chirp, generally given as a single note which may be frequently 
repeated. In cases of extreme alarm the note may be re- 
peated so rapidly as to almost run the syllables together. 
Usually theie is some distinction between a scolding chirp 
and one indicating unrestrained terror. Chipmunks call at 
the appearance of an enemy, such as a hawk or man, and when 
chasing one another. When a Chipmunk calls from some 
vantage point,— a log, stump, or top of a bush,— the vocal 
effort is accompanied by a nervous and energetic twitch of the 
tail. 

The tail is habitually carried more or less extended and not 
curved over the Ijack, as sometimes in the arboreal Squirrels. 
When the animal is undisturbed and moving slowly, the tail 
is slightly curved and extended, or at right angles to the 
body; when he stops or sits up to eat, it may be drawn in a 
closer curve at the side or toward the back. Some of the 
plains Chipmunks carry the tail straight up at right angles 
when fleeing in alarm. 

Chipmunks tame easily and make interesting pets. In 
places where they come into contact with man and are not 
molested, they very soon learn that they have little to fear, and 
allow a very close approach. 

In most regions Chipmunks find an abundance of food in 
seeds, berries, nuts, buds, etc., and during the warm months of 
the year need not search long for a meal. They store food in 
the internal cheek-pocket and carry it to burrows or holes in 
the rocks, sometimes with such a quantity in the side of the 
face as to cause a very obvious swelling. 

The Chipmunk makes its nest underground, burrowing into 
the earth at the foot of a stump or beside a rock or log, and is 
terrestrial in habit, although it climbs readily when pressed 
by an enemy, and sometimes climbs up a short distance on 

239 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



tree trunks from choice. When feeding it often chmbs shrubs 
for fruit or nuts. 

It is active much of the year and even in the cold parts of 
its range may sometimes be seen on bright sunny days in 
winter. Hibernation does not seem to be as complete as with 
the Eastern Chipmunk. In its southern range it is above 
ground every day in the year. 

The Chipmunk assumes two, sometimes three, very dis- 
tinct pelages in the course of the 3^ear. The brightest pelage 
is that of the breeding season which appears (depending upon 
the locality where the species lives), in April, May, or June. 
This coat is followed by the post-breeding or summer pelage 
which usually lacks some of the intensity of the late spring or 
early summer coat. Finally, in October or November, appears 
the winter pelage, generally the most subdued of the annual 
color patterns. The winter pelage is very worn and ragged in 
appearance before it is replaced by the new fur of the breeding 
season. Not infrequently there is enough difference between 
the worn winter and the fresh breeding pelages to make the 
same animal look like two distinct forms. Most of the de- 
scriptions given in this account are those of summer pelages, 
unless otherwise specified, but lack of space does not allow the 
listing in detail of these different patterns for so many sub- 
species. 

Chipmunks have only one litter of 3^oung a year, as nearly 
as I can gather from personal observation and records, and if 
there is any significance in the assumption of a distinct breed- 
ing pelage we should expect no more than one litter annually. 
While conditions are such that no more than a single litter 
could be raised in a northern summer, there is no hindrance to 
prevent the successful raising of more than one litter in the 
Cliipmunks' southern range where other rodents have several 
litters annually. The average number of young in a litter 
is four to six. 

Chipmunks are subject to various parasites and I have 
found them infested with ticks, the larvae of the bot-fly, and 
internally with the threadworm. 

Genus Tamias 

Dentition: Incisors, J; Canines, 2; Premolars, \; Molars -| = 20, 
240 



Plate XXIV 




EASTERN CHIPMUNK 



Eastern Chipmunk. — Tamias striatus 

and related forms 

Names. — Chipmunk; Common Chipmunk; Eastern Chip- 
munk; Chipping Squirrel; Hackee. Plate XXIV. 

General Description. — A small, terrestrial Squirrel, with 
conspicuous dorsal stripes; flattened and hairy tail; well- 
developed cheek-pouches; alert, nervous behavior; and high- 
pitched, jerky call-note. Head rounded, ears prominent but 
short and rounded. 

Color. — Sexes alike in color ; some seasonal variation. 

Upperparts. — Summer: Grizzled rusty red to reddish brown 
from nose to rump, clearest and brightest on rump; five black- 




FiG. 53. Eastern Chipmunk 

ish stripes extending from shoulders to rump, arranged as 
follows: a black median stripe running from between ears 
almost to root of tail, most conspicuous from shoulders to 
hips; on either side of the median stripe is a narrow band of 
the grizzled reddish or chestnut body color; then on either 
side are two dark stripes, shoulders to hips, separated by a 
light-colored stripe, bright buffy to whitish. While these 
dark and light stripes are brilliantly conspicuous along most 
of their extent, they fade away more gradually into the body 
color of the neck and shoulders and rump. Upperside of 
tail similar to back, the hairs banded with black and tipped 

241 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



with whitish or yellowish; ochraceous or buffy stripes above 
and below the eye and a dark stripe passing through eye; 
flanks and sides tawny brown or chestnut; hands and feet 
ochraceous to tawny. 

Underparts. — Much lighter colored than above, generally 
whitish, sometimes with suffusion of buffy or ochraceous; 
underside of tail rufous, bordered laterally with blackish 
and fringed with gray. 

Winter pelage duller and darker, with less reddish on 
upperparts. 

Young. — Like adults but colors less contrasting. 

Measurements. — Total length, 9 to lo inches; tail vertebrae 
3.5 to 4 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Eastern North America from 
latitude 49° through northern Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Michigan, Iowa, and eastward to the Atlantic; south to about 
latitude 34°. 

Food. — A great variety of seeds, grains, nuts, acorns, berries, 
etc., but including some animal food such as insects, birds' 
eggs, and young Mice. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Weasels, Foxes, Wildcats, 
Badgers, and other small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Tamias 

Eastern Chipmunk. — Tamias striatus striatiis (Linnaeus). 
As just described, found on the Atlantic seaboard from 
Georgia north to southern Virginia and Ohio. 

Gray Eastern Chipmunk. — Tamias striatus griseus Mearns. 
Larger, grayer than typical striatus, and with more sub- 
dued color pattern. Total length, 10.9 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 4 inches; hind foot, 1.46 inches. Found west of the 
Great Lakes, in the upper Mississippi Valley. 

Lyster Chipmunk. — Tamias striatus lysteri (Richardson). 
Noticeably paler than typical striatus, with rump bright 
yellowish red. Total length, 9 inches;' tail vertebrae, 3.4 
inches; hind foot, 1.36 inches. Found in region from 50° 
north latitude south to northern New York and west to 
Ontario and Michigan. Plate XXII. 

Bangs Chipmunk. — Tamias striatus venustus Bangs. 

Dorsal stripes shorter, but colors brighter and more intense 
than in typical striatus. Total length, 10.5 inches; tail 
vertebras, 4 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found in the 
extreme southwestern limits of the range of the striatus 
group, Oklahoma. 

242 



EASTERN CHIPMUNK 



Fisher Chipmunk.— raw m^ striatus fisheri Howell. 

Paler and grayer than typical striatus, smaller than griseiis, 
intermediate m color between striatus and lysteri. Total 
length, 10 inches; tail vertebras, 3.6 inches; hind foot i 4 
inches Found m the "Middle Atlantic States from the 
lower Hudson Valley, New York, south to southern Virginia 
and extreme eastern Kentucky, and west to Ohio " 
(Howell) 

******* 

The Eastern Chipmunk is one of the best known of our 
small eastern mammals and is familiar to every farmer's boy 
and to every hunter and man who lives an out-of-door exist- 
ence. Its bright coloration, alert, active behavior, and 
shrill, chirping call-note readily set it apart from any other 
eastern Squirrel. In the western United States, some of the 
small Ground Squirrels look very much like the Eastern Chip- 
munk, but differ sufficiently in detail (see Say Ground 
Squirrel, page 197) to be recognized as distinct animals. 

The Common Chipmunk, while a true Squirrel, belongs 
to the section of the Squirrels which spend most or all of their 
existence on the ground, living in holes in the earth, as dis- 
tinguished from the Squirrels which live in the tree-tops. It 
is perhaps not as far advanced in its terrestrial habits as the 
western Ground Squirrels, and climbs up stumps and trees 
on occasion. It has been seen at considerable heights feeding 
in beech or elm trees, and when seeking refuge from a Dog 
climbs freely, although it is by no means as capable in this 
respect as is the Red Squirrel. 

The Chipmunk has an inquisitive disposition and is very 
apt to linger on the verge of safety to scold and chatter at an 
intruder. The commonest alarm note is a shrill, chirping 
, whistle, which is accompanied by twitches of the tail or jerk- 
ings of the body. When not disturbed the Chipmunk has a 
distinctive call, a "chuck" or "cluck." 

The Eastern Chipmunk goes into complete hibernation 
when cold weather sets in and spends the winter curled up in a 
ball in its nest underground. The time for the winter dis- 
|appearance varies with different regions and with the severity 
jof each particular season. An average time would be from 
jSeptember to October, and the time of reappearance March 
|to April. This animal does not become excessively fat in 
Ithe autumn as do most hibernating mammals. 

243 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



The number of young in a litter is from four to five, and I 
have seen no records of more than the one brood a year. 

Genus Sciurus. Tree Squirrels 
Subgenus Tamia sciurus' 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, {] ; Premolars, f ; Molars, f = 22. 

Red Squirrel. — Sciurus hudsonicus 

and related forms 

Names. — Red Squirrel; Pine Sqiiirrel; Chickaree, Plate 
XXV. 

General Description. — A small, arboreal Squirrel with 
flat, bushy tail; fairly long ears; no internal cheek-pockets; 
incisors narrow; rudimentary first upper premolar generally 
present, but sometimes absent; inner toe on forefoot very 
small; pelage fairly long and soft, but not silky; manner alert; 
diurnal in habit. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; a marked seasonal variation. 

Upperparts (winter). — Rusty red from top of head to tail; 
sides olive-gray, lightly sprinkled with black; ears tufted with 
dusky hairs; tail above, yellowish rufous, the hairs banded 
near the tips with black and fringed with pale yellowish rufous, 
below, yellowish gray banded and fringed much as above, 
tip with a broad, subterminal bar of black. 

Underparts. — Hairs slaty at base, washed with grayish 
white and tipped with black. 

Summer. — Above, pale rusty red, brightest on outer sides 
of legs and feet; a narrow, black, lateral line; ears without 
tufts; tail less buffy than in winter, but colored much the 
same; underparts clear white. 

Immature duller than adults. 

Measurements.' — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 12.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of forested North 
America. 

Food. — Nuts, seeds, buds, berries, some insects and animal 
food such as birds' eggs and fledglings. 

^ For a revision of this subgenus see J. A. Allen, Bulletin Amer. Mas. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. X, pp. 249-298, 1898. 

244 



RED SQUIRREL 



Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Pine Martens, Foxes, Wildcats, 
and other small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Subgenus Tamiasciurus 

The Chickarees are fairly constant in general pattern 
' of coloration, although the different forms vary in color, shade 
or minor details of pattern. The Chickarees are the smallest 
of the tree-climbing, diurnal Squirrels. 

Hudsonicus Group 

Characterized by white underparts and yellow-fringed tail. 
Members of this group occur in two color phases, the common 
rufous phase and a rarer olivaceous phase. 

Northern Red SquirreLSciurus hudsonicus hudsonicus 
(Erxleben). 
As described above. Found in "Cold Temperate subregion 

! east of the Rocky Mountains [Hudsonian zone]." (Miller) 

1 Bangs Red Squirrel. — Sciurus hudsonicus gymnicus Bangs. 

I Size small; color dark. Upperparts, in winter, rich rusty 

! red; sides olive-gray; underparts gray, sprinkled with black. 
Summer pelage duller red above; black lateral line present- 
underparts clear white. Total length, 12 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 4.8 mches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in the spruce 

^ belt of eastern North America, south of Labrador— northern 
New York, northern New Hampshire, northern Maine 
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, northern 

\ Michigan and northern Minnesota. 

Southern Red SquirreL—Scitirus hudsonicus loquax Bangs. 
Resembling typical hudsonicus but redder and brighter 
above m summer and winter. Underparts with less black- 
tipped hairs in winter. Tail with less black. Total length, 
13 inches; tail vertebras, 5.2 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches! 
Found m "Alleghenian and Carolinian Faunae of the 
Humid Province." (Allen) 

Minnesota Red Squirrel.— ^c^'w^-w^ hudsonicus Minnesota 
Allen. 
Largest of the eastern Red Squirrels; coloration rather 
lighter than loquax. Total length, 13.8 inches; tail verte- 
br:e, 5.7 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found in "Minnesota 
and Wisconsin, and probably Iowa, and eastward to north- 
ern Indiana." (Allen) 

tSlack Hills Red SquirreLSciurus hudsonicus dakotensis 
Allen. 

I Larger and paler than typical hudsonicus. Upperparts 

J light yellowish rufous in winter, pale yellowish olivaceous 

: gray m summer. Total length, 14 inches; tail vertebra, 

245 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



K 8 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found in "The Black Hills 
of South Dakota and adjoining portions of Wyoming. 

Bailev^Red SquiTTeL—Sciurus hudsonicus haileyi Allen. 

Size large; resembhng typical hudsonicus but darker and 
more olivaceous above in summer, and with underparts 
washed with pale fulvous. Totallength, 13.6 mches; tail 
vertebrse, S.6 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found m Out- 
lying mountain ranges of central Wyoming and eastern 
Montana, and northward into Alberta m the eastern foot- 
hills of the Rocky Mountains. Its range includes the 
Bi-hom Pryor and Laramie Mountams m Wyoming, and 
th? Bi- Snowy, Bear Paw, and Little Rocky Mountains m 
Montana, and probably other outlying, pine-covered buttes 

wtnd River Mount'Lins Red SquiTieL—Sciurus hudsojiicus 
ventorum Allen, u^..o 

Resembling haileyi but darker and more olivaceous above, 
with more black on upperside of tail and more gray on 
underside of tail; underparts grayer and without fuh^us 
suffusion. Upperparts, m winter, dark rusty red along 
back sides gray, suffused with pale yellowish; m summer 
da?k' olivaceous, with rusty wash on outer sides of limbs; 
tail with fairly broad subtermmal band of black Total 
leneth n 2 inches; tail vertebrae, 54 mches; hmd foot, 2 
inches' Found in "Wind River Mountains region and 
northward along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountams 
toat least Mystic Lake, and P^o^aHy to the Belt ranges 
east of Helena, and thence westward to the head of the 
Snake River in Idaho, and south along the Idaho and 
Wyoming boundary to the Wasatch Mountams m north- 

RichardTon ^Red kqu^eX.-Sciurus hudsonicus richardsoni 

Siif Wg'rrmuch black on upper_ surface of tail; color of 
upperpart; dark; black subtermmal bar on tail broad^ 
wS.-Chestnut, sprinkled with black on back sides and 
limbs brownish gray; about half terminal) of tail black; 
underpar'tH^ite' sp'^inkled lightly with black. Summer.-- 
Mixed rusty red and olivaceous; rusty red on feet and legs 
conspicuous^ black lateral line; underparts clear white ; tai 
above rusty red on central area for half to two-thirds of 
length, then black fringed with yellowish Total length, 
Asinches; tail vertebrce, 54 inches; hmd foot, 24 mches 
Found in "The Bitterroot and Coeur d' Alene Mountams 
on the western border of Montana; the Lost River; Salmon 
River, Pahsimeroi and Saw Tooth Mountains m central 
Idlho and westward in the Craig and Seven Devils Moun- 
tafns to the Powder River and Blue Mountains of Oregon 
thence through northern Idaho, and west m the mountams 
of northeastern Washington to Colville, and northward 

246 



RED SQUIRREL 



into the Kootenai District of eastern British Columbia." 
(Allen) 

Streator Red Squirrel. — Sciurus hudsonicus streatori Allen. 
Resembling richardsoni, but with less black on tail and more 
olivaceous above in summer; tail shorter. Total length, 
13 inches; tail vertebree, 5 inches; hind foot, 2.4 inches. 
Found in "Central part of northern Washington, from the 
Columbia River northward over central British Columbia. 
It occupies the Okanagan District of Washington, from the 
head of Lake Chelan northward." (Allen) 

Vancouver Red Squirrel. — Sciurus hudsonicus vancouverensis 
Allen. 
Resembling streatori but smaller and with underparts 
washed with brownish (winter) or yellowish (summer), 
otherwise colored much as in streatori. Total length, 12.3 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.8 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. 
Found on "Vancouver Island, and the coast region of 
northern British Columbia, north at least to Sitka." 
(Allen) 

Kupreanof Red SquirreL — Sciurus hudsonicus picatus Swarth. 
Resembling vancouvereyisis but brighter in color and with 
less black at tip of tail. Winter. — Upperparts bright chest- 
nut, with hazel dorsal band; center of tail on underside 
reddish. Total length, 12.5 inches; tail vertebras, 5 inches; 
hind foot, 2 inches. Found in the Sitkan district of Alaska 
and southward; also on Kupreanof Island and adjacent 
islands south of Revillagigedo Island. 

Alaska Red Squirrel. — Sciurus hudsonicus petulans Osgood. 
Larger and darker than typical hudsonicus; redder than 
streatori; paler than vancouverensis. Upperparts (summer) 
near raw umber; sharply defined, black, lateral line; black 
in tail restricted, tail fringed with ochraceous; underparts 
with yellowish wash. Winter pelage like that of typical 
hudsonicus but darker, tail blacker. Total length, 12. i 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.8 inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found 
in the vicinity of White Pass, Alaska, limits of range im- 
known. 

Douglasii Group 

Characterized by rusty reddish underparts and tail fringed 
with yellowish or white; found west of the Rocky Mountains. 

Douglas Chickaree. — Sciurus douglasii douglasii Bachman. 
Size about as in hudsofiicus. Winter. — Dark rusty red 
along back; sides and limbs dark brownish gray; dusky 
lateral line may or may not be present; tail above, for two- 
thirds its length, like back, mixed with black and fringed 
with yellowish; black subterminal band broad; underparts 
buffy gray to orange, mixed with black ; central zone of tail 
on underside mixed rusty and black; ear tufts blackish. 

247 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Summer. — Back dark olive-brown tinged with reddish; an 
intensely black lateral line; underparts and feet orange. 
Total length, 12.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; hind foot, 
2 inches. Found in "The immediate vicinity of the Pacific 
coast in Oregon and Washington, from about Cape Blanco 
to Juan de Fuca Strait." (Allen) Plate XX V^ 

Redwood Chickaree. — Sciurus douglasii mollipilosus (Audu- 
bon and Bachman). 
Resembling typical douglasii but in winter less dark above 
and sides grayer ; tail fringed with whitish instead of yellow- 
ish; underparts generally paler; in summer more olivaceous 
above and less rusty red, underparts paler and tail fringed 
with white. Total length, 12.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.4 
inches; hind foot, 2 inches. Found in "Pacific coast region 
of northern California, west of the Coast Range, from 
Sonoma County (Petaluma) north into Curry County (Port 
Orford), Oregon." (Allen) 

Cascades Chickaree. — Sciurus douglasii cascadensis Allen. 
Very similar to mollipilosus, having white-fringed tail; prac- 
tically indistinguishable from it in winter pelage ; in summer 
more olivaceous above and less deeply orange below. Total 
length, 13 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 2 
inches. Found in "The Cascades region of Oregon and 
Washington, north into British Columbia, including also the 
coast region at the mouth of the Fraser River, and north at 
least to Rivers Inlet (about 51° 30'), some fifty miles north 
of Vancouver Island. In Oregon this form prevails south 
in the Cascades to the vicinity of Fort Klamath; and, west 
of the Cascades, to Glendale, Cleveland, Eugene, and Sweet 
Home, and in Washington, to Tenino, Roy, and Snoqual- 
mie Falls." ^ (Allen) 

California Chickaree.^ — Sciurus douglasii alholimhatus Allen. 
Similar to cascadensis; in winter slightly. paler above, under- 
parts grayish white without wash of fulvous, and very little 
sprinkling of black; in summer, almost indistinguishable 
from cascadensis, but slightly grayer; underparts pale ful- 
vous; feet and outer sides of limbs orange; tail fringed with 
pure white. Total length, 13.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.5 
inches; hind foot, 2. i inches. Found in "The Sierra Nevada 
region of central and northern California, north in Oregon, 
east of the Cascades, to the Maury Mountains and Straw- 
berry Butte, over which region it prevails with little change 
and may be considered typical, and nearly typical alho- 
limbatus prevails westward in Oregon to the eastern base of 
the Cascades, where it passes into cascadensis.'' (Allen) 



Fremonti Group 

Characterized by underparts always white and tail fringed 
with white; found in southern Rocky Mountain states. 



248 



Plate XXV 




Eastern I w^ 

Dou^U.^ THtdtaree Gray Scjuin^el ^^ W 




Fox Scjuirrv^t 



Western 
Gray Scjuirrel 








Akxii't Scjuirrel 



RED SQUIRREL 



Fremont Chickaree.— 5cn^m5 fremonti fremonti Audubon 
_ and Hachman. 
Similar to hudsonicus in size. Winter.— Upperparts gray 
with pale rusty yellowish suffusion along back and sprink- 
led with black; sides and limbs grayish, sprinkled with yel- 
lowish and black; dusk-y lateral line pooriy defined- tail 
above yellowish rusty mixed with black, the hairs banded 
with black and tipped with white; tip of tail black, fringed 
with white; underside of tail yellowish gray, banded with 
black, fringed with white; small, dusk-y ear tufts; under- 
parts grayish white, sprinkled with dusky. Summer — 
Above, yellowish gray; ochraceous on feet and limbs- a 
conspicuous black lateral line; tail much as in winter- under- 
parts white to grayish. Total length, 13 inches; tai'l verte- 
bra, 5.2 inches; hmd foot, 2 inches. Found in "The moun- 
tainous portions of Colorado, reaching the extreme southern 
border of \\yoming at Woods, P. O., and Uintah Mountains 
ot Utah; also reaching the southern boundary of Wyoming 
at Fort Bndger." (Allen) 
Taos Chickaree.— Sciuriis fremonti neomexicanus Allen 

Resembling typical fremonti but brighter yellowish rufous 
above m winter. Total length, 12.8 inches; tail vertebra 
5.3 inches; hmd foot, 1.94 inches. Found in "Taos Ranee' 
New Mexico." (Allen) ^ ' 

White Mountains Chickaree.— 5cmn^^ fremo7iti lychnuchus 
Stone and Rehn. 
Resembling 7ieomexicanus but larger and redder in color 
Upperparts (summer) dull rusty red; sides paler; narrow 
lateral line poorly defined; underparts whitish. Total 
length, 14 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.6 inches; hind foot 22 

^S^ .. -"^^^^ ^^ ^^^ "^^^^^ Mountains of Lincoln County 
New Mexico.. •^' 

Arizona Chickaree.—Scnmis fremoitti mogollonensis (Mearns) 
Colored m.uch as m neomexica?ius but larger. Total length 
14 inches; ^tail vertebra, 5.7 inches; hind foot, 2.1 inches' 
-bound m The higher mountains and plateaus of central 
Arizona, from the Douglas fir belt to timber line." (Allen) 

^""fJii^?^^"^ Chickaree.— 5c2Mrz.^ fre7?zonti grahamensis 
(Allen). 

Resembling mogollonensis but "vellower and less rufescent 
above (m summer pelage), with the central area of the 
taU ochraceous above and nearly white below." Found 

/^Mi . ^^ ^°^^ °^ ^^^ summit of Mt. Graham, Arizona " 
(Allen) 

******* 

The Chickaree or Red Squirrel is usually the commonest 
tree Squirrel of most regions where it occurs, although in some 
of the eastern states it is outnumbered by the Gray Squirrel. 
Its size and coloration, scolding chatter, and alert, inquisitive 
249 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



behavior serve to distinguish it from its larger and more 
cautious relatives, the Gray and Fox Squirrels, Although 
Chickarees are found from coast to coast in practically every 
forested area, and vary to some extent in size, color, and other 
external characters, they do not change enough to conceal 
their true relationships and one may recognize the Chickaree 
for what he is wherever you find him. 

Chickarees are forest Squirrels and are not found out of 
timbered areas. In some places these Squirrels may leave 
heavy forest and wander through scrub growths such as 
follow a water-course, but they are essentially denizens of 
evergreen forests. 

These Squirrels are active throughout the year and if winter 
weather temporarily drives them into shelter they come out 
with the return of sunshine. Like most other Squirrels they 
are dependent upon a diet of plant and tree products such as 
nuts, seeds, buds, etc., and store up part of the food they find 
in times of abundance for the winter season. It has been 
stated that the Chickaree may be an important reforestation 
agent because of this habit, since seeds of forest trees which 
the animal fails to dig up will sprout when conditions are 
favorable. The Douglas Fir is one of the trees which gains 
more than it loses by the presence of Squirrels, strange as this 
may seem. In other sections. Red Squirrels may dig up seed 
which has been set out for reforestation purposes and become a 
decided economic pest. 

Red Squirrels arc diurnal and do not move about at night. 
They have several distinctive calls, a harsh, scolding, continu- 
ous chatter, or whicker, when an enemy is in plain sight, and a 
loud call, not continuous but given once or twice and repeated 
at intervals, when the Squirrel is not greath^ excited. The 
home nest is usually in a tree cavity, a decayed hollow, or an 
old Woodpecker's nest, or is built of twigs and leaves upon 
some convenient crotch in the limbs. Chickarees are good 
swimmers and have been known to cross bodies of water a mile 
in extent. 

Red Squirrels have gained an unsavory reputation as 
robbers of birds' nests, suckers of eggs, and eaters of fledglings, 
and many naturalists have written accounts of how the 
animals were caught in the act. They appear to be the most 
carnivorous of our Squirrels. 

250 



EASTERN GRAY SQUIRREL 



The unquenchable curiosity of these Squirrels makes them a 
conspicuous mammal. Upon the appearance of a man or a 
Dog they begin a violent harangue and scold and chatter 
for long periods of time. Instead of being shy and secretive, 
like most wild mammals, they attract attention and seem to 
feel that nothing on the ground will be able to catch them in 
the trees. 

Four or five young form the average Red Squirrel litter and 
they are born in late spring. May to June. Only one litter 
is raised each season. 

Subgenus Sciurus 
Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, f; Molars, f = 22. 

Eastern Gray Squirrel. — Sciurus carolinensis 

and related forms 

Names.- — Eastern Gray Squirrel; Gray Squirrel; Cat 
Squirrel. Plate XXV. 

General Description. — A large, arboreal Squirrel with long, 
flat, bushy tail; ears usually without tufts; prevailing color of 
upperparts grayish. 




Fig. 54. Gray Squirrel 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not 
conspicuous. 

Upperparts. — Mixed gray and yellowish brown, head and 
back darker and with more of a brownish tinge than sides of 
limbs, neck, and rump which are grayish; ears yellowish white: 
hairs of tail yellowish at base, banded with black, tipped 

251 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



with white, the general impression being blackish overlaid 
with white. 

Underparts. — Whitish. 

Immature much like adults, but with less yellowish brown. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, i8 
inches; tail vertebras, 8.5 inches; hind foot, 2.5 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Forest parts of eastern North 
America from Florida to southern New Brunswick and 
Ontario; from Atlantic coast west to Minnesota (for caroli- 
nensisgron^). 

Food. — Mainly of vegetable nature, such as nuts, fruits, 
buds, seeds, grains, etc., but some animal food such as insects 
and their larvae, young birds, eggs, etc. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Martens, Weasels, Lynxes and 
most of the active carnivores. 



Species and Subspecies of the Subgenus Sciurus 

Carolinensis Group — Eastern Gray Squirrels 

Southern Gray Squirrel. — Sciurus carolinensis carolinensis 

Gmelin. 
As described above ; soles of feet usually naked ; color pattern 
not very variable. Found in "Austral Zone, from northern 
Florida north about to the lower Hudson Valley, west 
through the Alleghenies south of Pennsylvania to Indiana, 
Missouri, Oklahoma, and the edge of the plains." (Miller) 

Everglade Gray Squirrel. — Sciurus carolinensis extimus Bangs. 
Smallest of the Eastern Gray Squirrels; color lighter and 
grayer than typical carolinensis; small woolly tuft at base 
of ear sometimes present. Yellowish gray above with faint 
grizzling of blackish; ear tufts white. Total length, 17.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.6 inches; hind foot, 1.9 inches. 
Found in "Subtropical fauna of south Florida, northward 
about half way up the peninsula." (Miller) 

Louisiana Gray Squirrel; Bayou Gray Squirrel. — Sciurus car- 
olinensis fuliginosus (Bachman). 
Larger than typical carolinensis; upperparts darker and 
richer in color; underparts never pure white. Upperparts 
deep yellowish rusty mixed with black; tail dark, fringed 
with white; ears with conspicuous woolly tufts at posterior 
base ; underparts varying from grayish white to pronounced 
dark buffy. Total length, 19 inches; tail vertebra;, 9 
inches; hind foot, 2.^ inches. Found in "The bayou region 
of the coast of Louisiana." (Miller) 

252 



EASTERN GRAY SQUIRREL 



Northern Gray Squirrel. — Sciiirus carolinensis leucotis 
(Gapper). 
Larger and grayer than typical carolinensis; apt to occur in 
black or melanistic phase; soles of feet may be hairy in 
winter. Upperparts, in winter, silvery gray with faint 
grizzling of yellowish brown and black; a faint wash of 
yellowish brown on head, back, and upper surfaces of hands 
and feet; underparts white. Summer pelage with more 
rusty brown, especially along sides. Melanistic phase, 
everywhere black; various degrees of intergradation between 
gray and black phases may occur. Total length, 20 inches; 
tail vertebrte, 9.2 inches; hind foot, 2.8 inches. Found in 
"Transition Zone and locally lower edge of Canadian Zone 
from the Alleghenies of Pennsylvania north through New 
York and New England, to southern New Brunswick and 
southern Ontario; west to Minnesota." (Miller) 
Merriam _ Gray SquirreL — Sciurus carolinensis hypophatis 
Merriam. 
Resembling leucotis in size but darker above and less white 
below; soles of feet heavily furred in winter, naked in sum- 
mer; ears tufted in winter. Upperparts, in winter, dark 
gray in tone, mixed white, yellowish brown and black; tail 
with much black, white tips to hairs narrow; ear tufts 
yellov/ish white; color of sides extends well onto underparts 
and only narrow streak down center is white. Total length, 
20 inches; tail vertebrce, S.S inches; hind foot, 2.7 inches! 
Found in ' ' The edge of the forest belt in Minnesota. Limits 
of range not known." (Miller) 

******* 
The Eastern Gray Squirrels are too well known to require 
special attention as to distinguishing characteristics. They 
are the common large Squirrel in most of the parks of the 
eastern cities and they have long been one of the popular 
game animals of the East. When not disturbed these animals 
become very tame, but where hunted they are wild and wary 
and hide at the first approach of danger. 

Gray Squirrels are active only during the day. They store 
up food for the times when food will be difficult to find, and 
they do not hibernate although they may stay in the nest 
during periods of inclement winter weather. They are 
strictly tree- dwelling Squirrels and are not found away from 
forests. At times they become very abundant and when 
the food supply becomes scarce in a given region they move 
out in a great migration wave. In the early history of the 
East these migrations took on vast proportions and unbeliev- 
able numbers of Gray Squirrels hurried across the country, 

253 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



swimming rivers and lakes and devastating any farms that 
lay in the path. 

The Gray Squirrel builds a bulky nest of leaves and twigs 
in the crotch of a limb or else chooses a hollow in some rotted 
trunk. The young number from four to six and often two 
litters are raised a year. The first brood appears in March 
or April. 

This Squirrel has several call-notes, a loud, husky bark 
and a whining whicker being the commonest. It is an excel- 
lent climber, racing through the trees and making long leaps 
when chasing one another or threatened by danger. It has 
an active, nervous temperament, although not to the same 
extent as the Red Squirrel. 

Griseus Group. — Western Gray Squirrels 
Western Gray Squirrel; California Gray Squirrel; Colui^ia 
Gray Squirrel. — Sciurus griseus griseus Ord. Plate XXV. 
Larger and grayer than the Eastern Gray Squirrels and with 
broader tail. Upperparts pale gray, finely speckled with 
white, sometimes with pale yellowish suffusion on back; 
ring about eye white; ears never tufted; tail very large and 
broad, hairs sometimes three inches long, color slate-gray 
tipped with white; underparts white. Total length 22 
inches; tail vertebrae, 11 inches; hind foot, 3.2 inches. 
Found in "Pine and oak forests of Transition (and upper 
border of Austral) Zone from extreme southwestern Wash- 
ington through western Oregon and most of California 
(except coast belt south of San Francisco) to northern 
Lower California, Mexico." (Miller) . . 

Black-footed Gray Squirrel.— 5cwrM5 griseus nigripes 
(Bryant). ... 

Much darker than typical griseus, with less white grizzling 
on upperparts, and more or less brownish suffusion; tail 
darker; upper surfaces of hands and feet slaty to blackish 
Total length, 22.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 12 inches; hmd 
foot 3 inches. Found in the humid coast section of Cali- 
fornia from San Mateo County through Monterey County. 
Anthony Gray Squirrel.— 5c«<r«5 griseus anthonyi (Mearns). 
Paler in color than either typical griseus or nigripes. Upper- 
parts gray with fine sprinkling of white; yellowish brown 
patch at base of ear; tail above blackish, edged with white, 
below gravish, banded with black, edged with white; hands 
and feet 'iron-gray; underparts white. Total length, 22 
inches; tail vertebra, 10 inches; hmd foot, 31 inches. 
Found in the "Transition Zone of southern Cahfomia, 
from near the Mexican boundary northwest to the moun- 
tains of Ventura County." (Grinnell) ^ 



254 



WESTERN GRAY SQUIRREL 



The Gray Squirrels of the griseus group are found in forested 
areas where conifers and oaks grow. Most of their food is 
derived from these trees in the shape of seeds. I have not 
seen any records to show that they are ever found in numbers 
to compare with the Eastern Gray Squirrels in the seasons of 
their greatest abundance. My experience has been that only 
a few will be seen in a given locality. Where they occur to- 
gether with the large, grayish Ground Squirrels of the Otosper- 
mophilus grammurus group, the hunters sometimes apply the 
name Silver-gray Squirrel to these tree-climbing Squirrels. 
The Western Grays have a much broader tail than their eastern 
relatives and in life are among the handsomest of Squirrels 
They spend a great deal of time running about on the ground 
and do not rely upon the aerial highways through the branches. 
They are keen of sight and hearing and take alarm easily. 
Flattened out upon a limb, they are often able to escape obser- 
vation from the ground, and if prevented from leaving a tree by 
the usual methods of descent they make daring leaps from the 
branches. They utter a hoarse bark which carries for quite a 
distance. Although severe weather may confine them to their 
nests for several days at a stretch, they do not hibernate; and, 
since most of their range lies within the region of mild, open 
winters, they do not store up large supplies of food. 

They build large, bulky nests of twigs or leaves in which to 
rear the young and also use hollows in tree trunks as dwelling 
places. The nests are usually placed well up in the trees. 
The young number from one to four, two or three constituting 
the average litter. The young may be bom any time from 
April to August in the southwestern states, but doubtless the 
season is shorter toward the northern part of their range. 

Aberti Group.— Tuft-eared Squirrels 
^^®^ Sqmrrel.— .Sc/«r«5 aherti aberti Woodhouse. Plate 

Resembling a heavy-bodied Gray Squirrel in size and pro- 
portions, but differing in heavily tufted ears and in rusty 
red dorsal band. General color of upperparts grizzled 
gray; ear tufts blackish; broad dorsal band of chestnut or 
rusty red; a well -developed black lateral line or band; upper 
surfaces of hands and feet whitish; tail black, broadly tipped 
with white on upper surface, white on under surface, with 
basal band of iron-gray; underparts white. Total length 
21 inches; tail vertebra?, 9 inches; hind foot, 2.75 inches! 

255 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Found along the southern rim of the Grarid Canyon m 
northern Arizona south to the Mogollon Mountains and 
east into New Mexico; Umits of range unknown. 
Tuft-eared Squirrel. — Sciurus aberti numus Merriam. 

" Similar to S. aberti, but gray of upperparts decidedly paler; 
red dorsal area obsolete or nearly so; upperside of tail paler; 
ear tufts pale fulvous, grizzled and tipped with black (in- 
stead of mainly black); tail apparently shorter /Mer- 
riam) Total length, 19-5 inches; tail vertebrae 8 6 inches; 
hind foot, 2.8 inches. Found in the Cimarron Mountains, 
Mora County, New Mexico, north into extreme south- 
western Colorado. , ,- x n- ^ 
Northern Tuft-eared Squirrel.— Scturus aberti Jerreus irue. 
Differing from typical aherti in having gray upperparts 
without the reddish dorsal band; uppersides of feet gray, 
toes whitish; ear tufts black, mixed with gray and chestnut; 
tail above and below, gray banded with black and edged 
with white; underparts white. Said to occur m a umform 
dark brown phase. Total length, 19 mches; tail vertebra, 
8 ^ inches; hind foot, 2.3 inches. Found through a narrow 
strip down the center of Colorado just west of 105 but 
cros^in^ to the east of this meridian about 39 • 
Y.a.ih2Jo SQuirrel.—Sciunis kaihaberisis Mevr^^m 

"Similar in size and general character to S. aberti but un- 
derparts mainly black instead of white, and tail mainly 
white all over instead of white on underside only. (Mer- 
riam) Upperparts dark grizzled gray; dorsal band rusty 
red- nose black; lower sides and upperpart of forelegs and 
thighs nearly solid black; underparts mixed black and gray. 
Found on the top of Kaibab Plateau, north side of the 
Grand Canyon, Coconino County, Arizona. 

* * * * * * * 

The Tuft-eared Squirrels are unique among North American 
Squirrels in the possession of conspicuous tufts of long hairs on 
the ears, and resemble in this respect the Tree Squirrels of 
northern Europe and Asia. They are the showiest of our 
Squirrels and easily distinguished from all the other large 
arboreal Squirrels of North America by the characters of 
tufted ears and peculiar color pattern. _ 

These Squirrels are rather restricted in their habitat, being 
found only in a narrow strip along the Rocky Mountams 
from the southern United States into Mexico. They live on 
the high plateau through which the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado is cut and in the isolated mountain ranges which 
arise from the Colorado Plateau. The Tuft-eared Squirrels 
make their homes in the coniferous forests and their altitudmal 
range is from about 5.000 to 9,500 feet above sea-level. 

256 



FOX SQUIRREL 



They do not hibernate but may be inactive during cold 
weather. They build large nests of leaves, twigs, pine-needles, 
etc., and also make use of hollow trunks or decayed knot-holes 
as home sites. Besides the seeds of conifers and acorns, they 
also eat the bark from the twigs, mushrooms, young birds, 
and eggs. The call-note is a bark or squall not unlike that of 
the Eastern Gray Squirrel. 

During favorable seasons these Squirrels may be abundant 
and seen in numbers. They seem to be gregarious and several 
maybe noted together. The young usuallynumber three or four 
in a litter and probably two families are reared each season. 

Subgenus Guerlinguetus. Fox Squirrels, etc. 
Dentition: Incisors, J ; Canines, « ; Premolars, {; Molars, f = 20. 

Southern Fox SquirTeL—Sciurus niger niger Linnaeus. 

A large, arboreal Squirrel of rather variable color pattern- 
much larger and heavier in build than the Eastern Gray 
Squirrels; pelage coarse and harsh; hands and feet large, 
soles naked; nose and ears always white. '* Typical Sciuru's 
niger is subject to great variation in color and exhibits three 
well-marked color phases. These may be called the gray 
phase, the buff phase, and the black or melanistic phase. 
Ihe gray phase, m its extreme form is pale smoke gray 
above, mcludmg the tail, and white beneath. The crown 
IS black or blackish and the nose, ears, and feet white 
Some specimens in this phase have the feet and underside 
of tail buff, thus approaching the next darker phase. In the 
buff phase, the general tone of the upperparts is pinkish 
buff, the underparts, feet, and underside of tail rich cinna- 
mon-buff or clay color. Numerous intermediate specimens 
connect this phase with the gray phase. The black or 
melanistic phase— well-known as occurring frequently in 
many species of squirrels— is wholly or partly black or dark 
brown, except the nose and ears, which are white." 
(Howell) Total length, 27 inches; tail vertebra, 12 inches- 
hmd foot, 3.5 inches. Found in "Florida and the south- 
eastern states." (Miller) Plate XXV. 

Mangrove Fox ^qnirreLSciurus niger avicennia Howell. 
''Similar to Sciurus niger niger but decidedly smaller; colora- 
tion much darker (more tawny) both above and below; feet 
clearer white (less tinged with buff)." (Howell) Total 
length, 21.4 inches; tail vertebrae., 10.4 inches; hind foot, ^ 
inches. Found in the "Mangrove forests on the south- 
west coast of Florida." (Miller) 

Northern Fox Squirrel. — Sciurus niger neglectus (Gray). 
Similar to typical niger but color usually less rusty in hue, 
underparts generally whitish; ears never white; nose some- 

257 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



times white. Total length, 23 inches; tail vertebrae, il 
inches; hind foot, 3 inches. Found from " Central Virgima 
and West Virginia to Pennsylvania." (Miller) 
Bryant Fox Squirrel.— 5ci«rw5 niger bryanti H. H. Bailey. 
Said to be distinctly larger than typical niger. "Above 
bluish gray, thickly grizzled with black, ends tipped with 
white, sides similar; below white. Nose white.^^ Tail with 
a pronounced black stripe on outer edges." (Bailey) 
Found in Dorchester County, Maryland. 
Western Fox Squirrel. — Sciurus niger rufiventer (Geoffroy). 
Much smaller than typical niger and but little larger than 
the Northern Gray Squirrel; color pattern variable but usu- 
ally tawny brown grizzled with gray above and pale rufous 
or yellowish brown below; nose and ears never white; tail 
mixed black and tawny rufous. Total length, 21 inches; 
tail vertebra), 9.5 inches; hind foot, 2.8 inches. Found m 
"Greater part of the Mississippi Valley, from northern 
Louisiana to southern Wisconsin." (Miller) 
Bachman Fox Squirrel. — Sciurus niger texianus (Bachman;. 
Intermediate between typical niger and rufiventer; larger 
than rufiventer and of same rusty type of coloration; nose 
and ears whitish but less so than m ?iiger. Total length, 
2S inches- tail vertebras, 11 inches; hmd foot, 3 mches. 
Found in the "Coast region of Louisiana and Mississippi. 
(Miller) ,. . . ,^ . ,, 

Texas Fox Squirrel. — Sciurus mger hmitts (Baird) . 

Similar to rufiventer but paler in color and smaller. Upper- 
parts yellowish gray mixed with blackish; underparts 
orange-buff; black individuals said not to occur, total 
length IQ.S inches; tail vertebrae, 9.5 inches; hmd foot, 2.7 
inches! Found in "Western Texas and northeastern 
Mexici." (Miller) 
Apache Squirrel.— Scturus apache AUen. ^ . , ^ 

Similar in general appearance to a Fox Squirrel. In sum- 
mer pelage yellowish brown above grizzled with dusky and 
gray along the dorsal region; sides brighter and merging into 
ochraceous underparts; limbs ochraceous; tail long and - 
moderately bushy, blackish brown fringed with whitish | 
above deep ochraceous bordered with black and edged with 1 
whitish below. In winter pelage, with a broad blackish dorsal 
band from crown to root of tail. Soles of feet naked, lotal 
length, 22 inches; tail vertebrae, 11 inches; hmd foot 3- 1 | 
inches Mainlv Mexican in its distribution, but reaching | 
the pine and oak forests of the Chiricahua Mountains of 1 
southern Arizona. . . • /^ ^c. T 

Arizona Gray SquineL— Sciurus anzonensis anzonensts (^oues. « 
Although a member of the same subgenus with the Fox 
Squirrels, the Arizona Gray Squirrel most resembles the 
true Gray Squirrels in appearance. General color ot ^PPev- 
parts gray, mixed black and white, with broad yellowish 
brown dorsal band from crown to root of tail; sides clearer 

258 



FOX SQUIRREL 



gray; spot back of ear yellowish brown; tail above black 
fringed with white, hairs yellowish brown at base, below 
light ochraceous, banded with black and fringed with white- 
underparts white. Dorsal band of fulvous most prominent 
in winter pelage and almost absent in summer. Total 
length, 22 inches; tail vertebree, 12 inches; hind foot 29 
inches. Found in Arizona and New Mexico ; limits of range 
unknown. 
Huachuca Gray Squirrel.— Sciurus arizonensis Jmachuca 
Allen. 
Resembling typical arizonensis but with less vellowish brown 
on the dorsal region and on basal pelage" of tail. Total 
length, 21 inches; tail vertebrce, 10 inches; hind foot, .3 
inches. Found from the Huachuca Mountains of southern 
Arizona south into Mexico. This Squirrel feeds upon wal- 
nuts and may become so stained by walnut juice as to lose 
the true color pattern on the hands, feet, and underparts. 

The Fox Squirrel is the largest of North American Tree 
Squirrels and is also the most variable in color. Not only do 
the various forms of Fox Squirrels differ noticeably from one 
another, but individuals of the same subspecies show a wide 
range of variation. The large size, heavy body, and rusty to 
blackish coloration serve to distinguish these Squirrels from 
their kin. 

Fox Squirrels are usually not as abundant as Gray Squirrels. 
In many of the states the two occur together, but in no region 
have the Fox Squirrels ever been noted in such numbers as 
have been reported for the Grays in the areas of their greatest 
abundance. 

Fox Squirrels spend a great deal of the time on the ground 
searching for food, but are true Tree Squirrels, nevertheless, 
and always seek refuge aloft when imminent danger threatens! 
These Squirrels are not found away from trees. In the north 
they live in the hardwoods and in the south they are found in 
pine woods, live oaks or cypresses. They do not migrate like 
the Grays and in many places are on the verge of extinction. 
The Fox Squirrel is a favorite with the hunter both because 
of its size and because it becomes fat in the fall. 

This Squirrel utters a hoarse bark and also has a chucking 
call-note. It is active only by day and does not hibernate, 
although remaining in a nest during severe cold or stormy 
periods. It builds nests in hollows or cavities in the trees 
and also constructs large nests of twigs, leaves, and bark in 

259 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



the crotches of the limbs. Individuals use the same tree 
season after season if unmolested. 

The young number two to four, the usual number bemg 
three, and there is not much evidence to indicate definitely 
that more than one litter is raised a season. The young are 
born in March or April. 

Subfamily Pteromyinae 
Genus Glaucomys' 

Dentition: Incisors, A; Canines, g; Premolars, f ; Molars, | = 22. 

Flying SquirreL— Glaucomys volans 

and related forms 

General Description.— An arboreal Squirrel of small to me- 
dium size almost entirely noctural in habit, with large eyes, 
very soft pelage, and broad, lateral folds of skin extendmg 




FiG. 55. Flying Squirrel 

:rom wrists to ankles which enclose a slender, cartilaginous 
process or stiffening rod arising from the wrist; tail fiat and 
broad, tip rounded. Plate XXV. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. ^ 

Upperparts.— Varying with the individual, from drab to 
pinkish cinnamon, washed with pinkish buff along sides; fur 

1 For a full review of the American Flying Squirrels see Arthur " 
Howell. North American Fauna, No. 44, iQiS. 

2 Very difficult to convey in a short, written description the colo^ 
differences between these forms. Often the individual range of va, 
ation within a subspecies covers the same shades of color as commonly 
characterize other subspecies. 

260 



FLYING SQUIRREL 



slate-colored at base; head grayish, ears light brown; tail 
above, similar to back, but without pinkish suffusion, below, 
light pinkish cinnamon; hind feet hair-brown, toes white. 

Underparts. — White to roots of hairs, underside of flying 
membrane edged with pinkish cinnamon. 

Summer specimens are usually darker and redder than 
winter animals. 

Measurements.— Total length, 9-9.5 inches; tail vertebra;, 
3.6-4.4 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution.— A large part of forested North 
America. 

Food.— Nuts, seeds, berries, buds, grain, occasional insects, 
meat when it can be secured. 

Enemies. — Owls, Martens, and Foxes; Weasels and small 
carnivores on the rare occasions when it comes onto the 
ground. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Glaucomys 
Volans Group 

Small Eastern Flying Squkr el.—Glaucomys volans volans 
(Linuceus). 
The animal of the preceding description. Found in 
" Northeastern United States and extreme southern Canada, 
from central Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, southern 
Ontario, northern New York (Lewis Countv), and southern 
New Hampshire south to North Carolina" (Raleigh), Ten- 
nessee (Nashville), and northern Arkansas and Oklahoma 
(Boston Mountains) ; west to eastern Nebraska (Otoe and 
Nemaha Counties) and eastern Kansas (Douglas and Wood- 
son Counties)." (Howell) 

Southeastern Flying Squirrel.— G/a«cowzy^ volans saturatus 
Howell, 
Size of typical volans but upperparts darker, snuff-brown to 
hair-brown; toes not conspicuously white. Found in 
"Southeastern United States (excepting peninsular Florida 
and the coast region of Georgia) from South Carolina and 
western North Carolina west to central Oklahoma and 
north m the Mississippi Valley to southwestern Kentucky " 
(Howell) 

Florida Flying Squirrel.— G/awcomy.? volans querceti (Bangs). 
Resembling typical volans; equalling it in size but darker 
above and lacking white toes; soles of feet always partially 
naked; not so dark in color as saturatus. Found in " Penin- 
sular Florida (south at least to Fort Myers) and the coast 
region of Georgia." (Howell) 

261 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Texas Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys volans texensis Howell. 
Size of typical volans, but upperparts more ochraceous and 
toes not conspicuously white; paler than saturatus. Upper- 
parts wood-brown with yellowish tinge varying to drab. 
Found in "Eastern Texas, west to Aledo, Gurley, Elgin, 
and Cuero; eastern limits of range unknown." (Howell) 



Fig. 56. Distribution of the subspecies of Glaucomys volans, 
north of Mexico, after A. H. Howell 



1. Glaucomys volans volans 

2. Glaucomys volans saturatus 

3. Glaucomys volans texensis 

4. Glaucomys volans querceti 



Sabrinus Group 



Hudson Bay Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus sahrinus 
(Shaw). 
Decidedly larger than volans. Total length, 12.5 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5.5-6 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. Upper- 
parts vinaceous cinnamon; sides of head smoke-gray; eye- 
ring fuscous; tail above fuscous, below, shaded with pale 
brown; toes grayish white, soles buffy white on inner side, 
dral) on outer side; underparts, soiled white, washed with 
pale yellowish and shaded with drab. Found in "Interior 
of Canada, from Fort Simpson (possibly Fort Anderson), 

262 



FLYING SQUIRREL 



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263 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Mackenzie, and lower Churchill River, west side of 
Hudson Bay, south to northern Minnesota, extreme north- 
western Wisconsin, southern Ontario (vicinity of Lake 
Nipissing), and southern Quebec (Lake Edward)." 
f Howell j 

Labrador Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus makkovikensis 
(vSornborger). 
Larger than typical sabrinus, with upperparts slightly darker 
and darker face, tail, and feet. Total length, 12-13. 2 
inches; tail vertebree, 5.1-5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.7- 1.8 
inches. Found in "Coast region of Labrador and eastern 
Quebec; exact limits unknown." (Howell) 

M earns Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus macrotis 
(M earns). 
Smaller than typical sabrinus, but ears slightly longer, and 
with whiter underparts and paler upperparts and hind feet, 
Upperparts cinnamon; underparts white, with irregular 
wash of light pinkish cinnamon. Total length, 10,5-11.6 
inches; tail vertebras, 4.6-5.4 inches; hind foot, 1,4-1.5 
inches. Found in "Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, 
New Hampshire, Vermont, northern Massachusetts, Boreal 
portions of New York, northern Pennsylvania (?), southern 
Ontario, northern part of Michigan, and northeastern Wis- 
consin; west to Elk River, Minnesota." (Howell) 

Pale Flying Squirrel, — Glaucomys sabrinus canescens Howell. 
vSize of macrotis but paler and head grayer. Upperparts 
pale pinkish cinnamon. Found in "Southern Manitoba; 
eastern North Dakota; Black Hills, S, Dak.; and Bear 
Lodge Mountains, Wyo. ; exact limits unknown." (Howell) 

Bangs Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus bangsi (Rhoads). 
Resembling typical sabrinus in size and color but rather 
grayer, Upperparts more drab, feet grayer, underparts 
never yellowish white but pinkish cinnamon. Found in 
"Mountains of central Idaho, eastern Oregon, southwestern 
Montana, and western Wyoming, north to the vicinity of 
Flathead Lake, Montana; southern limits unknown," 
(Howell) 

Richardson Flying Squirrel, — Glaucomys sabrinus alpinus 
(Richardson). 
Like typical sabri?ius but grayer and less vinaceous above, 
with darker tail (wood-brown mixed with fuscous both 
above and below). Total length, 12-13. 6 inches; tail verte- 
brse, 5-6 inches ; hind foot , i . 7- 1 . 8 inches. Found in _' ' Rocky 
Mountain region of Alberta and British Columbia, from 
vicinity of Henry House north at least to Peace River and 
Babine Lake, British Columbia (limits of range unknown)." 
(Howell) 

Yukon Flying Squirrel, — Glaucomys sabrinus yjikonensis 
(Osgood). 
Larger than typical sabrinus, tail longer and hind foot 
broader, Upperparts cinnamon, pinkish to vinaceous, 

264 



FLYING SQUIRREL 



Total length, 14.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 7.2 inches; hind 
foot, 1.7 inches. Found in "Yukon River region, from 
vicinity of Mayo Lake, Yukon (head of Stewart River), to 
Tanana, Alaska; exact limits unknown." (Howell) 

Alaska Coast Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus zaphcBus 
(Osgood). 
Resembling alpinus but browner above and darker below; 
eye-ring blackish. Total length, 11. 6-12. 5 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 5.4-6.1 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found in 
"Coast region of southeastern Alaska and northern British 
Columbia; limits of range unknown." (Howell) 

Bachman Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus oregonensis 
(Bachman). 
Redder above and below than zaphcEUs, upperparts dark 
reddish brown, underparts cinnamon or buff. Total length, 
1 1. 8-12. 4 inches; tail vertebrae, 5-5.5 inches; hind foot, 1.5- 
1.6 inches. Found in "Coast region of Oregon, Washington, 
and southern British Columbia; northern and southern 
limits unknown." (Howell) 

Okanagan Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus columbiensis 
Howell. 
Paler above and below than oregonensis. Upperparts 
vinaceous cinnamon to vinaceous fawn. Total length, 12,5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 5.7 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. 
Found in "Interior valleys and foothills of southern British 
Columbia and northern Washington, from Shuswap Lake 
and Cranbrook, British Columbia, south to Lake Chelan, 
Washington." (Howell) 

Cascade Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus fuliginosus 
(Rhoads). 
Resembling columbiensis but browner above, darker below 
and less brown on tail; less rufescent than oregonensis. 
Total length, 12.2-12.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.6-6.1 inches; 
hind foot, 1.6-1.7 inches. Found in "Cascade Range, from 
southern British Columbia south through Washington and 
Oregon to the Siskiyou Mountains, California." (Howell) 

Broad-footed Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sabrinus latipes 
Howell. 
Size very large; darker and grayer ih^n fuliginosus ; above, 
drab mixed with brown. Total length, 12. 6-14. 5 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 5.8 to 6.5 inches; hind foot, 1.5-1.8 inches. 
Found in "Selkirk Range, and other ranges in southeastern 
British Columbia, higher mountains of northern Idaho and 
northwestern Montana; south to Mullan and Orofino, 
Idaho." (Howell) 

Olympic Flying Squirrel.^ — Glaucomys sabrinus olympicus 
(Elliot). 
Darkest of American Flying Squirrels; most like oregonensis 
but with less rufous and much fuscous or fuscous black 
about eyes, ears, flying membranes, feet, and tail above. 
Total length, 13.1-13.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.4-6.6 inches; 

265 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



hind foot, 1,4-1.6 inches. Found in " Olympic Peninsula, 
Washington, and south along the coast to southern Oregon; 
occurring in some localities with oregonensis." (Howell) 
Sawtooth Mountains Flying Squirrel. — Glaucomys sahrinus 
bullatus (Howell). 
Largest of American Flying Squirrels. Total length, 13. i- 
14.2 inches; tail vertebras, 5.4-6 inches; hind foot, 1.6-1.8 




Fig. 58. Distribution of Glaucomys sabrimis bullatus, after 
A. H. Howell 



inches. Upperparts from pinkish cinnamon to cinnamon- 
buff; paler on face; sides of head and neck pale smoke-gray; 
tail above, like back but mixed with fuscous and tipped 
with dark gray; below, a lighter shade of cinnamon; under-j 
parts creamy white washed with light pinkish cinnamonj 
Found in "Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, north to Cran- 
brook, British Columbia, and west to the Blue Mountains 
Oregon . " ( Ho well ) 

266 



FLYING SQUIRREL 



Klamath Flying SquiTreL—Glaucomys sabrinus klamathensis 
(Merriam). 
Grayer on upperparts than fuliginosus and closely resem- 
bling that form. Total length, 12-13. 5 inches; tail verte- 
bra, 5.4-6.2 mches; hind foot, 1.6-1.7 inches. Found in 
Central Oregon, chiefly east of the Cascades; northern 
and eastern limits miknown." (Howell) 
Yellow-bellied Flying S(iniire\.—Glaucomys sabrinus flaviven- 
tns Howell. 
Resembling but smaller than klamathensis, more yellow on 
feet and underparts, which are whitish washed with pale 
greenish yellow merging into wood-brown along sides 
Total length, 11. 5-12. 8 inches; tail vertebra, 5-5.8 inches- 
hmd foot, 1.6-1.7 inches. Found in "Northern California' 
from the Trinity Mountains in Siskiyou and Trinity Coun- 
ties east to the Warner Mountains, Modoc County " 
^ (Howell) ■^' 

Sierra Flying So^niireL—Glaucomys sabrinus lascivus (Bangs) 
Like flainventns but without yellow suffusion on underparts' 
Smaller m size. Underparts grayish white with faint wash 
of light pinkish cinnamon. Total length, 11. 8-12. 8 inches- 
tail vertebrae, 5-6 inches; hind foot, 1.6-1.7 inches. Found 
m "Sierra Nevada Range and northward to eastern Shasta 
County, Cahforma." (Howell) 
San Bernardino Flying S(\mTre\.~Glaucomys sabrinus cali- 
fornicus (Rhoads). 
Paler and grayer above than lascivus, with grayish wash on 
front of face; upperparts light drab to yellowish wood-brown- 
underparts soiled whitish with wash of buffy. Total length' 
11.2-12.5 inches; tail vertebras, 5.1-6 inches; hind foot i 5- 
1.6 inches. Found in "San Bernardino and San Jacinto 
Mountains, California." (Howell) 
California Coast Flying SqmnQL—Glaucomys sabrinus stephensi 
(Merriam). 
Resembling lascivus but redder above, although not so much 
so as m oregonensis. Above, wood-brown ; below whitish 
with irregular wash of light pinkish cinnamon. Total 
length, 12-12. 5 inches; tail vertebras, 5.3-6 inches; hind 
toot I.5.-I-6 inches. Found in "Coast region of northern 
Cahforma; limits of range unknown." (Howell) 

******* 
Flying Squirrels are found widely distributed throughout 
the Northern Hemisphere. In North America they are found 
:n greatest abundance in the forests of the colder zones and do 
not occur south of Texas. The greatest amount of diversi- 
^cation in the American species is shown by the Flying 
Squirrels of western North America where quite a number of 
subspecies are found. 
The Flying Squirrel is the only American Squirrel which 
267 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



sleeps during the day and moves about only at night. Except 
when disturbed, or under exceptional circumstances, this 
Squirrel is strictly nocturnal and for this reason is seldom 
seen by the average observer. It has large eyes and probably 
finds the bright light of day distasteful. Its favorite retreat 
during the day is a hollow tree, and if such an occupied tree is 
located the Squirrels may sometimes be driven out by rapping 
against the trunk. Much remains to be learned of the life- 
history of this beautiful and attractive mammal. Generally 
the only specimens a naturalist sees are those he takes in traps 
set overnight, although the Squirrels may be fairly common in 
the region. 

Flying Squirrels are doubtless the most strictly arboreal of 
our Squirrels. The peculiar specialization for gliding is 
evidence of an almost exclusive arboreal existence and these 
animals are not encountered away from forests. The mode of 
aerial progression can not be truly called flight, but is rather 
gliding. The Squirrel throws itself out and down, and with 
spread lateral membranes converts its falling into a long 
gliding swoop which may turn up a short distance at the close 
of the "flight." Except for some slight variation of the angle 
of fall, the Squirrel has little control of its course once it is in 
the air. The broad, flat tail probably functions as a depress- 
ing or elevating mechanism to steepen or flatten the fall, to a 
certain degree. 

Flying Squirrels have a more or less omnivorous appetite 
and, besides the nuts and vegetable food enjoyed by Squirrels 
in general, are frequently attracted by the meat-baits of the fur 
trappers, often proving a great nuisance in this respect. 

These animals make their nest in natural cavities in tree 
trunks and in old Woodpecker holes. The Squirrels are 
active throughout the winter and do not hibernate; cold 
apparently has no terror for the Flying Squirrel, for one sub- 
species ranges across the Arctic Circle. 

The number of young in a Flying Squirrel litter is three 
to six, and I have seen no records of more than one family 
of young a year. 

Flying Squirrels make beautiful pets, with their soft fur 
and attractive appearance, and are gentle in behavior, but 
even as caged animals are not easy of observation because 
they become active only in the dark. 

268 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



Family Geomyidae. Pocket Gophers 

Fossorial rodents with large, strong claws on forefeet; small 
eyes and ears; external, fur-lined cheek-pouches; broad head; 
thickset body; legs short and stout; scantily haired tail, tip 
suppHed with tactile nerves. 

Subfamily Geomyinae 
Genus Thomomys' 

Dentition: Incisors, i; Canines J] ; Premolars, i; IMolars, f = 20. 

Western Pocket Gopher.— Thomomys bottse 

and related forms 

General Description.— A good-sized rodent, robust in form- 

mcisors strong and broad, very faintly grooved longitudinally 

on mner edge of anterior face; head broad; neck short- legs 




Fig. 59. Pocket Gopher 

short; tail rather short, thick, sparsely haired; claws of forefeet 
long and well developed for digging; claws of hind feet much 
less specialized; a pair of capacious, fur-lined cheek-pouches 
opening on sides of face; eyes and ears small; pelage rather 
hne and soft; habit fossorial, seldom seen above surface of the 
ground and often known to be present only through the piles 
oi earth thrown out by its excavations. Plate XXVI. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike. Summer pelage slightly 
brighter than that of winter. 

^ For a very full and complete revision of this genus see Vernon 
Bailey, North American Fauna No. 39, 1915. 

269 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts (winter). — Dark ochraceous, heavily sprinkled 
with black-tipped hairs; pelage slate-colored at base; small 
blackish patches about nose, cheek, and ear; white about 
lips, on lining of cheek-pouches, and on feet; tail dusky to 
brownish gray above and below. 

Underparts. — Usually somewhat lighter than upperparts, 
washed with dull ochraceous, the dark-colored basal pelage 
showing through. 

Measurements. — Males noticeably larger than females. 
Total length, males, 10.5 inches, females, 9; tail vertebrae, 
males, 3.2 inches, females, 2.8; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, 
females, i.i inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Western North America from 
about 54° southward into Mexico. 

Food. — Strictly vegetable, including a wide variety of roots 
and underground growths, such as bulbs, tubers, etc., as well 
as surface foliage and green vegetation, occasionally bark; 
destructive to crops such as potatoes, garden vegetables, 
alfalfa, clover, grain, and in orchards to the roots of fruit 
trees, especially apple, pear, and fig trees. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Coyotes, Foxes, 
Badgers and Bobcats. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Thomomys 

Subgenus Thomomys 

Bottae Group 

Characterized by coloration mainly dark or light 
ochraceous; mammae in four pairs (inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 
2-2). 

California Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hottcE hottcB (Eydoux 
and Gervais). Plate XXVI. 
As described above. Found in "Coast region of California 
from Sonoma County (Freestone) south to San Diego." 
(Bailey). 

Humboldt Bay Pocket Gopher. — Tkojno?nys bott<x laticeps 
(Baird). 
Resembling typical hottcB, but color brighter and with less 
black. Upperparts clear rusty ochraceous with few black- 
tipped hairs; underparts light buffy ochraceous. Total 
length, males, 10.5 inches, females, 9; tail vertebras, males, 
3.5 inches, females, 3.1 ; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, 

270 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 

1.2. Found in "Coast region of northwestern California, 
from Smith River south to Eel River." (Bailev) 
White-toothed Pocket Gopher.- r/zomomj;^ bottce leucodon 
(Mernam). 

Similar to typical bottcB, but lighter and brighter in color 
and smaller; mcisors white or tipped with white. Upoer- 
parts (winter) dark rusty ochraceous, uniform over entire 
upperparts; white on feet and often on cheek; underparts 
light buffy ochraceous, sometimes with white spots on 

Tnt^M^'^'fi. "'T^'" P?^^^V upperparts, dark cinnamon, 
total length, males, 9.8 inches; females, 7.^; tail vertebra 
males, 2.8 mches, females 2.4; hind foot, males, 13 inched' 
ITa \l-^- /°^A^ ^^ "Portions of northern California 
F^tfu S'^r Oregon, from Grants Pass, Ore., south to 
1^ airfield and Placerville, Cal." (Bailey) 
Red Pocket Gopher.— Thomomys hotta navus (Merriam) 
Smaller than typical hottcE, lighter in color. Upperparts in 
winter, light rusty ochraceous; underparts pale buffy ' to 
ochraceous Brighter and more fulvous in summer pelage. 
Total length, males, 8.1 mches; females, 7.6; tail vertebra 
males, 2.^ mches^ females, 2.5; hind foot, males, i.i inches' 

i'^^tVr^lt ^^'''''^ '^ "Sacramento Valley,' Cal., from 
Battle Creek, Tehama County, south to Tracy Lake, San 
Joaqum Valley." (Bailey) 
Digger Pine Pocket Gopher.— r/^owowj.y hottcE mewa (Merriam ) 
Size smaller than typical hottcB and color different. UpDer- 
parts (winter) dull ochraceous tawny with many glossy 
black-tipped hairs; underparts bright ochraceous; tail 

nS.^r! 7^^ u^'^l^K^'^'F^^'. Upperparts, in summer, richer 
ochraceous blackish about forehead, nose, and ears. Total 
length males, 9 mches, females, 7.8; tail vertebra, males 
2.4 inches, females 2.1; hmd foot, males, i.i inches, females 
i.o. Found m Foothill country on east side of San 
ISy) ^ ^^' ' ^'""^ Kemville north to Chinese " 

Mendocino Pocket Gopher, —Thomomys bottce minor Bailey 
Smaller and darker than typical bottcE; but little brighter in 
summer than m winter. Upperparts (winter) dark ochra- 
ceous to cmnamon-brown, with much black, especially about 
nose face, and ears; underparts ochraceous buff. Total 
length, males 8.8 inches, females, 7.5; tail vertebra, males 
2.9 inches females, 2.4; hind foot, males, 1.16 inches' 

rZ P^nfM^^'S- -^^^^^ i^ "^°^^^ ^^gi°^^f California; 
VI?, 1?^?^ Mendocino south to Cazadero." (Bailev) 
)iablo Pocket Gopher.— r/^omom3/^ hottce diaboli (Grinnell) 
Size of navus, brighter in color than typical bottce. Upper- 
parts (summer) bright cinnamon-brown only slightlv 
darkened with black-tipped hairs; underparts clear oSrE 
ceous tawny Wmter pelage darker. Total length, males 

feLaks .'/'T^"f'/-?= '^\ "^^^^^^^' "^^1^^' l6'inche ; 
temales, 2.3; hmd foot, males, 1.2 inches, females, i.i. 



271 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Found on "Inner ridge of the Coast Ranges along west side 
of the San Joaquin Valley, Cal." (Bailey) 
Los Bancs Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hottcs angulans (Mer- 
riam). 
Size of, but brighter than, typical hottce. Upperparts (sum- 
mer) bright ochraceous buff, with only few black-tipped 
hairs; black or dusky about nose, cheeks, and ears. Winter 
pelage with more black-tipped hairs. Total length, males, . 
10.3 inches, females, 8.2; tail vertebrae, males, 2.3 inches, I 
females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, i.i. 
Found on "West side of San Joaqum Valley, Cal., from 
Tracy south to Santiago Spring; also Santa Clara, San Juan, 
and Salinas Valleys." (Bailey) , 

Fresno Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hotta pascalis (Memam). 
Resembling typical hottcB in size. Upperparts (winter) dull 
ochraceous, not much black on nose, face, and ear patch ; 
underparts pale ochraceous, often irregularly spotted with 
white along legs, throat, and abdomen. Summer pelage 
brighter and more fulvous. Total length, males, 8.8 
inches, females, 7.8 inches; tail vertebrae, males 2.9 inches, 
females, 2.5; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, i.i. 
Found along "East side of San Joaquin Valley, Cal., from 
Stockton south to San Emigdio Canyon and Cuyama 
Valley." (Bailey) „ -m. j 

Grapeland Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hottcB pallescens Rhoads. 
Nearly same size as typical bottcE, but paler in color. Upper- 
parts (winter) dull ochraceous, with many black-tipped 
hairs- underparts pale buffy to nearly whitish. Summer 
pelage with less black. Total length, males, 10.7 inches, 
females, 8.3; tail vertebras, males, 3.4 inches, females,^ 2.6; 
hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, i.i. Found m "San 
Bernardino Valley, Cal. , north to San Fernando. ' ' (Bailey) 

Carrizo Plain Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys bottce infrapallidus 

(Grinnell). . . ,. 1 • 1 tt 

ResembHng typical hottcB m size, but paler m color. Upper- 
parts (summer) dull ochraceous buff; underparts pale buffy 
to whitish. Total length, males, 9.9 inches, females, 8.2; 
tail vertebrse, males, 3 inches, females, 2.8; hmd foot, males, 
1.36 inches, females, 1.16. Found on the Carrizo Plain, 
California. . . /-ni j n 

Stephens Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys botta nigncans (Rhoadsj. 
Much like typical botta except for smaller size. Upperparts 
(winter) dark ochraceous tawny, heavily sprinkled with 
black-tipped hairs; underparts rich ochraceous, but with 
dark color of underfur showing through. Summer pelage 
lighter and with more tawny than winter. Total length, 
males 9.3 inches, females, 8; tail vertebras, males, 3.1 
inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.2 inches, females, 
I I Found in "Southwestern California and northern 
Lower California, from the San Jacinto Mountains, Cal, 
south to Ubar, Lower California." (Bailey) 
272 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



La Puerta Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys bottce puertce (Grinnell). 
Resembling nigricans except for paler color. Upperparts 
(summer) pale ochraceous tawny, somewhat darker along 
dorsal region; underparts pale cinnamon. Winter pelage 
darker and grayer. Total length, males, 8.1 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hind foot, i.i inches. Found in "La 
Puerta and San Fehpe Valleys, Cal." (Bailey) 

San Bernardino Mountain Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys altival- 
lis Rhoads. 
A large mountain form of the hottcE group. Upperparts dull 
ochraceous, with less black than in typical bottce, but darker 
dorsal area faintly indicated; blackish on nose, cheeks, and 
about ear; underparts soiled whitish to buffy. Summer 
pelage a brighter ochraceous than winter. Total length, 
males, 10.8 inches, females, 9; tail vertebra, males, 3.1 
inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.4 inches, females, 
1.2. Found in "San Bernardino Mountains, Cal." (Bailey) 

Alpinus Group 

Characterized by dark coloration; mamm^ in four pairs 
(inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

Mt. Whitney Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys alpinus alpinus 
Merriam. 
Ears large and conspicuous (for a Pocket Gopher); sexes 
about same size. Upperparts dull dark ochraceous, black- 
ish along median dorsal region and on nose; feet whitish; 
tail whitish for last two-thirds of its length; underparts 
paler than upperparts, throat white. Winter pelage with 
more yellow and less ochraceous. Total length, males and 
females, 8.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.2 
inches. Found in "Southern part of the Sierra Nevada, 
Cal., at altitudes between 6,000 and 11,000 feet, frorn 
Mount Whitney south to Siretta Meadows." (Bailey) 

Yosemite Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys alpinus awahnee Mer- 
riam. 
Smaller than typical alpinus. Upperparts (summer) dull 
dark ochraceous ; underparts pale buffy to ochraceous, often 
with irregular white spots and marks of white on abdomen. 
Winter pelage darker, ochraceous tinged with dusky. Total 
length, males, 8.8 inches, females, 7.8; tail vertebra, males, 
3.0 inches, females, 2.2; hind foot, males, i.i inches, females, 
1.04. Found along "Western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, 
Cal., from Sequoia, Tuolumne County, south to Tehachapi 
Peak." (Bailey) 

San Gabriel Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys neglectus Bailey. 
Resembling altivallis in external appearance but differen- 
tiated by cranial characters. Upperparts (summer) dull 
ochraceous, heavily sprinkled with black-tipped hairs to 
give general impression of dark gray; underparts dull buffy. 

273 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Winter pelage unknown. Total length, males, 9.2 inches, 
females, 8.2; tail vertebras, males, 3.1 inches, females, 2.6; 
hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, 1.2. Has been found 
only on "San Antonio Peak (Bear Flat Meadows at 6,400 
feet altitude) in the San Gabriel Mountains, California." 
(Bailey) 
San Jacinto Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys jacinteus Grinnell 
and Swarth, 
Superficially resembling nigricans, but more closely related 
to 7ieglectus. Upperparts (summer) rich ochraceous, dark 
in tone, sprinkled with black-tipped hairs which are thickest 
along dorsal region ; underparts ochraceous, brighter in tone 
than upperparts. Winter pelage with more black on upper- 
parts. Total length, males, 9.5 inches, females, 9.3; tail 
vertebra, males, 3.2 inches, females, 3.04; hind foot, males, 
1.28 inches, females, 1.16. Found on "Upper slopes of San 
Jacinto Mountains, Cal." (Bailey) 

Perpallidus Group 
Characterized by buffy or yellowish coloration (except 
apache) and by mamma in four pairs (inguinal, 2-2 ; pectoral, 

2—2). 

Palm Springs Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys perpallidus perpal- 
lidus (Merriam). 
Color very pale; ears small ; tail long. Upperparts (summer) 
buffy to cream color; dusky about ear, grayish brown on 
nose and cheeks; feet and tail whitish; underparts whitish. 
Winter pelage even paler than summer. Total length, 
males, 9.6 inches, females, 8.6; tail vertebrse, males, 3.4 
inches, females, 3.1; hind foot, males, 1.26 inches, females, 
1.20. Found in "Colorado Desert, southern California, 
from Whitewater south to Salton Sea." (Bailey) 

White Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys perpallidus albatus (Grin- 
nell). _ 
Larger in size, paler in color than typical perpallidus. Up- 
perparts pale buff to cream color; grayish brown on nose 
and about ears; feet and tail with sparse, short, white hairs, 
nearly naked; underparts creamy to white, with dark color 
of underfur absent or much reduced. Winter pelage like 
summer but with more extensive dark underfur on abdo- 
men. Total length, males, 10.9 inches, females, 9.2; tail 
vertebrae, males, 4.0 inches, females, 3.2; hind foot, males, 
1.4 inches, females, 1.36. Found in "Southeastern Cali- 
fornia and northeastern Lower California from Carrizo 
Creek south to Gardner's Lagoon, Salton River." (Bailey) 

Yellow-backed Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys perpallidus chry- 
sonotus Grinnell. 
Smaller than typical perpallidus; ears very small; pelage as 
in perpallidus. Upperparts (summer) pale buff to buff; 

274 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



fnfrl'.'io'^T^'Pf^'^' nose brown; underparts whitish, under- 

Toti^l.? r^' i"'- « ^-^'r P?^^^ ^'^y^' than summer, 
lotal length males, 8.7 mches, females, 8.1; tail vertebra 
males, 2.9 mches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.20 inched 
females, i .08. Found in ' 'Southwestern Arizona and north: 
Cofrrdo^r'"' ^'T Eh^^-berg south to near mouth of 
Colorado River, and east to Quitobaquito." (Bailev) 

Much darker above than typical perpallidm and with 
shorter tail. Upperparts bright cinnamon-buff. Ligh er 
than ^.r^.. and with more of a cinnamon tinge on dorsal 
area, also slightly larger. Total length, males 9.2 inches 
females, 8.5 inches; tail vertebra., males 3 mches, females 
2.6 inches; hmd foot, males, 1.2 inches, females, i. 6^2' 
Found along the bottom-lands of the Mohav^ River San 
of thf m\° ^^''t^'^' CaHforma, and along the southerA rfm 
of the Mohave Desert to Los Angeles County 

(Merriam) Gopher.-rAomo...j. perpalUdus perpes 

Resembling typical perpallidus but tail shorter, ears larger 
and color brighter Upperparts (summer) bright buffy 
ochraceous; dusky about ear, grayish brown on nose; under- 
parts creamy white to buify, often pure white on throat 

Tnff\ P'll^' ^^[^'"^ ^^^ ^^"^^ than summer, grayish buff 
Total length, males, 8.6 inches, females, 8.4; tail vertebS' 
males, 2.6 mches females, 2.6; hind foot males, 1.14 mcheT 
females, i 14. Found m "Upper Sonoran d;sert\-alleys 
and mountain slopes of eastern California, from near head 
Tntn 7^' Yfll^y/£"th to Hesperia and Morongo Valley 
into the valley of Kern River, and east to the Providence 
^aileyT""'' ' ^^^ Grapevine Mountains, Nev/' 

^""^Grinne^r^^* Gopher.- r/;.m.m3^. perpallidus amargoscE 

Txi^n.rA^^l" ^^7"^ ^^"^ P''P''^ ^^^ser and with more 
extensive dark patch about ear. Size large for the grouo- 

STn'tlf'^'^^ ^"^^ P^-"^i?^ ^"^ t^^i^. with yeZv! 
total length males, 10 mches, females, 8.7 inches- tail 
vertebrae, males, 3.1 inches, females, 2.7 inches; hind foo 
males, 1.3 mches, females, 1.2 inches. Found about per- 
manent springs m the Valley of the Amargosa ''River'' 
wtl?;!Lrz?nT^ ^^^^^^' ^^^° County, l:alifornia;^in 
Gray Pocket Govher. —Thomomys perpallidus canus (Bailey) 
wfpr f^^ '""i^^^S"' l^^g^^^.than typical perpallidus, wkh 
larger ears and shorter tail. Upperparts (summer pale 
buffy gray nose brownish, ear patch dusky; underparts 
whitish. Winter pelage darker. Total length, rSales 9 7 

emaTes 2T^hind't l^^ T'^'"'^- ^^'''' 2.6inch'el 
lemales, 2.6, hmd foot, majes, 1.3 mches, females, 1.2. 



275 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Found in "Valleys of western and central Nevada, from 
Flowing Springs, western Humboldt County, south to 
Cloverdale and Monitor Valley, west to Honey Lake, Cal." 
(Bailey) 

Yellow Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys perpallidus aureus (Allen). 
Color golden buff, ear small. Upperparts (winter) bright 
orange-buff, variable in shade, sometimes with dusky wash 
along dorsal region; dusky to blackish on nose and about 
ear; feet and tail creamy white; underparts creamy white. 
Summer pelage like winter but a trifle darker. Total, 
length, males, 9.6 inches, females, 8.9; tail vertebrae, males, 
2.9 inches, females, 3.1; hind foot, males, 1.24 inches, 
females, 1.20. Found in "Desert region of southern Nevada 
southern Utah, western Colorado, central and northwestern 
New Mexico, and northern and western Arizona." (Bailey) 

Jicarilla Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys perpallidus apache 
(Bailey). 
Dark in color, large in size (for this group). Upperparts dull 
sooty gray, with light wash of dull ochraceous, a dark dorsal 
band of blackish faintly indicated ; tail brownish to blackish 
for dorsal half or three-quarters, rest white in marked con- 
trast ; feet white ; underparts uniform with upper, except for 
white on lips and less often on chin. Total length, males and 
females, 9.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 1.33 
inches. Found in "Transition Zone in northeastern 
Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern 
Colorado." (Bailey) 

White Mountains Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys melanotis 
Grinnell. 
Color very pale and similar to that of typical perpallidus , 
but with more dusky nose and mouth and with more 
extensive, slaty black ear patch; ear extremely small, 
densely clothed with fine black hairs; general size medium. 
Total length, males, 9.5 inches, females, 8.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, males, 3.1 inches, females, 2.7 inches; hind foot, 
males, 1.2 inches, females, i.i inches. Found at high eleva- 
tions (10,000-10,500 feet) in the White Mountains, Mono 
County, California. 

Cabezon Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys cahezonce Merriam. 
Resembling perpes in color but with larger ears. Upperparts 
(summer) from buffy ochraceous to dull brownish dusky to 
blackish on nose, lips, and about ears; underparts varying 
from creamy white to buffy or salmon. Total length, males, 
8.8 inches, females, 8.3; tail vertebrae, males, 3.2 inches, 
females, 2.8; hind foot males, 1.20 inches, females, 1.14. 
Found from "San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, 
south to Cabezon." (Bailey) 

Owens Lake Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys operarius Merriam. 
ResembHng aureus in color but differentiated by short, 
heavy rostrum and other skull characters. Upperparts pale 
ochraceous to rich buff; gr^y to dark gray about ear; feet 



276 






WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



and tail creamy white; underparts creamy white Total 
length, males, 9 mches, females, 8.7; tail vertebra, males 2 8 
mches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.22 inches, females 
y6 Found only on east side of Owens Lake, Cahfornia 
(Keeler, 3,600 feet altitude). 
Painted Desert Pocket Gopher.— Thomomys latirostris Mer- 

Somewhat resembling aureus in cranial characters but 
rather unique m most of its characters. Upperparts (sum- 
mer) varying from pale buff orange to bright buffy yellow 
and lacking black-tipped hairs; dusky about ears grayish 
brown on nose; feet and tail white; underparts white 
occasionally tinged with sulphur-yellow on abdomen Total 
length, males 9.3 inches; tail vertebra, 3.2 inches; hind foot 
1.3 inches A rare species known only from the Painted 
JJesert of Arizona. 
Phoenix Pocket Gopher or Fawn-colored Pocket Gopher — 
1 homomys cervinus Allen. 
Large in size, pale fawn in color. Upperparts (summer) 
pa e fawn; conspicuous blackish patch about ear; brownish 
to blackish on nose and cheeks; feet and tail fawn, paler than 
upperparts; underparts a paler shade of fawn than upper- 
parts Total length, males, 10. i inches, females, 9.8 tail 
yertebr^, males, 34 inches, females, 3.1 ; hind foot, males, 
Anzona ' ^'^^' "^^"^^ ^^ ^^^ "PP^r Gila Valley, 

Fulvous Group 
Characterized by tawny color; mammae in four pairs 
(inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

^^Ivo^s Pocket Gopher.— r/^omomy^ fulvus fulvus (Wood- 
Medium in size, tawny to chestnut in color; ears medium 
Upperparts (summer) dark tawny to light chestnut, often 
darker along dorsal region which may be dusky to blackish- 
dusky to blackish on nose, cheeks, and about ears- feet 

V.^lff'^i^A /^ ^^""^f' ^''^^'''^ ^^1°^; underparts a 
lighter shade of same color as upperparts,' chin usually 
whitish Winter pelage duller and darker. Total length 
males, 8.8 inches, females, 8.2; tail vertebra, males 3 o 
inches, females, 26; hmd/oot, males, 1.20 inches, females 
1. 16. l^ound m Transition Zone in northern and centra 
Arizona from the Trumbull Mountains to the White Moun 
tarns, east m New Mexico to Sierra Grande, and the White 
and Guadalupe Mountains; north to Fisher Peak, south- 
eastern Colorado." (Bailey) 

Espanola Pocket Govhei. —Thomomys fulvus pervagus (Mer- 
nam j. 

Larger in size and lighter in color than typical fulvus. Up- 
perparts (summer) uniform bright tawny, blackish on nose, 
277 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



cheek, and about ears; underparts pale tawny. Winter 
pelage like summer but slightly duller. Total length, males, 
9.6 inches, females, 9.0; tail vertebrae, males, 3.0 inches, 
females, 2.7; hind foot, males, 1.30 inches, females, 1.25. 
Found in "Upper Rio Grande and San Luis Valleys in 
northern New Mexico and southern Colorado." (Bailey) 

Desert Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fulvus desertorum (Mer- 
riam). 
Somewhat resembling typical fulvus but noticeably smaller 
and brighter colored ; sexes about equal in size. Upperparts 
(summer) bright orange- tawny to orange-cinnamon; dusky 
on nose, cheeks, and about ears; feet and tail dirty white to 
buffy; underparts creamy white or with light cinnamon 
wash. Winter pelage with more yellow, duller in tone. 
Total length, males and females, 7.8 inches; tail vertebree, 
2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.04 inches. Found in "Detrital and 
Big Sandy Valleys, northwestern Arizona; east in the Grand 
Canyon to Prospect Valley." (Bailey) 

Mountain-top Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fulvus intermedius 
M earns. 
Resembling typical fulvus but smaller and with well-defined 
black dorsal band. Upperparts (summer) dark tawny with 
darker dorsal region, brownish black to black, occasionally 
forming a conspicuous black band from nose to tail; feet 
dirty white; tail brown, tipped with whitish; underparts 
pale tawny. Total length, males and females, 8.0 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.5 inches ; hind foot, i .0 inches. Found along 
"Upper slopes of mountains in southeastern Arizona and 
extreme southwestern New Mexico." (Bailey) 

Davis Mountain Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fulvus texensis 
Bailey. 
Smaller than typical fulvus, lighter in color. Upperparts 
(summer) tawny gray; blackish on nose, cheeks, and about 
ear, gray on feet and lips; underparts tawny, brighter than 
upperparts. Winter pelage darker and less bright than sum- 
mer. Found only in the Davis Mountains, Texas (5,500 
feet altitude). 

Toltec Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fulvus toltecus (Allen), 
Resembling typical fulvus in size but paler and grayer. 
Upperparts (summer) dull ochraceous tawny, brownish on 
nose, blackish about ear ; feet whitish ; tail buffy gray ; under- 
parts like upperparts but lighter in shade. Winter pelage 
grayer on upperparts and with dusky along dorsal region. 
Total length, males, 8.8 inches, females, 8.2; tail vertebrae, 
males, 2.9 inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.26 inches, 
females, 1.16. Found in "Lower Sonoran valleys and 
deserts of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, 
and adjacent parts of Chihuahua and Sonora, south to 
Colonia Juarez, Chihuahua." (Bailey) 

Meams Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys mearnsi Bailey, 

Smaller than typical /w/i;w5 and less dusky in color. Upper- 

278 



WESTERN POCKET GOPEER 



parts (summer) dull cmnamon to light tawny, blackish on 
nose and about ear; feet whitish; tail buffy gray; underparts 
pale cmnamon. Wmter pelage with more gray Total 
length, males 8.8 inches, females, 8.0; tail verteb/s, males 
2.7 inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.24 inches' 
females, i 16. Found only in the Animas Valley, south- 
west New Mexico. 

Sierra Blanca Pocket Oo^her. —Thomomys haileyi Merriam 
Upperparts (winter pelage only is known) dull ochraceous 
tawny to buffy fulvous, dusky on nose and about ear- feet 
dirty whitish; tail buffy; underparts creamy white to' pale 
salmon. Total length, males, 8.6 inches, females 8 S' tail 
vertebrae males, 2.6 inches, females, 2.8; hind foit males 
1.24 inches, females, 1.16. Found in "Sierra Blanca' 
western Texas, north to Tularosa, N. Mex." (Bailey) 

Lachuguilla Pocket Qo^her. —Thomomys lachugmUa (Bailey) 
bmall m size, resembling aureus in superficial appearance* 
but paler. Upperparts dull ochraceous tawny to grayish 
buff, dusky on nose and about ear; feet whitish; underparts 
pale cinnamon to dirty white. Total length, males 8 6 
inches, females, 8.1 ; tail vertebras, males, 2.6 inches fem'ales 
2.4; hmd foot, males, 1.16 inches, females, 1.04. iPound in 
And Lower Sonoran mesas in extreme western Texas and 
southern New Mexico, south to Casas Grandes, Chihua- 
hua. (Bailey) 

Umbrinus Group 

Little Gray Pocket Oovher. —Thomomys perditus Merriam 
bmall m size; buffy gray to pale tawny in color. Upperparts 
dark buffy gray to pale dull tawny; sides brighter than 
back; dusky on nose, lips, and about ears; feet buffy to 
creamy white; underparts like feet. Total length males 7 7 
inches, females, 7.2; tail vertebra, males, 2.3 inches, females 
2.2; hmd foot, males, 1.06 inches, females, .98. Found iii 
-bastem Coahuila and western Nuevo Leon, north to Rock 
Springs and Castle Mountains, western Texas." (Bailey) 

Talpoides Group 

Characterized by mammas in six pairs or more (inguinal, 
2-2; abdominal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

Saskatchewan Pocket Oov^er. —Thomomys talpoides talpoides 
(Richardson). 
"Size medium; ears prominent and pointed; claws slender- 
color dull and dark gray." (Bailey) Upperparts (summer)' 
dull grayish brown; darker, almost black, on nose and about 
ear; feet whitish; tail whitish, often only white-tipped- 
underparts varying from buffy to dirty whitish gray pure 
white on chm and sometimes on throat and breast. Winter 
279 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



pelage much like summer. Total length, males and females, 
8.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; hind foot, 1.15 inches. 
Found on "Plains of Saskatchewan and Alberta; south in 
Montana to Great Falls and the Big Snowy Mountains." 
(Bailey) 

Prairie Pocket Gopher or Dakota Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys 
talpoides rufescens (Wied). 
Larger and darker than typical talpoides. Upperparts 
(summer) dull brownish gray ; black about ear and on ear ; 
underparts buffy gray, whitish to pure white from chin to 
breast. Winter pelage grayer than summer. Total length, 
males and females, 9.2 inches; tail vertebras, 2.8 inches; 
hind foot, 1,24 inches. Found in "Greater part of North 
Dakota, eastern South Dakota, and southwestern Mani- 
toba." (Bailey) 

Coues Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys talpoides clusius (Coues). 
Smaller than typical talpoides, claws more slender; more 
rufescent in color. Upperparts (summer) light buffy vary- 
ing to hazel, washed with gray; crown brighter than sides; 
gray on cheeks, blackish about ears; underparts whitish to 
buffy, with occasionally white on chin. Winter pelage dull 
hazel washed with grayish or buffy brown. Total length, 
males and females, S.2 inches; tail vertebras, 2.5 inches; 
hind foot, i.i inches. Found in "Central and southeastern 
Wyoming (north to Parkman, Sheridan County), and 
eastern Colorado south to Colorado Springs." (Bailey) 

Sagebrush Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys talpoides bullatus 
Bailey. 
Brighter in color than typical talpoides but like it in size. 
Upperparts like clusius but less gray on cheeks; underparts 
buffy. Winter pelage paler above than summer, light buffy 
gray, underparts creamy white. Total length, males, 9.6 
inches, females, 9.0; tail vertebrae, males, 3.0 inches, females, 
3.1; hind foot, males, 1.20 inches, females, 1.16. Found in 
"Plains of eastern Montana, northeastern Wyoming, and 
western South Dakota; north to Medicine Hat, Alberta." 
(Bailey) 

Black Hills Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys talpoides nebulosus 
Bailey. 
Resembling typical talpoides in size but pelage with more 
brownish gray. Upperparts (summer) dull brownish gray; 
darker on nose and about ear, dusky or blackish ; feet gray- 
ish to buffy; tail like feet; underparts buffy with more or 
less white on chin and breast. Winter pelage dark buffy 
gray above, light buffy below. Total length, males and 
females, 9.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.6 inches; hind foot, 1.26 
inches. Found in "Black Hills, S. Dak., and Bear Lodge 
Mountains, Wyoming." (Bailey) 

Bighorn Pocket Gopher.^ — Thomomys talpoides caryi Bailey. 
Resembling clusius, slightly smaller, more rufescent, less 
gray. Upperparts (summer) warm grayish brown; nose 

280 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



and about ear darker, slate-colored to black; underparts 
warm buff, chin and sometimes breast white. Winter 
pelage dark buffy gray above, creamy below. Total length, 
males and females, 8.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.3 inches; 
hind foot, i.i inches. Found in "Canadian Zone on Big- 
horn Mountains, Wyoming." (Bailey) 

Pryor Mountain Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys talpoides pryori 
(Bailey). 
Similar to cliisiiis in size but darker in color. Upperparts 
(summer) dull walnut-brown; nose slate-colored; black 
about ears; dark gray on cheeks; dirty whitish to buffy on 
feet and tail. Underparts dark buff, lacking white on chin, 
throat, and breast. Winter pelage grayer. Total length, 
males, 8.2 inches, females, 8.0; tail vertebrae, males, 2.4 
inches, females, i.i; hind foot, males, 1.16 inches, females, 
1. 14. Found in "Pryor Mountains, Mont., east to the Big- 
horn River near Fort Custer." (Bailey) 

San Luis Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys talpoides agrcstis Mer- 
riam. 
Larger and paler than clusiiis. Upperparts (summer) buffy 
to brownish gray, brightest along dorsal area ; blackish about 
ear, grayish on nose, feet, and tail; underparts buffy, 
occasionally with white spot on chin. Winter pelage lighter 
and grayer. Total length, males and females, 8.8 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2.3 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found in 
"San Luis Valley, Colo." (Bailey) 

Columbia Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys columhianus (Bailey). 
Smaller and paler than typical talpoides. Upperparts (sum- 
mer) brownish gray to buffy gray ; black on ear and behind 
ear; nose slate-colored; feet and tail grayish or whitish; 
underparts pale buffy gray. Winter pelage grayer, but 
very similar to summer. Total length, males and females, 
8.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.3 inches; hind foot, i.i inches. 
Found on "Plains of southeastern Washington and northern 
Oregon." (BailejO 

Green River Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys ociiis (Merriam). 
Small in size, pale in color. Upperparts (summer) light 
buffy gray, with more buffy or brown from crown along 
back; sides grayer, like cheeks, but lighter in shade; small 
blackish patch about ear, dirty whitish on feet and tail; 
underparts creamy to dirty whitish. Winter pelage lighter 
above than summer. Total length, males, 8.2 inches, 
females, 7.8; tail vertebras, males, 2.4 inches, females, 2.3; 
hind foot, males, 1.04 inches, females, i.oo. Found in 
"Green River Basin of southwestern Wyoming, north- 
western Colorado, and northeastern Utah." (Bailey) 

Idaho Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys idahoetisis Merriam. 
"Size very small; color pale yellowish gray; ears small." 
(Bailey) Upperparts (summer) pale buffy gray, dull in 
tone; yellowish on nose, very little dark color about ear; 
feet and tail well haired, whitish to pale buffy; underparts 

281 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



dirty whitish to pale buff, sometimes with white on chin. 
Winter pelage unknown, but probably very pale. Total 
length, males, 7.2 inches, females, 6.6; tail vertebrae, males, 
2.0 inches, females, 2.0; hind foot, males, .9 inch, females, 
.9. Found on "Snake River Plains, southeastern Idaho." 
(Bailey) 
Pygmy Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys pygmcBUs Merriam. 

Smallest Pocket Gopher of the genus Thomomys; ears small; 
color a rich brown. Upperparts (summer) a uniform rich 
hazel-brown; nose slaty, dusky patch about ear reduced; 
feet and tail whitish to buffy; underparts dull ochraceous, 
only rarely with white on chin or breast. Winter pelage 
paler than summer, brown more buffy. Total length, males, 
and females, 6.7 inches; tail vertebra?, 2.0 inches; hind foot, 
.9 inch. Found in "Southwestern Wyoming and south- 
eastern Idaho (Transition Zonej." (Bailey) 

Fossor Group 

Characterized by mammae in five pairs (inguinal, 2-2; 
pectoral, 3-3.) 

Colorado Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fossor Allen. 

Medium in size, dark and dull in color; ears large, fur long 
and soft. Upperparts (summer) dull dark brown varying 
occasionally to rich chestnut; blackish on nose, face, and 
about ear; whitish on feet, tip of tail, often on chin and 
occasionally on chest; underparts buffy to ochraceous. 
Winter pelage duller and grayer. Total length, males, 8.8 
inches, females, 8.8; tail vertebras, males, 2.7 inches, females, 
2.5; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, 1.16. Found in 
"Mountains of western Colorado, extreme southern Wyom- 
ing, northern New Mexico, eastern and southern Utah, and 
northwestern Arizona." (Bailey) 

Fort Bridger Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hridgeri Merriam. 
Large in size, dark in color, with large and prominent ears. 
Upperparts (summer) rich brown, warm in tone; dusky 
brown on nose and face; considerable black about ear; feet 
and tail grayish, the latter with brownish tinge and some- 
times white-tipped; underparts dark buffy to dull ochra- 
ceous, sometimes with white on chin. Winter pelage dull, 
dark brown above, washed with buffy below. Total length, 
males, 9.5 inches, females, 9.1; tail vertebrae, males, 2.8 
inches, females, 2.y\ hind foot, males, 1.36 inches, females, 
1.33. Found in "Southwestern Wyoming and southeastern 
Idaho (Transition Zone)." (Bailey) jj 

Uinta Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys uinta Merriam. ■ 

Almost indistinguishable from fossor externally, but skull ^ 
shorter and wider. Upperparts (summer) dull dark brown ; 
dusky on nose and face, blackish on ear and back of ear; 
underparts buffy to ochraceous. Winter pelage duller and 

282 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



grayer. Total length, males, 9.0 inches, females, 8.2; tail 
vertebras, males, 2.8 inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 
1.24 inches, females, 1.12. Found in "Western Wyoming^ 
southeastern Idaho, and northern Utah." (Bailey) 

Dalles Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys quadratus quadratus Mer- 
riam. 
Smaller and brighter colored th^nfossor. Upperparts (sum- 
mer) light russet; blackish on nose and about ear; feet whit- 
ish; tail brownish, dirty whitish at tip; underparts dark 
buff, slate-colored underfur showing through. Winter 
pelage grayer. Total length, males, 8.2 inches, females, 
7.8; tail vertebrae, males, 2.6 inches, females, 2.5; hind foot, 
males, 1.08 inches, females, 1.06. Found on "Plains of 
eastern and central Oregon, northeastern California, and 
north v/estern Nevada." (Bailey) 

Fisher Pocket Gopher. — TJiomomys quadratus fisheri (Mer- 
riam). 
Smaller than typical quadratus, color paler, tail shorter. 
Upperparts (summer) buffy gray, with dull russet tinge on 
dorsal area; slaty on nose, blackish about ear; whitish on 
feet, chin, underside of tail; tail above gray; underparts 
buffy. Winter pelage very similar to summer pelage, but 
slightly grayer. Total length, males and females, j.j 
inches; tail vertebras, 2.3 inches; hind foot, i.o inches. 
Found in "Northern, central, and western Nevada; west in 
Cahfomia to Sierra Valley and Mona Lake." (Bailey) 

Douglasii Group 

Characterized by ears large and rounded at tips; mammae 
in four pairs (inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

Douglas Pocket Gopher or Columbia Sand Rat. — Thomomys 
douglasii douglasii (Richardson). 
"Size medium; claws stout; ears medium with rounded tips ; 
color nearly uniform dull hazel without dark ear patch." 
Upperparts (summer) dull hazel; sides slightly paler; gray 
on nose; soiled whitish on feet and tail; underparts more 
ochraceous than upperparts. Total length; males, 8.6 
inches, females, 8.0; tail vertebrse, males, 2.6 inches, females, 
2.3; hind foot, males. 1.2 inches, females, 1.14. Found along 
the Columbia River near Vancouver, Washington. 

Oregon Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys douglasii oregonus Mer- 
riam. 
Resembling typical douglasii in size but color brighter and 
ears smaller. Upperparts (summer) clear bright hazel, 
dusky on nose and cheeks and blackish about ears ; under- 
parts paler, with more of an ochraceous tone. Total length, 
males, 8.8 inches, females, 8.2; tail vertebrse, males, 2.8 
inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 1.20 inches, females, 
1. 13. Found about Oregon City, Oregon. 

283 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Yelm Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys douglasii yelmensis Mer- 
riam. 
Resembling typical douglasii, but color duller and darker, 
ears more pointed and with conspicuous black patches. 
Upperparts (faded summer pelage) dull hazel ; dusky on nose 
and sides of face, blackish on ears and about ears, white on 
feet, tail, and sometimes white spot on breast or on side; 
underparts buffy, irregularly spotted with white. Total 
length, males, 8.9 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.7 inches; hind foot, 
1 .28 inches. Found on "Prairies around south end of Puget 
Sound, Wash." (Bailey) 

Tacoma Pocket Gopher.' — Thomomys douglasii tacomensis 
Taylor. 
"Darker than any others of the "pocket gophers" occupying 
the lowlands of western Washington. Similar to Thomomys 
douglasii yelmensis to which it appears to be most closely 
related, but upperparts and face darker; postauricular black 
area more extensive ; ..." (Taylor) Upperparts (winter) 
cinnamon-buff grizzled with blackish; blackish on face and 
back of ear; underparts pale gray. Total length, males, 
8.8 inches, females, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 2.5 
inches, females, 2.6 inches; hind foot, males, 1.2 inches, 
females, i . 1 6 inches. Found in Pierce County, Washington ; 
limits of range unknown. 

Black-headed Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys douglasii melanops 
(Merriam). 
Similar to yelmensis but blacker on nose and head. Upper- 
parts (summer) dark russet; dusky on nose and face, exten- 
sively black about ears; white on feet, tip of tail, chin 
(usually), and wrists; underparts ochraceous. Total length, 
females, 8.2 inches; tail vertebras. 2.5 inches; hind foot, i.i 
inches. Measurements of males unknown. Found in 
"Olympic Mountains, Wash." (Bailey) 

Rainier Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys douglasii shawi Taylor. 
Resembling limosus but larger, paler, and less intense brown. 
Upperparts (August) cinnamon-buff, sides pinkish buff ; spot 
back of ear slaty blackish, inconspicuous; tip of nose 
usually with white spot; underparts w^hitish with wash of 
buffy; tops of feet white. Total length, males, 9.1 inches, 
females, 8.3 inches; tail vertebras, males, 2.9 inches, females, 
2.4 inches; hind foot, males, 1.3 inches, females, 1.2 inches. 
Found on the "East side of Mount Rainier National Park; 
also the Cascade Mountains in the vicinity of Mount Aix, 
Cowlitz Pass, and Goat Rocks. Life Zone, Hudsonian." 
(Taylor) 

White Salmon Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys douglasii limosus 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical douglasii, but darker in color and with 
blackish ear patch. Upperparts (summer) dull chestnut; 
slaty on nose, blackish about ear; feet and tail dirty white; 
underparts paler than upperparts, more nearly ochraceous. 

284 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



Total length, males, 9.0 inches, females, 8.6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, males, 2.7 inches, females, 2.6; hind foot, males, 
1.2 mches, females, i . i . Known only from ' 'White Salmon,' 
gorge of the Columbia, KHckitat County, Washington.'' 
(Bailey) 
Black Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys niger Merriam. 

Most resembling typical douglasii, but black in color. 
''Upperparts uniform glossy black with purple and green 
iridescence; underparts duller and more plumbeous; feet and 
distal portion of tail white. Young, sooty black. ' ' (Bailey) 
Total length, males, 9.0 inches, females, 8.6; tail vertebrse, 
males, 3.2 inches, females, 2.8; hind foot, males, 1.2 inches^ 
females, 1.2. Found in "Coast region of west-central 
Oregon." (Bailey) 

Monticola Group 

Characterized by ears relatively large and pointed; mammae 
in four pairs (inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

California Mountain Pocket Qo^her. —Thomomys monticola 

■monticola Allen. 
vSmall in size, ears large and pointed, feet and claws slender. 
Upperparts (winter) dull hazel ; slaty on nose, blackish about 
ear; tail whitish, sometimes with dusky on upper basal sur- 
face; underparts dull buffy. Summer pelage brighter in 
tone, tawny. Total length, males, 8.5 inches, females, 8.4; 
tail vertebrcE, males, 2.8 inches, females, 2.7; hind foot, 
males, i.io inches, females, 1.06. Found in "Sierra Nevada 
of California and Nevada, from Lassen Peak south to Mam- 
moth Pass." (Bailey) 
Mazama Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys monticola mazama 
(Merriam). 
Darker and more richly colored than typical monticola, but 
like it in size. Upperparts (summer) bright russet brown ; 
slaty on nose, blackish about ear, whitish on feet and tail. 
Underparts warmer buff to ochraceous. Winter pelage un- 
known. Total length, males and females, 8.2 inches; tail 
vertebras, 2.6 inches; hind foot, 1.12 inches* Found in 
"Cascade and Siskiyou Mountains, Ore., south in California 
to the Trinity Mountains." (Bailey) 
fellow Pine Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys monticola pinetorum 
Merriam. 
Resembling typical monticola, but brighter brown above and 
with gray on nose and cheeks. Upperparts (summer) yel- 
lowish hazel (color of yellow-pine bark) ; blackish about ears, 
slaty to grayish on nose and cheeks, grayish to whitish on 
feet and tail; underparts buffy. Winter pelage duller than 
summer. Total length, males, 8.4 inches, females, 8.0; 
tail vertebras, males, 3.0 inches, females, 2.9; hind foot, 
males, 1.12 inches, females, i.io. Found in "Mountains 

285 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



along west side of Sacramento Valley, Cal., from Sisson 
south to South Yolla Bolly Mountain." (Bailey) 

Deschutes Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys monticola nasicus 
(Merriam). 
Like typical monticola in size, with conspicuous large ears, 
and brighter color. Upperparts (summer) bright yellowish 
hazel; slaty on nose and about ears, whitish on feet, tail, and 
chin. Winter pelage not quite as bright as summer. Total 
length, males, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8 inches; hind foot, 
I.I inches. Found in "West-central Oregon (east of the 
Cascades), from Farewell Bend, Deschutes River, south to 
the Yamsey Mountains." (Bailey) 

Heller Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys monticola helleri (Elliot). 
Resembling mazama but darker in color. Upperparts 
(winter) dull chestnut; ochraceous on sides, blackish on nose 
and face, intense black about ears; whitish on feet (some- 
times mottled with white) and tip of tail. Total length, 
males, 8.1 inches, females, 7.8; tail vertebras, males, 2.2 
inches, females, 2.3; hind foot, males, 1.16 inches, females, 
1. 10. Found in "Coast region of southwestern Oregon." 
(Bailey) 

Fuscus Group 

Characterized by ears relatively small and pointed ; mammae 
in four pairs (inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2), 

Brown Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fuscus ftiscus (Merriam). 
Small in size ; ears slender, pointed ; feet slender ; color light 
brown. Upperparts (summer) light brownish; slaty on 
nose, blackish about ear, dirty whitish on feet and tail; 
underparts buffy. Winter pelage duller in tone than sum- 
mer. Total length, males and females, 8. i inches ; tail verte- 
brae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, 1.08 inches. Found in "South- 
eastern British Columbia, greater part of northern and 
central Idaho and western Montana, northwestern Wyom- 
ing, and parts of eastern Washington and Oregon." (Bailey) 

Coeur D'Alene Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fuscus saturatus 
Bailey. 
Larger "and darker than typical fuscus. Upperparts (sum- 
mer) dark rich hazel; yellowish on sides, slaty on nose, black 
about ear, buffy gray on feet and tail; underparts washed 
with buffy, occasionally a small patch of white on chin or 
throat. Winter pelage unknown. Total length, males, 9.0 
inches, females, 8.6; tail vertebras, males, 3.1 inches, females, 
2.9; hind foot, males, 1.20 inches, females, 1.16. Found in 
"Higher parts of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains in Idaho and 
Montana." (Bailey) 

Alberta Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fuscus loringi Bailey. 
Resembling typical fuscus, slightly larger in size and duller 
in color, ear small and pointed. Upperparts (winter) dull 

286 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



russet brown; warm buff on sides, slaty on nose, blackish 
about ear, dirty whitish on feet, pale buffy on tail ; under- 
parts washed with rich buffy over slate-colored underfur. 
Summer pelage a brighter shade of russet. Total length, 
males, 8.0 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, 1.06 
inches. "Known only from Edmonton and Moose Mountain, 
Alberta." (Bailey) 

Little-headed Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys fuscus myops 
(Merriam). 
Similar to typical fuscus in coloration and character of small 
ears, but smaller in size. Upperparts (summer) light 
brownish ; slaty on nose, blackish about ear, whitish on feet 
and tip of tail; underparts buffy, chin white (usually). 
Total length, males and females, 7.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2.3 inches ; hind foot, i .0 inch. Found only near Conconully, 
Okanogan County, Washington. 

West Coast Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys hesperus Merriam. 
Small in size; ears small and pointed; color rich auburn. 
Upperparts bright rich auburn; dusky on nose and cheeks, 
black about ear, whitish on feet and tip of tail ; underparts 
more nearly ochraceous. Total length, males, 8.4 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.4 inches; hind foot, 1.08 inches. Found in 
"Coast region of northwestern Oregon." (Bailey) 

Townsendii Group 

Characterized by large size (exceeded only by hulbivorus) ; 
dichromatic coloration (gray and black phases) ; mammas in 
four pairs (inguinal, 2-2; pectoral, 2-2). 

Townsend Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys townsendii townsendii 
(Bachman). 
Very large in size; ear small and pointed; claws medium; 
occurring in two color phases, dark gray and black. Upper- 
parts (gray phase) dark buffy gray to sooty gray; blackish 
on nose, face, and about ear; lining of cheek-pouches black 
and white; soiled gray on feet and tail; underparts with 
washing of rich buff, chin white. Upperparts (black phase) 
dull slaty black ; underparts like upperparts except for white 
patch on chin, toes, and generally on lower feet. Summer 
and winter pelages practically identical. Total length, 
males, 12.2 inches, females, ii.o; tail vertebrae, males, 4.0 
inches, females, 3.0; hind foot, males, 1.5 inches, females, 1.4, 
Found in "Valley of Snake River in southern Idaho, from 
American Falls to Weiser." (Bailey) 

Nevada Pocket Gopher. — Thomomys townsendii nevadensis 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical townsendii in large size, dichromatic 
coloration, but more buffy in gray phase and more slaty in 
black phase. Upperparts (gray phase) light buffy gray; 
slaty on nose and cheeks, pale buffy gray on feet and tail; 

287 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



underparts pale buffy gray, throat white. Upperparts (black 
phase) bluish black to plumbeous; underparts like upper 
except for white on throat and usually on feet. Total 
length, males, ii.o inches, females, 10.2; tail vertebras, 
males, 3.6 inches, females, 3.3; hind foot, males, 1.5 inches, 
females, 1.4. Found in "Valleys of central and northern 
Nevada and southeastern Oregon, from Austin and Love- 
locks, Nev , north to Alvord Lake, Greg." (Bailey) 

Subgenus Megascapheus 

Characterized by large size ; mammee in four pairs (inguinal, 
2-2; pectoral, 2-2) \ and by cranial characters. 

Camas Pocket Gopher or Camas Rat. — Thomomys hulbivorus 
(Richardson). Plate XX VL 
Very large in size, largest species of the genus; claws of front 
feet relatively small and weak; external ears greatly reduced, 
a mere thickened rim ; tail practically naked ; color very dark, 
Upperparts (winter) dark sooty brown; blackish on nose and 
ears, white on feet (in streaks or blotches), chin, throat, and 
a small spot at base of tail below; underparts like upperparts, 
but with darker underfur showing through. Summer pelage 
like winter, but washed with rusty brown above and below. 
Total length, males, 12.0 inches, females, 10.8; tail vertebras, 
males, 3.6 inches, females 2>-'2,; hind foot, males, 1.7 inches, 
females, 1.6. Found in "Willamette Valley, Greg., from 
Portland and Forest Grove south to Eugene ; west to Grand 
Ronde." (Bailey) 



The Pocket Gopher is easily distinguished from other 
rodents by its fur-lined cheek-pockets, broad head, strong 
claws, and fossorial habit. The only other American rodents 
with external cheek-pockets are the Pocket Mice and Pocket 
Rats which have no such specializations for living an under- 
ground existence and bear little resemblance to Pocket 
Gophers. 

The Western Pocket Gophers {Thomomys) differ from the 
Eastern Pocket Gophers of the Mississippi Valley (Geomys) 
in showing no very distinct grooving on the incisors ; otherwise 
the two genera are very much alike superficially. 

Pocket Gophers are abundant over much of western North 
AmericH, and yet the animals themselves are seldom seen by 
the average observer. This is because the Gopher spends 
almost its entire existence underground and appears at the 
mouth of its burrow for only an instant, when it throws out 

288 



Plate XXV 




Lar^ Ka n d d rtm^tiS. 



Calif or rtia Fbckeft Gopher 



€ 




Shaw Pocket Gopher 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



loose earth, or when it occasionally reaches out for clover or 
other food. These animals are clever engineers and drive 
their tunnels long distances. A single animal may construct 
a widespread labyrinth of subterranean passages, a great many 
feet in extent, during the course of a summer, where soil con- 
ditions are favorable. These burrows are driven to new 
feeding grounds, and the fresh earth thrown out every twenty- 
four hours proves that the Pocket Gopher is active and ener- 
getic. 

Most of the digging is probably done with the foreclaws, 
but the incisors are used to some extent and are broad, capable 
tools. The burrows may be from a few inches to a foot or 
more below the surface, and frequent short laterals or "rises" 
are cut to the surface to get rid of the loosened earth. In 
contradistinction to the Mole which forces the earth to one 
side, displacing it by sheer strength, the Gopher cuts a clean 
burrow and brings all the debris to the surface, or to some 
unused part of the runway system. Where the soil is damp 
and loose and the animals can make new burrows without an 
excessive amount of labor, "gopher-hills" of fresh earth may 
be seen at intervals of lo to 20 feet wherever one of these 
creatures is at work, A completed "hill" hides the mouth of 
the burrow, because the Gopher usually leaves a plug of soil 
in the last few inches of its length. Probably this is done to 
keep out snakes and other enemies. It has been stated that 
these animals have an aversion to light and plug up every 
opening to shut out light, but the reason just given seems more 
cogent. Sometimes close inspection reveals the outline of the 
burrow opening where the earth has issued, but more often the 
opening will be completely covered by a copious mound. 

Short lateral burrows at which the Gopher is feeding are 
often without very much soil at the entrance, and the open- 
ing is closed between meals by only a thin plug which does not 
come quite flush with the surface. Such a spot may be 
revisited in an hour or two with a fair chance of seeing the 
occupant at work. 

Much of the Gopher's food is secured below the surface as 
roots, bulbs, etc., but some is also taken immediately at the 
mouth of the burrow. The animal is loathe to leave the hole 
completely and stretches out only the forepart of its body, 
with the tail and hind quarters in the burrow, and is prepared 
289 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



to dart back like a flash at the first sign of danger. The cheek- 
pockets are used for food storage, and animals taken feeding 
at the mouth of the burrow nearly always have the food in the 
pockets, showing that no time is taken to consume the 
vegetation as it is cut. 

If one approaches an open burrow carefully it is possible to 
get quite close to a Pocket Gopher, for the animal's sight is 
poor. Vibration of the ground by careless steps will warn the 
Gopher instantly, and so will a breeze blowing from the 
observer toward the burrow, but if one stands motionless the 
Gopher will bring out earth or gather food at a distance of only 
a few feet from man. Earth is shoved up to the rim of the 
hole by the chest and forelegs of the Gopher and the animal 
appears for only an instant as a final push sends the load 
falling down the sides of the "gopher-hill." It goes back at 
once for more and may be gone for a minute or more, but is 
generally back in a few seconds. Unless unduly frightened, 
the Gopher will not go away for good and leave the burrow 
open, so as long as the entrance is open the observer can be 
sure the little digger will reappear soon. However, this animal 
is very cautious and I have been deceived more than once by a 
supposedly open burrow which a suspicious Gopher had plug- 
ged shortly after I began to watch it, but left the plug several 
inches below the surface of the ground where I would not see 
it until directly at the hole. 

It is possible to catch a Gopher, when an open burrow is 
found, by putting an open noose about the hole and standing 
back with the end of the string until the head and shoulders 
of the Gopher appear. A twitch of the cord and one has a 
very angry captive, eager to bite and requiring careful hand- 
ling. The Gopher disposition is surly and touchy, and, ex- 
cept during the mating season, full-grown animals never seem 
to be found more than one to a burrow. 

Gophers which get into a garden are very destructive and 
the farmer will find them difficult to trap. The ordinary steel 
trap is filled and sprung with earth oftener than by the animal 
itself, but special Gopher traps have been devised which are 
more successful. It is necessary to clean out the burrows well 
when a trap is set, not only to remove earth which may be 
pushed into the trap, but to avoid warning the inmate that 
the runway has been tampered with. Finally, a board or 
290 



WESTERN POCKET GOPHER 



piece of sod should be placed over the top of the hole, clear of 
the trap, to shut out the light. Poisoned baits may also be 
used to rid gardens of these troublesome rodents. 

Gophers have many enemies and in spite of everlasting 
vigilance are caught in great numbers by Hawks, Owls, and 
snakes, as well as by predatory mammals. Since Gophers 
are active day and night they run the gamut of all preying 
creatures, and momentary as is the appearance at the entrance 
of the burrow. Hawks and Owls seem to have no difficulty in 
catching them. Snakes enter the burrows and are certain of 
a meal. 

The tail of the Gopher seems to possess an important tactile 
function and in narrow quarters, where the Gopher can not 
turn, the tail serves as a feeler when he runs backward. 

One might expect that, since Gophers live underground to 
such an extent, there would be little variation in the color of 
the pelage. This is not the case, for the color of Gophers 
varies as much as that of Chipmunks or other rodents. 
Pocket Gophers have become distributed in very many dif- 
ferent environments, practically everywhere where suitable 
food is to be found, and the color of the pelage varies accord- 
ingly from black to very light sandy gray. In general, the 
Pocket Gophers of the humid districts are dark-colored, and 
those of the deserts pale, as we should expect. There is a 
variation in size as well, from the very large bidhivorous of the 
Willamette Valley, where food is abundant, to the very small 
forms, such as pygmceus, which live under more adverse condi- 
tions. 

Pocket Gpphers are active summer and winter. A winter 
pelage, in most forms fairly distinct from that of summer, is 
assumed and the new coat appears gradually, so that speci- 
mens may be taken which show both pelages. The replace- 
ment by the new fur creates a distinct line on the body of the 
animal, which usually follows a definite order beginning at the 
nose and head and then moving toward the base of the tail, 
until finally the pelage is all of one type and the line of differ- 
entiation disappears. 

Pocket Gophers are prolific and have from four to eight 
young. The life- history of this group is not very well known, 
but there is evidence to show that, throughout much 'of the 
range of Thomomys, there are several litters of young a year. 
291 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Genus Geomys ^ 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, J; Molars, | 



20. 



Eastern Pocket Gopher.- 



-Geomys tuza 

and related forms 



General Description. — Externally so similar to Thomomys 
that no special description is needed. See genus Thomomys, 
page 269. Upper incisors deeply grooved. Plate XXVI. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation. 




Fig. 



60. Heads of Pocket Gophers to show incisor teeth. 
Left, Geomys, right, Thomomys 



Upperparts cinnamon-brown, with yellowish tinge, dorsal 
region slightly darker than sides; feet whitish; tail whitish; 
underparts dull buffy. 

Immature duller than adults. 

Measurements. — Males larger than females. Total length, 
males, 10.8 inches, females, 10 inches; tail vertebras, males, 
3.6 inches, females, 3.3 inches; hind foot, males, 1.4 inches, 
females, 1.3 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Plains and prairies between 
the Mississippi River and the eastern foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains and the eastern Gulf States, 

Food. — Same as for Thomomys, page 270. 

Eneioies. — Same as for Thomomys , page 270. 

^ For a revision of this genus see C. H. Merriam, North A7nerica 
Fauna, No. 8, i89S- 

292 



EASTERN POCKET GOPHER 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Geomys 

The geographical distributions given for the members of 
this genus are only provisional and will doubtless be con- 
siderably amended when the group is revised on the basis of 
present-day material. 

Tuza Group 

Georgia Pocket Gopher. — Geomys tuza tuza (Barton). 

As described above. Found in "Pine barrens of Georgia 
(and probably northern Florida also), within the Austro- 
riparian faunal area." (Merriam) 

Alabama Pocket Gopher. — Geomys tuza m^ohilensis Merriam. 
Smaller than typical tuza, darker and tail shorter. Upper- 
parts dark brown, with sepia tone; sides golden to deep 
buffy, sprinkled with black ; dusky on top of head and along 
dorsal line as faintly-defined band ; underparts washed with 
buffy, with some white about throat. Total length, males, 
10 inches, females, 9.2 inches; tail vertebrce, males, 3.2 
inches, females, 3 inches; hind foot, males, 1.34 inches, 
females, 1.2 inches. Found in "Southern Alabama and 
adjacent part of northwest Florida, within the Austrori- 
parian Zone." (Merriam) 

Florida Pocket Gopher or Salamander. — Geomys floridaitus 
floridanus (Audubon and Bachman). 
Resembling tuza but darker, tail more hairy and forefeet 
larger. Upperparts dull, dark slate-colored; sides brighter, 
with tinge of dull cinnamon ; underparts washed with buffy, 
with some white on chin and throat. Total length, males, 
1 1.5 inches, females, 9.5 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 3.8 
inches, females, 3.1 inches; hind foot, males, 1.4 inches, 
females, 1.3 inches. Found in Florida in the St. Augustine 
region. 

Southern Pocket Gopher. — Geomys floridanus austrinus Bangs. 
Resembling typical floridanus in size but paler and more 
tawny. Upperparts pale cinnamon and tawny; sides och- 
raceous buff; underparts whitish to buffy, with large irregu- 
lar patches of white on chin, inner sides of limbs and belly; 
hands, feet, and tail with scanty whitish hairs. Total 
length, males, 12 inches, females, 10 inches; tail vertebrce, 
males, 3.7 inches, females, 3.1 inches; hind foot, males, 1.47 
inches, females, 1.3 inches. Found in the western part of 
the Florida peninsula. 

St. Mary's Pocket Gopher. — Geomys colonus Bangs. 

Resembling typical tuza in size but darker in color. Upper- 
parts seal-brown to sepia; lower sides with light wash of 
cinnamon; underparts washed with cinnamon, pelage plum- 
beous at base, no white under chin; hands and feet whitish. 
Total length, males, 11.4 inches, females, 10 inches; tail 
vertebras, males, 3.8 inches, females, 3.1 inches: hind foot, 

293 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



males, 1.44 inches, females, 1.28 inches. Found in extreme 
southeastern Georgia in a restricted area between Crooked 
River on the north, Dark Entry Creek on the east, St. 
Mary's River on the south and Miller's Branch on the West. 
Cumberland Island Pocket Gopher. — Geomys cumherlandius 
Bangs. 
Size very large; tail long. Upperparts bright cinnamon to 
russet with well-defined, dark dorsal band; hands and feet 
grayish white; underparts washed with cinnamon, pelage 
plumbeous at base, irregular blotches of white under chin 
and on wTists. Total length, males, 12.8 inches, females, 
1 1.2 inches; tail vertebras, males, 4.3 inches, females, 3.8 
inches; hind foot, males, 1.44 inches, females, 1.36 inches. 
Found only on Cumberland Island, Camden County, 
Georgia. 

Bursarius Group 

Shaw Pocket Gopher; Mississippi Valley Pocket Gopher. — ■ 

Geomys hur sarins (Shaw). Plate XXVI. 
Large in size and dark in color. Upperparts dark brown to 
chestnut; forefeet white, hind feet dirty white; tail white, 
toward tip, brownish toward body; underparts lighter 
brown than upperparts. Total length, males, 11.9 inches, 
females, 10.6 inches; tail vertebras, males, 3.6 inches, fe- 
males, 3.1 inches; hind foot, males, 1.5 inches, females, 1.36 
inches. Found in "Upper Mississippi Valley from a short 
distance south of the Canadian boundary southward to 
eastern Kansas, southeastern Missouri, and southern Illi- 
nois; east nearly to Lake Michigan, west in the Dakotas and 
Nebraska to the ninety-eighth or ninety-ninth meridian. 
Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones." (Miller) 

Breviceps Group 

Yellow Pocket Gopher. — Geomys lutescens (Merriam). 

A pale, medium-sized species, with tail of medium length; 
scantily haired. Upperparts (summer) pale, dull yellowish 
to buffy ochraceous; underparts buffy ; in winter drab above, 
with many black-tipped hairs along dorsal line to form dor- 
sal band. Total length, males, 10.8 inches, females, 9.8 
inches; tail vertebras, males, 3.4 inches, females, 2.9 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.34 inches, females, 1.26 inches. Found 
in "The Upper Sonoran belt of the Great Plains from south- 
western South Dakota southward to Colorado, Texas, 
covering the sand-hill region of western Nebraska, extreme 
eastern Wyoming, western Kansas, eastern Colorado, west- 
ern Oklahoma, and western Texas, ranging east to or a 
little beyond the ninety-ninth meridian." (Miller) 

Louisiana Pocket Gopher. — Geomys breviceps breviceps Baird. 
Smaller than lutescens. Upperparts dark russet-brown; 
sides paler and yellower; tail naked except for dusky hairs 

294 



EASTERN POCKET GOPHER 



on basal portion ; feet white ; underparts washed with buffy, 
throat white. Total length, males, 9.2 inches, females, 8.5 
inches; tail vertebree, males, 2.8 inches, females, 2.5 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.12 inches, females, 1.06 inches. Found 
in "The alluvial lowlands of the Mississippi Valley and Gulf 
coast of southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas, and the 
valley of the Arkansas River; north nearly to southern 
Kansas, and west to near the ninety-eighth meridian. 
Austroriparian fauna." (Miller) 

White-throated Pocket Gopher. — Geomys breviceps sagittalis 
Merriam. 
Smaller than typical breviceps and more highly colored. 
Upperparts rich russet-brown with yellowish tinge, darkest 
along dorsal region and head, the latter almost black to the 
nose; forelegs and throat clear white; underparts varying 
from whitish to buffy. Total length, males, 8.8 inches, 
females, 7.8 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 2.6 inches, fe- 
males, 2.2 inches; hind foot, males, 1.04 inches, females, .92 
inch. Found on "Gulf coast of Texas about Galveston 
Bay." (Merriam) 

Attwater Pocket Gopher. — Geomys breviceps attwateri Merriam. 
Larger and paler than typical breviceps. Upperparts as in 
typical breviceps; underparts varying from soiled whitish 
to buffy. Total length, males, 10.2 inches, females, 8.8 
inches; tail vertebras, males, 3.2 inches, females, 2.5 inches; 
hind foot, males, 1.2 inches, females, 1.12 inches. Found 
on "Coastal plain and islands of Texas between Matagorda 
and Nueces Bays." (IVIerriam) 

Mesquite Plains Pocket Gopher. — Geomys breviceps Uanensis 
Bailey. 
Larger and lighter colored than typical breviceps. Light 
liver-brown above, sometimes darker, back dusky; creamy 
to buffy white below. Males. — -total length, 10.8 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3.5 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches; females. — • 
total length, 9.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 inches; hind foot, 
1.2 inches. Found in Texas "mainly along strips of sandy 
soil in the Llano, Colorado, Brazos, Red, and Canadian 
river valleys, in a region of scattered mesquite bushes. . . ." 
(Bailey) 

Texas Pocket Gopher. — Geomys texensis Merriam. 

Size very small for the genus; tail short, nearly naked for 
terminal third. Upperparts dark brown sprinkled with 
black; feet white; underparts whitish, except for a buffy 
collar about throat. Total length, 8.4 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.12 inches. Found in "Mason 
County, central Texas, and probably thence southerly to 
the Rio Grande; limits of range unknown." (Merriam) 

Sand Pocket Gopher. — Geomys arenarius Merriam. 

A medium-sized, pale form with tail rather long and fairly 
well haired except at tip. Upperparts dull, pale brown 
sprinkled with black; feet white; underparts whitish. 

295 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Total length, males, 10.4 inches, females, 10 inches; tail 
vertebrae, males, 3.3 inches, females, 3.1 inches; hind foot, 
males, 1.3 inches, females, 1.24 inches. Found in "Valley 
of the Upper Rio Grande, from El Paso, in extreme western 
Texas, and Juarez, Chihuahua (on the Mexican side of the 
river opposite El Paso), north to Las Cruces, New Mexico, 
and west to Deming." (Merriam) 

Padre Island Pocket Gopher. — Geomys personatiis personatus 
True. 
Large and pale; tail long, scantily haired on basal half, 
nearly naked toward tip. Upperparts dull, pale brown, 
with some black-tipped hairs; dusky on top of head; under- 
parts whitish. Total length, males, 12.6 inches, females, 
1 1.7 inches; tail vertebrae, males 4.5 inches, females, 4 
inches; hind foot, males, 1.6 inches, females, 1.44 inches. 
Found in "The Tamaulipan fauna of Texas, comprising 
Padre Island and the adjacent mainland southwesterly to 
Carrizo on the Rio Grande." (Merriam) 

Nueces Pocket Gopher. — Geomys personatus fallax MernsLm. 
Smaller than typical personatus, darker, and tail shorter 
and more nearly naked. ^ Upperparts as in typical person- 
atus; underparts white, with irregular, darker areas. Total 
length, males, 10.5 inches, females, 9.5 inches; tail verte- 
brae, males, 3.5 inches, females, 3 inches; hind foot, males, 
1.36 inches, females, 1.24 inches. Found on "South shore 
of Nueces Bay and lower Nueces River, Texas. ' ' (Merriam) 

Genus Cratogeomys 

Very much like Geomys; upper incisors with single, median 
groove. 

Chestnut-faced Pocket Gopher. — Cratogeomys castanops cas- 
tanops (Baird). 
Size large. Yellowish brown above, mixed with black- 
tipped hairs; underparts buffy; tip of tail blackish; feet 
grayish. Total length, 10.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.6 
inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found from southeastern 
Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and western Oklahoma 
south through western Texas into Mexico. 

******* 
The Pocket Gophers of the genus Geomys and Cratogeomys 
do not differ very much in their general habits from Thomomys 
(see account of habits given for this genus, page 288). 

These Pocket Gophers are found over practically all of the 
Mississippi Valley and may or may not prove troublesome to 
man, depending upon the locality. Some species are very 
destructive to fruit trees or to other cultivated vegetation; 
other species live in regions where the soil is too poor for cul- 

296 



SPINY POCKET RAT 



tivation and are no economic problem. Areas which are 
otherwise adapted to Pocket Gophers are annually inundated 
and water is fatal to these subterranean rodents. 

They store up food in underground storehouses and pile up 
more than they can consume. Sometimes the ploughman 
turns up a peck or two of small potatoes and roots of clover 
or fruit trees in a single one of these repositories. The serious 
damage done to orchards is due to the thoroughness with which 
the Pocket Gopher cuts up all of the smaller roots, taking not 
only what it can eat at the time, but removing a great mass 
that may never be eaten. 

The Mississippi Pocket Gopher has from three to six young 
at a birth, the usual number being four or five, and the time of 
birth, in Illinois, has been given as April, 

Family Heteromyidae. Pocket Rats and 
Pocket Mice 

Small rodents with external, fur-lined cheek-pockets; fore- 
feet not equipped with greatly developed claws; hind legs more 
or less elongated ; tail generally as long as head and body, often 
much longer; skull with elongated rostrum and inflated 
temporal region. 

Genus Liomys ^ 
Dentition: Incisors, |; Canines, {}; Premolars, {; Molars, f =20. 

Texas Spiny Mouse. — Liomys irroratus texensis 

(Merriam) 

Names.— Texas Spiny Mouse; Texas Spiny Pocket Rat. 

General Characters. — A large Mouse or small Rat with fur- 
lined cheek-pockets and pelage composed of normal hairs 
mingled with stiff bristles or spines which are flattened and 
grooved on anterior face; tail long, well haired; sole of hind 
foot hairy at heel and with five tubercles; ear of medium size, 
rounded. Nocturnal in habit, living in burrows in the 
ground. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, 

^ For a revision of this genus see E. A, Goldman, North American 
Fauna, No. 34, 1911, 

297 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts pale mouse-gray, head and back darker than 
sides, mixed with ochraceous buffy; a pale ochraceous buffy 
lateral line; feet white; forearms grayish on outer sides; tail 
above, dusky, below, white, tip dusky above and below; 
underparts white. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 9.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — From southern Texas south 
into Mexico, in lower Sonoran Zone on low plains. This 
genus is southern in its distribution and only the one form 
ranges far enough north to cross the Rio Grande. 

Food. — Largely seeds. These are of great variety, chiefly of 
weeds and native flowering plants, but may include domestic 
grain such as wheat and corn. The diet is varied by small 
amounts of green vegetation and twigs. 

Enemies. — Owls, Weasels, Foxes, Coyotes, Cacomistles. 



Having had no experience with the North American Spiny 
Pocket Rats, I quote from Bailey, Biological Survey of Texas, 
North American Fauna, No. 25, 1905, page 127. 

"Loring reports them at Brownsville as 'common in the 
timber under logs and the roots of trees;' and Lloyd says 
they are 'found at Lomita in the densest brush on the ridges 
forming the old banks of the river, and around old corrals.' 
He adds: 'Their habit of throwing out a white clayey mound 
like the gophers attracts attention, and, although the mound 
may be a month old, by cleaning out a hole and putting a 
trap in it you will in time capture the occupant. The ordinary 
outlets are generally covered up by fallen leaves, which in 
some instances seem to have been placed there by the occu- 
pants. They are strictly nocturnal in their habits, and feed 
on the seeds of hackberry, mesquite, and various other shrubs. 
Young and old inhabit the burrows together.'" 

Genus Perognathus ^ 

Dentition: Incisors, J ; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, {; Molars, f =20. 

^ For a revision of this genus see W. H. Osgood, North American 
Fauna, No. i8, 1900. Many forms have been described since this was 
written. 

298 



POCKET MOUSE 



Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fasciatus 

and related forms 

General Description. — ^A rather small Mouse with external 
fur-lined cheek-pockets; tail fairly long; hind legs long; ears 
small but not hidden in fur; nocturnal in habit. Plate XXVI. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation in color 
occurring, but not very marked. 




Fig. 6i. Pocket Mouse 

Upperparts olive-gray finely mixed with black; sides like 
back; a buff lateral line from nose to end of tail; buffy about 
eye and ears; tail dusky above, buffy on sides, white below; 
pelage everywhere slate-colored at base; underparts clear white. 

Immature duller than adults, slaty gray tinged with buff. 

Measurements. — Sexes of approximately equal size, males 
slightly larger than females. Total length, 5.5 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southwestern and mid-western 
North America. 

Food. — Chiefly seeds. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Owls, Weasels, Foxes, and small 
predatory mammals in general. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Perognathus 
Subgenus Perognathus 

Characterized by small to medium size, soft normal pelage 
(no spines) , soles of hind feet usually hairy. 
299 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Fasciatus Group 



Maximilian Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fasciatus fasciatus 
Wied. Plate XXVI. 
As described above. Found in Upper Sonoran and Transi- 
tion Zones of eastern Montana and Wyoming, east into the 
adjoining parts of North and South Dakota. 

Bufif-bellied Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fasciatus infraluteus 
(Thomas). 
Smaller than typical fasciatus, pelage not as soft, yellowish 
buff instead of white below. Total length, 5.1 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. Found in Larimer 
County, Colorado. 

Sweetwater Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fasciatus litus Gary. 
Slightly smaller than typical fasciatus, very pale in color, 
pelage very soft. Upperparts (September pelage) very 



^v 




Fig. 62. Head of Pocket Mouse to show external cheek- 
pockets 

pale cream buff, sparingly mixed with black; ring around 
eye, spot at base of ear, and lateral line pale cream buff; 
feet white; tail faintly bicolor, above slightly dusky, below, 
white; underparts clear white. Total length, 5.1 inches; 
tail vertebrse, 2.4 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found only 
in the lower Sweetwater Valley and adjacent parts of Red 
Desert, Wyoming. 

Plains Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fiavescens fiavescens 
(Merriam). 
Similar to fasciatus but with harsher pelage and less oliva- 
ceous in color; upperparts light grayish buff mixed with 
dusky; tail indistinctly bicolor; feet and legs white. Total 
length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .7 
inch. Found in "Upper Austral plains of South Dakota, 
Nebraska, and Kansas; south possibly to northern Texas, 
and west to base of Rocky Mountains." (Osgood) 

Cope Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fiavescens copei (Rhoads). 
Resembling typical fiavescens but brighter in color. Upper- 
parts fawn mixed with blackish, rump and thighs with 
strong wash of cinnamon; tail grayish white above, pure 

300 



POCKET MOUSE 



white below. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 
inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found in northern Texas, 
Wheeler County southwest to Ward County. 

Dusky Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus flavescens perniger 
Osgood. 
Very much like typical flavescens in size but much darker in 
color. Upperparts intense black to brownish black, sides 
and head mixed black and ochraceous buff; ears narrowly 
edged with buffy; a bright buffy spot at lower base of ear; a 
broad ochraceous buff lateral line; feet buffy; tail above, 
dusky, below, whitish ; underparts rich ochraceous buff with 
white on chin and narrow stripe down throat and breast. 
Total length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.7 inches; hind 
foot, .72 inch. Found in southeastern South Dakota, Clay 
County; limits of range unknown. 

Merriam Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus merriami merriajni 
Allen. 
Pelage softer than in flavescens; ears small, colors bright; tail 
scantily haired; sole of hind foot hairy on upper half. 
Upperparts ochraceous buff heavily sprinkled with black, 
darkest along dorsal region from nose to tail ; sides brighter, 
more ochraceous; buff on ears and on spot behind ears; a 
white subauricular spot; black transverse stripes on nose; 
tail not sharply bicolor; underparts pure white. Total 
length, 4.7 inches; tail vertebrse, 2.3 inches; hind foot; .64 
inch. Found in "Subtropical region of southern Texas and 
northeastern Mexico, and Lower Sonoran of central Texas. 
The known range extends from Alta Mira, Tamaulipas, 
northward to Washburn, Texas, and from this point south- 
westward to the vicinity of Roswell, N. Mex. ; on the east it 
reaches San Antonio, and on the west follows up the Rio 
Grande as far as Comstock." (Osgood) 

Dutcher Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus merriami gilvus Osgood. 
Slightly paler and yellower than typical merriami and pelage 
softer; somewhat larger. Total length, 4.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.3 inches; hind foot, .66 inch. Found in "West- 
ern Texas and southeastern New Mexico. " Lower Sonoran 
Zone." (Osgood) 

Baird Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus flavus flavus Baird. 

Very small; pelage very soft; tail short, moderately haired; 
sole of hind foot hairy on upper half. Upperparts pinkish 
buff with light sprinkling of black, darkest on back; lateral 
line not sharply differentiated ; a prominent buffy spot back 
of ear; tail almost concolor, slightly dusky above, pale buffy 
below; underparts pure white. Total length, 4.5 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. Found in 
"Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones from northeastern 
Colorado and western Nebraska to northern Mexico, ex- 
tending westward into central Arizona and eastward to 
western Texas." (Osgood) 

301 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Cheyenne Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus flavus piperi Goldman. 
Larger than typical flavus and with less intensely ochraceous 
upperparts. Upperparts light buff to light ochraceous 
buff, finely mixed with black, lateral line and spots at bases 
of ears pale but distinct; tail whitish above and below; 
underparts white. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. Found "probably ranging at 
low elevations throughout eastern Wyoming and western 
South Dakota." (Goldman) 

Yavapai Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus flavus bimaculatus 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical flavus but larger and somewhat darker 
on back; lateral lines more distinct. Total length, 4.7 
inches; tail vertebra, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. Found 
in "Central and northeastern Arizona and southeastern 
Utah." (Osgood) 

Sooty Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus flavus fuliginosus (Mer- 
riam). 
Much darker than ty^xcaX flavus ; upperparts almost or quite 
black except for buff spots back of ears; underparts buff, 
throat and breast white. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.3 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found on "Lava 
beds in the vicinity of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona." 
(Osgood) 

Apache Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus apache apache Merriam. 
Large in size, pelage soft, tail thinly haired, sole of hind foot 
hairy on upper three-fifths. Upperparts warm buff 
sprinkled with black; lateral line distinct; buff on ears and 
upperside of tail ; underparts white. Total length, 5.6 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.7 inches; hind foot, .74 inch. Found in 
"Eastern Arizona, western New Mexico, and southern 
Utah." (Osgood) 

Plateau Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus apache cleomophila 
Goldman. 
Differing from typical apache in darker and richer color of 
upperparts. Upperparts ochraceous buff to tawny, mixed 
with black-tipped hairs; ears blackish inside, conspicuous 
white spots at bases of ears; feet white; lateral line clear 
ochraceous buff; tail above, brownish, below white; under- 
parts white. Total length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.6 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in the "Lava beds region 
east of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona." (Goldman) 

Colorado Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus apache caryi Goldman. 
Larger and darker than typical apache. Upperparts light 
ochraceous buff heavily mixed with black; ears as in cleo- 
mophila; lateral line broad and well defined, light ochraceous 
buff; tail above, grayish to brownish, below, white; under- 
parts white. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.9 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Valleys of Grand 
River and other affluents of the Colorado River in western 
and southwestern Colorado." (Goldman). 

302 



POCKET MOUSE 



Beautiful Pocket Mouse. — Perognathns callistus Osgood. 
Smaller than apache. Upperparts grayish olive-buff, 
sprinkled with black; a distinct lateral line, cream buff; out- 
side of ears whitish, inside dusky; a prominent creamy buff 
spot back of ear; tail dusky above, white below; underparts 
clear white. Total length, 5.4 inches; tail vertebras, 2.5 
inches; hind foot, .^2 inch. Found in Sweetwater County, 
Wyoming. 

Longimembris Group 

Tejon Pocket Mouse.- — Perognathus longimembris longimem- 
bris (Coues). 
Size small; ears large; tail slightly longer than head and 
body, sparsely haired and pencilled; pelage soft; posterior 
third of soles haired. Upperparts yellowish brown finely 
mixed with dusky; lateral line clear yellowish brown; feet 
white; yellowish patch back of ear; tail buffy above and 
below, darker toward tip; underparts white. Total length, 
4.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .7 inch. 
Found in the vicinity of old Fort Tejon, Kern County, Cali- 
fornia; limits of range unknown. 
Panamint Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus longimembris pan- 
amintiniis Merriam. 
Upperparts grayish buff sprinkled with dark-tipped hairs; 
an indistinct pale buff lateral line ; forelegs buffy to white ; 
dusky on upperside of tail, especially at tip; underparts 
white. Total length, 5.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.1 inches; 
hind foot, .78 inch. Found in "Panamint Mountains, 
California, and eastward through southern Nevada to St. 
George, Utah." (Osgood) 
Bangs Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus longimembris bangsi 
Mearns, 
Smaller and paler than panamintinus. Upperparts pale 
vinaceous buff lightly sprinkled with black; lateral line in- 
distinct; underparts white, including feet and forelegs. 
Total length, 5.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hind 
foot, .76 inch. Found in "Desert valleys of southern and 
southeastern California, Lower Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 
Perognathus pericalles Elliot = Perognathus longimembris 

bangsi, according to Grinnell. 
San Felipe Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus longimembris areni- 
cola (Stephens). 
Resembling bangsi but paler and whiter. Total length, 5.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3.3 inches; hind foot, .76 inch. Found 
in San Diego County, California, region about San Felipe 
Narrows. (Said by Grinnell to be a synonym of bangsi) 
Short-nosed Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus longimembris brevi- 
nasus (Osgood). 
Similar to panamintinus but darker, tail shorter. Upper- 
parts pinkish buff mixed with black; pelage of back, espe- 

303 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



cially rump, usually buff to roots; well-defined, transverse, 
blackish nose stripes. Total length, 5.2 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .74 inch. Found in "a few 
scattered localities in extreme southwestern California. 
Upper Sonoran Zone," (Osgood) 

Yuma Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus homhycinus Osgood. 
Resembling hangsi in size and color. Upperparts pale 
vinaceous buff sparingly mixed with dusky; well-developed 
white spot at anterior base of ear ; ears edged with whitish ; 
underparts white. Total length, 5.4 inches; tail vertebras, 
3.2 inches; hind foot, .74 inch. Found from Yuma County, 
Arizona, west into Imperial County, California, south into 
Mexico. 

Nevada Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus nevadensis Merriam. 
Resembling panamintinus but smaller, darker, and under- 
parts colored like sides. Total length, 5.3 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 2.9 inches; hind foot, .75 inch. Found in "Upper 
Sonoran Zone of central Nevada; northward to southern 
Oregon and northern Utah." (Osgood) 

Pacific Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus pacificus Meams. 

Smallest of the genus ; pelage very soft ; color similar to that 
of brevinasus. Upperparts pinkish buff sprinkled with 
black; tail nearly unicolor; ears dusky; underparts white. 
Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.1 inches; hind foot, 
.6 inch. Found only near Mexican boundary monument 
No. 258, shore of Pacific Ocean, San Diego County, Cali- 
fornia. 

Loring Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus amplus Osgood. 

Size large; tail long; sole of hind foot naked for lower four- 
fifths; pelage long and soft. Upperparts pinkish buff 
lightly marked with black ; buff lateral line wide and dis- 
tinct; tail buff, mixed with black above; underparts white. 
Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hind foot, 
.8 inch. Found near Fort Verde, Yavapai County, Arizona. 

San Joaquin Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus inornatus inornatus 
Merriam. 
Size of apache, pelage rather harsh, sole of hind foot hairy 
on upper third. Upperparts buff, mixed with black; lateral 
line indistinct ; ear buffy outside, dusky inside, a white spot 
at base; buff on upperside of forelegs and on tail; under- 
parts white. Total length, males, 5.8 inches, females, 5.4 
inches; tail vertebrae, males, 3 inches, females, 2.8 inches; 
hind foot, males, .75 inch, females, .73 inch. Found in the 
vicinity of San Joaquin Valley, California. 

McKittrick Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus inornatus neglectus 
(Taylor). 
Larger than typical inornatus. Upperparts ochraceous 
buff with very little admixture of black; feet and underparts 
pure white. Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 3 
inches; hind foot, .84 inch. Found in Lower Sonoran Zone 
of Kern and San Luis Obispo Counties, California. 

304 



POCKET MOUSE 



Parvus Group 



Oregon Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus parvus parvus (Peale). 
Large in size; tail long and slightly tufted; ears medium; 
sole of hind foot hairy on upper fourth; occurring in two 
color phases, with intermediates. Gray phase: upperparts 
pale slaty buff sprinkled with black; sides paler than back; 
lateral line buff; tail above dusky, laterally buff, below 
white. Underparts white, belly darker. Buff phase like 
gray, but general tone buffy. Total length, 6.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.6 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. Found in "Valley 
of the Yakima River, Washington, and thence southward to 
central and southeastern Oregon. Upper Sonoran Zone." 
(Osgood) 

Idaho Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus parvus idahoensis Gold- 
man. 
Large; darkest of the subspecies of parvus. Upperparts 
light vinaceous buff heavily mixed with black, especially 
dark on lower back which is blackish; lateral line almost 
clear buffy; ears blackish with conspicuous white spots at 
base; tail above, mixed black and buffy, nearly black at tip, 
below, pale buffy; underparts dull whitish on chin, throat, 
and inner sides of forearms, light ochraceous buff on belly 
and insides of hind limbs; heels black. Total length 7.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found 
only near Arco, Blaine County, southern Idaho; limits of 
range unknown. 

Coues Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus parvus mollipilosus 
(Coues). 
Smaller than typical parvus; ears larger; markings more in- 
tense; coloration darker. Upperparts warm ochraceous 
buff, liberally sprinkled with black; a distinct lateral line; 
underparts white, belly tawny. Total length, 6.7 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3.5 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. Found in 
"Great Basin extension of northeastern California, north 
to Klamath Basin, Oregon. Upper Sonoran Zone, except 
on Mount Shasta, where it ascends to the Boreal." (Os- 
good) 

Great Basin Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus parvus oUvaceus 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical parvus but pelage softer and lighter in 
color. Upperparts bright cinnamon-buff; finely sprinkled 
with black; lateral line and spot below ear conspicuous; 
underparts white, belly sometimes buffy. Total length, 
males, 7 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.8 inches; hind foot, .88 
inch. Found in "Upper Sonoran Zone throughout the 
Great Basin, from northern Utah and southern Idaho south- 
west to Owens Valley, California, and west to southern Ore- 
gon and northeastern California." (Osgood) 

Uinta Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus parvus clarus Goldman. 
Somewhat larger than typical parvus and paler in color. 

305 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts light buff faintly sprinkled with black; white 
spots at bases of ears well developed; buffy lateral line 
faintly developed; tail above, brownish, below, whitish; 
underparts white. Total length, 7 inches; tail vertebrEe, 
3.6 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found in "Green River 
Valley in southwestern Wyoming, and upper part of Snake 
River Valley, in southeastern Idaho." (Goldman) 

Mount Magruder Pocket Mouse.— Per ognathus parvus magru- 
derensis Osgood. 
Colored like olivaceiis but larger. Total length, 7.8 inches ; tail 
vertebrae, 4.1 inches; hind foot, i.oinch. Found in "Upper 
Sonoran and Transition Zones of the desert ranges of southern 
Nevada and adjoining portion of California." (Osgood) 

Walker Pass Pocket Mouse.- — Perognathus xanthonotus 
Grinnell. 
Somewhat like olivaceus but smaller. Upperparts ochrace- 
ous buff to cream buff, slightly darkened on dorsal region 
with black-tipped hairs, sides clearer buff; ears, inside and 
out, sparsely clothed with white hairs; white spot at base 
of ear conspicuous ; tail pencillate, above cream buff, darker 
toward tip, below white; feet white; underparts white. 
Total length, 6.8 inches; tail vertebras, 3.4 inches; hind foot, 
.9 inch. Found in the tree yucca belt, between Upper and 
Lower Sonoran Zones, at the southern end of the Sierra 
Nevada, Kern County, California. 

White-eared Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus alticola Rhoads. 
Resembling olivaceus but slightly smaller. Color as in 
olivaceus; lateral line indistinct, ears white inside and out. 
Total length, 6.6 inches; tail vertebrse, 3.5 inches; hind foot, 
.88 inch. Found only in San Bernardino Mountains, San 
Bernardino County, California. 

Northwest Pocket Mouse.— Perognathus lordi lordi (Gray). 
Resembling parvus in the gray phase; size large; tail long; 
color dark. Upperparts pale slaty buff, with heavy mixture 
of black; tail as in parvus; underparts buffy with white 
spots on pectoral and inguinal regions. Total length, 7.3 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3.9 inches; hind foot, .92 inch. Found 
in "Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones of the plains of 
the Columbia River, Washington, and suitable adjacent 
territory in southern British Columbia." (Osgood) 

Columbian Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus lordi columhianus 
(Merriam). 
Differing from typical lordi in slight cranial characters; 
color as in typical lordi. Total length, ^.2 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 3.7 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. Found in vicinity of 
Pasco, Franklin County, Washington. 

Formosus Group 

Long-tailed Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus formosus Merriam. 
Size large; tail long and tufted; ears large; soles of hind feet 
naked. Upperparts grizzled sepia; sides like back; ears 

306 



POCKET MOUSE 



blackish ; spot below ear indistinct ; feet white ; tail mixed 
buff and dusky above, darker at tip, below buffy; under- 
parts white. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail vertebras, 4.2 
inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "Southwestern 
Utah, southern Nevada, and the adjoining portion of 
California. Lower Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 
Perognathus mesemhriniis Elliot = Perognathus formosus 
according to Grinnell. 

Subgenus Chaetodipus 

Characterized by medium to large size, harsh or spiny 
pelage, naked soles of hind feet. 

Baileyi Group 

Bailey Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus baileyi baileyi Merriam. 
Very large with long, tufted tail, colored like for?nosus. 
Upperparts grizzled grayish buff; underside of tail whitish. 
Total length, 8.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.8 inches; hind 
foot, I.I inches. Found in "South central Arizona and 
thence south into Sonora and northern Lower California, 
Mexico." (Osgood) 

Hispidus Group 

Hispid Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus hispidus hispidus Baird. 
Size large; pelage harsh but not spiny; tail about as long 
as head and body; ^oles of hind feet naked medially. 
Upperparts mixed ochraceous and black; sides almost as 
dark as back; lateral line distinct, ochraceous; ears inside 
dusky, buffy white on margins and outer sides; tail bicolor, 
black above, whitish below; feet white; underparts white. 
Total length, 8.2 inches; tail vertebra, 4 inches; hind foot, 
i.o inches. Found in "Southern and western Texas, north 
to Oklahoma and south into border States of Mexico. 
Lower Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 

Kansas Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus hispidus paradoxus 
(Merriam). 
Like typical hispidus but larger and with softer pelage; 
color duller and paler. Total length, 9 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 1.06 inches. Found in "Upper 
Sonoran Zone of the Great Plains from the Dakotas to 
Texas, westward to base of Rocky Mountains." (Osgood) 

Oklahoma Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus hispidus maximus 
Elliot. 
Resembling typical hispidus but larger in size and brighter 
in color. Upperparts ochraceous heavily mixed with black, 
face without so much black; lateral line bright ochraceous 
buff; inside of ear dusky, outside buffy; feet white; tail 
above blackish brown, below white, sides iDuffy; underparts 

307 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



white. Total length, 9.6 inches; tail vertebras, 4.4 inches; 
hind foot, i.i inches. Found in Cleveland County, Okla- 
homa; limits of range unknown. 

Penicillatus Group 

Desert Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus penicillatus penicillatus 
Woodhouse. 
Size large; tail long, crested, tufted; sole of hind foot naked 
to heel; pelage somewhat soft, no spines on rump; markings 
reduced, color uniform. Upperparts vinaceous buff sprink- 
led with black; sides like back, no lateral line; no conspicu- 
ous markings on face or head; tail above, dusky, below, 
white to tuft; underparts white. Total length, 8.2 inches; 
tail vertebras, 4.4 inches; hind foot, i.o inches. Found in 
"Vicinity of Colorado River from Bunkerville, Nevada to 
Yuma, Arizona, . . . Lower Sonoran Zone. " (Osgood) 

California Desert Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus penicillatus 
angustirostris Osgood. 
Colored like typical penicillatus but smaller. Total length, 
7.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.1 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. 
Found in "Colorado Desert; south to northern Lower Cali-" 
fornia and east to the Colorado River and southwestern 
Arizona, where it meets the range of penicillatus and pricei. 
Lower Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 

Price Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus penicillatus pricei (Allen). 
Resembling typical penicillatus but smaller, pelage harsher, 
more black on upperparts. Total length, 6.9 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.7 inches; hind foot, .9^inch. Found in "South 
central Arizona and Northwestern Mexico, west of the 
wSierra Tvladre." (Osgood) 

Eastern Desert Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus penicillatus ere- 
micus (Mearns). 
Similar to pricei but paler and with softer pelage. Upper- 
parts fawn, lightly sprinkled with black; faint spot at base 
of whiskers; prominent dark area below ears. Total 
length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.3 inches; hind foot, .88 
inch. Found in "Extreme western Texas, thence south 
into north central Mexico east of the Sierra Madre at least 
to La Ventura, Coahuila." (Osgood) 

Stephens Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus stephensi Merriam. 
Resembling penicillatus but very much smaller, very little 
black in pelage. Upperparts uniform pinkish to vinaceous 
buff; underparts white. Total length, 7. i inches; tail verte- 
brcE,'3.8 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. Found in"Mesquite 
Valley, northwest arm of Death Valley, Inyo County, Cal." 
(Osgood) 

Intermedius Group 

Intermediate Pocket^Mouse. — Perognathus intermedius inter- 
medins Merriam. 
Size medium; color dark; markings well defined; weak spmes 

308 



POCKET MOUSE 



on rump. Upperparts drab mixed with black; sides paler 
than back; narrow lateral line, pale fawn; dusky on ears 
and upperside of tail; tail blackish at tip, white on under- 
side, buffy on sides; underparts white with faint buffy wash. 
Total length, 7.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 4.1 inches; hind foot, 
.90 inch. Found in "several scattered localities in the 
Sonoran Zone of Arizona, New Mexico, and northern 
Mexico." (Osgood) 

Gila Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus intermedins phasma 
Goldman. 
Smaller and decidedly paler than typical intermedins. 
Upperparts light buff to pale ochraceous buff thinly mixed 
with black on top of head and back, less black on cheeks, 
sides, and hips: tail above, brownish, below white, pencil 
brownish above and below; underparts white. Total 
length, 6.6 inches; tail vertebras, 3.9 inches; hind foot, .82 
inch. Found in "Desert mountains of extreme southwest- 
ern Arizona and doubtless adjacent parts of Sonora, 
Mexico." (Goldman) 

Short-eared ^California Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus fallax 
fallax Merriam. 
Slightly larger than typical intermedins, darker; rump 
spines heavier. Upperparts bister mixed with black ; lateral 
line pinkish buff; ears of medium size; tail bicolor; under- 
parts creamy white. Total length, 7.7 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 4.2 inches; hind foot, .92 inch. Found in "Extreme 
southwestern California, occupying the region west of the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto ranges and extending south 
into northern Lower California." (Osgood) 

Pallid Pocket Mouse; Pallid Short-eared Pocket Mouse. — 
Perognathus fallax pallidus Mearns. 
Very close to typical fallax in size but paler above ; pelage 
of upperparts light gray at base instead of dark gray ; upper- 
parts with less mixture of black, lateral line pale pinkish 
buff; upperside of tail drab; underparts creamy white. 
Total length, 7.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.3 inches; hind 
foot, .96 inch. Found in California in the Lower Sonoran 
Zone on the "east slope of main mountain divides in San 
Diego, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties." (Grin- 
nell) 

Califomicus Group 

Great California Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus femoralis 
fern oralis Allen. 
Size very large; tail long, crested, tufted; ears large and 
elongate; pelage harsh, spines on rump and flanks; color 
dark. Upperparts bister, heavily mixed with intense black ; 
rich buffy lateral line; tail bicolor; underparts soiled whitish, 
with or without buffy suffusion. Total length, 9,0 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5.0 inches; hind foot, i.i inches. Found 
in "a few localities in San Diego County, in extreme south- 

309 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



em California, and the adjoining part of Lower California." 
(Osgood) 

California Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus californicus californi- 
ciis Merriam. 
Smaller than typical femoralis, but similar to it in charac- 
ters of large ear and spiny rump and flanks. Color about 
as in femoralis. Total length, 7.7 inches; tail vertebras, 
4.1 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "Vicinity of San 
Francisco Bay and south to Bear Valley, San Benito County, 
where it meets the range of its subspecies dispar. ' ' (Osgood) 

Allen Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus californicus dispar Os- 
good. 
Resembling typical californicus but pelage softer, larger, 
and paler. Upperparts bister; lateral line pinkish buff; tail 
bicolor; underparts buffy white. Total length, 8.5 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 4.7 inches; hind foot, 1.04 inches. Found in 
"Coast valleys of California from San Bernardino to San 
Benito County and north along the foothills of the west 
slope of the Sierras to Placer County." (Osgood) 

Kern Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus californicus ochrus Osgood. 
Resembling dispar but much paler. Upperparts pinkish 
buff mixed with dusky to produce general effect of ecru 
drab; lateral line pale pinkish buff; feet white; tail above, 
light brown, below, white; underparts creamy white. Total 
length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebras, 4.5 inches; hind foot, i 
inch. Found in California in the "Lower Sonoran Zone 
in the southern San Joaquin Valley, west to Cuyama Valley 
and north to Alcalde, Fresno County." (Grinnell) 

Spinatus Group 

Spiny Pocket Mouse. — Perognathus spinatus spinatus (Mer- 
riam. 
Size medium; pelage harsh, with large conspicuous spines 
on rump and scatteringly on flanks and sides as far as shoul- 
ders; tail of medium length, crested; ears small and rounded; 
lateral line reduced or absent. Upperparts drab brown, 
hairs black-tipped; sides lighter than back; ears dusky; 
tail pale brown above, whitish below; underparts buffy 
white. Total length, 7.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; 
hind foot, .88 inch. Found in "Desert region of southern 
California and northern Lower California." (Osgood) 

******* 
The Pocket Mice are beautiful little rodents well charac- 
terized by their mouse size and their external, hair-lined cheek- 
pockets. The only other North American rodents with ex- 
ternal cheek-pockets are much larger (rat size), and will not be 
confused with Perognathus. 

These Mice are dwellers on the plains or deserts and are 
never found in dense forests, although they do occur, to some 

310 



POCKET MOUSE 



extent, in dry, open forests in the Southwest. They are bur- 
rowing Mice and are found in greatest abundance where loose 
soil or sand makes burrow construction easy. The burrows 
are made only as homes and the Pocket Mice come forth at 
night to run about like other Mice, not spending the greater 
part of their existence underground like another pocketed 
rodent, the Pocket Gopher. 

Pocket Mice are strictly nocturnal and over much of the 
range of the group this habit is a decided advantage. 
Although a few forms reach well up on the cooler prairies, 
the group is typically Sonoran in its distribution, and the 
greatest number of species is found on hot, arid plains or 
stark desert tracts where a hot sun makes daylight activity a 
heavy drain upon mammal activity. Some of the mammals 
of these areas are diurnal and withstand heat and dryness 
successfully, but Perognathus avoids these features by coming 
out only after sundown. Most of the Pocket Mice are also 
of light coloration, sandy grays or light browns and buffs, 
which is an adaptation to desert conditions. 

The presence of Pocket Mice is usually easily detected by 
their burrows and their paths or runways over the sand. • In a 
grassy country these may not be so obvious, but in sandy, 
desert sections the mouse "sign" is conspicuous. The bur- 
rows are often plugged with sand a short distance in from the 
entrance to keep out snakes, light, or heat, perhaps all external 
disturbances. These Mice are rather social in habit and a 
hummock of sand may be honeycombed by interior workings, 
with several external openings. Tracks radiating out from 
the holes indicate the presence of several animals and inspec- 
tion each morning will show that there has been great activity 
the night before. 

The cheek-pouches are used for storing seeds and hold a very 
sizable collection. The animal picks up seeds and grains of 
all sizes, some of which are very tiny, and carries them to an 
underground storehouse. Despite the fact that most of the 
food these Mice eat is very dry, they are capable (at least 
the desert species are) of going indefinitely without water. 
Pocket Mice are easily tamed and make interesting pets, 
although because of their nocturnal habits they are difficult 
to observe. 

The number of young varies from four to seven but is usu- 

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FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



ally four or five. Several litters may be raised in a year over 
most of the range of the genus, although the northern forms 
probably rear but one family a season. 

While most of the species of Pocket Mice are common 
mammals in their respective ranges, there are forms of this 
genus which are among the rarest of the North American 
rodents. For some unknown reason the distribution of these 
particular creatures is very local and only at long intervals are 
specimens taken. Such a form is the Pacific Pocket Mouse, 
Perognathus pacificus, one of the smallest of rodents. 

Genus Dipodomys^ 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, {j ; Premolars \; Molars,f = 20. 

Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys agilis 

and related forms 

Names. — Kangaroo Rat; Pocket Rat. Plate XXVI. 

General Description. — A small Rat with elongated hind 
legs and short forelegs ; hallux greatly reduced or absent ; long, 
tufted tail; rather robust body; large head; large eyes; rounded 
ears; external, fur-lined cheek-pockets; long, soft pelage; 
distinctive and attractive color pattern ; progression by means 
of kangaroo-like hops, the small forelegs not touching the 
ground; hind feet and toes furred on under surface; nocturnal 
in habit. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not very 
great. 

Upperparts. — Dusky cinnamon-buff; sides clearer in tone 
than back and meeting white of underparts in a sharp line; 
pelage slate-gray basally ; blackish patch at base of whiskers on 
each side, joined over the nose by a dusky crescentic bar; eyelids 
blackish; buffy white area between eye and dark whisker- 
patch, and a light spot over eye; a silky white patch of hairs 
semi-concealed at posterior base of ear; ear blackish brown, 
with white spot at anterior base; longer whiskers blackish, 
shorter whiskers whitish; thigh marked by a sharp band of 

^ No recent revision of this genus has been published, but the reader 
is referred to A Geographical Study of the Kangaroo Rats of California by 
Joseph Grinnell, Univ. of California Publication in Zoology, Vol. 24, No. 
I, pp. 1-124, 1922. This paper gives full data on more than half of the 
forms treated in this handbook. 

312 



KANGAROO RAT 



white which is continuous with white of underparts; tail 
marked by four sharply distinct stripes, a blackish dorsal and 
a blackish ventral stripe, and two white lateral stripes; 




Fig. 63. • Kangaroo Rat 

a white ring at base of tail; a dark brownish tuft on end of 
tail; feet white; blackish stripe on plantar surface. 
Underparts. — pure white. 




Fig. 64. 



Head of Kangaroo Rat to show external cheek- 
pockets 



Immature pelage very much like that of adults, but grayer 
above and lacking some of the bright color tones. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 11.7 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.2 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. 

313 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Geographical Distribution. — Warmer zones of western 

North America. 

Food. — Principally seeds, and some grains; green foliage 
sometimes eaten. 

Enemies. — vSnakes, Owls, Foxes, Coyotes, Weasels, Badgers, 
Bobcats, and other small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Dipodomys 

The pattern of coloration as just described is quite constant 
throughout the genus, most of the variation being in color or 
intensity of shade, size, presence or absence of the "great" 
toe, and in cranial characters. 

Agilis Group 

Gambel Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys agilis agilis Gambel. 
As described above, normally five-toed. Found in "South- 
ern California, almost altogether on its Pacific slope, from 
northern Santa Barbara County southeast through Ven- 
tura, Los Angeles and Orange counties into western San 
Bernardino and western Riverside counties as far as the 
San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains. Altitudinal 
range, close to sea-level up to 7500 feet. Life-zone,_ chiefly 
Upper vSonoran, but extends locally up into Transition and 
down into Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) Plate XXVL 

Dulzura Kangaroo Rat,^ — Dipodomys agilis simidans (Aler- 
riam). 
Resembling typical agilis but smaller and darker in general 
coloration. Upperparts dusky pinkish cinnamon. Total 
length, 1 1.4 inches; tail vertebrce, 6.9 inches; hind foot, 1.7 
inches. Found on "The Pacific slope of San Diego County, 
probably extending south into Lower California. Alti- 
tudinal range, from sea-level up to 3000 feet. Life-zone, 
Upper Sonoran, ranging locally down into Lower Sonoran." 
(Grinnell) 

Cabezon Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys agilis cahezona (Mer- 
riam). 
Smaller than typical agilis, with dark markings reduced, 
and paler in coloration. Upperparts light pinkish cinna- 
mon. Total length, 11.3 inches; tail vertebrse, 6.8 inches; 
hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found on "The desert slopes of the 
coastal mountains of southern California, from Cabezon, 
Riverside County, south through eastern San Diego County 
to, and probably beyond, the Mexican line. Altitudinal 
range, 1700-3500 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran and 
upper edge of Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

314 



KANGAROO RAT 



Walker Basin Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys agilis perplexus 

(Merriam). 
Larger than typical agilis, with larger ear and paler colora- 
tion. Upperparts with less dusky on sides and facial areas. 
Total length, 12.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 7.4 inches; hind 
foot, 1.8 inches. Found in "The mountain ranges and 
included valleys lying around the southern end of the San 
Joaquin Valley. Recorded from Trout Creek, toward head 
of South Fork of Kern River, in Tulare County, southwest 
through the Tehachapi and Tejon country to head of Piru 
Creek, in Ventura County. Altitudinal range, 2400 to 
6500 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Santa Cruz Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys venustus zemistus 
(Merriam). 
Similar to agilis but darker ; ear larger ; tail longer. Upper- 
parts cinnamon-brown; sides paler. Total length, 12.6 
inches; tail vertebras, "j.S inches; hind foot, 1.84 inches. 
Found in "Chiefly the Santa Cruz Mountain region, in 
other words the area south from San Francisco to Monterey 
Bay and lying west of the Santa Clara Valley and the south 
arm of San Francisco Bay; but the race also occurs, east of 
the Santa Clara Valley, on Mount Hamilton, and southeast 
to northern end of Gabilan Range. Altitudinal range, from 
near sea-level to at least 4000 feet. Life-zone, Upper 
Sonoran, entering the Transition locally." (Orinnell) 

Santa Lucia Mountain Kangaroo Rat.- — Dipodomys leniistus 
sanctihicicc (Grinnell). 
Resembling typical venustus but slightly paler and less 
deeply cinnamon on dorsal area. ^ Total length, 12. i 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.2 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. 
Found in- "The Santa Lucia Mountain region, namely the 
mountainous area of west-central California lying between 
the Salinas Valley and the seacoast, and between Monterey 
Bay and San Luis Obispo. Altitudinal ranee, 900 to 5900 
feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran, entering the Transition 
locally." (Grinnell) 

Elephant-eared Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys elephantinus 
(Grinnell). 
Size large; ears very large; tail long; toes five in number; 
color most like perplexus. Total length, 13 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 7.9 inches; hind foot, 1.85 inches. Found on 
"The chaparral-covered slopes of the southern part of the 
Gabilan Range, in the vicinity of the Pinnacles, in San 
Benito and Monterey counties. Altitude of occurrence so 
far as yet known, about 1300 feet. Life-zone, Upper 
Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Microps Group 

Small-faced Kangaroo 'Rat.— Dipodomys microps microps 
(Merriam). 
Size small; face narrow; ears small; toes five in number; 

315 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



pale buffy in coloration; dark markings reduced. Total 
length, 10.5 inches; tail vertebree, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.64 
inches. Found in "Owens Valley north from Olancha nearly 
to Benton, Mono County; also the Mohave Desert in the 
vicinity of Victorville, San Bernardino County. Altitudinal 
range, 2700-7700 feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran ; reaches 
into lower edge of Upper Sonoran locally." (Grinnell) 

Preble Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys microps prehlei (Goldman). 
Color darker than in typical microps or in levipes. Upper- 
parts near pinkish cinnamon, finely sprinkled with black. 
Total length, 10.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.2 inches; hind 
foot, 1.64 inches. Found in "Plains regions of southeastern 
Oregon and northwestern Nevada." (Goldman) 

Light-footed Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys levipes (Merriam). 
Size medium; face narrow; ear small; toes five in number; 
coloration dusky in tone; dark markings well developed. 
Total length, 11 inches; tail vertebra, 10.3 inches; hind foot, 
1.7 inches. Found in "Territory of moderate altitude ly- 
ing east of Owens Valley, and extending north into Nevada; 
westernmost station, Olancha, Inyo County; southern- 
most, head of Emigrant Canon, Panamint Mountains, 
Inyo County. Altitudinal range, 3600-5300 feet. Life- 
zone, Lower vSonoran in its upper portion." (Grinnell) 

Deserti Group 

Big Desert Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys deserti deserti Stephens. 
Size very large ; toes four in number ; general coloration very 
pale; tail white-tipped and without dark ventral stripe; 
dark facial markings absent ; sole of hind foot without dark 
stripe; pelage very long and silky. Upperparts pale och- 
raceous buffy, with very faint dusky wash. Total length, 
13.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 8 inches; hind foot, 2.1 inches. 
Found in "(in California). — The Colorado and Mohave 
desert regions, from the Mexican line north to Death 
Valley and through Owens Valley on east side at least to 
Alvord, Inyo County (Stephens, 1906, p. 156); west on 
Colorado Desert to Borego Spring, in eastern San Diego 
County, and to Palm Springs and Whitewater, Riverside 
County, and on Mohave Desert to vicinity of Hesperia, 
San Bernardino County, and Olancha, Inyo County. Alti- 
tudinal range, — 200 to 3900 feet. Life-zone, Lower 
Sonoran " (Grinnell) 

Heermanni Group 

Northern California Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni 
calif ornicus (Merriam). 
Size medium; face broad; toes usually four in number; tip 
of tail white; general coloration dark. Resembling agilis 
in coloration, but slightly darker. Total length, 12.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 7.8 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. 
Found in "Northern California, chiefly east of the humid 

316 



KANGAROO RAT 



coast belt and west of the Sacramento and Pit rivers, north 
from San Francisco Bay and the Strait of Carquinez to 
(and beyond) the Oregon line. Altitudinal range, 200 to 
4500 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran and, locally, Transi- 
tion," (Grinnell) 

Lesser California Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni ex- 
imins (Grinnell). 
Resembling californiciis but smaller and with less brightly 
cinnamon-buff coloration; upperparts pinkish buff. Total 
length, 1 1.5 inches; tail vertebrce, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.66 
inches. Found in "The eastern side of the lower Sacra- 
mento Valley, including the Marysviile Buttes, from the 
vicinity of Red Bluff, Tehama County, southeast to Lime- 
kiln, Eldorado County. Altitudinal range, 200 to 1200 
feet. Life-zone, Upper and Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Heermann Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni heermanni 
Le Conte. 
Closely resembling calif ornicus except for presence of five 
toes instead of four, and the usual absence of white tip to 
tail. Total length, 11.7 inches; tail vertebrce, 7.2 inches; 
hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found on "West base of central 
Sierra Nevada, at least from Carbondale, Amador County, 
south to Coulterville, Mariposa County. Altitudinal range, 
500 to 3200 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran (lower edge of 
Transition locally)." (Grinnell) 

Tulare Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni tularensis 
(Merriam). 
Paler than heermanni which it resembles externally; upper- 
parts warm buff. Total length, 11.8 inches; tail vertebra, 
7 inches; hind foot, 1.66 inches. Found on "the floor of the 
San Joaquin Valley. Extends to the northward not farther 
on the eastern side than the vicinity of Raymond, Madera 
County, but on the western side to near Tracy; south- 
eastward to vicinity of Bakersfield and Buena Vista Lake. 
Altitudinal range, 120 to 3000 feet. Life-zone mostly Lower 
Sonoran, but reaching into Upper Sonoran along the Tem- 
blor Mountains, west of McKittrick, and on the lower west- 
ern slopes of the Sierra Nevada." (Grinnell) 

Merced Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni dixoni (Grin- 
nell). 
Intermediate in color between tularensis and heermanni; 
smaller than either; tip of tail dusky; five toes present. 
Total length, 11.3 inches; tail vertebras, 6.8 inches; hind 
foot, 1.65 inches. Found on "Floor of lower (northern 
end) San Joaquin Valley, on the eastern side of the San 
Joaquin River, in Stanislaus and Merced Counties. Alti- 
tudinal range, below 500 feet. Life-zone Lower Sonoran," 
(Grinnell). 

Berkeley Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermanni berkeleyensis 
(Grinnell j. 
Resembling tularensis but darker; tip of tail dusky. Total 

317 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



length, 12 inches; tail vertebras, 7.2 inches; hind foot, 1.64 
inches. Found on "Presumably the Mount Diablo range 
and adjacent hills to the east of San Francisco Bay. Life- 
zone, Upper Sonoran. Only the one locality, Berkeley, 
represented in the material actually handled. This material 
comprises but 4 specimens." (Grinnell) 

Salinas Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermarini goldmani 
(Merriam). 
Resembling berkeleyensis but ears slightly larger and tail 
less tufted. Total length, 11.6 inches; tail vertebrcc, 7.1 
inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found in "The lower 
(northern) end of the Salinas Valley and adjacent smaller 
valleys and bare hillsides, from the seacoast on Monterey 
Bay just south of the mouth of the Salinas River southeast 
to vicinity of Soledad; east to Bear Valley, in vicinity of 
Cook P. O., in San Benito County, and thence north to 
San Jose, in Santa Clara County. Altitudinal range, sea- 
level up to about 1300 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran." 
(Grinnell) 

Jolon Kangaroo "Rat.— Dipodomys heermanni jolonensis 
(Grinnell). 
Larger than goldmani; tail more tufted; paler on dorsal 
region; resembling tularensis in color. Total length, 12.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.5 inches; hind foot, 1.75 inches. 
Found in "The upper (southern) end of the Salinas Valley 
and tributary valleys, from vicinity of King City and 
Peachtree, in Monterey County, south at least to Creston, 
in San Luis Obispo County; west to Jolon. Altitudinal 
range, 400 to 1500 feet. Life-zone, chiefly Lower Sonoran." 
(Grinnell). 

Carrizo Plain Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys heermamii sivartJii 
(Grinnell). 
Paler than jolonensis and with reduced dark markings. 
Total length, 11.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 7 inches; hind 
foot, 1.74 inches. Found in "The extreme southwestern 
border of the San Joaquin Valley, in vicinity of McKittrick 
and San Eraigdio, and also the Carrizo and Cuyama plains; 
the stations of occurrence lie in extreme southwestern Kern 
County, southeastern San Luis Obispo County, and north- 
ern Santa Barbara County. Altitudinal range, 300 to 2000 
feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Morro Bay Kangaroo Rat.— Dipodomys morroensis (Merriam). 
Darkest of the Kangaroo Rats. Upperparts tawny olive 
washed with blackish; white hip-stripe incomplete or absent; 
tail weakly tufted, lateral white tail stripes very narrow. 
Total length, 11.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 7 inches;_hind foot, 
1.7 inches. Found in "Sandy ground in the immediate 
vicinity of Morro Bay, San Luis Obispo County. Area of 
known habitat less than four miles square. Altitudinal 
range, sea-level up to 250 feet. Life zone. Upper Sonoron." 
(Grinnell) 

318 



KANGAROO RAT 



Mohave Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys mohavensis (Grinnell). 
Size rather large; color pale; five toes present, Upperparts 
ochraceous buff. Total length, 11.6 inches; tail vertebras, 
6.7 inches; hind foot, 1.75 inches. Found in "The Mohave 
Desert region, north into the lower end of Owens Valley as 
far as the vicinity of Lone Pine, south into Antelope Valley, 
in extreme northern Los Angeles County, and to Hesperia, 
San Bernardino County, east through the Providence and 
New York mountains, and west over the Walker and Kelso 
passes into the Kern River basin as far as Isabella, Kern 
County. Altitudinal range, 2500 to 5500 feet. Life-zone, 
Lower Sonoran, in its upper portion." (Grinnell) 

Pale-faced Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys leucogenys (Grinnell). 
Larger and darker colored than mohave7isis; tail more 
heavily haired ; light cheek areas pale grayish white. Total 
length, 12 inches; tail vertebras, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.8 
inches. Found in "The territory lying southeast of Mono 
Lake and in the head of Owens Valley, thence southward, 
along the west side of Owens Valley, as far as the vicinity of 
Independence. Altitudinal range, 3900 to 7300 feet. Life- 
zone, Upper Sonoran and, at least at the north. Transition." 
(Grinnell) 

Panamint Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys panaminlinus (Mer- 
riam) . 
vSize rather large; five toes normally present; general colora- 
tion dark, slightly paler than in agilis. Total length, 12 
inches; tail vertebra?, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found 
in "The highest parts of the northern section of the Pana- 
mint Mountains, in the vicinity of Jackass Spring. Area of 
known habitat about 6 by 8 miles. Altitudinal range, 6000 
to 7000 feet. Life-zone, Upper Sonoran and lower edge of 
Transition." (Grinnell) 

Stephens Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys stephensi (Merriam). 
vSize medium ; five toes present ; ear small ; color as in agilis. 
Total length, 11.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.9 inches; hind 
foot, 1.68 inches. Found in "San Jacinto Valley and vicin- 
ity, western Riverside County and extreme southern San 
Bernardino County. Altitudinal range, 1 100-1600 feet. 
Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Giant Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ingens (Merriam). 

Size very large ; five toes present ; face broad ; tail relatively 
short; ear proportionally small; coloration as in tularensis. 
Total length, 13.2 inches; tail vertebras, 7.4 inches; hind 
foot, 2.0 inches. Found in "A narrow strip of semiarid, 
more or less level territory along the southwestern border of 
the San Joaquin Valley, including also the nearby Carrizo 
Plain and Cuyama Valley. Recorded north to mouth of 
Panoche Creek, in western Fresno County, and south to 
Cuyama Valley, in southern San Luis Obispo County and 
extreme northern Santa Barbara County. Altitudinal 
range, 500-2500 feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

319 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Spectabilis Group 

Large Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys spectabilis spectabilis 
Merriam. Plate XXVI. 
Size very large; tail very long, tipped with white; colora- 
tion rich; toes four in number. Upperparts ochraceous 
buff, sprinkled with black; sides brighter than back. Total 
length, 14 inches; tail vertebras, 8.5 inches; hind foot, 2.1 
inches. Found in western Texas east to eastern edge of 
the Pecos Valley, north into Arizona and New Mexico. 

Bailey Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys spectabilis baileyi Goldman. 
Larger than typical spectabilis, color slightly paler. Upper- 
parts pinkish buff, sprinkled with black, brightest and 
clearest on sides; tail pure black all around near tip, tip 
white. Total length, 15.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 11.2 inches; 
hind foot, 2.3 inches. Found from northwestern New 
Mexico to western Texas. 

Phillipsii Group 

Loring Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys elator Merriam. 

Size medium; toes four in number; ears small; black facial 
markings well defined. Upperparts clay color, sprinkled 
with dark-tipped hairs. Total length, 11. 6 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 6,8 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in northern 
Texas. 

Merriami Group 

Merriam Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys merriami merriami 
Meams. 
vSize small; four toes present; tail with dusky tuft, dorsal 
and ventral stripes present ; plantar stripe present but pale. 
Upperparts light ochraceous buff, sprinkled with dusky in 
mid-dorsal region. Total length, 9.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 
5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.54 inches. Found in "the Mohave 
Desert region. Ranges north in Inyo County through 
Death Valley, and through Owens Valley as far as Inde- 
pendence; west, in Kern County, over the pass at the head 
of Kelso Creek and down into the valley of the South Fork 
of the Kern River as far as Weldon; south, along the 
Colorado River, as far as Blythe; east into Nevada and 
across the Colorado River into Arizona. Altitudinal 
range, — 200 to 7000 feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." 
(Grinnell) 

El Paso Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys merriami ambiguus 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical merriami, but ears smaller, tail shorter, 
and hind feet larger. Upperparts buffy drab, mixed with 
black-tipped hairs, darkest on rump, brightest on sides. 
Total length, 9.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.3 inches; hind foot, 
1.3 inches. Found in the vicinity of El Paso, Texas. 

320 



KANGAROO RAT 



San Bernardino Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys merriami parvus 
(Rhoads). 
Slightly smaller than typical merriami; coloration grayer; 
pelage less silky; black markings on face and tail better de- 
veloped. Total length, 9.3 inches; tail vertebrce, 5.4 inches; 
hind foot, 1.44 inches. Found in "The San Bernardino 
and San Jacinto valleys, on the Pacific slope of southern 
California in San Bernardino and Riverside counties. 
Northernmost station, Cajon Wash; southernmost, Valle- 
vista. Altitudinal range, 1000 to 1800 feet. Life-zone, 
Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Allied Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys merriami simiolus 
(Rhoads). 
Closely resembling typical merriami, but slightly smaller 
and paler. Total length, 9.6 inches; tail vertebras, 5.8 
inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found in "the Colorado 
Desert. Ranges northwest as far as Cabezon, in San 
Gorgonio Pass; west as far as La Puerta and Vallecito, in 
eastern San Diego County; north, along the Colorado River 
nearly to the vicinity of Palo Verde; east to the Colorado 
River, and beyond in the vicinity of Yuma; south across the 
Mexican line, Altitudinal range, 180 to 3500 feet. Life- 
zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Tipton Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides 
(Merriam). Plate XX VL 
Smaller than typical merriami; pelage coarser ; less ochrace- 
ous on dorsal area; dark facial markings blacker; dark tail 
stripes broader and blacker. Total length, 9.3 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 5.6 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found on 
"The floor of the southeastern (upper) side and end of the 
San Joaquin Valley, from Tipton, Tulare County, south to 
Caliente Wash, Kern County, and west to north side of 
Buena Vista Lake. Altitudinal range, 250 to 600 feet. 
Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Fresno Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys nitratoides exilis (Mer- 
riam). 
Smaller than typical nitratoides but similar to it in general 
characters; darker in color; upperparts snuff-brown; more 
dusky on face. Total length, 8.6 inches; tail vertebrce, 5.1 
inches; hind foot, 1.32 inches. Found in "So far as now 
known, only a small portion of the east side of the San 
Joaquin Valley north of Tulare Lake, in the immediate 
vicinity of Fresno. Altitude of Fresno district, about 300 
feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Short-nosed Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys nitratoides brevinasus 
(Grinnell). 
Slightly paler and more ochraceous than typical nitratoides. 
Total length, 9.5 inches; tail vertebras, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 
1.4 inches. Found on "The floor of the west side of the 
San Joaquin Valley, from near the mouth of Panoche 
Creek, in western Fresno County, south to near mouth of 

321 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



San Emigdio Creek, in south v/estem Kern County. Alti- 
tudinal range, 175 to 600 feet. Life-zone, Lower Sonoran." 
(Grinnell) 

Ordii Group 

Ord Kangaroo Rat.' — Dipodomys ordii ordii Woodhouse. 

Size medium; five toes present; tail medium; upperparts 
deep ochraceous buff, sprinkled lightly with black; black 
markings not very extensive. Total length, 9.6 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found 
from Texas north through Arizona and New Mexico. 

Columbian Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii columhianus 
(Merriam). Plate XXVL 
Size small; five toes present; face broad; ears blackish; 
blackish facial markings present; general coloration cinna- 
mon-buff; tail relatively short; plantar stripe gray; con- 
spicuous white spot over eye and at posterior base of ear. 
Total length, 9.3 inches; tail vertebras, 5.2 inches; hind 
foot, 1.5 inches. Found in "the northern portion of the 
Great Basin area of the western United States, and might 
be expected to occur generally over the lower sagebrush 
levels in the elevated northeastern comer of California. . . . 
Life-zone, Upper Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Mono Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii monoensis (Grinnell). 
Resembling columhianus but paler; dark markings restricted, 
white extensive; lateral white tail stripes as broad as dorsal 
dark stripe. Upperparts pinkish buff. Total length, 9.3 
inches; tail vertebra, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.35 inches. 
Found in "The sagebrush fiats at the extreme head of 
Owens Valley. Altitudinal range, 5300-5640 feet. Life- 
zone, Upper Sonoran." (Grinnell) 

Utah Kangaroo Rat.^ — Dipodomys ordii utahensis (Merriam). 
Resembling montanus but hind foot smaller and coloration 
more drab. Upperparts near clay color. Total length, 
10.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.9 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 
Found in Weber County, Utah. 

Chapman Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii chapmani 
(Mearns). 
Upperparts cinnamon-buff; sides clearer and brighter; 
plantar stripe well developed. Total length, 10.2 inches; 
tail vertebras, 5.5 inches; hind foot, 1.44 inches. Found in 
Yavapai County, Arizona. 

Mountain Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii montanus (Baird). 
Upperparts dull buffy ochraceous, sprinkled with black; 
large white spot back of ear; dark tail stripes blackish. 
Total length, 9.8 inches; tail vertebras, 5.5 inches; hind 
foot, 1.6 inches. Found in Costilla County, Colorado. 

Painted Desert Kangaroo 'Rat.— Dipodomys ordii longipes 
(Merriam). 

Upperparts bright ochraceous buff, finely sprinkled with 
black. Total length, 10.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.5 inches; 

322 



KANGAROO RAT 



hind foot, 1.65 inches. Found on the Painted Desert, 
Coconino County, Arizona, and adjacent portions of New- 
Mexico, southeastern Utah, and southwestern Colorado, 

Wyoming Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii luteolus (Gold- 
man). 
Size large (for the group); color pallid; tail long. Upper- 
parts light buff to light ochraceous buff. Total length, 10.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.65 inches. 
Found in "Wyoming, southeastern Montana, and the upper 
part of the Green River Valley in northwestern Colorado." 
(Goldman) 

Richardson Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys ordii richardsoni 
(Allen). 
Paler colored than montanus, smaller than luteolus; upper- 
parts pale buffy ochraceous, sprinkled with black. Total 
length, 10.4 inches; tail vertebra, 5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.6 
inches. Found in Oklahoma, western Texas, eastern New 
Mexico, Colorado, northeastern Utah and Wyoming. 

Compactus Group 

Padre Island Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys compactus True. 
Size small, color pale, dark markings nearly obsolete. Up- 
perparts pale buffy gray; sides clearer in tone; no conspic- 
uous dark markings. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebrce, 
4 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. Found on Padre Island, 
Cameron County, Texas. 

Sennett Kangaroo Rat. — Dipodomys sennetti (Allen). 

Slightly larger than compactus and darker; no conspicuous 
black markings. Upperparts cinnamon-buff, sides clearer 
in tone. Total length, 10.45 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.25 
inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found in southern Texas, 
north of Brownsville. 



Pocket Rats should not be confused with any other rodents 
for they are unique in the possession of the following combina- 
tion of characters; large mouse or small rat size; external, fur- 
lined cheek-pouches; robust body; long, tufted tail; elongated 
hind legs and weak forelegs; long silky pelage; and beautiful 
color pattern. They are undoubtedly the handsomest of 
North American rodents and are far removed from the mental 
picture brought to the mind of the average person by the word 
Rat. Irreproachable habits, gentle disposition and a cleanly 
mode of life make fascinating pets of these dainty mammals. 

Pocket Rats are found in very much the same environment 
as Pocket Mice, — prairies, arid plains, and deserts. The 
greatest number of species and individuals is to be encountered 

323 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



in the dry Southwest. Most of the species prefer sandy tracts 
or regions where dry, loose soil prevails, although some 
frequent localities of hard, gravelly soil. None live in heavily 
timbered districts. They burrow extensively and spend the 
daytime underground. The large eye of the Pocket Rat is one 
of the characters which favors a nocturnal activity. 

The burrows are large, cleanly cut and often placed with no 
attempt at concealment. The earth immediately about the 
burrow entrances may be so undermined by subterranean 
passages and chambers that one breaks through upon 
approach, and generally an abundance of tiny tracks radiate 
out from the holes or collect into two or three main paths and 
lead away to nearby sources of food or to neighboring burrows. 
Frequently the mark of the long tail is seen in the sand. 

Where the sand has drifted into low dunes or there are slight 
eminences, these Rats make their homes at the base of such a 
rise and run the holes in horizontally. Clumps of brush serve 
to hold the sand and create little islands of stationary material 
and these are favorite spots for burrows. During the day the 
entrances may be blocked up from within. 

Pocket Rats seem to be social by nature and the signs 
usually indicate the presence of several individuals about each 
series of burrows. 

The cheek-pouches are used as food containers and in them 
the rodents carry the seeds which they take into the burrows 
to be stored up or eaten. The animals do not hibernate. 
They get along very well without water, in spite of the fact 
that their food is very dry, since they seldom, or never eat 
green vegetation. A Pocket Rat that I had as a pet lived for 
several months on dry wheat and paid no attention to water, 
which was removed from the cage after the first few days. 

The kangaroo-like hind legs are used as one might imagine 
and the animals progress in leaps in which the forelegs take no 
part. These leaps may be of only a few inches or up to six 
feet or more. My pet used the forefeet only to hold food and 
hopped about on the hind feet entirely. He was exceedingly 
quick and left the floor as if released by a spring. He was 
very particular about his long tail and, if in handling him his 
tail was grasped, became very indignant. Every time he 
washed himself the operation closed with passing his tail 
rapidly between his forepaws and lips. He seemed to inspect 

324 



DWARF POCKET RAT 



it carefully for any injury and I suspect that the tail is very 
important in the balance and locomotion of the Kangaroo Rats, 
Over most of the range of this genus probably two or more 
families are reared a season. Young may be encountered 
in almost every month of the year wherever winter is not 
severe, and the number in a litter varies from three to five. 

Genus Microdipodops 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, |-; Molars, f =20. 

Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops megacephalus 

and related forms 

Names. — Dwarf Pocket Rat ; Pigmy Pocket Rat ; Kangaroo 
Mouse. 

General Description. — In general appearance like a large, 
heavy-bodied Pocket Mouse (Perognathus); head large; hind 
feet long; tail more than half total length; temporal region of 
skull greatly inflated; hind feet with five toes, soles densely 
haired ; habit nocturnal. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation slight. 

Upperparts. — Yellowish brown finely mixed with black- 
tipped hairs and slightly tinged with olive; pale ochraceous 
wash on sides; tail above like back except for blackish on 
terminal third; blackish crescent at base of whiskers; buffy 
spot back of each ear. 

Underparts. — White with wash of pale ochraceous on belly. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 6 
inches; tail vertebras, 3.2 inches; hind foot, i inch. 

Geographical Distribution.^ — Arid section of Great Basin 
district where states of Oregon, Nevada, and California 
meet, south as far as Mono County, Calif., east to Elko 
County, Nev. 

Food. — Seeds and grains. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Owls, Foxes, Skunks, Coyotes, Weasels, 
etc. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Microdipodops 

Nevada Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops megacephalus 
megacephalus Merriam. 
As described. Found in Elko County, Nevada. 

325 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Oregon Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops megacephalus 
Oregon us Merriam. 
Resembling typical megacephalus, but "tail longer; pelage 
less fluffy, upperparts more olivaceous and less conspic- 
uously lined with black-tipped hairs; underparts white — 
buffy wash less marked; a whitish streak usually present 
along underside of tail; skull smaller." (Merriam) Total 
length, 6 inches; tail vertebras, 3.5 inches; hind foot, i inch. 
Found in the Alvord Desert region, Harney County, Oregon, 
and Modoc County, California. 

Pale Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops pallidus Merriam. 
"Slightly larger than megacephalus; pelage long, soft, lax 
and fluffy; tail decidedly longer and without dark tip; body 
much paler. Color. — Upperparts pale buffy fulvous, finely 
and inconspicuously lined with dark-tipped hairs; under- 
parts, including sides of nose, lower sides of face, legs, feet, 
and underside of tail white; upperside of tail buffy through- 
out without dark tip." (Merriam) Total length, 6.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4 inches; hind foot, i inch. Found in 
the region of the Sink of the Humboldt and Carson, Church- 
ill County, Nevada. 

California Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops calijornicus 
Merriam. 
Equal to megacephalus in size but with longer tail and hind 
foot, more compact pelage and snow white head markings 
and underparts. Upperparts olivaceous finely sprinkled with 
black; sides of nose, spot over eye, patch back of ear clear 
white; tail above buffy with blackish near tip, below white; 
underparts clear white. Total length, 6.4 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 3.6 inches; hind foot, i inch. Found in Sierra Valley, 
Plumas County, California. 

Mono Dwarf Pocket Rat. — Microdipodops polionotus Gv'irmeW. 
Most like pallidus but even paler in color; pelage shorter 
and less fluffy, smaller and with shorter tail. Upperparts 
cartridge-buff with faint sprinkling of black-tipped hairs, 
especially on rump; ashy on sides of face and rump; con- 
spicuous white spot at base of and behind each ear; 
underparts clear white in marked contrast to color of sides. 
Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.3 inches; hind foot, 
.96 inch. Found in Mono County, California (near Benton 
Station, alt. 5200 feet). 



Dwarf Pocket Rats are apparently rare and local in distri- 
bution. There are comparatively few in museum collections 
and not much has been written about habits. They live in a 
very restricted section where they seem to prefer arid and 
desert conditions. These Rats have been found on sandy, 
sagebrush flats. 

326 



BEAVER 



Joseph Mailliard, in a note in the Journal of Mammalogy, 
February, 1925, writes: 

"This Httle village (Eagleville) lies at the eastern base of 
the Warner Mountains, on the edge of a long strip of meadow 
land that is irrigated from the mountain streams. East of 
this narrow meadow is Middle Lake, which, except for a small 
laguna at its southern extremity, is a lake only in winter and 
spring. The rest of the year it is but a bare expanse of alkali 
sand. East again of the lake is a desert of sand, lava and 
sagebrush that stretches across the close-by state line far into 
Nevada. 

"In this desert, at a point about two miles east of Eagle- 
ville, it was my good fortune to encounter colonies of both the 
Columbian kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ordii columhianus 
(Merriam), and the Oregon kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops 
megacephalus oregonus A-Ierriam. These colonies, which 
appeared to be small ones, were found scattered among the 
low, brush-grown sand dunes and hummocks that cover that 
part of the desert. In walking over the dunes my foot 
frequently broke through the surface into the burrows, many 
of which appeared to be unoccupied. 

"The main reason for supposing that the colonies were 
limited in the number of their respective members was that it 
seldom was found profitable to trap in a colony for more than 
one night before moving the traps to another sand dune. 
Some mornings, however, even when the trap lines had been 
laid out on absolutely fresh ground, there were rodent tracks 
all around and often close up to many of the traps, without a 
single one of them having been sprung or a particle of the 
bait — consisting generally of rolled oats — having been touched, 
but in such cases no change was made in the location of the 
trap line and usually a comparatively fair catch was made the 
following night." 



Family Castoridae. Beavers 

Resembling the Sciuridee but cheek-teeth not rooted, crown 
pattern with re-entrant enamel folds instead of tubercles; 
mandible heavy; size large; form thickset; tail broad, flat, 
and scaly; habit aquatic. 

327 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Genus Castor 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, }; Molars, f = 20. 

Beaver. — Castor canadensis 

and related forms 

Names. — Beaver; American Beaver. Plate XXVII. 

General Description. — Size very large, largest of North 
American rodents; form robust; tail broad, flat, scaly; ears 
short; five toes on fore and hind feet; hind feet webbed, with 




Fig. 65. Beaver 

claw of second toe double or cleft ; anal glands present ; pelage 
composed of long, hard hairs and soft short underfur; color 
brown; habit aquatic. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike ; no very great seasonal variation. 

Upperparts rich dark brown, the long hairs chestnut-brown, 
•:he underfur without any reddish tinge ; head brighter ; incisors 
orange; underparts somewhat lighter in tone than upperparts 
and lacking the chestnut tinge. 

Immature pelage. — Practically as in adults, perhaps a little 
lighter in general tone. 

In worn or summer pelage the long hard hairs may be 
so scanty that the pelage seems to be made up of the duller 
and browner underfur. 

328 



BEAVER 



Measurements. — No very great difference in size between 
sexes. Total length, 43 inches; tail vertebrae, 16 inches long 
by 4.5 inches broad; hind foot, 7 inches; weight, 30 pounds to 
maximum of 68 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America from 
Alaska and Labrador to the Rio Grande. 

Food. — Bark, twigs, even wood, of deciduous trees, espe- 
cially aspen, cottonwoods and willows; also other vegetable 
matter such as roots of aquatic plants, grass, etc. 

Enemies. — Bear, Wolf, Fisher, Otter, Lynx and Wolverine. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Castor 

Canadian Beaver.^ — Castor canadensis canadensis Kuhl. 

As described above. Found in northern North America 
from nearly 70° north in Yukon and 58° in Labrador, south 




Fig. 66. Forefoot of Beaver 

to about 35° in eastern and central states, and 45° in the 
Rocky Mountain section. 

Vancouver Island Beaver. — Castor canadensis leucodonta Gray. 
Resembling typical canadensis but larger, and general color- 
ation of pelage paler, Upperparts cinnamon-buff. Total 
length, 46 inches; tail vertebrae, 18 inches; hind foot, 8 
inches. Found on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. 

Pacific Beaver. — Castor canadensis pacificus Rhoads. 

Largest of the Beavers; slightly paler than leucodonta. Up- 
perparts dark, glossy, reddish chestnut; underparts seal- 
brown. Total length, 46 inches; tail vertebrce, 14 inches; 
hind foot, 7.4 inches; scaly portion of tail 11.8 by 5 inches. 
Found on the Pacific slope from southern Oregon to Alaska. 

Admiralty Beaver. — Castor canadensis phceus Heller. 

Darker than leucodonta to which it is most closely related. 
Upperparts dark seal-brown, the long hairs almost black, 

329 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



lighter on head and shoulders; rump and base of tail dark 
Vandyke brown; ears black. Total length, 41 inches; tail 
vertebra?, 18 inches; hind foot, 7 inches; scaly portion of tail 
10 by 5 inches. Found on Admiralty Island, Alaska. 

Cook Inlet Beaver. — Castor canadensis helugce Taylor. 

Intermediate between typical canadensis and leuccdonta, 
paler than the latter. Upperparts cinnamon to ochraceous 
tawny. Found in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska, south 
to wStuart Lake, British Columbia. 

Carolina Beaver. — Castor canadensis carolinensis Phoads. 
Larger than typical canadensis, with relatively broader tail. 
Upperparts bright hazel brightening to cirnamon-rufous 
on rump. Total length, 45 inches; scaly portion of tail, 11 




Fig. 67. Tail and hind foot of Beaver 



by 6.3 inches; hind foot, 7.4 inches. Found in North 
Carohna, south to northern Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, 
west to eastern Texas. 

Broad-tailed Beaver; Sonora Beaver. — Castor canadensis 
frondator Mearns. 
Larger, paler, and tail broader than in typical canadensis; 
paler than carolinensis. Upperparts russet, sides wood- 
brown; feet burnt sienna. Total length, 45 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 15 inches; scaly portion of tail, 1 1.4 by 6.2 inches; 
weight, 62 pounds. Found in the southwestern states from 
Mexico north to Wyoming and Montana, not known west 
of about the 115th meridian, 

Rio Grande Beaver. — Castor canadensis mexicanus Bailey. 
"Size medium, colors dull and pale with very little chestnut 
at any season . . . Upperparts dull russet, brightest on crown, 
palest on cheeks and rump." (Bailey) Total length, 43 

330 



Plate XXVII 



Porcupine 




Mu^Krat 






Beaver 






BEAVER 



inches; tail vertebrae, i6 inches; hind foot, 7 inches. Found 
on the Rio Grande drainage of New Mexico and Texas. 

Woods Beaver. — Castor canadensis michiganensis Bailey. 
wSize rather large, "colors very dark, ears and feet black; 
. . . Color . . .in early winter pelage: upperparts dark 
umber brown, brighter, almost 'mahogany brown on head 
and cheeks." (Bailey) Total length, 47 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 19 inches; hind foot, 7.4 inches; weight, 58 pounds. 
Found in Upper Peninsula region of Michigan. 

Missouri River Beaver. — Castor canadensis missoiiriensis 
Bailey. 
vSomewhat smaller than typical canadensis; paler and duller 
brown. Upperparts bright hazel brown; underparts smoky 
gray. Thetype specimen, not full grown, measured, total 
length, 36 inches; tail vertebras, 11 inches; hind foot, 6.8 
inches. Found on the Missouri River drainage from 
Nebraska north and west to Montana. 

Texas Beaver. — Castor canadensis texensis Bailey. 

Large and pale, most like frondator. Found in the region 
drained by the Rio Colorado, eastern Texas. 

Golden Beaver. — Castor siihauratus suhauratus Taylor. 

A large Beaver similar in color to frondator, but darker. 
Upperparts hazel to clay color; underparts sepia. Total 
length, 47 inches; scaly portion of tail, 13 inches long; hind 
foot, 7.8 inches. Found on the drainage of the Tuolumne 
and wSan Joaquin Rivers, California. 

Shasta Beaver. — Castor suhauratus shastensis Taylor. 

Known only from skulls; in cranial characters nearest to 
typical suhauratus. Found in Shasta County, California, 
on the eastern slope of the main chain of the Sierra Nevada. 

Newfoundland Beaver. — Castor ccecator Bangs. 

Resembling typical canadensis but smaller and with marked 
cranial differences. No external characters given by the 
describer. Found in Newfoundland. 

******* 

Although the Beaver is scarce today compared to its abund- 
ance when North America was first settled, it has played such 
an important part in the history of our country and has been 
mentioned so often in literature that to most people it is a 
familiar animal. Fortunately the conservationists are work- 
ing for the rehabilitation of this big rodent and in a few places 
the Beaver is building up its numbers to such an extent that it 
is becoming a common species again. A staple with the trap- 
per and a standard of valuation in barter and exchange, the 
pelt of the Beaver has been sought for centuries and the de- 
mands of the fur trade all but exterminated the animal. 

Industries have depended upon the Beaver for their exist- 

331 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



ence. To get Beaver fur the trappers and fur companies, like 
the Hudson Bay Company, pushed across the continent and 
laid the foundation for a later occupation in force by settlers. 
Other fur-bearers contributed to this motive, but the Beaver 
made up the bulk of the traffic. For years the hat makers 
would use only Beaver fur for felting material of fine hats. 

In literature, the Beaver has been held up as the mirror of 
sagacity, engineering skill, and general all-around industry. 
Whole volumes have been devoted to him alone. As is to be 
expected, not all that has been written of the Beaver is so. 
Several of the best works are cited in the bibliography in the 
back of this field book, and the reader is referred to them for 
the many interesting details of the Beaver's home life. Plate 
XXVIII. 

The Beaver is not peculiar to the New World but has an 
extensive distribution throughout most of the Northern 
Hemisphere. It has become extinct, however, over much of 
its Old World range. The large size, flat, scaly tail, and 
aquatic habit serve as unmistakable characters of 
identification. 

The number of young at a birth varies from two to six, or 
rarely eight. The average number seems to be four, and the 
young are born in April to May, occasionally late in March. 
The young stay with the parents for a year and the known 
facts indicate that Beavers are monogamous and remain 
mated for life. 

Beaver may be active any hour of the twenty-four, but are 
most active from sunset to sunrise, especially in a region where 
they are apt to be molested by enemies. 

Family Cricetidae. Native Rats and Mice 

Form typically rat or mouse-like; molar teeth never more 
than three on a side; molar crown pattern composed of tuber- 
cles arranged in two primary longitudinal rows, or made up 
of angular figures. 

Subfamily Cricetinae 

Molars rooted and with tubercles arranged in two primary 
longitudinal rows. 

332 



PLATE XXVIII 









GRASSHOPPER MOUSE 



Genus Onychomys^ 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, g; Premolars, §; Molars, f = i6. 

Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster 

and related forms. 

Names. — Grasshopper Mouse; Scorpion Mouse. Plate 
XXX. 

General Description. — A rather sturdily- built Mouse, with 
comparatively short tail which is thick and tapering; forefeet 
fairly large, with five tubercles ; hind feet with four tubercles 




Fig. 68. Grasshopper Mouse 

and densely fiirred on sole from heel to tubercles; pelage us- 
ually soft, full and silky; color pattern sharply bicolor, white 
below and colored above ; nocturnal in habit. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts. — Dark drab brown sprinkled with dark brown 
hairs, darkest along dorsal region and top of head; nose gray- 
ish; pure white tufts, rather woolly in character, at bases of 
ears; ears dark brown on front, whitish behind, lined inside 
with white hairs; tail above drab brown for basal two-thirds, 
below whitish, terminal third whitish above and below. 

Underparts. — Clear white in marked contrast to upperparts, 
white reaching up on lower sides and cheeks, and extending 
down on feet; pelage of upperparts blackish slate at base, 
pelage of underparts white at base on chin, throat, and fore- 
legs, blackish slate basally on middle chest and abdomen. 

^ For a full revision of this genus see N. Hollister, Proceedings U. S, 
National Museum, Vol. 47, pp. 427-489, 1914- 

333 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Sometimes occurring as a melanistic phase, glossy brownish 
black above and only slightly lighter below, some of the white 
retained as blotches. 

Immature pelage. — Above dark blackish brown, without 
whitish ear tufts but with conspicuous black markings on front 
of ear; below white. 

Measurements. — Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.7 
inches; hind foot, .88 inch; ear from notch (dry specimen), 
.56 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Western North America, 

Food. — Chiefly insects, such as grasshoppers, crickets, 
scorpions, beetles, larvae, etc., occasionally other Mice; vege- 
tation and seeds. 

Enemies. — Owls, Weasels, Foxes, Coyotes, Wildcats, and 
other small carnivores. Snakes. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Onychomys 
Leucogaster Group 

Maximilian Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster leu- 
cogaster (Wied). 
As described above. Found in "Southern Manitoba, eastern 
North Dakota, northeastern South Dakota, and parts of 
extreme western Minnesota, west to Minot and Fort Clark, 
North Dakota. Transition Zone." (Hollister) 

Audubon Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster mis- 
soiiriensis (Audubon and Bachman). 
Slightly smaller and paler than typical leucogaster. Upper- 
parts dark grayish brown to rich wood-brown, depending on 
season and state of wear; rest of pelage about as in typical 
leucogaster. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1,6 
inches; hind foot, ,8 inch. Found in "Southeastern Alberta, 
southern Saskatchewan, northern and eastern A'lontana, 
western North Dakota, and northeastern Wyoming. North 
to Calgary, Alberta, and Carlton, Saskatchewan; east to 
Glenullin, North Dakota; south up the Missouri River to 
Bozeman, Montana, and up the branches of the Powder and 
Little Missouri Rivers into northeastern Wyoming. Chiefly 
arid Transition." (Hollister) 

Great Plains Grasshopper M-onse.— Onychomys leucogaster 
arcticeps (Rhoads). 
Paler and with more buffy than missouriensis. Upperparts 
light wood-brown washed with pinkish cinnamon over 
posterior dorsal region; ear tufts white, but not in marked 
contrast to rest of pelage because of its light tone, forepart 
of ear brownish ; tail white, with narrow median stripe above, 

334 



GRASSHOPPER MOUSE 




Fig. 



69. Distribution of the subspecies of Onychomys leuco- 
gaster, north of Mexico, after Hollister 



1. Onchomys 

2. Onchomys 

3. Onchomys 

4. Onchomys 

5. Onchomys 

6. Onchomys 

7. Onchomys 

8. Onchomys 
p. Onchomys 

10. Onchomys 
ir. Onchomys 



leucogaster 
leucogasler 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 
leucogaster 

335 



leucogaster 

m.issouriensis 

arcticeps 

fuscogriseus 

brevicaudus 

melanophrys 

fuliginosus 

capitulatus 

ruidoscB 

longipes 

breviauritus 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



brownish for basal two-thirds; underparts clear white. 
Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, 
.85 inch. Found in "Upper Sonoran Great Plains from 
Wyoming and South Dakota to Texas. North to the Big 
Horn River in Wyoming and to the Cheyenne River in 
South Dakota ; east to Bonesteele, South Dakota, and Trego 
County, Kansas; south to Fort Lancaster, Texas; and west 
to Bear River Divide in southwestern Wyoming, Golden 
and Salida, Colorado, and Santa Rosa, New Mexico." 
(Hollister) 

Short-tailed Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster 
brevicaiidus Merriam. 
Darker than arcticeps; smallest subspecies of leucogaster; tail 
short. Upperparts a light wood-brown, rich and glossy, 
darkened on face, head, and back; sides shading to cinna- 
mon; ear tufts white basally, buffy at tips; ears dark brown 
anteriorly, white posteriorly; tail above, grayish brown, 
white-tipped, below, white; underparts pure white. Total 
length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .76 
inch. Found in "Southern Idaho, extreme southwestern 
Wyoming, northwestern Utah, and west across the northern 
half of Nevada into Lassen, Plumas, and Mono Counties, 
California." (Hollister) 

Brown Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster fusco- 
griseus Anthony. 
Resembling brevicaudus but darker in color. Upperparts 
rich, glossy, reddish brown, dark in tone, darkest along 
dorsal region; sides browner; tail above, blackish brown, 
tipped with grayish white, below, white; underparts white. 
Immature pelages very dark, almost black. Total length, 

5.7 inches; tail vertebras, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .JJ inch. 
Found in "Eastern Washington and Oregon, western Idaho, 
and northeastern California. South to Klamath Lake and 
the Madeline Plains." (HolHster) 

Dark-browed Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster 
melanophrys Merriam. 
Darker and richer in color than arcticeps. Upperparts rich 
pinkish-cinnamon to cinnamon-buff, washed with brownish 
along dorsal region and top of head ; eyebrows dark brown ; 
ear tufts pale buffy; ears blackish, edged with white; tail 
above, pale brownish gray, tip and underside white; under- 
parts clear white. Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 

1.8 inches, hind foot .88 inch. Found in "South central 
and southeastern Utah, southwestern Colorado, north- 
eastern Arizona, and northwestern New Mexico. North in 
the Grand River Valley to Fruita, Colorado, and in the Rio 
Grande Valley to northern Costillo County, Colorado. 
West to Kanab, Utah, and Flagstaff, Arizona; east in New 
Mexico to Santa Fe and the Sandia Mountains; south to 
Acoma and the Zuni River." (Hollister) 

336 



GRASSHOPPER MOUSE 



Sooty Grasshopper Mouse. — OnycJiomys leucogaster fiiligi- 
nosus (Merriam). 
Resembling melanophrys, but pelage very dark. Upperparts 
dark blackish brown; sides lighter; ear tufts colored like 
head, not conspicuous; tail blackish brown above, white at 
tip and on underside; underparts white. Total length, 6.4 
inches; tail vertebra, 1.9 inches; hind foot, .86 inch. Found 
in "Lava beds and pinyon and cedar belt, east and northeast 
of San Francisco Mountain, Arizona." (Hollister) 

New Mexico Grasshopper Mouse. — OnycJiomys leucogaster 
ruidoscB (Stone and Rehn). 
Resembling melanophrys but darker and more richly colored. 
Upperparts rich, glossy wood-brown, washed with rich 
cinnamon and finely sprinkled with dark brown; sides 
lighter than back, almost pure cinnamon posteriorly; incon- 
spicuous ear tufts pale cinnamon-brown ; tail above, grayish 
brown, tip and underside whitish, underparts whitish. 
Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebra, 2.0 inches; hind foot, 
.9 inch. Found chiefly in "the mountainous region of 
southeastern Arizona and central and southwestern New 
Mexico. North to Camp Verde, Arizona, and to the 
Manzano Mountains and Las Vegas, New Mexico ; east to 
the Capitan Mountains; south into northern Chihuahua 
and Sonora." (Hollister) 

Arizona Grasshopper Mouse. — OnycJiomys leucogaster capitu- 
latus Hollister. 
Resembling ruidosce but smaller. Upperparts and rest of 
pelage essentially as in ruidosce. Total length, 5.9 inches; 
tail vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, ,88 inch. Found in 
lower end of Prospect Valley (Grand Canyon) and Aubrey 
Valley, Arizona. 

Long-footed Grasshopper Mouse. — OnycJiomys leucogaster 
long! pes (Merriam) . 
"Size large; colors dull; ears larger than in any other sub- 
species of leucogaster. . . . Upperparts drab, darkest on 
middle of back; fmel}^ lined with darker brownish, and with 
a wash of pale cinnamon over lower back and hips; an 
indistinct stripe of cinnamon along sides between color of 
upperparts and white of underparts, from fore legs to base 
of tail ; a blackish spot each side of nose at base of whiskers ; 
ear tufts scant, pale cinnamon color. Tail brown above 
with white tip; whitish below, not sharply bicolor. Under- 
parts white, the hairs of throat and fore legs white to bases. 
There is little difference in the color of adults at any season." 
(Hollister) Total length, 6.6 inches; tail vertebrce, 2.2 
inches; hind foot, .92 inch; ear from notch (dry skin), ,64 
inch. Found in "Central and southern Texas. . . . North 
to Tom Green and Concho Counties, Texas; west to the 
Pecos River; southeast to Rockport and Nueces Bay, 
Texas; south to Victoria, Tamaulipas. Lower Sonoran 
Zone." (Hollister) 

337 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Short-eared Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys leucogaster bre- 
viauritus Hollister. 
Resembling longipes but darker, tail shorter, hind foot 
smaller, and ear smaller. Upperparts (winter) rich blackish 
brown; sides lighter; hips and rump almost pure pinkish 
cinnamon ; gray on nose, cinnamon spots at base of whiskers, 
cinnamon-buff ear tufts; grayish brown on upperside of tail, 
white on tip and underside; underparts white. Summer 
pelage grayish brown above, no conspicuous ear tufts. 
Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebra?, 1.7 inches; hind foot, 
.88 inch; ear from notch (dry skin), .52 inch. Found in 
"Eastern Nebraska, eastern and south-central Kansas, and 
middle Oklahoma. From Neligh, Nebraska, and Fort 
Riley and Neosha Falls, Kansas, west and south to Kinsley, 
Kansas, and to Woodward and Fort Reno, Oklahoma. 
Entirely within the Carolinian and Austroriparian faunas of 
the Austral region." (Hollister) 

Torridus Group 

Differentiated from the leucogaster group by smaller size, 
lighter build, and proportionally longer tail. 

Coues Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys torridus torridus 

(Coues). 
Medium in size, rich reddish brown in color. Upperparts 
from dark pinkish cinnamon, rich and glossy, to wood-brown 
with little red; darkest on back where it is washed with 
blackish brown; palest on nose and cheeks; conspicuous 
white ear tufts ; ear dark brownish on outer side, edged with 
whitish; tail above, grayish brown, tip and underside white; 
underparts pure white; sharp contrast between under and 
upperparts. Ear tufts inconspicuous or wanting in summer 
and fall pelages. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebras, 
2.1 inches; hind foot, .86 inch; ear from notch (dry skin), 
.56 inch. Found "from the Pecos Valley in Texas and south- 
eastern New IVIexico, west across southern New Mexico and 
Chihuahua into southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora. 
North in the Rio Grande Valley to Socorro, New Mexico; 
south to northern Durango." (Hollister) 
Pallid Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys torridus perpallidus 
Mearns. 
Slightly larger than typical torridus and paler in color; ears 
larger. Upperparts light pinkish cinnamon to vinaceous 
buff; finely sprinkled with dark hairs on back; ear tufts not- 
differing much from color of head ; pelage of upperparts slate- 
gray at base. "Tail, feet, and underparts as in torridus, but 
the underfur below very narrowly pale slate, very different 
from the broadly grayish-black underfur of torridus.'^ (Hol- 
lister) Total length, 6.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.3 inches; 
hind foot, .88 inch; ear from notch (dry skin), .63 inch. 

338 



GRASSHOPPER MOUSE 



Found in "Colorado River Valley in western Arizona; east- 
ward along tributary streams to Big Sandy Creek, Signal, 
and Phoenix. Doubtless occurs also in northwestern 
Sonora." (Hollister) 

Desert Grasshopper Mouse.- — Onychomys torridus pulcher 
(Elliot). 
Smallest of the Grasshopper Mice; color very pale. Upper- 
parts pale pinkish cinnamon with very little dark wash along 
back; ear tufts white, conspicuous (winter); rest of pelage 
essentially as in perpallidus except for slightly paler shades. 
Total length, 5.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, 
.78 inch. Found in "Mohave and Colorado Deserts, Cali- 
fornia, and Lower California, Mexico. Known by speci- 
mens from Granite Springs and Needles on the north to 
Seven Wells, Lower California, on the south; and from the 
Colorado River bottoms westward to Antelope Valley and 
through San Gorgonia Pass to Cabezon station." (Hollister) 

Long-tailed Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys torridus longi- 
caudus (Merriam). 
Darker than pulcher; larger than perpallidus, with shorter 
tail, hind foot, and ear. Upperparts and rest of pelage 
essentially as in perpallidus. Total length, 5.6 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 2.0 inches; hind foot, .8 inch; ear from notch (dry 
skin), .52 inch. Found in "Southwestern Utah, north- 
western Arizona north of the Colorado River, southern 
Nevada, and the adjacent desert mountain region of Inyo 
and Mono Counties, California. North in western Nevada 
to Carson Sink ; west in California to Kearsarge Pass and to 
the Argus Mountains." (Hollister) 

Owens Lake Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys torridus clarus 
Hollister. 
Resembling longicaudus, but brighter colored. Upperparts 
from bright pinkish cinnamon to pinkish buff, very little 
sprinkling of darker hairs on back, pelage dark neutral 
gray basally; creamy white ear tufts not very conspicuous; 
tail whitish above and below except for narrow, indistinct 
median stripe of grayish brown for basal two-thirds above; 
underparts white. Total length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Vicinity of Owens 
Lake, Coso Mountains, and Salt Wells Valley, Inyo County, 
California." (Hollister) 

Tulare Grasshopper Mouse; San Joaquin Grasshopper 
Mouse. — Onychomys torridus tularensis Merriam. 
Grayish drab in color. Upperparts from light drab with 
light wash of pinkish to grayish cinnamon, finely sprinkled 
with dark brown ; grayish white ear tufts very inconspicuous ; 
a faint, narrow lateral line of light pinkish buff; tail sharply 
bicolor, grayish brown above, tip, and underside white; 
underparts white; pelage above and below, except on chin 
and throat, gray at base. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .83 inch. Found in "Upper 

339 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



San Joaquin Valley and neighboring foothills and valleys, 
California. North to Little Panoche Creek, San Benito 
County; south to Carriso Plain and Bakersfield." (Hol- 
lister) 
Ramona Grasshopper Mouse. — Onychomys torridus ramona 
(Rhoads). 
Darkest of the torridus group found in the United States. 
Upperparts from blackish brown (winter) to reddish brown 
(summer) ; sides reddish brown ; ear tufts inconspicuous, 
brown and whitish; tail above, blackish brown, tip and 
underside whitish; underparts creamy white. Total length, 
5.6 inches; tail vertebras, 2.0 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. 
Found in "Extreme southwestern California and north- 
western Lower California, Mexico. From San Fernando 
and San Bernardino south into Tecate Valley." (HolHster) 

******* 
The Grasshopper Mice are soft -furred, attractive rodents 
and little apt to be confused with any other Mice. The white 
underparts serve to distinguish them from House Mice and 
most of the Voles, and the proportionally short, thick tail sets 
them off from the White-footed Mice. 

Grasshopper Mice dwell on the plains and open stretches 
and are not found in forests. They have a preference for dry 
regions and reach their greatest abundance in the arid sections 
of the West or the deserts of the Southwest. These Mice live 
in burrows in the ground and in sandy districts one has little 
difficulty in finding their tracks and entrances to subterranean 
workings. As a rule they are more or less closely associated 
with other plains-loving Mice such as Peromysciis and Perog- 
nathus, and a trap set on one of the sandy runaways may take 
all three genera on successive nights. The Scorpion Mice are 
strictly nocturnal. 

There are about four young in a litter and in the southern 
part of their range these Mice have more than one litter a year. 
On the northern part of their range, where the summer season 
is shorter, but one family is raised in a season. Although 
Grasshopper Mice may be inactive during periods of severe 
weather, they do not hibernate. 

Genus Reithrodontomys ' 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, {] ; Premolars, §; Molars, f = 16. 

I See A. H. Howell, North American Fauna, No. 36, 1914, for a full 
revision of this genus. 

340 



HARVEST MOUSE 



Harvest Mouse. — Reitbrodontomys humulis 

and related forms 

General Description.' — A small, long-tailed Mouse with 
longitudinally grooved upper incisors. Ears large and 
prominent; no cheek-pouches; colors of pelage inconspicuous; 




Fig. 70, Harvest Mouse 

tail slender, sparsely haired; soles of hind feet with six tuber- 
cles. Externally bearing a close resemblance to a small, 
domestic House Mouse, Mus musculus. Plate XXX. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts. — Dark brown, darkest along mid-line of back; 
ears blackish to fuscous; tail above, fuscous, below, grayish 
white, a clear line of demarcation between upper and lower 
sides. 

341 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Underparts. — Grayish, often washed with light pinkish 
cinnamon, no conspicuous Hne of demarcation between color 
of underparts and color of sides, but rather an insensible merg- 
ing of the one into the other. 

Immature pelag3 more fuscous than adults, with less brown. 

Maasurements. — -Total length, 4.6-5 inches; tail vertebrce, 
2.1-2.4 inches; hind foot, .6 -.7 inch; ear, .4 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southeastern United States 
from Atlantic to Pacific and north in the Great Plains district. 

Food. — Seeds, grains, fruit, and green vegetation, mostly 
of native species and rarely of cultivated varieties. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Snakes, Weasels, Foxes, Coyotes, 
and small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the genus Reithrodontomys 
Subgenus Reithrodontomys 
Humulis Group 

Eastern Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys humulis humulis 
(Audubon and Bachman). 
As described above. Found in "Southeastern United 
States, east of the Alleghenies, from southern Virginia to 
central Florida." (Howell) 

Small-eared Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys humulis im- 
piger (Bangs). 
Closely resembling typical humulis in size and color, but ears 
much smaller, .35 of an inch from notch. Found in 
"Northern Virginia and mountains of West Virginia." 
(Howell) 

Merriam Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys humulis merriami 
(Allen). 
Blacker and with more gray on upperparts; ears smaller and 
blacker. Total length, 4.3-5.1 inches; tail vertebrce, 2-2.4 
inches; hind foot, .65 inch. Above, pinkish cinnamon mixed 
with blackish which predominates along back to form dorsal 
stripe; ears blackish brown. Found in "Coast region of 
east Texas and southern Louisiana north to northeastern 
Kentuclcy and West Virginia; east to Alabama; limits of 
range imperfectly known." (Howell) 

Pallid Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodo?itomys albescens albescens 
Cary. 
Upperparts (summer) ochraceous buff mixed with blackish, 
which is densest along median line, lighter on sides, some- 
times with much gray over upperparts. Underparts clear 
white. Total length, 4.8-5.2 inches; tail vertebrae 2-2.2 
inches; hind foot, .65 inch. Found in "Sand-hill region of 

342 



HARVEST MOUSE 



Nebraska and western South Dakota; west to Loveland, 
Colo." (Howell) 
Little Gray Harvest Mouse.— Reithrodontomys albescens 
griseus (Bailey). 
Darker than typical albescens; upperparts (summer) light 
ochraceous buff mixed with blackish, darkest along median 




Fig. 71. Distribution of the subspecies of Reithrodontumys 
humulis and Reithrodontomys albescens, after A. H. Howell 

1. Reithrodontomys albescens albescens 

2. Reithrodontomys albescens griseus 

3. Reithrodontomys humulis merriami 

4. Reithrodontomys humulis humulis 

5. Reithrodontomys humulis impiger 



line, forming an indistinct dorsal stripe. Total length, 4.7- 
5.8 inches; tail vertebrce, 2.1-2.4 inches; hind foot, .6 inch. 
Found in "Southern Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, central 
and western Texas, and eastern New Mexico. Limits of 
range imperfectly known." (Howell) 



Megalotis Group 

San Luis Valley Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys montanus 

(Baird). 
Winter pelage. — Light buff above, heavily washed with 
blackish along back, but with no distinct median line; ears 
dark brown; tail bicolor, brown above, white below; under- 

343 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



parts white. Total length, 4.7-5.6 inches; tail vertebrae 
2-2.6 inches; hind foot, .65 inch. Found in "San Luis 
Valley, Colo." (Howell) 
Desert Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis 

(Baird). 
Larger than montanus. Total length, 5.1-5.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.6-3.1 inches; hind foot, .7 inch; ear, .5 inch. 
Upperparts, summer, light ochraceous buff mixed with 
blackish brown, darkest along dorsal line; ears drab, with a 
few ochraceous buff hairs about base; underparts and feet 
white. Found "From northern Nevada and southern Idaho 
south to Zacatecas, Mexico; occupying the greater part of 
Nevada, Arizona, and Utah (except eastern part) ; southern 
New Mexico ; western Texas (west of Pecos River) ; desert 
regions of southern and northeastern California. ..." 
(Howell) 
Aztec Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis aztecus 

(Allen). 
Like typical megalotis in size and color, but ears larger, .5-.6 
inch from notch. Found in "Northern New Mexico, north- 
eastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and western Colorado, 
north to Grand Junction and Rifle." (Howell) 
Prairie Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis dychei 

(Allen). 
Blacker and with more intensely ochraceous upperparts than 
typical megalotis, ears smaller, tail shorter. Total length, 
5.2-5.6 inches; tail vertebree, 2.3-2.6 inches; hind foot, .6-.7 
inch; ear from notch, .45 inch. Found in "Greater part of 
Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, and South Dakota; 
southern North Dakota; southeastern Montana; eastern 
Colorado and eastern Wyoming." (Howell) 
Dusky Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis nigrescens 

Howell. 
Blacker and less buffy above than typical megalotis. Up- 
perparts, winter, pale ochraceous buff mixed with blackish, 
darkest dorsally ; in summer browner than in winter. Total 
length, 5.6-6.1 inches; tail vertebras, 2.5-3 inches; hind foot, 
.65 inch. Found in "Eastern Oregon and western Idaho; 
north to Prescott, Wash., south to Bieber, Cal." (Howell) 
California Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis longi- 

caudus (Baird). 
Darker and smaller than typical megalotis, with less gray 
and more ochraceous than nigrescens. Upperparts in winter 
mixed blackish and ochraceous buff. Total length, 5.2-5.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8-3.2 inches; hind foot, .65 inch. 
Found in "Greater part of western California, east to the 
foothills of the Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino, and San 
Jacinto Ranges; north to Grants Pass, Greg., and south into 
northwestern Lower California to about latitude 32°." 
(Howell) 

344 



HARVEST MOUSE 




Fig. 72. Distribution of Reithrodontomys montanus and 
the subspecies of Reithrodontomys megalotis, north of Mexico, 
after A. H. Howell 

1. Reithrodontomys megalotis longicaudus 

2. Reithrodontomys megalotis nigrescens 

3. Reithrodontomys megalotis megalotis 

4. Reithrodontomys megalotis aztecus 

5. Reithrodontomys megalotis dychei 

6. Reithrodontomys montanus 

345 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Chiricahua Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys megalotis art- 

zonensis (Allen). 
Resembling typical megalotis in size, but tail longer, pelage 
darker and more ochraceous. Closely similar to longicaudus, 
but redder on head, blacker on ears, and grayer on tail. 
Upperparts ochraceous buff thickly sprinkled with black, 
face buff y ; underparts white, with ochraceous pectoral area ; 
tail above, mouse-gray, below, grayish white. Total length, 
5.8-6.1 inches; tail vertebrEe, 3-3.2 inches; hind foot, .65 
inch. Known only from the type locality, Rock Creek, 
Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, about 8000 feet altitude. 

Cata!i..a Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodcntoniys catalincB Elliot, 
Larger and paler than megalotis longicaudus. Upperparts 
(spring pelage), light ochraceous buff mixed with blackish 
brown, darkest dorsally but lacking a definite stripe; tail 
bicolor, brown and white; underparts white, with buffy 
pectoral spot. Total length, 6.6-7 inches; tail vertebras, 
3.6-4 inches; hind foot, .75 inch. Found only on Santa 
Catalina Island, California. 

Red-bellied Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys raviventris 
raviventris Bixon. 
Resembling megalotis longicaudus, but reddish below and 
upperparts darker. Upperparts, pinkish cinnamon mixed 
with black, most darkened on dorsal area ; underparts pink- 
ish cinnamon, occasionally with a small white chin spot; 
hind feet and tail fuscous to sepia, tail not sharply bicolor 
only slightly lighter on underside; toes whitish; front feet 
sepia, sometimes washed with buffy white. Total length, 
4.8-5.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.2-3 inches; hind foot, .65 
inch. Found in "Salt marshes of San Francisco Bay, Cal." 
(Howell) 

Petaluma Marsh Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys raviven- 
tris halicoetes (Dixon), 
Larger than typical raviventris and underparts white instead 
of cinnamon. Larger and darker than megalotis lo7igicatidus 
and with large white patch on throat, Upperparts, ochrace- 
ous buff with hea\y mixture of black along back ; underparts 
white, occasionally with irregular blotches of ochraceous 
buff; feet white or buffy; tail fuscous above, grayish below; 
a white patch on throat and sides of mouth, the hairs white 
to their bases. Total length, 6-6.6 inches; tail vertebrse, 
3-3.4 inches; hind foot, .7-.75 inch. Found in "Salt 
marshes of San Pablo Bay, Suisun Bay, and the lower San 
Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers." (Howell) 

Fulvescens Group 

RiD Grande Harvest Mouse.- — Reithrodontomys fulvescens in- 
termedins (Allen). 
Upperparts, light ochraceous-buff, with heav}^ mixture of 
blackish brown along back; sides brighter; feet white; 

346 



BAIOMYS 



underparts white, sometimes touched lightly with buff; tail 
brown above, grayish white below. Total length, 6.4-7.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 3.5-4.1 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. 
Found in "Southern Texas and adjacent parts of Mexico 
from Del Rio to Brownsville; east to Bexar and Bee Counties 
north to Wichita Mountains, Okla." (Howell) 
Golden Harvest Mouse. — Reithrodontomys fidvescens auran- 
tius (Allen). 
Resembling intermedins but richer and darker in coloration. 
Upperparts ochraceous tawny, much darkened by mixture 
of blackish brown; sides rich ochraceous or tawny; under- 
parts grayish white, often washed with pale buff. This 
subspecies appears to be very variable in intensity and tone 
of coloration. Total length, 6.2-7 inches; tail vertebras, 
3.4-4 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Louisiana 
(west of the Mississippi River), southern and east-central 
Arkansas, eastern Texas, and eastern Oklahoma; north to 
southwestern Missouri (Carthage). Confined to Lower 
Austral Zone." (Howell) 

Harvest Mice are small, rather dull-colored creatures which 
are seldom seen. They are denizens of grassy localities and 
are more or less restricted to the warmer zones, the genus 
reaching its highest development in Central America. The 
best field character for separating Harvest Mice from other 
small Mice is the presence of the grooved upper incisors. 

These Mice build grass nests which are placed either on 
the ground or in low vegetation; sometimes a deserted bird 
nest is used. Harvest Mice do not hibernate and are active 
both day and night. They are not as abundant as most other 
Mice, and only rarely do damage to crops. 

There are "probably several litters of young born annually, 
from two to four in a litter. 

Genus Baiomys 

Formerly a subgenus of Peromyscus to which it is closely 
related (see page 348). 

Size very small, total length (in the United States species) 
about 4 inches; tail less than half total length; ears compara- 
tively small, rounded; soles of hind feet naked or nearly so, 
and with six tubercles. 

Taylor Baiomys. — Baiomys taylori taylori (Thomas) .. 

General color grayish. Upperparts pale drab with heavy 
sprinkling of dusky; no contrasting markings about eye, at 

347 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



base of whiskers, nor along lateral line; ears colored like rest 
of upperparts; tail faintly bicolored, dusky above, smoke- 
gray beiow; underparts smoke-gray, with tinge of buffy. 
Total length, 3.5-4.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.4-1.8 inches; 
hind foot, .54-.60 inch; ear from notch (in dry specimens), 
.35-.40 inch. Found in "Southern Texas from the vicinity 
of Matagorda Bay westward to Bexar County and thence 
south to the Rio Grande; . . . Lower Sonoran Zone." 
(Osgood) 
Dark Baiomys. — Baiomys taylori suhater (Bailey). 

Darker than typical taylori. Upperparts, in general tone, 
varying from dark grayish brown or pale reddish sepia to 
almost black (in mid-dorsal region) ; sides more buffy ; 
underparts buffy, paler and grayer on throat. Total length, 
3.5-4.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5-1.8 inches; hind foot, 
.56-.60 inch; ear from notch (in dry specimens), .32-.38 
inch. Found in "Coast region of southeastern Texas from 
the vicinity of Matagorda Bay eastward. Austroriparian 
Zone." (Osgood) 

In general, the habits of Baiomys are probably those of 
Peromyscus. These tiny Mice live in weeds and brush or 
in open fields and meadows, and make small round holes. 
Although fairly common in some places, the members of the 
genus Baiomys have a very limited distribution in the United 
States, and not very much has been written on their life- 
histories. They make nests in their burrows and also have 
cavities below ground for the storage of food. In grassy 
localities they make surface runways very like those of 
Meadow Mice. 

The number of young in a litter is small, two or three. 

Genus Peromyscus^ 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, %; Premolars, g ; Molars, | = 16. 

White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 

and related forms 

Names. — White-footed Mouse; Deer Mouse; Vesper Mouse; 
Wood Mouse. Plates XXIX and XXX. 

General Description. — A Mouse of medium size; tail long, 
about half of total length, rather well haired, with scaly 

^ For a very full and complete revision of this genus see Wilfred H. 
Osgood, North American Fauna, No. 28, 1900. 

348 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



annulations; ears of good size, only thinly covered by hair; 
eyes rather large; pelage soft; soles of hind feet with six 
tubercles, covered with hair except about plantar tubercles; 
color pattern distinctly bicolor, upperparts dark brown, 
underparts white; nocturnal in habit. 

Color. — Sexes indistinguishable in color, 

Upperparts. — Dark brown, with yellowish tinge, slightly 
darkened along median dorsal region from shoulders to base 




Fig. ']2>. White-footed Mouse 

of tail; blackish about eyes and base of whiskers; ears dark, 
edged with grayish ; a small tuft of woolly white hairs at ante- 
rior base of ear; tail brownish black above, white below, with 
clear line of demarcation between; feet white. 

Underparts. — Clear white, but with some of the slate-colored 
basal pelage showing through in places. 

Immature. — Upperparts a dark mixture of black and buff; 
dorsal region almost completely black; tail black above; ears 
black, edged with whitish. 

Very Young. — Slate-gray with whitish wash. 

Measurements. — Total length, 7-8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
3-3.8 inches; hind foot, .8-. 9 inch. 

349 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Geographical Distribution. — Practically all of North 
America south of 60° north latitude; in the west north to 65°. 

Food. — Mostly seeds and grains, small nuts and dry vege- 
table food as contrasted with the green and succulent diet 
of the Meadow Mice; rarely carnivorous. 

Enemies. — Preyed upon by many species of Owls, some of 
the Hawks, Weasels, Foxes, and practically all of the small 
carnivorous mammals, Snakes. 

vSpecies and Subspecies of the Genus Peromyscus. 

This is a very large and widely-ranging genus and its mem- 
bers are generally the commonest small mammals of any given 
region. However, the differences between the various forms 
are often too subtle to depict in a short, written description 
and in many cases the most satisfactory basis for identification 
will be the geographical distribution. The various subspecies 
frequently merge insensibly into one another, so that it may be 
difficult to assign individual specimens if they come from such 
an area of intergradation. Most of the forms of this genus 
conform to a bicolored pattern, that is, clear white underparts 
in marked contrast to darker upperparts. 

Subgenus Peromyscus 
Maniculatus Group 

Labrador White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
maniculatus (Wagner). 
As described above. Found in "Hudsonian Zone of north- 
eastern Canada, from the northeastern coast of Labrador to 
the west side of Hudson Bay and south to the border of the 
Canadian Zone to meet the range of P. m. gracilis.'' (Osgood) 

Le Conte White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
gracilis (Le Conte). 
Less dusky than typical maniculatus, with longer tail and 
smaller hind foot. Upperparts varying from russet to 
isabella color. Total length, 7-8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
3.2-4.5 inches; hind foot, .8-.88 inch. Found in "North- 
eastern United States and southern Canada from northern 
Minnesota east through northern Wisconsin, Michigan, 
Ontario, Quebec, New York, and western New England. 
Canadian Zone." (Osgood) 

Nova Scotia White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
abietorum (Bangs). 
Paler and grayer than gracilis; upperparts nearly uniform 
drab, median dark area scarcely developed. Total length, 

350 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



6.8-7.5 inches; tail vertebra, 3.3-3.9 inches; hind foot, 
.8-.88 inch. Found in "Nova Scotia and neighboring parts 
of eastern Canada; west to central Maine." (Osgood) 

Grand Manan White-footed Mouse.^ — Peromyscus manicu- 
latiis argentatus (Copeland and Church). 
ResembHng abietorum but with shorter tail and grayer color- 
ation. Upperparts grayish grizzled with dusky. Total 
length, 6.8-7.8 inches; tail vertebrte, 3.3-3.7 inches; hind 
foot, .8-.88 inch. Found on "Island of Grand Manan, New 
Brunswick, Canada." (Osgood) 

Grindstone Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus mani- 
culatus eremus Osgood. 
Darker in color than abietorum and tail shorter; paler and 
smaller than typical maniculatus. Upperparts russet 
sprinkled with dusky ; underparts creamy v/hite. Found on 
Grindstone Island, Magdalen Islands, Quebec. 

Cloudland White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
nubiterrcB (Rhoads). 
Resembling gracilis but slightly smaller and with broader 
and more clearly defined dusky dorsal area; pelage very 
soft. Upperparts Prout-brown made by mixture of russet 
and blackish; broad median dorsal area blackish brown. 
Total length, 6.8-7.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.5-3.9 inches; 
hind foot, .8-. 84 inch. Found in "Allegheny and Blue 
Ridge Mountains and adjacent ranges from western Penn- 
sylvania south to western North Carolina, and northeastern 
Georgia. Canadian Zone." (Osgood) 

Boreal White-footed Mouse; Arctic Deer Mouse. — Peromys- 
cus maniculatus borealis (Mearns). 
Resembling typical maniculatus, but tail shorter. Upper- 
parts cinnamon, heavily sprinkled with dusky, no concen- 
tration of the darker color along median dorsal area; black- 
ish orbital ring and whisker spot ; underparts creamy white. 
Total length, 6-6.9 inches; tail vertebra, 2.5-3.1 inches; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Interior of northwest 
Canada; from southeastern Saskatchewan north along the 
Mackenzie River at least to Fort Norman; west to the 
upper waters of the Yukon, and thence south to eastern 
Alberta, Canadian and Hudsonian Zones."" (Osgood) 

Washington White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
oreas (Bangs). 
Large in size; tail long; color dark and rich. Compared to 
borealis darker and richer in color ; tail and hind foot longer ; 
ears larger. Upperparts cinnamon to russet with heavy 
sprinkling of dusky most noticeable in middle of dorsal 
region; feet white but forearms and "ankles" dusky; under- 
parts creamy white. Total length, 7.8-8.6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 4.2-4.8 inches; hind foot, .88-.96 inch. Found in 
"Mountains and coast of western Washington, north to 
southern British Columbia, south to Columbia River." 
(Osgood) 

351 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Alaska White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
hylcBus (Osgood). 
Slightly darker than oreas, with smaller ears and shorter 
tail. Upperparts russet, heavily mixed with dusky, with 
dark dorsal saddle. Total length, 7.6-8.2 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 3.6-4.2 inches; hind foot, .88-.94 inch. Found on 
"Islands and coast of southeast Alaska west and northwest 
of the range of P. m. macrorhinus, including Prince of 
Wales, Kupreanof, Mitkof, and Admiralty islands, and the 
mainland coast from Lynn Canal to Frederick Sound." 
(Osgood) 

Queen Charlotte Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus 

maniculatus keeni (Rhoads), 
Resembling oreas but ears smaller and tail shorter. Upper- 
parts russet, with dusky mixture darkest in middle of back. 
Total length, 7.5-8.5 inches; tail vertebras, 3.8-4.5 inches; 
hind foot, .88-92 inch. Found on " Moresby and Graham 
islands, Queen Charlotte Group, British Columbia." 
(Osgood) 

Yukon White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus algidus 
Osgood. 
Resembling hylceus but paler and grayer; tail and ears 
shorter than in oreas. Upperparts cinnamon, with dusky 
mixture lighter on sides and heaviest on middle of back; 
dusky orbital ring and whisker spot less conspicuous than 
in hylceus. Total length, 7.1-8.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 3.3- 
4 inches; hind foot, .88-.94 inch. Found in "Region of the 
headwaters of the Yukon River from Lake Bennett to the 
lower part of the Lewes River." (Osgood) 

Skeena White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
macrorhinus (Rhoads). 
Very large and dark-colored. Resembling oreas but much 
larger and not as long tailed, relatively. Upperparts rich 
warm brown, with russet tinge, darker on mid-back, which 
is burnt umber ; orbital ring and whisker spot sooty ; under- 
parts creamy white. Total length, 8--8.9 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 4.2-4.9 inches; hind foot, .9-1.0 inch. Found on 
"Mainland coast of northern British Columbia and south- 
ern Alaska." (Osgood) 

Sagebrush White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
artemisice (Rhoads). 
Resembling borealis but rather paler in color. Upperparts, 
pale cinnamon to brownish fawn, more dusky along mid- 
back; very little white in subauricular tufts. Total length 
6.2-7.6 inches; tail vertebras, 2.6-3.4 inches; hind foot, 
.76-88 inch. Found in "South central British Columbia, 
northeastern Washington, northern Idaho, western Mon- 
tana, and western Wyoming. Transition and Canadian 
Zones." (Osgood) 

352 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



Satuma Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus manicula- 
tiis saturatiis (Bangs). 
Upperparts cinnamon, liberally mixed with blackish to give 
very dark tone; a cinnamon line along sides separating dark 
upperparts from creamy white underparts and extending 
down to heels. Total length, 7.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 3.1 
inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found only on Saturna Island, 
British Columbia. 

Hollister White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
hollisteri Osgood, 
Dark in color like sattiratus; lateral line not so sharply de- 
fined; skull larger and heavier, molar teeth larger. Known 
only from San Juan Island, San Juan County, Washing- 
ton. 

Puget Sound White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
aiisterus (Baird). 
Size medium, color dark; resembling areas but smaller and 
more sooty in color. Upperparts brownish fawn, well 
mixed with sooty, especially along back; no white at an- 
terior base of ear. Total length, 6.5-7.6 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 3.2-3.8 inches; hind foot, .76-84 inch. Found in 
"Coast region of Puget Sound, Washington; north to 
southern British Columbia and including Vancouver 
Island." (Osgood) 

Redwood White-footed Mouse.^ — Peromyscus maniculatus 
rubidus (Osgood). 
Resembling oreas but with shorter tail and hind foot. 
Upperparts cinnamon, plentifully intermixed with blackish 
along sides, and more so along back to form a broad, dark 
dorsal band; orbital ring and whisker spot conspicuously 
black; tuft at anterior base of ear with no white hairs, or at 
most very few; underparts creamy white. Total length, 
7.6-8.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6-4 inches; hind foot, .84- 
.88 inch. Found on "Coast of California and Oregon from 
San Francisco Bay to the mouth of the Columbia River." 
(Osgood) 

Gambel White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
gamheli (Baird). 
Resembling artemisice but smaller. Upperparts ochraceous 
to ochraceous buff, liberally sprinkled with dusky; no well- 
defined dusky face markings; underparts creamy white. 
Occurs in a darker phase, Upperparts more dusky and 
with more of a vinaceous tinge. Total length, 5.3-7.3 
inches; tail vertebras, 2.6-3.4 inches; hind foot, .8-87 inch. 
Found in "Central Washington east of the Cascades, 
thence south through central and eastern Oregon to Cali- 
fornia; throughout California except the 'redwood strip' of 
the_ northwest coast and except the southeastern desert 
region and the region east of the Sierra; south into north- 
western Lower California. Upper Sonoran to Hudsonian 
Zone." (Osgood) 

353 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Tawny White-footed Mouse; Arizona Wood Mouse. — 

Peromyscus maniculatiis mfinus (Merriam) . 
Richly colored, with much tawny. Upperparts ochraceous 
to tawny ochraceous, with heavy sprinkling of dusky; usu- 
ally conspicuous tufts at anterior bases of ears white mixed 
with buffy ochraceous, narrow orbital ring, and small 
whisker spot dusky in color; "ankles" buffy ochraceous; 
underparts creamy white. Total length, 5.8-6.8 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2.2-3.1 inches; hind foot, .76-84 inch. 
Found in "Southern Rocky Mountain region, including the 
elevated part of New Mexico, scattered peaks and ranges 
in Arizona, eastern Utah, and the greater part of western 
and central Colorado. Transition to Boreal Zones." 
(Osgood) 
Osgood Wliite-footed Mouse; Black-eared Deer Mouse.— 
Peromyscus maniculatus osgoodi Mearns. 
Resembling horealis but paler and more ochraceous in color, 
paler than rufinus. Upperparts from cream-buff to pale 
ochraceous buff, with light sprinkling of dusky; dorsal 
region not much darker than sides; conspicuous white 
tufts at anterior bases of ears, clear buffy spots at posterior 
bases; "ankles" buffy, sometimes touched with dusky; tail 
sharply bicolored, blackish brown and clear white; under- 
parts clear creamy white. Total length, 5.9-6.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.4-2.8 inches; hind foot, .8-84 inch. Found on 
"Plains and foothills along the eastern base of the Rocky 
Mountains from south central Saskatchewan to the Pan- 
handle of Texas, occupying in general the eastern parts of 
Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, and the western and 
southwestern parts of Saskatchewan and the Dakotas. 
Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones." (Osgood) 
Nebraska Deer Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus nehrascen- 
sis (Coues). ^ ^^ 

Resembling osgoodi but slightly smaller in size, ears notice- 
ably smaller, color brighter. Upperparts ochraceous buff, 
sometimes much brighter and near orange-buff, with light 
sprinkling of dusky; no well-defined dorsal stripe; occasion- 
ally a bright ochraceous buff lateral line present; rest of 
pelage about as in osgoodi. Total length, 5.7-6.3 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.2-2.6 inches; hind foot, .76-. 82 inch. Found 
in "Sandhill region of western Nebraska and adjoining parts 
of the States of Kansas, Colorado, South Dakota, and 
Wyoming. Possibly extending north to western North 
Dakota and south to western Oklahoma." (Miller) 
Baird White-footed Mouse.' — Peromyscus maniculatus hairdi 
(Hoy and Kennicott). Plate XXIX. 
Similar in size to nehrascensis but color darker. Upperparts 
russet or warm brown, heavily sprinkled with black, usually 
darker along mid-back; a narrow russet lateral line may or 
may not be present ; tufts at bases of ears russet mixed with 
dusky, only rarely with any white hairs ; blackish upperside 

354 



PLATE XXIX 




WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



of tail sharply marked off from white underside. Total 
length, 5.6-6.4 inches; tail vertebrte, 2.2-2.^ inches; hind 
foot,_.72-.76 mch. Found in "Prairie region of the upper 
Mississippi Valley in southern Wisconsin, Minnesota, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, eastern Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, Oklahoma and 
the eastern or humid parts of Kansas, Nebraska, South 
Dakota and North Dakota; north to southern Manitoba 
Upper Austral and Transition Zones, meeting the range of 
P. m. nebrascensis along the border between the humid and 
the arid^subdivisions." (Osgood) 
Pallid White-footed Mouse.— Per omyscus maniculatus palles- 
cens (Allen), 
Smaller and paler than bairdi, which it otherwise resembles. 
Upperparts pale russet with light sprinkling of dusky, darkest 
on back; ochraceous buff spots at anterior bases of ears and 
about base of tail in interfemoral region; "ankles" lightly 
washed with brownish; tail dusky brownish on upperside 
white below; underparts creamy white. Total length 4 8- 
5.2 inches; tail vertebras, 2-2.1 inches; hind foot, .6-.68 
inch Found m "Central Texas, from the vicinity of the 
northern boundary at Gainesville south to the region imme- 
diately west of Corpus Christi Bay. Lower Sonoran Zone ' ' 
(Osgood) 

Chihuahua Plains Mouse. —Peromyscus maniculatus blandus 
(Osgood). 
Occurring in two color phases, buff or grav; size rather 
small but larger than pallescens. Upperparts (gray phase) 
pale vmaceous buff lightly sprinkled with dusky to produce 
a general effect of grayish drab; white and vinaceous buff 
ear tufts conspicuous; buff phase, pinkish buff above, with 
dusky mixture to produce a pale cinnamon effect. Total 
q'^^ 00 ^-^T.^-^ inches; tail vertebra, 2.4-3 inches; hind foot, 
^4-88 inch. Found m "Lower Sonoran Zone of western 
lexas from the Pecos Valley westward; north along the 
Pecos Valley and other Lower Sonoran valleys of southern 
New Mexico to about latitude 34° north; south in Mexi- 
co. ... " (Osgood) 
Sonoran White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus maniculatus 
sonoriensis (Le Conte). 
General appearance much like that of osgoodi but slightly 
darker and with longer tail. Found as two color phases 
but not as dimorphic in color as blandus. Pale, and prevail- 
ing phase: upperparts ochraceous buff finely mixed with 
dusky which is rather uniform over back and sides; broad 
white edging on ears which are dusky; tufts at bases of ears 
with pure white hairs anteriorly, but mainly ochraceous 
buff; no well-defined dusky orbital ring or whisker spot; 
ankles white to buffy with light dusky wash; underparts 
white to creamy white. Dark phase: upperparts with 
heavier dusky mixture on ground color of ochraceous to 
tawny ochraceous; hairs darker at base; dusky face mark- 

355 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



ings better developed, white at base of ear reduced ; "ankles " 
generally dusky. Total length, 6-7 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2.4-3.3 inches; hind foot, .78-88 inch. Found in "Great 
Basin region in general. Northern Sonora, southern and 
western Arizona and Utah, exclusive of the higher moun- 
tains, . . . southern and eastern California east of the 
Sierra Nevada and the San Bernardino and associated 
ranges, practically all of Nevada, and parts of southeastern 
Oregon and south-central Idaho." (Osgood) 

San Clemente Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromysciis 
maniculatiis dementis (Meams). 
Resembling gambeli but slightly larger and darker; lateral 
line ochraceous buff, better defined. Total length, 6.2- 
6.9 inches; tail vertebras, 2.7-3.1 inches; hind foot, .8-.86 
inch. Found only on the following islands of the Santa 
Barbara group, ofT coast of southern California, — San Cle- 
mente, San Nicolas, Santa Rosa, and San Miguel. 

Catalina White-footed Mouse. — Peromysciis maniculatus cata- 
lincB (Elliot). 
"Similar to P. m. dementis, but larger; ears larger; tail 
longer and coarser; skull larger and heavier. Color. — • 
AJDout as in P. in. dementis; slightly darker and more vin- 
aceous than in P. m. gambeli." Total length, 6.4-S.6 
inches; tail vertebrse, 3.5-4.2 inches; hind foot, .84-92 
inch. Found on "Santa Catalina and Santa Cruz islands, 
Santa Barbara group, off the coast of southern California." 
(Osgood) 

Sicka White-footed Mouse. — Peromysciis sitkensis sitkensis 
Merriam. 
Resembling in color and general appearance maniculatus 
hylccus, but much larger, with largest skull of the group 
found north of Mexico. "Worn pelage: Sides rich russet 
or Mars brown, shading on dorsum to Prout brown and 
sometimes burnt uTnber; dusky markings about face, fore- 
arms, and "ankles" well developed; very little or no white 
at anterior bases of ears." Total length, 9 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.06 inches. Found on 
"Baranof and Chichagof islands, Alaska." (Osgood) 

Prevost Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromysciis sitkensis 
prevostensis (Osgood). 
"Similar to sitkensis, but with slightly shorter tail and 
slight cranial characters. Somewhat similar to macrorhiniis, 
but hind foot longer and tail shorter; skull decidedly larger 
and heavier. Color. — Similar to sitkensis and macrorhiniis, 
but averaging slightly darker. Sides rich Mars brown shad- 
ing into a broad irregular area of mummy-brown on dor- 
sum." Total length, 8.2-9.2 inches; tail vertel)r«, 3.9-4.6 
inches; hind foot, i.i inches. Found on "Prevost Island, 
Queen Charlotte Group, British Columbia." (Osgood) 

356 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



Polionotus Group 

The members of this group are all small and found only in 
Florida, Georgia, and Alabama. 

Old-field Mouse.^ — Peromyscus polionotus polionotus (Wagner). 
Smallest Peromyscus found in the Atlantic States; resem- 
bling bairdi, but even smaller. Upperparts brownish 
fawn, finely sprinkled with dusky, only slightly darker along 
dorsal area and nearly uniform in intensity over entire 
upperparts; brighter fawn about face and oribital region; 
orbital ring and ears dusky; tufts at bases of ears whitish 
mixed with fawn; underparts creamy white, the hairs slate- 
colored at base except on chin and throat, where they are 
white from tip to base; tail dusky brown above, white 
below, sharply differentiated. Total length, 5-5.5 inches; 
tail vertebrae, i. 6-2.1 inches; hind foot, .62-.71 inch. Found 
in "Open fields of the interior of northern Florida and 
southern Georgia." (Osgood) 

Beach Mouse. — Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris (Chapman). 
Slightly larger than typical polionotus and color paler. 
Upperparts pale ochraceous buff, finely sprinkled with 
brownish dusky; paler over shoulders and nape, brighter on 
head and back; underparts everywhere clear creamy white 
from tips to roots of hair, except along lateral line where the 
hairs are slate-colored at base; tail pale brownish buff above, 
buffy white below and without sharp line of demarcation 
between upper and lower sides. Total length, 5.1-6. i 
inches; tail vertebrcE, 2-2.4 inches; hind foot, .68-.76 inch. 
Found along "Sandy beach region of the eastern coast of 
Florida." (Osgood) 

Anastasia Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus polio- 
notus phasma (Bangs). 
Like niveiventris, but paler and with more white markings. 
Upperparts pinkish buff tinged with gray along mid-dorsal 
region; conspicuous white areas or spots on nose, above 
eye, and at base of ear; feet and legs white; tail unicolor, 
white, with faint traces of a dusky median band along upper- 
side; underparts clear white to roots of hair. An extremely 
pale form throughout. Total length, 5.5 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .75 inch. Found only on 
Anastasia Island, Florida. 

Rhoads White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus polionotus rhoadsi 
(Bangs). 
Smaller and darker than niveiventris. Upperparts ochrace- 
ous buff, shading toward dark ochraceous buff, lightly 
mixed with dusky; tail unicolor, white, for terminal half, 
brownish buffy above, white below for basal half; under- 
parts creamy white, slate color at base of pelage showing 
only as a trace; thighs yellowish on inner side. Total 
length, 5 inches; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .66 

357 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



inch. Found in "West central Florida, in the vicinity of 
Tampa Bay." (Osgood) 

White-fronted Beach Mouse. — Peromyscus polio7iotus alhi- 
frons Osgood. 
Like rhoadsi, but with more extensive white markings. 
Upperparts ochraceous buff to grayish fawn; a white area 
on end of nose and along median line to between eyes ; white 
edging of ear broad and a few w^hite hairs at base of ear; 
tail white above and below except for pale brownish upper- 
side for basal third or fourth of its length ; underparts white 
to roots or with only traces of slate-colored bases, white of 
underparts extending up over throat to eyes; thighs, legs, 
and feet white. Total length, 4.8-5.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.8-2. 1 inches; hind foot, .68-76 inch. Found along 
' ' Coast of western Florida and Alabama. ' ' (Osgood) 

White-headed Beach Mouse. — Peromyscus leucocephalus 
Howell. 
Resembling phasma "but color tone of upperparts drab in- 
stead of buff; colored dorsal area narrower, the whole of the 
sides white; entire head and face, except crown, white; 
paler, more extensively white, and slightly larger than . . . 
albifrons . . . underparts, and limbs white (the hairs white 
to base) ; ears whitish at base, becoming mouse gray at 
tips; tail unicolor, white, with a faint tinge of drab." 
(Howell) Total length, 5.5 inches; tail vertebrce, 2 inches; 
hind foot, .74 inch. Found only on Santa Rosa Island, 
Santa Rosa County, Florida. 

Leucopus Group 

White-footed Mouse. — Peromysctis leucopus leucopus (Rafi- 
nesque). 
Tail less than half total length ; hind foot hairy for proximal 
two-fifths. Upperparts Mars brown sprinkled with dusky, 
dorsal region only slightly darker than rest of upperparts; 
ears dusky and without white tufts at bases; no well-de- 
fined orbital ring; feet white; dusky on upperside of fore- 
arm, brownish on "ankles"; underparts white, with slate- 
colored base of pelage showing through somewhat; tail 
above, dusky brownish, below, white. Total length, 6.2-7.1 
inches; tail vertebras, 2.9-3.2 inches; hind foot, .S-.Szj. inch. 
Found in ' ' Western Kentucky south to southern Louisiana, 
west to Indian Territory, and east around the southern end 
of the Allegheny Mountains to eastern Virginia. Lower 
Austral Zone." (Osgood) 

Northern White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus leucopus nove- 
horacensis (Fischer), 
Paler and somewhat larger than typical leucopus, with 
longer and softer pelage and more hairy tail. Upperparts 
fawn to cinnamon-rufous or bright tawny with light sprink- 
ling of dusky, heaviest on dorsal region, less on sides; under- 

358 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 




Fig. 74. Distribution of the subspecies of Peromyscus leuco- 
pus, north of Mexico, after Osgood. 

1. Peromyscus leucopus leucopus 

2. Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis 

3. Peromyscus leucopus aridulus 

4. Peromyscus leucopus texanus 

5. Peromyscus leucopus tornillo 

6. Peromyscus leucopus arizonce 

7. Peromyscus leucopus ochraceus 

Crosses indicate areas of intergradation. 



359 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



parts creamy white. Total length, 6.2-7.5 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.9-3.3 inches; hind foot, .8-. 88 inch. Found in 
"Upper Austral and Transition Zones of the eastern United 
States and Canada. Extending from Nova Scotia to cen- 
tral Minnesota, thence south through the humid parts of 
eastern Nebraska and Kansas and eastward to the Atlantic 
coast, following quite closely the boundary between the 
Lower and Upper Austral Zones on the south and that be- 
tween the Transition and Canadian on the north." (Os- 
good) 

Monomoy Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscns leucopus 
ammodytes Bangs. 
Resembling novehoracensis , but paler above and with hair 
of underparts white to roots. Upperparts fawn, paler on 
sides; tail pale brownish above, white below; underparts 
clear white with creamy tinge, hairs white to base over 
median area and sometimes almost up to lower sides. 
Total length, 6.5-7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8—3.5 inches; 
hind foot, .8-. 84 inch. Found only on Monomoy Island, 
off the coast of Massachusetts, southeast of the Cape Cod 
Peninsula. 

Marthas Vineyard Island White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus 
leucopus fusus Bangs. 
Larger than novehoracensis, but otherwise resembling it. 
Total length, 7.6-8.1 inches; tail vertebras, 3.4-3.8 inches; 
hind foot, .86-.94 inch. Found only on the Island of 
Marthas Vineyard, off the south coast of Massachusetts. 

Badlands White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus leucopus aridu- 
lus Osgood. 
Larger and paler than novehoracensis. Upperparts ochrace- 
ous buff, lightly sprinkled with dusky ; dorsal area very little 
darker than sides; underparts creamy white. Total length, 
6.4-8.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5-3.7 inches; hind foot, .84- 
.92 inch. Found in "Upper Sonoran Zone of eastern Mon- 
tana and Wyoming and the adjoining western parts of 
South Dakota and Nebraska; probably south to Oklahoma 
and west to eastern Colorado." (Osgood) 

Buffy White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus leucopus ochraceus 
Osgood. 
Upperparts bright ochraceous buff, lightly mixed with 
dusky, slightly darker on dorsal region than on sides, but 
without a defined dorsal band; tail dusky brownish above, 
white tinged with buffy below; ochraceous buff or buffy 
tinge on the white of underparts, feet, and hands. Total 
length, 6.9-7.2 inches; tail vertebras, 3.3 inches; hind foot, 
.9 inch. Found in eastern and central Arizona. 

Tomillo Mouse. — Peromyscus leucopus tornillo (Meams). 
Resembling ochraceus and aridulus, but paler, fawn-colored 
instead of ochraceous. Upperparts fawn, finely lined with 
dusky; tail indistinctly bicolor, pale brownish and white; 
underparts clear creamy white. Total length, 6.8-8.1 

360 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



inches; tail vertebrae, 3-3.9 inches; hind foot, .84-.96 inch. 
Found in "Upper Sonoran Zone and part of the Lower 
Sonoran of western Texas and eastern New Mexico; north 
to southeastern Colorado and south to northern Durango; 
northeast to western Oklahoma." (Osgood) 

Arizona White-footed Mouse ; Apache Wood Mouse.^ — Pero- 
myscus leucopus arizonce (Allen). 
Slightly darker than tornillo, but otherwise resembling it. 
Upperparts varying from fawn to dark fawn, sprinkled with 
dusky; tail indistinctly bicolored, pale brownish above, 
white below. Total length, 7,1-8.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 
3.1-3.8 inches; hind foot, .88-96 inch. Found in "South- 
eastern Arizona and adjacent parts of Mexico and New 
Mexico." (Osgood) 

Texas White-footed Mouse; Texas Gray Wood Mouse. — 
Peromyscus leucopus texanus (Woodhouse). 
Slightly smaller and darker than tornillo, with shorter pelage 
and more sparsely-haired tail. Upperparts varying from 
pale to dark fawn, sprinkled with dusky. Total length, 
6.8-7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8-3.8 inches; hind foot, .8- 
.9 inch. Found in "Southern Texas . . . extending west 
to the vicinity of the mouth of the Pecos River, north to 
about latitude 33° north, east to west side of Galveston 
Bay. . . . Lower Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 

Gossypinus Group 

Cotton Mouse. — Peromyscus gossypinus gossypinus (Le 

Conte). 
Tail less than half total length, rather indistinctly bicolored, 
covered with short hairs, generally with well-defined, dark 
dorsal band; larger and darker than leucopus. Upperparts 
from bright cinnamon-rufous to deep russet, heavily sprink- 
led with blackish which forms coarse lines, darkest on back 
from shoulders to base of tail; grayer on top of head and 
shoulders; ears brownish and either lacking the whitish 
edging or else with white greatly reduced; feet white; fore- 
arm dusky; tail blackish brown on upperside, white below; 
underparts white generally strongly tinged with cream 
color on pectoral region. Total length, 6.4-7.6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.8-3.5 inches; hind foot, .88-96 inch. Found in 
"Lowlands of the southeastern United States from the 
Dismal Swamp, Virginia, to northern Florida and west to 
Louisiana. Lower Austral Zone." (Osgood) 
Rhoads Cotton Mouse. — Peromyscus gossypinus megacephalus 

(Rhoads). 
Larger and paler than typical gossypinus. Upperparts 
brownish to light russet, with less black on dorsal area. 
Total length, 7.3-8.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.1-3.6 inches; 
hind foot, .92-1.04 inches. Found in " Northern Alabama 
and western Tennessee, west through Arkansas to eastern 

361 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Oklahoma, and thence south through eastern Texas and 
western Louisiana." (Osgood) 
Florida Cotton Mouse. — Peromysciis gossypinus palmarius 
Bangs. 
Smaller and paler than typical gossypinus. "Color. — 
Unworn pelage: Similar to that of gossypinus, but paler; 
ground color a shade lighter and dusky mixture more sparse, 
as a rule not so heavily concentrated in the middle of the 




^ ir L r OT 



>£ zr X 2 c o 



Fig. 75. 



Distribution of the subspecies of Peromyscus gossy- 
pinus, after Osgood 

1. Peromyscus gossypinus megacephalus 

2. Peromyscus gossypinus gossypinus 

3. Peromyscus gossypinus palmarius 

4. Peromyscus gossypinus anastasce 

Crosses indicate areas of intergradation. 

back ; orbital ring very narrow ; underparts grayish white to 
creamy or even yellowish white, rarely with a small fulvous 
pectoral spot." Total length, 6.9-7.3 inches; tail vertebras, 
2.8-3. 1 inches; hind foot, .8-88 inch. Found in "Peninsular 
Florida." (Osgood) 
Anastasia Island Cotton Mouse ; Sea Island Cotton Mouse. — 
Peromyscus gossypi?ius anastascc (Bangs). 
Resembling palmarius in size; paler in color than either 
palmarius or typical gossypinus. *'Upperparts pale och- 
raceous buff rather lightly mixed with dusky, which is 
slightly or not at all concentrated in the mid-dorsal region ; 
orbital ring nearly or quite obsolete; underparts white almost 

362 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



entirely concealing undercolor; ears dusky; tail bicolor, 
brownish dusky above, white below-." (Osgood) Total 
length, 6.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8 inches; hind foot, .85 
inch. Found only on Anastasia Island, Florida, and Cum- 
berland Island, Georgia. 

Boylii Group 

Boyle Deer Mouse; Boyle White-footed Mouse; California 
Brush Mouse. — Peromyscus boylii boylii (Baird). 
Tail as long or longer than length of head and body; ears 
of medium size; underside of hind foot hairy for proximal 




Fig. 76. Distribution of the subspecies of Peromyscus boylii, 
north of Mexico, after Osgood 

I. Peromyscus boylii boylii 

2 and 4 Peromyscus boylii rowleyi 

3. Peromyscus boylii attwateri 

two-fifths of its length. Upperparts brownish to sepia 
russet or pale cinnamon, uniformly sprinkled with dusky, 
no definite dark doisal band; pale ochraceous buff on lower 
side of face, arms, and a narrow line along sides; a narrow 
black ring about eye; no white hairs in tufts at base of ears, 
which are dusky, with narrow white edging; feet white, 
"ankles" duslcy; tail brownish above, w^hite below, with 
small "pencil" of long hairs; underparts creamy white. 
Total length, 7.3-8.1 inches; tail vertebrse, 3.7-4.5 inches; 
hind foot, .84-92 inch; ear from notch (in dry skin) .61-70 
inch. Found on "West slopes of the Sierra Nevada moun- 
tains from the vicinity of Yosemite north to Mount Shasta, 
thence along the east slopes of the coast ranges nearly to 
San Francisco Bay. Upper vSonoran and Transition Zones. " 
(Osgood) 

363 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Rowley White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus hoylii rowleyi 

(Allen). 
Closely resembling typical boylii in everything except color, 
paler. Upperparts "ochraceous buff uniformly sprinkled 
with dusky; sides like back, except a relatively broad lateral 
line of ochraceous buff unmixed with dusky ; nose and postor- 
bital region grayish; narrow orbital ring blackish; ears 
dusky, faintly edged with whitish; underparts creamy white; 
tail dusky brownish above, white below; feet white, dusky 
of hind legs extending to tarsal joints, but not sharply con- 
trasted." Total length, 7.2-8.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6- 
4.4 inches; hind foot, .84-92 inch. Found in "Mountains 
of southern California, northern Lower California, southern 
Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, western 
Texas, and south in Mexico. ..." (Osgood) 
Attwater White-footed Mouse; Attwater Brush Mouse. — 

Peromyscus hoylii attwateri (Allen). 
Larger than rowleyi, colored about as in typical hoylii. 
Upperparts pale cinnamon sprinkled finely with dusky; 
slightly grayish about head; ochraceous buff on lower sides 
of face, narrow lateral line and occasionally a small spot on 
pectoral area; dusky on hind leg down as far as upperside 
of hind foot; underparts creamy white. Total length, 7.5- 
8.7 inches; tail vertebras, 3.8-4.5 inches; hind foot, .92-1.0 
inch. Found in " South central and parts of western Texas; 
north to eastern Oklahoma, central Missouri, and southern 
.Kansas. Chiefly confined to rocky cliffs in upper Sonoran 
Zone." (Osgood) 

Pectoralis Group 

Lacey White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus pectoralis laceianus 

Bailey. 
Tail long, generally slightly more than half the total length; 
resembling attwateri somewhat, but lacking the dusky 
markings on the tarsal joint. Upperparts varying from 
pinkish buff to ochraceous buff mixed with more or less 
dusky; dorsal area about as dark as rest of upperparts; 
no white at base of ears; feet white without dusky tinge on 
tarsal joint; tail pale brown above, white below; under- 
parts creamy white. Total length, 7- 2-7- 7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 3.8-4.0 inches; hind foot, .88-92 inch. Found in 
"West central Texas, from the vicinity of Austin to the 
Big Bend of the Rio Grande. ..." (Osgood) 
Durango White-footed Mouse.' — Peromyscus pectoralis eremi- 

coides (Osgood). 
Resembling /aceiawM5 in color ;" ears quite small ; . . .soles 
of hind feet usually slightly hairy proximally but sometimes 
naked, at least medially. Upperparts mixed pinkish buff 
and dusky, . . . ; lateral line pinkish buff; facial region 
between eye and ear grayish ; underparts pure creamy white 

364 



Plate XXX 




Parasitic Mouse 



BiO'fuotedl*lv2?.rfcv,' ? louse 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



without trace of pectoral spot; feet white, no dusky mark- 
ing on tarsal joint; tail pale grayish dusky above, white 
below." (Osgood) Total length, 7.6 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 4.2 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found from north 
central Mexico northward into southern Arizona. 

Truei Group 

True White-footed Mouse. — Peromysctis truei truei (Shu- 
feldt). 
Ears very large, about as long as hind foot ; pelage long and 
soft; tail about half of total length; hind foot generally 




Fig. 77. Distribution of the subspecies of Peromyscus truei , 
north of Mexico, after Osgood 



1. Peromyscus truei truei 

2. Peromyscus truei gilberti 

3. Peromyscus truei martirensis 



densely haired for about two-fifths of its length (proximal). 
Upperparts varying from ochraceous buff to pale ochraceous 
buff, or pinkish buff mixed with varying amounts of dusky; 
grayish on face and nose; dusky on narrow orbital ring and 
small spot at base of whiskers; ears thickly haired, dusky 
brownish within, grayish white without; no contrasting 
color in tufts at bases of ears; feet white, slight dusky tinge 

365 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



on tarsal joint; tail indistinctly bicolor, brownish dusky 
above, white below; a clear ochraceous lateral line between 
upper and lower parts, less distinct in worn pelages; under- 
parts creamy white. Total length, 7.2-8.4 inches; tail ver- 
tebrae, 3.5-4.5 inches; hind foot, .86-96 inch; ear from 
notch (in dry skin), .86-98 inch. Found in "Southwest- 
ern United States and northern Mexico from southern Cali- 
fornia (east of the Sierra and San Bernardino ranges), across 
southern Nevada, southern Utah, Arizona, to west central 
New Mexico, and thence south. ..." (Osgood) 

Gilbert White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus truei gilherti 
(Allen). 
Resembling typical truei, but darker in color, pelage not 
quite as silky, ears smaller. Upperparts from deep och- 
raceous to tawny, mixed with dusky (more so than in typi- 
cal truei), ochraceous lateral line well defined; blackish 
orbital ring sharply defined; pectoral spot may or may not 
be present. Total length, 7.5-8.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 
3.5-4.2 inches; hind foot, .88-.96 inch; ear from notch (in 
dry skin), .72-.84 inch. Found in "Mountains and foot- 
hills of the interior of California and the coast south of 
San Francisco Bay; north to central Oregon. Chiefly 
Upper Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 

Martir White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus truei martirensis 
(Allen). 
Practically indistinguishable in color from typical truei, 
but tail rather longer. Total length, 8.2-8.9 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 4.5-4.9 inches; hind foot, .96 inch; ear from notch 
(in dry skin), .84-.92 inch. Found in "northern Lower 
California, and northward to the San Jacinto and San 
Bernardino mountains of southwestern California." (Os- 
good) 

Long-nosed White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus nasutus 
(Allen). _ 
Ear not quite as large as in typical truei, but nearly so ; tail 
finely annulated. Upperparts varying in general tone from 
grayish wood-brown to pale grayish fawn, but never show- 
ing a decided ochraceous tinge; rest of pelage much as in 
rowleyi. Total length, 7.2-8.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.6- 
4.4 inches; hind foot, .88-.96 inch; ear from notch (in dry 
skin), .74-.84 inch. Found in "Mountains of Colorado, 
New Mexico, eastern Arizona, and western Texas, chiefly 
east of the Continental Divide." (Osgood) 

Subgenus Ochrotomys 

Nuttalli Group 

Plantar tubercles six, with a seventh rudimentary tubercle; 
abdomen suffused with color of upperparts; immature pelage 
366 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



about the same as adult; pelage very soft and dense; hair on 
ears same color as that of upperparts. 

Northern Golden Monse.—Peromyscus nuttalli nuttalli 

(Harlan). 

Hind foot hairy for half its extent, abdomen ochraceous. 

Upperparts rich tawny ochraceous, only slightly sprinkled 

with dusky along dorsal area, less dusky on sides; head and 




GM L F OT 



MIS X I C O 



Fig. 78. Distribution of the subspecies of Peromyscus nut- 
talli, after Osgood 

1. Peromyscus nuttalli nuttalli 

2. Peromyscus nuttalli aureolus (this range has been in- 
correctly copied and should almost touch Number i in 
the northeastern corner of North Carolina). 

ears like sides; no orbital ring or whisker spot; feet creamy 
white; tail pale brownish above, creamy white below; under- 
parts creamy white with ochraceous suffusion on abdomen. 
Total length, 6.8-7.6 inches; tail vertebra;, 3.2-3.7 inches; 
hmd foot, .76-80 inch; ear from notch (in dry skin), .58-65 
inch. Found in "Southeastern Virginia and northern 
North Carolina; west to central Kentucky." (Osgood) 
Southern Golden 'M.ouse.— Per 077iyscus nuttalli aureolus 
(Audubon and Bachman). 
Resembling typical nuttalli, but smaller. Color as in 
nuttalh, occasionally very slightly paler. Total length, 

367 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



6.6-7.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.2-3.6 inches; hind foot, .68— 
.80 inch; ear from notch (in dry skin), .54-.68 inch. Found 
in "Southeastern United States from North Carolina to 
northern Florida; west to eastern Texas and Oklahoma. 
Lower Austral Zone." (Osgood) 

Subgenus Podomys 
Floridanus Group 

Plantar tubercles five. 

Florida White-footed Mouse. — Peromyscus floridanus (Chap- 
man). 
Large in size; tail less than half total length, ears large, 
sparsely haired; sole of hind foot hairy for fifth of length. 
Upperparts pale ochraceous buff with varying amounts of 
dusky mixture; more ochraceous along lower sides; tufts 
at bases of ears pale ochraceous buff mixed with dusky; 
pelage of ears dusky outside, whitish inside; feet white, 
forelegs white; upperside of hind feet slightly dusky; tail 
brownish dusky above, creamy white below; underparts 
creamy white, frequently with ochraceous buff spot on pec- 
toral region. Total length, 7.6-8.8 inches; tail vertebra, 
3.2-3.8 inches; hind foot, 1.2-1.3 inches; ear from notch, 
.88-1.0 inch. Found in "The central part of peninsular 
Florida from coast to coast." (Osgood) 

Subgenus Haplomylomys 

Tail always more than half of total length ; plantar tubercles 
six; molar teeth simple in character, without accessory cusps 
or with them in a very reduced condition. 

Crinitus Group 

Canyon Mouse. — Peromyscus crinitus crinitus (Merriam). 
Pelage long and lax; tail longer than length of head and 
body, closely covered with long, soft hairs, with a distinct 
tuft of longer hairs at tip; ears large; sole of hind foot hairy 
for one-quarter of its extent (proximal). Upperparts a 
mixture of dusky and pale ochraceous buff ; grayish on fore- 
head, nose, and upper face; hands and feet white; tail 
blackish above, white below, distinctly bicolored; under- 
parts white, often with pectoral spot of weak buff. Total 
length, 6.9-7.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 3.7-3.9 inches; hind 
foot, .84 inch; ear from notch (in dry specimens), .62-. 70 
inch. Found in "Rocky cliffs and canyons of southern 
Idaho, eastern Oregon, eastern California, northern Nevada, 
and northwestern Utah. Upper Sonoran Zone." (Osgood) 

368 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



Buff-breasted Canyon Mouse. — Peromyscus crinitus auripec- 

tus (Allen). 
Resembling typical crinitus, but lighter colored and with 
more buff; tail heavily haired. Upperparts rich ochraceous 
buff with faint sprinkling of dusky on dorsal area, 1 ss dusky 
on sides; ochraceous buff on head, face, and often on pec- 
toral area; hands and feet white; tail dusky brownish above, 
white below; ear tufts buffy with occasional mixture of 
white; underparts creamy white. Total length, 7-7.3 
inches; tail vertebree, 3.6-3.9 inches; hind foot, .80-84 
inch; ear from notch (in dry specimen), .66-. 72 inch. 
"Known from a limited number of localities in northeastern 
Arizona, southeastern Utah, and adjacent parts of Colorado 
and New Mexico." (Osgood) 
Stephens Canyon Mouse; Palm Desert Mouse. — Peromyscus 

crinitus Stephen si (Alearns). 
Smaller and paler than auripectus. Upperparts pale ochra- 
ceous buff uniformly mixed with dusky brownish; a nar- 
row buff lateral line; underparts white to creamy white, 
buff pectoral spot may or may not be present. Total 
length, 6.5-7.7 inches; tail vertebrse, 3.5-4.3 inches; hind 
foot, .76-.80 inch; ear from notch (in dry specimens), .62- 
.66 inch. Found in "Rocky situations in the Lower Sonoran 
Zone from northeastern Lower California northward to the 
desert valleys and ranges of the Death Valley region and 
eastward across southern Nevada to southwestern Utah and 
northwestern Arizona." (Osgood) 

Califomicus Group 

Parasitic Mouse. — Peromyscus califomicus califomicus 
(Gambel). Plate XXX. 
Largest Peromyscus found in the United States, total length 
reaching 10 inches or more. Pelage long and soft; tail more 
than half total length, well haired but not enough to com- 
pletely conceal annulations; ears very large and mem- 
branous, thinly haired; soles of hind feet naked or very 
nearly so. Upperparts russet to cinnamon mixed with 
considerable blackish or dark brownish, slightly darker on 
dorsal area; sides brighter than back; head brownish, 
cheeks bordered by light russet line below; orbital ring 
dusky; hands and feet white, the latter with short, dusky 
stripe reaching down from hind leg; tail bicolored but no 
sharp contrast between black of upperside and white of 
lower, base of tail russet below; underparts creamy white. 
Total length, 9.5-10.4 inches; tail vertebras, 5.1-5.8 inches; 
hind foot, i. 04-1. 16 inches; ear from notch (in dry speci- 
mens), .85-.94 inch. Found in "Upper Sonoran and Tran- 
sition Zones of the coast region of California from San 
Francisco Bay south to the vicinity of Santa Barbara, 
where intergradation with subspecies insignis occurs." 

369 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



(Osgood) This mouse is so named because it is sometimes 
found living in or about the brush "nests" of Neotoma 
fuscipes, a Wood Rat. 
Southern Parasitic Mouse. — Peromyscus californicus insignis 
(Rhoads). 
Resembling typical californicus, but smaller and paler. 
Upperparts with less rufous, with less black-tipped hairs 
over mid-dorsal area; pectoral spot frequently absent or 
usually reduced; rufous at base of tail, underside, much re- 
duced. Total length, 8.8-9.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 5-5.6 
inches; hind foot, i.o inch; ear from notch (in dry speci- 
mens), .8-.83 inch. Found in "Upper and Lower Sonoran 
Zones of the western valleys and foothills of southwestern 
Cahfomia and thence south into northern Lower Califor- 
nia.'' (Osgood) 

Eremicus Group 

Desert Mouse; Western Desert Mouse. — Peromyscus eremi- 
cus eremiciis (Baird). 
Size medium, tail much more than half of total length, finely 
annulated and closely covered with short hairs, terminal 
tuft scarcely noticeable or completely absent; ears practi- 
cally naked, good sized, membranous; sole of hind foot 
naked or nearly so; pelage silky to the touch. Upperparts 
ochraceous buff with varying (with wear) mixture of dusky, 
finely sprinkled, over entire dorsal area, no region more 
noticeably darkened than another; a broad ochraceous buff 
lateral line; tail above, dusky, below, whitish, not markedly 
bicolored; underparts clear white or white washed with 
buffy; buffy pectoral spot occasionally present. Total 
length, 6.9-8.1 inches; tail vertebras, 3.8-4.3 inches; hind 
foot, .80-84 inch; ear from notch (in dry specimens), .69- 
.71 inch. Found in "Lower Sonoran Zone of south- 
eastern California . . . ; eastward to western Texas, and 
south to border States of eastern Mexico; northward along 
the Colorado River, at least to the vicinity of the mouth 
of the Little Colorado, also extending from the Colorado 
River along the Virgin Valley to St. George, Utah, and 
northwestward, crossing southern Nevada, to the Death 
Valley region of California." (Osgood) 

San Diego Desert Mouse; Dulzura White-footed Mouse.^ — 
Peromyscus eremicus fraterculus (Miller). 
Larger than typical eremicus, with longer tail, less white on 
underparts, and more reddish brown or blackish on upper- 
parts. Upperparts, in winter, "cinnamon-rufous richly 
sprinkled with black, which is somewhat concentrated in . 
middle of back; head with more or less grayish, particularly 
in postorbital region; underparts creamy white with a 
small rufous pectoral spot." Or in worn winter pelage, 
"Ground color cinnamon-rufous, as in winter pelage; tips 
of hairs not black, but brown or brownish dusky, producing 

370 



WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 



a more rufescent general effect than in the winter pelage." 
Total length, 7.6 inches; tail vertebras, 4.5 inches; hind 
foot, .8 inch. Found in "Extreme southwestern Califor- 
nia, west of the mountains from the vicinity of Los Angeles 
south to northwestern Lower California. " (Osgood) 
Anthony Desert Mouse; Apache Desert Mouse. — Peromyscus 
eremicus anthonyi (Merriam). 
Intermediate in color between typical eremicus and frater- 
culus; ears smaller; pectoral spot generally present. Upper- 
parts rich ochraceous buff with heavy sprinkling of black, 
uniformly distributed, "head grayish drab, suffused with 
buff, particularly on cheeks; underparts creamy white, 
except a prominent ochraceous buff pectoral spot, extending 
from breast between forelegs almost to middle of belly; tail 
blackish above and paler below, but not sharply bicolor; 
feet creamy white, "ankles" dusky." Total length, 7.5-8.1 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.1-4.5 inches; hind foot, .84-88 inch. 
Found in "Extreme southeastern Arizona and southwestern 
New Mexico in the vicinity of the Mexican boundary line 
and south. ..." (Osgood) 

******* 

White-footed Mice share with Meadow Mice the distinction 
of being the commonest and most widely distributed of the 
North American small rodents. No matter where one goes, 
from the Arctic Circle southward, one or more of the various 
forms of this genus will be found if there is any food supply for 
rodents to be had. This group is easily modified by evolu- 
tionary factors, and we find that there are a great many differ- 
ent species and subspecies of White-footed Mice. These 
many forms are classified in a few large groups, some of which 
are elevated to the rank of subgenera, and as a rule specimens 
may be referred to one of these groups without much difficulty. 
The final sifting down to an exact identification is quite 
another proposition and, as has been stated before, can best 
be accomplished on the basis of the geographical ranges given. 

Many of the species of White-footed Mice delight in the 
cover of fallen logs, piles of rock, and other shelter such as is 
common in forests and brush land. The open country species 
live in burrows in the earth or sand and make their presence 
manifest by the tracks and trails they create in their nightly 
wanderings. Other species build nests in low brushes, or in 
many cases, use old nests made by birds. All of the different 
forms are terrestrial, none known to be arboreal, all are strictly 
nocturnal, and all are active throughout the year. 

There is little about the White-footed Mouse suggestive of 

371 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



the House Mouse. The former is much more attractive and 
is quickly recognized by the white underparts, white feet, 
well-haired tail, and general color pattern of contrasted upper 
and lower parts. These distinctions are not quite as obvious 
for some of the desert species of Peromyscus, such as eremicus, 
but a little experience soon familiarizes one with the general 
appearance of this genus and it will not be confused with the 
introduced Mus musculus. 

White-footed Mice range from sea-level, or below it (Death 
Valley), to the limits of plant growth on the crests of the 
mountain ranges, and from regions of heavy annual precipi- 
tation to the most arid deserts. Allowing for the changes 
in color pattern we have learned to expect, the Mouse shows 
some other differences that may obscure its identity. The 
forms from the regions of heavy rainfall are dark, nearly 
black; those from the rainless deserts are very pale; some of 
the most specialized have developed large size {californicus) or 
large ears (truei), but they are all members of the same large 
group of closely related species. The food of all species is 
almost strictly vegetarian, and while White-footed Mice eat 
grain and the seeds of timothy and pasture grasses, they sel- 
dom make serious inroads on crops and are not the economic 
problem that the Meadow Mice are. Most species of White- 
footed Mice prefer more cover than they find in a cultivated 
field and therefore confine their depredations to the margins 
of the field that meet with undisturbed terrain. 

White-footed Mice have interesting habits and make attrac- 
tive pets; they are gentle and tame quickly. Besides the 
"squeak" characteristic of most Mice, some of the species of 
Peromyscus have been heard to sing in a fine, high-pitched 
trill, not unlike a canary. 

The number of young in a litter varies from three to seven 
but is usually four or five. These Mice may have as many as 
four litters a year, hence young may be seen at almost any 
time. Seton has noted the appearance of the first brood as 
April 1st in Manitoba; in warmer regions it would be earlier. 

Genus Oryzomys' 
Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, g; Premolars, §; Molars, f = i6. 

^ See E. A. Goldman, North American Fauna, No. 43, 1918, for an 
extensive review of the North American forms of this large genus. 



RICE RAT 



Rice Rat. — Oryzomys palustris 

and its subspecies 

Names. — Rice Rat; Rice Meadow Mouse. Plate XXX. 

General Description. — A Rat somewhat smaller than the 
House Rat, with rather coarse, long fur; long, sparsely-haired 
tail ; hind foot with sole naked to heel ; small and inconspicuous 
ears which are well haired; vibrissse or "whiskers" short; 
color grizzled grayish brown or buffy above, white to cream 
color below. Frequents meadows and grassy lands; mainly 
nocturnal. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike. 

Upperparts brown or buff, grizzled with gray, the color 
richest on rump, darker on top of head, face, and along mid-line 
of back; feet whitish; tail brownish above, whitish below; 
underparts white, sometimes with a light buffy wash. 

Young. — Duller colored than adults, brownish or grayish 
above, whitish below. 

Measurements. — Total length, 9.5-10 inches; tail vertebrae, 
4.5-5 inches; hind foot, 1.2- 1.3 inches. 

Geographical Distribution.^ — Eastern North America from 
New Jersey to Florida and the Gulf States. 

Food.- — -A variety of grasses, sedges, and foliage of shrubs; 
rice, and seeds of native plants; some animal food such as 
small crustaceans, mollusks, and meat. 

Enemies. — Small carnivorous mammals such as Weasels, 
Skunks, Minks, et cetera. Hawks, Owls, and Snakes. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Oryzomys 

This is a very large genus, of which more than one hundred 
and fifty species and subspecies have been described (especially 
troublesome to identify when the specimens come from the 
mid-range of the genus, tropical America), but only a few 
forms reach North America. 

Subgenus Oryzomys 

Swamp Rice Rat. — Oryzomys palustris palustris (Harlan). 
As just described. Found in "Atlantic coastal areas from 
southern New Jersey (not yet known from Delaware or 
Maryland, but doubtless occurs there) south to northeastern 
Florida, thence westward through southern Georgia to the 
Gulf coast of Alabama and Mississippi, and north through 

373 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Alabama and western Tennessee to southwestern Kentucky, 
southern Illinois, and parts of southeastern Missouri. 
Altitudinal range from sea level up along streams to about 
500 feet (rarely to 1,000 feet), mainly in Lower Austral 



^e>fr' . ??) 




Fig. 79. Distribution of the subspecies of Oryzomys palustns, 
after Goldman 

1. Oryzomys pahistris palustris 

2. Oryzomys palustris natator 

3. Oryzomys palustris coloratus 

4. Oryzomys palustris texensis 

Zone, but reaching into Upper Austral Zone in southern 
New Jersey, southeastern Kentucky, and southeastern 
Missouri (Marble Hill)." (Goldman) 

Ceotral Florida Rice Rat. — Oryzomys palustns ?iatator 
Chapman. 
Resembling typical palustris but larger and more tawny in 
color. Total length, 11-12 inches; tail vertebree, 5.3-6.1 
inches; hind foot, 1.3-1.5 inches. Found in "Central 
Florida, north of Everglades; Austroriparian division of 
Lower Austral Zone. ' ' (Goldman) 

Everglades Rice Rat.^ — -Oryzomys palustris coloratus Bangs. 
Like natator but still more tawny in color of upperparts; 
size of natator. Found in "Tropical southern Florida, north 
to Lake Okechobee." (Goklman) 

Texas Rice Rat. — Oryzomys palustris texensis Allen. 

Similar to typical palustris but paler in color, with less warm 

374 



RICE RAT 



coloring above. Color of upperparts grayish brown with- 
out the wash of tawny or buffy. Total length, 9-1 1 inches; 
tail vertbrce, 4.3-5.3 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found 
"From Corpus Christi Bay north and east along the Gulf 
coast of Texas and Louisiana to the delta of the Mississippi, 
thence north in the Mississippi Valley to southeastern Mis- 
souri ; general range reaching southeastern Kansas, probably 
by way of the Arkansas River valley through Oklahoma 
(not yet known from Oklahoma) ; altitudinal range in 
Austroriparian Zone, mainly below 500 feet; but extending 
up to about 1,000 feet in Kansas." (Goldman) 
Rio Grande Rice Rat. — Oryzomys couesi aquaticus (Allen). 
Large in size; total length, 11. 3-12. 4 inches; tail vertebrae, 
5.5-7.2 inches; hind foot, 1.3-1.5 inches. Color above, 
ochraceous buff, paler along sides, below, buffy. Pelage 
shorter than in the forms of palustris. Found in "Rio 
Grande Valley, from Camargo, Tamaulipas, to Gulf coast 
near Brownsville, Texas; altitudinal range from sea level 
to about 300 feet in Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

******* 
The Rice Rats are a large group of southern distribution. 
North of the Rio Grande they occur in only a narrow strip 
along the southern border and north along the Atlantic coast 
to New Jersey. While they may be locally common within 
this range, the Rice Rats are not a predominating element in 
the fauna, as they are in much of their southern range. 

Our Rice Rats may be easily distinguished from other native 
rodents on the basis of size, pelage, and color. They are larger 
than any of the common Mice, Peromyscus or Microtus, and 
may be known from the "Wood Rats by their coarser pelage 
and smaller size. Rice Rats bear a superficial resemblance to 
some of the introduced Rats, especially the Roof Rat, but are 
smaller and have shorter tails. 

These rodents live in grassy localities, marshy meadows, or 
open brush lands, are prolific breeders, and sometimes are an 
economic problem in farming districts. The number of 
young to a litter varies from three to seven but is usually four 
or five. The first young appear in April or May but there 
may be a later brood as well. 

Genus Sigmodon^ 

Dentition: Incisors, {\ Canines, g ; Premolars, g ; Molars, f = 16. 

^For a revision of this genus see Vernon Bailey, Proceedings Bio- 
logical Society Washington, Vol. 15, pp. 101-116, 1902. 

375 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus 

and related forms 

General Description. — A medium-sized Rat with long, 
rather rough, harsh pelage; form robust; ears nearly hidden in 




Fig. 8o. Cotton Rat 

the fur; tail slightly less than equal to length of head and 
body, slender, scaly, thinly haired; diurnal and nocturnal. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, no very marked seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts uniform rich, warm brown, slightly darkened by 
the blackish underfur showing through; tail dusky above, 
slightly lighter below; feet dull brown; underparts whitish 
to grayish white or buffy. Plate XXXIII. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 10.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.2 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Southern North America. 

376 



COTTON RAT 



Food. — Stems, foliage, and seeds of plants, grasses and 
meadow growths; cultivated crops. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Foxes and other 
small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Sigmodon 

Hispidus Group 

Northern Cotton Rat; Eastern Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispi- 
dus hispidus Say and Ord. 
As described above. Found in "North Carolina to northern 
Florida and west to southern Louisiana, in Austroriparian 
Zone." (Bailey) 

Florida Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus littoralis Chapman, 
Larger, darker, and with coarser pelage than typical 
hispidus; upperparts grizzled dark gray and black ; feet dark 
gray; upperside of tail black. Total length, 11.3 inches; 
tail vertebrce, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in 
"Eastern part of the peninsula of Florida, from Lake Harney 
to the Everglades." (Bailey) 

Cape Sable Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidtis spadicipygus 
Bangs. 
Resembling typical hispidus in character of pelage, but 
smaller and less brown; upperparts dark brownish gray. 
Total length, 11 inches; tail vertebras, 4 inches; hind foot, 
1.25 inches. Found in "The extreme southern part of • the 
peninsula of Florida." (Bailey) 

Pine Key Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus exsputus G. M. 
Allen. 
Resembling spadicipygus but tail longer and color different. 
Upperparts pale ochraceous buff, darkest on rump, long 
hairs white-tipped; underparts white. Total length, 10.2 
inches; tail vertebra, 4.7 inches; hind foot, 1.75 inches. 
Found on Big Pine Key, Monroe County, Florida. 

Texas Cotton Rat.- — Sigmodon hispidus texianus (Audubon 
and Bachman). 
Smaller and paler than typical hispidus. Upperparts gray- 
ish brown to dark buffy gray; feet gray. Total length, 10 
inches; tail vertebrse, 4.1 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 
Found in "Approximately the eastern half of Texas, west- 
ward to Vernon and San Antonio, and northward to Cairo, 
Kansas." (Bailey) 

Berlandier Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus berlandieri (Baird). 
Resembling typical hispidus but much paler. Upperparts 
light buffy to ashy gray; feet light gray; tail bicolor, black- 
ish above, light gray below; underparts white. Total 
length, 10 inches; tail vertebras, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.3 
inches. Found in "Rio Grande and Pecos valleys from 
Brownsville to El Paso, Texas, and Carlsbad, New Mexico; 
south to southern Jalisco, Mexico." (Bailey) 

377 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Gila Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus confinis Goldman. 
A rather small, dark subspecies. Upperparts mixed buff 
and blackish; ears grayish; tail above, brownish, below, 
grayish; underparts whitish to grayish. Total length, ii 
inches; tail vertebrae, 4.5 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. 
Found in "Upper part of Gila River Valley in southeastern 
Arizona." (Goldman) 

Cienega Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus cienegcs A. B. Howell. 
Resembling confinis but slightly larger; darker and slightly 
browner than eremicus. Total length, 12.3 inches; tail 
vertebras, 5.2 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found on the 
upper Santa Cruz River system, Pima County, Arizona. 

Western Cotton Rat.^ — Sigmodon hispidus eremicus Meams. 
Slightly larger than typical hispidus; paler; pelage softer, 
Upperparts pale yellowish gray; feet light gray; tail brown 
above, gray below; underparts whitish. Total length, 11 
inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.36 inches. 
Found "Along both sides of the lower Colorado River." 
(Bailey) 

Arizona Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus arizoncB Meams. 
Larger and paler than typical hispidus. Upperparts light 
buffy gray; light yellowish touch on nose; underparts white. 
Total length, 12.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 5 inches; hind foot, 
i.o inch. Found in Yavapai County, Arizona. 

Jackson Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon hispidus jacksoni Goldman. 
Pale and resembling eremicus, Upperparts light ochraceous 
buff mixed with dusky; sides only slightly paler; tail brown- 
ish above, grayish below; underparts whitish to grayish. 
Total length, 10 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 
1.3 inches. Found in the plateau region near Prescott, 
Arizona. 

Fulviventer Group 

Least Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon minimus minimus Meams. 
Size small; tail hairy; pelage not hispid. Upperparts clear 
grizzled gray; feet gray; tail above and below brownish 
black; underparts buffy. Total length, 9 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 3.8 inches; hind foot, i.i inches. Found in "Mountains 
of southern New Mexico, Arizona, and northern Mexico." 
(Bailey) 

Goldman Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon minimus goldmani Bailey. 
Resembling typical minimus but darker in color. Upper- 
parts grizzled white, buff and black; ears and tail blackish; 
feet dark; underparts dark, rich fulvous. Total length, 
10.2 inches; tail vertebras, 4.3 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. 
Found in Quay County, New Mexico. 

Yellow- jawed Cotton Rat. — Sigmodon ochrognathus Bailey. 
Slightly larger than typical minimus and with strong orange 
yellowish tinge about ears, face, and rump. Upperparts 
yellowish gray; bright ochraceous on nose, about eye, and 

378 



WOOD RAT 



base of tail; feet buffy gray; tail blackish above, buffy gray- 
below; underparts white. Total length, 10.4 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.16 inches. Found in 
"The Transition Zone top of the Chisos Mountains, Texas. 
. . ." (Bailey) 



The Cotton Rats are a southern group found in greatest 
abundance from Mexico to Peru, and reaching their northern 
limit of distribution in the United States. These Rats look 
very much like overgrown Meadow Mice, with their long, 
loose pelage. Like the Meadow Mice, they are creatures of 
the grass-lands and overgrown, open places. They move 
about during the day and frequently occur in large numbers. 
They ma}^ prove injurious to crops and, because they are 
quite prolific, the farmer may find difficulty in controlling 
them. 

Cotton Rats may be easily distinguished from other North 
American rodents by their size and rough, grizzled pelage. 
No other Rats have this character of pelage and the only other 
loose, rough-pelaged rodents, such as the Meadow Mice, are 
smaller. The number of young may be six or more and there 
are several litters a year. Cotton Rats do not hibernate but 
are active throughout the year. They live in burrows or 
under rocks, logs, or other surface shelters. 

Genus Neotoma^ 

Dentition: Incisors, j; Canines, §; Premolars, g ; Molars, f = 16. 

Wood Rat. — Neotoma floridana 

and related forms 

Names. — Wood Rat; Pack Rat; Trade Rat; Mountain 
Rat; Brush Rat. Plate XXXIII. 

General Description. — A typical Rat in all respects, re- 
sembling superficially the domestic House Rat; size fairly 
large; ears of good size; tail somewhat less than half of total 
length, tapering, sparsely covered with short hairs; pelage 
fairly long and soft. Mainly nocturnal but not infrequently 
active in the daytime, 

^For a full revision of the genus Neotoma see E. A. Goldman, North 
American Fauna, No. 31, 1910. 

379 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation but 
not very marked. 

Winter pelage. — Upperparts pale cinnamon, sprinkled with 
blackish hairs along top of head and back; sides brighter; 
outer sides of legs brownish drab; feet white; tail dusky above, 
nearly concolor, slightly paler below; underparts creamy white. 

Young duller in color than adults. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 16.4 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.6 inches; hind foot, 1.54 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — In western North America 
from 60° southward into Mexico and the Gulf States; Florida 
and a narrow belt from southern New York to Tennessee. 

Food. — Green vegetation such as foliage and grass; fruit, 
roots, bulbs, bark, fungi, and seeds and nuts. In desert 
regions cactus is an article of diet. Not often injurious to 
crops and agricultural enterprises. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Foxes, Coyotes, Wild- 
cats, Cacomistles, and Snakes. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Neotoma 
Subgenus Neotoma 

Characterized by round tail, plantar surface of hind foot 
naked along outer side as far as tarsometatarsal joint, as well 
as by various cranial characters. 

Floridana Group 

Florida Wood Rat. — Neotoma floridana floridana (Ord). 

As described above. Found along "Atlantic coast region 
from South Carolina to Sebastian, Fla., Austroriparian 
Zone." (Goldman) 

Ruddy Wood Rat. — Neotoma floridana rubida Bangs. 

Redder in color, somewhat larger than typical floridana. 
Upperparts from cinnamon to dark ochraceous buff, sprink- 
led along top of head and back with blackish hairs: rest of 
coloration much as in typical floridana. Total length, 16.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.8 inches; hind foot, 1.64 inches. 
Found in "Lower Mississippi Valley and Gulf coast, from 
southwestern Alabama to eastern Texas, north to eastern 
Arkansas. Austroriparian Zone." (Goldman). 

Illinois Wood Rat. — Neotoma floridana illinoensis Howell. 
Resembling rubida, but grayer in color and tail bicolor 
instead of unicolor. Upperparts_ dull buffy with black 
mixture on head and back; grayish on face, brownish on 

380 



WOOD RAT 



outer sides of legs; tail above blackish, below dull white. 
Total length, males, 15. 6-16. 5 inches; tail vertebras, 7.5-8.1 
inches; hind foot, i. 44-1. 60 inches. Found in "Swamp 
region of southern Illinois, and southward to northeastern 




Fig. Si. Distribution of the subspecies of Neotoma floridana, 
after Goldman 

1. Neotoma floridana bailey i 

2. Neotoma floridana attwateri 

3. Neotoma floridana rubida 

4. Neotoma floridana illinonensis 

5. Neotoma floridana floridana 

Arkansas. Austroriparian division of Lower Austral Zone. ' ' 
(Goldman) 
Bailey Wood Rat. — Neototna floridana baileyi (Merriam) . 
Pelage longer than in typical floridana; grayer in color ; tail 
shorter, bicolored. Upperparts (winter) creamy buff to 
buffy gray sprinkled with dusky on back; sides clearer in 
tone than back; feet white; tail brownish gray above, white 
below in sharp contrast ; underparts white. Summer pelage 

381 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



dark rusty brown above. Total length, 14.8 inches; tail 
vertebree, 6.4 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in 
''Upper Sonoran and Carolinian divisions of Upper Austral 
Zone from southwestern South Dakota to southern Kansas, 
west to Pueblo, Colo." (Goldman) 

Kansas Wood Rat. — Neotoma florid ana campestris (Allen). 
Closely allied to haileyi but with softer pelage and with 
slight color differences. Upperparts buffy ochraceous to 
light yellowish gray; a white stripe from posterior base of 
ear down side of neck to throat ; no ochraceous spot on side 
of throat in front of foreleg ; tail paler below than above but 
not sharply bicolor. Total length, 14.5 inches; tail verte- 
brce, 6.2 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found in western 
Kansas and eastern Colorado. 

Attwater Wood Rat. — Neotoma floridana attwateri (Meams). 
Resembling haileyi but darker in winter pelage and with 
smaller teeth. Upperparts (winter) pale vinaceous black 
with blackish wash along back; grayish on face and outer 
legs; tail above brownish black, below white; underparts 
white. Summer pelage, from ochraceous buff to dark rusty 
brown above. Total length, 14.6 inches; tail vertebras, 6.7 
inches; hind foot, 1.56 inches. Found in "Lower Sonoran 
and Austroriparian divisions of Lower Austral Zone in 
central Texas." (Goldman) 

Baird Wood Rat. — Neotoma micropus micropus Baird. 

Paler than typical floridana; fur short and somewhat harsh 
in texture. Upperparts (winter) pale ecru drab, with dusky 
hairs along back; tail above blackish, below grayish; feet 
white; underparts white, on pectoral and inguinal regions 
white to roots of hair. Total length, 14 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 6.5 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found in "South- 
eastern Colorado and southern Kansas, south through 
Oklahoma and central Texas to southern Tamaulipas, 
mainly in Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

Hoary Wood Rat. — Neotoma micropus canescens Allen. 

Smaller than typical micropus, with longer fur and paler 
color. Upperparts (winter) pale ashy gray with light black- 
ish wash on back; tail grayish brown to blackish above; 
rest of pelage as in typical micropiis. Total length, males, 
13.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.5 inches; hind foot, 1.44 inches. 
Found "From southeastern Colorado, northwestern Okla- 
homa, and northern and western Texas, west in New Mexico 
to the Rio Grande Valley and south to southern Coahuila, 
mainly in Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

Albigula Group 

White-throated Wood Rat. — Neotoma albigula albigula Hart- 
ley- 
Of medium size; tail bicolor; patch on throat and breast 
white to roots. Upperparts dull pinkish buff, with thin 

382 



WOOD RAT 



blackish wash along back; sides brighter; vinaceous tinge on 
outer sides of legs; tail above grayish brown, below white; 
feet white; underparts white. Total length, 13. i inches; 
tail vertebrae, 6.1 inches; hind foot, 1.34 inches. Found in 
"Northern New Mexico to southern Coahuila, Mexico, and 
from central Texas to western Arizona. Upper and Lower 
Sonoran Zones." (Goldman) 

M earns Wood Rat. — Neotoma alhigula mearnsi Goldman. 
Paler than typical alhigula and with more pure white on 
underparts. Upperparts light buff with sparse sprinkling 
of black on head and back; underparts white, the fur white 
to base except along flanks and sides of abdomen where it 
is pale plumbeous basally; feet white; tail above grayish, 
below white. Total length, 13.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.3 
inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in the very arid desert 
area from extreme southwestern Arizona southward along 
the eastern side of the Gulf of California. 

Colorado Valley Wood Rat. — Neotoma alhigula venusta (True). 
Larger than typical albigula. Upperparts and rest of pelage 
as in typical alhigula. Total length, 15.8 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 7.3 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. Found in "Colorado 
River V^alley from northwestern Arizona to Gulf of Cali- 
fornia and west through southern California to eastern basal 
slopes of southern Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino, and San 
Jacinto Mountains. Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

Warren Wood Rat. — Neotoma albigula zvarreni Merriam. 
Grayer than typical alhigula and with larger hind foot. 
Upperparts (winter) pale buffy gray with light blackish 
wash along back; a pale buffy lateral line above white of 
abdomen; tail above brownish; white on underparts, feet, 
and underside of tail, with fur white to base on throat and 
breast. Total length, 12.6 inches; tail vertebra, 5.4 inches; 
hind foot, 1.44 inches. Found on "Plains region of south- 
eastern Colorado and northeastern New Mexico. Upper 
Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

Intermedia Group 

Rhoads Wood Rat. — Neotoma intermedia i7itefmedia Rhoads. 
Resembling typical albigula, but darker and without basally 
white fur on throat and breast; ears large; tail bicolored. 
Upperparts (summer) grayish brown, washed with pale buff 
and sprinkled with black-tipped hairs, thickest on dorsal 
region; dusky on sides of "ankles;" feet white; tail black 
above, white below; underparts white, fur slate-colored at 
base, generally with a faint buffy band across chest. Winter 
pelage with more black-tipped hairs on upperparts than in 
summer. Total length, 13 inches; tail vertebras, 6.4 inches; 
hind foot, 1.26 inches. Found on "Lower slopes of southern 
part of Sierra Nevada and coast region of CaHfornia from 
Monterey Bay southward and throughout the mountains of 



383 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Lower California to near Cape San Lucas. Upper and 
Lower Sonoran Zones." (Goldman) 
Yellow Wood Rat. — Neotoma intermedia gilva Rhoads. 

Paler than typical intermedia, with more yellow and less 
black on upperparts. Upperparts from creamy buff to pale 
ochraceous buff, thinly sprinkled with black-tipped hairs 
along back; sides clearer; less dusky on "ankles" than in 
intermedia; tail above, brownish gray, below, white; under- 
parts white. Total length, 13.2 inches; tail vertebras, 6.4 
inches; hind foot, 1.36 inches. Found on "Arid plains and 
basal slopes of mountains mainly along the eastern border of 
the range of N. intermedia, from Stanley in Fresno County, 
Cal., south through northeastern Lower California to the 
Santa Clara Mountains on the west side of the peninsula. 
Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 

Mexicana Group 

Mexican Wood Rat. — Neotoma mexicana mexicana Baird. 
"Size medium, tail moderately long, bicolor; upperparts 
grayish. . . . Color. — Fresh pelage: Upperparts grayish 
buff or buff gray, palest on head, moderately darkened over 
back by overlying blackish hairs, becoming in worn pelage 
of old adults somewhat rusty brown ; underparts dull white, 
the fur everywhere deep plumbeous basally ; feet white ; tail 
brownish above, white below." (Goldman) Total length, 
13 inches; tail vertebras, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.36 inches. 
Found on "Desert ranges along the eastern side of the Sierra 
Madre in Chihuahua and northwestern Durango, and thence 
northward in the mountains to western Texas, southwestern 
New Alexico, and southeastern Arizona. Upper Sonoran 
and Transition Zones." (Goldman) 

Colorado Wood Rat. — Neotoma mexicana fallax (Merriam). 
Like typical mexicana in color, but larger in size. Total 
length, 13.2 inches; tail vertebras, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.32 
inches. Found in "Mountains of Colorado and northern 
and central New Mexico. Upper Sonoran and Transition 
Zones." (Goldman) 

San Francisco Mountain Wood Rat. — Neotoma mexicana pine- 
torum (Merriam). 
Color warmer than that of typical mexicana, ochraceous 
buff instead of grayish buff. Upperparts (October) pale 
ochraceous buff, sprinkled with black-tipped hairs on back 
and top of head; rest of pelage as in typical mexicana. 
Total length, 14.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 6.5 inches; hind 
foot, 1.46 inches. Found in "Plateau region from San 
Francisco Mountain, Arizona, north to the Grand Canyon 
and southeastward along the Mogollon Mesa to the Mogol- 
lon and Mimbres Mountains in western New Mexico. 
Transition Zone." (Goldman) 

384 



WOOD RAT 



Santa Catalina Mountain Wood Rat. — Neotoma mexicana 
hullata Merriam. 
R.esembling typical mexicana, but with more ochraceous 
buff. Upperparts pale ochraceous buff, darker along back 
because of sprinkling of black-tipped hairs; feet and tail as 
in typical mexicana; underparts white, a faint buffy band 
across breast and ochraceous buff on "arm-pits." Total 
length, 13.4 inches; tail vertebra, 6 inches; hind foot, 1.36 
inches. Found only in the Santa Catalina Mountains of 
Arizona. 

Desertonim Group 

Desert Wood Rat. — Neotoma desertonim Merriam, 

Externally resembhng intermedia gilva; small in size; tail 
short; ears large; pelage long and silky. Upperparts pale 
pinkish buffy, sprinkled with black-tipped hairs along dorsal 
region; sides clearer; creamy buff on middle of face, pinkish 
buff on sides of neck and sometimes across throat ; tail above, 
brownish to blackish, below, white; feet white; underparts 
white, sometimes tinged with pinkish buff on abdomen. 
Total length, 12 inches; tail vertebrce, 5 inches; hind foot, 
1.2 inches. Found in "Desert regions in southeastern and 
northeastern California, Nevada, eastern Oregon, northern 
and western Utah, east to northwestern Colorado, and south 
along the west side of the Colorado River to northeastern 
Lower California. Upper and Lower Sonoran Zones." 
(Goldman) 

Thomas Wood Rat. — Neotoma lepida lepida Thomas. 

Resembling desertonim but yellowish instead of pinkish 
buffy, and with longer hairs on tail, which is not sharply 
bicolored. Upperparts yellowish, darkened by black-tipped 
hairs along back; sides clearer in tone than rest of upper- 
parts; tail pale grayish, only slightly darker above than 
below; underparts white to creamy, occasionally with buffy 
suffusion along abdomen, small areas of basally white 
pelage on throat, inner sides of forelegs, on breast, and on 
inguinal region. Total length, 11.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 
5.5 inches; hind foot, 1.16 inches. Found in "Upper 
Sonoran Zone in the plateau region of northeastern Arizona, 
north of the Little Colorado River, and northwestern New 
Mexico south to Gallup, grading to the southward into 
stephensi." (Goldman) Plate XXXIIL 

Stephens Wood Rat. — Neotoma lepida stephensi (Goldman). 
Larger and darker than typical lepida. Upperparts dark 
grayish buff, darkened along back by dusky hair; pinkish 
buff on sides; rest of pelage as in typical lepida. Total 
length, 12.2 inches; tail vertebras, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 1.24 
inches. Found in "Upper Sonoran Zone along Hualpai, 
Mogollon, and White Mountains across central Arizona and 
from the Burro Mountains to the Zuni Mountains in west- 



385 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



ern New Mexico, passing farther north into lepida.^* 
(Goldman) 

Pennsylvanica Group 

Allegheny Wood Rat. — Neotoma pefinsylvan-ica Stone. 

Largest of the round-tailed species of Neotoma. "Tail 
moderately long, well haired, bicolored; ears large, pelage 
coarse; cranial characters pronounced; no closely related 




Fig. 82. 



Distribution of Neotoma pennsylvanica, after 
Goldman 



living species known. Color. — -Fresh winter pelage: Up- 
perparts grayish buff, becoming buffy gray on head, heavily 
overlaid, especially on back, with blackish ; feet and under- 
parts white, the fur pure white to roots, except along sides 
of belly, where the basal color is pale plumbeous; axillae 
creamy buff, tail varying from grayish brown to black above, 
whitish below." (Goldman) Total length, 17.2 inches; 
tail vertebras, 8 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found in 
"Appalachian Mountain region from southern New York to 
northern Alabama, probably including western North Caro- 
hna and northern Georgia, and westward to Mammoth 
Cave, Kentucky, and Lawrenceburg, Tennessee. Alleghen- 
ian and Carolinian Zones." (Goldman) Plate XXXIII. 

386 



WOOD RAT 



Subgenus Homodontomys 

Characterized chiefly by cranial and dental characters; tail 
and hind foot as in subgenus Neotoma. 

Dusky-footed Wood Rat. — Neotoma fuscipes fiiscipes Baird. 
Large in size; tail long, practically unicolored; ears large. 
Upperparts light ochraceous buff, thickly sprinkled Vv'ith 
black-tipped hairs on top of head and back; face grayish; 
sides clearer in tone than back; ears brownish ; white on fore- 
feet, toes of hind feet, and heels; dusky on "ankles," hind 
feet, muzzle, and orbital ring; tail blackish; underparts pure 
white except for abdomen which is tinged with creamy buff. 
Total length, 17.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 8.2 inches; hind foot, 
1.7 inches. Found in "Pacific coast region from San 
Francisco Bay north to Salem, Oregon. Upper Sonoran 
and Transition Zones." (Goldman) 

Streater Wood Rat- — Neotoma fuscipes streatori Merriam. 
Smaller and paler than typical fuscipes; tail bicolored ; hind 
feet white from tarsus down. Upperparts pale ochraceous 
buff with the usual dorsal darkening; feet pure white; tail 
above blackish, below whitish; rest of pelage as in typical 
fuscipes. Total length, 15 inches; tail vertebras, 7.5 inches; 
hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found along "West slope of the 
Sierra Nevada in California from Tehama County south to 
Porterville, Tulare County. Upper Sonoran Zone." 
(Goldman) 

Portola Wood Rat. — Neotoma fuscipes annectens Elliot. 

Distinguished from typical fuscipes, chiefly by cranial 
characters, color essentially the same. Total length, 17.3 
inches; tail vertebrae, 8.6 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. 
Found in "Coast region of California from San Francisco 
Bay to Monterey Bay and thence inland and southward 
along the small valleys and mountain ranges east of the 
Santa Lucia Mountains to Carriso Plains, San Luis Obispo 
County. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones." (Gold- 
man) 

Fort Tejon Wood Rat. — Neotoma fuscipes simplex (True). 
Smaller than typical fuscipes; tail bicolor,- feet white. Up- 
perparts pale ochraceous buff, darker along back; tail above, 
grayish brown, below, whitish; feet white; underparts pure 
white except for creamy buff tinge on abdomen, a median 
line of hairs white to roots, pelage elsewhere on abdomen 
slate-colored at base. Total length, 15.6 inches; tail vertebrae 
7 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. Found on "Eastern basal 
slopes of the Sierra Nevada in Inyo and Kern counties, 
Cal., and through Walker Pass to the foothill region at the 
southern end of the San Joaquin Valley. Upper Sonoran 
Zone." (Goldman) 

Mohave Desert Wood Rat. — Neotoma fuscipes mohavensis 
Elliot. 
Smaller than typical fuscipes; color grayer; tail bicolored. 

387 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Upperparts brownish gray, heavily sprinkled with black- 
tipped hairs on back; sides paler than back; ears grayish; 
feet white, streaked with dusky on hind feet; tail above 
brownish black, below dull white; underparts white, occas- 
ionally with creamy tinge on abdomen. Total length, 15.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 7.3 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. 
Found in "The Mohave Desert, in southern California, 
Lower Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 
Large-eared Wood Rat. — Neotoma fuscipes macrotis (Thomas). 
Resembling mohavensis, but darker. Upperparts grayish 
brown, tinged with buff to ochraceous buff, with dorsal 
darkening of black-tipped hairs; paler on head and sides; 
dusky on "ankles" and hind feet; white on forefeet and toes 
of hind feet; tail above, brownish black, below, whitish; 
underparts white, sometimes tinged with buffy on abdomen, 
where pelage is slate-colored basally. Total length, 14.2 
inches; tail vertebras, 6.8 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches. 
Found in "Pacific coast region from Monterey Bay, Cali- 
fornia, south through the San Pedro Martir Mountains, 
Lower California. Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones." 
(Goldman) 

Subgenus Teonoma 

Characterized by large, bushy tail; hind foot densely furred 
on sole; and by various cranial characters. 

Gray Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea cinerea (Ord). 
Size large; hind feet large and heavily furred from heel to 
posterior plantar tubercle ; ears large ; pelage long and thick. 
Upperparts grayish buff to ochraceous buff, thickly sprink- 
led with dusky hairs on back; fore- and hind feet white; ears 
edged faintly with whitish, clothed with brownish and gray- 
ish hairs; tail noticeably bushy but flattened, above brown- 
ish gray, below white, banded with pale buffy at base; 
underparts white. Total length, 15.5 inches; tail vertebras, 
6.5 inches; hind foot, 1.7 inches. Found in "Rocky Moun- 
tain region in southern British Columbia, Montana, Idaho, 
western Wyoming, Utah, northern Arizona, and thence 
westward through the mountains of central Nevada to the 
southern part of the Sierra Nevada in California. Canadian 
Zone and down along cold cliffs and canyons well into the 
Transition Zone." (Goldman) Plate XXXIIL 

Nevada Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea lucida 
Goldman. 
Much smaller and paler than typical cinerea. Upperparts 
light buff to light ochraceous-buff, with faint sprinkling of 
black-tipped hairs; buffy grayish on middle of face, sides of 
muzzle and outer sides of limbs; tail above grayish, below 
white; underparts and feet white. Total length, 13.4 
inches; tail vertebras, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 

388 



WOOD RAT 



Found on Charleston Peak, Charleston Mountains, Clark 
County Nebraska. 
Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea drummondi (Rich- 
ardson). 
Resembling typical cinerea, but pelage longer, tail more 
bushy. Upperparts grayish buff, washed with dusky; 
dusky on orbital ring; rest of pelage as in typical cinerea, 
except that there is a sharp line of demarcation between 




^^O^ 



Fig. 83. Bushy-tailed Wood Rat 



dark color of forelegs and white feet instead of insensible 
blending as in cinerea. Total length, 15.3 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 6.7 inches; hind foot, 1.76 inches. Found in 
"Rocky Mountains of eastern British Columbia and 
western Alberta, north of the range of N. cinerea. Canadian 
Zone." (Goldman) 
Osgood Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea saxamans 
(Osgood). 
Darker in color and tail more bushy than in typical cinerea. 
Upperparts buffy gray darkened everywhere by sprinkling 
of dusky; feet white; tail above brownish gray for one-third 
of its length, slaty gray on last two-thirds, below white, 
banded with buffy gray at base; underparts white. Total 
length, 16.2 inches; tail vertebras, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.88 
inches. Found in "Northern British Columbia west of the 
Rocky Mountains, limits of range unknown. Canadian 
and Hudsonian Zones." (Goldman) 

389 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Western Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea occiden- 

talis (Baird). 
Resembling typical cinerea, but darker in color, "ankles" 
more dusky. Upperparts brownish buff, heavily sprinkled 
with dusky ; head and sides with less dusky than back ; ears 
brownish, whitish along edge; fore- and hind feet white; 
forearms brownish buff in marked contrast to white feet; 
"ankles" dusky; tail above brownish black grizzled with 
gray, below white, banded with buffy at base; underparts 
dull white, ochraceous buff under forelegs. Total length, 
i6 inches; tail vertebrae, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 
Found "From Pacific coast region of southwestern British 
Columbia to northern California (except the narrow coastal 
strip west of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon), and thence 
eastward over the lava beds to south-central Idaho and 
northeastern Nevada. Mainly Transition and Canadian 
Zones." (Goldman) 

Fuscous Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotomu cinerea fusca 
(True). 
Resembling typical cinerea, but darker, pelage more woolly, 
ears smaller, and tail without white on under surface. 
Upperparts mixed grayish tawny and black, the black pre- 
dominating along back; head and sides with less black; 
dusky on muzzle, ears (which are faintly edged with whitish), 
upperpart of hind feet and "ankles"; tail above, blackish, 
below, buffy gray, washed with blackish; underparts 
whitish, pure white to roots on breast and inguinal region, 
washed with grayish tawny on inner sides of legs, and with 
tawny ochraceous on throat. Total length, 16 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 7.4 inches; hind foot, 1.8 inches. Found in 
"Humid coastal belt west of the Cascade Mountains in 
Oregon. Transition Zone." (Goldman) 

Colorado Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea orolestes 
(Merriam). 
More ochraceous than typical cinerea. Upperparts ochrace- 
ous buff, sprinkled with blackish on back; sides brighter 
than back ; feet white ; tail above grayish buff for one-third 
of length, brownish buff for last two-thirds, below white, 
banded at base with pale buffy; underparts white, pelage 
white to base on breast and inguinal region. Total length, 
16 inches; tail vertebras, 7 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 
Found in "Rocky Mountain region from northern New 
Mexico north through Colorado and Wyoming to southern 
Montana and thence eastward to the Black Hills in South 
Dakota. Mainly Transition and Canadian Zones." (Gold- 
man) 

Arizona Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea arizoncE 
(Merriam). 
Resembling typical cinerea, but smaller, tail less bushy, 
color brighter. Upperparts ochraceous buff, thinly sprink- 
led with dusky; sides brighter than back; feet white; tail 

390 



WOOD RAT 




Fig. 84. Distribution of the subspecies of Neotoma ctnerea, 
after Goldman 



1. Neotoma cinerea cinerea 

2. Neotoma cinerea f}rummondi 

3. Neotoma cinerea saxamans 

4. Neotoma cinerea occidentalis 



5- Neotoma cinerea fusca 

6. Neotoma cinerea orolestes 

7- Neotoma cinerea arizoncn 

8. Neotoma cinerea rupicola 



391 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



above, grayish brown, below, white; underparts white. 
Total length, 14 inches; tail vertebrae, 6 inches; hind foot, 
1.44 inches. Found in "Upper Sonoran Zone in north- 
eastern Arizona, southeastern Utah, and probably north- 
ward along the Green River Valley, southwestern Colorado, 
and northj^estem New Mexico." (Goldman) 
Pale Bushy-tailed Wood Rat. — Neotoma cinerea rupicola 
(Allen). 
Similar to typical cinerea, but smaller, tail shorter, and color 
paler. Upperparts cream-buff, sprinkled moderately with 
blackish; tail above, brownish gray, lighter at tip, below, 
white; feet clear white; underparts pure white. Total 
length, 14 inches; tail vertebrce, 5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.7 
inches. Found in "Big Bad Lands region from south- 
western South Dakota, through southeastern Wyoming 
and western Nebraska to northeastern Colorado. Upper 
Sonoran Zone." (Goldman) 



The Wood Rat is found only in the Western Hemisphere 
and here its range is restricted to North and Middle America, 
with by far the greater number of species occurring in the 
western half of the continent. Wood Rats are easily distin- 
guished from other rodents by their size and rat-like form, the 
only species liable to be confused with them being the two 
introduced Rats, — the Norway Rat and the Roof Rat. Aside 
from important dental and cranial characters, the introduced 
Rats differ from the Wood Rats in the details set forth in the 
discussion on page 452. 

Over much of the western range of the genus the Wood Rat 
is a common rodent. The round-tailed species are essentially 
mammals of the lower life zones, found on plains, deserts, and 
in brushy areas of the more open forests; the bushy-tailed 
species are forest dwellers, found in the Rocky Mountains and 
adjacent ranges and in the higher life zones. In the eastern 
United States, the only species found as far north as New 
York is pennsylvanica, rare and local in distribution. In the 
southeastern states, the forms of the floridana group are found. 
From the Great Plains westward the genus is represented by 
many forms and nearly every peculiar environment has its 
own distinct race. 

In many places these Rats build large conspicuous nests of 
dead twigs, leaves, and debris of various sorts, this habit being 
especially obvious in the deserts and arid plains. In regions 
of cactus growth the spiny cactus lobes are placed on the nest 

392 



WOOD RAT 



and the nest itself may be built about one of these thorny 
plants. Wood Rats have a very inquisitive disposition and 
seem possessed of a collecting instinct. Small objects of metal 
especially attract them and the Rats bear off to their nests 
anything of this sort that is left lying about a camp. Coins, 
small traps, belt buckles, nails, and any bright object within 
their powers of transportation will be carried away by these 
visitors, and in the morning the articles can usually be found 
piled on a nearby nest. 

The Bushy-tailed Wood Rats generally live in rocks or cliffs 
and do not build large and conspicuous nests in the open. 
Piles of debris may be seen in crevices in the rocks, but the 
animals count more upon a retreat back of the rocks them- 
selves. These species have the mania for collecting, however, 
and it is not always so easy to find what they have carried off, 
since it may be hidden in some out-of-the-way crevice. The 
name Trade Rat is especially apt for these creatures because 
they frequently bring some object to place on the spot where 
they have stolen something. I have known Trade Rats to 
carry off rivets from the blacksmith shop of a mining camp and 
fill up the box where they got the rivets with pebbles and other 
objects gathered up outside the shop. Perhaps in the eyes of 
the Rat this was a fair exchange and no robbery. 

Although never becoming a house Rat to the extent that 
the introduced Rats have become, Wood Rats sometimes leave 
their native abodes and take up quarters in bams, ranch- 
houses, and miners' cabins. Under such circumstances they 
become a nuisance, chiefly because of the noise they make at 
night and because of the articles they carry off. They are not 
as destructive as the domestic Rats, however, although, of 
course, they eat grain or whatever food of a- similar nature 
they have access to. The bushy-tailed, mountain species 
make a noise at night out of all proportion to their size, run- 
ning over rafters, thumping on the floor, rattling the kindling 
in the wood-box, or romping with care-free abandon. They 
are apt to be bold rather than timid, and sit blinking at a light 
instead of running for cover like a Norway Rat when their 
midnight frolic is interrupted. 

Wood Rats are attractive creatures, with rather large eyes 
and soft fur, and little of the slinking, furtive appearance of 
the introduced Rats. As pets they soon become friendly and 

393 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



are gentle and easily cared for. They are cleanly in habits 
and, as far as I am aware, are not carriers of disease. While 
most active after sundown, they are not infrequently seen dur- 
ing the daytime and are curious enough to come out and 
investigate any unusual disturbance. Wood Rats are active 
throughout the year and do not hibernate. 

In the northern part of their range, Wood Rats raise but 
one brood of young a year, but in the regions of mild winters 
several litters a year is more the rule. These litters contain 
from three to six individuals. 

The pelage of the Wood Rat is quite soft, but it is of no 
commercial value as fur; at least no market for it has yet been 
established. The flesh of these Rats is white and palatable, 
being eaten by some of the western Indians, but because the 
animal bears the name of Rat it is not apt to become a com- 
mon article of diet with most people. 

Subfamily Microtinae. Voles and Lemmings 

Cricetine rodents with flat-crowned molars; molar pattern 
prismatic, composed of angular figures; habit terrestrial, 
fossorial, or semiaquatic. 

Genus Synaptomys^ 

Dentition: Incisors, J ; Canines, ^ ; Premolars, <] ; Molars, 3=16. 

Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys cooperi 

and related forms 

Names.- — Lemming Mouse; Bog Mouse; Bog Lemming. 

General Description. — Externally very much like a small, 
short-tailed Meadow Mouse, but differing in cranial and 
dental characters. Form thickset; tail very short; pelage 
coarse; incisors orange; upper incisors with longitudinal 
groove ; rostrum very short ; molars rootless ; nail of first digit of 
forefoot flat and strap-shaped; plantar tubercles six; dwelling 
in bogs and swamps. Plate XXX. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not very 
great. 

' For a full revision of this genus see A. B. Howell, North American 
Fauna, No. 50. 1927. 

394 



LEMMING MOUSE 



Upperparts mixed gray, yellowish brown and black, giving 
a, grizzled appearance similar to cinnamon-brown; tail bicolor, 
above brownish, below whitish; underparts soiled whitish 
wash over slate-colored underfur. 

Immature pelage darker and more slaty than adult. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 4.8 
inches; tail vertebra, .7 inch; hind foot, .72 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Boreal North America. 

Food. — Vegetation, see page 398. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Foxes, and 
Dther small carnivores. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Synaptomys 
Subgenus Synaptomys 

Cooper Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys cooperi cooperi Baird. 
As described above. Found in the cooler zones, in favored 
localities, from Minnesota to the Atlantic and south through 
New York and Michigan. 

Synaptomys fatuus Bstngs = Synaptomys cooperi cooperi. 

Stone Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys cooperi stonei Rhoads. 
Closely related to typical cooperi and intermediate between 
it and helaletes in size of rostrum; incisors wide (1.7 mm.); 
color about as in typical cooperi. Total length, 5.1 inches; 
tail vertebrae, .8 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Lower 
portion of Transition and northern half of the Upper 
Austral Zones in the United States east of the Plains, from 
central Wisconsin and Illinois east to the Atlantic coast ; 
occurs as far north as Massachusetts and south in the 
mountains into North Carolina." (Howell) 

Virginia Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys cooperi helaletes 
(Merriam). 
Resembling cooperi, but with larger head and feet and longer 
tail; incisors very broad (1.9 mm.); color very much as in 
cooperi. Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, .85 inch; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Extreme southeastern 
Virginia and northeastern North Carolina." (Howell) 

Goss Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys cooperi gossii (Coues). 
Somewhat redder in color than helaletes which it resembles; 
skull long and heavy; rostrum wide. Total length, 5.4 
inches; tail vertebrae, .8 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. Found 
in "The west-central Mississippi Valley country, mostly in 
the Upper Austral Zone, from northeastern Arkansas and 
southern Illinois into Iowa and extreme southeastern South 
Dakota." (Howell) 

395 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Subgenus Mictomys 

Distinguished from the subgenus Synaptomys by cranial and 
dental characters. 

Richardson Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys horealis (Rich- 
ardson) 
"A dark, richly colored race, with foot somewhat short. 
Skull rather small, . . . dorsal coloration rich and dark. 
. . . Argus brown . . . plentifully mixed with black- 
tipped hairs. . . . The tail is distinctly bicolor. . . . 
Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrse, i inch; hind foot, 
.^2 inch." (Howell) Found in "The Athabaska-Macken- 
zie region of Canada from Great Bear Lake south to near 
Edmonton, and eastward (provisionally) to Lake Winni- 
peg." (Howell) 

Dall Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys horealis dalli (Merriam). 
"A rather bright-colored race, with skull of moderate size. " 
Upperparts Brussels brown mixed with blackish. Total 
length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, .8 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. 
Found in "Hudsonian Zone in Alaska and south to central 
British Columbia to the eastward of the coast district." 
(Howell) 

Synaptomys andersoni Allen is said by Howell to be indis- 
tinguishable from dalli. 

Chapman Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys horealis chapmani 
(Allen). 
"A dark but dull-colored race with but slight dorsal tinge 
of chestnut. Incisive foramina and rostrum long." Color 
dull and gray, with some brown on rump ; tail faintly bicolor. 
Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrse, i inch; hind foot, .72 
inch. Found in "Evidently the Canadian Zone of the 
eastern portion of the southern half of British Columbia, 
and adjacent mountainous slopes in extreme western 
Alberta." (Howell) 

Wrangell Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys horealis wrangeli 
(Merriam). 
"A race that is quite variable in coloration, with very low, 
flat brain case, rather slender rostrum. ... In coloration, 
ranging from skins that are a perfect match for the bright- 
est, brownest dalli, to others that can not be told from gray 
and grizzled specimens of chapmani, but the warmer tone 
of color seems to be somewhat the more prevalent and to be 
more typical of the unworn condition of pelage." Total 
length, 5.3 inches; tail vertebra, i inch; hind foot, .64 inch. 
Found in "Coastal strip in the Canadian Zone from the 
Alexander Archipelago southward to the northern border of 
the United States. " (Howell) 

Synaptomys truei Merriam is considered by Howell to be 
indistinguishable from wrangeli. 

396 



LEMMING MOUSE 



Ungava Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys borealis innuitus 
(True). 
"Skull very small and flat, with short and narrow rostrum. 
Color.— Not dependable, as the type has been in alcohol 
ever since collected (1884). Known only from Fort Chimo , ' ' 
Ungava, Canada. (Howell) 

Labrador Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys borealis medioximus 
(Bangs). 
"Coloration bright. The skull is intermediate m size 
between those of innuitus and sphagnicola. The type, in 
very full pelage, is quite bright dorsally. Anteriorly the 
coloration is slightly darker, because, in large measure, of 
the more plentiful admixture of black-tipped hairs. Feet 
and tail dark, the latter scarcely bicolor. Underparts, 
without buff." Total length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebrae, .88 
inch; hind foot, .84 inch. "Known only from the coast 
district of southern Labrador." (Howell) 

Preble Lemming Mouse. — Synaptomys borealis sphagnicola 
(Preble). 
"A race with large, well-ridged skull, long rostrum, . . . 
Dorsal coloration close to the Prout brown of Ridgway, 
which is most intense upon the rump; anteriorly duller, 
grayer, and more grizzled. Tail, distinctly bicolor. ' ' Total 
length, 5.3 inches; tail vertebrae, i inch; hind foot, .8 inch. 
Found in "Canadian Zone in the northern New England 
States from the type locality north to include New Bruns- 
wick and the portion of Quebec east and south of the St. 
Lawrence River." (Howell) 

******* 

''Synaptomys is not common in collections, but it is by no 
means certain that it is not more numerous in nature than 
is generally supposed. Except in a very few places, or in 
years of unusual abundance, lemming mice have proved 
exceedingly difficult to obtain in numbers. Because they are 
usually confined to bogs and tracts of swampy land, they are 
rarely if ever of economic importance. 

"The habits of lemming mice are almost unknown. The 
members of the genus Synaptomys belong at the present day 
definitely to a boreal fauna, and in the north, although usually 
found in moist situations, they also occur in dry patches of 
grass and other low cover, as well as in bogs. In the districts 
farther south, however, they have evidently been able to 
survive only because of the presence of occasional cold 
sphagnum bogs, to which they are almost entirely confined in 
the lower latitudes of the Eastern States. Near Lake Drum- 
mond, Va., however, and at Horseshoe Lake, Mo., in Indiana, 

397 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



and at several other places the genus has been found in grass- 
land, both moist and dry. 

"Observations on food habits have been confined practically 
to the recording of the presence of cut green grasses in the 
runways, but judging from the habits of related rodents, these 
animals may occasionally feed upon a variety of bulbs and 
even insects, as well as succulent herbage. Examination in 
the Biological Survey of 1 1 stomachs from Kansas and i from 
Minnesota also showed contents of finely ground grass and 
sedge leaves and a few insignificant traces of other green 
vegetation. Further observations on the food habits of 
Synaptomys are greatly needed. 

"Well-defined runways are maintained, and burrows are 
constructed in the ground or through beds of sphagnum. 
Nests are occasionally placed in tussocks of grass or amid other 
surface cover, according to published reports. 

"Collectors, mostly those of the Bureau of Biological 
Survey, have trapped females containing from four to six 
embryos, from March ii to October 7. This indicates that 
litters are only of moderate size. Probably several litters are 
borne each year, the period of greatest reproductive activity 
being largely confined to the warmer months. 

"Lemming mice are so rarely obtained that collectors are 
likely to seek them whenever possible. Further material from 
certain critical localities is badly needed, however, and it is 
hoped that field parties will make special efforts to procure 
such desiderata. Until more specimens are obtained further 
progress in the proper understanding of the relationships of 
several races can hardly be expected." (Howell) 

Genus Lemmus 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, [J ; Premolars, %\ Molars, f = 16. 

Lemming. — Lemmus trimucronatus 

and related forms 

Names. — Lemming; Brown Lemming; Back Lemming. 

General Description. — A small, thickset rodent with much 
the appearance of a large, short-tailed Meadow Mouse. 
Soles of feet hairy, without well-developed tubercles; forefeet 
large and strong, with well-developed claws, thumb much 

398 



LEMMING 



reduced, with long, flat, nail-like claw; upper incisors without 
grooves; ears small, hidden in long pelage of head and neck; 
pelage long and lax; tail very short, well haired. Plate XXX. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation not con- 
spicuous as in the Lemmings of the genus Dicrostonyx. 

Upperparts. — Head and shoulders to middle back grizzled 
buff}^ slaty black and grayish; lower back and rump rusty 




Fig. 85. Lemming 

red or rufous; sides light ochraceous; tail above, yellowish 
brown, belov/, slightly lighter; feet dusky; pelage everywhere 
slate-colored at base. 

Underparts. — Light ochraceous with slate-Colored basal 
pelage showing through. 

Immature more unicolor than adults, yellowish brown. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 6 
inches; tail vertebras, .8 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arctic North America and 
south along Rocky Mountains to western Alberta. 

Food. — Grasses, foliage of Arctic plants, mosses, lichens, 
etc. 

Enemies. — Owls, Hawks, Weasels, Arctic Foxes, and other 
predatory mammals. 

399 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Species of the genus Lemmus 

American Lemming ; Back Lemming. — Lemmus trimucronatus 
(Richardson) . 
As described. Found on the Melville Peninsula, Booth 
Peninsula, northern shores of Hudson Bay, and adjacent 
territory; west to Great Bear Lake and Anderson River; 
limits of range unknown. Named Back Lemming for Capt. 
Back. 

Tawny Lemming. — Lemmus helvolus (Richardson). 

Yellower and more tawny than trimucronatus which it equals 
in size. Upperparts yellowish brown, grizzled with gray 
and dusky on head and shoulders. Found in alpine swamps 
and meadows of Rocky Mountain district about the head- 
waters of the southern Peace River, Alberta; has been 
recorded from Telegraph Creek, British Columbia ; limits of 
range unknown. 

Point Barrow Lemming.^ — Lemmus alascensis Merriam. 

In coloration somewhat intermediate between trimucronatus 
and helvolus. Upperparts warm yellowish brown with 
tendency toward rusty on the rump; head and shoulders 
grizzled buffy, grayish, and blackish. In winter the pelage 
is more fulvous and with less ochraceous tinge. Total 
length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebras, .9 inch; hind foot, .83 inch. 
Found in Alaska, from Point Barrow south ; limits of range 
unknown. 

Yukon Lemming. — Lemmus yukonensis Merriam. 

"Size small, ears relatively large; general color dark anteri- 
orly, with bright fulvous or rufous rump and flanks; audital 
bullae immense." (Merriam) Total length, 5.2 inches; tail 
vertebra, .7 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in Alaska in 
the region of Charlie Creek, Yukon River. 

Osgood Lemming. — Lemmus minusculus Osgood. 

Like alascensis, but smaller and with less difference between 
color of head and shoulders as compared with rump. Upper- 
parts ochraceous mixed with blackish ; rump hazel to chest- 
nut; sides and underparts clear ochraceous. Total length, 
5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, .5 inch; hind foot, .75 inch. Found 
in the region of the Upper Nushagak River drainage, base of 
Alaska Peninsula. 

Black-footed Lemming. — Lemmus nigripes (True). 

Cinnamon-gray above; sides clear tawny brown; underparts 
paler tawny; black on nose, upperside of forefeet, upper and 
lower sides of hind feet and upperside of tail. Total length, 
5.8 inches; tail vertebras, .5 inch; hind foot, .8 inch. Found 
on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. 

Preble, in North American Fauna, No 22, page 54, gives the 
following account of habits, writing of trimucronatus. 

"We found this fine species at but one locality, near the 
400 



LEMMING 

mouth of Thlewiaza River, where it was common and where 
a series of about seventy, comprising adults and young of 
both sexes, was secured August 4 to 8. A succession of low, 
fiat, boulder-covered areas, which lay between the shore and 
some shallow lagoons a few hundred yards inland, was occupied 
by the animals. The ground was dry and well covered with 
short, thick grass, through which their runways extended in 
every direction. They burrowed extensively, sometimes 
beneath boulders, but as often in the sides of tiny terraces or 
from a flat surface. Their holes seemed to be connected in an 
endless labyrinth. We captured several by suddenly over- 
turning some of the boulders, but most were taken in traps set 
in their well-trodden roads. They paid no attention to bait, 
but were readily caught in runway traps. When taken alive 
they showed considerable ferocity for animals of their size, 
snarling and biting vigorously. The breeding season seemed 
to be nearly over, but a few females contained from four to six 
embryos. The teats are eight in number, four inguinal and 
four pectoral." 

The migrations of Lemmings are one of the marvels of rodent 
life. These great movements of Mice have been well known 
in northern Europe from early times, and similar activity has 
been noted in Arctic America. When conditions have been 
unusually favorable for the Lemmings and the normal checks 
on the annual increase have been unable to keep down the 
numbers of the Mice, the Lemming population becomes too 
vast for the available food supply. Great swarms of Lem- 
mings start for new territory and move in vast waves of rodent 
life which do not stop for rivers, lakes, or any obstacle of 
topography. These hordes are followed by the natural 
enemies of the Mice, Hawks, Owls, Foxes, etc., and through 
the constant attacks of these and the inroads of disease and 
accident, the multitudes gradually melt away. After such a 
migration the numbers of Lemmings may be very low until 
the recuperative powers of the species have brought the cycle 
onto the upturn once more. 

Genus Dicrostonyx^ 

Dentition: Incisors, { ; Canines, ^; Premolars, §; Molars, f = 16. 
^ For a full revision of this genus see G. M. Allen, Bulletin Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, Vol. LXII, pp. 509-540, 1919. 

401 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Collared Lemming. 



Dicrostonyx hudsonius 

and related forms 



Names. — Collared Lemming; Snow Lemming; Pied Lem- 
ming. 

General Description. — A stout-bodied Mouse, related to the 
Meadow Mice, with large third and fourth claw on forefoot 
(abnormally large in winter) ; small ears ; short tail ; very small 
thumb; pelage white in winter, long and soft. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; marked seasonal variation. 

Upperparts (summer) buffy gray to almost dear gray pro- 
duced by mixture of gray, buffy gray, and black; a median 




Fig. 86. Forefoot of Collared Lemming 
Upper figure foot in winter, 
lower figure foot in summer 



black line from forehead to tail not sharply marked off from 
surrounding pelage; ears tufted with tawny, enclosed by 
indistinct grayish patch; buffy on sides of nose and about 
eye; tail like rest of upperparts; collar formed by tawny band 
from armpits across throat; underparts washed with pale 
tawny. 

Winter pelage, everywhere white, hairs slaty at base. 

Immature pelage (summer) like adults but darker, collar 
less distinct. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 6 
inches; tail vertebras .8 inch; hind foot, .88 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Arctic America. 

Food. — Vegetation. 

402 



COLLARED LEMMING 



Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Ravens, Weasels, Foxes, Lynxes, 
Wolverines. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Dicrostonyx. 
Subgenus Dicrostonyx 

Labrador Collared Lemming. — Dicrostonyx hudsonius (Pallas). 
As described above. "This species is confined, so far as 
known, to the barren-ground area of the Labrador Penin- 
sula, from (probably) the Straits of Belle Isle on the south- 
east to about the latitude of Great Whale River (55° N.) on 
the west side. It is also found on some of the small islands 
along the eastern side of Hudson Bay, but on the west side 
of the bay its place is taken by Z). r. richardsoni." (G. M. 
Allen) 

Subgenus Misothermus 

Alaskan Collared Lemming. — Dicrostonyx ruhricatus ruhri- 
catus (Richardson). 
Brighter colored than hudsonius. Upperparts (summer) 
chestnut, grizzled with white; lower back grizzled whitish 
and blackish; nose to nape black and continuous as a 
narrow, black, median stripe to base of tail ; ears tufted with 
rusty; hips grayish; feet and tail whitish; underparts 
washed with orange buff or (less frequently) whitish. 
Winter pelage white. Total length, 6.1 inches; tail verte- 
brae, .76 inch; hind foot, .80 inch. Found on "the barrens of 
northern Alaska, including the peninsula and eastward 
along the Arctic coast of Mackenzie to Coronation Gulf." 
(G. M. Allen) 

Richardson Collared Lemming. — Dicrostonyx ruhricatus 
richardsoni (Merriam). 
Without such a bright and contrasted color pattern as 
typical ruhricatus. Upperparts (summer) varying from 
ruddy gray to brownish ; buff -yellow on sides of nose and 
flanks ; grizzled black and buff y from nose to tail ; tawny on 
ears and on shoulders; feet and tip of tail whitish, washed 
with buffy; underparts washed with pale cinnamon-buff; 
band across throat tawny. Winter pelagje white. Total 
length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebrse, .56 inch; hind foot, .78 
inch. Found in Barren Grounds from Fort Churchill, Hud- 
son Bay to Aylmer Lake, western Keewatin and Artillery 
Lake, eastern Mackenzie and north almost to Coronation 
Gulf on the Arctic coast. 

Unalaska Collared Lemming. — Dicrostonyx ruhricatus unalas- 

censis (Merriam). 

"Closely related to ruhricatus from which it differs in its 

relatively longer and more slender rostrum, its weaker, less 

broadly rounded zygomata, and slightly more protruding 

403 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



incisors. External characters unknown. . . . Confined, so 
far as known, to the island of Unalaska, Alaska Peninsula." 
(G. M. Allen) 

St. Lawrence Island Lemming. — Dicrostonyx exsul G. M. 
Allen _ 
Resembling ruhricatus but grayer in color. Upperparts 
(summer) pinkish gray ; gray on nose and cheeks ; sprinkling 
of black hairs on nose, on cheeks, and along median line of 
back; ochraceous buff mixed with tawny about ear; sides 
brighter than back; feet pale buff; tail whitish; underparts 
washed with ochraceous buff, chin and undersides of fore- 
legs pure white, throat tinged with tawny. Winter pelage 
white. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebrae, .68 inch; 
hind foot, .80 inch. Found only on St. Lawrence Island, 
Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Greenland Collared Lemming. — Dicrostonyx grcenlandicus 
(Traill). 
Most like ruhricatus but much smaller and differing in 
various cranial characters. Upperparts (summer) grizzled 
blackish and gray ; neck and shoulders washed with ochrace- 
ous orange ; narrow black median stripe from nose to shoul- 
ders; feet and tail white tinged with buffy; underparts 
washed with ochraceous orange. Winter pelage white. 
Total length, 4.3 inches; tail vertebras, .35 inch; hind foot, 
.60 inch. Found "from about latitude 69° N. on the east 
coast of Greenland, northward to the limit of land, 83° 24', 
and thence westward along the coast of North Greenland 
to the Kane Basin, and across the Robeson Channel to 
Grinnell Land, Ellesmere Land, and south to Baffin Land." 
(G. M. Allen) 

******* 

The Collared Lemmings are the only Mice which change 
color from summer to winter pelage. In summer they look 
like short-tailed Meadow Mice, brownish or grayish in color, 
but when winter comes a pure white pelage appears and with 
it the greatly enlarged claws on the front feet. By the single 
character of the specialized claws, winter specimens of the 
genus Dicrostonyx may be easily distinguished. 

This genus is -Arctic and Subarctic in its distribution and is 
usually found on the barren, open areas. These Mice make 
burrows and have underground nest chambers which are 
lined with grass and moss. In winter they make many run- 
ways under the surface of the snow, but in summer there are 
very few surface runways such as are made by Meadow Mice. 
Collared Lemmings are chiefly nocturnal in habit. 

These Mice sometimes become so abundant that they are 
observed in a great migration similar to that of the Lemmings 

404 



PHENACOMYS 



of the genus Lemmus, although this is of comparatively rare 
occurrence since Dicrostonyx is usually not as abundant as 
Lemmus. At such times Dicrostonyx swim streams and press 
on in the face of all obstacles. 

The young are bom in early summer and usually number 
three to a litter. 

Genus Phenacomys ^ 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, {] ; Premolars, J] ; Molars, | = i6. 

Phenacomys. — Phenacomys intermedius 

and related forms 

Names. — Phenacomys; Lemming Mouse. For want of a 
good colloquial or vernacular name for the members of the 
genus, Howell suggests the generic term as the common group 
name. The two arboreal species are called Tree Mice, 

General Description. — A small Mouse very similar in 
external appearance to some of the Meadow Mice from which 
it may be certainly distinguished only by cranial and dental 
characters (rooted molars as compared to unrooted molars in 
Microtiis). Form normal and mouse-like; legs short; tail 
short (long in some forms of the genus), pelage rather long and 
loose; ears rather small and almost hidden in fur of head; 
mammee eight in number; plantar tubercles six (as far as 
known) ; a rare Mouse in most localities. Plate XXX. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; some seasonal variation, but 
little is known on this point. 

Upperparts. — Color variable, from tawny olive to umber, 
pelage slate-colored at base and showing through to some 
extent. In winter grayer. Tail bicolor. 

Underparts. — Whitish, sometimes with buffy wash. 

Immature pelage darker than adult. 

Measurements. — Sexes of approximately equal size. Total 
length, 5.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.2 inches; hind foot, .7 
inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found in the colder zones and 
mountain summits of Canada and the western United States. 

Food. — Vegetation, seeds, stems, soft parts of plants; in 
case of two species, needles of conifers. 

^ For a recent and comprehensive revision of this genus see A.B. Howell, 
North American Fauna, No. 48, 1926. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Enemies. — Very little is known of the life-history of this 
genus, but undoubtedly it has the same enemies as Meadow 
Mice, namely, Snakes, Hawks, Owls, and small carnivores. 
The Blue Jay is said to pre}^ on the young of the two arboreal 
species of Phenacomys. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Phenacomys 

Intermedius Group 

Characterized by short tail, and face without distinct 
yellow wash; found in mountains of the West. 

Rocky Mountain Phenacomys. — Phenacomys intermedius in- 
termedius Merriam. Plate XXX. 
As described above. Found in "British Columbia west of 
the eastern divide of the Rocky Mountains, northeastern 
Washington, Idaho, eastern and southern Oregon, and 
northern California; thence in the mountains through 
southern Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and into northern 
New Mexico." (Howell) Phenacomys orophilus Merriam, 
P. prehlei Merriam, and P. cofistablei Allen are all synonyms 
of P. i. intermedius. 

Alberta Phenacomys. — Phenacomys intermedius levis A. B. 
Howell. 
Resembling typical intermedius but skull smaller and 
weaker. Pelage of upperparts drab at base, tipped with 
brown, feet pure white; tail faintly bicolor; underparts 
grayish, sometimes tinged with buffy. Total length, 5.5 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .7 inch. Found 
"Upon the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains at least 
from central Alberta south to Teton County, Mont." 
(Howell). 

Olympic Phenacomys. — Phenacomys intermedius olympicus 
(Elliot). 
Darkest of the short-tailed forms of the genus. Upper- 
parts dark drab; underparts clear gray; feet white; tail 
bicolored. Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.7 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found "In the Hudsonian Zone 
of the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington, and 
as far south as central Oregon." (Howell) 

Sierran Phenacomys. — Phenacomys intermedius celsus A. B. 
Howell. 
Very pale, slightly smaller than olympicus. Upperparts 
wood-brown ; tail bicolor; underparts whitish, tinged usually 
with buffy. Total length, 5.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found in "The Sierra Nevada 
of California from the Lake Tahoe region south probably 
as far as Tulare County." (Howell) 

406 



PHENACOMYS 




Ungava Group 

Characterized by distinct yellow coloration of face ; found in 
Canada east of the Rocky Mountain region. 

Ungava Phenacomys. — Phenacomys ungava ungava Merriam. 
"A medium-sized, short-tailed, yellow-nosed species of 
bright coloration." Upperparts bright chestnut-brown; 
tail faintly bicolor; feet pale buff; underparts pale buffy 
gray; face -yellowish, brightest on nose. Total length, 5.5 
inches; tail vertebras, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .76 inch. Found 
in "Probably suitable places throughout the whole of 

407 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Quebec, including Ungava, and at least as far west as central 
Ontario." (Howell) 

Phenacomys latimanus Merriam = Phenacomys ungava 
ungava. 

Labrador Phenacomys. — Phenacomys ungava crassus (Bangs) 
Large and dull-colored. Upperparts snuff-brown; under- 
parts grayish; tail bicolor; nose yellowish. Total length, 
6.1 inches; tail vertebras, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. 
Found in "Southern Labrador: Limits of range unknown." 
(Howell) 

Mackenzie Phenacomys. — Phenacomys mackenzii Preble. 
Rather small, tail short, feet small. Upperparts brown, 
darkest on rump, grayer on foreparts; face yellowish; feet 
pale; tail bicolor; underparts grayish white. Total length, 
5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. 
Found in "The territory east of the mountains in Alberta, 
north almost to Great Bear Lake, and east to Hudson 
Bay." (Howell) 

Albipes Group 

Characterized by long tail (slightly hairy) and sooty nose; 
found along Pacific coast of northern California to Oregon. 

Coast Phenacomys. — Phenacomys albipes Merriam. 

Dark rich brown in color, tail long. Upperparts rich warm 
brown, mixed with black-tipped hairs, brownest member of 
the genus; tail bicolor; face sooty; feet light; underparts 
clear gray, in fall pelage with buffy tinge. Total length, 
6.8 inches; tail vertebra, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .78 inch. 
"Occurs in a coastal strip of unknown width from Areata, 
Humboldt County, Calif., north to the vicinity of the 
Columbia River probably, and east as far as Vida, Oregon." 
(Howell) 

. Longicaudus Group 

Characterized by arboreal habit and long, heavy tail, 
somewhat hairy; found in humid coastal forests of northern 
California and Oregon. 

Red Tree Mouse. — Phenacomys longicaudus True. 

Rather large in size; tail long, somewhat hairy; toes long; 
color bright reddish. Upperparts uniform cinnamon, with 
a few black-tipped hairs; sides slightly paler; tail blackish; 
ears and feet colored like upperparts; underparts whitish. 
Females slightly larger than males. Total length, males, 
6.6 inches, females, 7.3 inches; tail vertebrae, males, 2.7 
inches, females, 2.9 inches; hind foot, males, .8 inch, females, 
.84 inch. Found "Locally in humid coast district from 
Mendocino County, Calif., into central Oregon, and possibly 
to the Columbia River." (Howell) 

408 



PHENACOMYS 



Forest Tree Mouse. — Phenacomys silvicola A. B. Howell. 
Resembling longicaudus in characters of long tail and toes, 
but nose sooty and color warm brown. Upperparts cinna- 
mon-brown, with some black-tipped hairs; sides slightly 
paler; tail blackish; underparts whitish. Total length, 7.7 
inches; tail vertebras, 3.5 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. 
"Known only from the type locality, [Tillamook, Oregon] 
and from Corvallis, Oreg.; undoubtedly confined to the 
forested area of the humid coast belt." (Howell) 



The members of the genus Phenacomys are rare in collections 
and comparatively little is known of their life-histories. The 
group is confined to North America, and although it has 
rather a wide geographic distribution and has been eagerly 
sought by collectors, only a few specimens have been taken 
in the thirty-seven years that Phenacomys has been known. 

These Mice frequent various habitats and have different 
habits accordingly. Some forms, such as the intermedins 
group, live in open, grassy parks in the forest, or in patches of 
heather or moss; albipes haunts borders of small streams in 
humid forests ; while longicaudus and silvicola are arboreal and 
have well-made nests in coniferous trees. The terrestrial 
forms sometimes make well-defined runways, when the cover 
is dense, similar to those of Meadow Mice. 

The nests of longicaudus are large affairs made of the 
needles and twigs of the fir (Douglas and Grand Firs), four to 
ten inches deep and a foot or more in diameter. The average 
height from the ground is about thirty feet and there is evi- 
dence to indicate that perhaps it is mostly the females which 
have an arboreal existence and that the males may be almost 
entirely terrestrial in habit. Also there is reason to believe 
that the Tree Mouse is rather more plentiful in its chosen 
habitat than its scarcity in collections would indicate. 

The terrestrial forms of Phenacomys are very easily con- 
fused with the small species of Meadow Mice. There are no 
good field characters to afford a quick and certain identifica- 
tion of these mammals and about the only safe way to proceed 
is to suspect all small, short-tailed Aloles which are caught in 
territory known to be inhabited by the genus. Specimens of 
this rare genus are very desirable for museum collections, and 
any large museum will be glad to identify these specimens for 
the sake of adding to our knowledge of the group. 

409 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Howell believes that more than one litter of young is raised 
annually and gives the number in a litter as from four to nine, 
the usual number being five or six (for longicaudus one to 
three). None of these Mice hibernate and it is unlikely that 
any of them are of any economic importance, since most of the 
species do not come into conflict with agricultural interests. 

Genus Evotomys ^ 
Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, g ; Premolars, %\ Molars, f = i6. 

Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi 

and related forms 

Names. — Red-backedj_Mouse ; Red- backed Vole. Plate 
XXX. 

General Description. — A small to medium-sized Mouse 
with small eyes; low ears, just reaching above fur; short tail; 
pelage rather long and usually characterized by a broad, red- 
dish dorsal band; habitat cool forests and brushy areas. 

Color. — vSexes colored alike, a slight seasonal variation. 

Upperparts. — Winter: dorsal band from crown to base 
of tail bright chestnut, sprinkled with black; sides buffy 
ochraceous ; feet clear gray ; tail bicolor, brownish above, black- 
tipped, grayish buff below. 

Underparts. — Pale buff. 

Summer pelage slightly darker. 

Immature pelage with less bright tones and more subdued 
coloration. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 5.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Northern portions of wooded 
North America. 

Food. — Green vegetation and seeds, stems, leaves, and soft 
parts of grass and low-growing plants. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Foxes, Skunks, 
and most small carnivores. 



^The only revision of this genus now available is by Vernon Bailey. 
Proceedings Biological Survey Washington, Vol. XI, pp. 1 13-138, 1897. 
Some forms have been described since then and the ranges are not very 
well known. 

410 



RED-BACKED MOUSE 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Evotomys. 

Gapper Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi gapperi 
(Vigors). 
As just described. Found "From Massachusetts, New 
Jersey, and Pennsylvania northward and from the Atlantic 
coast westward to the Rocky Mountains in Canada." 
(Bailey) 

White Mountain Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi och- 
raceiis Miller. 
Slightly larger than typical gapperi, duller and paler. 
Dorsal area poorly defined, dull rusty rufous; sides buffy 
clay color. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .76 inch. Found in "The White Moun- 
tains of New Hampshire and (probably eastward to) 
Nova Scotia." (Bailey) 

Rhoads Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi rhoadsi Stone. 
Resembling typical gapperi but dorsal stripe slightly darker. 
Upperparts chestnut; sides buffy gray. Total length, 5.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found 
in region about Mays Landing, Atlantic County, New 
Jersey; limits of range unknown. 

Loring Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi loringi Bailey. 
Size small, color bright. Upperparts (winter) pale reddish 
hazel; sides ashy; feet and underparts white; tail bicolor, 
blackish brown and whitish. Summer pelage dark rich 
chestnut above. Total length, 5 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.3 inches; hind foot, .7 inch. Found in "Timbered valleys 
along edge of plains in Minnesota and eastern North and 
South Dakota." (Bailey) 

Athabasca Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi athahascce 
Preble. 
Resembling typical gapperi in size but lighter colored. 
Upperparts as in typical gapperi, but face and sides grayer ; 
underparts white. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
1.6 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found in vicinity of 
Fort Smith, Slave River, Mackenzie, Canada. 

Gale Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi galei (Merriam). 
Lighter in color than typical gapperi and with slightly 
longer tail. Upperparts (winter) reddish chestnut, clearly 
differentiated from buffy gray sides; feet and underparts 
whitish to yellowish gray. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found in " Boreal 
Zone of mountains of Colorado and northward along 
eastern ranges of Rocky Mountains to northern Montana." 
(Bailey) 

British Columbia Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys gapperi 
satiiratus Rhoads. 
Resembling typical gapperi but larger, longer tailed and 
with conspicuous areas over lateral glands of males. Upper- 
parts bright reddish chestnut; sides dark gray; underparts 

411 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



white; tail indistinctly bicolor, dark gray above, light gray 
below. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; 
hind foot, .72 inch. Found in "The Blue Mountains of 
Oregon, mountains of northern Idaho, and northward into 
British Columbia to Cariboo Lake." (Bailey) 

Mogollon Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys limitis Bailey. 
Larger than galei, colors duller and grayer. Upperparts 
(summer) dark chestnut, with gray sides. Winter pelage 
grayer. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1,7 inches; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found in the Mogollon Mountains of 
New Mexico. 

Short-tailed Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys hrevicaudus 
(Merriam). 
Differing from gapperi in larger hind foot and shorter tail; 
paler in summer pelage. Total length, 5 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.25 inches; hind foot, .76 inch. Found in 
"Boreal cap of Black Hills in South Dakota." (Bailey) 

Carolina Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys carolinensis Mer- 
riam. 
Size large; tail long; color dark and rich. Upperparts 
(summer) dark chestnut, not sharply defined from brownish 
sides, sprinkled with black; ears dusky; tail faintly bicolor, 
blackish above, grayish below; underparts white to buffy. 
Winter pelage paler and brighter. Total length, 6 inches ; 
tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in 
"Boreal parts of Allegheny Mountains of North Carolina, 
Tennessee, and West Virginia [also Virginia and Maryland]." 
(Miller) 

Ungava Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys ungava Bailey. 

"Size about as in gapperi; tail and feet slender; ears very 
small, not projecting beyond fur; colors dull; tail bicolor, 
. . . Dorsal area not sharply defined, dull brownish chest- 
nut; sides and face buffy gray, finely lined with blackish 
hairs; belly dark plumbeous, heavily washed wi*h buffy." 
Total length, 5.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind 
foot, .76 inch. Found about Fort Chimo, Ungava, Canada. 

Idaho Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys idahoensis Merriam. 
Larger than gapperi, with longer tail and grayer sides. 
Upperparts with well-defined, pale hazel stripe; sides clear 
ashy gray ; feet gray ; tail bicolor, blackish and gray ; under- 
parts whitish. Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 
inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Mountains of south 
central Idaho, between Snake River and the Sahnon." 
(Bailey) 

Cascade Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys mazama Merriam. 
"Large, long- tailed, and bright- colored; ears not rufous; 
. . . side glands conspicuous in all of the adult males." 
(Bailey) Upperparts with rufous or hazel dorsal band 
blending into buffy gray of face and sides; grayish spot 
over lateral glands; tail sharply bicolor. Total length, 6.3 
inches; tail vertebra, 2 inches; hind foot, .75 inch. Found 

412 



RED-BACKED MOUSE 



along "Crest of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon." 
(Bailey) 

Dusky Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys ohscurus Merriam. 
"A rather large, grayish species, with small gray ears and 
indistinct markings; side glands inconspicuous, but easily 
discovered on blowing apart the fur. . . . Upperparts 
olive-gray, with an ill defined dorsal area of cinnamon- 
rufous, obscured by black hairs; lower part of sides and 
face clear gray; belly washed with dull buff; ears dusky, 
not rufous tipped; feet dusky gray; tail distinctly bicolor." 
Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.9 inches; hind 
foot, .70 inch. Found on "West slope of the southern 
Cascade Range and northern Sierra Nevada in southern 
Oregon and northern California." (Bailey) 

California Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys californicus Mer- 
riam. 
Very large, dark, and long-tailed. "Upperparts dark 
bister or sepia, becoming dusky on rump and dull, dark 
chestnut on back; dorsal area indistinct and shading 
gradually into color of sides; oval patches of dense fur 
covering side glands plumbeous in slight contrast to surround- 
ing fur; belly pale buffy or soiled whitish, darkened by the 
plumbeous under fur; tail sharply bicolor, blackish above 
and at tip all round, whitish beneath; feet whitish or 
but sHghtly dusky; ears dusky, with no rufous or Hght- 
colored hairs." Total length, 6.4 inches; tail vertebras, 
2 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. Found in "Coast strip of 
Oregon and northern California." (Bailey) 

Western Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys occidentalis Merriam. 
Smaller than californicus; tail long; dorsal area indistinct. 
Upperparts (summer) dull, burnt umber to dark chestnut, 
mixed with black; sides dark gray suffused with buffy; 
tail almost unicolor, dusky; feet dusky; underparts buffy. 
Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind 
foot, .72 inch. Found in "Coast and Puget Sound region 
of Washington and southern British Columbia." (Bailey) 

Olympic Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys nivarius Bailey. 
Resembling occidentalis but color lighter . and brighter. 
Upperparts with distinct band of light chestnut; sides 
dark gray; tail bicolor, feet and underparts whitish. Total 
length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. 
Found on "Mt. Ellinor and probably other high peaks in 
the Olympic Mountains." (Bailey) 

Labrador Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys proteus Bangs. 
Size large, color variable; ear and hind foot large. Usual 
color of upperparts sepia, merging into smoke-gray mixed 
with yellowish on sides; feet and underparts grayish; tail 
faintly bicolor. Sometimes dorsal region is bright_ chest- 
nut. Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; 
hind foot, .82 inch. Found about Hamilton Inlet, Labra- 
dor. 

413 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Northwestern Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys caurinus 
Bailey. 
Size small; colors dark; tail short. Upperparts (summer) 
dark rich chestnut, sprinkled with black; dorsal band very- 
distinct; sides sepia gray, with buffy tinge; face dark gray; 
ears dusky; tail bicolor, above like back, below buffy; 
underparts whitish to buffy. Winter pelage brighter above, 
sides clearer gray. Total length, 5.4 inches; tail vertebras, 
1.45 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found in the vicinity of 
Malaspina Inlet, British Columbia. 

Wrangell Island Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys wrangeli 
Bailey. 
Large; dull colored; short-tailed; thick-furred. Upper- 
parts dull dark chestnut; sides sepia gray; feet dusky; tail 
bicolor; underparts whitish. Total length, 5.9 inches; 
tail vertebrse, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found on 
Wrangell and Revillagigedo Islands, southern Alaska. 

Dark-colored Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys phcBus Swarth. 
Size rather large; tail relatively long. Upperparts dark 
brown, dorsal band not very distinctly outlined; sides and 
face yellowish brown; tail bicolor, above like back, below 
yellowish; underparts gray. Total length, 6.2 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in 
southeastern Alaska. 

Dawson Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys dawsoni dawsoni 
Merriam. 
A bright-colored form with prominent ears. Upperparts 
bright rusty red, lightly sprinkled with black, sharply 
defined from buffy sides; tail bicolor; underparts pale 
buffy. Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebras, 1.3 inches; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found "From Finlayson River and 
Fort Liard west to Yakutat and Juneau, and north along 
the coast to Norton vSound." (Miller) 

Island Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys dawsoni insularis 
Heller. 
Upperparts rusty rufous ; sides yellowish ; tail bicolor, above 
like back, below yellowish brown; underparts grayish. 
Total length, 5.8 inches; tail vertebras, 1.3 inches; hind 
foot, .78 inch. Found on Hawkins Island, Prince William 
Sound, Alaska. 

Orca Red-backed Mouse. — Evotomys orca Merriam. 

Size medium; colors dark. Upperparts dark chestnut to 
hazel; sides yellowish, mixed with black; face dark; tail 
above, dusky, below, buffy; underparts deep buffy. Total 
length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .8 
inch. Found in the vicinity of Orca, Prince William 
Sound, Alaska. 

******* 
Red-backed Mice live in cool, damp localities and are 

essentially forest dwellers. They are usually distinguished 

414 



MEADOW MOUSE 



from the Meadow Mice, which they rather closely resemble, 
by the more or less conspicuous, reddish, dorsal band. When 
this band is lacking, as is sometimes the case, the distinction 
is not so apparent. As a rule, the closer, softer pelage, longer 
ears, and rather more slender form will identify the Red-back. 

Good places to seek these Mice are about old logs or in 
mossy, overgrown localities. They are diurnal as well as 
nocturnal in habit and usually do not occur in large colonies 
like the Meadow Mice. They may be trapped in the same 
spots as Microtus, and use the runaways of the Meadow 
Mice in some places, but are not restricted to tunnels cut 
in the grass and wander about freely, at least in temperate 
regions. In the North the Red-backed Mice go to the limit 
of trees and are even found on the tundras. They do not 
hibernate but tunnel under the snow and move about in the 
dead of winter as freely as in summer. 

The number of young varies from four to eight and there are 
several families a season wherever the environment is favor- 
able to these Mice. The young are bom in a grass-lined 
nest which is usually under the surface of the ground, but 
may be under a log, rocks, or in some surface shelter. Young 
have been noted from early April to October. 

Genus Microtus' 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, ^; Molars, f = i6. 

Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus 

and related forms 

Names. — Meadow Mouse; Meadow Vole; Field Mouse; 
Field Vole; Vole. Plate XXX. 

General Description. — A medium-sized, robust-bodied 
Mouse, with long, loose pelage and comparatively short tail. 
Ears short, well haired, not projecting much beyond pelage; 
legs of normal length, hind legs not elongated; tail covered 
with short hairs; sole of hind foot with six tubercles; claw of 
thumb pointed; molar crowns bounded by a series of angles; 
molars rootless; upper incisors simple, ungrooved; pelage 

^ For a detailed revision of the Meadow Mice see Vernon Bailey, 
North American Fauna, No. 17, 1900. Many forms have been since 
described, however. 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



long, soft, and lax, rough in appearance; transition between 
color of upper and lower parts gradual; may be active at any 
hour of day or night. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; seasonal variation usually not 
very marked. 

Upperparts (summer) chestnut-brown varying with the 
individual to yellowish chestnut, sprinkled with black along 




Fig. 88. Meadow Mouse 



back; feet brownish; tail above dusky, below slightly paler; 
underparts gray, with dusky tinge or washed with cinnamon. 

Winter pelage grayer than summer. 

Immature darker than adults, nearly black. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 7 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .85 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Practically all of habitable 
North America. 

Food. — Vegetation: grass, foliage, twigs, roots, seeds, bark. 
Many species of plants, shrubs, and trees are included in this 
diet and Meadow Mice may become very destructive to field 
crops and orchards; meat is eaten when occasion affords. 

Enemies. — Preyed upon by practically every predatory 
creature: Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Crows, Ravens, Weasels, 
416 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Poxes, Wildcats, Skunks, and all the other carnivorous 
mammals. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Microtus. 

This genus embraces so many forms that it becomes no easy 
task to differentiate between the various species and sub- 
species. In many cases, distinctions are based upon cranial 
characters, and these, as well as superficial characters, may 
be of a nature impossible to detect without an abundance of 
specimens. For this reason it is easiest, when attempting to 
identify one of these Mice, to employ a geographical method 
of approach. From the known ranges of Meadow Mice one 
can narrow down the possibilities to a comparatively few 
forms and at once rule out all the rest of the genus. The 
several varities of Meadow Mice living in any given locality 
generally belong to distinct major groups of species or to 
different subgenera which are not so troublesome to dis- 
tinguish, one from the other. 

Subgenus Microtus 

Characterized by six plantar tubercles ; lateral glands ■ in 
skin over hips (adult males); ears generally projecting beyond 
fur; mammae normally 8 in number, 4 inguinal, 4 pectoral; 
and by various dental characters, 

Pennsylvanicus Group 

Ord Meadow Mouse; Eastern Meadow Mouse ; Pennsylvania 
Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus pennsyl- 
vanicus (Ord.) Plate XXX. 
As described above. Found in "Eastern United States and 
westward as far as Dakota and Nebraska, shading into 
modestus of the western plains and Rocky Mountains. In 
a general way it occupies the Transition Zone from the 
Atlantic coast to the edge of the Great Plains." (Bailey) 
Albermarle Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus ni- 
grans Rhoads. 
Larger and darker than typical pennsylvanicus. Upper- 
parts (summer) dull bister mixed with black; feet blackish; 
tail black above, sooty below; underparts ashy, sometimes 
with cinnamon wash. Winter pelage darker than summer, 
almost black on back. Total length, 7 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 2 inches; hind foot, .95 inch. Found in "Coast 
region of northern North Carolina and southern Virginia 
in the Austroriparian Zone." (Bailey) 

417 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Acadian Mouse.— Mi era ius pennsylvanicus acadicus Bangs. 
Smaller and paler than typical pennsylvanicus. Upper- 
parts (summer) yellowish bister sprinkled with black; tail 
indistinctly bicolor, above dusky, below slightly lighter; 
underparts ashy. Winter pelage. — Buffy gray above, 
belly washed with pure white; tail sharply bicolor, blackish 
and white. Total length, 6.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 
inches; hind foot, .84 inch. Found in "Nova Scotia and 
Prince Edward Island." (Bailey) 

Sawatch Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus modestus 
(Baird). 
Resembling typical pennsylvanicus in size but more yellow 
in color. Upperparts (summer) dull ochraceous, sprinkled 
with black; tail faintly bicolor, blackish and dull grayish; 
feet slaty; underparts soiled whitish to ashy or cinnamon. 
Winter pelage with many black hairs along upperparts; 
underparts with wash of creamy white; tail more distinctly 
bicolor than in summer. Total length, 7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .82 inch. Found in "Rocky 
Mountains and western Plains from New Mexico to British 
Columbia, and from the Black Hills of South Dakota to 
central Idaho, and beyond, with slight variation, to the 
plains of the Columbia, mainly in Transition Zone." 
(Bailey) 

Badland Meadow Mouse; Bean Mouse. — Microtus pennsyl- 
vanicus wahema Bailey. 
Paler than typical pennsylvanicus and slightly smaller. 
Upperparts buffy, sides grayer; underparts pale gray. 
Total length, 7.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind 
foot, .8 inch. Found in the Badlands section of the 
Missouri River valley and westward over southwestern 
North Dakota and eastern Montana. 

Forest Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus fontigenus 
(Bangs). 
Smaller than typical perinsylvanicus. Upperparts (autumn) 
dark bister mixed with black, darker on back than sides; 
feet slaty; tail bicolor, blackish and grayish; underparts 
washed with whitish or ashy. Total length, 6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind-foot, .84 inch. Found in 
"Eastern Canada, in the Hudsonian Zone." (Bailey) 

Little Labrador Meadow Mouse. — Microtus pennsylvanicus 
labradorius Bailey. 
"Color. — (Much changed by alcohol.) Upperparts dark 
brownish; belly whitish; tail bicolor; feet pale." (Bailey) 
Total length, 5.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind 
foot, .8 inch. Known only from Fort Chimo, Ungava, 
Laborador. 

Block Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus provectus Bangs. 
Resembling typical pennsylvanicus but larger, underparts 
always gray. Upperparts yellowish brown mixed with 
dark brown; tail indistinctly bicolor, dusky above, grayish 

418 



MEADOW MOUSE 



below; underparts clear gray, whitish along middle of 
belly and between arms. Total length, 7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found only on 
Block Island, Newport County, Rhode Island. 

Drummond Meadow Mouse. — Microtus drummondi (Audubon 
and Bachman). 
Smaller than typical pennsylvanicus, paler in color. Upper- 
parts (summer) yellowish bister sprinkled with dark brown 
or black-tipped hairs; more yellowish on sides of nose and 
in front of ears; feet silvery gray; tail bicolor, blackish and 
whitish; underparts white, sometimes washed with buffy. 
Winter pelage paler, yellower on ears and nose. Total 
length, 5.9 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .72 
inch. Found "From Hudson Bay to the west slope of 
the Rocky Mountains and Alaska, and from the northern 
edge of the United States north to Fort Anderson, N.W.T., 
in Canadian and Hudsonian Zones." (Bailey) 

Admiralty Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus admiraltia 
Heller. 
Resembling drummondi but grayer. ' ' Upperparts grizzled 
grayish brown, the brown predominating; sides somewhat 
paler and grayer but changing rather abruptly to the light 
grayish wash of the underparts. Feet grayish. Tail well 
haired , sharply bicolor, dusky brown above, whitish below. ' ' 
(Heller) Total length, 6.2 inches; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches ; 
hind foot, .84 inch. Found only on Admiralty Island, 
Alaska. 

Barren Ground Meadow Mouse. — Microtus aphorodemus 
_ Preble. 
Similar to drummondi but larger. Upperparts dark 
yellowish brown sprinkled with yellow- tipped hairs; under- 
parts whitish to grayish, sometimes with wash of light 
brown. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found on the Barren Grounds of Kee- 
watin from the vicinity of Cape Churchill (west coast of 
Hudson Bay) northward; limits of range unknown. 

Aztec Meadow Mouse. — Microtus aztecus (Allen). 

Resembling typical pennsylvaniciis in size, .but tail shorter 
and foot larger. Upperparts (winter) dull buffy sprinkled 
with many black hairs; feet slate- colored; tail sharply 
bicolor, black and soiled white; underparts washed with 
creamy or pale buff. Total length, 6.9 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found in "Valley of 
the San Juan River in northwestern New Mexico, in 
Transition Zone." (Bailey) 

Large Labrador Meadow Mouse. — Microtus enixus Bangs. 
Large and darker than typical pennsylvanicus. Upper- 
parts (summer) mixed dark yellowish bister and blackish; 
feet dusky; tail above, black, below, grayish brown; under- 
parts ashy, occasionally with buffy wash. Total length, 
7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.7 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. 

419 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Found on "Eastern coast of Labrador from Hamilton 
Inlet to Ungava Bay, in Hudsonian Zone." (Bailey) 

Newfoundland Meadow Mouse. — Microtus terrcenovcB (Bangs). 
Somewhat larger than typical pennsylvanicus and yellower. 
Upperparts (summer) dark russet sprinkled with brownish, 
paler on sides and face; patch on nose dark buffy to dull 
russet; feet grayish brown; tail bicolor, blackish and 
soiled whitish; underparts ashy with median longitudinal 
streak of dusky cinnamon. Winter pelage paler above 
and below, with more contrast. Total length, 7.3 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .94 inch. Found 
in Newfoundland and Penguin Island. 

Beach Meadow Mouse. — Microtus hreweri (Baird). 

Larger and paler than typical pennsylvanicus; pelage long 
and coarse; upperparts (summer) buffy gray sparingly 
sprinkled with brown and black; sides paler; feet silvery 
gray; tail bicolor, rusty brown to blackish and soiled 
whitish. Total length, 7.3 inches; tail vertebras, 2.2 inches; 
hind foot, .9 inch. Found only on Muskeget Island, 
Massachusetts, 

Gull Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus nesophilus Bailey. 
Resembling pennsylvanicus in size but darker. Upper- 
parts (summer) mixed dark yellowish bister and black; 
nose and face dark; feet blackish; tail above, blackish, 
below, dark brown; underparts dusky, tinged with cinna- 
mon. Total length, 7.4 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 inches; 
hind foot, .84 inch. Found only on Great Gull Island, at 
entrance to Long Island Sound, New York, and probably 
now extinct. 

Montanus^ Group 

Peale Meadow Mouse. — Microtus montanus montanus (Peale) 
Size about that of typical pennsylvanicus; color dark; hip 
glands of male conspicuous; ears very hairy. Upperparts 
mixed bister or ashy and blackish; feet slate- colored; lips 
usually touched with white; tail faintly bicolor, blackish 
and slate-colored; underparts ashy. Total length, 7 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2.1 inches; hind foot, .86 inch. Found in 
"Northeastern California, eastern Oregon, northern Utah 
and Nevada, in the Upper Sonoran and Transition Zones." 
(Bailey) 

Yosemite Meadow Mouse. — Microtus montanus yosemite 

Grinnell. 

Resembling typical montanus in size but lighter colored. 

Upperparts buff to light buckthorn-brown mixed with 

blackish ; sides much lighter ; feet gray ; tail bicolor, brown or 

^ For a recent revision of such of the forms of this group as occur 
in California see Remington Kellogg, Univ. of California Publ. in Zo- 
ology, Vol. 21, No. 7, pp. 245-274, 1922. 

420 



MEADOW MOUSE 



black and gray; underparts gray to whitish. Total length, 
7 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. 
Found in "Sierra Nevada and Great Basin regions of 
eastern California from head of San Joaquin River, in 
Fresno County, north to Goose Lake, Modoc County, 
west to vicinity of Cassel, Shasta County, and east across 
the Nevada line. Vertical range from 3000 feet up to 10,350 
feet; zonal range Transition to Hudsonian." (Kellogg) 

Gary Meadow Mouse. — Microtus montanus caryi Bailey. 
Resembling typical montanus in size but paler and with 
shorter tail. Upperparts (spring pelage) warm buffy gray 
grizzled with black; sides of nose clear buff; tail above 
dusky, below whitish; underparts and feet white to silvery 
gray. Total length, 7.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 1,8 inches; 
hind foot, .84 inch. Found in Wyoming "along streams 
in the arid sagebrush country of the Bear River, Green 
River, and Wind River Valleys ..." (Bailey) 

Arizona Meadow Mouse. — Microtus montanus arizonensis 
Bailey. 
Resembling typical montanus but brighter colored. Upper- 
parts (winter) yellowish to rusty brown; feet dark grayish; 
tail bicolor, blackish and grayish; underparts whitish. 
Total length, 7 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; hind foot, 
.8 inch. Found in "Plateau country of eastern Arizona, 
at head of Little Colorado, in the Transition Zone." 
(Bailey). 

Utah Meadow Mouse. — Microtus montanus rivularis (Bailey). 
Larger than typical montanus, lighter in color. Upper- 
parts (winter) dull bister sprinkled with black; sides almost 
as dark as back; feet dull grayish; tail bicolor, blackish 
and grayish; underparts whitish. Total length, "^.2 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. Found in 
Washington C^ounty, Utah, "probably restricted to Lower 
Sonoran Zone." (Bailey) 

Dwarf Meadow Mouse. — Microtus nanus nanus (Merriam). 
"Size small; tail short; ears short and rounded; color dark 
grayish; skull slender." (Bailey) Upperparts (summer) 
everywhere mixed gray, sepia, and blackish; feet grayish; 
tail bicolor, dusky gray and whitish; underparts whitish. 
Total length, 6 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, 
.72 inch. Found in "Rocky Mountains and outlying 
ranges, from central Idaho southward to central Nevada 
and southern Colorado, in Canadian Zone." (Bailey) 

Gray Meadow Mouse. — Microtus nanus canescens Bailey. 
Lighter gray than typical nanus; adult males with con- 
spicuous hip glands. Upperparts (summer) mixed pale 
buffy and black producing general dark gray tone; sides 
lighter than back ; feet dark gray ; tail bicolor, blackish and 
grayish; underparts white. Total length, 6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Northern 
Washington and southern British Columbia, east of the 

421 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Cascades. Apparently confined to the Transition Zone." 
(Bailey) 

Gray-tailed Meadow Mouse. — Microtus canicaudus Miller. 
Resembling typical nanus but yellower, tail grayer. Upper- 
parts (winter) bright yellowish bister sprinkled with black; 
sides paler; feet grayish; tail unicolor, grayish, with faint 
dusky dorsal line. Summer pelage much as in winter, 
tail more dusky on upperside. Total length, 5.6 inches; 
tail vetebrte, 1.4 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in 
"Willamette Valley, Oregon, and the east base of the 
Cascades in southern Washington, in Transition Zone." 
(Bailey) 

Dutcher Meadow Mouse.^ — Microtus dutcJieri Bailey. 

"Size rather small; tail short; ears small, nearly concealed 
by fur; color dark above and below; lips and usually nose 
white; hip glands present in adult males." Upperparts 
(summer) dark bister and brown; feet grayish; tail bicolor, 
dusky and whitish; underparts dull cinnamon to buffy 
brown. Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebras, 1.5 inches; 
hind foot, .82 inch. Found in "Hudsonian Zone of the 
southern Sierra Nevada." (Bailey) 

Nevada Meadow Mouse. — Microtus nevadensis Bailey. 

"Size large; ears small; tail rather short; fur coarse and 
lax; colors dark; hip glands conspicuous in adult males." 
(Bailey) Upperparts (winter) dark sepia or bister, heavily- 
sprinkled with blackish; sides lighter; feet dark gray; tail 
faintly bicolor, blackish and gray; usually white on lips 
and tip of nose; underparts ashy. Total length, 8 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, i.o inch. Found in 
Nye County (Ash Meadows) and Pahranagat Valley, 
Nevada, Lower Sonoran Zone. 

Califomicus^ Group 

West-central California Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californi- 
cus californicus (Peale). 
Size medium; ears large and rising well above fur; hip 
glands on adult males; pelage coarse and harsh. Upper- 
parts ochraceous tawny to cinnamon-buff, sprinkled with 
blackish; sides with less black; feet grayish; tail bicolor, 
dark clove-brown and gray; underparts gray. Total 
length, 7 inches; tail vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .88 
inch. Found in "Coastal region of west-central California, 
west of San Joaquin Valley, from Pozo, San Luis Obispo 
County, north to San Francisco, and to Walnut Creek, Con- 
tra Costa County. Vertical range from sea level up at 
least to 2800 feet; zonal range Upper Sonoran and Transi- 
tion." (Kellogg) 

^ For a recent and full revision of this group see Remington Kellogg, 
University of California Publications in Zoology, Vol. 21, No. i, pp. 
1-42, 1918. 

422 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Cape Mendocino Meadow Mouse. — Microtus calif ornicus con- 
strict iis Bailey. 
Size slightly smaller than typical californicus; color duller. 
Upperparts from buckthorn-brown to ochraceous tawny, 
sprinkled with blackish hairs; underparts grayish, rest of 
pelage about as in typical californicus. Total length, 
6.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. 
Found in "Northwest coast of California in vicinity of 
Cape Mendocino, Humboldt County, from Capetown 
north to Eureka and interiorly to Fair Oaks and Cudde- 
back. Vertical range from sea level up at least to 1000 
feet; zonal range Transition." (Kellogg) 

Sanhedrin Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus eximius R. 
Kellogg. 
Distinguished from typical californicus chiefly by cranial 
characters; color about as in typical californicus, except 
that tail is dark fuscous black above instead of dark brown. 
Total length, ^.2 inches; tail vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, 
.88 inch. Found in "Northwestern California (excepting 
a narrow coastal strip from Cape Mendocino north to 
Oregon line), and south-central Oregon; from Olema, 
Marin County, California, east to Rumsey, Yolo County, 
and north to Drain, in the Umpqua River Valley, Oregon. 
Vertical range from sea level up to 7500 feet; zonal range 
Upper Sonoran and Transition." (Kellogg) 

Tule Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus csstuarinus- R. 
Kellogg._ 
Large in size, dark in color. Upperparts near cinnamon- 
buff sprinkled with black; lighter on sides and rump due 
to absence of black hairs; lips whitish; nose dark; tail 
bicolor, blackish and gray; feet dark brown; underparts 
grayish. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.4 inches; 
hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "San Joaquin and Sacra- 
mento River valleys, from Tulare Lake, Kings County, 
north to Chico, Butte County, and east to near Gait, in 
San Joaquin County; also west along north side of San 
Francisco Bay to Bolinas, Marin County. Vertical range 
from sea level up to hardly 500 feet ; zonal range Lower and 
Upper Sonoran." (Kellogg) 

Mariposa Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus mariposcB 
R. Kellogg. 
Size large, color warm brown. Upperparts tawny olive or 
pinkish buff sprinkled with blackish: sides and rump with 
less black than back; feet gray; tail bicolor, blackish and 
gray; underparts gray. Total length, 8 inches; tail verte- 
bras, 2.4 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "Western 
foothill region of Siena Nevada, from Minkler, Fresno 
County, north to Dutch Flat, Placer County. Vertical 
range from 200 feet up to at least 3800 feet; zonal range 
Upper Sonoran and Transition." (Kellogg) 

423 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Owens Valley Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus valli- 
cola Bailey. 
Large and dark. Upperparts mixed buff and dark brown 
or black; feet gray; tail bicolor, black and giay; under- 
parts gray. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.4 
inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "Owens Valley 
region of California, east of Sierra Nevada, from Olancha, 
Inyo County, north to Benton, Mono County; east to 
head of Willow Greek in north end of Panamint Mountains. 
Vertical range from 3700 feet up at least to 5400 feet; 
zonal range Lower and Upper Sonoran." (Kellogg) 

Amargosa Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus scirpensis 
(Bailey). 
Large and bright- colored. Upperparts cinnamon-buff to 
buckthorn-brown, with light sprinkling of black; sides 
lighter; rest of pelage about as in typical californicus. 
Total length, 8.5 inches; tail vertebrse, 2,7 inches; hind 
foot, i.o inch. Found only in "a small tule marsh at a 
spring near Shoshone on the Amargosa River, in eastern 
Inyo County. Altitude of station 1500 to 1600 feet; 
zonal range Lower Sonoran." (Kellogg) 

Kern River Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus kernensis 
R. Kellogg. 
Size large, color light. Upperparts clay color to cinnamon- 
buff, with light sprinkling of blackish brown; sides lighter; 
feet gray; tail bicolor, warm sepia and whitish; under- 
parts gray. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.5 
inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in "Kern River basin, 
from Taylor Meadow, Tulare County, west to Bakersfield 
and Fort Tejon, Kern County. Vertical range from 400 
feet up to 7000 feet; zonal range Lower Sonoran to Transi- 
tion." (Kellogg) 

Mohave River Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus moha- 
vensis R. Kellogg. 
Size large. Upperparts ochraceous tawny to cinnamon- 
buff, lightly sprinkled with blackish; sides with less black; 
feet gray; tail bicolor, brownish or blackish and pale gray; 
underparts gray. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebrae, 
2.6 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in a "limited area 
along the Mohave River, in San Bernardino County, from 
Victorville north to Oro Grande. Vertical range from 
2500 feet up at least to 2700 feet; zonal range Lower 
Sonoran." (Kellogg) 

Southern California Meadow Mouse. — Microtus californicus 
sanctidiegi R. Kellogg. 
Size large. Upperparts buckthorn-brown to cinnamon-buff, 
lightly sprinkled with blackish; sides brighter; rump with- 
out black hairs; feet grayish white; tail usually bicolor, 
blackish and whitish; underparts grayish in general tone, 
often with light buffy wash on breast. Total length, 8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. 

424 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Found in "San Diegan faunal district, from Mountain 
Spring and mouth of Tiajuana River, San Diego County, 
northwest to Gaviota Pass, Santa Barbara County, and 
north to Bluff Lake, San Bernardino Mountains, San 
Bernardino County. Vertical range from sea level up at 
least to 9000 feet; zonal range Lower Sonoran to Canadian." 
(Kellogg) 

Operarius Group 

Tundra Meadow Mouse. — Microtus operarius operarius 

(Nelson). 
"Size small; tail short, densely haired; ears small and wholly 
concealed in long winter fur; colors yellowish." (Bailey) 
Upperparts (winter) dark, rich buff lightly sprinkled with 
black on dorsal region; sides with less black; feet gray; 
tail with faint blackish line on upper side, dirty whitish 
on sides and undersurface, underparts pale buffy to creamy 
white. Summer pelage darker yellow above, more buffy 
below. Total length, 6.7 inches; tail vertebras, 1.6 inches; 
hind foot, .8 inch. Found on "Barren grounds from 
Bristol Bay, St. Michael, and Kowak River, Alaska, east 
to Anderson River." (Bailey) 

Interior Meadow Mouse. — Microtus operarius endcecus Os- 
good. 
Resembling typical operarius in size and color, but with 
slightly larger skull; distinguished from drummondi by 
yellowish coloration, especially by buffy yellow underparts. 
Total length, 6.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind 
foot, .8 inch. Found in east central Alaska. 

Macfarlane Meadow Mouse. — Microtus macfarlatii Merriam. 
Resembling operarius but with shorter tail; pelage very 
long in winter. Upperparts (winter) light buffy gray; feet 
gray; tail bicolor, black and white; underparts whitish. 
Summer pelage darker, more buffy. Tail vertebrae, 1.2 
inches; hind foot, .75 inch. Found in "Tundra region of 
Arctic America, east of the Mackenzie River." (Bailey) 

Yakutat Meadow Mouse. — Microtus yakutatensis Merriam. 
Size of operarius, pelage dusky. Upperparts (summer) 
dusky gray, with light wash of brownish dorsally; feet 
gray; tail bicolor, black and whitish; underparts soiled 
whitish to pale buffy. Total length, 6.5 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found on "Main- 
land of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Prince William Sound." 
(Bailey) 

Kadiak Meadow Mouse. — Microtus kadiacensis Merriam. 
Larger than yakutatensis; underparts white; ears small. 
Upperparts (summer) yellowish brown sprinkled with a 
few black hairs on dorsal region; feet gray; tail faintly 
bicolor, black and whitish; underparts with wash of clear 
white. Total length, 7.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 2 inches; 
hind foot, .84 inch. Found only on Kadiak Island, Alaska. 

425 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Unalaska Meadow Mouse. — Microtus unalascensis unalas- 

censis Merriam. 
Larger and heavier than operarius ; underparts white ; upper- 
parts dull yellowish brown, darkened on head and rump; 
tip of nose whitish; feet gray; tail bicolor, blackish and 
soiled white; underparts white to soiled whitish. Total 
length, 7.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.5 inches; hind foot, .88 
inch. Found only on Island of Unalaska, Alaska. 

Popof Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus unalascensis popof- 
e7isis Merriam. 
Resembling typical unalascensis but with no white on nose. 
Upperparts and underparts as in typical unalascensis except 
that nose is dusky to tip. Total length, 7.5 inches; tail 
vertebras, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found only on 
Popof Island. Alaska. 

Sitka Meadow Mouse. — Microtus sitkensis Merriam. 

Size of unalascensis which it somewhat resembles in color. 
Upperparts (summer) rusty brown, sprinkled with blackish, 
brownest on nose and rump; sides with less black; nose 
blackish; feet grayish; tail bicolor, black and pale buff; 
underparts dark buff. Total length, 7.6 inches; tail 
vertebras, 1.8 inches; hind foot, .92 inch. Found only on 
Baranof Island, Alaska. 

Innuit Meadow Mouse. — Microtus innuitiis Merriam. 

Size large; tail sharply bicolor. Known only from im- 
perfect specimens from owl pellets and hence most of ex- 
ternal characters are unknown. Tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; 
hind foot, .92 inch. Found only on St. Lawrence Island, 
Bering Sea, Alaska. 

Montague Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus elymocetes Os- 
good. 
Size ' large for the operarius group ; resembling typical 
operarius in color but slightly darker, with underparts 
heavily washed with buffy. Upperparts raw umber in 
tone, mixed cinnamon and dusky; forefeet dusky brown; 
hind feet grayish white on toes, dusky brown on "ankles"; 
tail sharply bicolor, dusky brownish above, whitish gray 
below. Total length, 8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.6 inches; 
hind foot, .9 inch. Found only on Montague Island, 
Prince William Sound, Alaska. 

Abbreviatus Group 

Hall Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus abbreviatus abbrevia- 
tus Miller. 
Size large; tail very short; feet large and strong; ears 
hidden in long fur. Upperparts (summer) dark buff; feet 
dirty white; tail bicolor, dark brownish and creamy; under- 
parts creamy white to pale buff. Total length, 6.4 inches; 
tail vertebrae, i.o inches; hind foot, .93 inch. Found only 
on Hall Island, Bering Sea, Alaska, 

426 



MEADOW MOUSE 



St. Matthew Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus ahhreviatus 
fisheri Merriam. 
Slightly larger and darker than typical ahhreviatus. Upper- 
parts (summer) dark rich buff, sprinkled with black dor- 
sally; feet buffy; tail with faint dusky line above, sides and 
under surface buff; underparts strongly buffy. Total 
length, 6.6 inches; tail vertebras, i.i inches; hind foot, .90 
inch. Found only on St. Matthew Island, Bering Sea, 
Alaska. 

Alaska Mountain Vole. — Microtus miurus miurus Osgood. 
Resembling ahhreviatus of which it is a miniature. Upper- 
parts uniform pale tawny to pale buffy gray, more or less 
mixed with black; underparts washed with buffy; tail 
above, dusky, below, buffy. Total length, 6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.2 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Pound above 
timber line in the mountains near Hope City, Tumagain 
Arm, Cook Inlet, Alaska. 

Toklat River Vole. — Microtus miurus oreas Osgood. 

"Similar to M. miurus but tone of color more ochraceous 
(not so yellowish) throughout; tail slightly shorter and 
chiefly ochraceous, slightly or not at all darker above than 
below." (Osgood) Found about the head of Toklat 
River, Alaskan Range, Alaska. 

Townsendii Group 

Townsend Meadow Mouse. — Microtus townsendii (Bachman). 
Very large in size; ears conspicuous; adult males with well- 
developed hip glands. Upperparts (summer) Vandyke 
brown, plentifully sprinkled with black; sides dark buffy 
gray; tail almost monocolor, blackish above, slightly 
lighter below; feet dark gray; underparts grayish to dusky. 
Winter pelage lighter above (grayer) and below. Total 
length, 8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.6 inches; hind foot, 1.02 
inches. Found in low country west of the Cascades, from 
the Puget Sound region south along the coast as far as 
Eureka, California, up the valleys of the Willamette and 
Rogue Rivers. 

Vancouver Meadow Mouse. — Microtus tetramerus (Rhoads). 
, Resembling toivnsendii but slightly smaller. Pelage practi- 
ically identical to that of townsendii. Total length, 7.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, .9 inch. 
Found on the southern end of Vancouver Island, British 
Columbia. 

Longicaudus Group 

Long-tailed Meadow Mouse. — Microtus longicaudus (Mer- 
riam). 
Resembling pennsylvanicus in body size but tail longer, 
ears larger, and color grayer. Upperparts (summer) 

427 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



dull bister sprinkled with black; sides grayer; feet dark 
gray; tail faintly bicolor, blackish and soiled whitish; 
underparts dull buffy gray. Winter pelage grayer above, 
tail more distinctly bicolor. Total length, 7.4 inches; 
tail vertebras, 2.6 inches; hind foot, .84 inch. Found in 
higher parts of the Black Hills, South Dakota, and down 
the valleys of some of the cold streams into the Transition 
Zone. 

Cantankerous Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mordax mordax 
(Merriam). 
Resembling longicaudus; no conspicuous hip glands in 
males. Upperparts (summer) grayish bister; sides grayer; 
nose dusky; feet dark gray; tail faintly bicolor, dusky and 
soiled whitish; underparts whitish. Winter pelage lighter 
colored, more contrast between dorsal region and sides; 
underparts whiter; tail sharply bicolor; feet whitish. Total 
length, 7.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8 inches; hind foot, .88 
inch. Found in "Rocky Mountains and outlying ranges 
from latitude 60° to northern New Mexico, and south in 
the Cascades and Sierra Nevada as far as Kaweah and 
Kern rivers, California. In the Cascades mainly confined 
to the east slope, but extending west tothe Siskiyous, in 
southern Oregon, and Salmon and Trinity mountains, in 
northern California. Found in most of the isolated 
ranges of eastern Oregon and northern and central Nevada. 
Common in Canadian and Hudsonian Zones." (Bailey) 

Sierra Nevada Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mordax sierrce R. 
Kellogg. 
Resembling typical mordax but color of upperparts and 
sides slightly darker. "Upperparts mixed cinnamon-buff 
to tawny olive and brownish black to black; rump and 
sides grayer; underparts pale gray. Total length, 7.8 
inches; tail vertebra, 2.7 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found 
in eastern and northern California and adjoining parts of 
Oregon, in Sierra Nevada, White, and Trinity Mountains. 

San Bernardino Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mordax hernar- 
dinus Merriam. 
Very much like typical mordax in size and color but differ- 
ing in skull characters. Total length, 7.3 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 2.5 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. Found in the 
San Bernardino Mountains of southern Cahfomia from 
7500-9050 feet above sea-level. 

Tillamook Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mordax abditus A. B. 
Howell. 
A very large, dark subspecies of mordax. Most nearly 
like macrurus but darker and with longer foot and tail. 
Total length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebr^E, 3.7 inches; hind 
foot, 1. 14 inches. Found "along the humid coast strip 
from the mouth of the Columbia River to southern Oregon; 
or possibly into extreme northern California." (Howell) 

428 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Olympic Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mordax macrurus (Mer- 

riam). 
Resembling typical mordax but larger and darker. Upper- 
parts (summer) dark bister, heavily spiinkled with black; 
sides paler; feet dark gray; tail bicolor, blackish or brown- 
ish and soiled whitish; usually tipped with white; under- 
parts dull buffy to whitish. Total length, S.2 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3.2 inches; hind foot, .96 inch. Found in 
Olympic Mountains, and Mt. Rainier, Washington, and 
along the coast strip of British Columbia and Alaska north 
to Yakutat; possibly as far south as the Columbia River. 

Coronation Island Meadow Mouse. — Microtus coronarius 
Swarth. 
Much like macrurus in coloration but much larger. Upper- 
parts dark Vandyke brown mixed with black; sides of 
head much paler; feet grayish white; tail bicolor, above 
brownish black, below whitish. Total length, 8.6 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 3.4 inches; hind foot, i inch. Found on 
Coronation and Warren Islands, Alaska. 

Coast Meadow Mouse. — Microtus angusticeps Bailey. 

"Smaller and darker colored than typical mordax." 
(Bailey) Upperparts (summer) dark bister, sprinkled with 
black; face and nose darker, sides paler; feet dark gray; 
tail bicolor, blackish and soiled whitish; underparts creamy 
white. Total length, 6.8 inches; tail vertebras, 2.2 inches; 
hind foot, .88 inch. Found in the "Coast region of north- 
western California and southwestern Oregon." (Bailey) 

Mountain Meadow Mouse. — Microtus alticola aUicola (Mer- 
riam). 
Resembling longicaudus but with shorter tail and smaller 
hind foot and ear. Upperparts (summer) sepia to dull 
bister, with sprinkling of black; sides a little paler; feet 
grayish; tail faintly bicolor, blackish to grayish; under- 
parts pale buffy to whitish. Total length, 7 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 2.2 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in "Boreal 
Zone of San Francisco Mountain (Arizona), from 8,200 
feet altitude up to timberline at 11,000 feet." (Bailey) 

Graham Mountain Meadow Mouse. — Microtus alticola leuco- 
phceus (Allen). 
Resembling typical alticola but slightly larger. Upper- 
parts and underparts as in typical alticola. Total length, 
7 inches; tail vertebr£e, 2 inches; hind foot .9 inch. Found 
only in the Graham Mountains, Graham County, Arizona. 

Mexicanus Group 

Guadalupe Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mexicanus guadalu- 
pensis Bailey. 
A small to medium-sized Mouse with short tail. "Upper- 
parts dull umber brown; belly buffy gray; feet and tail 
brownish gray." (Bailey) Total length, 6 inches; tail 

429 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



vertebrse, 1.4 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in the 
Guadalupe Mountains, El Paso County, Texas; in Transi- 
tion Zone. 
MogoUon Mountain Meadow Mouse. — Microtus mogoUonen- 
sis (M earns). 
"Size small; tail and feet short; color dull rusty brown; fur 
long and soft; ears not concealed. . . . Upperparts dull 
rusty brown, brightest on tips of ears; sides slightly paler; 
belly cinnamon or buffy gray; feet grayish brown; tail 
brownish gray above, grayish below." (Bailey) Total 
length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.14 inches; hind foot, .72 
inch. Found in "Plateau country of central Arizona." 
(Bailey) 

Xanthognathus Group 

Yellow-cheeked Meadow Mouse. — Microtus xanthognathus 
(Leach). 
Size very large; yellow on nose and ear patch; side glands 
in adult males. Upperparts (early summer) dark sepia to 
bister, heavily sprinkled with coarse, black hairs; bright 
rusty yellowish on sides of nose and ear patch and a wash 
of same shade about eye and on cheek; tail faintly bicolor, 
blackish and dusky gray; feet soot}^; underparts dusky gray, 
sooty on pectoral region. Total length, 8.6 inches; tail 
vertebras, 2 inches; hind foot, 1.04 inches. Found in 
"Northwestern Canada and Alaska, from central Alberta 
north to the Arctic coast and west to central Alaska." 
(Bailey) 

Chrotorrhinus Group 

Rock Vole. — < Microtus chrotorfhinus chrotorrhinus (Miller). 
Resembling pennsylvanicus in size and general proportions, 
but hind foot smaller, ears larger, and color much different. 
Upperparts (summer) bright glossy bister sprinkled with 
black; dull orange-rufous from nose to eyes; yellowish about 
ears and rump; feet dark gray; tail above, grayish brown, 
below, slightly paler; underparts dark gray. Winter 
pelage darker and with more rusty above. Total length, 
6.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, .78 inch. 
Found in "Mount Washington, the Catskills, central 
Quebec, and northern New Brunswick, in the Hudsonian 
Zone." (Bailey) 

Gray Rock Vole. — Microtus chrotorrhinus ravus Bangs. 

Grayer than typical chrotorrhinus and more yellow on nose 
and face. Upperparts (summer) grayish bister; yellowish 
on nose, face, and rump ; feet buffy gray ; tail above, brown- 
ish, below, slightly paler; underparts dark gray washed 
with white. Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebras, 2 
inches; hind foot, .86 inch. Found about Black Bay, 
Strait of Belle Isle, Labrador. 

430 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Subgenus Aulacomys 

Characterized by conspicuous side glands on adult males; a 
musk-bearing anal gland; five plantar tubercles; large feet; 
long tail; long and full pelage. 

Richardson Meadow Mouse. — Microtus richardsoni richard- 
soni (De Kay). 
Largest of the American Meadow Mice. Upperparts 
(winter) grayish sepia sprinkled with black; sides paler; 
feet silvery gray; tail bicolor, dusky and soiled whitish; 
underparts washed with white. Total length, 9 inches; 
tail vertebra, 2.5 inches; hind foot, 1.12 inches. Found in 
the vicinity of Jasper House and Henry House, Alberta, 
Canada. 

Big-footed Meadow Mouse. — Microtus richardsoni macropus 
(Merriam). Plate XXX. 
Resembling typical richardsoni but somewhat smaller. 
Upperparts (summer) dark sepia mixed with black; sides 
paler; feet dark gray; tail bicolor, sooty and whitish; 
underparts washed with silvery white. Winter pelage 
grayer above, with less black; more white below. Total 
length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 2.8 inches; hind foot, 1.12 
inches. Found in "Boreal Zone of the Rocky Mountains 
from the Wasatch north to Canada, of the Wind River 
Mountains of Wyoming, the Blue Mountains of Oregon, 
and most of the intermediate ranges." (Bailey) 

Cascade Meadow Mouse. — Microtus richardsoni arvicoloides 
(Rhoads). 
Size of typical richardsoni, larger than macropus, darker 
than either, Upperparts (summer): dark sepia mixed with 
black; feet dusky gray; tail bicolor, blackish and soiled 
whitish; underparts lightly washed with gray to silvery 
white. Winter pelage darker above, more white below. 
Total length, 9.4 inches; tail vertebrce, 3.2 inches; hind foot, 
1. 16 inches: maximum size, total length, 10 inches; tail 
vertebrce, 3.6 inches. Found in "Boreal Zone of the 
Cascade Mountains, in Washington and Oregon." (Bailey) 

Subgenus Pedomys 

Characterized by presence of five plantar tubercles; long, 
•coarse fur; side glands wanting or indiscernible; ears of 
medium size. 

Prairie Meadow Mouse. — Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner). 
Resembling pennsylvanicus in size, but tail shorter and 
pelage coarser. Upperparts (winter) dark gray, grizzled 
black and pale fulvous; sides paler; feet dusky; tail bi- 
color, dusky and buffy; underparts pale cinnamon to 
fulvous. Summer pelage darker. Total length, 6 inches; 

431 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



tail vertebrae, 1.3 inches; hind foot, .8 inch. Found in 
"Central part of Mississippi Valley from southern Wiscon- 
sin to southern Missouri and Fort Reno, Oklahoma, and 
west into eastern Nebraska and Kansas. "_ (Bailey) _ 

Louisiana Meadow Mouse. — Microtus ludovicianus Bailey. 
Resembling ochrogaster in size and color, but differing in 
cranial characters (slenderer rostrum and nasals, and 
larger bullae). Upperparts (winter) grizzled black, brown, 
and white, producing general effect of dark gray; tail 
faintly bicolor, dusky and buffy; underparts dull fulvous 
to dark buffy. Total length, 6.5 inches; tail vertebrse, 1.3 
inches; hind foot, .74 inch. Found in "Coast prairie of 
southwestern Louisiana, in Lower Austral Zone." (Bailey) 

Hayden Meadow Mouse; Western Upland Mouse. — Microtus 
haydeni (Baird). 
Larger and lighter colored than ochrogaster. Upperparts 
(summer) light gray, grizzled whitish and blackish; feet 
dusky gray; tail bicolor, dusky and whitish; underparts, 
silvery white to soiled whitish or light buff. Total length, 
7.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.9 inches; hind foot, .88 inch. 
Found in "Plains region of western South Dakota, Nebraska, 
and Kansas, eastern Colorado and Wyoming, and southern 
Montana, in Transition Zone." (Bailey) 

Least Meadow Mouse; Little Upland Mouse. — Microtus mi- 
nor (Merriam). 
Size very small, with a rudimentary sixth tubercle on sole 
of hind foot. Upperparts (winter) gray, grizzled black and 
whitish; feet gray; tail bicolor, dusky and buffy; under- 
parts soiled whitish to pale buffy. Summer pelage mixed 
with fulvous above; underparts darker. Total length, 5.2 
inches; tail vertebrae, 1.2 inches; hind foot, .66 inch. Found 
on " Northern border of the Great Plains from northeastern 
North Dakota to Edmonton, Alberta, and southeastward 
to Minneapolis, Minn." (Bailey) 

Subgenus Chilotus 

Characterized by presence of five plantar tubercles; small 
ears; fur close and dense without stiff hairs; side glands absent 
or obscure. 

Oregon Meadow Mouse. — Microtus oregoni oregoni (Bach- 
man). 
Size small ; tail long ; fur short. Upperparts grizzled bister 
and blackish; ears rising above fur, blackish; feet dark gray; 
tail blackish above, slightly Hghter below; underparts dark 
gray washed with buffy. Total length, 5.6 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 1.6 inches; hind foot, .68 inch. Found in "Pa- 
cific coast region from northern California to Puget Sound.'" 
(Bailey) 

432 



MEADOW MOUSE 



Rainier Meadow Mouse. — Microtus oregoni cantwelli Taylor. 
Larger than typical oregoni, slightly paler in color and with 
different skull characters. Upperparts (midsummer) buck- 
thorn brown; underparts grayish. Total length, 6 inches; 
tail vertebrae, 1.7 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. Found in 
the dcinity of Mount Rainier, Washington (Chelan, Yaki- 
ma, and Snohomish Counties). 

YoUa Bolly Meadow Mouse. — Microtus oregoni adocetus 
Merriam. 
Very much paler and larger than typical oregoni. Upper- 
parts sepia to reddish sepia brown; tail above, dark brown- 
ish, below, paler; feet whitish; underparts dull buffy. 
Total length, 6.9 inches; tail vertebrce, 2 inches; hind foot, 
.84 inch. Found in only the Boreal Zone on the South 
Yolla Bolly Mountain, Tehama County, California. 

Creeping Meadow Mouse. — Microtus serpens Merriam. 

Largest of the subgenus Chilotus; tail short; dark in color. 
Upperparts (winter) uniform sooty gray; sides lighter; feet 
dark gray; ears concealed in long fur; tail above, sooty, 
below, silvery gray; underparts dark gray washed with 
buff. Summer pelage paler and browner. Total length, 
5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.2 inches; hind foot, .72 inch. 
Found in "Low country of southern British Columbia and 
northern Washington between the Cascade Mountains and 
Paget Sound." (Bailey) 

Baird Meadow Mouse. — Microtus hairdi Merriam. 

Smaller than oregoni; tail short; pelage short and glossy; 
ears nearly hidden in fur. Upperparts glossy yellowish 
bister, paler on sides; nose dusky; feet dark gray; tail 
faintly bicolor, dusky and dark gray; underparts washed 
with whitish. Total length, 5.2 inches; tail vertebrae, 1.3 
inches; hind foot, .70 inch. Found only on Glacier Peak, 
. Crater Lake, Oregon. 



The Meadow Mouse is one of the commonest of our small 
mammals and in one of its many varying forms is found 
throughout practically the entire extent of North America 
from the Barren Grounds southward. So adaptable to 
different environments is this small rodent that we find 
Meadow Mice living under all conditions, from swamp lands 
to dry, semibarren plains, and from sea-level up to the sum- 
mits of high mountain ranges. In size and color there is a 
corresponding range of variation associated with the diversity 
of habitat. 

Probably the best known members of the genus are the 
forms of the pennsylvanicus group, which live in meadows 
and grass-lands, usually in considerable numbers, and denote 

433 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



their presence by well-defined runways through the grass. 
These Mice may be anywhere, provided there is sufficient 
grass and low-growing foliage for food and cover, but the 
best places to look for them are the extensive growths of 
rank, heavy grass where there is sufficient moisture to main- 
tain a meadow the year around. Here Microtus is found in 
large colonies and the runways may be traced for long dis- 
tances. 

These runways are easily recognized as the highways of 
small mammals. To form them the Mouse cuts and deflects 
the grass to form a clear passage or tunnel, and the floor is 
kept clean of obstructions. Characteristic pellets, the mouse 
droppings, are a feature of the runways, and are usually con- 
centrated at intervals, often near the mouth of a burrow. 
Here and there along the runways are holes leading down to 
subterranean burrows and runways where the animals have 
their nests. Often the runways make an obvious use of the 
natural features of the terrain and extend along the sides of 
logs, the lower rails of fences, etc. While most of the activities 
of the colony are centered about the runways, individuals 
may be trapped where there are no runways, showing that 
the Mice are not entirely dependent upon them. 

The runways afford shelter from enemies and Meadow 
Mice are more or less active throughout the day. One 
frequently sees a Mouse darting along these tunnels in the 
grass, and during haying time numbers are caught above 
ground. Some species have grass nests for summer occupancy 
at the surface or beneath flat rocks, pieces of bark, boards, 
etc. Most of these Mice, however, retreat underground 
when not feeding. Probably Meadow Mice are most active 
at night, even in the case of those species which are seen 
during the daytime, for traps seem to catch the most between 
the hours of sunset and sunrise. 

The forms of the pennsylvanicus group have a very wide 
geographical distribution, but nearly everywhere throughout 
this range the preferred environment for pennsylvanicus and 
its relatives is heavy grass-lands. The forms of most of the 
other groups of species in the subgenus Microtus may be sought 
in a like environment. The high-altitude species like nanus 
live in beautiful mountain meadows and parks, and some of 
the mountain species go above the tree limit and are found in 

434 



MEADOW MOUSE 



the zone of dwarfed plants and thick mosses. The large 
townsendii is abundant in the luxuriant river-bottom meadows 
along the Willamette and Columbia rivers. Some of the 
forms of californicus are found in regions of scanty rainfall, 
but one must locate grass-land near streams before the Mouse 
can be encountered in any abundance. 

In the forests of the Rocky Mountains and other ranges 
species such as mordax may be encountered in scattered 
localities where there are no meadows, and the Mice live in 
the same situations as the White-footed Mice, under logs and 
rocks. I have never encountered large colonies under these 
conditions, however. 

The large members of the subgenus Aulacomys, living in the 
higher zones of the Rocky and Cascade Mountains and in 
Alberta, are not as abundant, if my experience with macropus 
may be taken as a criterion, as the forms of the subgenus 
Microtus. They are found about cold mountain streams and 
are large enough to pull out of the average mouse-trap. 

On the open plains region east of the Rocky Mountains, 
and on the sagebrush plains between these mountains and 
the Cascade-Sierra system, one finds the Meadow Mice of 
the subgenus Pedomys {Microtus) and genus Lagurus. Some 
of these Mice are rare and very local, found only in small, 
scattered colonies. Throughout most of this territory the 
commoner species of the other groups of Meadow Mice are 
found as well. 

The Meadow Mice of the subgenus Chilotus are more sub- 
terranean in habit than their relatives. Microtus oregoni 
oregoni, the only species of this group I have observed, makes 
small runways just under the surface of the ground, under the 
sod, and seldom comes out on top of the ground. During 
several years of trapping in a region where they are found, 
the only specimens taken were caught in traps set in these 
subterranean paths. The close thick pelage of these Mice is 
another indication of a highly modified, subterranean exist- 
ence. 

Meadow Mice are very prolific and wherever conditions are 
favorable doubtless have several litters of young annually. 
The number of young to a birth varies somewhat with the 
group and the subgenus, but is probably from four to eight. 
Plagues of Meadow Mice have been recorded both in the 

435 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Old and New Worlds, and after a season or two of unusually 
favorable food conditions the numbers of these Mice may 
be swelled to an unbelievable extent. Some of the species 
are very destructive to crops, not only to grain and pastures, 
but to orchards. Although the Mice are the favorite prey 
of a host of enemies, they are well able to hold their own or 
under favorable food conditions to far exceed the normal 
status. 

Meadow Mice do not hibernate but are active summer 
and winter. With the meiting of snow in the spring there 
often is disclosed the traces of activity which went on under 
the protecting white mantle. 

Genus Lagurus^ 

Very similar to the genus Microtus of which it was formerly 
a subgenus. Characterized by presence of five plantar 
tubercles; glands on flanks; very short tail; pale coloration; 
lax fur. 

Subgenus Lemmiscus 

Short-tailed Meadow Mouse. — Lagurus curtatus curtatus 
(Cope). 
"Tail very short; feet hairy; fur long and lax; color pale 
buffy gray." (Bailey) Upperparts (winter) pale buffy 
gray to ashy gray; sides paler; ears tinged with buff; feet 
soiled whitish; tail soiled whitish, with faint dusky dorsal 
line; underparts silvery white to soiled whitish. Summer 
pelage slightly darker. Total length, 5.6 inches; tail 
vertebra, i.i inches; hind foot, .70 inch. Found in "Tran- 
sition Zone of the low mountain ranges in western Nevada 
and eastern California east of the Sierra Nevada and north 
of Death Valley." (Bailey) 

Sagebrush Meadow Mouse. — Lagurus curtatus artemisicE 
(Anthony). 
Resembling typical curtatus in color but slightly smaller 
and differing in cranial characters, Upperparts pale gray 
lightly washed with brownish on crown and rump; base 
of tail and lower rump buffy; tail faintly bicolor, above 
like back, below, buffy white; ears blackish with a few 
buffy hairs at base; underparts silvery white. Total 
length, 5.1 inches; tail vertebras, i inch; hind foot, .68 inch. 
Found on sagebrush plains of Malheur County, Oregon, in 
Upper Sonoran Zone; limits of range unknown. 

^ See footnote, page 415. 



PINE MOUSE 



Intermediate Meadow Mouse. — Lagurus intermedius (Taylor) . 
Smaller than typical curtatus, slightly larger and paler than 
pauperrimus. Upperparts grayish, no buffy on ears and 
nose; underparts silvery white. Total length, 4.9 inches; 
tail vertebrae, i inch; hind foot, .68 inch. Found in the 
Transition Zone of the Pine Forest Mountains, Humboldt 
County, Nevada. 

Pallid Meadow yionsQ.— Lagurus pallidus (Alerriam). 

Paler and smaller than curtatus; the palest Meadow Mouse 
found in America. Upperparts pale buffy gray, tinged with 
buff on ears and nose; feet pale gray; tail dusky above, 
whitish below; underparts white to soiled whitish. Total 
length, 4.8 inches; tail vertebrae, .80 inch; hind foot. .74 
inch. Found in "Transition prairies of western North 
Dakota, Montana, and as far north as Calgary, Alberta." 
(Bailey) 

Pigmy Meadow Mouse. — Lagurus pauperrimus (Cooper). 
Smallest form of the genus Lagurus; darker than curtatus. 
Upperparts (summer) buffy gray, lightly sprinkled with 
dusky; strong buffy tinge on nose and ears; feet pale buffy; 
tail with dusky dorsal line, buffy below; underparts pale 
buffy. Total length, 4.6 inches; tail vertebrae, .80 inch; 
hind foot, .64 inch. Found in "Eastern Washington and 
Oregon, central Idaho, and the north slope of the Uinta 
Mountains, Utah, in Transition Zone." (Bailey) 

* * * * * * * ■ 

The habits of the members of the genus Lagurus are 
similar to those of other Meadow Mice; see page 433. 

Genus Pitymys ^ 

This genus has been placed as a subgenus of Microtus by 
many authors and bears considerable resemblance to that 
genus. Forms of Pitymys are characterized by the presence of 
five plantar tubercles; very small ears; short tail; hip glands 
on adult males; pelage short, dense and glossy. Members 
of this genus are known as Pine Mice, have a mole-like appear- 
ance due to the close, fine fur, and are rather subterranean 
in habit. Plate XXX. 

Pine Mouse. — Pitymys pinetorum pinetorum (LeConte). 

"Size small; ears very small; tail short; fur short and fine; 
colors bright." (Bailey) Upperparts glossy bright russet 
brown; sides lighter; feet grayish brown; tail dark brown 
above, lighter below; underparts dusky, washed with brown. 

^See footnote, page 415. 

437 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Total length, 4.5 inches; tail vertebrae, .74 inch; hind foot, 
.62 inch. Found in "Georgia and the Carolinas." (Bailey) 

Mole Pine Mouse. — Pitymys pinetorum scalopsoides (Au- 
dubon and Bachman). 
Larger than typical pinetorum, darker and duller. Upper- 
parts dull brownish chestnut sprinkled sparingly with 
dusky; sides paler; feet brownish gray; tail faintly bicolor, 
sooty and grayish; underparts washed with dull buff. 
Total length, 5 inches; tail vertebras, .8 inch; hind foot, 
.65 inch. Found in "Southern New York and westward 
to Illinois, southward along the coast, blending into true 
pinetorum.'' (Bailey) Recorded also from Coscob, Con- 
necticut. 
Bluegrass Pine Mouse. — Pitymys pinetorum aiiricularis 
(Bailey). 
Resembling typical pinetorum in size but ears larger. 
Upperparts glossy dark chestnut sprinkled with dusky; 
feet brownish; tail above and below, color of back; under- 
parts washed with pale chestnut. Total length, 4.8 inches; 
tail vertebrae, .88 inch; hind foot, .64 inch. Found in 
"Northern Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and southern 
Indiana, or in a general way the region between the Alle- 
gheny Mountains and the Mississippi River, mainly in 
the Lower Austral Zone." (Bailey). 
Woodland Pine Mouse. — Pitymys nemoralis (Bailey). 

Size large for the group; ears relatively large; fur longer 
and coarser than in pinetorum. Upperparts dull chestnut 
sprinkled with blackish; sides paler; feet pale buffy to 
dusky; tail faintly bicolor, above like back, below like 
belly; underparts washed with bright cinnamon. Total 
length, 5.4 inches; tail vertebras, i.o inch_; hind foot, .'J2 
inch. Found "West of the Mississippi River from 
central Arkansas north to Council Bluffs, Iowa." (Bailey) 
Florida Pine Mouse. — Pitymys parvulus Howell. 

Resembling typical pinetorum but paler and smaller. 
Upperparts tawny; sides and tail with tint of vinaceous 
cinnamon; feet flesh color; underparts dusky with faint 
wash of vinaceous cinnamon. Total length, 4.8 inches; 
tail vertebrae, .6 inch; hind foot, .56 inch. Found in the 
vicinity of Ocala, Marion County, Florida; limits of range 
unknown. 

******* 
Pine Mice are Meadow Mice which have become rather 
more specialized for a subterranean life than their kindred. 
The close, glossy fur is suggestive of the pelage of the short- 
tailed Shrew, Blarina, and this character, together with the 
short tail, serves to distinguish Pine Mice from the common 
Meadow Mice. 

438 



ROUND-TAILED MUSKRAT 



Pine Mice are found in forested and brushy areas, but not in 
densely timbered regions, seeming to prefer an environment 
where open patches alternate with stands of brush, shrubs, 
or trees. Their runways are not on the surface like those 
of the Meadow Mice, but are mole-like tunnels just below 
the surface of the ground. These tunnels are smaller than 
Mole runways but like them in distribution and relation to 
the surface. There are numerous openings to the surface of 
the ground through which the Mice can pass in search of 
food, but much of the food is obtained under the surface as 
roots and bulbs. Pine Mice often use Mole runways when 
these tunnels make contact with their own system. 

Pine Mice are like the other Meadow Mice in their general 
habits, such as activity throughout the year, tendency to 
live in colonies, and fecundity. Several litters are raised in a 
year but the young number only from one to four, rather less 
than in Microtus. 

Pine Mice are destructive to agriculture, especially to 
orchards, for their depredations are frequently not noticed 
until too late to save the trees, and because their presence is 
so well hidden by the earth or the snow. 

Genus Neofibex 
Dentition: Incisors, \\ Canines, 2 ; Premolars, % ; Molars, f = i6. 

Round-tailed Muskrat; Florida Water Rat.— Neo- 

fiber alleni and subspecies 

General Description. — Appearance that of a diminutive 
Muskrat, with a round tail. Pelage long and composed of 
glistening guard-hairs and short, soft underfur ; fore and hind- 
feet not peculiar; plantar tubercles five in number; tail round; 
ears nearly hidden in fur. 

Color.— Sexes colored alike; no marked seasonal variation. 

Upperparts uniform dark brown; underparts whitish or 
tinged with buffy. 

Measurements.— Total length, 13 inches; tail vertebrae, 
5 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 

Geographical Distribution.— Florida. 

Food. — Vegetation, such as grass, bark, and roots. 

Enemies.— Hawks, Owls, Snakes, and small predatory 
mammals. 

439 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Neofiber 

Florida Water Rat. — Neofiber alleni alleni True. 

As described. Found in northern and central Florida. 
Everglade Water Rat.^ — Neofiber alleni nigrescens Howell. 

Resembling typical alleni but less brown and more blackish 

on upperparts and more whitish (less buffy) below. Found 

in southern Florida. 

******* 

The Round-tailed Muskrat seems to occupy a position 
intermediate between the Meadow Mice and the Muskrats, 




Round-tailed Muskrat 



not only in size but, to a certain extent, in habits as well. 
It is not as aquatic as the Muskrat, although it is found about 
the edges of streams and swamps and builds platforms of 
grass stalks in shallow water upon which it sits to feed. 
Harper, in The Mammals of the Okefinokee Swamp Region of 
Georgia, page 361, writes: 

" It is not quite confined to the prairies, for it probably enters 
the water courses, and it builds its nest occasionally at the 
bases of solitary cypresses or clumps of bushes in the prairies, 
which may be regarded as incipient 'heads.' However, it is par 
excellence a prairie species, with one of the most restricted 
habitat ranges of any Okefinokee mammal. It is not even 
found in all parts of the prairies. Where the water becomes 
too open, or the vegetation (especially sphagnum) too sparse, 

440 



ROUND-TAILED MUSKRAT 



signs of its presence are lacking. On the other hand, where 
the prairies are so completely filled with sphagnum and other 
aquatic plants that little open water is left, and sometimes 
none at all is visible over considerable areas, there Neofiher 




Fig. 90, Tail and hind foot of Round-tailed Muskrat 

chooses its home. In fact it is perhaps more of a bog inhabi- 
tant than an aquatic animal. It progresses by runways over 
the surface of the bog, and by tunnels through the oozy 
muck. The latter must be constantly obstructed with the 
thick peaty sediment that tends to fill up every open space 
in the water of the prairie. Undoubtedly Neofiher also 
swims when it encounters water of sufficient depth. . . . 

"The foundations of the nests rest on top of the sphagnum 
rather than in the water. Many of them are anchored abo.ut 
a turf of some of the larger prairie plants. . . . Some have 
a still more solid foundation, as at the base of a clump of 
buttonbushes, . . . or at the foot of a solitary young cypress 
that has invaded the edge of the prairie. The height of 
several nests, that were somewhat closely examined, varied 
fcom about 12 to 18 inches; the diameter, from 12 to 24 inches 
(and in one case about a yard). The fresh nests appear 
nearly globular; the older ones become somewhat de- 
pressed. . . . 

"The chamber is just about large enough to enable the 
animal to turn around in it comfortably. Its floor is slightly 
elevated above the water level, and is usually damp or moist. 
There are invariably two entrances, or exits, on opposite 
sides of the chamber. . . . 

"Among the other works of Neofiher are its feeding-stands, 
which one may find throughout its prairie haunts. These 
are essentially like the foundation of a nest, without the 
superstructure of vegetation. . . . They are slight, smooth- 
worn mounds of sphagnum, peat, herb stems, and the like, 

441 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



with two tunnels leading downward into the bog on opposite 
sides. The distance between them here, as in the nests, is 
about 4 to 6 inches. Likewise the platform, as in the nests, 
rises barely above the water level. . . . 

"Where the muck or the moss of the prairie rise close to or 
above the water level, runways are generally seen in the 
vicinity of the nests. They consist of more or less cleared 
passages, about 3 inches wide, that extend over the surface 
of the sphagnum and muck among fern, maiden cane, and 
the like. . . . 

"From these meager data it appears that the breeding 
season extends from January at least to April, and very 
likely into the fall." 

Genus Ondatra [= Fiber of various authors]^ 
Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, g ; Premolars, g; Molars, f = 16. 

Muskrat. — Ondatra zibethica 

and related forms 

Names. — Muskrat; Musquash. Plate XXVII. 

General Description. — A large Rat with robust form; short 
legs; broad feet, specialized for swimming, hind feet partially 
webbed; tail long, laterally compressed, scaly and sparsely 
haired; ears scarcely showing above fur; pelage dense and 
composed of two types of hair, a close, waterproof underfur 
and longer, glistening guard-hairs; perineal glands strongly 
developed and secreting a pronounced musky odor; always 
living near water. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; Seasonal variation not con- 
spicuous. 

Upperparts. — Dark brown, slightly darker on head; sides 
chestnut; pelage glossy; underfur slate-colored at base. 

Underparts. — Like pelage of sides, but washed with tawny 
and lighter in appearance, approaching whitish on throat and 
belly; a blackish spot on chin and blackish about wrists and 
heels; tail black; feet dark brown. 

Paler and duller in worn pelage. Occasionally occurs in a 
black phase in which upperparts are black and underparts 
dark. 

I For a full revision of the genus see N. Hollister, North American 
Fauna, No. 32, 1911. 

442 



MUSKRAT 



Young duller in appearance, dusky on back, paler on sides. 

Measurements. — Total length, 22.5 inches; tail vertebrae, 
ID inches; hind foot, 3.2 inches; weight, 2 pounds. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of North America, south 
of the Barren Grounds. 




Fig. 91. Muskrat 

Food. — Mainly vegetation, chiefly aquatic plants, but 
sometimes traveling from water for other vegetation; animal 
food such as mussels, fish, and salamanders. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Minks, Otters, Weasels, Foxes, 
Wolves; occasionally Pike and Pickerel. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Ondatra. 

Common Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica zihethica (Linnseus). 
As just described. Found in " Southeastern Canada, north- 
eastern and east central United States; from New Bruns- 
wick and Quebec west to Minnesota, and south to northern 
Georgia and Arkansas, except along the Atlantic seaboard 
south of Delaware Bay." (HoUister). 

Virginia Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica macrodon (Merriam). 
Largest form of the genus, total length, 24.6 inches; hind- 
foot, 3.5 inches. Color lighter, brighter, and with less 
black than typical zihethica. Found in "Middle Atlantic 

443 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



coast region of the United States, from Delaware Bay to 
Pamlico Sound; inland to Washington, Virginia, and 
Raleigh, N. C." (Hollister) 

Labrador Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica aquilonia (Bangs). 
Much like typical zihethica, but slightly brighter and more 
richly colored. Found in "Labrador and Ungava. " 
(HolHster) 

Hudson Bay Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica alba (Sabine). 

Smaller than typical zihethica; total length, 21.6 inches; 
hind foot, 3 inches; paler in color above. Found in "Waters 
draining into Hudson Bay from the west, in eastern Saskat- 
chewan and Keewatin; north to the Barren Grounds." 
(Hollister) 

Northwestern Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica spatulata (Osgood). 
Small and dark. Total length, 21.2 inches; hind foot, 
3 inches. Color above, glossy brown, sides russet, under- 
parts whitish washed with cinnamon. Found in "North- 
western North America, from the Kowak River and Yukon 
Valley, Alaska, east to the Anderson River and south into 
British Columbia and Alberta." (Hollister) 

Alaska Peninsula Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica zalopha 
(Hollister). 
Small, with short tail and small hind foot. Total length, 
21.3 inches; tail vertebrse, 9.1 inches; hind foot, 2.8 inches. 
Color bister. Found in "Alaska Peninsula, north to 
Nushagak and east to the head of Cook Inlet." (Hollister) 

Rocky Mountain Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica osoyoosensis 
(Lord). 
Like spatulata but larger; total length, 23.6 inches; hind 
foot, 3.3 inches. Color dark brown to blackish above. 
Found in "Puget Sound region and Rocky Mountains, 
from southern British Columbia, Washington, Idaho and 
western Montana, south in the mountains to northern 
New Mexico." (Hollister) 

Oregon Coast Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica occipitalis (Elliot) . 
Resembling osoyoosensis but paler and redder. Total 
length, 23.6 inches; tail vertebrae, 10.8 inches; hind foot, 
3.3 inches. Found in "Northern Willamette Valley and 
coast of Oregon." (Hollister) 

Nevada Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica mergens (Hollister) . 
Large and pale. Total length, 22 inches; tail vertebrae, 
10. 1 inches; hind foot, 3.2 inches. Color above, grayish 
brown. Found in "Northern part of the Great Basin; 
southeastern Oregon, northeastern California, Nevada, and 
western Utah." (Hollister). 

Arizona Muskrat. — Ondatra zihethica pallida (Meams). 

Small, rusty red, no long black hairs on back. Total 
length, 17.2 inches; tail vertebras, 7.6 inches; hind foot, 2.6 
inches. Found in "Colorado River valley (California, 
Lower California, and Arizona), east to the Rio Grande 
Valley in New Mexico." (Hollister). 

444 



MUSKRAT 



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445 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Pecos Muskrat. — Ondatra zibethica ripensis (Bailey). 

Size of pallida, with shorter tail and darker pelage. Upper- 
parts Vandyke brown. Found in "Pecos Valley, in Texas 
and New Mexico." (Hollister) 

Great Plains Muskrat. — Ondatra zibethica cinnamomina 
(Hollister). 
Smaller than typical zibethica, pale in color, with cinnamon- 
brown upperparts. Total length, 20 inches; tail vertebrae, 
9.6 inches; hind foot, 2.9 inches. Found in "Great central 
plains region of western United States and Canada; from 
Manitoba south to northern Texas; east to central Iowa 
and west to the Rocky Mountains." (Hollister) 

Louisiana Muskrat. — Ondatra rivalicia (Bangs). 

Smaller than zibethica, pelage duller, underparts darker. 
Total length, 21.9 inches; tail vertebree, 9.3 inches; hind 
foot, 3.1 inches. Upperparts dark brownish black with 
little of the warm reddish tinge of the other forms. Found 
in "Coast region of Louisiana, north to northern Calcasieu, 
Pointe Coupee, and Tangipahoa parishes." (Hollister) 

Newfoundland Muskrat. — Ondatra obscura (Bangs). 

Small in size, with hind foot large in proportion, dark 
brown to almost black above. Total length, 20 inches; 
tail vertebra, 9 inches; hind foot, 3 inches. Found in 
Newfoundland. 



The Muskrat is a well-known American species familiar 
either in its proper identity or as Hudson Seal after it leaves 
the hands of the fur dresser. In the eyes of the fur trade the 
Muskrat has come to assume an importance that makes it one 
of the most valuable of our fur resources, when considered in 
the aggregate. Fortunately this rodent has such a wide 
distribution and is so prolific that the species can stand the 
heavy annual toll exacted of it. 

The Muskrat, as might be expected from its aquatic 
specializations, is never found at any great distance from 
water, and is found in greatest abundance in regions of exten- 
sive marshes and waterways. Along the coasts it lives in the 
salt marshes, and in the interior ranges along all of the river- 
courses and lakes. As may be noted from the map, there are 
few areas in North America between the northern limit of 
tree growth and the Rio Grande where some form of the genus 
Ondatra may not be found. Even in regions of comparatively 
scanty rainfall, such as Arizona, this water-loving creature 
lives along such streams as exist. 

While the Rats themselves are not so scarce or wary as to 
446 



PLATE XXXI 




PLATE XXXII 




Ph';t,,,s by A. A. Allen 
Two Views of Hibernating Jumping Mouse 
{Zapus hiidsonitis) 



MUSKRAT 



be difficult of observation, to the casual observer they may be 
best known by the houses they build of rushes and other 
water-plants. These houses are built primarily as winter 
homes and the summer nest may be an inconspicuous form of 
grass. In some regions the animals make burrows into the 
banks and have their nests above the level of the water, 
but underground. Since the evidences of their presence are 
very obvious, it is a simple matter for the trapper to find 
places for his trap, and because the Rats enter a trap readily 
large catches are easily made. 

The female Muskrat has several litters each year and the 
litters are large. Hollister gives (for Maryland) three to 
five litters annually and the number of young in a litter vary- 
ing from three to twelve or more, — the average six or eight. 
An animal with such potentialities for increase in numbers 
might very well be a serious economic problem, except that its 
food habits and choice of environment seldom bring it into 
conflict with agricultural interests. 

The principal items in its diet are roots, bulbs and foliage 
of aquatic plants, but occasionally it may visit truck-gardens 
or standing grain. It has been noted feeding on animal food 
such as fish and amphibians and it seems to be especially 
fond of fresh-water mussels. 

One of the greatest causes of annoyance due to the presence 
of Muskrats is the holes they dig in ditch-banks, retaining 
dams, and earth structures, which lead to subsequent leaks 
or floods. 

This Rat takes its name from the pronounced musky odor 
given off by a pair of perineal glands. While penetrating in 
character, this odor is not unpleasant. The Muskrat is 
closely related to the Meadow Mouse, and in many respects is 
only an enlarged and specialized edition of it ; but the genus 
is peculiar in its general distribution, for it is found only in the 
New World, whereas the Meadow Mice occur throughout the 
Northern Hemisphere. 

Muskrat fur owes its value to the presence of a close, soft 
undercoat which is normally concealed below the long, hard 
guard-hairs. It is this short pelage which makes a water- 
proof covering for the animal and which, when the long 
hairs have been plucked by the furrier, bears a superficial 
resemblance to the underfur of the Pur Seal. With such a 

447 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



warm covering, the Muskrat has no fear of cold weather and 
does not hibernate, being active throughout the year. 

Muskrats, when undisturbed, may be seen moving about at 
any hour, but the best times for observation are early in the 
morning and, more especially, just before sunset. They are 
expert swimmers and travel in the water in preference to run- 
ning on the ground, although they may go overland to quite 
a distance for some favorite article of food. Still or slow- 
moving water is best suited to their mode of living, but I 
have seen a Muskrat in a swift, white-water, mountain creek 
in the autumn when, perhaps, it was seized with a wanderlust 
and was seeking a new home site. 

Family Muridae. Old World Rats and Mice 

Form typically rat or mouse-like; molar teeth three on each 
side, crown pattern tuberculate (in species introduced into 
North America), tubercles arranged in three longitudinal 



Subfamily Murinae. Introduced Rats and 
Mice 

Characters as given under the Muridae, no special 
modifications. 

Genus Mus 
Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, %; Molars, f = i6. 

House Mouse. — Mus musculus musculus Linnaeus 

Names. — House Mouse; Domestic Mouse; Common 
Mouse. 

General Description. — A small Mouse with long tail, 
sparsely haired; pelage dull in color, no great contrast between 
upper and lower parts. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no very noticeable seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts mixed yellowish brown and black; feet brown- 
ish; tail above, dusky, below slightly lighter; underparts 
ashy gray. 

448 



Plate XXXIII 




Oi .\\, Bushy- tailed 



Wood Rat 



HOUSE MOUSE 



Measurements. — Total length, 6-6.5 inches; tail vertebree, 
3.0-3.5 inches; hind foot, .70-.75 inch. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found almost everywhere in 
United States and Canada where settlements or commerce 
exist. 

Food. — Almost omnivorous, but preferring grain and 
various vegetable products. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Hawks, Owls, Weasels, Foxes, and all 
small carnivores; domestic Cats and Dogs. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Mus. 

Only the one species of this genus has established a foothold 
in North America. In Alexico this Mouse has apparently 
developed a distinct subspecies and it is possible that other 
distinct races may appear in other places as this species 
becomes a more integral part of our native fauna. 

The House Mouse is too well known to require any extended 
remarks, but since it may be confused, under certain circum- 
stances, with some of the native species of Mice, attention is 
directed to some of its distinguishing traits. 

While this Mouse is more or less truly a "house" Mouse 
about large cities, and where a severe winter climate forces it 
to seek shelter, in many places it lives in the fields and waste 
places and may be trapped side by side with native species. 
From most of the common native Mice, Mus may be dis- 
tinguished by the ashy underparts, dull color pattern, and long 
semi-naked tail. Meadow Mice, with a somewhat similar 
color pattern, have more robust bodies, longer, fuller pelage, 
and generally a shorter tail. White-footed Mice need not be 
confused with the House Mouse because of the much different 
color pattern. The Harvest Mice bear the closest re- 
semblance to House Mice, and although these native Mice 
are usually smaller in size than an adult House Mouse, the 
resemblance may be quite marked. Harvest Mice are more 
slenderly built and have proportionally longer tails. An 
infallible test may be applied if one has the skull of the Mouse 
for examination. The molar teeth of the House Mouse, as 
well as the molars of the three following species of introduced 
Rats, have three longitudinal rows of tubercles along their 
crowns, distinguishable at all stages of wear (in worn teeth 

449 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



showing as low ridges rather than distinct tubercles) and no 
Mouse or Rat native to North America has molars with these 
three rows. 



Genus Rattus 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, ^; Molars, f = i6. 

Norway Rat. — Rattus norvegicus 

(Best known in literature as Mus norvegicus). Plate XXXIII. 

Names. — Norway Rat; Common Rat; House Rat; Wharf 
Rat; Barn Rat; Gray Rat; Domestic Rat; Brown Rat. 

General Description. — A good-sized Rat, with large, nearly 
naked, ears; long, semi-naked tail, with rather conspicuous 




Fig. 93. Norway Rat 

annulations ; pelage somewhat coarse ; brown or grayish above, 
ashy below. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike, no noticeable seasonal 
variation. 

Upperparts. — Grayish or brownish, with mixture of more 
or less black; feet grayish or whitish; tail not distinctly bi- 
color, dusky above, somewhat lighter below. 

Underparts. — Grayish to soiled whitish; transition in color 
from sides to underparts gradual. 

Immature pelage duller and grayer than adult. 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length, 15-16 
inches; tail vertebras, 7-8 inches; hind foot, 1.6- 1.7 inches. 

450 



INTRODUCED RAT 



Geographical Distribution. — Found nearly everywhere 
men have settled. 

Food. — Practically omnivorous: grain, green vegetation, 
meat, eggs, etc. 

Enemies. — Snakes, Owls, Hawks, Weasels, Cats, Foxes, 
and most of the small carnivores ; domestic Cats and Dogs. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Rattus. 

Subgenus Rattus 

Norway Rat. — Rattus norvegicus (Erxleben). 
As described above. 

Subgenus Epimys 

Black Rat. — Rattus rattus rattus (Linuceus). Plate XXXIII. 

Smaller and more slender than norvegicus. Upperparts 
slate-colored to black, darker and more glossy along dorsal 
region; underparts somewhat lighter than above, slaty 
gray to almost black; tail long, slender, and with finer 
annulations than in norvegicus. Total length, 16.5 inches; 
tail vertebrce, 9 inches; hind foot, 1.5 inches; Found today 
in only a few localities, commonest in southern states, but 
formerly introduced over a wide territory. The Norway 
Rat has driven out the Black Rat in most places where the 
two species come into close contact. Occasionally the 
Black Rat is taken in New York City. 
Roof Rat; Alexandrine Rat. — Rattus rattus alexandrinus 
(Geoffroy). Plate XXXIII. 
About the size of typical rattus but much lighter in color. 
Upperparts reddish brown; underparts white, strongly 
suffused with yellowish; tail very long and finely annulated, 
colored above like back, lighter below. Total length, 17 
inches; tail vertebras, 9.5 inches; hind foot, 1.6 inches. 
Rare today in most of the states, but like the Black Rat 
it has been introduced over a wider range from which it 
has been driven by the Norway Rat. , The Roof Rat 
intergrades with the Black Rat and sometimes specimens 
display characters of both forms, upperparts intermediate 
between black and reddish brown, and underparts yellowish. 
******* 

The House Rat is the most thoroughly disliked of rodents 
and has earned a reputation which all too often is transferred 
to our much more attractive and less destructive native Rats. 
The introduced Rat frequently lives under filthy conditions, 
carries disease (the bubonic plague is borne by the rat-flea) 
and is such a destructive creature that the hand of man has 
been set against it from time immemorial. 

451 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



The Norway Rat is aggressive and so easily adapts itself to 
varying conditions that today it has a cosmopolitan distri- 
bution, and drives out our native Rats wherever it meets 
them. Living in great numbers in all our large cities and 
water-fronts, it is also found widely spread over less inhabited 
districts, frequenting fields and bushy areas where it finds 
favorable conditions. The Norway Rat, with its coarsely 
annulated tail, harsh pelage, and ashy underparts, only 
superficially resembles any of our native species and should 
be easily distinguished from the Wood Rats (which it most 
resembles) upon a close examination. 

The Black Rat and the Roof Rat are so rare in most places 
that they will not lead to confusion with native Rats. The 
color and texture of pelage (coarser than in the Wood Rats), 
and long, nearly naked tail, are the best field characters. In 
tropical America these two introduced Rats are quite common, 
but throughout most of the United States they have been 
driven out by the Norway Rat. These two Rats, especially 
the Roof Rat, are more attractive in appearance than the 
Norway Rat. 

All three of the introduced Rats display in the three rows 
of tubercles on the molar crowns an unmistakable character 
of separation from all New World Rats. 

Family Aplodontiidae. Mountain Beavers 

Burrowing rodents of medium to large size; form robust; 
legs rather short; tail vestigial; feet with five toes; tibia and 
fibula distinct; skull massive, widened posteriorly, constricted 
interorbitally ; molar teeth simple. 

Genus Aplodontia^ 

Dentition: Incisors, f ; Canines, §; Premolars, f ; Molars, f =22. 

Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa 

and related forms 

Names. — Mountain Beaver; Showtl; Sewellel; less fre- 
quently Mountain Boomer, Ground-hog, Woodchuck. Plate 
XX. 

^ For a full revison of this genus see Walter P. Taylor, University of 
California Publications, Zool., Vol. 17, pp. 435-504, 1918. 



MOUNTAIN BEAVER 



General Description. — A squirrel-like mammal of robust 
build; tail so short as to appear absent; eyes and ears small; 
head heavy and blunt ; neck short ; f ossorial in habit and active 







Fig. 94. Mountain Beaver 



only at night, hence seldom seen; pelage dark in color, some- 
what crisp in texture. 

Color. — Sexes colored alike; no very great seasonal change 
of pelage. 

Upperparts light ochraceous buff to light buff or vinaceous 
cinnamon, of quite uniform intensity, darkest along mid- 
dorsal region, with a sprinkling of black hairs; spot at base 
of ear white; underparts grayish, with brownish wash; pelage 
everywhere slate-colored at base. 

Measurements. — Sexes of approximately equal size. 
Total length, 14 inches; tail so short as to be difficult of 
accurate measurement; hind foot, 2.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Found only in narrow strip 
along western part of Pacific states. 

Food. — Green vegetation such as foliage and branches of 
many species of plants, shrubs, small trees, and ferns. 

Enemies. — "Weasels, skunks, of two genera, wild cats, 
mink, gray foxes, golden eagles, and great horned owls." 
(Taylor) . 

453 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Aplodontia. 

Brown Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa rufa (Rafinesque) . 
As described above. Found in "Neighborhood of the 
Columbia River, in western Oregon, interiorly on the 
Pacific side of the Cascades; thence southward in a belt of 
unknown width to Mount Mazama in southern Oregon 
and the Siskiyou-Trinity district in northern California; 
northward to Puget Sound and the Chilliwack-Sumas 
region in southwestern British Columbia. Altitudinal 
range, from sea level in the Puget Sound district to 6,500 
feet in the Siskiyou-Trinity Mountains of northern Cali- 
fornia; zonal range. Transition and Canadian." (Taylor) 

Olympic Mountain BesLwer.— Aplodontia rufa olympica (Mer- 
riam). 
"Above, in summer specimens, pinkish cinnamon to light 
ochraceous-buff, often with something of a grayish cast; 
the whole grizzled with more or less of an admixture of 
black hairs; head and face brownish or grayish; under 
parts grayish with a faint wash of pinkish buff or cinnamon- 
buff. " (Taylor) Total length, 14 inches; hind foot, 2.0 
inches. "Geographical Range. — Northwestern Washing- 
ton, vicinity of Olympic Mountains, intergrading with 
Aplodontia rufa rufa in the vicinity of Steilacoom, southern 
Puget Sound." (Taylor) 

Northern Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa columhiana 
(Taylor). 
Upperparts varying in individuals from light pinkish 
cinnamon to pinkish cinnamon grizzled with blackish 
and sometimes a few whitish-tipped hairs; underparts 
faintly washed with brown over pale drab gray; males 
usually with irregular white patches on underparts. Total 
length, 17 inches. Found in "Vicinity of Hope, British 
Columbia, south in the Cascade Mountains of Washington; 
probably intergrading with Aplodontia rufa rainieri be- 
tween the international boundar}^ and Mount Rainier." 
(Taylor) 

Mount Rainier Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa rainieri 
(Merriam). 
Grayer than typical rufa, slightly larger. Upperparts 
light ochraceous buff, liberally sprinkled with blackish 
hairs which may be tipped with silvery white; back blacker 
than sides; underparts plumbeous, with whitish markings 
which are usually most conspicuous on throat. Total 
length, 15 inches; hind foot, 2.5 inches. Found only on 
Mount Rainier, Washington. 

Pacific Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa pacifica (Mer- 
riam). Plate XXXIV. 
With more gray on head than in olympica and more con- 
centration of blackish on dorsal region. Upperparts cinna- 
mon to pinkish cinnamon, thickly sprinkled with glossy 

454 



MOUNTAIN BEAVER 





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Fig. 95. Distribution of the subspecies of Aplodontia rufa, 
after Taylor 

1. Aplodontia rufa rufa 

2. Aplodontia rufa cnlumbiana 

3. Aplodontia rufa Olympic a 

4. Aplodontia rufa rainieri 

5. Aplodontia rufa pacifica 

[6. Aplodontia riifa humholdtiana 

7. Aplodontia rufa calif ornica 

8. Aplodontia rufa nigra 

9. Aplodontia rufa phaa 



455 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



black, usually arranged in broad dorsal band; top of head 
black; face grayish; underparts grayish, lightly washed with 
brown. Total length, 13 inches; hind foot, 2.1 inches. 
Found on "Coast of Oregon, from Astoria on the north at 
least to Port Orford on the south; ranging inland locally, 
as in the vicinity of Eugene, Oregon, and gradually inter- 
grading with Aplodontia rufa rufa probably in a broad belt 
centrally on the Pacific slope of Oregon from the northern 
to the southern boundaries of the state." (Taylor) 

Humboldt Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa humholdtiana 
(Taylor). 
"Larger and less richly colored than Aplodontia rufa paci- 
jicay (Taylor) Upperparts light ochraceous buff to pink- 
ish buff, uniformly sprinkled with black hairs and some 
silver- tipped hairs; underparts pale drab sprinkled with 
silvery white hairs, sometimes faintly washed with buffy 
brown; usually a white spot on lower abdomen. Total 
length, 13.8 inches; hind foot, 2.2 inches. Found in "The 
northern coast district of California from Humboldt Bay, • 
Carlotta, and Cuddeback along the coast in Humboldt and 
Del Norte counties northward, at least to Requa; ranging 
inland locally in Humboldt County and intergrading with 
A. r. rufa in the vicinity of Weitzpek." (Taylor) 

Sierra Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa calif ornica 
(Peters). 
Grayer than typical rufa. Upperparts pale ochraceous 
buff to ochraceous buff; uniformly sprinkled with black 
hairs and a few silvery-tipped hairs; spot at base of ear 
white; underparts light mouse-gray, lightly sprinkled with 
black hairs which may be tipped with silvery white, some- 
times with faint brownish wash. Total length, 14 inches; 
hind foot, 2.2 inches. Found in "The Sierra Nevada of 
California, from Mt. vShasta on the north at least to Mam- 
moth, Mono County, on the south. Zonal range, Boreal." 
(Taylor) 

Point Arena Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa nigra 
(Taylor). 
The darkest form of the genus. Upperparts shiny black, 
faintly sprinkled with pinkish buff hairs; sides paler than 
back, pinkish buff overlaid with black; underparts slate- 
colored, with light wash of pinkish buff. Total length, 
13.8 inches; hind foot, 2.2 inches. Found only at Point 
Arena, Mendocino County, California." (Taylor) 

Point Reyes Mountain Beaver. — Aplodontia rufa phcea (Mer- 
riam). 
The smallest form of the genus. Upperparts pinkish cin- 
namon to cinnamon-buff (in winter sometimes grayish), 
uniformly grizzled with blackish; underparts slate-colored, 
with scattered sprinkling of black hairs, and washed with 
light ochraceous-buff to pinkish buff. Total length, 12.4 
inches; hind foot, 2.1 inches. Found in "Favorable situa- 

456 



PLATE XXXIV 




MOUNTAIN BEAVER 



tions in Marin County, California, where it is found within 
an area of approximately no square miles." (Taylor) 



"Mountain Beaver" is somewhat of a misnomer for this 
animal which is not a true Beaver, but belongs to a separate 
and distinct family which is found only in North America, 
where it is restricted to a very small area. It is very primitive 
in structure. 

The Mountain Beaver is so little known that no very ac- 
ceptable vernacular name has appeared. It was first discov- 
ered by Lewis and Clark and was evidently well known to 
various western tribes of Indians, from whom we get the 
names, Sewellel (variously spelled), Showtl, Squallah, and 
others less euphonious. The name Mountain Beaver is used 
here because it is the one most apt to be remembered by the 
layman, and it has appeared sufficiently often in literature to 
have the sanction of usage. 

This animal lives in extensive underground burrows and so 
seldom comes above ground in the daytime that one might 
live in the region frequented hy A plodontia and never suspect 
the presence of the animal. The burrows are usually in moist 
localities, sometimes with water running through them, and 
the openings are under ferns, bushes, or logs. The burrows 
are of generous size and run for long distances, with many 
openings. Vegetation cut for food is frequently left outside 
the burrow to wilt before being carried inside. 

The Mountain Beaver is a very hardy animal, and although 
it fights viciously when first taken from a trap, becomes tame 
in a remarkably short time. The animal is strong enough to 
give a very painful bite. One that I kept allowed me to 
handle him freely before he had been captive twenty-four 
hours, and ate what I gave him without showing the timidity 
so often displayed by creatures just caught. He showed no 
fear of water and swam to shore in an unconcerned manner 
when I placed him in a small stream. 

Mountain Beavers have a characteristic musky odor, pene- 
trating but not unpleasant, reminiscent of that of a Muskrat. 
Their fur, while pleasing to the touch, has no commercial value. 

The tail of the Mountain Beaver appears as scarcely more 
than a mere tuft of hairs, the vertebras themselves being about 

457 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



an inch and a half long, but part of this so included under the 
skin of the rump that the external tail seems very short. 

Little is known of the breeding habits of this animal but it 
is believed that the young are bom in June and number 
three to five. 

Family Zapodidae. Jumping Mice 

Form mouse-like; hind legs and tail greatly elongated; 
internal cheek-pouches present; upper incisors narrow, 
grooved in front; crown surface of molars with complex, folded 
pattern; terrestrial in habit; gait saltatorial (when alarmed); 
soles of feet naked. 

Subfamily Zapodinae. 
Genus Zapus' 

Dentition: Incisors, {; Canines, §; Premolars, J ; Molars, f = i8. 

Jumping Mouse. — Zapus hudsonius 

and related forms 

Names.^ — Jumping Mouse; Kangaroo Mouse. Plate XXX. 

General Description. — A medium-sized Mouse with greatly 
elongated hind legs; very long, slender, tapering tail; short 
forelegs; ear not reaching much beyond surrounding pelage; 
color yellowish brown above, white below; pelage long and 
somewhat coarse when compared to that of the White-footed 
Mice or Meadow Mice; throughout most of its range hiber- 
nating in winter; when alarmed progressing by long leaps. 

Color. — vSexes colored alike. 

Upperparts (summer) mixed yellowish fawn and black, 
pelage slate-colored at base and only tips of hairs colored; a 
dark dorsal band from crown to base of tail where black- 
tipped hairs predominate; tail above, grayish brown, below, 
white, a sharp contrast between the two surfaces; feet white; 
underparts white, sometimes tinged with color encroachment 
from sides. 

^ For a revision of this genus see E. A. Preble, North American Fauna, 
No. 15, 1899. 

458 



JUMPING MOUSE 



Winter pelage duller, yellower, and with less contrast 
between color of sides and dark dorsal band. 

Immature pelage more ochraceous than adults, and more 
apt to show fulvous wash on underparts. 




• 7 



Fig. 96. Jumping Mouse 

Measurements. — Sexes of equal size. Total length 
inches; tail vertebra), 5.3 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 

Geographical Distribution. — Most of the United States 
and Canada north to Arctic Circle and south into California 
and into North Carolina. 

Food. — Vegetation, seeds, and grains. 

Enemies. — Hawks, Owls, Snakes, Weasels, Foxes, and other 
small carnivores. 



Species and Subspecies of the Genus Zapus. 

There is rather close agreement in color patterns throughout 
this genus ; that is, the Jumping Mice all have a (more or less 
obvious) dark dorsal band, yellowish or ochraceous upperparts, 
and white underparts. Also, there is no very great seasonal 
variation, the winter pelage usually resembling that of sum- 
mer, except for less contrast and a somewhat duller tone. 

Hudson Bay Jumping Mouse. — Zapus hudsonius hudsonius 
(Zimmerman). 
As described above. Found in suitable localities "from the 
southern shores of Hudson Bay south to New Jersey, and 
in the mountains to North Carolina, west to Iowa and 
Missouri, and northwest to Alaska." (Preble) 

Labrador Jumping Mouse. — Zapus hudsonius ladas Bangs. 
Large and darker than typical hudsonius. Upperparts 

459 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



bright ochraceous buff, darkened by black-tipped hairs, 
dark dorsal band sprinkled with ochraceous; tail dusky- 
above, white below, bicolor. Total length, 9.1 inches; tail 
vertebrae, 5.7 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. Found in 
"Eastern Quebec north to Hamilton Inlet, Labrador; limits 
of range unknown." (Preble) 
Alaska Jumping Mouse.^ — Zapus hudsonius alascensis Mer- 
riam. 
Resembling typical hudsonius but larger and darker. 
Upperparts dull dark ochraceous; dorsal band quite dis- 
tinct, sprinkled with brownish; tail bicolor. Total length, 

8.7 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.3 inches; hind foot, 1.26 inches. 
Found from "Yakutat Bay, north to Yukon River; limits 
of range unknown." (Preble) 

Carolinian Jumping Mouse. — Zapus hudso?iius americanus 
(Barton). 
Smaller than typical hudsonius and dorsal band less dis- 
tinct. Upperparts deep, dull ochraceous; dorsal band with 
only light admixture of black; ears dark, almost black; 
white underparts tinged with ochraceous. Total length, 

7.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 4.6 inches; hind foot, 1.12 inches. 
Found "From vicinity of Raleigh, N. C, north through 
Upper Austral Zone along coastal plain to southern Connec- 
ticut and lower Hudson Valley, intergrading in upper edge 
of its range with Z. hudsonius.'' (Preble) 

Prairie Jumping Mouse. — Zapus hudsonius campestris Preble. 
Larger and brighter colored than typical hudsonius. Upper- 
parts bright ochraceous buff, sprinkled with black; dorsal 
area well developed; tail above, dark grayish, below, yellow- 
ish white. Dorsal band and ears much darker in fall than 
in summer. Total length, 8.9 inches; tail vertebra, 5.4 
inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. Found in "Great Plains 
from Manitoba southward to Nebraska and westward to 
Colorado and Wyoming." (Preble) Plate XXXI. 

Kamloops Jumping Mouse. — Zapus tenelliis Merriam. 

Darker than typical hudsonius; larger in size; ears large. 
Upperparts (early fall pelage) olive-yellowish, thickly 
sprinkled with black; dorsal band not very well defined; 
tail sharply bicolor; dusky on nose, ears, and outer sides of 
legs. Total length, 8.3 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.1 inches; 
hind foot, i .22 inches. Found only in vicinity of Kamloops, 
British Columbia. 

Rocky Mountain Jumping Mouse. — Zapus princeps princeps 
Allen. 
Larger than hudsonius. Upperparts yellowish brown, 
lightly sprinkled with blackish; dorsal band mixed pale 
yellowish brown and black; a clear yellowish brown la- 
teral line separating white of underparts and darker color 
of sides; tail indistinctly bicolor, paler brown above, grayish 
white below; ears edged with yellowish white; underparts 
white, sometimes strongly tinged with ochraceous. Fall 

460 



JUMPING MOUSE 



pelage blacker along back and more yellow on sides. Total 
length, 9.8 inches; tail vertebras, 5.9 inches; hind foot, 1.3 
inches. Found in "Rocky Mountain region from northern 
New Mexico northward to Henry House, Alberta." (Preble) 

Saskatchewan Jumping Mouse. — Zapus princeps minor 
Preble. 
Smaller than typical princeps, dorsal band darker. Upper- 
parts yellowish brown; dorsal band with hea\'y admixture 
of black; underparts tinged with salmon. Total length, 
8.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.2 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 
Found in "Plains of Saskatchewan." (Preble) 

Blue Mountains Jumping Mouse. — Zapus princeps oregonus 
Preble. 
Sides lighter colored than in typical princeps. Upperparts 
yellowish brown, sprinkled with black, less black along back 
and on head than in typical princeps; underparts clear 
white; ears distinctly edged with whitish. Total length, 10 
inches; tail vertebrae, 6.0 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. 
Found in "Blue Mountains of Oregon." (Preble) 

Warner Mountain Jumping Mouse. — Zapus major Preble. 
Resembling princeps but larger. Upperparts ochraceous 
buff, sprinkled with black; tail indistinctly bicolor; feet 
dirty white; underparts whitish. Total length, 10.2 inches; 
tail vertebras, 6.2 inches; hind foot, 1.4 inches. Found only 
in the Warner Mountains, Lake County, Oregon. 

Nevada Jumping Mouse. — Zapus nevadensis Preble. 

"Size rather large; color light." (Preble) Sides light 
ochraceous buff lightly sprinkled with black; dorsal band 
mixed pale yellowish brown and black ; cheeks light-colored, 
almost white; underparts clear white. Total length, 9.8 
inches; tail vertebrae, 6.0 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches. 
Found only in the Ruby Mountains, Elko County, Nevada. 

Northwest Jumping Mouse. — Zapus trinotatus trinotatus 
Rhoads, 
Large in size ; bright in color. Upperparts dark ochraceous 
buff, plentifully sprinkled with black; dorsal band well de- 
fined, mixed black and dark ochraceous buff; tail sharply 
bicolor, dusky brown and yellowish white; outer sides of 
legs dusky; underparts white, frequently marked with 
fulvous. Total length, 9.9 inches; tail vertebras, 6.1 inches; 
hind foot, 1.34 inches. Found in " Coast region of southern 
British Columbia, Washington (including Cascades), 
Oregon (west of western base of Cascades), and northern 
California, south to Humboldt Bay." (Preble) 

Allen Jumping Mouse. — Zapus trinotatus alleni (Elliot). 
Paler than typical trinotatus. Upperparts pale ochraceous 
buff interspersed with black; dorsal band distinctly lighter 
in tone than in typical trinotatus; tail light grayish brown 
above, yellowish white below, often tipped with white; 
underparts white, without any fulvous. Total length, 9.6 
inches; tail vertebrae, 6.0 inches; hind foot, 1.3 inches, 

461 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



Found on "Mount Shasta and southward in the Sierra 
Nevada to Mammoth and North Fork of Kern River, 
CaHfornia." (Preble) 

Humboldt Jiunping Mouse. — Zapiis trinotatus eureka A. B. 
Howell. 
Resembling typical trinotatus but with less conspicuous 
dorsal band. Upperparts (fall) tawny olive, with little 
difference between dorsal area and sides; tail sharply bi- 
color; underparts white, washed with tawny olive. Total 
length, 9.2 inches; tail vertebras, 5.6 inches; hind feet, 1.32 
inches. Found in " Northwestern coast region of Cali- 
fornia, from Mendocino City, Mendocino County, north 
at least through Humboldt County." (Howell) 

Yellow Jumping Mouse. — Zapiis luteus luteus Miller. 

Resembling alleni but brighter and more ochraceous. 
Upperparts ochraceous buff; dorsal band not well defined. 
Total length, 9 inches; tail vertebrse, 5.5 inches; hind foot, 
1.28 inches. Found in New Mexico, in Otero, Santa Fe, 
and Taos Counties. 

Southern Jumping Mouse. — Zapus luteus australis Bailey. 
Small and slender; colors pale. "Upperparts pale buffy 
yellowish sparingly lined with black hairs; back slightly 
darker but with poorly defined dorsal area ; lower-parts pure 
white; heels dusky; feet white." (Bailey) Total length, 
8.2 inches; tail vertebrse, 5 inches; hind foot, 1.2 inches. 
Found in Socorro County, New Mexico. 

Mountain Jumping Mouse. — Zapus montanus (Merriam). 
"Smaller and duller in color than Z. trinotatus." (Preble) 
Sides dark ochraceous buff, sprinkled heavily with black; 
well-defined dorsal area of mixed dusky and yellowish; 
tail sharply bicolor, dark gray and whitish; outer side of 
hind legs dusky; feet dirty white; underparts white. Total 
length, 9.1 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.4 inches; hind foot, 1.24 
inches. Found in " Cascade Range in Oregon." (Preble) 

Coast Jumping Mouse. — Zapus orarius Preble. 

Dorsal area not sharply differentiated in color of sides. 
Upperparts dark ochraceous, sprinkled with black; dorsal 
area not well defined and with much the same tone as sides; 
ochraceous on hind legs; feet yellowish white; tail above, 
yellowish white, below, grayish; underparts white, heavily 
washed with ochraceous, color deepest on sides of throat. 
Total length, 8.8 inches; tail vertebrae, 5.1 inches: hind foot, 
1.24 inches. Found on "Coast of California from Point 
Reyes north to Mad River, Humboldt County; limits of 
range unknown." (Preble) 

Pacific Jumping Mouse. — Zapus pacificus Merriam. 

Dorsal area not well differentiated. Sides buffy yellow, 
sprinkled with black; dorsal area mixed yellowish and black, 
the former predominating; tail sharply bicolor, grayish on 
upper, white on lower side. Total length, 9 inches; tail 
vertebrse, 5.6 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. Found in 

462 



JUMPING MOUSE 



"Interior valleys of southwestern Oregon and northwestern 
California; limits of range unknown." (Preble) 
Stickeen Jumping Mouse. — Zapus saltator Allen. 

Resembling trinotatus in color but smaller. Upperparts 
(fall) yellowish, sprinkled with black; dorsal band well de- 
fined, yellowish, plentifully mixed with black; ears edged 
with yellowish; tail dusky above, gray below; underparts 
clear white. Total length, 9.8 inches; tail vertebrse, 5.6 
inches; hind foot, 1.28 inches. Found along "Telegraph 
Creek south to mouth of Skeena River and Tschimshian 
Peninsula ; limits of range unknown. ' ' (Preble) 

Genus Napaeozapus 

Dentition: Incisors, \; Canines, g ; Premolars, %; Molars, f = 16 

Distinguished from Zapus by absence of one tooth in each 
upper jaw (premolar) and by the presence of a white tip on the 
tail; otherwise color pattern is as in Zapus. 

Species and Subspecies of the Genus Napaeozapus 

Woodland Jiimping Mouse. — NapcEozapus insignis insignis 
(Miller). 
"Size rather large, larger than Zapus hudsonius, with longer 
ears and paler, more fulvous coloration. Tail tipped with 
white." (Preble) ^ Upperparts buff -yellow, lightly sprink- 
led with black, bristly hairs; color clearer on cheeks, neck, 
and narrow lateral line; dorsal band with black predominat- 
ing, well defined; tail sharply bicolor, dark brown above, 
white below, tip white above and below; feet white; under- 
parts white. Total length, 9.5 inches; tail vertebrae 5.8 
inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. Found in "Canadian Zone 
in eastern Canada and south to western Maryland." 
(Preble) 

Roan Mountain Jumping Mouse. — Napceozapus insignis 
roanensis (Preble). 
Smaller than typical insignis and darker. "Sides bright 
tawny ochraceous; entire upperparts, including ears, con- 
siderably darker than in typical Z. iiisignis. Beneath, pure 
white; amount of white on tail averaging less than in Z. 
insignis.'* (Preble) Total length, 8.8 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 5.2 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. Found only on 
Roan Mountain, Mitchell County, North Carolina. 

Northern Woodland Jumping Mouse. — Napceozapus insignis 
ahietoruni (Preble). 
"Larger than typical Z. insignis, with shorter ears and 
peculiar skull. . . . Apparently not distinguishable from 
Z. insignis'' in color. Total length, 10.2 inches; tail verte- 
brae, 6.4 inches; hind foot, 1.32 inches. Found "Probably 

463 



FIELD BOOK OF MAMMALS 



throughout Hudsonian Zone in eastern Canada; Hmits of 
range unknown." (Preble) 
Jackson Jumping Mouse. — Napceozapus insignis frutectanus 
Jackson. 
Resembling typical insignis in size but differing in color. 
Sides clay color sparingly mixed with black; dorsal band 
clay color with heayy mixture of black; ears edged with 
pinkish buff; nose and face dusky; tail bicolor, olive-brown 
and white, white tip nearly an inch long; underparts 
creamy white. Total length, 9.4 inches; tail vertebrae, 
5.8 inches; hind foot, 1.24 inches. Found in Oneida and 
Oconto Counties, Wisconsin, 



The Jumping Mouse is readily recognized by its long slender 
tail and tawny or ochraceous color. The only other rodents 
with such leaping modifications, namely, long hind legs and 
elongate tail, are the Pocket Rats which, as their name im- 
plies, may be known by their external cheek-pockets. In 
addition, these latter rodents are much larger an