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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

Volume 44, Number 1 
January 1973 




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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 1 
January 1973 



2 Volunteers Lend a Hand 

Carolyn Blackmon 

they are major contributors to Field Museum's work, 
and more are needed 



5 Calendar 

6 Members 

what the Museum means to them and what they mean 
to the Museum 

8 Capital Campaign 

a report on work accomplished and in progress 



Appointment Calendar for 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Director, E. Leiand Webber 

Editor Elizabeth Monger; Editorial Assistant Vicki Wilson; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs; Production Russ Becker; Photography John Bayalis, 
Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their ow/n and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Printed by Field Museum Press, Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster; Please send 
form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 

Field Museum Bulletin 1 




2 January 1973 



Volunteers Lend a Hand 

Carolyn Blachrnon 



Throughout the history of Field 
Museum, volunteers have provided 
much-needed and greatly appreciated 
assistance. In 1971, for example, 71 
volunteers gave 1,732 days of work. 
This year the Museum has enlarged its 
volunteer enrollment to 115, w/ith the 
assistance of grants from the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the Illinois 
Arts Council. The funds are used in 
part to provide administrative and 
secretarial support for the growing 
program. 

What do volunteers do? Their jobs are 
as diverse as the Museum's collections. 
More than 13 million specimens need 
to be cataloged, preserved, and 
maintained. Numerous clerical and 
technical tasks must be performed to 
facilitate the research activities of the 
scientific staff. School groups need 
instruction, and materials must be 
prepared for exhibition. 

Some tasks take a short time; others 
are long-term. Not long ago the 
Geology Department needed someone 
to help in the paleontology laboratory 
removing the rock that encases fossil 
specimens brought in from expeditions. 



A likely prospect appeared, and her 
eyes sparkled when asked if she would 
like to start with a turtle. She thought 
that sounded fine — a little turtle should 
be an easy beginning. She had been 
shown the techniques and how to use 
the tools, and the preparator or a 
curator would always be around to 
supervise and answer questions or 
give help. The specimen was brought 
in from storage — a giant sea turtle, 40 
million years old, his shell five feet in 
circumference, weighing fifty pounds. 
One and a half years, hundreds of 
hours of picking, and innumerable 
cups of coffee later, a fine Eocene 
specimen emerged to be placed in the 
study collection. 

Many continuing tasks involve 
collection maintenance, such as oiling 
rare books, changing faded 
identification tags on specimens, or 
removing dust from stored artifacts. 
Records must be kept as well, since 
inaccurate information renders 
specimens and artifacts almost useless 
for scientific study. With training and 
staff supervision, volunteers perform 
many of these important tasks. Some 
have even developed their Sherlock 



Holmes instincts and, through diligent 
research, have found new data or 
better ways for organizing materials. 

Volunteer instructors lead tours for 
groups of school children, using 
Museum exhibits, specimens, and 
artifacts. Since staff and volunteers can 
provide tours to only 20 percent of the 
350,000 school children who come to 
the Museum every year, more volunteer 
instructors are needed to help the 
Museum expand its educational 
offerings. 

Who are Museum volunteers? They are 
people who have time to give — maybe 
one or two days a week, or maybe 
even five. They may have a hobby or 
interest they would like to put to use, 
related to birds, rocks, pottery, history, 
flowers, mushrooms, or model-making. 
Such a list could go on and on 
because a wide variety of skills and 
interests are needed in museum work. 
Retirees, college students, and mothers 
with grown children or easy access to 
sitters also serve as volunteers. Almost 
any job experience may have some 
relationship to museum work. 
Librarians, secretaries, doctors, 



«» 



Field Museum Bulletin 



carpenters, bookkeepers, and countless 
others have skills that can be utilized. 
Most of all, volunteers are curious, 
want to learn something new, and have 
time and some basic skills to give. The 
Museum can offer them an appropriate 
niche where, after training in 
professional procedures and standards, 
they can continue to expand their 
interests and knowledge. 

How does one become a volunteer? 
An interview is held to determine 
whether an opening is available that 
matches a candidate's skills and 





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interests. If an assignment is made, 
Museum staff provide on-the-job 
training in the areas of science, 
administration, and exhibition. For 
volunteer instructors, a formal training 
■^ program is held one day a week for 
twelve weeks, spring and fall. 

There are now more than fifty openings 
for volunteers. Among the many needs: 
a gardener to take care of plants in 
Stanley Field Hall, typists and 
catalogers in virtually every department, 
furniture refinishers, cabinet makers, 
photographers, illustrators, upholsterers. 




■m-^:,£^ 




A comprehensive list of volunteer 
opportunities is available. 

If you would like to arrange for an 
interview to learn more about our 
volunteer program, please call or write 
me. An introductory tour can be 
arranged for groups whose members 
might be interested in learning about 
volunteer opportunities at the Museum. 

Carolyn Blackmon, a former Field Museum 
volunteer, is Coordinator ot Special 
Educational Services in the Department ol 
Education, Field Museum. 




January 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Through January 21 

Paracas Whistling Jar from the lea Valley 
of Peru, Ocucaje Phase II (ca. 700 B.C.), 
is featured in the South Lounge. The 
unique pottery jug, which makes a whistling 
sound when water is poured out of it, is 
the earliest known of its type. It is the 
gift of IVIr. and IVIrs. Raymond J. Wielgus. 

Continuing 

Greenland: Arctic Denmark, a major 
exhibition covering all aspects of the history 
and culture of the world's largest island. 
The extensive collection of archaeological 
and ethnological material is supplemented 
by photographs and a daily film program 
to illustrate various areas of economic 
development and social change in modern 
Greenland. The exhibition is sponsored by 
the Royal Danish Embassy and is shown 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
Through March 8. Hall 27. 

A New Spirit In Search of the Past: 

Archaeology and Ecology in the Lower 
Illinois River Valley, an exhibit explaining 
the "new" archaeology as reflected in the 
Illinois Valley Archaeological Program's 
excavation of the Koster Site, directed by 
Dr. Stuart Struever of Northwestern 
University. Through March 25. Hall 9. 

Color In Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 

Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, and 
cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense of 
History" presents a graphic portrayal of the 



Museum's past; and "A Sense of Discovery" 
shows examples of research conducted by 
Museum scientists. Hall 3. 

Musical Program 

Sunday, January 21 

Metropolitan Youth Symphony presents 
a free concert at 2:30 p.m. in the 
James Simpson Theatre. 

Film Program 

A series of films relating to the "Greenland: 
Arctic Denmark" exhibit is shown 
continuously beginning at the following 
times: 

Monday-Thursday: 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 
Friday: 10 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m. 
Saturday and Sunday: 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. 

IVIeetings 

January 9: 8 p.m., Chicagoland Glider 

Council 

January 10: 7:30 p.m., Windy City Grotto, 

National Speleological Society 

January 11:8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 

Club 

January 14: 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 

Children's Program 

Continuing 

Winter Journey for Children, "Dog Meets 
Man," a free self-guided tour exploring 
the many aspects of man's partnership 
with "his best friend" since prehistoric 
times. Youngsters are provided with a 
questionnaire which routes them through 
Museum exhibit areas. All boys and girls 
who can read and write may join in the 
activity. Journey sheets are available at 
Museum entrances. Through February 28. 



Coming in February 

Opens February 14 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows to 
Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Over 200 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life size, introduce a previously 
unseen world. Through July 15. Hall 18. 



January Hours 

9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through Thursday, 
9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Saturday and Sunday. 

Closed New Year's Day. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 



'^ 



Field Museum Bulletin 



EMBERS 



Field Museum Members are a special 
group of people. They have special 
concern and interest in the world 
around them — in learning more about 
it themselves and in helping their 
children and grandchildren learn about 
it. A youngster once informed his 
parents that his visit to the Museum 
couldn't have been "educational" 
because it was fun. The wise parents 
knew otherwise — that it was 
"educational" because it was fun — but 
kept that to themselves. 

Field Museum Members are interested 
in the diversity of human ways of life. 
They like to cross the barriers of time 
and distance to learn about other 
cultures, or about the very beginnings 
of culture itself among the remote 
ancestors of us all. They are interested 
in the animal life throughout the 
world, and in the plant life that is the 
ultimate sustenance of all other life. 
They are interested in geologic history 
and in the physical nature of our own 
and other planets. 

These are some of the reasons they are 
Field Museum Members — because the 
Museum brings all these aspects of 
the world almost to their doorstep. 

Field Museum membership alv^ays 
includes all members of the family, so 
any or all of them can visit whenever 
they wish, free, and bring guests too. 
There is so much to see that no matter 
how often one comes, there is always 
something new — a part of the Museum 
not yet discovered, or a new exhibit 
to be seen. 



Special events throughout the year are 
arranged for Members. In the gala 
atmosphere of the annual Members' 
Nights they (and their guests) are 
invited behind the scenes into the 
scientific research, education, and 
exhibition departments to see what the 
Museum staff are working on. They are 
invited to special Members' previews 
of new exhibits. The children's 
workshop programs, soon to be 
increased in frequency, offer young 
people the opportunity to work directly 
with Museum specimens as they learn 
about a subject that particularly 
interests them. 

And even if Members cannot come to 
the Museum often, it goes out to them 
monthly between the covers of the 
Bulletin. Articles ranging from 
A(nfhropology) to Z{oology) might give 
background for a new exhibit; or 
describe the ecological dilemma posed 
by use of our park lands; or expose the 
destructive and dangerous trafficking 
in antiquities; or report some exciting 
finds of a fieldwork expedition. The 
Bulletin also keeps them informed of 
activities and special events at the 
Museum. 

If you are already a Field Museum 
Member, we hope you take full 
advantage of all these benefits, and also 
invite your friends to share them with 
you. We would like them to become our 
friends too. We would be especially 
pleased if you wished to give one or 
more of them a gift membership. An 
announcement greeting card will be 
sent in your name. 



For each new membership we also 
send a portfolio of four color 
reproductions of bird paintings done by 
the distinguished American artist 
Louis Agassiz Fuertes on a Field 
Museum expedition to East Africa. 

If you are not a Field Museum Member, 
you are probably one of those special, 
concerned people who should be. The 
Museum is a private institution whose 
activities and scientific work are largely 
dependent for financial support on 
memberships, contributions, and 
endowments from people like you. 



January 1973 




Photo by Fred Huysmans. 



Clip and mail to: Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Rd- at Lk, Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605 

Please send the lollowing Gift Membership 
D Annual $15 D Associate $150 D Lite $500 
in my name to: 



Gift recipient's name 



City 



State 



Zip 



D Check enclosed payable to Field Museum 
n Please bill me as tollows: 



My name 



City State Zip 

G Send bird prints to gift recipient 
Q Send bird prints to me 

Please put information for additional gift 
memberships on a separate sheet 



Clip and mail to: Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lk Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605 

Please send the lollowing Gitt Membership 
n Annual $15 D Associate $150 □ Lite $500 
in my name lo: 



Gift recipient's name 



City State Zip 

D Check enclosed payable to Field Museum 
n Please bill me as tollows: 



My name 



City State Zip 

Q Send bird prints to gitt recipient 
n Send bird prints to me 

Please put information for additional gift 
memberships on a separate sheet 



Clip and mail to: Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lk. Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605 

Please send the lollowing Gitt Membership 
a Annual $15 O Associate $150 O Lite $500 
in my name to: 



Gift recipient's name 



City 



State 



Zip 



D Check enclosed payable lo Field Museum 
n Please bill me as tollows: 



My name 



City State Zip 

n Send bird prints to gilt recipient 
n Send bird prints to me 

Please put information for additional gift 
memberships on a separate sheet 



Field Museum Bulletin 



.^tm"^. 



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We appreciated Jimmy's letter, as we 
appreciate all of the thousands of 
letters that come in during the year from 
people who have enjoyed a visit to 
Field Museum. Jimmy raises a good 
question — "I wonder how you can keep 
it in good shape." So, for Jimmy and 
all other friends of Field Ivluseum, here 
is an answer. 

How we "can keep it in good shape" for 
all the different kinds of people who 
use and enjoy the Museum is a big 
problem. That is why we are conducting 
a $25,000,000 Capital Campaign. The 
money is sorely needed for many 
rehabilitation projects to keep the 
Museum a usable facility. 

Some of this building improvement and 
renovation work has already been 
completed. Other projects are now 
being started. 

Almost $3,000,000 of advance gifts 
already received has been allocated for 
projects which have just been 
completed or are presently underway. 
The completed work, representing an 
investment of $861 ,000, includes 
quarters for the Exhibition Department 
and additional space created for the 
Zoology Department by filling in a 
light well, both on the fourfh floor; 
the new Hall of Jades on the second 
floor; and the Malvina Hoffman Gallery 
overlooking Stanley Field Hall. 

Projects in progress, at an estimated 
cost of $1 ,920,500, include the 
following rehabilitation and 
modernization work: 

Exterior tuckpointing (partial) $ 77,000 
Interior freight elevator 65,000 



Fire pump 


25,000 


Zoology laboratories 


375,000 


Boiler conversion 


145,000 


Painting Stanley Field Hall 


55,000 


Electrical system 


980,000 


Emergency generator 


8,500 


Renovation of taxidermy area 


45,000 


Plumbing, drainage, and toilet 




system 


120,000 


Scanning electron microscope 




laboratory 


25,000 



Other projects also underway to 
upgrade the physical plant include a 
security survey, a climate control 
study, and improvement of ventilating 
and lighting in Halls 18 and 19. 

Projected further improvements not yet 
begun include replacement of more than 
1 ,000 large exterior windows; 
rebuilding of exterior stairs and 
entrances; modernized food service 
facilities; installation of sound- 
deadening materials in several areas; 
air conditioning plus a totally modern 
air treatment system; installation of 
elevators to the public and non-public 
areas of the Museum; and 
modernization of the Lecture Hall and 
the James Simpson Theatre. 

This first Capital Campaign in Field 
Museum's 79-year history was launched 
in September 1971. The $25,000,000 
goal should be reached by September 
1974. Half of the funds must be 
collected by the Museum from private 
sources. The other half will be in 
matching public funds generated 
through the bonding authority of the 
Chicago Park District. 

The Museum is seeking to raise its 
share through corporate, foundation, 
and individual gifts. In its behalf, 
corporation executives as well as other 
individuals have been explaining the 
Museum's needs throughout the 
community. To date, gifts and pledges 
totaling approximately $8,000,000 
have been received. 

That leaves $4,500,000 remaining to be 
raised by the Museum. This need 
presents a once-in-a-lifetime challenge 
and opportunity for our friends. We 
need their help to ensure that our 
building is adequate for the increasingly 
important role of Field Museum in the 
educational, cultural, and recreational 
life of our community. 



January 1973 



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Volume 44. Num 
February 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




t 

t 




„»£'■ 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 2 
February 1973 




Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds 

Alan Solem 

using the scanning electron microscope, the structure 
of things can be revealed at magnifications up to 
100,000 times life-size 



8 The Most Stupendous Earthquake of Them All 

Edward J. Olsen 

it happened here in the midwest, 162 years ago; could 

it happen again? 

11 Thismia 

Louis O. Williams 

an important gift to the botany collections recalls the 
mystery of this rare plant 



Cover: Scanning electron microscope view of 
a fev* of tfie 4,000 facets on tfie compound eye 
of a housefly; sfiown 7,550 times life-size on 
the cover, 2,100 X here. Specimen preparation 
for SEM viewing involves coating it in a high 
vacuum with a few-molecules-thick layer of 
gold or other conductive metal. Dirt panicles 
are pollutants from Chicago air that settled on 
the specimen while it was being prepared for 
photography. 



12 Printing Alexander Wilson's Copper Plates 

Richard A. Davis 

a print-maker "discovers" some of these early-1800s 
engraved copper plates in Field Museum's Library 

16 Capital Campaign 

gifts from Women's Committee for Capital Campaign 
Hearing $1 Million 



Calendar 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director, E. Leiand Webber 

Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery; Editor Elizabetti Munger; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs; Production Russ Becker; Photography John Bayalis, 
Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions; $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Printed by Field Museum Press. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send 
form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




electronic windows to unseen worlds 



Scheduled for mid-February opening, 
the exhibit "Below Man's Vision: 
Electronic Windows to Unseen Worlds" 
presents almost 300 pictures of a 
world that is hidden from man's 
unaided eye. Whether its focus was on 
a common object such as a torn piece 
of paper or sugar crystal, or details 
from the body of a housefly, a beam 
of electrons produced images that 
were photographed and then displayed 
at 50 to 200,000 times life-size. 

The instrument responsible for this is 
the scanning electron microscope. 
Perfected only in the mid-1960s, it 
permits inquiring minds to explore not 
only far beyond the limits of light 
microscopes, but to perform 
photographic miracles. Using this 
microscope, one can study objects at 



anywhere between 10 and 100,000 
times life-size. Clicking a dial changes 
the magnification. At the same time, 
the specimen can be tilted, rotated, 
moved back and forth, and the 
"lighting" altered in various ways. 
When adjustments are completed, a 
photograph can be made. The depth 
of field — that part of the picture in 
sharp focus — will be 500 times as great 
as with an optical microscope at the 
same magnification. 

Most people have peered briefly 
through a microscope in a school 
biology class, delving into the guts of 
a grasshopper, worm, or frog. Perhaps 
they looked at a glass slide with living 
protozoans or bits of plant tissue. 
A major problem in all these situations 
is that only part of the object could be 



seen easily at any one time. If a near 
section was in sharp focus, the rear 
portion was fuzzy in outline, and vice 
versa. The problem was that the depth 
of field (area in sharp focus) was less 
than the thickness of the object 
being studied. 

Photographers have the same problem. 
Everybody has snapshots of family 
affairs in which one member near the 
camera has a blurred face, those in 
the middle of the group can be seen 
without difficulty, and a few in the 
background also are unrecognizable 
blurs. The lenses of cameras and 
optical microscopes have a depth of 
field that is only a fraction of the 
picture width. With electronic viewing, 
this problem is almost eliminated. In a 
picture area one-fifth of an inch 



February 1973 



square, for example, the area in sharp 
focus is more than one inch deep. 

In practical terms, the difference in 
depth of field is seen in the photos on 
the next page of a one-thirtieth inch 
long beetle. The optical photograph, 
taken with the best available 
microscope equipment, shows only a 
small part of the beetle's belly in sharp 
focus. Details even on this surface are 
obscure and the "halo" effect of the 
light is distracting to the viewer. 

In contrast, the scanning electron 
microscope shows the whole beetle in 
sharp focus, the hairs in each pit on 
the surface are clearly visible, and the 
"lighting" on the specimen Is close to 
natural daylight. 

This ability of the scanning electron 
microscope to illustrate well is causing 
as great a revolution as is its ability to 
see details that could not be seen 
before. Communicating what has been 
seen to other scientists always has 
been a major problem. 

Man first began to use microscopes in 
the study of small objects during the 



early to mid-1600s. The scientists of 
this time had to be artists or else hire 
artists to illustrate their studies. A part 
of the exhibit "Below Man's Vision" 
shows samples of their work. The 
anatomy of plants, details of insects, 
and glimpses of bacteria by Dutch and 
English 17th century scientists are 
impressive as art. They become awe 
inspiring when one realizes the simple 
equipment available to these workers. 

An exact copy of a microscope used 
by Anton von Leeuwenhoek, perhaps 
the most famous of the Dutch 
microscopists, was loaned by the 
Rijksmuseum voor de Geschiedenis 
der Natuurwetenschappen. The whvole 
instrument is 2% inches long. The 
specimen is mounted on a pin point. 
Three screws adjust its place before 
the lens, which is a bead of glass 
embedded in the brass plate of the 
microscope. 

Held in a bright shaft of summer 
sunlight, this simple looking device let 
Leeuwenhoek see bacteria in 1683. 
Even the best optical microscopes 
today can penetrate but little further 
into the world of unseen detail. 



Photography partly replaced artists in 
communicating details to other 
scientists, but the depth of field was 
limited, more so with the compound 
than the dissecting microscope. The 
compound microscope is used in 
studying protozoa or other specimens 
mounted on glass slides. The light 
source is below the object, and waves 
of light are transmitted through a thin 
specimen into the microscope and 
then to the eye of the viewer. 

The dissecting microscope uses 
another pattern of viewing. The light 
source is above the object, and light is 
reflected off the surface into the 
microscope and then to the eyes of 
the viewer. 

Electrons can be used for viewing both 
transmitted and reflected modes. The 
transmission electron microscope 
(TEM), in use since the 1930s, 
transmits beams of electrons through a 
very thin object. The scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) hits the surface of 
the object with a beam of electrons, 
then uses electrons emitted from the 
object to form a picture. Thus the SEM 
is comparable to the dissecting 



Alan Solem 



Lett: A lew ol the large rod-like setae and fine 
hairs on the edge of a fly's wing, 2,175 times 
life-size. Right: Drawing of Musca domestica, 
the common housefly, 13 times life-size. Small 
boxes over parts of eye. wing, tongue, foot, 
and halter (a balancing organism located 
underneath wing) show where scanning 
electron microscope was focused to obtain 
pictures reproduced in this article and on cover. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



A 1/30-inch-long beetle 


seen through an optical microscope. 






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Same kind of beetle seen through a scanning electron microscope. 




microscope, and the TEM compares 
with the compound microscope. 

For many scientists, their first use of 
the SEM in research ranks as one of 
the greatest thrills of their lives. 
Scientists continually bump up against 
limits in their work. The needed 
specimens aren't available, or the 
details just aren't quite visible with 
their optical microscopes. The SEM 
removes this second problem 
completely. 

My own feelings on first using the SEM 
were chronicled in an earlier Bulletin 
(March 1969). During the preparation 
of "Below Man's Vision" I had the 
chance to help several colleagues go 
through similar experiences. For the 
past two years, the American Dental 
Association Research Institute (ADARI) 
and Field Museum of Natural History 
have had a cooperative research project 
on feeding mechanisms and tooth 
structures in primitive organisms. 
Studies of fish teeth, beetle mouth 
parts, and snail dentition were carried 



out with the invaluable aid of 

Dr. Harvey Lyon, Mr. John Lenke, and 

Mr. George Najarin of ADARI. 

A growing flood of scientific papers in 
all fields began to use scanning 
microscope photographs. This fact, 
combined with my own missionary 
efforts, made it apparent that the 
Museum's research program needed 
such an instrument. A funding request 
to the National Science Foundation 
was approved in mid-1972, and 
sometime this summer a scanning 
electron microscope will be in 
operation at Field Museum. This will 
allow extending the very preliminary 
studies shown in part of the exhibit 
and will lead to hundreds of 
observations and many research 
publications. Nearly all the SEM 
photographs in "Below Man's Vision" 
were made especially for this exhibit 
or during research, with the idea of 
using them for both purposes. 

ADARI provided one part of the exhibit 
and allowed me to photograph a number 



of subjects for the section of the 
exhibit entitled "Unseen Worlds of the 
Commonplace." While the things seen 
by scientists in their studies may 
include items of beauty and 
strangeness, the organisms usually are 
unknown to our visitors. Hence a 
major part of preparing "Below Man's 
Vision" required taking common 
objects and well known organisms, 
then exploring details of their 
structures. In this way we hope to 
impress visitors with the wonders in 
their surroundings and to demonstrate 
the versatility of the scanning electron 
microscope. 

With nearly 300 photographs displayed, 
it was very difficult to select 
appropriate pictures for this article. We 
could have presented an art display of 
spectacular photographs, but thought 
that it would be more meaningful to 
show several features of one organism. 

After a bit of hesitation between a flea 
and a fly, the portraits of a housefly 
were selected. 



February 1973 



Top left: The "tongue" or oral disc of a housefly at 92 times life-size. 
Top right: Each edge of the "tongue" has a series of projections and 
ridges used to soak up food. The photograph is reproduced at 805 times 
life-size. Bottom: The balancing organ (halter) of a housefly at 98 times 
life-size. It vibrates 200 times a second and acts as a gyroscope. 



These were prepared from three 
different specimens collected late last 
summer and preserved in alcohol. One 
fly was given a special treatment 
called "critical point drying" so that 
details of the soft tongue and foot 
pads could be seen. The others were 
air dried and then mounted for 
SEM study. 

The housefly, Musca domestica, occurs 
almost everywhere that man dwells. 
Few of us have not swatted at a fly — 
and missed — or been annoyed with 
their buzzing around our dinner, or 
idly speculated how they can cling to 
ceilings or panes of glass. 

The drawing of the fly on page 3 was 
made from a pinned specimen, so that 
its legs and wings are not in a natural 
position. Small boxes over parts of the 
wing, eye, tongue, foot, and halter (a 
balancing organ) show where the SEM 
was focused in making these pictures. 

Eighteenth century scientists had seen 
that the edge of the wing had many 
tiny hairs, but their structure and 
variety could not be appreciated. The 
picture at the top of page 2 shows the 
front edge of the wing with parts of 
four large setae (sensory organs set in 
sockets) and many smaller trichia 
(projections from the surface). These 
are sensitive to both touch and 
changes in air pressure. 

At the top of this page are two 
pictures of a fly's tongue. The outer 
lobes are used to soak up semi-liquid 
or liquid food, which then is carried to 
the actual mouth opening. The edges of 
the lobes are covered with a complex 
set of grooves edged with blunt 
projections. The resulting "tire tread" 
pattern is highly effective in feeding. 
It also makes an interesting design for 
the artistic viewer who prefers not to 
think about feeding flies! 

A peculiar looking club-like structure 
at bottom right is the halter. The vast 
majority of insects have two pairs of 
wings, like butterflies, grasshoppers. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



and bees. Flies are unique in that they 
have only a single pair of functioning 
wings. Apparently each of the two 
halters is the remnant of former rear 
wings. The halter is a gyroscope or 
balancing organ that vibrates 160-210 
times each second while the fly is in 
flight. Its club-like head is covered 
with tiny hairs, and the slits near its 
base are part of the halter's 
chordotonal organ, a sensory device 
common in insects. 

Equally remarkable is the complexity 
of a fly's foot. The three photographs 
on these pages show the versatility of 
the SEM in seeing finer and finer 
details as a specimen is studied. The 
lower left photograph shows the whole 
foot in front view. For technical 
reasons, the leg had to be removed 
from the preserved specimen, then 
embedded in rubber cement. The 
cracks and creases in the background 
are in the rubber cement. A look at 
the foot shows two large claws, used 



for gripping rough surfaces, a long 
sensory "hair" in the middle of the 
lower side, and two large pads that 
extend laterally underneath each claw. 

The pad on the left has a piece of dirt 
stuck to it. These pads enable a fly to 
settle on a smooth ceiling or a 
window. The pads are called pulvilli 
and are covered with rows of 
projections called tenant liairs. 

Seen at intermediate magnification in 
the middle picture, a pulvillus shows 
how the tenant hairs sit in regular 
rows. The critical point drying 
technique let me see these in extended 
position. If the fly had been allowed to 
shrivel and dry out slowly, these hairs 
would have been distorted. Far less 
information would have been available 
from the specimen. 

When viewed at high magnification (the 
largest picture), the reflexed tips of 
individual hairs are clearly visible. 



Some sticky substance is secreted by 
these hairs onto the tips. It is the 
adhesive power of these hundreds 
upon hundreds of individual hairs that 
holds the fly to a smooth surface. 
Often it will be a combination of 
gripping with the claws and partial use 
of these adhesive hairs, but on very 
smooth surfaces the hairs are 
indispensible. 

Flight, feeding, and holding onto 
surfaces are only sanjples of the fly's 
versatility. In our exhibit we also look 
at an organ called the arista. This 
feathery, short, branched organ on 
each side of the head permits the fly 
to escape a swatting hand. Air pressure 
in front of the descending hand warns 
the fly in advance of the blow. 

The cover of this issue shows a small 
portion of a fly's eye at 7,550 times 
life-size. Each "eye" of a fly has about 
4,000 separate facets that form images 
separately. A few of these are shown 





Left: The foot of a fiousefly at 250 times life-size. 
Above: One of tfie pads on ttie underside of a fly's foot 
at 825 times life-size. Right: Ttiese fiairs on tfie fly's foot 
secrete a sticky substance tfiat enables tfie fly to cling to 
smootti surfaces. They are shown at 7,750 times life-size. 



February 1973 




on the cover. Bits of dirt from the 
polluted air of Chicago became 
attached to the surface while the eye 
was being mounted for study. In life 
the surface probably would be very 
much cleaner. 

Similar peeks at a flea, snail teeth, 
Queen Anne's Lace, pollen grains, the 
adult "chigger," and even a piece of 
paper very similar to that used in this 
Bulletin are among the variety of 
objects and organisms examined in 
"Below Man's Vision." 

The idea for this exhibit came out of 
my experiences with the scanning 
electron microscope during the past 
few years. In the process of preparing 
the grant proposal for establishing a 
scanning microscope laboratory at 
Field Museum, research proposals by 
other staff members suggested many 
possibilities for use in an exhibit. 
Hence the idea of "Below Man's 
Vision" gradually developed and was 



expanded into its present form. 
Support received from Kent-Cambridge 
Scientific Instrument Co. and 
Cambridge Scientific Instruments Ltd., 
plus the cooperation of ADARI and its 
staff, have made this project possible. 

In years to come the scanning 
microscope will be as well known as 
is the optical microscope. The latter 
has been used by thousands of 
scientists since the mid-1600s. In all 
this time, the world opened by its 
extension of man's vision has been 
only partly explored. Optical 
microscopes will continue to be used 
by scientists in research, by workers 
in industry, by students in classrooms. 
But the scanning electron microscope 
has opened up a world for 
investigation that is just as large, just 
as marvelous, and just as unexplored. 
The first microscopists in the 
Netherlands and England explored 
with verve and joy the new world 
they entered. 



Scientists today are using the scanning 
electron microscope with the same 
sense of anticipation and pleasure. 
While a few scanning microscope 
photographs now appear in popular 
magazines and even newspapers, the 
potential of the SEM and the 
significance of its advantages are little 
known. As both an illustration tool and 
a means of seeing whole rough- 
surfaced objects, it has added a new 
dimension to low magnification studies. 
As a means of seeing details that were 
below the level of optical microscopy, 
it has opened a new world. 

"Below Man's Vision" lets you 
accompany some of Field Museum's 
staff into an uncharted world of detail. 
We hope you enjoy your visit as much 
as we are enjoying our explorations 
with the scanning electron microscope. 



Dr. Alan Solem is Curator, Division of 
Invertebrates, Field Museum. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Edward J. Olsen 



The most 



stupendous 



earthquake of them all 



It has been called the most stupendous 
earthquake in the recorded history of 
the North Annerican continent. It began 
in the early hours of December 16, 
1811, in and around the small 
settler's community of New Madrid, in 
the far southeastern corner or Missouri. 
About 2 a.m. a series of creaks and 
rumblings were felt in a gradually 
increasing crescendo. House timbers 
cracked and walls broke away from 
each other; furniture tumbled around 
and shelves were emptied onto floors. 
Sharp shock waves shattered the area 
at short intervals. Houses tottered and 
chimneys fell. By dawn all the 
inhabitants stood out in the cold 
morning air, away from their houses. 

Heavy shocks were repeated and earth 
waves were seen to roll across the 
landscape, lifting and lowering 
everything as they passed, like long 
low swells seen on the open ocean. 
Trees swung back and forth as the 
waves passed under them, frequently 
locking together their branches as they 
tipped toward each other, and ripping 
themselves apart as they then tilted the 



other way. Landslides broke loose on 
steeper slopes and poured into 
adjacent valleys. Ground water, 
disrupted from its normal flow 
patterns, popped up as instant springs 
in unlikely places and filled low-lying 
areas. Some large areas sank several 
feet while others were bucked upward 
into small impromptu hills. Along the 
adjacent Mississippi River, high banks 
slumped into the water, carrying away 
trees and creating huge waves that 
smashed the opposite shore, 
destroying more trees and swamping 
boats in their path. Small islands sank 
out of sight under the roiled waters. 

On land, long fissures — 600 to 700 feet 
wide, 20 feet deep, and up to several 
miles long — suddenly opened in the 
soil, some people tumbling in, to be 
rescued with difficulty. Sand geysers 
10 to 100 feet across formed as the 
churning dirt ejected underlying sands 
and sulfurous decaying organic matter 

The rumblings continued, but no more 
sharp shocks were experienced — until 
January 23rd, over a month later, when 



a new shock hit the area, fully as 
intense as those in December. Then all 
became relatively quiet — until February 
7th, when a series of shocks repeated 
all the former destruction with, some 
thought, greater intensity than the 
earlier episodes. The rumblings and 
aftershocks continued at moderate 
intensities for days, gradually fading, 
but not ceasing. Distinct aftershocks, 
almost 2,000 of them, were felt for 
over a period of a year, and minor 
ones up to two years later! 

As far as any historical records show 
there has never been another 
earthquake of such magnitude and 
duration on the North American 
continent. Compared to large 
earthquakes elsewhere in the world, it 
was certainly on a par with the 
devastating ones in Shensi, China in 
1556 and the Tokyo quake of 1923. 

The damage created by the New 
Madrid earthquakes was large in terms 
of the natural environment. 
Approximately 150,000 acres of forests 
were destroyed. Two lakes were 



February 1973 



created as land sank and filled with 
inrushing river and ground water: 
Reelfoot Lake, 18 miles long and 3 
miles wide, and Lake St. Francis, 40 
miles long and half a mile wide. 
Certainly thousands of animals were 
drowned by these sudden inundations. 
In terms of the settlers, however, 
losses were small. In the 1811-1813 
period the population of the region was 
still low. Many of the dwellings were 
log cabins, which became disjointed 
by the shock waves, but did not always 
tumble. Only one person was known 
to have been killed in a falling building. 
An unknown small number drowned 
when river banks caved in and when 
boats were swamped by churned river 
waters. 



Although the town was damaged badly 
enough that the site had to be 
abandoned, it was not a major 
catastrophe at that time. Perhaps of 
greater significance is the damage 
suffered in other, more populous areas, 
and the great distances at which the 
shocks were felt. About 50,000 square 
miles were hit the hardest — which 
means that points up to 130 miles from 
New Madrid could have suffered severe 
damage had there been any great 
population centers within that radius at 
the time. St. Louis lay just beyond this 
range. It was then still a small trading 
town and suffered mainly from fallen 
chimneys and cracked walls. Farther 
afield, chimneys also tumbled in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, 350 miles awayl 



Along the river below Vicksburg, 
Mississippi, 300 miles to the south, 
river banks caved in. In Charleston, 
South Carolina, 650 miles away, some 
buildings were cracked and chimneys 
fell, and Washington, D.C., 700 miles 
away, was severely shaken! Noticeable 
tremors were felt in Baltimore, 
Maryland, 750 miles away, and in 
Boston, Massachusetts, 1,100 miles 
away! Weak vibrations were also felt 
in Montreal, along the Gulf coast at 
New Orleans, and northwestward along 
the upper reaches of the Missouri 
River. All in all, an area approximately 
2,500 miles in diameter, centered on 
southeastern Missouri, was affected to 
varying degrees depending on local 
geological substructures. 



created this lake... 




Cypress along the shore of Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee. 
Photo courtesy of Tennessee Department of Conservation. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



earthquakes. 



A sobering question arises. What if we 
were to see a repeat performance 
in tfiat area today? 

Aitiiougfi the western portion of 
California is much publicized as a high 
earthquake area, mid-westerners are 
probably not aware that a region that 
registers a high frequency of weak to 
moderate earthquakes includes 
southeastern Missouri, western 
Tennessee and Kentucky, southern 
Illinois, and northeastern Arkansas. The 
map here shows, in a much 
generalized way, the mam zones of 



Chicago lies a bare 350 miles from 
this region. Within the past four years, 
tremors from two earthquakes have 
been felt here. The one September 15, 
1972 originated near Amboy in 
northern Illinois. The other, a 
moderate strength quake November 9, 
1968, was centered over 300 miles 
south of Chicago near (\/lcLeansboro. 
A series of strong quakes from 
southern Illinois or southeastern 
I\/lissouri could have damaging effects 
on so populous an area as Chicago. 
This city was not built with earthquakes 
m mind. 




faults (breaks in the bedrock) along 
which earthquakes occur. The most 
significant feature is that there are so 
many intersecting faults. This is 
especially dangerous, for quake 
movement on one fault can initiate 
movement on others, compounding 
the shock effects. 



Large portions of the Chicago area 
consist of landfill, covering old swamps 
and glacial lakebeds that dotted the 
region before the city existed. Virtually 
all of the smaller business and 
residential buildings are constructed 
on this landfill or on soil. Even some 
of the taller buildings are not built on 



piles that go down to bedrock, but 
rather "float" on caissons sunk into 
the glacial sands and clays that overlie 
bedrock to an average thickness of 
seventy feet. It has been observed in 
other regions — as for example during 
the medium-strength earthquake in the 
St. Lawrence Valley February 28, 1925 
—that buildings constructed on soil or 
landfill suffered more damage than 
ones built on bedrock. 

There is, of course, no way to predict 
the effect on Chicago. It would depend 
on the magnitudes of the shocks and 
the spacing between them. 

Nevertheless, a repeat of the New 
Madrid episode, which was capable of 
causing damage in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and as far away as South Carolina, 
would not leave Chicago unaffected. 
Closer cities, such as St. Louis and 
Memphis, would suffer major 
destructive effects. 

The geologic substructure of the 
western California region is pretty well 
understood, and we know with certainty 
that a major earthquake will devastate 
some portion of California in the near 
future. A great deal of current research 
in the discipline called geophysics is 
focused on measuring and gauging 
fault movement activity in California, 
hopefully to provide a means to predict 
the time of the next major quake, and 
minimize the loss of life that will occur. 

Far less is known about the midwestern 
region. Yet midwesterners cannot 
indulge themselves in a feeling of 
complacence with respect to their less 
fortunate California cousins. No major 
quakes have occurred in the midwest 
since the area has been built up. 
There is no reason to believe that a 
repeat of the magnitude of the 
1811-1813 earthquakes will ever occur 
again — nor any reason to believe 
it will not! 



Dr. Edward J. Olsen is Curator ot 
Mineraiogy, Department of Geoiogy. 
Field Museum. 



February 1973 



LOUIS 0. WILLIAMS 




Sixty years ago, in what were tlien 
prairies near Chicago, now a suburban 
area, one of the nnost curious plants 
of the world was first discovered by 
Norma E. Pfieffer when she was a 
student at the University of Chicago. 
It excited the curiosity of botanists 
around the world and has been an 
enigma to Chicago's professional and 
amateur botanists ever since. 

The reason is that the plant — Thismia 
americana it was named — belongs to 
the family Burmanniaceae, which is 
almost entirely tropical. There are 
about 125 species, found principally in 
the tropics of the world. Three or four 
kinds reach barely Into temperate 
regions. Even today, Thismia americana 
is known from only about a dozen 
collections, made over a period of six 
years by Dr. Pfieffer. 

Ttiismia americana is a tiny plant. The 
part above ground, the flower, is barely 
V2 inch long. It is a saprophyte living 
from decaying plant material. 

The nearest relative to Chicagoland's 
own thismia is Thismia rodwayi, a plant 
known only from Tasmania and North 
Island of New Zealand. Dr. Fredrik 
Pieter Jonker, who described the 
Burmanniaceae family in a monograph 
in 1938, speculated that the two 
species are closely related: "It is very 



desirable that 7. americana will be 
again collected, no American species 
of this affinity is known. The differences 
with 7. rodwayi are very small, by 
examining more material it will appear 
perhaps that the two species are 
identical. It is hard to believe that 
Chicago is the normal area for this 
species, but I cannot give a satisfactory 
explanation why it occurs there." 

How did a plant of tropical affinities get 
into the prairie near Chicago? It was 
not a fluke, for the plant is known to 
have been present for at least six years 
where it was originally found, so it 
withstood the cold winters. 

How to account for two closely related 
species at nearly opposite poles on 
the earth? I have no theory. It is 
possible that our Thismia americana 
was or perhaps still is widespread on 
the prairies and similar ecological 
areas and that someday an astute 
collector may find this tiny little plant 
again. 

We have in our collection what we 
assume is the type specimen, carefully 
preserved in liquid. Dr. Pfeiffer did not 
specify in her publication where the 
type was deposited. We have exhibited 
that specimen on Members' Nights 
along with a part of the story about it, 
so perhaps you have seen the plant 1 



Above: A specimen of Thismia americana 
collected in liquid by Dr. Norma A. Pfieffer 
about 1912 and presented to Field Museum in 
1972, along witti its original storage container. 
Left: Enlarged drawings from specimen. Entire 
plant is at rigtit; its stem-like structure lies 
below ground surface, with only ttie flowers 
above ground. In circle is a flower dissected 
to show the six tepals and six stamens with the 
short pistil at the base, plus one stamen drawn 
to show anthers on the inner face. Below at 
lett is a flower as seen f om above, the tepals 
spread to show the ring (annulus) formed by the 
base of the filaments. 



write about, one of the rarest in 
the world. 

Recently we received a letter from 
Dr. Pfeiffer saying: "There are still in 
my possession bits and pieces of the 
Burmanniaceous Thismia americana 
which I found in the Chicago area 
years ago." Would we like to have it? 
Would we! 

A few days later Dr. Pfeiffer, now a 
spry octogenarian, came in with a 
carton and two old coffee cans 
containing the research material that 
had been the basis for her studies 
published in the Botanical Gazette in 
1914. Her "bits and pieces" are 
certainly a grand gift. They increase 
the known material available to 
researchers twentyfold! 

Dr. Louis O. Williams is Chairman of the 
Department ot Botany. Field /Museum. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



^I^chard-yt. 'Davis 



I first visited tlie Field Museum Library 
because tlie Irwin Library of Butler 
University hias been collecting early 
zoological prints as original source 
material for teaching the history of the 
biological sciences. The prints in the 
Butler Collection are engravings made 
for 17th and 18th century books on 
natural history. Such illustrations were 
printed separately from their textual 
accompaniments and were often also 
issued separately rather than bound 
into the books. Thus, separated from 



to America in 1794, was one of those 
singular men in the early history of our 
country whose deep appreciation of 
nature and latent artistic talents bloomed 
m the unexplored vastness of the 
New World. 

Wilson's pioneer work, which paved the 
way for Audubon, stands as a unique 
and monumental achievement. In fact, 
nothing like it in any branch of 
science had appeared in America up to 
that time. 



the first native American botanist, John 
Bartram, became renowned as a 
naturalist and nature artist and the 
author of a book (Travels, 1791) which 
influenced English romanticism. Lawsor 
was a well known engraver and did 51 
of the 76 plates that the completed 
nine-volume Ornithology contained. He 
has been described as "Wilson's chief 
reliance, since he worked with equal 
fidelity and facility from the finished 
drawing or from mere outlines and the 
actual specimen." And, "in time of 



Printing ryllexander "Wilsons Copper l^lates 



their contexts, in many cases there is 
no information identifying the works of 
which they were originally a part. Field 
Museum kindly granted me permission 
to use their resources to try to identify 
these prints. 

My excitement mounted as 
Mr. W. Peyton Fawcett, the librarian at 
Field Museum, most accommodatingly 
brought me old masterpieces of printing 
from the Museum's collection of rare 
books. With this help I was able to find 
much of the information needed. 

A reader's enthusiasm is very 
contagious to a librarian, and 
Mr. Fawcett responded generously with 
the resources of the library. He 
disappeared into the rare book room 
for several minutes and emerged 
carrying some flat and obviously heavy 
objects wrapped in brown paper. They 
turned out to be ten of the original 
engraved copper plates used to 
illustrate Alexander Wilson's 
American Ornithology. 

Alexander Wilson, the weaver and poet 
from Paisley, Scotland who immigrated 



Wilson wrote in his Introduction in 
Volume I of American Ornithology: "As 
to the nature of the work, if is intended 
to comprehend a description and 
representation of every species of our 
native birds, from the shores of St. 
Laurence to the mouths of the 
Mississippi, and from the Atlantic ocean 
to the interior of Louisiana; these will 
be engraved in a style superior to any 
thing of the kind hitherto published; 
and colored from nature with the most 
scrupulous adherence to the true tints 
of the original. ... It is also my design 
to enter more largely than usual into 
the manners and disposition of each 
respective species; to become, as it 
were, their faithful biographer, and to 
delineate their various peculiarities, in 
character, song, building, economy, etc. 
as far as my own observations have 
extended, or the kindness of others 
may furnish me with materials." 

Two people who had befriended and 
then encouraged Wilson in this work 
which was to occupy him for the rest 
of his life were William Bartram and 
Alexander Lawson. Bartram, the son of 



stress he was a most efficient and 
faithful friend of Wilson." 

Under the imprint of Bradford and 
Inskeep, Philadelphia, in 1808 appeared 
Wilson's first volume of the projected 
ten volumes of American Ornithology: 
or, The Natural History of the Birds ol 
the United States: Illustrated with Plates 
Engraved and Colored from Original 
drawings taken from Nature. The 
publishers underwrote the cost of 
printing 200 copies of this first volume 
with the understanding that unless 
Wilson could secure that many 
subscribers for the series, at $120 a 
set, the project would be dropped. 

Wilson solicited subscribers with his 
first volume in hand and also with a 
"direct mail advertising" brochure that 
was sent to 2,500 prominent people in 
the United States. It included a colored 
plate to show the quality of the work. 
The names of 450 original subscribers 
were listed in the last volume. 



Plate 55 in Alexander Wilson's American 
Ornithology, "drawn from nature by A. Wilson,' 
engraved by J. G. Warnicke. 



12 



February 1973 



'*"• \~.':r."»"r'«i': 



"»*.»-»^ ; . . . k». *-r J 



I ▼ ^M.* r^- 




e-"^?'i*L' 









Field Museum Bulletin 13 



By 1813, the year of Wilson's death, 
seven volumes had been published. 
The work was completed in two 
additional volumes published by George 
Ord from Wilson's manuscripts. 

The ten Field Museum plates had been 
stored in the library for many years. 
Realizing the full historical and scientific 
significance of this treasure, I expressed 



Author cleaning a plate. 



a wish to be granted permission to 
take proofs from them. I had taken a 
Master of Fine Arts degree in print- 
making at the University of Iowa 
several years ago, and the desire to 
make prints from these plates was 
overwhelming. 

After due consideration, the Museum's 
administration approved the idea, and 




the project took place in the Print 
Studio at Albion College, Albion, 
Michigan, with the cooperation of 
Professor Vernon L. Bobbitt, Chairman 
of the Visual Arts Department, and 
Professor Paul Stewart, head of the 
Print Studio. Mr. George McCullough, 
painter and printmaker on the faculty 
of the Fort Wayne Art Institute, assisted 
me in the actual printing. 

The technique of printing from intaglio 
plates has not changed since the 15th 
century. Except for a more sophisticated 
gearing system and the fact that early 
presses were made of wood instead of 
steel, the press used by us was 
essentially the same as those 
used in 1808. 

The first step in printing each plate 
was to clean it with kerosene and a 
toothbrush to remove old ink and 
accumulations of grease or any other 
substances it had collected over the 
years. The cleaned plate was then 
placed on an electric hotplate and the 
ink applied to its entire surface with a 
felt dauber. A twisting motion was used 
to make sure that the engraved lines 
were well filled with ink. 

Ordinarily an inked plate is wiped clean 
with a wad of tarlatan cloth and wiped 
again with the heel of the hand before 
printing. In this case, however, because 
some of the plates are so worn, a thin 
film of ink was left on the plate in order 
to pick up as much detail as possible. 
When the surface was perfectly clean, 
the printed result was very pale and 
watery with much of the delicate 
detailing of the feathers completely 
missing. 

To take a proof, the paper was placed 
on top of the heated plate and covered 
with two thicknesses of felt to cushion 
the pressure of the rollers. I used BFK 
Rives paper that had been dampened 
several hours before. This preparation 
allows the paper to absorb the maximum 
amount of ink. 

The plate was then rolled through the 
press, the felts pulled back, and the 



14 February 1973 




After the plate is rolled through the press, the felt cushioning is pulled back 
and the print is carefully lifted off. Photos by Douglas R. Ensor. 



print carefully lifted off the plate and 
studied for quality before being placed 
between blotters to dry. 

Four proofs were pulled from eachi of 
these ten Wilson plates belonging to 
Field Museum (they are plates 52 
through 61). One set was presented to 
the Museum; one to the Albion College 
Print Collection in commemoration of 
the dedication of the W. W. Whitehouse 
Nature Center in Albion; one for the 
printers; and one was added to Butler 
University's Irwin Library Zoological 
Print Collection — in which cause I had 
sought out the resources of the 
Museum's fine library and because of 
that "discovered" the plates. 

Five of these plates were engraved by 
Alexander Lawson; the other five were 
done by J. G. Wernicke. There is a 
striking contrast between them. Lawson's 
work has been accorded much 
appreciation, and he has even been 
described as "the father of the art of 
engraving in this country." Nevertheless, 
to me, some of his plates seem stiff 



and artificial, the birds appearing to be 
stuffed toys arranged in a mere 
suggestion of a background. In contrast, 
the Warnicke plates are composed and 
engraved with great vigor as well as 
scrupulous attention to fidelity of detail — 
as, for instance, the one reproduced 
here, plate 55, showing the "Ring-tail 
Eagle" and "Sea Eagle." 

It would be interesting to see if the 
differences relate to Wilson's original 
drawings. Wilson himself said of the 
relationship between his drav^ings and 
the engravings: "Every person who is 
acquainted with the extreme accuracy 
of eminent engravers, must likewise be 
sensible of the advantage of having the 
imperfections of the pencil corrected 
by the excellence of the graver. Every 
improvement of this kind the author has 
studiously availed himself of; and has 
frequently furnished the artist with the 
living or newly-killed subject itself to 
assist his ideas." 

The following articles are recommended 
for biographical and technical 



information concerning Wilson and the 
printing and engraving of the original 
edition of the American Ornithology. 

FOR FURTHER READING 

Frank L. Bums. "The Mechanical Execution 
of Wilson's 'American Ornithology,' " 
The Wilson Bulletin, vol. 41, pp. 19-23, 
March 1929. 

Robert Cantwell. Alexander Wilson: 
Naturalist and Pioneer. Lippincott, 7967. 

Bayard H. Christy. "Alexander Lawson's 
Bird Engravings," The Auk. vol. 43, pp. 
47-61, January 1926. 



Richard A. Davis is Head Librarian at 
Butler University in Indianapolis. 



The copper plates, proofs pulled Irom them 
by Mr. Davis and Mr. McCullough, and a 
volume ol the original edition ol Alexander 
Wilson's American Ornithology, lor which the 
plates were engraved, are on display in Field 
Museum's South Lounge through May 31. 



Field fuluseum Bulletin 



IS 



^tAjCfl-lta 



z 



*^hf^c^ 



Gifts from Women's Committee for 
Capital Campaign Nearing $1 IVIillion 

The spirit of Field Museum's "Age of 
Renovation" is contagious. Many new 
people in private and public life are 
daily joining the push toward the 
$25 million goal of the Museum's 
Capital Campaign. 

The Museum's Women's Board, in a 
significant departure from its stated 
purpose when it was formed in 1966, 
has decided that its intangible support 
is no longer enough during this period 
of great need for renovation of the 
Museum's physical plant. As announced 
in last December's Bulletin, it has 
formed the Women's Committee for the 
Capital Campaign, chaired by Mrs. 
Corwith Hamill of Wayne, Illinois. 

The committee turned first to the 
Board's 200 members, to give them 
and their husbands the opportunity 
to join in the spirit. 

Charter Board Member Mrs. R. Winfield 
Ellis of Chicago, also a member of the 
Women's Committee for the Capital 
Campaign, points out that the raising 
of funds is not an official Board 
project, and that giving is strictly 
voluntary. 

"We are asking members to consider 
whether they will get a true feeling of 
happiness from seeing what their gifts 
will make possible for the Museum," 
she states. "Board members are being 
offered the opportunity actually to see 
the Museum's needs and then to 
experience a personal joy by seeing 
these needs fulfilled." 




Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis visits "Pump Room — of Field fvluseum. Cfiester Grenda, 
Building Superintendent, sfiows tier ttie fire pump which supplies water under 
high pressure for fire protection, installed when building was built 52 years ago. 
Whole system, including worn out electrical control board at left, will be 
replaced with a modern, larger capacity system with funds from $25 million 
Capital Campaign. 



The response to date has been 
immensely gratifying. As of January 9, 
the committee has recorded $812,600 
in gifts, including a single contribution 
of $365,000. 

In stating her philosophy regarding her 
very generous gift of $100,000, Mrs. 
Ellis probably reflects the thinking of 
many contributors: 

"The Museum's capital needs are quite 
obvious even to the casual visitor — not 
only to Women's Board members, 
trustees, and staff. My husband and I 
are regular attendees of the Saturday 
film and lecture programs and are well 
acquainted, therefore, with the need for 
renovating the Lecture Hall and the 
James Simpson Theatre, to cite just 
two examples." 

Mrs. Ellis also speaks of the more 
personal satisfaction she expects to 
derive from her gift: 



"I made an appointment with our 
lawyer, specifically to explore the 
advantages of making a gift to the 
Museum at this time. I particularly 
wanted to see some major project 
completed during my lifetime, so when 
he pointed out that mainly because of 
inheritance taxes one cannot leave all 
his money to heirs — whoever or 
whatever they may be — my husband 
and I saw a gift to the Museum as an 
opportunity for deriving not only 
immense personal joy, but also the 
satisfaction of knowing we will be 
helping millions of future visitors, 
especially children, experience a sense 
of wonder and delight in all that Field 
Museum has to offer. 

'We feel that our gift will do the 
greatest good for the greatest number 
of people — now." 



February 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Opens February 1 

Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology. 

Copper-plate engravings made for American 
Ornithology (1808), a nine-volume work by 
the father of American ornithology, Alexander 
Wilson. Also shown are proofs from the 
plates recently pulled by Richard A. 
Davis, Butler University, and George 
McCullough. Fort Wayne Art Institute, 
alongside examples of first edition prints of 
the same engravings in Field l^useum's 
rare book collection. Through May 31. 

Opens February 14 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows to 
Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Through July 15. 
Hall 18. 

Continuing 

Greenland: Arctic Denmark, a major 
exhibition covering all aspects of the history 
and culture of the world's largest island. 
The extensive collection of archaeological 
and ethnological material is supplemented 
by photographs and a daily film program to 
illustrate various areas of economic 
development and social change in modern 
Greenland. The exhibition is sponsored by 
the Royal Danish Embassy and is shown 
under the auspices of the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
Through Ivlarch 8. Hall 27. 

A New Spirit in Search of the Past: 

Archaeology and Ecology in the Lower 
Illinois River Valley, an exhibit explaining 
the "new" archaeology as reflected in the 
Illinois Valley Archaeological Program's 
excavation of the Koster Site, directed by 
Dr. Stuart Struever of Northwestern 
University. Through IVIarch 25. Hall 9. 



Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 

Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, and 
cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense of 
History" presents a graphic portrayal of the 
Museum's past; and "A Sense of Discovery" 
shows examples of research conducted by 
Museum scientists. Hall 3. 



Film Program 



A series of films relating to the 
"Greenland; Arctic Denmark" exhibit is 
shown daily beginning at the 
following times; 

Monday-Thursday; 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. 
Friday; 10 a.m., 1 p.m., and 6 p.m. 
Saturday and Sunday; 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. 



Sunday, February 4 

"The Land No One Wanted," wildlife film 
narrated by Buzz Moss, offered by the 
Illinois Audubon Society at 2;30 p.m. in 
the James Simpson Theatre. 

Sunday, February 11 and 18 

The 28th Chicago International Exhibition 
of Nature Photography projects winning 
and accepted transparency materials at 
2;30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 



February Hours 

9 am. to 4 p.m. Monday through Thursday: 
9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Friday; 9 am. to 5 p.m. 
Saturday and Sunday and February 12 (Lincoln's 
Birthday) and February 19 {Washington's Birthday). 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, mam floor nonh. 



Children's Program 

Through February 28 

Winter Journey for Children, Dog Meets 
Man," a free self-guided tour exploring the 
many aspects of man's partnership with his 
"best friend" since prehistoric times. 
Youngsters are provided with a questionnaire 
which routes them through Museum exhibit 
areas. All boys and girls who can read and 
write may join in the activity. Journey sheets 
are available at Museum entrances. 



Meetings 

February 8: 8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 
Club 

February 11; 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 

February 13: 8 p.m., Chicagoland Glider 
Council 



Coming in March 

Begins March 1 

Spring Journey for Children, "Life in the 
Tropical Rain Forest," a self-guided tour 
which encourages youngsters to learn about 
the inhabitants of the little-known Amazonian 
region of South America by exploring 
Museum exhibit areas. Through May 31. 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, 230 p.m. 
Saturdays in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 3; "Golden Kingdoms of the Orient," 

narrated by John Nicholls Booth, 

March 10; "Exotic West Pakistan," 

narrated by Renee Taylor. 

March 17: "The New Alaska," narrated 
by Leo and Dorothy Eckman. 

March 24; "All Around Australia," 

narrated by Edgar T. Jones. 

March 31; "Yugoslavia," narrated by 
Frank Klicar. 



Volume 44, Number 3 
March 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 3 
March 1973 




Cover tulips are from an engraving in this 1601 
volume in Field Museum's rare book collection 



2 When Tulips Were Securities 

Max Plaut 

the 17th century tulipomania in Holland viewed 
from a new perspective 

8 International Nature Photography Exhibition 

William Burger 

some pictures selected from the over 3,000 submitted 

12 The Goto Dofiana 

Barbara Brown 

a vignette of this important European nature reserve 

14 Capital Campaign 

the Kresge Foundation pledges $1 million to Field Museum 

15 Field Briefs 

16 Letters 
Calendar 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director, E. Leiand Webber 

Managing Editor G Henry Ottery; Editor Elizabetti Munger; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs; Production Russ Becker; Photography John Bayalis, 
Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum ol Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions; $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Printed by Field Museum Press. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster; Please send 
form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




When Tulips were Securities 



Max Plaut 



Luxurious man, to bring his vice in use, 

Did after tiim the world seduce. 
And from the fields the flowers and plants allure, 

Where Nature was most plain and pure. 

With strange perfumes he did the roses taint; 

And flowers themselves were taught to paint. 
The tulip white did for complexion seek, 

And learned to interline its cheek; 
Its onion roof they then so high did hold. 

That one was for a meadow sold: 

"The IVlower, against Gardens," Andrew Marvel! 



2 March 1973 



Engravings In Livre de Fleurs. by Francois I'Anglois, published in Paris, 1620. 
Photos courtesy of Hunt Botanical Library, Carnegie-Mellon University. 




According to some accounts, thie 
Dutch tulip speculation in thie early 
17th century brought the United 
Provinces of the Netherlands to the 
brink of national bankruptcy. The best- 
known account is a chapter in a book 
by Reverend Charles Mackay, 
Extraordinary Popular Delusions and 
the Madness ot Crowds, published in 
1841. Bernard Baruch cherished the 
book as a classic of stock market 
psychology, and thanks to his interest 
it was reprinted in recent years. 

But too often the Tulipomania story is 
retold as a mere anecdote of human 
cupidity. Now, thanks to research since 
1841, the story can be placed in 



historical context. As a result, we can 
begin to appreciate how important the 
preoccupation with this flower has 
been in the making of modern 
Western society. 

According to Wilfrid Blunt, no classical 
author mentions a flower which can 
with any degree of probability be 
identified with the tulip; and no 
Western painting, pottery, or textile 
earlier than the end of the 16th century 
shows it. It has a much longer history 
in the East, and figures in religious 
cults from Turkey to Japan. 

Its spectacular entry into the gardens 
of Western Europe began in 1554. In 



that year the Flemish scholar Ogier 
Ghislain de Busbecq reported tulips 
cultivated by Turks near Adrianople. 
He was at the time ambassador to 
Suleyman the Magnificent from 
Ferdinand I (who then, before he 
became Holy Roman Emperor, was 
regent for the Empire when Charles V 
was in Spain). Busbecq's interpreter 
compared the shape of the petals to a 
turban {dulban in Turkish), and from 
this comparison the various forms of 
the name tulip in Western languages 
are derived. Although tulips may have 
been observed some years earlier by 
a French traveler to the Levant, Pierre 
Belon, his description makes the 
identification doubtful. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Busbecq returned to Prague with 
seeds, perhaps also with bulbs. And 
then, in 1561, appeared the first 
description and illustration of a tulip 
published in Europe, by Konrad 
Gesner, naturalist, bibliographer, and 
town physician of Zurich, in his work 
De Hortis Germaniae. A cargo of bulbs 
from Constantinople that arrived in 
Antwerp in 1562 marked the beginning 
of a new horticultural industry. By 1565 
they were being cultivated in Augsburg 
in the garden of one of the Fuggers, 
that great merchant-banker family. In 
1576 the first monograph on garden 
tulips was published, by Charles de 
I'Ecluse. His name appears as Caroli 
Clusi on the title page of his 1601 
book Rariorum plantarum historia, a 
copy of which is in Field Museum's 
rare book collection. The cover of this 
Bulletin is derived from one of his 
drawings in that book. 

New varieties were soon bred from the 
1562 cargo, especially in Holland at 
Haarlem and Alkmaar, which became 
pre-eminent centers of tulip cultivation. 
Demand exceeded supply, and plant 
breeding was profitable. Beautiful new 
varieties brought high prices. There are 
reports of a single tulip bulb being 
traded for a brewery, for a grist mill, 
or making a rich bride's dowry (the 
last a detail that Alexander Dumas 
adapted for a poor bride in his 1850 
novel The Black Tulip). 

Later, people began to speculate in 
tulips, before there was a stock 
exGhange or commodity exchange or 
futures market, and before Europeans 
speculated in South Sea islands or 
Mississippi real estate. In fact, tulips 
came to play a role in the rise of 
modern science and in the emergence 
of modern social, economic, and legal 
life. Our story, therefore, will take us 
from the horticultural and botanical 
realm into law and economics, but first 
we shall interpose some background 
of that age. 

The frenzied speculation in tulip bulbs 
would clearly have been impossible 
had there not been a genuine 



widespread interest in gardening. But 
during the Middle Ages, and even into 
the 16th century, gardens enjoyed 
an ambivalent position. The two 
described in Spenser's Faerie Oueene. 
the Garden of Adonis and the Bower 
of Bliss, are at times condemned as 
too seductive because of their appeal 
to the senses (all five!) and at times 
favored as reminiscent of Eden and a 
place of innocent delight. But by the 
17th century gardens had won 
acceptance simply as pleasant places. 
Bacon wrote about the delights of 
gardens, and Rubens painted his 
second wife in her new tulip garden. 
In 1626 the Jardin du Roi — forerunner 
of the Mus6e nationale de I'histoire 
naturelle — was founded. In 1656 the 
Lutheran German hymn-writer Paul 
Gerhardt gave thanks for summer in 
the words (translated by Margarete 
Munsterberg): 

The trees with spreading leaves are blessed, 

The earth her dusty rind has dressed 

In green so young and tender. 

Narcissus and the tulip fair 

Are clothed in raiment far more rare 

Than Solomon in splendor. 

As God's creation, the natural world is 
a cause for joy, the tulip along with 
the narcissus especially so. And, as if 
philosophic justification were needed, 
gardens came to be considered the 
best place for contemplation — an idea 
expressed by Marvell in his famous 
poem "The Garden." 

Until the Reformation period, botany 
was considered part of medicine, of 
materia medics, and flowers were 
thought to heal by virtue of their occult 
meaning. The medicinal garden was 
successor of the monastery garden. It 
became the botanical garden at the 
university, beginning with Padua in 
1543 and then Leyden in 1577, which 
was where I'Ecluse was professor of 
botany when he published the 1601 
volume mentioned earlier. With the 
arrival of the telescope and the 
microscope, plants became a major 
object of the measuring, counting, 
differentiating, and cataloging mind. 



Scientists were universal scholars then, 
not specialists, and scientific — 
especially botanical — collecting 
became part of the high culture of the 
great and fashionable. To be a 
gentleman one had to be concerned 
with botanical problems. Frankfort on 
the Main, the city of the book fair, 
added a flower market where the latest 
acquisitions were exchanged with 
learned enthusiasm. 

One of the villainies prompted by 
jealousy in Dumas' Black Tulip — tying 
two cats together and tossing them 
into a tulip garden in order to destroy 
It — may have been suggested by an 
incident suffered by I'Ecluse at Leyden. 
He is said to have conducted his 
studies of the tulip in great secrecy, 
which led to a raid on his bulb garden, 
ruining it and breaking his heart. In 
any event, though the book is set in a 
somewhat later period (1672-73), it 
captures the spirit of the earlier half of 
the century in the reflection of its tulip- 
breeder hero that a man of 
competence seeks immortality by 
giving his name to a child, a book, 
or a flower. 

Some writers have wondered that tulip 
cultivation and Tulipomania should 
have taken place in the Netherlands. 
It IS surprising that the moist climate 
and the level land near Haarlem turned 
out to be so ideal for growing a plant 
whose wild ancestors are believed to 
have originated in the very different 
habitat southeast of the Black Sea and 
the Caspian. In other areas of Europe 



Photo opposite: The folly of the tulip trade in 
Holland caricatured in a black chalk drawing 
by Pieter Noipe (b. ca. 1613, d. ca. 1652). Inside 
the large fool's cap are a nurnber of men sifting 
at tables negotiating tulip contracts; one man 
is holding a pair of scales. Behind the cap to the 
left Flora is riding on an ass accompanied 
by a group of people; two are striking her with 
rods. In the right foreground a man is wheeling a 
barrow full of bulbs and blossoms towa'd a 
muck pile. In the right middleground the devil 
is holding an hourglass in one hand and a long 
staff in the other, a fool's cap on its end and 
bills of sale hanging from it. The laughing man 
next to him is supposed to be a landlord who 
has done well. Photo courtesy of Epstein 
Archive, University of Chicago. 



IVlarch 1973 



where a rising middle class might 
have grown — and speculated in — 
tulips, there was war or, as in 
Catalonia, great political turmoil. 
Stephen Usherwood, a British writer, 
sees the Tulipomania as a crowd 
reaction of relief after the victories of 
Gustavus Adolphus had rescued the 
Dutch from being hemmed in by the 
Catholic Imperial forces to the south 
and east. 

As the two I'Anglois engravings 
suggest, the tulip had become a 
costly fashion flower by 1610, first in 
France and very soon in the rest of 
western Europe. At that time some 
growers accidentally produced bulbs 
with swirly yellow and white stripes. 
This effect is now known to be due to 
a virus disease transmitted by aphids 
but then was considered to be of 
scientific interest. The striped tulips 
were also the costliest and an impetus 



to cultivation. Their owners reaped 
great profits. As the price rose more 
and more, people high and low came 
to think of them as investments. The 
first mention of the speculation is that 
of Velius in his Chronicle ot the City 
of Hoorn (1633). 

By 1634, the passion for tulips had 
caught all social classes of the 
Netherlands. Everyone who owned a 
few square yards of land grew bulbs. 
Before long the bulbs were bought not 
so much with the aim of cultivating 
them or displaying them in bloom, but 
for resale at a profit, and this trade 
became the full-time occupation of 
many. Large fortunes, some old, some 
newly made in the spice trade, were 
invested in tulips. Thousands of people 
mortgaged their possessions to 
buy bulbs. 

There also were many who scoffed at 



the speculation, among them writers 
and artists. Steven Teunisz van der 
Lust wrote a long poem enumerating 
the occupations of those engaged in 
tulip trading: nobles, seamen, peat 
diggers, vintners, masons, court criers, 
and so forth — at least ninety 
occupations. It also describes their 
religious range: "Arminians [i.e., 
Remonstrants], Geuses, Papists, 
Freethinkers, Lutherans, fVlennonites, 
the devout and the indifferent." 

Of any man who spent his time dealing 
in tulips it was said, "He is in the 
Kap" (capuche or hood), and he was 
called a Kappist. The significance of 
the term is illustrated by Pieter Nolpe's 
satirical picture "Flora's Foolscap, or 
illustration of the marvelous year of 
1637 when one fool outdid the other." 
Jan Bruegel the Younger painted a 
picture entitled "Persiflage of the tulip 
trade: monkeys trading in tulips." 




Field Museum Bulletin 



A Dutch sail carriage carrying the tulipomaniacs, who are wearing fool's caps 
on their heads. Flora, the goddess of horticulture, has tulips in her hands. 
Copper engraving, 1650. Photo courtesy of the Bettmann Archive, Inc. 




In a book of the time, The Dialogue 
between Waermondt and Gaergodt, 
who are two weavers, Gaergodt offers 
to set Waermondt up in the tulip 
business. He will sell him a bulb, 
guarantee him a profit, and show him 
how to find a tavern in which a tulip- 
trading club operates — there was one 
in most Dutch towns. Waermondt is to 
ask for florists and will be admitted to 
their club room. "Because you are a 
stranger some will quack like a duck; 
others will say, 'I spy a stranger!' But 
do not take any notice. Your name will 
be written on a slate . . ." 

Records of tulip sales and barters are 
a mine of information to economic 
historians. Tulip bulbs were traded by 
variety and weight; the weight unit was 
.05 grams. A 200-unit (Va ounce) bulb 
of the most precious variety. Semper 
Augustus, sold as high as 5,500 florins 



(it was one of the striped variants 
mentioned earlier); there were only 
two bulbs and they were frequently 
traded. Barter records list as a few of 
the items going in trade for a single 
bulb: a silver goblet at 60 fl., a fine 
suit of clothes at 80 fl., 12 fat sheep 
at 10 fl. each, and a ton of cheese at 
240 fl. But the main significance of 
such records is that they are the first 
"paper transactions," well before the 
first stock exchange or commodity 
exchange was established. 

Tulip prices always rose — until 
February 3, 1637, when a purchaser 
offered only 1,000 fl. for a bulb for 
which the vendor had paid 1,250 fl. 
News of this quickly spread through 
the United Provinces, creating panic in 
its wake. The would-be sellers 
attempted to restore confidence by 
holding mock auctions, but, with the 



market suddenly gone, to no avail. 
They then formed a nation-wide 
association and elected delegates to 
an assembly that was to convene in 
Amsterdam February 27. A majority of 
this assembly proposed that all 
contracts made before November 30, 
1636 were to be kept. Those made 
later the buyer could cancel by paying 
the seller ten percent of the November 
price. This was thought to be fair to 
the established traders and to penalize 
only the late-comers. But the florists of 
Amsterdam objected, and this proposal 
and the assembly came to naught. 

Many sellers then sued their buyers, 
but the courts declared the tulip 
contracts void. The judges are said to 
have considered them illicit gambling. 
The sellers with defaulting buyers now 
sought relief by petition to the Estates 
General of Holland and West Friesland. 



March 1973 



They remonstrated that there was great 
confusion in the country, that the 
finding of total invalidity was intolerable 
in view of both the present situation 
and the toleration of the trade for 
several years. There were petitioners 
from all over the Netherlands, often 
influential nobles and burghers. The 
Estates General referred the matter to 
the Provincial Council at The Hague 
for investigation and report. In a short 
time the Council wrote an opinion 
which became the basis of the Act of 
the Estates General of April 27, 1637. 

The preamble of this Act provided that 
there was to be no general settlement 
of these cases. First, the number of 
contracts, the name of each party to 
each contract, and the increase in tulip 
prices were to be recorded with 
precision. The magistrates — who were 
not remunerated for their services and 
did not have to be learned in the 
Roman law — were instructed to attempt 
to induce the parlies to come to terms 
amicably. Where such attempts failed, 
they were to report to the Provincial 
Council and further evidence was to 
be sought. Meanwhile, it was left to 
each seller to make a formal offer of 
delivery of tulips to his buyer at the 
contracted price. Should the buyer 
refuse delivery, the seller could either 
keep them or resell them and demand 
any price difference from the originally 
contracting buyer. At that point the 
disputed contracts were due to be 
examined further as to equity. Until 
then, concluded the Act, the unfulfilled 
tulip contracts remained in suspense 
et sine praeiudicio. 

In most cases the seller had no 
promised bulbs to deliver, for he was 
in turn a buyer from some other seller. 
If he did, he would gain nothing from 
simply keeping them. If he sold at the 
depressed market price and sued for 
the difference, the courts might void 
the contract. Most frequently the 
parties lost all desire to bring their 
transactions to court, and the sellers 
accepted between five and ten percent 
of the contracted price in settlement. 




The Act was a compromise between 
two conflicting interpretations of the 
tulip transactions under the Roman 
law. The first was that aleatory contracts 
- — those in which what is to be 
performed is contingent upon events 
not within the power of the contracting 
parties, such as insurance, bottomry 
bonds (a kind of maritime lien), futures 
contracts, gambling — were under certain 
conditions legally possible. According 
to the other interpretation, mere paper 
transactions in which there was no 
exchange of goods or services were 
void in private law and not punishable. 
The Act of the Estates General of 
Holland and West Friesland favored a 
free and increasing commerce; it held 
any actual exchange of goods — but not 
mere speculation — to be legitimate. 

It has been said that in the 
administration of the Roman law the 
judges seek to preserve contracts 
made — which, if defective, are to be 
improved according to the intention of 
the parties. Under Anglo-Saxon law, 
on the other hand, contracts are either 
binding as written or void because of 
legal defects. Rudolf Stammler in his 
legal analysis of the Tulipomania 
aftermath holds that the application of 
the Roman law in the 17th century was 
often thus defective in adjudication of 
cases of gambling by people of 
quality, but that the Estates General 
was legislatively and judicially wise in 
not legitimizing the tulip contracts, thus 
keeping the court dockets from being 
overcrowded by litigation over them. 

Probably statements that the tulip 
craze brought Holland to the brink of 
national bankruptcy are exaggerations. 
But it did cause the ruin of several 



great fortunes. At that time state and 
economy were not so closely linked as 
they later came to be. The years of the 
Tulipomania were also the best of the 
brilliant and successful Stadtholdership 
of Prince Frederick Henry and did not 
take the spotlight from either Dutch 
participation in the Thirty Years' War — 
the Prince reconquered Breda in 1637 
— or colonial expansion — the Dutch 
were then establishing themselves in 
parts of Brazil and in the West Indies. 
The East Indian islands already were 
in the Dutch sphere, and trade with 
them had enriched many Dutch and 
caused the inflation indicated by the 
tulip barter records. Finally, the 
Tulipomania did not keep the Dutch 
East India Company from beginning 
the conquest of Ceylon in 1638. 

In fact, the most important 
consequences of the tulip craze were 
much more positive as well as long- 
term. The Tulipomania was the first 
manifestation of several modern 
phenomena: trade associations; 
middle-class gardening; adaptation of 
the Institutes of Justinian to emerging 
conditions; the mechanics of 
speculation in commodity futures; 
paper transactions; and active 
participation of a broad public in 
trade and finance. 



Max Plaut is Reference Librarian at 
Field Museum. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



international nature photography exhibition 



The Nature Camera Club of Chicago and Field 
Museum sponsored their 28th International Exhibition 
of Nature Photography with the public showing of 
about 700 slides on the 11th and 18th of February. 
The accepted slides were chosen from a total of 
over 3,000 by a panel of five judges. In this way an 
amateur nature photographer from anywhere in the 
world can see how his or her best efforts compare 
with the work of others. A catalog is sent to all 
entrants listing the accepted slides and their makers. 

The catalog and careful processing of all slides are 
not the only services provided for entrants. Fifty 
slides are selected and, with the maker's permission, 
reproduced to make traveling sets. These fifty-slide 
sets are chosen to be representative of the show 



and are loaned to individuals and groups in distant 
areas who could not see the exhibition itself. 

Another service is analysis of slides by those who 
request it after having none of their slides accepted. 
(Each entry is restricted to four slides.) Club 
members who have been photographing for many 
years provide these analyses. Often a beginning 
photographer will enter slides that are of poor 
quality or with obvious flaws in composition. Here 
commentary can be explicit and helpful. But there 
are times when slides that are technically and 
esthetically excellent have not been accepted. Here 
commentary is often reduced to, "Well, I guess the 
judges didn't like it — try again next year." 

William Burger 

President, Nature Camera Club of Chicago 




March 1973 




Field Museum Bulletin 9 




Photos; (page 8) "Devoted Mother," by 
Laurie Kriz. Apache J jnction, Arizona; (page 
9) "Snowy Egret Alerted." by Daniel H. Lee, 
Rochester, New York: (page 10, top) 
"Polyorchis Jelly," by Mrs. Alice Kessler, 
Sacramento. Caliiornia; (page 10. bottom) 
"Enhanced with Dew," by Louis R. Paxton, 
Zanesville, Ohio; (page 11) "Pacific Wave," 
by Nelson H. Martin. Santa Barbara, 
California. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




The Goto Donana 



Barbara Brown 



Mrs. Barbara Brown is a Museum Member 
and has been a volunteer technical 
assistant in the Mammal Division for 
several years. She vi/rote to us about her 
visit to one of the most important nature 
reserves in Europe — an unguided detour 
oft the beaten travelers' track. 



During a business trip that called us to 
Spain, my husband Roger and I 
requested and were granted permission 
to visit the Goto Donana, one of the 
most important nature reserves in 
Europe. More than half of all European 
bird species stop here during their 
migrations between Europe and Africa. 

It was too early to witness the spring 
migrations, but even so v^/e didn't want 
to miss this rare opportunity. The 
year-round variety of herons, ducks, 
larks, warblers, and particularly diurnal 
birds of prey is impressive. Large 
animals such as the imperial eagle and 
the Spanish lynx, now rare in other parts 
of Spain, live protected in the Goto. Many 
characteristic North African animals 
combined with subtropical vegetation 
attest to the proximity of Morocco. 



The Goto Dofiana forms a part of the 
Rio Guadalquiver delta. The delta has 
an area of 620 square miles, of which 
120 are sand dunes. These dunes, 
called the Arenas Gordas, line the 
coast, extending inland from 21/2 to 
7y2 miles, and separate the Goto fro 
the sea. In the dry parts of the Goto 
the soil is sandy with stunted 
vegetation. The marshy parts, or 



marismas. are flooded semi-annually 
by the Rio Guadalquiver, leaving 
sticky, slimy sediments that are saline 
and barren. 

This unique complex of habitats, one 
of the two main western European 
flyways for migrating birds, had been 
the private preserve of the Dukes of 
Medina Sidonia for five centuries. In 
1934 the World Wildlife Fund in 
collaboration with the Spanish Scientific 
Gouncil acquired about 25 square 
miles of the original Goto Donana for a 
nature reserve. The area was then 
ceded to the Spanish government for 
control and maintenance. 

The 300,000 acres of marismas 
adjoining the Goto are not protected, 
however. Projected large-scale 
drainage of these swamps would 
drastically alter the ecology of the 
entire region, including the parts of the 
marismas that extend into the Goto. 

We arrived at the locked gates of the 
reserve in our rented car and followed 




American robin (a thrush) 



March 1973 



instructions given us by the authorities 
for locating the key. It was indeed, as 
described, buried in the sand under 
the third post. After opening the gate 
and driving the car through, we of 
course reburied the key. The journey 
continued over fifteen miles of 
washboard road across the sandy plain 
to what was called the Palacio. 

Along the way, insect-hunting kestrels 
filled the sky, magpies flew from one 
shrub to another, and lapwings strutted 
along the side of the road. 

Martin Brandt, a young Norwegian 
naturalist-ranger, greeted us as we 
pulled into the cobbled courtyard of 
the Palacio. He explained that we 
could explore the Goto by Land Rover, 
but we assured him we preferred to 
make the excursion on foot. 

The Palacio is a 300-year-old white 
stucco hunting lodge built in the form 
of a square. The walls in the entrance 
hall are covered with photographs of 
hunting parties of Spanish nobility. In 
the adjacent courtyard are barns, hen 
houses, tool sheds, and the cultivated 
gardens of the guardas. or wardens. In 
front is a wire enclosure with two 
captive ferrets, a desert fox, a few 
deer, and a Spanish lynx. 

Many small land birds can be found in 
the vicinity of the Palacio, the cultivated 
gardens, the work buildings of the 
guardas, and the thickets of trees 
adjacent to the edge of the marismas. 
Stonechats, chiffchaffs, chaffinches, 
and serins were common. Most 
exciting for us, however, was the sight 
of a small brown bird with a bright 
orange-red breast, the common 
European robin. Now we understand 
why English colonists in America called 
our much larger thrush a robin. 

We saw representatives of most of the 
reserve's avifauna along the grasses, 
sedges, and reeds bordering the edge 
of the marismas. Predators were 
soaring overhead constantly, hunting 
small mammals and reptiles concealed 
in the rushes. Fallow deer and red 
deer browsed nearby, and feral 



descendants of horses and cattle, 
escaped from herds on privately owned 
estates, grazed unconcerned by our 
presence. Cattle egrets accompanied 
the herds. Thousands of resident 
greylag geese filled the sky above the 
flooded marismas. Evidence of the 
nightly rooting and digging of wild 
boars was seen all along the edges of 
the marshes. A snake-eagle was seen 
aloft clutching a snake in one of its 
talons. This eagle prefers the dry, 
sandy areas, where its prey is more 
abundant. Trees along the edges of 
the sand provide nesting sites. Kestrels 
were abundant in all the habitat types 
we explored. 

Away from the edge of the marismas 
is a sandy plain covered with halimium, 
gorse, broom, and scattered cork oaks. 
The several small freshwater lakes 
distributed over the plain are fed by a 
stream called Madre de las Marismas. 
Small islands, or vetas, which dot the 
lakes serve as breeding areas for 
ground-nesting birds. 

The stunted vegetation and scarcity of 
animals on the arid plain contrast 
sharply with the lagoons and marshes 
teeming with life. Nevertheless, here in 
the desert and the depressions between 
the sand dunes is where myriads of 
migratory birds stop to rest. Until they 
come, it belongs to the great numbers 
of butterflies, the occasional rabbit we 
saw darting behind a shrub, and the 
red fox we glimpsed running across 
the plain. 

Drawings by Zbigniew Jastrzebski. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



13 







Kresge Foundation Pledges 
$1 Million to Capital Campaign 

■'One of the greatest institutions of our 
country." 

That IS how Stanley S, Kresge, chairman of 
the foundation established by his father, 
described Field tvluseum during a press 
conference February 15 to announce the 
foundation's $1 million pledge to the 
lyluseum's $25 million Capital Campaign. 

Museum Director E. Leiand Webber 
expressed gratitude for the grant, explaining 
that It will be used to help build an 
educational center in the Museum's west 
wing. Included will be a bus ramp entry at 
ground level to serve the more than 350,000 
school children who annually visit the 



Museum in organized groups, as well as 
adequate entry, orientation, checking, and 
restroom facilities for them. The entry will 
also serve visitors confined to wheelchairs 
or otherwise unable to climb stairs. 

Dr. Alice Games, coordinator of teacher 
training at Field Museum, described how 
educational facilities, now scattered 
throughout the museum, will also be 
centrally located to better serve visiting 
school groups and teachers, community 
groups, college students, and persons 
working on specialized research. 

Others participating in the press conference 
were William Baldwin, president of the 
Kresge Foundation, of Birmingham, Michigan; 
Blaine Yarrlngton, Museum trustee and 
chairman of the Capital Campaign's 
corporate and foundation division; Illinois 
Lieutenant Governor Nell Hartigan; and Mrs. 
Judith Allen, principal of Harvard-St. 
George's Lower School, In Chicago. 

The Kresge gift brings the Museum's share 
of the Capital Campaign to $9.4 million, 
leaving $3.1 million still to be raised by the 
Museum before the deadline of September, 
1974. This sum of $12.5 million will be 
matched dollar-for-dollar by the Chicago 
Park District through funds raised by Its 
bonding authority, granted by the Illinois 
General Assembly. Lieutenant Governor 
Hartigan praised the matchlng-funds 
concept as exemplifying "intelligent 
relationship between the private sector 
and government." 



Left to right, Blaine Yarrlngton and E. Leiand Webber show Stanley S. Kresge 
and William Baldwin plans for educational center in Field Museum's west wing. 




14 



March 1973 




Natural History Field Trips Offered 

Three weekend natural history field trips are 
being offered this spring by Field Museum's 
Department of Education in cooperation with 
the University of Chicago Downtown Center. 
One objective of the trips is to investigate 
the correlation between the geology of the 
areas and spring flowers, especially effects 
of the geologic history on flowering plants. 
Dr. Matthew Nitecki, geologist, and Dr. 
William Burger, botanist, both of Field 
Museum, will lead the groups. 

May 5 (10:30-12 noon): Introductory lecture. 

May 12 (8 a.m.)-May 13 (6 p.m.): Starved 
Rock area. Starved Rock, a bluff cut by a 
glacial river and standing some 100 feet 
above the surrounding glaciated plain, 
contains a rich variety of flora characteristic 
of our area. Leaders: Drs. Nitecki and Burger. 

May 19 (8 a.m.)-May 20 (6 p.m.): Galena 
and its environs. In the 1840s Galena was a 
major lead-producing district of the U.S. The 
area was not covered by glaciers, and 
therefore the landscape is much different 
from the flat, glaciated topography of the 
rest of Illinois. Leader: Dr. Nitecki. 

June 2 (8 a.m.)-June 3 (7 p.m.): Devil's 
Lake, Wisconsin. The Baraboo Range 
supports a unique flora, some of which has 
apparently been undisturbed since the end 
of the last glaciation. The range, about one 
billion years old, consists of quartzite folded 
into vertical position. Leaders: Drs. Nitecki 
and Burger. 

Tuition for the series is $80 ($75 for 
Museum Members), or $30 for each trip 
($28 for Museum Members), and includes 
transportation on a chartered bus. Overnight 
accommodations are not included, but 
advance reservations at reasonable rates 
will be made for all participants. Anyone 
interested in joining one or more of the 
groups should call Mrs. Maria Matyas for 
further information, Fl 6-8300. 



Two 30- Year-Plus Staff Members Retire 

James R. Shouba joined the Museum staff 
in 1939. As Superintendent of Maintenance 
beginning in 1947 and Building 
Superintendent from 1962, he doctored 
every ailment the building, in its advancing 
age, succumbed to, and supervised every 
structural alteration required by new exhibits 
and changing work space needs. Once he 
was even called upon to dispose of the 
remains of a camel. But more in his line 
was overseeing the major construction 
projects of filling in two of the building's 
light wells in order to add 35,000 square 
feet of much needed working and storage 
space. Because of his intimate knowledge 
of the building's pathology, Mr. Shouba will 
continue to serve the Museum as a part- 
time consultant to help with the major 
renovations being made possible by funds 
from the Capital Campaign. 




Joseph B Krstolich and "friend" (who 
IS now in a diorama in Hall C). 

When Joseph B. Krstolich worked at Field 
Museum in 1939 on an art project, he was 
already a well known animal sculptor with 
20 years of accomplishment and acclaim to 
his credit. He became a full-time Museum 
employee in 1941, and for the next 31 
years, as staff artist, applied his talents to 
such diverse things as underwater 
photography of marine life off Bermuda; a 
model of a crocodile brain; a cat carved on 
a sheet of plexiglass to show its internal 
organs (part of our This is a Mammal 
exhibit); the famous gorilla Bushman 
(presently in the 75th Anniversary exhibit); 
and, most recently, the four new figures in 
our Neanderthal Man diorama. An 
uncounted number of Museum exhibits have 
been enhanced by Mr. Krstolich's creative 
skills. He can't say which he enjoyed 
working on most because, as he remarked, 
"Every exhibit was a new challenge." 




James R. Shouba 

Training Program in Anthropology 
Offered High Schiool Juniors 

Twenty-seven high-ability high school 
juniors will be chosen to participate in Field 
Museum's Student Science Training Program 
in Anthropology this summer. 

This intensive course offers young people 
an unusual opportunity to learn about the 
various fields of anthropology and thus test 
their career interest in the subject. Monday 
through Friday sessions, from June 25 
through August 3, will feature lectures by 
outstanding authorities, supervised research 
projects, workshops, study of museum 
specimens, and archaeological field work 
at a nearby site. 

The program, one of only a few of Its kind 
in this country, is supported by a grant from 
the National Science Foundation. It is under 
the direction of Miss Harriet Smith, lecturer 
in anthropology in Field Museum's 
Department of Education. 

Students interested in joining the program 
may obtain application forms from either 
high school officials or Miss Smith. 
Completed applications must be returned to 
Field Museum no later than March 26. 
Participants will be selected on the basis of 
academic achievement, recommendations 
of teachers, and personal interviews. 



Ownership and Circulation 

Filing date: 9/26/72. Title: Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin, Frequency of publication: monthly 
except combined July/August issue. Office: Roosevelt 
Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605. 
Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History. Editor: 
Elizabeth Munger. Known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders: none. Nonprofit status 
has not changed during preceding 12 months. 

Av. No. Actual No. 

Copies Copies 

Each Issue Single Issue 
. Preceding Nearest to 
12 Months Filing Date 
Total copies printed 26,666 26,700 

Total paid circulation 21,850 22,287 

mail subscriptions 21,850 22,287 

Free distribution 1,743 2,095 

Total distribution 23,593 24,382 

Office use, left-over 3,073 2,318 

Total 26,666 26.700 

1 certify that the statements made by me above are 
correct and complete. — Norman W. Nelson, Asst. 
Dir., Admin. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



ETTERS 



To the editor: 

The story "The Mystery of Maize" by George 
W. Beadle in the November 1972 issue 
of the Bulletin, about his theory that teosinte 
is the wild ancestor of corn, is readable 
and entertaining. It does, however, contain 
a number of errors of fact, interpretalion, 
and omission. 

At least four of my own views are 
misrepresented in the story. 1) In the 
author's so-called "cob quiz" I did not 
classify a single second-generation (F2) 
cob as that of "good" corn and I have yet 
to see one that is. 2) My present idea that 
teosinte is the progeny of a corn-like 
ancestor is not a "dramatic reversal" but 
rather the result of continuing research in 
which I have participated with my 
colleagues. This work, concerned with the 
characteristics of the pollen grains, has 
provided convincing evidence that Tripsacum 
can be eliminated as one of teosinte's 
progenitors, leaving corn as its only 
ancestor. 3) There is no "curious 
inconsistency" in my idea that teosinte 
evolved from corn while doubting that 
cultivated corn could have evolved from 
teosinte. The former would have occurred 
over millions of years: the latter in three 
thousand years or less. 4)1 have never 
described the earliest cobs from the 
Tehuacan Caves as "brittle," a characteristic 
of teosinte. Instead they are "fragile," 
which in proper botanical context is quite 
different. 

The author errs, I think, in placing too 
much reliance on the cytogenetic evidence. 
This has long been accepted as showing a 
close relationship of corn and teosinte but 
it falls far short of proving that corn evolved 
from teosinte under domestication. His own 
experiments, involving 50,000 plants, have 
added little if anything to what was already 
known from the earlier studies of Collins 
and Kempton (1920) and Mangelsdorf and 
Reeves (1939). His conviction that the 



differences between corn and teosinte are 
few and are simple in their inheritance may 
have prevented him from seeing what these 
earlier workers had obsen/ed: that the 
differences between the two species are 
numerous and complex and that in their 
second-generation hybrids all characteristics 
of each parent are associated with one or 
more others. 

The story mentions, but does not do justice 
to, the extensive archaeological collections 
of prehistoric corn that have been assembled 
during the past twenty-five years through 
the congenial and effective collaboration 
of botanists and archaeologists. Genetic 
experiments can do no more than provide 
a basis for speculating about the past; 
archaeological remains are the past. I have 
had the exciting and rewarding experience 
of analyzing, with others, the collections 
from fourteen once-inhabited caves in 
Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico. Perhaps 
the most impressive feature of these 
collections is the consistency with which 
they all point to the same conclusion; the 
earliest corn, except for its smaller size, has 
all of the principal botanical characteristics 
of modern corn and shows no evidence 
of having evolved from teosinte. 

Especially significant Is the earliest 
prehistoric corn from two caves, San Marcos 
and Coxcatlan in the Tehuacan Valley of 
Mexico, excavated by Richard S. MacNeish. 
The earliest cobs, dated at about 5000 B.C., 
we regard for a number of reasons (six, 
not two as stated by Beadle) as those of 
wild corn. The resemblances that Beadle 
claims to see between this early corn and 
teosinte simply do not exist. With these 
comments I have included photographs of 
an "ear" of teosinte and a cob of the 
7,000-year-old corn. The reader need not 
be a trained botanist to see that the two 
are quite distinct. 

Supplementing the archaeological evidence 
is the paleobotanical evidence 
represented by fossil pollen grains of corn 
found in drill cores taken from a site in 
Mexico City in preparation for the 
construction of Mexico's first skyscraper. 



Please address all letters to the editor to 

Bulletin 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

The editors reserve the right to edit letters 
for length. 



Lett: An "ear" of leosinle (actual size). Because 
of tfie hard, bony sfiells in wfiicfi its seeds are 
enclosed and ttie tendency for ttie ears to fall apart 
before tfiey can be tiarvested, teosinte fias generally 
been considered unpromising as a food plant. 
Right: A cob of ttie earliest known corn (actual 
size) dated at 5000 B.C. from a once-inliabited cave 
in f^exico. Except for size, it fias all of ttie 
principal cfiaracteristics of modern corn, and it 
sfiows no evidence of tiaving evolved from teosinte. 
I regard it as wild corn. 



These occurred at depths of more than 200 
feet and are estimated to be at least 
80,000 years old. They were identified by 
Professor Elso S. Barghoorn, one of the 
world's foremost paleobotanists. Beadle 
does not mention this critical evidence, 
which, if accepted, represents a fatal blow 
to his teosinte theory, and I find his failure 
to do so almost incredible. Certainly It is 
an essential part of the corn story. Knowing 
the circumstances under which the drill 
cores were collected and the pollen isolated 
and identified, I regard the fossil corn 
pollen as authentic and, like the prehistoric 
cobs of the Tehuaccin Valley, showing that 
the ancestor of cultivated corn was corn. 

Paul C. Mangelsdorl 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 



To the editor: 

Thank you for permitting me to note 
Professor Mangelsdorf's criticism of my 
November article. I am not persuaded by the 
objections he makes to teosinte as a direct 
ancestor of maize, but agree with you that 
an adequate response requires technical 
considerations and references not wholly 
appropriate to the Field Museum Bulletin. 
I shall therefore respond elsewhere in due 
course. 

George W. Beadle 
University of Chicago 



fviarch 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Closes March 25 

A New Spirit in Searcli of the Past: 

Archaeology and Ecology in the Lower 
Illinois River Valley, an exhibit explaining 
the "new" archaeology as reflected in the 
Illinois Valley Archaeological Program's 
excavation of the Koster Site, directed by 
Dr. Stuart Struever of Northwestern 
University. Hall 9. 

Continuing 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Through July 15. 
Hall 18. 

Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 

Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, 
and cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense 
of History" presents a graphic portrayal of 
the Museum's past; and "A Sense of 
Discovery" shows examples of research 
conducted by Museum scientists. Hall 3. 

Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology. 

Copper-plate engravings made for American 
Ornithology (1808), a nine-volume work by 
the father of American ornithology, 
Alexander Wilson. Also shown are proofs 
from the plates recently pulled by Richard 
A. Davis, Butler University, and George 
McCullough, Fort Wayne Art Institute, 
alongside examples of first edition prints of 



the same engravings in Field Museum's 
rare book collection. Through May 31. 
South Lounge. 

Film Program 

Sunday, March 11 

"Yosemite: An Ecological Visit," wildlife 
film narrated by Eben McMillan, is offered 
by the Illinois Audubon Society at 2:30 p.m. 
in the James Simpson Theatre. 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, 2:30 p.m. 

Saturdays in the James Simpson Theatre. 

March 3: "Golden Kingdoms of the Orient," 

narrated by John Nicholls Booth. 

March 10: "Exotic West Pakistan," 

narrated by Renee Taylor. 

March 17: "The New Alaska," narrated 
by Leo and Dorothy Eckman. 

March 24: "All Around Australia," 

narrated by Edgar T. Jones. 

March 31: "Yugoslavia," narrated by 

Frank Klicar. 

Children's Program 

Begins March 1 

Spring Journey for Children, Life in the 
Tropical Rain Forest," a self-guided tour 
encouraging youngsters to learn about the 
inhabitants of the little-known Amazonian 
region of South America by exploring 
Museum exhibit areas. Youngsters are 
provided with a questionnaire which routes 
them through Museum exhibit areas. All 
boys and girls who can read and write 
may join in the activity. Journey sheets 
are available at Museum entrances. 
Through May 31. 

Meetings 

March 8: 8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 

Club 

March 11:2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 



March 13: 7:30 p.m.. Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago 

March 13: 8 p.m., Chicagoland Glider 
Council 

March 14: 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society 

March 27: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago. 



Coming in April 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, 2:30 p.m. 
Saturdays in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 7: "Michigan Odyssey," narrated by 
Edward M. Bingham, Jr. 

April 14: "Russia," narrated by Dr. Arthur 
C. Twomey. 

April 21: "Jerusalem, Jerusalem," narrated 
by Richard Linde. 

April 28: "The Open Arms of Portugal," 

narrated by James Metcalf. 



Spring Film Series for Children, 10:30 a.m. 
Saturdays in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 7: Fiesta-Cub Scout Day; "Exciting 
Latin America." 

April 14: Egypt, pyramids, and mummies; 
"Ancient Land of the Pharoahs." 

April 28: Museum Traveler Day; annual 
presentation of Field Museum Journey 
awards and color film. 



March Hours 

9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday thirough Ttiursday 
and 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Friday. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 



Aoril 1973 





Education is finding windows to the world; 
Field Museum has thousands of them. Cover 
photo and design by Clifford Abrams. 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director, E. Leiand Webber 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 4 
April 1973 



2 New Directions for the Education Department 

educational programs have always been important at 
Field Museum; now they are expanding into new dimensions 

14 Capital Campaign 

how leadership grants are pushing it toward its goal 

15 Field Briefs 

16 Members' Nights: The Inside Story 

a sneak preview of some of the activities planned for 
the annual spring open house, May 3 and 4, 6 to 10 p.m. 

Calendar 



Managing Editor G. 
Fred Huysmans. 



Henry Ottery; Editor Elizabetfi Monger; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs: Production Russ Becker; Photograpliy John Bayalis, 



The Field Museum ol Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions; $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Printed by Field Museum Press. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois, f^ostmaster: Please send 
form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




2 Aorll 1973 



New directions for the Education Department 



Editor 



Robert 
Matthai 



Ed. 



Robert 
Matthai 



Mr. Matthai, last year the Bulletin devoted 
separate issues to the Museum's four scientific 
departments. Now we want to focus on the 
Education Department. Would you as Chairman 
of that department lead off by telling us what 
its role is. 

Our job is to reach out to the public — children 
and adults — and help them learn from the vast 
array of scientific information the Museum has 
"in stock," so to speak. This means selecting 
and organizing information. It also often means 
translating what is esoteric and technical into 
forms and activities that can be understood — 
and enjoyed — by people of different ages and 
different interests. 

How is the Education Department related to the 
others in the Museum — the scientific and 
exhibition departments? 

They generate the information and help create 
background materials for us to work with. We 
would have nothing to purvey if there were no 
exhibits and no scientific staff. On the other 
hand, the fact that the Education Department 
has so many special services for students and 
adults does help attract public and private 
support necessary to pay for scientific research 
and new exhibits. The relationship is truly 
symbiotic — education, exhibition, and scientific 
research are Intertwined in a museum like ours. 
Any one part would mean little without the 
other two. Our educational programs relate 
closely to exhibits; our staff help in the 
planning of new exhibits; and the scientific 



Education Department staff — Front row: Marie Svoboda, Coordinator, 
Raymond Foundation; Marttia Lussentiop, Instructor, Raymond 
Foundation; Julie Castrop, Instructor, Raymond Foundation; Priscilla 
Byrne, Departmental Secretary. Back row: Ronald Lambert, Preparator, 
Harris Extension; Edith Fleming, Instructor, Raymond Foundation; 
Nancy Simpson, Research Assistant, Teacher Training; J. L. Williams, 
Instructor, Outreach; Alice Games. Coordinator, Outreach/Teacher 
Training; Susan Kaye, Assistant to Chairman; Cynthia Mark, Research 
Assistant, Outreach/Harris Extension; Robert Matthai, Chairman; Gail 
Downey, Secretary, Raymond Foundation; Harriet Smith, Instructor, 
Raymond Foundation; James Bland, Instructor, Raymond Foundation/ 
Outreach; David Pressler, Coordinator, Harris Extension; Carolyn 
Blackmon, Coordinator, Outreach/Special Educational Services. 
Holding pennant: Mary Talley, Secrela:y, Outreach. Not in picture: 
Barbara Young. Secretary, Raymond Foundation, and John Dykstra, 
Driver, Harris Extension. 



Ed. 



Robert 
Matthai 



Ed. 



Robert 
Matthai 



Ed. 



Robert 

Matthai 



Staff provide the "raw material" for our 
programs and help us keep them accurate. 

Is museum education different from school 
education? 

The strong suit of a museum is that it offers 
people experience with three-dimensional "real 
things," not just two-dimensional representations 
of reality. Thus museum education stresses 
exposure to objects, both those that are 
man-made, called artifacts, and those that are 
made by nature, called specimens. These 
objects are usually intrinsically interesting to 
students because of their high "reality quotient." 

Many schools are using innovative teaching 
techniques these days. Is museum education 
keeping pace? 

A major criticism leveled at museum education 
is that it often lags behind educational 
techniques current in schools. One complaint 
is that too many facts are crammed into a brief 
visit to a museum. Another is that students' 
exploration and curiosity are hampered by 
glass-covered cases or rope barriers. Museums, 
particularly those of the natural history variety, 
also often suffer from a "musty-dusty" image 
in many people's minds. 

What are you doing about these criticisms? 
Can modern educational philosophy fit into an 
old and venerable institution? 

Yes indeed, educational progress and museum 
traditions can be compatible! For example, 
even though Field Museum will no doubt 
always have glassed-in cases, we have devised 
educational activities to be carried out in 
classrooms or learning centers, and we are 
doing more here in the Museum, and especially 
in schools, to satisfy the human need to 
explore and manipulate objects. To be sure, it 
will always be inappropriate for fragile and 
precious objects to be handled by children, or 
adults, but there are plenty of sturdy and less 
valuable objects that can be made a direct part 
of the educational experience. And as new 
exhibits are planned, there will be opportunities 
to make visitor participation part of the design. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Ed. 



Robert 
Matthai 



Making museum teaching techniques more like 
methods now used in schools — or on TV, as 
represented by Sesame Street, for example — is 
a more difficult problem. But having workshops 
for our teaching staff, encouraging them to 
attend professional conferences, and offering 
sabbaticals can close this gap. 

Just who are the people the Education 
Department serves? You mentioned children 
and adults earlier. 

Unquestionably the largest group are school-age 
children and young people. We serve them 
directly at the Museum as well as indirectly at 
their schools through their classroom teachers. 
Last year, for instance, more than 340,000 
student visitors came to the Museum in 
organized groups — over 6,700 such groups. 
We were able to present a special instructional 
teaching program for about 20 percent of them 
through the Raymond Foundation division of the 
Education Department. Through the Harris 
Extension division we circulate small exhibit 
cases among almost 450 city schools on a 
rotational basis. Just a few months ago we 
began an ambitious project which involves 
taking a wide range of educational services out 
to communities in the Chicago area. 

Then there are some special year-long course 
programs offered by the Chicago Board of 
Education which involve close cooperation and 
participation by the Museum. They are held 
right here at the Museum. One is the 
museology course for gifted high school 
students (described in the July/August 1971 
Bulletin). Another is an anthropology course for 
students of the "Metro High School Without 
Walls." And a special art class for talented 
public high school students meets here on 
Saturdays and uses Museum exhibits and 
materials to learn about form and design. 

Besides all these student-oriented programs, 
there are the film and lecture series for the 
general public at the Museum, and we and the 
University of Chicago Downtown Center 
co-sponsor evening and weekend non-technical 
courses. I want to say more about special 
programs for adults later when I talk about 
plans for the future. But first, the Education 
Department staff people who are designing and 
carrying out the programs now in progress 
want to describe them in some detail. 



Ed. 



Marie 
Svoboda 



Ed. 



Marie 
Svoboda 



Ed. 



Marie 
Svoboda 




Marie Svoboda 

Programs tor school groups 

Let's start with the section of the department 
that presently serves the largest number of 
young people, through the programs for school 
groups. That's your division. Miss Svoboda. 
These programs have been operating for a long 
time haven't they? I remember special bus trips 
to Field Museum from my own elementary 
school days in the Chicago area. 

The Museum began offering tours and 
workshops to the school children of Chicago 
in 1925, thanks to a gift from Mrs. Anna Louise 
Raymond. Since then the Raymond Foundation 
has subsidized the instruction of just under 
six million children. 

Bob Matthai said that your staff offered 
instructional programs to about 20 percent of 
the some 6,700 organized groups of young 
people who came to the Museum last year. That's 
more than 1,300 groups. Who does all this? 

Our regular staff are three full-time and two 
half-time instructors. They all have a master's 
degree in some area of natural history and are 
qualified to teach in other areas as well. But we 
also have 29 part-time specially trained 
volunteer instructors who help conduct tours for 
school groups. All these people have in 
common a talent for communicating effectively 
and spontaneously with children. 

Would you describe these instructional 
programs? 

We offer three kinds — Museum tours, study-unit 
programs, and workshops. You could think of 
them as increasingly intense exposure to the 
particular theme or topic each one is organized 
around. And of course the topics themselves as 
well as the teachers' presentations are offered 
at levels appropriate to the age of the group. 
Some of the most popular topics are "Indians 
of North America," "Dinosaurs," "Ancient 
Egypt," and "Animals Around the World." New 
programs are added whenever appropriate and 
where Museum exhibits and collections can be 
used to advantage. Some new topics added 
this year are "Endangered and Vanishing 



April 1973 



Animals," "Ecology," "Monkeys and Apes," 
"Cultural Anthropology," and "Microscopic Life. 



Ed. 



How is this instruction handled? 



Marie 
Svoboda 



The tone is always informal in order to 
encourage the children to participate. Our 
instructors use thought-provoking questions to 
focus attention and interest, and that leads into 
using exhibits and individual specimens and 
artifacts to illustrate key concepts. The children 
are always eager to handle the real objects 
that are used in study-unit programs and 
workshops especially. They are then usually full 
of spontaneous questions, and that develops 
into the kind of interaction that shows the 
experience has taken on meaning for them. 



Marie 
Svoboda 



Ed. 



We are always pleased to get these letters, and 
we keep every one. Countless teachers have 
commented to us on the effectiveness of this 
style of teaching. They show their appreciation 
also by returning year after year with new 
classes. 

Another program that your division originated 
is the self-guiding Journey for Children, isn't 
it? How does it work? 



Ed. I have seen many folders of appreciative letters 

in your office from both the students and their 
teachers. They certainly testify to what you've 
just said. 



Marie 
Svoboda 




Ed. 



Marie 
Svoboda 



Ed. 



Marie 
Svoboda 



Top: Students in a workshop led by Edith Fleming try their hand at 
reproducing African rhythms on African instruments. Bottom: Students 
in the special summer anthropology program learn about archaeological 
field work by doing it at a site near Chicago. Photos by Ed Jarecfci. 



Every three months a new Journey tour is 
written around a theme — such as "Archaeology 
in the Midwest" or "Dog Meets Man" — and 
printed on single sheets which are available at 
the Museum entrances. Questions devised to 
stimulate the children's observation guide them 
to various exhibits to find the answers so they 
can write them on the sheet, which they turn in 
when they finish the tour — at their own pace. 
Every spring we have a Museum Travelers' Day 
and present awards to the boys and girls who 
have accurately completed all four Journeys 
during the year. 

What is the Museum's special summer 
anthropology program that so many high school 
juniors apply for every year? 

This is an intensive, formally structured 
program six weeks long, five days a week, 
which introduces highly motivated and talented 
students to the various aspects of anthropology. 
The group hears lectures by outstanding 
authorities in different fields of anthropology. 
It has seminars and workshops, which involve 
direct use and study of Museum collections. 
Participants report on an investigation of their 
own communities. And they spend a short but 
intensive period doing archaeological field work 
at a nearby site and make formal reports on 
their findings. Harriet Smith and Edith Fleming 
organized the program eight years ago, and 
we have been able to offer it every summer 
since thanks to renewed grants from the 
National Science Foundation. 

Students usually apply for admission to this 
program through their schools, don't they? 

They may, or they can get application forms 
directly from the Museum. The application 
period, which closes in March, is announced 
every year in the Bulletin and in newspapers 
as well as through schools. 



Field fkiuseum Bulletin 



Ed. 



David 
Pressler 



Ed. 



David 
Pressler 



Extension Service to Schools 

Mr. Pressler, as coordinator of the Education 
Department's extension service, would you 
describe the program and perhaps some of its 
background? 

Our basic purpose is to offer school children 
and teachers of Chicago materials and 
experiences that are not ordinarily encountered 
in the classroom. In essence, we extend Field 
Museum into the classroom by sending 
materials and Information from our own Harris 
collection. 

Harris Extension was created by Norman Wait 
Harris in 1911 through a foundation for this 
purpose. In 1912 a committee composed of 
school principals, members of the Chicago 
Board of Education, and representatives from 
the four scientific departments at Field Museum 
recommended a unique format which would 
permit the safe circulation of materials from 
school to school. These are the familiar 
mahogany and glass exhibit cases with pull-out 
information plaques. The first of these cases, 
depicting a variety of animals in simulated 
natural environments, were circulated to 50 
schools in 1914. Today a different exhibit is 
delivered to nearly 450 schools every 20 days, 
at no cost to the schools. In other words, we 
currently deliver approximately 7,600 exhibits 
during the school year. 

In addition to these traditional exhibits, we 
have some exciting new ideas for changing the 
format of our materials to encourage children 
to interact more directly with objects. 

I had noticed that you were assembling an 
interesting array of African artifacts in the 
anthropology conservation room. 

Yes, those materials are being selected to give 
us specific information about artifacts we hope 
to purchase from Africa for inclusion in our 
new "kits." These will be self-contained 
educational exhibit packages which will present 
several topics that we believe will be both 
interesting to children and useful to teachers. 
The presentation will include artifacts, 
specimens, and photographs — and possibly 
filmstrips and cassette recordings. Each kit will 
include concise background information which 
will enable the teacher to make maximum use 



Ed. 



David 
Pressler 



Ed. 



David 
Pressler 



of the kit, even if he or she is unfamiliar with 
the subject. 

This sounds like a more complete form of the 
so-called multi-media approach that has gained 
popularity in the last few years. 

The similarity, of course, would be the use of 
filmstrips. However, I believe our kits will be 
much more dynamic and comprehensive 
because they will motivate students to interact 
directly with the materials. These materials will 
be selected for high visual and tactile appeal. 
We also expect to encourage participation 
through class discussion and specific activities 
designed to promote personal discovery and 
creative expression. We want children to learn 
about ttiemselves in relation to the subject 
matter as well about the subject matter itself. 

What are some of the topics that these kits will 
be concerned with? 

The kits already being developed will stimulate 
exploration of a variety of African arts from an 
esthetic as well as anthropological point of 
view. These will be separate kits on African 
sculpture, textiles, musical instruments, jewelry, 
leatherwork, basketry, and architecture. They 
will stress, for instance, the concept that 
African art, besides having great beauty, is 
often highly functional and tied to people's 
everyday needs as well as their cultural 
heritage. They will also demonstrate the 
concept that environmental conditions affect 
the choice of materials used by the many 




David Pressler and Cynthia Mark (center) consult Maude Wahlman 
about authentic African specimens that could be photographed (or new 
educational "kits" being designed (or circulation to schools. Photo by 
Herta Newton. 



April 1973 



Ed. 



David 
Pressler 



Ed. 



Robert 
Matthai 



different peoples who live on the African 
continent. Though these concepts are 
developed from the African context, they 
obviously have much broader application. 
We will suggest that students and teachers 
compare objects from different cultures, 
including our own, in order to develop a 
greater appreciation for the many ways of 
doing similar things. 

What other exhibits are you planning in this 
new way? 

A kit based on the Scanning Electron 
Microscope exhibit is one — to introduce 
children to the exciting microscopic world. 
Through observation, discussion, and activities, 
we plan to strengthen children's awareness of 
and sensitivity to their environment. This kit 
will include high magnification photographs and 
activities using various magnification equipment 
to create a structured but a spontaneous series 
of personal experiences. Other kits will be 
about man in his environment, based on the 
major Museum exhibit now being planned; 
color in nature; masks, exploring the use of 
masks from cultures all over the world, 
including our own Halloween masks; stone 
tools, with actual stone implements compared 
with hand tools today. We may also design 
several different kits about ethnic America, 
each representing aspects of the cultural 
heritage of ethnic groups in the Chicago area. 



Board of Education Courses 

Mr. Matthai, you mentioned some Board of 
Education courses that involve the Museum. 
How do they work? 

One is an anthropology course offered by the 
Metro High School Without Walls. Metro is an 
exciting and innovative idea that took shape in 
Chicago in 1970. Its purpose is to utilize 
community cultural and business resources for 
a kind of alternative education — alternative, that 
is, to the traditional high school classroom 
education. It is an option that any Chicago high 
school student may apply for — and they do 
apply from all over the city. The course that 
uses Field Museum as its community resource 
is called Origins of Humanness. The name 
comes from the core materials used, which are 
a book of readings plus "evidence materials" 
developed by the recently completed 
Anthropology Curriculum Study Project that was 
sponsored by the American Anthropological 
Association. In fact, the director of that project 
was Dr. Malcolm Collier, wife of Dr. Donald 
Collier, Curator of Anthropology at the Museum. 



The Metro teacher for the course is Steve 
Everett. This year's class of 15 students come 
together every Friday afternoon at the Museum 
for discussion, to see films and study exhibits 
related to the course, and to learn directly from 
Museum curators and preparators. 

As for the Museology course, Sue Maxwell, 
from the Chicago Board of Education Programs 
for Gifted Children, is now teaching it for the 
third year. Usually about 12 to 16 students are 
enrolled. They become acquainted with all 
aspects of the Museum — the research, 
collections, educational facilities, and exhibition 
techniques — and each student works in one-to- 
one relationships with members of the staff. 
Maybe the best kind of testimonial for such a 
course would be the students' evaluations, like 
this one, for instance: "Museology gave me the 
experience of learning for learning's sake, not 
learning only to pass an exam. It also provided 
me with a taste of learning by experience, not 
simply taking someone's word for it that this is 
the way it is. There should be more programs 
of this type open to all students." 




Museology students Susan Grobstein, Sullivan High School, and 
Sydney Ross, Lindblom High School, working on scientific illustration 
of a vi/olf's jaw, get help from Samuel Grove, senior illustrator in 
Exhibition Department. Photo by Herta Newton. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Ed. 



Alice 
Carnes 



creative ways and learn what they are doing. 
This is the idea behind a research project 
currently funded by the National Science 
Foundation. Barbara Reque at the Howland 
School here in Chicago is one teacher we are 
learning from. She is curriculum assistant there 
for Project Follow-Through, a federal program 
to improve the education of inner-city children. 
We are making a case study of a project she 
is working on cooperatively with two 
kindergarten teachers and their classes. They 
planned a visit to Field Museum to examine a 
series of human habitats, including the King's 
House from the Cameroons and the Hopi 
apartment. The teachers hope the children will 
learn something about how materials at hand 
influence the lives of people — the houses they 
build, the food they eat. Some of the things 
they did in the classroom before the visit were 
grinding corn into meal with stone tools and 
baking cornbread with it and constructing 
houses with materials like sticks and straw and 
stones. Then they toured the exhibits — in 
groups of just five or six children with an adult 
who asked them questions and encouraged 
them to record their impressions in on-the-spot 
drawings. Back in the classroom the children 
constructed model houses and tools with 
"modern" materials like metal and cardboard. 

What should other teachers who want 

to get involved with your workshops or case 

studies do? 

Just write or call me at the Museum. And let 
me emphasize again that we want to learn as 
well as teach. 




Ed. 



Carolyn 
Blackmon 



Ed. 



Carolyn 
Blackmon 




Barbara Reque, curriculum assistant for Project Follow-Through at 
Howland School, works with children on learning projects that prepare 
them for a visit to Field l^useum to examine human habitats. Photo 
by Herta Newton. 



Carolyn Blackmon 

Special Educational Services 

Mrs. Blackmon, you described our expanded 
volunteer recruitment and training program in 
the January Bulletin. Would you tell us now 
about the other special services you are 
working on? 

Before I do I'd like to get another plug in for 
the volunteer program, because there was such 
gratifying response to that article from 
prospective new volunteers. For those who are 
interested in volunteer teaching for school 
groups, a 12-week training program will be 
given this fall. There are still many opportunities 
available in all departments. We especially 
need volunteers with specialized skills, such as 
translating, woodworking, and cataloging 
specimens. Master craftsmen such as weavers 
and potters and carvers are needed to give 
demonstrations for the public. These 
demonstrations will be part of new programs 
we are developing for Museum visitors to show 
how materials in our exhibits were made. We 
also have plans for mini-festivals that will 
present crafts, music, and dances of various 
cultures and ethnic groups. And more weekend 
film programs that relate to permanent as well 
as special exhibits and programs are being 
planned. 

What's the new format for the Ayer film-lecture 
series that Bob Matthai mentioned? Customarily 
there have been a spring and a fall series 
every year. In fact, 1972 was the 50th year of 
continuous programming for the Ayer series. 

For the 1973-74 season there will be the usual 
October-November and March-April programs 
(depending on the availability of the James 
Simpson Theatre because of possible 
rehabilitation work in spring 1974). Some 
programs will be given both Friday evening and 
Saturday afternoon, and additional programs 



10 



April 1973 



Ed. 



will be presented during the winter. 
Distinguished speakers will lecture on natural 
history topics. This new format will allow 
greater variety of programs and also opportunity 
for more people to take advantage of them. 

Carolyn, since your plug for recruiting 
volunteers was so productive in January, let's 
note your fvluseum phone number this time — 
922-9410, extension 361. 



Ed. 



James 
Bland 



1 






^*>^= 


r-^^7^^--esLmam^^^i^^ 



James Bland and some of the materials he uses in his environmental 
workshop. Anthropologists and archaeologists frequently use the 
garbage left by particular cultures to reconstruct what that culture was 
like. In this case, some garbage of a modern culture is compared 
with that of a Neanderthal site to demonstrate modern man's 
enormously greater demands on his environment. 
Photo by George Olson. 



Ed. 



Workshops for City Children 

Mr. Bland, would you tell us about the 
environmental workshop you have developed? 

This particular workshop, designed for students 
from the sixth grade through high school, is 
thematically related to the major new "Man In 
His Environment" exhibit and program that the 
Museum is working on. Actually, "Man in His 
Environment" is being called a "program" 
because so much more than an exhibit will be 
involved. The purpose of the workshop is to 
acquaint students with the complexity of 
ecological problems and get them iriterested 
and involved in solving the problems. I start off 
by showing what an ecosystem is. Then we 
examine Neanderthal stone tools to discover 
what they can tell us about Neanderthal man's 
adaptation to the environment. Next we 
examine a selected sample of modern garbage, 
which leads us into considering our own 
impact on the environment — and its reciprocal 
effect on us. We learn about lung capacity and 
other anatomical details as they are affected by 
various pollutants. I'll be offering this workshop 
at schools and community centers as well as 
at the Museum. I find that kids who live in the 
inner city come up with some provocative 
thoughts about their own environments when 
we try to define the dimensions of the problem 
for city-dwellers. Questions like "What exactly 
is the urban environment?" "Does it include 
poverty as well as air pollution?" "Should an 
environmental 'casualty count' include the 
number of people killed by handguns as well 
as the deleterious effects of carbon monoxide 
in the air?" 

You've been talking about your pilot workshop. 
Are there other environmental education 
programs planned? 



James 
Bland 



I have presented a workshop for teachers in 
conjunction with the Chicago Board of 
Education, and for this summer a workshop on 
ecology is being planned jointly with the Shedd 
Aquarium. Julie Castrop and Martha Lussenhop 
and I are working on this together. Something 
I would especially like to do is organize a 
program to teach urban school children how to 
monitor air and water pollution in their own 
communities. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




J. L. Williams 



Ed. 



J. L. 

Williams 



Ed. 



Ms. Williams, you are working on very different 
workshops for city cfiildren — built around 
Nigerian games and songs and dance. Would 
you describe what you do? 

I start with a story about the well known 
African folk tale character Anansi the Spider, 
who thinks he knows it all. The children mime 
the actions of the characters in the story as I 
read, using things I have brought along, like 
authentic African hats, rooster feathers, 
sheepskins, horsehair fly whips, and woven 
fabrics. Almost all kids love to act out stories, 
especially with real props. Then I teach them a 
game and a song from each of three Nigerian 
tribes — Yoruba, Hausa, and Ibo — and also the 
contemporary dance called the High-Life, which 
is so popular in urban Africa. Playing games, 
singing, and dancing are things children 
especially respond to. 

How do you learn these games and songs and 
dances? 



J. L. 
Williams 



Ed. 



J. L. 
Williams 



From interviews with Africans living in the 
Chicago area. I'm workmg on a Zulu program 
now for the grade schools. I would like to offer 
an eight-week summer workshop of African 
dances and songs for high school students at 
the Museum. 

Your own special talent as a dancer is 
certainly an apt background for these 
programs. Dancing has always been your 
avocation, hasn't it? 

I started to dance in college. Five years ago I 
joined the Julian Swain Inner City Dance 
Troupe. We perform Afro, modern, and Afro- 
Cuban dances at schools, jails, clubs, and 
concerts around the city. I have also studied 
Flamenco and East Indian dance, Tai-Chi- 
Chuan, and Yoga. And I'm presently teaching 
Arabian dance at Central YMCA Community 
College (under my professional name, Djalal). 
I have always been fascinated by the ways 
different cultures emphasize different parts of 
the body, different movements, and different 
rhythms. 




Children at Louis Wirlh School in Chicago 
became so excited about Ms. Williams' 
workshop that they put on an African festival 
for parents and friends. Photo by Ed Jarecki. 



12 April 1973 



Ed. Mr. Matthai, these descriptions of the 

beginnings of the Education Department's 
workshops for city children sound exciting — 
especially because they are designed to go out 
to the youngsters as well as bring them into 
the Museum. Could you just mention some of 
the others that are still in the planning stage? 



Robert 
Matthai 



Two other workshops we plan to develop will 
focus on American Indians and Latin cultures. 
For the latter, we'll have presentations in both 
English and Spanish. And I'd like to say more 
about other future plans and prospects for the 
whole department now. 



Ed. What has already been said clearly shows that 

the Education Department has entered a period 
of dynamic growth and development. The floor 
is yours now to give us a glimpse of what else 
might be happening in the next few years. 




Roben Matthai 



Robert 
Matthai 



Future Prospects 

The $1 million grant from the Kresge 
Foundation will provide a consolidated physical 
facility with adequate and contiguous office 
space and a fine variety of classrooms, 
laboratories, and other areas where educational 
innovations can be carried out. 

Meanwhile, the next two or three years will see 
expansion and refinement of the programs that 
have been described here plus development 
of some others that I'd like to list. 

One is a "sense gallery" where sighted and 
non-sighted people can explore the worlds of 
natural history through sound and touch. 

Another is a series of radio and TV programs 
on natural history topics — perhaps on the 



Sesame Street model — directed particularly 
toward young children. 

A third is a series of evening courses for 
adults, on such subjects as anthropology, 
nature photography, natural science, and the 
arts and crafts of various cultures. 

We are also going to design a research project 
to discover how people learn from various 
types of exhibits. 

We have even more new educational programs 
in store, but my great enthusiasm must be 
tempered by a dose of reality. The Kresge 
grant will take care of the necessary new and 
expanded physical facilities that these 
programs must have, but the costs of 
developing and establishing the programs are 
something else. Most of my new staff and our 
new educational programs are currently 
supported by grant money that must be 
renewed each year. And all of the future 
programs I've just mentioned will require new 
funds as well. I'm optimistic that the money 
can be found because I have such confidence 
in the quality of our educational ideas and the 
resources of knowledge and expertise in the 
Museum's scientific and exhibition departments. 

The creative interrelationship of these three 
parts of the Museum is, after all, what the 
Museum is all about. The products of our 
combined efforts are what attract public interest 
and public support. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



13 



Members' Nights 



May 3 and 4, 1973 
6 p.m. to 10 p.m. 



Annual spring open house featuring 
Field Museum: The Inside Story 

Just as surely as May and balmy weather roll around 
each spring, so do Field Museum's Members' Nights. 

A once-a-year occasion, this is an opportunity to go 
behind the scenes and meet members of the 
scientific, education, and exhibition departments and 
become acquainted with their work. 

Focusing on the whole wide scope of Field Museum, 
this year's program also includes many special 
events, films and slides, entertainment, and a preview 
of a new temporary exhibit, "The Seventeen-Year 
Cicada: A Strategy for Survival." 

Here are just a few of the things you can do: 

Learn about Nature's plant dispersal methods. 

Participate in an educational contest, "Spot the 
Fake," designed to help develop a critical eye in 
authenticating an artifact. 

Tour the Department of Exhibition and see the extent 
and variety of artistic skills and processes utilized 
to prepare exhibits and graphic projects at 
the Museum. 

Appreciate "We ShEII Overcome" (hundreds and 
thousands and millions of specimens!) 

View "Glimpses of an Unknown World," a slide 
presentation, and hear the story behind "Below Man's 
Vision," a photographic exhibit exploring minute 
details in familiar plants and animals and common 
objects. 

See "The Web of Life in a Gallon Jar — How to 
Construct a Balanced Terrarium or Aquarium." 

Explore plate tectonics, a revolutionary geological 
theory explaining drifting continents, earthquakes, 
volcanoes, and the formation of mountains and 
minerals through a display and film. 



Among the activities 
the Department ot 
Education is 
planning is a self- 
guiding tour for 
youngsters, which will 
include a surprise at 
the finish line. 



Roberta Carnagio. 

Jane Lamlein, and 

Alfreida Rehling, 

Department of Botany, 

working on their 

project, "The Garden 

of Eatin'," which 

will show the large 

variety of attractive 

and useful plants that 

can be grown from 

kitchen cast-offs. 



Keith Carson, 

tanner. Department 

of Zoology, will 

demonstrate the 

preparation of large 

mammal skins. 






16 



April 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Opens April 11 

Adaptations of Amphibians and Reptiles, 

an exhibit of pliotograplis portraying the 
natural beauty and esthetic qualities ot 
these animals, as well as illustrating some 
of their often remarkable and unique 
adaptations which help them survive. They 
were taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman, Department of Continuing 
Education in Sciences and l^athematics. 
University of California, Berkeley. Through 
September 30. Hall 27. 

Continuing 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Through July 15. 
Hall 18. 

Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 

Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, 
and cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense 
of History" presents a graphic portrayal of 
the Museum's past; and "A Sense of 
Discovery" shows examples of research 
conducted by l^useum scientists. Hall 3. 

Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology. 

Copper-plate engravings made for American 
Ornithology (1808), a nine-volume work by 
the father of American ornithology, 
Alexander Wilson. Also shown are proofs 



from the plates recently pulled by Richard 
A. Davis, Butler University, and George 
McCullough, Fort Wayne Art Institute, 
alongside examples of first-edition prints of 
the same engravings in Field l^useum's 
rare book collection. Through l^ay 31. 
South Lounge. 



Film Program 

Saturdays 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series at 2:30 

p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 7: "Michigan Odyssey," narrated by 
Edward IVl. Bingham, Jr. 

April 14: "Russia," narrated by Dr. Arthur 
C. Twomey. 

April 21: "Jerusalem, Jerusalem," narrated 
by Richard Linde. 

April 28: "The Open Arms of Portugal," 

narrated by James Metcalf. 

Saturdays and Sundays 

"Patterns for Survival" (A Study of 
Mimicry), motion picture presentation at 
1 p.m. and 3 p.m. in the second floor 
North Meeting Room 



Children's Programs 

Continuing 

Spring Journey for Children, "Life in the 
Tropical Rain Forest," a self-guided tour, 
encourages youngsters to learn about the 
inhabitants of the little-known Amazonian 
region by exploring Museum exhibit areas. 
Journey sheets are available at entrances. 
Through May 31. 

Spring Film Series for Children at 1 030 

a.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 

April 7: Fiesta-Cub Scout Day; "Exciting 
Latin America." 

April 14: Egypt, Pyramids and Mummies: 
"Ancient Land of the Pharoahs." 

April 28: Museum Traveler Day; annual 
presentation of Field Museum Journey 
awards and color film. 



Coming in May 

Opens May 5 

Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 

Survival, a multi-media exhibit describing 
and interpreting the adaptive significance 
of the unusual life cycle of these strange 
insects. Millions of cicadas (locusts) are 
scheduled to make their noisy appearance 
above ground in the Chicago area in late 
May or early June of this year. Through 
July 29. Hall 9. 



Meetings 

April 8: 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 

April 10: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club of 
Chicago 

April 10: 8 p.m., Chicagoland Glider 
Council 

April 11:7 p.m., Chicago Ornithological 
Society 

April 11: 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society 

April 12: 8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 

Club 

April 20: 7:30 p.m., Chicago 
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olume 44, Number 5 
lay 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



^>-i 






Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 5 
May 1973 




Cover: An adult 17-year cicada. Photo and 
design by Clifford Abrams. 



2 It's the Year of the Cicada — in These Parts 

Henry Dybas 

our local 17-year periodical cicadas are due 

to do their thing this spring 

9 Animals, Earthquakes, and Eruptions 

Caroline J. Anderson 

according to folklore — and some documentation — ■ 
animals have early warning perceptions of 
impending geologic disasters 

12 A Showcase of Adaptations in Amphibians and Reptiles 

Joyce Marshall Brukoff 

some choice facts and photos from a new temporary exhibit 

16 Field Briefs 
Calendar 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director, E. Leiand Webber 

Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery; Editor Elizabetti Munger; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs: Production Russ Becker; Photography John Bayalis, 
Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions; $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



It's the year of the cicada 



Henry Dybas 



One warm night in lafe May or early 
June ttie cicada nymphs of Brood XIII 
will emerge from the ground in 
enormous numbers to enjoy a few 
short weeks of adulthood as they mate 
and produce offspring they will not 
live to see hatch. A cicada emergence 
is a busy, noisy affair that attracts a 
great deal of popular attention and 
interest. 

Brood XIII is the name by whidh 
entomologists identify our local 
northern Illinois population of 17-year 
cicadas, thereby distinguishing it from 
other populations of periodical cicadas 
in the United States. Periodical 
cicadas are found only in the 
deciduous forest areas of the eastern 



third of the country and their 
extensions into the plains states. 
Though all 17-year cicadas have the 
same long lifespan from egg to adult, 
different populations are on different 
calendar-year schedules. In northern 
Illinois, including the Chicago region, 
there is only one population, or brood, 
of periodical cicadas. We saw the 
previous generation of them in 1956. 

Periodical cicadas should not be 
confused with the annual "dog day" 
cicadas (also called harvest flies), 
which produce their own characteristic 
buzz-saw sound in the tree tops on 
hot summer days. These are 
predominantly black and green and 
do not have the red eyes and orange 



wings of the periodical cicadas. They 
are annual in the sense that some 
individuals appear every year but 
require a number of years, presently 
unknown, to develop underground. 

It is easy to predict the year of 
emergence of 17-year cicadas in any 
one place because each brood has 
remained precisely on its own particular 
17-year schedule as far back as the 
records go. Thomas Jefferson 
mentioned the appearance of the 
Virginia brood of 17-year cicadas in 
1775 in his account book for that year 
and recalled their earlier emergence 
in 1758, also referring to previous 
emergences in 1741 and 1724 on the 
testimony of a Dr. Walker; "it appears 




Author went into the field last winter to dig up 
cicada nymphs and study their preparations 
for emergence this spring. 



Sliced-open view of a nymph escape tunnel capped by a turret. 



May 1973 



in these parts 




then that they come periodically once 
in 17 years," he concluded. Nearly 
two centuries later, Professor Monte 
Lloyd of the University of Chicago and 
I planned field studies of this same 
brood of cicadas in Virginia for 1962 
with absolute confidence that it would 
still be right on schedule — and of 
course it was. 

The distinctively colored adult 17-year 
cicadas are large as insects go — 
about IVz inches long. They begin 
as eggs which the adult female lays 
in slits that she cuts in twigs of trees 
and bushes with a blade-like organ 
called ovipositor. There may be as 
many as 15 to 20 eggs deposited in 
one slit, and the female continues to 



lay throughout her short-lived maturity. 
The eggs hatch in about seven weeks, 
and the tiny white nymphs crawl out 
of the slit and drop off to the ground. 
Each nymph is only about 1/12-inch 
long at this stage. 

Once on the ground the nymph works 
its way into the soil and attaches its 
beak to a tree rootlet to sustain itself 
by sucking the sap as it grows slowly 
in its solitary underground cell for the 
next 17 years. If the root dies, the 
nymph must make its way to another 
site. It does this by scraping soil with 
its powerful front legs from one side 
of the cell and plastering it on the 
other side. Thus the nymph 
perambulates its intact cell as a 



mobile home until it encounters 
another root. 

Late in its 16th year the nymph begins 
to construct a vertical escape tunnel 
which by early spring of the 17th year 
has reached the ground surface. 
Sometimes the tunnel is capped by a 
turret one to three inches high. In any 
case, the tunnel remains closed until 
some warm night in May or early 
June, and then the nymph crawls 
out of the ground about dusk along 
with thousands of others. 

Each brown nymph climbs up a 
nearby tree trunk or other plant stem, 
leaving a smooth round exit hole in 
the ground about y2-inch in diameter. 




Nymph emerging from the ground 



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The cicada escape holes shown here represent a moderately dense emergence. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




The cicada nymph begins its transformation by fixing its claws 
firmly in the plant tissue. 



Its skin splits down the middle of the back and a soft white adult with red eyes 
begins to emerge. 



The nymph fixes the claws of its legs 
firmly into the plant tissue, its skin 
splits down the middle of its back, 
and a soft white adult with red eyes 
begins to emerge. It pulls its head 
and legs out of the nymph skin first, 
then the abdomen. Meanwhile, blood 
pressure pumps up its crumpled wing 
pads until they are fully expanded. 
This entire process of ecloslon, as 
entomologists call it, takes place in 
about 30 to 90 minutes. It is one of 
nature's commonplace miracles. The 
body gradually colors and hardens, 
and in the morning the newly matured 
adult seeks a sunny spot on a leaf 
to bask until its body is warm, and 
then it flies up into the tree tops. 

A few days later the males begin to 
form large singing choruses. Females 
are attracted to these choruses and 
mating and egg-laying follow. Adults 
live only about three weeks even if 
birds and other enemies don't get 
them, so by late June or early July 
they have disappeared almost as 
quickly as they appeared. Only exit 
holes, empty nymph skins, and 
browning twigs from egg-slit damage 
remain as evidence of the emergence. 



The fact that adult cicadas are 
commonly called "locusts" invites 
confusion with the true locusts, or 
grasshoppers, which chew green 
leaves. Cicadas do not. Cicadas feed 
by inserting their beaks into thin bark 
on tree trunks and sucking the sap, 
which causes no detectable harm to 
the plants. 



The damage attributed to cicadas 
comes from the egg-laying activities 
of the females. If a lot of slits are 
made in a twig, the twig may die. 
Thus an oak-hickory forest which 
hosts a dense emergence of cicadas 
may acquire a scorched appearance, 
but this kind of natural pruning does 
not seem to harm larger trees. 



Some twigs may die as a result of egg-slit damage but this kind of natural pruning does not seem 
to harm larger trees. 




May 1973 




It pulls its head and legs out of the nymph skin first. 



The cicada then reaches forward, grasps the nymph skin by its 
legs, and pulls the rest of its body out of the skin. 



However, newly planted tree saplings 
or small shrubs can be severely 
damaged if there is a dense cicada 
emergence nearby. Plantings can be 
protected by covering them with 
netting to keep out egg-laying female 
cicadas. Cicadas are also responsible 
for a problem called "orchard decline." 
In some heavily sprayed apple 
orchards there are so many cicada 
nymphs sucking sap from the roots 
underground that the trees do not 
produce much fruit and they put on 
little new growth. 

The numbers of cicadas in 
an emergence can be astonishing. 
After an emergence is completely 
over, the numbers can be quite 
accurately estimated by counting the 
characteristic smooth, round exit holes 
of the nymphs in a unit area and 
applying proper statistical procedures. 
The walls of the holes are tightly 
compacted and remain intact for 
months unless obscured at the surface 
by mole activity or some other 
disturbance. 

Professor Lloyd and I have made 
censuses of a number of different 



areas and broods in this way over the 
years. The record density was in a 
floodplain forest near Chicago in the 
1956 emergence of our local brood. 
At peak chorusing in mid-afternoon 
the sound was so intense that two 
persons face to face in this woods 
could not hear each other talk. We 
found an average of 311 holes per 
square yard, or about 1,500,000 per 
acre in this habitat. (For purposes of 
visualization, there are about SVb 
acres in an average city block in 
Chicago. However, cicadas do not 
emerge in the city proper to any 
extent. One must go out to the 
suburbs or forest preserves to find 
them.) 

The weight (biomass) of this density 
of cicadas was calculated at about a 
ton per acre, which appears to be the 
highest recorded per unit of habitat 
for a terrestrial animal under natural 
conditions. Herds of African game 
animals temporarily achieve greater 
biomass per unit area, but of course 
they need much larger areas to 
support them over a full year. Indeed, 
the weight of cicada protoplasm 
produced in that floodplain compares 



Blood pressure pumps up the wings of the new 
adult until they are fully expanded. 




Field Museum Bulletin 




ABOVE-GROUND PREDATORS 




Adults mate- lay eggs-die 



Eggs hotch- 

tiny nymphs enter ground 



Temporary build-up of 

"**••. above-ground predotors 



NYMPHS 






UNDER«ROUNO PREDATORS 




*CA. 2-MONTM pehk 









ct*5^'' 



^-"■i 



17 YEARS 



Above; In a forest opening, a screen cage is 
being constructed around living trees for 
an experiment involving cross-mating of 17- 
and 13-year cicadas. Leit: Diagram of 
predator-prey relationships ttiroughout life 
cycle of 17-year cicadas; linear distances are 
not in proportion to time spans represented. 



May 1973 



favorably with the best annual yield 
in weight of beef cattle that man can 
produce on carefully managed 
pastures. 

In the adjacent upland forest, the 
density of cicadas was about 27 per 
square yard, or about 133,000 per 
acre. These numbers are more like 
those usually encountered in a cicada 
emergence. They are much less than 
in the floodplain but still represent an 
enormous population for insects of 
this size. 

During a periodical cicada emergence 
all kinds of predators turn from their 
normal sources of food to cicadas. 
Crows, grackles, skunks, raccoons, 
copperhead snakes, caterpillar-searcher 
beetles, and a host of other animals 
appreciate and feast on them. One 
night when I was working on cicadas 
in the woods I noticed my dog gorging 
himself on emerging nymphs to the 
point where I became concerned for 
him. It was impossible to make him 
stop eating, and I finally had to lock 
him up in the car. Cicadas are 
reported to have been eaten by 
Indians also. Those of us who have 
tried them describe the taste as 
something like that of a raw potato 
with a touch of avocado or clam juice. 

Even though periodical cicadas are so 
palatable and easy to capture, their 
appearance is so sudden and in such 
great numbers that the birds and other 
predators can eat only a part of the 
population before the rest have 
reproduced and died a natural death. 
Even after flocks of grackles scour the 
woods at the end of an emergence, 
there always are left on the ground a 
lot of spent, intact bodies of cicadas 
that have lived out their full natural life. 

All this suggests that the 17-year 
cicadas have evolved a very successful 
strategy for foiling their predators and 
perpetuating their species — by the 
combination of their overwhelming 
numbers and their extraordinarily long 
life cycle. Seventeen years represent the 
longest life cycle by far of any insects. 



Cicadas spend about 99 percent of 
this 17 years in a highly protected 
environment underground, and then 
when they emerge their numbers 
swamp the consumption capacity of 
the predators. 

This pattern is quite unlike that of any 
other insect species, especially the 
many which have specialized enemies 
whose life cycles are synchronized 
with those of their prey. We do not 
know of a single predator that is 
synchronized with periodical cicadas, 
probably because none has been able 
to evolve a 17-year life cycle. 

One can speculate that periodical 
cicadas did have synchronized 
predators in their early history, before 
the cicadas evolved their present long 
life cycle. If so, those cicadas that 
possessed the ability to delay 
emergence — by one year, say — would 
emerge above ground after their 
predators had come and gone, and 
thus they would be favored by natural 
selection — at least until the predators 
caught up. This could have initiated 
a contest as to which had the 
physiological ability to extend 
dormancy the longest — an evolutionary 
race that the cicadas won and the 
predators lost, with consequent 
extinction of the latter. This speculation 
may be too neat, and the hypothetical 
predators too conveniently disposed 
of, but it is hard to imagine any other 
plausible reason for the evolution of 
such an improbably long life cycle. 

Incidentally, the precise timing of 
emergence at the end of 17 years is 
not due to a uniform growth rate of 
the nympths. We have dug up nymphs 
at intervals and found that by the 
5th or 6th year some may be as much 
as eight times bigger than others. 
Most nymphs reach their full growth 
the 12th year and mark time till the 
17th year, which in effect allows the 
laggards time to catch up. The 
synchronized emergence, therefore, 
is very probably due to some 
physiological mechanism which 
"counts" 17 years (perhaps 17 winter 



periods when no sap circulates in 
the roots). 

Whatever the timing mechanism is, it 
is unusually precise, but it is not 
infallible. Almost every year there are 
some stragglers, though these 
constitute a trivial fraction of the main 
population. But in 1969 there was an 
extensive premature emergence, four 
years too soon, of periodical cicadas 
scheduled to emerge in 1973 in the 
Chicago region. Nothing of this 
magnitude had ever been reported 
before in the writings on these insects. 
There are 13-year periodical cicadas 
in the southern states that are the 
same as the 17-year cicadas (as far 
as anyone can tell by looking at them 
or listening to them) except for the 
length of the life cycle. (No 14-year, 
15-year, or 16-year cycles have ever 
been reported.) 

Lloyd and I had earlier postulated, on 
theoretical grounds, that 17-year 
cicadas evolved from 13-year cicadas 
(or vice versa) by a quantum jump of 
four years somewhere back in the 
evolutionary history of the group. 
However, we never expected to have 
a ringside seat to observe a repeat 
performance of such an evolutionary 
event. 

Three facts may explain this event. 
One is that 13-year cicadas live in 
warmer climates than their 17-year 
relatives. Another is that all the 
premature cicadas reported in 1969 
came from a ring of suburbs around 
the city of Chicago. The third is the 
well-known fact that large metropolitan 
areas form "heat islands" with a 
climate appreciably warmer than the 
surrounding countryside. Could we 
have observed a natural "experiment" 
by which 17-year cicadas, having been 
in effect "transplanted" to a warmer 
climate, thus became 13-year cicadas? 
We made sample census counts of 
the premature cicadas on certain plots 
in 1969 and have kept these plots 
under observation since then for signs 
of stragglers. Therefore, when the 
1973 emergence is over and 



Field Museum Bulletin 




Colored plastic spoons are useful in a cicada field study to show density and spacing of emergence 
holes in the forest floor. 



censused, we shall have a good idea 
as to what percentage of the 
underground population was involved 
in the "mistal<e." 

We will also repeat our censuses of 
the upland and floodplain sites we 
studied 17 years ago. No one has 
ever censused periodical cicadas 
through two successive generations 
before. We expect to learn more about 
the differences between the three 
distinct species that are now 
recognized. Two will be very abundant 
in the Chicago area this year. 

All three species not only have the 
same long 17-year life cycle, they 
mostly inhabit the same region and, in 
a given locality, come out of the 
ground together the same 17th year. 
The three are similar in appearance, 
but each has distinctive markings, 
each prefers a different kind of habitat, 
and the songs of the males are very 
distinct. Once one is attuned to the 
song differences, it is possible to go 
into a woods and identify the species 
present just by listening. The "upland 
cicada," Maglcicada septendecim, is 
the largest species — about 1 V2 inches 



long from head to tip of closed wings 
— and has a reddish stripe between 
the eye and base of wing and yellow 
cross-banding on its belly. It prefers 
upland oak-hickory forests like those 
in the Cook County Forest Preserves 
around Chicago. The "lowland 
cicada," Magicicada cassini, about 
1 'A inches long, has no stripe and its 
belly is either dark or has only traces 
of banding. It is found mostly in 
floodplain sites. The "upland dwarf 
cicada," Magicicada septendecula, 
also about IVa inches long, has no 
stripe, does have a yellow-banded 
belly, and is usually associated with 
hickory trees. It is almost always much 
less numerous than the other two 
species. 

Shortly after our original census and 
study in 1956, Dutch Elm Disease 
entered this area and began to kill off 
the elms, which were the dominant 
trees in the floodplain sites. The 
nymphs from the 1956 emergence 
which were then feeding on the 
rootlets of those trees were very small 
when the trees began to die, so it will 
be interesting to see what end effect 
this disaster — as another natural 



"experiment" — has had on the cicada 
population. Such a disaster is 
comparable to other naturally 
occurring phenomena like forest fires, 
tornadoes, land slides, and so forth, 
and most natural populations have had 
to evolve the ability to cope with them. 
Since the upland habitats look exactly 
the same, they will in effect be the 
"control" for the "experiment." 

We also hope to find out whether 
cicadas achieve an equilibrium that 
remains relatively constant between 
successive emergences in a particular 
area or whether populations fluctuate 
widely from generation to generation. 
We will be assisted in these and other 
studies by Jo Ann White, who is a 
graduate student in the Department of 
Biology at the University of Chicago 
and in Field Museum's Center for 
Graduate Studies. She will also 
conduct radioactive tracer studies to 
see whether the eggs absorb nutrients 
from the sap in their twig slits. In 
addition, Drs. Thomas Moore and 
Richard Alexander, of the Museum of 
Zoology at the University of Michigan, 
plan to come to the Chicago region to 
continue their interesting studies on 
the remarkable acoustic behavior of 
17-year cicadas. 

The combined results of all these field 
studies should allow a few more 
pieces to be fitted together in the 
puzzle of the unique life history of 
17-year periodical cicadas. 



Henry Dybas, Curator and head of the 
Division of Insects at Field Museum, is one 
of the country's leading experts on 
periodical cicadas. 



Come and tune your ear to the 
distinctive chorusing of the different 
species of periodical cicadas in a multi- 
media exhibit opening May 5-The 
Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 
Survival. 



tvlay 1973 



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^ancicKC (^. ;4HcUn4<m 



The dogs of the Nanawale Ranch on 
the Island of Hawaii were acting 
strangely on February 26, 1955. They 
ran around excitedly, dug holes in the 
ground and^sniffed in the holes as 
though in pursuit of some burrowing 
animal. Dr. Gordon A. MacDonald, then 
director of the Hawaii Volcano 
Observatory, was called. For months 
he and his colleagues had suspected 
that a volcanic eruption might be 
immanent, although they couldn't 
predict exactly when it would occur. 
Each day there were increasing 
numbers of earth tremors at the 
Nanawale Ranch, and now this unusual 
behavior of the dogs. The scientists 
spent most of the day February 27th 
investigating the area. No cracks could 
be found. No odor of volcanic gases 
could be detected even when they 
sniffed in the holes made by the dogs. 
Yet the following morning the eruption 
began just a quarter-mile from where 
the dogs had been digging. 

This puzzling story of animal behavior 
is not surprising to geologists, for they 
are well aware of the very persistent 
folklore which says that animals can 
predict earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions. This folklore often appears 
in popular accounts and even in 
textbooks, but the discussion is usually 
limited to an anecdote or two. I began 
to wonder just how many such 
anecdotes there are and whether 



anyone had ever taken them seriously 
enough to investigate. 

Certainly there is evidence that for 
generations men around the world have 
been interested in the behavior of 
animals prior to earthquakes and 
eruptions. Deodatus De Dolomieu, for 
example, wrote of this interest in 1784 
when he visited the Calabria Ultra 
district of Italy in the year following a 
destructive earthquake. He commented 
that animals seem to have some 
warning of such geologic disasters, 
although people do not: 

The prescience of animals of the approach 
of earthquakes is a singular phenomenon, 
and is more surprising to us from our 
ignorance by what sense they receive the 
intimation. It is common to all species, 
particularly dogs, geese, and domestic 
fowls. The howlings of the dogs in the 
streets of Messina were so violent, they 
were ordered to be killed. 

About fifty years later, in quite a 
different part of the world, another 
story of unusual behavior preceding an 
earthquake was documented by Robert 
Fitzroy, captain of the Beagle, during 
Charles Darwin's famous voyage. The 
ship was in the vicinity of Concepcion, 
Chile at the time of the 1835 
earthquake, and Fitzroy hurriedly 
returned to that port to survey the 
damage. He recorded in his diary this 
account of an observation told to him: 

At ten in the morning of the 20th of 
February, very large flights of sea-fowl 
were noticed, passing over the city of 
Concepcion, from the seacoast, towards 
the interior: and in the minds of old 
inhabitants, well acquainted with the 
climate of Concepcion, some surprise was 



excited by so unusual and simultaneous a 
change in the habits of those birds . . . 
At forty minutes after eleven, a shock of 
an earthquake was felt . . . 

Fitzroy's diary also recorded that dogs 
fled from the city of Talchuano prior to 
the destruction of that city in the same 
earthquake. 

There are several other animal- 
earthquake stories from the nineteenth 
century. Many are summarized in a 
review entitled "Can Animals Predict 
Earthquakes?" published in a 1909 
issue of the Scientific American 
Supplement. Included among those 
incidents are the following: roosters 
crowed before the Java earthquake of 
1867; the earthquake in Iquique in 
1868 was announced several hours 
earlier by screaming gulls and other 
sea birds that flew inland; and in 1887 
the horses of the Riviera appeared 
very anxious prior to an earthquake in 
that area. 

Probably the best known of all animal- 
earthquake stories dates from the 
beginning of the twentieth century. The 
dogs of San Francisco were reported 
to have barked the night before the 
great earthquake that struck that city 
in the early morning of April 18, 1906. 
This observation was recorded in the 
official Report of the State Earthquake 
Investigation Commission and is 
derived from an informal survey made 
by Finette Locke. She also noted 
several cases in which horses and 
cows snorted or stampeded a few 
seconds before observers knew there 
was anything wrong. And cats were 
reported to perceive the aftershocks 
before people did. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Cattle were reported to have left their grazing 
grounds on Mt. Arenal in Costa Rica just before 
its disastrous surprise eruption in 1968 — but 
many were still scarred by it. Photo courtesy 
of Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. 










Geologists in Iceland uncovered 
another anecdote when they set out to 
piece together the antecedents of the 
surprise 1947 eruption of Mt. Hekla. 
The scientists were told by a man and 
his wife that they were awakened 
between two and three o'clock one 
morning and the wife went into the 
kitchen. "When she turned on the light 
she found their old dog, which used to 
sleep out by the kitchen door, standing 
in the middle of the floor, apparently 
greatly frightened by something . . ." 
The eruption occurred at 6:40 that 
morning. 

Eloise Engel's book Earthquake! The 
Story of Alaska's Good Friday Disaster 
contains more such animal stories. 
Rancher Louis Beatty, for example, had 
gone up to the hills at three in the 
afternoon when his cattle unexpectedly 



left their low-lying grazing grounds 
hours before their usual time. Late that 
afternoon there was an earthquake, 
and a great sea wave (tsunami) 
covered the low-lying area. 

Author Engle also tells of animals 
being uneasy before the 1965 volcanic 
eruption of Taal in the Philippines. She 
wrote that the residents of Taal were 
awakened at 2:30 in the morning by 
the noise of frightened dogs, cats, and 
cattle. Some of the people heeded the 
animals' warning and fled. The volcano 
erupted, spewing lava, ash, and mud 
over their homeland. 

Tom Simkin, a geologist investigating 
the 1968 Mt. Arenal eruption in Costa 
Rica, reported hearing that cattle 
moved down off that volcano just 
before it erupted. This surprise 



eruption was the first for Arenal in 
about four hundred years. 

Finally, there's an interesting animal- 
earthquake report from the People's 
Republic of China. Robert S. Coe, an 
earth sciences professor from the 
United States, visited that country 
recently and wrote of their new 
earthquake prediction program initiated 
following a large earthquake in 1966. 
Along with modern physical devices, 
peasant volunteers have been recruited 
to observe anomalies in animal 
behavior. According to Coe: "Before 
the 1966 earthquake and its largest 
aftershocks there were reports of 
strange behavior, especially of rats. No 
anomalous behavior has been 
observed before the smaller 
earthquakes that have been 
characteristic of the period since then." 



10 



May 1973 



All of these anecdotes are references 
to specific earthquakes or eruptions. 
In addition, several of the geologically 
active countries are said to have 
generalized beliefs about animals. 
Vitus B. Droscher, in his book The 
Magic of the Senses, gives this 
example: "In the villages on the slopes 
of Mount Etna the peasants keep cats 
because they believe these animals 
can anticipate volcanic eruptions: when 
all the cats leave the houses at once, 
men will rush out after them." John 
Milne and A. W. Lee, in their book 
about earthquakes, give a similar 
example from another part of the 
world: "It used to be said that several 
of the natives of Caracas possessed 
oracular quadrupeds, such as dogs, 
cats, and jerboas, which anticipated 
coming dangers by their restlessness." 
Those authors also mention the 
Japanese belief that pheasants crow 
before earthquakes. 

It was this last legend that prompted 
one of the few systematic attacks on 
the question of whether animals could 
in fact anticipate earthquakes or 
volcanic eruptions. This work was done 
by a famous Japanese scientist, F. 
Omori. In the period 1913 to 1916 he 
worked in the evening in a quiet house 
where he could hear pheasants 
crowing in a neighboring garden. He 
took upon himself the task of noting 
the time of every perceptible 
earthquake and comparing it with the 
crowing of the pheasants and also 
later checking the tromometer, an 
instrument for recording minute earth 
tremors. In eleven out of the twenty- 
three cases recorded, the pheasants 
were actually better than Omori. That 
is, in those cases the pheasants either 
crowed before the scientist felt the 
quake or crowed when he felt no 
quake but found that one had been 
registered by the instruments. Passing 
vehicles which shook the ground did 
not cause the pheasants to crow. 

A more extensive attempt to explore 
the ability of animals to predict 
earthquakes was a study published in 



1964 in German by Ernst Kilian. His 
work followed the large 1960 
earthquake in southern Chile. The 
report involved mostly anecdotes which 
he solicited by advertisements in the 
local papers. But he also made direct 
observations of the behavior of 
animals associated with aftershocks in 
the days and months following the 
major quake. He found that the horses 
at the university experimental farm 
always reacted by neighing and 
trembling five seconds before a quake 
was felt by people. This agrees well 
with the stories which came out of the 
San Francisco earthquake of 1906. 

Kilian also reported that pheasants 
crowed ten seconds before shocks 
were felt by people. There was one 
anecdotal account of a dog which 
became quite upset by the rumbling 
sounds which preceded the major 
quake, but otherwise no reports of 
either dogs or cats behaving strangely 
until the quake occurred. Kilian 
summarized his paper by pointing out 
that the number of observations was 
small and often laden with the 
emotionality of the observer. He had 
not found definite proof that animals 
could predict earthquakes. 

There are apparently no other major 
scientific studies of animal behavior 
prior to earthquakes or eruptions, but 
there are undoubtedly many other 
anecdotes. It is evident that it is these 
occasional, intriguing incidents, not 
proven performance, which have given 
animals their reputation as predictors. 

While horses, dogs, pheasants, and 
sea birds seem to be implicated most 
often, there are of course countless 
earthquakes and eruptions where no 
anomalous behavior of animals was 
noted. And, as Kilian suggested, the 
human element cannot be dismissed. 
From the reports of people who have 
lived through major quakes, it is 
apparent that few experiences are 
more unnerving. It would not be 
surprising If the observations of such 
people are inaccurate or incomplete. 



Still, one is left wondering about the 
many isolated stories of animals 
seeming uneasy preceding an 
earthquake or volcanic eruption. Since 
both earthquakes and eruptions 
originate within the earth and both 
involve earth tremors, it would seem 
natural to assume that the earth 
movement in some way stimulates the 
animals' unrest. Many experts would 
agree. For example, it is the judgment 
of renowned seismologist Charles 
Richter that if anything other than 
coincidence is involved, it is likely that 
the animals notice small foreshocks to 
which people are insensitive. Sigurdur 
Thorarinsson, a famous Icelandic 
geologist, has a similar opinion. He 
has said that, while studying the 
aftershocks of an earthquake, "I had 
several opportunities to ascertain that 
domestic animals, and especially cats 
and dogs, felt tremors that were 
imperceptible to me and other people." 
Several changes in addition to earth 
movement which might possibly cause 
anomalous animal behavior have been 
discussed by Kilian. Such stimuli 
include increased air pressure and 
changes in the electric or magnetic 
field. Still another theory, explored by 
Baxter Armstrong in 1969, is that in 
some cases the high frequency sounds 
of preliminary fracturing may 
disturb animals. 

There are no definitive answers yet. A 
greater understanding of both geologic 
events and animal sensory systems 
may solve the mystery. Until then we're 
left to puzzle over the fascinating 
folklore which says that animals can 
predict earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions. 

Mrs. Caroline J. Anderson is a psychologist 
and is married to a geologist, whom she 
has accompanied on Held trips to many 
volcanic areas. 



A copy ol the bibliographic citations lor the 
several published accounts referred to in 
this article is available on request. Please 
address such request to the Bulletin. — Ed. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



A showcase of adaptations in amphibians & reptiles 



Joyce Marshall Brukoff 



Reptiles especially have been long 
misunderstood, thanks to the mythology 
of human origin embedded in the 
Judeo-Christian traditions of our 
culture. If for no other reason than 
that, one should see a new temporary 
exhibit of fine photographs now on 
display at Field Museum. It reveals 
many esthetic as well as unique 
qualities of these much maligned 
animals and of their relatives the 
amphibians. The photographs were 
taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman of the Department of 
Continuing Education in Sciences and 
Mathematics, University of California, 
Berkeley. His exhibit is designed to 
give us some insight into the often 
remarkable adaptations for survival of 
these two great classes of animals as 
well as an appreciation of their real 
beauty. 

Although amphibians and reptiles are 
sometimes confused because both 
groups belong to the "cold-blooded 
fraternity," there are many easy ways 
to tell them apart. The most obvious is 
in the nature of the skin. Lizards and 
snakes, turtles, crocodilians, and tautara 
all have a dry skin type which is made 
up of a tough integument composed of 
plates or horny scales. The amphibian 
group — which includes frogs, toads, 
salamanders, and the caecilian — have 
a comparatively smooth skin. It is moist 
and laden with mucous and poison 
glands. 

The evolutionary history of these two 
great classes of vertebrate animals far 
exceeds the history of mammals. 
Amphibians represent the beginning 
step from an entirely aquatic existence 
toward a terrestrial one. Reptiles 
represent the next step. Both groups 
evolved striking adaptive features which 
reflect their respective environments. 



Most of the photographs in the exhibit 
illustrate one or more of these 
adaptations — for defense, for obtaining 
food, for locomotion, and many other 
categories. At times an adaptive 
mechanism will serve two functions. 
This is true of the potent poison utilized 
by the rattlesnake. It serves as a 
defense against other predators and 
also enables the snake to kill its prey 
quickly without engaging in a bruising 
battle. 

Probably one of the most interesting 
adaptive qualities belongs to the 
reptiles — the shedding of skin. They 
must get rid of their essentially inelastic 
skin periodically in order to grow. In 
snakes this shedding usually begins at 
the head end, with the animal gradually 
moving out of its old skin, turning it 
inside out in the process. Even the old 
eye covering comes off. Lizards usually 
flake off dead skin in patches, 
sometimes in nearly one whole piece. 

Adult lizards molt every month or so, 
mostly in patches, sometimes a scale 
at a time. The industrious banded 
gecko rips off the old skin with its 
mouth and proceeds to swallow the 
strips. In snakes the process begins 
several days before actual shedding. 
The animal's eyes cloud over and the 
skin takes on a dull and lifeless 
appearance. When the actual shedding 
is about to begin, the snake helps 
things along by rubbing its mouth 
against a rough surface. The skin 
comes off like a glove, with the entire 
operation sometimes over in as little 
as half an hour. 

Another fascinating adaptive quality, 
limited to just a few types, is 
subterranean living. Like the well 
known blind fish shown to tourists in 
Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, some 
snakes and lizards also have become 
adapted for underground existence. 
Such existence can vary in degree, 
from burrowing and sand-swimming to 
a totally underground life. 



May 1973 





Flat-tailed horned lizard. Its nostrils are 
encrusted with salt excretions. 



\. 



li 







Portrait of yellow-eyed salamander showing his 
"naso-labial grooves." 




Field Museum Bulletin 13 




Armadillo lizard in defensive posture: its tail in 
Its mouth. 




Pacific rubber snake in defensive stance: its 
vulnerable head buried under its coils and its 
tail above as a decoy. An enemy invariably 
bites the w/rong end, as evidenced by the scars 
on the animal's tail. 





Gila monster 



Surinam toad 




African clawed frog 



14 May 1973 



Some common adaptations to this type 
of environment are loss of vision, 
reduction or loss of limbs, and loss of 
body pigmentation. Animals also adapt 
in other, more specific ways which 
vary in each type. The silvery legless 
lizard, for instance, has a shovel-shaped 
snout and an underslung lower jaw, 
which prevent sand from entering his 
mouth. The Florida worm lizard has no 
legs or ear openings and has a soft, 
ringed body which bears resemblance 
to an earthworm. The sand viper of 
African deserts covers itself with sand, 
leaving the black tip of its tail protruding 
from the surface as bait for prey. 

Of course, some of the most important 
adaptations have to do with obtaining 
food and with defense. For food, some 
species sit and wait for prey to come 
to them. Others trick their victims into 
the danger zone. The Surinam toad is 
a rather strange looking amphibian 
who chooses to sit and wait. When the 
intended meal comes close, the toad 
surges forward, opens its cavernous 
mouth and, with the help of star-like 
fingers which push, sucks in the prey. 

In the reptile family we have a variety 
of mechanisms for dealing with prey, 
from the needle-like fangs of the red 
diamond rattlesnake to the tricky 
system used by the alligator snapping 
turtle. The latter lures prey into striking 
distance of its open mouth by wiggling 
two red, worm-like appendages on its 
tongue. 

All species must not only obtain food, 
they must defend themselves from their 
predators. Some of these adaptations 
are quite elaborate. Perhaps the most 
well known defense of reptiles and 
amphibians is the famed rattle of the 
rattlesnake. To achieve its menacing 
sound, the snake merely wiggles his 
tail — "vibrates" would be more 
accurate — about 60 times per second. 
The segments within the tail are very 
loosely articulated with each other. As 
the tail vibrates, the segments hit 
against one another, producing the 
unforgettable buzzing sound of a snake 
about to strike. 



Different species use many different 
types of locomotion, which are also 
very specialized adaptations. The 
zebra-tailed lizard, who can spurt along 
at a full speed of about eighteen miles 
an hour, has a long, flat tail which 
allows it to use only its hind legs. With 
its forelimbs lifted off the ground, the 
tail acts as a counterbalance, curled 
over the back. 

The deadly poisonous cottonmouth 
snake was named for a defensive 
adaptation. When threatened, the 
gaping mouth reveals a startling white 
interior which, set off by the black 
exterior color of the snake, serves as 
a very adequate warning. The yellow- 
eyed salamander uses the poison 
glands in its tail to quell enemy attacks. 
When danger nears, the animal swishes 
this deadly tail, threatening an encounter 
from its poisonous secretions. 

A rather bizarre defensive posture is 
employed by the armadillo lizard. When 
pursued, this wily fellow runs into a 
narrow crevice and takes its tail in its 
mouth. Protected on either side by its 
position in the crevice, it protects its 
soft-skinned underbelly with the array 
of sharp-pointed scales on its back, 
which usually discourage an attacker. 

The flat-tailed horned lizard has an 
interesting trait that adapts it to its 
desert environment. It excretes 
unwanted body salt through its nostrils 
with insignificant water loss. A watery 
urine to carry off excess salts would 
certainly be a much less efficient 
method in such an environment, where 
conservation of moisture is crucial. 

The well known gila monster, another 
desert inhabitant, stores food (fat) in 
its tail during times of abundance and 
uses it later in periods when food and 
water are scarce. The gila monster is 
one of only two venomous lizards in 
the world, the other being the beaded 
lizard of Ivfexico. 

Like any other animals, amphibians and 
reptiles have sensory systems which 
are adapted to their respective 
environments. A particularly interesting 



one is that of the lungless salamanders: 
they breathe through their skin. The 
Sierra Nevada salamander and the 
yellow-eyed salamander, both lungless, 
are shown in the exhibit. They have 
"naso-labial grooves" which extend 
from the upper lip to each nostril. This 
structure alerts the salamander to the 
presence of odors, principally those 
pertaining to food or danger. The 
lungless salamanders have a tendency 
to live in moist or damp places, but for 
obvious reasons they seldom enter the 
water. 

Unique, stitch-like bumps on the 
African clawed frog make him look as 
if he had been sewn together with a 
rather inept hand. They are not seams, 
however; they are believed to be 
highly developed sensory organs which 
alert the frog to the movement of prey 
or predators. 

The famed Colorado desert sidewinder 
shares with other pit vipers a 
remarkable "pit" organ which is 
actually an infrared detector, extremely 
sensitive to heat. This useful organ 
detects warm-blooded rodents either 
above ground or snuggled in the 
supposed safeness of their burrows. 

When we realize that amphibians and 
reptiles once were the dominant forms 
of life on earth, we must marvel at the 
seemingly curious and extraordinary 
adaptations that enabled their 
contemporaneous descendants to 
persist into our time, many relatively 
unchanged since long before mammals 
came to dominate the earth. The 
current exhibit of photographs of 
amphibians and reptiles presents a 
tantalizing and informative glimpse of 
this world of animals with mechanisms 
and behavior quite remote from ours. 



Joyce Marshall Brukoff is a Chicago-area 
naturalist and Iree-lance writer. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



15 




Archaeological Expedition to 
Indonesia 

Bennet Bronson, Assistant Curator of Asian 
Arctiaeoiogy and Ettnnology, is on his way to 
Java and Sumatra to direct a new 
arctiaeological research project for several 
months. The project will involve training and 
aid for Indonesian archaeologists as well as 
extensive exploration in Sumatra to 
identify sites for future excavation. 

The Sumatran rain forest is, according to 
Bronson, "one of the last unexplored 
archaeological frontiers." He is especially 
hoping to locate two sites: the capital of the 
historical sea kingdom of SrivijaVa, and 
Angkor, one of the two great empires of 
early Southeast Asia. 



became dormant in 1953, its speakers came 
to include such greats of the anthropological 
world as Franz Weidenreich, Claude Levi- 
Strauss, E. E. Evans-Pritchard, Raymond 
Dart, Raymond Firth, and Monica Wilson. 

The dormancy ended this year when several 
young anthropologists at local institutions, 
including Field Museum, discovered they 
shared a sense of need for more 
communication and community among their 
colleagues. Membership is already about 100. 

The new C.A.S. is indeed a continuation of 
the original because three members of the 
new council (to advise and assist on matters 
of policy and programs) were among the 
early members of the old C.A.S. They are 
Drs. Martin, Eggan, and Donald Collier. 
Joining them are Drs. Charles Reed, 
University of Illinois Circle Campus, and 
Francis L. K. Hsu, Northwestern University. 

Three of the five young anthropologists 
constituting the society's guiding 
administrative committee represent Field 
Museum's Department of Anthropology. They 
are John Terrell, Bennet Bronson, and Maude 
Wahlman. The other two are Don Perrill, 
Loyola University, and Margo Smith, 
Northeastern University. 

Dr. Reed spoke on "Problems in the 



Beginnings of Agriculture" at the April 
meeting, and May 18 Professor William 
Sumner, Ohio State University, will discuss 
"Malyan Tepe: developments leading to an 
early urban center in the Kur River Basin 
of Iran." 

Anyone living within (or beyond) the 
Chicago area who is interested in further 
details is invited to get in touch with John 
Terrell, Department of Anthropology, Field 
Museum. 



Plans for Exhibit of Contemporary 
African Art Move Ahead 

Maude Wahlman, Consultant in African 
Ethnology, is spending a month touring many 
parts of Africa to collect additional materials 
for the planned new exhibit "Contemporary 
African Art," now scheduled to open at the 
Museum in early 1974. 

Mrs. Wahlman is also placing orders for a 
wide range of contemporary African art 
products to be concurrently offered for sale 
through the Museum's book shop. Authentic 
contemporary expressions of the rich art 
traditions of Africa occur in many forms, 
including textiles, pottery, jewelry, painting, 
block printing, etching. 



The New Chicago Anthropological 
Society 

A revivified Chicago Anthropological Society 
arose last March and celebrated its first 
meeting at Field Museum. Most appropriately, 
this inaugural program was a dialogue 
presented by Dr. Paul Martin, Chief Curator 
Emeritus of Anthropology, and Professor 
Fred Eggan, of the University of Chicago — 
"Revitalization; the changing course of the 
anthropological sciences, a retrospect and a 
prologue to the new Chicago Anthropological 
Society." 

The original C.A.S. was said to have been 
founded in 1944 by Drs. Martin, Faye-Cooper 
Cole, Melville Herskovits, and Sol Tax 
when Martin, at a dinner event, suggested 
that Chicago's anthropologists ought to get 
together regularly. Tax, now Professor of 
Anthropology at the University of Chicago, 
was thereupon appointed secretary-treasurer 
and charged with the responsibility of 
collecting 25c dues from all new members. 

The membership rose to over 100 by the 
following year, and before the society 



Women's Committee Keeps Working for Capital Campaign 




Following a luncheon hosted by the Women's 
Committee for the Capital Campaign, committee 
member Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith (center) and 
Virginia M. Slraub visit with Hymen Marx, Curator 
ol Amphibians and Reptiles. This Divison of the 
Zoology Department, housed on the ground floor 



of the Museum because of its weight, consists of 
over 200.000 specimens It is one of the world's 
largest and most comprehensive collections and 
is used extensively by research scientists and 
graduate students. 



May 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Opens May 5 

Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 
Survival, a mulli-media exhibit describing 
and interpreting the adaptive significance 
of the unusual life cycle of these strange 
insects. Millions of cicadas (locusts) are 
scheduled to make their noisy appearance 
above ground in the Chicago area in late 
May or early June of this year. Through 
July 29. Hall 9. 

Closes May 31 

Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology. 

Copper-plate engravings made for American 
Ornithology (1808). a nine-volume work by 
the father of American ornithology, 
Alexander Wilson. Also shown are proofs 
from the plates recently pulled by Richard 
A. Davis, Butler University, and George 
McCullough, Fort Wayne Art Institute, 
alongside examples of first-edition prints of 
the same engravings in Field Museum's 
rare book collection. South Lounge. 

Continuing 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Through July 15. 
Hall 18. 



Adaptations of Amphibians and Reptiles, 

an exhibit of photographs portraying the 
natural beauty and esthetic qualities of 
these animals, as well as illustrating 
some of their often remarkable and unique 
adaptations which help them survive. They 
were taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman, Department of Continuing 
Education in Sciences and Mathematics, 
University of California, Berkeley. Through 
September 30. Hall 27. 



Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 

Field Museum's 75th Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, 
and cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense 
of History" presents a graphic portrayal of 
the Museum's past; and "A Sense of 
Discovery" shows examples of research 
conducted by Museum scientists. Hall 3. 



Special Events 

Sunday, May 6 

Peggy Harper, Senior Research Fellow in 
Dance at the University of Ife, Nigeria, 
Africa, presents a film lecture "Nigerian 
Team Dances," at 1:30 p.m. in the 
James Simpson Theatre. 

Saturday, May 12 

Sunto Suso of Gambia, West Africa, 
21 -string kora virtuoso, presents a program 
of traditional and modern Mandinka music 
and historical narrative at 1:30 p.m. in 
the Lecture Hall. He will be assisted by 
Dr. Klaus Wachsmann's students from 
Northwestern University. 



Children's Programs 

Through May 31 

Spring Journey for Children, "Life in the 
Tropical Rain Forest," a self-guided tour 
encouraging youngsters to learn about the 
inhabitants of the little-known Amazonian 
region of South America by exploring 
Museum exhibit areas. Youngsters are 
provided with a questionnaire which routes 
them through Museum exhibit areas. All 
boys and girls who can read and write may 
join in the activity. Journey sheets are 
available at Museum entrances. 



Coming in June 

Begins June 1 

Summer Journey for Children, "Nature 
Invented It First," a self-guided tour 
highlighting animals and plants which 
possess "innovative" features duplicated 
in human inventions. 



IVIeetings 

May 6: 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 

May 8: 7:30 p.m.. Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago 

May 8: 8 p.m., Chicagoland Glider Council 

May 9: 7 p.m., Chicago Ornithological 
Society 

May 9: 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society 

May 10: 8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 
Club 

May 18: 7:30 p.m., Chicago Anthropological 
Society 

May 22: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago 



May Hours 

Saturday through Thursday, 9 am. to 6 p.m.; 
Friday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 



Volume 44, Number 6 
June 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




f *-^i| -^ J'^h'*^'^-3-il^ 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 6 
June 1973 




"m^ 



Sketches, such as this one by Field Museum's 
Chief Taxidermist, Ernst A. Gramatzki, help the 
taxidermist determine the most effective 
attitude, or pose, of the aninaal to be mounted. 



2 The Fine Art of Taxidermy 

Ernst A. Gramatzki 

a disappearing art flourishes at 

Field Museum 

6 Members' Nights — 1973 

see what you missed? — or did you? 

8 The Botany Dept. — A Short History 

John R. Millar 

for the first time, botany became 

a museum's major scientific division 

13 Capital Campaign 

14 Field Briefs 



16 Book Reviews 
Calendar 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director, E. Leiand Webber 

Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs; Production Russ Becker; Ptiotograptiy John Bayalis, Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum ot Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscnbe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicitied manuscripts are welcome. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



the very fine art of 

TAXIDERMY 



By Ernst A. Gramatzki 

Chief Taxidermist 

Department of Exhibition 



A mounted mourning dove sits 

under "wraps" to ensure ttiat the 

feattiers stay in ttie proper 

position while the skin dries. 




During the Museum's Members' 
Nights last month, a colorfully 
unconventional man was pondering one 
of several skulls sitting around the 
Taxidermy Division. He looked up and 
into my eyes — which sil beneath a 
balding head — and asked, "How do 
you clean your skull?" It broke me up, 
and as the visitor puzzled at my 
reaction I was tempted to reply, "With 
a washcloth and soap." He finally 
recognized the ambiguity of his inquiry, 
and joined in my laughter. 

But his interest in what goes on in 
this room on the Museum's fourth floor 
is shared by many. The layman finds 
that what happens behind the scenes 
is not only interesting, but mysterious: 
interesting because, somehow, dead 
creatures are made to look so alive; 
and mysterious because the visitor 
begins imagining how exciting it 
must be to go on collecting trips to 
far corners of the globe. While 
collecting trips abroad were quite 
common at the beginning of the 
century, when museums obtained most 
of the specimens they currently display, 
one is more apt to find today's 
taxidermist at the local zoo skinning 
a recently deceased giraffe than on 
safari in Africa. This is not to say that 
modern taxidermists never go on field 
trips, but to point out that many of 
the Museum's large specimens are 
much appreciated donations from local 
sources. The world-famous gorilla, 
Bushman, is a former attraction of 
Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, and the 
Giant Panda, Su-Lin, is a donation of 
the Chicago Zoological Society. 
Obtaining animals this way helps to 
conserve the diminishing numbers of 
live animals in their natural habitats. 
I hope the day never comes when the 
only "wildlife" to be found is in the 
dim halls of a museum. 

Taxidermy has a long and exciting 
tradition, especially in the Field 
Museum. In 1896 Carl Akeley was 
appointed the Museum's first Chief 
Taxidermist. His work is known not 
only through numerous habitat groups 



June 1973 



still enjoyed by everyone, but also 
because of the very up-to-date basic 
techniques of taxidermy that he 
employed. His best known contribution 
to the Museum is probably the 
Museum's "centerpiece" — the fighting 
African elephants in Stanley Field Hall. 
Leon Pray worked with Akeley on 
many projects, and other past 
members of the staff, whose works 
are still on display, include C. J. 
Albrecht, Julius Friesser, F. C. Wonder, 
and Arthur G. Rueckert. The Museum's 



taxidermy studio was the scene of 
the development of the celluloid 
reproduction process of taxidermy, or 
the "Walter's process" in honor of 
Leon C. Walter. Today, in addition to 
myself, the division includes Richard 
Berndt, Assistant Taxidermist and two 
volunteers, Gertrude Silberman and 
Louva Calhoun. 

Many of us began to work in taxidermy 
as a hobby, attempting to mount our 
own hunting and fishing trophies. The 



more inventive became skilled enough 
to open their own shops where their 
sons and other persistent novices 
picked up the trade by just hanging 
around and absorbing as much as 
possible. Some of the most skilled 
taxidermists were hired by museums 
where the opportunity to study in 
detail a vast number of animals helped 
to further refine their skills. For them, 
the continual study of the anatomy 
of freshly skinned mammals, birds, 
fish, and reptiles is a must. They must 




The mounting of larger mammals begins by fashioning a wire mesh frame 
and molding a clay body around it . . . 



. . . but since the clay sculpture is too soft to be used as the animal's 
body, a plaster mold is made from the clay figure. 




Using the plaster cast, a papier-mache process is imployed to form the 
hollow body of the animal. Here the author is seen cleaning the plaster 
cast after its removal from the clay figure. 



The skin of the animal is fitted over the papier-mache form, then sewn 
closed. 



Field Musoum Bullslin 




Using both a cat and a raccoon to demonstrate 
the main steps in mounting small mammals, 
the taxidermist begins by fashioning a body 
with excelsior, attached to the animal's skull, 
then wrapping the excelsior with twine. 





The skeletal bones of the limbs are reinforced 
with wire to keep them in the desired position, 
and wrapped with twine. 




Before the animal's skin is sewn around the 
limbs, the limbs are covered with a glue that, 
in the photograph, resembles putty. 



know what muscle moves which part 
of the skeleton; how skeletons function; 
and how each movement not only 
changes the outer physical appearance 
of the animal, but its attitude — its 
mood — as well. 

The taxidermist must also have an 
in-depth knowledge of how an animal 
looks and behaves in its natural 
environment. He can learn this from 
direct observation in the wild and 
from spending many hours at the zoo 
making hundreds of drawings, 
photographs, and sculptural sketches. 
It takes constant practice and much 
time in addition to the regular workday. 
Most of the taxidermists I know were 
fortunate to have grown up in the 
country where the presence of farm 
animals gave them a basic attitude 
towards all animals. 

Necessary to taxidermy, of course is 
the handling of a large variety of tools 
and equipment, and the knowledge of 
many trades and materials. In spite 
of this, the taxidermist is still often 
called a "stuffer," even though the 
process of "mounting" an animal has 
nothing to do with stuffing. But there 



have been people who would use just 
about any material to stuff their trophies 
with. There is the story of an amateur 
who was proud of his first mounted 
squirrel — until his sister examined the 
job closely and recognized one of 
her socks in the open-mouthed 
creature and demanded that it be 
returned to her. 

Today the taxidermist is required to 
skin the animal; tan the hide (if it is a 
mammal); sculpture a clay body; take 
a plaster mold of the clay model; 
cast the final form in papier-mache, 
plaster and burlap, or fibre-glass; and 
sew and glue the tanned hide around 
this hollow lightweight but strong form. 
These are only the main steps. 

A method quite different is adopted for 
small mammals. Parts of the mammal's 
skeleton, such as leg bones and skull, 
are used. Excelsior is wrapped around 
these bones to simulate the muscles 
and body. This is then covered with a 
special paste to glue the hide tightly 
onto the mannikin. Birds are prepared 
similarly. Wire, cotton, and hemp are 
used to anchor parts of the legs, wing 
bones, and skull into a wrapped 



excelsior body. Fish and reptiles, for 
the most part, are fibre-glass 
reproductions, made in a mold taken 
from the actual specimen. The most 
tedious part is then painting every 
scale to match the specimen. But no 
matter what the animal, they are all 
fitted with hand-painted glass eyes. 

A new method of preservation is by 
freeze-drying in a vacuum chamber, 
which extracts the body moisture while 
the animal is in a frozen state. This 
method has been satisfactorily applied 
to insects, plant material, invertebrates, 
and various reptiles, but 1 have yet to 
see a good specimen of a bird or 
mammal preserved by this method. Yet 
many museums have had to rely on 
this method in presenting fauna in 
their exhibits because of the general 
absence of trained taxidermists 
in this country. 

l\yiost of the taxidermy profession's 
finest "artist-naturalist-craftsmen" 
developed in museums. For the 
museum taxidermist the art aspect of 
his training (drawing, sculpture, 
design, and the ability to visualize) is 
important as he creates his life-like 




The skin is sewn around the four legs and tail. 
The artificial body is ready to be anchored into 
position. 




With the body in position, the legs and tail are 
firmly attached to it. The skin is then sewn 
closed around the body. 




After a few finishing touches, the animal looks 
as alive as though he was preening in 
someone's living room. This cat, however, is 
sitting encased in Hall 15. 



models and as he relates them to the 
total exhibit. He often works closely 
with designers and must be able to 
visualize how the model fits into the 
overall scheme of the case or hall. 
Often his work includes making 
botanical models to complement his 
zoological ones, such as plants for 
birds to perch on. Thus the area of 
taxidermist and preparator often 
overlap. The final installation of most 
groups in the Museum was done by 
very few people. There were, obviously, 
a background painter, and one or two 
taxidermists — one concentrating on 
animals while the other handled the 
foreground and needed accessories. 
Sometimes one person did the 
entire display. 

Today the changing nature of museum 
exhibits makes the art aspect of 
taxidermy even more important than it 
was in the past. Many of the older 
halls in Field Museum contain 
collections or groupings of related 
creatures, or have cases of the 
"picture postcard" variety. Halls which 
illustrate a broad overall concept are a 
modern trend in museum design: 
"Color in Nature," currently on display. 



is a step in that direction. Planning 
this kind of exhibit calls for more 
imagination and cooperation by script 
writer, scientist, exhibit designer, and 
taxidermist than was necessary in the 
past. Gone are the days when a stuffed 
duck was just a stuffed duck, placed 
with so many other stuffed ducks, or 
set in a case silhouetted against the 
sunset. Today that duck can be used 
to illustrate any number of concepts: 
concealed coloration, sexual plumage, 
food chains, seed dispersal, etc. 

Once the concept has been chosen, 
the taxidermist must do more than just 
make the animal look alive; he must 
decide how to arrange it so that it best 
illustrates the concept, or message. He 
must be aware of the visual potential 
in a proposed display. His training as 
an artist, plus his sense of the 
dramatic, tell him that a cheetah in 
action, in pursuit of its prey, will make 
a far more interesting display than the 
big cat just sitting there with its kill. 
Furthermore, it will demonstrate speed, 
the cheetah's unique characteristic. 
Thus it is very important for the 
taxidermist to examine the many 



design possibilities, such as setting 
and pose, for a creature before 
mounting it for a specific display. The 
animal must be arranged in an 
interesting and artistic, as well as 
realistic, manner. 

Perhaps it is this versatility required, 
plus the long training time, the lack of 
places to train, and the hesitance of 
some "old-timers" to share their 
knowledge, that account for the current 
lack of highly skilled taxidermists. To 
my knowledge there is no place in the 
United States where a prospective 
taxidermist can get the type of training 
outlined in this article. Museums and 
commercial firms are seeking good 
taxidermists. If a comprehensive 
training program were to be organized 
the prospect would brighten that 
museums and other institutions would 
be able to find qualified taxidermists. 
Until such time the field for the skilled 
taxidermist is wide open. 

Oh — and as to that question about how 
to clean a skull: remove the flesh from 
the bone (dermestid beetles will finish 
the job for you), then bleach and 
degrease it. Any more questions? 



Field Museum Bulletin 





Were you among the 6,933 who 
enjoyed the exotic entertainment, 
refreshments, demonstrations, and a 
look "behind the scenes?" 



MAY 3 & 4 




6 June 1973 











Field Museum Bulletin 7 



The Dotany oept- 
A :hort History 



By John R. Millar 

With this article we complete our 
presentation at the histories ot the lour 
scientific departments. John R. Millar, former 
Deputy Director ot the Museum and Chiet 
Curator ot Botany, has olten been 
considered the Museum's unofficial historian 
because his tenure began before the 
Museum moved to its present home in 
1921. In tact, all indications are that the 
initials ot the "young preparator" he 
mentions who used roller skates to help in 
the move were J. R. M. Millar is now 
enjoying his retirement in Florida. 

The Department of Botany, like the 
Museum itself, arose Phoenix-like from 
the ashes of the World Columbian 
Exposition in 1893. It was the 
composition of those ashes that 
determined the nature of the Museum 
at first. Never before that time had 
any museum considered botany as a 
major division of its organization. Men 
of diverse interests and backgrounds 
were the prime movers in promoting 
and organizing the exposition. In 1835 
the directors of the Chicago Industrial 
Expositions met and passed a 
resolution, "that it is the sense of this 
meeting that a Great World's Fair 
should be held in Chicago in 1892, the 
four hundredth anniversary of the 
landing of Columbus in America." It is 
safe to assume that the authors of the 
resolution were thinking in terms of 
industrial enterprise and materials to 
sustain it. However, there were at the 
same time in Chicago a number of 
wealthy, traveled persons who were 
collectors of art and cultural things 
who recognized the merit of an 
international exposition and the 



opportunity it afforded to establish a 
great museum with selected exposition 
exhibits. 

An oft-mentioned article by Professor 
F. W. Putnam of Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, printed in the 
Chicago Tribune ot May 31, 1890, is 
generally regarded as the first 
published account advocating the 
creating of Field Museum. Actually, 
he, being an anthropologist, 
proposed the establishment of a 
great ethnological museum that would 
be a world center for the study of 
native peoples of the western 
hemisphere. Other persons of other 
interests also envisioned a permanent 
museum as an aftermath of the 
exposition. Three directors of the 
exposition took it upon themselves to 
call a meeting of leading Chicagoans 
for the purpose of incorporating a 
museum. This was accomplished in 
September 1893 just before the close 
of the exposition. It triggered energetic 
efforts to solicit gifts of materials from 
various nations and individuals 
exhibiting at the fair. 

Dr. Frederick J. V. Skiff, in the 
Museum's first published report in 
Volume I of the Historical Series, said, 
". . . while no great public acts nor 
unified labor were apparent, many 
men, each in his own field, largely by 
his own volition, were sincerely 
enlisted; [to the end] that there was 
generous and energetic cooperation in 
gathering material, making purchases 
and securing funds." 



Collecting begins 

Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh, a 
homeopathic physician by formal 
training but an avid botanist and 
naturalist by avocation, who in 1887 
published his work on American 
medicinal plants, served as 
superintendent of the West Virginia 
exhibits at the fair and also on its 
jury of awards. W. G. Buchanan, chief 
of the exposition's departments of 
agriculture and forestry, which 
included the West Virginia exhibits, 
appointed Dr. Millspaugh to solicit 
donations of collections to the Museum. 
The response was most gratifying. 
Collections of gums, resins, fibers, oils, 
waxes, tannins, dyes, starches, cereals, 
sugars, spices, medicinal plants, 
timbers and cabinet woods were 
generously offered by twenty or more 
countries. Many artifacts and industrial 
products were included. In some 
instances exhibitors had made earlier 
commitments to give others "portions 
at least" of certain valuable timbers. 
Dr. Millspaugh saved the situation by 
obtaining a bandsaw to divide the logs 
so that promises to all could be kept. 
In this manner the Department of 
Botany began with one of the largest 
and finest collections of woods and 
forest products extant anywhere. This 
resourcefulness and energy 
characterized Dr. Millspaugh's 
subsequent activities when he became 
the first appointee to the scientific staff 
of the Museum as Curator of Botany. 
Donated and purchased materials were 
moved to the Palace of Fine Arts 
building as they were released by 
exhibitors. 

Museum organization at first included 
not only the present-day departments 
of anthropology, botany, geology, and 
zoology but also ornithology, as 
separate from zoology, and industrial 
arts, including transportation and the 
Department of Columbus Memorial. 
The Department of Botany was 
assigned space on the galleries, or 
balcony, that extended around the great 
courts on the second floor level. The 



June 1973 



courts can be visualized as two Stanley 
Field Halls intersecting at right angles, 
the midpoint marked by a large domed 
rotunda. It was on these second floor 
galleries that Dr. Millspaugh quickly 
installed his exposition loot, much of it 
still in the cases in which it had been 
exhibited at the fair. Many large items, 
timbers and artifacts were on open 
display. Because gifts of botanical 
specimens had been donated by 
particular countries, it was most 
expedient to arrange exhibits on a 
geographical basis. This led to much 
duplication of specimens because the 
same kind of thing occurred in, and 
was exhibited by, each of several 
countries. After the rush to open the 
Museum on June 2, 1894 was over, it 
became evident that an arrangement 
based on plant family relationships and 
by category of material would be 
preferable, but not much could be 
done about effecting the change until 
1900. In the interval three styles of 
exhibition case had been designed by 
Dr. Millspaugh to meet his by then 
experienced approach to the problems 
of botanical exhibition. A few 



prototypes were delivered for use in 
the first revision of botanical exhibits, 
a process that keeps repeating. These 
are the kinds of cases in which 
botanical exhibits are now housed; 
strong, well-built, solid birch furniture 
intended to last forever to 
accommodate exhibits in the fashion in 
vogue in the early 1900s. The original 
natural blond birch finish was to be 
changed a score of years later after 
the move to the present building. 

Inherent problems 

Exhibition cases were only one of a 
multitude of difficulties that confronted 
the Department of Botany. The building 
had no heat during the winter of 
1893-94, when exhibition materials 
were being moved in, since it was 
never intended to be a permanent 
structure. Before the next winter set in, 
three 100-horsepower steam boilers, 
seventy radiators, and electric 
generators capable of operating forty 
1,200-candle-power arc lamps were 
installed — the last intended only for 
use in patroling the building at night. 



Dr. Skiff noted in the Museum's first 
Annual Report, for the year 1894-1895: 
"It was found impossible to heat the 
four great courts with their height of 
seventy-eight feet and it was an almost 
hopeless undertaking to warm the 
eighty spacious doorless halls. But 
necessity compelled a means. The 
entrances to the halls leading from the 
courts and leading in and out of the 
long narrow annex passages were 
fitted with large movable partitions 
filling the entire space in which doors 
were constructed. By this means all 
the exhibition halls were enclosed, and 
being provided in each case with ample 
radiation, a minimum temperature of 
55 degrees was ordinarily maintained 
throughout the building. The courts are 
treated as streets and visitors seem to 
readily adapt themselves to this 
condition of affairs. This arrangement 
practically closes the Department of 
Botany during the colder months of the 
winter season; it is impossible to view 
the collections there with any 
satisfaction." 

Adapting a temporary structure to 




The exceiient wooden herbarium cases designed by Dr. 
Millspaugh are still in use. This 1909 photo was taken in the 
Museum's first home, the Palace of Fine Arts of the 1893 
Columbian Exposition. 



The Museum's first herbarium specimens were collected by Dr. 
Millspaugh during an 1894 expedition to the Yucatan. This mode 
of transportation is still necessary today in some otherwise 
inaccessible parts of the world. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




In 1918 the author (left, eating Sbydv-ano, and three other members of the Mrs. Stanley Field 
Plant Reproduction Laboratory, spent the winter in Florida among subtropical exotic plants. Others 
making the trip in this 1917 Model T touring car were Homer A. V. Geib (center). Museum 
Preparator; Mr. Charlesworth. a glassblower; and the man who snapped this rare photograph, 
Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, then the Museum's Assistant Curator of Economic Botony. 



permanent use as a museum brought 
to the surface another chronic and 
incurable museum ailment — lack of 
space where and when it is needed. 
"The small rooms ... in the second 
galleries [third floor] of the courts have 
by force of circumstances been 
preempted by the Curators of Botany, 
Zoology and Ornithology for 
laboratories, by a poisoning and 
disinfecting laboratory, by guards and 
by departments of printing and 
photography. These twelve rooms are 
already inadequate . . . and more 
room for working is already one of 
the great needs of the Museum." 
At this time a warehouse was acquired 
at the corner of 56th Street and 
Jefferson Avenue "to provide room for 
storage and for carpentry, modeling, 
plaster work, and for taxidermy, three 
kinds of labor which could not be 
permitted within the Museum building 
as at present arranged." 



Early field trips 

Although no herbarium specimens 
were included in material received 
from the exposition, no time was lost 



in starting a collection. The first 
specimens were collected by Dr. 
Millspaugh on a trip to Yucatan as the 
guest of Allison V. Armour in 1894. 
How the herbarium grew to become 
one of the world's major collections 
of Central and South American plants 
was related last year in the April 
issue of the Bulletin. I will add here 
only the following statement from the 
Museum's Annual Report for 1899- 
1900 because it records a prophecy 
that has turned out to be all too true: 
"... Preparator Lansing . . . has 
continued his collection of plants of 
the Chicago Basin. This work is 
particularly important as not many 
years hence nearly the whole 
distinctive plant life of the section 
. . . will become extinct through 
drainage and reclaiming of land and 
the extension of the City of Chicago 
and surrounding suburban towns." 
Such changes are now recognized as 
national and international concerns; 
both plant and animal species are 
vanishing at an accelerating rate. 

Displays of dried plant materials can 
be most uninteresting and dreary if 
they are not relieved by some 




The coconut palm from which the Museum's 
model in Hall 28 was made was collected by 
Millar during the expedition in Florida in 1918. 



semblance of realism and life. This is 
especially true when characteristics 
of a plant family are to be portrayed. 
Dr. B. E. Dahlgren, a doctor of 
medical dentistry, gave up a practice 
in orthodontia to become Assistant 
Curator of Invertebrates at the American 
Museum of Natural History, where 
his superior skill in making models of 
lower invertebrates, insects, and 
plants earned high praise. In 1909, 
he was induced to join the staff of the 
Department of Botany to undertake to 
illustrate each of the major plant 
families by means of life-like models 
of representative plants and enlarged 
models of their flowers to show 
important anatomical details. This 
enterprise, which was largely financed 
by Museum President Stanley Field, 
eventually produced what is often 
acclaimed as the world's finest 
botanical exhibition in a museum. 

Money problems caused a hiatus in 
the program for about three years 
prior to 1917. in 1918, a year after 
operations resumed, a shortage of 
coal during World War I required the 
Museum to curtail its use. So in 
October the Mrs. Stanley Field Plant 



10 



June 1973 



Reproduction Laboratory staff of four 
persons moved to Miami, Florida in a 
Ford touring car. Dr. Dahlgren, ttie 
leader, had by then acquired the title of 
Assistant Curator of Economic Botany. 
Sleeping and working quarters were 
provided by the Bureau of Plant 
Introduction of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture at its station and garden 
on Brickel Avenue, since sold and now 
occupied by residences. The sojourn 
in a winter vacation land was sheer 
delight for the four Chicagoans but 
living on the job resulted in a greatly 
lengthened work day and week which 
made the escape from frigid working 
quarters highly productive of useful 
studies, molds, finished models, and 
pickled plants for later use. Subtropical 
exotic plants such as the banana, 
pineapple, coconut, natal plum, silk 
cotton tree, and many others were 
obtained for exhibition purposes. 

Moving to new quarters 

On return to Chicago at the end of 
May 1919, the immediate task of the 
staff was to prepare or pack all 
exhibition material for moving to the 
new Museum building. Procedures 
were carefully worked out to assure 
that all items were identified and 
designated as to placement in their 
new home. This included exhibition 
cases, which because of their great 
size and weight required four-man 
moving teams and hopefully, therefore, 
could be placed precisely in their 
permanent positions to avoid later 
moves. Martin Kennelley, later to 
become Mayor of Chicago, was a 
partner in the firm that was given the 
moving contract. In the actual move 
botany exhibition cases were lowered 
from the second floor gallery to the 
main floor by means of an inclined 
tramway powered by windlass and 
muscle. From there they were loaded 
into freight cars on a spur track of the 
Illinois Central Railroad and taken to 
the new building where another spur 
track had been constructed. Botanical 
exhibits were to occupy five halls on 
the east half of the second floor, which 



required the use of the freight elevator 
on the south side of the building to 
get them there. Unrecorded history has 
It that the young preparator who v^^as 
given the task of meeting teams of 
movers coming up the elevator with 
cases, directing them to the proper hall, 
then going to the hall and indicating 
the exact location, used roller skates to 
go back and forth quickly. Elaboration 
of this circumstance had the young man 
speed around a corner, bump into the 
director, who was on a tour of 
inspection, and nearly knock him 
down. This was supposed to have 
resulted in an official order to cease 
the use of roller skates in the Museum. 
Actually tfie cases had all been placed 
before, and the order was issued 
because of a lack of confidence in the 
skill of the skater and the danger of 
breaking glass in exhibition cases 
through collision. 

Early in the development of botanical 
exhibits the question of properly 
labeling the economic collections was 
resolved and led to a unification of 




". . . It was decided that ttie best background 
to form a general setting for the contents of a 
case should be dead black and the label the 
same, printed in some ink just off the contrast 
that while would make. This ink proved to be 
aluminum." It took years of effort to overcome 
administrative opposition to a change to more 
cheerful background colors. 



style throughout the botanical section 
and eventually the entire Museum. Dr. 
Millspaugh said, "From observation at 
various times of the movements of 
people who were examining the 
collections, it would seem the first 
impulse ... is that of curiosity, the 
second of interest and the third, a 
desire for education. It was decided 
that the installation of a case should 
be such as to attract attention to it as 
a whole. The principles in such an 
installation are, as I take it, a neat and 
well ordered arrangement of specimens. 
... It is important that labels should 
be of such character as to invite 
reading; plainly typed and condensed; 
comprehensible to the average citizen 
rather than abtrusely scientific; short, 
pithy and direct. Having arrived at 
these conclusions ... it was decided 
that the best background to form a 
general setting for the contents of a 
case should be dead black and the 
label the same, printed in some ink 
just off the contrast that white would 
make. This ink proved to be aluminum." 

When the botanical exhibits were 
placed in their bright, clean, new home 
It became very apparent that case 
interiors and labels were in truth "dead 
black" and contributed greatly to what 
has been called the "gloom of the 
museum." Stanley Field in 
later years said that the decision to 
adopt black for case interiors and label: 
stock throughout the Museum had 
been reached at a conference of the 
heads of departments and the Museum 
architect in his office in spite of his 
misgivings about the matter. However, 
the move to change to more cheerful 
background colors met with 
administrative opposition and trial 
revised installations had to be made 
surreptitiously with materials obtained 
at personal expense. When the merit 
of less somber installations was finally- 
recognized and approval given, it took, 
a tremendous amount of time and 
labor to effect the change. 

Firm establishment in permanent, new, 
uncramped quarters seemed to 
motivate the staff to meet the challenge- 



Field Museum Bulletin 



of a bright future. The next few years 
saw growth and development in all 
phases of departmental operations. 
Expeditions to collect material for 
exhibition went to British Guiana (now 
Guyana), to Brazil, to the Rockies, to 
the eastern seaboard, the Pacific Coast 
States, to Florida and to Michigan. 
Outstanding habitat groups showing 
alpine flowers, midwest forest plants, 
intertidal marine vegetation, and some 
Amazon River plants were produced 
with material thus obtained. In addition 
many models of individual plants such 
as the cannonball tree were made to 
represent certain plant families in the 
systematic series. 

The early collectors 

These were accomplishments that 
could be seen and appreciated by 
Museum visitors, but perhaps the most 
important achievements of the 
department have been in the field of 
taxonomy and floristics. From the very 
first year of its existence, members of 
the staff seized every opportunity to 
collect plants for study and deposit in 
the herbarium. Beginning with Dr. 
Millspaugh's collections from Yucatan, 
and the persistent work of O. E. 
Lansing in collecting plants of the 
Chicago area, each member of the 
staff made his contribution according 
to his own talents and special 
interests. Dr. Jesse M. Greenman left 
the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University to become Assistant Curator 
of Botany. From 1904 to 1912 he 
collected extensively in Mexico and 
Central America and published in the 
Fieldiana: Botany series. He resigned 
to join the staff of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. Huron H. Smith, who 
from 1911 to 1914 diligently 
photographed and collected North 
American trees from the southeastern 
United States to the Pacific Northwest, 
did most to create the Museum's fine 
exhibit contained in Hall 26. J. Francis 
Macbride joined the staff in 1922. He, 
too, came from an internship 
at the Gray Herbarium. His field work 
in Peru led to one of the department's 




Backed by the old herbarium cases. Dr. Paul C. 
Standley makes notations on recently mounted 
specimens. Photo was taken about 1940. 



major floristic works, the Flora of Peru, 
which already consists of several 
thousand printed pages and will have 
many more when completed by others. 
(Macbride retired in 1963) As 
mentioned elsewhere, he also selected 
and supervised the photographing of 
type specimens of American plants in 
European herbaria. His bibliography 
lists more than fifty titles. 

Dr. Paul C. Standley came from the 
U.S. National Herbarium in 1928 to 
join the staff as Associate Curator of 
the Herbarium. His extensive field work 
in Mexico and Central America 
resulted in a number of Museum 
publications. Among the more notable 
are the Flora of Lancetilla Valley 
(Honduras), Flora of Costa Rica, 
Studies of American Plants, The 
Rubiaceae of Colombia, also of 
Ecuador, of Bolivia, and of Venezuela 
for a total of 2,881 printed pages. Then 
in 1946 he began the Flora of 
Guatemala, which, by the time of his 
retirement in 1950, had been issued in 
four parts totaling 1,868 pages. A 
prolific author, Standley's bibliography 
lists more than 250 titles. The energy. 



competence and productiveness of 
Standley is almost legendary. It earned 
him the profound respect of his 
colleagues and an enduring place in 
the history of American Botany. He 
was small, thin, a chain smoker, quick 
in his movements, incisive in his 
thinking and decisive in his work. He 
died in 1963 at age eighty in 
Tegucigalpa, Honduras, where he had 
gone to live after his retirement. 
Dr. Julian A. Steyermark joined the staff 
as Assistant Curator of the Herbarium 
in 1937. He did extensive field work in 
Missouri and later wrote the Spring 
Flora of Missouri. Further field work in 
Guatemala and Venezuela led to his 
collaboration with Dr. Standley on the 
Flora of Guatemala and later to his 
1,195-page work Contributions to the 
Flora of Venezuela. In 1959 he joined 
the faculty of the Institute Botanico of 
the Ministerio Agricultura y Cria at 
Curacas, Venezuela. 

These were staff members of the 
Department of Botany who in their time 
made important contributions to our 
knowledge of plants of the New World 
tropics. There were others who for 
shorter periods and in different ways 
used their special talents to make the 
department a viable, effective part of 
the Museum organization. One of 
these. Dr. Theodor Just, Chief Curator 
of the Department from 1947 until his 
death in 1960, was especially well 
known for his numerous publications in 
the field of paleobotany. 

This leads us up to the present staff of 
equal competence who are continuing 
to focus attention on the neotropics. 
Why? one may ask. The answer seems 
to be because of the challenge of the 
unknown, because our ignorance of 
the vegetation of that part of the world 
was abysmal and is less so now 
because of the Museum's research 
program. Nevertheless, it still remains 
great. It is also believed that some of 
the larger problems of plant 
systematics, phytogeny, and evolution 
may find answers as our study of 
particular plants progresses. 



June 1973 






Where is the Money Going? 

Like ants putting their "homes' In order, 
workers can be observed inside and outside 
the Museum as efforts to update and 
improve the building and services continue 
at an accelerating pace. These activities are 
being made possible through the generosity 
of old and new friends of the Museum, who, 
to date, have contributed just short of SlO 
million to the Museum's S25 million Capital 
Campaign. 

The campaign, launched in September 1971 
by the Museum's Board of Trustees, has as 
its goal the generating of SI 2.5 million from 
private gifts, to be matched by SI 2.5 million 
through the bonding authority of the Chicago 
Park District. It is the first such campaign in 
the Museum's history. Previously, the 
Museum has elected to use its income 
principally in meeting the growing demands 
of collection, research, exhibits, and 
educational services to the public. 
Consequently, repairs are needed and 
Improvements have always taken a back 
seat. These problems, related in past issues 
of the Bulletin, can no longer be ignored. 

A portion of the funds already raised Is 
being employed to satisfy several of the 
Museum's needs. Tuckpointing of the 
building's exterior was begun last year, 
discontinued through the winter, and begun 
again In April. The job Is expected to be 
completed by fall. 



Visitors to the Museum's exhibit. "Below 
Man's Vision: Electronic Windows to Unseen 
Worlds," have discovered the marvels of 
scientific photography made possible by the 
scanning electron microscope. Soon Field 
Museum scientists' research will benefit from 
this microscope. The southwest corner of 
the third floor, currently being remodeled, 
should be ready to receive the new 
instrument in June. Parts of the microscope 
have already arrived at the Museum. 

During Chicago's spring cold spells, some 
Museum work areas have found themselves 
without heat. But employees have consoled 
themselves with the knowledge that this 
temporary discomfort was due to a major 
improvement that has begun, the conversion 
of the present coal-fired boilers to a 
gas or oil capability. The conversion Is 
expected to minimize air pollution, and the 
system should be ready for the first cold 
spell of the fall season. 

Another project, due to begin momentarily, 
is the rehabilitation of the north and south 



exterior stairs, which will take about one 
year to complete. The rebuilding will result 
in less costly maintenance and the 
prevention of the stairs' eventual collapse. 

Concurrent with this project, eight new 
emergency exits will be built to meet a 
building code requirement. There will be 
four each on the north and south sides of 
the Museum, on the stairway landings 
between the ground and first floors. 

As Members' Nights attendees already 
know, the Department of Exhibition is 
enjoying renovated quarters that better 
accommodate its staff and ensure efficient 
and expanded operations. 

These are just a few of the many projects to 
be undertaken that will permit the Museum 
to better serve all of its visitors and at the 
same time enhance its scientific endeavors. 
They will ensure that Field Museum will 
retain its position among the world's leading 
scientific, educational, and cultural 
institutions. 




Workmen are making seams watertight by filling them with a waterproofing 
several projects Capital Campaign funds are making possible. 



It's one of 



Field Museum Bulletin 13 



m'A m a.^ ' 



&«<,v.w^.. . A & %^« m w a 




180 Cited on Traveler Day 

Field Museum honored 180 youngsters on 
Museum Traveler Day, April 28, for 
successfully completing the various 
categories in the Museum's Journey 
Program. Of the 180, 123 participated in 
the awards ceremony in the James Simpson 
Theatre, where, after the presentations, a 
color motion picture. "Kenya-Uganda 
Safari," was shown. 

Fifteen children were eligible for membership 
in the Museum's Discoverers' Club after 
participating in 16 journeys and a special 
"Voyage of the Beagle" journey. Club 
membership entitles them to free admission 
to the Museum until age 18. In other 
classifications, 19 became Beaglers after 
completing 16 journeys; 19 were named 
Explorers for 12 journeys; 40 were 
designated Adventurers for 8 journeys: and 
87 were recognized as Travelers for 4 
journeys. 

The program, featuring four journeys each 
year, is organized by the Museum's 
Department of Education. The self-guided 
tours are designed to acquaint children who 
can read and write with a variety of exhibits. 

Hummer Named Project Manager 

Paul Hummer has joined the Museum's 
staff as Project Manager of the "Man in His 
Environment" program, tentatively scheduled 
to be ready for presentation to the public in 
Fall 1974. Hummer, who received his 
Master of City Planning degree from the 
University of Pennsylvania, was most 
recently with the Pittsburgh Model Cities 
Program. There, he was concerned with 
research in urban programs, especially in 
education and community arts. 



Turtle Named for Zangerl 

A land Tortoise, extinct for 110,000,000 
years and first discovered only a few years 
ago by a joint Polish-Mongolian fossil- 
collecting expedition in Mongolia, has been 
given the scientific name Zangerlia 
testudinimorpha. to honor Dr. Rainer Zangerl, 
Chairman of the Museum's Department of 
Geology. The turtle was named by Dr. 
Marian MIynarski of the Polish Academy of 
Science in recognition of Dr. Zangerl's 
international reputation as a student of 
fossil turtles. 

25 Years Ago: June 1948 

Newspapers were having a field day (no 
pun intended) with photographs of the 
Museum's "terror bird," a 5-foot, life-size 
reproduction of Mesembriornia, a 
nightmarish and carnivorous extinct bird. It 
had been recently placed on display, and 
today is found in Hall 21. . . . Marie Svoboda, 



now Raymond Foundation Coordinator in 
the Museum's Department of Education, 
delivered a lecture-tour on "What to Wear — 
Unusual Materials Used in Clothing." ... A 
model of the earths interior was placed on 
exhibition in Hall 29, where it still receives 
visitor interest. . . . Gifts to the Museum's 
Department of Zoology included 25 frogs, 
10 snakes, 14 fish, 87 salamanders, 5 
lizards, 8 crabs, a black bear cub, a 
Chinese turtle, and a tree shrew. 

Stanton R. Cook Named Trustee 

Stanton R. Cook, publisher of the Chicago 
Tribune, was elected Museum Trustee at 
the April meeting of the Board of Trustees. 
Cook, who joined the Tribune in 1951, is 
also President and Chief Executive Officer 
of the Chicago Tribune Co. and Vice 
President of its parent organization. Tribune 
Company. Born in Chicago, Cook was 
graduated in 1949 from Northwestern 



Environmental Program Gets Financial Boost 




Financing of the Ivluseum's "l^/lan in His Environment" program, to begin in fall 1974, got an added 
boost witti a $60,000 grant from the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts. 
Viewing one of the program's future exhibit inhabitants and a display model are Foundation 
President Charles F. Murphy Jr., senior partner of the architectural firm C. F. I^flurphy Associates, 
and l^useum Director E. Leiand Webber. The public education program will consist of a major 
museum exhibit, a traveling version of the exhibit, publications, films, and lectures. 



June 1973 




Stanton R. Cook 



University. During World War II he served 
as a navigator with the United States Army 
Air Corps. He is also a trustee of the 
University of Chicago and a member of the 
Board of Directors of the Bureau of 
Advertising of the American Newspaper 
Publishers Assn. He served as President of 
the Chicago Newspaper Publishers Assn. 
for two years. 

Archaeology Program To Begin 

The prehistory of the American Southwest 
will be the focus of attention by 12 college 
sophomores and juniors for 10 weeks 
beginning June 8, when the [yiuseum's 
"New Perspectives in Archaeology" program 
gets underway at its field station near 
Vernon, Arizona. The tuition-free course 
emphasizes practical and theoretical 
archaeology, and includes the excavation 
and reconnaissance of sites that are 
estimated to have been inhabited from 
about 1000 B.C. to 1500 A.D. 

Under the direction of Dr. Paul S. Martin, 
Chairman Emeritus of the Museum's 
Department of Anthropology, each of the 
participants will be asked to devise and 
execute an independent research project. 
This involves the generation of an 
hypothesis, the collection and testing of 
data, and the preparation of a paper 
covering the research topic. The program 
is being financed for the ninth consecutive 
year by the National Science Foundation. 



African Music, Dance Offered 

Programs centered around the music and 
dances of Africa were presented at the 
Museum during May. On the 6th, Peggy 
Harper, Senior Research Fellow in Dance 
at the University of Ife, Nigeria, Africa, 
presented a film, "Nigerian Dance Teams," 
followed by a discussion period and lecture. 
She also conducted a workshop for dance 
groups later in the day. 

On the 12th, Sunto Suso of Gambia, West 
Africa, who is a virtuoso of the 21 -string 
kora, presented a program of traditional 
and modern Mandinka music and narrative. 
The kora, a combination of a harp and a 
lute, was developed to its present form in 
West Africa. It is usually played singly or 
in groups, but not in concert with other 
instruments. 



Women's Board Elects Officers 

The election of officers, a luncheon, and a 
panel discussion were among the events 
that took place during the annual meeting 
of Field Museum's Women's Board, May 8. 

The election of officers was conducted in 
the President's Room of the Museum. The 
following were elected: Mrs. B. Edward 
Bensinger, President: Mrs. Frank D. Mayer, 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich, and Mrs. Harold F. 
Grumhaus, Vice Presidents; Mrs. Thomas 

E. Donnelley II, Recording Secretary: Mrs. 
Carroll Sudler, Corresponding Secretary: 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus, Treasurer; Mrs. 
Edward F. Blettner, Assistant Treasurer; 
and Mrs. James W. Alsdorf, Mrs. Edward 
McCormick Blair, Mrs. Frank O. Wetmore, 
Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler, and Mrs. Philip K. 
Wrigley, Board Members at Large. Mrs. 
Elliott Donnelley was Chairwoman of the 
Nominating Committee. 

Following the election of officers. Museum 
Director E. Leiand Webber moderated a 
panel discussion on the subject of "The 
Museum as a Center for Scientific 
Research." Participants included Dr. Robert 

F. Inger, Assistant Director, Science and 
Education; Dr. Rainer Zangerl, Chairman, 
Department of Geology; and Dr. Rupert L. 
Wenzel, Chairman, Department of Zoology. 
The luncheon was then held in one of the 
Museum's handsome botanical halls. 

The chairwomen of the board's standing 
committees have also been named. They 
are: Mrs. Bowen Blair, By-laws; Mrs. 



University Club Cites Webber 




A highlight of the annual Women's Board 
meeting was the presentation to Museum 
Director E. Leiand Webber (left) of a citation 
from the University Club. Frank A. Reichelderfer, 
President of the club, congratulated Webber 
for his "outstanding contribution to the cultural 
life of Chicago." The award is given annually 
by the club for exceptional community service. 

Frencfi Paleontologist Visits 




A French flag flying in Iront of the Museum 
recently greeted visiting paleontologist 
Dr. Cecile Poplin, who with her husband. 
Dr. Francois Poplin (right), an anatomist, 
visited with Dr. Rainer Zangerl. Chairman 
of the Museum's Department of Geology. 
Drs. Poplin, from the National Museum of 
Natural History in Paris, were here to study 
some of the Museum's collections. 



Edward Byron Smith, Liaison with Building 
Committee; Mrs. Corwith Hamill, Liaison 
with Capital Campaign; Mrs. Edward F. 
Swift, Lists and Files; Mrs. J. Harris Ward, 
Membership: Mrs. Gaylord Freeman, 
Nominating; Mrs. Wallace D. MacKenzie, 
Program; Mrs. William Wood-Prince, 
Publicity; Mrs. Cameron Brown, Social; 
Mrs. Richard Oughton, Volunteers; Mrs. A. 
Watson Armour, III, Plants; and Mrs. Arthur 
S. Bowes, Special Events. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



15 



"T- V n ■■ 

lL j 



: 



American Indian Art 

By Norman Feder. New York: Harry N. 
Abrams, Inc., 1969. (Printed and bound in 
Japan.) 445 pp.; illustrations; map. $35. 

A notable recent ptienomenon in the art 
world has been widespread interest in art 
from all regions of the world. Ethnic art has 
been the subject of steadily increasing 
attention on the part of both art museums 
and private collectors and examples now 
bring fabulous prices from dealers or at 
auctions where formerly such objects were 
either ignored entirely or could be obtained 
very cheaply. Interest in the art of North 
American Indians has been an important 
aspect of this new enthusiasm and has 
resulted in the publication of numerous 
books, most of them of coffee table size and 
design, on the subject. Many of these are 
organized in an unimaginative manner and 
discussion of the objects chosen for 
illustration is superficial. These are 
criticisms that cannot be leveled at this fine 
book by Norman Feder, Curator of American 
Indian Art at the Denver Art Museum, 

The scope of Feder's book is restricted to 
historic art from North America north of 
Mexico and there are 242 black and white 
illustrations together with 59 color plates. 
Although the author believes that Indian art 



can be judged and appreciated by Western 
standards, he also stresses the fact that 
knowledge of the cultural context of an 
object greatly enhances one's appreciation 
as well as understanding. 

In his introductory chapters, Feder discusses 
the difficulty of identifying tribal styles 
primarily because of lack of documentation 
for specimens in museums and private 
collections. He also notes the importance of 
copied European styles and introduced 
European tools and materials. Other subjects 
dealt with briefly but with considerable 
insight include motivations for artistic 
decoration, the relationship of ecology to 
art, the artist as a specialist, and the 
commercialism that is characteristic of most 
recent American Indian art. Unlike many 
contemporary observers, Feder believes that 
the prospects for a viable Indian art in the 
future are good and will, under the most 
favorable circumstances, result in a vigorous 
development of new forms based on old 
traditions. 

The largest part of the book is devoted to a 
consideration of Indian art by culture areas. 
The major styles of each area are discussed 
in some detail with illustrations keyed to 
these discussions. Feder's treatment of the 
cultural and economic resources of the 
various areas is, of necessity, less detailed 
and there are some inevitable over- 
generalizations. The author's culture areas 
include the Plains, Southwest, Great Basin 
and Pacific Plateau, Northwest Coast, Arctic 
Coast, and Woodlands. As might be 
expected, heaviest emphasis is on the 
Plains, Southwest, and Northwest Coast 
areas where Indian art was highly developed 
and examples are abundant in museums 
and private collections. In addition to the art 
objects, black-and-white photographs 
include some historical scenes of Indians 
and their lifeways. Feder illustrates 16 
specimens from Field Museum collections, 
12 of which can be seen by visitors in the 
American Indian halls on the main floor. 
These include a beautiful Tlingit Chilkat 
blanket in Hall 10, a Cheyenne painted 
parfleche (Hall 6, case 22), and an elaborate 
Arapaho Ghost Dance dress 
(Hall 5, case 32). 

The quality of objects selected for 
illustration in this excellent book is so high, 
the scholarship so sound, and the work so 
beautifully produced that criticism somehow 
seems out of place. There are, however, 
so.Tie minor errors (at least one wrong 



catalogue number), and, inevitably, a few of 
the provenience attributions are 
questionable. In a work of this kind, it is 
always possible to question the author's 
selection of objects to be illustrated. My 
own particular preference would have been 
for the inclusion of the art of Northern 
Athapaskan Indians with illustrated examples 
of their quillwork designs, the most intricate 
in North America. 

In an era of expensive and ponderous 
coffee table books, this one is likely to 
make both your pocketbook and the table 
groan. Nevertheless, it is a marvelous book 
both for the sophisticated student of art and 
the novice seeing for the first time the 
superb achievements of North American 
Indian artists. 

by Dr. James VanStone, Chairman, 
Department ot Anthropology, Field Museum. 



The Colorful Mineral Identifier 

By Anthony Tennissen, Photographs by 
Werner Lieber. New York; Sterling 
Publishing Company. 120 color plates. $3,50 

Amateur mineral collectors repeatedly ask 
why it is not possible to have a book 
published on mineral identification that just 
simply tells how to identify minerals — no 
fancy stuff — just straightforward facts. They 
frequently cite any of the numerous good 
books on bird identification as examples of 
the kind of book they seek but do not find 
on the bookstands. Why no such book has 
appeared is simple — it is impossible. The 
reasons are numerous and can't be gone 
into in detail here. Suffice to say, if minerals 
were like birds then it would be possible. 
Each species of bird has, within pretty 
narrow limits, relatively constant adult size, 
coloration, body form or shape, habits, and 
habitat. This is not true of any mineral. 

Because the mineral collector constantly 
seeks such a cut-and-dried book, publishers 
are constantly attempting to supply it — they 
themselves unaware of the difficulties. The 
result is a plethora of books on the market 
that promise a great deal, but fail, in varying 
degrees, to satisfy the demand. The Colorlul 
Mineral Identilier is unfortunately [again] 
just such a book. Any untutored amateur, 
armed with this book, will find it hopeless 
as a means to identify most of the minerals 
he encounters. 

One of the main complaints of amateurs 



June 1973 



with books already on the market is, "I 
never collect minerals that look anything like 
the pictures in the books." The reason is 
simple. Most amateurs are able to collect 
mainly fairly run-of-the-mill specimens of a 
few dozen of the very common minerals. 
When specimens are chosen for book 
illustrations, however, authors almost always 
choose nice-looking to fabulous-looking 
specimens; and in order to offer enough 
pages they usually include minerals the 
amateur is never likely to encounter in the 
field. The specimens shown in this book 
were clearly chosen for these same reasons. 
The text, on the other hand, is weak. Each 
page of text is a strict, rigid format of: name, 
composition, crystal system, hardness, 
specific gravity, etc., etc., ending with a 
generalized list of localities that is useless 
for an amateur collector. What the text does 
is to touch all bases; it duplicates the 
descriptive texts of hundreds of mineral 
books and mineralogy texts of several 
previous generations. 

Thus, as a book for the beginner to use in 
mineral identification it is. in the estimation 
of this reviewer, a flop. This is not to say, 
however, that it is totally without any merit. 
The 120 color photographs by Wernei Lieber 
are excellent. Although not printed on 
glossy stock, the color rendition is sharp, 
bright, and the hues quite true — a tribute to 
an unnamed professional who prepared the 
color separations with pride and obvious 
skill. The specimens illustrated consist 
mostly of small, down to microscopic, size 
crystals. In each case they are attractive, 
well-crystallized, and of the best color 
known for each mineral. 

It is unfortunate the author and publisher 
chose to call this book The Colorful Mineral 
Identifier. Had they simply called it The 
Colorlul Mineral Book, without the implied 
promise of help to the noyice, and included 
a text that pointed up distinctive features 
(not necessarily the same routines ones) of 
each mineral, it would have received an 
unqualified recommendation from this 
reviewer. Even at that, if you are deeply 
interested in mineral collecting, at any level, 
it is a worthwhile purchase for the 120 fine 
color photographs at an unbelievably low 
price of S3. 50. Even though the plates are of 
fairly small size, ZVt inches by 4 inches, 
they are well worth the price. In these days, 
such bargains are few. 

by Dr. Edward Olsen, Curator ot Mineralogy, 
Field Museum, 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Continuing 

Below Man's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Through July 15, 
Hall 18. 

Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 
Survival, a multi-media exhibit describing 
and interpreting the adaptive significance 
of the unusual life cycle of these strange 
insects. Millions of cicadas (locusts) are 
scheduled to make their noisy appearance 
above ground in the Chicago area around 
June 1. Through July 29. Hall 9. 

Adaptations of Amphibians and Reptiles, 

an exhibit of photographs portraying the 
natural beauty and aesthetic qualities of 
these animals, as well as illustrating some 
of their often remarkable and unique 
adaptations which help them survive. They 
were taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman, Department of Continuing 
Education in Sciences and Mathematics, 
University of California, Berkeley. Through 
September 30. Hall 27. 

Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 



Field Museum's 75tfi Anniversary Exfiibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, and 
cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense of 
History" presents a graphic portrayal of the 
Museum's past; and "A Sense of Discovery" 
shows examples of research conducted by 
Museum scientists. Hall 3. 



Children's Programs 

Begins June 1 

Summer Journey for Children, "Nature 
Invented It First," a self-guided tour 
highlighting animals and plants which 
possess "innovative" features duplicated in 
human inventions. Youngsters are provided 
with a questionnaire which routes them 
through Museum exhibit areas. All boys 
and girls who can read and write may join 
in the activity. Journey sheets available at 
entrances. 

Meetings 

June 10: 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club 

June 12: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club 
'of Chicago 

June 13: 7 p.m., Chicago Ornithological 
Society 

June 13: 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society 

June 14: 8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 
Club 

June 26: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago 



Coming in July 

Children's movies at 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. on 
Thursdays in the James Simpson Theatre. 



June Hours 

9 a.m to 6 p.m. Saturday through Thursday; 
9 am to 9 p.m. Friday. 

Beginning June 23 and continuing through September 
2. the Museum will be open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 
on Wednesday. Friday, Saturday and Sunday. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



Volume 44, Number 7 
July/August 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 7 
July/August 1973 




2 Spiders — The Ingenious Predators 

John Kethley 

the curious ways of some ol man's 

closest neighbors 

5 Welcome to the Stone Age 

the Museum's Hall of the Stone Age of 
the Old World revisited 

12 Our Botanists Scour Latin America 

a review of recent field work 

15 Capital Campaign 

$10 million-level reached 

16 Field Briefs 
Calendar 



century German-Swiss naturalist Konrad Von Gesner. 
Cover design by Cliftord Abrams. 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Director, E, Leiand Webber 

Managing Editor G Henry Ottery; Editor David M. Walsten; Staff Writer Madge Jacobs: Production Russ Becker; Photography John Bayalis, 
Fred Huysmans. 

The Field Museum ot Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, Illinois 60605, Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe 
through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




mers 



the ingenious predators 



By John B. Kethley 

Assistant Curator of Insects 




The fisher spider (Dolomedes), shown about twice natural size, eats small tish as well as tadpoles 
and insects. About a dozen species are found in the United Stales and Canada. Photo courtesy of 
John H. Gerard. 



Although they are among the most 
bashful of creatures, spiders occupy 
an important place in man's ecological 
sphere. Compared to their close 
relatives the insects, spiders are 
relatively inactive and retiring; most are 
well camouflaged in dark or dull colors, 
thus they are seldom conspicuous in 
nature. It has been estimated, however, 
that in some grasslands the spider 
population may exceed 2.2 million per 
acre. Since all spiders are predators, 
such an abundance of them has a 
significant effect on other animals (and 
plants) in their communitlee. 

As predators, many of the 30,000-odd 
known species of spiders depend in 
one way or another on their silk for 
capturing prey (all possess silk glands). 
Relatively few spin webs. The beautifully 
intricate, wheel-shaped webs of the 
orb-weaving spiders are familiar to 
everyone. Unlike many of its relatives, 
the orb-weaver has poor vision. It 
locates insects or other creatures that 
have become entrapped in the sticky 
web by means of vibrations imparted to 
the web by the struggling victim. The 
so-called ray-spider also spins an 
orb-shaped web. This spider lashes 
several "spokes" together with a 
central thread, then perches above the 
web on a twig, holding the central 
thread and pulling the web into a 
funnel-like shape. When an insect 
touches the web, the spider releases 
the thread and the wetD snaps free, 
ensnaring the victim. 

Purseweb and pirate spiders 

For many years spider experts could 
not determine how the purseweb spider 
captures her prey. This spider constructs 
a tubular web with the base sunken 
into the earth, about three inches of 
tube extending above ground. The 
mystery lay in the fact that the upper 
end of the tube was sealed and the 
spider was always found inside. 
Eventually it was observed that when 
an insect comes in contact with the 
tube, the spider strikes through the 
silken tube from the inside. The prey 
IS then pulled through the wall of the 
tube. Before the spider eats her victim, 
however, she repairs the damage to 
the purseweb. 

Pirate spiders of the family Mimetidae 
feed exclusively on other spiders. They 



. July/August 1973 



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"-~» «T.T.ryi 1 k k.-\-%-*-W y^'^'rjK^ 



r*'*' .. ■ — ."^ - "• >» v.v# ^■.~»~i"VT.'k'»»'^ 




THE ORB-WEAVING SPIDER 
begins its web (1) by letting a 
strand of silk drift over to another 
twig. (2) The connection is 
reinforced by nnore strands. (3) A 
vertical strand is dropped from the 
middle. (4) A horizontal strand is 
pulled down to form a triangle. 
(5) The web takes shape, with 
spokes being added. (6, 7) Spokes 
completed, spiraling strands are 
laid outward from the hub. 



do not make their own webs but invade 
the webs of orb-weavers and comb- 
footed spiders, killing the rightful owner. 

Some pirate spiders of the genus Ero 
quietly enter the web of an intended 
victim, clear a space among the threads 
and then pull on the prey's web in the 
same manner as a courting male. The 
aroused occupant scurries out, hoping 
to encounter a new mate, only to 
become a meal for Ero! 

Versatility of silk 

In addition to making webs, spiders 
use silk in a variety of other ways. 
Once a victim is ensnared in a web, 
the spider may completely wrap it with 
silk and save it to be eaten later. 
Males make silken packets in which 
they transfer sperm to the female. 



Eggs are often protected by special 
sacs constructed of silk. Some young 
spiders use a strand of silk as a "sail." 
They crawl to the top of a leaf or 
twig, spin a trail of silk, then are blown 
aloft. When the wind catches the 
thread, the spider may be carried for 
hundreds of miles on wind currents. 
This is one of nature's unique ways 
of species dispersal. 

Jumping spiders of the family 
Salticidae do not make webs but 
search for prey on the ground or in 
vegetation. When a jumping spider is 
above ground and spies an insect 
below, she first secures a drag line to 
the twig and then jumps. If she misses 
her prey, the drag line stops her fall, 
and she scampers back up the line to 
try another time. Stories of such 
persistence, patience, and industry 



among spiders are legion. Scottish hero 
Robert "the Bruce" (1274-1329) 
allegedly was inspired to renew his 
struggles against the English by 
watching a persevering spider. 

Spitting spiders of the family Scytodicae 
capture their prey in a more sedate 
manner. When a potential victim is 
about half an inch away, the spider 
shoots a blob of sticky silk onto the 
prey, pinning it to the surface. She 
then leisurely strolls over to her meal. 

Some of the cribellate spiders actually 
carry their webs to the victim (usually 
a moth). The spider constructs a small 
rectangular web and attaches the 
corners to her four front legs. When 
an insect lands nearby, the spider 
leaps on the victim and covers it 
with the net. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




The notorious black widow has a painful bite, 
but victims usually recover within several hours. 
Actual body size is about V2 inch Photo 
courtesy of John H. Gerard. 

Cannibalism 

Nearly all of the social or gregarious 
spider species are cribellates. Male 
cribellates have a less precarious 
marriage than males of most other 
groups. During mating, the female 
allows him to remain in the same web, 
and will tolerate his presence there 
for several months afterward. 

The killing and eating of the male by 
the female spider after mating is one 
of the common misconceptions about 
spiders. Actually, the fate of the 
male depends upon a great many 
highly variable conditions. If the female 
has recently eaten, or if the male 
gives the proper identifying cues, he 
stands a very good chance of escaping 
after mating. 

Giants and midgets 

One of the largest spiders found in the 
United States is a species of tarantula, 
or hairy mygalomorph, Dugesiella 
hentzi, common to the southwest. It 
easily covers the palm of the hand 
with its outstretched legs. The tarantula 
also holds the record for longevity 
among spiders. Some captive females 
have lived almost 30 years. Most true 
spiders, however, live only 12 to 18 
months, producing one or two batches 




The bite of the brown recluse spider ulcerates 
and IS slow to heal. Actual body size is about 
Vi inch. 



of young. Dwarf spiders (Linyphiidae) 
are the midgets of the spider world. 
Several would fit comfortably inside 
this letter 0. 

Venomous spiders 

Although most spiders are quite 
harmless, the entire group is often 
eyed with suspicion because of a few 
notoriously poisonous species. In 
the United States there are two groups 
of species that one should learn to 
recognize and regard with caution; the 
widows, or hourglass spiders 
{Latrodectus, especially L. mactans), 
and the brown spiders {Loxosceles. 
especially L. reclusa and L. laeta). 
Latrodectus mactans occurs virtually 
throughout the United States, with the 
exception of Hawaii and Alaska. 
Relatively uncommon in nature, it 
is most frequently discovered in trash 
piles, under boards, and in outbuildings. 
The body and legs of the adult 
female are shiny black and there is a 
characteristic red hourglass on the 
lower abdomen; the total leg span is 
about iy2 inches. The male — a 
fraction the size of the female — does 
not bite. The female is actually not 
very aggressive and must be provoked 
before she will bite. She is most apt 
to bite when guarding an egg sac. 
The venom of the black widow is a 



nerve poison, causing severe pain, 
nausea, and muscular weakness, but 
recovery generally follows in a matter 
of hours. 

The brown recluse (L. reclusa) occurs 
primarily in the Midwest, and like 
the black widow is quite comfortable 
in man's dwellings. The characteristic 
"fiddle" marking is found on the upper 
part of the body that bears the legs. 
The venom of the brown recluse 
causes an ulcerous wound that is slow 
to heal. The bite of the brown spider 
{Loxosceles laeta) has a similar action 
to that of L. reclusa but is considerably 
more potent. This spider is native to 
South America but has become 
established in the United States. 
The large tarantulas of the southwest 
are greatly feared, but this fear is totally 
without foundation. A tarantula will not 
bite unless it is abused. Even then, 
the fangs usually do not penetrate the 
skin. If penetration does occur it is 
hardly more painful than a pin prick; 
other than this slight discomfort the 
effect of the venom is nil. 



Spiders are victims, too 

Just as most spiders are aggressive 
predators, they too, are preyed upon 
by other creatures. Certain species of 
mud-daubers and digger wasps seek 
out spiders, stinging them with a 
paralyzing venom, then dragging the 
stunned spider off to their nests to 
provide food for their own growing 
young. A notable example of such a 
predator is the tarantula hawk, Pepsis, 
that searches for female tarantulas. 
Rarely does this giant spider win battle 
with the intrepid wasp. Many insects 
are parasites of spider egg sacs. The 
larvae of mantid flies are known to 
develop only in the egg sacs of ground 
spiders. The larvae of small-headed 
flies of the family Acroceridae are 
internal parasites of adult spiders. The 
most common enemies of spiders, 
however, are birds and other spiders. 

Between its alternate roles as predator 
and victim the spider manages to hold 
on to its own delicate foothold in the 
ecological scheme of things. Like man, 
the spider has so far been "successful." 

This article was published with the permission 
ot National Wildlite magazine. 



July/August 1973 



WELCOME 



TO THE STONE AGE 



The Museums Stone Age Hall Revisited 



Forty years ago, while a "century of 
progress" was being celebrated in 
Chicago, Field Museum was celebrating 
5,000 centuries of less energetic 
progress by opening Hall C, which 
depicts, in eight dramatic groups, 
human prehistory from an early 
stage in the Pleistocene period down 
to the dawn of the historical period. 
This reconstruction of 500,000 years of 
man's past was a spectacle never 
before attempted by any museum in the 
world. Since that day in July 1933 
millions of visitors to the "Hall of the 
Stone Age of the Old World" have stood 
in awe before the life-like groups of 
prehistoric man, and wondered at the 
nearby cases of artifacts from the 
periods represented in the dioramas. 
The exhibit's unusual human interest, 
tinged with overtones of adventure and 
romance, has placed it consistently 
among the fvluseum's most famous and 
popular attractions. 

Preparations for the presentation had 
begun many years before its completion, 
and involved extensive travel and 
research, and the acquisition of 
archaeological collections from Europe 
as well as other parts of the world. The 
general plan was the result of many 
hours of intense collaboration between 
Henry Field, assistant curator of 
physical anthropology, and Dr. Berthold 
Laufer, curator of anthropology, with the 
cooperation of Abbe Henri Breuil, 



professor at the College de France in 
Paris and corresponding member of 
Field Museum. Their guiding purpose 
was to present the most complete and 
interesting picture that scientific 
knowledge then permitted of the lives, 
cultures, and physical characters of 
prehistoric members of the human race. 

To obtain data for accurate exhibits, it 
was necessary to visit many prehistoric 
sites. In June 1927 Field, Breuil, and 
well-known American sculptor Frederick 
Blaschke visited prehistoric sites in 
Europe to conduct studies for the 
dioramas. They were accompanied by a 
photographer, Henri Barreyre, and an 
artist, Pierre Gatier. For each site scale 
models were built, and motion and still 
pictures, as well as paintings, were 
prepared. This expedition and three 
more were financed by Marshall Field. 

From data collected on these field trips, 
Blaschke was able to make the life-size 
human figures, under the direction of 
Sir Arthur Keith, Prof. G. Elliot Smith, 
and Breuil. The brushes of Museum 
staff artist Charles A. Corwin lent 
dramatic interest and realism to the 
painted backgrounds. 

The resulting dioramas reflect a perfect 
blend of scholarship, imagination, talent, 
and labor, for the resource material 
was, at best, fragmentary — literally. 
Well-preserved skeletal material of 



Neanderthalers and Cro-Magnons has 
often been found, but rarely does the 
material represent an appreciable part 
of the complete skeleton. In addition, 
as pointed out by Dr. Glen Cole, 
associate curator of prehistory in the 
Museum's anthropology department, 
in the October 1972 Bulletin: ". . . when 
such unpreserved aspects of 
Neanderthal man's appearance as 
clothing, skin color, and hair form, 
length, and style are concerned, much 
guesswork is involved. . . ." 

The guesswork, of course, is attributable 
to early man's inability to keep 
permanent records of his civilization 
and pass them down through his 
ancestors. Although in 1690 a pear- 
shaped tool, associated with the bones 
of an extinct elephant, was found near 
Gray's Inn Lake in London and aroused 
a little interest, the study of prehistory 
did not really begin until much later. In 
1847 Boucher de Perthes published an 
account of worked flints collected by 
him from the alluvial deposits of the 
Somme River in northern France, 
triggering, perhaps, the first serious 
attempts by man to delve into his 
distant past. 

Laufer once wrote, about attempts to 
reconstruct prehistory, "I would gladly 
sacrifice all medieval local chronicles of 
European towns and monasteries and 
throw the lives of the emperors and 



Field Museum Bulletin 




1. The first diorama depicts Homo ereclus in Europe about 500,000 years ago, although early forms of 
man also lived in Asia and Africa. These men had a language, made stone tools, and used fire. 



martyrs for good measure into the 
bargain in exchange for one 
contemporaneous motion picture reel 
taken of the life of the Neanderthalers 
and Cro-f^agnons and a dozen 
dictaphone records of their speech and 
songs, not to speak of the gain that 
v^ould have accrued to our knowledge 
of history and anthropology if Alexander 
the Great, on his conquest of Asia, had 
been accompanied by an army of 
camera men." But, Laufer continued, 
probably with a sigh, "The next best 
thing to the motion pictures of which we 
unfortunately are deprived is the drama 
in eight acts represented by the eight 
groups of prehistoric man and his 
culture. . . ." 

Act I — 500,000 years ago 

Imagine the outrage of people born just 
a century or two ago had they come 
across the Ivluseum's diorama of men 
of the Pleistocene period, for many of 
their most learned believed that the 
world was created in 4004 B.C., 
according to the chronology of 
Archbishop Ussher (1581-1656), and 
that man was the result of special 
creation. It would have been 
incomprehensible to them that billions 
of years had passed before any animal 



that could be definitely recognized as 
human had evolved upon the earth, and 
that it happened so long ago. 

The figures in the first diorama, 
depicting a scene in the middle part of 
the Pleistocene period in northern 
France some 500,000 years ago, would, 
in their minds, have been of questionable 
similarity to humans. Homo ereclus 



appears rugged, has powerful jaws, is 
covered with coarse, thick hair, and 
looks quite frightening from our point of 
view. Because of the meagerness of 
data on this period, Henry Field and his 
assistants decided to present the scene 
in the approximated dimness of silvery 
moonlight. In the foreground, squatting 
beside a fire in the shelter of a large 
rock, are two hunters. One is chipping 
flakes from a crude flint hand ax, 
preparing for tomorrow's hunt. On the 
opposite bank of a meandering river, 
the fire drives three elephants from their 
watering place. Farther upstream a 
hippopotamus can be seen on the bank. 
Near the skyline a magnificent stag 
watches the flickering light, while a pack 
of wolves steals through the 
underbrush. 

During this warm interval in the Ice Age, 
great varieties of animals dominated the 
earth. Man, small in numbers and 
physically weak in comparison, was 
forced to use ingenuity and his powers 
of reason. He had knowledge of fire, 
enabling him to keep away marauding 
animals. He was becoming sophisticated 
in the manufacture of stone tools and 
weapons. The tools he produced are 
called Acheulean. It is interesting to 
note that these primitive men could 




2. Homo sapiens was distributed over much of the Old World by around 100,000 years ago. This 
second diorama depicts a Neanderthal family on Gibraltar approximately 50,000 years ago. 



July/August 1973 



have walked from France to England to 
hunt during colder times In the 
Pleistocene period, when the English 
Channel did not exist. 

At the close of this period, the climate 
was becoming colder, and the 
mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, and other 
cold-loving fauna moved into western 
Europe. 

Act II — 50,000 years ago 

Gibralter, the home of the Neanderthal 
family of the period depicted in the 
second diorama, during the most recent 
cold period of the Ice Age, was far 
enough south to be among the 
European Homo sapiens' milder 
habitats; but unlike its northern 
neighbors this family enjoyed meals of 
shellfteh from the Mediterranean. 

The family is shown at the entrance to 
Devil's Tower rock shelter at Gibralter. 
Silhouetted against the deep blue of the 
Mediterranean stands a young man with 
a wooden club, bringing a rabbit he has 
killed, as other members of the family 
go about their daily activities. The father 
crouches beside the fire waiting for 
mussels to open as the heat penetrates 
the shells. His five-year-old son, wishing 
to help, is bringing twigs to replenish 
the fire. Within the rock cleft, the mother 
is carrying her baby on her hip. 

In addition to finding new uses for fire 
and inventing a variety of new tools for 
scraping skins for clothes and removing 
meat from bones, observed examples of 
ceremonial interment of the dead seem 
evidence that the larger-set (by 
comparison with Homo erectus) 
Neanderthaler revered his dead and 
believed in a future life. (This diorama 
recently underwent a revision, to reflect 
recent scientific opinion. See the 
October 1972 Bulletin, page 6.) 

Act III — 35,000 years ago 

About 35,000 years ago, while the 
climate of western Europe was still 
extremely cold, a new race, the Cro- 
Magnons, entered Europe from Asia. 




3. Gargas cave in southwestern France is ttie scene of many cave paintings and friezes, and one of its 
cfiambers is reproduced for the third diorama. A second Cro-IVIagnon is out of the picture to the right. 



They seem to have replaced completely 
the Neanderthal population, whether 
due to competition, war, inbreeding, or 
other causes. No Neanderthal remains 
are found after this time. The differences 
in physical appearance between them 
and the Neanderthalers is apparent to 
visitors standing before the third 
diorama in the Museum's drama of 
stone age men. In general, the Gro- 
Magnons were taller in stature than the 
Neanderthalers. Their most important 
differences, however, are found in their 
cultures, for here is the dawn of art, and 
a significant advance in toolmaking. 

Two modern theories to explain the 
emergence of this artistic expression 
differ, though both connect the Cro- 
Magnon's art to his food supply. The 
popular theory contends that art was 
considered necessary to a successful 
hunt, that man's art was a form of 
"hunting magic" that would ensure the 
artist a good hunt through this 
ceremonial killing on the cave walls. 
The other theory, held by many 
practicing anthropologists, is that these 
drawings were a form of "fertility 
magic" that was meant to ensure an 



abundant game supply. 

As can be seen in the third diorama, 
artistic expression took the form of 
engravings and paintings in the Gro- 
Magnon's cave. His depictions of 
animals are natural, accented with 
scratches made with tools, or 
applications of some colored pigment. 
And, like the creators of the Museum's 
stone age dioramas, the Gro-Magnon 
often created models to simplify the 
faithful and accurate reproduction of the 
animals. These models were in the form 
of carvings upon bone, ivory, or stone. 

The Gro-Magnon man in the diorama is 
working by fire and lamplight — animal 
fat was burned in stone lamps. He is 
resting on his left knee, his left hand 
held firmly against the wall with fingers 
outspread. In his right hand he holds a 
hollow bone tube prepared from the leg 
bone of a reindeer. Through this tube 
he is blowing powdered red ocher 
around the outlines of his fingers, so 
that when his hand is removed from the 
wall an imprint remains. This frieze of 
hands is reproduced from Gargas Gave 
in southwestern France. On the ground 



Field Museum Bulletin 



nearby are a pestle and mortar used for 
powdering the ocher, and the shoulder 
blade of a cave bear upon which part of 
the coloring material has been mixed 
with grease. Overhead the stalactites 
glisten in the glow of the fire. From the 
back of the cave another Cro-Magnon 
is coming toward the sanctuary, his 
face illuminated by the sandstone lamp 
that he carries. 

This scene shows the dawn of art. Art 
appears to have been an instrument for 
the practice of magic and religion; at 
that time, according to Field, there was 
very little difference between them. Also 
new during this period was the use of 
personal ornamentation. Necklaces of 
reindeer teeth, seashells, or fish 
vertebrae were worn. The Cro-Magnon 
hunters may have painted their bodies 
with red ocher, as their dead have been 
found buried with a coating of this 
material. It seems possible that this 
custom was connected with the belief 
that blood was synonymous with life, 
and if so that they were buried thus, 
along with their finest ornaments and 
most useful tools and weapons, to make 



an imposing appearance in the new life 
beyond the grave. 

Act IV — 20.000 years ago 

The scene: Roc de Sers, southwestern 
France, in a valley bounded on each 
side by cliffs. In the cliff above the right 
bank there is a cave with a broad 
platform below. On this platform are a 
quantity of burned bones, ashes, and 
calcined pebbles; flint tools and rejects 
suggest that part of the platform was 
used as a workshop. At the back of the 
platform are large blocks arranged in a 
semicircle. 

The time: early in the 20th century. 

Enter: Archaeologist Henri Martin and 
members of his expedition. In order to 
excavate underneath the semicircle of 
large blocks, the scientists remove them 
— and in so doing throw an entirely new 
light on the art of the Solutrean period 
of 20,000 years ago. 

When the first block was overturned, 
sculptures of two animals were 



discovered on the side which had been 
lying face down. The remaining blocks 
were disengaged and set back in 
position on a natural ledge from which 
they had fallen or been thrown, and the 
scientists gazed upon a magnificent 
frieze. Looking from left to right, they 
observed on the first block a figure 
representing a masked human in an 
attitude suggestive of dancing. On the 
other blocks are seen two small horses 
and another animal with an elongated 
muzzle; a musk-ox, his head lowered, in 
the act of charging a man, who is 
fleeing in terror; a short-legged horse 
and traces of an ox destroyed by the 
sculptor; and a small horse preceded 
by a fantastic animal with a head like 
that of a boar or a carnivore, an 
elliptical eye, and elongated muzzle, 
pointed ears, and no horns. The animals 
are represented as walking and the 
precision of movement reveals an 
accurate power of observation. A 
detailed study of the frieze suggests 
that it was executed by several artists. 

This scene is recreated in the fourth 
diorama in the Hall of the Stone Age of 












4. A Solutrean sculptor of 20,000 years ago carves a horse on a block ot stone. On the shell behind 
him are reproductions of the other stone carvings found by Henri Martin's expedition to Le Roc, France. 





b Ihe most prominent example oi Magaaienian art 
France. The skeleton of a young girl (represented by a 



July/August 1973 



the Old World, through the courtesy of 
Dr. Martin, who made casts from the 
live original sculptures to create the 
scene as it must have appeared 200 
centuries ago. The blocks have been 
placed in the position in w/hich they 
were arranged by the Solutrean artists. 
Museum visitors who look closely at 
these blocks will note that all of the 
animals, sculptured in high relief, are 
pregnant. The questions arises: was the 
original site a sanctuary for the practice 
of "fertility magic?" 

During the period depicted in this 
diorama, which shows a Solutrean 
sculpting a horse on a block of stone, 
the climate grew colder and the horse 
and wild reindeer were the chief 
sources of food. The Solulreans 
developed new tools, including flint 
spearheads shaped like laurel leaves. 
Other new forms of tools show that 
these people were masters of a 
flint-knapping technique that had not 
appeared previously. They also made 
javelin points of bone and a slender, 
notched dart that would remain in the 
flesh of an animal. 



Act V — 15,000 years ago 

In 1865, a new prehistoric culture, 
subsequently named Magdalenian, was 
excavated at the base of an overhanging 
limestone cliff, where the great rock 
shelter of La Madeleine, France, is 
located. Many years later, in a small 
rock shelter called Cap-Blanc in 
southwestern France, what may still be 
the most prominent example of 
Magdalenian sculpture was found, and 
it is this shelter that has been 
reproduced as the fifth diorama in the 
stone age hall. 

During the course of excavation at 
Cap-Blanc, a workman accidentally 
drove his pickaxe into a human skull, 
and a complete skeleton was unearthed. 
It was determined that it belonged to an 
18-year-old girl. The original skeleton, 
the only Magdalenian skeleton in the 
United States, is one of Field Museum's 
unique treasures, and lies in a case 
near the diorama; a modern skeleton 
has been placed in the diorama in the 
same position in which the original was 
found. 



During the Magdalenian period, Europe 
was still cold and man continued to vie 
with bears and other animals for 
possession of caves. But food was 
abundant, and new weapons assured 
more successful hunting and fishing. 
The men of this period produced the 
finest naturalistic representation of 
prehistoric times. The frieze reproduced 
in the Museum's diorama is copied from 
the Cap-Blanc shelter. Since the 
drawings were placed far from the 
entrances of shelters or caves, often 
upon almost inaccessible walls, the 
artist was not merely giving expression 
to his aesthetic emotions, wrote Field, 
but rather to some quasi-magicoreligious 
symbolism. 

Act VI — 12,000 years ago 

Ice sheets had almost completely 
melted in much of the Northern 
Hemisphere. The arctic flora was 
replaced by the birch and the pine. 
Modern fauna, characterized by the red 
deer, took the place of the cold-loving 
mammoth and reindeer. The mammoth 
became extinct. And old human culture 





D years ago was found at Cap-Blanc, 
I skeleton in the diorama) was also found 



6. A boar hunt with spears and dogs depicts how the Cro-Magnon of 12,000 years ago had turned 
from larger herd animals to small game. A fifth dog lies dead, out of the photograph to the right. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



began the transition from the old to the 
new stone age. This transitional period 
is called the Mesolithic period. Of the 
several cultures identified with this time 
in history, the Azilian culture of about 
10.000 B.C. was chosen to represent the 
era in the sixth diorama, and this 
diorama is the most dramatic of the 
entire series. 

An example of one of the later hunting 
peoples who roamed the soil of Europe 
during this period is recreated for 
Museum visitors with a wild boar hunt 
at the entrance to the cavern of the Mas 
d'Azil, near Toulouse. One important 
step in man's advance toward 
civilization Is immediately apparent: he 
has tamed dogs to assist in the hunting 
of his quarry. The scene shows two 
Azilians at close quarters with an 
enraged wild boar defending his mate 
and two young pigs. The hunters have 
wooden spears armed with flint points. 
Three of the five dogs shown in the 
group are restrained with rawhide straps 
held by one of the hunters. One dog is 
lying dead near the water, the result of 
coming within range of the sharp tusks 
of the male boar, which is being kept 
at bay. 

The assistance of man's faithful 
companion, the dog, in the hunt might 
well compensate for the inferior quality 
of the hunting weapons. But the Azilians 
were inferior in their art, also, which, 
when compared to the Magdalenians, is 
degenerate. They made neither 
engravings nor sculptures, and their 
painting was limited to simple designs 
in red ocher on flat pebbles. 

Act VII — The new stone age 

The moving religious experience of the 
next diorama provides a sharp contrast 
to the excitement of the Azilian hunt. 
Man has moved into the Neolithic 
period, or new stone age, and brought 
with him the new culture upon which 
our modern civilization rests. Among 
the contributions of Neolithic man is the 
practice of agriculture; the true 
domestication of animals, which 
involves breeding in captivity; pottery- 




7. Farming was becoming the way of life for people in parts of Europe by about 4000 B.C. Tfiis 
reproduction of a stone alignment in nortfiwestern France suggests they also worshipped the sun. 



making; the development of settled 
village life; tool-making by grinding and 
polishing; and the sophistication of the 
ideas of law, government, and religion, 
which were to reach culmination in the 
succeeding "civilized" societies. 

A form of worship originating during this 
period is depicted in the seventh 
diorama. These early farmers placed 
single standing stones, known as 
menhirs, in parallel lines. These 
constructions are found in Europe, 
Africa, and Asia, but the most important 
is at Carnac in Brittany. Upright stones, 
from two to twenty-one feet in height, 
are lined up in parallel rows in three 
sections. The largest section is eleven 
lines wide. At the ends of two sections 
are large rings of stones. At one point 
the lines cross a collective grave. The 
line of menhirs in the diorama, 
reproduced from Carnac, running east 
and west, may have been a place of 
worship of the sun, possibly connected 
in some way with the cult of the dead. 
The priest is shown with his hands 
outstretched toward the rising sun. 



which casts long, dark shadows behind 
the great blocks of weathered granite. 
He is welcoming the new day, and the 
emotion of the scene is often translated 
by its modern viewers as the welcoming 
of civilization as they know it. 

Act VIII — Dawn of Historical Period 

During the winter of 1853-54 the water 
in Lake Zurich, Switzerland, receded to 
an unusually low level, and revealed the 
first evidence of pile villages — buildings 
constructed on piles — which had 
originally been on the lake's shore. The 
Swiss Lake Dwellers of this late 
Neolithic period had discovered, as had 
their relatives throughout Europe, that 
huts constructed on platforms enabled 
them to live on already cleared, though 
wet and boggy, land. Sometimes these 
platforms were raised or supported on 
piles. 

The ends of the poles — trunks of oak, 
beech, fir, pine, and birch trees — were 
pointed with the aid of stone axes and 
driven into the swampy ground with 
heavy stones or crude mallets. To make 



10 



July/August 1973 



the platform, trunks of trees were laid 
across the piles and secured to them by 
wooden pins. The rectangular huts were 
thatched with bark, straw, reeds, or 
rushes. The sides, made of wattles, 
were covered inside and out with a 
thick layer of clay. 

The Lake Dwellers were an industrious 
people. They raised cattle, sheep, goats, 
and pigs, and cultivated crops; they 
were successful hunters: they practiced 
weaving of vegetable fibers. They 
imported, through trade, copper and 
bronze with which to fashion their 
implements, elaborate jewelry, bits for 
their horses, and knives and swords. 
Their civilization developed quickly, but 
Henry Field noted that when a people 
who understood the use of iron came 
among them, probably as conquerors, 
the Swiss Lake Dwellers, as 
representatives of an individual culture, 
virtually disappeared. Within a few 
centuries, Rome became the dominant 
power. 



The final diorama in the Hall of the 
Stone Age of the Old World is a large 
group showing a calm early morning 
scene on Lake Neuchatel, about 2800 
B.C. In the foreground two fishermen 
are hauling in their seine, which 
contains the first catch of the day. The 
water reflects the pink glow of the dawn, 
which gives the snow-clad Alpine peaks 
a roseate hue. On the right is the 
village with its thatched houses. The 
villagers are beginning their daily tasks. 

The dawn of the historical period is at 
hand. 

Concluding observations 

■ Dioramas," noted the October 1933 
edition of Fortune magazine, "are a 
20th-century improvement in museum 
technique. Instead of the old-fashioned 
cases of placarded specimens they offer 
mounted animals or plaster figures 
surrounded by carefully imitated stones 
and trees, all arranged to melt 
imperceptibly into a painted background 



. . . Field Museum, always progressive, 
is the first to offer such reconstructions 
of prehistoric man. The dioramas . . . 
are life-size, cost $150,000 to make." 

Nearly 3.3 million perscr:s visited Field 
Museum in 1933, and a large portion of 
them paused in the stone age hall. 
Viewing their ancient ancestors must 
have been a personal experience for 
each of them. 

Henry Field wrote, in Anthropology 
Leaflet 31, that the Hall of Stone Age 
Man of the Old World allows us "to 
turn our thoughts longingly back to 
eons of time that were still a sealed 
book to the preceding generation. . . . 
No one who will spend only a few 
minutes in front of each of these groups 
will ever forget them; they live and 
endure in our memory, and their 
memory will always urge us with 
irresistible force to return to them. A 
new world has been opened here to all 
of us with plenty of food for thought 
and study." 




8. During the third millenium B.C. Swiss villages were built on the soft, wet shores of lakes. This final 
diorama depicts a late Neolithic period just before the dawn of history. 



Field Museum Bulletin 11 




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Dr. Louis Williams studies the growth 
above a tranquil forest pool. 



Since the Museum's first txjtanical 
expedition — a collecting trip to the 
Yucatan in 1894-96 by the first botany 
curator and founder of the herbarium, 
Dr. Charles F. Millspaugh — more than 
60 such expeditions have been made to 
the American tropics. 

During the early months of 1973 several 
botanical trips were made to this region. 
Dr. Louis Williams, chairman of the 
department, was in Guatemala: Dr. 
William Burger, associate curator, and 
Dr. Johnnie L. Gentry, Jr., assistant 
curator, were in Costa Rica, as were 
Robert Stolze. custodian of the fern 
collection, and Dr. John J. Engel, 
Donald Richards assistant curator of 
bryology (the study of mosses and 
liverworts). While these men were 
investigating the flora of Central 
America Dr. Rolf Singer, visiting 
research curator in mycology (the study 
of fungi), was in Ecuador. 

Prof. Antonio Molina R., curator of the 
herbarium at the Escuela Agricola 
Panamericana in Honduras and Roy 
Lent in Costa Rica assist Museum staff 
on field trips and independently collect 
materials in these regions where they 
are permanent residents. 

In Guatemala 

The purpose of Dr. Williams' trip — 
which lasted from November 1972 to 
January of this year — was to increase 
the representation in our collections of 
those groups of plants still to be written 
up for Flora of Guatemala, a project 
that will engage him for at least another 
three years. In preparing the work he 
will be assisted by Mrs. Dorothy Gibson, 
supervisor of the John G. Searle 
Herbarium and associate in the Flora of 
Guatemala project. This work will 
complete the Flora of Guatemala, 
totaling more than 7,000 pages. (A 
"flora" in this sense is an encyclopedic 
inventory of plants.) 

While on his Guatemala trip, Williams 
was also particularly interested in 
collecting members of the enormous 
Compositae (the family consisting of 
daisies, asters, and their kin), whose 



members usually flower in greatest 
abundance toward the end of the rainy 
season. A very large assemblage of 
these plants was made and they are 
now being processed at the Museum. 
Dr. Williams was assisted in the field by 
Mrs. Williams and by Prof. Molina. Most 
of their work was done in the western 
highlands of Guatemala. They also did 
some collecting in the central high 
region, in cloud forests, and along the 
humid Atlantic coastal plain. 

In Costa Rica 

Former curator of the herbarium Dr. 
Paul C. Standley was the first Field 
Museum botanist to work in Costa Rica, 
spending several months there from 
1924 to 1926. On the basis of the 
botanical materials he collected in the 
country and his experiences there, 
Standley prepared a Flora of Costa Rica. 
Since 1945 Dr. Williams and Prof. 
Molina have made a dozen or more 
collecting trips to the country. More 
recently, Dr. Burger has taken up the 
Museum's botanical research interest in 



Costa Rica and has just completed his 
third field trip there, accompanied by 
Dr. Gentry for whom this was an 
introduction to tropical regions. 
Specialists in taxonomy (classification). 
Burger and Gentry visited Costa Rica in 
March and April, primarily to obtain 
additional botanical materials for the 
preparation of a flora of the plants of 
that country. Although usually of just a 
few weeks' duration, the several trips 
to the region have together covered 
almost the entire year, thus enabling the 
Museum botanists to collect plants that 
flower during each of the seasonal 
periods. 

Smaller than West Virginia, Costa Rica 
has exceedingly rich and varied flora; 
the country has more kinds of ferns 
than all of temperate North America and 
five or six times as many orchids. 
(Interestingly enough, the lush 
vegetation of tropical regions ordinarily 
is not characterized by the kind of mass 
floral displays that are common to 
Illinois woodlands in the spring or to 
prairie meadows in the summer.) 




A plant specimen is trimmed and placed in a newspaper prior to drying and shipment. After 
being labeled, identified, and mounted, it will become part of ttie John G. Searle Herbarium, which 
contains more than 2,500,000 specimens. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



13 



Z'Ti'^'^^.j: 



In addition to making general 
collections, Burger concentrated on 
members of the mulberry family 
(Moraceae) and the nettle family 
(Urticaceae). Gentry collected material 
of the potato family (Solanaceae) and 
borage family (Boraginaceae) and took 
samples of immature flowering buds, of 
seeds, and of root tips. These were 
placed in a special fixative, or 
preservative, which allows the integrity 
of the chromosomes to be retained 
indefinitely. Later, in the Field Museum 
laboratory, tissues of these samples are 
to be studied microscopically and 
chromosome counts taken. (These 
counts are often invaluable in 
classification. Two similar plants can 
frequently be recognized as discreet 
species by differences in the 
chromosome counts of their respective 
cells.) 

The March-April trip was particularly 
successful, reports Dr. Burger, because 
he and his colleagues were able to 
collect from a wide variety of habitats, 
including a leafless deciduous forest 
(during the height of the dry season) 
and several lowland rain forests. They 
also worked in the central highland 
forests up to elevations of 1 1 ,000 feet. 
This season the work was hampered by 




Dr. Gentry examines a giant leaf of an aroid. 
Sucfi leaves are sometimes used as umbrellas. 

unusually severe conditions. Low water 
levels in the reservoirs resulted in an 
acute electricity shortage. In the city of 
San Jose, where they were 
headquartered, all electricity was cut off 
from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. for several weeks. 

The most serious effect of this shortage, 
as far as Museum workers were 
concerned, was the difficulty it created 



in the drying of collected specimens at 
the expedition's laboratory in the 
National Museum of Costa Rica. 

Mr. Stolze and Dr. Engel had looked 
forward to a collecting trip in March and 
April to Cocos Island, a volcanic island 
some 400 miles southwest of Costa 
Rica. The uninhabited island is 
remarkably rich in ferns, mosses, and 
liverworts, and little scientific collecting 
of any sort has ever been done there. 
Stolze's and Engel's plans had to be 
aborted, however, when the fishing boat 
that was to take them to the island was 
severely damaged in port. Fortunately, 
they were able to shift their collecting 
activities to the Costa Rican mainland. 
They succeeded in bringing back an 
outstanding collection as the result of a 
month's work. Among their findings 
were a number of extremely rare and 
possibly new fern species and several 
liverwort species never before collected 
in Central America. 

The Field Museum's Central American 
floristic studies are funded for the most 
part by National Science Foundation 
grants. All expenses of these field trips 
are borne by the grants. The grants also 
support the ongoing field activities of 
Roy Lent and Prof. Antonio Molina. 



ALL IN A DAY'S WORK 

Collecting in the field is no vocation tor tenderloots or lor starry- 
eyed seekers ot adventure, as attested by this recent letter Irom 
Roy Lent, a Costa Rica resident who does field work lor the 
Museum. 

Well I made it to Burica [Costa Rica], and what's more im- 
portant, I got back!! By telephone I made arrangements 
through a series of middlemen tor an "expert" launch m,an to 
take us out to Burica. When we arrived in Golfito he started 
frantically hunting for someone who knew the area as before 
he had been lying about his experience. He finally found the 
police agent of Burica who, naturally, knew the area. We left 
in a 9 yard long dugout with an outboard, at 2:00 a.m. After 
five hours in the open Pacific much of the time, we began to 
see the Burica Peninsula. At that time it was announced that 
there was not enough gas to get to the end of the peninsula 
so we would have to be landed hallway down. We headed lor 



the shore and then began to realize how big the breakers 
were! The police agent took the motor and yelled, "Hold on, 
we're going in!" while the owner was yelling "NO, NO, we 
can't make it!" Just before we hit the beach a wave overtook 
us, killing the motor and swamping the launch. We all jumped 
overboard and managed to get the thing to the beach. Al- 
though everything was packed in plastic bags, many things 
were wet, including all the newspapers [for packing plant 
specimens]. While the two men got the launch back in con- 
dition to return we set up camp near a thatched farm "house." 
By moving the launch down the beach to a better area and 
waiting for a change ot the tide the men got the launch back 
out to sea and left . . . I later found out that while we were in 
Burica, the owner ot the launch announced that he was not 
going back to get us in spite of his verbal contract nor would 
he allow his boat to be used because the area was too dan- 
gerous. The police agent and another involved had him taken 
to the local police station and there he was told to allow 
someone to take his boat for us or he would be jailed for 
breach of contract! 



July/August 1973 



L^fliJfc^ 




^f^ 



$10-Million mark reached! 

The Museum s three-year capital campaign, 
begun in September 1971. for renovation of 
its building has reached the SlO-million 
mark with a $50,000 gift from the Allstate 
Foundation. 

"This gift and all others received are 
extremely gratifying to those persons serving 
on the various campaign committees as well 
as the entire Museum staff," said Museum 
Director E. Leiand Webber. "With Allstate's 
gift we have achieved 80 percent of our 
goal." 

Gifts from foundations, corporations, and 
individuals will provide half of the $25 



million the Museum is seeking for renovation 
of its 52-year-old building. Bonding authority 
of the Chicago Park District is providing the 
other SI 2.5 million on a matching basis. 

The Museum has recorded many corporate 
gifts, such as Allstate's. this spring. 
According to Nicholas Galitzine. Museum 
trustee and general chairman of the 
campaign, "Sizable gifts last fall, climaxed 
by a million-dollar Kresge Foundation grant 
in February, seem to have given renewed 
emphasis to our capital needs." 

Among other gifts pledged during the past 
three months are $30,000 from Western 
Electric: $25,000 each from General Motors 
Corp. and United Air Lines; $20,000 from 
Ernst & Ernst; $15,000 each from Arthur 
Andersen & Co., Harry Weese & Associates, 
General Mills, J. C. Penney Co., and Union 
Oil Co. of California; and $10,000 each from 
Burlington Northern Foundation, Chicago 
Bridge and Iron Foundation. Kirkland & Ellis, 
U.S. Steel, and Xerox Corp. 



Individuals Division expanded 

An intensified effort to reach many more key 
members of the Chicagoland community was 
begun with the expansion recently of the 
capital campaign's Individuals Division, 
co-chaired by Marshall Field and William H. 
Mitchell. According to Messrs. Field and 
Mitchell. S226.000 in individual gifts, 
including a $106,000 anonymous 



contribution, was pledged during the first 
five months of this year. Field, publisher of 
the Chicago Daily News and Chicago Sun- 
Times, and (Vlitchell, honorary chairman of 
Mitchell Hutchins & Co., and members of 
the committee will invite community leaders 
to luncheons at the Museum, where they 
will view a slide program outlining the 
Museum's purposes, activities, and needs, 
followed by a tour of the Museum's 
facilities. 

Committee members of the Individuals 
Division include Bowen Blair, partner, 
William Blair & Co.; Edward F. Blettner. 
honorary director. First National Bank of 
Chicago; R.E. Brooker, chairman of executive 
committee, Marcor, Inc.; Cameron Brown, 
chairman and president. Interstate National 
Corp.; James R. Coulter, vice-president of 
transportation. Continental Illinois National 
Bank and Trust Co. of Chicago; Thomas 
E. Donnelley II, R.R. Donnelley & Sons; 
R. Winfield Ellis, Blunt Ellis & Simmons; 
Donald M. Graham, chairman, Mayer, Brown 
& Piatt; Mrs. Corwith Hamill; Gerald Hollins. 
Harris Upham & Co., Inc.; Robert L. Raclin, 
partner, Paine Webber, Jackson & Curtis; 
Joseph E. Rich, vice president for foreign 
operations, Morton-Norwich Products, Inc.; 
John S. Runnells, investor; William L. Searle, 
chairman, G.D. Searle & Co.; Leonard 
Spacek, senior partner, Arthur Andersen & 
Co.; Gardner H. Stern, Sr., chairman of 
finance, Hillman's, Inc.; John W. Sullivan, 
chairman, Skil Corp.; and Morrison Waud of 
Gardner, Carton, Douglas, Chilgren & Waud. 




Blair 



Blettner 



Brooke r 



Grown 



Coulter 



Ellis 



Graham 




Raclin 



Rich 



Runnells 



Searle 



Spacek 



Sullivan 



Field Museum Bulletin 



15 




Illinois Arts Council Grant 
For African Exhibition 

The Illinois Arts Council has recently 
awarded a $4,500 grant for planning and 
development of ttie Contemporary African 
Arts Exhibition, scheduled to open at Field 
Museum in the spring of 1974. The grant is 
funded jointly by the National Endowment 
for the Arts and by the Illinois Arts Council. 
an agency of the state. 



Herpetologlst Joins Staff 

Dr Harold K, Voris. a native of Chicago, has 
recently been appointed assistant curator of 
reptiles. Formerly a faculty member of 
Dickenson College. Carlisle. Pa., he holds 
an AB degree from Hanover College and a 
PhD from the University of Chicago. Dr. 
Voris has done special work on snake 
venom, on sea snake ecology, and on the 
population biology of frogs. 

Dr. Robert F. Betz Honored 

Dr Robert F. Betz. research associate of 
the department of botany, was honored 
recently by the Illinois Audubon Society, In 
recognition of his outstanding work in 
conservation. Dr. Betz was declared Illinois 
Audubon Man of the Year. A professor of 
biology at Northeastern Illinois University, in 
Chicago, Dr. Betz has been affiliated with 
the Museum since 1971, He also serves as 
consultant to the Illinois Nature Preserves 
Commission and is coordinator of the 
Gensburg-Markham Prairie, a tract of virgin 
land just outside of Chicago. Dr. Betz was 
among the first to recognize the unique worth 
of Markham Prairie and has worked for its 
conservation for more than a decade. 



Grade Schoolers Select 
Indian Studies 




When sixth graders at the Chippewa School in 
Bensenville were asked to choose the program 
they would most like to study at Field Ivluseum, 
they unanimously selected the cultures of the 
Woodland and Plains Indians. Two of the 
youngsters. Beth Cowling and Steve Craig, who 
are of Indian ancestry, are shown looking at 
one of the exhibits they saw during their recent 
visit. Incidentally. Steve is the great-grandson 
of Sitting Bull, famous American Indian warrior 
and tiibal leader. 




Dr. Phillip Lewis (left), curator of primitive art and (VIelanesian ethnology, is shown with IVlrs. 
Danielle Demelz of France. Richard B. Nunoo of Ghana, and Gregorio B. Folgar of Guatemala 
as they view a group of Malvina Hoffman sculptures m the President's Room. The visitors 
were members ot a group of fore.gn museum profess. onals, here to study museum operations. 



New Building Superintendent 
Named 

Field Museum's new building superintendent 
IS Norman P. Radtke, a Chicago native. In 
addition to being fully responsible for the 
operation and maintenance of the Museum's 
physical plant, Mr. Radtke has important 
responsibilities coordinating the many 
construction projects under the museum's 
S25 million rehabilitation and modernization 
programs now in progress. 

Foreign Museum Professionals 
Visit Field Museum 

Professional staff personnel of museums in 
21 foreign countries made a special visit to 
Field Museum on June 1. The visit was 
sponsored by the American Association of 
fv/1useums in cooperation with the Bureau of 
Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. 
Department Of State and was part of a tour 
that included major U.S. museums. The 
purpose of the tour was to acquaint the 
foreign professionals with museum 
operations in our country. Museums in 
Europe, Asia, Africa. Australasia, and Central 
and South America were represented. 



16 



July/Augusl 1973 



African Osteologist Visits 

Recently Mrs, D. Margaret Leakey of the 
National Museums of Kenya visited Dr. 
William D. Turnbull, associate curator of the 
Field Museum's department of geology, for 
two days to examine the Museum's 
specimen storage facilities and to advance 
her osteological (bone) studies. The former 
daughter-in-law of Mary and the late L.S.B, 
Leakey of Olduvai Gorge (fossil man) fame, 
she holds the position of osteologist at the 
National Museums of Kenya in Nairobi. 
She has studied under and collaborated 
with Mary Leakey. 




While in Chicago, Mrs. Leakey acquainted 
herself with some of the ongoing research 
at Field Museum of Natural History. Here 
Dr. Turnbull shows her the skull of 
Thylacosmilus, the remarkable, extinct, 
carnivorous South American saber-toothed 
marsupial, whose jaw muscles he has just 
reconstructed and studied. 



Trustees of Field Museum 

Mrs. B Edward Bensinger 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O, Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R, Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E, Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W, Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F, Murphy, Jr. 
Harry M. Oliver, Jr. 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 

Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
William G Swarlchild, Jr. 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarringlon 



Lite Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
CliHord C. Gregg 
Samuel Insult, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
James L. Palmer 
John G Searle 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Closes July 15 

Below (Plan's Vision: Electronic Windows 
to Unseen Worlds, an exhibit exploring the 
world of details in common objects and 
familiar plants and animals, and offering 
glimpses into current research activities. 
Nearly 300 photographs, displayed at up to 
200,000 times life-size, introduce a 
previously unseen world. Hall 18. 

Closes July 29 

Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 
Survival, a multi-media exhibit describing 
and interpreting the adaptive significance 
of the unusual life cycle of these strange 
insects. Millions of cicadas made their 
noisy appearance above ground in the 
Chicago area early in June. Hall 9. 

Continuing 

Adaptations of Amphibians and Reptiles, 

an exhibit of photographs portraying the 
natural beauty and aesthetic qualities of 
these animals, as well as illustrating some 
of their often remarkable and unique 
adaptations which help them survive. They 
were taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman, Department of Continuing 
Education in Sciences and Mathematics, 
University of California, Berkeley. Through 
September 30. Hall 27. 

Color in Nature, an exhibit examining the 
nature and variety of color in the physical 
and living world and how it functions in 
plants and animals. Continues indefinitely. 
Hall 25. 



Field Museum's 7Sth Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thought-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, 
and cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense 
of History" presents a graphic portrayal of 
the Museum's past; and "A Sense of 
Discovery" shows examples of research 
conducted by Museum scientists. Hall 3. 



Children's Programs 

Movies at 10:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m., 
James Simpson Theatre 

July 5: "In the Bush" 

The kit fox and Australian animals. 

July 12: "Lapland" 

A visit to a fascinating northern land. 

July 19: "The Mixed-Up Hound Dog" 
The exciting adventures of a hunting dog. 

July 26; "The Merry-Go-Round Horse" 

(A Fantasy) 

The love of a boy for a wooden horse. 

Continuing 

Summer Journey for Children, "Nature 
Invented It First," a self-guided tour 
highlighting animals and plants which 
possess "innovative" features duplicated in 
human inventions. Youngsters are provided 
wtih a questionnaire which routes them 
through Museum exhibit areas. All boys 
and girls who can read and write may join 
in the activity. Journey sheets available at 
entrances. Through August 31. 



Meetings 

July 11: 7i30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 

August 8; 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 



July and August hours 

9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monday, Tuesday and Thursday: 
Museum cafeteria open 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. 
9 a.m to 9 p.m. Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and 
Sunday; Museum cafeteria open 9 a.m. to 7:30 p.m 

The Museum Library is open 9 am. to 4:30 p m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



Volume 44, Number 8 
September 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




:»%^^wr^v,'A\v^>^^n^vi>v/r^>N%Vv:/,^ 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 8 
September 1973 



contents 



ART IN AFRICA TODAY 

Preview of a forthcoming exhibit 
By Maude Wahlman 



THESE BIRDS WERE ONCE ENDANGERED SPECIES 

Extinct birds of North America 
By David M. Walsten 



8 



Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery 
Editor David M. Walsten 
Staff Writer Madge Jacobs 
Production Russ Becker 
Photography John Bayalis 



WINDIGO 

Cannibal myth of North American Indians 
By Charles A. Bishop 



ROBERT KENNICOTT 

Chicago's first naturalist 
By W. J. Beecher 



12 



17 



LETTERS 


19 


FIELD BRIEFS 


20 


CAPITAL CAMPAIGN 


22 


CALENDAR 


23 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director E. Leiand Webber 



Board of Trustees 

Remick McDowell, 

President 
Mrs. B, Edward Bensinger 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Harry M. Oliver, Jr. 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 

Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
William G Swartchild. Jr. 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wiikins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
James L. Palmer 
John G. Searle 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



cover 

Bead painting by Nigerian artist Jimoh Buriamoh; from the 
collection of Dr. Robert P. Armstrong, Evanston, III. 



The Field Museum ol Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of 
Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class 
postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Dnve, Chicago. Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703 



ART IN 
AFRICA 

TODAY 



preview to a forthcoming exhibit 



•^ MOROCCO > 

J ^ CASABLANCA ^ 

^.-^ M APRIL 7/ 






EGYPT # \ 
(OEPAHTBO «(flO\ \ 
MAY?) \ \ 


ffi^SENEGAL 


\\ 


^kSIERRA LEONE 


ETHIOPIA ■ / 


X^Nfc^ GHANA _- NIGERIA 


j / 




KENYA# /^ 




ZAIRE / / 




\ RHODESIA m 


\ 


\ SOU Th\/^^^ SWAZILAND 
\ AFRICA IJ^^^^ 




\ /LESOTHO 



Itinerary of Maude and James Wahlman's African trip 



By Maude Wahlman 



A FESTIVAL on contemporary African 
arts is scheduled to have its 
opening at Field Museum in the spring 
of 1974. The festival includes an 
exhibit of contemporary African arts, 
educational programs, and an African 
arts shop. Plans for the festival 
followed a showing to Museum staff 
in 1971 of "New Images of Oshogbo," 
a film produced by Frank Speed 
about a small town in Nigeria. 

The movie shows the continuity 
between the town's traditional 
ceremonies and its contemporary 
artists. When the movie was over, 
Lothar Witteborg (chairman, department 
of exhibition) asked if any of the 
contemporary art shown in the movie 
had ever been exhibited in the United 
States. I replied that there had been a 
few exhibits of Nigerian art, but never 
a major show of contemporary African 



Maude (Mrs. James P.) Wahlman is 
consultant in African ethnology at 
Field Museum. 



art in the United States. Major exhibits 
have been held in England and 
Europe, however. As a result of that 
conversation, I began thinking about 
the merits of such an exhibit for Field 
Museum. With encouragement from my 
colleagues, I submitted a proposal for 
an exhibit-planning grant from the 



National Endowment for the Arts; the 
Museum was awarded the grant in 
April 1971. 

After a lengthy investigation, a number 
of ideas for an African arts 
exhibit were discussed with staff 
members of other departments at Field 



A gaily decorated compound of a Ndebele village near Pretoria, South Africa 




^^:^^^^^^•;^^•^^??z^^^^^^>?^vAVAv,^ 



Museum. We decided on a traveling 
exhibit. It became apparent that some 
aspects of contemporary African 
culture could best be conveyed 
through films, lectures, and 
performances. Thus, we started thinking 
in terms of a festival for the six months 
the exhibit would be in Chicago, with 
series of demonstrations, lectures, 
films, and performances. It was also 
apparent that the various materials 
of contemporary African arts 
could be adapted to the Museum's 



Harris Extension kits which are sent 
out to Chicago schools. These small 
exhibit kits are being planned as a 
means of introducing children to the 
subject of African arts before they see 
the large exhibit at the Museum. 

After one has become involved in 
planning educational materials in 
conjunction with an exhibit, the 
possibilities seem limitless. One idea 
was a catalog-textbook on 
contemporary African arts. Such a text 




does not yet exist; in fact, the last 
major book on the subject was 
published in 1960. Another idea was a 
set of slides or a filmstrip that could be 
sold with the catalog as illustrative 
material for teaching a course on 
contemporary African arts. Other ideas 
are an African arts workshop and an 
African dance workshop. Funds for 
making realities of these ideas are still 
needed. Only the exhibit itself is now 
fully funded. 

Community participation 

One goal which was formulated during 
the planning process for this festival 
was to involve individuals from the 
Chicago community in the planning 
and promotional activities. We now 
have work volunteers; other persons 
have volunteered to lend art works for 
the exhibit. An advisory committee is 
expected to be formed in the near 
future. This group will be made up of 
persons interested in Africa, in art, and 
in the impact this exhibit can have on 
the Chicago community. 

Volunteers 

Research for the program involved an 
extensive task of locating numerous 
references to contemporary African arts 
in obscure publications. The 
investigation of these references would 
have been an endless project had it 
not been for the help of many 
volunteers. Much of the program's 
progress is due to their faithful 
concern. In the summer of 1972 there 
was one volunteer for the program. 
Now there are 20. Some volunteers 
are students, some are housewives; 
others are employed persons with wide 
interests. Each one selected an 
academic or artistic discipline 
and proceeded to make basic 
investigations — developing a 
bibliography, locating articles in the 
Museum library and other libraries, and 
copying the most important articles for 
a master file on the subject. Our 
forthcoming catalog is now in the 
preliminary stage of card files and 

Rhodesian sculptor Thomas Mucarobgwa 




folders that grow fatter every week. 
These repositories will also provide 
material for labels to be used on 
exhibited materials and for the 
educational components. 



African arts shop 

One reason that I personally looked 
forward to being involved in such an 
exhibit was that during my years as a 
graduate fellow at Field IVIuseum, I had 
been exposed to many dealers bringing 
African "art" to Chicago for sale. 
Some dealers had good art, but one 
always wondered if their artifacts might 
not have been stolen from an ancestral 
shrine. Other dealers were just 
deceiving the public with fake 
antiquities — artifacts made within the 
past six months, then covered with 
kola butter and buried in the ground 
for several months so that ants and 



Nigerian woodcarver 
Michael Odekunle is an 
apprentice to Lamidi 
Fakeye, Nigeria's 
foremost sculptor who 
demonstrated 
techniques at Field 
Museum in 1972. 



termites would eat away the butter and 
rapidly age the "art." Dealers were 
getting high prices for these pieces, 
mostly because African antiques are 
very rare, and because most people 
cannot distinguish between the real 
and the imitation. Africans have access 
to the same African art books as we 
do, and those few dishonest dealers 
can very cleverly fake almost anything. 
It takes years of seeing hundreds of 
objects to be able to recognize a fake, 
and even the experts are fooled now 
and then. "Don't buy African art as an 
investment — it's too risky," they advise. 
"Buy only what you like and want to 
live with." There is also a problem of 
ethics in buying antiquities. Many 
African countries have laws that 
prohibit export of their most valued 
cultural artifacts. And many museums 
have established policies like that 
adopted by Field Museum in July 1972, 
which states that it will not authenticate, 



accept as gifts, or purchase any 
artifacts that are not accompanied by 
legal export papers. 

But it is hard to advise people not to 
buy antiquities when there is so little 
else available in this country. Airport 
art — that is, African art made in 
factories for tourists only — is no better 
than fake art. I was aware that good 
art existed in Africa — I had seen it 
everywhere in 1970 while doing field 
work for a dissertation. I had gone to 
Africa to collect contemporary pottery 
for Field Museum and wound up 
collecting pots and much more: 
baskets, textiles, jewelry, and 
leatherwork. It was with this experience 
in mind that I felt we should try to 
make many arts available to the public. 
Thus, we have planned an African arts 
shop, which will make available a 
greater variety of items for public 
purchase than we will try to cover in 
the exhibit. 



Role of the artist in African society 

One myth that we hope to correct in 
this festival is that the African artist is 
anonymous; he never has been 
anonymous nor is he today. 
Traditionally, the artist was known to 
his own society. He did not need to 
sign his works, because societies were 
small enough so that everyone knew 
his work. One cannot generalize for all 
of Africa, for the artist in different 
cultures plays different roles — 
sometimes he is a person of status, 
sometimes not — but in any case he is 
known. 

Traditionally, most art was made for 
religious cults — as ancestor figures, 
representations of deities, worshippers 
of deities, or as receptacles for ritual 
objects. Other works of art fulfilled 
secular functions. But whether religious 
or secular, all art was intended to be 
useful, either to decorate everyday 
utensils or wearing apparel, or to be 
employed for special occasions. Art 
was and is an important aspect of 
daily life — for the common man as well 



Field tvluseum Bulletin 




"Mama Kadi," famed textile designer of 
Sierra Leone, does batik (above) as well as 
tie-dyeing. 



as the king. For these reasons the 
festival is designed without the 
traditional western dichotomy of "art" 
versus "crafts" — a distinction that is 
not to be found in African vocabularies. 

Today the picture is modifying. The 
local religious cults are no longer 
followed as much as in the past, as 
Christianity and Islam have had their 
influences. No one can say this is 
wrong, for every culture evolves, and 
every culture has outside influences at 
some time or another. But some artists 
find themselves in a difficult position 
during the period of transition. They 



must find new patrons. Many find their 
patrons among a new educated class 
of Africans. Some appeal only to 
tourists. Some teach for a living and 
do their art in their spare time. Art is 
also commissioned by African 
governments and by international 
religious groups. Art is still very 
much a part of daily cultural life. 

For this exhibit it seemed that the 
different personalities and different 
roles the artist plays in changing 
societies might best be shown by 
examining the worlds of individual 
artists — revealing how the artist creates 
his art, and what he does when he is 
not being an artist. The exhibit should 
tell something about the artist's family, 
his friends, and how he believes art 
should function today. For each of the 
African artistic disciplines I tried to 
locate one outstanding artist as a 
representative. This was often difficult, 
because there is very little up-to-date 
information on contemporary African 
artists. 



The trip to Africa 

Actual interviews with artists — getting 
their views on tape about contemporary 
Africa — seemed a most logical means 
of documenting this information. It also 
seemed that the best way to purchase 
contemporary arts for a shop to go 
with the exhibit was to go to Africa 
and buy them there. 

In the spring of 1973 Field Museum 
received a planning grant from the 
Illinois Arts Council, and another grant 
from the National Endowment for the 
Arts — this time for the exhibit itself. On 
April 6 my husband James and I left 
for Africa to photograph, record, and 
collect contemporary African art. We 
landed in Casablanca (Morocco), and 
flew from there to Dakar (Senegal); 
Freetown (Sierra Leone); Accra 
(Ghana); Lagos, Ibadan, Ife, Oshogbo 
and Oyo (Nigeria); Johannesberg, 
Pretoria, Zululand, Xhosaland (South 
Africa); Meseru (Lesotho); Mbabane 
(Swaziland); Salisbury (Rhodesia); 



Nairobe (Kenya); Addis Ababa 
(Ethiopia); and Cairo (Egypt). My 
reaction to what I observed is that a 
real renaissance is now occurring in 
African art. A much greater diversity 
was apparent than what 1 had seen in 
1970, and 1 found an even greater 
vitality, I would like to share with you 
some of the highlights of that trip: 




A young Ndebele girl of South Africa, 
Mary Msiza, fashions a belt of colorful glass 
beads. Around her neck she wears one of 
her own creations. 



Sculpture 

Sculpture is a very old art form in 
Africa, whether it be in wood, stone, or 
clay. Lamidi Fakeye, the foremost 
Nigerian sculptor, gave a woodcarving 
demonstration of his techniques on 
October 1972 at Field Museum. While I 
was in Nigeria I discovered that many 
of his apprentices have now set up 
their own shops and are also 
producing very fine work. 



September 1973 



Across the continent, in Salisbury, 
Rhodesia, we photographed the stone 
sculptor, Thomas Mukarobgwa, while 
he was working on a large stone 
sculpture. Examples of his monumental 
work are to be found in private 
collections in the United States; for the 
exhibit we hope to borrow some of 
these pieces. 



Textiles 

I went to Sierra Leone to photograph 
the dyer, Mrs. Kadiato Kamara, better 
known as Mama Kadi, famous for her 
tie-dyed and batiked textiles. Among 
her outstanding tie-dyed patterns is the 
cloud pattern. It is the most difficult 
design to create as it is done by gently 
folding satin into very delicate but 
distinct folds which compress into 
each other until the entire cloth is 
folded into a small package. This must 
be bound with twine without losing its 
composition. The bundle is soaked in 
indigo (blue) dye for about 20 minutes 
and put on a line to dry. It may later 
be refolded and redyed either in indigo 
again or perhaps in a kola nut dye 
which produces a rich brown. Synthetic 
dyes are also used. Once the excess 
dye is washed out, the colors are fast. 

For batik dyeing. Mama Kadi uses 
wooden stamps, made by local 
craftsmen, which she dips in a pot of 
hot wax and stamps onto a damask 
cotton. The cotton is then dyed with 
indigo, dried, redyed, and dried. After 
that it is dipped several times in boiling 
water to remove the wax. Finally it is 
rinsed in cold water and again dried. 



Aluminum panels 

Asiru Olatunde is a well known 
Nigerian artist who creates aluminum 
panels depicting scenes of Yoruba life 
and history. His is a unique art, for 
although scenes of Yoruba life have 
been and still are depicted in wood 
(usually for palace doors) there has 
been no traditional use of aluminum for 



art. Olatunde uses a counter-repousse 
technique — all the work is done from 
the front of the panel. 



Beadwork 

Beadwork is another of the traditional 
arts that is still being practiced in 
Africa. The art was perfected in earlier 
times by the Zulu, Ndebele, and Xhosa 
peoples of South Africa. In the 
Museum's permanent collections are 
many old examples which will be 
shown in the exhibit along with the new. 

Beadwork was also a high art among 
the Yoruba of Nigeria. Traditionally it 
was commissioned in the form of 
ceremonial objects for use by priests. 
Today, a very talented young man, 
Jimoh Buriamoh, has transformed the 
art into a new form, that of bead 
paintings. One of his creations is 
shown on the cover of this Bulletin. He 
glues beads onto a wooden base, but 
in such a way that at a distance it is 
difficult to distinguish the beaded areas 
from the painted areas. His 
compositions depict contemporary 
Nigerian life as well as mythological 
figures. 

This is just a sample of the continent 
as we saw it: people of various African 
cultures being creative in their 
individual ways. The exhibit will try to 
communicate the same feeling. The 
festival will also attempt to show (1) all 
the arts: music, dance, film, literature, 
and the visual arts (painting, sculpture, 
graphics, pottery, calabash carving, 
leatherwork, basketwork, and 
metalwork); (2) arts from all over 
Africa; (3) the relationships between 
the contemporary and the traditional 
arts; (4) the interrelationships of the 
arts to each other; and (5) an African 
aesthetic as distinct from the 
Euro-American or Far Eastern aesthetic. 

Funding is not yet complete for all 
aspects of the festival, but we continue 
to plan, knowing that when the money 
comes, we will be ready. 




Nigerian metalworker Asiru Olatunde (below) 
recreates contemporary and historical scenes 
on thin aluminum panels. Paneled church 
doors at the University of Ibadan (above) are 
an example of his unique art form. 




>%.%.#. 



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These Birds were once 



Endangered Species 



now there are none 




By David M. Walsten 



IN LESS THAN 100 years, four species 
of continental Nortti American birds — 
tfie passenger pigeon, the Carolina 
parakeet, the heath hen, and the 
Labrador duck — have vanished forever. 
A fifth species, the Eskimo curlew, may 
very likely be extinct, since few have 
been sighted in recent decades and 
none at all for several years. The great 
auk, which vanished from North 
America in the late 1700s, disappeared 
from the last of its North Atlantic 
habitats in the mid-19th century. Man, 
the interloper, played a significant role 
in the depletion of each of these species. 

THE GREAT AUK (Mca impennis), once 
common in the North Atlantic, was 
exterminated largely because it was 
unfortunate to have flavorful meat, fat 
that yielded oil useful as fuel in lamps, 
and soft feathers that made good 
mattress and pillow stuffing. The 
flightless bird was slow and ungainly 
on land and was easily run down by 
hunters and beaten to death. A few 
men armed with clubs could, in a short 
time, wipe out an island's entire auk 
population. 

On June 3, 1844, the last two specimens 



Great Auk 



were taken on Eldey Rock, off the coast 
of Iceland. Their bodies were sold to a 
collector. Nineteen years later several 
dozen great auks were discovered in 
frozen peat beds of Penguin Island, off 
the southern coast of Newfoundland. 
Many of these carcasses, too, were 
sold to collectors at fancy prices. 

The great auk stood about two feet 
tall; like the penguin, it had tiny wings 
that functioned only as flippers. Though 
awkward afoot, the birds were marvelous 
swimmers and migrated great distances 
in the stormy northern seas. 
Ornithologists believe that the auk 
disappeared from the coastal islands 
of North America in the late 1700s. 

Skeletal remains in various places 
along the New England coast indicate 
that they once lived as far south as 
Massachusetts. A few bones have been 
found on the Florida coast. It is thought 
that these were not from resident auks, 
but from lost birds driven southward by 
storms. The species also ranged 
eastward over the Atlantic as far as the 
northernmost coast of Norway. 

In 1966, the Field Museum acquired a 
great auk from the Royal Institute in 
Brussels, Belgium. The bird arrived in 
z box marked penguin, (the French 



September 1973 



word for "great auk"), which caused 
some consternation until the bird was 
examined and its true identity 
established. (For a full account of the 
acquisition of this specimen, see the 
Bulletin, February. 1967.) 

THE LABRADOR DUCK 
{Camptorhynchus labradorius), which 
lived mainly in coastal areas from New 
Jersey northward to Labrador, has been 
extinct for nearly a century, the last 
recorded specimen having been shot 
on Long Island, New York, in 1875. 
None other had been seen since 1871. 

The male Labrador duck was a 
handsome bird, with a white head and 
a black stripe running back across the 
top. A velvety black collar encircled the 
white neck. The rest of the body was 
mostly black and white. The female 
was brownish. The species was 
apparently never common, and it was 
not very good eating; occasionally, 
however, the duck was to be found in 
food markets in New York and other 
eastern cities. The preferred habitat 
was sandy coastal areas, inlets, and 
bays; the bird was extremely wary and 
difficult to approach. The reasons for 
the Labrador duck's eventual demise 
are not understood, but some authorities 
believe that unusual feeding habits may 
have been a factor — a theory suggested 
by unique features of its bill structure. 

Labrador Duck 




Carolina Parakeet 



THE LAST CAPTIVE Carolina parakeet 
— like the last passenger pigeon — died 
in the Cincinnati Zoological Gardens in 
September 1914. The last specimen 
taken in the wild was captured in 
Brevard County, Florida, in 1901, but 
authentic sightings of this species 
occurred in that state as late as 1904. 
Eight years later, reliable sightings of 
the bird were also reported in Missouri. 
There were two subspecies, Conuropsis 
carolinensis carolinensis (the eastern 
subspecies) and Conuropsis carolinensis 
ludoviciana (the western subspecies, 
sometimes called the Louisiana 
parakeet). Both were about a foot long 
— much of this in tall feathers. The head 
was orange and yellow, the body green 




and yellow. The wing feathers were 
also trimmed in yellow. The tail was 
green. The western subspecies was 
somewhat paler than the eastern, and 
parts of the back had a bluish cast. 

Before the coming of the white man, 
the Carolina parakeet commonly 
occurred in deciduous forests from 
Virginia to Florida, westward to Texas 
and northward to Nebraska. Sometimes 
it strayed as far north as the Great 
Lakes region. The theory has been 
advanced that the bird's disappearance 
was the direct result of human activity 
— too many were captured or shot; but 
since the bird commonly lived in 
relatively inaccessible swamp forests, it 
would be unfair to say that man was 
entirely responsible. 

AN OBITUARY that appeared in 
newspapers around the world on Sept. 
1, 1914, caused many readers to pause 
and reflect, for it not only reported the 
quiet, uneventful death of "Martha," a 
29-year-old passenger pigeon in the 
Cincinnati Zoological Gardens, it also 
marked the extinction of what possibly 
had once been the most populous of 
all bird species on the face of the 
earth. Less than a century earlier (1810) 
ornithologist Alexander Wilson had 
observed near Shelbyville, Kentucky, a 
flock that numbered — by his estimate — 
nearly 2.25 billion birds. "Martha," born 
in the zoo in 1885, was the final known 
survivor. 

Field Museum Bulletin 9 



^«x?>^^^?^<•^^^v••^.':•^:^:v:s^^?wA^^^^^^ 



The passenger pigeon {Ectopistes 
migratorlus) was an uncommonly 
beautiful bird, 12 to 18 inches long. 
The wing and back feathers of the 
male were a rich glossy blue. The 
breast was burgundy, fading to white 
near the tail. The neck was mottled 
with green and bronze: the eyes were 
fiery orange, the feet red. The main 
habitat was the hardwood forests of 
central North America. A migratory bird, 
it journeyed in the autumn to 
southeastern United States and the 
Gulf Coast area. 

The flesh of this bird was very good to 
eat and it had been hunted by Indians 
long before the Europeans arrived. But 
the white man made a commercial 
enterprise of pigeon hunts and the 
birds were shipped in great quantities 
to markets in the cities. 

It is incredible that hunters — numbered 
in the thousands — could, in the space 
of a century or so, deplete a bird 
population that had totalled in the 
billions. Yet, this is precisely what 
happened. The last great pigeon hunt 
occurred in 1878 near Petoskey, 
Michigan. In a month's time about 300 




Passenger Pigeon 




tons of birds were 
slaughtered — filling 150 
freight cars. After that their 
numbers rapidly dwindled to 
the extent that commercial 
hunting was no longer 
profitable. The last passenger 
pigeon captured in the wild 
was taken at Babcocl<, 
Wisconsin, in 1899. 
An idiosyncrasy of this 
species, apparently, was its 
inability to perpetuate itself 
except in enormous flocks. 
In small groups the birds 
often seemed bewildered, 
and it is probable that their 
reproductive habits were 
likewise affected. 

— Heath Hen 



THE HEATH HEN {Tympanuchus 
cupido cupido), an eastern relative of 
the prairie chicken, was last seen alive 
on Martha's Vineyard Island, Mass., in 
1932. The tiny island had been the 
bird's last holdout for half a century. 
The final survivor was an eight-year-old 
bird that had been banded the year 
before. Prior to that, no official sightings 
had been made since 1928. 

At one time the bird's habitat may have 
ranged from Maine as far south as the 
Carolinas. In some New England areas 
it had once been extremely common, 
but settlers soon discovered that the 
heath hen made a very tasty dish. Its 
numbers steadily dwindled as 
woodlands — its natural habitat — were 
turned into farmland and more and 
more birds fell to the guns of hunters. 
As early as 1824 a law was passed to 



10 September 1973 



protect ttie birds on Martina's Vineyard, 
to which the species had probably been 
introduced by colonists much earlier. 
Annually from 1906 a census was taken 
of the island's heath hen population. 
Almost 2,000 were counted in 1916. 
Thereafter the population dropped 
swiftly; by 1925 only three birds 
remained. 

Special efforts were made to control 
predators such as dogs and cats on 
Martha's Vineyard, but this last-ditch 
effort to save the birds was too late. 
Other environmental hazards also took 
their toll: excessive inbreeding, disease, 
an excess of males (a large brush fire 
in 1916 exterminated many nesting 
females on Martha's Vineyard), and 
perhaps the diminishing natural habitat. 



THE LAST RECORDED SPECIMEN of 
an Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis) 
was taken at Battle Harbour, 
Newfoundland, in 1932. It had then 
been 17 years since any were taken 
in the United States; one was collected 
at Norfolk, Nebraska, in 1915. 

Occasionally, since 1932, there have 
been reports of others. In 1937 there 



were reliable sightings in Argentina, the 
bird's wintering ground. In the 1960s 
individual sightings were made on the 
Texas coast, but several years have 
now elapsed since any authoritative 
report. If any Eskimo curlews remain 
alive, it is unlikely that these few can 
perpetuate the species much longer. 

At 13 to 14 inches long, the Eskimo 
curlew was the smallest of the 
American curlews — shore birds related 
to snipes, woodcocks, and sandpipers. 
It closely resembled the still extant 
Hudsonian curlew {Numenius 
hudsonicus), which has often been 
mistaken for it. The primary feathers of 
the Eskimo curlew, however, are clearly 
barred with light brown — a feature 
noticeable on the under surface of the 
wing. The summer breeding ground 
was the Canadian tundra; occasionally 
the bird ranged into Alaska. The 
curlew's migration route to South 
America usually took it past the vicinity 
of New York City, then out over the 
Atlantic. A few traveled southward over 
the Great Plains. 

Overkill is believed to have been the 
main reason for the decline of the 
curlew, which was still common enough 




Eskimo Curlew 



into the late 1800s. But natural 
catastrophe, such as epidemics and 
hurricanes obliterating entire flights of 
migrating birds, may have contributed 
to their disappearance. The curlew 
population may thus have been lowered 
to the extent that its capacity to 
reproduce was offset by the usual 
adversities, such as bird and animal 
predators and endemic disease. 



North American Birds on the Endangered List 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



Range 

Bald Eagle Haliaetus leucocephalus U.S., Canada 

Masked Bobwhite Colinus virginianus ridgwayi U.S.. Mexico 

California Condor Gymnogyps calitornianus Southern California 

Whooping Crane Grus americana U.S., Canada 

American Peregrine Falcon Faico peregrinus anatum Canada to Mexico 

Arctic Peregrine Falcon FaIco peregrinus tundrius Canada to Mexico 

Aleutian Canada Goose Branta canadensis leucopareia U.S. to Japan 

Brown Pelican Pelecanus occidenlaiis Canada to Panama 

Attwater's Greater Prairie Chicken Tympanuciius cupido attwateri U.S. 

Bachman's Warbler Vermivora baciimani Southeastern U.S., Cuba 

KIrtland's Warbler Dendroica l^irtiandi Michigan, Bahamas 

Ivory-Billed Woodpecker Campeptiilus principalis Southeastern U.S., Cuba 

Source: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



Field Museum Bulletin 



A? 



-% 



M 









ByC. A. Bishop 

FOR SOME INDIAN TRIBES of the Great 
Lakes region the most terrifying of all 
woodland creatures was the Windigo 

. . . that terrible, grinning ice-sl<eleton 
wlio working iiis way into a cursed 
man's iieart, could mal<e him long for 
human flesh, the flesh of his own kin. 
Often enough in starvation winters 
men had turned to cannibalism, so the 
Ojibwa knew Windigo as a very real 
threat. 

. . . It was said that the potential 
human Windigo could be recognized 
by his greedy eating habits and his lust 
for overmuch fat. Later such a one 
could be expected to fall into deep 
melancholy, emerging from it finally 
with a violent urge to kill and eat 
his relatives, who looked to him . . . 
like lovely, fat beavers. In times of 
starvation, people feared their own 
families and feared that they themselves 
would turn cannibal. "Run, run!" a 
distressed young mother might cry 



Drawing by Dick Roesener 



Dr. C. A. Bishop is associate professor 
of anthropology at the State University 
of New York, Oswego, and the 
author of The Northern Ojibwa: An 
Ethnohistorical and Ecological Study; 
tiolt, Rinehart & Winston of Canada, 
Ltd., (1973). 



12 September 1973 




,^->c\s^^ 




Cannibal Devil of the North 



out to her children. "You all look like 
beavers to me!" Approaching madness, 
even in the summer months, caused 
many an old grandparent to demand 
death trom his children. "Kill me quick 
with the hammer and burn me in my 
wigwam, or next winter I shall surely 
eat you." The Windigo could be killed, 
really killed, only by fire. It was the 
one murder no one wanted to avenge.* 

Belief in this cannibal devil — and the 
act of cannibalism itself — antedated the 
coming of the first white men to North 
America. After their arrival, with the 
consequent depletion of game animals, 
famine as well as cannibalism became 
more prevalent. The Windigo was 
not always associated with famine 
conditions, since Indians were 
sometimes possessed by this creature 
even in times of plenty. 

The Montagnais Windigo 

By the 1630s the subsistence of the 
Montagnais Indians near the St. 
Lawrence settlements of Tadoussac 
and Three Rivers had been seriously 
disturbed by the depletion of game — 
processes that had their inception 

•From NEW WORLD BEGINNINGS: Indian 
Cultures in the Americas by Olivia Vlahos. 
Copyright ©1970 by Olivia Vlahos. Reprinted by 
permission of The Viking Press, Inc. 



J _^^ HUDSON 


BAY 1 


YORK FORT X 

FORT SEVERN/'^Vi,^ 


J 


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FORT ALBANY rV^ J 




• MOOSE FACTORY X 




TADOUSSAC •(/ 


5lake V^__^_^ 

^(^^UPERIOR ^\ 

X ^^ < 

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if ^ f^ 

1 Sf 


QUEBEC »^^ 

» MANITOULIN mullc .^^ 
\ \ISLAND RIVERS Af<^ 

jp <r;>-\ MONTREAL ^^if 

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The Hudson Bay-Great Lakes region, showing the location of trading posts where Montagnais, 
Cree, and Ojibwa Indians exchanged hides and meat for European wares 



Field Ivluseum Bulletin 



13 



"TTTTsm^'rfuJs^^r/ij^yx^^^^^ 



more than a century earlier. The fur 
trade was of minor importance during 
the late 16th century, but by 1550 
Tadoussac had become the site of an 
annual "trade fair" where Algonquins 
and Montagnais exchanged furs for 
European wares. Trade continued off 
and on for another five decades. 
By the time Champlain and Pontgrave 
arrived at Tadoussac in 1603, 
European goods had already been 
conveyed far beyond the territories of 
those Indians in direct contact with the 
French. Tribal boundaries had been 
blurred and different groups vied with 
one another for key positions in the 
flow of trade goods. 

The middleman position of the 
Montagnais along the St. Lawrence 
was partly disrupted when trading 
centers were set up at Quebec, Three 
Rivers, and Montreal. To these 
settlements were attracted — like bees 
to nectar — great numbers of Indians 
from many miles around. Local Indian 
groups were meanwhile becoming 
more and more dependent on European 
wares and foodstuffs. By the 1610s 
many had acquired a taste for "exotic" 
foods such as peas, beans, prunes, 
and bread. Many materials of their 
aboriginal culture fell into disuse, and 
they came to rely on French substitutes. 
The Indians were able to remain 
somewhat independent with respect to 
their economy and livelihood only as 
long as they could obtain large game. 

During the summer months of the 
1620s the Montagnais around 
Tadoussac lived on smoked moose 
meat supplemented by European foods. 
Moose, caribou, and beaver, however, 
were being sought by the French for 
their meat and hides so that by the 
1630s these animals had become scarce 
in some areas. By 1610 the trade in 
beaver pelts was already thriving, 
between 12,000 and 15,000 skins 
being traded annually, and the supply 
of these animals near the trading 
centers was rapidly depleted. Indians 
who were accustomed to donations of 
foodstuffs from the French, and who 
were dependent on the fur trade were 

14 September 1973 



hard pressed to sustain themselves 
on local game. 

Death by starvation was the fate of 
many Montagnais in the Three Rivers 
region during the winter of 1633-34, 
In that winter, Fr. Le Jeune, a Jesuit, 
lived with a band of Montagnais who 
had gone to hunt south of the St. 
Lawrence. Here — so they had been led 
to believe — game would be more 
plentiful. According to Fr. Le Jeune, 
the Montagnais reported that 

7wo or three families of Savages had 
been devoured by large unknown 
animals which they believed were 
devils: and that the Montagnais. fearing 
them, did not wish to go hunting in 
the neighborhood of Cape de 
Tourmente and Tadoussac these 
monsters having appeared in that 
neighborhood.' 

The fact that the animals were 
"unknown" to the Indians suggests that 
a specifically named cannibal giant 
was not involved. It is conceivable that 
those who initiated the rumor were 
merely trying to keep the dwindling 



game supply near Tadoussac for 
themselves. Starvation had thus become 
a serious threat to Indians around the 
white settlements; already there were 
reports of cannibalism. Some Indians 
near Tadoussac allegedly had eaten 
human flesh, while others were 
described as "fleshless as skeletons." 
There is also evidence that the social 
organization of the Montagnais had 
been modified by the altered ecology 
and by the drain on food resources. 
Groups of various sizes appear to 
have roamed about the woodlands at 
random in search of food. Meanwhile, 
the time-honored customs of hospitality 
and food-sharing were disregarded in 
times of stress. 

From within this setting Fr. Le Jeune 
described what has been termed 
by modern investigators "Windigo 
psychosis." He relates that the wife of 
Manitou ("the great spirit") is "a real 
she-devil" who feeds upon the flesh 
of men, "gnawing them upon the 
inside, which causes them to become 
emaciated in their illnesses." Another 
legendary creature was Gougou, a 



Cree weapons: a 59-inch bow and bone-tipped arrows. The quiver and bow case are made of 
deerskin. These were among the first American Indian artifacts to be acquired by Field Museum 
after it was organized in 1893. 




female monster "taller than the masts 
of ships," who carried off and 
devoured men. However, for the 
psychosociologists the central idea of 
the Windigo psychosis is not that of a 
giant who literally eats people, but the 
belief that people are devoured 
spiritually and then become living 
vehicles for the cannibalistic spirit. 

The Cree Windigo 

The development of a similar Windigo 
concept is evident among the Cree 
Indians who lived near the Hudson's 
Bay Company coastal posts, especially 
Fort Albany, York Fort, and Moose 
Factory — points of convergence for 
large numbers of Indians. The local 
game, sought by Indians and traders 
alike, was greatly depleted soon after 
the posts were established in the late 
17th century. The relative poverty of 
the coastal area Cree — except during 
goose-hunting season — and their 
dependence on trade goods and store 
foods in winter restricted many to 
game-poor areas. In aboriginal times 
these same impoverished areas might 
have been abandoned in winter. 
Starving Indians who camped near the 
post during the cold months were 
kept alive on oatmeal, peas, surplus 
goose, and fish, but in spite of such 
provisioning starvation among these 
people was still relatively common. 
The first clear instance of a devil 
known as "Windigo" appears among 
the York Fort Cree. The following 
account suggestive of Windigo behavior 
was recorded by William Falconer at 
nearby Fort Severn in 1774: 

(A Cree) threatened to stab his wife 
last night, and would have kill'd some 
of the other natives had they not 
bound him both hand and foot: he has 
appeared melancholy tor some time 
past, and the Natives say he has 
several times been insane of late.^ 

The other Indians asked that the 
traders put the man to death to prevent 
his going on a murdering spree. The 
request was denied but the traders 
did tie him up. The following day the 
man escaped and "frightened the 




Steel tomahawk-pipe of European manufacture 
traded to the Ojibwa during the Late Historic 
period (after 1760). The handle is hollow: the 
small end of the head serves as the pipe bowl. 
The above specimen, 12 inches long, was 
acquired by Field fvluseum in 1893. 



Other natives out of the tent." He was 
recaptured, however, and put to death 
by his relatives. When Falconer asked 
why they killed him, the relatives said 
they feared he would escape. But 
now that he was dead they were afraid 
he would get out of his Grave and 
come back and kill them .... Their 
Superstition leads them so far as to 
Imagine People deprived of reason 
stalk about after death, and Prey upon 
human flesh, such as they say are 
WItiko's (i.e. Divils) .... The above 
unhappy man was so distress'd tor 
food that he kill'd his own Sister and 
her Child.' 

Assuming that the above murders 
were cannibalistic, a cause and effect 
relationship may be noted between 
the scarcity of food and the original 
cannibalistic act. It is significant that 
the man became a Windigo only after 
he had eaten human flesh. But the act 
of cannibalism is not in itself evidence 
of Windigo behavior; it is the craving 
for human flesh which indicates that 
one is possessed by this devil. 
Nonetheless, the belief that a human 
could become a Windigo seems to 
appear and intensify simultaneously 
with the fear of starvation in cases 
where food was being depleted, and 
under trade conditions where the quest 
for pelts stressed individualism over 
cooperative kinship bonds. 

Under these conditions (which began 



in the late 1600s among the coastal 
Cree) the belief in, and fear of the 
Windigo was so intense that the 
potential for becoming such a monster 
was strong indeed. But the catalyst 
for the development of Windigo 
behavior was the decimation of game 
and dependency on the trading post; 
thus, the phenomenon had a firm 
ecological basis. 

The Ojibwa Windigo 

The Windigo myth of the Ojibwa 
appears to have had somewhat the 
same development as those of the 
Montagnais and the Cree. In aboriginal 
times and for a considerable period 
after contact with Europeans there was 
never a threat of starvation for most 
Ojibwa. They subsisted on a variety of 
foods in summer and on large animals 
in winter. Game was everywhere 
abundant. In 1660, for example, more 
than 600 moose were killed by Ojibwa 
in the region immediately south of 
Lake Superior. One French observer 
reported that 2,400 moose were killed 
on Manitoulin Island (in Lake Huron) 
in 1670-71. Such devastation eventually 
affected the game supply, so that by 
the mid-1 8th century, the area near 
Lake Superior had been virtually 
stripped of large game. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



15 



Further north the big animals lasted 
somewhat longer. They were sufficiently 
plentiful so that groups of 30 to 50 
Ojibwa could remain together 
throughout the year. The marked 
decline in big game that finally did 
occur in northern Ontario resulted 
directly from the intensive competition 
between the Northwest Company and 
Hudson's Bay Company from the 
1780s to 1821. During this time, game 
of all sorts was reduced through 
overhunting in an effort to supply 
traders as well as Indians. By the time 
the two companies merged in 1821, 
large animals as well as beaver had 
become extremely scarce. The relatively 
large groups of Indians that remained 
together during the 1700s had now 
separated into smaller family units for 
most of the year as the search for 
food and fur became more of a 
struggle. At the same time, the Indians 
became more and more dependent 
on provisions from the trading post. 

After 1810, starvation for the Northern 
Ojibwa became a real threat. 
Cooperative sharing that had been the 
custom among large kinship groups 
became impossible in cases where 
families had to separate and spread 



out in quest of hare and other small 
nonmigratory animals. It was during 
this time that the earliest cases of 
famine cannibalism among the 
Northern Ojibwa were reported. It was 
also within this context during the 
19th century that the classic examples 
of Windigo behavior were recorded 
among these Indians. In July 1837 
more than 100 Ojibwa arrived at the 
Lac Seul post after fleeing in terror 
from a Windigo which several had 
reported seeing at their summer camp.^' 
They set up their new camp next to 
the store and posted sentries. For 
a week the medicine men engaged in 
conjuring to ward off the evil monster 
The trading post, then, where food 
could be obtained in time of need, had 
become a haven and a symbol of 
protection against the dread giant. 
Some disagreement existed among the 
Ojibwa hunters concerning the physical 
features of the Windigo, suggesting 
perhaps that the Windigo myth had 
been relatively insignificant in earlier 
times. 

There is every reason to believe that 
cannibalism among these Indians was 
a normal response within the abnormal 
situation of starvation. But the 



distinction must be made between 
cannibalism as a consequence of 
famine conditions and Windigo 
cannibalism: The former occurred only 
in times of extreme food shortage, 
while the unspeakable terror of Windigo 
cannibalism could strike in times of 
plenty as well as during periods of 
famine. 



References Cited 

1. Thwaites. R, G,, editor; 1896-1901. The Jesuit 
relations and allied documents. Cleveland: 
Burrows Brothers. 

2. Hudson's Bay Company Archives. 1870. MSS 
in Public Archives of Canada, Ottaw/a, 
B198/a/19. 

3. Ibid., B1D7/a/16. 

The author wishes to thank the Governor 
and Committee of the Hudson's Bay 
Company for permission to cite from their 
arctiival sources, 

"Windigo — Cannibal Devil of the North" is 
adapted from Dr. Bishop's paper "Ojibwa 
Cannibalism," presented at the IXth 
International Congress of Anthropological 
Sciences, which convened in Chicago 
Aug. 28-Sept. 8, 1973. The paper is 
subsequently to be published by fvlouton & 
Co. of The Netherlands. 



Ojibwa birchbark wigwam. Probable date of photograph: 1893. 




16 September 1973 




/g„i.-^<i. 



CHICAGO'S 
FIRST 



NATURALI 



and the grove which could serve as a 
fitting memorial to him 



By W. J. Beecher 




VIRGIN PRAIRIE once covered two- 
thirds of the state of Illinois; but the 
steel moldboard plow — invented by John 
Deere in the 1830s — was so efficient 
that virtually the entire prairie was 
under cultivation by the 1880s. It is 
well-known that, once prairie land 
passes under the plow and the ancient 
roots of grasses and other herbs 
(penetrating the ground as much as 12 
feet) are severed, prairie plants do not 
again come in, but are succeeded by 
Eurasian weeds. Thus the plow 
effectively destroyed the prairie nearly 
a century ago. 

So it was with great jubilation that a 
number of us, who had been searching 
for prairie remnants along railroad 
rights-of-way, recently discovered two 
square miles of prairie near Morris, 
Illinois. After a long publicity campaign, 
we succeeded in persuading the state 
to buy Goose Lake Prairie. There was 
something a bit pathetic about the public 
response. A housewife volunteered to 
write letters to save the praiiie; someone 
else offered, anonymously, 51,500,000 
interest-free to enable the state to buy 

Dr. W. J. Beecher is the director of the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



the land immediately and reimburse 
him later. In a time of fatal decision it 
seems that something almost genetic 
in man, affirming his kinship with the 
soil, comes forward and causes him to 
draw back from the brink. Since the 
acquisition of Goose Lake Prairie an 
embarrassing number of "last" prairies 
have been discovered in and around 
Chicago; several additional small ones 
have been acquired through the efforts 
of various citizen groups. 

But something has been missing — the 
prairie had been a shining sea of grass, 
spangled by a luxuriant tapestry of 
wiidflowers rolling out to the horizon. 
The descriptions of the early pioneers 
dwelt often on the visual relief afforded 
by the prairie groves, which were made 
up in part of thick-barked bur oaks that 
could withstand the frequent prairie fires. 
The rollicking songs of meadowlark 
and bobolink, along with the dancing 
flowers, made the prairie a gay place — 
but perhaps the sky was too big. The 
communities that sprang up were 
generally located at the edges of the 
groves and have come down to us as 
place names: Morton Grove, Fox River 
Crove, Downers Grove. 

Authentic wild groves surrounded by 



prairie remnants are in the 1970s at a 
premium. I know of only one that is 
near Chicago — Kennicott's Grove — and 
I know of it particularly because my 
predecessor, Robert Kennicott, first 
director of the Chicago Academy of 
Sciences at its founding in 1857, was 
born there. 

I first visited the grove in the mid-1 930s 
as a member of the Kennicott Club, a 
natural history society named for 
Chicago's first naturalist. We had been 
invited to see it by Donald Culross 
Peattie, the nature writer, who had 
married into the Redfield family and 
lived there. Much later (in the 1960s) 
I visited the grove with my old friend, 
Hiram Kennicott, a cousin of Robert's. 
On both occasions I was impressed 
with the fact that much of the grove 
remained in a comparatively natural 
state. In my mind's eye I could almost 
see young Robert demanding of his 
sisters that they shake out their 
voluminous skirts and petticoats on the 
porch after running about in the prairie, 
so that he could collect the insects 
gathered. I am not aware that any of 
the Kennicott insects thus collected 
have come down to us, though a small 
collection of his birds, including prairie 
chicken, Carolina parakeet (extinct), 



Field Museum Bulletin 




A pair of ducks enjoy the tranquillity of tfie pond in Kennicott Grove. 



and passenger pigeon (extinct), survive 
in tlie Academy collection. 

in the grove young Robert grew up 
pretty much like an Indian. A sickly 
boy, he was not required to go to 
school. His father. Dr. John Kennicott, 
preferred to tutor him at home. Dr. 
Kennicott was a prominent horticulturist 
and editor of Prairie Farmer magazine, 
and the grove became a meeting place 
for famous naturalists of the day. Out 
of this came an offer for Robert to 
understudy at the Smithsonian in 
Washington with its secretary, the 
famous Spencer Fullerton Baird. There, 
with others later to become great 
naturalists, such as William Stimpson, 
he founded the tvlegatherium Club — 
occupying a small cottage near the 
museum. Here, in an atmosphere of 
frequent hilarity, the impecunious young 
men lived beween 1854 and 1858. 
Robert's first professional paper was a 
natural history survey of the reptiles. 



small mammals, and birds to be found 
along the right-of-way of the Illinois 
Central Railroad from Chicago to Cairo. 
When the Chicago Academy of Sciences, 
"the first museum in the West," was 
founded in 1857 at the suggestion of 
the legendary Louis Agassiz, Robert 
Kennicott was appointed its first 
director. He then spent several years 
on collecting trips in Illinois, Minnesota, 
and northern and western Canada. 
Between 1882 and 1865 he divided his 
time between the Academy and the 
Smithsonian, classifying his material; 
and in 1865 he undertook to head the 
survey expedition of the Western Union 
Telegraph Company to Alaska — then 
Russian territory. A route was laid out 
for a telegraph line that would cross 
the Pacific by way of Bering Strait, 
where it would connect with one laid 
by a Russian team working eastward 
across the wastes of Siberia. 

The successful laying of the Atlantic 



cable by a rival organization, after 
several failures, beheaded the vast 
enterprise at the cost of millions. 
Alaska was then so remote that it took 
six months to transmit the order to the 
field party to stop stringing telegraph 
wire. But the collections of Kennicott in 
Chicago and in Washington became 
the concrete basis for Secretary of State 
Seward's successful proposal to 
purchase Alaska. 

Kennicott himself did not survive the 
Alaska experience. One sees this high- 
spirited young man, ever merry and 
the favorite of his companions, paddling 
alongside Canadian voyageurs in huge 
birchbark canoes up the Athabaska 
River at 50 strokes a minute, shouting 
"Alouette!" Or we see him on Christmas 
morning, 1862, dog-sledding along the 
banks of the Peel River, smoking his 
last remaining cigar to the health of the 
family circle back in the grove. On May 
12, 1866, his body was found face-down 
on the shore of the Yukon at Nulato, 
his compass nearby and bearings to 
the local peaks traced in the sand. He 
was dead at thirty of a heart attack. 

A couple of years ago a record book 
of Robert Kennicott's father was 
discovered. In it were inscribed by date 
the origin of certain horticultural 
plantings in the grove and where the 
stock was obtained — some entries 
going back to the 1840s. These records 
add a unique scientific value to the 
primarily wild area of the grove. There 
is no question, however, that the old 
Kennicott homestead is a typical prairie 
grove. As to dominant tree form, it is 
almost entirely made up of bur oak, 
with low marshy glades and a willow- 
bordered pond. The size of the grove 
is ideal for the creation of a nature 
center with historical overtones; it would 
show how early residents in prairie 
groves made their accommodation with 
the natural environment. No more fitting 
memorial to Chicago's first naturalist 
could be proposed than this grove set 
aside in its present state, housing there 
various memorabilia of Robert Kennicott 
— for example, enlarged passages from 
his voluminous letters. 



Seotember 1973 



ETTERS 



A member reminisces 



The following exchange is between 
Museum life member Alan D. Whitney and 
John R. Millar, retired deputy director of 
the Museum and chief curator of botany. 

Dear Mr. IVIiilar: 

Having enjoyed your article in the June 
Bulletin, I decided to write you and mention 
a few of my own recollections of the old 
(Museum in Jackson Park. I was born 
on the South Side on Oct. 30, 1893, the 
last day of the Columbian Fair. My mother 
attended it on Chicago Day, the 9th, and 
was warned I might arrive unduly at 
the fair in the excitement and huge crowd, 
but I bided my time. I still have the 1< 
postal card my father wrote that day to one 
of my uncles, announcing my arrival, and 
ending with "presume he came for the 
Fair and just made it by a scratch," 
I grew up on the South Side and in my 
late teens we moved to the vicinity of 
Jackson Park, at 54th and Everett. I 
attended the old museum building many 
times in my youth and recall exhibits long 
since discarded, mummies, Indian artifacts, 
railroad trains, etc. I even saw the Ferris 
Wheel, after it was moved to the North 
Side, and before it was taken to St. Louis, 
in 1904. As luck would have it. Dr. 
Charles F. Millspaugh Ithe Museum's first 
curator of botany] and wife lived in 
our building. 

I saw the old museum being vacated 
and dismantled, and saw the temporary 
RR track which ran from it to the ICRR 
across Stony Island Ave. I took photos of 



the construction of Rosenwald Museum 
on the same site and with part of the 
same walls. I courted more than one girl 
in the area, and when I became engaged 
to a girl also from the South Side, I 
took motion pictures of her in and around 
the museum then being rebuilt. 

About 25 years ago I met Eugene 
Richardson [curator of fossil invertebratesl. 
He was co-leader with me in the Great 
Books course in Winnetka then. His 
ability to read the texts in the original 
Greek intrigued me, and forced me to try 
my hand a bit at that art. I taught myself 
to read enough so that when we went 
to Greece in 1960 and again in 1964, I 
could decipher parts of the old 
inscriptions .... I became a member 
of the Museum a few years ago (and) in 
recent years became a life member. 

Alan D. Whitney 
Winnetka, III. 



Dear Mr. Whitney. 

Your reminiscences of your youth and early 
events in connection with the World 
Columbian Exposition and the Museum are 
most interesting and awaken some 
nostalgic thoughts of my early days. When 
I began employment at the Museum in 
1918, I lived on the North Side, rode the 
el. to 63rd and Stony and walked from there 
to the Museum in all kinds of weather. 



Please address all letters to the editor to 

Buflelin 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

The editors reserve the right to edit 
letters for length. 

During lunch hour I and Homer Geib, 
another young man employed at the same 
time, explored the park and all there was 
in it, the German Building, the Japanese 
Tea House, Wooded Island, the Viking Ship, 
Columbian caravels, and of course every 
nook and corner of the Museum. 
My first visit to the Museum occurred 
when, as a grade school pupil, I and a 
classmate took our respective girls there 
on a Sunday afternoon. We fed our morbid 
curiosity about death and the human body 
with awesome viewing of mummies, 
especially the unwrapped ones, and fed 
our dreams of adventure in faraway places 
with sight of native costumes and weapons. 
It was a tremendously stimulating 
experience that I can still recall vividly. 
The fact that each generation of young 
people must go through an equivalent 
phase in their lives and development makes 
museums and their exhibits of continuing 
value as adjunctive educational institutions. 

John R. Millar 
Longboat Key, Fla. 



An exhibition case is moved from the Museum's first home, the Palace of Fine Arts, into a freight 

car for transport a few miles up the lake shore to the new Field Museum building. Photo taken about 1919. 





Anthropology Program for 
High-Schoolers 




David Lawrence Pitrak. Oak Lawn Community 
High School and James Gerard Graham, 
Evergreen Park High School, both juniors, 
learn about American Indian techniques for 
making rope at Field Museum of Natural 
History. They are participants in a six-week 
Student Science Training Program in 
Anthropology offered by Field IVluseum's 
Department of Education and supported by the 
National Science Foundation. David and James 
were chosen for the free course on the basis 
of academic achievement, teachers' 
recommendations, and personal interviews. 
The program features lectures by noted 
authorities, seminars, workshops, individual 
projects, study of artifacts, and a week of 
supervised archaeological field work at a local 
site. 



Elizabeth Girardi Museum 
Volunteer, Awarded Doctorate 

Several years ago Mrs, Elizabeth Louise 
Girardi began as a volunteer worker in the 
division of invertebrates. Encouraged by 
Dr, Alan Solem, now curator of that division, 
Mrs. Girardi entered upon graduate studies 
and, in August of this year, was awarded a 
PhD from Northwestern University. Her thesis 
on "The Genus Ostodes (Mollusca, 
Gastropoda) In Western Samoa" was based 
on materials collected by Dr. Solem and 
staff under National Science Foundation 
sponsorship. 



Field Museum Celebrates 80th 

On September 16 Field Museum of Natural 
History begins its ninth decade, for on that 
date in 1893 the incorporators of the 
Museum (then the Columbian Museum of 
Chicago) were granted a state charter. In its 
80 years the institution has grown to 
become one of the world's most important 
museums — both as a scientific research 
center and as a repository for specimens 
and artifacts. 



Journals Exchange with Peking 

About twenty years ago Field Museum and 
the Academia Sinica in Peking, People's 
Republic of China, initiated an exchange of 
technical publications: Fieldiana (Field 
Museum's continuing series) going to 
Peking, and four Chinese journals coming to 
the Museum library. As a result of the 
"cultural revolution" in China in 1966, few 
scientific publications were printed and none 
were sent to our library. 

Through it all, however, the Museum 
continued to send its publications to the 
academy and to its Institute of Vertebrate 
Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, 

In February of this year Mr. Peyton Fawcett, 
Museum librarian, wrote to the Academia 
Sinica concerning the journal exchange and 
was informed that the academy had been 
receiving Fieldiana without interruption! He 
also received assurance that the Museum 
would again be getting those journals that 
had been interrupted earlier, issues of which 
have been received. 



Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. Named 
Chairman of Department of Botany 




On July 1 Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., formerly 
of Harvard University, became the new 
chairman of the department of botany at 
Field Museum. At Harvard he had been a 
faculty member since 1966 and lecturer in 
biology since 1969. He was appointed 
assistant curator of Harvard's Arnold 
Arboretum in 1959 and subsequently became 
curator. Dr. Nevling also served as associate 
curator, then curator, of Harvard's Gray 
Herbarium. 

Dr. Nevling was born in St. Louis, received 
his BS from St. Mary's College, Winona, 
Minnesota; and his AM and PhD from 
Washington University in St. Louis. He is a 
member of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science (Fellow, 1967), the 
Linnaean Society of London, and the 
Sociedad Botanica de Mexico. At Field 
Museum, Dr. Nevling will continue his work 
on the "Flora of Veracruz," an ecologically 
oriented flora which is a cooperative study 
with scientists of the National University of 
Mexico, This project is supported in part by 
a recent grant from the National Science 
Foundation. 

Dr. Nevling succeeds Dr. Louis 0. Williams, 
chairman of the department since 1964. In 
his new capacity as curator of 
Central American Botany, Dr. Williams will 
devote full time to his 15-volume work, 
Flora of Guatemala, a comprehensive survey 
which he hopes to complete by 1976. 



September 1973 



Singer Collects in Ecuador 




While several of his colleagues in the 
Department of Botany were collecting in 
Central America. Dr. Rolf Singer, visiting 
curator in mycology (the study of fungi), was 
on a National Science Foundation-supported 
field trip in the Ecuadorian headwater 
regions of the Amazon, and in the Andean 
provinces of Pichincha and Tungurahua. 



(Only two mycologists had previously been 
in the area — both more than half a 
century earlier.) 

During his work in eastern Ecuador Singer 
was stationed at the village of Lago Agrio 
on the Rio Aguarico. an Amazon tributary, 
where he was guest of the Texaco Oil 
Company. His primary objective was to 
collect fungi of the class Basidiomycetes; 
secondarily, he took soil samples, which, by 
the type of fungi they contained, might 
indicate the likelihood of the presence of 
petroleum deposits. 

"The Naked Ape" Filmed at 
Field Museum 

Several scenes from "The Naked Ape," a 
commercial film soon to be released to 
theatres were filmed at Field IVIuseum last 
year. The movie is based on a book of 
the same title by British zoologist 
Desmond IVlorris. 



John White Joins Department 
of Education 

Field Museums new coordinator of native 
American programs in the department of 
education is John White. The new program, 
funded by a grant from the W. Clement 
and Jessie V. Stone Foundation, will attempt 
to utilize Field Museum as a cultural 
resource for the Indian community, and will 
involve a close working relationship with 
other Indian educational groups in the city. 
A major project under Mr. White's direction 
will be the development of a comprehensive 
illustrated catalog of the North American 
Indian materials in the Museum's collection. 

A native of Philadelphia, Mr. White is of 
Cherokee (Chickamauga Band) and Scottish 
descent. He received his MA from the 
University of Chicago in a combined 
education and anthropology program; his 
thesis was on "The American Indian in 
Chicago — the Hidden People." He has also 
completed work toward his PhD at 
Stanford. 




Moonlet Acquired 75 Years Ago 

Field Museum's miniature moon, still to be 
seen in Hall 35, was donated to the Museum 
75 years ago. The 19-foot model, made in 
Germany, is so accurate in detail that none 
of the photos taken by astronauts during the 
Apollo moon missions has revealed features 
in disagreement with those shown on the 
model's surface. 

On the occasion of the model's acquisition 
in 1898 the following statement appeared in 
that year's annual Museum report: 

"In geology, the gill ot Mr. L. W. Reese, o/ 
Chicago, of the Schmidt-Dickert relief 
model of the moon is a notabie acquisition. 
This great model, 19 feet in diameter, 
exhibits with scientific accuracy the surface 
features of the moon. It was prepared with 
great care from the charts ot Beer and 
l^adfer and of Dr. Schmidt of the Athens 
Observatory, undoubtedly the greatest 
authority upon the topography of the moon 
of his time. Five years were occupied in its 
construction." 



(For further information on the curious 
history of this model see the February 1970 
Bulletin.) 



Field Museum Bulletin 21 



;V-v,v^v*>vv^^V^y.^^V>//^C.%V7AV^^ 



f^i^'iiSfo. 




'•fifaW^ 



"The creation of ground-level access to 
Field Museum will be the attainment of a 
long-sought goal," said Museum Director 
E. Leiand Webber. "As early as 1943, 
our architects studied the feasibility of such 
access, but the project has been deferred 
through the years because of lack of 
funds. Now, through the generosity of many 
Chicagoans, this important improvement 
is nearing reality." 

The new entrance facility should be 
completed by the end of next year. In the 
meantime, handicapped visitors, through 
prior arrangement, may enter the Museum 
via the service elevator, and use a Museum 
wheelchair for the day. 

Many other aids to persons with limited 
mobility are included in the Museum's 



renovation plans. There will be two public 
passenger elevators to replace the present 
single, small elevator. Each will have 
group-size doors and capacities of 30 
persons. In addition, wide restroom stalls 
with grab bars, low drinking fountains 
and pay telephones, and wide doors will 
enhance a Museum visit for mobility-limited 
persons. It is also hoped that the Simpson 
Theatre can be equipped with a lift 
backstage for patrons who cannot enter 
via the lobby stairs. 

These renovations are parts of 27 major 
projects that will update the Museum for 
the 1970s and decades to come. Half of 
the money is being generated through 
private gifts, the other half is public funds 
through the bonding authority of the 
Chicago Park District. 



Plan ground-level access 
for handicapped visitors 

"The 38 steps" — not a Hitchcock thriller 
but a real frustration to approximately 
600,000 Chicago-area residents who cannot 
presently visit Field Museum without 
hardship and inconvenience to themselves 
and to the people accompanying them. 

The 38 steps lead up to the Museum's two 
main entrances. But for visitors confined 
to wheelchairs or crutches, or who are 
pregnant or on the mend from a broken 
limb, or who are still in the toddler stage 
or have advanced to their senior years, 
those 38 obstacles are sufficient to often 
deter them from an exciting, 
thought-provoking tour through the 
Museum. 

But, thanks to many generous contributors 
to the Museum's $25-Million Capital 
Campaign now in progress, the Museum 
will soon have a ground-level entrance to 
better serve these potential visitors. It will 
be one level lower than, and just to the 
north of, the present entrance to the lobby 
of the James Simpson Theatre on the west 
side of the building. The new entrance 
will feature pull-type doors with a 
clearance of 36 inches wide or more. 




Architect's rendering of Field Museum's west entrance as it will appear in the near future. 
Access to the building by this entrance will be at the ground level, making it possible for persons 
in wheelchairs and on crutches to visit the Museum with minimum difficulty. 



September 1973 




CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Closes September 30 

Seventeen-Year Cicada: A Strategy for 
Survival, a multi-media exhibit describing 
and Interpreting the adaptive significance 
of ttie unusual life cycle of tfiese strange 
insects. IVIIIIIons of cicadas made tfieir 
noisy appearance above ground In tfie 
Cfiicago area early In June. Hall 9. 

Adaptations of Amphibians and Reptiles, 

an exhilbit of pfiotographs portraying tfie 
natural beauty and aesthietic qualities of 
ttnese animals, as well as Illustrating some 
of tfieir often remarkable and unique 
adaptations whicfi help them survive. They 
were taken by Dr. Nathan W. Cohen, 
Chairman. Department of Continuing 
Education in Sciences and Mathematics, 
University of California, Berkeley. Hall 27. 

Continuing 

Field Museum's Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of 
Wonder" offers thought-provoking prose 
and poetry associated with the physical, 
biological, and cultural aspects of nature; 
"A Sense of History" presents a graphic 
portrayal of the Museum's past, and 
"A Sense of Discovery" shows examples 
of research conducted by Museum 
scientists. Hall 3. 



Children's Program 

Begins September 1 

Fall Journey for Children, a free self-guided 
tour designed to acquaint youngsters 
with Museum exhibit areas. All boys and 
girls who can read and write may join in 
the activity. Journey sheets available at 
entrances. Through November 30. 

Meetings 

September 11: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago. 

September 12: 7 p.m., Chicago 
Ornithological Society. 

September 12: 7:30 p.m., Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 

September 13: 8 p.m., Chicago 
Mountaineering Club. 

September 25: 7:30 p.m.. Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago. 

Coming in October 

Fall Film Lecture Series, offered at 
2:30 p.m. every Saturday In the 
James Simpson Theatre. "The Epic 
Voyages of Ra" will also be presented at 
7:30 p.m. Friday, October 19. 

October 6: "In the Heel of the Northeast 
Trade," (Patau Islands. Micronesia), 
narrated by Dr. Kenneth R. H. Read. 

October 13: "Hawaii," narrated by 
Doug Jones. 

October 19 and 

October 20: "The Epic Voyages of Ra," 

narrated by Comdr. Norman Baker. 

October 27: "Minnesota Valley Saga," 

narrated by Dr. Walter J. Breckenrldge. 



Hours 

9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Saturday and Sunday. September 
1 and 2. and 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monday. September 
3 {Labor Day). Remainder of month 9 a.m. to 5 
p.m. Saturday through Thursday, and 9 a.m. to 
9 p.m. Friday. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



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Volume 44, Number 9 
October 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 9 
October 1973 



contents 



REHABILITATION 

The first large-scale modernization program 
in the history of Field Museum 
An interview with William B. Dring 



Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery 
Editor David M. Walsten 
Staff Writer Madge Jacobs 
Production Russ Becker 
Photography John Bayalis 



SCARABS 

Sacred and otherwise 
By David M. Walsten 



SPANISH PREHISTORIC ART 

Introduction to a new exhibit 
By G. Henry Ottery 



BOOK REVIEWS 



8 



13 



15 



RAY A. KROC ENVIRONMENTAL 
EDUCATION PROGRAM 



16 



CHILDREN'S WORKSHOPS 



17 



FIELD BRIEFS 



18 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director E. Leland Webber 



CALENDAR 



19 



Board of Trustees 

Remick McDowell, 

President 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley M 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Harry M. Oliver, Jr. 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 

Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild. Jr. 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrlngton 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clilford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
James L. Palmer 
John G. Searle 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



COVER 

The date: May 2, 1921. The event: Opening day of Field 
Museum's new building. Chicagoans. like pilgrims journeying to 
a shrine, make their way to the doors of the Museum, across 
the "barrens" of what is to become Grant Park. 

Today, a half-century later, Field Museum has grown to become 
one of the great scientific meccas of the world. Completion of 
the Museum's $25 million rehabilitation program (described in 
the following pages) will do much to ensure the institution's 
continued growth as an educational and research center. 



The Field Museum ol Natural History Bulletin is published monttily, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Stiore Drive, Ctiicago, Illinois 60605. 
Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of 
Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class 
postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703 



October 1973 




Rehabilitation 



The first major modernization 
program in Field Museum's history is 
explained by architect William B. 
Dring of Harry Weese & Associates. 



Architect's visualization of new lunchroom planned for 
Field Museum 



Editor: The goal of Field Museum's Capital Campaign 

is $25,000,000— funds to be used in 
rehabilitating the Museum building. Could you 
summarize the major aspects of the 
construction program and explain how this will 
affect Museum visitors? 

Dring: Probably the most obvious changes as far as 

Museum visitors are concerned will be the 
renovation of the public spaces. Virtually all of 
the public service areas will be affected. 
Included in the program is an expanded new 
cafeteria, modernization of James Simpson 
Theatre, and expansion and renovation of the 
educational facilities, including new classrooms 
and lecture halls, new children's lunchrooms 



Harry IVeese & Associates is the arctiitectural 
firm in charge of the rehabilitation project. The 
firm has been involved in many major renovation 
projects in Chicago, among which are the 
Auditorium Theater. Orchestra Hall, and 
Newberry Library. Mr. Dring is project manager 
tor the Field l\/luseum's rehabilitation program. 



and a new ground-level entry for children's 
groups and mobility-limited persons at the west 
side of the building. The other public spaces to 
be affected are the north and south entries 
where new coat-checking facilities are planned. 
New elevators will serve the three public levels 
of the building. The present bookstore is to be 
enlarged. A new bookstore at the south 
entrance and a children's bookstore on the 
ground floor are also planned. 

Less visible to the public will be the expansion 
of the scientific departments. This will include 
substantial enlargement of the curatorial offices, 
laboratories, and collections storage areas for 
each of the four scientific departments (zoology, 
botany, geology, and anthropology). 
A third aspect of the building program is 
consolidation of departmental offices. Due to 
incremental expansion over the years, these 
departments tended to spread around the 
building and become physically decentralized, 
causing problems in staff communication yet not 
really providing adequate space. Under the 
new program, each of the departments will be 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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consolidated into contiguous facilities. The 
administration, education, and development 
offices will be on ttie ground floor. The 
Department of Exhibition's new offices are 
already completed and in use at the south end 
of the fourth floor. 

Along with the construction of the new facilities 
there is a continuous program of renovation 
of the physical and mechanical plant. This will 
include repair of some fairly minor structural 
deterioration and will also include such major 
items as a complete air conditioning system, 
and almost total renovation of t^.e electrical 
system. 

The last major aspect is an outgoing program 
of exhibition renewal. The Museum has a very 
strong commitment to the exhibition program, 
and has budgeted a rather large portion, about 
$5,000,000 of the $25,000,000 capital campaign 
funds, to exhibition renewal. Part of this money 
will be used for physical renovation of the 
halls: new lighting, acoustical treatment, and 
repainting. 



Ed.: What is the overall timetable for the 

construction program? 

Dring: Par'i of the work has been completed. In 

addition to the new work areas for the 
Department of Exhibition, we have also 
completed new offices and storage areas for 
the Division of Invertebrates, and a laboratory 
for the new scanning electron microscope. 
Conversion of the boilers from coal to gas has 
been completed. Just recently the Museum has 
entered into a contract for eight new fire exits 
and repair of the north and south steps. By the 
end of the year we hope to have the air 
conditioning, the electrical renovation, 
additional curatorial space, and most of the 
ground floor work under contract. All of these 
are phased projects which are scheduled to be 
in construction over the next several years. In 
total these represent about 65 percent of the 
building program, all under contract this year! 

Ed.: What will be the effect of all this construction 

activity on the staff and visitors? 



Lecture hall II will feature seat rows in semicircular tiers. 




"11 ir 




Laboratory in the Division of 
Invertebrates. Modernization 
of this section, including 
offices and collection storage 
areas, has recently been 
completed. 



Dring: The phasing of the work for minimum 

disruption is a complicated matter. We're 
rebuilding the cafeteria in a new location so 
that the present facilities can be In operation 
until changeover. We're using the same 
techniques in building new facilities for the 
curatorial staff because their collections are 
very sensitive and could not tolerate exposure 
to the dust of construction. Remodelling and 
expanding the offices is a different problem; 
many of the staff will have to occupy 
temporary offices during a portion of the 
construction program. 

It is fortunate that the Museum has chosen 
"construction management" as a method of 
monitoring the construction process and has 
hired Turner Construction Company for this 
responsibility. Construction management 
essentially means hiring a construction firm 
as part of a team, with responsibility for cost 
control and assisting in scheduling and In 
coordination between the various contractors. 

Ed.: What was your overall approach in 

master-planning the rehabilitation program? 

Dring; An early part of the study, of course, was an 

analysis of the building itself. The Museum is 
very fortunate to have such a truly remarkable 
building. Though the classic style was hardly 
avant-garde when the designs were started 
in 1905, the original architect, Daniel Burnham, 
created a magnificent Greco-Roman structure 
that has a timeless quality which will always 
be "in style." I've been working with the 
building for more than five years now, and am 



continually impressed with the clarity and 
integrity of the plan. The public spaces are 
arranged like fingers — always leading back to 
Stanley Field Hall for orientation. Stanley 
Field Hall itself is one of the finest indoor 
spaces in the country. 

Early in the design process we decided, with 
the Museum administration's blessing, that 
any visible expansion outside the building 
would be undesirable. Fortunately, within the 
building the large lightwells, now rendered 
obsolete by modern exhibition lighting 
techniques, are available. They offer large 
clear spaces where new floors could be 
installed, and the existing structure could 
easily take the load. All in all, the lightwells 
offer an increase in floor area of 19 percent! — 
even more than the present program requires. 
And beyond that we could also consider 
expansion under the exterior terraces. These 
expanded areas would also be "invisible." 

Our overall philosophy is to work within the 
present design fabric, saving existing design 
elements and ornamentation. Occasionally we 
must insinuate modern facilities into strong 
design areas, such as the rest rooms which 
were added as part of the new lounges on the 
second floor overlooking Stanley Field Hall. 
There we even copied and extended existing 
ornamentation to be as discreet as possible. 

In James Simpson Theatre we are planning 
to modernize and update the facility but still 
save the existing form and ornamentation. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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New classrooms are among the public service areas to be included in the Museum rehabilitation program. 



In most areas we are not in conflict with the 
original architecture. On the ground floor, 
for instance, there is no strong architectural 
detailing. We felt we should preserve the basic 
symmetry of the circulation pattern, but the 
new architectural elements could be totally 
modern. 

Ed.: Your plans show a new glass wall to enclose 

the north entry portico. What is the reason 
for this? 

Dring: This is probably the only area where the 

modern will come hard up against the 
original, but we believe that the two will meet 
very well. The main reason for this addition 
is that it solves a very basic circulation 
problem that was not adequately solved in 
the original design. 

A large number of persons enter and leave 
the building at this point; traffic here is further 
congested by the coat checking, the bookstore, 
and ticket-taking functions, plus the guard's 
desk which mediates access to the nonpublic 
areas of the building. Our proposal to solve 
these problems was to enclose the exterior 
portico. We're providing a desk and special 
elevators in an alcove at the side to serve the 
staff and visitors to the nonpublic areas. 



The bookshop will be entered at the east side 
of the north entrance. All the congestion inside 
the bronze doors will be avoided, allowing easy 
access to the grand stairs and a suitably 
dignified approach to Stanley Field Hall. The 
glass wall we are adding to enclose this new 
space will be the most visible change to the 
exterior, but by holding the glass behind the 
outer row of columns, we expect that it will 
not dominate the scene. 

Ed.: What about the not-so-visible changes — the 

air conditioning, for example. 

Dring: The decision to air-condition the building was 

made very early. There was concern for the 
comfort and efficiency of the staff and the 
Museum's visitors, but the primary reason for 
air conditioning is the need to preserve the 
invaluable collections of the Museum. Most 
of the specimens, particularly those which 
are organic in nature, require a stable 
environment. Extremes of temperature and 
humidity could, over a period of time, cause 
severe deterioration to many of these virtually 
irreplaceable objects. The collections are 
housed not only in the scientific areas but 
throughout the exhibition halls, making total 
air conditioning almost mandatory. 



October 1973 



The Museum sought the advice of the many 
experts in the field of conservation, and 
engaged Dr. Nathan Stolow as a consultant. 
Dr. Stolow is director of the Canadian 
Conservation Institute of the National Museums 
of Canada and is a world authority on the 
preservation of works of art and natural 
history objects. He surveyed the collections 
and made a series of recommendations as to 
the proper environment for each of the various 
types of specimen. Our engineers have 
designed an air conditioning system that can 
meet these critical needs but which can also 
be throttled back for economy if any area were 
to be converted to more standard use. 

We tried to design the air conditioning system 
into the existing fabric, again, as discreetly 
as possible. For the air conditioning cooling 
tower we were able to use a lightwell above 
James Simpson Theatre. In planning the 
distribution of the large pipes and ducts we 
were equally fortunate. We found that the 
corners of each of the old lightwells could be 
extended down to the first floor and the 
ground floor with almost no impairment of the 
visual aspects or working qualities of the 
building. These shafts reach almost everywhere 
and will serve perfectly to conceal most of 
the equipment. 



Also, we are reserving two of the shafts for 
the new public elevators. The shafts are so 
perfect for the task that it almost seems that 
the original architect, more than half a century 
ago, foresaw this future need. 

Ed.: With the completion of the rehabilitation 

program, Museum members will take pride m 
the fact that their modernized building will be 
one of the best equipped and most up-to-date 
institutions of its kind in the world. 

The fulfillment of members' dreams for a fully 
modernized building is predicated on the 
successful completion of the Capital Campaign. 
The Campaign's goal is $25 million — half to 
be privately donated, the other half to be 
provided by the bonding authority of the 
Chicago Park District on a matching basis. 
So far, through the generosity of individual, 
foundation, and corporate donors, more than 
$10 million has been subscribed — a truly 
remarkable demonstration of faith and interest 
in Field Museum. Nearly $2.5 million from 
private sources is still to be raised by 
September 1974, however. In the months to 
come, each of us must consider how we can 
individually participate in the achievement 
of this goal. 



CHICAGO'S BIG GIVERS 

The immediate future o1 Chicago is 
an interesting study for observers. 
All eyes have been centered upon her 
now for six months, and in a less 
degree for nearly two years. Her 
purposes and her methods of carrying 
them out have been matters of 
national moment. It is hardly too much 
to say that she has been the most 
important city in the land, and of 
course she has feft her importance. 
What will become of her now? Will 
she drop gracefully down to hard 
pan and become once more a 
comparatively commonplace big 
western town or will she keep right 
on and strive by tremendous hustling 
to maintain the central and 
commanding position which was lent 
her by the falr'i' Of course that 



remains to be seen, but she has 
given some evidence already that she 
does not intend to drop an inch 
farther than she can hefp. Marshall 
Field's subscription of a million 
dollars to found a museum of natural 
history may be accepted as an 
indication of her sentiments, ft is 
proposed to make the museum a 
memorial ot the fair and perhaps to 
house it in the Art Building at 
Jackson Park. Mr. Pullman follows 
Mr. Field's subscription with one ot 
a hundred thousand dollars, and 
doubtless before this reaches the 
reader's eye the entire sum of two 
millions called for will be made up. 
What extraordinary givers these 
Chicago men are! It is exhilarating 
even at this distance to see the 



superb confidence with which they 
back up their town. Other cities get 
bequests now and then, but Chicago's 
rich men have not had time to die, 
and neither she nor they can wait for 
that. They want to see that investment 
in actual being. If any eastern 
listener is holding his ear to the 
ground to catch the thud of Chicago's 
collapse, he might as well get on 
his legs again and go about his 
business. There Isn 't going to be 
much of a thud. Those amazing 
hustfers are stiff at it, and though 
their tide may ebb a fittfe for a time 
it is bound to ffow again in due 
season. — Editorial from Harper's 
Weekly, Nov. 11, 1893. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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8 September 1973 



SCARABS 



Sacred and Otherwise 



By David M. Walsten 



EARLY IN THE 19TH CENTURY Lord 
Elgin — the British Museum's dedicated 
collector of antiquities — found in 
Constantinople a boulder-size green 
granite replica of a beetle. It measured 
about five feet long and weighed more 
than two tons. The sculpture is 
possibly the largest carving of a beetle 
ever made, and is believed to have 
originally come from the temple of 
Heliopolis in northern Egypt. 

Elgin's colossus represented an insect 
known to entomologists as Scarabeus 
sacer and commonly called (along with 
a number of similar species) the dung 



beetle, or tumblebug. Because it held 
religious significance for the ancient 
Egyptians the beetle also is known as 
the "sacred scarab." At least three 
other species were also used by the 
Egyptians as models for amulets, 
talismans, seals, tablets, and pedestals. 
The family to which all of these belong 
is known as Scarabaeidae, a group that 
comprises more than 20,000 species 
(about 1,300 in North America). All of 
these beetles, too, are properly called 
scarabs. 

Perhaps no instance of religious 
symbolism could be described as more 



curious than the ancient Egyptians' 
identification of S. sacer with Khepera, 
their god of creation. The beetle's 
seemingly playful habit of rolling a ball 
of dung along the ground was believed 
to represent Khepera's divine task of 
rolling the sun across the sky. The ball, 
in time, magically produced another 
beetle; the Egyptians probably did not 
notice that an egg had been inserted 
into it weeks earlier. 

The beetle grub used the ball as food 
— a miniaturization of heat and life 
springing from the sun. Thirty structures 
on the beetle's legs were thought to 



Over a period of more than 3.000 years the Egyptian scarab was fashioned in a variety of styles, 
in a great range of sizes, and from many materials. Those shown (actual size) at the left, 
selected from Field t^useum's collection, were probably made ca. 1570-500 B.C. See key below. 
(1) faience: (2) mottled argillite?; (3) faience; (4) granitic; (5) blue ceramic; (6) serpentine; (7) 
faience, with sun disk above and threading loop in shape of infinity sign; (8) faience; (9) 
serpentine; (10) amethyst; (11) wood; (12) translucent paste; (13) lapis lazuli; (14) wood; (15) 
faience: (16) altered volcanic rock; (17) quartz-feldspar; (18) wood; (19) jade?; (20) faience. 



Greenstone scarab, lop and bottom, from about 
1000 B.C., showing beautifully incised hieroglyphs 
on the lower side. (Enlarged about twice) 











Field Museum Bulletin 



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Winged Egypt'an scarab, ceramic, from the 
Late Period (1090-332 B.C.). The wings 
represent those of Horus, the falcon-formed 
god of the sky. (Slightly enlarged) 



represent the days of the month. The 
number of days in the month was also 
said to be represented by the number 
of days before a new beetle emerged 
from the ball. All scarabs were 
supposedly males; by virtue of their 
divine power they were able to 
perpetuate themselves without female 
assistance. 

Iriiages of the beetle — a stout black 
insect about an inch long — were made 
from a great variety of materials, 
•ncluding ivory, wood, ceramics, 
colored glass, gold, and stone. Stone 
scarabs were of basalt, granite, diorite, 
hematite, lapis lazuli, carnelian, jasper, 
agate, soapstone, onyx, and quartz. The 
great majority were from half an inch to 
two inches in length. Some replicas 
had wings of the sacred falcon Horus. 
Others bore a ram's head and horns, 
Khepera is sometimes represented as 
a man with a head in the likeness of a 
scarab. The bottom of scarab replicas 




i 



IS usually flat and smooth, but many 
are inscribed with hieroglyphs or with 
other figures. Anatomical features of the 
beetle's lower side are sometimes 
represented in stylized fashion. 

Scarabs have been found on habitation 
sites as well as in tombs. The oldest 
known amulets date from at least as 
early as the first half of the fourth 
millenium B.C., and jars of embalmed 
scarab beetles also date from this 
period. The use of scarab replicas as 
amulets became common during the 
Xlth or Xllth dynasties (2133-1786 B.C.); 
around the XXVIth dynasty (664-525 
B.C.) they passed out of vogue. 
Hundreds of large scarabs were made 
during the reign of Amenophis III 
(about 1450 B.C.), memorializing such 
events as his marriage, the digging of 
an artificial lake, and various hunting 
trips. 

Scarab amulets were worn on the 
person to promote general well-being 





(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



(d) 



(a) Scarabeus sacer. found only in the Eastern Hemisphere, is the species most commonly 
regarded by the ancient Egyptians as sacred; (b) small North American tumblebug, Canthon 
laevis: (c) common North American junebug, genus Phyllophaga: (d) the gold bug, Plusiotis 
resplendens: native to Central America, this scarab has the color and sheen of highly polished 
24-carat gold. (All life size) 



and to ward off evil. Warriors carried 
them to bolster their courage. Some 
were inscribed with the name and title 
of their bearer. Others had the name 
of a pharaoh, or a motto or good luck 
phrase carved into them, such as "May 
your name endure and a son be born 
to you." Because the beetle symbolized 
life itself, scarab amulets were often 
placed with the dead. The so-called 
heart scarab was placed on a mummy's 
breast, among its wrappings, or put 
inside the body in place of the 
mummy's heart. The bottom of the 
heart scarab was inscribed with a 
passage from the sacred Book of the 
Dead, in which the deceased petitioned 
his heart not to bear witness against 
him at the time of final judgment. 
Beyond Egypt, scarabs have been 
found in various other Mediterranean 
countries and as far east as Iran, where 
they were in all probability taken by 
early traders. The Greeks and 
Etruscans copied the scarab in their 
own art, Etruscan scarabs of the 6th 
and 5th centuries B.C. being especially 
fine. 

Among the Egyptian scarabs to be 
found in Hall 33, case J, of Field 
Museum are blue glaze amulets of the 
XXVIth-XXXth dynasties, winged 
scarabs of the XXIInd-XXXth dynasties, 
and heart scarabs from between the 
XVIIIth and XXVth dynasties. 

Scarabs generally, that is to say, all 
members of the beetle family 
Scarabaeidae typically have oval or 
elongate bodies, a robust appearance, 
and are rather lethargic in habit. They 



October 1973 





V 



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DYNASTIDS — giants of the living scarabs 

THE ELEPHANT BEETLE (Megasoma 
elephus) occurs in Central and 
South America. (Life size) 



THE GOLIATH BEETLE (Goliathus 
regius), found in Africa, is pertiaps 
ttie largest of all living insects. 
(Life size) 




THE HERCULES BEETLE (Dynastes 
hercules), native to Central and 
Soutfi America, sometimes measures 
more than six inches to the tip of 
the horn. (Life size) 



are distinguished from other beetles by 
the platelike, or lamellate, structure of 
the three end segments of the 
antennae. These may be opened and 
closed something like a fan. The family 
is further distinguished by a five- 
segmented tarsus — the end section of 
the leg. It may have been the total of 
these 30 segments on the sacred 
scarab's six legs that were believed by 



the ancient Egyptians to correspond to 
the 30 days of the month. 

The family is of particular interest to 
the collector because it includes the 
giants of the beetle order: the goliath, 
hercules, elephant, and rhinoceros 
beetles — the so-called dynastids. The 
goliath beetle greatly outweighs the 
smallest mammals and may very well 



be, on the basis of weight, the largest 
of all living insects. Some dynastids 
have spectacular hornlike structures. 
As with many horned mammals, only 
the male dynastid bears horns. 

Among the most curious, and least 
known, scarabs are beetles of the 
genus Cremastochellus. These insects, 
'/2 inch long or so, live in ant nests. 



Field fvtuseum Bulletin 




A worker ant gnaws at nutritive thoracic 
glands of the scarab Cremaslocheilus 
castaneae. Apparently unharmed by this 
attention, the beetle is held captive in the nest 
or, in some cases, freely comes and goes. 
(Several times life size) 



Some appear to be held captive; 
others apparently come and go with 
complete freedom. A nutritive fluid, 
eaten by the ants, is secreted by 
special glands located between the 
beetle's thorax and the wing covers. 
Clinging to the beetle's body, the ant 
gnaws at the glands to release the 
fluid. 

Scarab pests 

Many scarab species are serious pests 
of food crops, flower gardens, lawns, 
and golf greens. The junebug (a name 
applied to more than 100 closely 
related species, mostly of the genus 
Phyllophaga), is a destructive insect 
that occurs throughout North America: 
it is also known as the June beetle or 
May beetle. The peanut-shaped, 
shiny-brown adults — V2-^A inch long — 
feed at night on the foliage of trees 
and shrubs. Enough of these insects 
can strip a large plant of its leaves 
overnight. At the first light of dawn the 
junebugs descend to the ground. But 
at dusk they again take flight, seeking 
out a suitable tree or shrub for their 
evening meal. 

The white-bodied, brown-headed 
junebug larvae — commonly called 
white grubs — grow to about an inch 
long. They live in the soil, burrowing 
as deep as five feet, and do serious 
damage to the roots of forage plants. 



lawn grass, and a large number of 
agricultural crops. 

The rose chafer {Macrodactylus 
subspinosus), a widely distributed 
insect closely related to the junebug, 
is a tan, slender beetle about '/2 inch 
long that feeds on the foliage and 
flowers of grapes and roses. Peaches 
and other fruits are also among the 
rose chafer's favorite foods. The rose 
chafer grub, like that of the junebug, 
does serious damage to a variety of 
food crops by eating the roots. 
Curiously, the rose chafer is poisonous 
to poultry, which sometimes die from 
eating the beetle. (The name "chafer," 
like Kafer, the German word for any 
sort of beetle, is derived from the 
name of the ancient Egyptian god 
Khepera.) 

The Japanese beetle {Popillia japonica) 
is a beautifully colored scarab, but it is 
also a pest in many parts of the United 
States. It feeds on the foliage and fruit 
of at least 250 plant species, including 
cultivated fruit trees, shrubbery, and 
lawn grasses. The V2 -inch-long 
metallic green or greenish bronze 
insect first arrived in this country in 
about 1916 as a stowaway on the 
roots of agricultural stock shipped from 
Japan. 



Tumblebugs and scavengers 

Beneficial scarabs include the dung 
beetles (which comprise many species 
and several subfamilies) and the skin 
beetles (family Troginae). Dung beetles 
remove the excrement of larger 
animals by burying and devouring it. 
Skin beetles — so-named because they 
commonly occur under the hides of 
dead animals — feed on carrion. 

The sacred scarab, a dung beetle 
which occurs only in the Eastern 
Hemisphere, belongs to a subfamily 
(Scarabinae) whose members are also 
commonly called tumblebugs. These 
insects are fascinating to watch as 
they go about their task: When the 
tumblebug comes upon a piece of 
animal dung it cuts off a chunk, works 
it into a sphere often much larger than 
itself, then rolls it away. Sometimes 
two beetles cooperate at the task — one 
pulling, the other pushing. When the 
ball reaches a hole or crevice in the 
ground it is dropped in and one or 
more eggs (depending on the species) 
are laid in the ball. Later the ball is 
used as food by the developing grub. 
J. Henri Fabre's The Sacred Beetle 
and Others, first published in English 
in 1918, is a classic account of the 
activities of the dung beetle. 



Two dung beetles, or tumblebugs, of the North American species Canthon pilularis work 
together to move their ball of dung to a hole or crevice in the earth. 

Photo courtesy of John H. Gerard. 



12 



October 1973 





\V\ 



^. 



^v 




Hunting scene from cave at Ares del Maestre, Castell6n. 



Spanish prehistoric art 



By G. Henry Ottery 

FOR FIVE-YEAR-OLD Maria, it was like 
a holiday. She was thrilled that her 
father, Marcelino de Sautoula, an 
engineer and amateur archaeologist, 
permitted her to explore with him the 
caves of the Cantabrian mountain region 
of northern Spain that day in 1879. 
There were so many caves, and Maria's 
father had told her that they had been 
home and refuge for succeeding 
generations of humans. 

They were examining the interior of the 
Cave of Altamira. It was a very low 
cave, so that, while Maria was able to 
stand up, her father had to crawl or 
walk duck fashion. Maria's excited 
eyes darted to all sides and up and 
down, not knowing what to expect. 
Suddenly she cried out, "Papa! Los 
toros!" Her father's eyes followed her 
pointed finger to the roof of the cave 
until they found Maria's bulls. They 
were painted bison, whose rich colors 
must have astonished Marcelino, and 
humbled him with the message they 
brought from centuries past. 

Maria and her father — and the world — 
had discovered the art of painting in 
one of its earliest stages. Since that 



day in 1879, more than 100 caves and 
rock shelters in northern Spain and 
southern France, as well as large 
numbers of rock shelters in eastern 
Spain, have been discovered to contain 
prehistoric paintings and engravings, 
dating as far back as 30,000 B.C. 

A representative sampling of these art 
findings has been placed on view in 
Field Museum's Hall 27, and will 
remain through October. The exhibit 
"Spanish Prehistoric Art," is comprised 
of 42 photographs and other 
reproductions of cave paintings and 
engravings. Visitors to the display are 
reminded of the Museum's Hall of the 
Stone Age of the Old World, where 
full-size, three-dimensional dioramas 
recreate in detail two prehistoric rock 
shelters and a cave discovered in 
France, which present other examples 
of prehistoric art. 

Development of the art 

There were more skeptics than 
believers when the cave drawings were 
first discovered. Very few thought them 
to be genuine. In spite of the 
knowledge gained from the earlier 



study of numerous small works of art 
— objects of stone, bone, and horn 
adorned with incisions or reliefs — the 
date and authenticity of the paintings 



Detail of cave painting from Ares del Maestre, 
Castellon, depicting bull and arcfier 



»?■»*! 




were difficult to determine. Even the 
specialists in prefnistory misinterpreted 
their significance, some saying that 
they could have been done by Roman 
soldiers, others declaring that the 
artists were Spanish priests! It wasn't 
until about 20 years after Maria's 
discovery, when similar paintings were 
found in caves in southern France, that 
the problem was solved. 

These early paintings are of 
extraordinarily high quality and the 
artists have been favorably compared 
with the most renowned artists of 
historic times. The prehistoric artist had 
to invent techniques and overcome 
great difficulties. He had limited colors. 
He initiated the use of dotted outlines, 
the silhouette, flat colors, incised and 
relief sculpture, etc. Frequently the 
artist had to work by torch light or by 
the light of lamps made of hollow 
stone and filled with animal fat, since 
he often worked at a great distance 
from the cave's entrance. 



Left: Male figures from cave painting at 
Monfrague, Caceres. Right: Detail of battle 
scene from painting in rock shelter near Ares 
del Maestre, Castellon. 



The paintings of these artists are 
thought by some to involve hunting 
magic or to relate to fertiliy rites. The 
figures are full of life. Animals abound. 
Painted hands appear on some cave 
walls; a masked human is also 
depicted. The appearance of symbols 
suggests the artists' capacity for 
abstraction. Authorities generally agree 
that these methods of artistic 
expression had their beginnings about 
30,000 B.C. The paintings that Maria 
found are usually considered as part of 
the grandiose last chapter of late 
Paleolithic art, around 15,000 B.C. 

After about 9,000 B.C. a second style 
of painting appears in prehistoric 
Spain. In addition to animal forms — 
still painted in a naturalistic style — a 
great number of human beings, of both 
sexes, appear. Those wearing what 
appear to be skirts are identified as 
women. But humans are depicted more 
in an abstract than in a naturalistic 
style. All figures are comparatively 
small, appearing especially in hunting 
or food gathering scenes. In addition, 
instead of adorning the hidden 
recesses of caves, this style of art is 
found on the walls of rock shelters in 
the mountains of eastern Spain, As 



this style worked its way westward, it 
lost its last traces of naturalism and 
became schematic and abstract. One 
reason for this change, it has been 
argued, could have been an evolution 
from the natural representation of the 
figure to the stylized figure and the 
symbol. Another reason may have been 
the introduction of a different style and 
different mentality, brought about by 
what has been termed the Neolithic 
Revolution. Some believe that both of 
these factors may have joined to 
create the new style. 

These prehistoric paintings and their 
geographic limitation have caused 
constant problems for the archaeologist 
since their discovery in 1903. But the 
consensus is that they were painted 
between 9,000 and 3,000 B.C. 

Although two subsequent periods of 
Spanish antiquity are also recognized 
in the development of prehistoric art, 
the Museum exhibit concerns itself with 
the first two periods, spanning 27,000 
years. The display was assembled 
because of increasing interest in 
prehistoric and primitive art. The 
traveling exhibit was organized by the 
Spanish Institute, Inc. of New York. 











r 



ILL" L I 



: 



The Archaeology of Arizona: 

A Study of the Southwest Region 

By Paul S. Martin and Fred Plog. New York: 
Natural History Press, 1973. 448 pp.; 
illustrations; end maps. $16.95. 

The regional archaeological study that is 
both authoritative and well illustrated is 
unusual enough, but it is even more 
remarkable when this combination is as 
intellectually satisfying and innovative as the 
volume Martin and Plog have produced. They 
have succeeded in creating a stimulating 
exposition of archaeological problems in the 
Southwest through their comprehensive 
review of Arizona archaeology. The 
graphics have not been neglected in this 
visually attractive book, and the illustrations 
are informative and often pleasing to the eye. 

The admirable aspect of this book is its 
scope. It is a carefully organized exposition 
of the kind of scientific problem orientation 
that the authors have participated in over the 
last dozen years. The new directions that 
Martin and others have charted find their 
way in the discussion of all aspects of 
Arizona archaeology. The organization of 
the book, which is much more than an 
introduction to Arizona archaeology, testifies 
to the broad scope of their study, whose 
range is represented by the eight parts of 
the book that encompass 21 chapters. 



These parts are: 1. Tools in Recovering 
Arizona Prehistory, 2. Environments of 
Arizona, 3. Space and Time Dimensions, 
4. The Evolution of Subsistence-Settlement 
Systems, 5. The Evolution of Technology, 

6. Changing Patterns of Social Organization, 

7. The Great Events in Prehistoric Arizona, 
and 8. Southwestern Prehistory — An 
Explanation. Completely absent is the 
Procrustean geographical and historical 
organization that has been the time-honored 
form of regional archaeological syntheses — 
including the two previous statewide studies 
in the series. 

This book is not a catalog of fancy artifacts 
and picturesque ruins that could easily have 
been the focus of any Arizona archaeological 
text. Instead the authors have selectively 
used the prehistoric record to illustrate their 
exposition. They have chosen to 
communicate their thesis that the 
archaeology of Arizona has something of 
importance to contribute to our 
understanding of man's cultural evolution. 
This is not a didactic exercise, but is a 
serious study concerned with explaining the 
actual variety present in the archaeological 
record. In so doing they stress such 
explanatory relationships as the adaptive 
contexts of technologies, the patterns of site 
location that relate to the procurement and 
control of resources (energy), and the 
various cultural responses to different types 
of labor organizations. Theirs is a cultural 
and social study of Arizona archaeology. In 
the end they develop the notion that the past 
is continuous with the present and that 
explanations of past events must be 
conceptually acceptable to explaining 
contemporary cultural change. But as broad 
as the conceptual scope of their study is, 
they have kept their link with archaeological 
history by returning to recurring questions 
asked of the archaeological record: how did 
agriculture arise, why were the great towns 
established, and why were so many areas 
of former pueblo occupation abandoned? 

The responsibility for each chapter was 
solely that of one of the authors, who also 
enlisted the assistance of David Gregory and 
Frederick Gorman in writing one chapter 
and the appendix. Because of this division 
of authorship there are redundancies and 
inconsistencies. But it is to the credit of the 
authors that these are so few. The appendix 
included is a useful guide to the ruins since 
it is an alphabetical list of dated sites with 
locations and brief descriptions. 
Unfortunately, the book lacks a glossary 
and the index is quite skimpy. 



There is an importance to this book beyond 
that of a masterful statement of what Arizona 
archaeology is about. It represents the 
capstone statement of the kind of 
archaeology that Paul Martin of Field 
Museum and his students have been 
involved in during the last decade. He has 
been a pioneer in charting and actively 
supporting new directions in research into 
Arizona's past. It is his field station at 
Vernon, Arizona, that has been a major 
instrument in developing the models and 
tools for implementing the approach 
represented in this book. 

This volume is highly recommended to the 
serious reader with some acquaintance with 
southwestern archaeology. It is unparalleled 
in its breadth and regional 
comprehensiveness, and its organization 
permits many uses, including a field guide, 
a scieniific text and as a source for finding 
answers to questions about Arizona's past. 

by James A. Brown, 
Department of Anthropology, 
Norttiwestern University. 



Fieldiana Publication Describes 
New Order of Fossil Fishes 

Dr. Rainer Zangerl, chairman. Department of 
Geology, has recently co-authored with 
Gerard R. Case a major work in which an 
entirely new group of Pennsylvanian fishes 
is described. "Iniopterygia, a New Order of 
Chondrichthyan Fishes From the 
Pennsylvanian of North America" [Fieldiana: 
Geology Memoirs, Volume 6) provides a 
characterization of a new order of vertebrates 
— Iniopterygia, as well as descriptions of five 
genera and seven species never before 
recorded. The iniopterygians are known only 
from carbonaceous, sheety shales of the 
Pennsylvanian basin complex of central 
North America. 

As the authors point out in their closing 
paragraph, "the fact that it is still possible 
to discover whole groups of vertebrates that 
have escaped our notice should once again 
focus attention on the probability that the 
fossil record is far from adequately known." 



Field Museum Bulletin 



R^y A.Ktoc 

Efii/itontnentsI 

Education 



A film series, field trips, and cfiildren's 
worksfiops will be offered to tfie 
public, beginning October 12, as tfie first 
Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education 
Program gets underway. 

In announcing the new program, Museum 
Director E. Leiand Webber pointed out tfiat 
it is being made possible by ttie Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Fund. The fund was recently 
established at Field Museum by his friends 
to honor Mr. Kroc, chairman of McDonald's 
Corporation, on his seventieth birthday. 

Other events of this new program will be 
presented in coming months and years. 

Organizing the various components of the 
program is Carolyn Blackmon, Coordinator 
of special educational services for the 
Museum. 

"We are extremely grateful that we have 
funds available to begin a quality program 
on the environment," she 
said. "We feel confident that this broad 
program will contribute in an important way 
to an understanding of the wide variety of 
environmental problems that affect the 
quality of our lives." 

Assisting Mrs. Blackmon was a committee 
that included, besides herself, 
Matthew Nitecki, associate curator of fossil 
invertebrates; William Burger, associate 
curator of vascular plants; Loren P. Woods, 
curator of fishes; Alice Games, coordinator 
of teacher training, Department of Education; 
and James Bland, lecturer. Department of 
Education. 

Film Series 

Each film will be presented twice — Fridays 
at 7:30 p.m. and Saturdays at 10:30 a.m. — 
in the Lecture Hall. Critical evaluations will 
be invited. Seating limited to the first 225 
persons for each showing. Admission free. 



Field Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. on 
Fridays; thus affording an opportunity for 
a late afternoon visit to the Museum 
followed by the film program. 

Oct. 12 and 13— Double feature. "The Sun 
Serves Niger," narrated by Alistair Cooke, 
portrays efforts by scientists to perfect solar 
energy facilities on the Sahara Desert. 
"Slow Death of the Desert Water" — from the 
TV series "Our Vanishing Wildlife" — shows 
how the desert fish cui-cui, found nowhere 
else in the world, faces extinction as 
Pyramid Lake in Nevada dries up. 

Oct. 19 and 20 — "Mzima: Portrait of a 
Spring" describes this spring in Kenya as a 
fascinating ecosystem that demonstrates the 
interdependence of animals. 

Oct. 26 and 27— "Billion Dollar Marsh," 
filmed by the BBC at Sapelo Island, Georgia, 
examines a saltwater marsh and coastal 
dunes from New Jersey to Florida. 

Nov. 2 and 3 — "Should Oceans Meet?" is 
a question posed during the construction of 
a sea-level canal that would allow Atlantic 
and Pacific waters to merge for the first time 
in millions of years, presenting a potential 
ecological program. "Of Broccoli and 
Pelicans and Celery and Seals." The 
ecological effect of pesticides sprayed on 
the Oxnard Plain in California. 

Nov. 9 and 10 — "Death of a Legend," 
produced by the National Film Board of 
Canada, recounts the life story of the wolf, 
including its struggle to survive man's 
predation. 

Nov. 16 and 17 — Double feature. "Prairie 
Killers," produced for National Education 
Television (NET), depicts the prairie dog as 
a vital part of the chain of life on the Great 
Plains, and explains the consequences of 
removing this link in the chain. "Tragedy of 
the Commons," based on an essay by 
Garrett Hardin, is an exploration of the 
effects of overpopulation on the resources 
of a finite earth. 

Field Trips 

Busses will depart Field Museum at 9:45 
a.m. for each field trip. Each trip is limited 
to 40 adults. A $4 fee will be charged to 
cover lunch and transportation. 
Checks, made out to Field Museum, together 
with name{s), address, telephone number, 
and choice of field trip should be mailed to: 
Mrs. Carolyn Blackmon, Coordinator of 
Special Educational Services, at Field 



Museum. For further information, dial 
922-9410, ext. 361 or 363. 

Oct. 13 — "Keeping Waters Blue." the first 
field trip, will be led by Loren Woods, 
curator of fishes. Participants will observe 
the inshore ecology of Lake Michigan via a 
Skyline boat cruise (included in fee), 
followed by a visit to the Chicago water 
purification plant to view its operations. 

Oct, 20 — "Ancient Chicago Environments." 
Led by Dr. Eugene Richardson, curator of 
fossil invertebrates, the group will see 
300,000,000 years of the earth's histor/, as 
recorded in strip mine Pit 11 in South 
Wilmington. A visit to a recreation site on 
reclaimed land will follow. 

Oct. 27 — "History in the Sand; Futures in 
Energy." Led by Harry Changnon, assistant 
to the chairman of the Department of 
Exhibition, participants will tour Illinois 
Beach State Park, the Zion Atomic Energy 
Plant, and the Waukegan Thermal Plant. 

Nov. 3 — "Maintaining a City within a City" is 
the challenge of the John Hancock Center. 
How it's done will become apparent to the 
group as it examines the life-support system 
of this miniature urban ecosystem. A tour of 
the Chicago Sanitary District concludes the 
day's outing, which will be led by Dr. 
William Burger, associate curator of vascular 
plants. 

Workshops for Young People 

Two different, single-session workshops will 
be presented on Saturday, beginning Oct. 20, 
and repeated on Oct. 27, Nov. 3, 10, and 17. 
Offered free, they will be led by James A. 
Bland of the Museum's Department of 
Education. Since each session is limited to a 
specified number of participants, 
reservations are mandatory. For reservations 
or further information, phone 922-9410, 
ext. 361 or 363, 

10:00 a.m. — "Mini-Environments." Students 
(ages 9-13) will construct their own 
mini-environments to be taken home with 
them. The workshop will include a 
discussion on the care and upkeep of these 
environments. Limited to 20 students per 
session. In the Meeting Room. 

1:00 p.m. — "Ballad of a Disappearing 
Legacy: Demise of the Wolf." The anatomy, 
behavior, and role in nature of this 
endangered animal will be discussed, as 
well as the characteristics of other 
endangered species. Limited to 50 students 
(ages 12-17) per session. In the Lecture Hall 



October 1973 




The Fall Saturday Children's Workshops, 
sponsored by the Museum's Department of 
Education, afford children an opportunity to 
meet with staff members and to work with 
specimens from the Museum's scientific 
collections. These workshops provide 
instruction in small groups and participation 
in a variety of topics and activities that 
appeal to children of different age groups 
This popular fall activity for children was 
originated ten years ago by the Raymond 
Foundation to stimulate interest in natural 
history and to encourage use of the Museum 
as a learning resource. 

To ensure a close working relationship 
between the child and the Museum staff 
teacher, registration for each workshop is 
necessarily restricted. However, in order to 
accommodate as many children as possible, 
two sessions are scheduled each Saturday, 
at 9:30 and 1 1 :00 a.m. Each lasts about 
one hour. 

Make reservations now. Each applicant is 
limited to one program; reservations will be 
accepted in the order in which they are 
received. If more than one child in your 
family wishes to attend a workshop, please 
submit a separate application for each child. 
Accepted applicants will be sent a 
confirmation card that will admit them to 
the workshops. 



Insect Life 

Oct. 13 — Julie Castrop, leader; ages 8-10 

The structure, growth, and behavior of 
insects will be demonstrated with specimens 
and other illustrative materials. Children will 
then take part in an insect "scavenger hunt" 
in the exhibit halls. (Each session limited 
to 24 students.) 

NOTE: Telephone reservations tor this 
vjorkstiop only may be made by calling the 
Raymond Foundation at 922-9410. 

Tooth for Tooth 

Oct. 20 — Martha Lussenhop, leader; 
ages 8-10 

Through observation and study of skulls and 
jaws, children will determine how the size 
and shape of animal teeth indicate function 
and diet. Game-like activities will implement 
this study. (Limited to 24 students.) 

African Folktales in Pantomime 

Oct. 27 — Edith Fleming, leader; ages 8-10 

Following a close examination of African 
mammals — especially horns, body postures, 
and coat markings — participants will 
dramatize an African folktale by 
impersonating these animals. (Limited to 
20 students.) 

Toys and Games of North American Indians 

Nov. 3 — Harriet Smith, leader; ages 8-10 

Children will handle the playthings of Indian 
boys and girls. By determining how they 
were used and what they were made of, 
participants will decide the physical 
environment and ways of life of the Indian 
children to whom the toys belonged. (Limited 
to 24 students) 

Fossils in the Floor 

Nov. 10 — Martha Lussenhop, leader; 
ages 9-12 

Many invertebrate fossils may be seen in 
the marble floor and south stairway in Stanley 
Field Hall. After becoming familiar with 
how fossils are formed and how they appear 
when cut into sections, children will search 
for fossils in the floor. From sketches they 
make, the group will try to identify these 
fossils in Museum exhibits. (Limited to 24 
students.) 

Chinese Brush Painting 

Nov. 17 — Edith Fleming, leader; ages 9-13 

After carefully examining selected Chinese 



paintings and scrolls on display in the 
Museum, boys and girls will have an 
opportunity to practice Chinese brush 
techniques. (Limited to 20 students.) 

Southwestern Designs 

Nov. 24 — Harriet Smith, leader; ages 11-15 

Decorations on masks, pottery, baskets, and 
weaving will be compared to discover those 
aspects of desert environment that most 
influence the lives of Southwestern Indian 
tribes. (Limited to 24 students.) 

Microscopes 

Dec. 1 — Julie Castrop, leader; ages 11-13 

Participants will work with a microscope to 
learn how it works and how it is used. After 
observing prepared slides, boys and girls 
will learn how to make their own slides 
using a variety of biological materials and 
commonplace objects. (Limited to 24 
students.) 



Cut out and mail to: Raymond Foundation, 

Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 

at Lake Stiore Drive, Chicago, llinois 60605. 



Application for Fall Workshops 

Program desired 



2na choice 

3rd choice 

4th choice 

Time (circle prelerence) 9:30 a.m. 11:00 a.m. 

Name of child 
Address 



Age ol child 



Membership in name of 



Field Museum Bulletin 17 




Seek Volunteer Teachers 

A volunteer teacher training course is being 
offered to a limited number of adults by \he 
Museum's Department of Education, 
beginning October 11. Volunteers are 



needed to assist the Museum staff in 
providing expanded educational programs 
for the thousands of school children who 
visit the Museum each year. The course will 
include natural history subject matter, the 
techniques of teaching with the aid of 
Museum exhibits, specimens, and artifacts, 
and the use of audiovisual equipment. 
Instruction will be given by members of the 
Department of Education. 

Applicants will be selected on the basis of 
experience, availability, and a personal 
interview. The first session will be an 
orientation on October 11 at 10:00 a.m. The 
course will continue for ten successive 
Thursdays from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. 
Individuals who are curious about the world 
around them, who enjoy working with 
children, and who can give one day a week 
to the Museum's teaching program are 
invited to arange for a personal interview 
with Carolyn Blackmon, coordinator of 
special educational services. Department of 
Education, at 922-9410, ext. 361. 



Community Outreach Program 



Actress Sandy Dennis Visits Field Museum 





Actress Sandy Dennis (rt.), recipient of Academy and Tony awards, and her husband, jazz 
saxophonist Gerry Mulligan, sneak-previewed the forthcoming Contemporary African Arts 
exhibit during a recent visit. Ivlaude Wahlman. consultant in African ethnology, and Sandy 
helped Gerry prepare to play an instrument from Kenya, made of sable antelope horn, 
beeswax, and gourds. The exhibit opens next spring. Photo by Herta Newton. 



Among children who studied pottery-making 
techniques at Field Museum this summer were 
(from left) Linda Rainwater and Sandra 
Swinney; Hull House counselor Elaine Goings 
stands behind them. Photo by John Bayalis, Jr. 



The children shown above were participants 
in a program offered through August 30 to 
neighborhood organizations on a 
pre-registered basis. Geared to children ages 
nine through teens, it included workshops in 
weaving with yarn, glass beadwork, pottery, 
and animated film-making. 

The two-session classes, which also 
included a tour, were planned to help 
children see the relationships between art 
forms and designs in various cultures, and 
to understand their meanings within a 
particular culture. Each child was also 
encouraged to express his own feelings 
about their art forms by creating his own 
designs and completing a craft project. 



October 1973 



The workshops were sponsored by Field 
Museums Department of Education under its 
Community Outreach Program, funded by the 
National Endowment for the Arts and the 
Illinois Arts Council. 



Frank Hull Named Chief Accountant 

Field Museum s new chief of the accounting 
department is Frank M. Hull, formerly 
business manager for St. Francis College 
in Joliet. III. Prior to that he had held 
positions with Millikan University, in Decatur, 
III., and with the Illinois Power Company. 
A native of Decatur, Mr. Hull is a graduate 
of Millikan University and of the American 
Council on Education's Institute for College 
and University Administrators. He has also 
done graduate work at Northern Illinois 
University. 



Gerald Durrell Gives Lecture 

The noted author and conservationist Gerald 
Durrell will give an illustrated lecture on 
conservation in James Simpson Theatre of 
Field Museum on Thursday, Oct. 18, at 8 
p.m. The lecture is to be sponsored by 
SAFE (Save Animals From Extinction). 
Members of Field Museum, the Chicago 
Zoological Society, and SAFE will donate 
SI -00 for admission: donation for 
nonmembers will be SI. 50. All proceeds of 
the lecture will go to support conservation 
programs of SAFE. Entrance will be by the 
Museum's west door only: free parking 
available at the west and north parking lots. 
For further information call 922-9410, 
ext. 361 or 363. 



Ownership and Circulation 

Filing dale: 8/27/73, Title: Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin. Frequency of publication: monthly 
except combined July/August issue. Office: Roosevelt 
Rd. at Lake Shore Dr.. Chicago, III. 60605. 
Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History. Editor: 
David M. Walsten. Known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders: none. Noneprofit status 
has not changed during preceding 12 months. 

Av. No. Actual No. 
Copies Copies 

Each Issue Single Issue 
Preceding Nearest to 
12 (Months Filing Date 
Total copies printed 26,672 26,500 

Total paid circulation 22,144 22,198 

mail subscriptions 22,144 22,198 

Free distribution 2,128 1,772 

Total distribution 24.272 23,970 

Office use, lefl-over 2,700 2,530 

Total 26,972 26,500 

I certify that the statements made by me above are 
correct and complete. — Norman W. Nelson, Asst. 
Dir., Admin. 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Closes October 31 

Spanish Prehistoric Art, an exhibit of about 
40 drawings and photographs of paintings 
found in caves and rock shelters. The 
collection is being shown through the 
courtesy of the Spanish National Tourist 
Office. Closes Oct. 31. Hall 27. 

Continuing 

Field IVIuseum's Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of 
Wonder " offers thought-provoking prose 
and poetry associated with the physical, 
biological, and cultural aspects of nature: 
"A Sense of History" presents a graphic 
portrayal of the Museum's past, and 
"A Sense of Discovery" shows examples 
of research conducted by Museum 
scientists. Hall 3. 



Film Program 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, offered at 
2:30 p.m. Saturdays in the James Simpson 
Theatre. The October 20 program will also be 
presented at 7:30 p.m. Friday, October 19. 

October 6: "In the Heel of the Northeast 
Trade," (Palau Islands, Micronesia), 
narrated by Dr. Kenneth R. H. Read. 

October 13: "Hawaii," narrated by 
Doug Jones. 

October 19 and 

October 20: "The Epic Voyages of Ra," 

narrated by Comdr. Norman Baker. 

October 27: "IVIinnesota Valley Saga," 

narrated by Dr. Walter J. Breckenridge. 



Special Events 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education 
Program, a series of films, field trips, and 
children's workshops. (See p. 16.) 

Children's Program 

Continuing 

Fall Journey for Children, "Plant Your 

Dinner," a free self-guided tour of Museum 
exhibit areas. The journey not only acquaints 
youngsters with botanical displays, but 
encourages them to learn more about plants 
by growing their own live specimens at 
home. All boys and girls who can read and 
write may join in the activity. Journey sheets 
available at entrances. Through November 30. 

Coming in November 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, offered 
at 2:30 p m, Saturdays in the James Simpson 
Theatre. The November 17 program will also 
be presented at 7:30 p.m. Friday, 
November 16. 

November 3: "New Hebrides," narrated by 
Kal Muller. 

November 10: "Panama," narrated by 
Col John Craig. 

November 16 and November 17; "China: 
The Awakening Giant," narrated by 
Jens Bjerre 

November 24: "Indonesia," narrated by 
Dr. John Nicholls Booth. 



Join us for coffee after the Friday 
evening film lecture presentations and 
meet speakers Comdr. Norman Baker 
on October 19 and Jens Bjerre on 
November 16. 



Meetings 

October 9: 7:30 p.m.. Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago. 

October 10: 7 p.m., Chicago Ornithological 
Society. 

October 10: 7:30 p.m., Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 

October 11:8 p.m., Chicago Mountaineering 

Club. 

October 23: 7:30 p.m., Nature Camera Club 
of Chicago 

Hours 

9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday through Thursday, 
and 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Friday. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



Field Museum Bulletin 



19 




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November 1973 



rieia Museum ot incllufcii nitjiuiy duiiuuii 





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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 10 
November 1973 



Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery 
Editor David M. Walsten 
Staff Writer IVIadge Jacobs 
Production Russ Becl^er 
Ptiotography John Bayalis 



contents 



CAN THESE BIRDS SURVIVE? 

Endangered species of North American 
birds and their current status 
By David M. Walsten 



THE CHICAGO RIVER SYSTEM 

— moving towards recovery 
By Joyce Marshall Brukoff 



3 
9 



SNUFF BOTTLES 

A "classification extraordinaire" 
By Alice K. Schneider 



16 



FIELD BRIEFS 



CAPITAL CAMPAIGN 



CALENDAR 



20 
22 
23 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director E. Leland Webber 



cover 

The bald eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, selected in 1782 
as the United States' national emblem, is today considered an 
endangered species. Although it still ranges widely over 
North America, the bird has disappeared from areas where 
it was once abundant. If the bald eagle's recent rate of 
decline continues it could soon become extinct. 



Board of Trustees 

Remick McDowell, 

President 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
Gordon Bent 
Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marstiall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Pau: W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
J, Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Harry M. Oliver, Jr. 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John S. Runnells 
William L, Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 

Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William v. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
James L. Palmer 
John G. Searle 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



The cost of this enlarged issue of the Field Museum I 

of Natural History Bulletin, which stresses ^ 

important environmental issues, was in part l 

underwritten by the Ray A, Kroc | 

Environmental Fund. s 



The Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, 
except connbined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
Subscriptions; $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of 
Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class 
postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703 



November 1973 




Brown Pelican 
Pelecanus occidentalis 
length: 41" 



Can 

These 

Birds 

Survive? 



By David M. Walsten 

Residents of many southern coastal 
areas would be surprised and perhaps 
puzzled to learn that the brown pelican, 
so familiar to them, has been classified 
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
as an "endangered" species. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




John Henry Dick from National Audubon Society 

Bachman's Warbler 
Vermivora bachmanii 
length: AVt " 

Contrary to popular belief, 'endangered" 
does not necessarily mean "rare"; an 
endangered species may be so 
classified if ttie general population has 
declined at such a rate that the species 
appears to be in danger of extinction. 
Thus, in some areas, an endangered 
species may actually be common and, 
to all appearances, thriving. The 
requirements for survival may vary 
greatly from one species of bird to 
another. Some, like the bald eagle and 
whooping crane, cannot tolerate the 
presence of man. Some, like the 
recently extinct passenger pigeon, 
apparently cannot perpetuate 
themselves except in concentrated 
numbers. Still others, like the Everglade 
kite, subsist on highly specialized diets 
that may be easily upset by human 
disruption of the habitat. 

The species described on the following 
pages are currently listed as 
endangered by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service or by the International 
Union for Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources, Switzerland. 

The brown pelican (Pelecanus 
occidentalls) was once a common 
sight along most coastal waters of the 
United States; it also ranged southward 



along the coasts of northern South 
America. Following the advent of DDT, 
however, pelican populations dropped 
drastically in some areas, notably in 
Louisiana and Lower California. Only 
since the dangers of DDT were 
recognized and its use curtailed, has 
there been a population stabilization or 
noticeable increase in numbers. Pelicans 
reintroduced into Louisiana in 1968 
appear to be breeding successfully. 
(DDT, like other pesticides consisting 
of chlorinated hydrocarbons, has been 
shown to reduce the fertility of animals 
at certain levels of concentration in 
their tissues. For further discussion of 
the pesticide problem see "The 
Vanishing Peregrine," by Melvin A. 
Traylor, in the Bulletin. Sept. 1970.) 

Kirtland's, or the jack pine, warbler 
(Dendrolca kirtlandii) has long been a 
rare species. Although as recently as 
1958 James C. Greenway in his Extinct 
and Vanishing Birds of the World 
observed that the bird was "in no great 



Kirtland's Warbler, Dendroics kirllandii. lenglti: 4% 



danger of extinct. on," a precipitous 
decline in the populations of this bird 
has occurred during the past decade. 

The nesting ground of Kirtland's warbler 
— which winters in the Bahamas — is 
confined to north central Michigan. Only 
200 pairs were observed there in a 1971 
spring survey, a decline of 60 percent 
from that of a decade earlier. Reasons 
for its decline are believed to be loss of 
acceptable nesting habitat and 
parasitism by the brown-headed 
cowbird. The cowbird lays its eggs in 
the nest of the warbler (among other 
species). Warbler fledglings, being 
smaller than young cowbirds, are 
unable to compete with them for the 
attentions of the adults at feeding time. 
As a result, they starve to death. A 
cowbird-trapping program is now 
underway in Michigan under the 
sponsorship of the Michigan Department 
of Natural Resources, the Michigan 
Audubon Society, and the US, Forest 
Service. 




Ronald Austing from National Audubon Society 



November 1973 



Bachman's warbler (Vermivora 
bachmanii) has the unique trait of 
disappearing unpredictably from 
accustomed breeding areas. At one 
time the bird apparently vanished from 
South Carolina, only to show up there 
again some years later. It has continued 
to nest in that state for the past 35 
years. The warbler also nests in 
Kentucky, Alabama, and Missouri, but 
its occurrence anywhere is rare. The 
bird prefers moist, deciduous forests, 
sharing the same general habitat as 
the common hooded warbler (Wilsonia 
cltnna), which it closely resembles. The 
winters are spent in Cuba. 
Ornithologists are unable to account 
for the rarity of this species. 

The California condor (Gymnogyps 
calitornianus), the largest North 
American land bird, has the most 
restricted range of any bird of prey, 
being found only in rugged mountainous 
regions of southern California. Its 
current population is thought to be less 
than 100 — about the same as that of 
15 years ago. In 1968-72 only four 
young were known to have been 
reared. No California condors have 
been bred or raised in captivity; 
however, Andean condors have bred 
successfully in the San Diego Zoo. In 
the early 1800s the California condor 
ranged as far north as the Columbia 
River: fossil remains have also been 
discovered in eastern North America. 
Some authorities attribute the bird's 
decline to a general decline in the food 
supply or to the bird's basic need for 
isolation from man in order to breed. A 
condor sanctuary has been established 
in Los Padres National Forest, where 
most of the nesting sites are located. 

The ivory-billed woodpecker 

(Campephilus principalis principalis), 
the largest North American woodpecker, 
may well become our next extinct bird. 



California Condor 

Gymnogyps calilorr^ianus 

length: 45" 



Carl B. Koford from National Audubon Society 











% t 




';*wi 




Ivory-Billed Woodpecker 
Campephilus principalis 
ength; 18" 



become rare — or extinct — in Cuba 
(subspecies Campephilus principalis 
bairdii). The gradual destruction of the 
Ivory-biU's habitat — very large trees 
with their specialized fauna of wood- 
boring insects — is held responsible for 
the bird's decline. The U.S. ivory-bill 
population dropped most radically 
between 1885 and 1900 when the 
logging industry in the south was 
rapidly expanding. 

The whooping crane (Grus americana) 
has come within a hair's breadth of 
extinction: thanks to the efforts of 
conservationists, however, the bird has 
made a comeback. In the mid-1950s 
barely two dozen whooping cranes 
were thought to survive. The population 
of wild birds is currently more than 50 
and the number of captive cranes 
about 20. At the present time, nesting 
areas are believed to be confined to 
Wood Buffalo National Park, in the 



The last sightings occurred in deep 
forests of South Carolina, Florida, 
Louisiana, and Texas. Within historic 
times the ivory-bill ranged as far north 
as Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. Early in 
the 19th century Audubon noted "entire 
belts of Indian chiefs ornamented with 
the tufts and bills of the species." 
Simultaneous with its disappearance in 
the United States, the bird has also 



Whooping Crane 

Grus americana 

length: 45" 

(immature at left) 




November 1973 



District of Mackenzie, Northwest 
Territories, Canada. Ttie wintering 
ground is confined to the Texas coast, 
primarily in Aransas National Wildlife 
Refuge. In 1811 the naturalist Thomas 
Nuttall described the whooping crane's 
migratory flight up the Mississippi: 
". . . the bustle of their great migra- 
tions and the passage of their mighty 
armies fills the mind with wonder." But 
this graceful, regal bird is also shy; it 
withdrew from its natural haunts as 
civilization advanced, preferring, it 
seems, self-obliteration to sharing its 
territory with an alien creature, man. 

An excellent, recent study of the 
whooping crane is to be found in 
Cranes of the World by Lawrence H. 
Walkinshaw; Winchester Press (1973). 

The Florida sandhill crane (Grus 
canadensis pratensis), one of the six 
subspecies, nests only in Florida and 
Georgia. Its home range is the coastal 
lowlands. Within the past century it may 
also have nested in Louisiana. Like the 
ivory-billed woodpecker, the Florida 
sandhill crane was seriously affected 
by lumbering activities in the late 19th 
century. Unless a refuge is established, 

Aleutian Canada Goose 

Branta canadensis leucopareia 

length: 24"-26" 

Masked Bobwtiite 

Colinus virginianus ridgwayi 

length: 8" 




it is feared that the bird will ultimately 
be driven to extinction. 

The Aleutian Canada goose (Branta 
canadensis leucopareia) is now found 
on only two islands of the Aleutian 
group — Amchitka and Buldir. 
Overhunting along their migration route 
(to California) and introduction of the 
blue fox to their nesting areas are 
thought to be the cause of their decline; 
significantly, the blue fox does not 
occur on Buldir, the only island where 
the bird is known to breed. In 1966 the 
estimated total goose population was 
down to 250. Several pair of these 
geese are in captivity at Monte Vista, 
Colorado. Since their breeding potential 
in captivity is considered good, there is 
hope that the subspecies can be saved 
from extinction. 



The masked bobwhite quail (Colinus 
virginianus ridgwayi), once common in 
southwestern United States and Mexico, 
has been reduced to extreme rarity by 
overhunting and by the inroads of cattle 
grazing on its grassland habitat. About 
1910 the bird disappeared from the 
northwest part of its range — the 
mountainous region of southern Arizona. 
Because these birds typically bunch 
together in coveys of 15 or 20, 
several in such a group could be killed 
with a single shotgun blast. A program 
for restoration of suitable habitat is 
currently being conducted by the 
Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, 
assisted by the Allegheny Foundation 
of Pittsburgh. 

Attwater's greater prairie chicken 
(Tympanuctius cupido attwateri), a close 



R. Van Nostrand from National Audubon Society 




aS^^VJclJv^v ^;/; -^ 






iiLMei IruMi rjdi;uiidi AuUuL^un buLH:rty 



Field Museum Bulletin 7 




Bald Eagle 

Haliaeelus leucocephalus 

length: 32" 



relative of the heath hen (T. cupido 
cupido), which became extinct in 1932, 
is today found only in southwestern 
Louisiana, in isolated flocks along the 
Texas coast, and northward to Austin. 
In former times it occurred from 
southwestern Louisiana almost 
continuously to the Mexican border. In 
1937 conservationists estimated that 
8,000-9.000 of the species survived; in 
1965 the number had dropped to 750. 
The primary reason for the bird's 
decline is the destruction of its 
grassland habitat by cattle. 

The bald eagle (Haliaeetus 
leucocephalus). sometimes called the 
American eagle, was still common in 
the United States when it was chosen 
as the national emblem in 1782. In 
Alaska the bald eagle was once so 
common that, in 1917, a bounty was 
placed on them there. Within a decade 
bounties had been paid on nearly 
42,000 of the birds. In 1962 it was 
estimated that little more than 3,800 
still survived in continental United 
States, Alaska excepted. Today the 
bald eagle continues to range over 
most of the continent, but localities 
where they are common are few and 



far between. The birds decline is 
attributed to a lowered fertility — the 
effect of DDT and other chlorinated 
hydrocarbons and to the bird's natural 
preference for isolation from man. 

The Everglade kite (Rostrhamus 
sociabilis plumbeus) has been the 
victim of marsh-draining and 
reclamation of land. Its primary range 
is the southwestern sector of Lake 
Okeechobee in Florida. At the turn of 
the century this kite was common, but 
by the late 1920s it had already become 
scarce. The kite's principal food is the 
great marsh snail (Ampullaria depressa). 
The bird's continued survival rests on 
whether sufficient marshland is left to 
maintain this specialized food supply. 

The American peregrine falcon (Faico 
peregrlnus anatum), which breeds from 
Lower California northward to 
non-Arctic Alaska and Canada, has 



disappeared from the eastern part of 
North America. The main reason for its 
decline is breeding failure, due to the 
cumulative effects of DDT. A 
considerable number of these birds are 
in zoos or are held by falconers: their 
breeding potential in captivity Is 
considered poor, however. 



Suggested additional readings: 

Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. 
by James C. Greenway, Jr.; Special 
Publication No. 13, American Committee for 
International Wild Life Protection (1958) 

Peregrine Falcon Populations, Joseph J. 
Hickey. ed : University of Wisconsin Press 
(1969) 

Red Data Book. Vol 2: Aves, compiled by 
Jack Vincent: International Union for 
Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources (1966. with updating 
supplements) 



American Peregrine Falcor 

FaIco peregrinus anaturr 

length: 15 



Reproduced from Birds of Prey 

of the World, by Mary L. 

Grossman and John Hamlet 

(1964); Clarkson N. Potter 

publistier. 




November 1973 




Chicago River Scene 

watercolor by Anlimo B^neduce. A.W.i 



THE CHICAGO RIVER SYSTEM 



By Joyce Marshall Brukoff 

Few Chicagoans could envision their 
river as a Venetian-type canal, flanked 
by homes and shops, pavilions, and 
grassy parkland. Yet, that is what has 
been envisioned as a workable future 
solution to the river's present cesspool 
status. The plan is dependent on many 
factors: public interest, financial 
support, the cooperation of civic 

Joyce Marshall Brukoff is a 
Chicago writer. 



Moving towards Recovery 



authority, and the fruition of the 
f.letropolitan Sanitary District's current 
program to clean up the river. 
Conceived as a public service by 
Chicago architects Holabird & Root, 
the plan was presented over a year 
ago, and portions of it were adopted 
into the new Central Area Plan for 
Chicago, recently announced by the 
Mayor's Office. 

About 160 years ago, when Chicago 



was only a frontier settlement, the river 
and surrounding lands were alive in all 
seasons, rich in color and teeming with 
wildlife. There were muskrat and mink, 
ducks and wading birds, fish and 
turtles galore. Today, the fish do well 
to breathe, the muskrats and mink 
have been replaced by cement, rotting 
timber, and trash; most of the birds 
have retreated, and the debris-laden 
river itself flows sluggishly past 
warehouses, trucking stations, and the 



Field Museum Bulletin 



LAKE MICHIGAN 



IJORTH SHORE CHANNEL 



HANOVER PARK 



MOUTH OF 
CHICAGO RIVER 




METROPOLITAN CHICAGO 



ROMEOVILLE 



tedious gray of industrial areas. Except 
for a few sections, ttie river fnas been 
shut away and walled up as one would 
throw old shoes into a closet — its 
potential as an aesthetic and functional 
resource largely ignored. 
Fortunately, however, some 
environment-conscious groups have 
continued to militate against this river 
blight, and have variously dedicated 
themselves to a rebirth of the river as 



a life supportive, clean, and pleasant 
waterway which could serve as a 
vibrant artery through the heart of the 
city. With improvement of water quality 
and development of lands adjacent to 
the river, such as envisior.ed by the 
new Central Area Plan for Chicago, 
views of water would be common from 
streets as well as buildings and there 
would be greater public access to 
the river's edge. 



Chicago was incorporated as a village 
in 1833; from then until 1855 the town 
had no sewers. In 1856 sewers 
discharging into the river were first 
constructed, and so they were until 
1889. Other sewers combined to 
discharge directly into Lake Michigan. 
The city's water supply became grossly 
polluted and the death rate from 
typhoid and other water-borne diseases 
was alarmingly high. 

To correct this health hazard, 
Chicago authorities accepted a 
proposal to reverse the flow of the 
South Branch of the Chicago River 
and divert it into the Mississippi valley. 
This was accomplished by the 
construction of the Sanitary and Ship 
Canal, begun in 1892 and completed 
in 1900. To understand why this 
making "rivers run backwards" was 
feasible, one must consider the unique 
natural features which distinguish the 
Chicago area and have contributed to 
its phenomenal growth. 

Lake Michigan is the most noticeable 
of these features, providing a 
seemingly inexaustible supply of fresh 
water and a highway for water-borne 
commerce. But of equal importance is 
the broad, remarkably flat Chicago 
plain that was the bed of Lake Chicago 
— the glacial ancestor of Lake 
Michigan. When its swamps and wet 
prairies were drained, the plain 
became ideal for industrial, 
commercial, and residential 
developments. 

The feature with greatest bearing on 
the river's reversal is the low 
continental divide between the 
watershed of the Chicago and the 
Calumet river systems on the one hand 
and that of the Des Plaines River on 
the other. This divide is between the 
St. Lawrence and the Mississippi; and 
northeast of Summit it is only 15 feet 
above the level of Lake Michigan. The 
canal was constructed through that 
divide, utilizing yet another natural 
feature of Chicago, the Des Plaines 
River. 



November 1973 



The Des Plaines is a placid stream, 
originating from swamplands in 
Kenosha and Racine counties in 
Wisconsin. It meanders southward 
through a flat valley roughly parallel 
to the shore of Lake I\/1ichigan. Below 
River Grove, the Des Plaines flows 
southward — except for two hairpin 
turns at Riverside — across the 
Chicago plain, until, near Summit, it 
turns southwest into a deep valley. 
When the last glacier melted away, 
mighty torrents from Lake IVIichigan 
poured through that valley, and through 
the Sag valley which joins it at Sag 
Bridge. That is the Chicago Outlet, 
one of the five great "keys to the 
continent": the best natural pass to 
the Mississippi valley. 

From Lyons to Romeoville the Des 
Plaines river flows southwest in a 
diversion channel, constructed with a 
levee to keep it from overflowing into 
the Sanitary and Ship canal, parallel 
to it. Between Romeoville and Joliet 
the river drops 80 feet; at Joliet it joins 
the canal. At Rockdale, south of Joliet, 
the canal ends and the Des Plaines, 
widened and deepened as part of the 
Illinois Deep Waterway, continues 
southwest until it joins with the 
Kankakee to form the Illinois River. 

The pollution problem which preceded 
the construction of the canal was 
heightened by flooding and high water 
after storms, a problem still besetting 
the area today. East of Chicago's 
Harlem Avenue (7200 west), there was 
a swamp called Mud Lake. That was 
the scene of occasional flooding when 
the Des Plaines River would pour 
eastward over the low continental 
divide, through Mud Lake and the 
South Branch of the Chicago River, 
into Lake Michigan. One of these 
floods, in 1885, swept so much sewage 
into the lake that the city's water 
supply became unusually polluted 
and a great many deaths resulted. 

Shortly after that, the Sanitary District 
of Chicago was established and, in 
1892, construction actually began on 
the Sanitary and Ship Canal from the 



South Branch, near Damen Avenue 
(2000 west), to Lockport— 28 miles 
distant. Much of this construction was 
through solid rock — the sill that 
underlies the continental divide. 

The main channel of the canal 
reversed the flow of the South Branch 
of the Chicago River and diverted it 
into the Mississippi Valley. Through a 
navigation lock and control gates at 
the mouth of the Chicago River, the 
canal is flushed with fresh water from 
Lake Michigan. The North Shore 
Channel, through gates at Wilmette, 
diverts fresh water into the North 
Branch. The Calumet-Sag Channel, 
completed in 1922, reversed the flow 
of the Calumet and Little Calumet 
rivers and discharges their waters into 
the main channel. In 1907 interceptor 
sewers were completed, protecting 
Lake Michigan from contamination. 

But it wasn't enough. In 1919, an 
ordinance was passed by the District 
Board of Trustees committing the 



district to the construction and 
operation of sewage treatment plants. 
These plants were constructed between 
1922 and 1939, the three principal 
plants being the Calumet, North Side 
(in Skokie), and West-Southwest (in 
Stickney). They now operate both 
primary and secondary treatment 
processes, with tertiary treatment 
planned, to be completed in the 
mid-1970s. 

Primary treatment removes 35-40 
percent of suspended solids and 
biological oxygen demand. Secondary 
treatment is 90 percent effective and 
tertiary treatment leaves the water as 
much as 99 percent pure. It is 
definitely planned to update and 
enlarge these treatment plants to meet 
these higher standards and to handle 
additional water. Some small tertiary 
treatment plants are either under 
construction or have been already 
installed. The first one to be 
completed, at Hanover Park, was 
placed in operation in 1968. 



Chicago's floating junl<yard — a typical scene along the river's edge. 




i^ounesy unicdgo iroun 



Field Mirseufii Bolletin 11 



But there are many other plans to 
clean up the river. In-stream aeration 
will soon be in process. This method 
of renewing life in the river depends 
on the release of oxygen to channels 
and streams to help raise the dissolved 
oxygen content to 5 parts per million, 
the amount necessary to support high 
quality fish life. In-stream aeration is 
done by blowing air or oxygen into the 
water from submerged pipes or by 
churning the water. 

A major future development will be the 
Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir System, 
scheduled for completion by 1983 at a 
cost of more than $1 billion. This plan 
deals with the problems of waterway 
flooding and pollution control and with 



combined sewer spillage. Chicago has 
an unusual sewer system. It combines 
household, industrial, and commercial 
wastes with storm water. At the present 
time, overflow points in the sewer 
system are released directly into the 
waterways. Peak runoff rates from the 
combined sewer-drainage areas have 
greatly increased, overloading the flow 
capacity of the open watercourses, 
including the Sanitary and Ship Canal, 

The result is a necessary reversal of 
flow in high storm-water runoff. The 
surcharge of polluted backflow is 
released into Lake Michigan from the 
North Shore Channel, the Chicago 
River, and the Calumet River. As these 
backflows occur with increasing 



frequency, the area is back to the 
problem that plagued it a century ago: 
pollution of Lake tVlichigan and the 
rivers — but to this problem there is 
fortunately a solution. 



The new tunnel and reservoir system 
will capture combined sewer flows, 
conveying them through high velocity, 
underflow tunnels (out of sight) below 
the routes of the existing surface 
waterways. They will be held in huge 
pit-type detention reservoirs until 
post-storm periods. The stored water 
will then be pumped into the treatment 
plants. This will require, by the way, 
expansion of the existing treatment 
facilities. 



Engraving from an early daguerrolype showing damage from 1849 flood. 
Boats are scattered high and dry along the river bank. 




VIEW OF TBE Wmmi OCCiSIOlD BY THE FLOOD E IHE flllfUiO RIVER ON THE 1'2TH OF MIRd!. IS I!). 



12 November 1973 



Chicago River, main branch. 1875. 
The city appears well recovered 
Irom the great lire ot 1871 and the 
river is already an avenue ol heavy 
commerce. Raw sewage llowed 
directly into the river. 

Illustrations on this and facing page 
courtesy Ctiicago Historical Society. 



Chicago River. Lake Street Bridge. 
1871. shortly before the great fire. 
Every loot ot the river's edge was 
already given over to commerce. 





Field Museonv Bulletin 13 



ri 



Another pollution control plan which is 
linked directly to the river is the Praine 
Plan, now in operation by the Sanitary 
District. It relates specifically to the 
recycling of sludge, or solid waste 
material, in a way which is 
non-pollutive to either water or air. The 
waste, in short, will be used in a very 
natural way — as fertilizer. 

Here is how it works: Waste water 
p ocessing has an end produc; — 
sludge. It used to be heat dried and 
incinerated, causing air pollution. 
After-burners were designed, but the 
process became very expensive to 
operate and makes minimal use of the 
product. So an experiment was tried 
and met with great success — at least 
in the minds of many environmentalists 
and men of foresight who believe in 
solving a problem in an economically 
feasible, ecological manner. 

The sludge is barged as liquid 
fertilizer to Fulton County (west of 
Peoria), where the Sanitary District 
holds over 10,000 acres of denuded 
land — the site of a former strip mine. 
This offers an opportunity not only to 



recycle liquid fertilizer, but to 
reclaim land which had been totally 
spoiled by mine operations. It also 
offers job opportunities to local people 
and fulfills needs of both Cook and 
Fulton counties. 

In Fulton County, 765 acres were put 
back into productive agricultural 
utilization in 1972; by the beginning of 
the 1974 growing season nearly 3,000 
acres will have been reclaimed for 
agricultural use. The district raised 
a corn crop that sold for $55,000! The 
district envisions the eventual treatment 
of all sludge by this method, with 
30,000 acres needed. All water 
reclamation plants would participate. 
Construction of a 180-mile pipeline to 
Fulton County is anticipated, thus 
reducing the major cost — barging — of 
the entire operation. 

It is impossible to separate the story of 
the river from these plans and projects. 
Much as one would like to see 
attractive communities of homes and 
public areas along the banks, 
brightened by grassy parks and 
pedestrians strolling along a 



! 



Parisian-type quai, one first must have i 
clean water. It may seem to some \ 

observers who peer down from the 
bridges that span the river encircling i 
the Chicago Loop, that the river will 
never be lovely again. One sees the 
telltale bubbles, the slime, the solid 
debris of civilization, and the 
rat-infested waste land along the banks. 

But it has been shown that 
self-contained communities could 
indeed exist along the river. A 
combination of varied housing, public 
facilities, and shops would be strung 
together, with the river as the focal 
point. It could work. 

The day of the mink and the muskrat 
are, of course, gone forever. But the 
river can be preserved as a natural 
resource, available and suitable to an 
environment which consists of humans 
and their complex needs. What more 
logical place in the city to retain a form 
of nature which can provide both 
beauty and use to present Chicagoans 
as it did in centuries past to Indians, 
and to the variety of animal life 
around it. 



Construction proceeds on the Sanitary and S/i/p Canai in the late 1890s. Much ol the 28 miles 
was through solid rock underlying the continental divide. 










T4 November 1973 



Announcing 

the perfect 

$15 Christmas gift! 



EMBERS 



GIVE TO SOMEONE YOU LIKE . . . 

* Subscription to the Field I.luseum of Natural History Bulletin — 
including a 1974 appointment calendar 

* Tickets to a gala Members' Night party featuring entertainment, refreshments, and visits to the 
Museum's scientific, education, and exhibition areas 

* Invitations to previews of new exhibits 

* Discount of 10 percent all purchases at the Museum's crafts and books shop 

* Unlimited free admission to the Museum at all times for the member, family, and member's friends 

* Bird paintings by a distinguished artist — a portfolio of beautiful four-color reproductions 

All this is included in Annual Membership in the Field Museum. It's a thoughtful gift that will remind the recipient of you 
whenever he or she benefits from it. And for those extra special names on your gift list, consider the Museum's 
Associate or Life memberships. 



Clip and mail this coupon or facsimile 



to: Field Museum of Natural History, 

Roosevelt Rd. at Lk. Shore Dr., Cfiicago, III. 60605 

I wisfi to send gift memberships to the following: 



Gift recipient's name 



City 



State 



Zip 



n Annual $15 D ,4ssoc/afe $150 D Lite $500 
□ Send bird prints to gilt recipient: or 
n Send bird prints to me 



Gift recipient's name 



City 



State 



Zip 



n Annual $15 D Associate $150 D Ule $500 
n Send bird prims to gift recipient: or 
n Send bird prints to me 



My name 



Address 



City State Zip 

n Checl< enclosed payable to Field Museum 

n Please bill me 

□ Send gift card announcement in my name 



Field Museum Bulletin 15 







Berthold Lauter, distinguished sinologist and 
lormer curator ol the Department ol 
Anthropology at Field Museum, described this 
creamy white bottle ot salt paste ceramic as 
"one ol the most admirable compositions ever 
brought out on a snufi bottle, remarkable lor its 
great scope concentrated on so small a space, 
tor the spiritual treatment ol the subject, and 
lor the masterly executions and the delicate 
tracery ol the lines." Eighteen Buddhist deities 
are shown in high retiet. 



Carved red lacquer (cinnabar) with genre 
pictures in high reliet showing boys at play. 



Snu!! Bottles 



By Alice K. Schneider 




"If one insists on having only things of 
perfect beauty, one shall certainly 
excite the envy of the gods. And if one 
insists on collecting only things of 
great rarity, one shall certainly end up 
v\/ith nothing but fakes. And this 
applies not only to pictures and 



Alice K. Schneider is an associate. 
Department of Anttiropology. 



autographs, but also to all other 
antiques." 

— So remarked Lu Shih-hua, an 
18th-century Chinese connoisseur 
of the arts whose w/isdom and 
understanding were partly encouraged 



Caption information from Catalogue ot a 
Collection ot Ancient Chinese Snuft-Bottles 
by Berthold Laufer, Chicago. 1913; privately 
published. 



16 November 1973 







Blue and while porcelain decorated with imperial 
tive-clawed dragons playing ball. Yung-cheng 
period (1723-35). Lip is characteristic ol early 
medicine bottles. 



Opaque brown glass painted with green, red, 
and yellow enamel: lloral design ol orchids 
and lotus. 



Milky glass in cameo style, with decorations ol 
ancient bronze vessels in black and red — a 
motit known as the nine tripod vessels ol the 
legendary emperor Yij. 



by his great modesty of means. In his 
Catalogue of Autographs and Paintings 
Seen in Wu-yiJeli, published in 1777, 
Lu further suggested that the best 
criterion is whether or not the object 
you are considering appeals to you. 

Chinese snuff bottles are a 
classification extraordinaire. They 
cannot be ranked among the great 
arts; few were even signed or dated. 
They are of little importance to the 
modern archaeologist, having 
appeared, had their culmination, and 
declined within a century and a half of 
the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-1912). Many 
of these bottles were never used for 
snuff. They were, in fact, mere 
playthings of the court and gentry, 
largely created as collectors' items, 
and remaining as such. But because 
they are a distillation of the culture of 
that period, snuff bottles, in sum, have 
their own special historic significance. 



In a single exquisite bottle can be 
seen the essence of several thousand 
yars of sophisticated artistry. And the 
joy of it is that you can hold this in 
the palm of your hand! 

The snuff bottle collection at Field 
f^useum is among the world's finest. 
It includes examples of a wide range 
of materials, technical skills, and 
creative ingenuity. Except for a few 
that were donated or were purchased 
from other sources, most of the 495 
bottles in the collection were acquired 
in 1936 as part of a large bequest of 
the late Frances Gaylord Smith, of 
Chicago. The Smith bequest included 
a variety of other Chinese art forms, 
notably exquisite jade carvings, 
porcelain vessels and figurines, silk 
embroideries, and tapestries. As a 
whole, the Smith collection is one of 
Field Museum's great treasures. Hall 
24, the George T. and Frances Gaylord 




Transparent tea leal-colored crystal, showing 
narrow spoon attached to stopper. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



17 





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been brought by Dutch traders. 
Snuff-taking became popular with the 
wealthy, who attributed to it "medicinal 
virtues and beneficial effects, 
particularly after a heavy dinner." A 
vigorous sneeze drew compliments. 
It was considered well to carry snuff 
on one's person, much as we carry 
aspirin today. Small medicine bottles, 
recognizable by their rounded lip, were 
first used for this purpose, setting a 
style for later containers of snuff. 
Not until the late 17th century did the 
true snuff bottle appear. While the 
medicine bottle had customarily been 
cylindrical in form, its offspring — the 
snuff bottle — was broadened and 
flattened for ease of carrying. It had a 
stopper, often fashioned from an 
entirely different material than that 
used for the bottle, and a narrow 
spoon attached to the stopper. 
The powder was removed from the bottle 
with the spoon; this, in turn, 
transferred the snuff to the nose 
to be inhaled. 



G/ass painted on the inside, front and baclf. "One night a north gale arose, and for many miles the 
sky was thickly enveloped by clouds. The air was filled with snowllakes, tossed around in wild dance, 
and the mountains were coated with ice. Leaves of conifers and opening buds flew round. Astride my 
donkey I am crossing a small bridge, solitary, heaving a sigh that the plum blossoms are so slender." 
— Ma Shao-suan, artist (dated and signed). 



Smith Hall (ancient Chinese 
civilization), is a memorial to the 
donor and her husband. 




Dark brown and yellow fossil amber. 



It is noteworthy that a catalog of 
of the Smith collection was 
privately printed in 1913, twenty-three 
years before the bequest was made. 
Its author, Berthold Laufer (1874-1934), 
formerly Field Museum's curator of the 
Department of Anthropology, is still 
regarded by many Chinese as the most 
distinguished western sinologist. The 
Laufer catalog, itself, has become an 
authoritative classic on snuff bottles, 
and a collector's item. 

Laufer mentions in his catalog that 
although tobacco was known in China 
as early as the 16th century, snuff was 
not introduced until one hundred years 
later by way of Japan, where it had 



Most bottles were made from stone, 
glass, or ceramics. Of the latter, highly 
prized are the K'ang-hsi blue and 
white, the Ku Yueh-hsuan (moon 
pavilion) porcelains, and the carved 
soft paste l-shing ware (so-named for 
the locality of origin). Of glass bottles, 
those which are mottled, or have a 
multicolored carved overlay, or which 
are painted on the inside and signed 
(a late 19th-century innovation) are the 
most coveted. Of bottles made from 
stone, the apple-green jades, gold- 
flecked dark blue lapis lazulis, and 
rare crystals will always be sought, 
particularly as these raw materials 
become even scarcer. But bottles were 
also made from amber, wood, nuts, 
lacquer, coral, horn, ivory, metal, 
bamboo, shell, or from virtually any 
material — dried tangerine skin, for 
example — that caught the fancy of the 
artist. Among these bottles, too, are 
prima donnas such as those made 
from the beak of the hornbill, 
intricately carved cinnabar lacquers, or 
from unusual ambers or corals. 
Field Museum's snuff bottle collection 



18 November 1973 



is especially notable for its jade, lapis 
lazuli, coral, amber, hornbill, and glass 
— particularly glass bottles with 
multiple overlays of color, and thiose of 
glass imitating other materials. Some 
of these imitations are, by visual 
examination alone, impossible to 
distinguish from their non-glass 
counterparts. My ow/n preference is 
moss agate. The designs carved from 
the natural inclusions of the stone are 
the poetry of the snuff bottle world. It 
takes an experienced eye to recognize 
the spirit held in a raw piece of such 
stone, and a skilled craftsman to 
release this spirit. Such a piece is 
never static! 

It is this sensitive understanding of 
his material, guided by discipline and 
centuries-old tradition, that enables the 
Chinese craftsman to produce a work 
of art. His guidelines go back more 
than 3,000 years to the majestic 
bronzes of the Shang and Chou 
dynasties, which periods produced a 
skill that has never since been 
recaptured or equalled. But the 



influence of these ancient bronzes is 
still to be seen in ceramics, carved 
jades, and even in snuff bottles that 
were to evolve centuries later. 
Today there is a reawakening of 
interest in these small bottles. While 
other treasures of Chinese art have 
largely vanished from the market — 
ensconced in private collections or in 
museums — there has been a busy 
trading of choice bottles among 
collectors. In shops these are being 
replaced by contemporary bottles. The 
new ones cannot compare with 
those of the 18th and 19th centuries, 
because the master carvers are gone. 
But if we cannot have the beautiful 
originals, then the good copies must do. 

And why should not these minor items 
represent the innermost thought of the 
ancients, and harbour their wisdom? — • 
Lu Shih-hua, "the mountain recluse 
listening to the pines when he found 
himself at leisure while fleeing the 
summer heat," written in the sixth 
moon of the year 1776. 








Pair ol light red coral with relief designs Irom 
geometric style ol ancient Chou bronzes: 
dragons lacing each other with bodies lormed 
by square spirals. 






■"»«&■.<■■•■ 




Hornbill: carved lion heads on sides: one ol a 
pair. 



Fortification agate with relief design in brown, 
ivory, and yellow, depicting dragon soaring in 
clouds. 



Grey moss agate with flat relief in brown: design 
shows a large tree with nesting birds, a fox, and 
other animals. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



19 




Birds from Bolivia 

It was a little like Ctiristmas recently for 
Field Museum's Division of Birds and the 
Division of Amphibians and Reptiles when a 
huge crate containing several hundred 
zoological specimens arrived from Bolivia. 
Included in the shipment were 640 bird 
skins, about 100 bird skeletons, 100 birds 
preserved in formalin; and 177 snakes, 
lizards, and frogs. The specimens were 
collected in the Chiquitos Hills on the 
eastern slopes of the Andes by Roy 
Steinbach, who is also collecting fishes, 
insects, and mollusks in that region for the 
Museum. 

The birds m the shipment represented about 
35 families and more than 100 species, 
including some that are new to the 
Museum's collection. The specimens must 
now be positively identified and catalogued, 
then assigned to their respective places in 
the collection. Those preserved in formalin 
must be washed in water, then placed in 
alcohol. These will be used for anatomical 
studies. The bird skeletons will next be 
subjected to a "worm bath" — placed with 
live dermestid beetles, the grubs of which 
eat soft tissues still adhering to the bone. 
This method of cleaning is highly efficient 
and, unlike chemical cleaners, it leaves the 
bone unharmed. 

Among those specimens received by the 
Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, a 
group of coral snakes and coral snake 
mimic are of special interest. 



Field Museum Hosts Eight-Year-Old Artist-Paleontologist 



Eight-year old Joel Spears, 
already a budding expert on 
prehistoric animals, soent a 
lew hours behind the scenes 
at Field Museum in October 
with assistant curator of 
lossil reptiles and amphibians 
John Soil. Museum officials 
invited Joel, son of Prof, and 
Mrs. Richard Spears o/ 
Gfenview, to view lossil 
specimens when they learned 
that Joel was a winner in the 
Chicago Tribune Magazine's 
children's art contest. Joel's 
winning drawing was entitled 
"Helping to Set up the 
Dinosaur Bones at tho Field 
Museum." 




Photo by John Bayalis, Jr. 




Dianne N/laurer, assistant, Division of Birds; Dr. tvlelvin A. Traylor, curator of birds; and Mrs, Margot 
Merrick examine part of a large shipment of birds recently received from Bolivia. 



20 



November 1973 



Exhibits for Blind Visitors 

The Museum's visually impaired visitors are 
now getting more enjoyment from their tours. 
Eighty-seven artifacts have been designate:! 
as "touchable" for the blind. They are part 
of the Museum's permanent displays, 
located throughout the building in their 
respective subject areas. The objects were 
chosen for their diversity of textures, shape:., 
sizes, and materials. 

Among the objects are a piece of elephant 
hide, houseposts and totem poles from the 
Pacific Northwest, bones and skeletons, a 
fossilized tree stump, large iron meteorites, 
wood and stone carvings, and the 28 
famous "Portraits of Man" sculptures by 
Malvina Hoffman. 

A list of the objects and their locations is 
available at the information desk for use by 
persons accompanying visitors with 
impaired vision. 



Entomologist Collects 
Rare Snake 

Like other Museum scientists. Dr. John 
Kethley, assistant curator of insects, keeps 
a watchful eye for specimens that might be 
of interest to his colleagues in other 
departments. While in Costa Rica recently 
(looking for millipedes and mites), Kethley 
was the recipient of a tiny snake that had 
been unearthed by a bulldozer working 
nearby. Recognizing the snake as unusual, 
he persuaded it to return with him to the 
Field Museum where herpetologists 
subsequently identified it as the twelfth 
known specimen of a species of Central 
American burrowing snake. 

The main purpose of Kethley's trip was to 
study the behavior of mites that parasitize 
millipedes. As occasionally happens on field 
trips to distant regions, Kethley encountered 
unusual climatic conditions — in this case 
severe drought — that hampered his 
behavioral investigations. With less difficulty 
he was able to make population and 
distribution studies of millipede species. His 
work, which coincided with that of Drs. 
Burger and Gentry of the Department of 
Botany, was mostly in the Caribbean 
lowlands and in highlands of the Pacific 
slope. He also did some collecting in 
Georgia before returning to Chicago. 



Kethley was accompanied by Dr. John A. 
Wagner, chairman of the Science Division 
at Kendall College, Evanston, 111. and a 
visiting Museum curator under a National 



Science Foundation grant to the Division of 
Insects. Wagner did field work on 
microcoleoptera (tiny beetles) and on 
arthropods occurring in forest litter. 




music for dancing entertainment 

4 p.m. to 7 p.m., Friday, December 14 



refreshments 



Please send me . 

Name 

Address 



.adult tickets $10 . 



_child (under 14) tickets $5 



For information or reservations please call the Women's Board, 922-9419. 



Field Museum Bulletin 






Capital Campaign Luncheons Continue 




,10 by John Bayalis. Jr. 



Luncheons at the Museum lor prospective donors to the Capital Campaign 
continue to play an important role in the Museum's eltorls to explain its 
needs to officials of corporations and loundations. Recently. Capital 
Campaign Group Chairman John H- Perkins (left), president. Continental 
Illinois National Bank, hosted a luncheon followed by a tour ot the Museum's 
public and non-public areas. With him is Section Chairman Gordon Bent 
(2nd left). Museum trustee and partner in Bacon. Whipple & Co. They 
discussed the Museum's rehabilitation plans with (trom right) Kendon J- 
Birchard, vice president ol the National Security Bank ot Chicago: David C. 
Meyers, assistant to the chairman. Central National Bank ol Chicago; and 
Lawrence B. Bloom, vice president. Amalgamated Trust and Savings Bank. 



80th Birthday Celebration Spotlights Capital Campaign 




Chicago-area media boosted the Museum's efforts to raise its $12.5 million 
share ol the $25 million to be spent on its rehabilitation program, when the 
Museum celebrated the 80th anniversary ol its founding on September 16. In 
photo at left, Nicholas Galitzine. trustee and general chairman o/ the Capital 



Photo by John Bayalis, Jr. 



Campaign, reviews high points ol the Museum's history with Mrs. Edward 
Byron Smith, immediate past president ol the Museum's Women's Board 
(center), and current President Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger. In the Museum's 
Picnic Room, visitors joined the celebration with servings ol punch and cake. 



November 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Continuing 

Field Museum's Anniversary Exhibit 

continues Indefinitely^ "A Sense of 
Wonder" offers thought-provoking prose 
and poetry associated with the physical, 
biological, and cultural aspects of nature; 
'A Sense of History" presents a graphic 
portrayal of the Museum's past: and 
"A Sense of Discovery" shows examples 
of research conducted by Museum 
scientists. Hall 3. 

Film Program 

Ayer Adult Film Lecture Series, offered at 
2;30 p.m. Saturdays in the James Simpson 
Theatre. The November 17 program will 
also be presented at 7;30 p.m. Friday, 
November 16. 

November 3: "New Hebrides," narrated by 
Kal Muller. 

November 10: "Panama," narrated by 
Col. John Craig. 

November 16 and November 17: "China: 
The Awakening Giant," narrated by 
Jens Bjerre. 

November 24: "Indonesia," narrated by 
Dr. John Nicholls Booth. 



Join us for coffee after the Friday 
evening, November 16. film lecture 
presentation and meet speaker 
Jens Bjerre. 



Special Events 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education 
Program, the first in a series of 
ecology-oriented films, field trips, and 
children's workshops. 

The program is made possible by the 
Ray A. Kroc Environmental Fund, set up 



by friends to honor Mr. Kroc, chairman of 
McDonald's Corporation, on his 70th 
birthday. 

Films 

Presented at 7:30 p.m. Fridays and 
10:30 a.m. Saturdays in the Lecture HaJ. 

November 2 and 3 — Double feature: 
"Should Oceans Meet?" explores the 
possible ecological consequences which 
would be created by building a sea-level 
canal in Panama to link the Atlantic and 
Pacific "Of Broccoli and Pelicans and 
Celery and Seals" examines the ecological 
effect of pesticides sprayed on fields in 
California. 

November 9 and 10: "Death of a Legend" 

describes the life story of the wolf and 
its struggle for survival. 

November 16 and 17 — Double feature: 
"Prairie Killers" shows how man, the 
predator, has devastated his environment 
during the past 100 years by the systematic 
elimination of the wild animal population. 
"Tragedy of the Commons," based on an 
essay by Garrett Hardin, looks at the 
effects of overpopulation on the resources 
of a finite earth. 

Field Trip 

November 3: "Maintaining a City Within 
a City" visits the John Hancock Center, a 
miniature urban ecosystem, and tours the 
Chicago Sanitary District. Bus departs 
from Field Museum at 9:45 a.m. Led by 
Dr. William Burger, associate curator of 
vascular plants. 

Participation is on a reserved basis only. 
A S4 fee covers lunch and transportation. 
Checks made out to Field Museum, together 
with names, addresses, and telephone 
numbers, should be mailed to Mrs. Carolyn 
Blackmon, coordinator of special educational 
services. Field Museum. For further 
information call 922-9410, Ext. 361-363. 

Workshops for Young People 

Two separate, single-session workshops 
on Saturdays. November 3, 10, and 17. 

10 am "Mini-Environments." (Ages 9-13) 
Children are shown how to construct their 
own mini-environments, to be taken home 
with them, and instructed on their care 
and upkeep. 



1 p m 'Ballad of a Disappearing Legacy: 
Demise of the Wolf." (Ages 12-17) A 
discussion of the anatomy, behavior, and 
role in nature of this endangered animal, 
as well as the characteristics of other 
vanishing species. 

Class sizes are limited and advance 

registration is necessary. For reservations 
and information call 922-9410, Ext. 361-363. 



Children's Program 

Through November 30 

Fall Journey for Children, Plant Your 
Dinner," a free self-guided tour of Museum 
exhibit areas. The journey not only acquaints 
youngsters with botanical displays, but 
encourages them to learn more about plants 
by growing their own live specimens at 
home. All boys and girls who can read and 
write may join in the activity. Journey sheets 
available at entrances. 



Meetings 

November 8: 8 p.m., Chicago 
Mountaineering Club. 

November 11: 2 p.m., Chicago Shell Club. 

November 13: 7:30 p.m.. Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago. 

November 13: 8 p.m., Chlcagoland Glider 

Council. 

November 14: 7 p.m., Chicago Ornithological 
Society. 

November 14: 7:30 p.m.. Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 



Coming in December 

Winter Journey for Children. "Soulhwestern 
Indians— The Desert Tribes," begins 
December 1. 

"Exploring Big Bend," free wildlife 
film narrated by Charles T. Hotchkiss. 
presented by the Illinois Audubon Society 
at 2:30 p.m. Sunday, December 9, in the 
James Simpson Theatre. 

Hours 

9 a.m. 10 4 p.m. Monday through Thursday, 
9 a.m. to 9 p.m. Friday, and 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
Saturday and Sunday. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



Field Museum Bulletin 



23 



miifmm^^^^^- ^--.'•' 



Volume 44, Number 11 
December 1973 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Volume 44, Number 11 
December 1973 



Managing Editor G. Henry Ottery 
Editor David M. Walsten 
Staff Writer Madge Jacobs 
Production Russ Beclor 
Photography John Bayalis 



contents 



COMET KOHOUTEK 

Brilliant celestial visitor visible in December 
By Albert V. Shatzel 

GILLY THE DINOSAUR BUILDER 

A sketch of the Museum's chief preparator of fossils 
By Patricia M. Williams 

THE HOSPITALIZATION OF FIELD MUSEUM 

How the Museum nearly became a hospital 
By G. Henry Ottery 



FIELD BRIEFS 



8 



CAPITAL CAMPAIGN 



10 



CALENDAR 



11 



APPOINTMENT CALENDAR FOR 1974 

In honor of a major Museum presentation, 
African Arts Festival," opening March 30 



'Contemporary 



12 



COVER 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Director E. Leiand Webber 



Board of Trustees 

Remick McDowell, 

President 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
Gordon Benl 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J, Melvoin 
J. Roscoe Miller 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Harry M. Oliver, Jr. 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John S. Runnelts 
William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 

Smith 
John W. Sulliuan 
William G, Swartchild, Jr. 
E, Leiand Webber 
Julian B, Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrtngton 



Lite Trustees 

William Mccormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
James L. Palmer 
John G. Searle 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



An early 19th-century redrawing of the Bayeux Tapestry, a 
worl< originally done in the 11th century, shows Halley's Comet 
on the eve of the Battle of Hastings (1066). The "caption" 
at the top, ISTI MIRANT STELLA may be roughly translated 
"The men marvel at the star." Comet Kohoutek (see page 3) 
is expected to rival Halley's Comet when it puts on a 
spectacular show in December and January. 



The Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, 
Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of 
Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Second-class 
postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703 



COMET 
KOHOUTEK 

brilliant celestial visitor 
visible in December 



By Albert V. Shatzel 

Comets are among the most intriguing 
of celestial visitors, arriving as they 
often do unannounced, dramatic in 
appearance, exhibiting sudden changes 
in structure, and fading into oblivion 
after only a iew weeks or months on 
the celestial stage. The ievj which are 
visible to the unaided eye attract 
special attention, and until quite 
recently were regarded with awe and 
superstition, as omens of evil and 
harbingers of the plague or other 
dread events. A comet, quite by 
coincidence, foretold the death of 
Charlemagne, and others have been 
credited with similar spectacular 
powers. 

In reality, however, most (if not all) 
comets are members of our solar 
system, moving around the sun in 
elliptical orbits, as do the planets and 
their lesser relatives, the asteroids. The 
orbits of most comets are much 
elongated, so that they move outward 
well beyond the orbit of the most 
distant planet, Pluto, and may require 
thousands of years to complete a 
single circuit of the sun. They seem to 
be made up of fragmentary dust-size 
particles, although the nucleus may be 
a more or less compact mass of 
appreciable dimensions (perhaps a few 
hundred feet or more across). 



Albert V. Shatzel is a volunteer photographer 
tor Field Museum and a faculty member ot 
Kendall College. 





/ 


*.or 


bit of earth 






A 

decl "^^^ 
febl 


V-*' 


[^ 


^ \ 




i 


ani y^ 

*~ perihelion 


ascendingl node 


- - * W II 


mar 1 


* 

:it jani 

* 


:jcfebi 

* de 

/ 

4 1 


sun 

-A 


^ 



The path of Comet Kohoutek as seen Irom above the plane ot the earth's orbit. Perihelion (when the 
comet comes closest to the sun) is December 28. The ascending node is the point at which the comet 
passes north through the plane ot the earth's orbit Positions ot earth and comet are shown at 10-day 
intervals. 



As a naked-eye comet approaches the 
sun it develops a tail which points 
generally away from the sun. It also 
increases rapidly in brightness as it 
nears perihelion (the point in its orbit 
nearest the sun). Research has shown 
that the comet's light is derived in part 
from sunlight reflected from solid 
particles and partly from glowing 
gases. Some of this material is 
"pushed" away from the sun by 
radiation pressure and other 
little-understood mechanisms. 

There are always several comets 
around bright enough to be 
photographed with a telescope; a 
dozen or so are currently within reach. 
At least eight have been discovered 
thus far in 1973 and more are certain 
to appear. The sixth, designated 1973f, 
was discovered at Hamburg 
Observatory on March 7th by Lubes 
Kohoutek, only eight days after he had 
discovered Comet 1973e. Comet 
Kohoutek promises to be unusually 



bright, perhaps brighter than any comet 
seen so far in this century, and may 
even become visible in the daytime 
sky. It is always wise to hedge a bit on 
such predictions, since we have no 
way of knowing precisely how bright it 
may become. It passes perihelion on 
December 28, at which time it will be 
only 13 million miles from the sun 
(compared to a distance of 36 million 
miles for Mercury — the planet closest 
to the sun). Prior to that time the 
comet will be a brilliant object in the 
morning sky rising in the southeast 
before sunrise during early December, 
brightening gradually until the morning 
twilight begins to interfere (about 
December 20). At this time Comet 
Kohoutek will rival Venus in brilliance. 
It will again be visible in the evening 
sky about New Year's day, setting after 
the sun in the southwest. It will appear 
higher and higher in the sky and 
fainter and fainter each night as it 

(Concluded on page 11) 



Field Museum Bulletin 



A small notice posted in the 
Department of Geology office reads 
"Rare monsters fabricated to any 
specification. Orville Gilpin & 
Associates." Although the notice is not 
meant to be taken seriously, it could 
well be. For over thirty years Orville 
Gilpin, chief preparator of fossils, has 
been reconstructing prehistoric 
monsters in all sizes for Field Museum. 

The huge dinosaur skeletons displayed 
in Stanley Field Hall are the largest 
creatures Orville "Gilly" Gilpin has 
mounted and it took him two years 
(1954-56) to do the job. The 
Lambeosaurus bones were found in the 
Badlands along the Red Deer River in 
Alberta, Canada, and came to the 
Museum in the early 1920s. The 
Gorgosaurus was purchased 
unassembled from the American 
Museum of Natural History; then 
Gilly and his assistants went to work. 
They first removed the top layers of 
rock from the Lambeosaurus, which 
had been collected in seven pieces. 
Since this dinosaur was to be 
exhibited in a prone position, Gilly left 
it resting in the same rock in which it 
had lain for some 60 million years. 
He then put the seven pieces on 
dollies, fitted them together, and filled 
the seams between the blocks. Even 
today the Lambeosaurus remains on 
these dollies, which proved helpful 
when the dinosaurs were moved. 

The erect Gorgosaurus skeleton, 
however, presented a greater challenge 
to Gilly's ingenuity. First, like a 
fantastic and ancient puzzle, the bones 
were spread out and sorted — the 
vertebrae arranged in proper sequence, 
the limb bones according to their 
position in the legs, and so on. Calling 
on knowledge accumulated during his 
years at the Museum and with the aid 
of the scientific literature, Gilly was 
able to readily identify these bones and 
place them in their proper positions. 

Because the skeleton was to be 
free-standing, internal metal supports 
were to be used. This meant that 
bones had to be drilled or broken and 



GILLY 
THE 

DINOSAUR 
BUILDER 



By Patricia M. Williams 




repaired, and restored many times. 
Working in the low-ceilinged 
paleontology laboratory, Gilly and his 
aides had to mount the dinosaur in 
sections. First the neck, head, and rib 
cage were carefully assembled. Then, 
following a tedious "fit and try" 
method, bolts of proper size were 
selected and iron rods put through 
bones of the rear legs and pelvis and 
welded together. 

As the skull and jaws of the towering 
Gorgosaurus weigh more than 200 
pounds, special steel braces were 
required to support them. Slowly and 
painstakingly Gilly fashioned two 
pieces of iron rod to run through the 
vertebral column into the skull, and 
metal plates were inserted between the 
vertebrae. All along the way Gilly had 
to shape the rods by heating them in 
the Museum's huge furnace and then 
bend ttiem to fit the skeleton. Properly 
bent and shaped, the pieces of iron 
were taken to a steel works where they 
were to serve as a pattern for the final 
high-strength steel braces. 
Unfortunately, the steel work's night 
clean-up crew mistook the crooked 
iron pattern for waste material and cut 
it into pieces for disposal! Rather than 
spend time needed to make a new 
pattern, Gilly estimated the width of 
saw cuts and precisely reassembled 
the original pattern. 

After the many trial-and-error tests 
necessary for every bend in the iron, 
for every hole drilled in the bones, am 
for every fitting made, the Gorgosauru 
lower section (pelvis, hind legs, and 
tail) was assembled. The now two-par 
skeleton was taken to the Museum's 
spacious paint shop on the fourth floo 
and for the first time the complete 
skeleton rose to its full height. Then, 
with apparently inexhaustible patience 
the Gorgosaurus had to be taken apai 
again to be transported to Stanley 
Field Hall. Finally reassembled there, 
the standing Gorgosaurus became the 



Orville "Gilly" Gilpin (rt) and an assistant 
complete finishing touci)es on the Gorgosaurus 
sl<eleton, 7956. 



Patricia M. Williams is managing editor ol 
Field Museum's scientific publications. 



December 1973 



world's first self-supporting dinosaur 
skeleton. 

Installed in 1956, the Museum's 
Gorgosaurus and Lambeosaurus are 
not only scientifically accurate but 
aesthetically satisfying as well. 
Gorgosaurus, the carnivore 
(flesh-eater), is triumphantly raised 
over the defeated herbivore 
(plant-eater). Lambeosaurus stands in 
a very natural and lifelike pose. As 
Gilly says, "It can stand there for 
centuries and not get tired." 

A problem worse than fatigue set in 
when the skeletons were moved in 
1968. The heavy skull of Gorgosaurus 
was to be cast in fiberglass. In the 
process it fell and was smashed on 
one side. Gilly worked all night to 
repair the skull so that work could 
proceed on schedule the following 
morning. Impressive as the dinosaur 
pair in Stanley Field Hall is, Gilly 
considers the Edaphasaurus and 
Dimetrodon skeletons in Hall 38 to be 
his finest work. These restorations went 
well, and he "felt good about it" and, 
again, they are posed so that they look 
"comfortable." 

Not all of Gilly's projects are as 
spectacular as those on exhibit. His 
day-to-day work consists of removing 
matrix (the rock in which fossils are 
embedded) from specimens and 
preparing them for study or exhibition. 
Fossils to be used only for study are 
not mounted; and missing pieces are 
not restored. Those specimens which 
are to be used for exhibition are 
restored to their original shape as 
nearly as possible and plaster is added 
in place of missing parts. For example, 
a turtle shell from Wyoming had been 
crushed and flattened during 
fossilization. Gilly recently restored it 
by assembling the hundreds of pieces 
— all of which look alike to the 
untrained eye — rebuilding the shallow, 
dome-like shape of the shell, and 
bonding the pieces together with 
plaster. 

Simply removing matrix is a 



time-consuming, tedious, and often 
delicate job performed with improvised 
tools. Gilly spent 18 months scratching 
and scraping with a "brush" of 
phonograph needles mounted in a 
metal handle before a large 
Pennsylvanian shark — formerly on 
display in the "Illinois By the Sea" 
exhibit — could be revealed in its 
present wealth of detail. 

Gilly came to Chicago with the hope of 
working outdoors, and never dreamed 
of doing so as a preparator. Born in 
northern Minnesota, Gilly taught there 
"in a little red schoolhouse — all eight 
grades in one room." He then returned 
to school to study forestry and came to 
Chicago with the hope of working in 
the forest preserves. Jobs were not 
plentiful in the 1930s; Gilly had to 
take a short-lived job in a factory and 
soon found himself laid off. After 
searching in vain for another job, 
Gilly turned to the Works Progress 
Administration (WPA) and was sent to 
Field Museum where "they gave me a 
hammer and a chisel and a bone to 
clean up. I took to it like a duck to 
water and I've enjoyed it ever since." 

Gilly advises young people interested 
in this work to obtain practical training 
by volunteering at a museum or 
obtaining a government-financed 
assistantship, since schools don't offer 
courses in dinosaur-building or fossil 
preparation. Gilly has trained several 
young people, including preparator 
John Harris, and he believes that the 
main qualification for fossil preparation 
is "being able to coordinate the hands 
and the mind." He explains that each 
fossil is unique — "you only get one 
chance at it" — and each presents its 
own problems. A preparator must be 
able to analyze the problems in 
scraping or restoration and find his 
own solutions. This problem-solving 
may well include improvising one's 
own tools and techniques. 

One of Gilly's dreams is to someday 
reconstruct the skeleton of & 
Stegosaurus — one of the rare Jurassic 
dinosaurs. With the fervor of a 








Gilly's reconstruction ot a tossilized Dimetrodon, 
an ancient reptile, is in Hall 38. 

politician in election year Gilly says, 
"the children and people of Chicago 
are entitled to a Stegosaurus!" The 
problem is that Stegosaurus skeletons 
are extremely rare. The Museum has 
none and it could take ten years of 
expensive searching to locate one. 
Although it would be possible to buy 
casts of Stegosaurus bones, Gilly 
refuses to settle for less than the real 
thing, the best — "something befitting 
Field Museum." 

While there are no funds currently 
available for a Stegosaurus search, 
that situation could change. In his lab 
Gilly has a flower-bedecked coffee can 
topped with a sign reading "Save the 
Stegosaurus Foundation." A slot in the 
top of the can is big enough to accept 
coins and bills of all denominations. So 
far only toy money has been 
contributed, but Gilly is a patient man 
and the fund-raising drive may 
continue for a long time. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



The Hospitalization 
of Field Museum 



By G. Henry Ottery 

The trustees and staff of Field Museum 
hiad more than one reason to breattne 
a heavy sigh of relief at the end of 
U.S. involvement in World War I. It also 
signalled the end of the U.S. Army's 
intent to modify the Museum's Grant 
Parl< building, then under construction, 
for use as a convalescent hospital 
for returning wounded soldiers. 

The government's plan was first 
revealed by Museum President Stanley 
Field to the board of trustees during a 
special meeting at the Chicago Club 
(then at 400 South Michigan Avenue), 
on September 18, 1918. Field had 
called the meeting ostensibly to 
consider a joint report from the new 
building's architects and the building 
committee. It called for modifications, 
substitutions, and omissions of 
materials and plans provided for in the 
specifications of the new building, in 
order to reduce its cost and complete 
it within the estimated funds available. 
The report, of considerable length, was 
studied and discussed in great detail 
before it was approved by the trustees. 
They couldn't yet know that the 
government would soon present its own 
plans for cost-cutting and other 
alterations. 

Then came the startling news. Mr. 
Wallace G. Clarl<, acting for J. Milton 
Trainer of the U.S. Army's General 
Staff, Real Estate Service, Hospital 
Division, had called upon Field and 
presented to him the possibility that 
the government would desire to occupy 
the new Museum building for an 
indefinite period as a convalescent 



hospital. The government would 
assume certain responsibilities and 
obligations and expenses necessary to 
prepare the building for its use. 
Field had agreed to present the matter 
to the trustees, although he had 
warned Clark he believed that, under 
the circumstances, it would be 
negatively received. 

What "circumstances" could possibly 
have prevented these patriotic and 
humane men from wholeheartedly 
accepting such a proposal? One can 
imagine that such items as construction 
changes, unforeseen drains on the 
Museum's funds, and even the 
permanent loss of the new building 
and its land were possibilities to be 
considered. 

Of even greater concern, however, was 
the Museum's ability to continue to 
function as a research and educational 
institution. The building the Museum 
was occupying in Jackson Park had 
been built to survive only the summer 
of 1893, when it was the Fine Arts 
Palace of the World's Columbian 
Exposition. Now it was 25 years old 
and literally falling apart, endangering 
not only the collections and staff, but 
also the visitors. Only a major and 
thorough rebuilding program could 
make it habitable for several more years. 

Urging abandonment of plan 

Field also told the trustees that 
Brigadeer General W. E. Noble of the 
surgeon general's staff would be 
calling upon him to further discuss the 



matter; Field asked for instructions 
from the trustees. 

After fully discussing the government's 
proposal, the trustees drew up a formal 
statement asserting that while they 
recognized their "patriotic obligation to 
do all and everything in their power to 
meet the emergencies of the war" and 
would consider it "an official and 
personal privilege to meet any 
suggestions, or grant any requests, or 
perform any act" that the government 
in the circumstances of war might 
call for. 

Nevertheless, they recognize their 
responsibilities as trustees of priceless 
educational material and of scientific 
objects and collections it would be 
impossible to procure or reproduce, they 
respectfully represent that the occasion 
for pushing the completion of the new 
building in the face of largely increased 
expense of labor and construction 
material has been considered imperative 
because of the insecurity of the building 
at present occupied as a Museum, 
whose weakening and decaying condition 
has become an extreme menace to the 
security of the collections, exhibits and 
other scientific and educational materials 
now contained therein by reason of the 
constant danger of the collapse of the 
building in parts, if not as a whole, and 
the constant hazard of fire. The 
destruction of this material by reason 
of the character of its endowment and 
the source of its income would result in 
the entire abandonment of the tVluseum 
and the discontinuance of the great 
educational work it is now performing. 
Such calamity would render the new 
building useless to the trustees. 

They concluded by stating that the 
board "begs the representatives of the 
United States Government to withdraw 
the proposal to occupy the new Field 
Museum building in Grant Park." 

Friendly (?) persuasion 

President Field presented the trustees' 
statement to Gen. Noble and other 
representatives of the government. 
Many meetings, conferences, and 
interviews followed, with the Museum's 



December 1973 




Stanley Field as a young man 

architects in attendance. The 
government presented its arguments. 
The Museum attempted to dissuade. 
The government insisted. The Museum 
objected. 

When Field reported back to the 
trustees on October 3, he knew the 
Museum had lost the argument. He 
told them that the government was firm 
in its desire to occupy the building, 
intended substantial renumeration, and 
would meet as far as possible the 
necessity for partial occupation of the 
new building by the Museum. Field had 
reached the conviction that an 
arrangement should be entered into as 
satisfactory as further negotiations 
would permit. The trustees approved a 
motion permitting the concluding of 
negotiations. 

Further, they authorized the 
government's use of the lumber that 
had been accumulated for Museum 
construction in the erection of several 
temporary buildings to be used for 
hospital purposes. On a blueprint 
dated October 19, these buildings, 



directly to the south of the Museum, 
included the main kitchen, the nurses' 
quarters and mess hall, soldiers' 
barracks, a fire station, and a garage 
— all connected to the Museum by a 
covered passageway. To the north, a 
military canteen was planned. 

The Army's specifications 

On October 17, only one day less than 
a month after Field originally presented 
the government's proposal to the 
trustees, a 53-point memorandum 
listing specifications for the 
"hospitalization" of the Museum was 
issued. The 53 points embraced 
changes to be made in the original 
specifications that had been prepared 
by the Museum's achitectural firm, 
Graham, Anderson, Probst & White. 

The government substituted a one-inch 
layer of cement where terrazzo floors 
had been specified on the Museum's 
first and second stories. Temporary 
wood doors and frames were to 
replace the bronze and ornamental 
mahogany doors about the main 
entrances. Light fixtures throughout the 
building in general were to consist of 
bulbs at the ends of drop cords, with 
metal shades. A large elevator serving 
all floors was to be installed in 
addition to the one freight elevator, 
passenger elevator, and sidewalk lift 
shown in the original plans. All power 
plant equipment was to be installed in 
duplicate (except boilers, stokers, and 
coal- and ash-handling machinery) so 
that the building could be operated 
fully with any one piece of equipment 
out of service. One large open court 
and two small open courts were to be 
constructed in the west half of the 
first floor. 

It is amusing today to think of the 
Museum having 220 "water closets" 
(with seats costing $4.90 each) and 35 
enameled iron bath tubs, as designated 
by the government's planners. They 
were to be part of 716 plumbing 
fixtures that also included 140 showers, 
doctors' scrub sinks, a dental lavatory, 
diet kitchen sinks, and others. 



Termination of lease 

Meanwhile, in Jackson Park, the old 
building, too, was suffering the effects 
of the war. Museum Director Frederick 
J. V. Skiff, in the annual report for 
1918, states that "The Museum has 
felt the common influence of the war 
upon its economic affairs, and 
operating upon a fixed income has 
reduced its expenditures as far as 
possible to the necessities of 
maintenance." Without touching the 
funds for the construction of the new 
building, how could the trustees ensure 
that the old, decrepit building would 
continue to be usable? 

Fortunately, the uncertainty of the 
Museum's future was resolved with the 
European armistice. By the late winter 
of 1919— less than six months after the 
trustees first learned of the 
government's plan — the government 
sought to abandon its lease-contract ■^^ 
with the Museum, signed on October *'^ 
22, 1918. On March 7 the trustees 
authorized the signing of the release 
upon the Museum's receipt of 
$87,215.16 "in full payment for all 
obligations of the lessee to the lessor." 

Thus, the Field Museum's future was 
back on course, and the building was 
constructed as originally intended. But 
the activities of those few months, as 
could be expected, had their effects. 
"The resulting increase in building 
operations in accordance with the 
terms of the contract, and the 
subsequent sudden cancellation by the 
government . . . had naturally a 
confusing and disturbing effect upon 
the affairs of the Museum," wrote 
Skiff. He noted that preparations for 
the transfer to the new building had 
been under way for some time at the 
signing of the contract, and that this 
activity was "more actively prosecuted" 
and packing methods were changed in 
the expectation that material would 
have to be stored for several years. 
Nonetheless, he concluded, the transfer 
to the new building would probably 
take place in the autumn of 1920. 

And it did. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




f.* 



Below. Museum visitors during October included 
this woman and boy, both blind, Irom Denmark. 
By touch, they are examining "Bushman 
Family, Kalahari Desert," a bronze group 
sculpted by Malvina Hollman. These visitors 
were among a group ol ten blind Danes whose 
trip was sponsored by Disabled Americans 
Denmark Meeting (DIADEM): their Chicago visit 
was arranged by the Consul General ol Denmark 
in Chicago. 




Photo by John Bayalis. Jr. 




During a luncheon meeting designed to acquaint business 
leaders with the Museum's torthcoming Contemporary Alrican 
Arts Festival; Museum President Remick McDowell (left) and 
Maude Wahlman, Museum consultant in Alrican ethnology, 
examine a color etching by Nigerian artist Bruce Onobrakpeya 
with (tram right) Millard D. Bobbins, Jr.. president. Bobbins 
Insurance Agency: Daryl F. Grishman, president, Parker House 
Sausage Co.: and Dr. Clyde Philips. 



Below. Or William D Turnbull (lelt). Field Museum's associate 
curator ol toss// mammals, centers with paleontologists Dr. 
Zolia Kielan-Jaworowska. ol Poland: and Dr. K. N Prasad, ol 
India Dr. Kielan-Jaworowska was here lor a week's study ol the 
Museum's Early Cretaceous mammals Irom the Trinity 
Formation ol Texas. Dr. Prasad was here tor nearly two weeks, 
mainly to investigate Eocene. Miocene, and Pliocene 
mammalian launas ol North America. Dr. Turnbull recently 
completed two months ol Held work and lossil collecting in 
Wyoming 




Photo by John BayaMs, Jr. 



8 December 1973 





Photo by John Bayalis. 

Busily decorating tor A Christmas Atterr^oon at Field Museum 
are (Irom lelt) Mesdames Wesley M. Dixon, Jr., Henry D. 
Paschen,Jr.,and B. Edward Bensinger. Friday, Dec. 14, from 
4 to7 p.m., is the time lor the lestive occasion, which will take 
place in Stanley Field Hall. Caroling, dancing to the merry 
tunes 0/ Leo Henning's orchestra, sugar plum tairies, clowns, 
and a grand march are among the many attractions. With 
relreshments, ol course! 

Tickets are $10 tor adults and $5 lor children, and are 
available through the Women's Board ol Field Museum, 
sponsors ol the event. 



Photo by John Bayalis. Jr. 

Exhibits ol Tibetan and Chinese cultural arlilacts captured the attention ol 85 
members of the National Chinese Opera Theater during an October visit and 
reception at the Museum. Pictured with Miss Wu-Mei Ai ol the Chicago Chinese 
Consulate office, lour ol the performers examine a Ming tempte censer cast in 
1 548. The opera company, in Chicago for three performances, preserves the ancient 
art of Peking opera, banned from mainland China during the cultural revolution ol 
the 1960s. 







Do Christmas Shopping at IVIuseum 



Don't forget that one of Chicago's most 
interesting gift shops is located in the 
Museum, and that you — as a Member of 
the Museum — receive a 10 percent discount 



on your purchases. Choose from sculptures 
and jewelry from many lands, natural 
history books and objects, tapestries and 
tea sets, and other unique gifts too 
numerous to mention here. Shop anytime 
during normal Museum hours for those 
unexpected and exciting Christmas gifts. 



Fossils Discovered by Students in 
Museum-Aquarium Ecology Course 

Sunfish, bass, northern pike, and gar, plus 
an as-yel unidentified turtle species, were 
among fossil animals recently found along 
the southern shore of Lake Michigan. The 
discoveries are helping to round out 
ecologists' understanding of the lake's fauna 
as it was some 6.000 years ago. Perhaps 
more important than the discoveries 
themselves is the fact that they were made 
by Chicago-area high school students, who 
were participants in a summer course on 
the ecology of Lake"Michigan sponsored 
jointly by Field Museum and Shedd 
Aquarium. The students included Thomas 
Ardelt. Robert Bojanowski. Beth Braker. 
Francine Kaminsky. Bill Kiersch. Mike 
Lesser. Mary Millea. Andrea Moline. 
Adrienne St Clair, and Sam Wengroff. Sue 
Teller, a graduate student at the University 
of Illinois, Circle Campus, is making a 
special investigation of the fossil discoveries. 




Brooches fashioned by Navajo Indians 1rom 
turquoise and coral. The settings are of sterling 
silver. These are among a wide selection of 



hand-crafted items available at the Field 
Museum gilt shop. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



f»' 






Work in Progress 

We're "open for business" but it's not 
"business as usual," as museum employees 
and visitors are discovering. Nearly every 
day presents new evidence ttiat Capital 
Campaign funds are being put to worl< to 
refiabilitate the Museum building and provide 
improved facilities and visitor services. 

A peek over the barrier walls surrounding 
large areas of the north and south entrance 
steps reveals that the steps have 
disappeared. One gazes through steel 
beams, that once supported the steps, to 
the sinl<ing concrete floor of what was once 
a storage area beneath the steps. The steps 
have been removed and carefully numbered 
so that they may be replaced in proper 
order after a new waterproof floor has been 
laid for them. Then the areas beneath the 
steps will be completely renovated to 
provide, at the north end of the building, 
administrative office areas, and, at the 
south, additional storage space. 

Concurrent with this project, eight new 
emergency exits are being built in the north 
and south stairwells, level with the terrace 
surrounding the Museum. Workmen with 
jackhammers have had to cut through 
approximately two feet of brick, marble, 
concrete, and plaster in each location. The 
anticipated completion of this project and 
the rebuilding of the stairs will occur in July 
1974. 

Work necessary for the installation of a new 
interior freight elevator has begun, leaving 
the Museum without this service vehicle 
until approximately April 1. 



In order to install the hydraulic elevator 
(replacing a hoist elevator), workmen will 
have to dig a hole approximately 90 feet 
beneath the floor of the Museum to 
accommodate the hydraulic equipment. The 
new elevator will serve all floors of the 
building. Work will soon begin on the 
installation of new passenger elevators; 
already, for this project. Hall M has been 
closed temporarily, and some exhibit cases 
have been removed from or repositioned in 
Halls K, 24, 13, 2, and 32. 

Enclosure of the center west light well to 
provide additional laboratory, office, and 
storage space for scientific departments is 
expected to begin this month. For this, 
project. Hall 18 will be closed temporarily 
and some exhibits in Halls 35, 36, and 38 
will be disturbed. 

The installation of a new security system 
will begin this month that will include 
smoke-detection devices, deterrents to theft, 
loudspeakers, new fire-fighting equipment, 
etc. 

Conversion of the Museum's coal-fired 



boilers to natural gas was completed in the 
nick of time as cold weather moved into 
Chicago. The conversion of the three boilers 
involved modernization of controls and 
auxiliary equipment including pumps. The 
boilers also have the capacity to operate on 
oil. Another recently completed project is 
the installation of the scanning electron 
microscope laboratory, which has been 
operational for several weeks. 

The many additional projects envisioned will 
take many years to complete. Where new 
construction is called for, some 
inconvenience to staff and visitors will be 
experienced, but the final result will be a 
more enjoyable visit to the Museum, as well 
as more efficient operations within the 
building. 

Before the Capital Campaign concludes next 
September, the Museum must raise $2.3 
million more from private sources in order 
to reach its $12.5 million share of the $25 
million goal. (The other $12.5 million is 
being obtained through bonding authority of 
the Chicago Park District.) For this, the 
Museum will need the assistance of all of 
its friends. 




Photo by John Bayalis, 

When the north entrance steps had been removed, Women's Board members (Irom left) Mrs. William 
L. Searle. Mrs. Roily 0. Swearingen. and Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II donned hard hats in order to 
examine the work, and took time out to have their photo taken. 



10 



December 1973 



CALENDAR 



Exhibits 

Continuing 

Field Museum's Anniversary Exhibit 

continues indefinitely. "A Sense of Wonder" 
offers thougfit-provoking prose and poetry 
associated with the physical, biological, and 
cultural aspects of nature; "A Sense of 
History" presents a graphic portrayal of the 
Museum's past; and "A Sense of Discovery" 
shows examples of research conducted by 
Museum scientists. Hall 3. 

Film and Tour Program 

Sunday. Decembers 

"Exploring Big Bend," free wildlife film 
narrated by Charles T. Hotchkiss. presented 
by the Illinois Audubon Society at 2;30 p.m. 
in the James Simpson Theatre. 

December 26 through 28 

Guided tours leave from the north 
information booth at 2 p.m. 

Children's Program 

Begins December 1 

Winter Journey for Children, "Desert 
People of the Southwest." focuses on the 
cultures of the Native Americans. The free 
self-guided tour provides youngsters with a 
unique learning experience as they become 
acquainted with Museum exhibits. All boys 
and girls who can read and write may join 
in the activity. Journey sheets available at 
entrances. Through February 28. 



Special Events 

Friday, December 14 

"A Christmas Afternoon at Field Museum," 

from 4 to 7 p.m. Tickets are $10 for adults 
and $5 for children, and are available from 
the Women's Board of Field Museum. 

Meetings 

December 11; 7;30 p.m., Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago. 

December 11; 8;00 p.m., Chicagoland 
Glider Council. 

December 12; 7:00 p.m., Chicago 
Ornithological Society. 

December 12: 7:30 p.m., Windy City Grotto, 
National Speleological Society. 

December 13; 8:00 p.m., Chicago 
Mountaineering Club. 

Hours 

9 00 am to 4 00 p m Monday through Thursday: 
9:00 a m. to 9:00 pm Friday, and 9:00 am. to 
5 00 p.m. Saturday and Sunday 

Closed Christmas Day and New Year's Day, 

The Museum Library is open 9:00 a.m. to 4 00 p.m., 
Monday through Friday. Please otjtain pass at 
reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum telephone: 922-9410 



COMET KOHOUTEK (from p. 3) 

moves slow/ly away until late February, 
when it will fade -gradually to less than 
naked-eye brilliance and disappear, 
not to return again for more" than 
50,000 years. During that time it will 
reach 3,000 times the earth's distance 
from the sun — some 279 billion miles. 
Nevertheless, it will be well within our 
solar system, since the nearest star 
beyond the sun is 25 times more 
distant still. 

After many such circuits of the sun it 
will have dissipated its substance, and 
be spread out along its orbit as a 
cloud of particles too sparse to be 
seen or photographed. Old comets 
never die, they just fade away; and if 
the comet's orbit happens to intersect 
that of earth's, it may continue to 
entertain us at regular intervals as a 
shower of meteors. 



A Field Museum Membership 
Is Many Gifts in One 

When you want to give something unusual 
for year-long enjoyment, remember that 
a Field Museum membership offers 
something for the whole family. To 
begin with, your gift recipient will 
receive this colorful issue of the 
Bulletin with the 1974 appointment 
calendar. Your gift will also include 
a beautiful portfolio of four-color 
reproductions of bird paintings. The 
new member, his family, and friends 
will enjoy unlimited free admission to 
the Museum at all times. Tickets to 
the gala Members' Nights and 
invitations to previews of new exhibits, 
such as the "Contemporary African Arts 
Festival" next spring, are also part of 
your gift. Membership also means a 
ten-percent discount on all purchases 
at the Museum's crafts and books shop. 
Just mail the coupon, below, or phone 
the Membership Department, 922-9546. 



Mall coupon or facsimile to: Field Museum, Roose- 
velt Rd. at Lk. Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605 



O 



Gift recipient's name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



n Annual $15 D Associate $150 D Lile $500 
Qj Send bird prints to gift recipient; or 
□ Send bird prints to me 



My name 



City 



State 



Zip 



□ Check enclosed payable to Field Museum 
n Please bill me 

□ Send gilt card announcement in my name 



Field Museum Bulletin 11 




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FEBRUARY 1974 

S M T W T F 8 
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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 


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DECEMBER 1973 

S M T W T F S 

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23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 


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Field Museum hours: 
9 am to 4 pm Mondays 
through Thursdays; 
9 am to 9 pm Fridays; 
9 am to 5 pm Saturdays 
and Sundays 


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Winter Journey lor 
children continues O 


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MARCH 1974 

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10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


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JANUARY 1974 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 


H 


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"Janss Underwater 
Photography" 
exhibit opens 

VALENTINE'S DAY -1 A 


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Field Museum hours: 
9 am to 4 pm Mondays 
through Thursdays; 
9 am to 9 pm Fridays; 
9 am to 5 pm Saturdays 
and Sundays 


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Free film lecture, 
"Hong Kong to 
Macao," 2:30 p.m. O 


Free film lecture. 

"Holland," 

2:30 p.m. Q 


Free film lecture, 
"Canada's 
Western Frontier," 
2:30 p.m. ^ /% 


Free film lecture, 
"John Muir's High 
Sierra," 2:30 p.m. OO 


Free film lecture, 
"Wildlife By Day 
and By Night," 
2:30 p.m. 

"Contemporary 

African Arts 

Festival" opens Ort 


APRIL 1974 
S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 


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Spring Journey for 
children begins -4 


00 


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Free film lecture, 
"John Muir's High 
Sierra," 7:30 p.m. QO 


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FEBRUARY 1974 

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Field Museum hours: 
9 am to 5 pm daily 
except 9 am to 9 pm 
Fridays 


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Museum's 3-year, 
$25 Million Capital 
Campaign ends -^^^ 
in six months 20 


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Museum Traveler 5 
Day program: 
Journey avi/ards 
and free film for 
children, 
10:30 a.m. 

Free film lecture, 

"Vanishing 

Africa," 2:30 p.m. C 


Free film lecture, 

"Aldabra: Island 

in Peril," 2:30 p.m.-| Q 


Free film for 
children, 
10:30 a.m. 
Free film lecture, 
"Alaska — 
Wilderness Lake," 
2:30 p.m. OO 


Free film for 
children, 
10:30 a.m. 

Free film lecture, 

"Scotland," 

2:30 p.m. Q7 




MAY 1974 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 
19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
26 27 28 29 30 31 


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Free film lecture, 
"Aldabra: Island 
in Peril," 7:30 p.m. 

GOOD FRIDAY A p 


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MARCH 1974 

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JUNE 1974 
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16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

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JULY 1974 

S M T W T F S 
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AUGUST 1974 

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JUNE 1974 

S M T W T F S 

1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

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16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

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30 


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INDEPENDENCE 

DAY 4 


Free movies for 

children, 10:00 

a.m. and 1:00 p.m. -4 -4 


Free movies for 
children, 10:00 
a.m. and 1:00 p.m. .< q 


Free movies for 
children, 10:00 
a.m. and 1:00 p.m. QC 




Field Museum hours: 
9 am to 6 pm Mondays, 
Tuesdays, Thursdays; 
9 am to 9 pm 
Wednesdays, Fridays, 
Saturdays, Sundays 


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SEPTEMBER 1974 

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JULY 1974 

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OCTOBER 1974 
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Museum's 3-year, 
$25 Million Capital 
Campaign ends Q/> 


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AUGUST 1974 
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Field Museum hours: 
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except 9 am to 9 pm 
Fridays and September 
1 : 9 am to 6 pm 
September 2 


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Children's morning 
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Children's morning 
workshop Oft 




NOVEMBER 1974 

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26 27 28 29 30 31 


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Guided tour at 

2:00 p.m. 07 




NOVEMBER 1974 

8 M T W T F S 
1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


»- in 


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Guided tour at 

2:00 p.m. Qfi 




Field Museum hours: 
9 am to 4 pm Mondays 
through Thursdays; 
9 am to 9 pm Fridays; 
9 am to 5 pm Saturdays 
and Sundays 


5 ^ 


' 


00 


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Museum Closed OC 






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2:00 p.m. 0-* 




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FIRST DAY 

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2:00 p.m. *if\ 




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Winter Journey for 
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