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Full text of "Field Museum news"

News 



Pvblished Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



JANUARY, 1935 



No. 1 



NEW TAXIDERMY METHOD APPLIED TO CASSOWARY PRESERVES LIFE COLORS 



By Karl P. Schmidt 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles 

A new specimen of the large flightless bird 
called the cassowary was recently placed on 
exhibition in the systematic collection of 
birds in Hall 21. It is of especial interest 
because of the use of the so-called "celluloid" 
method in its preparation 
which renders its highly 
colored naked parts in veri- 
similitude to life. 

Cassowaries differ con- 
spicuously from the other 
large flightless birds by the 
development of a horny 
casque on the head, and by 
the presence of brightly 
colored wattles and exten- 
sive areas of brilliantly col- 
ored bare skin on the neck, 
as well as in various other 
anatomical characters. Their 
nearest relatives are the 
emus of the Australian 
plains; and they are more 
distantly related to the 
African ostriches and South 
American rheas. The casso- 
waries are forest inhabitants, 
and share with other forest 
birds the tendency (especially 
exemplified by the birds of 
the New Guinean region) to 
brilliant coloration. The 
specimen now placed on 
exhibition belongs to a 
species confined to the island 
of Jobi, off the coast of north- 
western New Guinea. 

Other specimens of casso- 
waries in Field Museum were 
collected by the Cornelius 
Crane Pacific Expedition in 
1929, and some are preserved 
in the reference collection. 
One of these was a half- 
grown bird, obtained at 
Madang, New Guinea. Its 
flesh was eaten by the party 
and crew on Mr. Crane's 
yacht, Illyria, and it proved 
to be of extremely good flavor, somewhat 
intermediate in character between fowl and 
beef. 

These birds are much hunted by the native 
Papuans for food, and there is even a word 
for cassowary, "mooruk," in their "pidgin 
English," all other birds being known 
simply as "pigeons." A full-grown speci- 
men obtained from native hunters by the 
Museum party at Marienberg, on the Sepik 



River, was skinned and preserved. The 
brightly colored fleshy wattles on the neck, 
and the horny casque filled with spongy 
bony tissue, were especially difficult to 
preserve in the humid tropical climate. In 
the dried skin now in the collection, these 
structures have lost every vestige of their 




The Cassowary 

Strange flightless bird of the New Guinean region, exhibited in Hall 21. The head and the 
legs are reproduced in cellulose-acetate, representing the first use on a bird of this new taxidermy 
method developed in recent years for work on reptiles and hairless mammals. Staff Taxidermist 
Leon L. Walters, originator of the process, and Edgar G. Laybourne, prepared the specimen. 



brilliant coloration and the horny layers 
of the casque have split so as to lose their 
natural translucence. 

It was such difficulties that made the 
acquisition of a fresh full-grown specimen 
in the flesh by the Museum an especially 
notable event in bird taxidermy, since such 
a specimen could be converted by the 
application of the unique celluloid process 
invented by Leon L. Walters of Field 



Museum's taxidermy staff, into an exhibit 
which really presents the natural appear- 
ance of one of these extraordinary birds. 
The Walters process consists in an exact 
reproduction in cellulose-acetate of the outer 
layers of skin or horn in question, and this 
is made in a mold from the original animal. 
By the admixture of the 
proper pigments in the dis- 
solved cellulose-acetate, the 
coloration is exactly repro- 
duced, and as the pigment is 
distributed in a translucent 
medium, the degree of trans- 
lucence can be controlled to 
represent exactly the con- 
dition of the living original. 
Since, furthermore, the 
colored cellulose-acetate cast 
is finished when it is taken 
from the mold, and requires 
no additional painting, the 
surface detail of the original 
is retained without loss. 

In the case of the casso- 
wary in question, molds were 
made of the head and neck 
and of the legs and feet, and 
the cellulose-acetate replicas 
of these parts were assembled 
with the original skin of the 
body. The feathers on parts 
of the head and neck were 
transferred to the new cel- 
lulose-acetate "skin" by the 
simple but extremely ingeni- 
ous process of embedding 
them in the wax mold until 
their bases were held in the 
newly applied cellulose- 
acetate layer which consti- 
tutes the cast. Subsequently 
the wax was removed. This 
transfers each feather to the 
new material in exactly its 
original position. 

"The application of cellu- 
loid-like materials in mu- 
seum preparation was 
developed by Mr. Walters 
to meet the problem of mak- 
ing life-like models of reptiles and am- 
phibians. It has proved equally satisfactory 
in the production of exhibition specimens of 
hairless and thin-haired mammals, and is 
now applied for the first time to a large bird. 
Field Museum is indebted to Floyd S. 
Young, Superintendent of the Lincoln 
Park Zoological Gardens, for the gift of 
the cassowary, which had been in captivity 
in the park for several years. 



CHINESE DINNER SERVICE 

A recent addition to the Chinese ethno- 
logical exhibits in Hall 32 consists of a 
complete dinner set for eight persons, which 
includes one hundred and fifty pieces. The 
exhibit shows all the utensils used by the 
Chinese in taking their meals at home or 
giving a formal dinner party. Each person 
is provided with a teacup, a rice bowl, a 
soup bowl, and a small dish of condiments. 
The heavy courses are served in various 



large bowls, four or five of which are placed 
on the table at a time, and from which each 
guest helps himself by dipping from them 
with his chopsticks. 

It is a noteworthy fact that most nations 
of Asia still eat with their fingers, and the 
Chinese were the first who introduced good 
table manners by the invention and use of 
chopsticks. 

A wide variety of chopsticks is displayed, 
made of various materials such as ivory, 



bone, bamboo, wood plain or lacquered, 
horn, and silver. Scabbards to hold these, 
and knives, used by travelers, are also ex- 
hibited. A special silver pair of chopsticks, 
connected by a chain, are symbolical, being 
used by a bride and groom on their wedding 
day. 

Albino birds and mammals of many 
species constitute a special exhibit in the 
Department of Zoology. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



January, 19S5 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewell L. Avery 
John Borden 
WiLUAM J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Sihms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spragub 
Silas H. Strawn 
L es lie Wheeler 
Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field PresiderU 

Albert A. Sprague First Vice-President 

Jambs Simpson Second Vice-Prendent 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith. . .Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols . Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
April, September, October 9 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Miweum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is induded with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residenta of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the \luseum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



NORTH AMERICAN BIRD SERIES 
IN HALL 21 COMPLETED 

With the installation recently of a new 
exhibit of cuckoos, parrots, whip-poor-wills, 
hummingbirds, swifts, kingfishers, and their 
relatives, the systematic collection of North 
American birds in Hall 21 has been com- 
pleted. The hall now has on display every 
important species of bird found in North 
America north of the Rio Grande River — 
an aggregate of more than 700 species, 
according to Rudyerd Boulton, Assistant 
Curator of Birds. Preparation of the series 
has been under way steadily for the past 
nine years. Mounting of the birds has 
practically all been the work of one man. 
Staff Taxidermist Ashley Hine, and it is 
the only comprehensive collection of its kind 
in the country which can thus be designated 
as a "one-man show." 

The last addition contains forty-four 
specimens, including a number of rare and 
unusual birds. Among them is the extinct 
Carolina paroquet which formerly was 
found at times in Illinois; the ruby-throated 
hummingbird which is still seen in Chicago, 
and ten of its relatives of the far southwest; 
and the night hawk (which is not really a 
hawk, but a whip-poor-will) that frequently 
hovers over buildings in Chicago in summer. 
Of interest is the road-runner, a pheasant- 
like bird of the cuckoo family which is 
famed in the southwest where, it is said, 
it can outdistance a horse as a runner. 



EXTENSIVE DATA ON RACES 
COLLECTED BY EXPEDITION 

The Field Museum Anthropological Ex- 
pedition to the Near East, sponsored by 
Marshall Field, last month concluded its 
work for 1934 consisting of an anthro- 
pometric survey of the native population 
of Iraq, and similar studies in Persia and 
the Caucasus region of the U. S. S. R. 

The leader of the expedition, Henry Field, 
Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology, 
has returned to his post in the Museum, 
ready to begin the task of assembling and 
studying the data collected, which has for 
its purpose an attempt to solve certain 
racial problems. One of the objectives is 
to determine the relationship of the peoples 
of the Near East, both those of today and 
their ancient ancestors, to the modern and 
ancient peoples of Africa, Europe and Asia. 
This is a question of great scientific import- 
ance into which no satisfactory research has 
previously been made. 

The work of the expedition covered a 
period of ten months, during which 17,000 
miles were traveled, and 3,000 persons were 
submitted to studies, consisting of anthro- 
pometric measurements and observations, 
the taking of front and profile photographs, 
hair samples, blood samples, and other data 
pertinent to tracing their racial origins. In 
addition to its anthropological work, the 
expedition collected 3,000 animals, 1,000 
insects, 2,600 plants, and a quantity of 
geological material, for the Museum's de- 
partments of zoology, botany and geology. 

Mr. Field was accompanied by Richard A. 
Martin of Chicago, who as photographer 
made 7,000 negatives, and in addition col- 
lected the zoological material, as well as 
assisting the leader in the anthropological 
work. The anthropological work was a 
continuation of the survey begun by Mr. 
Reld in 1925. As many as twelve assistants 
were attached to the expedition at various 
points for local work. 

The anthropological studies were made 
upon selected subjects from each of the 
important racial groups. Of special interest 



in Iraq were the Kurds, fierce-looking moun- 
tain tribesmen, of whom 750 submitted to 
the anthropologists' calipers and cameras, 
and the Yezidis, fanatical devil worshipers, 
300 of whom cooperated by acting as scien- 
tific specimens. Forty separate measure- 
ments and observations were made on each 
individual. Living in tents as guests of 
Sheikh Agil, great desert chieftain of the 
Shammar Beduins, the members of the 
expedition were enabled to measure 450 
members of his tribe. 

The expedition made an archaeological 
survey of the North Arabian Desert, crossing 
from Bagdad to Trans-Jordan Palestine and 
Syria, and thence returning to Iraq. During 
this trip a large number of prehistoric fiint 
implements testifying to the existence of 
early man in this area were collected. 

After five months in these areas, the 
expedition proceeded to Persia, where 
anthropological studies were made of some 
250 individuals. After completing its work 
in that country, the expedition entered the 
U. S. S. R. at Baku, and traveled through 
the Caucasus to Kiev, Moscow and Lenin- 
grad. In the mountains of the Caucasus 
some 200 men and women were studied. 

The expedition, Mr. Field reports, was 
greatly assisted by the full cooperation and 
courtesy extended by the governments of 
Iraq, Persia and the U. S. S. R., and by 
scientists and scientific institutions in those 
countries and elsewhere. 



Stock Show Brings Museum Visitors 

As a result of the thousands of visitors 
attracted to Chicago last month by the 
International Live Stock Exposition, held 
December 1 to 8, a large additional attend- 
ance was received at the Museum. Besides 
the many persons from out-of town who 
visited the Museum independently, two 
large groups of children were brought to 
the Museum under the auspices of the 
Four-H Clubs, an organization promoting 
the interests of young people on farms. 
Five hundred and forty girls came to the 
Museum in one group, and 646 boys in 
another. Of special interest to these visitors 
were the sculptures by Herbert Haseltine 
of British champion domestic animals, 
presented to the Museum by Marshall 
Field, and recently placed on exhibition in 
Hall 12. These afforded a basis for com- 
parison of the prize American animals at 
the Live Stock Exposition with the types of 
horses, beef and dairy animals, sheep, and 
pigs produced by breeders overseas. 



Gifts to Library 

The Museum Library has been favored 
by the gift of volume 3 of Les Peintures 
Rupestres Schematiques de la Peninsule 
Iberique by M. I'Abbe Henri Breuil. This 
work, presented by the author, is of great 
assistance to members of the staff. 

Mrs. Mae EUena Bachler presented Ency- 
clopedic Outline of the Masonic, Hermetic, 
Qabbalistic and Rosicrueian Symbolic PW- 
(osop/ij/byManlyP. Hall. This was published 
in a limited edition and the Library is 
fortunate to receive a copy. 

Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of 
Reptiles, presented his attractive and 
interesting Homes and Habits of Wild 
Animals. 

There have been also the following addi- 
tions: Murdock, Our Primitive Contem- 
poraries; Lowie, An Introduction to Cultural 
Anthropology; Lockwood, Story of th£ Spanish 
Missions of the Middle Southwest; Spencer, 
Wanderings in Wild Australia; Parry, The 
Lakhers. 



January, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



THE AGE AND SOURCE 
OF METEORITES 

By Sharat K. Roy 
Assistant Curator of Geology 

Comparative studies of the structure and 
composition of meteorites with those of 
terrestrial igneous rocks have led students 
of meteoritics to believe that meteorites 
are also of igneous origin. Fires glowing 
in cosmic furnaces of some sort gave the 
meteorites the physical and chemical charac- 
ters which they present to us. Little, how- 
ever, is known of the point of origin of these 
wanderers in space. Various hypotheses, 
naming the sun, the moon, comets, earth's 
volcanoes, and shattered planetoids, have 
been put forward as a possible source, but 
none have withstood critical analysis. 

Of late, a new method of approach for a 
more acceptable explanation of the source 
of meteorites has been tried and, although 
found promising, it has, like all pioneer 
work, many difficulties to overcome. This 
approach is based on the assumption that 
if meteorites are disintegrated portions of 
our solar system, their age cannot be greater 
than that of the solar system. Starting with 
this assumption, age values for a number of 
meteorites have been determined. 

The age of meteorites is calculated by the 
radioactive method — that is, by calculating 
the helium and radium contents of the 
meteorites. Both helium and radium are 
disintegration products of uranium, and the 
rate of accumulation of both is known. 
Roughly, it takes about 370 million years 
for 5 per cent of a quantity of uranium to 
change into helium and other elements. 
Obviously, however, the radioactive method 
of age determination of meteorites is appli- 
cable only to those which contain radioactive 
minerals. 

So far the radioactivity and helium con- 
tent of 23 meteorites have been determined. 
The age values of these range from less 
than 100 to 2,900 million years. Noteworthy 
is the fact that not one of these age values 
is in excess of what is generally accepted 
to be the age of the earth. True, no 
terrestrial mineral has yet been found to 
be older than 1,800 million years, but it 
must be taken into consideration that the 
oldest analyzable mineral still remains 
to be discovered. Most geologists and 
investigators in the field of radioactivity 
believe that when the oldest radioactive 
mineral is found, the age of the earth will 
have to be raised to 3,000 million years or 
more. Granting that to be the case, the 
solidification date of the meteorites so far 
studied accords well with the assumption 
that they may have migrated from our 
solar system rather than from distant 
celestial bodies. 

Field Museum, whith houses the largest 
representative collection of meteorites in the 
world, has representatives of 14 of the 23 
meteorites whose ages have been determined. 
They may be seen on the west side of Hall 
34. Two tubes of glowing helium, one 
in a fluorescent tube of uranium glass, and 
the other in a plain tube, may also be seen 
in the case of rare gases on the wall of the 
corridor between Hall 36 and Hall 37. 



"Traveler's Tree" 

In Madagascar there grows a peculiar 
plant called the "traveler's tree." It is so 
named because water with which a thirsty 
wanderer can revive himself is said to be 
found in its large sheathing leaf bases. It 
is the only member of the banana family 
with a woody trunk. A specimen fruit 
cluster is displayed in the Hall of Plant Life 
(Hall 29). 



Specimens of American Potash 

The important new potash discoveries 
in Texas and New Mexico are now repre- 
sented in the Museum by large blocks of 
the salts mined in Carlsbad, New Mexico, 
and presented to the Museum by the United 
States Potash Company. They resemble 
the potash salts mined in Stassfurt, Ger- 
many, which have been for many years the 
most important source of the world's potash. 
The American specimens are shown in 
Frederick J. V. Skiff Hall (Hall 37) in the 
case with the German specimens. 



Damage by Meteorite 

In the meteorite collection in Hall 34 
there is a portion of the floor of a barn 
from Kilbourn, Wisconsin, which was broken 
in 1911 by the impact of a meteorite which 
had penetrated the roof of the building. 
A cast of the meteorite which caused the 
damage is placed in the hole in the floor 
and a slice of the actual meteorite appears 
near-by. This is one of the few instances — 
eight or possibly a few more are recorded — 
of a meteorite actually damaging a building. 



TRIAL BY ORDEAL IN AFRICA 

Trial by ordeal, with a cup of poison to 
determine the guilt or innocence of a person 
accused of theft, witchcraft, or other crimes, 
is still prevalent among certain African 
tribes. In the hall of African ethnology 
(Hall D) are exhibited examples of the 
poison cup, and of the poisons, used in such 
trials by the Ovimbundu people of west 
Africa. 

It is said that the medicine man secretly 
makes up his own mind in advance as to 
the guilt or innocence of the accused, and 
thus controls the result, mixing his con- 
coction of poisonous herbs to produce the 
effect he desires. If the accused suffers 
from the poison he is adjudged gjuilty, and 
is either allowed to die of the poison itself, 
or is beaten to death. If he is innocent this 
fact is established by his stomach's rejection 
of the poison, which may be brought about 
by the medicine man according to the 
mixture he administers. This is but one of 
a number of similar ordeals used in the 
dispensing of what the African tribesmen 
are compelled to accept as justice. 



LAMA TEMPLE BELL FROM TIBET IS EXHIBITED IN HALL 32 



A large cast iron bell from a Lama temple 
in Tibet is on exhibition among the Oriental 
ethnological exhibits in Hall 32. Recently 
reinstalled, this intricately ornamented bell 
hangs in a heavy wooden frame. Combined 
with the frame is a sounding apparatus 
consisting of a suspended heavy timber 
resembling a battering ram in design, 
with which the side of the bell could be 



near Taochow, Kansu province. It was 
obtained for the Museum by the Blackstone 
Expedition to China and Tibet (1908-10), 
under the leadership of the late Dr. Berthold 
Laufer. 

The bell is decorated with eight trigrams 
formerly used for purposes of divination; 
with chrysanthemum flowers, and with 
dragons playing with a pearl — symbol of 




Lama Temple Bell 

Cast in 1762, this iron bell hung for many years in a Tibetan temple. It is now exhibited in Hall 32. 



struck. The bell, when it was in use, 
produced a note of pleasing tone and great 
volume. 

This bell was cast in 1762 (the K'ien- 
lung period) by a Chinese artisan named 
Li Yen-ch'un. It weighs 196 pounds. For 
many years it hung in the Lama temple 



an unattainable ideal. Two dragon heads 
joined together form the outside of the 
bearing upon which the bell swings on its 
axis. On three panels on the surface of the 
main part of the bell are, in high relief, 
the three stanzas of a Buddhist poem, in 
the Tibetan language. 



Pagei 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



January, 19S5 



LACQUERED VESSELS FROM PERU 

By J. Eric Thompson 

Assistant Curator of Central and 

South American Archaeology 

Although lac resin, derived from the secre- 
tion of an insect, was unknown to the ancient 
inhabitants of South America, the Peruvians 
painted wooden vessels in a manner resem- 
bling the lacquer work of the Orient. PYom 
finds in ancient graves it is known that this 
technique of wood painting had been 
mastered in Peru before the arrival of the 
Spaniards, but the majority of the wooden 
vessels of this type that have survived were 
made shortly after the Spanish conquest 
in the sixteenth century. 

A fine collection of twenty examples of 
this technique was recently placed on exhibi- 
tion in Stanley Field Hall. The exhibit is 
dominated by a stool supported by two 
realistic lacquered jaguars. A few of the 
designs on the vessels represent scenes from 
life. One depicts a battle fought in the 
forest, the trees of which are conventionally 
represented. The Peruvians can be recog- 
nized by their clubs and their costumes, 
which include typical semi-circular head- 
dresses. The enemy is attacking them with 
bows and arrows, weapons not used by the 
ancient Peruvians. It is probable that the 
scene represents an actual Battle, for shortly 
before the arrival of the Spaniards the army 
of the Inca made an unsuccessful attempt 
to subdue the Chiriguanos, a tribe of Indians 
who inhabited the region east of the Andes, 
and who used the bow and arrow. 

Another scene shows Peruvians armed 
with axes and slings, but most of the vessels 
are painted with geometric and floral 
patterns. The former are certainly of Incan 
origin, but the latter may possibly owe 
something to Spanish influences. 

Two of the jars are shaped as human 
heads. It is probable that these, as well 
as the cylindrical vessels, were used to 
hold chicha, the maize beer of the ancient 
peoples of the Andes. 



LIQUORS MADE BY MANY PEOPLES 
INCLUDED IN EXHIBIT 

By Iaewelyn Williams 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany 

Stimulating beverages produced by the 
fermentation of fruit juices, plant sap, or 
other plant material have been known for 
ages to mankind in all parts of the world. 
Palm sap drawn off into a vessel ferments 
almost immediately and becomes palm wine. 
Likewise, the juice of the Mexican century 
plant becomes "pulque." The juices of 
fruits of all kinds have the same property. 

Under ordinary conditions of heat and 
moisture, certain ferments universally pres- 
ent in fruit juices act to convert solutions 
of sugars into alcohol. This was undoubtedly 
discovered very early in the history of man, 
probably prior to the discovery that stimu- 
lating drinks may be made also from all 
kinds of starchy plant material. In these 
the starches are first converted into sugars, 
and subsequently into alcohol. In regions 
where commercial beverages are unknown, 
the natives prepare fermented liquors from 
starchy plant material. The Indians of 
South America chew up and ferment cassava 
roots to produce "piwarri," while the 
inhabitants of the Peruvian Andes ferment 
plantains and bananas for "chicha." In 
the South Sea Islands the stems and roots 
of a pepper plant form the source of a potent 
beverage, "awa." Grapes were grown for 
the production of wine in the Near East 
long before the Christian era. The ancient 
Teutons used honey as a source of sugar 



from which to brew their mead. Beer is 
by no means modern, for the ancient Egyp- 
tians thousands of years ago were familiar 
with its manufacture from barley. 

The stimulating or intoxicating properties 
of all fermented beverages are, of course, 
due to their alcoholic content. By fermenta- 
tion alone this cannot be increased beyond 
a certain point, no matter how high the 
sugar content, as concentration of alcohol 
inhibits further conversion of sugar. 

When a higher alcoholic content is desired 
it is obtained by distillation of the fermented 
beverage. This well-known process consists 
in vaporizing the liquid by boiling and 
subsequently reconverting the vapor into 
liquid by cooling in some form of condenser. 
The process appears to have been known 
even to very early experimentalists. The 
Chinese were familiar with it many hundreds 
of years before its introduction into Europe; 
the Arabians discovered a number of 
essential oils by distilling plants, plant 
juices, and alcohol from wine. 

The plant materials employed for the 
production of distilled liquors are the same 
as in the manufacture of fermented 
beverages. The fermentation, however, is 
carried to the fullest extent and the product 
is distilled several times to yield a beverage 
with a higher alcoholic content. 

An exhibit of fermented and distilled 
beverages from many parts of the world has 
been installed with vegetable food products 
in Hall 25, Department of Botany. In 
addition to the usual beverages, the exhibit 
includes such fermented liquors as "piwarri" 
from the Guianas, "chicha" from Peru, 
"toddy" or palm wine from India, "pulque" 
from Mexico, "awa" from Polynesia, and 
"perry" from Europe. Distilled liquors in- 
clude "sake" and "arrack" from the Far 
East, and "tequila" from Mexico. With 
each there is shown some of the plant ma- 
terial from which the beverage is produced. 



FOSSIL FISHES 

By Elmer S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Fossil fishes of many kinds are exhibited 
in the Museum collections. They are found 
quite commonly all over the world. Most 
of them are found in old sea or lake bottoms, 
some in old channels of streams. The 
natural chalk which has formed at the 
bottom of seas offered favorable conditions 
for their preservation. Such chalk-beds are 
found in western Kansas, in England, 
France, Syria and in other localities widely 
distributed. The chalk-beds of Kansas are 
the best known in North America. In 
them are found skeletons of fishes of many 
species along with those of swimming and 
flying reptiles. Some of these fishes, notably 
the great Portheus molossus, reached a 
length of twelve or fourteen feet. They 
lived in the old Cretaceous sea which 
flowed over the region now known as the 
Great Plains, 90 million years ago. 

Another locality famous for beautifully 
preserved fish skeletons is the Eocene lake 
bed at Green River, Wyoming. The sedi- 
ments which accumulated at the bottom 
of this lake have formed ledges of fine- 
grained shales. These shales are readily 
split into thin slabs and reveal the skeletons 
and body outlines of the fish beautifully 
preserved. By carefully cutting away the 
rock from about them, the skeletons of the 
fish are revealed in structural detail. 

A fine series of these Green River fishes 
is exhibited in Ernest R. Graham Hall 
(Hall 38). They include fishes closely 
related to modern perch, herring and gar pike. 



JANUARY GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 P.M., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
January: 

Week beginning December 31: Monday — Animal 
Groups; Tuesday — New Year's holiday — no tour; 
Wednesday — Plants and Animals of the Past; Thurs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Asiatic Animal Life. 

Week beginning January 7: Monday — Peoples of 
the South Seas; Tuesday — North American Trees and 
Wood Products; Wednraday — American Archaeology; 
Thursday — General Tour; Friday — Birds and Their 
Skeletons. 

Week beginning January 14: Monday — Gems and 
Precious Stones; Tuesday — Interesting Plants and 
Their Blossoms; Wednesday — Pueblo Indians; Thtirs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Egypt and Its Art. 

Week beginning January 21: Monday — Cats and 
Dogs; Tuesday — Uses of Fibers, Barks and Resins; 
Wednesday — Pewter and Jade; Thursday — General 
Tour; Friday — Men of the Stone Age. 

Week beginning January 28: Monday — Fish and 
Reptiles; Tuesday — Story of Coal; Wednesday — 
Tibetan Exhibits; Thursday — General Tour. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Mrs. M. E. L. Gann — 2 strings of Russian 
glass trade beads, Alaska; from Miss Helen B. Bennett 
— 25 stone artifacts, Arkansas; from Mrs. Frank S. 
Johnson — a Chinese Mandarin coat; from .\llyn D. 
Warren — a large carved wooden figtire of Vishnu 
riding on Garuda, Dutch East Indies; from School of 
Forestry, Yale University — 100 herbarium specimens, 
Colombia; from Professor Martin C&rdenas — 85 her- 
barium specimens, Bolivia; from George L. Fisher — 
136 herbarium specimens, Texas; from Messrs. Floyd 
Markham, J. Mann, A. Lee, and Sharat K. Roy — 21 
invertebrate fossil specimens, Illinois; from The Alaska 
Museum — 32 mineral and ore specimens, .\laska; from 
John A. Manley — 2 limonite geodes. New Jersey; from 
C. A. Frazier — a diamond-back rattlesnake, Florida; 
from F. E. Holley^^2 insects, Illinois, Indiana, and 
Panama; from Donald K. Watson — 5 beetles, Texas; 
from John G. Shedd Aquarium — 53 fish specimens; 
from Leslie Wheeler — a red-tailed hawk, Illinois; from 
Ben Cascard — 9 beetles, California; from H. St. J. 
Philby — 1,043 insects and allies, .\rabia; from Chicago 
Zoological Society — 2 bower birds, Illinois; from John 
F. Jennings — 796 negatives of photographs taken on 
Straus-West African Expedition. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from November 16 to December 15: 

Associate Members 

Samuel O. Dunn. Harold Engstrom, Mrs, W. R. 
Hodgkinson, Mrs. Bryan . Lathrop, Mrs. Walter A. 
Strong. 

Sustaining Members . 

William D. Cox 

Annual Members 

Mrs. Walter Ayer, Mrs. Ronald A. Chinnock, Mrs. 

George L. Cragg, Mrs. Henry Elfborg, Dwight W. 

Follett, Mrs. David A. Hyman, Solomon Katz, E. B. 

Lanman. C. W. Noble, Dr. John R. Pontius, Mrs. 

R. E. Prussing, Mrs. G. William Reynolds, Charies 

F. Schramm, Clarence P. Scofield, Miss Dorothy 

Sears, Albert B. Singer, Mrs. George E. Van Hagen, 

N. C. Webster, Miss E. Lillian Wiersen. 



A relief model of a volcanic island, illus- 
trating the principal features of such islands, 
is on exhibition in Clarence Buckingham 
Hall (Hall 35). 

The huge skeleton of a right whale, so 
called because it is the type whalers regard 
as the kind to pursue, is an interesting 
feature in Hall 19. 

PRINTED BY FIELD MUSEUM PRESS 




SiiiNews 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



FEBRUARY, 1935 



No. 2 



NORTHERN ISLAND "BIRD CITY" 

SHOWN IN HABITAT GROUP 

By Rudyerd Boulton 
Assistant Curator of Birds 

On a tiny island in Bering Sea, there 
exists one of the most populous "bird cities" 
in the world. Walrus Island, the smallest 
of the four islands that form the Pribilof 
group, is this metropolis. The Pribilof 
Islands lie north of the Aleutians and are 
about three hundred miles from the nearest 
land. To this refuge, 
safe from predatory 
land animals, about 
nine million birds 
annually resort to 
rear their young. _ 

It is characteristic ,^^ 
of most colonial nest- 
ing sea-birds to use 
islands or inaccessible 
cliffs during the nest- 
ing season. Isolation 
is their only defense 
from four-footed 
enemies. St. Paul 
and St. George islands, 
about 60 square miles 
in area, are much 
larger than Walrus, 
which is only 40 acres 
in extent. They sup- 
port great numbers of 
Arctic foxes as well as 
the huge fur-seal herds 
for which the Pribilofs 
are especially famous. 
Walrus Island, being 
an isolated bare rock, 
is much more attrac- 
tive from the birds' 
point of view. 

There has recently 
been reinstalled in 
Hall 20 of the Mu- 
seum a habitat group 
showing a section of a 

colony on Walrus Habitat group in Hall 

Island, in which are Sea. where they are isolated 

seen several species of 

birds, together with their nests, their eggs, 
and their young. The addition of new 
specimens and the complete revision of the 
exhibit have resulted in decided improve- 
ments as compared to the group as it 
formerly was assembled. Staff Taxidermist 
Leon L. Pray, assisted by Frank Letl, pre- 
pared the group. The background was 
painted by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 
One of the most abundant birds on Walrus 
Island is Pallas' murre, western representa- 
tive of the better-known Brunnich's murre 
of the Labrador coast. Murres are highly 
gregarious birds, especially during the nest- 
ing season. They crowd together in huge 
companies, yet the rights of individuals are 
strictly preserved. If an intruder trespasses 
on the few square feet which each murre 
family regards as its own home and personal 
property, a fierce battle invariably results. 
Biting and buffeting with wings, the 
combatants roll and tumble, creating disorder 
and dismay among their neighbors. So 
intent are they in the conflict that not 
infrequently they roll off the cliff and, still 



fighting as they fall, are dashed to death on 
the rocks beneath their nesting ledges. 

Murres build no nest whatever, laying 
their eggs on the bare rock. Large gulls 
often steal and eat the murres' eggs when 
they find them unprotected. The eggs are 
pear-shaped so that when disturbed they 
roll in a small circle. This curious adapta- 
tion doubtless prevents many eggs from 
rolling off the cliffs during the frequent 
battles or because of the somewhat awkward 




Bird Life of Walrus Island 
20 showing murres and other birds which flock by millions to a refuge in the Bering 
from predatory mammals. 



movements of the adults. Although per- 
fectly applicable to these birds, which are 
members of the auk family, the word 
"awkward" is not derived from the name of 
the bird, auk, as is often supposed. 

Another relative, the California murre, is 
less common on Walrus Island than Pallas' 
murre. It is not shown in the group. The 
two species do not intermingle. 

While the murres are the outstanding 
citizens of the island, there are other less 
numerous but no less interesting nesting 
birds. All of the twelve species known to 
breed there are sea-birds. The area of 
scanty grass in the center of the island is so 
occupied with nests of the glaucous gull that 
no land bird ever has the temerity to intrude. 
Besides the red-faced cormorant, glaucous- 
winged gull. Pacific kittiwake, and horned 
puffin which are shown in the group, the 
regular breeding birds include the tufted 
puffin, the crested paroquet, the least auk- 
lets, and the red-legged kittiwake. The 
group is a gift to the Museum from 
President Stanley Field, 



OLDEST PRINTING BLOCKS 
IN WORLD EXHIBITED 

The oldest printing blocks in existence 
anywhere in the world are on exhibition in 
a collection of bamboo, root, and wood 
carvings from China in George T. and 
Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). The 
blocks are engraved with floral designs and 
must have been made before the year a.d. 
1108. They were found in the ancient city 
of Chu-lu in the southern part of the prov- 
ince of Chi-li. This 
city, excavated by 
archaeologists in re- 
cent years, was sub- 
merged by a flood in 
1108. 

The Chinese are the 
inventors of block- 
printing, and, in fact, 
of all the essentials for 
printing — paper, writ- 
ing brush, ink, and 
ink-pallet or inkstone. 
They invented and 
perfected these en- 
tirely from their own 
resources, unaided by 
any other nation. 
Paper was invented 
and manufactured in 
China as early as A.D. 
105. Under the Sung 
dynasty (A.D. 960- 
1279), the printing of 
books from wooden 
blocks was a flourish- 
ing art. The manu- 
facture of paper 
remained a Chinese 
monopoly until A.D. 
751 when the tech- 
nique was introduced 
into Samarkand by 
Chinese captives of an 
invading Arab force. 
This led to the sub- 
stitution of paper for 
papyrus throughout 
the Arab dominions, 
the importation of paper into Europe, and 
finally the establishment of the first Euro- 
pean paper-mill in Italy. 

Paper money was first printed and cir- 
culated in China. Wall-paper, much of it 
made from printing blocks such as are 
displayed at the museum, is another Chinese 
invention. The Chinese were the first 
people to print books, many centuries before 
Gutenberg, and they were also the first to 
conceive the idea of the printed daily news- 
paper. The Peking Gazette {Ching Pao) 
began to appear in A.D. 71-3, and was issued 
daily until the collapse of the Manchu 
dynasty in 1911. 



New Guidebook Published 

The seventeenth edition of the General 
Guide to the exhibits has just been published 
by Field Museum Press. It has been 
thoroughly revised so as to cover all impor- 
tant changes made in the exhibits. Copies 
are sold at 15 cents each, plus 3 cents for 
postage if ordered by mail. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



February, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewell L. Avery 
John Borden 
WnxiAM J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCobmick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 
Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Albert A. Sprague Firai Vice-President 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. 
April, September, October 9 a.m. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
Jldults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays: non-membera pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Mu.seum'8 natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foimdation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate. Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



WITH DUE APPRECIATION 
TO MUSEUM MEMBERS 

Field Museum is especially indebted to 
its Members for the manner in which they 
have loyally supported it during the past 
few years of depression. While for several 
years there was a rather serious decline in 
the number of persons on the Museum's 
membership rolls, this seems to have been 
almost completely arrested during 1934. 
Much encouragement is found in the fact 
that the net loss of Members in 1934 was 
only 57, as compared to losses of 320 in 
1933, 819 in 1932, and 702 in 1931. The 
total number of members is still well above 
4,000. 

The indications are that a turning point 
may at last have been reached — that there 
is now hope that the number of Members 
will begin to increase. To all those who 
have retained their memberships during the 
years of difficulty the deepest appreciation 
is due, and the hope is expressed that they 
may continue their association with this 
institution. To those who for one reason 
or another felt compelled to cancel their 
memberships, an invitation is extended to 
renew their connection with the Museum 
whenever it may be possible. To any 
Members having acquaintances who might 
be interested in becoming Members an 
urgent appeal is made that they propose 
the names of such friends to the Museum. 
The contributions received in the form of 
membership fees are an important item in 
the Museum's revenues. A larger member- 
ship giving the institution support in this 
manner is very much needed to aid in solu- 
tion of the financial problems involved in 
maintaining the institution's high standards 
of service in educational work and scientific 
research. 

— Stephen C. Simms, Director 



SERVICES OF RELIEF WORKERS 
BENEFIT FIELD MUSEUM 

Since the latter part of 1933, museums 
and other institutions of civic character 
throughout the country have been cooperat- 
ing with the various relief agencies of the 
federal government and the states in provid- 
ing useful employment for large numbers 
of the persons being assisted by those 
agencies. 

At the invitation of the Illinois Emergency 
Relief Commission, Field Museum became 
one of the institutions participating in the 
"work relief" plans. As a result, during 
1934, and the last month of 1933, approxi- 
mately 350 unemployed men and women 
have had temporary employment tor periods 
of various lengths at this institution, and 
great benefits have been derived in the 
advancement of the work of almost every 
Department and Division of the Museum. 
Besides the workers assigned to the Museum 
by the Illinois Emergency Relief Com- 
mission under its own authority, the 
Museum has had workers assigned and 
paid by the Civil Works Service, Civil 
Works Administration, and Public Works 
of Art Commission, during the periods in 
which those federal agencies were in opera- 
tion. When the federal agencies were dis- 
continued during the first quarter of 1934, 
their work was taken over by the state 
commission, which provided the Museum 
with assignees throughout 1934, and is 
continuing such assignments this year. 

The highest number of workers assigned 
to the Museum at one time during 1934 was 
86; the lowest number 8; the average through 
the year was 40. Total number of working 
hours of the assignees to the Museum, in 



the aggregate, was 43,172 during 1934; the 
average number of working hours per week 
was 830. The kinds of work performed 
have been multifarious in scope. 

In the Department of Anthropology 
6,000 photographs have been mounted and 
captioned, more than 800 ancient Peruvian 
fabrics have been mounted on linen, more 
than 9,000 potsherds washed and numbered, 
and 4,000 classified and mounted; and a 
vast amount of typing, indexing, preparing 
of catalogue cards, and other clerical work 
has been done. 

In the Department of Botany 35,000 
packets for plant specimens have been made, 
60,000 herbarium specimens of plants have 
been mounted, 35,000 index cards prepared, 
several thousand leaves made in the plant 
reproduction laboratories; and a great 
amount of work has been done on the wood 
collections, in preparation of dioramas, on 
drawings and lettering, and on records, etc. 

In the Department of Geology more than 
13,500 catalogue cards have been type- 
written, 1,600 specimens have been num- 
bered, a large amount of manuscript copied, 
some fossils have been mounted, and some 
research projects undertaken. 

In the Department of Zoology more than 
15,000 index cards, labels and other type- 
writing items have been done, some 4,000 
birds have been catalogued, 8,000 fishes 
tagged, nearly 3,000 skulls cleaned, 1,200 
insects pinned, and miscellaneous other 
routine work has been accomplished. 

From two to twelve printers have been 
assigned to the Division of Printing, where 
they assisted in the type composition and 
other work on publications, exhibition labels, 
etc. Some 12,800 photographic prints were 
made by relief workers in the Division of 
Photography, and 30,500 catalogue cards 
were prepared. A vast amount of clerical 
work of varied kinds was performed by relief 
workers in the Library, the Division of 
Publications, Division of Public Relations, 
Division of Memberships, and Raymond 
Foundation. In the Maintenance Division 
ten relief workers assisted the Museum 
forces in various tasks. 



In Memoriam 

With regret. Field Museum takes notice, 
belatedly, of the death of Louis Charles 
Watelin, who for several years was field 
director of the Field Museum-Oxford Uni- 
versity Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia, 
which made important archaeological exca- 
vations on the site of the ancient city of 
Kish, in Iraq. Mr. Watelin's death deprives 
Near East archaeology of one of its fore- 
most figures, and Field Museum of a loyal 
friend and scientific collaborator. 



Botanical Project to Resume 

J. Francis Macbride, Assistant Curator 
of Taxonomy in the Department of Botany, 
sailed for Europe January 30 to resume 
the work of the joint botanical project of 
the Rockefeller Foundation and Field Mu- 
seum. He had been in this country for 
several months on a visit for the first time 
since the European work was undertaken 
five years ago. The project has for its 
purpose the making of photographic nega- 
tives of type specimens of plants, chiefly 
South American, which are preserved in 
European herbaria. From these negatives, 
prints are made available for studies by 
botanists everywhere, and are proving of 
great value in the advancement of system- 
atic botany. Thus far, more than 30,000 
negatives have been made. 



February, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



2,650,000 PERSONS SERVED 
BY MUSEUM IN 1934 

The educational influence of Field Mu- 
seum was carried to a total of more than 
2,650,000 persons during 1934. This figure 
includes 1,991,469 visitors received during 
the twelve months in the Museum building 
itself, and approximately 662,000 persons, 
mostly children, reached by extra-mural 
educational activities conducted by the 
institution through the James Nelson and 
Anna Louise Raymond Foundation for 
Public School and Children's Lectures, and 
the Department of the N. W. Harris Public 
School Extension. 

The Harris Extension circulates some 
1,300 traveling exhibits among more than 
400 schools and other institutions of Chicago 
where they are available for study daily 
during the school year by more than 500,000 
children. 

The activities of the Raymond Foundation 
include outside work by lecturers sent to 
the children's classrooms and assemblies to 
give talks on natural history subjects, 
illustrated with lantern slides. "These exten- 
sion lectures were heard by 162,360 children 
in 1934. The Foundation presents also 
series of motion picture entertainments in 
the James Simpson Theatre which were 
attended by 27,653 children in 1934, and 
guide-lecture tours of the exhibits in which 
the participants last year numbered 14,759. 

The lectures for adults in the Simpson 
Theatre in 1934 were attended by 24,326 
persons, and 8,807 participated in the guide- 
lecture tours for adults. The Library of 
the Museum, and the scientific study 
collections maintained in the various Depart- 
ments, served a large number of people. 

While the Museum attendance of 1,991,469 
persons shows a large decline from the 
3,269,390 visitors received during 1933, it 
was nevertheless the second highest year's 
attendance in the history of the institution, 
and the reduction from the 1933 peak was 
a natural and expected consequence of the 
smaller attendance at A Century of Progress 
exposition in its second year. Of the 
visitors in 1934 only 99,553, or approximately 
5 per cent, paid the 25-cent admission fee 
charged on certain days; all the rest either 
came on the days when admission is free, 
or belonged to classifications such as children, 
teachers, students, and Members of the 
Museum, to whom admission is free on all 
days. 

ACANTHUS PLANT INFLUENCED 

ANCIENT CORINTHIAN ART 

By B. E. Dahlgren 
Curator, Department of Botany 

There has been added recently to the 
exhibits in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 
a reproduction of the bear's breech (Acan- 
thus mollis), shown in the accompanying 
illustration. This is one of several species 
of robust herbaceous plants native to the 
Mediterranean region, and often grown, 
especially in southern Europe, Greece, Italy, 
Spain and southern France, for ornament 
on account of their handsome foliage. The 
species shown here, or the closely related 
Acanthus spinosus, evidently served as the 
model for the ornamentation of the capitals 
and cornices of Corinthian architecture. 
The legend is that Callimachus, famous 
artist of the fourth to fifth century B.C., 
derived the idea of this form of capital from 
the sight of a basket on a maiden's tomb, 
covered with a tile about which the leaves 
of a plant of acanthus had grown. The 
conventionalized acanthus motif has ever 



since constituted one of the chief character- 
istics of the Corinthian as well as of the later 
Roman composite order of architecture, and 
has passed on in varied form into Byzantine 
and Renaissance art, where it was used 
both alone and combined with other plant 
forms. 

The genus Acanthus, with about twenty 
species in southern Europe, northern Africa, 
and Asia, has given its name to the family 
Acanthaceae, which includes some 175 other 




Acanthus 

Reproduction of decorative plant recently added to 
exhibits in Hall 29. 

genera and perhaps 2,000 species of plants, 
indigenous mostly to tropical and warm 
temperate regions of the world. 

Among them are many well known orna- 
mentals, such as the Thunbergias, tropical 
climbers of various species. The handsome 
Sanehezia nobilis or "hoja de independencia" 
(leaf of independence) of Ecuador is ex- 
hibited in the same case as the acanthus. 



HALL OF RACES COMPLETED 

With the addition last month of a bronze 
bust of a Beduin, Chauncey Keep Memorial 
Hall (Hall of the Races of Mankind) is 
now complete. The series of sculptures in 
bronze and stone representing diverse racial 
types from all parts of the world now num- 
bers ninety-one studies (including several 
groups which bring the number of indi- 
viduals portrayed to 101). All are life-size. 
A large number of them are full-length 
figures; the remainder are busts and heads. 
All are the work of the sculptor Malvina 
Hoffman. 

Captain White Visits Museum 

Captain Harold A. White of New York, 
who led the Harold White-John Coats 
Abyssinian and the Harold White-John 
Coats African Expeditions of Field Museum, 
was a visitor at the Museum about the 
middle of January. Among groups in this 
institution resulting from his collecting are 
the African water-hole, the bongo, and the 
aardvark, in Carl E. Akeley Memorial Hall 
(Hall 22). 

Fishermen going south this winter to 
Florida and other giilf coast waters can 
become acquainted in advance with the 
various species of fish they may encounter 
by viewing the exhibits of gulf fishes in 
Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). 



LIBRARY OF DR. LAUFER 
GIVEN TO MUSEUM 

The late Dr. Berthold Laufer, Curator of 
the Department of Anthropology, who died 
last September, left his personal library of 
approximately 5,000 volumes, including 
much material of extreme rarity and value, 
chiefly on China and Tibet, to Field Mu- 
seum. Dr. Laufer had planned for many 
years to make this bequest, and completed 
the formal arrangements for it as far back 
as 1923. 

This accession, with other Orientalia pre- 
viously on the shelves of the Museum 
Library, makes the Museum's collection of 
books and pamphlets on the many subjects 
covered one of the most important in this 
country. Dr. Laufer's contribution includes 
books in Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and 
in various European languages as well as 
in English. They were used by him in his 
researches and other work for the Museum. 

Friends of China Memorial 

As a memorial to Dr. Laufer, the Ameri- 
can Friends of China, Chicago, have made 
a gift of $500 to the Museum, to be used 
for expenses in connection with the catalogu- 
ing and arrangement of his library in a 
manner that will increase its usefulness 
and convenience to scholars and others who 
wish to consult it. This society, of which 
Dr. Laufer was Secretary and one of the 
most active members, has over a period of 
years made many contributions to Field 
Museum, both of valuable objects for the 
Chinese archaeological and ethnological 
collections, and of books for the Library. 



A GREAT FOSSIL TURTLE 

By Elmer S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of PaleontoloKy 

The shell and the internal skeleton of a 
great fossil land-turtle, Testudo species, have 
just been mounted and placed on exhibition 
in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). The 
specimen measures forty-eight inches in 
length. The shell alone is forty-two inches 
long by thirty-two inches wide. 

This specimen was collected by a Museum 
expedition in 1931, from a sandy bluff above 
the North Platte River in western Nebraska, 
The upper shell was badly broken when 
found, but has been carefully pieced to- 
gether, and missing parts have been restored. 
It is one of the largest specimens of fossil 
tortoise so far reported from North America. 

Land-turtles of this genus are known to 
have lived as early as the Oligocene period 
(35 to 39 million years ago), and have since 
become widely distributed over the world. 
Species of Testudo are known from the 
Miocene formations of India where land- 
turtles appear to have attained their largest 
size. Other species have been found in 
western Europe, in Egypt, and in South 
America. Modern species still exist in 
various parts of the world. 



Election of Officers 

All officers of Field Museum who served 
in 1934 were re-elected for 1935 at the 
Annual Meeting of the Board of Trustees 
held January 21. For the twenty-seventh 
time President Stanley Field was re-elected. 
He has held office continuously since 1909. 
The other re-elected officers are Albert A. 
Sprague, First Vice-President; James 
Simpson, Second Vice-President; Albert W. 
Harris, Third Vice-President; Stephen C. 
Simms, Director and Secretary; and Solomon 
A. Smith, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary. 
The membership of the Board of Trustees 
remained unchanged. 



Page U 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



February, 1935 



RAYMOND FOUNDATION TO GIVE 
TWO SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

In commemoration of the birthdays of 
Abraham Lincoln and George Washington, 
two special programs of free motion pictures 
for children will be presented at the Museum 
in February under the provisions of the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's 
Lectures. 

The Lincoln program will be given on 
Tuesday, February 12, when two films, 
"Lincoln and His Mother" and "A Presi- 
dent's Answer," will be shown. The Wash- 
ington program, to be given on Friday, 
February 22, will feature the film "Wash- 
ington, His Life and Times." 

The regular spring series of Raymond 
Foundation programs on Saturday mornings 
will begin on March 2, when three films, 
"The Pygmy Circus," "American Bears," 
and "A Trip to Washington, D.C.," will be 
presented. In this series there will be eight 
other programs. Details of the complete 
schedule will appear in the March issue of 
Field Museum News. 

In order to accommodate larger numbers 
of children all of the Raymond Foundation 
programs, both special and regular, are 
presented twice, the first showing beginning 
at 10 A.M. and the second at 11 a.m. Children 
from all parts of Chicago and suburbs are 
invited to attend. 



and value for addition to smaller collections 
containing inadequate numbers of genuine 
meteorites. The Director of the Museum 
will be glad to send complete information 
to any institution or individual interested. 



WILLIAM FINLEY TO LECTURE 
AT MUSEUM MARCH 2 

Dr. William Finley, of Portland, Oregon, 
noted for his explorations in the far north, 
will appear at Field Museum on Saturday 
afternoon, March 2, in a lecture for adults 
to be presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre. "Birds, Bergs and Kodiak Bears" 
is the title of the lecture, which will be 
illustrated with motion pictures of a very 
high order. The lecture will begin at 3 p.m. 

This is the first of nine lectures to be 
presented in the sixty-third course under 
the auspices of the Museum. The other 
lectures will be given on succeeding Satur- 
days in March and April. The complete 
schedule of dates, subjects and speakers 
will be announced in the March issue of 
Field Museum News. 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the Theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats on request. Requests for these seats 
may be made by telephone or in writing 
to the Museum, in advance of the lecture, 
and seats will then be held in the Member's 
name until 3 o'clock on the day of the 
lecture. Members may obtain seats in the 
reserved section also by presentation of 
their membership cards to the Theatre 
attendant before 3 o'clock on the lecture 
day, even though no advance reservation 
has been made. All reserved seats not 
claimed by 3 o'clock will be opened to the 
general public. 

Meteorite Casts Available 
for Sale or Exchange 

The Museum has on hand 100 plaster 
casts of meteorites which are now available 
to other institutions or individuals by sale 
or exchange. These casts were formerly an 
important part of the Museum's collections 
pertaining to meteorites, but as the Museum 
has accumulated original specimens repre- 
senting more than 700 meteorites the 
casts have been gradually withdrawn from 
exhibition. They are still of great interest 



THE TIBETAN GOD OF DEATH 

By J. Eric Thompson 

Assistant Curator of Central and 

South American Archaeology 

A colorful statue of Yama, the Tibetan 
god of death, presented to the Museum by 
William E. Hague, has been placed on 
exhibition in Hall 32. The statue, which 
is five feet high, is made of lacquered papier 
mache and wood. As is usually the case 
with this deity, Yama is shown wearing a 
crown and necklace, the ornaments of which 




Yama, God of Death 

Unusual statue of Tibetan deity, made of lacquered 
papier mach^ and wood, on exhibition in Hall 32. 

are made of papier mache in the form of 
human skulls. "The god's hair is represented 
as flames, and a tiger's skin is draped around 
his loins. In the center of his forehead is 
the "eye of wisdom," with which he was 
supposed to see into the past and future. 
All of these are special attributes by which 
this god can be recognized. He is usually 
painted green, and dressed in red, but in 
this statue his body is lacquered red, and 
his clothing is green. Like most Tibetan 
deities, Yama has his origin in India. 
According to Indian legend he was the first 
mortal to die. Subsequently he was made 
one of the two rulers of the next world, 
his co-regent being the Hindu god Varuna. 
In the legend the road to his abode in the 
underworld is guarded by two ferocious dogs, 
past which the dead are advised to hurry. 
These dogs are his messengers. 

The statue of the god stands on a pedestal, 
the upper tier of which has a cloud design, 
while the lower tier carries a typical lotus 
design. In accordance with a general 
Tibetan custom, various offerings had been 
placed inside this pedestal, which is hollow. 
These consist of small jars of barley and 
other grains, prayer rolls, and books of 
magical formulae, such as drawings of the 
eight emblems of happy augury. Offerings 
of this nature are believed to bring images 
to life, and consequently enable them to 
answer prayers. 



FEBRUARY GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 P.M., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
February: 

Friday, February 1 — Chinese Exhibits. 

Week beginning February 4: Monday — Animal 
Families; Tuesday — Hall of Plant Life: Wednesday — 
Races of Mankind; Thursday — General Tour; Friday — 
Man Through the Ages. 

Week beginning February 11: Monday — North 
American Bird Groups; Tuesday — The Eskimos; 
Wednesday — Crystals and Their Uses: Thursday — 
General Tour; Friday — Habitat Groups. 

Week beginning Febrtiary 18: Monday — Primitive 
Life of Africa and Madagascar; Tuesday — Plants of 
the Lower Orders; Wednesday — Ancient Burials; 
Thursday — General Tour; Friday — Prehistoric Life. 

Week beginning February 25: Monday — Melanesian 
Hall: Tuesday — Plant Products: Wednesday — Min- 
erals and Ores; Thursday — General Tour. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Mrs. Laura C. Boulton — 18 musical instru- 
ments, Africa: from Percy Williams — 5 fruits of 
Hyphaena crinita. South Africa; from S. C. Johnson 
and Son, Inc. — 9 samples of vegetable waxes; from 
Henry Field — 9 specimens of minerals, 60 fossils, 6 rocks, 
vertebra, jaws, and teeth of IchthyosauruH, Germany 
and England; from S. W. Pruitt — a specimen of tin 
ore and 118 specimens of minerals. North Carolina and 
Georgia; from Mrs. A. E. Burnaby — 4 English adders, 
3 bats, a weasel, 5 moles, and a water rat, England; 
from Leslie Wheeler — 14 specimens of birds, including 
falcons, hawks, owls, and a black merlin, Colorado, 
Florida, Iowa, Oregon, and British Columbia: from 
Albany Museum — 3 lizards. South Africa. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from December 17 to January 15: 

Life Members 

Albert B. Dick, Jr. 
Associate Members 
Frederic Burnham, Harry J. Dunbaugh, 
Frank P. Hixon, John McWilliams Marsh II 
Newhouse. 

Annual Members 
Miss Mary S. Bissell, James Bonfield, A. B. 
Otto Donath, Mrs. William F. Dummer, Mrs. 
S. Greenlee, G. I. Mackenzie, Miss Jeannette 
Obenchain, John P. O'Shaughnessy, George A 
John E. Schulze, Thomas F. Tansey, George L. 
Mrs. Peter S. Theurer, Mrs. W. B. Thompson, 
Varley. 



Mrs. 
Karl 



Clark, 
Ralph 
Brown 
. Riel, 
Teller, 
C. E. 



Rare Waxes Received 

Through the kindness of H. F. Johnson, 
Jr., there were recently received from S. C. 
Johnson and Son, Inc., of Racine, Wisconsin, 
a number of rare or unusual waxes of 
vegetable origin, including sugar cane wax, 
coffee wax, tea wax, wax of orange blossoms, 
of cassia, mimosa, lavender and jasmine 
flowers. Some of these are by-products of 
the perfume industry. They are all of 
interest as indicating the widespread 
occurrence of waxes in the plant kingdom, 
and will be added to the exhibits of vegetable 
waxes in Hall 28. 



The curious camel-like guanacos of South 
America are represented by an excellent 
habitat group in Hall 16. 



An exhibit representing the citrus fruits, 
and the flowers, woods, foliage and products 
of the trees of the orange family, is on view 
in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). 



phintco by ficld museum press 



Fieldii 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



MARCH, 1935 



No. 3 



WHEN WINGED REPTILES FLEW IN THE AIR, AND GIANT LIZARDS SWAM THE SEAS 



By Elhbr S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

A scene from the ancient inland sea which 
extended over the Great Plains region of 
North America in the Cretaceous period, 
90,000,000 years ago, forms the subject of 
one of the large mural paintings by Charles 
R. Knight exhibited on the walls of Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) of Field Museum. 
At the bottom of this Cretaceous sea accu- 
mulated great beds of shells and of clay 
which later became the well-known chalk 
beds of western Kansas and the shale 
formations which extend from Texas far 



lizards, great sea turtles, fishes of great 
diversity, and flying reptiles of strange and 
grotesque form. 

Of marine turtles there was also variety. 
The gigantic Archaelon, seen in this painting, 
which reached a length of more than ten 
feet, was not very different in general 
characteristics from the modern leatherback 
turtle. Its head was armed with a strongly 
curved beak; the leathery shell was sup- 
ported by a thin bony skeleton; the legs 
were adapted to the swimming habits of 
the animal. A splendid specimen of this 
great turtle is preserved in the Peabody 



were hollow and had walls of paper-like 
thinness. The entire structure of the 
animal is such as would enable the animal 
to attain the greatest strength consistent 
with the lightness and mobility necessary 
for flight. 

The name Pterodactyl, signifying wing- 
finger, is descriptive of the wings, of which 
the outer half was supported by an elongated 
fourth finger or digit. Three slender claws, 
which appear at the angle of the wing, are 
vestiges of the forefoot. They correspond 
to the first three fingers of the human hand. 
They were apparently of service to the 




Mural Painting, by Charles R. Knight, of Flying and Swimming Reptiles 

Extinct North American animals that lived 90,000,000 years ago. The Mosasaur, great swimming lizard in the foreground, grew to a length of thirty feet. The great sea- 
turtle on the right was of a species which reached ten feet in length. The Pterodactyls or flying reptiles seen in the air had wing-spreads more than twenty-one feet. 



northward into the Arctic regions. In 
these formations are found the fossil remains 
of many strange forms of life which lived 
in and about that ancient sea. 

One of the queer denizens of that far-off 
time, shown in the accompanying illustration, 
is the great swimming lizard or Mosasaur. 
This animal is known from abundant fossil 
remains in this museum and others. It is 
distinguished by the long, tapering head, 
pointed snout, and thickly set rows of 
conical teeth in the jaws and in the roof of 
the mouth as well.- The body was rounded, 
and armed with paddle-like flippers, similar 
to those of the sea-lion. The tail was long 
and flexible, and bordered with fins above 
and below. The Mosasaur, a strong 
swimmer, was voracious in its habits, feeding 
on fishes and other kinds of marine life. 

Found in the same chalk and shale beds 
are fossil remains of slender-necked sea- 



Museum of Yale University. 

The flying reptiles or Pterodactyls illus- 
trated in this picture have often been called 
"flying dragons," and truly no creature, 
either ancient or modern, could more accu- 
rately fill the conception of this fabled 
monster. Those of Cretaceous times had 
a wing-spread reaching more than twenty- 
one feet. The head was armed with a 
pointed beak nearly a yard in length and 
entirely devoid of tseth. A flattened crest 
projected far back from the top of the head. 
The wings consisted of elongated arms and 
fingers from which thin membranes extended 
to the sides of the body. The breastbone 
was flat and offers no evidence of the strong 
pectoral muscles so conspicuous in birds 
of flight. The legs were short and rela- 
tively weak, apparently of ser/ice only in 
the act of perching. 

The long bones of both wings and legs 



animal in enabling it to suspend itself from 
branches of trees or from rocky cliffs after 
the fashion of bats. 

The Pterodactyl was, as its structure 
clearly shows, a strong flyer and a predacious 
feeder. It doubtless swept over the open 
seas, scanning the water for fish and diving 
swiftly to seize such prey. The wide dis- 
tribution of the animal's fossil remains over 
deep-sea beds of marina origin gives unmis- 
takable evidence of its adventures over the 
open sea. 

A specimen of one of the smaller kinds 
of Pterodactyls, Nydosauriis, exhibited in 
this museum, is one of the most complete 
skeletons of flying reptile known. The 
delicate bones, appearing on the surface 
of the natural chalk in which they were 
preserved, show with nicety of detail almost 
every feature of the animal's skeletal 
structure. 



Trustee Wheeler Elected Contributor 
and Member of Museum Staff 

In recognition of his many generous gifts 
of valuable specimens for addition to the 
bird collections of the Department of Zool- 
ogy, Trustee Leslie Wheeler has been elected 



by his fellow members of the Museum's 
Board of Trustees to the class of membership 
in the institution designated as Contributors. 
In addition, Mr. Wheeler has been appointed 
Associate in Ornithology on the staff of the 
Museum because of the active interest he 



has taken in the work on birds. Mr. 
Wheeler is specializing in scientific work in 
connection with the birds of prey, and the 
Museum's collection of various species of 
these from many parts of the world has been 
placed in his charge. 



Page g 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



March, 19S5 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, Obicago 



THE BOARD 
Seweu. L. Avery 
John Bobden 
WnxiAH J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ern-est R. Graham 
Albert W. Habris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

John P, 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spbague 
Silas H. Stbawn 
Leslie Whbelbb 
Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Albebt a. Spbague First Vice-President 

James Simpson Seeorui Vice-President 

Albert W. Habris. . Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Mahtin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. 
April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-merabers pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the 'Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for thoee bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members- 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these dassilications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contribulions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



MUSEUM'S BIRD COLLECTIONS 

HOLD 100,000 SPECIMENS 

By Rudyerd Boulton 
.\ssistant Curator of Birds 

The bird collections of Field Museum 
today comprise approximately 103,000 speci- 
mens, of which about two-thirds are of 
New World species, and one-third Old 
World. In the exhibits in the two halls 
devoted to birds. Halls 20 and 21, are some 
2,000 birds; about 1,000 are included in 
350 small habitat groups circulated among 
the schools of Chicago by the N. W. Harris 
Public School Extension of Field Museum; 
and about 100,000 are in the study collec- 
tions of the Department of Zoology. 

The nucleus of these collections consisted 
of a thousand mounted specimens which 
had been exhibited by Ward's Natural 
History Establishment at the World's 
Columbian Exposition in 1893. In 1894 
the Museum's first expedition to collect 
birds was dispatched to San Domingo in 
charge of George K. Cherrie. Soon there- 
after the famous Cory Collection was 
acquired, and Charles B. Cory became 
Curator of Birds, continuing at that post 
until his death in 1920. In 1898 D. G. 
Elliot and Carl E. Akeley made a collection 
of 500 birds in British Somaliland which to 
this day remains the only notable collection 
in America from that part of Africa. 

By 1900 the Museum's collection con- 
tained approximately 27,000 specimens, and 
was growing at the rate of more than 1,000 
a year. Until 1925 the birds were pre- 
dominantly of New World species, the major 
accessions resulting from expeditions to 
northern South America and Central 
America, led by Wilfred H. Osgood, Ned 
Dearborn, J. F. Ferry, Stanley G. Jewett, 
M. P. Anderson, and Robert B. Becker. 

In the past twelve years the Museum's 
bird collections have almost doubled in 
number of specimens, and have become 
more truly world wide in scope. The North 
American collections total about 28,000, 
including part of the Cory Collection, and 
later acquisitions known as the E. E. 
Armstrong Collection. W. E. Snyder Col- 
lection, and T. Grafton Parker Collection, 
as well as miscellaneous series. 

Specimens from Middle America and the 
West Indies number 20,000. Half of these 
are from the Cory Collection. Nine thou- 
sand Mexican and Central American birds 
are largely the result of expeditions sent 
out by Field Museum. The most recent 
was the Leon Mandel Guatemalan expedi- 
tion with Emmet R. Blake as ornithologist. 

From South America there are about 
20,000 birds, chiefly from Venezuela, Brazil 
and Peru. Chilean specimens, collected by 
Dr. Osgood, H. B. Conover and C. C. 
Sanborn, although numerically less than 
those of the aforementioned countries, repre- 
sent about 95 per cent of the total bird 
fauna of the country. Ecuador, Bolivia, 
Colombia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argen- 
tina are represented by about 3,000 speci- 
mens among which should be mentioned 
the Mogensen Collection from Argentina. 

European birds are represented by about 
4,000 skins, of which about half are from 
the Anton Fischer Bavarian Collection. 

African birds number 8,000. One-quarter 
of these comes from the northeastern 
section, mainly as a result of collections 
made by Mrs. Delia Akeley, Dr. Osgood, 
the late Louis Agassiz Fuertes, and Alfred 
M. Bailey. From central Africa come 
another 2,000, chiefly those collected by 
Mr. and Mrs. Akeley in 1906, and by J. T. 
Zimmer on the Conover-Everard African 
Expedition in 1927. Bechuanaland is repre- 



sented by a splendid series of birds obtained 
by the Vernay-Lang Kalahari Expedition. 
The recent Straus West African Expedition 
collected specimens from regions not repre- 
sented in other American museums. 

From China there are some 4,000 birds, 
mostly those collected by the James 
Simpson-Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition and 
the Marshall Field Zoological Expedition to 
China. Indo-China and Siam are well 
represented by 6,000 specimens, of which 
a large part was collected by the William 
V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to Eastern 
Asia, and others by the well-known French 
zoologist, Jean Delacour. From India there 
are some 2,000 birds collected by Herbert 
Stevens and V. S. La Personne, and present- 
ed to the Museum by C. Suydam Cutting. 

There are 5,000 birds from Australasia, 
including the Woodhead Australian Collec- 
tion, and the collections made in various 
South Sea islands and New Guinea by the 
Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition. 

Field Museum is the repository for 290 
type specimens of birds. Type specimens 
are those upon which first descriptions of 
newly discovered species are based, and 
thereafter are used in determining technical 
questions of identification. 

The collection of bird skeletons numbers 
about 500 specimens representing 90 families 
and 250 genera. In the R. M. Barnes 
Collection of eggs of North American birds 
the Museum has one of the best known 
oological collections in this country, and 
one of the most truly representative of the 
fauna. Other collections in the Museum 
are the H. B. Conover Collection of Game 
Birds of the World, numbering some 11,000 
specimens of 1,000 species, and the recently 
inaugurated Leslie Wheeler Collection of 
Birds of Prey of the Worid. 



MODELS OF EXTINCT ANIMALS 
FOR SALE OR EXCHANGE 

Field Museum offers for sale or exchange 
to other institutions or interested individuals 
two classic restorations of the extinct reptiles, 
Ichthyosaurus and Plesiosaurus, and a cast 
skeleton of the prehistoric mammal. Mega- 
therium. 

The reptile models are cast in plaster of 
paris and are mounted on handsome wooden 
bases. The originals are said to have been 
made by the eminent English geologist. 
Professor Waterhouse Hawkins. The models 
are of reptiles from the English and German 
Lias formations of early Jurassic age. The 
restoration of Ichthyosaurus is mounted on 
a base 3 feet 10 inches wide and 7 feet 10 
inches long. That of Plesiosaurus is 3 feet 
10 inches by 6 feet 2 inches. Both bases 
are 18 inches in height and are designed to 
rest on the floor. The models are smooth 
at the surface, painted a dark green color 
and do not reproduce the minute details 
of dermal markings. 

The cast skeleton of Megatherium is 17 
feet long and represents the animal standing 
on its hind legs, which are 11 feet high. It 
was made by Ward's Natural History 
Establishment. It is mounted on a base 
15 feet 9 inchee long, 5 feet 10 inches wide, 
and 18 inches high. 

All these offerings are ready for exhibition, 
with accompanying labels giving full descrip- 
tions of the animals. 



A large assortment of petroleum-yielding 
rocks and sands from widely scattered 
localities is on exhibition in Hall 36. The 
specimens are of varied character, and repre- 
sent fields of various capacity ranging from 
some which yield only four barrels a day to 
others which yield 3,000 barrels daily. 



March, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Page S 



AN ANCIENT PERUVIAN QUIPU 

By J. Eric Thompson 

Assistant Curator of Central and 

South American Archaeology 

Ten years ago a collection of archaeological 
material from various parts of the world, 
then on deposit with the Chicago Historical 
Society, was purchased and presented to 
Field Museum by Messrs. Stanley Meld, 
Henry J. Patten, and Charles B. Pike. The 
collection included a certain amount of 
Peruvian material, but as at that time there 
was no member of Field Museum's scientific 
staff who had an intimate knowledge of 
Peruvian archaeology, a number of knotted 
cords roughly rolled into a ball passed 
unnoticed. 

Two weeks ago on removing this material 
from the poison room, where it had remained 
undisturbed for ten years, the writer was 
surprised to find in a woman's basket, 
jumbled up with thread, balls of yarn, and 
spindles, this series of knotted cords, which, 
on unraveling, proved to be a quipu. 

A quipu consists of a long and fairly 
thick cord, from which dangle groups of 
subsidiary cords. On these subsidiary cords 
are knots of two types — overhand knots and 
Flemish knots. These knots served as 
numerals in reckonings, each overhand knot 
and each loop in a Flemish knot repre- 
senting a unit. A decimal system was 
employed, the tens and hundreds being 
differentiated by the position of the knots on 
the subsidiary cords, as can be seen in the 
illustration. Those closer to the main cord 
represented hundreds; those farther re- 
moved represented tens. At the ends of some 
cords are knots representing single units. 

Quipus were used by the ancient Peruvians 
for keeping accounts. Overseers used them 
for recording the quantity of tribute paid 
to the Inca, the tallies of flocks of llamas, 
the production of finely woven garments, 
and statistics such as births, deaths, and 
the numbers of young men available for 
military service. 

Cieza de Leon, the Spanish historian, 
gives a long account of the use of quipus, 
of which one paragraph follows: 

"Each province at the end of the year 
was ordered to set down in the quipus by 
means of knots, all the men who had died 
in it during the year, as well as all who were 
born. In the following year the quipus were 
taken to Cuzco [the capital of the Incaj, 
where an account was made of the births and 
deaths throughout the empire. These returns 
were prepared with great care and accuracy." 

A scheme of colored cords was used to 
aid the memories of the quipu keepers as 
to the subjects covered by the cords. How- 
ever, quipus found in graves may never 
have been used for such purposes, since a 
buried quipu might fall into the hands of the 
spirits of evilly disposed persons, and might 
be used by them for harming the living. 
Furthermore these vital statistics were too 
important to be buried with the dead. 

On the other hand, there is evidence 
strongly suggesting that the quipus, like 
the one in Field Museum, that were found 
in graves, belonged to magicians and 
astrologers. The sums recorded on these 
grave quipus frequently possess astronomical 
significance, some cords giving lunar data, 
others yielding calculations concerning the 
planet Venus or the solar year. 

The Field Museum quipu has cords of 
various colors and a considerable number 
of knots. The calculations on this new 
quipu will shortly be checked to see if they 
possess astronomical importance, for com- 
plete specimens are very scarce, and new 
calculations of corresponding value. It is 



hoped to place the quipu on exhibition at 
the end of March. 

Although the quipu was found in a 
woman's work basket at Field Museum, 
no information is available as to the condi- 
tions under which it was originally excavated. 
Nevertheless, it seems unlikely that a quipu 
would under normal circumstances be found 
in a woman's work basket. 




Ancient Accounting Device 

A quipu, used by the Incas of Peru in various 
itinds of computation. This rare object will malce a 
notable addition to the Museum's exhibits pertaining 
to South American archaeology. 



PREHISTORIC LIFE PICTURES 
IN BOOK BY C. R. KNIGHT 

Reproductions of forty-five of Charles R. 
Knight's paintings and drawings restoring 
scenes of prehistoric life, including a large 
number of the murals presented to Field 
Museum by Trustee Ernest R. Graham and 
exhibited in Hall 38, are included in a book. 
Before the Dawn of History, published last 
month. The text, written by Mr. Knight, 
gives an outline of fossil types, the use 
paleontologists make of them, and their 
relation to various periods of earth's develop- 
ment. Mr. Knight describes the manner 
in which various early animals must have 
lived, and tells of his methods in recon- 
structing the life appearance of these crea- 
tures known only from skeletal remains. 

The illustrations are arranged in chrono- 
logical order with relation to the types and 
periods represented. Three stages of bio- 
logical evolution are presented — that of the 
reptiles, that of the mammals, and that of 
early man. The book, published by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 
has 119 pages, 12x9. Copies are on sale 
at Field Museum. Price $2.50, plus 15 cents 
for postage if ordered by mail. 



Noted Scientists Visit Museum 

Professor Julian Huxley, noted British 
scientist and author, was a visitor at Field 
Museum on February 2. He conferred with 
members of the Museum staff, and inspect- 
ed the Museum's zoological and anthropo- 
logical collections. Professor Huxley is a 
grandson of the great biologist Thomas 
Henry Huxley. He is soon to take office as 
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. 

Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews, Director of 
the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York, and leader of the Central Asiatic 
expeditions of that institution during the 
period from 1923 to 1928, was a guest of 
the Museum on February 12. 

Professor Ralph W. Chaney, paleobotanist 
of the University of California, recently came 
to the Museum to study the Herbarium 
collections in connection with studies of 
Tertiary fossil plants of the Pacific Coast. 



HIBERNATION OF REPTILES 

By Karl P. Schmidt 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles 

Many birds escape the rigors of winter 
by migrating to warmer climates in the 
south. Those that remain in our latitude 
through the cold season are able to find 
food by means of active habits, and are 
saved from freezing by the nearly perfect 
insulation afforded by their feather covering. 

Mammals, like the birds, have warm 
blood and excellent insulation, and most 
of them survive the winter, without migra- 
tion, by modification of their food habits 
or by subsisting on food stores laid up in 
times of plenty. Others, however, retire 
into burrows or hollow trees where, nourished 
by the slow consumption of their fat, they 
pass the winter in a state of suspended 
animation known as hibernation. 

The frogs, toads, and salamanders, and 
the turtles, lizards, and snakes are "cold- 
blooded" as contrasted with the warm- 
blooded mammals and birds. Their body 
temperature is approximately the same as 
that of the air or water which surrounds 
them. These animals, accordingly, have 
no choice when the temperature falls toward 
the freezing point but to suspend their 
activity for the winter. Some, like the frogs 
and most turtles, bury themselves in mud 
in ponds or swamps. Highland forms, like 
toads and snakes and the box-turtle, bury 
themselves in sheltered situations in dry 
soil. The most familiar hibernating site 
of our Chicago snakes is beneath sidewalks, 
whence they emerge on warm days in 
November to sun themselves before their 
final retirement. Toads, which spend the 
winter in dry situations, migrate to water 
for the breeding season as soon as they 
emerge in spring. The two larger sala- 
manders of the Chicago area have opposite 
habits in this respect. The tiger salamander 
(commonly called a "lizard") spends the 
summer on land, but hibernates in ponds 
and marshes. During September and 
October specimens are frequently found in 
cellar-ways and brought to the Museum for 
identification. Such openings are pitfalls 
for these creatures in their nocturnal travels. 
The spotted salamander lives in much the 
same situations through the summer, but 
spends the winter on land also, so that its 
migration to water for breeding and egg- 
laying takes place in the spring. 

Many turtles do not lay their eggs until 
early summer, and these hatch as late as 
mid-September. When egg-laying or the 
development of the eggs is delayed for any 
reason, especially when a cool summer 
follows a late spring, the eggs do not hatch, 
and the embryo turtles may remain in the 
egg through the winter. If the winter is 
mild or if there is a sufficient covering of 
snow, such embryos come safely through 
this curious hibernation and emerge the 
following spring. Farmers engaged in 
spring plowing have frequently reported 
nests of turtle eggs with fully formed 
turtles in them, ready to hatch. 



New Hybrid Plant Received 

Field Museum has received, through 
Robert Van Tress, of the Garfield Park 
Conservatory, material of a handsome new 
plant developed recently by hybridization 
in the conservatory. The new hybrid, which 
has been named Hippecoris Garfieldiana, is 
the result of crossing the amaryllis (Hip- 
peastrum) with a closely related genus, 
Lycoris. The very large flowers, much like 
those of amaryllis, are strikingly handsome 
because of their shape and red color. 



Page i 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



March, 19S5 



SPRING LECTURE COURSE 
TO OPEN ON MARCH 2 

Field Museum's Sixty-third Free Lecture 
Course will begin on March 2. Lectures 
on travel and science, illustrated with 
motion pictures and stereopticon slides, will 
be given on each of the nine Saturdays 
during March and April. All will be pre- 
sented in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the museum, and all will begin at 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon. The complete schedule 
of dates, subjects and speakers follows: 

March 2 — Birds, Bergs and Kodiak Bears 

Dr. William Finley, Portland, Oregon 

March 9— The New Valley of 10,000 
Smokes 

Rev. Bernard R. Hubbard, S.J., University of 
Santa Clara, California 

March 16 — In the Shadow of the Eastern 
Gods 

Robert Edison Fulton, Jr., New York City 
March 23 — Central American Trails 

Captain John D. Craig, Hollywood, California 

March 30 — Modern Pioneering 

Richard Finnic, F.R.G.S., Ottawa, Canada 

April 6 — Timbuktu and Beyond 

Rudyerd Boulton, Assistant Curator of Birds, 
Field Museum; Leader of Straus-Field Mu- 
seum West African Expedition 

April 13— The West Indies 

Major James C. Sawders, Nutley, New Jersey 

April 20 — The Canadian Rockies in Pic- 
tures and Story 

Dan McCowan. Banff, Canada 

April 27— The Buried Cities of Ceylon 

Dr. Robert McMlury, New York City 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the Theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats on request. Requests for these seats 
may be made by telephone or in writing 
to the Museum, in advance of the lecture, 
and seats will then be held in the Member's 
name until 3 o'clock on the day of the 
lecture. Members may obtain seats in the 
reserved section also by presentation of 
their membership cards to the Theatre 
attendant before 3 o'clock on the lecture 
day, even though no advance reservation 
has been made. All reserved seats not 
claimed by 3 o'clock will be opened to the 
general public. 

CHILDREN'S PROGRAMS OFFERED 
BY RAYMOND FOUNDATION 

The spring series of free motion picture 
programs for children, presented by the 
James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's 
Lectures, will open on March 2. There 
will be nine programs in all, to be given each 
Saturday morning during March and April. 
All will be presented in the James Simpson 
Theatre of the Museum, and there will 
be two showings of the films on each program 
— one beginning at 10 a.m., and one at 
11 A.M. Children from all parts of Chicago 
and suburbs are invited. They may come 
alone, in groups from schools and other 
centers, or with teachers, parents, or other 
adults. Following is the schedule showing 
the titles of the films to be shown on each 
date: 

March 2 — The Pigmy Circus; American 

Bears; A Trip to Washington, D.C. 
March 9 — Babies of the Farm; Jungle 

Belles; Australian Animals; A Dyak 

Wedding 
March 16 — The Orang at Work and Play; 

Javanese Farmers; Watching the Wayangs 



March 23 — Antelopes Seldom Seen; Daniel 

Boone and a New Trail 
March 30 — Wild Life at Home; Laying the 

World's Fastest Cable 
April 6 — Beetle Friends and Enemies; 

Trained Bird Fishermen; Glimpses of 

Quaint Gasp6 
April 13 — Monkey Capers; Jungle Vaude- 
ville; Souvenirs of Singapore; The Wapiti 

of Jackson Hole 
April 20 — Mushrooms and Their Cousins; 

Peter Stuyvesant 
April 27 — Nature's Weavers; Life of a 

Moth; Mounting Butterflies; Algonquin 

Adventures 



THE SAUSAGE TREE 

Among the world's queerest trees is the 
sausage tree of East Africa, of which a speci- 
men branch, with its odd fruits, is on 
exhibition in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). 
It is a large tree of the trumpet vine group, 
to which the familiar catalpas belong. The 
fruits of the sausage tree, which bear a 
striking resemblance to the' products of the 
meat-packing industry, hang from the 
branches on pendent stems from one to two 
yards long, much as sausages are hung for 
display in butcher shop windows. The 
fruits frequently reach a length of two feet. 

Unfortunately, while the exterior of the 
tree sausages suggests edible qualities, the 
interior contains a hard and woody pulp 
which is neither palatable nor nutritious, 
and the fruits therefore are not likely to be 
in demand as a substitute for the delicatessen 
varieties of sausages. 

Nevertheless, the sausage tree is not 
wholly useless. It is held sacred by Negro 
tribes in Nubia, and they hold religious 
festivals in the moonlight under its branches. 
Poles made from the trees are erected before 
the houses of great chiefs and are worshipped. 
As for the sausages themselves, the natives 
cut and roast them and apply the cut 
surfaces to their bodies as a remedy for 
rheumatism and similar complaints. 

The trees are found principally in Nubia, 
Abyssinia, Mozambique, Natal, Senegal and 
Guinea. A few have been grown in the 
southern United States. 

Related to the sausage tree is the candle 
tree of Central America, of which the Mu- 
seum likewise exhibits specimens. The 
green and yellow fruits of this tree almost 
perfectly represent the shape and waxy 
appearance of candles. Some of these reach 
a length of four feet. They are eaten by 
cattle, but are not to be recommended as a 
fodder, since they give an unpleasant flavor 
to the meat. 

The Museum exhibits include other in- 
teresting members of the trumpet vine 
family, among them the calabash of the 
American tropics, from the fruits of which 
natives make bottles and floats for fishing 
nets, and the beautiful "nymphs' comb" of 
Yucatan whose winged seeds are described 
by botanists as among the most efficient of 
"vegetable airplanes" because of the way 
they sail through the air.. 



Dr. Laufer Posthumously Honored 

In recognition of the bequest to Field 
Museum of his valuable library of some 
5,000 volumes, which was reported in the 
February issue of Field Museum News, 
the name of the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
former Curator of Anthropology, has been 
added to the list of Contributors to the 
Museum — those whose gifts in money or 
materials range in value from $1,000 to 
$100,000. 



MARCH GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
March: 

Friday, March 1 — Primitive Musical Instruments. 

Week beginning March 4: Monday — Uses of Plant 
Fibers; Tuesday — Men of the Stone Age; Wednesday 
— Systematic Collection of Mammals; Thursday — 
General Tours; Friday — Egyptian Exhibits. 

Week beginning March 11: Monday — Plants and 
Animals of the Past; Tuesday — Totem Pole Makers; 
Wednesday — Copal, Amber and Turpentine; Thurs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Crystals and Their Uses. 

Week beginning March 18; Monday — <}hina and 
Tibet; Tuesday — Chicago Birds; Wednesday — Peoples 
of the South Seas; Thursday — General Tour; Friday — 
Native Trees, Fruits and Vegetables. 

Week beginning March 25: Monday — American 
Archaeology; Tuesday — Deer and .\ntelope8; Wednes- 
day — Jades and Their Uses; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Moon and Meteorites. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Joseph C. Belden — a shrunken Jivaro Indian 
head, Ecuador; from Professor Manuel Valerio — 43 
herbarium specimens, Coeta Rica; from School of 
Forestry, Yale University — 239 herbarium specimens, 
Brazil, New Guinea, and Ecuador; from Hermann C. 
Benke — 215 herbarium specimens, Illinois and Wiscon- 
sin; from .\rmando Dugand G. — a Bauhinia stem, 
Colombia; from Wisconsin Land and Lumber Com- 
pany — a board of tamarack, Michigan; from Professor 
A. O. Garrett — 76 herbarium specimens, Utah; from 
Charles Weight — a specimen of lepidodendron, Penn- 
sylvania; from K. Ogaki — a specimen of cabochon cut 
amber with insect, Manchukuo; from Walter L. 
Necker — 52 salamanders, 2 snakes, and 3 toads, 
Indiana; from Russell Abel — a snake-eel; from John 
G. Shedd Aquarium — a hawksbill turtle, Bahama 
Islands; from W. R. Thomas — 19 mammal skulls. 
South Dakota; from Chicago Zoological Society — 2 
mammals and II birds, .\ustralia and Galapagos 
Islands; from A. J. Franzen — a badger skeleton, 
Wisconsin; from E. Morton Miller — 4 snakes, 3 frogs, 
and 2 toads, Florida. ' 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from January 16 to February 15: 

Contributors 

Leslie Wheeler 

Non-Resident Life Members 

Herbert F. Johnson, Jr. 

Associate Members 

Mrs.'Idea'L. Hammond, .\rthur E. Neumann, Dr. 
Theodore Stanley Proxmire, R. H. Van Schaack. Jr., 
Mrs. N. L. Tibbetts, Mrs. Ezra J. Warner. 

Annual Members 

William Scott Bond, E. B. Boyd, Eugene A. Boum- 
ique, Mrs. Edison Dick, Mrs. iierbert S. Eckhouse, 
Emil Eitel, Maurice Friedlander, Fred B. Hamm, 
Miss Jean Hutchison, Dr. Charles E. Kahlke, W. G. 
Kindsvogel, William G. Kress, Henry Manaster, Mrs. 
A. Howard McConnell, William Wallace Rice, John 
C. Richert, Emil W. Ritter^ Harry E. Seanor, Frank 
K. Shrader, Cochran Supplee, Miss Lucille C. Thomp- 
son, Mrs. Flora Van Artsdale, George Vivian, Mrs. 
Wallace Wakem. 



Panama Society Honors Standley 

Associate Curator Paul C. Standley has 
been elected an honorary member of the 
Panama Canal Zone Natural History Society. 



Many of the market fishes of Chicago are 
exhibited in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18). 



PRINTED BY FrCLD MUSCUM PRESS 




News 



Pvblished Monthly by Field Miiseum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



APRIL, 1935 



No. 4 



AXIS DEER HABITAT GROUP 
IN W. V. KELLEY HALL 

By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

The latest addition to the series of 
habitat groups in William V. Kelley Hall 
of Asiatic Mammals (Hall 17) has for its 
subject the well-known axis deer. Other 
names for the species are spotted deer, as 
it is sometimes called in books, and chital 
or cheetal, which in Hindustani means 
spotted and is used by 
natives and shikaris in 
India. The name axis, 
although thought by 
some to be of East 
Indian origin, was first 
applied in this connec- 
tion by the great 
Roman naturalist, 
Pliny the Elder. 
Later, it was formally 
given as the technical 
name of the species 
and from this it has 
come into general use, 
although its original 
significance is not 
quite clear. 

This animal has 
been chosen by some 
as the most beautiful 
member of the deer 
family and, although 
many will not agree 
to this, it must at 
least be taken as an 
indication that it has 
some claims to the 
distinction. With 
certain exceptions, 
such as the moose, 
which scarcely con- 
tends, all members of 
the deer family are 
beautiful and the 
selection of any one 
for first place is not 
an easy matter. The 
axis deer is neither a 

large deer nor a very small one. It has neither 
the magnificence of the stately wapiti nor 
the slender grace of the roebuck. Its charm 
is mainly in its soft-colored, spotted coat 
and its demure refined demeanor. 

The axis deer is common throughout 
most of peninsular India and Ceylon but 
does not extend into adjoining parts of 
Asia. Although less numerous than formerly, 
it maintains itself in considerable numbers 
since it has the ability to thrive in close 
proximity to man. Like our own white- 
tailed deer, it needs only a small tract of 
woodland or thicket for cover and retreat. 
It is a highly social species, however, and 
where conditions permit, it is given to 
forming large herds, sometimes numbering 
hundreds. It frequents hill districts and 
plains alike, but does not wander far from 
water. Like some other deer, it has a loud 
scream of alarm and a barking sort of call. 

The spotted coloration of this deer is 
retained at all seasons and all ages. This 
is very unusual for, although many deer 
are spotted when young, in nearly all cases 



the spots disappear in the adult. It is 
thought that the spots serve to make the 
young less conspicuous by producing a 
broken or "interrupted" pattern correspond- 
ing to alternating light and shade in the 
forest. As a possible substantiation of 
this theory, it is pointed out that probably 
all deer were once spotted throughout life 
for protection from enemies, but as the 
need for this protection lessened there has 
been a tendency for the spots to disappear. 
Thus we now find that in deer of open 




Axis Deer or Chital 

This species of deer, native to India and Ceylon, ia notable for its beauty and its permanently spotted coat. 
The Museum specimens were collected by the James Simpson- Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition, and the late Colonel 
J. C. Faunthorpe. Staff Taxidermist C. J. Albrccht and Artist C. A. Corwin prepared the group. 

plains or those that have attained large 
size and ability to defend themselves, there 
are no spots in either young or adults. In 
others, as in American deer, the spots are 
retained in the young but not in the adults, 
the assumption being that the advantage 
to the grown animal is no longer necessary. 
The axis deer is one of the very few species 
in Which the spots are permanent. 

The new group has unusually fine pictorial 
quality and pleasing color tones. The deer 
are represented in light tropical forest 
quietly resting at mid-day. A fine stag 
stands at one side in somewhat complacent 
attitude while a younger stag and two does 
with a pair of fawns are lying down on a 
leafy forest bed. The specimens were 
obtained from two sources, some from 
Colonel Theodore Roosevelt and Kermit 
Roosevelt during the James Simpson- 
Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition, and some 
from the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe, 
of Bombay, a noted sportsman. 

The group is the work of Staff Taxidermist 
C. J. Albrecht, and Artist Charles A. Corwin. 



THE FOSSIL RHINOCEROSES 
OF NORTH AMERICA 

By Elmer S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Ordinarily rhinoceroses are thought of as 
belonging to Africa and India along with 
elephants and lions. The number of fossil 
skeletons of various species of rhinoceroses 
found in this country show, however, that 
these great pachyderms were once at home 
in North America. Not only were they at 
home here, but com- 
mon and abundant 
over a great part of 
the continent. 

In Eocene time 
(about 45,000,000 
years ago) they were 
beginning to appear 
on the plains of Utah 
and Wyoming along 
with the four-toed 
horse. In Oligocene 
time (about 35,000,000 
years ago) they are 
known to have been 
numerous in the great 
plains region about 
the Black Hills where 
they adapted them- 
selves as ordinary 
plains and woodland 
animals, as swift- 
footed runners, and 
as heavy-bodied river 
animals. In Miocene 
and in Pliocene times, 
(the former about 
20,000,000 and the 
latter about 8,000,000 
years ago) they rev- 
eled about the rivers 
which flowed east- 
ward across the plains 
of Kansas and 
Nebraska. 

A mounted skeleton 

and several skulls and 

legs of rhinoceroses of 

different kinds are 

exhibited in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 

38). Some of them are from the "bad lands" 

of South Dakota, others are from the old 

river channels and from the drifted sands 

of Nebraska and Kansas. There these 

animals appear to have died out as the great 

plains region became colder and more arid 

with the approach of the ice age. 



Extinct Birds Exhibited 

There has been installed in Hall 21 a 
special exhibit showing eight of the extinct 
birds of North America. The specimens 
were prepared by Staff Taxidermist Ashley 
Hine. This is the first installation in a 
series of biological exhibits of birds. A full 
account of it will appear in the May issue 
of Field Museum News. 



Remarkable examples of inlaid work in 
shell, fashioned by natives of the Solomon 
Islands in the South Pacific, provide an 
interesting study of primitive art in Joseph 
N. Field Hall (Hall A). 



PageZ 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



April, 19S5 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Rooserelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewell L. Avery 
John Borden 
William J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Grahau 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

John P 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Sihms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

. Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Praident 

Albert A. Sprague First Vite-President 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-Pretident 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin AcHng Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichoi^ Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4 :30 p.m. 
April, September, October 9 a.m. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Ufe Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Correspondmg, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the \fuseum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



TALC AND TALCUM POWDER 

Talc is a mineral which finds many uses 
on account of its extreme softness and 
unctuousness. It is so soft that it is readily 
scratched by the finger nail and feels as 
slippery as if it had been greased. Its 
familiar use as talcum toilet powder depends 
on these properties as well as the absence 
of grit and the fact that it does not cake or 
become plastic when wet. 

Talcum powder is the pure mineral ground 
to powder and perfumed. Sometimes a 
little borax is added as a mild disinfectant. 
Other somewhat harder and less unctuous 
minerals such as serpentine and gypsum 
are sometimes substituted for the talc, and 
chemical products are sometimes substituted 
for special purposes. In Colonial times our 
grandmothers used fuller's earth as baby 
powder. 

Talcum powders account for but a small 
part of the talc used. For every pound 
of talc ground for talcum powder forty 
pounds are used in other ways. More than 
a third of the talc mined is used as a paper 
filler to give body to paper, nearly a quarter 
of it goes into paint, and it has some sixty 
other uses. 

Talc is a hydrated silicate of magnesia 
formed by the alteration of older magnesian 
minerals. A corresponding hydrated sili- 
cate of alumina formed by alteration of 
aluminous minerals, and called pyrophyllite 
by mineralogists, is so like talc in appearance 
and physical qualities that it can hardly 
be told from it and is not distinguished from 
it in commerce. Most talc is a dull, ordinary 
looking mineral, massive, granular or fibrous 
in texture and white, green, gray or brown 
in color although there is a foliated bright 
green talc which is quite attractive. Deposits 
of talc are widely distributed over the earth 
and are found in nearly every country. 

Specimens of talc from many parts of the 
world occupy half a case in Hall 36. 

—H.W.N. 



PHEASANTS AND RELATED BIRDS 
ADDED TO EXHIBITS 

Most birds, as almost anyone has observed, 
have very marked parental instincts, evi- 
denced by their care of their eggs before 
hatching, their feeding of the young, and 
other habits. These instincts, however, are 
apparently totally lacking in the megapodes 
or mound builders of Australasia and the 
East Indies, specimens of which were 
recently placed on view in a new case of 
pheasants and related birds added to the 
systematic series in Hall 21. Some forty- 
two species of the principal pheasants, 
grouse, quail, partridges and curassows of 
the world, among them a number of rare 
species, are included in the new exhibit. 

The megapodes, according to Rudyerd 
Boulton, Assistant Curator of Birds, lay 
their eggs in the sand, partly buried in 
twigs, leaves, and the sand itself. There 
they immediately abandon them. The eggs 
are hatched by the heat of the sun or of 
decaying vegetation. The young birds come 
out of their shells into the world without 
ever seeing or knowing their parents. They 
are born with wings well developed, and 
are otherwise able to take care of them- 
selves from the very beginning. Within a 
day or two after hatching they are able to 

fly- 
Practically all important birds of the 
order which includes the pheasants are 
represented in the new exhibit, with the 
exception of the North American varieties 
which are shown separately in a previously 
installed exhibit near-by. The new mounts 



are the work of John W. Moyer, of the 
Museum's taxidermy staff. 

Among other birds of special interest in 
the collection are the hoactzin of Central 
and South America, notable for the hooks 
on its wings and feet, and its habit of 
crawling like a lizard, thus furnishing im- 
portant evidence of the reptilian ancestry 
of birds; the very rare Derby's mountain 
guan which is found nowhere in the world 
except in a restricted area of Guatemala 
where specimens were collected for the 
Museum by the Leon Mandel Guatemala 
Expedition; and Reeve's pheasant, a Chinese 
species whose tail sometimes reaches six 
feet in length, first described by Marco Polo. 

Likewise of note in the collection are the 
capercaillie, largest grouse of the world; the 
golden and Lady Amherst pheasants, most 
brilliantly colored of all; the ocellated turkey 
with its showy iridescent coloration; the 
Chinese bamboo partridges, often caged by 
natives who credit their loud calls with 
magical power; the Nepal Kaleege pheasant 
of Asia, never observed in its native habitat 
by any white man because it ranges through 
a district barred to the Caucasian; and the 
Ceylon jungle fowl, closely related to the 
red jungle fowl from which all varieties of 
domestic chickens have been derived. 

Some of the birds were collected by the 
William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expedition to 
Eastern Asia. Some were presented by 
W. G. Clegg of Delamere, England, and 
James Simpson of Chicago. 



Musical Instruments from Nigeria 

Appreciation of music, and particularly of 
rhythm, is basic in the lives of African 
Negroes. In Hall D is a collection of 
musical instruments and dancing regalia 
collected in Nigeria, west Africa, by the 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ex- 
pedition of 1929-30. Various types of drums 
are shown. A particularly interesting ex- 
ample is one made by stretching a hide over 
the mouth of an earthenware pot. 

Wind instruments include slender reed 
pipes, side-blown horns that give out deep 
booming notes, and an example of the 
algaita, which is a kind of flute with four 
stopnholes and a brass mouthpiece. The 
best of the stringed instruments is made 
from a gourd which is covered with snake 
skin. The strings of the instrument, as 
well as the strings of the small bow with 
which it is played, are made of horsehair. 

Among the ceremonial objects are a well- 
carved wooden paddle for beating time, an 
ax that is carried over a dancer's shoulder, 
and a cap decorated with cowrie shells. 



Dr. Herbert Weld is Dead 

Dr. Herbert Weld, sponsor on behalf of 
Oxford of the Field Museum-Oxford Uni- 
versity Joint Expedition to Mesopotamia, 
died in London on February 5, at the age of 
83. He was a noted scholar in the history 
and literature of Abyssinia as well as in 
Assyriology. On the basis of observations 
he made during extensive travels in Meso- 
potamia the site of Kish was selected for 
the excavations conducted over a period of 
ten years by Oxford and Field Museum. 



J. Eric Thompson Resigns 

J. Eric Thompson, Assistant Curator of 
Central and South American Archaeology 
at Field Museum for a number of years, has 
resigned, effective from March 1, to accept 
a position on the staff of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, D.C. 



April, 19S5 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



BIRDS OF PREY RECEIVED 

Trustee Leslie Wheeler has recently 
acquired for the Museum a number of birds 
of prey of great interest. One hundred and 
twenty-one specimens of hawks and owls 
from all parts of the world were carefully 
selected from a dealer's collection in London 
to fill gaps in the Museum's already notable 
collection. Fifty-nine species of hawks, 
represented by ninety-nine specimens, form 
a part of this recent acquisition. Among 
these, there are fifteen species and twenty- 
three geographical races not previously 
represented in the study collections, ranging 
from a pair of spotted eagles from the 
Balkans and a sea eagle from Japan to a 
pygmy falcon from east Africa. 

The prizes of the collection are a pair of 
rare falcons, Spiziapteryx, meaning "sparrow- 
winged," from Argentina, which add a genus 
not previously in Field Museum's collec- 
tions. There are also twenty-two owls 
belonging to twelve species, of which four 
species and five geographical races are new 
to the collection. Many rare birds from 
Madagascar, eastern Asia, Africa and South 
America are also included. — R.B. 



MISTLETOE 

By B. E. Dahlgrbn 
Curator, Department of Botany 

Thanks to an old English custom, deriving 
apparently from ancient Druid or Norse 
mythology, everyone is familiar with mistle- 
toe which, like holly, is used at Christmas 
as a special festive decoration for the house. 
The mistle employed for this purpose in 
Europe differs from any American species 
but is sufficiently similar in general appear- 
ance to be instantly recognized as mistletoe. 
The jointed green stem, the pale or yellowish 
green thick leaves in alternating pairs, the 
clusters of small waxy white berries in the 
axils, suffice to make most of the northern 
mistles unmistakable, though in various 
particulars the species differ considerably 
from each other, some even being leafless 
or having the leaves reduced to small 
scales. 

It would be a mistake, however, to assume, 
on the strength of this, that the mistles of 
other parts of the world are equally similar 
in appearance. More than 800 species are 
known and many of them, especially in 
the tropics where they are most numerous, 
present a very different aspect. Some have 
clusters of showy flowers, up to several 
inches in length, orange yellow to bright 
red in color, and violet-black or purple 
fruit, in some instances as large as olives. 

A branch of a tropical species of mistle 
has recently been added to the exhibits in 
the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). This new 
addition is a faithful reproduction of a 
specimen obtained by the Marshall Field 
Botanical Expedition to the Amazon (1929) 
at a locality not far from the Ford Rubber 
Plantation on the Tapajoz River in Brazil. 
At the time of collection it was in flower 
and fruit as shown in the accompanying 
photograph. It was one of many clumps of 
mistle providing the major part of green 
foliage on a rather small tree, apparently 
greatly hampered in its growth by its 
bright-flowered parasitic inhabitants. 

The parasitic habit is shared by almost 
all known species of mistletoe. Their 
berries are eaten by birds which, in cleaning 
their bills or otherwise, lodge the sticky 
seeds on the branches of trees. There 
germination takes place and the young 
plants attach themselves, either by a special 
disk or by sending penetrating root-like 



suckers through the bark. Various vernac- 
ular names meaning "bird-plant" and 
"bird-graft" have reference to this well- 
known mode of dissemination. In places 
where a wire fence exists near a mistletoe- 
laden tree, rows of seedlings may often be 
seen sprouting on the wire where they can 
have but a short existence. Normally the 
young mistletoe plant is assured from the 
beginning a favorable perch and a quota 
of nourishment from the sap of the host. 
Though parasitic, the mistles are, how- 
ever, never completely dependent on their 
host. As indicated by their green leaves 
they are only semi-parasites and manu- 
facture for themselves a great part of their 
food, which is to their credit but does not 
prevent them from becoming in many 




Brazilian Mistletoe 

This, like other tropical species, differs greatly from 
the familiar Christmas mistletoe. Exhibited in the 
Hall of Plant Life. 



places a serious pest. Northern species 
growing on conifers produce the abnormal 
formations called "witch's broom." One 
tropical species with long vine-like branches, 
commonly called "bird-vine" or "priest- 
vine," is a well-known, formidable nuisance 
on chocolate plantations. 

A few of the mistles do not share the 
perching habit of their kind but grow on the 
ground where, at least in their adult stage, 
they are independent. Some tropical 
American and Australian species grow as 
trees reaching thirty feet or more in height. 
One of these, flowering with a profusion of 
bloom at Christmas time, is used in Australia 
as a Christmas tree. 



Museum Open 9 to 5 in April 

From April 1 to 30 visiting hours at 
Field Museum will be from 9 a.m. to 
5 P.M. instead of 4:30. From May 1 to 
September 2 (Labor Day) the hours will 
be 9 A.M. to 6 P.M. 



Director's Report Goes to Press 

The 1934 Annual Report of the Director 
of Field Museum to the Board of Trustees 
is now in process of printing by Field Mu- 
seum Press. Distribution of copies to Mem- 
bers of the Museum may be expected to 
begin at an early date. The detailed 
review of the activities of the Museum for 
the year, by Director Stephen C. Simms, 
makes a book of 144 pages. It is illustrated 
with twelve photogravure plates. 



ANIMALS FROM BARBADOS 

Stewart J. Walpole, of Park Ridge, 
Illinois, has presented to Field Museum 
some interesting specimens of bats, frogs, 
and lizards which he collected during a 
recent visit to the island of Barbados, West 
Indies. 

Of ten bats, one represents a species very 
rare in collections, and confined in distribu- 
tion to this island. Another bat is related 
to a widespread West Indian form never 
before found on Barbados. Mr. Walpole 
reports that these bats do considerable 
damage to small orchards. 

One of the lizards represents another 
animal new to the fauna of Barbados. It 
is remarkable to find in this collection two 
animals new to the island, as the fauna of 
Barbados is fairly well known. — CCS. 



ANCIENT PERUVIAN "MUMMIES " 
AND GRAVES SHOWN 

An exhibit of so-called "mummies," and 
reproductions of two opened graves of 
ancient Peru, was recently completed in 
the hall of South American archaeology 
(Hall 9). The mummies, which differ greatly 
from those of Egypt, are more accurately 
described as desiccated bodies. These were 
packed in bundles which were found buried 
at a depth of several feet in the famous 
necropolis or burying ground of Ancon, Peru. 

Two of the mummy packs have been 
opened, revealing the bodies inside. They 
are in a good state of preservation, which 
is attributed by J. Eric Thompson, former 
Assistant Curator of Central and South 
American Archaeology, to the extreme 
aridity of the coastal plains of Peru where 
they were buried. The majority of Peruvian 
mummies were not artificially preserved, 
but in some cases the bodies were eviscerated, 
while in others resin was applied as a 
preservative. On the forehead of one of 
those in the exhibit traces of red paint or 
powder can be seen. 

The graves which have been reproduced 
in the Museum date to the period about 
A.D. 1250. One contains three mummy 
bundles, apparently two women and a small 
child. 'The sex of the two adults is indicated 
by women's work baskets which were buried 
with them, and which appear among the 
contents of the grave as now exhibited. Bags 
of coca leaves, which the ancient Peruvians 
chewed as a stimulant, silver ornaments, 
spindles, and other objects are also included 
in the grave. 

The second grave was covered by a roof 
two feet below the surface of the ground. 
This roof, now shown in the exhibit, was 
elaborately constructed, and is among the 
best preserved ones found at Ancon. It 
consists of three inches of hard white clay, 
beneath which are a layer of plant leaves, 
two mats of reeds, and rafters of algarroba 
wood. The grave contains a large mummy 
wrapped in fine garments, with a false head. 
Sacks, painted tablets, and clay and gourd 
vessels are arranged around the body in 
the positions in which they were found when 
the grave was opened. Most of the bodies 
in Ancon graves are buried in a flexed posi- 
tion so that the knees almost touch the chin. 
Mummy-packs with false heads usually 
contained the remains of persons who were 
regarded as important during life. 



Skeletons of the extinct European cave 
bear and the sabertooth tiger, two of the 
most formidable natural enemies of primi- 
tive man, are on exhibition in Ernest R. 
Graham Hall (Hall 38). 



Page If 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



April, 19S5 



FOUR MORE TRAVEL LECTURES 
ON APRIL SCHEDULE 

The final four illustrated lectures in the 
spring course for adults will be given on 
Saturday afternoons during April. These 
travel lectures are accompanied by motion 
pictures and stereopticon slides. They are 
presented in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum, and all begin at 3 P.M. 
Following are the subjects, speakers and 
dates: 

April 6 — Timbuktu and Beyond 

Rudyerd Boulton, Assistant Curator of Birds, 
Field Museum; Leader of Stra\ls-Fieid Mu- 
seum West African Expedition 

April 13— The West Indies 

Major James C. Sawders, Nutley, New Jersey 

April 20 — The Canadian Rockies in Pic- 
tures and Story 

Dan McCowan, Banff, Canada 

April 27 — The Buried Cities of Ceylon 

Dr. Robert McMurry, New Yorlt City 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the Theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats on request. Requests for these seats 
may be made by telephone or in writing 
to the Museum, in advance of the lecture, 
and seats will then be held in the Member's 
name until 3 o'clock on the day of the 
lecture. Members may obtain seats in the 
reserved section also by presentation of 
their membership cards to the Theatre 
attendant before 3 o'clock on the lecture 
day, even though no advance reservation 
has been made. All reserved seats not 
claimed by 3 o'clock will be opened to the 
general public. 



The elephant has but one molar tooth in 
each side of the jaw but this tooth is replaced 
six times during the life of the animal. 



RAYMOND FOUNDATION PROGRAMS 
FOR CHILDREN CONTINUE 

Continuing the spring series of free motion 
picture programs for children, the James 
Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond Founda- 
tion for Public School and Children's Lec- 
tures will show films each Saturday morning 
during April. Each program is given twice — 
at 10 A.M., and again at 11. All will be 
presented in the James Simpson Theatre 
of the Museum. Children from all parts of 
Chicago and suburbs are invited. They 
may come alone, in groups from schools and 
other centers, or with parents, teachers, or 
other adults. Following is the schedule 
showing the titles of the films to be shown 
on each date: 

April 6 — Beetle Friends and Enemies; 
Trained Bird Fishermen; Glimpses of 
Quaint Gasp6 

April 13 — Monkey Capers; Jungle Vaude- 
ville; Souvenirs of Singapore; The Wapiti 
of Jackson Hole 

April 20 — Mushrooms and Their Cousins; 
Peter Stuyvesant 

April 27 — Nature's Weavers; Life of a 
Moth; Mounting Butterflies; Algonquin 
Adventures 



Teeth of Mammals 

Teeth of mammals vary greatly in struc- 
ture among different species, genera and 
families but their structure is quite constant 
among individuals of the same species. They 
are, therefore, relied upon in classifying 
mammals. 

A tooth of a fossil elephant from Texas, 
exhibited in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 
38), measures 8 x 13 inches and weighs 
seven pounds. 



CHINESE FIGURE PRESENTED 
AS LAUFER MEMORIAL 

An ancient Chinese clay figure of a danc- 
ing woman, dating from the T'ang period, 
between a.d. 618 and 906, has been pre- 
sented to Keld Museum by a friend of the 
institution who wishes to remain anonymous. 
The figure, of rare beauty and unusual 
archaeological interest, comes from a Chinese 
grave. It is now on exhibition in Stanley 
Field Hall. In accordance with the donor's 




Chinese Mortuary Figure 

A notable clay statuette, presented to the Museum 
by an anonymous donor, as a memorial to the late 
Dr. Berthold Laufer. 

wishes, it is to be kept as a permanent 
memorial to the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
for many years the Museum's Curator of 
Anthropology, and one of the world's 
foremost scholars in Oriental subjects. 

Made of a durable clay, artistically 
molded, and painted in delicate soft colors, 
the statuette is remarkably well preserved. 
It is of exceptionally high value. While 
the Museum has a collection of other figures 
of the same type, this one is especially 
notable. 

Mortuary clay figures of this kind were 
buried with the dead in China as manifesta- 
tions of the joy of living. Life was regarded 
as endless, with death a mere transformation 
whereby existence continued in another 
form. The figures buried in graves were 
made to represent persons and objects most 
dearly regarded in life by the deceased. 



APRIL GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
April: 

Week beginning April 1: Monday — Horses and 
Their Relatives; Tuesday — Life in the Far North; 
Wednesday — Primitive African Life; Thursday — • 
General Tour; Friday — Interesting Foreign Birds. 

Week beginning April 8: Monday — Indians of the 
Southwest; Tuesday — Amphibians and Reptiles; Wed- 
nesday — Looms and Textiles; Thursday — General 
Tollr; Friday — Hall of Plant Life. 

Week beginning April 15: Monday — The Gem 
Room; Tuesday — Habitat Groups; Wednesday — Races 
of Mankind; Thursday — General Tour; Friday — 
Etruscan and Roman Exhibits. 

Week beginning April 22: Monday — Fishes, Past 
and Present; Tuesday — Prehistoric Ijfe; Wednesday 
— Mexico; Thursday— -General Tour; Friday — The Art 
of the Cave Dwellers. 

Monday, April 29 — Minerals and Ores; Tuesday — 
Animal Ijfe of the Chicago .\rea. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Miss Alice B. Robbins — lady's coat of Ta 
Kang period of Ching dynasty, China; from anonymous 
donor — a rare, important, hand-decorated mortuary 
figure of dancing woman, T'ang dynasty (618-907), 
China; from Dr. Rom&n S. Flores — a photograph and 
3 herbarium and wood specimens, Yucatan; from Dr. 
Martin Cardenas — 300 herbarium specimens, Bolivia: 
from Stafford C. Edwards — 3 concretions, California; 
from Charles A. Ordway — 2 iron ore specimens, Idaho; 
from Museum of Comparative Zoology — 310 bats. 
Canal Zone; from L»lie Wheeler — 2 Brewster's 
screech owls and 18 skins of hawks and owls, mostly 
Coeta Rica and Oregon; from Stewart Walpole — 37 
bats, toads, frogs, and lizards. West Indies; from 
Chicago Zoological Society — 7 lizards, 6 snakes, and 
a fruit bat; from Donald B. Hodgson — 2 bird skins, 
Guatemala; from Edward Schaack — a snake, British 
Honduras; from Gordon Grant — 102 land shells, 
California; from E. M. Miller — a frog, Florida; from 
H. B. Conover — a bird akin, Korea; from Phil C. Orr 
— 2 fence lizards, Kentucky. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from February 16 to March 15: 

Associate Members 

Edward M. Kerwin, Mrs. Roscoe G. Leland, Louis 
Ralph McCreight, Thomas C. Orr, Miss Luella Raithel, 
T. J. Reed, Charles W. Spooner, Miss Myrtle I. 
SUrbird. 

Annual Members 

Miss .\urelia Bertol, Richard S. Bull, Mrs. Dale 
E. Chamberiin, Mrs. Philip R. Clarke, Dr. A. A. 
Dahlberg, Norman Daniel, Mitchel Goldsmith, 
Herbert Graffis, Thomas H. Heneage, Miss Augusta 
La Camp, Charles B. Obermeyer, Mrs. Bartholomew 
O'Toole, Clarence B. Randall, Mrs. Egbert H. Spencer, 
Mrs. J. Elmer Thomas, Charles H. True, Peter Leland 
Wentz, John Wickstrom, Clyde O. Williams, Kcimeth 
Williams, Attilio Zambon. 



An original Sun Dance altar of the 
Arapaho Indians is to be seen among the 
anthropological exhibits in Mary D. Sturges 
Hall (Hall 5). 



SPECIAL NOTICE 

Members of the Museum who have 
changed residences or plan to do so are 
urged to notify the Museum of their new 
addresses, so that Field Museum News 
and other communications may reach 
them promptly. 

Members going away during the sum- 
mer, who desire Museum matter sent to 
their temporary addresses, may have 
this service by notifying the Museum. 



PRINTCO BY FICLD MUSEUM 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



MAY, 1935 



No. 5 



ELEPHANT SEALS, COLLECTED BY HANCOCK EXPEDITION, IN HABITAT GROUP 

By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

The production of a group of elephant 
seals is quite a large undertaking, because 
this animal is rare, limited in distribution, 
troublesome to preserve and transport, and 
difficult to prepare for exhibition. Fortu- 
nately for Field Museum, the greatest of 
these difficulties were overcome when 
Captain G. Allan Hancock, of Los Angeles, 
offered his personal cooperation and the 
facilities of his ship, the Velero III, a large 
motor cruising vessel which often is enlisted 
in the cause of science and education. At 



elephant seal rather than sea elephant, 
although both names are fairly appropriate. 
We have elephant shrews, elephant fishes, 
and even elephant beetles, but these small 
animals are so named only because of their 
elongated snouts. The elephant seal not 
only has a short proboscis or "trunk," but 
it is elephantine in size, and its grayish color 
and the texture of its thinly haired skin 
suggest the elephants. 

There are two species of elephant seals, 
respectively called southern and northern. 
The southern species (Mirounga leonina) 
formerly was widely distributed on Antarctic 



eight animals were reported on Guadalupe 
Island; in 1907 about forty were seen; in 
1911 as many as 125 were found; in 1923 a 
careful count showed 366; in 1928 a further 
increase was shown; and in 1933 the 
Hancock Expedition estimated a total of 
about 1,200, of which 400 were males. 
Thus, within a few decades, what was a 
mere remnant of a species, vulnerable to 
any whim of man or physical nature, has 
grown to such proportions that its continued 
existence is practically assured. A few years 
ago the government of Mexico proclaimed 
Guadalupe Island as a special reservation 




World*s Largest Species of Seal Exhibited In Hall of Marine Mammals 
Scene on Guadalupe Island, off the coast of Mexico, as reproduced at Field Museum with specimens of huge elephant seals collected by an expedition with Captain 
G. Allan Hancock aboard his ship VeleTO III. Group prepared by Staff Taxidermist Julius Friesser, assisted by Frank Wonder; background by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 



the same time, Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, 
President of the San Diego Zoological Society, 
negotiated with the Mexican government 
for the necessary permission to take the 
specimens on Guadalupe Island. Part of 
the expense of the expedition was met with 
income from the Emily Crane Chadbourne 
Fund. 

On May 28, 1933, with Captain Hancock 
and Dr. Wegeforth on board, as well as two 
Field Museum taxidermists, Messrs. Julius 
Friesser and Frank Wonder, the Velero 
sailed from San Diego for Guadalupe and 
other islands in Mexican waters off the 
coast of Lower California. The expedition, 
as reported in Field Museum News (July 
and August, 1933), was entirely successful, 
and after some two weeks of intensive work, 
the skins of five selected animals were 
safely preserved and on the way to Chicago. 
Now the projected group has been completed 
in the Museum's Hall of Marine Mammals 
(Hall N). 

Since the animal is a true seal quite 
unrelated to elephants, it should be called 



islands and still appears in small numbers 
on a few of them. The northern species 
(Mirounga angustirostris) is similar in size 
and general characteristics to the southern 
one, but has the proboscis much more highly 
developed. At present the northern species 
is reduced to a single herd which resorts 
only to Guadalupe, an uninhabited island 
lying about 150 miles off the Mexican coast 
and some 300 miles southwest of San Diego. 
Originally, the animal was common all along 
the coast of Lower California and was 
recorded as far north as Point Reyes, Cali- 
fornia. This, however, was more than a 
hundred years ago. The crews of whaling 
and sealing vessels found it an easy prey 
and it was killed recklessly for its oil, one 
of the markets for which was provided by 
the forty-niners of the California gold rush. 
After the middle of the nineteenth century 
it became so scarce that experienced whalers 
reported it to be practically extinct. 

In recent years the northern elephant seal 
has shown a remarkable and gratifying 
capacity to restore itself. In 1892 only 



and a small military garrison was established 
there for the protection of the seals. 

Comparatively few naturalists have had 
opportunity to study the elephant seal, and 
much remains to be learned of its habits. 
Even its size is debatable. Early accounts 
gave lengths of twenty-five and even thirty 
feet for large males, but actual measure- 
ments, so far as taken, do not corroborate 
such dimensions. The fine bull obtained 
by the Hancock Expedition was selected 
from a large number judged to be of about 
maximum size, but its overall length was 
found to be exactly sixteen feet eleven inches. 
Captain Scammon, a famous whaler with 
an unusual experience and reputation for 
accuracy of statement, gives twenty-two 
feet as the maximum. Dr. J. A. Allen 
records measurements of a skeleton of the 
southern species from which he estimated 
a length of "twenty-one to twenty-two feet" 
for the living animal. At least it can scarcely 
be disputed that the elephant seal is the 
largest of all seals, for the Pacific walrus, its 

{Continued on page i) 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



May, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewell L. Avery 
John Borden 
William J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCorhick 

John P 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
Jambs Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

. Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Albert A. Sprague First Vice-President 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. 

April, September, October 9 a.m. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum, 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members, 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the ifuseum without 
charge. Ftu-ther information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



THE "DEVIL'S CORKSCREWS" 

By Sharat K. Roy 
Assistant Curator of Geology 

Nature produced huge earthy corkscrews 
long before man existed and had any reason 
for making metal ones. 

From northwestern Nebraska first word 
was brought by cowboys of the occurrence 
of these curious corkscrew-like forms that 
mark the bare bluffs, buttes and canyon 
walls of that region. Not knowing what 
they were, the cowboys called them by such 
expressive names as "stonescrews," "devil's 
corkscrews," "twisters," and "fossil worms." 

These phenomena, which were a mystery 
to the cowboys some four decades ago, are 
still a puzzle to scientists who have made 
extensive studies of them. The origin of 
these bodies is not yet understood. Hypoth- 
eses representing them as plants, casts of 
animal burrows, and mineral accretions have 
been brought forward from time to time, 
but none have met critical analyses. 

The corkscrews are found abundantly in 
the Lower Harrison Bed (Lower Miocene) 
of Sioux County, in northwestern Nebraska, 




A Geological .Mystery 

Daemonelix or "devil's corkscrew." Science has 
been unable to determine satisfactorily the origin of 
these strange spiral earthy formations found abimdantly 
in northwestern Nebraska. 

and occasionally in beds of the same age 
in adjoining areas. In appearance they are 
simply huge earthy spirals with or without 
a transverse projection at the base which 
simulates half a handle, usually rises at an 
angle, and often is as long as the spiral 
itself. The corkscrews vary in form, size, 
and direction of twist, but are always 
found upright. The spirals are either 
dextral or sinistral, and they either coil 
about a central axis or stand without an axis. 
The pitch of the screw is exceedingly uniform 
as is also its diameter. The helix tapers 
from base to top with astonishing exactness, 
seldom varying more than a millimeter in 
each turn of 90 degrees. 

The idea of a vegetable origin for the cork- 
screws arises chiefly from the fact that the 
transverse projecting base has the structure 
of a "rhizome," while the vertical open 
spiral is made up of interlacing fibers which, 
when examined in thin sections, show cell 
structures similar to those in the pith of 
plants. The objection to considering these 
bodies to be plants, however, lies in the 
fact that no known plants have such a 
manner of growth or are so uniform in 
diameter. The chlorophyll bands of spiro- 
gyra are spirally arranged, and so are the 
leaves of many plants, but that a whole 
plant should turn itself right or left in 
helix fashion has been hitherto practically 
unknown. It is, therefore, only natural 
that botanists should frown upon efforts of 
geologists to introduce an admittedly 
anomalous form, of questionable pedigree, 
into the presumably unadulterated society 
of plants. 



Those who advocate that the corkscrews 
represent casts of burrows of some large 
rodents believe that the "rhizome" was the 
entrance, and the spiral vertical portions 
were contraptions for ventilation as well 
as for escape of the excavators. Some 
rodents do make spiral burrows, and, in 
fact, skeletons of a large beaver-like rodent 
and of a carnivore have been found at the 
ends of corkscrews. Yet it does not seem 
reasonable that a rodent could have been 
so accurate a geometer as to construct a 
burrow so uniform in pitch and size. Further, 
it would seem to have been a physical im- 
possibility for him to construct the spirals 
which have an axis, for this would necessitate 
digging a straight hole through a spiral one 
without support for either. Recently, two 
specimens, somewhat resembling the Ne- 
braska corkscrews, have been discovered 
in the Pleistocene of Rock Creek, Briscoe 
County, Texas. Their discoverers ascribed 
them to a burrow origin, but the data 
offered are insufficient to substantiate this 
view. 

The suggestion that the corkscrews are 
of purely mineral origin, representing accre- 
tions of mineral matter, has also a few adher- 
ents. True, many forms of mineral origin take 
remarkable imitative shapes, but when one 
considers the great uniformity in shape and 
large number of corkscrews, such an explana- 
tion does not seem convincing. The question 
of the nature and origin of the corkscrews is, 
therefore, still an open one. It is possible 
that they are concretions, produced by 
colloidal precipitation. 

Field Museum has four specimens of these 
corkscrews on exhibition in Ernest R. 
Graham Hall (Hall 38). They represent all 
the important forms known. They range 
from two to seven feet in height, and are 
about four inches in diameter. All were 
collected in 1899 by a museum expedition 
under the leadership of Mr. Elmer S. Riggs, 
Associate Curator of Paleontology. 



NOTABLE REPTILE COLLECTION 

Mr. Stewart Springer of the Caribbean 
Biological Laboratories, Biloxi, Mississippi, 
has presented to Field Museum a part of 
the accumulated study specimens preserved 
at Biloxi. These include one hundred and 
ten specimens of salamanders, of forty-two 
species; ninety-six frogs, of forty species; 
one alligator; eleven specimens of turtles, 
each of a different species; seventy lizards, 
of forty species; and eighty-one snakes, of 
sixty-one species. 

Several species are new to Field Museum's 
collections, and numerous others represent 
rare or little-known forms. It is especially 
gratifying to obtain a series of salamanders 
and frogs from Europe, for the European 
fauna is often less well represented in Ameri- 
can museums than that of many remote and 
inaccessible parts of the world. In the 
American material, the series of well- 
preserved specimens from Mississippi is 
notable. The specimens in the Museum's 
study collections of reptiles, preserved in 
alcohol and used for reference in connection 
with varied scientific research, now number 
about 30,000. — K.P.S. 



The archaeology of Colombia is well 
represented by fine collections of ancient 
work in gold, pottery, shell and stone in the 
Department of Anthropology. 



Tracks of prehistoric reptiles found in 
Massachusetts are preserved in an exhibit 
in Ernest R, Graham Hall (Hall 38). 



May, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Page S 



EXHIBIT OF EXTINCT NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS POINTS LESSON ON CONSERVATION NEED 



By Rudyerd Boulton 
Assistant Curator of Birds 

The animal population of the world 
normally undergoes a slow and gradual 
change. Species that are unadaptable to 




Exterminated In 1932 

The heath hen, one of the first birds known to the 
American colonists. Its recent extinction is an ex- 
ample of the need of active conservation measures. 

changed conditions die oflF and other more 
plastic forms evolve to fill the environ- 
mental niche that they have vacated. With 
the dominance of the Mechanical Age on 
the earth, man has become a potent factor 
in the extinction of certain wild animals. 
An exhibit of extinct North American 
birds, recently installed in Hall 21, graphi- 
cally demonstrates this tendency. Eight 
of the twelve species of birds known to have 
become extinct in historic times are shown. 
The great auk, which is represented in the 



exhibit by a replica (of which a photograph 
appeared in the December, 1934, issue of 
Field Museum News), disappeared in 1844 
as a result of persecution by fishermen. 
They used the eggs for food, boiled the bodies 
for their oil, and used the flesh for codfish 
bait. The great auk was flightless and was 
perfectly adapted to a very specialized 
routine of life. It avoided potential natural 
enemies by the simple device of nesting only 
on isolated rocky islands. It was not 
adapted to resist continued persecution by 
man. 

The Labrador duck is represented by a 
splendid male formerly in the collection of 
the late Mr. Charles B. Cory, once Curator 
of Birds at Field Museum. This species 
became extinct in 1878 for reasons that 
have never definitely been determined. 
From the form of its bill, it obviously had 
very specialized feeding habits. It had a 
restricted winter range along the New 
England coast, and was undoubtedly one 
of the first species to suffer from excessive 
hunting. 

The other ten extinct species, of which six 
are shown in the exhibit, existed until the 
turn of the twentieth century. The Carolina 
paroquet was last seen in Florida in 1904. 
It disappeared due to an excessive demand 
for caged birds. 

The heath hen, for more than a century 
limited to a small colony on the island of 
Martha's Vineyard, formerly ranged over 
most of the northern Atlantic coastal plain. 
It became extinct in 1932. It is interesting 
to note that, one year after the close of the 
American Revolution, a law was passed on 
Long Island protecting the heath hen during 
its nesting season. After several years of 
effort, the protective committee was dis- 
solved because the law was flagrantly 
disregarded. The difficulty of enforcing 
game laws was discouraging 150 years ago 
even as it is now. 



The passenger pigeon, last seen in 1907, 
the Guadalupe flicker and the Guadalupe 
petrel, which disappeared in 1906, and the 
Eskimo curlew, exterminated in 1925, are 
the other four unfortunate birds which com- 
plete the exhibit. Their extinction affords 
examples which, if sufficient heed be taken, 
may have the effect of saving others whose 
existence is threatened. 

The remaining four extinct birds of North 
America, not shown in the exhibit, are the 
Guadalupe caracara, the Guadalupe wren, 




wiped Out by Pet Market 

The Carolina paroquet. This bird, and its close 
relative, the Louisiana paroquet, were the only parrots 
native to the United States. Demand for caged birds 
brought their extinction by 1904. 

the Bermuda petrel and the Louisiana 
paroquet. The exhibit was installed by 
Staff Taxidermist Ashley Hine, to whose 
talent was entrusted the difficult task of 
preparing these old and priceless specimens. 



SOUTH AMERICA ANTHROPOLOGY 
EXHIBITS COMPLETED 

Reinstallation of the exhibits in Hall 9, 
the hall of South American archaeology and 
ethnology, was recently completed. Much 
new material has been added to this hall illus- 
trating the lives of the principal Indian 
tribes of South America, both those of the 
past and those of the present time. 

Among the important collections repre- 
senting present-day tribes are those from 
the Chaco Indians and the Jivaro, the latter 
of whom inhabit the forests of eastern 
Ecuador and are noted for their practice of 
shrinking the heads of their enemies. Several 
such shrunken human heads are exhibited. 
There is also a large exhibit pertaining to 
the culture of the tribes of the northwest 
Amazon, Orinoco Basin, and Guiana regions. 
Of special interest are exhibits showing the 
preparation of food from the poisonous 
mandioca tuber, and the sacred trumpets 
used in initiation rites. 

The archaeological exhibits demonstrate 
the high culture of the inhabitants of the 
west coast of South America before Columbus 
reached this hemisphere. The civilization 
of the aboriginals of Colombia is well 
illustrated by collections of gold, pottery, 
shell and stone work. There are several 
cases of artistic pottery dating from pre-Inca 
times, dug up in the Chimu district on the 
Peruvian coast. Noteworthy are a number 
of so-called "mummies" or desiccated 
bodies and reproductions of graves in which 
they were found. Another section of the 



hall is devoted to the little-known Diaguite 
culture which flourished in early times in 
northwestern Argentina, and the adjacent 
cultures of pre-Hispanic Chile. 



SKULLS OF RARE BATS ARE FOUND 

IN ETHNOLOGICAL COLLECTIONS 

By Coun C. Sanborn 
Assistant Curator of Mammals 

It is a custom of many tribes in various 
parts of the world to save the skulls of 
animals which they kill for food. These 
are usually hung to the ceilings of their 
houses where they become blackened by 
the smoke of the cooking fires. The smaller 
skulls are fastened in rows on short sticks. 
The skulls are saved, not only to show the 
ability of the hunter, but because it is 
believed that they will aid him in killing 
more of the animals. 

Three such sticks holding bats' skulls 
were collected in Luzon in 1909 by Director 
Stephen C. Simms (then Assistant Curator 
of Ethnology), while he was leader of the 
Robert F. Cummings Expedition to the 
Philippines. A recent examination of these 
skulls by the Division of Mammals shows 
that five kinds of bats are represented, 
including six specimens of the very rare 
Jagor's Bat {Ptenochirus jagori Peters). 
This bat was discovered in 1861 in south 
Luzon by Mr. F. Jagor. It has since been 
found in other islands of the Philippines but 
never in any numbers and has always been 
rare in collections, especially in this country. 



The skull of another rare bat was found 
decorating the head of a lime spatula col- 
lected in 1908 in New Guinea by the late 
Dr. George A. Dorsey, then Curator of 
Anthropology. This skull represents a bat 
known from one specimen collected on the 
Cornelius Crane Pacific Expedition, which 
became the type of a new species (Pteropus 
sepikensis Sanborn). It is a very large 
fruit eating bat, often called flying fox, 
with a wing spread of more than five feet. 

These skulls have been transferred from 
the Department of Anthropology to the 
Department of Zoology. 



TEAPOTS THAT FUNCTION 
LIKE THERMOS BOTTLES 

Some examples of the Chinese equivalent 
of thermos bottles are included in an 
exhibit recently added to Hall 32 (West 
Gallery). These consist of wickerware 
baskets with heavily padded interiors, fitted 
with porcelain teapots. It is said that they 
are as efficient in keeping tea or other liquids 
hot as the vacuum bottles used in this 
country. The spout of the teapot projects 
through a perforation in the lock of the 
basket, making it possible to pour without 
removing the pot. The baskets are fastened 
with a brass hook in the form of a fish, the 
tail of which fits into a loop. Although the 
thermos bottle was invented in England, as 
recently as 1907, the Chinese have had their 
hot teapots for the use of travelers for 
hundreds of years. 



Page It 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



May, 1935 



NATIVE CHICAGO PLANTS 
CAN GLORIFY GARDENS 

By Paul C. Standley 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

Everywhere there is an illogical disposi- 
tion to scorn native plants for cultivation 
in gardens, even when the same plants are 
highly esteemed in regions where they are 
not native. Although their beauty is not 
generally questioned, they are held un- 
worthy of garden planting apparently 
because they can be procured at no cost. 
The fact that these plants are, naturally, 
best adapted to cultivation in the regions 
in which they are native, usually requiring 
less care in cultivation than exotic species, 
is ignored. 

With the wild flowers obtainable around 
Chicago it is possible to make a most 
attractive garden, that will afford an 
abundant display of beautiful flowers, 
fruits, or foliage throughout the growing 
season, or even well into the winter. Such 
a garden, composed of plants obtained 
leisurely at separated places, may furnish 
too a living record of many pleasant tramps 
or drives through the countryside. Since 
many of the most ornamental plants are 
of abundant occurrence, no harm is done 
by transplanting a few, and the rarer sorts 
usually may be obtained from nurserymen 
who make a specialty of propagating them. 

What trees could be handsomer than the 
fragrant crab apple, the snowy hawthorn 
that later is covered with red fruit, or the 
flowering dogwood? Among shrubs there 
are the spice bush, pawpaw, witch hazel 
with its strange habit of flowering in late 
autumn, wild plum, sand cherry, shad 
bush, wild roses, ninebark (Physocarpus), 
the white and pink spiraeas, hop tree 
(Plelea), sumacs so gorgeous in autumn 
foliage, winterberry (Ilex) loaded with its 
red fruits. New Jersey tea, the small-flowered 
dogwoods, one of which has red branches 
that contrast beautifully against a back- 
ground of snow, trailing arbutus if it can 
be induced to grow, button bush, elderberry, 
and a good many more. 

Even of ornamental vines there is an 
ample variety. They include the wild yam 
{Dioscorea), carrion flower (Smilax) with its 
handsome fruit clusters in autumn, moon- 
seed with black berries, white clematis, 
bittersweet, Virginia creeper, and wild 
cucumber. 

The herbaceous plants afford sufficient 
variety to please every taste. It is possible 
to obtain even in the city something of the 
breath of spring by planting Jack-in-the- 
pulpit, wild hyacinth (Camassia), trilliums, 
hepatica which probably will be the first 
of all to open its flowers, wild ginger, blood- 
root, Dutchman's breeches, violets, shooting 
star, phlox, and puccoon. For late spring 
and summer there are spiderwort, our wild 
lilies that are fully equal to many of the 
Oriental ones, iris, lady's-slippers to repre- 
sent the orchid family, red columbine, 
baneberry with white berries that seem 
to be made of china, may-apple, lupine, 
wild geranium, flowering spurge, rose 
hiallow, prickly pear, evening primroses, 
cow parsnip, and the handsome milkweeds 
In their great variety including butterfly 
weed, horse mint, dragon head (Physostegia), 
pentstemons, Culver's root, bluebells, car- 
dinal flower and blue lobelia, Joe Pye weed, 
blazing stars, coreopsis, yellow groundsel, 
the perennial sunflowers, and ever so many 
more. An autumn garden may be made 
bright with blue and white gentians, the 
innumerable asters whose beauty seems to 
have attracted little attention in America, 



although it is fully appreciated in Europe, 
and, if you like them, the goldenrods. 

Most of the plants listed are easy to 
cultivate, and the majority are easily 
procured. The lists could be extended 
greatly to include other plants well worthy 
of a place in gardens, and one who has once 
begun the formation of such a garden will 
always find desirable new plants to add to it. 

Many of the attractive plants mentioned 
here, as well as others native in the Chicago 
region, are illustrated by lifelike and accurate 
reproductions in the Hall of Plant Life 
(Hall 29) in Field Museum. 



ELEPHANT SEALS 

(Continued from page 1 ) 

only possible rival, reaches a length of no 
more than thirteen or fourteen feet. 

Weights are more problematical than 
dimensions and have in all cases been 
estimated. The bull taken for the Museum's 
group was thought to weigh about 5,000 
pounds and it has often been stated that 
the weight of large bulls should reach at 
least 6,000 pounds. The fresh skin of the 
Museum's bull, which was subject to fairly 
accurate estimate, was believed to weigh 
alone about 1,000 pounds. It was removed 
on the beach, and was so large and heavy 
it could not be transported to the anchored 
yacht by any of the ship's boats, so it 
became necessary to build a raft on which 
it was towed to the vessel's side and hauled 
on deck with the winch. 

Elephant seals, when out of the water, 
show little fear of man, presumably because 
they have few natural enemies, but perhaps 
also because their movements on land are 
slow and laborious. They progress over the 
sand beaches by arching the back and draw- 
ing the hind-quarters forward after the 
fashion of the caterpillars called inch-worms. 
Their food doubtless includes considerable 
fish, but the principal remains found in 
their stomachs are those of squid. The 
proboscis, found only in the males, reaches 
a length of about ten inches and, contrary 
to general belief, is not demonstrably 
inflatable. Its structure is fibrous and 
fleshy and its control apparently is muscular. 

The Museum's group was prepared by 
Staff Taxidermist FViesser and Assistant 
Wonder, who collected the specimens. The 
background, painted by Staff Artist Charles 
A. Corwin, shows a section of "Elephant 
Beach," the principal hauling ground of the 
animals on Guadalupe Island. 



Summer Visiting Hours Begin 

Beginning May 1 summer visiting 
hours, 9 A.M. to 6 p.m., go into effect. 
The Museum will be open during these 
hours up to and including September 2 
(Labor Day). 



"Naturalized Bird Citizens" of U. S. 

A case of foreign birds that have been 
introduced and naturalized in America has 
recently been installed in Hall 21. This, 
together with the exhibit of extinct North 
American birds described elsewhere in this 
issue of Field Museum News, illustrates 
the changes which are gradually affecting 
the natural fauna of America. 



A miniature model of an ancient Maya 
pyramid is exhibited in Hall 8. 



MAY GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
May: 

Wednesday, May 1 — Primitive Armor and Weapons; 
Thursday — General Tour; Friday — Plants and Animals 
of the Past. 

Week beginning May 6: Monday — Egyptian Hall; 
Tuesday — Birds and Their Skeletons; Wednesday — 
Man Through the Ages; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Plants and Their Uses. 

Week beginning May 13; Monday — Chinese Ex- 
hibits; Tuesday — Indians of Plain and Plateau; 
Wednesday — Jewelry of Many Lands; Thursday — 
General Tour; Friday — Monkeys and Their Relatives. 

Week beginning May 20: Monday — Geology Halls; 
Tuesday — Palms and Cereals; Wednesday — South 
American Exhibits; Thursday — General Tour; Friday 
— Strange Animals. 

Week beginning May 27: Monday — Types of Man- 
kind; Tuesday — Botany Halls; Wednesday — Musical 
Instruments; Thursday — Memorial Day holiday, no 
tour; Friday — Animal Ecology. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Eastman-Gardiner Hardwood Company — 2 
sycamore boards, Mississippi Valley: from Carl Buhl, 
Jr. — personal herbarium of 887 specimens, most of 
them mounted, chiefly Illinois and Indiana; from Dr. 
Lorenzo R. Parodi — 19 herbarium specimens, Argen- 
tina; from Yusuf Lazar^^76 herbarium specimens, 
Iraq; from Rustam Experimental Farm — 15 herbarium 
specimens, Iraq; from Professor Ernst Herzfeld — ^85 
herbarium specimens, 5 scorpions, and a solpugid, 
Iran; from Standard Oil Company of New Jersey — 3 
specimens vertebrate fossils, Argentina; from A. F. 
Sitterle — a double concretion, Texas; from Leslie 
Wheeler — 17 owls, 29 hawks, and 2 goat-suckers; 
from Dr. Walter P. Kennedy — 14 insects, Iraq: from 
Stewart Springer — 369 specimens of salamanders, 
frogs, turtles, lizards, snakes, and an alligator: from 
Dr. F. R. Shaw — 31 insects and 4 solpugids, Palestine 
and Transjordania; from A. R. M. Rickards — a 
solpugid, Iraq; from E. Bonati — 3 scorpions and 3 
solpugids, Iran: from Henry Dybas — 3 common and 2 
plains gartersnakes, Illinois; from Dr. A. I. Orten- 
burger — a keeled musk turtle, Oklahoma; from John 
P. Kellogg — 3 salamanders, Virginia; from Edward 
J. Brundage, Jr. — 30 insects, Connecticut; from 
Bernard Benesh — 36 beetles. United States. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from March 16 to April 15: 

Associate Members 

Edison Dick, Mrs. Edmund J. Doering, Jr., Mrs. 

E. E. Fies, Mrs. Joseph B. Fleming, Miss Susan E. 
Jones, Miss Zipporah Herrick Pottenger. 

Annual Members 

Rev. Edward S. Ames, Peter Bartoli, Herbert J. 
Bird, Henry S. Blum, Fred B. Borneman, Guy Brown, 
Andrew K. Bushman, James A. Cathcart, Miss Ellen 
M. Cauvins, Dr. Beulah Cushman, Carl Dreutzer, 
Mrs. L. S. Hungerford, Miss Gwendolyn Lucille Kolar, 
Mrs. Samuel N. Leitzell, John Henry Liebenthal, 
Arthur F. Lindley, Richard Mayer, William C. Napier, 

F. B. Stecce, E. C. Trowbridge. 



The William J. Chalmers crystal collec- 
tion on exhibition in Hall 34 contains many 
rare specimens from all parts of the world. 



Knight Book Proves Popular 

Before the Dawn of History, the book by 
Mr. Charles R. Knight, illustrated with his 
paintings and drawings of prehistoric life 
including many of those on exhibition in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall at Field Museum, 
has proved so popular that three printings 
were necessary in the first four weeks after 
publication, it is reported by the publishers, 
Whittlesey House (McGraw-Hill). 



PRINTCO BV FIELD MUSEUM PRESa 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 5 



JUNE, 1935 



No.6 



DRAMATIC EXHIBIT OF LEOPARD, IN WILD FIG TREE, CROUCHED FOR ATTACK 



By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator^ Department of Zoology 

The common leopard might well appear 
either in an exhibit of African or of Asiatic 
animals. Circumstances have favored its 
having a position among the Asiatic groups 
in William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) and it 
has now taken this place in the quartet of 
groups of carnivorous mammals which face 
the center of the hall. 
Although only one 
animal is shown, it is 
so effectively com- 
bined with a forest 
scene that the char- 
acter and habits of the 
species are forcefully 
and successfully in- 
dicated by subtle sug- 
gestion as well as by 
direct portrayal. 

Aside from the lion 
and tiger, the larger 
cats of the world are 
few in number. The 
leopard, the jaguar, 
the cougar or Ameri- 
can mountain lion, the 
cheetah, and the snow 
leopard make up the 
list. Of these, the 
leopard is the most 
numerous and widely 
distributed and, on 
the whole, it is per- 
haps the best general 
representative of the 
whole cat family, best 
in this case meaning 
the best average. In 
other words, the leop- 
ard is the best all- 
around cat, neither too 
large nor too small, 
neither confined to the 
ground nor to the trees, 
and able to live and 
thrive under various 

climatic conditions. For its rapacious life 
of violent slaying and devouring it is well 
equipped and successful. 

The geographical range of the leopard is 
very extensive, including practically all of 
Africa except the central Sahara, and most 
of Asia except the extreme north and the 
Tibetan highlands. In the East Indies it 
extends to the islands of Java, Sumatra, 
and Borneo. Within this wide area it is 
subject to numerous minor variations, but 
its general character remains the same and, 
like the wide-ranging American cougar, it 
is probably best regarded as a single species 
with numerous geographical races. 

The leopard's beautifully spotted coat is 
similar to that of its American cousin, the 
jaguar, but the spots are more regular and 
when they take the form of rosettes these 
do not inclose a central black spot. The 
leopard has longer legs than the jaguar and, 
being more lightly built, is probably a 
better runner. The so-called black leopard 
or "panther" is not a distinct species but a 
black phase due to melanism. Such black 



animals are often born to spotted parents. 
They are fairly common in southern Asia 
but occur very rarely, if at all, in Africa. 
Usually they are not fully black and the 
spotted pattern is discernible in certain 
lights. 

The leopard's hunting is done mostly at 
night, but in regions where it is numerous, 
hunters occasionally have chance encounters 




Leopard Ready to Pounce on Victim 

New group recently completed in WiUiam V. Kelley Hall. The animal was obtained by the late Colonel 
J. C. Faunthorpe. The group was prepared by Staff Taxidermist Leon L. Pray, assisted by Frank Letl. 



with it by day. If wounded or suddenly 
brought to bay, it attacks man fiercely and, 
in some instances, it has been known to 
develop the man-eating habit. Normally, 
it preys upon a wide variety of animals, 
antelopes, deer, sheep, goats, monkeys, 
birds, and at times even reptiles. As one 
author has expressed it, the leopard "can 
strike down an ox, or pounce upon a 
sparrow." Owing to its secretive and 
mostly nocturnal habits, the leopard is not 
often the special objective of sportsmen. 
Experienced hunters, however, have much 
respect for it and there are not a few who 
would vote it the most dangerous animal 
to be found in the jungle. Presenting a 
relatively small mark and moving with 
incredible speed and agility, it is more 
likely to succeed in carrying through its 
charge than is the king of beasts himself. 
In the experience of Field Museum expedi- 
tions, the leopard has more often threatened 
fatalities than any other animal. During 
the Museum's first African expedition Carl 
Akeley had a thrilling experience in which 



he was charged by a wounded leopard and 
forced to hand to hand struggle which 
lasted until the leopard was strangled and 
the hunter's arm, which had been thrust 
down its throat, was frightfully mangled. 
On a later Museum expedition, also in 
Africa, Edmund Heller awoke one night 
to find a leopard in his tent seizing a pet 
monkey that was sleeping there with him. 
Again, on the Con- 
over-Everard Expedi- 
tion, a leopard was 
caught in a trap by 
John Zimmer and it 
broke the chain or 
fastening and moved 
into tall grass with 
the trap attached to 
its foot. On being 
followed by the 
hunters and a number 
of natives, it made 
several charges before 
it was finally killed, 
and at one time it was 
practically standing 
over a native who had 
fallen in the grass. A 
similar incident with 
a trapped leopard oc- 
curred on the Chicago 
Daily News Abyssin- 
ian Expedition and, in 
this case, a native 
received a severe scalp 
wound. The unarmed 
native had followed 
the animal a short 
distance, meanwhile 
calling to Alfred Bailey 
to come with his rifle. 
Just as Bailey arrived, 
the leopard charged 
and it was killed 
practically in mid-air, 
going down with its 
claws sunk in the rash 
boy's scalp. 
The specimen used in the Museum's 
exhibit was obtained in central India by 
Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe. It is shown in 
the branches of a wild fig tree, reproduced 
from studies made by cooperation with the 
Bombay Natural History Society. Taxi- 
dermy, background, and accessories are by 
Taxidermist Leon L. Pray assisted by 
Frank Letl. 



BREAD FRUIT 

Bread fruit, with which most people have 
made their first acquaintance as youngsters 
in reading Robinson Crusoe, is the subject of 
an exhibit in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29). 
The exhibit contains a leafing, flowering and 
fruiting branch of this Polynesian tree which 
supplied a staple item in the diet of Defoe's 
hero on his desert island. 

The exhibit includes also a cut section 
of bread fruit, showing the edible pulp; 
some resinous gum obtained from the bread 
fruit tree, and used by natives of the islands 
where it grows to caulk their canoes; and 
specimens of the related jack fruit. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



June, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
RooseTelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewell L. Avery 
John Borden 
William J. Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

John P, 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Sums 
Jambs Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

. Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Pretideni 

Albert A. Sprague First Vice-President 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith. . .Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 
Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 p.m. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Itluseum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 261 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



THE CAP-BLANC SKELETON 
IS SUBJECT OF BOOK 

A monograph on the Magdalenian skeleton 
from Cap-Blanc, which is exhibited in the 
Hall of the Stone Age of the Old World 
(Hall C) at Field Museum, was recently 
published by the University of Illinois, 
under the auspices of its Graduate School. 
Dr. Gerhardt von Bonin, of the staff of 
the department of anatomy at the university, 
is the author. He made a profound study 
of this specimen, which is the only Paleo- 
lithic human skeleton in any American 
institution. 

The skeleton is that of a girl, estimated 
to have been about twenty years of age 
at the time of her death. It was found in 
the Cap-Blanc rock-shelter in the Dordogne 
region of France, on the walls of which is 
one of the most important examples of 
sculpture of the Magdalenian period — a 
famous frieze of horses. This rock-shelter 
has been reproduced in one of the series 
of dioramas in the Hall of the Stone Age, 
adjacent to the case containing the original 
skeleton. 

Dr. von Bonin's monograph discusses all 
features of the skeleton in detail, as observed 
in his careful studies. The monograph is 
illustrated with nine large plates of photo- 
graphs and diagrams. It is dedicated to 
the memory of the late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
former Curator of Anthropology at Field 
Museum. Copies of the book are on sale 
at Field Museum. Price $1.00. Postage 
additional on mail orders (7 cents in Chicago) . 

AIR CUSHION PROTECTS EARTH 
FROM MOST METEORITES 

By Henry W. Nichoi^ 
Curator, Department of Geology 

Meteorites, so many of which are shown 
in Hall 34, would be dangerous visitors were 
it not for the protection afforded the surface 
of the earth and its inhabitants by the 
atmosphere. So numerous are the meteorites 
that enter the upper atmosphere and so 
great is their velocity that if they reached 
the surface of the earth unimpeded, the 
constant bombardment would make human 
life perilous if not impossible. Fortunately 
the air interposes an obstacle or cushion 
through which few of them can pass and 
those few only with greatly reduced speed 
and much diminished size. 

It is impossible to estimate with any 
pretense to accuracy the number of mete- 
orites that enter the air, but this number is 
known to be very large. Some estimates, 
based upon such imperfect data as can be 
obtained, are as high as nearly a million 
an hour. Fortunately, most of these mete- 
orites are very small, comparable with grains 
of sand in size. It is believed that most 
meteorites enter the air at speeds between 
eight and forty-four miles per second. At 
such enormous speeds even particles as 
small as grains of sand become deadly 
projectiles. 

A meteorite that weighs only one pound, 
moving at a speed of forty-four miles per 
second, would strike with a force of more 
than eight hundred million foot-pounds. 
The smashing power of a meteorite of even 
moderately large size would be much greater. 
Even the extremely rarefied upper air opposes 
a strong resistance to bodies moving at such 
enormous speeds. The friction of passage 
rapidly reduces the velocities to moderate 
values comparable with those of ordinary 
falling bodies. Sufficient heat is generated 
by this friction to heat the surface of the 
meteorite to incandescence. The surface 
melts and a film of molten matter covers it. 
This molten film is rapidly blown away by 



the powerful air currents generated by the 
passage and trails behind forming the lumin- 
ous train seen behind meteors and shooting 
stars. The melted surface film is renewed as 
fast as it is blown away and thus the sub- 
stance of the meteorite is consumed. Nearly 
all meteorites that enter the air are com- 
pletely destroyed in this way. Very few 
survive to strike the ground. An iron 
meteorite would have to weigh from ten 
to twenty pounds for even a small core to 
persist until it reached the solid earth and 
few of the many meteorites that enter the 
upper air are as large as this. The meteorites 
that have fallen are but the remnants of 
much larger bodies. 

The height at which the initial velocity 
of nine meteorites was overcome and from 
which they fell under the influence of gravity 
alone has been computed and found to be 
from about two and one-quarter to twenty- 
nine miles. Even the fall by the pull of 
gravity is retarded by the resistance of the 
air which checks the fall greatly but in vary- 
ing degrees dependent on the weight, size 
and shape of the meteorite. The few giant 
meteorites weighing thousands of tons each 
which made great craters (as described in 
the February, 1934, issue of Field Museum 
News) are exceptional. Their enormous 
weights were sufficient to overcome in great 
degree the retarding effect of the atmosphere. 



CHINESE HOUSEHOLD EXHIBIT 

An exhibit of Chinese household objects, 
together with a few Chinese scientific in- 
struments, was recently added to the hall 
of Chinese ethnology (Hall 32). 

Included are elaborate vanity boxes used 
by Chinese women, decorative hair combs, 
pillows made of various materials such as 
pottery, rattan, or leather on a wooden 
frame, hand warmers, incense boxes, pad- 
locks, combination locks, bed curtain hooks, 
spectacles made of rock crystal, a hat stand, 
a lamp especially designed to keep mosqui- 
toes away, soap, brushes, mariner's com- 
passes and sun dials. 

The hard pillows are decorated with vari- 
ous kinds of designs, one having a picture 
of the Kilin, a fabulous animal about which 
the Chinese have a legend similar to ours 
about the stork bringing children. 

For heating, in central and southern 
China, metal braziers filled with charcoal 
are placed in the room. The general 
tendency is to keep the body warm by the 
addition of clothes rather than by heating 
the room. Pillows serve largely for the 
support of the neck, and some have an 
opening in one end so that they may be 
filled with hot water in the winter and with 
ice in the summer. 



Distinguished Visitors 

Among distinguished visitors to Field 
Museum during May were Major-General 
Sir Francis Younghusband, M. Maxime 
Ducrocq, Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, and 
Dr. E. L. Gill. Sir Francis is well-known 
for his explorations in India, Tibet, Turke- 
stan, the Pamirs, Chitral, "Transvaal, and 
elsewhere. He was British Commissioner to 
Tibet for several years, and is the author 
of numerous books. M. Ducrocq is a noted 
French sportsman, and President du Conseil 
International de la Chasse. He visited 
Chicago in the course of a trip around the 
world in the interest of promoting wild 
life protection. Colonel Roosevelt took the 
opportunity to inspect a number of the new 
Asiatic groups in William V. Kelley Hall, 
including several for which he had collected 
specimens. Dr. Gill is Director of the South 
African Museum at Cape Town. 



June, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



GROWING MEXICAN PLANTS 
IN CHICAGO GARDENS 

By Paul C. Standley 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

It is well known that many basic economic 
plants of the United States such as corn or 
maize, beans, cotton, and tobacco, besides 
peppers and other plants of minor impor- 
tance, originated in Mexico. That country 
is the source also of many ornamental 
plants popular in North American gardens. 

Early writers commented upon the fond- 
ness of Mexicans for flowers, as evinced 
by beautiful gardens that existed in the 
Valley of Anahuac. Flowers were grown 
extensively in the neighboring country, and 
brought in boat loads to the market. Aztec 
emperors established a botanical garden of 
rare plants from all parts of their realm. 

Love of flowers is just as pronounced 
among the Mexicans today as four hundred 
years ago, and flowers are displayed as 
lavishly as ever in the markets. Even the 
humblest homes are almost always sur- 
rounded by gardens, with a great variety 
of flowers of the kinds esteemed before the 
coming of the Spaniards, and in addition 
many others from the Old World, as well as 
some, like the California poppy and gail- 
lardia, from the United States. 

Some Mexican plants must have been 
in cultivation many centuries, for they are 
no longer known in a wild state. It is now 
decidedly uncertain whether some had 
their origin in Mexico or South America, 
for they seem to have been widely dispersed 
at the time of the conquest. Double- 
flowered forms, too, seem to have been as 
well established then as now. 

Mexican plants most common in our 
gardens are cockscomb, bachelor's-button 
or globe amaranth (Gomphrena) , four-o'clock, 
marigold, and zinnia. None of these grows 
at present in a really wild state. The 
zinnia is so popular in this region that it 
has been designated as the state flower of 
Indiana. 

Other Mexican plants are cosmos in its 
various forms and colors, tuberose, spider- 
flower (Cleome), the poinsettia that fills 
florists' shops at Christmas time, some of 
the begonias and many of the popular 
cacti, perhaps some of the fuchsias (although 
these are mostly South American), moon 
vine, the lantana that is so popular in park 
beds, the lavender-purple ageratum, and, 
above all, the dahlias. 

The poinsettia probably no longer exists 
in a wild state, but is a favorite shrub in 
Mexico and Central America. Those who 
know the poinsettia only as a potted plant 
can scarcely imagine its gorgeous effect 
when growing as a shrub or small tree. 

The lantana as it grows wild is a weedy 
shrub in most parts of the American tropics, 
giving little promise as a decorative plant, 
for the bush is a coarse and straggling one, 
and the flowers are small and unattractive 
in color. Selective cultivation has improved 
it greatly. The inhabitants of tropical 
America regret that all the plants were not 
taken north, for they are pernicious weeds 
where native. 

The ageratum, too, which is planted to 
form such handsome beds in some of the 
Chicago parks, is a despised weed in Mexico 
and Central America, where it behaves 
much like daisies or dog-fennel in the 
United States. When the native people are 
told that it is cultivated for ornament in 
the north they are greatly amused. 

The truly wild dahlias of Mexico and 
Central America are far removed from the 
innumerable "improved" forms of our 



gardens, but many are not inferior in beauty. 
They are all of the single type, and particu- 
larly beautiful are the large, pure white 
ones, the plants of which often become 
shrubs or small trees. They produce an 
especially handsome effect when banked 
along mountain roads and trails. In some 
parts of Centra! America where dahlias are 
cultivated abundantly but are not native, 
both single and double forms have become 
troublesome weeds, especially in corn fields. 
Besides the plants enumerated, many 
other Mexican ones occasionally occur in 



the gardens and greenhouses of Chicago. 
Some Mexican plants of notable beauty 
are highly prized in botanical gardens, but 
offer difficulties in propagation that prevent 
wider use. 

Some of the best known Mexican plants 
are represented in the Hall of Plant Life 
(Hall 29) by accurate reproductions. 



A loaf of bread baked in Egypt more than 
3,000 years ago is exhibited among the col- 
lections of food plants and products in the 
Department of Botany. 



PAINTING BY KNIGHT SHOWS STRANGE WINGLESS MOAS 



By Bryan Patterson 
Assistant in Paleontology 

New Zealand is remarkable among the 
larger islands of the world for the fact that 
it possesses no native land mammals. This 
absence of mammals, particularly of the 
carnivorous forms, permitted the evolution 
of a number of peculiar flightless birds, of 
which the great majority are now extinct. 
The accompanying illustration depicts an 
evening scene in South Island and shows 
a number of the largest of these birds, 
Dinornis maximus, grouped about a small 
valley stream. 

The members of the extinct order to which 
Dinornis belongs are known collectively as 
moas, a Maori name handed down from the 
time when the birds were hunted and eaten 
by the natives. Moas, to judge from the 



were small and chestnut colored with a 
white tip. We owe this last piece of in- 
formation to the excellent preservation, in 
dry caves in South Island, of specimens 
with the ligaments, dried skin and feathers 
still adhering to the bones. 

The extinction of this once flourishing 
group seems to have been due to two causes. 
New Zealand, in common with other parts 
of the world, underwent a refrigeration 
of climate during the Pleistocene or glacial 
period. This reduction in temperature must 
have greatly reduced the number of moas. 
The survivors were exterminated by man. 
At various places on the islands have been 
found the so-called Maori ovens — old 
cooking pits where broken and charred moa 
bones and fragments of eggshell are mixed 
with stones and charcoal. The last moa 




Copyright Field Muse 



of Natural History 



Moas of New Zealand 



One of the mural paintings by Charles R. Knight in Ernest R. Graham Hall. In a general way these huge 
wingless birds resembled the modern ostrich. Some reached a height of twelve feet. 



immense numbers of their bones which have 
been found, were at one time exceedingly 
numerous. The remains of more than 
twenty species belonging to five genera have 
been distinguished. These ranged in size 
from the giant Dinornis maximus, which 
probably attained heights of ten feet, 
down to small species of Anomalopteryx 
which was not over three feet high. 

The moas were entirely flightless and 
possessed only small vestiges of wings. 
They were ostrich-like in general appearance 
but the larger forms were relatively bulkier 
and had more massive legs. The feathers 



was killed before the discovery of New 
Zealand by white men. 

Before the coming of man the moas had 
natural enemies. Remains of a large eagle, 
Harpagornis, which doubtless preyed on 
the smaller species and on the young of the 
larger forms, have been found on both 
islands. The moas themselves fed on ferns. 

The accompanying illustration has been 
taken from a mural by Charles R. Knight 
in Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). In 
the same hall are exhibited the skeleton of 
a small species of Dinornis and a life size 
restoration of Dinornis maximus. 



Pagei 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



June, 19S5 



MANY COLOR PLATES OF HAWKS 
ILLUSTRATE NEW BOOK 

Field Museum has placed on sale an 
especially attractive book, The Hawks of 
North America, recently published by The 
National Association of Audubon Societies. 
Dr. John B. May, who has served as Director 
of Ornithology of the Massachusetts Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and is a noted economic 
ornithologist and authority on birds of prey, 
is the author. The book is illustrated with 
37 color plates by Major Allan Brooks, one 
of the foremost painters of birds. It 
contains also four black and white profile 
plates by Roger Tory Peterson, range maps 
for aU species showing breeding areas and 
wintering limits, and flight patterns in black 
and white which are of practical value in 
identifying each species in the field. 

Copies of the book may be obtained at 
the publication and post card counters in 
the Museum, at $1.25. If you desire a 
copy sent by mail, send your order with 
check or money order for this amount, and 
it will be mailed to you. 



ANIMALS THAT ARE EQUIPPED 
WITH TRAP DOORS 

By Kakl p. Schmidt 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles 

The familiar sally about "crawling into a 
hole and pulling the hole in after oneself" 
comes to mind in connection with animals 
in which a part of the body is especially 
modified to close the hole or crevice in the 
ground in which they live or take refuge. 
Such hole-closing devices are found as part 
of the bodily structure of certain insects, 
a few frogs, lizards and snakes, and even 
(perhaps) one mammal. 

Numerous frogs and toads have the top 
of the head developed into a bony casque. 
In certain South American tree frogs the 
head can be pulled down nearly at right 
angles to the body, and this is interpreted 
as enabling the frog to close the knot hole 
in which it lives. The most authentically 
described case illustrating this relation 
between habit and structure is that of a 
small Cuban toad which lives in short 
vertical burrows in the ground. It retires 
into its burrow backward, and the bony 
top of its head is bent sharply forward, 
effectively blocking the hole. The extreme 
development of spines on the tails of some 
lizards perhaps may function in the same 
way. At any rate, it is difficult to imagine 
a snake swallowing an Egyptian mastigure 
or an American spiny-tailed iguana tail 
foremost. Some of these lizards take refuge 
in cracks between rocks and can bend their 
tails sharply sidewise, which would effec- 
tively close a crevice. 

Even more remarkable are the creatures 
which live in burrows in the soil and have 
sharply truncated or spiny tails. The most 
notable example is probably the burrowing 
snake Uropeltis of southern India, in which 
the tail terminates in a single large rugose 
shield at right angles to its axis and as 
broad as the body. It carries the rear door 
of its burrow with it. The pichiciego, a 
tiny burrowing armadillo of western Argen- 
tina, has so truncated a rear, covered with a 
special shield, that it is apparently a 
mammalian example of this phenomenon. 

This relation between animal structiire 
and life in holes or burrows has been called 
phragmosis. It requires much further 
observation to establish the extent to which 
it ocCTirs and to verify its usefulness. 
Naturalists have hitherto been so much 
occupied with collecting and describing the 
rich life of the tropics that there has been 



little time for observation of habits under 
natural conditions or in the laboratory. 
This affords a fascinating field for study. 



JAVANESE SCULPTURES 

Ancient Javanese stone sculptures of 
four of the most potent deities of Indian 
mythology, are on exhibition in Hall G, 
devoted to the archaeology and ethnology 
of Malaysia. The statues, which date to 
about the beginning of the Christian era, 
indicate a high degree of artistic develop- 
ment on the part of the sculptors. 

One represents Ganeca, god of wisdom and 
prudence, in the shape of an elephant as 
a symbol of sagacity. Its trunk rests in a 
water jar, but it has two pairs of human 
arms. This is one of the most popular of 
Indian deities, and almost every act in a 
Hindu's life begins with an invocation to 
Ganeca. The wisdom it represents is not 
that of knowledge, but worldly wisdom of 
the kind which results in financial success. 
Therefore it is particularly the god of the 
shopkeepers. 

Another is the warlike and ferocious god- 
dess Durga, to whom bloody sacrifices were 
offered. In another incarnation she is called 
Kali, "the Black One," goddess of death 
and destruction. Thugs murdered their 
victims in her honor. 

The third of the gods is the Buddha 
Amitabha, who was the personification of 
light in the first century of the present era. 
He is believed to preside over a paradise 
in the west where faithful votaries will be 
reborn from lotus flowers to enjoy a state 
of eternal bliss. He was the most popular of 
Buddfaas in the Far East. 

Last is shown Civa, destroyer and creator, 
depicted in the garb of a Brahman ascetic, 
holding a trident symbolic of divine power. 



Flying Reptiles 



In a panel-exhibit, a yard square and 
carefully sealed up under glass, in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 38), is the skeleton of 
a flying reptile. The bones are of a dark, 
brownish color, very thin and delicate. The 
body is the size of an eagle's and the wings 
had a similar spread. The skull is delicate, 
and ends in a long straight beak. The wing 
bones have been hollow, but now appear 
flattened like so many joints of reeds. 'There 
were three fingers armed with slender claws 
at the second joint corresponding to three 
fingers of the human hand; the fourth finger 
extended into slender bones to support a 
membranous wing. From this characteris- 
tic was derived the creature's name ptero- 
dactyl, or wing-finger. 

Such flying reptiles lived over the inland 
seas of western Kansas during Cretaceous 
time, about one hundred million years ago. 
At death they fell into this old-time sea 
and eventually their bones were covered 
by the sediments gathering at the sea bottom. 
The Museum's specimen was found some 
years ago lying in a bed of natural chalk 
where ages of storm and rain had washed 
it bare.— E.S.R. 



Structural Cements 

Common clay, the first cement used by 
man for structural purposes, is still the most 
used of all. A collection of the various 
substances used for structural cement may 
be seen in Hall 36. 



JUNE GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
June: 

Week begianing June 3: Monday — Chinese Art; 
Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday — Hall of Plant 
Life; Thursday — General Tour; Friday — ,\ncient 
Burials. 

Week beginning June 10: Monday — .\nimal Habitat 
Groups; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday — Hall 
of Races of Mankind; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Fish and Reptiles. 

Week beginning June 17: Monday — Amber, Tur- 
pentine and Rubber; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednes- 
day — Prehistoric Life; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Pewter and Jade. 

Week beginning June 24: Monday — Egyptian 
Exhibits; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday — 
Birds; Thursday— General Totir; Friday — Cleology 
Exhibits. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Reld 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From B. A. Krukoff — 25 samples of seeds and 
fruits, Brazil; from Howard Scott Gentry — 500 her- 
barium specimens, Mexico; from School of Forestry, 
Yale University — 38 herbarium specimens, Colombia; 
from Rev. Brother Elias — 45 herbarium specimens, 
Colombia; from Prof. Manuel Valerio — 276 herbarium 
specimens, Costa Rica; from Dr. T. F. Seymour — a 
specimen of foliated talc. Canada; from Miss Elizabeth 
Oliver — a specimen of pisolite, Illinois; from Stewart 
Springer — 11 lizards, Sardinia; from Dr. .\ubum B. 
Brower — 2 butterflies, Maine; from C. Blair Coursen— 
44 lizards and 2 frogs, Florida; from Chicago Zoological 
Society — a short-headed flying phalanger. New Guinea; 
from Leslie Wheeler — 17 hawks and 3 owls, Costa 
Rica and Canada. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from April 16 to May 15: 

Non-Resident Life Members 

John Wyatt Gregg 

Associate Members 

Mrs. Gustavus Babson, Dr. Ralph B. Bettman, 

Robert N. Golding, R. G. HoUingsworth, Mrs. Frank 

K. Hoover, George E. McGrath, George F. Mulligan, 

Mrs. Lloyd F. Neely, Miss F. A. Reffelt, Benjamin 

J. Rosenthal, Miss Shiriey Jane Short, Floyd E. 

Thompson. Edward E. Voynow, Charles Weiner. 

Annual Members 

Comfort S. Butler, Mrs. Chester W. Chapin, Dr. 
Bowman Coming Crowell, Joshua D'Esposito, L. J. 
Drake, Lyman M. Drake, Miss E. L. Drew, Mrs. 
Thomas E. Duffy, Miss Ruth M. Engberg, Frank C. 
Huffman, Everett B. Michaels, Lorry R. Northrup, 
Patrick B. Prescott, Jr., William A. Rowley, E. B. 
Thurman, Rudolph E. Vogel, Carl J. Zipprich. 



Research by Noted Paleontologist 

Dr. William Berryman Scott, Professor 
Emeritus of Princeton University, recently 
spent several weeks at PMeld Museum, 
engaged in research on skeletons of fossil 
Astrapotheres in the Museum's collections. 
The results of his research are to be made 
the subject of a scientific publication. 
Professor Scott is the former Blair Professor 
of Geology and Paleontology at Princeton, 
and is well-known as one of the world's 
leading authorities in his fields of study. 



Rough diamonds from nearly all the im- 
portant fields of the world, as well as several 
finely cut large specimens, are exhibited in 
H. N. Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). 



Specimens showing all stages in the manu- 
facture of lead pencils form an economic 
exhibit in the Department of Geology. 



PRINTED BY FICLO MUSCUM 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



JULY, 1935 



No. 7 



is neither black nor a buck. The species 
is one of the oldest known to civilized man 
and it is not unlikely that it was brought 
captive to Europe in the time of Alexander 
the Great. It thrives in captivity and is 
often seen in zoos and private parks. Its 
natural home is open grassland of which 
there is more in central India than generally 
supposed. 



^■r-- 



BLACKBUCK AND CHINKARA, ANTELOPES OF INDIA, MAKE ATTRACTIVE GROUP 

By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

The third group to be completed in 
William V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) during 
the present year, and the fourteenth in the 
hall, is one in which two species are shown. 
These are the Indian antelope or blackbuck 
and the Indian gazelle or chinkara, which 
inhabit similar semi-arid parts of India and 
at least occasionally 
may be found closely _ _ __ 

associated. They are \ 
highly characteristic ,»: 

Indian animals for, al- j 

though several other 
antelopes reach the 
northern and western 
borders of the country, 
these two are the only 
representatives of 
their kind throughout 
peninsular India ex- 
cept the much larger 
nilghai and the shy, 
skulking four-horned 
antelope. The ante- 
lopes of India do not 
compare in numbers 
with those of Africa, 
but much interest has 
been concentrated on 
them during the long 
British occupancy. 

The two species 
exhibit several con- 
trasts, the most nota- 
ble being in the 
secondary sex charac- 
ters, one showing 
much difference be- 
tween the sexes and 
the other very little. 
In the blackbuck, the 

male is conspicuously different in color from 
the female, and the male has well developed 
horns while the female has none. In the 
chinkara, the sexes are alike in color and 
both male and female have horns. Among 
antelopes there is great variation in such 
characters, whereas in the deer family, 
with very few exceptions, the males are 
horned and the females hornless. 

The name blackbuck, originally applied 
only to the males, is now in general use 
for the species and it is not uncommon to 
see or hear the contradictory expression 
"female blackbuck," although the female 




Graceful and Fleet of Foot 

The blackbuck (on the right), and the chinkara (left), two species of small antelopes common to India. 
Note the spiral horns, especially those on the blackbuck, which are the most corkscrew-like found on any antelope. 



Like other animals of the plains it is 
keen of sight and swift of foot. In fact, 
it is claimed by some that it is the swiftest 
of all four-footed animals. Whether this 
claim can be substantiated or not is doubtful, 
for it is unlikely that a test for the champion- 
ship with other claimants to the title can 
ever be arranged. Anglo-Indians, however, 
who have also hunted in Africa, insist that 
it is faster than any animal of that continent. 
One writer (Dunbar Brander) very seriously 
says: "I believe that if it were possible to 
enter a herd of blackbuck for the Derby 
and their pace were to be regulated by the 



slowest animal in the herd, they would come 

in a solid mob well in front of the horses 

and, given anything in the nature of jumps 

or uneven ground, the relative speed of the 

buck and the horse would be further 

accentuated." Besides speed and endurance, 

the blackbuck has unusual agility and 

flashing quickness of movement which have 

given it distinction as a high-jumper as well 

as a runner. The 

playful exercise of 

these qualities is often 

seen in undisturbed 

herds on their feeding 

grounds when one 

after another springs 

lightly over the backs 

of its companions. 

The chinkara is so- 
called by natives, al- 
though in books it is 
more often nominated 
as the Indian gazelle 
or Bennett's gazelle. 
It reaches a weight of 
only fifty to sixty 
pounds and is a 
delicately formed 
creature of nearly uni- 
form tan color. It 
ranges somewhat more 
extensively than the 
blackbuck and is in- 
clined to frequent 
light scrub rather than 
grassgrown plains. In 
such places drinking 
water is often scarce 
or quite absent, but 
the chinkara seems to 
suffer no discomfort. 
A certain minimum of 
moisture is essential 
but, like some other antelopes and rodents, 
it obtains enough from the herbage it eats. 
The Museum's group, for which speci- 
mens were collected by the James Simpson- 
Roosevelts Asiatic Expedition, and by the 
late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe of Bombay, 
includes a male and two females of the 
blackbuck and a male and female of the 
chinkara. It was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Arthur G. Rueckert, assisted by Mr. 
William E. Eigsti. The background was 
painted by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin 
from studies made through the cooperation 
of the Bombay Natural History Society. 



Cave Scenes Shown 

Six colored transparent pictures of the 
interior of the Luray Caverns of Virginia 
have been placed in windows near the 
exhibit of cave formations in Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). These explain 
the nature and occurrence of the exhibited 
stalactites and stalagmites better than the 
labels can. They show multitudes of stalac- 
tites hanging from the cave roof like icicles, 
and stalagmites growing upwards from the 
cave floor below. 

The stalactites look like huge icicles 
because they are formed in much the same 
way, by water dripping through the leaky 



cave roof. Instead of the water freezing 
to form an icicle it evaporates. As it is 
hard water it leaves, when it evaporates, a 
residue of carbonate of lime which is the 
stalactite. Any water that does not evapo- 
rate drips from the point of the stalactite 
to the cave floor where, upon continued 
evaporation, it builds upwards a column of 
carbonate of lime which is a stalagmite. 
The varied, fantastic and beautiful shapes 
produced are strikingly illustrated by the 
transparencies. These transparencies, and 
a number of stalactites and stalagmites, 
were recently presented to the Museum by 
the Luray Caverns Corporation. 



Meteorites Seen Falling 

Fifty-two per cent of the more than 700 
meteorites in the Museum collection were 
actually seen to fall. The others were 
identified as meteorites through peculiarities 
of structure and composition not found in 
anything of earthly origin. 



The mariner's compass, of which several 
Chinese examples are displayed in George 
T. and Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 
24), is an ancient Chinese invention which 
was brought to Europe by the seafaring 
Arabs. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



July, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
RooseTelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sbwbll L. Avery 
John Borden 
WnxiAu J. Chalhers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Grahau 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCoruick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

WnxiAH H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Sihus 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spragub 
Silas H. Strawn 
Lesub Wheeler 
Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Praident 

Albert A. Sprague Fir$t Vice-Pretideni 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-Pretideni 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator oj Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curaior of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. 
April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and ^mday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Lite and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



EXHIBIT OF FOREIGN BIRDS 

INTRODUCED IN AMERICA 

By Rudyerd Boulton 
Assistant Curator of Birds 

In the May issue of Field Museum News 
there was announced the installation of an 
exhibit of extinct North American birds in 
Hall 21. Eight of the twelve species that 
have totally ceased to exist are shown, from 
the great auk, last recorded in 1844, to the 
heath hen, which became extinct on Martha's 
Vineyard in 1932. 

To complete the picture of the changing 
bird fauna in America, a similar exhibit 
of introduced foreign birds was recently 
installed in the same hall by Staff Taxi- 
dermist Ashley Hine, who has since resigned. 

In 1850, six years after the first American 
bird, the great auk, became extinct, English 
sparrows were imported and released in 
Brooklyn for their supposed value in con- 
trolling insect pests of agriculture. It is 
true that an occasional swarm of army 
worms has been exterminated by English 
sparrows, and during the nesting season 
the young birds are fed largely on insects, 
but the plans of the persons responsible for 
the introduction have gone far astray. 
Disease is spread on poultry farms by 
sparrows, economically valuable native birds 
are harassed and driven away, and damage 
to agriculture exceeds the benefits. 

It is a surprise to many people to know 
that the English or house sparrow is not 
closely related to our own native sparrows. 
He actually belongs to the great family 
of weaver birds, all of whose members have 
their native home in the Old World. 

The other most obvious foreigner among 
our native birds is the European starling. 
Introduced in New York in 1890, it did 
not become well established for some time, 
and only in recent years has it become 
common in the Chicago area. Its food 
habits recommend it more to our tolerance 
than those of the house sparrow, but as 
the starling is partially migratory (the house 
sparrow is a resident) it is potentially a 
source of widespread danger. The starling's 
habit of gathering in huge flocks in fall and 
winter and using city buildings for its 
roosting places has caused much damage. 

Both sparrow and starling are here to 
stay. There is no possibility of eliminating 
them, for their numbers are legion and they 
occupy very extensive territory. 

Two game birds, the ring-necked pheasant 
and the European partridge, are well estab- 
lished in many regions. They will never 
become economic problems because the 
annual toll taken by fall hunting will keep 
their numbers within bounds. It is unfortu- 
nate that the many thousands of dollars 
spent in transplanting and propagating 
these birds could not have been spent in 
conserving our own native game birds which, 
without question, furnish better sport from 
the true sportsman's point of view, as well 
as being economically more valuable to 
agriculture. 

The Chinese spotted dove and the ringed 
turtle dove have been introduced in Cali- 
fornia, the skylark on Vancouver Island, 
the European goldfinch on Long Island, the 
European tree sparrow near St. Louis, and 
the crested mynah in British Columbia. 
None of these have as yet become economi- 
cally important. Many other attempted 
introductions have failed. 

If an exotic form is able to establish itself 
in a new home, it generally means that it 
is escaping some controlling factor in its 
original environment that kept its numbers 
within reason. No one can predict what 



that may be. For that reason, government 
regulations are now in effect to control the 
wholesale introduction of any birds or 
animals. 

RARE BOTANICAL WORK 

ADDED TO LIBRARY 

By B. E. Dahlgren 
Curator, Department of Botany 

In the work of Field Museum on plants 
of the American tropics the library of the 
Department of Botany has gradually 
acquired most of the publications of im- 
portance in that particular field. 

A recent addition, Velloso's Flora flumin- 
ensis, is sufficiently voluminous and curious 
to deserve special mention and has, besides, 
an unusual history. With its eleven volumes 
of folio size plates it is inferior in bulk only 
to Martius' great Flora of Brazil (long in 
the library) with which it naturally invites 
comparison. But the well-known work 
which bears the name of Martius is the 
result of the labor of dozens of specialists 
working in European institutions during 
the latter half of the nineteenth century. 

Velloso's flora, published in 1825, is a 
product of the century preceding, having 
been written before 1790. It was the work 
of a Franciscan brother occupied with the 
collection and description of plants in Minas 
Gteraes and later in the Rio de Janeiro region. 
The sixteen hundred odd plates that form 
the bulk of the publication were largely 
the work of his companion Soldano, like- 
wise a Franciscan, but various other drafts- 
men are also listed as contributors. After 
the death of the chief author these plates 
were preserved in the National Library 
where they might have remained un- 
published indefinitely but for the appearance 
of some parts of a botanical publication of 
Martius that were brought to the attention 
of the young emperor of Brazil, Dom Pedro I. 

According to a contemporary story, told 
by Martius himself, Dom Pedro is said to 
have exclaimed: "Must foreigners come to 
describe our plants? Could we not do this 
for ourselves?" Informed by his father 
confessor of the existence of Velloso's manu- 
script he immediately ordered its publica- 
tion, authorizing the embassy in Paris to 
arrange for the engraving and printing of the 
plates by one of the foremost lithographic 
houses of Europe. 

While this work, begun on a sumptuous 
scale, was still under way the political 
situation forced the emperor's abdication 
and return to his native land, Portugal. 
Velloso's flora was forgotten for the time 
being and the flow of funds for its publication 
interrupted. The mill furnishing the paper 
had apparently not then been paid in full 
and on the strength of its claim the entire 
edition was seized from the engravers. A 
considerable part of the still unbound plates 
is said to have been sold for cartridge paper 
to the government of France, which was 
then engaged in a war in Algeria. 

Field Museum's copy is one of a number 
which were salvaged and presumably 
delivered in the course of time to the 
Brazilian government. It is in an excellent 
state of preservation. The very high grade 
of handmade paper on which it is printed 
remains, after a hundred and ten years, 
almost as perfect and fresh in appearance 
as if it were just off the press. 

The belated publication of this work, 
undertaken more than thirty-five years after 
it was written, is said to have cost the 
Brazilian imperial government a million 
francs, a very large sum for its day. 



July, 19S5 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



FIELD MUSEUM EXHIBITS WORLD'S ONLY ARTICULATED SKELETON OF ASTRAPOTHERIUM 



By Elmer S. Rigcs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

One of the most treasured specimens of 
South American fossil mammals has been 
added recently to the collections in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). It is a unique 
skeleton of the strange beast Astrapolherium 
magnum. This is the first articulated skeleton 
of this animal known, and the first to be 
placed on exhibition in any museum. Also, 
it is the first specimen of the entire order, 
Astrapotheria, to become so fully known. 



nose and a prehensile upper lip which filled 
out the open space above the lower jaw 
and served the animal in grasping its food. 
The lower incisor teeth are broad and have 
rounded, chisel-shaped crowns. The evi- 
dence of wear on these teeth shows that they 
were opposed by some part of the mouth 
not preserved in the bony structure — prob- 
ably the prehensile upper lip. The molars 
are similar to those of certain river rhinoc- 
eroses, and adapted to feeding upon fleshy 
plants. The back of the palate is not 



rests upon the ground. The foot is so 
slender and the bones so weak in proportion 
to the size of the animal as to indicate that 
the weight was borne upon a pad which 
enveloped the entire sole of the foot. 

The unusual features in the structure 
of this animal are receiving detailed scientific 
study from well-known paleontologists, not- 
ably Dr. William Berryman Scott of Prince- 
ton University, an eminent authority on 
South American mammals. His forthcoming 
publications may be expected to throw much 




Astrapotherlum Magnum, a Unique and Important Fossil Exhibit 

A skeleton of an extinct South American mammal which is of extreme interest to paleontologists, now on view in Ernest R. Graham Hall. In mounting the skeleton it 
has been posed to represent the position of the animal lying down. AstTa-potherium, in standing position, was about five feet in height, and nine and one-half feet in length. 



From this specimen it becomes possible to 
establish definitely the relationships of this 
group of animals to other great orders of 
extinct South American mammals. 

The Astrapotherium lived during the 
Miocene period, about twelve million years 
ago. The skeleton shows that it stood 
nearly five feet in height and was nine and 
one-half feet long. The head was massive, 
and the mouth was armed with four strong 
tusks somewhat like those of the wild boar. 

The upper tusks, triangular in cross- 
section, curved downward to meet a shorter 
pair in the lower jaw. The nasal opening 
was wide, and opened upward and forward 
much like that of the modern tapir. Appar- 
ently it was surmounted by a large pouchy 



bridged over by the bony structures common 
in animals which feed under water. 

The neck of Asirapotherium was moder- 
ately long for an animal of its stature. The 
body was rather long and slender with a 
deep, narrow chest. Twenty-four body 
vertebrae are present in the skeleton and 
nineteen pairs of ribs. The forelegs are 
rather long and strong as is consistent with 
a deep and well-muscled shoulder. The 
forefoot had five toes which were enclosed 
apparently in a fleshy pad like that of 
the elephant. The hind legs were much 
more slender than the forelegs and the 
entire hind quarters were relatively light. 
The hind foot was of the plantigrade struc- 
ture in which the entire sole of the foot 



light on the systematic position and the 
relationships of this most bizarre animal. 

In general it may be said that Asirapo- 
therium was a low-ground or a river-fre- 
quenting animal which fed upon fleshy, 
moist plants such as canes or rushes, 
much as the modern hippopotamus does. 
It may have swum in lakes or rivers. The 
animal was first reported nearly eighty years 
ago and has since become known from 
various specimens consisting of teeth, jaws 
and a considerable number of entire skulls. 
These specimens have been found most 
abundantly in formations of Miocene age 
in southern Argentina. More recently speci- 
mens of related animals have been found in 
Uruguay, Colombia and Venezuela. 



FAMILY TREE OF REPTILES 

By D. Dwight Davis 
Assistant, Department of Zoology 

The genealogy of reptiles is a long one, 
extending back into the earth's history more 
than two hundred million years. They 
reached the peak of their struggle for 
supremacy long ago, and now, reduced in 
numbers, only a handful of mostly small 
and highly specialized types remains. 

The actual beginning of the reptile line 
is a secret that probably never will be known. 
It must have taken place some time during 
the Carboniferous Era, or Coal Age, but 
the fossil record is not very clear. During 
the Mesozoic Era, or "middle age" in the 
earth's history, reptiles underwent an 
extraordinary differentiation. An abundance 
of fossils shows that they dominated the 
entire animal world. Grotesque pterodactyls 
occupied the air before there were any 
birds; fishlike ichthyosaurs, together with 
mosasaurs and turtles, inhabited the 



ancient waters; while dinosaurs were the 
predominating land animals. Although 
some of these animals, such as the well 
known Broniosaurus, reached the size and 
weight of a railroad locomotive, most of 
them were small. Indeed, some of the most 
interesting were no larger than a chicken. 
The dramatic rise and fall of the reptile 
line is in itself, a fascinating topic that has 
attracted many students. From the evolu- 
tionary standpoint, however, this is over- 
shadowed by the still more interesting part 
they have played in the history of verte- 
brates. Just as the amphibians grade 
almost imperceptibly into the reptiles in 
the Carboniferous, so do certain reptilian 
groups gradually take on the characteristics 
of mammals and birds at a later time. The 
famous Karoo beds of South Africa have 
yielded fossils which, although true reptiles, 
are more like mammals in nearly every 
feature of their anatomy. Some of the small 
dinosaurs, on the other hand, become in- 
creasingly birdlike. 



It is thus apparent that reptiles stand at 
one of the great crossroads in the history 
of life on the earth. Although they them- 
selves represented a distinct advance over 
their amphibian ancestors, their descendants, 
birds and mammals, far outstripped them, 
and even brought about their undoing. 
Birds and mammals, with their superior 
intelligence, their warm blood, and their 
higher organization, rapidly usurped the 
dominating position so long held by reptiles, 
and have since reduced them to a few small 
and relatively unimportant survivors — the 
crocodilians, lizards, snakes, and the tur- 
tles. 

An exhibit depicting the central place 
in vertebrate history held by reptiles has 
recently been installed in Hall 19, together 
with skeletons of each of the surviving 
groups. This exhibit was prepared by Mr. 
E. N. Gueret and the writer from data 
recently published by Dr. A. S. Roraer. 
Many of the extinct forms are exhibited in 
Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). 



Page U 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



July, 1 9S5 



HISTORY OF LEMONADE 

With the season for iced drinks here, it 
is interesting to find that lemonade has a 
long and honorable history in the Orient. 
According to an article by the late Dr. 
Berthold Laufer, former Curator of Anthro- 
pology, lemonade was a favorite beverage 
of the Mongol emperors in China, and they 
•were so fond of it that they appointed a 
special official of high rank to take charge 
of its constant preparation. Dr. Laufer 
wrote, in part: 

"Mar Sergius, a Nestorian Christian, who 
founded a Nestorian church at Chenkiang 
in A.D. 1281, was reputed, as were his an- 
cestors, for his ability to prepare sherbets 
(including lemonade), and the emperor 
bestowed upon him a diploma in the form 
of a gold tablet, granting him the privilege 
of especially applying himself to that occupa- 
tion. Mar Sergius was obliged to send to 
the court annually forty jars of sherbet 
prepared from the juices of lemons, grapes, 
quinces and oranges. These beverages were 
believed to have curative powers. On 
various occasions this official lemonade 
maker was ordered to make special journeys 
post haste to various points in the empire 
to prepare the drinks for special functions. 

"Of the numerous useful fruits that we 
owe to India the lemon is the most demo- 
cratic and most widely known. It has 
become a denizen of the world, and, with 
its Indie name, has penetrated even into 
the darkest parts of Africa and the tropical 
jungles of South America. Next to the 
word 'tobacco' the word 'lemon' is the most 
universal, reverberating with only slight 
modifications from every tongue of the 
globe. 

"The earliest references to lemons in 
India on the part of European travelers are 
by a Friar Odoric of the fourteenth century, 
who on a visit to Ceylon described a pool 
full of precious stones, and abounding in 
leeches. The king, he related, allowed the 
poor to search the water for the stones once 
or twice a year, and to take whatever they 
could find. But in order that they might 
be able to enter the water in safety they 
bruised lemons and copiously anointed their 
bodies with the juice to keep the leeches 
from biting them." 

SUMATRAN WEDDINGS 

Among the Menangkabau tribe, of central 
Sumatra, marriage is a really serious matter. 
Contrasted to the spur-of-the-moment wed- 
dings contracted in perfunctory ceremonies 
at some of our Gretna Greens, where a few 
hours' or even a few minutes' acquaintance 
may be a couple's only preliminary to 
rnatrimony, the Menangkabau go through 
eight solid days of elaborate and solemn 
ceremonials, culminating in a grand finale 
of feasting and dancing on the final day. 

In Hall G (devoted to ethnology of the 
Malay Peninsula and Malay Archipelago) 
there are exhibited life size models of a 
Menangkabau bride and groom, dressed in 
the elaborate garments used on such an occa- 
sion. The trappings for these figures were col- 
lected for the Museum by the Arthur B. 
Jones Expedition to Malaysia. 

A Menangkabau wedding is strictly an 
affair of the matriarchal family. A repre- 
sentative of the family negotiates the 
match, sets the time, and prepares the 
wedding feast. The garments worn by the 
bride are family possessions, and are used 
for generations. 

The dresses shown on the Museum's 
models are typical of those worn by the 
bride and groom on the final day. The 
bride wears skirt, jacket, and shoulder 



cloth of silk with designs in gold and silver 
thread. On her head and about her neck 
she wears the typical ornaments of a bride, 
while her wrists support huge bracelets 
covered with thin gold plate in design. On 
the fifth finger of her hand is a long golden 
fingernail protector — a result of Chinese 
influence. 

The groom is dressed less elaborately than 
the bride, but his garments show some of 
the best weaving of the tribe. The lower 




Menangkabau Bride and Groom 

Life-size models of native Sumatrans in the elabo- 
rate trappings worn on the wedding day, exhibited in 
Hall G. 

borders of his jacket and sleeves have 
designs woven in gold thread, while similar 
designs appear on the trousers and belt. 
Thrust into his belt is the kris or fighting 
knife, traditional weapon of the Malay. 



SPHERICAL CONCRETIONS 

Visitors sometimes inquire why some of 
the concretions in the large collection in 
Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) are 
spheres. Concretions assume many fantastic 
forms, but when grown under ideal condi- 
tions they are spheres as is illustrated by a 
recent addition to the collection presented 
by Mr. A. F. Sitterle, of Chicago. A study 
of this sand-calcite concretion, partially 
embedded in its sandstone matrix, may 
make the reason for the ideal form easier 
to understand. 

This concretion was formed in a sandstone 
bed by growth, from the center, of a 
mass of minute calcite crystals which fill 
spaces between the grains of sand. The 
sandstone is of the variety called freestone, 
made up of uniform grains with the porosity 
equal in all directions. The concretion grew 
by the deposition of carbonate of lime from 
hard water which slowly percolated through 
the porous stone. This deposit from hard 
water is not unusual — it accounts for the 
scale formed in steam boilers and tea kettles. 

The concretion started as a single crystal 
of minute size or by the coating of a small 
nucleus and grew outwards. The reason for 
its spherical form is merely the absence of 
any reason for another shape. With con- 
ditions uniform on all sides of the growing 
mass there is no reason why it should grow 
faster in one direction than another. If it 
grows equally in all directions the shape is 
necessarily that of a sphere. The reason 
why more concretions are not spheres is 
that ideal conditions are as seldom en- 
countered where concretions are growing 
as they are elsewhere. — H.W.N. 



GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

During July and August the conducted 
tours of the exhibits under the guidance of 
staff lecturers will be given on a special 
schedule, as follows: 

Mondays: 11 A.M., Halls Showing Plant Life; 3 p.m., 
General Tour. 

Tuesdays: H a.m.. Halls of Primitive and Civilized 
Peoples; 3 p.m., General Tour. 

Wednesdays: 11 A.M., Animal Groups; 3 P.M., 
General Tour. 

Thursdays: 11 A.M. and 3 p.m., General Tours. 
Fridays: 11 A.M., Minerals and Prehistoric Exhibits; 
3 P.M., General Tour. 

There are no tours on Saturdays, Sundays, 
or the July Fourth holiday. 

Persons wishing to participate in the tours 
should apply at the North Entrance. The 
tours are free, and no gratuities are to be 
proffered. Guide-lecturers' services for 
special tours by parties of ten or more are 
available free of charge by arrangement with 
the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Helmuth Bay — 15 specimens of woods, Nor- 
way; from School of Forestry, Yale University — 37 
herbarium specimens, Ecuador; from Robert M. 
Zingg — 21 herbarium specimens, Mexico; from Pro- 
fessor Manuel Valerie — 25 herbarium specimens, 
Costa Rica; from Leslie Wheeler — 43 owls, 11 hawks, 
and a vulture; from J. H. Dekker — a fox and a badger, 
Iraq; from Henry Dybas — 6 snakes, Indiana; from 
Chicago Zoological Society — 4 lizards, 2 sand snakes, 
a caracal, and a desert monitor; from Bruno Schoemann 
— 3 snakes, Brazil; from Dr. W. E. Hoffmann — 8 
turtles, South China; from H. B. Conover — a mallard 
duck and a ground dove, Illinois and Brazil; from Sir 
Charles Belcher — an orange-crested manakin, British 
Guiana; from General Biological Supply House — 2 
salamanders, Portugal; from Lincoln Park Zoo — a 
polar bear skeleton; from Howard Cleaves — a bob- 
white, Wisconsin; from Otto Aubert — a porcupine 
skeleton, Wisconsin; from Frank L. Thomas — a native 
copper glacial boulder, Indiana. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from May 16 to June 15: 

Associate Members 

Mrs. Clarence A. Burley, Walter L. Cherry, Jr., 
W. S. Clithero, Miss Elsa W. Junker, Sigmund Kun- 
stadter, Mrs. William P. Martin, Samuel R. Noble, 
Samuel J. Walker. 

Annual Members 

Horace White Armstrong, Edward Buker, Miss 
M. M. Capper, Carroll G. Chase, Samuel T. Chase, 
James F. Clancy, Mrs. Schuyler M. Coe, R. Cooper, 
Jr., Leonard S. Florsheim, D. B. Fulton, Mrs. Cora 
S. Hirsch, Warren C. Horton, Morton D. Hull, Mrs. 
Franklin Marling, Jr., Jesse L. McLaughlin, Alfred C. 
Meyer, J. H. Millsaps, Montrose Newman, Mrs. 
Leslie H. Nichols, W. H. Parker, Dr. William Raim, 
Mrs. W. W. Rice, Cranston Spray, Mrs. Leslie Berwyn 
Steven. 



Noted Orientalists Visit Museum 

Three of the world's most noted authori- 
ties on Chinese art and archaeology, so- 
journing in Chicago recently, visited Field 
Museum on June 12 to inspect the Oriental 
collections of this institution. These visitors, 
all from England, are Mr. George Eumor- 
forpoulos, founder of the famous Eumor- 
forpoulos Collection recently purchased by 
the British nation for the Victoria and Albert 
Museum; Mr. Robert Lockhart Hobson, 
Keeper of the Department of Ceramics and 
Ethnography in the British Museum, and 
cataloguer of the Eumorforpoulos Collec- 
tion; and Mr. Oscar Raphael, a well-known 
private collector. A fourth member of 
their party, Sir Percival David, who has 
published many important catalogues of 
Oriental art, was unable to accompany the 
others on the Museum visit. 

PRINTC9 Br FIELD MUSEUM r>RCSS 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



AUGUST, 1935 



No. 8 



SKELETON OF HUGE MEGATHERIUM, GREATEST OF GROUND SLOTHS, EXHIBITED 



By Elmer S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

In any collection of ground sloths, a 
specimen of the great Megatherium naturally 
takes first place. Not alone his great size 
and peculiar characteristics command for 
him that position, but his early discovery 
on the pampas of Argentina and his wide 
distribution over the two Americas have 
made him the best- 
known of the ground 
sloths. 

A mounted skeleton 
of Megatherium ameri- 
canum, the largest 
species of this animal, 
has just been placed 
on exhibition in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 
38) of Field Museum. 
This skeleton replaces 
a plaster cast, copies 
of which have been 
exhibited in many mu- 
seums. From these 
casts, as well as from 
figures reproduced in 
many text-books, this 
animal has become 
widely known. 

The skeleton as 
mounted has a length 
of eighteen feet from 
the nose to the end of 
the tail. The body is 
very broad in propor- 
tion to its length, 
much broader than 
was represented by 
the older casts and 
figures. The head, 
nearly a yard in 
length, is deep and 
massive in propor- 
tions. The lower jaw 
in the portion which 
supports the molar 
teeth is especially 
massive. The jaws, 
both above and be- 
low, are armed with 
great prismatic molar 
teeth, eight inches in 
length and deeply set 
in their sockets. These 
teeth grew continu- 
ously throughout the life of the animal and 
were pushed out from below to compensate 
for the wear at the crown. The great length 
of tooth was made necessary by the entire 
lack of the hard enamel coating which 
serves in protecting the teeth of most other 
mammals. There were no front teeth either 
above or below. The temporal arches are 
extended into long processes which furnished 
greater surface for attachment of the 
temporal muscles, the source of power in 
grinding the food. 

The forefeet are prehensile and are armed 
with three long claws each. The hind legs 
are relatively short and massive, measuring 
fourteen inches across the knee-joint. The 
hind feet are so constructed that in the 



standing position they turn outward in an 
awkward manner unlike that of any modern 
mammal. The weight was thus borne 
upon the side of the foot and upon the 
great projecting heel. The single massive 
and strongly curved claw was apparently 
used as an anchorage to the ground when 
the animal reared upright in feeding. The 
tail served as a third support in that position. 




Probably the only 
American ground sloths, 
Argentina, It has been 



Megatherium Americanum, a Giant Eighteen Feet Long 

complete skeleton in any North American museum of this largest species of fossil South 
this specimen was collected by the Second Marshall Field Paleontological Expedition to 
assembled by Preparator Phil C. Orr and placed on exhibition in Ernest R. Graham Hall. 



The ground sloths were plant-eaters, feed- 
ing upon the leaves and fruit of trees and 
upon roots and tubers. The strong, claw- 
bearing forefeet were equally well adapted 
to pulling down branches of trees and to 
digging in the earth for food. The accom- 
panying photograph of the skeleton shows 
the animal reared upon the hind legs while 
the forefeet are resting upon a branched 
tree. In this position Megatherium may 
have often fed upon the sweet and much- 
prized seed pods of the algaroba tree which 
is widely distributed through the regions it 
inhabited. 

More than fifty species of ground sloths 
have been reported from various sections of 
South America. The entire sloth tribe 



originated there about 40,000,000 years ago, 
and was confined to that continent until 
land connections were established between 
North and South America at the Isthmus 
of Panama. Later, many species of these 
animals came northward and have left their 
fossil remains abundantly in the asphaltum 
pools of Los Angeles and less numerously in 
other parts of the United States. 

In South America 
at least one species of 
ground sloth is be- 
lieved to have sur- 
vived until after the 
appearance of man on 
that continent. Fresh 
bone of one species of 
these animals {Glosso- 
therium listai Ame- 
ghino) as well as quan- 
tities of dried skin 
with hair intact, 
ordure, and other evi- 
dences of animal pres- 
ence, were found 
forty years ago in a 
cave-shelter at Last 
Hope Inlet, Patagonia. 
The presence in the 
same shelter of quan- 
tities of cut grass has 
been taken as evidence 
that man and sloth 
inhabited the cave at 
about the same time. 
Megatherium lived 
about 20,000 years 
ago. 

The skeleton of 
Megatherium recently 
placed on exhibition 
in Field Museum was 
collected by the 
Second Marshall Field 
Paleontological Ex- 
pedition to Argentina 
and Bolivia in 1927. 
It was found in a high, 
eroded bank of the 
River Quequen Salada 
at the south coast of 
the Province of Buenos 
Aires, Argentina. 
Portions of the hind 
legs, pelvis and tail 
had been eroded away. 
These have been replaced by parts of a 
somewhat more slender animal from another 
locality. The original skull belonging to 
this skeleton is exhibited in a neighboring 
case along with specimens of seventeen other 
species of South American ground sloths. 



The processes of printing and wood en- 
graving employed in China and Tibet are 
illustrated by exhibits in the Department of 
Anthropology. 

An exhibit of the fibrous minerals from 
which asbestos is made, with specimens of 
a wide variety of asbestos products, is in- 
cluded among the Museum's economic 
geology collections. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Atigxist, 19S5 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
RooMTelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Ssn-ELL L. Avery 
John Borden 
Wnxtui J. CHAUists 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanxey Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Iksull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCorhick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
James Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sprague 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

'. WasoN 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field President 

Albert A. Sprague Firtt Vict-Pretident 

James Simpson Second Viee-Praidenl 

Albert W. Harris Third Viee-Pretident 

Stephen C. Sdims Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treaturer and Amiitant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Muteum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Acting Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. D AHLGREN Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Hartb Managing Editor 



Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 a.m. to 4:30 P.M. 

April, September, October 9 AJI. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to JIOO.OOO. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



COLLECTION OF REEF FISHES 
FROM THE SOUTH SEAS 

By Alfred C. Weed 
Assistant Curator of Fishes 

Field Museum has received, from the 
recent expedition of the John G. Shedd 
Aquarium to the South Seas, a large and 
very valuable collection of fishes taken in 
Hawaii and Kji. Most of the collecting was 
done on the reef at Suva and around the 
coral reefs, beaches and rocky shores near 
Honolulu. 

The work of collectors of fishes is often 
thought of as fishing with hook and line or 
nets, or else buying specimens caught by 
market fishermen. On this expedition there 
was a large amount of more violent exercise. 
Many hours were spent in turning over large 
blocks of coral to find the small, brilliant 
fishes that had hidden under them during 
low tide. Large coral heads were broken 
up with hammers to get out fishes that had 
taken refuge inside. 

Some little rock skippers were found in 
tide pools on the lava shores. When the 
collectors came near these pools, some of 
the fishes would rush across the rocks and 
dive into the sea. The only way they could 
be taken was by having one man stand in 
the surf to catch them in a hand net after 
they had been herded into the water by 
the others. It is reported that they traveled 
over the wet rocks faster than a man 
could run. 

Of course, there was also fishing with hook 
and line and some species could only be 
caught on the smallest hooks in the most 
violent surf. Not much fishing was done 
with long nets because of the coral, but dip 
nets were used freely. 

Besides the labor of getting the fishes out 
of their hiding places, the men had to be 
careful not to be injured by the specimens 
they were taking. Some of the eels were 
vicious and made savage attacks when 
driven from the holes where they had taken 
refuge. 

Many ^species with dangerously poisonous 
spines were brought back. Among them 
are: the lion fish, with long spines as thin, 
stiff and sharp as the finest needles, each 
with a poison gland near its tip; a black 
catfish marked with white stripes, that is as 
dangerous as any of the mad toms of our 
brooks; a fish that looks just like a lump 
of wave-washed coral covered with a growth 
of all manner of marine plants and animals, 
and a row of deadly spines along its back; 
and a fish that is sometimes called "stinging- 
fish." Most of these are simply called 
"poison-fish" by the natives and all are 
strictly avoided. 

There are also many scorpion-fishes, with 
sharp, dangerous spines on head and back; 
surgeon-fishes, with sharp, knife-like spines 
on the sides of the tail; and tangs, that 
carry in sheaths at the sides of the tail 
sharp spines like small knife blades, that 
can be opened out and used as dangerous 
cutting weapons. Many of the other fishes 
had sharp teeth or spines which they tried 
to use on the collectors. 

In the collection are many brilliant species 
of butterfly-fishes, wrasses, parrot-fishes, 
squirrel-fishes, trigger-fishes, file-fishes and 
others that have no names in English. 
There are several species of Amphiprion, a 
small reef fish that lives in close company 
with a sea-anemone. Every few minutes 
one of these fishes will settle down onto 
its pet anemone and rub its sides along the 
mass of tentacles. When the fish wishes 
to rest it will lie in the center of the sea- 
anemone, which will then curl its filaments 
around it. 



In color, these fishes show the most amaz- 
ing combinations of reds, blues and yellows, 
set off and accented by black and white. 
The alcoholic specimens for the study 
collection show none of this brilliant color 
and would hardly be recognized as the same 
fishes. 

So far, the Museum has received about 
sixty species collected on the reef at Suva, 
Fiji, and about the same number from 
Hawaii. Since many of the species found 
at one place were not taken at the other, 
there will be nearly a hundred species in 
the entire collection. 



SUN'S RAYS BREAK ROCK 

By Henry W. Nichols 
Curator, Department of Geology 

A collection recently installed in Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35) illustrates a 
destructive action of the sun's rays upon 
rock which seems to be little known to 
others than geologists. This destructive 
action is especially evident in western 
Iraq and eastern Transjordania, where 
most of the specimens shown were collected 
by Mr. Henry Field, leader of the Marshall 
F^eld North Arabian Desert Expedition of 
1927-28. 

Insolation, which means exposure to the 
influence of the sun's rays, has, in some 
climates, a destructive action upon surfaces 
of rock. The destruction is greatest in 
regions where the sunshine is hot, where 
there is a great difference between the 
temperature of day and night, and where 
the air is dry. 

Naked rock surfaces are strongly heated 
when exposed to the sun's rays and cool 
rapidly by radiation at night. The rock 
surface expands when heated and contracts 
as it cools during the night. Strains induced 
by the continual expansions and contractions 
may become greater than the rock can 
endure. Fragments break away from the 
surface in the form of sand, gravel and 
chips. Even large fragments are broken 
from the parent rock in this way. This 
destruction is particularly evident in desert 
regions on account of the unusually favorable 
conditions there. The difference between 
the temperatures of day and night is ex- 
treme, the sunshine is hot, and the dryness 
of the air favors both rapid heating during 
the day and rapid radiation of the heat 
during the night. 

Coarse-grained rocks like granite acquire 
a rough surface from the breaking away of 
individual crystals. Dense, flinty rock sur- 
faces are often covered with pits of a 
characteristic form called conchoidal because 
the curved, often ridged, depressions suggest 
impressions left by shells or fragments of 
shell. 

Other places where the effects of insolation 
are especially evident are exposed mountain 
peaks where in the rarefied atmosphere the 
heating effects of the direct rays of the sun 
are great and the cooling at night extreme. 
Much of the loose rock which mantles the 
tops and slopes of such peaks is due to insola- 
tion, although much of it is a consequence 
of the action of frost. 



The collection of gems and jewels in 
H. N. Higinbotham Hall (HaU 31) includes 
a cut brown-pink gem tourmaline weighing 
58 carats. 

Of unusual interest among the reptile 
exhibits is the rare giant dragon-lizard of 
Komodo, which may be seen in Albert W. 
Harris Hall (Hall 18). 



August, 19S5 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



I 



OSAGE ORANGE WOOD PRIZED 
BY INDIANS FOR BOWS 

By Llewelyn Williams 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany 

When the early French settlers landed in 
Louisiana in the seventeenth century and 
explored the surrounding territory they dis- 
covered many plants and trees that were 
new to them. West of the Mississippi, near 
a village of the Osage Indians, they found 
a number of small, thorny trees with 
globular, golden-colored fruit. Perhaps 
with scornful reference to the inedible 
qualities of the fruit, they called it Osage 
orange or mock orange, although it has no 
botanical relationship to the citrus fruits. 

The compact, elastic wood of the Osage 
orange tree was prized by the Indians for 
making war clubs and bows — hence the 
French name bois d'arc (bow-wood), now 
corrupted to bodark. Chroniclers relate 
that the price of a bow was a horse and 
blanket. The wood is known in different 
localities by various other names such as 
bodeck, yellow-wood, Osage apple tree, or 
hedge tree. The scientific designation is 
Madura aurantiaca, in honor of William 
Maclure, an eminent geologist. 

The natural range of the tree is limited to 
southern Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas, 
the region of its greatest abundance being 
the valley of the Red River. In the south 
it was formerly planted to mark the 
boundaries of plantations and it is still 
used in the middle west for hedges. 

Although the mock orange belongs to the 
same family as the mulberry and fig, its 
wood does not share the characteristic of 
softness found in their woods. Osage 
orange wood is exceptionally hard and 
heavy, noted for its strength and durability, 
its resistance to atmospheric changes, and 
its virtual incorruptibility in contact with 
the soil. The heartwood is brilliant yellow, 
but turns brown upon exposure. It takes 
a lustrous polish. 

Osage orange wood is in demand for felloes 
of wagons used in sandy regions, insulator 
pins, fence posts, and bridge piling. The 
bark of the root yields a yellow dye used by 
the early pioneers on homespun cloth, and 
now employed as a substitute for dyes 
obtained from fustic. 

An exhibit of Osage orange, showing 
trunk, a wheel section, and typical boards, 
with photographs of a tree and fruiting 
branch, has been added to Charles F. 
Millspaugh Hall of North American woods 
(Hall 26). 

OCEAN BIRDS SHOWN 

Specimens of the largest bird that flies, 
the most powerful of flying birds, various 
rare birds, and some very strange birds, are 
included in a new exhibit of ocean-ranging 
winged creatures recently placed on exhibi- 
tion in Hall 21 among the systematic bird 
collections. The new exhibit includes 
twenty-seven species of loons, grebes, alba- 
trosses, petrels, shearwaters, boobies, peli- 
cans, tropic birds, cormorants, and frigate 
birds. 

There is a fine specimen of the wandering 
albatross, an inhabitant of cold southern 
seas, which is the largest of all flying birds. 
This is the bird made famous by Coleridge in 
The Ancient Mariner. It is rivalled by an- 
other species in the exhibit, the frigate bird, 
which, although somewhat smaller, is rated 
as in many ways the most powerful bird 
that flies, according to Rudyerd Boulton, 
Assistant Curator of Birds. Frigate birds 
are trained by natives of islands in the South 



Pacific to carry messages like homing 
pigeons. 

Also of special interest is the flightless 
cormorant which is found only on the 
Galapagos Islands and which in consequence 
of its isolated habitat and lack of any 
necessity or inclination to travel has wings 
of very much reduced size, making it a 
parallel in development to the extinct great 
auk. Shown also is the species of cormorant 
which the Japanese train to catch and 
retrieve fish, a ring being placed around the 
bird's neck to prevent it from swallowing 
the fish. The late Dr. Berthold Laufer, 
former Curator of Anthropology, wrote a 
monograph on this subject issued by the 
Museum in the Anthropological Series of 
publications. 

All of these sea birds are more or less 
primitive or of low rank in the scale of 
evolution, it is stated by Mr. Boulton. 
The exhibit was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist John W. Moyer. A wide range of 




I lu' Wandering Albatross 

Largest of all flying birds. This specimen is in- 
cluded in new exhibit of ocean-ranging birds in Hall 21. 

habitats, from extreme polar to extreme 
tropical regions, is represented. Some of 
the birds were collected by Museum expedi- 
tions, among them the Rawson-MacMillan 
Subarctic Expedition, Cornelius Crane 
Pacific Expedition, Marshall Field Chilean 
Expedition, and the two expeditions 
sponsored by Mr. Leon Mandel, one to 
Venezuela and one to Guatemala. Other 
specimens were obtained through the 
courtesy of the Chicago Zoological Society. 



EAR DEFORMATION IN AFRICA 

The great aesthetic ambition in the life 
of a man or woman of the Akikuyu tribe 
in Kenya Colony, East Africa, is to make 
the lobes of his ears touch his shoulders. 
An exhibit of the devices used for this 
purpose is included among the African 
ethnological collections in Hall E. 

This process of "beautification" of the 
ears, like many other deformations practised 
by primitive peoples, is begun in early 
childhood, when small perforations are made 
in the ear lobes of boys and girls. The ears 
are gradually extended to greater and 
greater length by the periodical introduction 
of larger and larger ornaments. Disks of 
wood, heavy spirals of copper wire, gourds, 
cane peg, and many other objects are hung 
from the perforated ear lobes and worn 
year after year. The museum collection 
consists of examples of the various objects 
thus used. Photographs of natives, taken 
in the field by a Museum expedition, showing 
how they appear with their huge ear 
pendants and other paraphernalia, are like- 
wise exhibited. Also displayed are artifacts 
relating to other phases of the primitive 
life of these people. 



COLLECTION OF WOODEN MODELS 
FROM EGYPTIAN TOMBS 

How the ancient Egyptians visualized 
the projection of the normal activities of 
life on earth to the hereafter is well illustrated 
in a collection of wooden model groups of 
people and various objects of every-day use, 
on exhibition in Hall J. These models were 
buried in graves of the Old Kingdom 
(2500 B.C.) and the Middle Kingdom (2000 
B.C.). 

Starting in the Old Kingdom time with 
single figures of the dead themselves, their 
children, and their household servants, 
which, it was believed, would serve in 
another world as substitute bodies if the 
original mummies should perish, there 
developed during the Middle Kingdom a 
custom of placing in the tombs elaborate 
groups representing in part people at their 
household duties, and partly the ceremonies 
conducted for the benefit of the dead. As 
food was fundamental, figures representing 
the making of bread and beer, and showing 
ovens and baskets of food, were prominent. 

On the religious side, many of the models 
represented boats transporting the dead to 
the tomb of Osiris at Abydos, since all of 
this god's subjects wished to visit him in 
person or in proxy. Often the actual mum- 
mies were transported to this tomb. 



ANCIENT DEITIES OF MEXICO 

A collection of stone statues representing 
various deities of the ancient aboriginal 
inhabitants of Mexico has been placed on 
exhibition in the hall of Mexican and 
Central American archaeology (Hall 8). 
Curious sidelights on the religious beliefs 
of the Aztecs, Toltecs, and related peoples, 
are reflected in the symbolism of these 
carvings, some of which are crudely executed, 
and others of which are examples of a high 
degree of artistic skill. 

Some of the gods represented were con- 
nected with especially revolting rites of 
human sacrifice. There is Huehueteotl, god 
of fire, to whom human victims were offered 
by throwing them into a furnace and, just 
before they expired, withdrawing them, 
cutting the breast open with a stone knife 
and removing the heart. Then there was 
Coatlicue ("Snake Skirt"), goddess of rain, 
whose human victims were decapitated or 
flayed, and then had their skins removed to 
be worn as garments by priests in a ritual 
of rain. 

One head, hollowed out to hold liquids, 
represents one of the gods of the "four hun- 
dred kinds of drunkenness." Mr. J. Eric 
Thompson, former Assistant Curator of Cen- 
tral and South American Archaeology, says 
that the ancient Mexicans used the term 
"four hundred" in the same sense that we 
use the expression "a thousand and one" 
in making an off-hand statement. These 
aboriginals delighted in innumerable ways 
of becoming intoxicated, and they celebrated 
each method by placing it under the tutelage 
of a separate deity. 

The goddesses of maize, and other 
agricultural deities such as those of other 
crops, of the fields, and of rain, were nearest 
to the hearts of the Mexicans. One of the 
statues represents the principal one of these, 
Chicomecoatl ("Seven Snakes"). The Mexi- 
cans, like many other American aboriginals, 
linked the serpent closely with the idea of 
rain. Also shown are stone frogs which 
likewise were symbols of rain. Other deities 
represented include Chalchiutlicue, Aztec 
goddess of running water and sister of 
Tlaloc the rain god, and Xochipilli, the fat 
squatting patron of music and flowers. 



Page i 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



August, 1935 



SPECIMENS OF RARE BUFFALO 
RECEIVED FROM PHILIPPINES 

Field Museum has received a highly 
valued gift of four tamarao skins, presented 
by Mr. A. W. Exline of San Jose, Mindoro 
Island, in the Philippines. Mr. Exline is 
a friend of Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. 
While Colonel Roosevelt was Governor- 
General of the Philippine Islands he sug- 
gested to Mr. Exline the desirability of a 
group of tamarao for the Museum, and 
Mr. Exline kindly acted on this suggestion, 
hunted the animals, and the present gift 
has resulted. 

The tamarao is a quite rare animal — a 
small species of buffalo found nowhere in 
the world except in the jungles of the 
island of Mindoro. It is much smaller 
than the common Asiatic water buffalo 
to which it is related, but is considered a 
dangerous animal to hunt. Its horns lie 
straight backwards above its head instead 
of flaring out like those of its Asiatic cousin. 
The tamarao is black and tan in color. The 
specimens received include a bull with horns 
measuring eighteen and three-quarters 
inches, which, according to available data, 
probably are the largest on record. The 
other three specimens are a young female, a 
young bull and a calf. Plans are being 
formed for the preparation of a habitat 
group with these specimens. 



MUSEUM'S INSECT COLLECTION 
EXCEEDS 150,000 SPECIMENS 

Bv William J. Gerhard 
Associate Curator of Insects 

Visitors to Field Museum are generally 
unaware of the fact that many of the 
extensive exhibits are supplemented by large 
series of specimens that serve as study or 
reference collections. These collections, 
which in number of species and specimens 
may exceed those on exhibition, are available 
for study or examination by students or 
those seeking information not supplied by 
the exhibits. 

One of these reference collections com- 
prises the insects, and their allies such 
as scorpions, centipedes and spiders. More 
than 150,000 specimens are contained in 
this collection. Most of them are pinned, 
labeled so as to indicate when and where 
they were collected, and arranged in glass- 
topped drawers in cabinets that protect 
them from destruction by living insect 
pests and the fading tendency of light. 

"How are all . of these specimens ob- 
tained?" is a common question. They are 
the gifts and purchases of single specimens 
or entire collections during a period of forty 
years, as well as the returns of numerous 
local field trips and the partial results of a 
number of expeditions to foreign countries. 

The Museum's series of butterflies and 
moths, which exceed 75,000 in number, 
includes, in addition to many other acquisi- 
tions, the specimens of five acquired private 
collections. The largest and most valuable 
of these private collections consists of 50,000 
butterflies and moths from various parts 
of the world. They represent the life work 
of the late Dr. Herman Strecker, who was 
a noted authority on this order of insects. 
Besides the 14,217 species and varieties in 
this collection, there are also 772 irreplace- 
able types, cotypes and paratypes of 443 
species and varieties described as new to 
science by Strecker, Behr, Reakirt and 
others. Other private collections of butter- 
flies and moths in the Museum's possession 
are those made by J. G. Sorup, A. J. Snyder, 
August Sala and George F. Curtis. Nearly 



all of the North American moths of the 
collection of the late O. C. Poling are also 
represented. 

Among the Museum's 40,000 specimens of 
beetles, more than half of which are species 
found in the United States and Canada, 
are the private collections made by George 
P. Wells, E. B. Chope, R. W. Gilbert, Seth 
Lindahl and George F. Curtis. 

In addition to the briefly enumerated 
private collections, the flnal disposition of 
which is worthy of record, there are likewise 
available for study thousands of specimens 
belonging to other orders of insects, like 
bees, wasps, bugs, grasshoppers and dragon- 
flies. 

EXHIBIT OF LOOUAT 

The loquat or Japanese meddler is a small 
plum-like fruit which is beginning to appear 
sporadically in our markets. It is originally 
from eastern central China where it is still 
found in a semi-wild state. It has long been 
cultivated in Japan and in northern India 
where it is greatly esteemed for its agreeable, 
sweet-acid flavor. 

The fruit is rather inconspicuous in 
appearance, being smooth, ovoid, pale yellow 




Branch of Loquat 

Reproduction prepared in the laboratories of the 
Department of Botany and placed on exhibition in 
the Hall of Plant Life. 

to orange in color, with a downy, tough skin. 
Its flesh is somewhat firm in texture but 
juicy, white with a tinge of buff or orange. 
A variable number of rather large seeds, 
usually five, is enclosed. 

The loquat is produced by a small tree 
with a dense crown of foliage and clusters of 
pleasantly scented white flowers. There are 
many horticultural varieties, forty-six being 
enumerated from Japan. 

Within recent years the loquat has been 
introduced into most of the subtropical and 
warm temperate regions of the world. It is 
now grown successfully in the Mediterranean 
countries, in Central and South America, 
and has been introduced into southern 
California. 

A reproduction of a fruiting branch of 
the loquat tree has been added to the exhibit 
of the rose family in the Hall of Plant Life 
(Hall 29). — B.E.D. 

The principal by-products of coal are 
exhibited in the Department of Geology. 



GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

During August the conducted tours of 
the exhibits under the guidance of staff 
lecturers will be given on a special schedule, 
as follows: 

Mondays: 11 a.m., Halls Showing Plant Life; 3 p.m.. 
General Tour. 

Tuesdays: 11 a.m., Halls of Primitive and Civilized 
Peoples; 3 p.m., General Tour. 

Wednesdays: 11 a.m.. Animal Groups; 3 p.m.. 
General Tour. 

Thursdays: 11 A.M. and 3 P.M., General Tours. 
Fridays: U A.M., Minerals and Prehistoric Exhibits; 
3 P.M., General Tour. 

There are no tours on Saturdays and 
Sundays. 

Persons wishing to participate in the tours 
should apply at the North Entrance. The 
tours are free, and no gratuities are to be 
proffered. Guide-lecturers' services for 
special tours by parties of ten or more are 
available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Armstrong Cork Company — 10 samples of 
cork and a photograph of cork oak; from Professor G. 
Eifrig — 153 herbarium specimens, California; from 
James Zetek — 17 herbarium specimens, Barro Colorado 
Island; from Rev. Brother Elias — 70 herbarium speci- 
mens, Colombia; from Philadelphia Quartz Company 
—14 specimens silicate of soda and material from which 
it is made; from Roy Dubisch — a fox snake, Illinois; 
from F. J. W. Schmidt — a fox snake and a painted 
turtle, Wisconsin; from Henry Dybas — 7 green snakes, 
Wisconsin; from A. W. Exline— 4 tamarao skins and 
skulls, 4 crocodile skulls, and a gecko, Philippine 
Islands; from Chicago Zoological Society — 3 study skins 
of birds; from Henry Field — 75 ethnological objects, 
Iraq and Syria; from Ellery Walter (deceased) — 9 ethno- 
logical objects, southeastern Asia. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from June 17 to July 9: 

Associate Members 

Dr. Edward A. Brucker, Harry L. Diehl, Joseph 
Regenstein. 

Annual Members 

Dr. Alfons R. Bacon, Mrs. R. J. Beatty, W. C. 
Buethe, Owen L. Coon, L. Thomas Kelley, Joseph H. 
Kirk, Dr. Alvin W. La Forge, Mrs. George D. 
McLaughlin, Mrs. J. W. Moore, George F. Pond, 
James E. Rowland, Hi Simons, Mrs. William Waller, 
Jr., Addison W. Warner, William J. White. 



Double Refraction Illustrated 

The phenomenon of double refraction of 
light is well illustrated in the exhibit of 
calcite in Hall 34 of the Department of 
Geology. 

Calcite, because of its molecular structure, 
divides every ray of light into two rays. 
These are refracted or bent at different 
angles, so that images produced by the 
rays are separated. In the exhibit this is 
illustrated by a large calcite crystal on the 
back of which is a card containing some 
printed words in one line of type. Seen 
through the calcite these appear as two 
lines of type, thus illustrating the double 
refraction phenomenon. 

Many minerals have this same property, 
but the divergence of the two rays is 
especially wide in calcite. 



Dinosaur Bone 

The bones of the great dinosaur in Ernest 
R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) appear to be 
converted wholly to chalcedony, but enough 
of the original bone persists so that when a 
splinter is burned in a gas flame, the offen- 
sive odor of burning bone can be detected. 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Mitseum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



SEPTEMBER, 1935 



No. 9 



THE FOUR-TUSKED MASTODONS AND RIVER- RHINOCEROSES OF NORTH AMERICA 



By Elmer S. Riggs 
Associate Curator of Paleontology 

Of all migrations to America of man or 
beast in historic or ^jrehistoric times, the 
coming of the elephant family was one of 
the most far-reaching. The mastodon 
branch of the family came first, and long 
afterward the true elephants followed. 

This movement affords unmistakable 
evidence that there must have been a land 
route of migration from Asia to North 
America. No other means could account 
for the coming of these great beasts which 
are entirely unknown in the earlier history 
of life on this continent. No waifs cast up 
by the sea, no victims of mischance drifting 
in on ice-floes or on natural log-rafts, could 



jaw. This characteristic has given rise to 
the name "longirostrine" or long-jawed 
mastodons. In some related animak the 
lower tusks were broad and chisel-shaped 
and, fitting closely together, formed a 
shovel-like projection. These animals, re- 
cently discovered in America as well as in 
Mongolia, are known as the shovel-jawed 
ftiastodons. The head in all of these animals 
was longer than that of the elephant and the 
forehead was less sloping. The body was 
likewise longer in proportion. 

Fossil remains of the Miocene mastodons 
are found in sandbars along old river 
channels and in wind-blown sands of 
Nebraska, Kansas, Texas and of the south- 
west generally. Specimens are exhibited in 



ceras fossiger. Specimens including the head, 
legs and feet of this animal are exhibited in 
Graham Hall. 

Teleoceras, or the "true horned" beast, 
lived and has left his fossil remains in various 
old river channels of the Great Plains region 
along with those of the four-tusked masto- 
don, but more abundantly. A single sand- 
pit at Long Island, Kansas, excavated by 
many collectors during the later eighties and 
the early nineties has produced skulls and 
other parts of more than one hundred 
animals. Cornfields now grow over the site 
of this old river channel which had afforded 
them burial place. 

Greater elevation of the continent and 
increasing cold of Pliocene time marked the 




Giants That Roamed America Ages Ago 

The four-tusked mastodon Trilophodon (in the center), and the rhinoceros Teleoceras (on the left), which lived on the Great Plains of North America at the close of the 
Miocene period (about fifteen million years ago). From a mural painting by Mr, Charles H. Knight. The small animals at the right are oreodonts or contemporary pig-like animals. 



account for the transport of such substantial 
beasts. They came after trekking across 
Asia from their earlier African home — 
came in such numbers as to establish here 
permanent colonies which in time grew and 
spread over two American continents and 
gave rise to a stock of animals which became 
thoroughly established in the Western 
Hemisphere. 

The accompanying illustration shows a 
pair of the four-tusked mastodons (Trilo- 
phodon) on the banks of a broad and shallow 
river near the close of the Miocene period, 
fifteen million years ago. It is a photograph 
of a painting by Mr. Charles R. Knight 
— one of the series of twenty-eight murals 
of prehistoric life exhibited in Ernest R. 
Graham Hall (Hall 38). 

Mastodons such as Trilophodon stood six 
or seven feet in height at the shoulders and 
were armed with a rather short trunk and 
two pairs of tusks. The tusks were enlarged 
incisor teeth and had only a narrow band of 
enamel which extended throughout the 
greater part of their length. The upper 
tusks curved downward and met the lower 
pair, which were set in a long, curved lower 



Field Museum; entire skeletons are pre- 
served in museums of Nebraska and 
Colorado. 

The great river-rhinoceros, Teleoceras, 
shown in the same illustration, has a very 
different history. It is descended from a 
long line of North American ancestors which 
date back to middle Eocene time, forty 
million years ago. This continent was the 
early home of the rhinoceros family although 
some members are also known from the 
Middle Eocene of Europe. 

Their fossil remains are preserved more 
and more abundantly in each succeeding 
geological period from Eocene to Pliocene. 
Members of the family branched out, taking 
on new characteristics and adapting them- 
selves to new habits. There had been among 
them a line of slender animals, evidently 
fleet-footed runners; there had been various 
more conservative lines whose members 
were fitted for life in forest lands; finally 
came the short-limbed, heavy-bodied animals 
which, like the hippopotamus of the Old 
World, were at home in the rivers and 
capable of slow and laborious progress on 
land. Such is the river-rhinoceros, Teleo- 



disappearance of the entire rhinoceros 
family in North America. Not so with 
the mastodons. Whether hardier by nature 
or better adapted to upland life, it is certain 
that descendants of this line continued to 
live in North America through the rigorous 
period of the Ice Age, growing stronger and 
sturdier during this period of hardship, and 
sending wandering branches of the family 
over most of South America. Some of them 
survived there until well within the Christian 
era, although the main stock died out in the 
central states of North America a few 
thousand years ago. 



Change in Visiting Hours 

Field Museum visiting hours, which have 
been 9 A.M. to 6 P.M. daily during the 
summer months, will change to the autumn 
schedule — 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. — on Tuesday, 
September 3, the day after Labor Day. 
These hours will continue until October 31. 
On November 1 the winter hours, 9 a.m. 
to 4:30 p.m., will go into effect, continuing 
until March 31. During this period, how- 
ever, the Museum will be open until 5 p.m. 
on Sundays. 



Page 2 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



September, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Rooserelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sgwell L. Av^y 
John Bokden 
William J. CHAUiEais 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. TTAnpTg 
Samuel Ihsuu, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCobiock 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
Jambs Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spragub 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

. Wn^oN 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Fielo Pretident 

Albert A. Spkague Pint Vice-Praidtnt 

Jahbb Simpson Second Viee-Pretidtnt 

Albert W. Harris Third Viee-Pretident 

Stephen C. Sdois Direetor and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Attutant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephbn C. Snots, Director of the Museum EdUor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Aettng Curator of Anihropoton 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Edilor 



Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Deo., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4-.30 p.m. 
April, September, October 9 AJl. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 a.m. to S:00 p.h. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursda>-s, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
ChOdren are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
pnMiq>tly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tora nve or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $600; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Residcnt Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Aimual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his famUy and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lecturee provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the \Iuseum without 
diarge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 



BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 1 5 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
proviaioQ that an annuity be paid to the patron lor lile. 
Tbcae annuitiea are tax-free and are guaranteed against 



"LIVING FOSSILS" 

The queer forms of life which inhabited 
the earth in prehistoric times are not quite 
all extinct. In the depths of the seas are 
to be found, alive, the last lingering rem- 
nants of great groups of fishes and their 
relatives, of the types that filled the oceans 
millions of years ago. An exhibit of these 
so-called "living fossils" is a feature of the 
collections of fishes in Albert W. Harris 
Hall (Hall 18). 

Among the species of "living fossils" 
shown are various gars, limgfishes, and 
lampreys, the paddlefish "bowfin" or 
"dog-fish," and the bichir of the Nile. 

Scientific study of the structure and life 
history of the lampreys — a kind of eel with 
a round sucking mouth and a skeleton of 
cartilage instead of bone — leads to the belief 
that they were among the world's first defin- 
itely fish-like creatures. The gars are the last 
representatives of the tribe of armor-plated 
fishes which once swam the seas in vast 
multitudes. Today they are the wolves 
of fresh water, being viciously destructive 
to other forms of aquatic life. In salt water, 
which they also inhabit, there are other 
creatures just as predatory. In compara- 
tively recent times, geologically sf>eaking 
' (which means regarding hundreds of thou- 
sands and even millions of years ago as 
"recent"), the waters of the world were 
filled with fishes of various shapes and sizes, 
all carrying shell-like armor such as the gars 
wear today. 

The lungfishes, shown in the exhibit, are 
believed to be direct descendants of fishes 
which were probably the ancestors, during 
the course of evolution through the ages, 
of all later and higher forms of life. They 
were the great, great, great (and great 
multiplied perhaps a billion times) grand- 
fathers of, first, the amphibians, now repre- 
sented by our frogs, toads and salamanders; 
then of the reptiles which definitely forsook 
the water for habitation on land; and from 
them of the birds, whose direct ancestors 
were reptiles; and finally of the mammals, 
also derived through the reptiles. 

Of the paddlefishes, so-called because of 
their long paddle-like snouts, very little is 
known. They are found in various waters, 
notably in the Mississippi Valley, and are 
valuable for their roe which makes excellent 
caviar. Of their habits, and the use they 
make of their long snouts, scientists have 
to date been able to learn practically 
nothing. The Nile fish called bichir, shown 
in the exhibit, seems to be related to the 
ancestors of most of the higher vertebrates, 
but not closely to living forms. 



EXHIBIT OF ANCIENT GLASS 

The Museum's extensive exhibits of 
ancient glassware from Syria, Rome, 
Pompeii, Gaul, Mesopotamia and other 
centers of early civilization, have been im- 
proved and reinstalled in Edward E. and 
Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2). Four large 
cases and part of another are devoted to 
this material. Many rare and unique 
specimens are included. The objects range 
in age from the first to the fifth century a.d. 

That trade marks were employed in 
ancient times is indicated by the name of 
a manufacturer, "Froti," which appears in 
raised letters on the bottom of an oil 
bottle made in Gaul in the second century 
A.D. Many of the bottles and other vessels 
of various shapes were designed to hold 
cosmetics and perfumes, and are comparable 
to modern vanity equipment. Others were 
used for beverages, and some as amulets. 
Articles with Christian symbolical motifs 



as well as pagan art are included, among 
them decorative vases, jars, cups, flagons, 
pitchers and other vessels. 

Glass was invented in Egypt, whence its 
manufacture spread to Sj^a. Two cities 
in the latter coimtry, Sidon and Tyrus 
(Tyre), achieved a great reputation all 
over the ancient world for the quality of 
their glassware, which was traded to Asia 
Minor, Greece, Italy, Persia, China, and 
other countries. By the first century a.d. 
glassware was common in Italy, and glass 
drinking cups had superseded those of gold 
and silver. Glass factories were then 
established in Italy and in the Roman 
colonies in Spain, Gaul, Belgium, and the 
Rhineland. One of the chief attractions of 
ancient glass, as shown in the Museum's 
exhibit, is its iridescence, which is produced 
by chemical action under ground, exposure 
to dampness, and oxidation of metals used 
in producing colored glass. Nearly all 
technical processes of essential importance 
in glass manufacture were mastered in 
ancient times. 



Oldest Pewter Piece 

What is believed to be the oldest piece 
of pewter in existence is on exhibition in 
the Edward E. Ayer Pewter Collection in 
Hall 23. It is an inscribed tablet bearing 
in Chinese a date indicating the year a.d. 85. 
It was found in a tomb in Lo-yang, province 
of Honan, China. This pewter document is 
a relic of the Han dynasty, and is executed 
as a deed or grant of land for the burial 
place of the governor of Tung-kiin, who was 
a great scholar highly esteemed by his 
contemporaries. 

Preparator Abbott Dies 

Mr. John B. Abbott, highly skilled pre- 
parator of fossil skeletons in the Division 
of Paleontology of the Department of 
Geology, died on August 6. Mr. Abbott, 
who was 61 years old when he died, had 
been employed at Field Museum since 1901, 
and, except for a few intervals on leave of 
absence, had worked here continuously since 
that time. He was a member of several 
Museum expeditions to the western United 
States, Canada and South America. A great 
number of the articulated skeletons and other 
specimens of fossil animals in Ernest R. Gra- 
ham Hall were prepared for exhibition by him. 



Death of F. J. W. Schmidt 

With deep regret news has been received 
of the tragic death of Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt, 
and Mrs. George W. Schmidt, his mother, 
in a fire which destroyed a farmhouse belong- 
ing to the Schmidt family near Stanley, 
Wisconsin, on the night of August 7. 
Mr. Schmidt was mammalogist of the Leon 
Mandel Guatemala Expedition of Field 
Museum in 1933-34, and was a brother of 
Mr. Karl P. Schmidt, Assistant Curator of 
Reptiles, who was leader of the expedition. 
In recent years Mr. F. J. W. Schmidt had 
been employed in special work for the 
Wisconsin Conservation Commission and 
the Department of Game Management of 
the University of Wisconsin. He had 
specialized in the study of mammals and 
was an authority on those of his own state. 
In 1924-25-26 he was employed as a special 
assistant in the Division of Reptiles at Field 
Museum. 



A large collection of highly artistic fans, 
made of peacock, goose and eagle feathers, 
of painted and gilded gauze, and of other 
materials, is an interesting feature of the 
Museum's Chinese exhibits. 



September, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Page 3 



RARE PLANT IS FOUND 

AT JOLIET, ILLINOIS 

By Paul C. Standley 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

Several of the rarest plants of the world 
grow in the Chicago region. Because of 
their limited and curious distribution they 
are of great interest to botanists. 

In June the writer, with Dr. Charles 
Baehni of the Botanic Garden of Geneva, 
Switzerland, through the courtesy of Mr. 
H. Forrer, visited Joliet to see one of these 
rare plants, whose Latin name is Actinea 
herbacea. A member of the sunflower 
family, it is a low tufted perennial, with a 
dense cluster of silky, silvery leaves, from 
which rise short stems, each with a single 
golden-yellow flower head. It is a handsome 
and decorative plant, well worthy of cultiva- 
tion, although it is rather improbable that 
it would thrive in an ordinary garden. 

The party was successful in finding the 
plant still in blossom, although most of the 
clumps had passed the flowering stage. It 
is rather plentiful on the low glacial moraines 
near Joliet, growing among rocks where 
there is little soil. 

This rare plant has been found in but one 
other locality, near Sandusky, Ohio, where 
it is called "lakeside daisy." Its interest 
lies in the fact that the other Actineas, which 
are rather numerous, all grow on the prairies 
of the Great Plains, on the hills and plains 
of the Rocky Mountains and the Great 
Basin, or along the western coast of South 
America. How this isolated one happens 
to inhabit the Mississippi Valley is one of 
the mysteries of plant distribution. 



and meteors become luminous in the upper 
air. The science of meteorites is called 
meteoritics. 



IMPORTANT BIRD COLLECTION 
ACQUIRED BY MUSEUM 

A significant addition to Field Museum's 
study collection of birds has recently been 
made through the acquisition of part of the 
Henry K. Coale Collection. This addition 
to the Museum's already notable research 
material consists of approximately 2,500 
specimens representing more than 1,000 
species. It is especially rich in Old World 
birds, and includes about 200 species from 
Madagascar, Asia and Australia which 
hitherto were unrepresented in the collec- 
tions of this institution. 

The late Henry Kelso Coale of Highland 
Park, Illinois, assembled three important 
collections during more than fifty years. 
The first was acquired by the British Mu- 
seum in 1880. The second came to Field 
Museum early in 1900. The last, a truly 
representative world-wide collection, was 
built up by purchase and exchange of 
Illinois specimens for exotic birds with 
collectors in foreign countries. 

At his death in 1926, Mr. Coale's collec- 
tion numbered about 11,000 specimens. 
Half of them were American birds and have 
been dispersed to many collections through- 
out the country. The remainder has been 
divided by Field Museum and the University 
of Michigan, the latter taking the birds of 
the New World. Field Museum's share was 
purchased through the Emily Crane Chad- 
bourne Fund. — R.B. 



Meteorology and Meteoritics 

The meteorites of the meteorite collection 
have no relation to meteorology, the 
weather science. The two names are similar 
because they are both derived from the 
same Greek word which means phenomena 
of the upper atmosphere. Meteorology, 
the weather science, is largely based on such 
atmospheric phenomena as winds and rains, 



THE STRANGE NESTING HABITS 
OF RHINOCEROS HORNBILL 

An example of successful companionate 
marriage among the birds is found in the 
life of the rhinoceros hornbill. This large 
and peculiar bird, which has a grotesque 
sort of beauty, is native to the Malay 
Peninsula, Borneo, and Sumatra. 

The extraordinary nesting habits of this 
bird are illustrated in an exhibit in the 
systematic bird series in Hall 21. After 
pairing, the hornbills select a hollow tree 
which the female enters. Then, with the 
assistance of the male, who remains outside, 
the female walls up the entrance with mud 
and other materials until only a small slit 
is left open through which she can thrust 
her long narrow bill. During the entire 




Rhinoceros Hornbill 

Exhibit in Hall 21 showing male bird on outside 
of hollow tree in which his mate has been sealed during 
nesting period. Her bill can be seen protruding through 
hole in trunk. 

period of laying and incubating the eggs, 
and the growth of the young to the flying 
age, the female remains imprisoned in the 
trunk. The male, free on the outside to 
do as he pleases, remains nevertheless faith- 
ful to his mate, returning frequently with 
food which he deposits in her bill through 
the slot in the tree, and otherwise assidu- 
ously attending to her needs. 

This peculiar habit is undoubtedly re- 
sorted to as a protection for the eggs and 
young from the marauding squirrels and 
monkeys which abound in the tropical 
forests. The Museum's exhibit of the 
rhinoceros hornbill shows the male charac- 
teristically perched on the outside of a 
hollow tree trunk, and the bill of his mate 
protruding through the slit from the inside, 
preparatory to receiving food. 

The rhinoceros hornbill is so-called because 
it has a large hornlike casque above its bill 
which gives its head a resemblance to that 
of a rhinoceros. Specimens of other horn- 
bills with the same general characteristics, 
but differing in size, color and shape of the 
horn, are also on exhibition. Among them 
are species from Asia, Africa, the Philippines, 
and New Guinea. 



EGYPTIANS' MORAL CODE 
REVEALED BY PAPYRUS 

A good key to the standards of morality 
existing in ancient Egypt is found in the 
pleas to the gods contained in a "book of 
the dead" belonging to a lady named Isty 
who lived about 1000 B.C. This funeral 
papyrus is one of a collection on exhibition 
in Hall J at Field Museum. Dr. T. George 
Allen, Assistant Curator of Egyptian Archae- 
ology, deciphered it. It describes Isty as 
"the housemistress, the chantress of Amon." 

That the moral ideals of the Egyptians 
were similar to those of Christianity is 
revealed in the denials of sins made by Isty 
in her manuscript, which is about eight feet 
long, and about half of which is devoted to 
these denials. The papyrus depicts forty- 
one divine judges, to each of whom is 
addressed one denial of a specific sin. 
Most of these sins would classify as such 
under the Christian code. Isty denies, 
among other things, that she has been 
guilty of murder, stealing, uttering false- 
hoods, sacrilege, wrathfulness, cruelty, 
adultery, violence, rebellion, extravagance, 
plundering, lust, blasphemy, uncleanliness, 
nagging, quarrelsomeness, causing sorrow, 
or hasty judgment. Even the Christian idea 
of "turning the other cheek" and forgiveness 
seems to have been anticipated, as one of 
Isty's pleas reads, "I have not harmed an 
evil-doer." 

The papyrus is accompanied in the exhibit 
by a line-by-line translation and explanation 
of the hieroglyphics. Isty's burial was 
found in a great cache at Deir el-Bahri, part 
of the cemetery of Thebes, which was 
uncovered by archaeologists in 1891. The 
burial document was presented to the 
Museum by the late Martin A. Ryerson. 
It is half in colored vignettes, and half in 
hieroglyphics. Pictures represent incidents 
connected with the death and posthumous 
adventures of Isty among the magical powers 
of the land of the dead. The sacred phoenix, 
and the gods Nut, Osiris and other deities 
appear. The papyrus ends with a spell 
supposed to enable the deceased to join 
Re, the sun-god, in his daily journeys 
across the sky. 



NEGRO CULTURE IN GUIANA 

Eight objects from Dutch Guiana, South 
America, recently presented to the Museum 
by Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Berkson, of High- 
land Park, Illinois, are of especial interest 
because they show the survival of Negro 
crafts that have persisted in the West Indies 
and Guiana since the importation of slaves 
from West Africa several centuries ago. 

Research has indicated that much of the 
culture of West Africa — for instance folk- 
lore, magical practices, religious beliefs, and 
artistic designs — has survived despite a 
foreign and hostile environment. This 
observation is confirmed by inspecting the 
wood carvings from Mr. and Mrs. Berkson. 
'Included are a barrel-shaped drum with 
a pegged membrane, and a stool which has 
a decorative design in the form of a figure 
eight, both of which are characteristic of 
West African art. A stirrer and spoon 
carved from one piece of wood and fastened 
together by four wooden links could be 
matched not only in West Africa but as 
far south as Zululand. An excellent wooden 
hair comb is typical of those worn by Negroes 
of West and Central Africa. 

These objects provide an impressive 
example of the vitality of a culture even 
when the roots of that culture are torn 
from their native soil. — W.D.H. 



Page i 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Seplember, 1935 



STRANGE AUSTRALIAN MAMMALS 

Australia is the land of some of the 
queerest animals on earth. One of the most 
interesting zoological exhibits in the Mu- 
seum is the collection of strange Australian 
mammals in Hall 15. Among these is the 
answer to the old zoological conundrum, 
"What is it that has a bill like a duck, 
webbed feet like a duck, lays eggs like a 
duck, and yet is not a duck?" It is a 
platypus, a furry amphibian mammal of 
which the Museum has several specimens. 

Other odd creatures on display from this 
zoological Alice's wonderland are the 
echidna, a sort of combination porcupine 
and ant-eater, which also lays eggs; the 
spotted dasyure, a cat-like animal which, 
however, is no relative of the true cat family; 
the Tasmanian devil which preys upon 
sheep; the banded marsupial anteater; the 
flying phalangers which resemble both 
squirrels and opossimis; the rabbit bandi- 
coot; and various types of the more familiar 
but none the less queer kangaroo. Of 
special interest is the koala, a curious tailless 
marsupial with tufted ears and a comical 
expression on its face, which looks almost 
exactly like a toy teddy bear and may have 
been the inspiration for that popular play- 
thing. All of these animals are distinctly 
peculiar to Australia. The platypus and 
the echidna are the only extant mammals 
that lay eggs, and are the most primitive of 
mammals, coming closest in appearance, 
habits and development to creatures of 
prehistoric days. La fact, these two mam- 
mals have many structural resemblances to 
reptiles. 

In no other land are there found so many 
marsupials (animals which carry their newly- 
born young in a fur-lined pouch) as there are 
in Australia. Zoologically, Australia is a 
world apart from the rest of the earth. 
Practically all its mammals are marsupials, 
whereas this primitive order is scarcely repre- 
sented elsewhere except by various opossums 
in the Americas. The reason for the 
evolution of Australia's animals taking a 
different course from that of animals in 
other parts of the world probably lies in 
the fact that for millions of years that 
continent was completely isolated. Thus 
without any competition from invading 
forms the Australian animals have developed 
along their own unique lines. 



MANY USES OF PEPPER 

A poison for killing rats, a narcotic to be 
placed in water to drug fish, thus making 
them easy to catch, a highly intoxicating 
drink, a local anaesthetic used in the crude 
surgery practised by primitive peoples, a 
wrapper for the betel nut pulp which is 
the chewing tobacco of many tribes in 
tropical countries, and ointments, cubebs, 
and other medicinal materials — these are 
all products of pepper plants, usually thought 
of mainly as the source only of a seasoning 
for foods. 

An exhibit showing a pepper vine as "it 
appears in life, and a collection of some 
important pepper products, constitute one 
of the features of the Hall of Plant Life 
(Hall 29). Much of the material in the 
exhibit was collected by the Marshall 
Field Brazilian Expedition. 

There are approximately 1,300 species of 
peppers in the world. About one-half of 
these are indigenous to South America; the 
rest to the Old World, particularly the 
Oriental tropics. The American green and 
red peppers, so-called, are not members of 
the true pepper family at all, but belong 
to the potato family. 



The same species of pepper plant is the 
source of both the common black and white 
peppers in general table use, the white 
pepper being made from the same berries 
as the black but with the husks removed 
before grinding. 

The favorite intoxicating beverage of the 
natives of Polynesia is a pungent sort of 
grog made from the root of the kawa, a 
variety of pepper. This they often drink 
until they fall unconscious. Another variety 
of pepper, called "cub6," is used by aborig- 
inal people in Peru to poison rats, and to 
stupefy fish. The Javanese and other betel 
nut chewing peoples wrap the nut in the 
green leaves of a pepper vine. Cubebs, 
used in cigarettes made for people with 
respiratory ailments, is a pepper plant 
product from the East Indies. Indians of 
the west coast of America have found a 
similar pepper plant useful in their native 
medicines. 



Prices Cut on Picture Portfolios 

The portfolio Taxidermy and SculptuTe — 
The Work of Carl E. Akeley in Field Museum 
of Natural History, containing 47 large 
photogravures of Akeley's well-known work, 
is now on sale at the Museum at 25 cents 
a copy. This is a drastic reduction in 
price, as it was originally published several 
years ago at $2.00 a copy. Likewise, another 
attractive picture portfolio, Abyssinian Birds 
and Mammals, from Paintings by Louis 
Agassiz Fuertes, originally priced at $3.00, 
is now available at $1.00. It contains 32 
colored reproductions of paintings by the 
man who before his death was probably 
America's foremost bird artist. On mail 
orders the cost of postage must be added to 
the above prices; this varies according to 
destination and may be learned by inquiry 
to the Museum. Within the city limits of 
Chicago postage is 9 cents. 



Rainbow Agate 

In iris or rainbow agate the various 
bands or layers of differing color or trans- 
lucency which characterize all agate are 
so minute and so closely spaced that they 
diffract light passing through and produce 
a play of rainbow colors. These colors 
appear only in transmitted light and when 
the agate is held in the proper position 
relative to the eye. Under other conditions 
the iris stone has the appearance of ordinary 
agate so that the rainbow effect can seldom 
be seen in specimens in museum cases. 
There are several specimens of iris agate 
in the gem collection in H. N. Higinbotham 
Hall (Hall 31). 



Museum Men at Botanical Congress 

Professor Samuel J. Record of Yale Uni- 
versity School of Forestry, who is Research 
Associate in Wood Technology for Field 
Museum, and Mr. Llewelyn Williams, 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany at 
the Museum, are in Europe to attend the 
International Botanical Congress which is 
to be held this month at Amsterdam. 



Amber from Redwood 

A fine piece of amber from Manchukuo, 
recently placed on exhibition in Hall 34, is 
fossilized resin of an ancient redwood tree. 
Most of the amber in use is the fossil gum 
of a variety of pine. The amber from 
Manchukuo is found in the Fushun coal 
mines, where nearly 8,000 tons are mined 
with the coal every year, although only a 
very small part of it can be recovered. 



SEPTEMBER GUIDE-LECTURETOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
September: 

Week beginning September 2: Monday — Labor Day 
holiday, no tour; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday 
— Primitive Peoples: Thursday — General Tour; Fri- 
day — Habitat Groups. 

Week beginning September 9: Monday— Egyptian 
Hall; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday— Races of 
Mankind: Thursday — General Tour: Friday— Plants 
of Economic Value. 

Week beginning September 16: Monday — Crystals 
and Their Uses; Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday 
— China and Tibet; Thursday — General Tour; Friday 
— Deer and Antelopes. 

Week beginning September 23: Monday— Hall of 
Plant Life: Tuesday — General Tour; Wednesday- 
Mexico; Thursday — General Tour; Friday — Fish and 
Reptiles. 

Monday, September 30 — Geology Exhibits. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Mr. and Mrs. Maurice Berkson — 8 ethno- 
logical specimens of the Djukas, Dutch Guiana; from 
Potlatch Forests, Inc. — a log section and a wheel 
section of Idaho white pine, Idaho; from Dr. C. A. 
Purpus — 65 herbarium specimens, Mexico; from Iraq 
Petroleum Company, Ltd. — 102 herbarium specimens. 
Iraq: from Professor A. O. Garrett — 30 herbarium spec- 
imens Utah: from Mrs. R. K. Smith — 82 herbarium 
specimens, Korea; from Dr. Earl E. Sherff — 176 
herbarium specimens, Hawaii; from A. E. Lawrance — 
20 herbarium specimens, Colombia: from Mrs. Yoes 
Mexia — 64 herbarium specimens, Brazil; from Dr. 
Hazel Schmoll — 15 herbarium specimens, Colorado; 
from A. H. Sullivan — a fossil fish; from James Quinn 
—^ specimen of diatomite, Nebraska: from Stanley 
Field — a specimen of glauconite. New Jersey; from 
C. D. Woodhouse — a specimen of augelite and a 
specimen of dumortierite, California and Nevada: 
from Gordon Pearsall — 3 hoary bats, Illinois; from 
Dr. A. Bechara — a night heron, a snipe, and a sand- 

fiiper, Syria: from P. R. J. Cazaly— a lizard, Iraq; 
rom Dr. Y. S. Shuwayhat — 10 scorpions and 6 snakes, 
Palestine: from Dr. P. S. Manasseh — a snake, Iraq: 
from Walter A. Weber — a Texas fence lizard; from 
H. C. Hanson — a juvenile painted turtle, Illinois: 
from R. S. Sturgis — a plains garter snake, Illinois; 
from Edward Schaack — a vesper rat and a mouse 
op>o68Um, Honduras: from J. T. Carney — 2 alligator 
lizards, a black-tailed rattlesnake, and a green rattle- 
snake, Texas: from Leslie Wheeler — 5 eagles, 4 hawks, 
2 owls, 35 birds of prey and 142 miscellaneous small 
birds, India and West Africa; from Wallace 
Craig — original records and natural history notes of 
James Oregon Dunn, 1887-1907; from Chicago Zoo- 
logical Society — a gaboon viper skeleton, a side-necked 
turtle, and a mullet skink, Africa and Australia; from 
Marlin R. Perkins — 13 snakes,- Brazil and Arkansas; 
from Henry Dybas — a common water snake; from 
C. C. Liu — 3 bats, China. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from July 10 to August 15: 
Associate Members 

Samuel N. Lebotd, Fred A. Pettersen, Leslie M. 
Wheder. 

Annual Members 

J. W. Embree, Jr., James H. Harper, Mrs. Louis 
A. Hebert, Thomas J. Leary, Frank D. Mayer, Harry 
S. McCracken, Dr. Henry C. A. Mead, Mrs. Julian 
J. Rankin. 



Very complete Chinese vanity boxes, 
fitted with mirrors, and containing compart- 
ments for face powder, rouge, powder puffs, 
hairpins, combs, brushes, and other toilet 
articles, are exhibited in George T. and 
Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). 



PRINTED »Y FIELD MUSEUM PRCS* 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol. 6 



OCTOBER, 1935 



No. 10 



By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

With the recent installation of a group of 

snow leopards, the central section of William 

V. Kelley Hall (Hall 17) is completed. This 

section, which is devoted to carnivorous 

mammals of medium size, includes three 

other groups, the giant panda, the sloth 

bear, and the common leopard. The snow 

leopard group is of 

exceptional beauty 

and interest not only 

because of the charm- 
ing qualities of the 

animal itself, but also 

on account of the 

stupendous grandeur 

of the scene in which 

it is displayed. 

Most beautiful and 

least known of all the 

larger cats, the snow 

leopard inhabits the 

"roof of the world" in 

the vast mountainous 

area of central Asia. 

The high Himalayas, 

the Tibetan plateau, 

the Altai, and other 

high ranges are its 

only habitat, and it 

rarely descends below 

an altitude of 9,000 

feet. In India it is 

found on the south 

side of the Himalayas, 

but it is more common 

on the Tibetan side. 

Another name for it 

is "ounce," probably 

derived from an old 

French word originally 

applied to the lynx 

and later transferred 

to this animal, perhaps via Persia where it 
was once erroneously thought to occur. It 
is sometimes also called by the name "moun- 
tain panther." 

Within its range it is perhaps not especially 
rare, but the region is one so difficult 
of access that the animal is very little 
known except through native sources. It 
is so shy and elusive that hunters rarely 
get even a fleeting glimpse of it. If one 
is shot by a white man, it is usually by 
accidental encounter when seeking other 
game. American sportsmen who have 
hunted in the Himalayas have occasionally 
seen its tracks and have expressed the 
opinion that it might be successfully brought 
to bay by the use of well-trained hounds. 
However, the very high altitude and the 
rough terrain make it unlikely that the 
hunters could follow the dogs very far on 
horseback, so it probably remains a tempting 
exploit for some ambitious adventurer with 
confidence in the powers of his own lungs 
and legs. 

The vicinity of timberline in the Hima- 
layas, although forbidding to man except 
in the short summer season, is by no means 
devoid of life. The snow leopard, being 
the principal predaceous animal of the 



region, probably finds living not so hard 
as might be expected. It preys on the 
various species of wild goats and sheep, 
including the tahr, markhor, ibex, and the 
famous Marco Polo's sheep. Birds doubtless 
take a large place in its menu, and of these 
none could be more toothsome than the 
large handsome pheasants, such as the 
moonals or impeyans, the tragopans or 



RARE HIMALAYAN SNOW LEOPARDS, MOST BEAUTIFUL OF CATS, IN NEW GROUP 

been applied, leaving for most of the smaller 
cats the older and better known term Felis, 
which is typified by the common house 
cat. In a still more refined classification 
it would be removed as unique under its 
own generic name Uncia, based mainly 
on the peculiar shape of its skull. 

Skins of snow leopards are regularly 
sent in small numbers to the fur markets 
where they command 
a fairly high price 
for use as rugs, coats, 
and trimmings. Since 
they cannot be 
supplied in large num- 
bers, they are inde- 
pendent of fashion 
and not well known. 
Natives, scattered 
over a wide area, who 
doubtless capture 
them by trapping one 
or two in a season, 
are the only source of 
supply. The skins in 
the Museum's group 
are of this sort, ob- 
tained through traders 
_ _ in northern India. 
."ar'Wl The animals shown 
.■jj are an old female 
and two half-grown 
kittens. The old cat 
sits on a fallen log 
with a freshly-killed 
tragopan pheasant 
lying before her, 
while the kittens 
approach expectantly 
in anticipation of the 
play that precedes 
Mounted the meal. A few 
stalwart timberline 
trees stand near-by, 
and beyond is the magnificent front of 
the Himalayas swathed in their eternal 
snows reaching down to banks of morning 
clouds which fill the deeper canyons. 

The group was prepared by Staff Taxi- 
dermist C. J. Albrecht, with painted back- 
ground by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 




New group in William 
by Staff Taxidermist C. J 



Snow Leopards in Their Timberline Habitat 

V. Kelley Hall of the rare large cats sometimes known by the name "ounce.' 
Albrecht. Background by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 



horned pheasants, the blood pheasants, and 
the rare snow cock, all of which are partial 
to the highlands. In winter it descends, 
at times, far enough to encounter human 
habitations and then it raids the barnyard 
and pasture, carrying off poultry, sheep 
and other domestic animals. 

Owing to its spotted markings and its 
similar size, the snow leopard is often 
thought to be only a light-colored and 
long-haired mountain variety of the com- 
mon leopard. This, however, is not the 
case, for it is a very distinct species with 
many characters quite its own. Its thick, 
soft pelage, its long slender form and, above 
all, its unusually long and heavily-furred 
tail, combined with the delicate color and 
markings of its coat make it one of the 
most beautiful of living mammals. Its 
muzzle is rather short and the forehead 
high in conformity with the structure of 
the skull, which is somewhat different from 
that of other cats. As in the lion, tiger, 
jaguar, and leopard, the bones in its throat, 
at the base of the tongue, are constructed 
so as to preclude the act of purring. There- 
fore, in a primary division of the cat family, 
its place would be with these large forms 
to which the generic name Panthera has 



AIR PURIFIER INSTALLED 
FOR SIMPSON THEATRE 

To increase the comfort of audiences at- 
tending lectures, children's programs, and 
other affairs held in the James Simpson 
Theatre of Field Museum, an "ozonator" 
or air purifying machine has been installed. 
This apparatus keeps the air fresh and 
pleasant without causing chilliness or drafts. 
Tests made show that with the ozonator in 
operation the air in the entire auditorium 
can be cleared in a very few minutes, and 
all chance of accumulation of impurities in 
the air is eliminated. 



An exhibit in the mineralogical section of 
the Department of Geology illustrates the 
remarkable range of colors and forms of 
quartz. 



PageZ 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



October, 19S5 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Rooserelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewbix L. Avery 
John Borden 
William J. Chauiers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Grahau 
Albert W. Harris 
Sauubl Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCorhick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

WiLLiAU H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Sihhs 
JAHBS Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spragub 
Silas H. Strawn 
Leslie Wheeler 

'. Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Pretident 

Albert A . Sprague Pint Viee-Prendent 

James Simpson Second Vice-President 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-Pretideni 

Stephen C. Sihms Director and Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treaaurer and Aesietant Secretary 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Muteum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Aetirig Curator of Anthropology 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 



Field Miiaeum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below; 

Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 A.M. to 4:30 p.m. 
April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



NARWHAL SPECIMENS RECEIVED 
FROM CAPTAIN BARTLETT 

Three specimens of narwhal, strange 
Arctic sea mammal, obtained by Captain 
Robert A. Bartlett, famous veteran explorer 
of the far north, were received last month 
at Field Museum. Captain Bartlett col- 
lected the animals from his schooner Effie 
Morrissey while conducting his most recent 
expedition on the west coast of Greenland 
during the past few months. Funds pro- 
vided by Mrs. Emily Crane Chadbourne 
had enabled FMeld Museum to commission 
Captain Bartlett to collect the narwhals. 

Included in the shipment is a male with a 
body about nine feet long, and a tusk about 
four feet in length; a female about twelve 
feet long, and a young narwhal. The speci- 
mens will be prepared at the museum for 
use in a proposed new group to be installed 
in the Hall of Marine Mammals (Hall N). 

Narwhals are whale-like creatures, and 
belong to the dolphin family. They form 
one of the most peculiar species of animal 
in the order of cetaceans, which includes 
whales, porpoises, and other large ocean 
mammals. Male narwhals have a unique 
development of one front tooth which grows 
sometimes to almost half the length of the 
entire animal, forming a cylindrical spear- 
like tusk projecting horizontally from the 
head. This tusk, which is about two to 
three inches in diameter at the base, and a 
much smaller tooth also lying horizontally, 
are the only dental equipment the narwhal 
has. The tusk is ivory of a high quality 
but because it is so twisted it has little 
commercial use. The female narwhals are 
practically toothless. 

Little is known of the narwhal's life, and 
the function of the long tusk is particularly 
a mystery, states Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, 
Curator of the Department of Zoology. 
Apparently the animals are not dangerous, 
and not prone to use their tusks for attack 
in the manner of the swordfish. Narwhals 
are found almost exclusively in the Arctic 
regions, and it is difficult to obtain specimens 
of them, although they travel in schools 
like porpoises. They are a mottled gray in 
color, and attractive in appearance. 

Captain Bartlett, one of the most ex- 
perienced of Arctic sailors, has made many 
voyages to various parts of the Arctic. He 
was shipmaster for Robert E. Peary on 
two expeditions including the one on which 
the North Pole was reached. On November 
30 he will appear as a lecturer at Field 
Museum, to give an account, illustrated on 
the screen, of his forty adventurous years 
in icy seas. 

FOUR MORE ANIMAL BOOKS 
PUBLISHED FOR CHILDREN 

Four new books for children, designed to 
bring authentic pictures and stories about 
animals into the homes and schools, were 
issued last month by the Orthovis Company 
of Chicago, with the cooperation of Field 
Museum. These small books are illustrated 
with "three-dimensional" pictures of habitat 
groups of mammals exhibited in the Mu- 
seum, a development considered important 
in the advancement of visual education. 

Each book contains several pictures of 
museum groups with scenic backgrounds, 
printed by the "Orthovis" process which 
makes the illustrations stand out from the 
page and appear to be in three dimensions 
like the groups they depict, when they are 
viewed through the "ortho-scope," an opti- 
cal device which accompanies each copy. 
Titles of the books are Giants of the Animal 
Kingdom, Strange Animak, Monkeys and 
Apes, and Wild Oxen. They are published 



in "The Footprint Series" which includes 
also four previous titles issued a year ago — 
The Lion, The Bear, The Deer, and Wild 
Sheep and Goats. 

The page borders contain sketches of the 
footprints of the various animals, and silhou- 
ette drawings showing them in characteristic 
actions. The text of the books is by H. B. 
Harte of the Field Museum staff, and has 
been prepared in a style suitable for children 
from about eight to fourteen years of age. 

The publishers report that these books 
are being widely taken up as supplementary 
reading in schools, and in a number of states 
have been placed on the official lists of such 
material recommended to principals and 
teachers. In order to assist teachers in 
making the best use of them, two manuals 
for teachers, illustrating various ways in 
which the books can be adapted to school- 
room use, have been issued. This plan of 
"bringing the museum into the schools" has 
evoked much favorable comment in educa- 
tional circles, the publishers state. 

The books are obtainable at Field Mu- 
seum at 25 cents each, plus postage. The 
teachers' manuals are sold at 10 cents each. 



Gift of Hevea Specimens 

Dr. Adolpho Ducke, veteran explorer of 
the Amazon forests, who has described many 
hundreds of new trees from that region, 
has presented to Field Museum an important 
series of plants of his collection. The 
material illustrates chiefly the variations of 
the Hevea trees of the Amazon valley, which 
produce most of the rubber of commerce. 
Dr. Ducke's sending includes also specimens 
of some of the new species that he has 
described recently in other families of plants. 



SPECIAL NOTICE 

All Members of Field Museum who 
have changed their residences or are 
planning to do so are earnestly urged 
to notify the Museum at once of their 
new addresses, so that copies of Field 
Museum News and all other com- 
munications from the Museum may 
reach them promptly. 



Native Copper Boulder 

A boulder of native copper recently pre- 
sented by Mr. Frank L. Thomas, of Bremen, 
Indiana, has been added to the collection 
of glaciated copper boulders in Clarence 
Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). This boulder 
was found in the glacial drift of Marshall 
County, Indiana, and is noteworthy for the 
long distance it has traveled. It was picked 
up from the native copper deposit at 
Keweenaw Point on Lake Superior by an 
advancing ice sheet of the glacial period 
and transported over four hundred miles to 
Indiana where it was left by the melting ice. 



Chinese Household Objects 

The ancient Chinese had little furniture, 
and squatted on the ground as the Japanese 
still do. Mats were also used for sleeping. 
During the first centuries of our era, tables, 
chairs, and wooden bedsteads were gradually 
introduced. Examples of Chinese house- 
hold objects are exhibited in George T. and 
Frances Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). 



The plants of the yam family are repre- 
sented in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 29) 
by an exhibit including specimens of the 
vines as they appear in life, and of tubers 
of the various species from Florida, West 
Virginia, Java, Trinidad and elsewhere. 



October, 193 5 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



DIORAMA OF BRAZILIAN COFFEE PLANTATION IS EXHIBITED 



By B. E. Dahlgren 
Curator, Department of Botany 

Coffee has long been represented in the 
exhibits of Field Museum by samples of 
coffee beans from various parts of the world, 
by reproductions of fruiting and flowering 
branches of Arabian and Liberian coffee 
trees, and by photographs of the growing 
and preparation of coffee in various countries. 

A recent addition to the coffee exhibits 
is a diorama presenting on a small scale 
a view of a coffee plantation of a type 
existing in large numbers in the state of 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, where more coffee is 
grown than anywhere else in the world. 

Almost three-quarters of the world's annu- 
al coffee crop is produced in Brazil. Nearly 
all the rest comes from Colombia, Guate- 
mala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Nicaragua, 
Mexico, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and a few other 
countries of Central and South America and 
the West Indies, leaving only a very small 
part of the coffee industry to the Old World 



All of the early supply came from Arabia 
or through the Arabians. The Dutch, 
wishing to make themselves independent of 
this source of supply carried seeds or plants 
to Ceylon, where they soon flourished. 
From there plants were taken to greenhouses 
in Amsterdam and thence sent to Paris. 
From Paris coffee plants were brought to 
Martinique in 1723. That island thereafter 
furnished plants for other West Indian 
islands and for various parts of the tropical 
American mainland. The Dutch had by 
this time also introduced coffee directly 
into Surinam. 

The commonly cultivated, so-called 
Arabian, coffee tree is of African, particularly 
Abyssinian origin. The word "coffee" is 
derived from "Kahfeh," the name of an 
Abyssinian city and kingdom now part of 
the Ethiopian empire. 

The genus Coffea to which coffee belongs 
includes about thirty species of bushes or 
small trees of the Old World tropics, of 




Coffee Plantation In Miniature 

This model of a large Brazilian plantation has been placed on exhibition in Hall 25. It is the work of Preparator 
John R. Millar of the staff of the Department of Botany. Background by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 



tropics. This may seem remarkable in view 
of the Old World origin of the plant, but 
may be explained by the fact that the 
introduction and growth in popularity of 
coffee occurred at the time of the settlement 
and opening in the western hemisphere of 
large areas possessing favorable conditions 
of soil and climate for its cultivation. Cheap 
slave labor on the New World plantations, 
and the almost total destruction by a leaf- 
blight of the British and Dutch plantations 
in the eastern tropics were other factors of 
importance favoring the development of 
coffee-growing in the New World. More 
than two billion coffee trees are said now 
to be in bearing in tropical America, and 
with ample areas still existing for extension, 
coffee production is limited only by demand. 
As to the early history of coffee as a 
beverage, little or nothing is known beyond 
the tangle of fable and fiction constituting 
the story of its introduction into the south- 
western corner of Arabia where it was grown 
in the highlands of Yemen on the Red Sea 
perhaps as early as a thousand years ago. 
The practise of roasting the bean is said to 
have originated in Persia, but even this 
is doubtful. Its use first became general 
early in the sixteenth century, in the cities 
of the Levantine seaboard, especially Con- 
stantinople, whence within a hundred years 
it spread to the rest of Europe. 



which eighteen are west African, six of 
southeast Africa and African islands, four 
of southern Asia, India, Bengal and the East 
Indies, and one native to New Guinea. 
Although many of these may be potential 
sources of coffee beans, and actual crops 
have been produced from some east African 
species, the only one besides the so-called 
Arabian coffee that has come to be of any 
economic importance is the Liberian, a low- 
land coffee planted somewhat extensively 
in western Africa. It thrives at a lower 
elevation than the Arabian coffee and pro- 
duces a larger bean. 

The practical importance of Arabia as a 
coffee producer came to an end long ago. 
The term "Mocha" now applies generally 
to a certain form and small size of coffee 
bean, regardless of place of production. 

In the foreground of the diorama in Hall 
25 may be seen the drying field, a tiled or 
cemented area on which the crop is prepared 
for the market. In some places the coffee 
berries as gathered from the trees are allowed 
to dry and the seeds or "beans" to shrink 
before being freed from the husk, usually 
by some kind of mechanical device or 
machine. The modern method is to pass 
the berries as soon as picked through a 
hulling machine which removes most of the 
pulp from the green kernels or seeds. This 
is followed by maceration in water and 



washing, with some subsequent fermentation 
to destroy any remaining fragments, leaving 
only the parchment or silver skin to be 
removed mechanically after drying. Some 
countries export their coffee "in parchment" 
which is then removed only at the port of 
destination. This is done to preserve the 
coffee from contamination by odors to which 
it may be exposed. It may aid also, perhaps, 
to increase its keeping qualities, but those 
are in any case excellent, for unroasted 
coffee beans are said to improve with age 
and to keep very well for many years. 



AUTUMN LECTURE COURSE 
COMMENCES OCTOBER 5 

The Sixty-fourth Free Lecture Course 
to be presented by Field Museum will open 
on October 5. There will be nine lectures 
on science and travel, illustrated with 
motion pictures and stereopticon slides. 
These will be given on Saturday afternoons 
through October and November. All the 
lectures begin at 3 o'clock, and will be 
given in the James Simpson Theatre of the 
Museum. Well-known explorers and natu- 
ralists have been engaged for the series. 

Of special timely interest will be the 
lecture on October 19, when Dr. Wilfred 
H. Osgood, Curator of the Department of 
Zoology, who was leader of the Field 
Museum-C/ticag'o Daily News Ethiopian 
Expedition, will speak on "The Ethiopians 
and Their Stronghold." 

The complete schedule of dates, subjects 
and lecturers follows: 

October 5 — Animals of the Rocky Moun- 
tains 

Dr. Wendell Chapman, Berkeley, California 
October 12 — Our Fascinating Southwest 

Major James C. Sawders, Nutley, New Jersey 

October 19— The Ethiopians and Their 
Stronghold 

Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood, Curator, Department of 
Zoology, Field Museum; Leader of the Field 
Museum — Chicago Daily News Ethiopian 
Expedition 

October 26 — FVom Egypt to the Cape of 
Good Hope 

Captain Carl von Hoffman, New York City 

November 2 — The Second Byrd Antarctic 
Expedition 

Dr. Thomas C. Potilter, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; 
Second-in-Command of the Expedition 

November 9 — Africa in South America 

Hendrik de Ijceuw, New York City 

November 16 — Tibet — Forbidden Land of 
Magic and Mystery 

Harrison Forman, New York City 

November 23 — Plants Without Soil and 
Other Miracles in Nature 

Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California 

November 30 — Sails Over Ice 

Captain Robert A. Bartlett, New York City 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the Theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats on request. Requests for these seats 
may be made by telephone or in writing 
to the Museum, in advance of the lecture, 
and seats will then be held in the Member's 
name until 3 o'clock on the day of the 
lecture. Members may obtain seats in the 
reserved section also by presentation of 
their membership cards to the Theatre 
attendant before 3 o'clock on the lecture 
day, even though no advance reservation 
has been made. All reserved seats not 
claimed by 3 o'clock will be opened to the 
general public. 



Patei 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Od<*er, 1935 



RAYMOND FOUNDATION OFFERS 
PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN 

The James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for Public School and 
ChUdren's Lectures will present its autumn 
series of free motion picture programs for 
children beginning on Octobier 5. Nine 
programs, on which will be presented a 
total of thirty-four motion pictures, will be 
given on Saturday mornings throughout 
October and November. There will be two 
showings of the films on each program, one 
commencing at 10 a.m. and one at 11. 
All will be presented in the James Simp>son 
Theatre of the Museum. Children from all 
parts of Chicago and suburbs are invited 
to attend. They may come alone, in groups 
from schools and other centers, or with 
teachers, parents, or other adults. 

The titles of the films to be shown on 
each date will be found in the following 
schedule: 
October 5 — Adventures of Wrongstart, 

the Dog: The Mountain Goats; The Bear 



Family; Wrongstart Meets a Porcupine; 
Shooting the Rapids. 

October 12 — Feeding the Fisheaters; Co- 
lumbus Crosses the Atlantic. 

October 19 — 'Neath Poland's Harvest 
Skies; The Dainty Hummingbird; Mam- 
mals in Strange Form; Old Man Trouble. 

October 26 — Among the Igloo Dwellers; 
Winter in an Arctic Village; Odd Hoofed 
Animals; Elephants at W^ork and Play. 

November 2 — Jungle Giants; The Veldt; 
The Wrestling Swordfish; The Prowlers. 

November 9 — The Jenolan Caves; The 
Declaration of Independence. 

November 16 — Winners of the West: The 
Departure of the Covered Wagons; 
Indians at Home; Buffalo Bill; The Pony 
Express; Within the Stockade. 

November 23 — Mt. Vesuvius and Its Neigh- 
bors; Small Cats and Monkeys; Glimpses 
of Rome; Turtles of All Lands; Kangaroos. 

November 30 — The Lapps and Their Rein- 
deer; Wearers of Fur and Quills; Pre- 
historic Lake Dwellers; Falling Snow. 



TYPES OF RACES TO BE PICTURED IN FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



The Races of Mankind sculptures by 
Malvina Hoffman, exhibited in Chauncey 
Keep Memorial Hall (Hall 3), have aroused 
such great interest that it is planned to 
publish a series of reproductions of them 
in FiEM) Museum News. Of the 91 figures, 
groups, busts and heads in Chauncey Keep 



eastern section is continued the display of 
Asiatic types, the diverse peoples of that 
continent requiring many more types to 
represent them adequately than any other 
geographical region. The fourth section of 
the hall, a sort of annex, contains supple- 
mentary' material of value in the study of 




Where Races of Mankind May be Studied 

View of a aectioD of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall in which are exhibited the noteworthy racial portraitures 
in bronze and stone by €he sculptor Malvina Hoffman. More than ninety figoies, groups, busts and heads are 
included in this unique series. 



Hall, six were shown in illustrations printed 
in the June, 1933, issue of the News, and 
five more appeared in the November, 1934, 
issue. Others will now be published from 
time to time, making it possible for interested 
readers to assemble a representative collec- 
tion of these pictures. 

In this issue appears a photograph of a 
section of Chauncey Keep Hall. Physical 
conditions of its construction and the 
arrangement of the exhibits make it possible 
to obtain with a camera only a partial \new 
of the hall and only a few of the sculptures. 
The hall is di\ided into four sections, and 
the exhibits are systematically arranged 
according to geographical and racial rela- 
tionships. 

The west section of the hall (part of which 
is shown in the foreground of the accompany- 
ing illustration) is devoted to the races of 
Africa and Oceania. The central section, 
which is octagonal in shape, contains sculp- 
tures of types of the races of America and 
Europe, and some of Asia. In the adjoining 



physical anthropology — types of skulls; 
samples of hair from various racial groups; 
types of facial features; types of hands, feet, 
etc.; casts of brains; examples of head and 
body deformation practised by various 
peoples, and other exhibits relating to racial 
characteristics. 

The sculptures showing in the photo- 
graphs of the hall herewith are (from left 
to right) those of an Australian bush 
woman and child, a Semang pygmy of the 
Malay Peninsula, a Solomon Islander 
climbing a tree, a Hawaiian riding a surf- 
board, the symbolical "Unity of Mankind" 
group which occupies a central position in 
the hall, a group of pygmies of the Ituri 
forest in the Belgian Congo, a Shilluk 
warrior of Africa, and a Senegalese drummer. 
A close-up view of the Unity of Mankind 
group will be published in the next issue of 
the News. 



OCTOBER GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
October: 

Week begiiming September 30: Monday — Gedoor 
Exhibits; Tuesday — South American Archaeolccy: 
Wednesday — Asiatic Animal life: Thursday — Genera] 
Tour; Friday — Trees and Their Uses. 

Week begiiming October 7: Monday — Life in the 
Far North; Tuesday — Bird Families of North .\merica; 
Wednesday — Prehistoric Plants and Animals: Thurs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Eg>*pt and Its -^Gt. 

Week beginning October 14: Monday — Indians of 
the Southwest; Tuesday — Marine Life; Wednesday — 
Men of the Old Stone Age; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday— The Story of Coal. 

Week beginning October 21: Monday — Gems and 
Jewelry of Many Lands; Ttiesday — Game Animals; 
Wednesday — Peoples of the South Seas; Thursday — 
General Tour; Friday — Uses of Plant Juices, Fruits 
and Fibers. 

Week begiiming October 28: Monday — Types of 
Mankind; Tuesday— Hoises, Past and Present; 
Wednesday — Chinese .\rt; Thursday — General Tour. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' ser%-ices 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From William T. Hewetson — 10 herbarium spea- 
mens, Illinois; from Dr. A. Ducke — 47 herbarium 
specimens, Brazil; from Harold Vernon — 19 trilobite 
specimens and a specimen of brachiopod, Canada; 
from Andrew Andrews — a specimen of zinc-lead-silver 
ore, Britisfa Columbia; from American Doucil Com- 
pany— 2 specimesis doucil; from Mias EUiabeth Olivo' 
— 4 mineral speamess and 3 concretioiis, Michigan; 
from Henry Field — 250 heitaiiiim specimeBs, 129 fni^, 
lizards, and snakes, 29 qwdmens of bate, boar skalb. 
and gazelles, a fox skin, and a grey heron skin, Iraq; 
from Dr. Erich F. Schmidt — a l^ena skull, Iran; froa 
Dr. C. C. liu — 43 frogs, lizards, turtles, and nakes, 
China; from Gordon Grant — 38 tree-toads, toads, 
snakes, and lizards; from Austin Eastwood — a bear 
skeleton, Transcaucasia; from James Mooney — a tree 
snake; from Sam Sakin — a turtle and 5 snakes, Chicago 
recion; from Leslie Wheeler — a dusk>' homed oirt, 
Oregoti; from Dr. Minna E. Jewell — 15 specimens of 
fresh-water sponges, Wisconsin; from Dr. L. A. 
Hodsdon — 5 frogs, 13 lizards, and 9 bats, Bahamas: 
from Mr. and Mrs. Herman Gesswein — a banana 
salamander; from Miss Catherine D. Hauberg — 5 
herbarium specimens, California. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from August 16 to September 14: 

Life Members 

Emanuel J. Block 

Associate Members 
J. P. Brunt, Barney Ctjshman, J. Roberts Hann, 
H. K. Humphrey, Lester M. Jones, Edward D. Loring. 
Miss Hedwig H. Mueller. 

Annual Members 
H. Kirke Becker, Mis. C. M. Brant, Dr. WlUiam 
F. Briney, Mrs. George Owens Clinch, Mra. Louis E. 
Fischer. L. F. Hallett, E. A. Henne. W. J. HoUiday, 
W. R. Kemper, Mrs. Walter C. Leitch, .Mrs. .Ubert 
Cotter Levis, Miss Marie Tioomis, Dr. Maurice L. 
Richardson, Lee Walker. 



Types of orchids are illustrated in the Hall 
of Plant Life. 



Museum Papers at Science Congress 

The program of the Seventh American 
Scientific Congress, held in Mexico City last 
month, included a botanical paper by Asso- 
ciate Curator Paul C. Standley. 

Professor A. C. No6, Research Associate 
in Paleobotany, took part in the proceedings 
of the congress by special invitation and 
delivered an addr^. 



MIIMTC9 mr riCLD muscum press 




News 



Ptiblished Monthly by Field Miiseum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol.6 



NOVEMBER, 1935 



No. 11 



tree {Butea frondosa) which is said to have 
much attraction for this animal. The 
Museum's group, therefore, includes a hand- 
some reproduction of one of these trees bear- 
ing great masses of deep orange flowers sur- 
mounting the green foliage of its lower 
branches. The animals appear as in mid- 
day, enjoying the shade of the tree. 
The nilgai is not a favorite with sports- 



GROUP OF NILGAI, LARGEST OF ASIATIC ANTELOPES, ADDED TO KELLEY HALL 

found good sport in riding it down on horse- 
back, but this can be done only under es- 
pecially favorable conditions. 

At the present time this animal is restrict- 
ed to central India, from the base of the 
Himalayas to the province of Mysore on 
the south, and from eastern Punjab to parts 
of the Bombay Presidency. Apparently 
it has occupied this region for a very long 
time since its fossilized 
remains are found 
in India not only in 
Pleistocene formations 
but also in the more 
ancient Pliocene. It 
bears some relation- 
ship to large African 
antelopes such as the 
eland and the koodoo, 
and perhaps it is a 
survivor from a time 
in southern Asia when 
many other species of 
this type existed there. 
It is absent from Cey- 
lon and all similar 
forested areas, since 
its preference for dry, 
open country is 
marked. It is inde- 
pendent of water, al- 
though, like many 
other antelopes, it 
drinks regularly when 
water is available. It 
is preyed upon by the 
tiger, the leopard, and 
packs of wild dogs. 

As far back as 1767 
one of these antelopes 
was sent to England and successfully kept 
for exhibition. Since that time it has been a 
common animal in zoological gardens. It 
breeds and thrives in captivity. 

The specimens for the Museum's group 
were collected by the late Colonel J. C. 
Faunthorpe, of Bombay, and prepared by 
Staff Taxidermist Julius Friesser, assisted 
by Mr. W. E. Eigsti. The dhak tree re- 
production is by Mr. Frank Letl; the back- 
ground by Staff Artist Charles A. Corwin. 



By Wilfred H. Osgood 
Curator, Department of Zoology 

Unlike Africa, Asia does not have in its 
rich fauna a large variety of handsome and 
graceful antelopes. The list of those now 
living is a comparatively short one, includ- 
ing a few small gazelles, several rather aber- 
rant types, and one large, clumsy and some- 
what bovine antelope known as the nilgai. 

This large animal, 
although it would at- 
tract but little atten- 
tion in Africa, takes 
on considerable im- 
portance in India. It 
has therefore been 
given a place in Wil- 
liam V. Kelley Hall 
of Asiatic Mammals 
(Hall 17), where a 
group of three animals, 
male, female and 
young, has just been 
completed. 

The word nilgai, 
which is variously 
spelled (nilghai, nyl- 
gai and nylgau), is 
formed from native 
words nil (or HI) 
meaning blue and gau 
meaning cow. 'The 
name blue bull is also 
frequently used. This 
is fairly appropriate, 
for the male animal 
is rather bluish or 
blackish gray in color, 
and although it is 
classified with the 

antelopes, it has simple, untwisted horns and 
a somewhat broad, bovine nose suggesting 
the cattle and buffaloes. The females and 
young are plain brown in color, very different 
from the male, but both sexes have a short, 
bristly mane on the neck, and conspicuous, 
white rings above and below the fetlocks. 

Semi-arid plains or rocky ground with 
sparse and scrubby tree growth are the 
haunts of the nilgai. A common tree in 
such regions is the brilliantly flowered dhak 




Nilli-.li or lilue Hull 
There is a striking color diiTerenee between male (on right) and female (on left). The animals in this new 
group were collected by the late Colonel J. C. Faunthorpe, and mounted by Staff Taxidermist Julius Friesser. 

men, partly because it is easy to stalk and 
partly because its short, simple horns do 
not provide imposing trophies to grace the 
walls of the hunter. Old bulls may reach 
a weight of six hundred pounds but their 
horns rarely exceed eight inches in length. 
The longest on record had the relatively 
insignificant length of eleven and three- 
quarter inches. The nilgai is said to be 
able to gallop at good speed over rough 
ground, and in some cases hunters have 



QUININE 

By Paul C. Standley 
Associate Curator of the Herbarium 

It is singularly appropriate that tropical 
America, where malaria is the greatest 
plague, should first have produced quinine, 
the best remedy for this malady. Almost 
every person in that region is stricken 
sooner or later with malaria. The loss of 
efficiency is incalculable, while death is 
frequent among the poor where proper 
treatment is not always available. 

Among the exhibits in the Hall of Plant 
Life (Hall 29) devoted to the family of 
Rubiaceae is a specimen of cinchona bark, 
the source of quinine. There are mythical 
stories current of the virtues of quinine 
having been discovered by watching the 
pumas or mountain lions of South America 



chewing the bark of cinchona trees to cure 
their fevers. Another tale is that it was 
discovered by an Indian drinking the 
waters of a lake into which a cinchona tree 
had fallen. 

Apparently the Indians had been aware 
of the medicinal value of cinchona bark for 
some hundreds of years before the arrival 
of the Spaniards, but had been largely 
indifferent to or even prejudiced against 
use of the drug. 

In 1638 the Countess of Chinchon, wife 
of the Spanish viceroy of Peru, was cured 
of a severe fever by the use of this bark. 
This cure, regarded as miraculous, made a 
tremendous impression on Europeans in 
America. It even inspired the writing of 
a novel, "Zuma," by Mme de Genlis. The 
Countess of Chinchon, from whose name 
was later derived the name of the tree, 



cinchona, returned to Spain with quantities 
of the bark, and distributed it among the 
sick on her husband's estates. It soon 
became widely known in Europe, and it 
was not long before it was an article of 
commerce. Louis XIV of France paid Sir 
Robert Talbor, an English doctor, 2,000 
louis d'or, a large pension, and conferred a 
title upon him, for the secret of preparing 
quinine. Thenceforth it became recognized 
as the most efficacious remedy for inter- 
mittent fevers. 



Stencils cut from birch bark by the 
Naskapi-Montagnais Indians of Labrador, 
and used in painting designs on skin and as 
guides in making embroidery, are on ex- 
hibition in James Nelson and Anna Louise 
Raymond Hall (Hall 4). 



Pagei 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



November, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field. 1893 
Rooserelt Road and Lake Mlchi^n, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sbwell L. Avbsy 
John Borden 
WnxiAM J. Chauibrs 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W, Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick 

John P. 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
Frederick H. Rawson 
George A. Richard60N 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
Jambs Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Spragub 
Silas H. Strawn 
Lesue Wheeler 
Wilson 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Pretident 

Albert A. Spragub Fint Vict-Praidtnl 

Jambs Simpson Second Viee-Pretideni 

ALBERT W. Haeris Third Vwe-Pre*idtnt 

Stephen C. Simms Director and Secretam 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treaturer and Aaittant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Simms, Director of the Muteum Editor 

CONTRIBirriNG EDITORS 

Paul S. Mabtin AeUng Curator of Anikropolosy 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 



Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 a.m. to 4 :30 p.m. 

April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
facility members of educational institutions are admit* 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOWMENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



MODEL SHOWS CHICAGO AREA 
SUBTERRANEAN STRATA 

By Henry W. Nichols 
Curator, Department of Geology 

In the tropics, semi-tropics, and other 
regions not reached by the ice of the glacial 
period, the soil often changes so gradually 
into the rock below that no one can tell 
where the soil ends and the rock begins. 
In glaciated regions such as the country 
around Chicago, conditions are very dif- 
ferent. The advancing continental glacier 
scoured away the original soil and any 
unsound weathered rock, leaving a smooth 
hard rock surface. When the ice of the 
retreating glacier melted, it left a cover of 
gravel, sand and mud over the rock surface. 
But this cover was not even, it was thick 
in some places and thin in others, so that 
the top surface of the new soil has no 
relation to the contour of the hard rock 
below. A hill on the surface may be over 
a valley in the rock, or a depression in the 
soil may overlie a peak in the rock. 

This is strikingly shown by a model in 
Clarence Buckingham Hall (Hall 35). This 
model represents surface farmland in the 
country near Chicago with its green fields, 
farm buildings and fences. The farm repre- 
sented is on stony glacial gravel which has 
a gently rolling surface and lies on a sharply 
defined rugged limestone surface below. 
The form of the surface of the ground is 
seen to have no relation to the rugged rock 
surface with its ridges and valleys below. 



STUDY OF SNAKE MIGRATION 
AND HIBERNATION BEGUN 

By Karl P. Schmidt 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles 

One of the most interesting subjects in 
zoology is the means various animals em- 
ploy for passing the winter. All reptiles 
and amphibians in northern countries be- 
come dormant during this season. Hiber- 
nation requires a refuge from the cold where 
complete freezing of the body cannot occur. 
Many insects, on the other hand, can freeze 
solidly without injurj'. A number of reptiles, 
such as turtles, may have their extremities 
frozen, but none can survive freezing of the 
heart. Aquatic reptiles, frogs, and salaman- 
ders gather in swamps and ponds where they 
hibernate in the mud, while toads and many 
snakes, the box turtle and all hibernating 
mammals take refuge in dry places. 

Among cold-blooded reptiles a gathering 
from a wide area to a specific hibernation 
den may take place in the fall. This is 
especially well-loiown of rattlesnakes, cop- 
perheads, and water moccasins. The eastern 
blacksnake is said to have the same habit, 
and to share the dens of the timber rattle- 
snakes and copperheads. At the time of 
going into hibernation these snakes seem to 
be completely indifferent to each other's 
presence, although the blacksnake during the 
summer may make an occasional meal of a 
rattler. 

In the middle west the well-known blue 
racers take the place of blacksnakes, and ap- 
parently gatherings into a winter den occur 
among them also. A remarkable aggrega- 
tion of this sort was discovered in the Indi- 
ana Dunes region about the middle of Octo- 
ber by the writer, accompanied by Mr. 
Bryan Patterson of the Department of 
Geology. Among the old oak-covered dunes, 
within an area not greater than an acre, an 
extraordinarily large colony of blue racers, 
numbering between fifty and one hundred 
individual snakes, was found. These snakes, 
never seen in such numbers before by the 



writer, were sunning themselves in open 
places, and tracks in the loose sand showed 
that they had gone in and out of old wood- 
chuck burrows. Many had climbed into 
bushes where they lay extended on horizontal 
branches. The average size was between 
four and five feet, and all had the glossy 
fresh appearance of snakes which had 
recently shed their skins. The surrounding 
dune areas seemed to be free of blue racers. 
Occasional blue racers may be observed 
throughout the Dunes region during the 
summer, but it is most unusual in the 
experience of Chicago naturalists to see 
more than one or two of these handsome 
active snakes in the course of a day. 

The aggregation of snakes into hibernating 
colonies is a matter of considerable scientific 
interest, and very little is known about it, 
although it is suspected that this fall con- 
centration of blue racers may have been 
observed by old residents of the Dunes and 
hikers who frequent the region. 

As a means of studying the numbers of 
snakes involved and the distances to which 
and from which they travel, twenty-six 
specimens of the colony discovered in the 
Dunes were marked by the writer, and 
Messrs. L. L. W^alters and E. G. Laybourne, 
by a system of scarring individual scales 
beneath the tail. More important observa- 
tions will accrue from the study of living 
specimens in the wild state than from the 
accumulation of further museum specimens 
preserved in alcohol, although the total 
number of specimens of blue racer in the 
collections of Field Museum and the Chicago 
Academy of Sciences together is only eleven. 

Specimens found dead on the roads in 
the Dunes region, if not too much crushed, 
will still be welcome additions to the study 
collections of either of these institutions, 
however, and persons finding them are 
requested to send them. Living specimens 
of the blue racer, which is an entirely harm- 
less creature, actually beneficial to agricul- 
ture in the general economy of Nature, 
should not be molested. Local naturalists, 
by repeated visits to the places of hiberna- 
tion, will be able to fill out the unknown 
parts of the life history of the snakes. 



Change in Visiting Hours 

Effective November 1, and continu- 
ing until March 31, winter visiting 
hours — 9 A.M. to 4:30 P.M. — will be 
observed on weekdays at Field Mu- 
seum; 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. on Sundays. 



Post Card Sets 

Educational series of photogravure post 
cards illustrating different phases of anthro- 
pological, botanical, geological and zoological 
subjects, are published and sold by Field 
Museum. These have proved to be a 
valuable medium of disseminating scientific 
information. Each set contains from six to 
thirty cards with picture and instructive 
text. Prices range from 10 cents to 50 cents 
depending upon the number of cards in the 
set. A list of the subjects may be obtained 
from the Museum on request. 



Swanflower 

At the same time one of the most strik- 
ingly attractive in appearance yet most dis- 
gustingly malodorous of tropical plants is 
the huge swanflower of Central America 
and the Antillean islands. A reproduction 
of it, and a model showing its structure, are 
on exhibition in the Hall of Plant Life (Hall 
29). It is the largest flower of the region 
to which it is native. 



November, 1935 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Page S 



FIVE LECTURES TO BE GIVEN 
DURING NOVEMBER 

Five more lectures in the autumn course 
for adults, remain to be given on Saturday 
afternoons during November. All the 
lectures begin at 3 p.m., and are to be pre- 
sented in the James Simpson Theatre of 
the Museum. They are illustrated with 
motion pictures and stereopticon slides. 
Following are the subjects, speakers and 
dates: 

November 2 — The Second Byrd Antarctic 
Expedition 

Dr. Thomas C. Poulter, Mount Pleasant, Iowa; 
Second-in-Command of the Expedition 

November 9 — Africa in South America 

Hendrik de Leeuw, New York City 

November 16 — Tibet — Forbidden Land of 
Magic and Mystery 

Harrison Forman, New York City 

Novemiber 23 — Plants Without Soil and 
Other Miracles in Nature 

Arthur C. Pillsbury, Berkeley, California 

November 30 — Sails Over Ice 

Captain Robert A. Bartlett, New York City 

No tickets are necessary for admission 
to these lectures. A section of the Theatre 
is reserved for Members of the Museum, 
each of whom is entitled to two reserved 
seats on request. Requests for these seats 
may be made by telephone or in writing 
to the Museum, in advance of the lecture, 
and seats will then be held in the Member's 
name until 3 o'clock on the day of the 
lecture. Members may obtain seats in the 
reserved section also by presentation of 
their membership cards to the Theatre 
attendant before 3 o'clock on the lecture 
day, even though no advance reservation 
has been made. All reserved seats not 
claimed by 3 o'clock will be opened to the 
general public. 



LAMAIST CEREMONIAL APRON 

Among interesting curiosities from mysteri- 
ous Tibet, exhibited in the Department of 
Anthropology, is a rare ceremonial bone 
apron used in sacred rites of Tibetan Lamas 
for exorcising demons. It is on view at the 
north end of the East Gallery. 

This type of sacred object is seldom seen 
outside "Tibet because it is considered as a 
part of the temple treasure and, accordingly, 
kept well guarded. The example exhibited 
in the Museum consists of twenty-three 
large oblong pieces carved, supposedly, 
from human thigh bones, and eighteen 
rhomboid pieces of bone, fastened together 
by cords. The oblongs are decorated with 
figures of strange deities, and the others 
with emblems of the Lamaist cult. The 
carving shows great beauty and excellence 
of technique. That the apron is probably 
quite old is indicated by various signs of 
wear and tear it displays. 



A TIBETAN BOAT 
MADE OF SKINS 

By Paul S. Martin 
Acting Curator, Department of Anthropology 

A Tibetan boat made of animal skins has 
been placed on exhibition in Hall 32. 

This type of boat, which is the only kind 
made and used by the Tibetans, is called a 
coracle (a word derived from the Welsh 
corwgl, "a carcass" or "boat"). It is made 
of yak hides which are stretched over a 
frame of bent willow twigs. The hides are 
sewed together by means of rawhide ropes, 
and the holes created thereby are plugged 
with butter to prevent leakage. In shape 



these boats are like a hollow hemisphere. 
The one on exhibition is about five and one- 
half feet in diameter, and three feet high. 

The boatman kneels on the bottom of the 
boat and directs it, by means of a short 
paddle, to the opposite shore. Complica- 
tions arise from the drift downstream caused 
by the current. These boats are capable 
of carrying three or four men or two men 
and about two hundred pounds of goods. 
Generally, there are only two or three such 
boats available at a ferry station, and conse- 
quently it may take a large caravan a whole 
day to effect a crossing. 

The boat on exhibition was used several 
times by the late Dr. Berthold Laufer while 
traveling in Tibet as leader of the Blackstone 
Expedition to China, 1908-10. He later 
purchased it for the Museum. It is a 
notable addition to the collections, as such 
boats are rarely exhibited in this country. 

Coracles were once widely distributed 
over the northern part of the Old World. 
They were used in Britain at the time of 




Tibetan Coracle 

Strange boat made of yak skins, the seams caulked 
with butter. Used for crossing rivers. On exhibition 
in Hall 32. 

the Roman invasion, as well as in western 
Asia and many parts of India. Alexander 
the Great availed himself of such boats on 
his expedition in the Orient. The so-called 
"bull boats" used by the Mandan Indians 
of the Upper Missouri River were con- 
structed in a similar fashion. Even today, 
coracles are still extensively employed as 
fishing boats on the Severn and other 
Welsh rivers. 



HOW URUGUAYAN AGATE FIELD 
WAS DISCOVERED 

Most of the world's supply of agate comes 
from a region, remote and difficult of access, 
in the north of Uruguay. There the rough 
agates now on display in Hall 34 were 
collected by the Marshall Field Brazilian 
Expedition of 1926. A member of the 
expedition was told by Mr. Julio Schuch, 
the largest operator in the district, the 
story of the discovery of this agate field. 
According to Mr. Schuch agates were dis- 
covered in Uruguay about 1860 by a German 
boy who came from Oldenburg, a center of 
the German agate industry. This boy had 
been fighting in the Brazilian army. When 
the war or revolution was over foreign 
soldiers were no longer wanted in the 
Brazilian army and they were removed in 
the most informal manner. This boy was 
conducted across the border into Uruguay 
and told not to come back. Wandering 
through the Catalan district of Uruguay he 
noticed agates in the stream beds. As he 
had been reared in an agate-working com- 
munity he recognized the value of the 
material and wrote to his uncle in Germany 
about it. His uncle came to Uruguay and 
established the industry. — H.W.N. 



ADDITIONS MADE TO EXHIBIT 
OF FROGS AND SALAMANDERS 

The frogs, toads, and salamanders in the 
systematic exhibit of reptiles and am- 
phibians in Albert W. Harris Hall (Hall 18) 
have recently been reinstalled. Eleven new 
models, prepared by Staff Taxidermist Leon 
L. Walters, have been added. 

The additions include two handsome 
species of North American tree frogs, as 
well as the large green Australian tree frog, 
and the very remarkable African clawed 
frog which is entirely aquatic. The last of 
these represents one of the most distinct of 
the families into which the frog group is 
divided. 

Five additions to the salamanders of the 
United States include specimens of the 
marbled, two-lined, red-backed, and Great 
Smokies salamanders, and the extraordinary 
large eel-like species known as "Congo eel" 
which is one of the strangest of American 
animals. A model of the handsome banana 
salamander of Guatemala was made possible 
by the receipt of a living specimen which 
reached Chicago in a commercial shipment 
of bananas. For the first time there is 
exhibited also a specimen of the Mexican 
axolotl. The axolotl is a strange salamander 
which lives in the lakes near Mexico City 
as a "permanent larva," breathing by means 
of large external gills. In captivity it has 
been known to transform into a salamander 
of the ordinary land type, much like the 
common tiger salamander. 

The occasion of rearranging this case was 
utilized for a complete revision of all labels 
concerning the amphibians. These are now 
printed in larger and more legible type and 
are provided with individual maps showing 
the distribution of the species. 



ANCIENT SPRUCE IN ILLINOIS 

Two spruce cones found embedded in 
marl at a depth of twenty feet from the sur- 
face of a thick deposition of peat on the mar- 
gin of Grass Lake in Lake County, Illinois, 
and recently presented to Keld Museum, 
afford opportunity for an interesting ecologi- 
cal note. They testify to the presence in 
early post-glacial times, from 25,000 to 
30,000 years ago, of spruce forests in this 
region. Today the southern limit of spruce 
is some three hundred miles to the north, 
spruce forests not occurring farther south 
than northern Michigan and Wisconsin. 

Certain pollen analyses of northern Illinois 
peat bogs corroborate this evidence of the 
former presence of spruce forests in the 
Chicago region. The abundance of spruce 
pollen indicates that this tree was possibly 
the predominating coniferous tree in early 
post-glacial times. 

The cones received at the Museum are a 
gift from Mr. C. N. Ackerman, of Chicago 
and Antioch, Illinois, an Associate Member 
of the Museum. The cones have been ten- 
tatively identified as those of Picea cana- 
densis. — B.M.S. 

Dr. Baehni Returns to Geneva 

After fourteen months spent at Field 
Museum, Dr. Charles Baehni, of the Con- 
servatoire et Jardin Botaniques of Geneva, 
Switzerland, returned to Europe recently. 
Dr. Baehni had been engaged here in studies 
of the American flora and in research upon 
the Sapotaceae or sapodilla family. In 
addition, he assembled duplicate material 
to be sent to the Geneva Herbarium, as 
the result of a cooperative project arranged 
by the Museum with Dr. B. P. G. Hoch- 
reutiner, Director of the Geneva institution. 



Pageh 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



November, 19S5 



CHILDREN'S PROGRAMS OFFERED 
BY RAYMOND FOUNDATION 

The autumn series of free motion picture 
programs for children on Saturday mornings, 
provided by the James Nelson and Anna 
Louise Raymond Foundation for Public 
School and Children's Lectures, will con- 
tinue throughout November. There will be 
two showings of the films on each program, 
one beginning at 10 A.M., and one at 11, 
in the James Simpson Theatre of the Mu- 
seum. Children from all parts of Chicago 
and suburbs are invited to attend. They 
may come alone, in groups from schools 
and other centers, or with parents, teachers 
or other adults. 

The titles of the films to be shown on 
each date will be found in the following 
schedule: 

November 2 — Jungle Giants; The Veldt; 
The Wrestling Swordfish; The Prowlers. 

November 9 — The Jenolan Caves; The 
Declaration of Independence. 

November 16 — Winners of the West: The 
Departure of the Covered Wagons; 
Indians at Home; Buffalo Bill; The Pony 
Express; Within the Stockade. 

November 23 — Mt. Vesuvius and Its Neigh- 
bors; Small Cats and Monkeys; Glimpses 
of Rome; Turtles of All Lands; Kangaroos. 

November 30 — The Lapps and Their Rein- 
deer; Wearers of F\it and Quills; Pre- 
historic Lake Dwellers; Falling Snow. 



A NEW FUND FOR PUBLICATIONS 
ON AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGY 

In 1886 Dr. Frederick Webb Hodge made 
his first archaeological expedition. His 
career in anthropology reaches its fiftieth 
anniversary in 1936. The occasion is to be 
marked by creation of the Hodge Anni- 
versary Publication F\ind, under the guid- 
ance of a committee of eminent anthro- 
pologists. An editorial board will select 
for publication works on American anthro- 
pology. Southwest Museum, of which Dr. 
Hodge is director, will administer the fund. 

Publications will be sold at approximate 
cost. Contributors who desire will receive 
pro rata credit in publications to the amount 
of their contribution in dollars. Contribu- 
tions should be sent to Hodge Fund, South- 
west Museum, Los Angeles. 

Dr. Hodge is a pioneer of American 
anthropology. A founder of the American 
Anthropological Association, he edited its 
journal, the American Anthropologist, for 
fifteen years. He has made many important 
studies of aboriginal America. The fund 
bearing his name offers friends and admirers 
opportunity to honor him, and to help 
increase the meager existing facilities for 
publication of research in American pre- 
history. 



"THE UNITY OF MANKIND" 

The bronze group "Unity of Mankind," 
by the sculptor Malvina Hoffman, shown in 
the accompanying illustration, occupies the 
center of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall 
(Hall 3), where it strikes the keynote of the 
entire Races of Mankind series of sculptures. 
This group consists of three bronze statues 
in heroic size, representing a white, a yellow, 
and a black man, forming a circle around a 
pilaster which is surmounted by a globe 
upon which are outlined in high relief the 
five continents as the habitat of humanity. 
The group symbolizes the unity of mankind 
as a well-defined, fundamentally uniform 
species which has spread all over the earth 



and now occupies almost every habitable 
area. 

This monumental group is a gift to the 
Museum from Mrs. Charles H. Schweppe, 
of Chicago, who is the donor also of various 
others of the sculptures in Chauncey Keep 
Hall. 

Chosen as models for this group were the 
finest physical typ^ available of the three 
principal racial divisions, white, black and 
yellow. Each of these portraitures displays, 
in noteworthy degree, the excellent work- 




Unity— white. Yellow, and Black Man 

Bronze group by Malvina Hoffman, occupying the 
center of Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall (Hall of the 
Races of Mankind). The group, which is a gift from 
Mrs. Charies H. Schweppe, symbolizes the basic uni- 
formity of mankind despite racial differences. 

manship and fine artistry for which Miss 
Hoffman is so noted, and which was re- 
sponsible for her selection to carry out the 
long and difficult task of preserving in 
bronze and stone types of all the world's 
principal races — some of them dying races 
of which in years soon to come these sculp- 
tures may be especially important records. 
Original photographs, and photogravure 
post card views of this, and most of the 
other Races of Mankind sculptures, may 
be purchased at the Museum. Mail orders 
promptly handled. By special arrangement 
reproductions in bronze may also be 
purchased. 



NOVEMBER GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
November: 

Friday, November 1 — Glimpses of African Life. 

Week beginning November 4: Monday — Fishes, 
Past and Present; Tuesday — Races of Mankind; 
Wednesday — Plants and Animals of the Past: Thurs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Palms and Cereals. 

Week beginning November 11: Monday — Indians 
of Woods and Plains; Tuesday — Unusual .\nimal3; 
Wednesday — Etruscan and Roman Exhibits; Thurs- 
day — General Tour; Friday — Rocks and Minerals. 

Week beginning November 18: Monday — .\mber. 
Turpentine and Rubber; Tuesday — Bird Exhibits; 
Wednesday — Jades; Thursday — General Tour; Friday 
— HaU of Plant Life. 

Week beginning November 25: Monday — North 
American Archaeology: Tuesday — Skeletons: Wednes- 
day — Moon and Meteorites: Thursday — Thanksgiving 
holiday, no tour; Friday — Egyptian Hall. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
MusEtlM News. Guide-lecturers' serv-ices 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From E. C. Grossman — 2 shrunken human heads, 
Peru; from Professor A. O. Garrett — 66 herbarium 
specimens, Utah; from William A. Schipp — 77 her- 
barium specimens, British Honduras; from George L. 
Fisher — 88 herbarium specimens, Mexico: from School 
of Forestry, Yale University — 128 herbarixtm speci- 
mens, Colombia: from D. C. Peattie — 657 herbarium 
specimens, southeastern United States; from Professor 
Manuel Valerio — 72 herbarium specimens, Costa Rica; 
from W. T. Hewetson — 5 herbarium specimens and a 
water-color painting, Illinois; from Professor G. W. 
Graves — cones of Araucaria, California; from David 
Waddington and Hubert Beddoes — 5 homed toads, 
Colorado: from Wallis Hmdekoper — 3 wolf skins, 
Montana; from Chicago Zoological Society — 6 snakes 
and 10 lizards; from Leslie Wheeler — an eagle, 
a kite, and 2 hawks, Panama: from Edward J. Brundage 
— 56 insects, Connecticut: from Charles N. Ackerman 
— one specimen of vivianite on day and two of fossil 
cones, Illinois: from George H. Hawes — a fossil cepha- 
lopod, Illinois: from Innis Speiden Company — a 
tnlobite and 3 specimens of silica, Illinois: from West 
Coast Mineral Association — 9 specimens of ore, 
Washington; from K. Ogaki — 12 fossil leaves and a 
fragment of fossil turtle, Manchukuo; from Herbert 
C. Walther — 7 specimens of fossil fern leaves and one 
of pyrite crystals, Illinois; from Chicago, Milwaukee, 
St. Paul and Pacific Railroad Company — 21 reels_ of 
motion picture films; from Resources Corporation 
International — 21 boards of hardwoods, southern 
Mexico; from Dr. Alfred Emerson — 17 bats, Panama; 
from .\merican Institute for Persian .\rt and .\rchae- 
ologj- — 8 pottery objects, Kish, Iraq. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from September 16 to October 15: 

Associate Metnl>er8 

Jerome J. Kanter, John H. Merrell, Miss Janet 
O'Brien, Herbert S. Ullmann, Mrs. Edward Kenneth 
Welles. 

Annual Members 

Mre. Harry R. Applegate, Mrs. Joseph Henry Biggs, 
Fritz Blocki, Nathan S. Blumberg, Dr. M. D. K. 
Bremner, Oscar B. Depue, Henry C. Dosch, John 
W. Evers, Jr., Owen O. Flory, Mrs. H. A. Frick, Miss 
Annie Goldfinger, Mrs. Morgan T. Jones, Dr. M. T. 
MacEachern, Dr. Hugh N. MacKechnie, J. Waller 
Marshall, Robert W. Martin, Webb W. Martin, L. H. 
Matthews, Mrs. George J. Meyer, Clarence Morgan, 
Mrs. Michael F. Mulcahy, Hugh Newman, Harold W. 
Norman, C. W. Perkins, Miss Edith Rea, Walter A. 
Rogers, John Rudin, Miss E. C. Stanley, Miss Louise 
A. Stift. 



Ancient Egyptian pottery on exhibition 
in Hall J ranges in date from about 2400 
B.C. to A.D. 400. 



A remarkably large cut aquamarine, 
weighing 341 carats, is exhibited in H. N. 
Higinbotham Hall (Hall 31). 



NTED BY riCLO MUSEUM PRESS 




News 



Published Monthly by Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago 



Vol.6 



DECEMBER, 1935 



No. 12 



ANCIENT VOTIVE PYRAMID OF TOLTECS IN MEXICO IS REPRESENTED BY MODEL 



By Paul S. Martin 
Acting Curator, Department of Anthropology 

A miniature model of the Pyramid of 
Quetzalcoatl, recently obtained from the 
National Museum of Mexico, is now on 
view at Field Museum in Hall 8. It is a 
strikingly accurate reproduction of the 
original, and makes a most attractive exhibit. 

The Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl is in the 
ancient town now called San Juan Teoti- 
huacan, a few miles northeast of Mexico 
City. On this site are also the Pyramids 
of the Sun and the Moon, and a straight 
roadway — the Street 
of the Dead. 

Near one end of the 
Street of the Dead is 
a spacious quad- 
rangular plaza sur- 
rounded by fifteen 
small flat-topped 
pyramids. This group 
is known as the 
Citadel, although the 
buildings probably 
formed a sacred unit. 
In the center is the 
recently excavated 
Pyramid of Quetzal- 
coatl (a name derived 
from Aztec words 
meaning birdr-serpent 
or plumed serpent). 

Quetzalcoatl was a deity of great importance, 
worshipped throughout middle America. 
Primarily god of the winds, he was also 
the deity of agriculture, and of the planet 
Venus. 

The pyramid is about fifty-four feet 
high; its base is square, measuring about 
210 feet on a side. On the summit formerly 
stood a temple, but no traces of it survive. 
Probably this pyramid was erected by the 
Toltec Indians about A.D. 1100. 

The structure is divided into six sections 
by set-backs in the sloping walls. These 
set-backs form narrow terraces around 
which processions of priests once wended 
their way in ceremonial ascents or descents. 
The decoration of the framed panels beneath 
each terrace consists of conventionalized 
masks of the rain god, Tlaloc, alternating 
with feathered serpent-heads. Each head 
projects from a feathered rufHe, and displays 
a terrifying set of fantastic teeth. Aprons 
below the panels are ornamented with 



full-length feathered snakes sculptured in 
low relief. 

On the west face is a broad stairway of 
fifty-eight steps, its balustrade ornamented 
with serpent heads. All decorations were 
stucco-covered and painted in bright colors. 

Construction of such a pyramid must 
have been a gigantic task for a people whose 
building methods were primitive. After 
the ground was cleared of all vegetation, 
crude walls were erected to enclose the 
area. The space within was filled with 
stone and earth. This mass was then 




The Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl 

Miniature model of a great monument of the ancient Toltecs, now on exhibition in Hall 8. Human sacrifices 
to the gods of rain and other deities were made on this edifice. 

cased with large hewn stones forming the 
outer sloping walls. The big serpent-heads 
were attached by long stone pegs or tenons. 
The large slabs with which the building 
was veneered were held in place by a kind 
of concrete. 

The Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, as well 
as the pyramids of the Sun and Moon, 
is classed as a votive monument. The small 
sanctuary on the summit was secondary to 
the massive structure which supported it 
and symbolized for the people their gods 
of work, pain, blood, and tears. Here, 
within or in front of the sanctuary, were 
performed dramatic ceremonies which some- 
times included human sacrifice. During 
the dry season rituals were dedicated to 
the rain gods, to aid crops. The month in 
which these ceremonies were held was 
given a name meaning "the buying of the 
rains." Children were occasionally sacri- 
ficed, and it was believed that if the victims 
wept excessively, heavy rains would fall. 



Other ceremonies were rendered for the 
gods of corn, flowers, maguey, beans, and 
the soil. There were also special ceremonies 
for each of the eighteen months into which 
the Toltecs divided the year. 

The largest structure at San Juan Teoti- 
huacan is the Pyramid of the Sun, on the 
east side of the Street of the Dead. It 
is 215 feet high and has a frontage of 716 
feet. The summit is a level platform about 
130 feet square. A temple formerly stood 
on the platform, but has long since rotted 
away. There is no evidence that this struc- 
ture was devoted to 
sun worship — its 
name was applied 
after the Spanish con- 
quest. The ceremo- 
nies were probably the 
same as those held 
on the Pyramid of 
Quetzalcoatl. 

The third well- 
known building at 
Teotihuacan is the 
Pyramid of the Moon, 
located at one end of 
the Street of the Dead. 
It is rectangular rather 
than square, measur- 
ing about 400 by 500 
feet; and it stands 
approximately 140 
feet high. This structure has been only 
partially explored and little is known about 
it. That it was not devoted to worship of 
the moon, however, seems certain. 

About the Toltecs, credited with erecting 
these structures, few facts have been learned. 
The word Toltec — used by the Aztecs to 
describe their predecessors who were, sup- 
posedly, founders of Mexico's "Golden Age" 
— actually means "a skilled worker." Aztec 
legends described these people as skilled 
workers of turquois and jadeite. 

The traditional capital of the Toltecs was 
Tula, situated just north of Teotihuacan. 
Legends refer to a "Toltec Empire," over- 
thrown in the thirteenth century. This may 
have been merely a federation of communi- 
ties. Tula may have been the civil capital, 
and Teotihuacan the principal religious 
center and source of culture for the Valley 
of Mexico. Pending further excavations 
or discovery of hieroglyphic inscriptions, 
Toltec history must remain largely unknown. 



CHRISTMAS SHOPPING MADE EASY 
BY MUSEUM MEMBERSHIP PLAN 

As in past years. Field Museum has made 
special arrangements whereby its Members 
may easily solve some of their Christmas 
gift problems. 

You may present memberships in the 
Museum to your friends and relatives with 
a minimum of time and effort. Just fill in 
the name and address of the proposed Mem- 
ber, and your own name and address, on the 
application blank enclosed with this issue 
of Field Museum News, and insert it 
with check in the accompanying postage- 



prepaid addressed envelope. L>rop it into 
a mailbox — all other details will be taken 
care of for you by the Museum. You are 
saved from the jostling Christmas shopping 
crowds, and the burden of preparing and 
sending packages is eliminated. 

The Museum will send an attractive 
Christmas card to whomever you propose, 
bearing notification that, as a gift from you, 
a membership has been taken out in his or 
her name. It will also inform the recipient 
of your gift as to what the privileges of 
membership are. 

A Museum membership is a distinctive 
type of gift, which conveys to the recipient 



a high compliment from you through its 
implication that you consider him to be a per- 
son of those qualities of intellect which would 
make him appreciate and value member- 
ship in a scientific and cultural institution. 
It is a gift that will bring you to the recip- 
ient's mind many times a year, as the 
monthly issues of Field Museum News 
reach him, and as he obtains his reserved 
seats for Museum lectures, and avails him- 
self of the other membership privileges. 

It is advisable to send in applications 
before December 17 to assure delivery of 
the greeting and notification cards to the 
recipients of your gifts by Christmas Day. 



PageX 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



December, 1935 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded by Marshall Field, 1893 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Michigan, Chicago 



THE BOARD 
Sewgll L. Avery 
John Borden 
William J, Chalmers 
Joseph N. Field 
Marshall Field 
Stanley Field 
Ernest R. Graham 
Albert W. Harris 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Cyrus H. McCorhick 



OF TRUSTEES 

William H. Mitchell 
George A. Richardson 
Fred W. Sargent 
Stephen C. Simms 
Jambs Simpson 
Solomon A. Smith 
Albert A. Sfragug 
Silas H. Strawn 
Lesue Wheeler 
John P. Wii^ON 



OFFICERS 

Stanley Field Prttident 

Albert A. Sprague Pint Vice-President 

James Simpson Second Vice-Presidenl 

Albert W. Harris Third Vice-President 

Stephen C. Simms Director ond Secretary 

Solomon A. Smith . . . Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 

FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 

Stephen C. Sdims, Director of the Museum Editor 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Paul S. Martin Aeting Curator of Anthrojmloay 

B. E. Dahlgren Curator of Botany 

Henry W. Nichols Curator of Geology 

Wilfred H. Osgood Curator of Zoology 

H. B. Harte Managing Editor 

Field Museum is open every day of the year during 
the hours indicated below: 

Nov., Dec, Jan., Feb., Mar. 9 am. to 4:30 P.M. 
April, September, October 9 A.M. to 5:00 P.M. 

May, June, July, August 9 A.M. to 6:00 P.M. 

Admission is free to Members on all days. Other 
adults are admitted free on Thursdays, Saturdays and 
Sundays; non-members pay 25 cents on other days. 
Children are admitted free on all days. Students and 
faculty members of educational institutions are admit- 
ted free any day upon presentation of credentials. 

The Museum's natural history Library is open for 
reference daily except Saturday afternoon and Sunday. 

Traveling exhibits are circulated in the schools of 
Chicago by the N. W. Harris Public School Extension 
Department of the Museum. 

Lectures for schools, and special entertainments 
and tours for children at the Museum, are provided 
by the James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
Foundation for Public School and Children's Lectures. 

Announcements of free illustrated lectures for the 
public, and special lectures for Members of the Museum, 
will appear in Field Museum News. 

A cafeteria in the Museum serves visitors. Rooms 
are provided for those bringing their lunches. 

Chicago Motor Coach Company No. 26 buses go 
direct to the Museum. 

Members are requested to inform the Museum 
promptly of changes of address. 

MEMBERSHIP IN FIELD MUSEUM 

Field Museum has several classes of Members. 
Benefactors give or devise $100,000 or more. Contribu- 
tors give or devise $1,000 to $100,000. Life Members 
give $500; Non-Resident Life and Associate Members 
pay $100; Non-Resident Associate Members pay $50. 
All the above classes are exempt from dues. Sustaining 
Members contribute $25 annually. After six years they 
become Associate Members. Annual Members con- 
tribute $10 annually. Other memberships are Corpo- 
rate, Honorary, Patron, and Corresponding, additions 
under these classifications being made by special action 
of the Board of Trustees. 

Each Member, in all classes, is entitled to free 
admission to the Museum for himself, his family and 
house guests, and to two reserved seats for Museum 
lectures provided for Members. Subscription to Field 
Museum News is included with all memberships. The 
courtesies of every museum of note in the United 
States and Canada are extended to all Members of 
Field Museum. A Member may give his personal card 
to non-residents of Chicago, upon presentation of 
which they will be admitted to the Museum without 
charge. Further information about memberships will 
be sent on request. 

BEQUESTS AND ENDOW.MENTS 

Bequests to Field Museum of Natural History may 
be made in securities, money, books or collections. 
They may, if desired, take the form of a memorial to 
a person or cause, named by the giver. 

Cash contributions made within the taxable year 
not exceeding 15 per cent of the taxpayer's net income 
are allowable as deductions in computing net income 
under Article 251 of Regulation 69 relating to the 
income tax under the Revenue Act of 1926. 

Endowments may be made to the Museum with the 
provision that an annuity be paid to the patron for life. 
These annuities are tax-free and are guaranteed against 
fluctuation in amount. 



MANY RARE BOOKS PRESENTED 
BY PRESIDENT FIELD 

A collection of extremely rare and val- 
uable books, numbering one hundred vol- 
umes, which had formed part of the library 
of Mr. Stanley Field, President of Field 
Museum, was recently presented by him 
to the Library of this institution. These 
books, most of them very old, long out of 
print, and difficult to obtain, are especially 
important as source material for use in con- 
nection with research work. 

Famous records of voyages and discoveries 
from the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries are especially well represented, 
while a few of the books date back to the 
seventeenth and sixteenth centuries. Many 
of them are remarkable examples of fine 
printing, illustration, and binding, as well as 
being important for their textual content. 
Some are illustrated with excellent color 
plates, others with fine woodcuts and steel 
engravings. There are beautiful examples 
of finely-made decorative covers, the work 
of skilled hand-craftsmen who have prac- 
tically no successors in the present mechani- 
cal age. 

One of the most important items in the 
collection consists of eight volumes of Cook's 
(Captain James) Voyages, accompanied by 
an additional volume of illustrations, dating 
from 1768 to 1784. Five beautifully bound 
volumes of Hakluyt's Collections of the Early 
Voyages (1809-12) constitute another out- 
standing item. Others of special interest, 
to mention only a few, include The Kafirs 
Illustrated (1840), by George French Angus; 
Voyage Round the World in the Years 1 7iO-ilt, 
by George Anson; Voyage aux Indes-Orien- 
tales (1825-29), by Charles E61anger; Notes 
on a Journey in America (1818), by Morris 
Birkbeck; Chronological History of Voyages 
and Discoveries in the South Sea (1579), by 
James Burney; William Dampier's Voyages 
(1729); A New Discovery of a Vast Country 
in America — New France (1698), by L. 
Hennepin; America (1671), by John Ogilby; 
and A Voyage Round the World (1789), by 
Captain Nathaniel Portlock. 



TRUSTEE RAWSON RESIGNS 

Because of ill health and the fact that 
he is spending considerable time in Pasadena, 
California, Mr. Frederick H. Rawson has 
resigned from the Board of Trustees of 
Field Museum. His resignation was regret- 
fully accepted at the meeting of the Board 
held October 21. 

Mr. Rawson had been a member of the 
Board since August, 1927. He has con- 
tributed most generously of his time and 
effort, as well as large amounts of money, 
toward the welfare of the institution. Even 
prior to his election as a Trustee, in 1926, 
he organized and financed the First Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of Field 
Museum. The following year he furnished 
funds for the larger Second Rawson-Mac- 
Millan Subarctic Expedition which spent 
some fifteen months in Labrador and Baffin- 
land. Both of these expeditions, under the 
leadership of Lieutenant-C ommander 
Donald B. MacMillan, noted Arctic ex- 
plorer, resulted in valuable collections for 
the Departments of Anthropology, Geology 
and Zoology. In 1929 a third expedition 
was sponsored by Mr. Rawson: the Fred- 
erick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ethnol- 
ogial Expedition to West Africa which ob- 
tained extensive collections in Angola (Port- 
ugese West Africa) and Nigeria for the De- 
partment of Anthropology. When the 
Museum undertook the creation of its 
unique and important Hall of the Stone Age 



of the Old World (Hall C), Mr. Rawson 
contributed $18,000 toward the preparation 
of the groups restoring types of prehistoric 
man. Altogether his contributions to the 
Museum total more than $93,000. As a 
Trustee he served ably as a member of the 
important Finance Committee of the Board. 
His fellow Trustees join in wishing him 
health and happiness. 

—STEPHEN C. SIMMS, 

Director and Secretary 



HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 

1857-1935 

In the passing of Dr. Henry Fairfield 
Osbom, Honorary President of the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, 
the sciences of earth-history have lost one 
of their most active exponents. He was not 
only a great teacher and a tireless worker, 
but a promoter of museums and of scien- 
tific activity. 

Dr. Osborn was a prolific writer. Nearly 
one thousand scientific articles, lectures and 
addresses, as well as a number of outstand- 
ing books, bear his name. He dealt with 
fossil animals as the material evidence of 
animal history and evolution. He popular- 
ized the subject — brought it to the interest 
and the understanding of the layman. In 
later life he challenged a rising tide of criti- 
cism of the Darwinian doctrines and remain- 
ed their champion to the end. 

Dr. Osborn died November 6. His death 
is a loss which will be felt at Field Museum 
as at all other institutions devoted to science. 

— E. S. R. 



MUSEUM TO CLOSE CHRISTMAS 
AND NEW YEAR'S DAY 

For the first time in many years, 
Field Museum will be closed on 
Christmas and New Year's day. 
This action is being taken to permit 
as many guards, janitors and other 
employes as possible to spend these 
holidays with their families. Only 
such watchmen as are necessary 
for safety will remain on duty. 
Hitherto the Museum has remained 
open every day of the year, includ- 
ing all holidays, but experience has 
shown that so few visitors come on 
Christmas and New Year's that 
closing on those days should cause 
little if any inconvenience to the 
public. 



PEANUT WALNUT 

Field Museum recently received a gift 
from Mr. Ralph Throp of curious "peanut 
walnuts," produced by a tree growing on 
his farm near Greensburg, Indiana. Only 
one other similar tree, somewhere in Ohio, 
is known. 

The peanut walnut is a freak form of the 
common black walnut of the United States. 
Viewed from the outside, there is nothing 
remarkable about the appearance of the 
nuts, but when opened, the kernel or meat 
falls out or may be removed easily in a 
single piece. The kernel is only half of an 
ordinary kernel, in form, but is larger. 

The advantages of such a kernel, which 
can be removed whole, are apparent, and 
it would be highly desirable to propagate 
th§ tree commercially. Grafting experi- 
ments, however, have so far been unsuc- 
cessful, and it is questionable whether a 
freak or sport of this kind would be repro- 
duced in seedlings. 



December, 19S5 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



Pages 



NO EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL LIFE 
FOUND IN METEORITES 

By Sharat K. Roy 
Assistant Curator of Geology 

How and whence came life on earth? This 
problem has kindled man's imagination for 
generations, but due to lack of precise facts 
it has remained unsolved. Many noted in- 
vestigators of physical and biological phe- 
nomena have studied the question. Richter 
speculated on the possibility that micro- 
organisms pervaded all space. Following 
the same line of thought, Arrhenius reasoned 
that under certain favorable conditions the 
pressure of light could drive spores from 
outer space to our planet and thus seed it 
with life. Von Helmholtz and Lord Kelvin 
suggested that meteorites might have been 
responsible for bringing the original forms 
of life to the earth. 

This last suggestion has been raised to the 
dignity of a theory by Professor Charles B. 
Lipman, of the University of California, 
who, in 1932, reported the finding of living 
bacteria in stony meteorites and interpreted 
the organisms to be of extra-terrestrial 
origin. This alleged discovery was received 
by laymen with philosophical interest, 
and by geologists and bacteriologists with 
skepticism, but because of its spectacular 
nature it was accorded wide publicity. 

Without either accepting or denying the 
plausibility of Professor Lipman's theory, 
Field Musem, along with other scientific 
institutions, made available to him material 
from its meteorite collection upon which 
to conduct experiments. An account of the 
results reported by Professor Lipman was 
written for Field Museum News by 
the late Dr. Oliver C. Farrington, former 
Curator of the Department of Geology, and 
appeared in the March, 1933, issue. Dr. 
Farrington therein commented that "far 
more investigation is necessary before sat- 
isfactory conclusions can be drawn." 

The interpretation proposed by Lipman 
is of such fundamental significance that be- 
fore its acceptance, it should be shown to 
rest on indisputable evidence. For this 
reason, the present writer undertook to re- 
peat Lipman's experiments, closely follow- 
ing his technique and culture media so that 
the two results might be directly compara- 
ble. Four stony meteorites, (1) Holbrook, 
(2) Mocs, (3) Pultusk, and (4) Forest City, 
were used for the purpose, the first three of 
which belong to the same falls as three of 
the five falls used by Lipman in his final 
experiments. 

The method of investigation was as fol- 
lows: The exterior of each meteorite was 
first sterilized, then dropped in a flask con- 
taining sterile culture media and incubated 
aerobically (i. e., in the presence of air) for 
twelve weeks, and anaerobically (in a 
vacuum) for sixteen weeks. Under these 
conditions, if the surfaces of the meteorites 
were not sterilized, growth would appear. 
But in all cases no growth appeared. Inside 
a sterile chamber, each specimen was then 
crushed separately in an especially devised 
sterile mortar, and the powder from each 
was distributed with a thoroughly flame- 
sterilized spoon into three tubes, each con- 
taining a different kind of culture medium. 
The tubes (twelve in all) were then incubated 
aerobically for four weeks and anaerobically 
for eight weeks. To provide for checking 
the results, three control plates were exposed 
by passing them through the atmosphere of 
the inoculating chamber several times. 

In the foregoing experiments bacterial 
growth appeared in a total of three of the 
twelve tubes of media inoculated with 



meteorite powder. The systematic position 
of the organisms (a rod and a coccus) iso- 
lated from these growths was then deter- 
mined by observing their morphology, as 
well as their cultural, staining and fermen- 
tation reactions. These tests established 
the rod to heBacillus subtilis, and the coccus, 
Staphylococcus albus. 

Of the three control plates exposed in the 
inoculating chamber, two developed two 
distinct types of colonies. The organisms 
from these colonies were subjected to an 
appropriate series of tests and were found 
to be also Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus 
albus. 

The logical conclusion, therefore, is that 
the growth found in the three tubes inoc- 
ulated with meteorite powder was the result 
of contamination with Bacillus subtilis and 
Staphylococcus albus, and not of meteoritic 
bacteria. 

It would seem to this writer that Lipman 
could hardly have chosen a more unlikely 



substance, namely, meteorite, as the basis 
of his investigations. The composition and 
structure of meteorites point directly to their 
igneous origin. Fires must have glowed in 
cosmic furnaces of some sort in order to 
impart to meteorites the structure which 
they present to us. Further, stony meteorites 
commonly exhibit signs of partial refusion 
of certain of their constituents — an appear- 
ance comparable with the metamorphism 
produced in terrestrial rocks by intense 
heat. Obviously then, meteorites, unlike 
sedimentary rocks, cannot harbor bacteria 
while they are being formed or being recon- 
solidated, for neither molten magma nor 
the heat of metamorphism is inviting to 
living bodies. 

These arguments, together with the ex- 
perimental results obtained by the writer, 
strongly indicate that the alleged living 
bacteria found in meteorites by Lipman 
were probably contaminants, and not of 
extra-terrestrial origin as he claimed. 



ETHIOPIAN TYPES INCLUDED AMONG SCULPTURES OF RACES 



Types of three of the races which 
compose the population of Ethiopia are 
exemplified by sculptures in the Races of 
Mankind series by Malvina Hoffman on 
exhibition in Chauncey Keep Memorial 




Photographs copyright Field Museum of Natural History. 

Ethiopian Types Shown In Chauncey Keep Hall 

Left to right: a Hamite, an Abyssinian girl, and a Somali. Three sculptures by 
Malvina Hoffman in the Races of Mankind series. 



Hall (Hall 3). They are a Hamite man, 
an Abyssinian (or Ethiopian) girl, and a 
Somali man. 

The physiognomy of the Hamite shows 
features far removed from those typical 
of the Negroes. Especially is this evident 
in the refinement of the nose and mouth. 
Farther testimony to this man's Caucasian 
derivation is found in the hair which, 
while frizzly, is not woolly like that of 
Negroes. 

A high type of African beauty is reflected 
in the carved portrait of an Abyssinian girl. 
Here again we find features which show the 
influence left on the racial strains of Ethiopia 
by the Hamitic invaders. An interesting 
mode in hairdressing may be observed here 
— one which obviously must require con- 
siderable time and skill for its preparation. 

The Somalis, who inhabit parts of 
Ethiopia, as well as other regions of north- 
east Africa (British, Italian, French Somali- 
land, etc.) are of Hamitic extraction. Un- 
like true Negroes, the Somali are charac- 
terized by wavy hair and oval faces. Their 
facial features are a little more delicately 
formed; the brown color of their skin is 
lighter. They rank among the taller tribes. 

'The Hamitic invasion of northeastern 
Africa is believed to have occurred in migra- 



tory waves in a remote period long before 
the dawn of history. Intermixture with 
Negroes gradually produced many new 
racial divisions of varying degrees of 
difference from their ancestors on both 
sides. In general it 
may be said that the 
Hamites possess dark 
brown or black hair, 
curly or wavy in 
form; skin varying in 
color from reddish to 
dark brown; and 
average stature of 
about five and one- 
half feet, with slender 
build. The typical 
Hamite has a long 
head, oval elongated 
face without forward 
protrusion, thin lips, 
pointed chin, and a 
prominent well- 
shaped narrow nose. 
The sculptures of 
the Somali and Ham- 
ite men are in bronze ; 
that of the Abyssi- 
nian girl is in black 
Belgian marble. Original photographs, and 
photogravure post card views of these and 
most of the other Races of Mankind sculp- 
tures may be purchased at the Museum. 
Mail orders are given prompt attention. 
Reproductions in bronze may be purchased 
by special arrangement. 




ETHIOPIAN PLANTS IN HERBARIUM 

Field Museum possesses a collection of 
plants having special interest because of cur- 
rent world events. The collection was made 
in the mountains and plains of Ethiopia one 
hundred years ago by Wilhelm Schimper, 
an Alsatian botanist who spent several years 
there. He collected thousands of plant 
specimens, and was probably the first 
European to become acquainted with the 
rich Abyssinian (or Ethiopian) flora. 

Schimper was the discoverer, so far as 
science is concerned, of many of the most 
curious East African plants. Among them 
may be mentioned especially the giant 
lobelias. In America the lobelias, one of 
which is the brilliant cardinal flower, are 
low herbs, but those of the African moun- 
tains attain the size of small trees, and are 
of striking and almost fantastic appearance. 

—P. C. S. 



L 



Page U 



FIELD MUSEUM NEWS 



December, 19S5 



MEASURING TIME 

With the recent adoption of Eastern 
Standard in place of Central Standard time 
for Chicago by the city council after con- 
siderable discussion of the matter between 
advocates of the change and those of the 
status quo, some of the methods of time 
measuring in other lands and ages, as 
illustrated in the exhibits of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, are of special interest. 

Regardless of the merits or demerits of 
"daylight saving" as against standard and 
sun time, we nevertheless are still basically 
guided by the sun — the same master clock 
that has been used ever since people first 
began to count time. Some of the oldest 
timepieces in existence have been found in 
Egypt. These are the tall stone obelisks or 
pillars, made originally not as time measur- 
ing instruments but as records of the 
triumphs and honors of the Pharaohs. 
Egyptian priests, while studying the heaven- 
ly bodies, noticed that shadows from the 
obelisks changed in length with the changes 
in the sun's position between rising and 
setting. By marking off the surface on 
which the shadows were cast, a very simple 
form of sun dial was obtained. The Roman 
emperor, Augustus, had an Egyptian obelisk 
brought to Rome for this purpose. Among 
the Egyptian collections at Field Museum 
(in Hall J) are a small bronze obelisk with 
a figure of the lion goddess at its front, and 
an obelisk with the falcon-headed Horus 
before it. The first of these is hollow, and 
is believed to have once contained a small 
mummified animal. 

Even before the Egyptians began to 
measure time, wise men of the East, in 
Babylonia, Assyria, and Persia, were working 
out systems of measuring time by years, 
seasons, months and days. They, too, made 
use of shadows cast by the sun, and there is 
evidence for a theory that the sun dial was 
a Babylonian or Chaldaean invention. When 
the Babylonian priests made calendars they 
usually marked wedge-shaped letters with a 
bone pencil or stylus on slabs of wet clay. 
Some ancient clay tablets, used for record, 
were obtained by the Field Museum-Oxford 
University Joint Expedition to Mesopo- 
tamia. 

The Greeks probably learned about the 
sun dial from the Egyptians in the sixth 
century B.C., when many Greeks studied in 
Egypt, and the Romans learned its use from 
the Greeks. The Greeks were not satisfied 
however, because the sun dial could be used 
only when the sun was shining, so a Greek 
inventor devised a water clock. Water 
clocks were first used in Athens and Rome 
to time speakers in law courts. Large jugs, 
called amphorae, were used to pour water 
into these clocks. Examples of these bronze 
and pottery amphorae are on exhibition in 
Edward E. and Emma B. Ayer Hall (Hall 2). 

The water clock, or clepsydra, as the 
Greeks called it, has been used in China for 
many centuries. The Chinese tradition is 
that Hwangti, one of the first emperors, 
invented it. Part of an old Chinese clep- 
sydra is to be seen in George T. and Frances 
Gaylord Smith Hall (Hall 24). It operated 
by the pouring of water from a vessel into 
a tube connected with a covered cup. Little 
holes in the bottom of the cup let water 
down through another tube into an open 
dish in which a float with a pointer was 
placed. As the pointer rose, it touched a 
scale on the side of the dish, thus measuring 
the passage of time in ratio to the flow of 
water. 

Malays among the islands south and east 
of China may have copied the idea, for in 



their boats they often carry buckets of water 
in which float coconut shells. It takes an 
hour for the water, coming up through a 
small hole in the bottom of the shell, to fill 
and sink it. When it sinks a watchman 
calls the time, and sets the shell afloat to 
measure the next hour. 



THE OKAPI 



One of the rarest animals in the world is 
the okapi, of which a specimen is on exhi- 
bition in George M. Pullman Hall (Hall 13). 
The okapi is the only extant relative of the 
giraffe. It is said that hunters find it the 
most difficult of all African animals to ob- 
tain. The specimen in the Museum was 
speared by pygmy natives in the Ituri forest 
of the Belgian Congo, and was obtained 
from them by the Marshall Field African 
Expedition. 

The okapi is a forest animal of shy, 
secretive and noctural habits and is found 
only in a limited area of the Congo, inhab- 
ited mainly by pygmy black men who are 
extremely hostile to white people. Members 




Giraffe's Only Extant Relative 

The okapi, one of the world's rarest an_d_ m(^t 
peculiar animals. This specimen is on exhibition in 
George M. Pullman Hall. 

of the expedition had to spend several weeks 
building up good will on the part of these 
pygmies before they could be approached 
with a proposition to obtain their aid in 
getting an okapi specimen, and their assist- 
ance is almost indispensable in hunting this 
elusive creature. 

The okapi is a striped animal, and its ex- 
istence was not suspected until as recently 
as 1900, when some strips of its skin were 
obtained from natives by Sir Harry Johnston, 
a British colonial administrator. At first 
these were thought to be pieces of the skin 
of a new type of zebra, but subsequently an 
entire specimen (skin, skull and skeleton) 
was obtained, and the animal was then 
found to be kin to the giraffe. It resembles 
more closely certain prehistoric ancestors of 
the giraffe, with whose fossil skeletons it has 
been compared, than it does the modern 
giraffe. The okapi's neck and legs are much 
shorter than those of a giraffe, but its teeth 
and horns are very similar. So far as records 
show, only one or two white men have ever 
seen this mysterious animal alive in its 
native habitat. 



DECEMBER GUIDE-LECTURE TOURS 

Conducted tours of exhibits, under the 
guidance of staff lecturers, are made every 
afternoon at 3 p.m., except Saturdays, 
Sundays, and certain holidays. Following 
is the schedule of subjects and dates for 
December: 

Week beginning December 2: Monday — Eskimo 
Life: Tuesday — Plants Native to America; Wednesday 
— Animal Habitat Groups; Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Melanesia. 

Week beginning December 9: Monday — Prehistoric 
Exhibits; Tuesday — Makers of Totem Poles; Wednes- 
day — Animals of the Chicago Region; Thursday — 
General Tour; Friday — The Gem Room. 

Week beginning December 16: Monday — China 
and Tibet; Tuesday — Story of Coal; Wednesday — 
Valuable Fur Bearers: Thursday — General Tour; 
Friday — Economic Botany Exhibits. 

Week beginning December 23: Monday — Ancient 
Burials: Tuesday — Indians of the Southwest; Wednes- 
day—Christmas holiday, Museum ctoged; Thursday 
—.General Tour; Friday — Man Through the Ages. 

Monday, December 30 — African Animals; Tuesday 
— Interesting Geology Exhibits. 

Persons wishing to participate should 
apply at North Entrance. Tours are free 
and no gratuities are to be proffered. A new 
schedule will appear each month in Field 
Museum News. Guide-lecturers' services 
for special tours by parties of ten or more 
are available free of charge by arrangement 
with the Director a week in advance. 



Gifts to the Museum 

Following is a list of some of the principal 
gifts received during the last month: 

From Miss Julia T. Martin — a small grass basket 
and a birch bark needle case, Alaska and Michigan; 
from Henry Field — 6 basalt blocks with Safaitic 
inscriptions, Trans-Jordan; from Dr. E. W. K. Andrau 
— 2 basalt blocks with Safaitic inscriptions, Trans- 
Jordan; from Dr. E. E. Burr — 2 colored anatomical 
models of a human head dissected to show muscles 
and structures of bones; from School of Forestry, Yale 
University — 94 herbarium specimens. Ecuador and 
Colombia; from Ralph Throp — sample of nuts of the 
peanut walnut, Indiana; from Dr. Bento Chermont — 
a herbarium specimen, Brazil; from R. M. Tryon, Jr. 
— 41 specimens of ferns, Indiana; from Illinois State 
Geological Survey — samples of vitrain, clarain, and 
fusain, Illinois; from Robert R. Lipman — a crystal of 
pyrite, Colorado; from Norton Company— 2 specimens 
of boron carbide and five of norbide, Niagara Falls, 
New York; from Dr. Alfred Emerson — 17 bats, 8 frogs, 
7 snakes, a lizard, and a caecilian — Panama; from 
Karl P. Schmidt — 50 specimens of snakes, frogs, 
salamanders, and turtles — Indiana and Illinois; from 
Edgar G. Laybourne — 4 bird skins, Colorado; from 
Leslie Wheeler — a golden eagle, Illinois; from Mrs. 
Harnett Harris — 62 insects, Zululand; from Chicago 
Zoological Society — a kangaroo, 2 monkeys, and a 
lesser koodoo. New Guinea, Africa, South America, 
and captivity: from Stewart Springer — 4 mole skins 
with 6 skulls, and a bat, Florida: from Miss Winifred 
SmeatoQ — 206 negatives, portraits of natives of Iraq. 



NEW MEMBERS 

The following persons were elected to 
membership in Field Museum during the 
period from October 16 to November 15: 

Associate Members 

Allen Grawoig, W. Homer Hartz, Mrs. Louis 
Tallmadge Jaqucs, Mrs. Morris S. Rosenfield. 

Annual Members 

Harry Anderson, Dr. Arthur C. Bachmeyer, S. 
Frank Beatty, Charles Evelyn Beresford, Mrs. Edward 
F Carry, W. W. Chandler, Soly Cini, Dr. Charles C. 
Clement, Mrs. Arthur H. Compton, Mrs. William W. 
Darrow, Walter I. Deffenbaugh, Mrs. Wentworth G. 
Field, Miss Kathryne Frankhauser, Alexander Goodkin, 
Miss Bertha F. Gordon, William W. Haerther, Mrs. 
George F. Henneberry, Mrs. William Kirchheimer, 
Mrs. H. B. Kuhns, I. Archer Levin, Miss Lydia 
Lichtenstein, Mrs. James J. McCarthy, Miss Gladys 
Alizabeth McCreight, E. E. Moore, Merritt S. Moore, 
Moray Munroe, J. W. Newey, Miss Grace Georgette 
Noee, Mrs. James J. Nolan, Mrs. Abraham M. Ober- 
man, I. Oesterblom, Mrs. Marie S. Orb. Mrs. L. B. 
Patterson. Mrs. Robert G. Peck, Mrs. O. M. Perrenot, 
Miss Louise M. Purrucker, Stephen F. Roche, William 
F Slade, Mrs. Wilmer M. States, Miss Katharine M. 
Stevens, William E. Tewson, Mrs. C. P. VanSchaack, 
Mrs. Edward H. Warszewski. 

FRINTKO BY FtCLO MUSCUM PRESS