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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

January 
1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



January, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 1 



CONTENTS 

FISH COLLECTING IN BELIZE 

By David W. Greenfield 

HICKORY CREEK REVISITED 

By lames Bland 

HERE'S TO THE AMETHYST 
By Patricia Willianns 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 



16 OUR ENVIRONMENT 

17 LETTERS 

22 FIELD BRIEFS 

23 ENVIRONMENTAL FILMS 
23 FIELDIANA 



back 
cover 



JANUARY AT FIELD MUSEUM 
Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Director: E. Leiand Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine | Yarrington, 

President 
Cordon Bent 
Harry O Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R Cook 
William R. Dickinson, \r 
Thomas E Donnelley II 
Mrs, Thomas E, Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Calitzine 
Paul W Coodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo j Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, |r 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William C. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs Theodore D Tieken 
E Leiand Webber 
lulian B. Wilkins 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
Samuel Insull, )r. 
William V, Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
|, Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T, Pine, )r. 
John C. Searle 
John M- Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J Howard Wood 



Jade censer from China; K'ang Hsi (1662-1722). Diameter 15.1 cm. 
Gift of Mrs. Frances Gaylord Smith. Cat. No. 232676. This censer, 
ornamented with mythological lion dogs and stylized plant forms, is 
on view in the John L. and Helen Kellogg Hall (Hall 30), second floor. 
Photo by Ron Testa. 

The foundation of the Field Museum collection of Chinese jades was 
laid by the Mrs. T. B. Blackstone Expedition toChina, 1908-10, under 
the leadership of Berthold Laufer, chief curator of anthropology from 
1915 to 1934. Many additions were made by him during the Captain 
Marshall Field Expedition to China in 1923. The remarkable A. W. Bahr 
collection of archaic Chinese jades was acquired in 1926 with a fund 
contributed by Mrs. Frances Gaylord Smith, Mrs. John |. Borland, 
Miss Kate S. Buckingham, Otto C. Doering, Julius Rosenwald, Martin A. 
Ryerson, and Martin C. Schwab. In 1936 the Museum received the 
important collection of jades of the Ch'ing Dynasty and the modern 
period bequeathed by Mrs. Frances Gaylord Smith. 



PHOTO CREDITS 

Cover; Ron Testa; 3: Joseph L. Russo; 4, 5: David Greenfield; 
6: lane K. Glaser; 7: Joseph L. Russo; 8-10: courtesy James Bland; 
11, 12: Ron Testa; 15: David Greenfield; 18-21: James Bland; 
22: Ron Testa. 



Field Museum ol Nalurjl Hi-.tory Hullrlm is published moiilhly, 
excepl combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of N.ilural 
History, Roosevell Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
Subscriptions: $6 a year; {.3 a year for schools. Members ol the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do nol necessarily rellect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, 111. 





FISH 

Collecting 
In Belize 



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By David VV. Greenfield 



Tucked under Mexico's Yucatan 
Peninsula, and obscured even 
further in the jumble of Central 
American mmi-republics, is the tiny 
country of Belize (until recently known 
as British Honduras). Slightly larger than 
Massachusetts, its population is rela- 
tively sparse— about 120,000. To the 
ichthyologist, however, Belize is of 
unusual interest, for its coastal waters, 
ponds, and rivers support a remarkable 
variety of fish species— a condition that 
may be largely explained by the country's 
dif.'Linctly separate areas of rain forest, 
woodland, savannah, and swampland. 

On several occasions in recent 
vears. we have gone to Belize to collect 
and study its fish life. Our longest and 
most fruitful work there was during the 
summer of 1974, when we were able to 
spend time in each of the principal 
faunal areas. Before launching into an 
account of our activities of that summer 
it may be helpful to generally describe 
natural features of the region and to 
explain why the fauna there is so 
diversified. 

Belize borders Mexico to the north, 
Guatemala to the west and south, and is 
washed by the Caribbean to the east. 
Among the most remarkable of the 
country's topographic features are the 

Da\id V\ . Greenfield is a Field Museum 
research associate and is associate professor 
of zoology at Northern Illinois University. 



« The author dons SCUBA gear before entering 
subterranean pool. In its waters he was to 
discover a new species of catfish. 



Field Museum Bulletin 









Harbor of Belize City, with fisliing fleet at anchor 



well-developed coral reefs, strung along 
much of the country's 230-mile coast. 
Eight to twenty-five miles offshore lies a 
barrier reef, second in size only to 
Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Between 
the mainland and the barrier reef there 
are numerous small islands, or cays, 
generally covered by mangrove. Further 
out to sea, beyond the reef, are several 
coral atolls, structures which occur 
infrequently in the tropical Atlantic. 

The country's entire coastal area is 
bordered by mangrove swamps which 
often connect to inland lagoons, pro- 
viding a gradation from brackish to fresh 
water Northern Belize, which is flat and 
covered with broad expanses of savan- 
nah, has only 50 to 60 inches of rain 
annually; as would be expected, there 
are fewer rivers here than further south. 
From Belize City southward, the rainfall 
increases and the flat savannahs give way 
to mountains and rain forests. Hardwood 
forests are widespread, although much of 
this timber has been removed for lumber 
or burned down to provide space for 



farmland; the secondary, tangled under- 
growth has resulted in dense jungle. 

At Stann Creek Town, near central 
Belize, the average rainfall is 117 inches, 
while at Punta Gorda, further south, it is 
167 inches. Inland from Punta Gorda, in 
the dense rain forest, more than 220 
inches of rain fall annually. 

The Maya Mountains, which angle 
across the southern half of Belize, 
constitute one of the oldest land masses 
in Central America and have been above 
sea level since the close of the Creta- 
ceous, about 65 million years ago. The 
highest point in this range is Victoria 
Peak, with an elevation of 3,680 feet. The 
vegetation of the higher areas is mostly 
tropical pine forest. Here the streams are 
fast, clear, and relatively cool, sluicing 
through granite gorges, often with spec- 
tacular falls, some more than 1,000 feet 
high. Lower, the pine forest gives way to 
tropical hardwood. The streams and 
rivers are slower, larger, and considerably 
warmer than at higher elevations. As they 
wind their way down to flatter ground. 



they tend to become broad and muddy. 
Among freshwater fish faunas of the 
world. Central America's is unique— a 
consequence largely of the geological 
history of the region, and in particular of 
changes in sea level. Until the late 
Pliocene (about two million years ago). 
South America was isolated from Central 
America by the sea. To the north, a 
seawater barrier across the area near the 
Pacific's Gulf of Tehauntepec separated 
Central America from southern Mexico. 
Central America remained an island for a 
long period; only in recent times did it 
connect with North and South America. 
Fish species which were able to tolerate 
sea water were able to enter and to breed 
in the fresh waters of Central America 
during the early period. Only after land 
bridges joined Central America to the 
north and south were totally freshwater 
species able to move into the area, but 
this took place in relatively recent times. 
As a result, totally freshwater species 
indigenous to North and South America 
are not well represented in the Central 



American fauna. Central America may 
thus be viewed as a "filter bridge" 
between the two continents, with north- 
ern species moving to the south and 
southern species moving northward. 

In discussing the history of the 
various species of fishes in this region, it 
is convenient to categorize them on the 
basis of their ability to cross seawater 
barriers. Fishes which have been confined 
to fresh water throughout their evolu- 
tionary history are known as primary 
freshwater fishes; secondary freshwater 
fishes are species that live chiefly in 
fresh water, but which do have some 
tolerance for salt water; they also have 
distant relatives living in the sea. 
Peripheral freshwater fishes occur in 
fresh water, but have great salt tolerance. 
These are often marine species which 
sometimes enter fresh water. 

In Belize, three families of the 
primary freshwater category occur: char- 
acins, pimelodids, and ictalurids. 
There are three species of characins, 
each of which moved north from South 



America after the uplift of the Panama 
isthmus. The group is represented in 
South America by the notorious piranha 
and by the little tetras that are so popular 
with tropical fish enthusiasts. The pime- 
lodids are catfishes, also of South 
American origin. Three pimelodid spe- 
cies, all of the genus Rhamdia, are 
represented in Belize, including a blind 
species never before described, which 
we discovered in a cave in the Maya 
Mountains. 

The ictalurids, on the other hand, 
are of northern origin, and include the 
common catfishes found in the rivers of 
the United States. In Belize, the group is 
represented by one species, the blue 
catfish (Ictalurus furcatus), which also 
occurs in the Mississippi. The Belize 
ictalurids represent the southernmost 
extension of this family into Central 
America. 

Four families of the secondary 
freshwater group are found in Belize: 
poeceliids, cyprinodontids, cichlids, and 
synbranchids. All of these could have 



crossed the seawater barrier and reached 
Central America at an early time. The 
poeciliids, or livebearers, include such 
familiar aquarium fishes as the swordtails 
and mollies. In Belize, this family is 
represented by 7 genera and 12 species. 
The cyprinodontids, or killifishes, are 
represented in Belize by three genera and 
four species. The cichlids include two 
genera and 14 species in Belize. Only one 
synbranchid, or mud eel, is found. 

The peripheral freshwater fishes are 
by far the best represented in Belize, 
including 25 families and 60 species. In 
other parts of the world, including North 
and South America, the primary fresh- 
water fishes, particularly the cyprinids 
(minnows) and characids, are the most 
numerous both in species and popula- 
tions. The unusual situation in Belize — 
and Central America in general — is the 
result of the peripheral and secondary 
freshwater fishes being able to move into 
the area first, undergoing speciation, and 
filling many of the ecological niches. The 
[Drimary freshwater fishes from North 



Terry Greenfield, the 
author's wife, 
collecting mosquito 
fishes (Gambusia) in 
savannah pool 




Field Museum Bullelin 




The blind cave cattish (genus Rhamdia), a 
new species, discovered in subterranean poo! 



and South America have not been in 
Central America long enough to displace 
the secondary and peripheral species. 

We did our first collecting in the 
mangrove swamps adjacent to St. John's 
College, just outside Belize City, and 
were assisted by Father Leonard Dieck- 
man, head of the college's science 
department. The fish fauna of these 
swamps is particularly interesting, since 
it contains representatives of all three of 
the freshwater groups — primary, second- 
ary, and peripheral. 

Collectmg in this habitat presents 
special problems. Generally, the bottom 
IS of very soft mud and has the charac- 
teristic rotten-egg smell of hydrogen 
sulfide. As soon as we stepped into the 
water we were literally up to our waists in 
■this foul-smelling muck. Trying to seine 
in such a situation was difficult, to say 
the least. But our efforts were amply 
rewarded. 

The species to be caught at any 
particular time often depends on the 
tidal cycle. At low tide, when the 
mangrove area is mostly fresh water, 
primary species such as the tetra 
(Astyanax fasciatus) and several colorful 
cichlid species (from the secondary 
group) are present. At high tide, marine 
species move into the mangrove areas 
along with the sea water. In addition to 



these transient inhabitants, there are 
several species which are able to remain 
despite the salinity change. This group 
includes such fishes as the gobies— small 
fishes whose pelvic fins form a sucking 
disc; and the silvery mojarras, whose 
protrusible mouths extend downward 
and, like aquatic vacuum cleaners, suck 
up food bits from the bottom. These 
areas also serve as a nursery ground for 
many marine species which remain in the 
mangroves until they have grown much 
larger. Thanks to the changing tidal 
conditions, it is thus possible to take 
more than fifty species of fishes from a 
single locality over a 24-hour period. 

Our next collecting venture was in 
savannah pools outside Belize City. On 
this trip we were assisted by Russell 
Norris, a Belizean who keeps tropical 
fishes and who is the local expert on 
aquarium species. 

Although they do not have extensive 
stream and river systems, the extensive 
savannahs of northern Belize have a 
unique fish fauna. During the rainy 
season many temporary ponds are 
formed, some covering many acres. 
These are generally shallow, with muddy, 
reedy bottoms, and are surrounded by 
sedges, grasses, palmetto palms, and an 
occasional pine or calabash tree. During 
periods of flooding the rivers overflow 
their banks, enabling fishes to move into 
the savannahs and populate the ponds. 
The fishes of these areas are mainly of 
the primary and secondary categories. 
Among the commonest fishes are the 



poeciliids, particularly the mosquito 
fishes [Cambusia Yucatar^a and C. sex- 
radiata). Living with the mosquito fishes 
is another member of the same family, 
the pike killifish {Belonesox belizanus), 
which is commonly imported to the 
United States for home aquariums. 
Unlike the other members of the family, 
which feed on invertebrates, the pike 
killifish eats other fishes. The slender 
Belonesox, which resembles the North 
American pikes, has long jaws armed 
with sharp, pointed teeth. Like the pike, 
Belonesox lurks motionless amidst vege- 
tation, darting out from time to time to 
snatch an unwary mosquito fish. 

All of the poeciliids give birth to live 
young. The male transfers sperm, or milt, 
to the female by means of agonopodium, 
a modified anal fin. Once fertilized, 
females have been known to store milt 
for a year, giving birth to young every 
few weeks. 

From Belize City we drove up to 
Mountain Pine Ridge, high in the Maya 
Mountains. The ridge is a region of steep 
slopes covered with hardwood forest and 
pine, and penetrated here and there by 
interesting caves. For us, the area had 
special memories; three years earlier we 
had been married in the huge Rio Frio 
Cave, one of the area's spectacular 
sights. This time we stayed at Blanca- 
neaux Lodge, a modern resort. Nearby is 
a clear, swift stream which provides the 
lodge with drinking water and, further 
down, with a natural, deep swimming 
pool After checking in at the lodge we 




Side passage ot cave [about 4 feet high) 
leading from the section where the blind fish 
were discovered. 



changed into our swimming gear and 
swam in the beautiful pool until nightfall. 

During the next few days we 
collected in various other nearby streams. 
Only four species of fish occur here: the 
ubiquitous tetra [Astyanax fasciatus], the 
spottail livebearer (Heterandria bimacu- 
lata], the slender molly [Poecilia gracilis), 
and the green swordtail [Xiphophorus 
helleri). Their occurrence in this moun- 
tain area is most interesting, since all of 
the streams go over falls which effective- 
ly prevent any upstream movement. At a 
former time, according to the geological 
record, the plateau atop Mountain Pine 
Ridge was a large lake. Later the 
streams— which remain today — broke 
through and flowed westward, draining 
the lake. Presumably the fishes were in 
the lake before it drained; they were then 
isolated in the streams, where they still 
occur. 

One morning we took a bone-jarring 
ride in our Land Rover over tortuous 
trails to a cave which Rich Woods, a 
Belizean friend and local marine bio- 
logist, had explored some years earlier. 



His description of fishes that he had seen 
in the cave sparked our imagination, 
since fishes living in such dark cave 
waters commonly have poorly developed 
eyes or none at all. The cave's low 
entrance broadened immediately into a 
huge, black chamber. After a few 
minutes of searching the pool's dark 
water with flashlights, we encountered a 
very large number of catfish (genus 
Rhamdia), swimming back and forth 
from the pool just within the entrance 
and a narrow opening that led further 
back into the cave. The fish seemed 
undisturbed by our flashlight beams and 
movements, but they did respond to 
sound and to vibrations made at the pool 
surface. 

We set a small seine along the bot- 
tom of the pool, with one person holding 
each end of the net. Then Rich would 
snap his fingers just above the surface. 
This usually aroused the curiosity of at 
least one fish, which swam toward the 
source of the sound, directly over the 
net; the net was then jerked up, bringing 
the fish with it. As we suspected, the fish 
was completely eyeless; only slight 
depressions showed where these organs 
had been in ancestral forms. 

After collecting several of these 



blind fish, we decided to don SCUBA 
gear and try some underwater photog- 
raphy. The passage leading from the 
small pool into the larger chamber was 
just wide enough to squeeze through 
while wearing the SCUBA tank. On the 
other side of the hole, the pool extended 
into a long, sinuous chamber. Under- 
water, a number of catfishes as well as 
some blind, white shrimp could be seen 
swimming through the dark waters. The 
catfish as well as the shrimp— we learned 
later — had not yet been scientifically 
described. 

Following our collecting on Moun- 
tain Pine Ridge, we headed for southern 
Belize The low areas of that region, from 
the Belize River south, are well supplied 
with rivers and streams that have an 
abundance of primary and secondary 
freshwater species, as well as several 
peripheral species that have invaded the 
fresh waters. One of the larger fishes 
occurring here is the sharp-toothed 
Brycon guatemalensis, a characin that 
grows several feet long. It ranges from 
the Atlantic slope of Mexico southward 
to Panama and is fished by the Belize 
natives. My first encounter with this 
characin was while snorkeling in a river 
deep within a southwestern rain forest. 
[Continued on p. 75.) 



Field Museum Bullelir 




Above and on facing page: student participants in Field Museum's Urban Streams course spent their mornings at Hickory Creek, collecting fish and 
other forms of aquatic life. 



"I predict that a survey of Hickory Creek 
fifty years hience yvill be so unproductive 
that no biologist is likely to be interested 
in making /t."This pessimistic prophecy, 
made by curator of fishes Loren P, 
Woods in 1959 (see "A Survey of Fishes in 
an Illinois Stream," Chicago Natural 
History Museum Bulletin,* January, 
1959), concerned a stream just 25 miles 
southwest of Chicago's Loop, and was 
predicated on the results of surveys that 
Woods and others had made there in the 
19405 and fifties. 

'Former name of Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin 



This past summer another survey of 
the stream was made by a group of high 
school students participating in an 
"Urban Streams" course, under the 
auspices of Field Museum's Department 
of Education. Hickory and its principal 
tributary, Marley Creek, are "prairie 
streams." They originate from gentle 
intermorainic lands in southwestern 
Cook County and northeastern Will 
County; draining a watershed of some 
100 square miles, their waters eventually 
reach the Mississippi. Most of this land is 
agricultural, but recent years have seen a 
heavy increase in suburban residential 



development. Hickory and Marley drop 
sluggishly through an average gradient of 
nine feet per mile, cutting through 
gravel, rubble, sand, and silt that are 
characteristic of northeastern Illinois' 
glacial drift. Marley drains southward 
from the town of Mokena to join Hickory 
a short distance east of New Lenox; 
Hickory Creek flows westward, draining 
from as far east as Frankfort, Illinois. At 
Joliet it joins the Des Plaines River. 

Hickory resembles any one of a 
hundred other small waterways that 

lames Bland was recently an instructor w/t/i 
Field Museum's Department of Education. 



Hickory 

Creek 

Revisited 



by James Bland 



drain the Illinois Plains; but it is unique 
in having been studied by several 
scientific investigators since the turn of 
the century In the early 1900s Victor 
Shelford, the noted ecologist, based a 
theory of stream succession on studies 
that were partly carried out on Hickory 
Creek. It was sampled by Alfred C. Weed 
(former curator of fishes at Field Mu- 
seum) in the 1920s, by Hurst Shoemaker 
in the midthirties, by Woods and 
Margaret Bradbury in the forties and 
fifties, and by Phillip Smith in the 
midsixties. For many years it was the 
stream laboratory for ecology classes at 




Field Museum Bulletin 9 



the University of Chicago. Because 
Hickory's natural history has been so well 
documented and because it supports an 
unusual diversity of fishes, the creek has 
continued to attract interest. Currently, 
John Dorkin, a graduate student at the 
University of Illinois, Circle Campus, is 
completing a research project on the 
stream 

Dorkin has been aided in his work by 
students enrolled in the Museum-spon- 
sored "Urban Streams" course. High 
school students from the Chicago area 
were selected for the course on the basis 
of academic achievement as well as 
competence in special skills such as 



photography and computer program- 
ming. During the first week of the course, 
the students received instruction in 
stream ecology and in field techniques. 
Guest experts, such as Jon Mendelson, 
environmental scientist at Governor's 
State University; Harry Nelson, of Field 
Museum's Division of Insects; and David 
McGinty, a fisheries biologist for the 
Cook County Forest Preserve District, 
provided in-depth information on stream 
fauna and on governmental responsibi- 
lities in the management of our streams. 
Following this orientation, the students 
spent the next three weeks seining the 
Marley branch of Hickory Creek (in the 



mornings) and sorting their collections 
(in the afternoons) at a field station 
provided by Lincoln Way High School in 
New Lenox, during the final week of the 
program, the students conducted a slide 
presentation on their work at Field 
Museum for the scientific and educa- 
tional staffs. The experience has given 
them not only an invaluable experience 
in stream ecology, it has also been an 
opportunity for them to contribute 
materially to a base line study that may 
prove useful to planning agencies and 
ecologists. Through this it is hoped that 
the students have made a contribution to 
the future health of Hickory Creek. 

[Continued on p. 76) 




10 January 1976 



Here^s to the Amethyst! 



By Patricia M. Williams 



Over the years, party-goers have 
developed many methods for 
avoiding drunkenness — some 
practical, some fanciful, but certainly 
none as decorative as the wearing of an 
amethyst The name amethyst is, in fact, 
derived from the Creek amethystos, 
meaning "resisting drunkenness." 

Unlike many modern remedies for 
drunkenness which must be taken inter- 
nally, the amethyst was applied to the 
outside of the body. In the Compleat 
History of Animals and Minerals (1661], 
Robert Lovell explained the cure as, 
"Amethyst is of an attracting nature 
. applied to the navel it first draweth 
the vapours of wine unto itself, and then 
diffuseth them, and therefore defendeth 
those that use it from drunkeness and 
surfeiting." Certainly, holding a cold 
stone to one's navel after a particularly 
festive evening might be said to be a 
sobering experience in itself. 

Pliny the Elder was quite apprecia- 
tive of the charm and uses of gems and in 
his Historia Naturalis describes a long list 
of fabulous stones, almost all of which 
possessed some kind of occult power. 
Not only did he cite the amethyst as a 
safeguard against intoxication, he also 
pointed out that it was a big help in 
warding off sorcery — if one wrote the 
name of the sun or moon on it and hung 
it around one's neck with baboons' hairs 
or swallows' feathers, of course. The 
amethyst was boosted by Pliny as being 
quite helpful to those who had to deal 
with kings, and an amethyst pendant 
suspended on a dog-hair cord was said to 
be a foolproof antidote for snakebite. As 
a further plus, this gem was said to do a 
good job of keeping off hail and locusts. 



Overleaf: Ceode with amethyst 
crystals. Shown actual size. 
Weight: 70.26 kg {22 lbs, W oz). 
Discovered in San Eugenio, Uru- 
guay. Gift of William I. Chalmers. 
Cat. No. M14972. 



Gems of all kinds have been 
appreciated for their many good qualities 
— both real and mythical — down 
through the ages. In The Story of Gems, 
Herbert P. Whitlock wrote, "It is safe to 
assume that from the very earliest period 
when people began to recognize the 
beauty of certain stones they also 
ascribed to them certain supernatural 
properties as charms or talismans. And as 
far back as we can trace, they wore some 
material token in the form of a stone as 
an amulet to guard them from the ills of 
life, real or imaginary. The wearing of 
such amulets is, in all probability, older 
than the wearing of jewelry, and, no 



doubt, the one grew by insensible steps 
out of the other. It was essentially a 
natural and logical act for the primitive 
mar. who found an attractive or unusual 
bit of stone to ascribe to it occult 
powers." 

Early astrologers paired each of the 
planets known to them with a day 
of the week and, later, alchemists 
linked these planets with minerals or 
metals An astrological connection was 

Patricia M. Williams is editor of Field 
Museum Press. 



Large amethyst crystals from Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada Weight 2.52 kg (5 lb, 9 oz] Gift 
of lerry Tricomi. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



r^nxw^- 



H •^^ 



also made between signs of the zodiac 
and certain gemstones, as follows: 
ram— aquamarine, carnelian; bull — hya- 
cinth; twins— chalcedony; crab— emer- 
ald; lion— topaz; virgin— chrysolite; bal- 
ance-sardonyx; scorpion— jasper, to- 
paz; archer— chrysoprase; goat — ruby, 
onyx; water-bearer- amethyst; fishes- 
heliotrope, tourmaline. 

About the middle of the sixteenth 
century the concept of the stones of the 
months — birthstones — came about. 
Although the list has been revised over 
the years to incorporate various stones as 
alternatives to rare, unattractive or less 
durable gems, the amethyst has con- 
tinued to hold its place as the stone for 
February. 

Originally, the wearing or owning of 
one's birthstone was believed to bring 
good luck and even endow the wearer 
with certain capabilities, such as intel- 
ligence, honesty, or bravery. Today few 
would acknowledge believing in birth- 
stones to such an extent. Yet, in the face 
of advanced science and technology, 
surpassing the age of logic and reason, 
calendars and jewelers' displays continue 
to feature lists of birthstones. The spirit 
of magic, of the mastery of planets and 
stars over our destinies is now tempered 
by carefully pairing each gem with a 
flower and capping this twosome with a 
solid virtue, February, then, usually 
carries this citation; flower— violet; birth- 
stone— amethyst . . . sincerity. 

The amethyst was not only found in 
the realms of astrology and metaphysics, 
however. This stone was held in high 
esteem for centuries because of its sacred 
uses. Amethysts were used in Egypt about 
2000 B C , frequently as funeral scarabs. 
In the Bible (Exodus 28) the breastplate 
of Judgment is described: "And you shall 
set in it four rows of stones. A row of 
sardius, topaz, and carbuncle shall be the 
first row; and the second row an emerald, 
a sapphire, and a diamond; and the third 
row a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 
and the fourth row a beryl, an onyx, and a 
jasper; they shall be set in gold filigree. 
There shall be twelve stones with their 
names according to the names of the 
sons of Israel; they shall be like signets, 
each engraved with its name, for the 
twelve tribes." Again, in Revelations the 
amethyst is seen as one of the jewels 
used to adorn the foundations of the 
walls of the new Jerusalem. 



Traditionally, amethysts have been 
used in ecclesiastical rings worn by 
bishops and other church prelates. 



Obviously, above all else it is the 
beauty of the amethyst that has 
attracted man and led him to 
endow the stone with such a variety of 
qualities Today Elizabeth Taylor's eyes 
are likened to lovely violet amethysts in 
the purple prose of the popular press In 
1652 Thomas Nicols rhapsodized that 
amethysts "have in them a glorious fiery 
brightness, which does most excellently 
and pleasingly dart itself forth (as I have 
observed in one which I was once master 
of) through the transparent cloud of a 
skie colour; from the mixture of its 
redness, brightness, or fiery splendor with 
this skie color, ariseth all the glorious 
delight of its pleasing tincture." (From A 
Lapidary or, the history of pretious 
Stones: With Cautions for the Unde- 
ceiving of all those that deal with 
Pretious Stones.) 

More prosaically, the amethyst is a 
variety of quartz varying in color from a 
pale lilac to a deep, rich purple. 
Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. discusses am- 
ethyst color in scientific terms in his 
book Minerals and Man, writing: "In all 
shades one can discover on close 
examination that the color is not 
uniformly distributed through the stone 
but is concentrated in thin sheets 
interlaminated with colorless sheets. This 
color layering. . .is so characteristic of 
amethyst that its absence should lead 
one to suspect an imitation. 

"Chemical analyses of amethyst 
show it to be nearly pure SiO: but always 
containing some iron (less than 0.10 per 
cent). Since the amount of iron increases 
with increasing depth of color it is 
assumed that the element is the coloring 
agent." 

The color of the amethyst may be 
changed from the familiar purple to 
shades of red, green and smoky yellow- 
brown in the laboratory by heating the 
stone to temperatures up to 500°C. 
Stones marketed as "smoky topaz" may 
be created in this way. 

The lovely facetted amethysts on 
display in Field Museum's Hall of Gems 
range m color from pale violet to a deep 
blue-purple and are from several geo- 



graphical locations — France, Brazil, 
Ceylon, USSR, Ireland, hlungary, and 
Mexico. In The Story of Gems Whitlock 
explains, "Although amethyst colored 
quartz is of very common occurrence in 
rocks of almost every country, the 
deepest colored and most sought after 
gem material is somewhat limited to 
certain well-defined deposits. Russian 
gem amethysts, often called Siberian 
amethysts, are mined in several places in 
the Ural Mountams, notably at Mursinka, 
near Ekaterinburg. These stones are very 
deep in color, the rich purple tone being 
mixed with some red, a combined color 
which is readily recognized by one 
experienced in handling amethysts. 
Brazilian amethysts from the state of Rio 
Grande do Sul are also deep purple in 
color, as are also those from Uruguay. 
Fine stones have been taken from the 
gem gravels of Ceylon, from Madagascar 
and from various parts of the United 
States." 



Geodes are round, outwardly unim- 
pressive looking stones that are 
usually at least partially hollow 
and are often lined with beautiful, 
sparkling crystals. Quartz is the most 
common material found in the cavities of 
geodes— and amethyst is, of course, a 
variety of quartz. Geode-hunters find the 
sphere-shaped stones in the limestones of 
the Mississippi and Ohio River valleys, as 
well as in other areas of the United States 
and Mexico. The area of Rio Grande do 
Sul in Brazil and the adjoining part of 
Uruguay are known as outstanding 
sources for magnificent amethyst geodes. 
In fact, according to Paul E. Desautels 
{The Mineral Kingdom] "From Rio Grand 
do Sul came the most fantastic geode 
known — thirty-three feet in length, 
sixteen and a half feet in width, and ten 
feet in height, with an estimated weight 
of seventy thousand pounds. Its interior 
was lined with tons of beautiful purple 
amethyst crystals, many of them several 
inches across, with glittering crystal 
faces." 

Field Museum's study collection in 
the Department of Geology includes 
several sections from amethyst-lined 
geodes. The largest of these weighs about 
400 lbs. with dark, deep red-purple 
crystals. (Continued on p. 21) 




(Continued from p. 7.) 

Peering under a sunken log, I was 
startled by the sight of several vicious- 
looking fish, each armed with a mouthful 
of large teeth. My first reaction was 
piranha] until I remembered that the 
piranha was confined to South America 
and did not occur this far north. 
Determined to capture one of them, we 
set gill nets across the river in front of the 
sunken log, then swam down and scared 
the fish into the net. Three of the larger 
ones became ensnared; now all we had 
to do was get them loose! Finally this was 
done, but the fish repaid us with ugly rips 
in the net. 

The multicolored cichlids, which are 
abundant in this area, sometimes reach a 
length of a foot or more. Thirteen species 
of the genus Cichlasoma, known locally 
as tuba, occur in Belize, Several of these 
have been imported into the United 
States for the aquarium trade. Perhaps 
the best known is the firemouth cichlid 
[Cichlasoma meel^i), a beautiful fish in 
which the lower body and the mouth 
interior are bright red. Only one species 
of the genus Petenia (P. splendida), 
known as the bay snook, is found. This 
species, identifiable by its long, pointed 
mouth, is an excellent sport fish; it 
quickly takes a lure, and is a scrappy 
fighter. The bay snook occurs in two 
color phases; most commonly it is silver 
with black blotches down the side. But 
for reasons which are unknown, some are 
bright red, a form especially prized by 
aquarists. 

All of the Belize cichlids lay eggs on 
rocks or logs which they have cleaned 
off The eggs are guarded until hatching 
by the parents, who fan them with their 
fins. After hatching, the young continue 
to be herded and protected by one or 
both of the parents. 

The fishes we gathered from north- 
ern Belize differ in a variety of ways from 
those of the southern part of that 
country. From Stann Creek Town south, a 
number of the freshwater species that 
occur in the north begin to disappear; 
these, in turn, are gradually replaced by 
species common to the south. The 
reasons for this reversal are still not 
clearly understood; it is but one of many 
intriguing questions about the freshwater 
fishes of Belize that remain to be 
answered. D 
Typical stream on Mountain Pine Ridge. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



our environment 



Additions to Endangered List 



Seven American and Mexican animals, in- 
cluding the American crocodile, the rarest 
reptile in the United States, have been added 
to the Department of the Interior's Endan- 
gered Species List. They mclude the Cedros 
Island mule deer, the peninsular pronghorn 
antelope, the Hawaii creeper, the Scioto 
madtom, the snail darter, and the po'o uli. 
The bayou darter and the Newell's Manx 
shearwater are listed as threatened species (in 
trouble, but not believed in danger of 
imminent extinction). 

The additions bring the number of US. 
endangered species to 113 and the number of 
threatened species to nine. 

The American crocodile — Once a common 
species in southern Florida, it is now the rarest 
reptile in the United States with only ten to 
twenty breeding females known to exist. 
Intensive human development eliminated 
much habitat, and excessive killing by hide- 
hunters caused the decline. Raccoons, also 
prey heavily on the eggs and young of 
crocodiles. The possibility of a hurricane or 
other natural disaster is a real threat to this 
small, isolated population. The listing of the 
American crocodile comes at a time when its 
relative, the alligator, is being taken off the 
list in some areas. 

Cedros Island mule deer — This deer is 
known only from Cedros Island, off the 
western coast of Lower California, in Mexico. 
Currently only a few, perhaps less than a 
dozen, are thought to survive in restricted 
areas of the island. Poaching and predation by 
packs of feral dogs are thought to be major 
factors in their decline. 

Peninsular pronghorn antelope — This an- 
imal once inhabited most of Lower California, 
but has been greatly reduced in range because 
of excessive hunting and competition from 
domestic livestock for forage. Currently only 
two or three remnant groups survive 

Hawaii creeper — This bird was endemic to 
the island of Hawaii and was quite common in 
the 1890s. The subsequent habitat alteration, 
predation by rats, and disease carried by 
introduced birds and mosquitoes severely hurt 
populations. Their range is now restricted to a 
small area of forest between the 5,000- and 
6,000-foot elevation, where they are rare and 
extremely vulnerable to further environmental 
disruption. 

Scioto madtom — This fish is known only 
from one locality in the lower portion of Big 
Darby Creek, tributary to the Scioto River in 
Ohio. The fish has been taken in a riffle area 
of the creek with moderate to fast current 
where the bottom consists of gravel, sand, silt, 
and boulders. It is endangered because of 
pollutions, siltation of its habitat, and by two 
proposed impoundments on Big Darby Creek. 



The snail darter, which was discovered last 
summer, occupies a twelve-mile stretch of the 
Little Tennessee River in Loudon County, 
Tennessee. The fish inhabits only portions of 
clean, gravel shoals with cool, swift, low-tur- 
bidity water. The food of the darter is almost 
exclusively snails which are abundant on 
these shoals and which also require clean 
gravel substrate for their survival. The Fish 
and Wildlife Service has determined that 
impoundment of water behind the Tennessee 
Valley Authority's proposed Tellico Dam 
would result in the total destruction of the 
snail darter's present known habitat. The dam 
project, underway for about 8 years, is 
approximately 40 percent completed. 

Po'o u// — This newly discovered species of 
bird is restricted to a small area on the 
northeastern slope of Haleakala Volcano on 
the island of Maui, Hawaii. Its past history is 
unknown but presumably its decline was 
caused in part by habitat alteration and 
competition from other non-native bird 
species introduced on the island. 

The bayou darter — A tiny, silvery fish, this 
darter exists only in the Bayou Pierre drainage, 
a small river tributary to the Mississippi River 
in west Mississippi. It inhabits clean, silt-free, 
gravel riffle areas, but in recent years 
gravel-pit operations and poor agricultural 
practices have damaged its habitat and 
reduced its numbers. The U.S. Soil Conser- 
vation Service has proposed a watershed 
project which would further affect the bayou 
darter's habitat by adversely altering the water 
chemistry and contributing additional silt to 
the stream. This would pose a serious threat to 
the continued existence of the species, 
according to the Fish and Wildlife Service. 
However, since the Corps of Engineers is 
currently studying the impact of the proposed 
watershed project, USDI wildlife biologists 
feel it would be premature to list the fish as an 
endangered species at this time. 

Newell's Manx s/iearwater — This medium- 
sized black and white seabird once bred on 
all the main Hawaiian Islands. Now its 
breeding activity is restricted to an isolated 
part of Kauai. This fish- and squid-eating bird 
is thought to have been exterminated from 
most of its range by the introduction of 
predatory mongooses, dogs, pigs, and rats. 
The bird's attraction to light also increases its 
mortality as it is killed by collisions with cars 
and lighted towers. Nonetheless, it is thought 
to number in the low thousands, and does not 
appear to be in immediate danger of 
extinction. 

Migrant Kirtland's Warbler 

Susanne Doerger crouched beside a dead bird 
under the front window of her Cincinnati, 
Ohio, home. Awe-struck by the lifeless form, 
the seven-year-old girl noticed two small 



bands on the bird's right leg. She cuddled the 
bird gently and carried it to her father for 
some answers. The child's father recognized 
scientific significance in the leg bands and 
called a local bird bander. 

The bird was identified as a male Kirtland's 
warbler. The species is native only to 
Michigan, where 358 were counted in 1975. 
Holding on for dear life in that state, the 
Kirtland's warbler is classified as an endan- 
gered species whose existence is precarious. 
Conservation groups have launched cam- 
paigns to help the species 

It was further determined that the dead 
Kirtland's warbler had been banded when ten 
to twelve days old on July 2, 1971, at Mack 
Lake, Oscoda County, Michigan. Dr. Law- 
rence Walkinsaw, a retired dentist who is also 
a recognized ornithologist, had observed the 
banded male on several occasions during the 
summer nesting periods between 1973 and 
1975. He made positive identification from 
the bird's lea band number in live capture 
studies and from a blue band also placed 
on the bird's leg. Walkinshaw said the bird 
had sired at least fourteen young during the 
time he had observed it on its summer range 
in Michigan. Since the warbler winters in the 
Bahamas, Suzanne's bird had probably died 
while migrating. 

Her recovery of the bird will help ornitho- 
logist assess status of the endangered species. 
"This is probably one of the most complete 
stories on an individual bird we know," said 
Walkinshaw. He emphasized that if people 
would examine dead birds for identification 
bands, similar valuable recoveries might be 
made to help scientists working with birds 
and endangered species. 

"New" Wasp Species Loves Garbage 

A "new" species of yellow jacket, Vespula 
germanica, has found its ecological niche in 
society's rubbish heaps and plagues residents 
of mid-Atlantic states during the late summer 
months, report Cornell University entomolo- 
gists Roger A. Morse and George C. Eickwort. 
Almost unknown in New York state twenty 
years ago, the wasp has gathered forces only 
in recent years. It is an expert scavenger and 
dines on scraps of meat, ice cream drippings, 
and the dregs of pop bottles and beer cans. An 
immigrant from Europe in the early 1900s, V. 
germanica is more gregarious than its rural 
cousins, preferring to live in densely popu- 
lated areas and build its nests in houses. 

Most of the other yellow jacket species 
inhabiting the mid-Atlantic states are usually 
found in rural areas. The two or three native 
species that may be pests distinguish them- 
selves by building underground nests and 
rarely intrude into human dwellings. Unlike 
bees, which feed pollen and nectar to their 



young, wasps raise their larvae on meat, either 
from other insects or from garbage or carrion. 

Morse and Eickwort began to notice the 
new immigrant species in recent years when 
they received an unusual number of inquiries 
about stinging "bees," "Honeybees are |ust 
not that aggressive, ' says Morse, explaining 
their initial suspicion that bees were not the 
culprits. Sure enough, a survey of the 
offending insects, which were described as 
flying about garbage cans, old houses, and 
barbecue pits, revealed that 83 percent were 
V. germanica. 

Morse notes that earlier surveys in the U.S 
had identified this species, but found it to be 
rare The Cornell survey, limited to the Ithaca 
area, was the first to verify that the European 
yellow jacket has become quite common 
Other researchers have found the species as 
far south as Maryland and as far west as 
Buffalo, New York. 



Cyanide for Coyotes 

The Environmental Protection Agency has 
announced it will register sodium cyanide for 
use in M-44 devices to kill coyotes. There also 
is strong pressure on the federal government 
to allow experimental use of compound 1080 
The US. District Court in Wyoming reportedly 
has ruled that EPAs 1972 ban on such 
chemicals is invalid because no environ- 
mental impact statement was filed. EPA has 
appealed But in the meantime, only the 
presidential order prohibits the broad use of 
dangerous chemicals 



.New Status for Alligator 

Ma|or changes in federal regulations under 
the Endangered Species Act of 1973, including 
the removal of the American alligator from 
endangered status in three southwest Lou- 
isiana parishes, have recently been announced 
by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

The new rulings, published recently in the 
Federal Register, are intended to help zoos, 
circuses, and other breeders of endangered 
species who were previously prevented from 
freely trading or transporting their surplus 
animals. Captive, self-sustaining populations 
of a species in the United States, which no 
longer constitute a drain on wild populations, 
may now be reclassified as threatened (not in 
imminent danger of extinction) even though 
the species is endangered in the wild. Special 
permits can thus be obtained for such 
activities as sales or shipments in interstate 
commerce that would otherwise be prohibited 
by the act. At the present time, no animals are 
designated as captive, self-sustaining popula- 
tions. The new rules merely establish the 
framework for this concept, future regulations 



will be required to actually name specific 
populations of specific species as "captive, 
self-sustaining." 

The regulations retain the alligator in the 
endangered category in all of its range except 
Cameron, Vermillion, and Calcasieu Parishes 
in Louisiana. While wild alligators in those 
parishes are neither endangered nor threaten- 
ed in the biological sense, they will still be 
considered to be a threatened species because 
It is extremely difficult to distinguish them 
from endangered populations in surrounding 



areas Outside these parishes — wherever alli- 
gators are endangered in the wild — captive 
populations will also be considered to be 
threatened under the final rules. The revised 
rules allow the reptile to be hunted in the 
three parishes in accordance with Louisiana 
regulations recently established to control the 
taking and tagging of nonendangered alli- 
gators. These regulations provide for an 
alligator hunting season approved and con- 
trolled by the Louisiana Wild Life and 
Fisheries Commission 



LETTERS 



Sirs 

In the September Bulletin, an article "Sea 
Turtles in Trouble" appeared, stressing the 
need to adopt regulations which prohibit the 
taking, importation and exportation of sea 
turtles It also supported a proposal to 
develop comprehensive turtle mariculture 
operations. It suggested that commercial 
operations of this kind would help ensure the 
survival of the remaining populations of these 
aquatic reptiles by reducing pressure from 
exploitation of natural nesting grounds. 

The aim of this reply is to show that this 
assumption is overtly naive and that approval 
of these programs would contribute to the sea 
turtle's extinction instead of survival. 

The chief error in this article is the 
assumption that turtle farming Is feasible and 
an economically and commercially profitable 
venture. All evidence suggests that it Is not. 
Pilot proiects aimed at raising self-sustaining 
populations of green turtles have been 
attempted in Mexico, the Bahamas and 
southern Florida. Results of these efforts have 
not beeen encouraging It was discovered that 
vast tracts of environmentally protected 
ocean bottom with abundant turtle grass are 
required During certain times of the year 
when this grass does not proliferate, large 
amounts of supplementary food Is needed. 
Diseases, cannibalism and skin lesions also 
provided handicaps which severely restricted 
the success of these projects. Also It found 
that large sums of money were necessary to 
sustain even a small operation. 

In addition to these problems Is the 
complete lack of success in producing fertile 
eggs and hatchllngs under artificial con- 
ditions Subsequently all of these pilot 
projects relied on wild stocks to supply their 
operations. It was found in some cases that 
nearby rookeries were severely depleted. I 
might add that the article in question 
incorrectly stated that techniques for pro- 



ducing completely self-sustaining populations 
are at hand. 

If commercial turtle farms were per- 
mitted, they would obtain feral stock in the 
same manner as the operations mentioned 
above This increased pressure might be 
enough to spell the doom of sea turtles. 

A final point needs some mention. If 
commercial turtle farms did exist, a feedback 
system would likely be started which If not 
checked would most assuredly reduce sea 
turtles to a level beyond any hope for 
recovery In order to sell their product, 
commercial turtle farms would find it 
necessary to stimulate the consumer demand 
by advertisement We would likely acquire a 
"taste" for turtles. These "tastes" would 
manifest themselves in increasing demands 
on the mariculturalists to produce more. Since 
it takes four to six years to obtain a turtle at 
marketable value, a lag between supply and 
demand would result This would cause prices 
to soar. With higher prices, poachers and- 
black-marketeers would be stimulated tO' 
step-up their illegal exploitation of wild 
populations. The end result would mean 
extinction of the sea turtle. 

Instead of the proposal outlined in Sep- 
tember's Bulletin, I suggest the abandonment 
of any notions of establishing turtle maricul- 
tural operations. In order to ensure the 
survival of the sea turtle, legislation Is needed 
which poses strict penalties for those at- 
tempting to import turtle products. At home, 
a more comprehensive effort is needed. 
Stretches of protected beaches must be set 
aside during nesting season and comprehen- 
sive conservation programs should be estab- 
lished in areas adversely affected by extensive 
seaside development. 

)ohn R. Fletemeyer 

Director, 

Ft. Lauderdale Marine Turtle 

Conservation Headquarters 

Fort Lauderdale, Florida 



Field Museum Bulletin 



(Continued from p. 10) 

In leviewing the results of surveys 
made Since the early 1900s, it appears 
that any one of several fates is possible 
for a specific fish species. It might be lost 
from a stream entirely; yellow perch and 
grass pickerel, for example, have not 
been recorded for Hickory since Shel- 
ford's study three-quarters of a century 
ago. Or a species can exist marginally- 
avoiding the nets of those who are 
sampling, but nonetheless maintaining 
breeding populations within the stream. 
One of the most interesting finds of the 
high school students this past summer 
was a northern mottled sculpin. This is a 
bottom-dwelling fish which prefers cool, 
highly oxygenated, pollution-free water. 
It is not rare in Illinois, but this is the first 
time its presence has been recorded for 
Hickory since the early 1900s. Recent 
additions to the original stream fauna 
have included fathead minnow, carp, 
goldfish, largemouth bass, and black 
crappie. The latter two may have been 
stocked by local residents interested in 
maintaining game species in Hickory. 
The blacknose shiner, which is on the 
Illinois Departmentof Conservation's list 
of rare and endangered species, was 
recorded in earlier times for Hickory 
Creek, but has not appeared recently. 
Verification of these early records is 
among John Dorkin's tasks as he investi- 
gates Hickory Creek's history. 

Several species which have vanished 
from other areas of the state are still to 
be found in Hickory and Marley. The 
blackstrip topminnow, for example, has 
disappeared elsewhere because the 
drainage of sloughs and marshes has 
destroyed much of its natural habitat 
But in the sedentary backwater pools of 
Hickory, it continues to survive. Simi- 
larly, orange-spotted sunfish, hornyhead 
chubs, and banded darters appear in 
recent Hickory collections, despite range 
reductions elsewhere throughout the 
state. 

From the early 1900s until Woods' 
article appeared, the stream underwent 
but little change; its original fauna 
remained much the same. Despite the 
agricultural uses to which the stream 
valley had yielded, the creek had been 
able to maintain itself. Philip Smith, of 
the Illinois Natural History Survey, has 
analyzed the factors responsible for the 
disappearance of our native fish fauna; 
several are consequences of farming 




Rate of water flow was among the variables checked along the length .o/. "'c'^°^;, ^^^f ,. "^.^"^ 
students ad,ust their simple, but sensitive, rate flow device, consisting partly of Ushline 
and bobber. 



operations, others are the effects of 
urbanization. According to his study, 
these factors are (in order of impor- 
tance): silt, drainage changes, desic- 
cation during drought, species inter- 
action, pollution, dams and impound- 
ments. The disappearance of eight and 
the decimation of sixty native Illinois 
species is attributed to these factors. 

Our "row-crop" agriculture has 
caused much topsoil to be washed into 
the streams and, as a consequence, 
species intolerant of the increased 
siltation have been disappearing. Early in 
this century, Illinois farmers got together 
and established levee districts, thus 
providing a tax base to fund the drainage 
of lowlands and the channelization or 
straightening of streams. These stream 
modifications exacerbated the siltation 
problem and resulted in the alteration of 
many stream habitats. Prior to the Woods 
and Bradbury surveys, swampy lowlands 
near the headwaters of Hickory were 
drained and several reaches channelized. 
Despite this, there had been relatively 
few changes in the waterway's original 
complement of fishes. In the 1975 
follow-up survey conducted by Dorkin 
and the Urban Streams students, six 
species previously recorded by Woods 
and Bradbury were not found: slender 
madtom, rainbow darter, bluntnose 
darter, fantail darter, creek chubsucker, 
and southern redbelly dace; a solitary 
stonecat was taken. Interpreting these 
changes as extirpations from the Hickory 
Creek environment is a difficult matter 
which must await verification by Dorkin. 



A least one change — the disappear- 
ance of the slender madtom— seems 
directly attributable to the channeli- 
zation that has taken place since 1950. 
These small catfish, which grow to about 
7 centimeters (3 inches), lived in a 
very localized clay-banked habitat within 
Hickory. That habitat was destroyed 
when the stream channel was displaced 
from its original course. Darters are small 
fishes which live just off the bottom, 
generally on gravelly, shallow riffles 
areas In the springtime, male darters 
take on brilliant colors in anticipation of 
spawning. The absence of three species 
of darters (rainbow, bluntnose, and 
fantail) may indicate that the riffles 
habitats within Hickory are also being 
degraded 

The redbelly dace is a species that 
has disappeared as a consequence of 
desiccation during drought. Headwater 
stream sections which formerly flowed 
all year long are now drying up in the 
droughts of late summer and early fall 
This has resulted from manipulation of 
the water table, channelization, draining, 
and dredging. Species such as the 
redbelly dace which typically live close 
to the headwaters, have been most 
severely affected by these disturbances. 
Predictably, chemical changes have also 
occurred in the waters of Hickory Creek, 
and were recorded by the Urban Streams 
students — notably downstream from the 
Mokena sewage treatment plant, which 
discharges into the east branch of Marley 
Creek 

Historically, with respect to our 



In the atternoom. the students classified and identified their specimens at a field station provided 
by Lincoln Way High School in New Lenox. 




streams, the process of urbanization has 
ushered in a vicious cycle. The increased 
demand for residential development has 
resulted in the use of the flood plain as a 
building site and the drainage of low- 
lands associated with streams. An in- 
creased runoff rate has occurred as 
vegetation areas have given way to 
paved roadways, parking lots, and drive- 
ways Subsequently, residents experience 
flooding, followed by public demands for 
flood control. Typically, flood control 
projects involve the channelization of 
streams or the construction of permanent 
holding reservoirs. What once had been a 
beautiful meandering stream becomes a 
drainage canal. Ironically, the permanent 
holding reservoir performs the function 
that was formerly done by nature's own 
swamps and lowlands — now drained and 
vanished. 

The effect of this cycle on the 
biological character of the stream is, of 
course, a radical one, with the de- 
struction of many of the habitat sites that 
were part of the original stream. A similar 
situation faces Hickory Creek today. The 
communities of joliet and New Lenox 
now experience periodic flooding as a 
consequence of man's interference with 
the local lands and waterways. Flood 
control measures are necessary to fore- 
stall property damage. 

The Will County Planning Commis- 
sion and the Illinois Division of Water- 
ways are proposing channelization with- 
in the Joliet city limits, the purchase of 
green belts along the stream's flood 
plain, and the creation of two "dry" 
reservoirs elsewhere along Hickory 
Creek. A dry reservoir is formed by a dam 
which allows the stream to flow normally 
during periods of average water levels. 
During periods of peak discharge or 
flooding, the dam holds back the water 
within a reservoir created out of the 
stream valley. Thus, the reservoir Is dry 
most of the year and does not have the 
substantial impact on the stream that a 
permanent reservoir has. The first of 
these structures, the Sauk Trail Reservoir, 
IS scheduled for construction this year 
east of Frankfort 

The task of conserving a natural 
community such as a prairie or a stream 
is never a simple matter. Although the 
public is taking an increasingly more 
sophisticated attitude toward environ- 
mental problems, it is still common to 



Field Museum Bulletin 





Fish species collected in Hickory Creek 
included (top to bottom]: bluegill, green 
sunfish, black crappie, golden shiner, com- 
mon shiner, and sand shiner. {Scale is in 
centimeters.) 



20 lanuaty 1976 




CraYtish — still a common inhabitant of Hickory Creel'. 



encounter persons who ask "What good 
is it?" in reference to the sandhill crane 
or Kirtland's warbler or a prairie or a 
stream. The question is usually a sincere 
one. The difficulty comes in trying to 
phase a satisfactory reply; and, in 
attempting to do so, it seems that one 
must lead into abstractions. A developer 
can point to tax receipts, housing, 
and other benefits to the community 
and be assured that the public will 
understand in what ways he intends 
to develop the property. There is, 
•however, no simple, direct way of 
explaining the importance of prairies or 
streams as genetic warehouses, as labo- 
ratories of community processes, or as 
living museums of our natural heritage. 
The listener must either have a high 
degree of biological sophistication or he 
must be patiently led to understand the 
basics of "environmental quality" and all 
that term implies. With respect to a 
prairie, for example, a certain appreci- 
ation can be developed out of aesthetic 
experiences. However, most of our small 
tributary steams have always been 
murky and silt-laden, even in pre- 
agricultural times. Thus, the biological 
diversity of the stream is less visible to 
the casual observer, and likely to escape 



all but the specialist's scrutiny. 

It is hoped that the unique natural 
history of Hickory Creek will in the future 
be considered by those charged with the 
difficult task of managing this envi- 
ronment. It is a problem made no less 
difficult by the fact that the rate of 
change in the biological character of 
Hickory Creek is accelerating. We have 
thirty years in which to prove Loren 
Woods' prophecy wrong, and the im- 
portant options are still open to us. D 



REFERENCES 

Philip W Smith: "A Preliminary Annotated 
List of the Lampreys and Fishes of lllnois," 
Illinois Natural History Survey Biological 
Notes No. 54, June 1965. 

Philip W. Smith; "Illinois Streams: A 
Classification Based on Their Fishes and an 
Analyses of Factors Responsible for Disap- 
pearance of Native Species," Illinois Natural 
History Survey Biological Notes No.76, No- 
vember 1971. 

Phihp W Smith and AC. Lopinot: Rare and 
Endangered Fish of Illinois, published by 
Illinois Department of Conservation, Division 
of Fisheries. 

Loren Woods: "A Survey of Fishes m an 
Illinois Stream," Chicago Natural History 
Museum Bulletin, January 1959. 



{Continued from p. M.) 

"Wowl A 400 lb cluster of am- 
ethysts. That must be worth a king's 
ransom, right? Wrong. Amethysts do not 
rank high in any jeweler's list of precious 
gems. Although the Encyclopaedia Brit- 
tanica states that "The prime requisite for 
a gem is that it must be beautiful," 
—and the amethyst is clearly that — 
there is more to establishing the mon- 
etary value of a jewel than beauty. 

There is general agreement that in 
addition to being beautiful, usually a 
stone must have transparency, a certain 
degree of hardness and a rarity of 
occurrence. The amethyst does meet the 
first three qualifications, but it is not 
particularly rare. Following the old law of 
supply and demand, when large amounts 
of amethyst were discovered in Brazil 
and Uruguay at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, the bottom dropped 
out of the amethyst market. 

The amethyst may not be a good 
hedge against inflation; it may not really 
prevent drunkenness or ward off hail- 
stones, it may not endow one with 
sincerity. The amethyst is, however, an 
indisputable wonder of natural beauty in 
its richness of color and the precision of 
its crystal shapes. Pliny the Elder referred 
to all gems — but no less to amethysts — 
when he wrote, "In gemstones the whole 
majesty of nature is compressed into the 
smallest space, and in a single stone we 
can perceive the masterpiece of 
creation." □ 



REFERENCES 

Desautels, Paul E. The Mineral Kingdom. 
New York: Madison Square Press, division of 
Crosset & Dunlap, 1968 

Hurlbut, Cornelius S., Jr. Minerals and Man. 
New York: Random House, 1970. 

Metz, Rudolf. Precious Stones and Other 
Crystals. New York: Viking Press, 1964. 

Whitlock, Herbert P. The Story of the Cems. 
New York: Emerson Books, 1963 




Field Museum Bulletin 



field briefs 




BICENTENNIAL AWARD FOR MUSEUM 

On the occasion of the November 9 press 
preview of Field Museum's new exhibit, "Man 
in His Environment," federal, state, and city 
officials were among the first exhibit viewers. 
A certificate of recognition was presented to 
the Museum by the Chicago Bicentennial 
Committee Above, Museum Director E 
LeLand Webber (left) chats with Richard J. 
Daley, mayor of the City of Chicago (center) 
and Chicago Alderman Michael A. Bllandic, 
chairman. City Council Committee on Finance. 
The new exhibit, which opened to the 
public on November 11, has been acclaimed 
as one of the most effective public ex- 
pressions by a scientific institution on the 
condition of the environment. 



NEW STAFF MEMBERS 



The Division of Insects has recently appointed 
Eric Smith as custodian of the Insect 



collection; Warren Loschky has |0ined the 
Museum as manager- of the Book Shop. 

Dr. Smith, a specialist in the Chrysomelldae 
(leaf beetles). Is a native of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and received his doctorate from Ohio State 
University. 

Mr. Loschky received his B.S. in business 
administration from the University of Missouri 
and most recently was with Sears, Roebuck 
and Company. 



DEPARTMENT CHAIRMEN NAMED 

Edward |. Olsen and Phillip H. Lewis have 
been appointed as chairmen of the depart- 
ments of geology and anthropology, re- 
spectively; the appointments became ef- 
fective December 1. Both men had been 
serving as acting chairman prior to appoint- 
ment. 

Dr Olsen, a native Chicagoan, joined Field 
Museum as associate curator of mineralogy in 
1960. In 1961 he was made curator. Dr. Lewis, 



also from Chicago, joined the staff in 1957 as 
assistant curator of primitive art. In 1960 he 
was made associate curator and In 1961 he 
became curator; his present curatorial po- 
sition Is curator of Melanesian ethnology. Dr. 
Olsen did both his undergraduate and 
graduate work at the University of Chicago. 
Dr. Lewis received his BF.A. from the Art 
Institute of Chicago and did his graduate work 
m anthropology at the University of Chicago. 



VORIS SPEAKS AT KENNICOTT CLUB 

At the January 6 (Tuesday) meeting of the 
Kennicott Club (7:30 p.m. at Field Museum), 
Harold Voris, assistant curator of reptiles and 
amphibians, will talk on his recent collecting 
experiences in Southeast Asia. Dr. Voris spent 
several months in 1975 collecting and 
studying sea snakes in the Straits of Malacca. 
Guests are welcome to the meeting. 



environmental films 



In coniunction with the Man in His Environ- 
ment exhibit, which opened November 9, a 
series of films are being offered by the 
Department of Education; each deals with a 
specific environmental problem or topic not 
dealt with in the exhibit The selection of films 
represents a distillation of more than 350 
considered for the series Screenings will be in 
the Meeting Room, second floor north, on 
Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays at 11:00 a.m. 
and again at 1 00 p m 



lANUARV The Vanishing Wilderness. 

Films by Shelley Grossman, 
film producer for Field Mu- 
seum's Man in FHis Environ- 
ment exhibit, that deal with a 
variety of ecosystems and the 
political, economic, and so- 
cial changes that must occur 
if wilderness areas are to be 
saved Jan. 2, 3, 4: "Of 
Broccoli and Pelicans and 
Celery and Seals." Nov. 9, 10, 
11 Chain of Life. Ian 16. 
17. IH \o Room for Wilder- 



ness." \an 23, 24, 25: Santa 
Barbara — Everyone's M/sta^e. 
Ian 30, 31, Feb. 1: -Will t/ie 
Gator Clades Survive^ " 

FEBRUARY Human Alternatives Ke\ en- 
\'ironmental problems that 
we now must face. Feb. b, 7, 
8 Pollution -A Matter of 
Choice." Feb. 13, 14, 15: 
Multiply and Subdue the 
Earth." Feb. 20, 21, 22: 'The 
Great Sea Farm," "Should 
Oceans Meef" Feb. 27, 28, 
29: But Is This Progress' 

MARCH The Question of Tomorrow: 
Documentary and fantasy 
versions of what the future 
can hold for us March 5, 6, 7 
future Shock." Feb. 12, 13, 
14: "The Unexplained." 
March 19, 20, 21: "Techno- 
logy: Catastrophe or Com- 
mitment," "Urbanissi mo." 
March 26, 27, 28: "Energy to 
Burn," Man in the Second 
Industrial Re\olution. 



FIELDIANA 

Fieldiana is a continuing series of 
scientific papers and monographs deal- 
ing with anthropology, botany, zoology, 
and geology; the series is intended 
primarily for exchange-distribution to 
museums, libraries, and universities, but 
is also available for public purchase. 

The following titles were published 
during 1975 and may be ordered from the 
Division of Publications. Members are 
entitled to a 10 percent discount. Publi- 
cation number should accompany order. 



Fieldiana Anthropology 

"Chapters in the Prehistory of Arizona," 
by Paul S. Martin, et al. Vol. 65, No. 2; 
174 pp Publication 1201. Price: $9.25. 



Fieldiana Zoology: 

"Notes on Rodents of the Genus Cerbil- 
lus," by Douglas M. Lay. Vol. 65, No. 2; 
8; 13 pp Publication 1213. Write for 
price. 

"An Additional New Stenus from Aus- 
tralia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)," by 
Volker Puthz. Vol. 65, No. 7; 4 pp. 
Publication 1212 Price: 75c. 




"Millipeds of the Genus Po/ydes- 
morhachis Pocock (Polydesmida: Platy- 
rhacidae)," by Richard L. Hoffman. 
Vol. 65, No. 6; 12 pp. Publication 1207. 
Price: $1.00. 



Fieldiana Botany; 

"Flora of Guatemala, Rubiaceae," by 
Paul C. Standley and Louis O. Williams. 
Vol 24, Part XI, Nos. 1 to 3; 274 pp 
Publication 1202. Price: $8.75. 

"Tropical American Plants, XVII," by 
Louis O. Williams. Vol. 36, No. 10; 34 pp. 
Publication 1210. Price $1.50. 

"Austral FHepaticae III; Stolonophora, A 
New Genus of Geocalycaceae," by John 
J Engel and R.M. Schuster. Vol. 36, No. 
11, 14 pp. Publication 1208. Price: $1.00. 

"Notes on Calvatia (Lycoperdaceae), I," 
by Patricio Ponce De Leon. Vol. 38, No. 
1; 3 pp Publication 1215. Write for price 



Fieldiana Geology; 

"The Mammalian Fauna of Madura Cave, 
Western Australia; Part II," by Ernest L. 
Lundelius, )r and William D. Turnbull. 
Vol 31, No 2; 81 pp. Publications 1209. 
Price: $1 25. 



"Pyritic Cone-In-Cone Concretions," by 
Bertram G Woodland. Vol. 33, No. 7; 15 
pp. Publication 1200. Price: $1.25. 

"The Mammalian Fauna of Warwasi Rock 
Shelter, West-central Iran," by Priscilla F. 
Turnbull Vol 33, No. 8; 15 pp. 
Publication 1204 Price: $1.25. 

"Phylogeny of the Chelydrid Turtles: A 
study of Shared Derived Characters in the 
Skull," by Eugene S. Gaffney. Vol. 33, No. 
9, 22 pp Publication 1205. Price; $1.50. 

"Time Factors of Differentially Preserved 
Wood In Two Calcific Concretions in 
Pennyslvania Black Shale from Indiana," 
by Bertram G Woodland and Catherine 
K Richardson Vol. 33, No. 10; 14 pp. 
Publication 1206. Price: $1.25. 

"Geochronology, Stratigraphy, and Ty- 
pology," by John Andrew Wilson. Vol. 
33, No. 11; 12 pp. Publication 1211. 
Price: $1.00. 

"Phosphatic Microfossils from the Or- 
dovician of the United States," by 
Matthew H. Nitecki, Raymond C. 
Gutschick, and John E. Repetski. Vol. 25, 
No. 1; 9 pp. Publication 1214. Write for 
price 

"Caryocrinitidae (Echinodermata: Rhom- 
bifera) of the Laurel Limestone of 
Southeastern Indiana," by T.J. Frest. Vol. 
30, No 4; 26 pp. Publication 1203. Price: 

$1 50. 



Field Museum Bullelin 



JANUARY at Field Museum 



NEW PROGRAMS AND EXHIBITS 

ADULT EDUCATION 

NONCREDIT COURSES for ages 18 and over in the natural sciences 
and anthropology. The winter courses run simultaneously and are of- 
fered on six consecutive Thursday evenings, 7-9 p.m., beginning Jan- 
uary 15: Taxonomy and Natural History of Aquarium Fishes, IVIeteo- 
rites and the Solar System, Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Native 
American Folklore, and Man in His Environment. Registration limited 
to 30 persons per course. Member's fee: $25, nonmembers: $30. For 
further information call Adult Education Programs, 922-9410, ext. 351 . 

CONTINUING PROGRAMS AND EXHIBITS 

ESKIMO ART EXHIBIT 

19TH CENTURY ALASKAN ESKIMO ART exhibit in Hall 27. In the 
language of the Eskimo there is no word for "art." Yet art was insep- 
arable from Eskimo life, especially among the peoples of the Bering Sea 
area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the most common- 
place articles were fashioned and decorated in ways that are aesthetically 
beautiful. 

Most of the examples of northwest Alaskan Eskimo art, featured in 
this exhibit, were acquired by the Field Museum in the 1890s during 
the first decade of its existence. They include tools, weapons, house- 
hold utensils, religious, and ceremonial artifacts, and they exemplify 
the skill of the traditional Eskimo who used available tools and limited 
raw materials (caribou antler, driftwood, walrus tusk ivory, and baleen) 
to depict the world around him. 

BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

MAN IN HIS ENVIRONMENT, a major new permanent exhibit in a 
major new exhibition hall. This dramatic, 8,000-square-foot exhibition 
(two movie theatres plus four areas of three-dimensional displays) ex- 
plores nature's magnificent system of checks and balances and man's 
dependence on this system. The exhibit also deals with man's activities 
and his effects on the quality of life on our planet, and asks visitors 
to consider the implications for our earth's future. 

The exhibit is part of a comprehensive program involving a travel- 
ing Man in His Environment exhibit and a series of related museum 
programs to run well into 1977. (See Environment The Sum of its 
Parts below.) 



ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ESKIMO ART AND ARTISTS are 

illustrated in three films which can be seen daily at 12:00 noon. For 
location, inquire at entrances. The films are: 

Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min.) 

Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19 min.) 

Kalvak (20 min) 

SATURDAY DISCOVERY PROGRAMS 

NEW PROGRAMS have been added to the continuous stream of tours, 
demonstrations, and participatory activities offered every Saturday, 
from 1 1 :00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., as part of the museum's Discovery Pro- 
gram. They are: (1) Eskimo Art and Culture-/^ film and tour that 
explores the relationships between traditional Eskimo art and culture, 
and examines the ways in which Eskimos adapted to changes in the 
modern world. (2) rz/jet- Learn about magic and mystery in the 
culture of Tibet. (3) Traditions in Chinese Art-A half-hour tour traces 
the origins and development of Chinese art styles. 

Other Discovery Programs include the popular clay dinosaur model- 
ing in the Hall of Dinosaurs (take your model home), and the half- 
hour tour through the Egyptian collection— which also explains the 
"how's" and "why's" of mummy-making. 

For specific programs and locations, inquire at entrances. 

WINTER JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

NOMADS OF THE MYSTIC MOUNTAINS, a free, self-guided tour 
through the museum's colorful Tibet exhibit. All children who can 
read and write are invited to participate. Journey sheets in English and 
Spanish are available at the information booth. Bring pen or pencil. 

WEAVING DEMONSTRATIONS 

THE ANCIENT ART OF WEAVING on a two-harness, handcrafted 
Mexican floor loom, demonstrated by members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild, resumes January 12. Demonstrations are every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, 10:30-11:30 a.m. and 12:00-1:00 p.m. On 
Monday, January 19, the demonstrations include spinning. South 
Lounge, second floor. 



ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 

ENVIRONMENT: THE SUM OF ITS PARTS, offered In conjunction 
with the Man in His Environment exhibit. The January series, "The 
Vanishing Wilderness," deals with a variety of ecosystems and the 
political, economic, and social changes that must occur if wilderness 
areas are to be saved. Films are shown at 1 1 :00 a.m. and 1 :00 p.m. in 
the Meeting Room, second floor north. Series continues through 
spring, 1976, 

Jan. 2, 3, 4: 



Of Broccoli and Pelicans and Celery and Seals 

(30 min.) 
Jan, 9, 10, 1 1 : Chain of Life (30 min.) 

Jan. 16, 17, 18 No Room for Wilderness (26 min.) 

Jan 23, 24, 25: Santa Barbara- Everyone's Mistake (30 min.) 

Jan 30, 31, Feb. 1: Will the Gator Glades Survive? (30 min ) 



1^ 



JANUARY HOURS 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 4:00 p.m. week- 
days, and 5:00 p.m, weekends. On Fridays, year-round, the museum is 
open to 9:00 p.m. Food service areas are open weekdays 11:00 a.m. 
to 3:00 p.m.; Saturdays and Sundays to 4:00 p.m. 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday 
through Friday. Please obtain pass at reception desk, first floor north. 

MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922-9410 



February 
1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 











^1.-^. 








Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



CONTENTS 

AN ANTHROPOLOGIST IN CHINA 
Curator Berthold Laufer's 1923 Expedition: 
His Report to the Director 



February, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 2 



GEORGE LANGFORD, 1876-1964 
Curator of Fossil Plants 

By Eugene S. Richardson 



12 



TREES OF STONE 

By Edward Olsen 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Stuff photographer: Ron Testa 



18 46 YEARS AGO 

Field Museum in 1930 

20 FOCUS: PEOPLE IN THE MAINSTREAM 
Illustrated Lecture Series for Spring 

21 WINTER WINDUP 
Wednesday Evening Slide-Lectures 



22 FIELD BRIEFS 

23 FEBRUARY AT FIELD MUSEUM 
Calendar of Coming Events 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Director: E. LeLind Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. Yarrington, 

President 
Cordon Bent 
Harry O Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R Cook 
William R Dickinson, )r 
Thomas E, Donnelley II 
Mrs Thomas E Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Calitzine 
Paul W Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo I. Melvoin 
William H, Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Ir 
James J. O'Connor 
James H, Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William C. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs, Theodore D, Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B Wilkins 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M, McBain 
I Roscoe Miller 
lames L, Palmer 
John T. Pine, Jr. 
lohn G Searle 
John M. Simpson 
LOUIS Ware 
I Howard Wood 



COVER 

View of the Black Forest in the wilderness area of Petrified 
Forest National Park, in eastern Arizona. Photo by John and 
Janet Kolar. The Kolar's photographic expedition to the 
Southwest was funded by a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Joseph 
J. Morand, Jr. For more on petrification see page 12. 



BACK COVER 

Cross section of petrified tree trunk; shown about one-half actual 
size. Photo by Ron Testa. 



PHOTOS 

Pages 3-10; staff photos; 12: John Kolar; 14-22: staff photos 



Field Mmeum ol Njlura/ Hinory Bulletin is published monlhly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevell Rood .it Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, lllrnois 60605. 
Substriplrons S6 a year: $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions 
espre'.scri b\ authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy ot Field Museum, Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. Illinois 60605. 
ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Berthold Laufer (right) in Chinese garb on earlier visit to China (7904). 



^n ^nthropologlsl* in China 

Curator Berthold Laufer's 1923 Expedition: His Report to the Director 



Berthold Laufer, curator of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology from 1915 until 
1934, was one of the most distinguished 
anthropologists of his time, and his 
prolific writmgs on Far Eastern peoples 
are remarkable as much for their diversity 
as for their scholarship. Laufer was also a 



gifted linguist and was skilled in Chinese, 
Japanese, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan, 
Pali, Sanskrit, Malay, and Persian, to say 
nothing of the principal European lan- 
guages 

While with Field Museum Laufer 
made two trips to the Far East, during 



which he collected hundreds of rare 
artifacts which today comprise the 
backbone of the Far Eastern collection. 
The first of his trips, from 1908 to 1910, 
was treated in an article in the June, 
1974, Bulletin. The following report deals 
with his final visit to China in 1923. — fd. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



October 26, 1923 

Mr DC. Davies, 
Director, Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Dear Sir; 

I have the honor to submit a report 
on the Museum Expedition to China 

hollowing is a brief sketch of my 
Itinerary I spent four weeks at Shanghai, 
collecting, studying, and gathering m- 
tormation, and on the 11th ot June 
preceeded by rail to Peking, [where] my 
activity was largely confined. Following 
an invitation of our Ambassador, Dr 
llacobC] Schurman, I accompanied him 
July 13-16 on a tour to the Buddhist 
cave-temples of Yunkang. I left Peking on 
the 2ird of August and reached Shanghai 
on the 25th, visited Hangchow, capital of 
Chekiang Province, . . . and Suchow, 
capital of Kiangsu Province, . . spend- 
ing the remainder of my time at Shanghai 
until the 4th of October when I returned 
on "President McKinley" to Seattle, 
landing in the afternoon of the 20th of 
October I took the next train to Chicago, 
arriving at the Union Station on the 
evening of October 23, having covered 
approximately 17,223 miles. 



Since the time I lett China in 
October, 1910, the entire situation has 
undergone a rapid and radical change. 
The republican government proclaimed 
in 1911 resulted in the overthrow of the 
Manchu dynasty and in the extermina- 
tion of the whole cultural structure built 
up by the former monarchical regime- 
Old conservative China, as still witnessed 
by me in 1901-4 and 1908-10, has 
collapsed, and is no longer in existence. 
It has gradually surrendered to a large 
intlu\ of western ideas The ancient 
culture IS m a complete state of 
disintegration, giving way to the manu- 
factured articles of America and Europe, 
and in many respects has irrevocably 
vanished To cite but a few examples- 
foreign shoes, socks and hats are 
generally worn to such an extent that it is 
difficult, and frequently only after a 
diligent search in out-of-the-way places, 
to find those articles of really native 
make 

Most of the tools used in native 
crafts are replaced by those of American 
manufacture; thus, the time-honored 
Chinese razor and carpenter's tools have 
disappeared. Machinery is employed for 
weaving cotton and silk. In pottery, brass 
and tin foreign articles are imitated, and 
even foreign designs are freely applied to 




them The old-style silver and gold 
jewelry has fallen out of fashion to make 
room for a mania for imported diamonds, 
rubies and rings. Hence I came more and 
more to the conclusion that during the 
first decade of this century I had 
unconsciously performed an act of 
rescue-work by securing numerous then 
modern objects which are now unob- 
tainable and may thus be classified as 
antiques 

While what twenty years ago might 
have been termed the ethnology of China 
has succumbed, with a few exceptions, 
the situation in regard to antiques also 
has changed to a marked degree. The 
difficulties in getting hold of good 
material have increased a hundredfold, 
and prices have risen a thousand per cent 
and more. What I was able to do in 
1908-10 cannot now be accomplished 
any more. Nothing like the collection of 
ancient sculpture in the Museum can be 
obtained at present, also numerous 
bronzes and types of pottery, particularly 
the Han pottery, it would be impossible 
now to duplicate. At present the trade in 
antiques is concentrated at Shanghai and 
Peking, and nothing is to be had in the 
interior The chief supporters of this 
movement who derive the greatest 
advantage from it are the officials who 
form a sort of invisible trust and maintain 
digging agents in all parts of the country. 
On making a remarkable discovery, these 
agents have to pay considerable fees 
to the local farmers, soldiers, and 
officials before getting a permit to take 
their spoils out of the particular prov- 
ince; and it frequently happens, as 
quite recently in Honan, that monumen- 
tal pieces are simply seized and confis- 
cated by the provincial governors. Con- 
sidering, further, that heavy likin or 
mtraprovmcial and intraurban transit 
dues are exacted on all highroads and in 
traveling from town to town, and that the 
diggers may have to travel and work for 
many months without any chance of 
success, it is obvious that any good 
object, on reaching the markets of 
Shanghai or Peking, is already heavily 
mortgaged; and, as the demand exceeds 
the supply, and as Japanese collectors 
who have a profound appreciation of 
Chinese art are always willing to pay 

* Porcelaneous jar. Sung Dynasty (A.D. 960- 
1280). Cat. No. 127008. This and other 
artifacts shown on following pages were 
collected by Laufer in 7923. 



4 February 1976 



extraordinary prices, we are confronted 
with a situation of seemingly exorbitant 
quotations, , , . 

Shanghai, In particular. Is an Inex- 
haustible field for the collector. This was 
not the case some twenty years ago. The 
revolution of 1911 brought this change 
about. At that time numerous officials 
faithful to the reigning house and 
disgusted with the new republican 
government retired to Shanghai to live 
there In seclusion with their art-treasures. 
In consequence of rebellion and civil war 
raging In all parts of the country during 
the republican era, thousands of people, 
especially from Canton, flocked to 
Shanghai in order to enjoy safety and 
protection of their property under the 
administration of the foreign settle- 
ments. These facts account for the 
immeasurable wealth amassed In that 
city and the countless art-treasures to be 
found there More than half of Chinese 
art that has survived the ravages of time, 
war, and bandits Is nowadays concen- 
trated and sheltered in Shanghai, 

Shanghai and Peking, however, are 
at [jresent not only the centres for the 
trade m antiques, but they are also the 
emporiums for all goods manufactured 
throughout the empire In order to obtain 
certain articles, it is neither necessary nor 
advisable or sensible to visit the places 
where these are made, as without the 
additional expense of traveling, trans- 
portation, and overland duty they can be 
obtained at much lower figures m 
Shanghai or Peking. ... I had m mind to 
pay a short visit to Fuchow In Fukien with 
a view of securing some specimens of 
modern lacquerware which form a 
specialty of that place, but several 
friends called my attention to the fact 
that this would be an unprofitable 
proposition, as nothing else was to be 
had at Fuchow and as any quantity of 
Fuchow lacquer is offered for sale at 
Shanghai 

The first plan of campaign I had 
mapped out was to take the railroad from 
Peking to Sui-yuan on the border of 
Mongolia and to travel from there 
overland southward to Si-an fu, my 
second home, which I had visited in 1902 
and again m 1909 and 1910. I received, 
however, the following information from 
Mr E.T.S. Newman, for the last four years 
post-master of Si-an and an old friend of 
mine, himself a collector, who had spent 
a lifetime in the government services of 



China. Under date of the 22nd of May he 
wrote me as follows: "I don't think it 
advisable to pay Sian a visit for the 
province Is very unsettled and it is very 
difficult to get anything worth having 
and besides It is more difficult to get it 
away. If you ever do succeed In getting 
anything worth having. From Kwanyln- 
tang to Sian the road at present Is simply 
infested with. . . bandits. There are 
hardly anyone travelling along the road 
these days for fear of being taken for 
ransom 

There are no pictures to be had at 
present In Sian, as the bandits have 
destroyed practically everything in this 
line I tried hard to get some good 
pictures during the four years I was there 
but did not succeed, except in one 
instance I picked up a good picture of 
"The Re-incarnation" said to be of the 
"Sung dynasty" painted on paper. I saw 
hundreds but they were all faked and not 
worth having " 

This information was sufficient to 
determine me to desist from a lourney to 
Si -an 

I shall not dilate on the bandit 
situation and the far-reaching conse- 
quences It had for all foreigners in China, 
as the facts in the case are well known 
and were widely discussed in the press 
the world over Needless to say that the 
representatives of the foreign govern- 
ments duly warned their nationals and 
that the Peking Government declined 
any responsibility for the lives and 
property of aliens travelling through 
bandit-infested regions, a long list of 
which was promulgated. There was no 
escape from the conclusion that under 
such circumstances serious and fruitful 
work in the interior could not be 
pursued While I felt that my knowledge 
of the language and familiarity with 
native customs and manners would 
enable me to cope with the exigencies of 
the most difficult situation and that a 
little encounter with brigands might 
infuse into my journey the spice of 
adventure or thrilling experiences of a 
personal nature, I felt, on the other hand, 
that I was not an independent person sui 
juris, but that it was my primary duty to 
act as a loyal steward to my trustees by 
safeguarding the funds which were 
entrusted to me and for the expenditure 
of which I was fully responsible. 

I had to reflect, further, that in case 
of any mishaps resulting In the loss of 



money or collections I should be 
compelled to face the situation squarely 
and make full restitution to the Museum 
for any losses incurred, while unfortu- 
nately I would not be in a position to do 
so, even if the Museum had given me a 
written assurance absolving me from all 
responsibility in such a contingency, this 
would not have relieved my mind or 
altered my sense of personal obligation 
or my conception of responsibility. The 
principal consideration to be made, of 
course, was that a valuable collection, if 
abstracted or destroyed, could not even 
be replaced or duplicated, and such a 
loss would naturally have driven me to 
despair or broken my heart. I discussed 
the whole question with [Ambassador] 
Schurman and he frankly expressed his 
assent to my attitude 

The archaeological survey of Fukien 
Province which I had contemplated and 
foreshadowed in my report submitted to 
you on February 26 of this year could not 
be carried out on account of constant 
warfare going on within the borders of 
that province and beyond between the 
contending factions of the North and 
South and the operations of organized 
bands of brigands. I was fully posted on 
the situation over there through Chinese 
officials from that province whom I saw 
in Peking, and through reports of my 
friend A. de C. Sowerby who attempted 
to enter the territory. Following is an 
extract from one of his reports published 
in the North-China Daily News. It makes 
a very interesting contribution to present 
conditions. 

"And when one thinks of all this is 
going on down on that plain, the way the 
wretched military are press-ganging the 
more miserable inhabitants, and after 
taking them miles and even days away 
from their homes turning them adrift, 
exhausted, without food, or any means of 
getting back, often shooting them or 
bayoneting them in sheer wantonness, it 
makes one's blood boil. Between here and 
Hinghua after the operations of last 
winter, when the southerners were driven 
out, they found the dead bodies of 28 
coolies lying on the road, where the 
troops had left them after having 
bayoneted them when they were too 
exhausted to carry their loads any 
further. In the same place an old woman 
who tried to persuade the soldiers not to 
impress her son was bayoneted and 
thrown out into the street. These soldiers. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



northern a^ well as southern, are utterly 
without reason, mercy or even common 
humanity. They met a foreigner travel- 
ling in a chair, and took his coolies, both 
the chair coolies and the load coolies, 
and when he protested they told him that 
they would shoot him if he did not shut 
up He suggested that there might be 
trouble if they did, and their reply was 
that there would be no proof that they 
had done it, and so they did not care 
That is what foreign prestige has come to 
in China They know that if they did do it 
to a foreigner, little or nothing would 
come of it, since our own nations no 
longer seem to value our lives, rights, or 
property, while such mere trifles as 
insults are certainly not to be considered 
seriously 

"One of the highest officials here in 
Foochow remarked to a foreigner that 
the soldiers did not need money, as their 
rifles were their cheque books. I suppose 
It is on this supposition that the military 
Tuchuns appropriate the soldiers' pay, 
after having extracted it from local 
merchants, and when they have enough 
skip to some Treaty Port, where they are 
given protection by the very foreigners 
that they flout, and bank their ill-gotten 
gains safely away in foreign banks, 
leaving their soldiers to draw money at 
the point of the bayonet from the twice 
robbed inhabitants. One cannot help 
feeling that if safe asylum were not given 



to these thieves they would be less 
inclined to risk stealing public money in 
this way, as after all they are a cowardly 
lot, and value their hides even more than 
the money One of the recent military 
governors of Foochow decided that it 
was time to seek safety in flight, so he 
collected large sums of money from the 
people to pay the troops. These he 
deposited in a bank Next he paid up all 
the soldiers with cheques, but before 
they could cash these, he drew out the 
money from the bank, boarded a 
north-bound vessel, and reached Shang- 
hai and there he is safe. Thus he 
staved off the demands of the soldiers 
while he made his get-away, and but for 
the strong action of a famous Admiral 
here, the soldiers would have turned on 
the people and looted them. It says 
volumes when the people tell you that 
they infinitely prefer the bandits that 
infest the province to the soldiers, yet 
that IS |ust the case." 

After a careful and conscientious 
survey of the situation, as outlined above, 
I arrived at the conclusion that travelling 
in China was one thing and collecting 
another thing, that the two could not be 
combined to advantage at this time, and 
that in the present stage it was more 
urgent and important to collect whatever 
could still be had; hence I decided to 
invest the substance of my appropriation 
in first-class and worth-while exhibitable 



material. Any trip into the interior of 
even short duration would have involved 
a heavy expenditure in equipments (as 
cots, bedding and provisions) and the 
engagement of at least three servants, 
and in view of the risk of such a venture I 
felt I was not lustified in assuming the 
burden of this expense 

Having been for years an exponent 
of the principle of quality versus quanti- 
ty, I resolved to make a test case of this 
principle and apply it to myself. May 
others decide in how far I have 
succeeded. In framing my plans I 
excluded at the outset those departments 
of Chinese culture which are well 
represented in the Museum, as Han 
pottery. Buddhism and Taoism, sculp- 
ture, etc , in order to concentrate on 
such groups of objects or such periods as 
are still lacking or deficient. I also 
proceeded according to a calculation of 
probabilities: being thoroughly familiar 
with the field I knew with a fair degree of 
exactness what objects were getting 
scarce or scarcer, or what objects were 
still plentiful or would still turn up in the 
future, thus I bought first, or invested 
more heavily in things which threaten 
fast to disappear, and gave secondary 
consideration to those which remain 
more or less stationary or may reasonably 
be expected to stay. The exhibition point 
of view remained uppermost in my mind, 
and I always carried in my mind a clear 



Pandean pipe of mottled bamboo. Ch'ing Dynasty. Cat. No. 127549. On exhibit in Hall 32, Case 39. 




February 1976 




four- and two-stringed fiddles. Ch'ing Dynasty. Cat. Nos. 127543, 127544. 



Four-stringed guitar. Ch'ing Dynasty. Four strings represent the four 
seasons. Cat. No. 127541. 



picture of the future exhibition as I 
visuahzed it, assigning to each novel 
acquisition its proper place within this 
scheme, if it failed to fit into it, I would 
rather reiect it, but this contingency very 
seldom arose This methodical plan 
supported by my long and intensified 
experience with the field enabled me to 
proceed with full steam ahead and 
accomplish within a comparatively brief 
span of time what I had set out to do. 
Moreover, in view of the fact that I put in 
an average working day of sixteen hours 
inclusive of Sundays and holidays, I 
virtually had much more time at my 



command than it would appear at the 
surface from a cold computation of a 
period of five months that I was on duty 
there 

The most striking and spectacular 
exhibition objects obtained for the 
Museum are a large imposing red-lac- 
quered bed adorned with numberless 
wood-carvings; of the kien-lung period 
( 1736-95), 8,4 x 14 feet in dimensions and 
8 feet in height, forming a veritable room 
in Itself, an hexagonal red-lacquer and 
painted wash-stand with lacquer wash- 
basin and provided with a tall carved 
background; a red-lacquered and elabor- 



ately carved bridal chair or palanquin of 
the same period in which the bride, on 
the day of marriage, is carried into the 
bridegroom's house; and a large dragon- 
boat of the same character and period, 
which IS carried around in religious 
processions at the annual dragon-boat 
festival, finally a red-lacquered chair 
painted with five-clawed dragons from 
the palace of the King emperors. . . . 

It is no exaggeration to say that [the 
bed] IS a perfect marvel of technical skill 
and labor coupled with rare artistic taste. 
Only two or three such first-class beds 
are still in existence in China. They were 



Field Museum Bulletin 



only made dl Ningpo, the famed centre 
ot furniture manufacture. My Chinese 
friends in Shanghai sent agents to Ningpo 
who after several months' search and 
inquiry among old families brought the 
above pieces to light and transported 
them to Shanghai. At first they showed 
me an inferior bed,. . . but after close 
inspection I decided that it was not good 
enough. . ., and reiected it. . . . Thus they 
returned to Ningpo and within the lapse 
of a week came forward with the above 
article which proved satisfactory. It is a 
well-established business policy of the 
Chinese first to show and palm off on the 
unwary customer goods of inferior or 
trashy character and to withhold or hold 
back the really good stuff for special 
occasions. One has to know this trick in 
order to get along with them, not by 
offering criticism which would be con- 
trary to etiquette and hurt their feelings 
(and they are very sensitive people), but 



by moral persuasion and an appeal to 
their sense of fair play and honor, which 
will never fail. In my case I had no 
difficLilties whatever, as they were not 
slow in discovering that I knew and what 
I knew, and being aware that what I 
wanted was to go on exhibition in a 
public museum of America, they evinced 
intelligent sympathy and sincere desire 
to serve the objects of so good a cause. 
For this reason my standing with them 
was widely different from that of the 
ordinary collector or commercial buyer, 
and many men were proud of hunting for 
good things on my behalf and granting 
special discounts to the Museum. 

Most of the men engaged in the sale 
of antiques represent as high a type of 
businessman as any to be found in 
England or our own country. It should 
not be imagined that the antiques in my 
collection are things publicly exposed for 
sale, nothing of the kind is encountered 



in the shops, which at present display 
merely beautiful trash of no interest to 
me, spurious objects or out-and-out 
fakes What I was able to secure comes 
from the possession of old families or 
from private collections, or is directly the 
result of excavations carried out by 
Chinese ... 

With respect to the mode of 
exhibition of the bridal palanquin, it may 
certainly be shown as it is, even outside 
of a case, but I also have a wider scheme 
which merits consideration. The idea is 
to make it the center of a group 
consisting of two life-size figures: the 
bride at the moment when she has 
stepped out of the palanquin, and the 
bridegroom appearing in the door of his 
house coming out to meet her. The 
difficulty is to find at present the old 
style bridal costumes which certainly 
ought to be of the period corresponding 
with that of the palanquin .... 



Containers for captured crickets. Ch'ing Dynasty. Left to righit: cricket 
gourd witt) sandalwood cover; cover lias eigfit Buddliist emblems in highi 
relief; wheel in center; Cat. No. 726376. Bamboo cricket box with 
wooden cover; Cat. No. 127765. Cricket gourd with ivory rim; top is 



stained green and is carved in high relief with lotus blossoms and leaves. 
Molded cricket gourd with ivory rim and cover; design is of quail in 
millet; Cat. No. 127703. Cricket jar of black pottery; relief design on 
cover represents lion on pedestal. Cat. No. 127724. 




February 1976 




Insect traps and cages: (rear) cricket gourd with ivory rim and white jade 
top; Cat. No. 726475; (center) bamboo box for catching crickets: Cat. 
No. 726397, [front] bamboo cage and trap, top and bottom are of black 



lacquered wood: used for catching insects to be fed to wrens: Cat. No. 
126390. 



A capital acquisition is constituted 
bv a large number of relics of the 
Manchu dynasty, pre-eminently four 
imperial dresses of the eighteenth cen- 
tury—an imperial yellow official dragon- 
coat of tapestry, an embroidered yellou 
dragon coat worn in imperial worship, a 
blue dragon coat used by an imperial 
prince, and the yellow silk dress of an 
empress, consisting of an inner and an 
outer garment; several elaborate head- 
dresses of princesses composed of blue 
kingfisher feathers in applique work and 
interspersed with jade ornaments and 
precious stones and hats of emperor and 
princes; . the armor of a Manchu 
general from the Kang-hi period (1662- 
1722); [and] a complete series of the bow 
used by the Manchu in military examina- 
tions for testing the strength of candi- 
dates; .... 



Last August while I was at Peking, it 
transpired that a portion of the palace 
buildings inhabited by the young em- 
peror, Suan-tung, were at night destroyed 
bv fire and numerous art-treasures, books 
and documents fell victims to the flames. 
Rumor had it that the conflagration was 
of incendiary origin, having been started 
by the palace eunuchs to cover the theft 
of other art-objects they had previously 
disposed of to foreigners Be this as it 
may, the emperor fired a host of eunuchs 
in consequence of this fire, and during 
the following weeks the police were busy 
raiding private houses which were alleged 
to serve as hiding-places for the ab- 
stracted imperial property Several people 
addressed to me directly or indirectly the 
question whether I was in any way con- 
nected with this affair; I certainly was 
not and with an emphatic denial 



protested to such a vile insinuation. I can 
assure you confidentially that the articles 
enumerated above were rescued from 
the palace by Manchu and Chinese 
officials in the republican revolution of 
1911 and were acquired b\ me from their 
bona fide owners through perfectly 
lawful transactions 

In the former collection the Sung 
period (10th-13th century) was not 
adequately represented. This was the age 
of the Renaissance of China in which the 
traditions of classical antiquity were 
revived and the foundations were laid to 
a truly national art Pottery, poetry and 
painting then reached the climax of 
development, and the productions of this 
period served as the high models to the 
artists of the subsequent dynasties. 1 
spared no pains to make a collection as 
representative as possible of the pottery 
'Continued on p. 14) 



Field Museum Bulletin 



George 
Langford 



1876-1964 

On the centennial of his 
birth, a glance at the 
remarkable life of a former 
curator of fossil plants 




By Eugene S. Richardson 



George Langford with fossil plant specimens 



George Langford had many strings 
to his bow He was an engineer, 
an athlete, an artist, an author, a 
fossil collector, a genealogist— and also 
historian, poet, archaeologist, and inven- 
tor Consequently, when he retired in 
194b from a long career in the steel 
business, he was able to shift, at the age 
of 71, to one of his other careers. It was 
then that he came to Field Museum, 
where he held the post of curator of 
fossil plants until his retirement in 
lanuary 1962. 

George was born m Denver on May 
2b, 1876, of a family long engaged in iron 
founding Grandfather George Langford 
had established at Utica, New York, the 
first iron works west of the Hudson River. 
Before the Mohawk River and the Erie 
Canal were combined to introduce 
economies of transportation, this pioneer 
of the industry carried his ore m a 



fugene S. Richardson is curator of fossil 
invertebrates. 



backpack and denuded the local hard- 
wood forest to make charcoal His son, 
Augustine G Langford, Georges father, 
continued west and was equally hard on 
the forests near Denver. There, in 
partnership with a man named Marshall, 
the second Langford ironmaster operated 
the first blast furnace in the Rockies, 
where he refined a very low grade of ore 
to make cannon during the Civil War for 
the Union Army 

Young George watched every aspect 
of the iron-making, even going down into 
the mine with his father or with Mr 
Byerley, an associate Fifty years later, in 
the early 1930s, George returned from 
Illinois to his childhood haunts The blast 
furnace was long gone, but he found the 
village of Marshall, named for his father's 
former partner In that town he also 
found his old friend Byerley Before 
George spoke, the old man asked, "Is 
your name Langford?" — for the family 
resemblance was strong. 

Byerley showed George the creek on 
whose banks the foundry had once 



glowed, but even he had forgotten 
exactly where it had been. George, 
employing his fossil-collecting and 
archaeological talents, found the site by 
following traces of brick and iron in the 
stream At a point where no further clues 
led him upstream, he secured permission 
to dig, and found three pigs of cast iron, 
rusted but still sound 

When George was nine years old his 
father suddenly died, and the reduced 
family moved from Denver to St. Paul to 
be with his mother's people, the Robert- 
sons It was in his grandfather's library 
that George first read and studied the 
botanical monographs of Lesquereux and 
Brongniart and the paleontological works 
of Marsh, Cope, and Leidy. Ever after, he 
shuddered when he recalled that on his 
grandfather's death in 1895, when 
George was away at college, the library 
and his grandfathers files of corres- 
pondence with American and European 
botanists had been sold as scrap paper. 

In the fall of 1894, George entered 
the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale 



February 1976 



University, as an engineering student. He 
attempted to enroll in OC Marsh's 
paleontology course, but it was given in 
the college and not open to Sheffield 
students. He found the lack of formal 
training in paleontology a serious draw- 
back in his later career as a paleo- 
botanist 

Upon graduation, George was of- 
fered a job by E.W, McKenna, a railroad 
man in Milwaukee. McKenna had de- 
veloped a process for hot-rolling railroad 
rails that had deteriorated with use, to 
restore them to service. George was to be 
engineer and draftsman in the Joliet 
plant. Soon, however, he was thinking up 
ways to improve the process In time, he 
secured over a hundred patents, both for 
processing rails and for accessories 
concerned with railroading. It was typi- 
cal of his many interests that he once 
turned in an application for a patent, in 
the name of Chellean Man, on a stone 
scraper complete with specifications and 
engineering drawings. The U.S. Patent 
Office enioyed the |est and published it 
in their journal. 

At this period he was loaned a 
rail-crew handcar by the Illinois Central 
Railroad, and used it to visit roadcuts to 
collect from fossiliferous exposures. 

As the McKenna Process Company 
developed, George was given the respon- 
sibility of establishing branch plants in 
Kansas City, Kansas (1897), and Elizabeth 
New Jersey (1898), in addition to the 
original mill, which had been built in 
Joliet, Illinois, in 1895 Then in 1904 he 
was sent to Liverpool, England, to build a 
rolling mill across the Mersey at Birken- 
head. At each of these places he stayed 
long enough to get the plants operating, 
and of course spent his free hours in the 
surrounding countryside, collecting 
fossils 



Early in 1900, in the Joliet plant, 
George lost his left arm. While he 
was inspecting a machine, his 
sleeve was caught between two slow- 
moving gears and his hand was drawn 
into the teeth While he held onto a pillar 
with his legs and other arm, the entire 
left arm was pulled off at the shoulder 
He was hurried into a cart, which headed 
for the hospital, across a railroad siding. 
But a halted freight was blocking the 
track, and it took twenty minutes for his 



rescuers to have a coupling opened to let 
them through. The joliet hospital patched 
him up and then sent him to his family in 
St Paul, "to die," as he told it. 

At this time, George was engaged to 
a girl he had met a few years earlier in 
Kansas City, Sydney Holmes. She came 
to St. Paul to see him while he was 
recovering and he offered her a chance 
to end the engagement if she felt she 
wouldn't be getting full measure. She 
wouldn't hear of such a thing, and on 
November 14, 1900, they were married 
Soon their home in Joliet was a center for 
those interested in art, m gardening, and 
in natural history In time, George and 
Sydney had a son and a daughter, George 
and Lyda 



Substantially recovered from his 
accident, George began frequent- 
ing nearby strip mines and the 
"Fisher Mounds." At the latter location he 
preserved a record of the locality from 
destruction by an advancing gravel pit. 
George persuaded Fay-Cooper Cole, pro- 
fessor of anthropology at the University 
of Chicago, that the site was important, 
and for two summers Cole and a group of 
graduate students worked on the mounds 
and the lodge pits with George. Several 
of the young men who helped in this dig 
became leading anthropologists in the 
next generation. George published his 
description of the site in the Transactions 
of the Illinois Academy of Science, and 
deposited his share of the bones and 
implements with the university. 

But it is with the strip mines, which 
he first visited in 1937, that George is 
particularly associated in the memory of 
his Museum colleagues. Though the first 
visit was disappointing, George returned 
many times, and he soon was establish- 
ing a large and remarkable collection of 
the fossil plants and animals found in 
ironstone concretions in the spoil heaps 
Many of these species were new to 
science 

In order to make the beautifully 
preserved fossil fronds more attractive to 
members of Mrs. Langford's garden club, 
George devised a means of "developing " 
•them with a water-thin coat of a dextrin 
solution. Many of the other collectors in 
the Chicago area still use his method, 
and their collections, like George's, 



exhale a subtle fragrance of dextrin 
Many years later, George estimated that 
he had collected 250,000 concretion 
specimens; of these he kept only the 
best— about a tenth of the total. 

By the time of World War II, George 
had become president of the McKenna 
Process Company, still in Joliet. Because 
of a dispute with the national govern- 
ment over the free use of his patents by 
other mills, the firm was enjoined from 
operating and George himself was in- 
dicted for monopolistic practices. With- 
out normal updating of- the machinery, 
the company could not survive and in 
1945 George closed it and left Joliet. 

George had already begun to give 
his massive collections of fossils and 
artifacts to permanent institutions. Par- 
tial mastodon skeletons from Minooka, 
Illinois— once the major decoration of 
the second-floor hallway in the Lang- 
fords' home, moved to the Field Mu- 
seum Small collections of fossil plants 
from the strip mines went to a dozen 
colleges, and a major collection to the 
Illinois State Museum, but the largest 
portion went to the Field Museum. Then 
the Langfords sold the Joliet house, piled 
into their small Ford, and set out on a 
vacation visit to Yellowstone and other 
long-remembered favorite spots. Natu- 
rally, George couldn't resist gathering a 
few fossils along the way. 



On their return, this time to an 
apartment in Chicago, George was 
for the first time without a fossil 
collection and without an occupation. 
He received permission to come to the 
Field Museum to curate his former 
specimens. In 1947, at the age of 
71, he began his second full-time 
career as assistant in fossil plants; 
three years later he was appointed 
curator of fossil plants During the 
next year he spent 32 days collecting 
in the strip mines for the Museum, and 
he continued such trips until 1959. In 
this period he also made several long 
trips with Museum colleagues to collect 
fossil plants in Tennessee, Mississippi, 
and Alabama. Before his next retirement, 
in 1962, George wrote and illustrated 
two collecting guides to the fossils of the 
strip mines. 

George died suddenly, in Chicago, 
on June 16, 1964, at the age of 88. O 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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TREES OF STONE 



*fA 



By Edward Olsen 



Petrification is the name we give to 
the process by which fossil organic 
remains are turned to stone 
Strictly speaking, it is only one example 
of the geological process called replace- 
ment, by which any object— fossil or 
mineral — is replaced by another mineral 
in a manner such that the form or shape 
of the original object is preserved well 
enough to recognize what it was. There 
are hundreds of examples of replace- 
ment, such as the sharp, cube-shaped 
crystals of pyrite ("fool's gold") that are 

Edward Olien is curator of mineralogy and 
chairman of the Department of Geology. 



completely replaced by the mineral 
hematite. In this example the original 
mineral, pyrite, an iron and sulfur 
compound (FeS2) is replaced by an 
iron-oxygen compound (FeiOa). In a 
case like this, in mineralogical jargon, we 
say that the hematite is a pseudomorph 
after pyrite. Pseudomorph comes from 
Greek and means "false" (pseudo) "form" 
(morph). 

Probably the examples of replace- 
ment that interest people most are the 
petrifications of fossil remains. This 
process — in fact, the whole process of 
replacement — is only poorly understood. 
It is usually a highly selective process. 



There are some fossil shell limestones in 
which only certain fossil shells are 
beautifully replaced by silica, and none 
of the others. Every detail of the fossil 
is faithfully reproduced in silica, a 
compound of silicon and oxygen (Si02). 
The original shells were made of cal- 
cite, a calcium-carbon-oxygen compound 
(CaCOa), which was then replaced by the 
silica. Petrification of fossil remains 
doesn't always come off perfectly, 
however, and numerous examples exist 
where the original shape is recognizable, 
although somewhat misshapen. 

One of the finest examples of 
petrification is that of wood by silica. 



February 1976 




Most often the wood form is recogniz- 
able, but small details are lost in the 
process In some cases, however, every 
minute detail of the fossil wood is 
beautifully duplicated in silica: the bark 
with all its furrows and crenulations, the 
cellular structure of the original woody 
fibers, and the annual growth rings. In 
such perfect examples it is possible to 
identify the species of tree and to tell 
how many years it lived. The specimen 
shown in cross-section on the back cover 
is an example of such preservation. Other 
specimens may be seen in Hall 35. 

Petrified wood occurs worldwide, 
most often as small groups of petrified 



logs or fragments of logs. A most 
spectacular example occurs as a whole 
petrified forest of logs, such as the 
Petrified Forest m eastern Arizona. The 
cover photo and the above view are of 
that region. Petrified wood, expecially 
that showing details of former woody 
structures, are much in demand by 
lapidary workers and make attractive 
polished ornamental stones. 

The petrification of woody material 
was apparently accomplished when trees 
were covered by sediments or volcanic 
debris, ground water, rich in dissolved 
silica, then slowly dissolved away the 
woody cellulose compounds and re- 



View oi the Onyx Bridge' in the wilderness 
area of Petrified Forest National Park in eastern 
Arizona. About 175 million years ago the Onyx 
Bridge— remarkable tor its unbroken length- 
was the trunk of a living tree. Photo by John 
Kolar. 

placed them with silica. How delicate 
structures are preserved in such a process 
is puzzling. In many cases, however, 
such details are lost and the resulting 
petrified log is amorphous and structure- 
less, only the loglike shape beingretamed. 
Possibly the first written record of 
mineral petrification is the Old Testa- 
ment account of the fate of Lot's wife: 
"But his wife looked back 
from behind him, and she be- 
came a pillar of salt. " Genesis: 
19,26 
This would be, mineralogically speaking, 
a halite pseudomorph after a human 
being, n 



Field Museum Bullelin 



(Cont'd Ironi p. 9l 

and porcelain of this epoch and suc- 
ceeded in bringing 133 pieces together. 
In AD 1108 the city of Ku-lu in the 
southern part of the province of Chili was 
inundated by a flood and completely 
submerged. Some years ago the farmers 
ol a neighboring village, driven by 
famine conditions, began to dig in this 
place and brought to light a lot of Sung 
pottery and other objects. Excavations 
were continued under the supervision of 
government officials, and a large collec- 
tion was transmitted to Peking, where it 
IS housed in the Museum of the 
Historical Association. I acquired a 
goodly number of this pottery, some of 
great beauty, and inscribed with dates, 
aside from its artistic value, it is apt to 
illustrate many interesting features of the 
daily life in a mediaeval Chinese com- 

Ivory figure of reclining woman used in 
consultation with physician for indicating 
area of ailment: Wth century- Length: 
78.5 cm. Cat. No. 126832. 



munity It can be safely dated, since all 
these pieces must have been made prior 
to A.D. 1108, the date of the destruction 
of the town 

I also obtained from the same 
locality four carved wooden panels and a 
number of engraved wooden stamps or 
blocks for printing designs on textiles, 
these are not only the oldest printing- 
blocks we now have, but also the earliest 
wooden ob|ects ever found in China, as 
anything of this material has perished in 
consequence of the ravages of the 
climate and weather. 

My former collection of Sung pot- 
tery was restricted to the kilns of 
Yao-chou in Shansi Province. The present 
collection includes types from all kilns 
and localities of both northern and 
southern China, where pottery was then 



manutactured It is distinguished by 
elegant shapes, beautiful glazes of all 
colors, and exquisite designs. It is the 
most artistic pottery ever turned out, 
not only in China, but anywhere. I 
obtained three ot the very earliest 
|)roducts which are extremely rare and, 
as far as I know, are not represented in 
any other museum of America; [one] of 
these shows the famous glaze called "the 
blue of the sky after ram", and is a gem. 
Ancient paintings are at present 
most difficult to obtain, the best being 
naturally held in public and private 
collections. On my former expedition 1 
had confined my attention to the 
painting of the Ming and Manchu 
dynasties (16th to 18th centuries) with 
particular stress on subjects of ethno- 
logical interest. This time 1 resolved to 




rebruary 1'J76 



get hold, It possible, of some representa- 
tive examples of palntmgs of the Sung 
and Yuan periods (10th to 13th centuries), 
the great era of pictorial art. Many op- 
portunities offered to acquire first-class 
paintings of this kind, but these were . . 
beyond my reach I had to limit my 
selection to those obtainable at rea- 
sonable figures, and my object was to 
have each important subject of pictorial 
art efficiently represented rather than to 
be guided by schools or names of artists. 

From this viewpoint I chose, for 
instance, a characteristic landscape, a 
snow and a rain picture, a bamboo 
sketch, a study of flowers and birds, 
portraits, and religious subiects of that 
epoch Though small in number (23), 
these pictures are all of superior quality, 
interesting m subject, and highly instruc- 
tive as manifestations of Chinese genius 
during the culminating period of art 
development A life-size portrait of a 
sage and the counterpart to it, the 
portrait of a dwarf who appeared before 
an emperor of the Sung dynasty and 
caused a sensation ouing to his enor- 
mous capacity for wine, a long roll 
depicting Hundred Beauties in a delicate 
style, another roll showing portraits of 
Sixty Women famed in history, another 
representing 25 figures of beggars, min- 
strels and other itinerant folks, are of 
especial interest for the study of ancient 
customs and costume I was fortunate to 
secure two original works from the hand 
of the renowned painter Chao Mong-fu, a 
descendant of the imperial house of 
Sung— an historical scene and nine- 
horses, he was a recognized master in 
horses, and of all the horses by him I 
have seen, this one is doubtless the best 

Woven pictures or tapestries are still 
scarcer than paintings. Here, again, fate 
treated me kindly by allotting to me five 
remarkable examples, one of the Ming 
dynasty and four of the Kien-lung period 
(1736-95) One of these emanates from 
the imperial collections and represents 
two fowls drawn by the Emperor Kien- 
lung himself after a Sung dynasty 
painting and accompanied by a poem 
from his hand— the whole in facsimile 
being woven in silk 

With a few exceptions, lacquer 
ware, a most important industry of 
China, was almost absent in the former 
collection. Altogether 84 specimens of 
this character were obtained, . . . among 
these, four of the earliest carved lacquers 



ot the Ming dv nasty They exhibit a great 
variety of objects in boxes, baskets, 
chests, trays, cabinet-doors, dishes, 
bowls, trays, and vases, in black and 
colored lace, carved or painted with 
landscapes and designs in colors or gold, 
or inlaid with scenes and ornaments in 
mother-o-pearl .... 

Many additions were made to the 
collection of Jades, the new accessions 
amounting to 185 specimens. Three 
tubes of enormous size, symbolizing the 
deity Earth, large knives and disks, an 
astronomical instrument of which in my 
publication on Jade* I was able to 
reproduce merely a Chinese woodcut, 
and a very comprehensive lot of pre- 
historic or very archaic jade and other 
stone implements, are deserving of 
particular mention. A representative 
collection of small carvings, chiefly 
pendants and snuff-bottles, of the eigh- 
teenth century includes, as far as 
material is concerned, jade, rock-crystal, 
turquois, tourmaline, malachite, lapis 
lazuli, agate of many varieties, coral, 
amber, and mother-o-pearl ... 

Entirely new and never tackled b\ 
any museum or studied by any one is the 
theme of Chinese love of birds and 
singing and fighting insects; in this 
domain I have a unique exhibit to offer, 
as instructive, as beautiful, and consist- 
ing of a series of marvelous bird-cages 
and cricket-boxes with tops or covers 
carved from ivory and jade, as well as ail 
paraphernalia used in capturing and 
keeping insects 

In accordance with instructions 
given by Trustee Mr. Edward E. Ayer, I 
collected, to a certain extent, ancient 
pewter objects, amounting in number to 
18, chiefly teapots with jade spouts and 
lade handles, waterpots, winepots and 
tea-canisters, a sacrificial lamp utilized 
in ancestral worship, a very curious cast 
figure of French Rococo style, a large 
ancient vase, and a symbolic presenta- 
tion vase with fish . The business m 
ancient pewter was much handicapped 
at this time by the constant demands ot 
lapanese collectors and exorbitant prices 
voluntarily paid by them for this article. 

I left China more than ever con- 
vinced that she has produced the most 
marvelous civilization on earth and the 
finest types of humanity that may be 
found in any society. Present conditions 
as brigandage and governmental misrule 
do not affect my convictions or shake mv 



contidence in the tuture progress ot the 
cnuntr\ In China the people are of 
intiniteK vaster importance than the 
government The majority of people are 
good, civil, well-mannered, open- 
minded, kind-hearted, energetic, intelli- 
gent, generous, and hospitable, wonder- 
ful in every respect I did not have a 
single unpleasant experience or unto- 
ward incident 1 did not meet any 
adventures because 1 did not seek them, 
but attended to my business in a business 
like fashion 1 received nothing but 
genuine courtesy and kindness, respect- 
tul consideration, and sympathetic un- 
derstanding of my mission. Without the 
sincere and hearty cooperation of my 
Chinese and Eurasian friends its aims 
would not have been. attained . 

I am most indebted. to Mr. 

Thomas R Abbott, a Eurasian of 
American and Chinese extraction, who 
became a most devoted friend to me, 
and through whose excellent services it 
was possible to secure many of the best 
things in my collection First of all, he 
gratuitously placed at my disposal his 
Chinese house which 1 made my head- 
quarters, and where I performed all 
office work, cataloguing, storing and 
packing of collections This was of 
greatest advantage, as in this manner it 
remained unknown where my acquisi- 
tions were located. As a matter of 
principle and a measure of precaution 1 
have adopted the rule never to show any 
one anything I collect, while in the field, 
nor to talk about it. The inquisitive 
foreign residents of Peking naturally were 
curious to see what I had, and were told 
that they could see it only in Chicago. On 
several occasions suspicious individuals 
called at my hotel to find out what I was 
doing and collecting (some people 
asserted they were government agents or 
spies, but 1 cannot vouchsafe for the 
correctness of this opinion), and 1 could 
honestly assure them that I had nothing 
whatever in my room to show them and 
that I had )ust obtained a few minor 
articles which had already been des- 
patched by parcel post In fact, no one in 
Peking, save Mr Abbott, knows what I 
got there Thanks to his familiarity with 
Chinese customs and folklore and the 
state in particular, Mr. Abbott was most 
helpful to me in studying stage plays and 

'lade, a Study in Chinese Archaeology and 
Religion. 370 pp , published in 1912 by Field 
Museum Press 



Field Museum Bulletin 




Mortuary figurine, clay; Tang Dynasty [A.D. 
6 78-906). Represents a lady-in-waiting. Higii 
waistline, Medici collar, and modern decol- 
lete were anticipated hundreds of years before 
they appeared in Europe. About WO cm high. 
Cat. No. 127536. On exhibit in Hall 27, Case 
18. 

thejtricdl costumes, which after a pro- 
Icjnyed stuciv oi the subject resulted in 
the tiiial selection of fourteen typical 
actors' dresses complete with all para- 
phernalia . , 

Both Peking and Shanghai have 
organized a commercial museum in 



which are displayed products and manu- 
factures from all parts of the empire, 
provided with written labels giving the 
name of the product, locality and name 
of the firm, these collections are very 
instructive, and in many cases gave me a 
useful hint as to where to apply for 
certain articles. One afternoon, e.g. I 
noted in the Commercial Museum of 
Shanghai a rather attractive display of 
native tobacco leaves. I noted the name 
of the firm, a Chinese wholesale house, 
and called there the same evening. 
Although the employees, according to 
their custom, were all congregated 
around the dinner table, busy with their 
evening repast, they hurried to take 
several bales of tobacco-leaves out, 
opened them, and courteously explained 
the different qualities and the character 
of their business. I requested samples of 
each brand that was for sale, and was 
asked to come again in a few days when 
they would be ready with the necessary 
information to accompany each bundle 
in writing. When I called again, receiving 
my specimens and offering payment for 
them, the manager steadfastly refused to 
accept any, saying that he was proud of 
making this small contribution to a 
museum in America, and requesting only 
that the name of the firm be placed on 
the label as that of the donor, as had 
been done m the Commercial Museum. I 
was agreeably surprised, not so much at 
the gift itself as to the fine and unusually 
progressive spirit of this man who was 
able to grasp his opportunities. . . . This 
incident illustrates well that museums 
have an educational and ethical function 
and may even contribute toward the 
promotion of fellowship and good feel- 
ing between nations. . . . 

At Shanghai I spent the first two 
weeks on my arrival and the last two 
weeks before my departure on an 
intensive study of the private collections 
of prominent and wealthy Chinese, by 
whom I was specially invited. Most of 
these men have a deep-rooted aversion 
to the foreigner (and they can hardly be 
reproached for it), surround their trea- 
sures with great secrecy, and have never 
shown them to any foreign residents of 
China. I must confess that in the houses of 
those men I saw more of real art in a few 
weeks than in the States within fifteen 
years, and, in my estimation, they 
possess art-treasures out-weighing in 



value the contents of all European 
museums combined. The possessions of 
these men, both in magnitude and 
artistic quality, almost stagger belief; 
and their residences, with their refined 
surroundings, tasteful arrangement of 
rooms, and artistic furniture, baffle 
description. Although owners of enorm- 
ous fortunes or captains of finance and 
industry, these men are animated by a 
deep and genuine love of the ancient art 
of their country, are well versed in their 
literature, highly cultivated and learned, 
and distinguished by an almost excessive 
sense of modesty and finesse coupled 
with an extreme simplicity and charm of 
manners. The last mentioned feature 
deserves particular emphasis, as in 
intercourse with foreign collectors in 
China I was always struck by their 
shocking conceit and cocksure judg- 
ment, these will keep on telling you that 
they have the finest or biggest collection 
of this or that, that no one else can have 
a finer piece than this or that, and will 
not even permit an argument or discus- 
sion Nothing of the kind is ever done by 
Chinese. The days I was privileged to 
spend in the company of the Chinese 
collectors, who are gentlemen in the true 
sense ot the word, over their paintings or 
bronzes in intelligent conversation and 
interchange of ideas I count among the 
most pleasant and fruitful of my pilgrim- 
age and among the happiest of my life. 
Indeed it was worth while to make this 
trif) merely to see their paintings and 
hear these men talk about them. .1 
cannot refrain from referring briefly to 
the wonderful collection of ancient 
bronzes of Mr. Chen. . . reputed to be the 
wealthiest man of Shanghai, enpying the 
comfortable income of about g$300,000 
a month, chiefly derived from rents of 
houses of which he owns several 
thousands: thus, he is, so to speak, a 
collector of rents and antiques. He dwells 
in a house on Carter Road designed 
according to his own plans in the unique 
form of an octagon, eight rooms occupy- 
ing each of three stories; forty servants 
assist him. . . . The most extraordinary 
feature about this singular house. . . is his 
collection of 400 archaic bronzes com- 
prising only the earliest periods and the 
efficient manner in which they are 
displayed in eight of his rooms on the 
first floor. They are perfectly arranged on 
glass shelves in most artistic cabinets 



February 1976 



running along the walls or across the 
room, which would do credit to the 
foremost art museum of Europe or 
America His collection Is easily worth 
two million dollars and possibly even 
more, but will never be sold. He knows 
each and every piece and discussed it 
intelligently, being a man of very 
modest, genial and kind-hearted disposi- 
tion and prepossessing manners ... I 
reflected that a country which produces 
such perfect types of humanity as the 
result of a many thousand years old 
civilization and social training can never 
be lost, and that It Is just such types of 
men who are the true index of the degree 
of a nation's civilization. 

The second subject of study which 
engaged my attention was the stage, and 
I soon found out to my satisfaction that 
since 1910 dramatic art had assumed a 
novel and most striking development 
The stage has become more realistic, 
painted and changeable backgrounds 



and colored light effects being utilized 
with great success. The plots, the manner 
ot acting and singing, as well as the 
music and costumes have practically 
remained the same, but the dialogue has 
grown more lively and human. Many 
novel plays, even social problem plays, 
have been added to the old repertoire. 
Acting and dancing have Improved and 
progressed to a remarkable degree, and I 
never saw anywhere more graceful and 
artistic performances of interpretative 
dancing than by actresses of Peking It is 
no exaggeration to say that Chinese 
women in general are the best dancers in 
the world The actors surpass ours in life 
and motion as well as in power of 
characterization. Altogether, the theatre 
IS the most attractive and pleasing 
feature of modernized China, and in view 
of the rapid transformation of all phases 
of life remains the only available source 
tor the study of ancient customs and 
manners, as well as costume and general 



conditions. It has been aptly said that 
"in no country in the world can more be 
done through friendship and for friend- 
ship's sake than in China." On the day of 
my parting from Shanghai twelveChinese 
gentlemen gathered on board the Presi- 
dent McKinley to say good-bye, diiring 
the preceding days they had sent parting 
gifts like tea, preserved fruits, or silk tor 
a quarter of an hour we were seated 
around a table in the smoking-room, 
talking till the last moment about art and 
the latest archaeological discoveries in 
Honan For a half hour this little group 
remained standing on the wharf, waving 
hands, hats, or handkerchiefs until they 
lost sight of the departing steamer 1 felt 
that the sympathy of these men whu h I 
carried along with me was the best 
reward for any exertions and efforts I had 
made 

Vours very respectfully, 
Berthold Lauter 



Ink cakes of various colors. Ch'ing Dynasty. Cat. Nos. 726644, 726645, 726646. 




46 Years Ago... 

Field Museum in 1930: Meteorites, Lizards, and Turtles 



The Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin has, with this Issue, reached the 
venerable age of 46. First issued in 
January, 1930, the publication was then 
known as Field Museum News and 
consisted of four pages. It was aptly 
named, for the magazine specialized in 
news about staff members and about 
acquisitions, expeditions, lectures, and 
other in-house activities. From time to 
time, items of special interest which 
appeared in early issues of the magazine 
will be reproduced here. The brief 
articles below were selected from Vol. 1 
11930) 



July: New Meteorite Acquired. Field 
Museum is now the possessor of the 
largest single meteoric stone ever seen to 
fall * This messenger from space arrived 



on the earth February 17, 1930, at 4:05 
a.m. It fell at Paragould, Arkansas, on a 
farm owned by Joe H. Fletcher. The stone 
as received at the Museum weighs 745 
pounds, being 100 pounds heavier than 
any previously recorded meteorite which 
was seen to fall. The original claim of the 
finder was 820 pounds, but part was lost 
to souvenir hunters and through other 
causes. In falling it penetrated hard clay 
to a depth of nine feet. The largest stone 
previously knovvn which was seen to fall 
from a meteor weighs 646 pounds. This 

*The Paragould meteorite was displaced as 
the "largest single meteoric stone ever seen to 
fall" on Feb. 18, 1948, when a much larger 
meteorite of the same type fell in Norton 
County, Kansas. This meteorite, now at the 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, is 
two or three times heavier than the Paragould 
stone. 




fell at Knyahinya, Hungary, June 9, 1866, 
at 5 p.m. It penetrated the earth to a 
depth of eleven feet. It is now in the 
Vienna Museum. The meteor which 
brought the stone now in Field Museum 
attracted attention in three states, Mis- 
souri, Illinois, and Arkansas. Its light was 
so bright that persons in St. Louis who 
saw it thought it was an airplane going 
down in flames. It burst with detonations 
which were heard as far north as Poplar 
Bluff, Missouri, and as far east as 
Covington, Tennessee. The meteor came 
from the southwest. At Paragould nearly 
every one in the town was awakened by 
the detonations, and live stock was 
stampeded ... 

The meteorite was purchased and 
presented to the Museum by President 
Stanley Field. [The meteorite is in Hall 35 
but is currently not on view, due to 
building renovation activities.] 



September: Rare Lizard Is Stowaway. 

Arriving unheralded from south Texas, 
after making the trip north as a stowaway 
in a crate of lettuce, an extremely rare 
plated lizard has been received at Field 
Museum. The lizard, the scientific name 



: Field Museum's own "pet rock"— the Para- 
gould meteorite, at one time the world's 
largest known stone meteorite ever seen to 
fall, {in Hall 35 but temporarily closed off 
because of construction work.) 



of which is Cerrhonotus infernalis, is one 
of the only two species In its genus which 
had been previously missing from the 
Museum's col lections, according to Karl P 
Schmidt, AsslstantCurator of Reptiles and 
Amphibians. It was presented to the 
Museum by James ). Mooney of Deerfield, 
Illinois, who obtained It from a grocer 
into whose store it emerged from the 
crate of lettuce. 



October: A Modern Horse's Attitude 
Toward the Mesohippus. An amusing 
incident of a modern horse's reaction 
upon encountering a restoration of one 
of his tiny three-toed predecessors of 
some thirty million years ago Is told by 
Frederick Blaschke, the sculptor who 
created the Mesohippus group recently 
Installed m Ernest R Graham Hall of the 
Museum 

Mr. Blaschke has a studio on a 
farm-like estate near Cold Sprlng-on- 
Hudson, NY. After completing one of 
the small prehistoric horse figures (about 
the size of an average collie dog In 
accordance with Mesohippus fossil skele- 
tons) he placed It upon a grassy patch to 
test out Its appearance against a rural 
background 

An old farm horse belonging to Mr. 
Blaschke eyed his master's work suspi- 
ciously In the past this animal had 
completely Ignored other domestic ani- 
mals, and also the deer and other wild 
animals which occasionally come up to 
the edge of the estate. But, says Mr. 
Blaschke, the representation of his 
remote relative excited unusual Interest 
on the horse's part, and he approached 
cautiously to Inspect it closer. When Mr. 
Blaschke pretended to pet the model the 
live horse snorted with jealousy. Finally 
he ran up close as though bent on 
destroying this alienator of his master's 
affections, but stopped suddenly and 
then ran away as if in fear. There seemed 
to be no doubt, says Mr. Blaschke, that 
the horse recognized Mesohippus as a 
member of his own family. 
The Bronze Disease. Many of the ancient 
bronzes received at Field Museum and at 
other museums are Infected with the 
bronze disease or malignant patina. If 
not cured this disease utterly destroys the 
bronze Its cure has always been diffi- 



cult, but is now under control at Field 
Museum, 

It appears first In mild cases as a 
rough patch of a whitish green color 
which. If neglected, may spread over the 
entire surface, constantly penetrating 
deeper, and in the end completely 
destroying the bronze. The disease Is 
unique and has nothing In common with 
the bacterial decay of wood and fabric, 
nor Is It related to the tin disease which 
sometimes destroys pewter. It is caused 
by the presence of corrosive compounds 
of copper and acid which have the 
property of renewing themselves after 
their activity has been expended in 
corroding the bronze. A minute speck of 
malignant patina can, theoretically at 
least, destroy the largest bronze. 

There are a number of copper 
compounds which can act in this way, 
but the only one found active in Field 
Museum is the basic chloride of copper 
Bronzes become Infected with this 
chloride when they are long burled In soil 
which contains salt. This salt may come 
from organic waste or It may be desert or 
sea salt. 

The disease Is cured In Field 
Museum by an electric treatment ori- 
ginally devised for another purpose, and 
by a chemical treatment developed In 
the Museum Laboratory. 



December: Turtle Colony Established. 
More than 600 painted box turtles of a 
species native to the southwest mysteri- 
ously appeared last month on a vacant 
lot at Seventeenth Street and Wabash 
Avenue. They were collected by the 
Humane Society and turned over to Field 
Museum for care. Karl P. Schmidt, 
Assistant Curator of Reptiles and Amphi- 
bians, after making certain scientific 
observations, took the turtles to a dune 
region north of Waukegan, and there 
turned them loose It Is expected that 
they will colonize, and the results of the 
experiment are to be followed up by 
further observations. Twenty-five were 
preserved and retained In the Museum 
collections. 



Mesohippus reconstruction by Frederick Blas- 
chke, one of several in a group on v;ev\ in 
Hall 38 [Ernest R. Craham Hall). >■ 




Field Museum Bulletin 



Focus: People in the Mainstream 

Illustrated Lecture Series, Spring 1976 



An illustrated lecture series looking at 
what people who are actively involved 
with environmental problems and con- 
cerns are doing, how they feel about it, 
and how this relates to the quality of life 
for all of US- 



Mar 5, 6 Man First? Man Last? The 
Meaning of Natural Diversity to Human 
Evolution 

Speaker: Hugh H. litis, Professor of 
Botany, University of Wisconsin. 

People love nature; we fill our houses 
with plants, pictures and pets. Nature 
represents peace and escape from the 
technical world. But the need for nature 
in our lives is more than an indulgence or 
a frivolity — it is necessary to our healthy 
emotional development; it is rooted in 
our earliest evolution 

Mar 12, 13 Landscape: Some Visual 
Dimensions of Environment 

Speaker: Charles Davis, Author, Photo- 
grapher. 

Landscape has both environmental and 
cultural aspects. We are moved to 
different emotions by different land- 
scape scenes, and our appreciation 
transforms these feelings into art. What is 
the interchange between these two 
dimensions of man in the landscape? 

Mar 19, 20 The Sun Cave Man the 

Power 

Speakers: Bob and Joan Root Ericksen, 

Film Producers, Directors of the Sun 

Foundation for Advancement in the 

Environmental Sciences and Arts 

Two hundred years ago, the Pikunni- 
Blackfeet people of the northern Great 



Plains lived from this land, as their 
ancestors lived before them. How does 
our adaptation to the environment 
compare with theirs? A look at our 
culture through an oral history of this 
Native American tribe. 

Mar. 26, 27 The Flickering Flame 
Speaker: Harlan Draeger, environment- 
energy reporter, Chicago Daily News 

The ups and downs of the environmental 
movement, seen from the vantage point 
of an experienced reporter. A discussion 
of illusion, reality and what lies ahead. 

Apr 2,3 The Sky Wolf 

Speakers: Cheryl and Neil Rettig, Film 

Producers, Explorers 

Four young Chicago explorers, including 
one woman, succeeded after three years 
of research to document the secretive 
nesting habits of the world's largest and 
most formidable eagle— the harpy. The 
films they made are the first ever to 
reveal this rare subject. 

Apr. 9, 10 Waste Not, Want Not: Sewage 

Recycling and Chicago's Deep Tunnel 

Project 

Speaker: Joanne H. Alter, Commissioner, 

Metropolitan Sanitary District 

When does a waste become a resource? 
Commissioner Alter will speak about the 
major recycling projects of the Metropol- 
itan Sanitary District, including the 
billion-dollar Tunnel and Reservoir Plan 
and how it will affect all of us in the area. 

Apr. 16, 17 Building, People, and the 
Urban Environment 

Speaker: Carl W. Condit, Professor of 
History, Art History and Urban Affairs, 
Northwestern University 



What is the ecology of the urban 
environment? What is the relationship 
between the human inhabitants and the 
technology of the city? 

Apr. 23, 24 The Zoo and the Modern 

World 

Speaker: George Rabb, Director, Chicago 

Zoological Park 

How is the zoo responding to our need 
for environmental education? Using his 
studies of wolves as a prime example. Dr. 
Rabb will explain new developments in 
exhibit techniques that allow for more 
natural behavior of animals in zoos. 

Apr. 30, May 1 Topic to be announced 
Speaker: Dave Bielenberg, Metropolitan 
Sanitary District 



All programs will be given in the ground 
floor lecture hall on Fridays at 7:30 p.m. 
and repeated on Saturdays at 2:30 p.m. 
All programs will be free. Total atten- 
dance for each day's program limited to 
180 adults. Previous programs have been 
presented in the larger James Simpson 
Theater. That area is currently being 
renovated in order to provide barrier-free 
access to the building for the handi- 
capped. 

Food service will be available in the 
Museum cafeteria until 7:30 p.m. on 
Friday evenings during this series. 



This lecture series was partially funded 
by a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Ray A. Kroc 
and grants from National Endowment for 
the Humanities, Field Foundation of 
Illinois, and the Charles E. Merrill Trust. 



February 1976 



Winter Windup 




Wednesday Evening Slide Lectures for Members 



Field Museum is pleased to present a series of four Wednesday evening slide lectures 
in the separate disciplines of zoology, anthropology, botany, and geology. In the 
quiet comfort of the Museum's Presidents' Room, Members will have an opportunity 
to dine and meet informally with curators and to vicariously share in the thrills of 
their explorations. The tickets are $7.50 per person for each of the four evenings 
Make your reservations now for: 

Temples in jungles: The Rise and Survival of Civilization in Southeast Asia. Bennet 
Bronson, assistant curator, Asiatic archaeology and ethnology, will show us some of 
the splendors of ancient civilizations in Thailand, Ceylon, Cambodia, and Indonesia 

Monsters in Miniature— A Natural History of Deepsea Fishes. Robert K Johnson, 
associate curator of fishes, will discuss aspects of the biology of these creatures 
Deepsea fishes are among the most bizarre members of the animal world, yet those 
very aspects of their structure and behavior that seem so strange represent remarkable 
examples of adaptation to an extreme environment Dr Johnson's program will center 
around ecological features of the open-ocean habitat, with discussion of adaptations 
that allow fishes to flourish in the depths. 

The Forest Beyond the Tourists' Trail. One of the more peculiar types of tropical 
vegetation, the elfin forest, will be discussed by Lorin Nevling, Chairman of the 
Department of Botany. Particular emphasis will be placed on a Puerto Rican forest 
that has been the subject of a multidisciplinary research effort The program will 
examine research techniques, structure of the forest, and will discuss alternate 
theories of origin. 

Frenzied Fossils is the topic chosen by Eugene Richardson, curator of fossil 
invertebrates; the lecture will be augmented with a color movie. Great numbers of 
sharks swam into the bayous and channels when a shallow sea flooded across a coal 
swamp 300,000,000 years ago. A few months later the water level dropped during a 
dry season and the sharks found themselves trapped in shrinking ponds. What did 
they do when they became disastrously overcrowded? What would you do? A Field 
Museum shark quarry uncovered not only specimens but also a detailed record of 
their remarkable behavior. 

The above programs are scheduled for 6:30 p.m. for these Wednesday evenings: 
March 3,* 10, 24, and 31. Reservation will be accepted on a first come, first served 
basis Applications should be accompanied by full payment of $7.50 per person, 
covering dinner and program. Children twelve years of age and older are invited; 
guests of members are also welcome. 

*A fish entree, as well as meat, will be served on Ash Wednesday 



CLIPCOUPON AND RETURN TODAY! 



Field Museum's 
Wednesday evening 
slide lectures 

March 3 Program; 

"Temples in Jungles" 

No, of persons attending _ 



March 10 Program: 
"Monsters in Miniature" 
No. of persons attending . 



March 24 Program: 

"Tlie Forest Beyond the Tourists' Trail' 

No. of persons attending 



March 31 Program 
"Frenzied Fossils" 
No. of persons attending , 



Member' 


s Name 






Street 


City 




State 


Zip 



(daytime) (evening) 



Amount enclosed: $ 



All reservations will be confirmed. 



For further information call Dorothy Rodei 
Field Museum. 922-9410, ext. 206 or 219. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



field briefs 



Where Is Mr. Bushman? 

At the north end of Stanley Field Hall is 
located one of the most frequently used, yet 
seldom heralded, visitor services the infor- 
mation booth According to Glenn Petersen, 
senior sergeant, Security and Visitor Services, 
12,679 questions were fielded by the informa- 
tion booth during July, August, and Sept- 
ember of 1975 and, on the basis of his records, 
the mummies (879 questions), Bushman, the 
gorilla (575), dinosaurs, (5fa9), and cavemen 
(_i14) still rank as the most popular attractions 
among the permanent exhibits Directions to 
these exhibits are handled with dispatch, but 
Sgt, Petersen's assistants must also be 
prepared to respond with tact, patience, and a 
ready sense of humor to the totally unexpect- 
ed, including the following questions that 
were asked during that three-month period; 

"Weren ( the elephants tacing the entranced" 

How much more space would they need to 
put all the stuff in storage on exhibif" 
[Conservatively, Chicago's Merchandise 
Mart, the Pentagon, and Sears Tower would 
begin to provide exhibition space for the 
Museum's more than 13 million specimens] 

Can I sit down'" 

How do they preserve artifacts in cases 
here'" 

Have you seen many celebrities^ ' 

"Where can I buy a voodoo doll^"" 

Can you tell me where Mr. Bushman is'"' 
"Is this museum all around here'"" 

Did my wife come back yet' 

Isnt there an elephant missing' 

Do you think you could hit the ceiling with a 
baseball' 




"Will I be hurt by throwing a penny into the 

fountain?" 
"Where's the little palace you have here'" 
"Is the painting of a male nude here?" 
"Is this what you do all day?"' 
"What percent of your body is water' ' 
"If I take a flash picture, will it come out 

okay'"" 
"Where is Bushmeal?" 
"How can I get my kid's balloon off the 

ceiling?" 
"Where are the carmine bee eater and the 

lilac breasted roller?" 
Do you know where my mother is?" 
How can I see this place real fast? I have to 

see all four museums today." 
"Did you see a balding, rather large man 

around here'" 
Have you seen a shoe like this?" 
"How do you change light bulbs?" 
"Where is a place you can dig up bones?" 
"How do you say "fourteen" in Spanish?" 
"Was this building ever a church'" 
About that planetarium — is that all plants' 
Can I camp on the lawn' 
"Where is Roy Rogers' horse' 
"How did the fossils get into the floor?" 
"Do you have large fish outside? 
What are you'"" 

Where and how were the specimens col- 
lected' 
Is this all natural history'"" 
'What"s in here?" 
"VWiere's the flea market' 
Have a couple of couples come here asking 
whether another couple was here yet'"" 

The answers to these questions, alas, were not 
recorded 



•* Bushmeal, Mr. Bushman, 

or just plain Bushman? 

He's even been called 

Sinbad and Cargantua. 

Bushman is to be found in 

Hall 1 (Anniversary 

Exhibit). 



Staff News 

lohn Kethley, who joined the Field Museum 
staff five years ago, has been promoted to 
associate curator of insects. Since coming to 
the Museum he has significantly enlarged the 
Museum's collections of mites, ticks, and 
thiggers, which are important ecologically 
and medically and constitute Kethley's prin- 
cipal area of research. Though his work is 
concerned mainly with the classification and 
evolution of this large group of small animals, 
he IS particularly interested in the population 
ecology of mites and chiggers that reside in 
the quills of birds and ride around under the 
scales of lizards and on the bodies of 
millipeds. Kethley has been head of the 
Division of Insects since November, 1974. 

Ms. Gretchen Eichholtz has joined the staff 
of the library as reference and circulation 
librarian. Ms. Eichholtz received her M.S. in 
library science from Drexel University and 
also holds an MA. in anthropology from the 
University of Iowa. 

William J. Lauf has joined the Museum as 
controller, a new position. Mr. Lauf is a native 
Chicagoan and was graduated from DePaul 
University (B.S.C. and MBA). Fie was most 
recently with TSC Industries as vice 
president/finance. 

Lawrence Klein has been appointed chair- 
man of the Department of Exhibition. Fie has 
lived in Chicago most of his life and comes to 
the Museum from the field of commercial 
design, hie attended the University of Louis- 
ville, the American Academy of Art, and the 
Art Institute of Chicago. Until a year ago he 
was president of Larry Klein and Associates, 
Inc., which was mainly concerned with 
planning and design of sales and exhibition 
pavilions and of retail stores and with graphic 
identity and signage systems for new 
communities. 

Membership Increase 

Membership in Field Museum rose by 1,335 
during 1975 to an all-time high of 23,145 — a 
6 1% increase for the year. According to 
Dorothy Roder, membership secretary, it was 
the largest annual jump in membership since 
1971 Five years ago the membership stood at 
19,342, and a decade ago at 9,581 — less than 
one-half the current figure. 

Kennicott Club Meets 

Robin B. Foster, assistant professor of biology 
at the University of Chicago, will speak on 
tree falls and the dynamics of the tropical rain 
forest at the February 3 meeting of the 
Kennicott Club, convening at 7:30 p.m. at 
Field Museum. Nonmembers are welcome to 
the meetings, which regularly occur on the 
first Tuesday of each month. 



FEBRUARY at Field Museum 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

•■MAN IN HIS ENVIRONMENT," a ma|or new permanent exhibit in 
a major new exhibition hall. This dramatic, 8,000-square-foot exhibi- 
tion (two film theatres plus four areas of three-dimensional displays) 
explores nature's magnificent system of checks and balances and man's 
dependence on this sytem. The exhibit also deals with man's activities 
and his effect on the quality of life on our planet, and asks visitors to 
consider the implications for our earth's future. 

The exhibit is part of a comprehensive program involving a traveling 
Man in His Environment exhibit and a series of related museum pro- 
grams to run well into 1977. (See Environnient: The Sum of its Parts 
below.) 

ESKIMO ART EXHIBIT 

"19TH CENTURY ALASKAN ESKIMO ART" exhibit, in Hall 27. In 
the language of the Eskimo there is no word for "art." Yet art was 
inseparable from Eskimo life, especially among the peoples of the 
Bering Sea area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the most 
commonplace articles were beautifully fashioned and decorated. 

Most of the examples of northwest Alaskan Eskimo art, featured in 
this exhibit, were acquired by the Field Museum in the 1890s during 
the first decade of its existence. They include tools, weapons, house- 
hold utensils, religious and ceremonial artifacts, and they exemplify the 
skill of the traditional Eskimo who used available tools and limited raw 
materials (caribou antler, driftwood, walrus-tusk ivory, and baleen) to 
depict the world around him. 

Self-guiding Eskimo art exhibit tour sheets, for children, are avail- 
able at the information booth All children who can read and write 
are invited to participate. Bring pen or pencil. 



CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 

"ENVIRONMENT: THE SUM OF ITS PARTS," oUered in conjunction 
with the Man in His Environment exhibit. The February theme, "Hu- 
man Alternatives," deals with key environmental problems that we now 
must face. Films are shown at 1 1 :00 a.m. and 1 ;00 p.m. in the Meeting 
Room, second floor north. Series continues through spring 1976. 

Feb 6, 7, 8 Pollution-A Matter of Choice {53 m\n) 

Feb 13, 14. 15. Multiply and Subdue the Earth (67 min ) 

Feb. 20, 21, 22: The Great Sea Farm (25 mm ) 

Should Oceans Meet? (30 min.) 

Feb 27, 28. 29: But Is This Progress? (51 min ) 
ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ESKIMO ART AND ARTISTS ate 

illustrated in three films which can be seen daily at 12:00 noon. For 
location, inquire at entrances. 

Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min.) The story of a great hunter who 
carved the image of his wish from a chosen piece of stone— and saw 
the wish come true. 



Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19 min.) Kenojuak. artist, wife, and mother, 
makes her drawings when she is free of the duties of trail or camp. Her 
thoughts are spoken as commentary for the film and add to our under- 
standing of the images she creates. 

Kalvak (20 min.) As a child, Kalvak. now a sixty-eight-year-old Eskimo 
woman, travelled on many long hunting trips with her parents. She uses 
the subjects of these experiences which give her beautiful, sensitive 
drawings a strong environmental emphasis. 

SATURDAY DISCOVERY PROGRAM 

PROGRAMS RECENTLY ADDED to the continuous stream of tours, 
demonstrations, and participatory activities offered every Saturday, 
from 1 1 :00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.. as part of the museum's Discovery Pro- 
gram. They are: Eskimo Art and Culture-A film and tour that explores 
the relationships between traditional Eskimo art and cultuie, and ex- 
amines the ways in which Eskimos adapted to changes in the modern 
world. r/6ef— Learn about magic and mystery in the culture of Tibet 
Traditions in Chinese Art-A half-hour tour traces the origins and devel- 
opment of Chinese art styles. 

Other Discovery Programs include the popular clay dinosaur model- 
ing in the Hall of Dinosaurs (take your model home), and the half-hour 
tour through the Egyptian collection— which also explains the "how's" 
and "why's" of mummy-making. 

For specific programs and locations, inquire at entrances. 

WINTER JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

"NOMADS OF THE MYSTIC MOUNTAINS." a free self-guided tour 
through the museum's colorful Tibet exhibit. All children who can 
read and write are invited to participate. Journey sheets in English and 
Spanish are available at the information booth. Bring pen or pencil, 

WEAVING DEMONSTRATIONS 

THE ANCIENT ART OF WEAVING on a two harness, handcrafted 
Mexican floor loom, demonstrated by members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 10:30-1 1 :30 a.m. 
and 12:00-1:00 p.m. On Mondays. Feb. 2 and 16. the demonstrations 
include spinning South Lounge, second floor. 

COMING IN MARCH 

"MAN IN HIS ENVIRONMENT" 
ILLUSTRATED LECTURE SERIES 

"FOCUS: PEOPLE IN THE MAINSTREAM." begins March 5. These 
lectures, presented by people who are actively concerned and involved 
in some aspect of the environment, are designed to reactivate public 
awareness of environmental issues. Fridays at 7:30 p.m.; repeated on 
Saturdays at 2:30 p.m. Ground floor lecture hall. 

FEBRUARY HOURS 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 4:00 p.m. week- 
days and 5.00 p.m. weekends. On Friday, year-round, the museum is 
open to 9.00 p.m. Food service areas are open weekdays 1 1:00 a in. 
to 3:00 p.m , weekends to 4:00 p.m. 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 9:00 a.m. to 4,00 p.m. Monday 
througli Friday Please obtain pass at reception desk, first floor north. 

MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922 9410 



Fifkl Musuurn Rullf 




. » » *•»▼»▼■/ . . -. &V.V.V. ^-P » ^« _ _. 






-.»*•• 41 , ' ' It'.'iH^ 



aturat Histstry^&Hetin 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



March, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 3 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walstcn 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff plwtographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

3 BLACKBALL MINE: HAVEN FOR BATS 

By Thomas Lera 

6 TRILOBITES: CREATURES FROM 

THE ANCIENT SEAS 
A Picture Essay 

13 ENVIRONMENT; THE SUM OF ITS PARTS 
Environmental Film Programs, April through August 

14 VOLUNTEERS HONORED 

16 FIELD BRIEFS 

17 LETTERS 

18 MARCH AT FIELD MUSEUM 
Calendar of Coming Events 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded IS93 

Director. E. Leiand Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine ). Yarnngton, 

President 
Cordon Bent 
Harry O Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R Cool< 
William R Dickinson, |r. 
Thomas E Donnelley II 
Mrs Thomas E Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Ni( holas Calitzine 
Paul W Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo I, Melvoin 
William H Mitchell 
Charles F, Murphy, )r 
lames ). O'Connor 
lames H Ransom 
lohn S Runnells 
William L Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H Strot/ 
lohn W Sulliyan 
William G. Swartchild, |r. 
Mrs Theodore D- Tieken 
E Leiand Webber 
lulian B, Wilkins 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
loseph N Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
Samuel Insull, |r, 
William V Kahler 
HLighston M McBain 
) Rose oe Miller 
lames L Palmer 
lohn T. Pine, |r, 
lohn C Searle 
lohn M Simpson 
LOUIS Ware 
) Howard Wood 



FRONT AND BACK COVERS 

A pair of trilobites, Phacops rana milleri Stewart, from 
Silica shale of Middle Devonian age (370 million years old) 
found at Sylvania, Ohio. Both photos by Riccardo Levi-Setti. 
Enlarged about X6.7.0f all North American trilobites, 
Phacops occurring in silica shale are probably the most 
spectacular, because of their unusual preservation. The front 
cover photo was obtained by conventional black-and-white 
photography; that shown on the back cover was obtained from 
a color slide. The employment of a variety of techniques in 
photographing such specimens is often useful in bringing out 
different aspects of the same structure. The pictorial essay on 
trilobites, pages 6-1 2, includes photos done by several techniques. 
All were made on 35 mm film. 



PHOTO CREDITS 

Page 3, 4 (bottom): Leonard Rue/Tom Stack & Associates; 
4 (top), 5 (top): The Custom Photography Co.; 5 (bottom): 
Tom Lera; 6, 7: E.N.K. Clarkson; 8 (top): R. Levi-Setti; 
8 (bottom): J.Cisne;9, 10, 11, 12: R. Levi-Setti; 14-17: 
Museum staff photos. 



field Museum oi Natural HiHory Bulletin is published monthly, 
except combined |uly/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road al Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
Subscriplions: $6 a year, $3 a year Inr schools. Members of Ihe 
Museum subscribe ihrough Museum membership. Opinions 
expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, 
ISSN: 0015-0703. 



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5 ^^ i ^ V I 

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-■As darkness tails, bats sw,arm from cave to forage for food 



Blackball Mine: Haven for Bats 



By Thomas Lera 



About eighty miles southwest of 
Chicago, in La Salle County, 
Illinois, Is Blackball Mine, the site 
of a large limestone industry that 
flourished during the early 1900s, but 
now abandoned. Today, however, the 
mine's extensive network of passages 
continues to be of special interest to 
environmentalists and biologists con- 
cerned with cave-dwelling animals such 
as bats. 



Blackball Mine is separated into two 
sections by Pecumsaugan Creek, a 
perennial stream. The section to the 
north and west of the creek is on two 
levels, one level is about six meters* 
below the other. The other section, to the 
south and east of the creek, is on one 
level At least thirty entrances lead into 



•About 20 feet 



the mine; the interior passageways range 
from about one and a half to four and a 
half meters high and about four and a 
half to twelve meters wide. 

Three major environmental subdi- 
visions are to be found in the mine: a 
twilight zone, an intermediate zone, 
and a deep interior zone. Aside from the 

Thomas Lera ts a water resources planner with 
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




naturally illuminated twilight zone, total 
darkness prevails throughout. The dis- 
tance of light penetration from any 
entrance naturally varies according to 
the size, shape, and orientation of the 
particular entrance. Temperature and 
humidity in the twilight zone are about 
the same as outside the mine. The dark 
intermediate zone has fluctuating tem- 
perature and humidity— variables caused 
by air currents. The temperature and 
relative humidity of the totally dark 
interior zone is constant. 

As expected, the greatest number of 
animal species are to be found in the 
twilight zone, with the number de- 
creasing as light diminishes. Many 
species leave the outside when condi- 
tions are unfavorable to seek refuge in 
the cool, moist entrances. Some species 
venture deeper into the mine but 
periodically must return outside for food. 
These species, known as trogloxenes, 
cannot complete their life cycle under- 
ground. Bats, moths, crickets, raccoons, 
and wood rats are examples of this group. 
Other species known as troglophiles, 

'The endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) 



Underside of little brown 
kidfuKusiy 



bat (Myotis 




penetrate beyong the twilight zone and 
become permanent residents of the 
mine's deeper recesses. These animals 
can complete their entire life cycle in the 
mine. 

Blackball Mine is well known for its 
wintering colony of bats (family Vesper- 
tilionidael The little brown bat (Myo(;s 
luciiugus) and the eastern pipistrelle 
[Pipistrellus subflavus] are most often 
seen in the mine, but the Indiana bat 
(Myotis sodalis), which is on the federal 
endangered species list, also hibernates 
there. Blackball Mine is, in fact, the only 
site in Illinois where the latter species is 
currently known to roost. 

During the summer, the bats use the 
mine as a daytime retreat and at night 
they emerge to feed on airborne insects 
of the surrounding country. The unique 
ability of bats to navigate by means of 
echolocation in total darkness makes it 
possible for them to find their way 
through the mine passages and, once 
outside, to capture night-flying insects. 
All bats found in Blackball Mine are 
insectivorous; on each nightly foray the 
typical bat consumes two to four grams 
of insects. 

Over the past decade scientists have 
found that the number of bats in general 



John S. Hall, now teaching at Albright College. 
Reading, Pa., was (he first biologist to mal^e a 
comprehensive study of Blackball Mine 
fauna. Here he removes roosting bats for 
banding. They are returned to their roosting 
spot before becoming completely aroused >■ 





■^ Entrances to Blackball Mine 



has been steadily declining. Reasons for 
this reduction include the loss of habitats 
and roosts due to quarrying and urbani- 
zation, and increase in commercially 
operated caves, vandalism, flooding, 
burning of debris in cave entrances, and 
repeated incursions by uninformed visi- 
tors If hibernating bats are frequently 
disturbed, they will rapidly use up their 
stored fat supplies and starve to death 
before spring. 

Occasionally bats are found to be 
rabid, but this happens so seldom that 
the United States Public Health Service 
does not consider the animals to be a 
public health hazard. They are unique 
among mammals in being able to survive 
[Continued on p. 16) 



Field Museum Bulletin 




Side view of Cornoproetus sculptus (6ar- 
rande) of Devonian age from Czechos/ova/c/a. 
Negative by E.N.K. Ctarkson. Pt^otographic 
print by R. Levi-Setti. Enlarged about X26. The 
fasciculated surface is cliaracteristic of the 
species. 




The illu'.trative material in wi', article /s 
from Trilobites A Photographic Atlas, fav 
Rtccardo Levi-Setti. © 1975 fay The 
University oi Chicago, and reproduced 
by permission oi the publisher. The 
introductory section, by E.N.K. Clarkson. is 
also horn the book. Trilobites: A Photo- 
graphic Atlas [21i pp., $27.50) may be 
ordered irom the Field Museum Book 
Store— 10% discount to members — or 
irom the publisher. 




kSide vien ot eye ot Pricvclopvge binodosa l5a/ter|, ot Ordo\ician age from Bohemia. Xegatue 
byENK Clarkson. Photographic print by R. Leu-Setti. Enlarged X 10 In this remarkable viev. can 
be seen the gross structure ot the compound eye nith its framework of hexagonal facets. 




Creatures from the Ancient Seas 



From "Trilobites: A Photographic Atlas," by Riccardo Levi-Setti 






here is a perennial fascination in the study of trilobites for professional scholars 
and amateur natural historians alike The unique form and vast antiquity of 
these ancient fossils compel our immediate attention Trilobites lived in the 
Palaeozoic oceans for some 350 million years of geological time. During their 
immensely long history they evolved into diverse forms and colonized 
numerous environments. They became extinct at the end of Permian time, over 200 
million years ago. A great deal is now known about trilobites They have long been 
valued by geologists as stratigraphic indicators, and their basic anatomy, their growth 
and development from the larval stages, the nature of their appendages, cuticular 
structure, and sense organs, their evolutionary differentiation, and their distribution in 
time and space have all been the subject of intensive research. But the virtual absence of 
preserved soft parts imposes strict limitations upon what can be known, and certain 
important matters may remain forever cryptic, and even the fundamentals of 
classification are still disputed. *" 



Field Museum Bulletin 




The would-be collector and student 
of trilobites is often limited in his 
endeavors by the paucity of really well 
preserved material for study. One does 
not often find perfect specimens. These 
occur only in certain rock-types in 
specific locales, some of which are no 
longer accessible. They may be difficult 
to extract from the matrix, and even in 
the best displayed museum specimens it 
is not easy to see the microscopic details 
of structure. — Euan N.K. Clarkson, Grant 
Institute of Geology, Edinburgh. 

Some of these difficulties have now 
been overcome by Riccardo Levi-Setti. 
Professor of physics at the University of 
Chicago, Levi-Setti is also well known for 
his work on trilobites, on which he has 
authored a number of technical papers. 
In his recent Trilobites: A Photographic 
Atlas, Levi-Setti presents what may well 
be the most remarkable photographs 
ever made of these ancient creatures. 
The photographs reproduced here were 
selected from the book and represent a 
variety of techniques, including x-ray and 
color photography and the treatment of 
specimens with materials such as mag- 
nesium oxide and xylene, which selec- 
tively enhance the visibility of certain 
features. A number of Levi-Setti's subject 
specimens are in the Field Museum 
collection. —Ed. 





I Opposite page, top: Lett eye of Phacops rana 
crassituberculata Stumn\ from S/7;ca stiale of 
Middle Devonian age at Sylvania, 0/i;o. Photo 
by Riccardo Levi-Setti, specimen owner. 
Enlarged X14. [Detail] 



A Specimens of Cryptolithus tesselatus Creen 
from Pulaski shale of Middle Ordovician age, 
found in Lorain, lefferson County, New York. 
Photo by R. Levi-Setti. Enlarged X2.8. Speci- 
men from the I. Hall collection of the 
University of Chicago's Walker Museum, now 
housed at field Museum. Specimen whitened 
by magnesium oxide. 



■< X-ray view of Triarthrus eatoni \Hall), from 
Frankfort shale of Upper Ordovician age, at 
Rome, New York. Collection of American 
Museum of Natural History. X-ray negative by 
lohn Cisne. Photographic print by R. Levi- 
Setti. Enlarged X2.5 The biramous [two- 
branched] appendages can be seen protruding 
from and underlying the dorsal (back] shield. 
Soft internal structures can also be recog- 
nized. [Detail] 



Field Mu5eum Bulletin 





^Specimens of Peronopsis interstricta 
{White), irom Wheeler shale of Middle 
Cambrian age, found at Antelope Springs, 
Millard County, Utah. Photo by Riccardo Levi- 
Setti, specimen owner. Enlarged X6.3. 



■^Outline of trilobite classification, after 
Bergstrom. Radiating lines indicate the geo- 
logic occurrence of the various groups. 
Trilobite drawings generally represent each 
maior group. Clockwise, these are Olenellus, 
Paradoxides, Zacanthoides, Proetus, Zelis- 
kella, Arctlnurus, Ceraurus, Flexlcalymene, 
and Peronopsis 



Greenops boothi (Green), from Windom>- 
formation, of Devonian age, from Windom, 
N.Y. Specimen at Orton Museum, Ohio State 
University. Photo by R. Levi-Setti. Enlarged 
X4. Specimen coated with magnesium oxide, 
emphasizing surface details. 



10 March 1976 




Field Museum Bulletin 11 




-<Mlraspis mira [Barrande) from Motol beds, 
of Middle Silurian age, from Bohemia. Photo 
by R. Levi-Setti, specimen owner. Enlarged 
X5 6. Characteristic of this species is two types 
of spines on each pleural segment; one is long 
and slender, the other shorter and barbed. 



Flexicalymene meeki (Foerste], of Ordovi- 
cian age, from Waynesville, Ohio. Photo by 
Riccardo Levi-Setti. Enlarged X 70. Specimen is 
beautiful example of species' ability to 
assume tightly enrolled posture. Y 




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"Environment: The Sum of Its Parts" 



A presentation of the Ray A. Kroc Environmental Educa- 
tion Program and National Endowment for the Humanities 



April through August 1976 



Films in this series either expand on topics in the 
Man m His Environment" exhibit or introduce 
concepts not dealty with in the exhibit. Several films 
relate other Museum exhibits to Man In His Environ- 



ment. Screenings will be at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. on 
Fridays, Saturdays, and Sundays in the Meeting Room, 
second floor north. More than 350 films were previewed 
to present these selections. 



APRIL 

Ecos\stems; titms dealing with a variety oi 
natural communities. 



2, 3,4; 


Mzima: Portrait ot a Spring 


9, 10, 11: 


The Salt Marsh: A Question 




of Values 




Ecology: Olympic Rain 




Forest 


16, 17, 18: 


The Sea 


23, 24, 25: 


Survival on the Prairie 


30: 


The Great Barrier Reel 


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MSm 



MAY 




JUNE 

An endangered animal: the whale. A series 
showing the behavior and adaptations of 
several species of whales in the Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans. 



6 




In Search of the Bowhead 
Whale 


7 


13: 


Whales 


9, 


20: 


Whales, Dolphins, and 
Men 


6, 


27: 


After the Whale 



JULY 



Adaptations for 


survival: special adaptations 


Human alternatives: key environmental 


of flora and fauna, their relationships to each 


problems that we now must face. 


other and to th 


e environment. 


2, 3, 4: But Is This Progress? 


1, 2: 


The Creat Barrier Reef 


9,10,11: The Creat Sea Farm 


7, 8, 9: 


Baobab: Portrait of a Tree 


Should Oceans Meet? 


14, 15, 16: 


Birds Paradise: The Wad- 


16, 17, 18: Energy: A Matter of Choice 




densea 


23, 24, 25: Multiply and Subdue the 


21, 22, 23: 


Life in a Tropical Forest 


Earth 


28, 29, 30: 


Polar Ecology:' Predator 


30, 31: Aug. 1: Pollution— A Matter of 




and Prey 


Choice 



AUGUST 

The question of tomorrow: documentary 
and fantasy versions of what the future can 
hold for us. 
6, 7, 8: Eggs 

Technology: Catastrophe 
or Commitment 
13, 14, 15: Future Shock 

20,21,22: The Unexplained 

27, 28, 29: Coping with Tomorrow: 

Superconductors 
Man in the Second Indus- 
trial Revolution 



A film bibliograpv is available for one 
dollar (SI 00) by writing to Environ- 
mental Films, Field Museum. 

This series will be repeated in coming 
months with revisions to bring you the 
best and newest in environmental film 




Field Museum Bulletin 



Volunteers Honored ^ff^ 



February 11 was "V Day" at Field Museum: 
212 volunteers were honored at a reception- 
dinner for their dedicated service to the 
Museum in 1975. Altogether, they logged a 
total of 28,574 hours during the year — equiva- 
lent to the time of seventeen full-time staff 
members. Fourteen more volunteers were 
involved than in 1974, with an increase of 389 
additional hours of service. 

Volunteers serve in the museum's depart- 
ments of anthropology, botany, geology, 
zoology, education, exhibition, and in the 
library. Their activities range from cata- 
loguing, to fossil-preparation, working with 
school groups, research assistance, and 



photography. Currently eighteen volunteers 
are involved in the Museum's weekly Saturday 
Discovery Program, which includes tours, 
demonstrations, and participatory activities. 

Volunteers who contributed the greatest 
number of hours m 1975 were: James 
Swartchild (Anthropology), 1,351 hours; Alice 
Schneider (Anthropology), 1,168 hours; and 
Sol Curewitz (Anthropology), 1,046 hours. 

Those who gave more than 600 hours of 
their time were: Helen Voris (Zoology), 
Walter Mockler (Geology), Louva Calhoun 
(Anthropology), and Blair Winter (Zoology). 
Volunteers in the 400 to 600 hour category 
were: John O'Brien (Education), Le Moyne 



Mueller (Zoology), and Robert Hicks (Geo- 
logy). 

Other top-ranking volunteers were: Lal- 
chumi Ralte (Anthropology), Peter Cayford 
(Anthrolopogy), Stewart MacLeod (Anthro- 
pology), M.E Rada (Anthropology), Alyce 
DeBlase (Zoology), and Dorothy Stevenson 
(Zoology), 

The Field Museum welcomes still more 
volunteers to help with expanding programs in 
many of its departments. For more in- 
formation call or write the museum's depart- 
ment of education, 922-9410, ext. 351. 

The volunteer program is funded in part by 
the Illinois Arts Council, a state agency. 



7975 VOLUNTEERS: 

Brian Adilman 
Vija Alchimouics 
Sydney Allport 
Ann Andersen 
Carrie F. Anderson 
Cleo M Anderson 
Cretchen Anderson 
Jean Armour 
Judith Armstrong 
Gwen Barnett 
Rae Barnett 
Dodie Baumgarten 
John Bayalis 
Virginia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
Phoebe Bentley 
Leslie Beverly 
David Blanchard 
Betty Blum 
Idessie Bowens 
Carol Briscoe 
Joyce Brukoff 
Beth Buchsbaum 
Royal Buscombe 
Douglas Buzard 
Louva Calhoun 
Jean W Cameron 
Theresa Cartmell 
Jean Carton 
Stana Coleman 
Sharon Counts 
Velta Cukers 
Mary Agnes Curran 
James Czarnik 
Betsy D'Angelo 
Georgette D'Angelo 
Lucy Davis 
Alyce DeBlase 
Joseph de Cristofaro 
Marianne Diekman 
Delores Dobberstein 
Marybeth Dowell 
Karen Duckett 



Eleanor C. Dugdale 
Stanley Dvorak 
Millie Dybas 
Alice Eckley 
Bonnie Fiber 
Anne Ekman 
Lee Erdman 
Arista Francis 
Gerda Frank 
Arden Fredrick 
Grace Fuller 
Ida Gabler 
Peter Gayford 
Nancy Gerson 
Betty Lou Girardi 
Anita Goldberg 
Lorna Gonzales 
Helen Cornstein 
Anne Goudvis 
Stacia Greenberger 
Victoria Grigelaitis 
Paul Gritis 
Karen Grossman 
Sol Gurewitz 
John Hager 
Gertrude Hannen 
Hetty Harris 
Lois Hewitt 
Peter Hewitt 
Robert Hicks 
Audrey Hiller 
Harold Hilton 
Barbara Hoff 
Ralph M. Hogan 
Claxton Howard 
Dorothy Huff 
David Humbard 
Lois Hurd 
Julie Hurvis 
Ellen Hyndman 
Frederica Irvin 
Bruce Jayne 



Bridget Jennings 
Palmira Johnson 
Malcolm Jones 
Julia Jordan 
Dorothy Karall 
Martin Karant 
Adria Katz 
Myrette Katz 
Marian Keith 
Shirley Kelley 
Marjorie King 
Genevieve Kline 
Karen Kohn 
lohn Kolar 
Laurie Kosky 
Allan Koss 
William Krueger 
Michael Kuby 
William Lange 
Alfreda Leisz 
Anne Leonard 
Leah B Levin 
Elizabeth Lilly 
Leslie Lipschultz 
Margaret S. Litten 
Ruth Loucks 
Martha Lussenhop 
Susan Lynch 
Stewart J. MacLeod 
Edna MacQuilkin 
Dorothy Magos 
Catherme Majeske 
Millicent Marks 
Margaret Martling 
Darlene Marzullo 
Charles A. Matza 
Melba H. Mayo 
Betty McClelland 
Cecily McNeil 
Withrow Meeker 
Jeff Melvoin 
Margot T. Merrick 
Walter Mockler 



Wiley & Karen Moore 
Karen K. Morris 
Henry Moy 
Carol Mudloff 
Tom Mudloff 
LeMoyne Mueller 
Irene Mullen 
Arlene Nagy 
Mary Naunton 
Nancy Nelson 
Natalie Newberger 
Herta Newton 
Bernice Nordenberg 
John Nugent 
Jams O'Boye 
John C O'Brien 
Karen Olander 
Joan Opila 
China Oughton 
Anita Padnos 
Rebecca Pare 
Raymond Parker 
Susan Parker 
Sally Parsons 
Hazel Pensock 
Helen Pfeifer 
Ron Phillips 
Daniel Polikoff 
Joan Pomaranc 
Susan Pratt 
Ann Prewitt 
Elizabeth Rada 
ME Rada 
Lalchumi Ralte 
Edgar Reiter 
Turi Reiter 
Jill Reynolds 
Sheila Reynolds 
Yvonne Robins 
William E. Roder 
Noreen Rodman 
Pat Rogers 



Barbara Roob 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 
Hilde Sachs 
Esther S. Saks 
Bonita Samuelson 
Alice Schneider 
Rose Schrader 
Betsy Schwartz 
Beverly Scott 
Alice Seeburg 
Laura Seidman 
Ann Shanower 
Albert Shatzel 
Phyllis Sidwell 
Ann Sieron 
Gertrude Silberman 
Alexander Solt 
Irene Spensley 
George Speros 
Llois Stein 
Christine Stepan 
Lorain Stephens 
Lucille Stern 
Dorothy Stevenson 
Beth Stoneburg 
Beatrice Swartchild 
James H. Swartchild 
Patricia Talbot 
Dana Triester 
Edith Turkington 
Paulamaria Vasquez 
Barbara Vear 
Jean Von Blohn 
Helen Voris 
Sandra Walchuk 
David Wend 
Louise D White 
La Donna Whitmer 
Phyllis Wiley 
Blair Winter 
Jan Wisseman 
Reeva Wolfson 




Above: members of the North Shore Weavers' Guild, who regularly provide 
weaving demonstrations in the South Lounge. Front row: Leslie Beverly, Anne 
El^man. lulia Jordan: back row: Alice Eckley, Velta Cukers, La Donna Whitmer, 
Ann Shanower, Laurie Kosky 





Above: Volunteer Alyce DeBlase [Mammals] receives from 
Director E Leiand Webber special gitt awarded to each 
volunteer. Below: Louva Calhoun, who gave more than 600 
hours to the Department of Anthropology, receives her 
gift. 



Above: Museum staff members at the buffet: Roberta Becker (left] and Helen 
Kennedy {right), both of the Department of Botany. Below, left to right: volunteers 
C/eo M. Anderson [Mammals], Idessie Bowen [Publications], and Carrie F 
.Anderson [Publications]. 





Field Museum Bulletin 15 



teM hifmHi 




A TOUCH-UP FOR LAMBEOSAURUS 

Above, Orville "Cilly" Cllpm, chief 
preparator, Department of Geology, 
touches up the skull of Lambeosaurus, 
one of two dinosaurs on exhibit in 
Stanley Field Hall. Since Gilpin helped 
install them in 1956, the dinosaurs have 
been popular with youthful, would-be, 
souvenir hunters as well as with camera 
buffs. In spite of the watchful eyes of 
guards, an occasional youngster manages 
to slip over the guard rail just long 
enough to discover that the fossilized 
bones are fixed rigidly in place. What 
damage is done can usually be repaired 
by a few deft strokes of Gilpin's 
paintbrush. 



CORRECTION 



"Fish Collecting in Belize," which ap- 
peared in the January 1976, Bulletin, was 
jointly authored by David W. Greenfield 
and Terry Greenfield. The article's by-line 
incorrectly credited David W. Greenfield 
as sole author. Mrs. Greenfield is an 
associate of the Department of Bio- 
logical Sciences at Northern Illinois 
University. 



NATURE CAMERA CLUB 

Under the auspices of the Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago, a slide-lecture, "Africa 
Revisited," will be presented at Field 
Museum on Tuesday evening, March 9, 
by Harry G. Hirsch, well known photog- 
rapher of African wildlife. This particular 
program will feature the cheetah. The 
slide presentation will be the first in the 
United States to utilize the new Leitz 
Convar Slide Projection System, The 
meeting begins at 7:30. Guests are 
welcome. 

MURAL REPRODUCTIONS 

Visitors who have expressed an interest 
in obtaining a copy of the biome mural 
by Kinuko Y, Craft on view in area six of 
the Man in His Environment exhibit, may 
now obtain reproductions (about 5 feet 
long) of the mural for $1.00 each at the 
Field Museum Book Store. These are 
reprints of a reproduction that appeared 
in the March 1976 Smithsonian. The 
reproduction may also be ordered, at the 
same price, from Smithsonian, 900 
Jefferson Drive, Washington, DC. 20560. 



BLACKBALL MINE [from p. 5) 

even though infected with rabies; be- 
cause of this ability bats are of special 
value to scientists studying the etiology 
of the disease. But an uninformed public, 
frightened by over-publicized but iso- 
lated cases of rabies, have burned, 
stoned, or clubbed dormant bats by the 
hundreds and thousands. At Blackball 
Mine such senseless destruction and the 
general disturbance of bats living there 
has increased simply because the site has 
rapidly become a popular public at- 
traction. Today, the survival of the entire 
colony is threatened. 

Henry David Thoreau once observed 
that "a community is saved not so much 
by the righteous men in it but by the 
woods and marshes that surround it." 
With respect to the Indiana bat, the 
Department of the Interior, Fish and 
Wildlife Service, has proposed that 
Blackball Mine be declared a critical 
habitat— an area where there is adequate 
space for normal growth, movement, or 
territorial behavior; where nutritional 
requirements can be met; and where 
there are sites for breeding, repro- 
duction, or rearing of offspring with 
adjacent cover and shelter. Within this 
concept, the destruction, disturbance, 
modification, curtailment, or subjection 
to human activity of habitat considered 
critical would not conform with the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973. If 
Blackball Mine is determined by the 
government to be a critical habitat area, 
all federal departments and agencies 
would be required to ensure that actions 
authorized, funded, or carried out by 
them do not result in the destruction or 
modification of the habitat. 

We can only hope that the federal 
government acts to designate Blackball 
Mine as a critical habitat and that the 
state of Illinois will take positive action 
to acquire the mine as a unique natural 
area. 

SUGGESTED READING 

Allen, G.M. 1939 (1962 reprint). Bats, New 

York: Dover Press, 368 pp. 
Barbour, R W. and W.H, Davis 1969. Bats of 

America, Lexington; University of Kentucky 

Press, 286 pp 
Cady, CM. 1919. "Geology and Mineral 

Resources of the Hennepin and LaSalle 

Quadrangles." Illinois State Geological 

Survey Bulletin 37:1-136, 
Greenhall, A.M. 1973. "Indiana Bat-A Cave 

Dweller in Trouble," National Parks and- 

Conservation Magazine, Vol 47, No. 8. 



Mmsm 



FROM A )OU\G PALEONTOLOGIST: 



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& I T T o . A/\e, 




Dear Michael: 

Thank you for your letter. 

Field Museum has a whole hail full of dinosaur skeletons. 
I am enclosing some postcards that show how an artist 
thought dinosaurs looked. I hope you can come to the 
Museum one day to see them yourself. I should tell you 
that sometime within the next couple of years, the 
dinosaur hall will be closed for renovation. This means 
that painters will paint the walls, exhibit preparators will 
clean the glass, and museum scientists will write new 
labels. The dinosaurs themselves will stay the same! 

I asked Dr. John Bolt, the scientist in charge of dinosaurs, 
how big the eggs of a triceratops were. He says that no 
one has ever found a whole triceratops egg. Protocera- 



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tops, a dinosaur smaller than triceratops but related to it, 
laid eggs that were 5 inches long and about 3 inches in 
diameter. Triceratops eggs were probably bigger than 
that. 

You drew a fine picture of a dmosaur bone! 

Sincerely, 

Alice Carnes 
Chairperson 

Department of Education 
Field Museum 

Field Museum Bulletin 1 



MARCH at Field Museum 



NEW PROGRAMS 

ILLUSTRATED LECTURE SERIES 

"FOCUS: PEOPLE IN THE MAINSTREAM." Illustrated 
lecture series in conjunction witli the Man in His Environ- 
ment exhibit (see below). Presented by people actively 
involved in some aspect of the environment. Fridays at 7:30 
p.m.; repeated on Saturdays at 2:30 p.m. Ground floor 
lecture hall. 
March Sand 6: Man First? Man Last? The Meaning of 

Natural Diversity to Human Evolution, 

by botany professor Hugh H. litis. 
March 12 and 13: Landscape: Some Visual Dimensions of 

Environment, by author/photographer 

Charles F. Davis. 
March 19 and 20: The Sun Gave Man the Power, by film 

producers Rob and Joan Root Ericksen 
March 26 and 27: The Flickering Flame, by environmental 

reporter Harlan Draeger. 



SATURDAY DISCOVERY PROGRAM 
FOR CHILDREN AND ADULTS 

NEW EVENTS have been added to the continuous stream of 

tours, demonstrations, and participatory activities offered 

every Saturday, from 1 1 :00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., as part of the 

museum's Discovery Program. 

Prehistoric Animals— A half-hour tour explores the history 

and evolution of dinosaurs and other vertebrate animals. 

Art and Culture of the Northwest Coast— A one-hour program 

features a film, followed by a guided tour of totems and 

masks in the museum's collections. 

Endangered Animals— A half-hour tour focuses on species in 

danger of extinction. 

Other Discovery activities include the popular clay dino- 
saur modeling in the Hall of Dinosaurs (take your model 
home), and the half-hour lour through the Egyptian collec- 
tion—which also explains the "how's" and "why's" of 
mummy-making. 

For specific times for each of the above events, phone 
the museum, or inquire on arrival at museum entrances. 



SPRING JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

"ESKIMO HUNTERS." A free self-guided tour through 
Eskimo-related halls, including a "hunt" through the mu- 
seum's newest exhibit, 19th Century Alaskan Eskimo Art. 
Colorful tour sheets provide questions and space for drawing; 
helping children interpret the exhibits they see. All children 
who can read and write are invited to participate. Journey 
sheets in English and Spanish are available at the information 
booth. Bring pen or pencil. 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

"MAN IN HIS ENVIRONMENT." The most talked-about 
environmental exhibit in the country. The exhibit deals first 
with natural systems and second with man's impact on them— 
leading to the inescapable conclusion that man is not the 
independent master he so easily assumes himself to be, but 
one of earth's creatures, as dependent upon the environment 
as any other creature. Ma'n in His Environment takes a global 
view of the most serious problems now confronting all man- 
kind and asks visitors to involve themselves In decisions that 
have to be made. 




ESKIMO ARTEXHIBIT 

"19TH CENTURY ALASKAN ESKIMO ART." In the early 
to mid-19th century, traditional Alaskan Eskimo carving and 
engraving on ivory and wood reached special peaks of develop- 
ment. Art was inseparable from Eskimo life; and the most 
commonplace articles were fashioned and decorated in ways 
that were aesthetically beautiful. But the 1890s brought 
European and American gold prospectors swarming to Alaska; 
and Eskimo artists began producing a new art on demand: 
souvenirs. Come and compare the new with the traditional in 
this stunning new exhibit. 

Public tours of the exhibit are offered every Tuesday at 
1 1 :00 a.m. and 1 :00 p.m., through June 29. Meet at exhibit 
entrance (Hall 27). 



CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 

"ENVIRONMENT: THE SUM OF ITS PARTS." Offered in 
conjunction with the Man in His Environment exhibit. The 
March theme is "The Question of Tomorrow: documentary 
and fantasy versions of what the future can hold for us." 
Films are shown at 1 1 ;00 a.m. and 1 :00 p.m. in the IVIeeting 
Room, second floor north. New series begins in April. (See 
"Coming in April," below.) 

Future Shock (42 min.) 
The Unexplained (52 mm.) 
Technology: Catastrophe or Commit- 
ment (22 min.) 
Urbanissimo (6 min.) 
Energy to Burn (20 mm.) 
Man and the "Second" Industrial Revo- 
lution ( 19 min.) 



March 5, 6, 7 
March 12, 13, 14 
March 19,20,21 



March 26,27,28: 



WEAVING DEMONSTRATIONS 

THE ANCIENT ART OF WEAVING on a two-harness, 
handcrafted Mexican floor loom, demonstrated by members 
of the North Shore Weavers' Guild every Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday, 10:30-11:30 a.m. and 12:00-1:00 p.m. On 
Mondays, March 1 and 15, the demonstrations include spin- 
ning. South lounge, second floor. 




SPECIAL INTEREST MEETINGS 



ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ESKIMO ART AND ART- 
ISTS are illustrated in three films which can be seen daily 
at 1 2:00 noon. For location, inquire at entrances. 
Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min.) The story of a great 
hunter who carved the image of his wish from a chosen 
piece of stone— and saw the wish come true. 
Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19min.) Kenojuak, artist, wife, and 
mother, makes her drawings when she is free of the duties of 
trail or camp. Her thoughts are spoken as commentary for 
the film and add to our understanding of the images she 
creates. 

Kalvak (20 min.) Asa child, Kalvak, now a sixty-eight-year- 
old Eskimo woman, traveled on many long hunting trips with 
her parents. She uses the subjects of these experiences which 
give her beautiful, sensitive drawings a strong environmental 
emphasis. 



March 2 


7:30 p.m. 


March 5 


8:00 p.m. 


March 9 


7:30 p.m. 


March 10 


7:00 p.m. 




7:30 p.m. 


March 14 


2:00 p.m. 


March 16 


7:30p.m. 



Kennicott Club (meets first Tues- 
day of each month) 
Chicago Anthropological Society 
(meets first Friday of each month) 
Nature Camera Club 
Chicago Ornithological Society 
Windy City Grotto, National Spe- 
leological Society 
Chicago Shell Club 
Chicago Audubon Society 



COMING IN APRIL 

"ENVIRONMENT: THE SUM OF ITS PARTS." A film 
series in uoniunction with tlie Man in His Environment 
exhibit, offered April 2 through August 29. Topics are; 
"Ecosystems" (April), "Adaptations for Survival" (May), 
"An Endangered Animal: The Whale" (June), "Human Alter- 
natives" (July), "The Question of Tomorrow" (August). 



MARCH HOURS 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 
5:00 p.m. every day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, 
the museum is open to 9:00 p.m. Food service areas are 
open weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., weekends to 
4 00 p.m. 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at reception 
desk , first floor north. 



MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922-9410 






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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



April, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 4 



CONTENTS 

3 

10 



12 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

FIELD MUSEUM: 1921 AND 1976 
A New Lease on Lite for the 
55-year-old-Builcling 

IROQUOIS PRAYER: INTENTION 
AND ANTICIPATION 
by David Blanchard 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



18 FIELD BRIEFS 

19 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 
Summer Workshop 

20 WEEKEND FIELD TRIP FOR GEOLOGY BUFFS 

21 WILDERNESS CANOE TRIP 

22 APRIL AT FIELD MUSEUM 
Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER PHOTO 

Springtime comes to Illinois Beacli State Park. Photo by Janet Kolar. 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Director: E. Leiand Webber 



PHOTO AND ART CREDITS 

Page 3: William R. Eastman/Tom Stack & Associates; 4: William Lee Rue III/ 
Tom Stack & Associates; 5: Tom Stack & Associates; 6, 7, 8: Leonard 
Lee Rue Ill/Tom Stack & Associates; 10, 11: Museum staff photos; 
12-17: Stewart MacLeod; 18-21 : Museum staff photos. 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blame ). Yarnngton, 

President 
Cordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cool< 
William R. Dickinson, |r. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo ). Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
lames H. Ransom 
lohn S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William C. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
1- Roscoe Miller 
James L, Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
lohn G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Nslural Histor\ Bulletin is published monrhly, except 
combined luly/August issue, by Field Museum ol Natural History. Roosevelt 
Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $b a year: $3 a 
year for schools. Members of the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum, Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, III. 



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Horses Displace Native Wildlife 



Wild horses and burros are continuing to 
displace native wildlife in many areas of the 
West, the Wildlife Management Institute 
reports. Their numbers have doubled since 
1971 and are growing at about 20 percent 
each year. Current inventories show that 
there are 50,000 wild horses and 5,000 
burros on public lands in the West. Oregon 
alone has about 7,000 wild horses. 

In some areas, wild horse and burro pop- 
ulations have grown beyond the land's 
carrying capacity. Vegetation is being de- 
stroyed and wildlife is suffering, reports the 
Institute. One important elk winter range in 



Oregon has been nearly denuded by exces- 
sive grazing by wild horses. Waterholes are 
gradually becoming mudholes by trampling 
and wallowing of wild horses in Oregon's 
Lakeview District. Forage desperately 
needed by endangered bighorn sheep is 
being consumed by wild horses and burros. 
The Bureau of Land Management has 
found it impossible to curtail the number of 
wild horses because of restrictions imposed 
by the 1971 Wild Horse and Burro Act. That 
Act prohibits the use of motorized \ehicles 
to capture wild horses. BLM has tried to 
remove excess animals with saddle horses, 
but has had little success. During the past 
eighteen months about 400 wild horses 
have been removed from Oregon range- 
lands. The cost has \aried from S300 to 



$800 for each horse. In order to protect 
wildlife habitat and other rangeland \alues, 
BLM needs to remove 1,368 wild horses 
this year in Oregon. That would cost about 
$500,000 — more than 10 times the amount 
spent by BLM this fiscal year on wildlife 
projects in that state. Several saddle horses 
have been killed or injured and three BLM 
riders were seriously injured during the 
roundups so far. 

BLM is seeking changes in the 1971 law 
which would permit the use of helicopters 
to trap wild horses and provide authority to 
transfer ownership of captured horses to 
private citizens. BLM says helicopters 
would be much cheaper and more humane 
to the animals and to BLM riders and 
horses. >- 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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Propose Horicon Goose Reduction 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the 
Wisconsin Department of Natural Re- 
sources will deemphasize management 
concepts that now encourage further devel- 
opment of the Canada goose concentration 
in east-central Wisconsin. The two agencies 
propose to reduce goose use of Horicon 
Marsh, the nucleus of Canada goose activity 
in that part of the state. The service and the 
Wisconsin DNR manage the goose popula- 
tion under an advisory overview of the Mis- 
sissippi Valley Flyway Council. The objec- 
tive of the joint management effort is to 
reduce the peak goose concentration at 
Horicon Marsh to 1 00,000 by 1 980. 

Since the late 1930s, management of the 
Horicon goose flock, has been a notably 



successful enterprise. The Mississippi 
Valley population increased from 45,000 in 
1936 to recent post-hunting season peak 
populations of 300,000. The portion of the 
population using east-central Wisconsin 
mushroomed from zero population in 1940 
to recent peak numbers exceeding 200,000 
birds. 

Before the concentration can be reduced, 
adjustments in the land and water features 
at Horicon would have to be made. Under 
the proposal, now in the work plan stage, 
lowland browse croplands would be per- 
mitted to revert to natural moist soil plant 
growth to reduce the availability of roosting 
and feeding areas. Dewatering strategic 
portions of the marsh is another measure of 
the goose-management proposal. 

Anthony Earl, secretary of the Wisconsin 



I •►■: V 



DNR, says the cooperative effort will focus 
on "'reducing the peak concentration — not 
the population." "Our chief concern is the 
resource," says Earl. "Better distribution of 
the geese would reduce the potential threat 
of disease to the flock." State and federal 
waterfowl managers fear the tight concen- 
tration makes the birds vulnerable to dis- 
eases such as fowl cholera and duck viral 
enteritis. It is also believed that thinning the 
concentration would help alleviate crop 
losses in the private sector. 
An important factor in altering the popula- 
tion is weather. In dry years farmers nor- 
mally harvest crops before the migrant 
geese congregate in the area, while in wet 
years, the birds may have an opportunity to 
pilfer some of the standing crops. Reducing 
goose use by 50 percent and dispersing the 



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flock from the Horicon zone before De- 
cember 5 is part of the strategy. 

The manipulation plan to reduce the 
goose flock may benefit the local duck 
population. Upland agricultural fields on 
Horicon National Wildlife Refuge and all 
state-managed areas in east-central Wis- 
consin will be converted to dense nesting 
cover. Converted uplands, it is hoped, will 
be unattractive to geese but suitable for 
duck production. 

In spite of the planned reduction, Wis- 
consin will still have a sizeable goose popu- 
lation, and to most observers, the proposed 
change in the goose population would not 
be apparent. The agencies have not ruled 
out an increase in the hunting quota for the 
Horicon zone. The statewide harvest quota 
for Wisconsin is 28,000 geese, of which 
16,000 is assigned to the Horicon quota 
zone. 



Bird Data Bank 

A computerized collection of information 
on the more than seventy species of colo- 
nially nesting birds is being established by 
the Cornell University Laboratory of Orni- 
thology. The colonial bird register was orga- 
nized to develop a computerized data base 
for the collection and dissemination of in- 
formation concerning colonial birds. Indi- 
viduals and agencies working with colo- 
nially nesting species are asked to 
contribute to the program's success by 
submitting field survey forms detailing the 
location of colonies, species composition, 
and other information. In turn, the Register 
will provide a centralized location for the 
information. 

The survey forms are designed to require 
a minimum amount of time for the investi- 
gator to complete. Forms are supplied at no 
charge. They are available, to those in a 
position to provide information, from the 
Colonial Bird Register, Cornell Laboratory 
of Ornithology, 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd., 
Ithaca, N.Y. 14853. 



Congress Acts against Blackbird 

Blackbirds have returned by the millions to 
localized areas of Kentucky and Tennessee 
and the Department of the Interior has 
been empowered by Congress to authorize 
the treatment of roosts with chemicals regis- 
tered for bird control purposes unless the 
treatment itself poses a hazard to humans. 

Congress passed on January 28 an act to 
provide for starling and blackbird control 



N ATIO N A L 

WILDLIFE 

REFUGE 





U S DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

BUREAU OF 

SPORT FISHERIES AND WILDLIFE 

UNAUTHORIZED ENTRY PROHIBITED 



in Kentucky and Tennessee. President Ford 
signed the bill into law on February 4. 

The bill waives the provisions of the Na- 
tional Environmental Policy Act of 1969, 
the Federal Environmental Pesticide Control 
Act, or any other laws, for control actions 
undertaken in these two states before April 
15, 1976. 

Congress found that in Kentucky and 
Tennessee large concentrations of starlings, 
grackles, blackbirds, and other birds found 
in "blackbird roosts" pose a hazard to 
human health and safety, livestock, and ag- 
riculture. It further found that roosts are 
reestablished each winter and that dispersal 
techniques have been unsuccessful. Large 
concentrations of blackbirds produce drop- 
pings of 1 to 2 feet in depth under large 
roosts. This heightens the likelihood of 
humans contracting histoplasmosis — a se- 
rious infection of the trachea and bronchial 
tubes. Control, the bill stated, is most effec- 
tive when birds are concentrated in winter 
roosts. Further, the bill pointed out, an 
emergency does exist which requires imme- 
diate action with insufficient time to comply 
with the National Environmental Policy Act. 

The bill provides that upon certification 
by the governor of Kentucky or Tennessee 
to the Secretary of the Interior that "black- 
bird roosts" are a significant hazard to 
human health, safety, or property in his 
state, the Secretary of the Interior will 
survey roosts and authorize the treatment 
with chemicals registered for bird control 
purposes those roosts containing more than 
500,000 birds, unless the treatment itself 



would pose a hazard to human health, 
safety, or property. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service survey of 
1975 reports that there were about 77 mil- 
lion blackbirds in Kentucky and Tennessee. 
The blackbird/starling population in North 
America reaches a low point of about 250 
million birds in late April to early May each 
year. By July, when the reproductive season 
terminates, the population has more than 
doubled to about 550 million birds. Be- 
tween mid-July and the following April, 
more than 300 million blackbirds/starlings 
die naturally, reducing the breeding popu- 
lation to the 250 million level of the pre- 
vious breeding season. During the period of 
winter roosting (October-March), perhaps 
200 million blackbirds/starlings die natu- 
rally. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service breeding 
survey counts show that the breeding 
number of starlings and grackles have defi- 
nitely increased over the last decade. Both 
starlings and grackles have benefited from 
land use changes caused by man. 



Raptors: Progress Report 

The annual U.S. Forest Service survey of 
bald eagles and ospreys on national forests 
in the Great Lakes area indicates that the 
eagle increased its numbers and that osprey 
held its own during 1 975. 

The number of young eagles known to 
have reached fledging age on the seven na- 
tional forests was 192, nearly 30 more than 
in any previous year of the survey which 
has been conducted since 1964. The os- 
preys produced 102 young to fledging age. 
That is 16 less than last year. Biologists 
think several osprey nests were destroyed 
by windstorms and could account for the 
drop. In 1 965 only 37 young eagles and 1 1 
ospreys were found on the forests. 



Record numbers of bald eagles and 
golden eagles wintered this year in southern 
Colorado's San Luis Valley, according to 
the National Audubon Society. Totals from 
a January 29 study indicated between 200 
and 250 bald eagles and approximately 280 
golden eagles in a 2,500-square-mile area. 
The survey team also noted approximately 
1 50 American rough-legged hawks, small 
numbers of marsh and red-tailed hawks, 
and a lone prairie falcon. 

The counts were made by the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, the Colorado Division 



Field Museum Bulletin 



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Osprey 



of Wildlife, and the National Audubon So- 
ciety. The San Luis Valley, a large 
mountain-rimmed desert basin, has tradi- 
tionally wintered substantial numbers of 
eagles and other raptors. Temperatures 25° 
below zero are not uncommon in the valley 
during the long winters. 

The biologists stated that it is unique to 
find a large concentration of bald eagles 
wintering in such a cold, arid region. Bald 
eagles normally spend the winter near large 
areas of open water such as flowing rivers 
or lakes. 

It is obvious that the niimber of bald ea- 



gles has increased in the valley over the last 
five years, the biologists report. They at- 
tribute this to a combination of factors, in- 
cluding the ban on predator poisons on fed- 
eral lands, a decline in illegal shooting, and 
possibly the prohibition of DDT. 

Their survey also notes that the bald eagle 
population wintering in the Valley ap- 
peared in excellent health. Approximately 
30 percent were immature birds, indicating 
that the eagles are reproducing well, and 
that survival of young is good. 

Bald eagles were concentrated toward 
the western portion of the San Luis Valley, 



but with substantial groups on the lower 
Conejos River, and others along the Rio 
Grande River east and west of Monte Vista. 
All the birds are winter visitors only, and 
have already headed north to Canada and 
possibly Alaska where they breed and raise 
their young. No banding studies of the San 
Luis Valley bald eagles have been done, so 
the precise locations of their summer range 
is unknown. 

The golden eagles were distributed 
widely over most of the Valley. Many are 
likely year-round residents of southern Col- 
orado. They started moving out of the low- 




lands in February, with local breeding pairs 
heading for the foothills and mountains to 
nest, and the nonresidents migrating to 
more northerly latitudes. 

Like the bald eagle, the American rough- 
legged hawk is strictly a migrant and has 
already left the Valley for points as far north 
as the Noatak River in northwestern Alaska. 

Feeding habits of these three species are 
different. The bald eagle prefers fish, both 
alive and dead, and carrion. Golden eagles 
depend heavily on rabbits, while the rough- 
legged hawk concentrates on smaller ro- 
dents such as field mice. 

The January 29 survey was made in a 
light plane flying 500 linear miles of tran- 
sect lines at an elevation of 1 50 feet above 
the ground. Transects were randomly se- 
lected to cover 10 percent, or 250 square 
miles of the 2,500 square-mile area cen- 
sused. Raptors were counted one-quarter 
mile to either side of the flight line, then fig- 
ures were extrapolated for the entire 2,500 
square-mile area. January 29 was a clear, 
calm day — excellent for an aerial survey of 
this kind. Most of the birds were perched on 
telephone poles and in cottonwoods where 
they were easily spotted. On windy days, 
when eagles and hawks take to the air, ac- 
curate counting may be more difficult. 



Peregrine Restoration Continues 

A group of Cornell University ornitholo- 
gists, aided by state, federal, and private 
support, are making encouraging progress 
restoring the endangered peregrine falcon 
in the wild. 

Since 1973 the Peregrine Fund has raised 
68 peregrines from captive parents. Last 
summer, 16 young peregrines were re- 
leased in five eastern areas with remarkable 
success so far. The group has expanded 
operations to the West. Several prairie fal- 
cons have been released in Colorado and 
the western subspecies of peregrine is being 
produced for future releases. 



Falconry Regulations 

New regulations requiring Federal permits 
for falconers and setting standards for 
falconry — the ancient sport of taking quarry 
with trained birds of prey — have been re- 



Broad-winged hawk 



Field Museum Bullelii 



cently announced by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

The regulations, published in the Federal 
Register, 

• require that persons entering the sport 
have a basic knowledge of raptor iden- 
tification, biology, regulations, care, 
and training; 

• establish three classes of falconry per- 
mits depending upon the individual's 
level of competence: apprentice, gen- 
eral, and master classes; 

• set housing and marking requirements 
for raptors; 

• identify species which can be used for 
the sport and set limits on the number 
of birds which can be removed from 
the wild (no endangered species can 
be used); 

• establish minimum standards to be 
used by the states for issuing their fal- 
conry permits. 

Federal regulations of falconry is required 
by a March 1972 convention between the 
United States and Mexico which extends 
federal protection to virtually all species of 
North American birds traditionally used for 
falconry. None can be possessed without a 
federal permit. Some of the more common 
species include the red-tailed hawk, prairie 
falcon, cooper's hawk, goshawk, kestrel, 
and Harris' hawk. 

Falconry has been practiced for over 
4,000 years and is increasing in popularity 
worldwide. An estimated 1,500 Americans 
actively engage in the sport, and the 
number is growing. 

The sport of falconry is not allowed in 
some states. Where it is allowed, state regu- 
lations must conform with the minimum 
requirements stated in the federal regula- 
tions. The new rules became effective Feb- 
ruary 1 7. 



Extinction Is Rule? 

The long continued survival of a group of 
animals is a rare event, reports a geologist- 
geophysicist at the University of Minnesota. 
Robert E. Sloan has developed some in- 
triguing information and theories on animal 
extinction during his years of studying the 
demise of dinosaurs. "Extinction is the rule 
rather than the exception," says Sloan, 
"and we can, if we choose, calculate a sort 
of half life of a species." 

Approximately 20,000 species of verte- 
brates were alive 230 million years ago, 
according to Sloan, and only about two 
dozen of those have any living descendants 




Red^Uvl.'il hjnk 

now. Those two dozen, he continues, have 
nearly 50,000 species descended from 
them. 

Globally, the temperature underwent a 
seven-degree centigrade reduction at all lat- 
itudes and doomed dinosaurs all over the 
world. That was not a severe change, Sloan 
says, but it was enough to destroy the dino- 
saur's habitat. "We found that very few 
things in those communities became ex- 
tinct," he said. At the time, there were nine 
species of dinosaurs, two dozen mammals, 
and assorted reptiles and birds. "We found, 
to our great surprise, that the only things 
that became extinct were the nine dinosaurs 
and six or seven possums and two kinds of 
multituberculars (gnawing animals)." 

"As dinosaurs became extinct, a very 
small percentage of placental mammals, 
essentially hedgehogs, developed rapidly to 
fill the role left by the dinosaurs. Over a 
span of nine million years, this very small 



group of mammals developed into the 
ancestors of bats, whales, pigs, sea cows, 
proto-elephants, rodents, primates, and all 
other 24 existing orders of placental mam- 
mals." 

According to Sloan, no two species have 
become extinct for exactly the same rea- 
sons, but most extinctions are linked to the 
rapid expansion of the human population. 
Further population expansion of humans 
will force more species to the wall, Sloan 
says. He theorizes that man's extinction will 
also come. 



Wyoming Fights for 1080 Use 

The State of Wyoming again has gone to the 
U.S. District Court for a temporary re- 
straining order to prevent the Environmental 
Protection Agency from issuing a stop-use 



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order on compound 1080. Misuse of 1080 
has killed many eagles and other non-target 
wildlife. 

Last year the district court nullified EPA's 
suspension of 1080. An appeals court over- 
turned that decision but Wyoming had al- 
ready distributed baits laced with the 
deadly 1080 poison to control coyotes. EPA 
requested that the baits be retrieved, but 
Wyoming has refused so far, according to 
the Wildlife Management Institute. 

Since the pending request for a re- 
straining order to allow the use of 1080 will 
be heard by the same judge that issued the 
first order, it is feared by some conserva- 
tionists that the state may receive a favor- 
able ruling again. 



"People Who Start Pollution Award" 
for Keep America Beautiful 

At a "Counter-Awards Ceremony" which 
recently took place in conjunction with 
Keep America Beautiful's (KAB) annual 
meeting, environmentalists charged that 
KAB is an "industry front," and bestowed a 
special "People Who Start Pollution" 
award to that organization for its alleged 
efforts to cover up the environmental im- 
pact of throwaway beverage cans and bot- 
tles. The "Throwaway Society Award" was 
given to Coca-Cola for its promotion of the 
throwaway plastic bottle. Coca-Cola was 
singled out for having introduced this 
petroleum-based bottle during a period of 
national energy shortage. 

Tom McCall, former governor of Oregon, 
was given the "People Who Stop Pollution 
Award" for his efforts in behalf of the Or- 
egon Bottle Bill in 1970. All awards were 
presented on behalf of more than thirty na- 
tional and state public interest organiza- 
tions. 



Chicago CO Level Hits 
Five- Year High 

Carbon monoxide levels during 1975 in 
downtown Chicago reached their highest 
levels in the past five years. The highest 
reading violating the nine parts per million 
national health standard was an eight-hour 
average of 21 parts per million recorded 
Nov. 4, 1975. 

The entire year's air quality data, col- 
lected by a continuous monitor operated by 
the City of Chicago's Department of Envi- 
ronmental Control, showed violations of the 
health standard during 21 percent of the 
eight-hour periods sampled. 



Medical researchers have found that 
blood samples of people in downtown Chi- 
cago contain among the highest levels of 
carbon monoxide in the nation. The sub- 
stance interferes with the blood's ability to 
carry oxygen and adversely affects the ner- 
vous and cardiovascular systems. 



Michigan Dunes Area 
Closed to Traffic 

The Nordhouse Dunes Area in Mason 
County Mich, will be permanently closed 
to motorized traffic effective this spring. 
Located in Grant Township about midway 
between Manistee and Ludington, the area 
was used extensively by off-road vehicles 
prior to its closure for study in October 
1973. 

According to the National Park Service, 
four alternatives for managing the area were 
established during the two-year study. They 
ranged from walk-in use only without trail 
development, to development of an ORV 
recreation area with area and number of 
users regulated. They were rated against 
management objectives for the area, the 
most important of which were public safety 
and maintaining the dunes' character. 

Other objectives included effects on 
plant and animal communities, supply and 
demand for dune uses, disturbance to ad- 
joining landowners and development costs. 

Present plans for development of the area 
include a parking lot near the end of Nurn- 
berg Road, and toilet and garbage collec- 
tion facilities. Foot trails will also be devel- 
oped. 

Persons desiring more information about 
the decision should write the Forest Super- 
visor, Huron-Manistee National Forests, 
42 1 S. Mitchell St., Cadillac, Mich. 49601 . 



"Quiet Day" for Grand Rapids 

You don't have to tiptoe through Grand 
Rapids, Mich., on Quiet Day, but towns- 
people won't appreciate your making a lot 
of racket, either. 

The observance began in 1 974 when city 
fathers decided the future of the environ- 
ment was not tied so much to court action 
as to the attitudes and awareness of the 
populace. The result was a proclamation by 
Mayor Parks naming September 27 the first 
annual "Quiet Day in Grand Rapids, Mich- 
igan." 

Primary goal of the observance was to 



increase citizens' awareness of noise pollu- 
tion and the need for its abatement. The 
Committee on Noise, composed of govern- 
ment officials, educators, audiologists, 
motorcycle dealers, police officers, and an 
acoustical engineer, took responsibility for 
the development and execution of Quiet 
Day. 

From the original idea of a low-keyed 
program. Quiet Day eventually emerged as 
a multi-faceted one, so much so that the 
committee decided to set aside Riverside 
Park in Grand Rapids for the day's activities. 

Before the day was out, scores of citizens 
had brought their autos in for noise level 
tests by the Grand Rapids Environmental 
Protection Department, and also took free 
hearing tests administered by a local audiol- 
ogist. 

City officials conceded it was difficult to 
accurately measure the success or effective- 
ness of a program such as Quiet Day. How- 
ever, they noted that the area schools dis- 
played a marked interest in noise pollution 
and what they could do about it. More than 
25 of them asked the Grand Rapids EPA to 
provide speakers to discuss noise abate- 
ment. 



Viruses Fight Insects 

A virus which occurs naturally in insects 
has now been registered as an insecticide 
by the EPA, meaning the product has met 
extensive test requirements for safety and 
effectiveness. 

It is approved for use against two highly 
destructive cotton pests — the cotton boll- 
worm and tobacco budworm. The virus is 
naturally present in those two insects and 
tests have shown that it presents a minimal 
hazard to persons applying the insecticide. 

The virus product also appears to have no 
adverse effects on beneficial insects, birds 
or other wildlife that help keep other cotton 
pests under control. This specificity of the 
insecticide is a major environmental advan- 
tage over chemical pesticides approved by 
EPA for cotton use. 

Other environmental benefits are that the 
insecticide becomes harmless shortly after 
application and that it is not capable of 
building up in the bodies of birds or other 
wildlife that might eat the treated insects. 

The insecticide is produced by raising 
diseased bollworm and budworm insects in 
a laboratory, then extracting the virus and 
mixing it with other materials. It may be 
applied by either ground equipment or air- 
plane. 



Field Museum Bulletin 




Viewed horn atop the Blackstone Hotel, Field Museum dominates a dreary expanse of landfill. Photo probably made early in 7927. 



1921: Field Museum^s New Home 



Fifty-six years ago, in March 1920, began the 
enormous task of moving Field Museum's 
collections from the old buildmg m Jackson 
Park to the new building in Grant Park. During 
the next six months 354 loads of specimens 
and equipment were transported by truck 
Transfer by rail began on April 26 and lasted 
for SIX weeks. During that time 321 boxcar 



loads were transferred. Nearly a year later, on 
May 2, 1921, the new building formally 
opened. 

More than a decade before, negotiations 
were completed for acquisition of the land 
site (earlier attempts to secure a more central 
location in the park fell through). In 1914, 
Frederick J.V. Skiff, then director, reported 



that the greater part of the steel required for 
the new building had been produced and more 
than one half of the necessary marble had 
been quarried and cut. On September 28, 
1917, the cornerstone was laid. February 23, 
1920, marked the closing date for the Jackson 
Park building, as exhibits had been substan- 
tially withdrawn for packing. Fifteen months 



View from the Museum's north portico on opening day, May 2, 7927. Ihe event attracted 8,000 visitors. Chicago's sl^yline, in the background, 
is dominated by two still-familiar landmarks: the Wrigley Building {right) and the Blackstone Hotel [left]. 





New Department of Exhibition area. 



Fred Huysman, Field Museum scanning electron microscope 
technician and photographer, operates the new SEM. While the 
microscope itself was purchased by means of a National Science 
Foundation grant, all the housing for the unit, as well as humidity and 
temperature controls, were provided by Capital Campaign Funds. 



'1976: Rehabilitation in Full Swing 



were to elapse before the formal reopening at 
the new location. 

The building that visitors saw on that May 
afternoon, 55 years ago, remained essentially 
unchanged until the current rehabilitation 
program, which was initiated in 1971. 
Approximately 75 percent of that $25 million 
program has now been completed or is 



underway Estimated completion date of the 
major portion is August of next year. 

The final result will be a greatly updated 
museum, conforming to modern principles of 
public safety, fire prevention, and efficiency. 
The Museum will be barrier-free so that 
handicapped persons, too, may have an 
enioyable and unhindered visit. More persons 



will be able to take advantage of the 
Museum's programs of general education; 
more school groups will be accommodated 
through new classrooms and service facilities, 
staff and visiting scientists will be able to 
conduct basic research in laboratories with 
modern, efficient equipment. 



The new west parking lot nears completion. It will provide a 
turn-around area for buses. The new west entrance is being 
modified and lowered to ground level to make the Museum 
''.irrier-free for the handicapped. 



Chief Engineer Leonard Carrion [right] inspects one of two new centrifugal 
compressors, or "chillers." These units are the core of an environmental 
control system that will maintain proper temperature and humidity 
levels in the Museum 





12 April 1976 



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Iroquois Prayer: Intention and Anticipation 



By David Blanchard 



From 1689 to 1763 three great imperial 
powers struggled tor domination over 
northeastern North America. These 
were the English, the French, and the Iro- 
quois Confederacy of Five Nations. The 
English and the Iroquois joined forces early 
to eliminate the French from the northeast. 
Their efforts were successful and by the 
close of the "French and Indian Wars" 
French imperial presence in North America 
was virtually eliminated. The English gained 
control of all of Quebec and the Maritime 
provinces, establishing themselves as the 
dominant European power in North Amer- 
ica. For their part, the Iroquois became the 
undisputed masters of the eastern Great 
Lakes fur trade. And finally, Iroquois ambi- 
tion for supremacy over the west became 
enhanced by the English setting of the "Proc- 
lamation Line" which limited colonial ex- 
pansion westward. 

During the American War for Inde- 
pendence the Iroquois Confederacy split its 
allegiance, with most of the Iroquois Nations 
supporting the English. With the subsequent 
defeat of the English, Iroquois supremacy in 
the northeast came to an end. On George 
Washington's orders. General Sullivan 
marched through present-day upstate New 
York and laid havoc to Iroquoia. Sullivan's 
army set a pattern which was to typify the 
new republic's dealings with the native 
inhabitants of North America. Cultivated 
fields and homes were set to the torch and a 
large portion of the Iroquois population was 
slain. The survivors were forced to flee to 
Canada or else to settle on sparse reserva- 
tions provided by the new government. 
Despite these serious setbacks, the Iroquois 
people were able to retain some of the 
political and social institutions which char- 



•^ False Face mask, carved of wood, used in the 
False Face curing ceremony of the Iroquois. The 
mask represents as well as embodies the spirit oi 
False Face. About 8 inches high. Cat. No. 92125. 



acterized the League at the height of its 
power. 

It is for their political and social organ- 
ization that the Iroquois are best known. The 
League of the Five Nations was a working, 
viable democracy which impressed Amer- 
ican patriots attempting to effect a similar 
union of the fledgling colonies. Benjamin 
Franklin commented on the League in a 
1751 letter to lames Parker. Franklin noted 
the Iroquois' capability for "forming a 
Scheme for such a Union and being able to 
execute it in such a manner, as it had 
subsisted Ages, and appears indissoluble."' 

The Iroquois also had, and have today, 
a rich cultural and spiritual heritage. Their 
religious beliefs have been accurately re- 
corded by Iroquois historians as have de- 
tailed accounts of ritual praying and other 
speech events. Iroquois prayer is the subject 
of the diorama soon to be constructed in 
Hall Five of Field Museum. 

This diorama will depict a contempo- 
rary Iroquois kitchen with an Iroquois man 
offering prayer and tobacco to the spirit of 
False Face. It is intended, through this ex- 
hibit, to demonstrate the continuity of the 
ritual process of prayer in the context of 
technological and social change. In so 
doing, the diorama should help dispel the 
myth that Native American culture is strictly 
a phenomenon of the past, a mvth which 
unfortunately so many museum exhibits 
unwittingly support. 

Iroquois prayer can onK be fully under- 
stood when studied in the context of cosmo- 
genic mythology and the ritual event which 
accompanies the prayer. Cosmogenic my- 
thology describes the origins of the world in 
such a way as to render the universe compre- 
hensible to a people. In the case of the 
Iroquois it does much more than this. Cos- 
mogenic myths also describe the contractual 
relationships which exist between the vari- 
ous spiritual forces responsible for creation 
and man. 

Strictly speaking, the Iroquois do not 



have a concept of creation. An early Amer- 
ican linguist, Daniel Brinton, comments on 
this fact in his surves of American Indian 
"literature." Brinton notes that 

these people [the Iroquois] were indeed 
keen enough to perceive that there really 
was no creation In such an account. Dry 
land was wanting, but earth was there, 
though hidden by boundless waters. They 
spoke distinctly of the action of the musk- 
rat in bringing it [earth] up to the surface 
as a formation only.' 

Brinton goes on to explain that when the 
earK Jesuit fathers pressed the Iroquois 
for an explanation as to the ultimate origin of 
matter they were simply told that they were 
"talking onK nonsense." 

This "formation" of the earth came 
about when the "Earth Grasper Chief" ex- 
iled his young bride, "Fertile Earth," from 
the regions of the upper plane. As it hap- 
pened. Fertile Earth had conceived while 
still a virgin and the mind of her husband 
was made jealous by the "crafty machina- 
tions of the White Dragon of the Fire Body." 
The Earth Grasper ordered the "Tree of the 
Standing Light" to be uprooted, and his 
young, unsuspecting wife thrown through 
the abyss. 

Fertile Earth fell, and continued to fall 
until she was rescued by a flock of flying 
waterfowl. These birds laid her down on the 
back of a great turtle, whose shell became 
the foundation of the earth. Fertile Earth 
walked over the carapace, gradually causing 
it to increase in size. Eventually she gave 
birth to a daughter, sometimes referred to in 
the mythology as Zephrys. 

Zephr\s also became parthenogeneti- 



David Blanchard is a research assistant in the 
Native American Program at Field Museum 
and a graduate student at the University of 
Chicago. 



Field Museum Bulletii 



cally prt'gnont. In the final stages ot her 
pregnancy, her yet unborn twin sons began 
an argument as to the best way to leave their 
mother. One of the sons, called "Flint," look 
the lead and exited through his mother's 
armpit, killing her in the process. The second 
son, "Sapling," was blamed for the deed by 
his brother. Angered by the death of her 
daughter. Fertile Earth decided to punish 
Sapling by throwing him out into the foresi. 

At this point, the Earth Grasper Chief 
intervened on behalf of Sapling. He taught 
his grandson how to live off the land, and 
ordered him to prepare the earth for the 
coming of man. Sapling took this charge 
seriously and set out at once to make the 
earth productive and otherwise habitable. 
As might be expected, his jealous brother, 
Flint, tried to interfere. Sapling made the 
rivers run in order to facilitate travel and 
communication among men. Flint placed 
boulders and rocks in these rivers to make 
them impassable. Sapling ordered the game 
animals to provide food for man, and Flint 
captured these animals and attempted to 
imprison them in a great cave. After securing 
the release of the game, Sapling challenged 
his brother to an open show of force. A final 
contest was arranged, to be played out over 
a game of cherry pit dice. On the eve of this 
confrontation. Sapling called upon all of the 
universe to aid him in his struggle. The 
following day. Sapling proved victorious. 
Flint was then banished to the realm of the 
lower world. The world was now ready for 
habitation by man. Sapling formed the 
image of man out of red clay and breathed a 
part of his life into him. He then charged 
man with continuing the work of creation, 
ordering him to constantly recreate the 
world, making it anew. 

One of the clearest evampies of the 
contractual nature of Iroquois cosmogenic 
mythology is found in the episode which 
describes the confrontation between Sapling 
and the False Face. After having transformed 
the world, it is told. Sapling was going about 
from place to place looking over his work. 
He happened to come upon a long-haired 
man. False Face, who confronted Sapling 
and claimed to be responsible for all of his 
good works. Sapling challenged this impos- 
ter to a show of power. A contest was agreed 
upon. Whoever could make the mountain 
move was the recognized master of the 
earth. False Face took his turn first, and not 
surprisingly, proved unsuccessful. Sapling 
went next. But before issuing his command 
he asked False Face to turn his back. Sapling 
then moved the mountain up, directly be- 
hind the unsuspecting False Face. When 



False Face turned around, his face hit the 
side of the mountain and became badly 
contorted. False Face then recognized Sap- 
ling as his master and made the following 
agreement. If man would offer tobacco and 
pra\er to him and refer to him as "grand- 
father," False Face in turn would aid man by 
curing him of disease. Sapling agreed to 
these terms. 

Prayer, among the Iroquois, generally 
follows or is accompanied by a ritual act. 
Prayers to the spirit of False Face, for exam- 
ple, follow the ritual sacrifice of tobacco, the 
smoke of which carries the prayers up to the 
spirit. The text of the prayer recounts the act 
which immediately precedes it and then 
alludes to the original contractual bargain 
agreed upon in the cosmogenic myth. An 
example of such a prayer has been recorded 
by Arthur Parker, an Iroquois man who 
worked as an anthropologist for the New 
York State Museum during the second dec- 
ade of this century. This prayer, or a variant 
of it, is still used by the False Face Company 
of Healers in their "Opening," or "Tobacco 
Throwing Ceremony," performed every year 
at the feast of Mid-Winter. It is not difficult to 
envision the ceremony, given only the text 
of the prayer to go on. 

Now receive you this tobacco, you, 

Shagodiowengowa, the great false 

face. 
Now it is that you have come to where 

your grandchildren are gathered. 
Now you are taking the place of the great 

false faces who are wandering in the 

rocky valleys and mountains. 
Now you are the ones who think much of 

this sacred tobacco. 
Now we wish to make a request of you. 

So we always offer this sacred tobacco, 

when we ask anything of you. 
We pray that you help us with your 

power. 
You can go over all the earth. 
In the center of the earth is a great pine 

tree and that is the place of your resting. 

It is there that you rub your rattle when 

you come to rest. 
Now then this tree receives this tobacco. 
We ask that you watch over us and 

exercise your power to protect us from 

anything harmful. 
We hold in mind that you have done your 

duty in past times and we ask that you 

continue vigilant henceforth. 
We use this tobacco when we ask favors 

of you for you are very fond of this 

tobacco. 
Now your cane gets tobacco. The great 



pine tree to its top is your cane. 
Now you, the husk faces, you get tobacco 

also. 
You have been associated with the false 

faces in times past. 
Now you receive tobacco for you have 

done your duty. 
So it is finished.' 

With the ritual sacrifice of tobacco an 
intention is fulfilled on the part of the 
Iroquois petitioner. That part of the contrac- 
tual agreement which demands something 
of man is therefore completed. The prayer 
which accompanies the ritual act reviews 
the complete agreement and calls upon the 
spirit of False Face to fulfill his part of the 
bargain. A sense of anticipation is gradually 
built up as the petitioner recalls past in- 
stances when False Face did indeed respond 
to the prayer and granted man's request. This 
two-part structure of intention and anticipa- 
tion is typical of Iroquois prayer. 

Not all prayer is solely concerned with 
petition. Indeed, thanksgiving is a very im- 
portant element in many Iroquois prayers. 
The prayers of the " Yotondak'o'," or "Open- 
ing Ceremony of the Pygmy Society," dem- 
onstrate this concern: 

Now we commence to thank the Creator. 
Now we are thankful that we who have 

assembled here are well. 
We are thankful to the Creator tor the 

world and all that is upon it for our 

benefit. 
We thank the Sun and the Moon. 
We thank the Creator that so far tonight 

we are all well. 

At this point in the ritual, after thanksgiving 
has been offered, the principles of the cere- 
mony are all introduced to the assembled 
community. 

Now I announce that [sick man 's name]is 

to be treated. 
Now this one. [man's name[ will throw 

tobacco into the lire. 
Now these will lead the singing [singers 

are now named]. 
So have I said. 

The "tobacco thrower" then advances to the 
fire and, seating himself, takes a basket of 
Indian tobacco and speaks as follows: 

Now the smoke rises. 
Receive you this incense. 

You who run in the darkness. 



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Representation of Iroquoian cosmos. Above ,s the 
Tree of the Standmg bght, below -s the tu (e 
wh'se shei; becar^e the |ounda.,on of^he e^ th. 
Drawing by Stewart MacLeod, from I. N. Hev^.tt, 



Field Museum Bulletin 







Rattle made from snapping turtle used in prayer 
ceremony by False Face Society. Length: ZOVa 
inches. Cat. No. 55762 



Now the smoke rises. 

Receive vnu this incense. 

You who run in the darkness. 

You know that this one has thought of 

you. 
Now you are able to cause sickness. 
Now, when first you saw that men-beings 

were upon the earth, you said, 
"These are our grandchildren." 
You promised to be one of the forces for 

men-beings' help, for thereby you 

would receive offerings of tobacco. 
So now you get tobacco-you, the 

Pygmies, [hie sprinkles tobacco on the 

fire.] 
Now is the time when you have come; 
You and the niember have assembled 

here tonight. 
Now again you receive tobacco-you the 

Pygmies. 
You are the wanderers of the mountains; 
You have promised to hear us whenever 

the drum sounds. 
Even as far away as seven days' journey. 
Now all of you receive tobacco. 
You well know the members of this 

society. 
So let this [sickness] cease. 
You are the cause of a person, a member 

becoming ill. 
hienceforth give good fortune for he has 

fulfilled his duty and has given you 

tobacco. 
You love tobacco and we remember it; 
So also you should remember us. 
Now the drum receives tobacco. 
And the rattle also. 
It is our belief that we have said all. 
So now we hope that you will help us. 
Now these are the words spoken before 

you all. 
You who are gathered here tonight. 
So now it is done.'' 

Although the surface details of the 
Pygmy Society prayer differ from those of the 
False Face Society, the basic structure of 
intention and anticipation remains the same. 
In both cases there is an unstated under- 
standing that the two beings, man and spirit, 
have an implicit agreement between them- 
selves. Nothing extraordinary or out of the 
usual is asked for in either case, rather just 
what was agreed upon in mythological time. 
The spirit forces are referred to as "grand- 
father," a term of respect, and tobacco is 
burned in their honor. For their part, the 
spirit forces are asked to keep the society 
and its supporters free from disease and 
affliction. In short, this affective shift from 
intention to anticipation is realized in two 
ways: 1) by making the text of the prayer 



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Gourd rattles used bv Pygmy Society. Right: I4V2 inches long. Cat. No. 93102; left: WV2 inches long. Cat. No. 55769. 



allude in someway to a primal contract, and 
2) by accompan\ing the pra\er with a 
formal ritual. 

Another important aspect of prayer is 
that it is directed towards a spirit force. There 
are indeed other forms of Iroquois oral 
tradition which follow this pattern of ref- 
erence and ritual, but are not prayers them- 
selves. A clear example of such a form is the 
"Funeral Address of a Lord of the Confeder- 
acy." This address is found in Parker's work 
on the "Constitution of the Five Nations," 
Itself a kind of contract which specifies 
relations and responsibilities between the 
people of the Five Nations: 

Now we become reconciled as you start 
away. You were once a Lord of the Five 
Nations' Confederacy and the United 
People trusted you. Now we release you 
for it is true that it is no longer possible for 
us to walk about together on the earth. 
Now therefore we lay your body here. 
Here we lay it away. Now then we say to 
you, "Persevere onwards to the place 
where the Creator dwells in peace. Let not 
the things of the earth hinder you. Let 
nothing that transpired while yet you 
lived hinder you. In hunting you once 
took delight: in the game of LaCrosse 
you once took delight and in the feasts 
and pleasant occasions your mind was 
amused, but now do not allow thoughts 
of these things to give you trouble. Let not 
your relatives hinder you and also let not 



your friends and associates trouble your 
mind. Regard none of these things." 

Now then, in turn, you here present who 
were related to this man and you who 
were his friends and associates, behold 
the path that is yours also. Soon we also 
will be in his place. For this reason hold 
yourselves in restraint as you go from 
place to place. In your actions and in your 
conversation do no idle thing. Speak not 
idle talk neither gossip. Be careful of this 
and speak not and do not give way to evil 
behavior. One year is the time that you 
must abstain from unseemly levity but if 
you cannot do this for ceremony, ten days 
is the time to regard these things for 
respect. ^ 

Like prayer, the funeral address accom- 
panies a ritual act, in this case the burial of 
the body. Like prayer also, the funeral ad- 
dress alludes to a contractual agreement, the 
"Great Binding Law," which serves as a 
foundation of Iroquois society. However, 
while the form of the address has a structural 
similarity to Iroquois prayer, it has a different 
affect upon the community. This is so be- 
cause the address is politically and socially 
motivated, while prayer is spiritually 
charged. Thus, these affective differences 
correspond to the difference of intention be- 
tween these two speech events. 

This brief examination ot Iroquois 
prayer leads to a number of interesting con- 



clusions. On the one hand, it is possible to 
learn a great deal about the Iroquois and 
their conceptions of the universe through an 
analysis of their prayer. It becomes im- 
mediately evident, for example, that the 
Iroquois consider themselves as partners to 
the spiritual forces of nature in the ongoing 
process of creation. They have isolated and 
symbolized some of their implicit obliga- 
tions in this respect in their prayer. 

Secondly it becomes evident to the stu- 
dent of folklore and anthropology that any 
analysis of prayer text which precludes a 
study of the ritual and cosmogenic context of 
such a text is a futile endeavor. All too often 
Western scholars have attempted to impose 
their own genres and categories onto an ex- 
perience which is altogether foreign to them. 
Perhaps a more useful approach would be to 
study prayer, and indeed all oral tradition 
within its intentional and otherwise affective 
existential context. 

NOTES 

1. Larabeeetal.; The Papers of Beniamin Frank- 
lin. IV, New Haven, Conn., 1961. p. 117. 

2. Brinton, Daniel; Aboriginal American Au- 
thors and Their Productions. Philadelphia, 1883, 
p. 67. 

3. Parker, Arthur; "The Code of Handsome 
Lake," in Parker on the Iroquois. William Fenton, 
editor. Syracuse, 1969, pp. 120-121. 

4. Ibid., pp. 128-29. 

5. Parker, Arthur; "The Constitution of the Five 
Nations," in Parker on the Iroquois, William 
Fenton, editor. Syracuse, 1969, p. 58. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



rTiVTv^saw 



teM IbirM^ 




Alaikan Eskimo pipes recently stolen from Field Museum. 
Top to bottom: Cat. No. 13690. length about 8 inches: 
no catalogue number, length U inches; Cat. No. 13700, 
length about 8 inches. 



Eskimo Pipes Stolen 

Shown above are three Eskimo pipes stolen 
from Field Museum on or about February 5, 
1 976. They were on display in the temporary 
exhibition, "19th Century Alaskan Eskimo 
Art." The rare pipes are from western Alaska 
and are carved from walrus ivory. 

Anyone with information on the where- 
abouts of these pipes is asked to contact the 
director, Field Museum of Natural History. 
The phone number is (312) 922-9410. A re- 
ward is offered for their return. 



Plan Now for Members' Nights! 

May 6 and 7 



Members: plan now to attend Field Mu- 
seum's gala annual event. Members' Night, 



from 6 to 10 p.m. It Is the one opportunity 
that you, your family, and guests have each 
year to go "behind the scenes"~to visit the 
laboratories, preparation rooms, and see 
other areas of the Museum's vast collections. 
Staff members will be on hand to escort you, 
answer questions, and demonstrate many of 
the interesting techniques used by curators 
andpreparators. Among the exciting features 



this year will be a first showing of a 55-foot 
model of the pterosaur, a prehistoric, flying 
reptile. 

Refreshments will be served in Stanley 
Field Hall. On the ground floor, the Museum 
cafeteria will be open for dining 6 to 8 p.m. 
Free parking will be available and free, 
round-trip charter busses will run every 30 
minutes from the Loop to the Museum from 
6 until Museum closing. Further details will 
appear in a special mailing for members 
and in next month's Bulletin. 



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SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 



SUMMER WORKSHOP 
July 12 -August 6 



Upper-level high school sludenlsand freshmen 
or sophomore college students will have the 
unusual opportunity to study the scanning elec- 
tron microscope and its operation first-hand, 
during a four-week workshop this summer at Field 
Museum. They will spend one month working 
with staff scientists, during which they will learn 
the basics of scanning microscope theory and 
operation, specimen preparation techniques, and 
participate in biological or geological research. 



Each student will: 1 ) prepare materials lor studs , 
2) spend three half-days at the scanning micro- 
scope making observations and photographs with 
the SEM technician, and 3) work with a Museum 
scientist in interpreting results of his studies. 

The areas of research in which a student may 
specialize are; flowering plants, liverworts, in- 
sects, mollusks, mammals, and Tertiary inverte- 
brate fossils. 



Enrollment for the workshop is limited to 
eight students; the fee is $125. 

Applications must be in by May 1 7, and shoukl 
consist of a letter, stating the applicant's area ol 
interest and background and include a letter of 
recommendation from a science teacher. The 
application should be sent to; Phil Hanson, De- 
partment of Education, Field Museum of Natural 
History: Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive: 
Chicago, III. 60605. 



View through scanning electron microscope: head of moth, showing scales and coilvil p. 




Field Museum Bulletin 



Lk.*".-*-^,. ^ »^ i^-^v*:- •""-.• , •' '#"«'4»-. "^■^r^'^*^\^'*'v^y» »i. *».»*»^ ' 



Weekend Field Trip for Geology Buffs 




By popular demand. Field Museum's unique "lecture tour" of 
Wisconsin's Baraboo Range will be repeated in May. The week- 
end field trip will leave tfie Museum at 8:00 a.m. Saturday, May 
15, and return Sunday. May 16, at about 7:00 p.m. 

Dr. Edward Olsen. curator of mineralogy, will conduct the 
geology field trip through the range and along the shores and hinter- 
land of beautiful Devil's Lake. 

The Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock — what 
is left of an ancient mountain range and which now stands out above 
the younger rocks and sediments. The range consists of quartzite — 
more than one billion years old — which, although compressed in 
places into vertical folds, retains the original sedimentary structures. 
The mountains were further modified by glaciers, forming the lake 
and the picturesque glens, and changing the course of rivers. 



The cost of this educational weekend is $50.00 per person, and 
includes all expenses of transportation on a charter bus and overnight 
accommodations in a first class resort motel. (Price is based on 
double occupancy, with twin beds. An extra fee will be charged for 
single facilities.) The fee also includes all meals and gratuities, except 
personal extras such as alcoholic beverages and special food service. 
Saturday evening will be free for you to enjoy the motel's recreational 
facilities. 

Hiking clothes are strongly recommended for the scheduled 
hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, but young people interested 
in natural history are welcome. The trip is limited to 30 persons, so get 
your reservation in early! 

For further details write or call Dorothy Roder, Field Museum 
922-9410, ext 219. 



Field Museum Geology Field Trip 
May 15-16, 1976 

1 wish reservations for the Baraboo Range Field Trip. 

(how many) 

Name 

Address 

City 



.State. 



.Zip_ 



Telephone: 

Amount enclosed- 



(mai<e checks payable to Field Museum) 



Return this coupon (or facsimile) today! 



'^rm- \ , 



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SECOND ANNUAL WILDERNESS CANOE TRIP 



July 18-28 



Applications are now open for a July canoe trip 
through Ontario's Quetico Provincial Park, a mem- 
bership benefit cosponsored by Field Museum and the 
Voyageur Wilderness program of Atikokan, Ontario. 

The Quetico. just north of Superior National Forest, in 
Minnesota, is one of the continent's last remaining wilderness 
areas. Transportation in this land of rock, pines, and glacial 
lakes is by muscle power only. To enjoy the unspoiled beauty 
of Quetico. one must earn his way in — by paddling a canoe 
and by carrying the canoe and gear over portage trails, which 
may be from a few yards to a mile long. 

The group, limited to thirty persons, will spend eight 
days and seven nights canoeing and camping — not fighting 
nature, but learning to live with it. All equipment, food, and 
guide services, as well as bus transportation between Field 
Museum and the Quetico, are included in the package. The 
trip is limited to Museum members 15 through 19 years old 



who are able to swim. Applicants will be interviewed by trip 
leaders, who will then select the final group. 

Dates: July 18 through July 28, 1976 
Total Cost: $195.00 
Deadline for Application: May 15 
Notification of Participants: By June 1 

A slide presentation by representatives of the Voyageur 
Wilderness Program will be given on Members' Nights. May 6 
and 7. Viewing times and room location will appear in Mem- 
bers" Night guide. For applications and further information, 
please write: 

Quetico Canoe Trip 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Cliicago, 111. 60605 



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APRIL 



at Field Museum 



New Programs 



Special Exhibits 



ILLUSTRATED LECTURE SERIES 



BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 



"Focus: People in the Mainstream." Illustrated lecture series 
in conjunction with the Man in His Enuironment exhibit (see below). 
Presented by people actively involved in some aspect of the environ- 
ment. Fridays at 7:30 p.m.; repeated on Saturdays at 2:30 p.m. 
Ground floor lecture hall, 

April 2. 3: The Slcy Wolf, by film producers/explorers 

Cheryl and Neil Rettig. 

April 9, 10: Waste Not. Want Not: Sewage Recycling and 

the Deep Tunnel Project, by Metropolitan 
Sanitary District Commissioner Joanne H. 
Alter. 

April 16, 17: Building. People, and the Urban Environ- 

ment, by professor of history, art history, and 
urban affairs Carl W. Condit. 

April 23, 24: The Zoo and the Modern World, by Chicago 

Zoological Park Director George Rabb. 

April 30. May 1: The Man-Built Environment, by Metropolitan 
Sanitary District urban planner David Bielen- 
berg. 



ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 



"Man in His Environment." The most talked-about environ- 
mental exhibit in the country deals with natural systems and man's 
impact on them — and leads to an inescapable conclusion: that man 
is not the independent master he assumes himself to be, but one of 
earth's creatures, as dependent upon the environment as any other 
creature. Man in His Environment takes a global view of the most 
serious problems now confronting all mankind and asks visitors to 
involve themselves in decisions that have to be made. 



ESKIMO ART EXHIBIT 

"19th Century Alaskan Eskimo Art." In the early to mid'19th 
century, traditional Alaskan Eskimo carving on ivory and wood 
reached special peaks of development. Art was inseparable from Es 
kimo life; the most commonplace articles were fashioned and deco 
rated in aesthetically beautiful ways. But the 1890s brought Euro 
pean and American gold prospectors swarming to Alaska and Es 
kimo artists began producing a new art on demand: souvenirs 
Come and compare the new with the traditional in this handsome 
exhibit. 

Public tours of the exhibit are offered every Tuesday at 11:00 a.m. 
and 1:00 p.m. Meet at exhibit entrance. Hall 27. 



"Environment: The Sum of its Parts." The best and newest 
environmental films are offered in conjunction with the Man in His 
Enuironment exhibit (see below). The April theme is "Ecosystems: 
Films Dealing With a Variety of Natural Communities." Films are 
shown at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, second 
floor north 

April 2. 3, 4: Mzima: Portrait of a Spring (53 min ) 

April 9. 10. 1 1: The Salt Marsh: A Question of Values (22 min.) 

£co/ogy; Oliimpic Rain Forest (20 min.) 

April 16. 17, 18: The Sea (26 min.) 

April 23, 24, 25: Survival on The Prairie (54 min.) 

April 30. May 1,2: The Great Barrier Reef (54 min.) 



MUSEUM TOURS 

Highlight Tours conducted by museum education staff and 
volunteers on April 14, 19, 21 and 23 at 2:00 p.m. Meet at the 
information booth. 



Continuing Programs 

ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

Contemporary Canadian Eskimo Art and Artists are illus 
trated in three films which can be seen daily at 12:00 noon. For loca- 
tion, inquire at entrances. 

Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min.) The story of a great hunter, 
who carved the image of his wish from a chosen piece of stone— and 
saw the wish come true. 

Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19 min.) Kenojuak, artist, wife, and mother, 
makes her drawings when she is free of the duties of trail or camp. 
Her thoughts are spoken as commentary for the film and add to our 
understanding of the images she creates. 

Kalvak (20 min.) As a child, Kalvak, now a sixty-eight-year-oid 
Eskimo woman, traveled on many long hunting trips with her 
parents. She uses the subjects of these experiences which give her 
beautiful and sensitive drawings a strong environmental emphasis. 



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SATURDAY DISCOVERY PROGRAM 



WEAVING DEMONSTRATIONS 



Tours, Demonstrations, and Participatory Activities are 

offered every Saturday, 11:00 am lo 3:00 p.m Topics vary, but 
often include: 

Endangered Animals— A half hour tour focusing on animal 

species in danger of extinction 

Tibef— Magic and mystery in the culture of Tibet 

Ancient £gypt-A half-hour tour through the Egyptian collection 
which includes an explanation of the "why's" and "how's" of 
mummy-making 

Other Discovery activities may include: (1) making a clay dinosaur, 
in the Hall of Dinosaurs, to take home; (2) learning how animals are 
prepared for museum exhibits: (3) examining the role of the environ- 
ment in influencing patterns of Eskimo life; and (4) a tour that traces 
major trends in the physical and cultural evolution of man. 

For specific times for each of the above events, phone the 
museum, or inquire on arrival at museum entrances, 

SPRING JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

"Esitimo Hunters." A free self-guided tour through Eskimo- 
related halls, including a "hunt" through the museum's newest ex- 
hibit. 19th Century Alaskan Eskimo Art- Colorful tour sheets provide 
questions about exhibits as well as space for making drawings which 
often help children interpret the exhibits they sec. All children who 
can read and write are invited to participate. Journey sheets in En- 
glish and Spanish are available at the information booth. Bring pen 
or pencil 



?^ Plan Now for Members' Nights! 

May 6 and 7 



Members: plan now to attend Field Museum's gala annual event. 
Members' Night, on either Thursday, May 6, or Friday, May 7, 
from 6 to 10 p.m. It is the one opportunity that you, your family, 
and guests have each year to go "behind the scenes"-to visit the 
laboratories, preparation rooms, and see other areas of the 
Museum's vast collections. Staff members will be on hand to 
escort you, answer questions, and demonstrate many of the 
interesting techniques used by curators and preparators. Among 
the exciting features this year will be a first showing of a 55-foot 
model of the pterosaur, a prehistoric Hying reptile. 

Refreshments will be served in Stanley Field Hall. On the 
ground floor, the Museum cafeteria will be open for dining 6 to 8 
p.m. Free parking will be available and free, round-trip charter 
busses will run every 30 minutes from the Loop to the Museum 
from 6 until Museum closing. Further details will appear in a 
special mailing for members and in next month's Bulletin, 



The Ancient Art of Weaving. Demonstrations by members of 
the North Shore Weavers' Guild on a two-harness. handcraft< 1 
Mexican floor loom, every Monday. Wednesday, and Friday, 10:30 
11:30 am. and 12:00-1:00 p,m On Mondays, April 5 and 19, the 
demonstrations include spinning. South Lounge, second floor. 



Special Interest Meetings 
Open to tiie Public 



April 2. 8:00 p,m 

April 6, 7:30 p,m, 

April 8, 8:00 p,m 
April 11. 2:00 pm, 
April 13. 7:30 p.m 

8:00 p,m 
April 14,7:00 pm 

7:30 p,m, 

April 20, 7:30 p,m 



Chicago Anthropological Society 

(meets first Friday of each month) 

Kennicott Club (meets first Tuesday of 
each month) 

Chicago Mountaineering Club 

Chicago Shell Club 

Chicago Nature Camera Club 

Chicagoland Glider Council 

Chicago Ornithological Society 

Windy City Grotto, National Spele- 
ological Society 

Chicago Audubon Society 



Coming in May 



Members Nights; May 6 & 7, 1976. The annual open house 
for museum members of all ages features special programs and 
behind the-scenes activities in the scientific, education, and exhibi 
tion departments from 6:00 to 10:00 p m 

Adult and Family Field Trips. Now in its sixth season. Field 
Museum's Environmental Education Program has given thousands 
of Chicago area residents the opportunity to explore the varied 
environments of northern Illinois and Indiana under the leadership 
of experienced field scientists. For field trip information, write: Ray 
A Kroc Environmental Education Program, Field Trips, Field 
Museum of Natural History, 



April Hours 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9 00 a,m and closes at 5:00 p,m, every day 
except Friday On Friday, year-round, the museum is open to 9:00 p m Food 
service areas are open weekdays 11:00 am to .3 00 pm, Saturday and 
Sunday to 4 00 p m 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 900 am to 4:00 p m , Monday through 
Friday, (closed April 16) Please obtain pass at reception desk, first floor 
north 

MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922 94 1 



Field Museum Bullelir 



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Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



CONTENTS 



EARLY CHICACOLAND 
By Philip Hanson 



May, 1976 
Vol.47, No. 5 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



14 



19 



EXHIBIT OE WHALE PICTURES AND POEMS 

MEMBERS' NIGHTS, MAY 6 and 7 

THE PAWNEE EARTH LODGE 
Preview of a Major Eorthcoming Exhibit 
By |ohn White 

PTEROSAUR 
By lohn Bolt 

BOOKS 

MAY AT EIELD MUSEUM 
Calendar of coming events 



COVER PHOTO 

Two views of a life-size skeleton model of Rhamphorhynchus , 
a pterosaur (or pterodactyl) with wingspan of 30 inches, from 
the Upper Jurassic of Germany. The model was cast in epoxy by 
Peter Wellnhofer of the Bavarian State Museum for Paleon- 
tology and Historical Geology and prepared for the Carnegie 
Museum. This model, in addition to actual pterosaur fossils, is 
on view in a special, temporary exhibit at Field Museum. Photo 
by Ered Huysmans. For more on Pterosaurs see page 14. 

PHOTO AND ART CREDITS 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Director: E. Leiand Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine I. Yarrington, 

President 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, |r. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley I 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Calilzine 
Paul W, Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo j. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, |r, 
lames |. O'Connor 
lames H. Ransom 
lohn S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 



Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
lohn W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, |r. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L, Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G, Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
1. Howard Wood 



Cover: Fred Huysmans; page 3: Chicago Historical Society; 
4: U.S. Geological Survey; 5 (top and bottom): Chicago 
Historical Society; 6: Field Museum; 7: Chicago Historical 
Society; 8: © 1975 The Scrimshaw Press; 9-11 Field Museum 
staff photos; 12, 13: Stewart MacLeod; 14-15: Field Museum 
staff photos; 16: Pat Brew; 17: Field Museum staff photo. 



Field Muieum of Natural History Sulletin is published monthly, excepi 
combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt 
Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a 
year for schools. Members of ihe Museum subscribe through Museum membership. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN: OOIS-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago. III. 



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Early Chicagoland 

Before the metropolis there was wind-blown prairie fringed with forest 



by Philip Hanson 




Aquatint ot the Chicago area m 1779. ihowing the cabin ot lean Baptiste Point DeSaible, the 'iintfiermanenf settler, by RaoulVarin. Published bv A. Ackennann 
and Sons, Paris. France, 1930. 



II £orning calm and bright, and we. in 
iVL °"'' holiday attire, v\fith flags flying, 
completed the last tyvelve miles of 
our lake voyage. Arriving at Douglas 
Grove, where the prairie could be seen 
through the oak woods, I landed, and 
climbing a tree, gazed in admiration on 
the first prairie I had ever seen. The 
waving grass, intermingling with a rich 



profusion of wild flowers, was the most 
beautiful sight I had ever gazed upon. In 
the distance the grove of Blue Island 
loomed up, beyond it the timbers on the 
Desplaines River, while to give anima- 
tion to the scene, a herd of wild deer 
appeared, and a pair of red foxes 
emerged from the grass within gunshot 
of me. 



Looking north, I saw the white-washed 
buildings of Fort Dearborn sparkling in 
the sunshine, our boats with flags flying, 
and oars keeping time to the cheering 
boat song. I was spell-bound and 



Philip Hanson is a researcher I assistant for 
the Department of Education. 



field Museum Bulletin 




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INDIANA ST kI "Vfl '•> Y*^ \ ^ 

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amazed af the beautiful scene before 
me.' 

This is how the Chicago area appeared 
to Gurdon S. Hubbard in 1818, from his 
vantage point near Lake Michigan about 
three miles south of what is now the Loop. It 
is not easy, now, to imagine that such a 
scene ever existed. The buildings, streets, 
and other man-made structures are ac- 
cepted as part of the natural scene, and our 
memory cannot reach back to the time they 
were not here. What was here, a century 
and a half ago, was a remarkably beautiful 
landscape. But thanks to the written ac- 
counts of eady settlers and visitors, we are 
able to visualize how the area looked at that 
time, before it gave way to the advancing 
frontier and to "progress." 

The earliest accounts of the Chicago 
area were written down by the French )esuit 
missionary Jacques Marquette who, with 
Louis lolliet, first passed through the region 
in 1673. What attracted them was a conve- 
nient portage between the Des Plaines 
River — which led ultimately into the Missis- 
sippi — and the Chicago River, which emp- 
tied into Lake Michigan. 

A year later, Marquette returned to the 
Chicago area, where ill health and bad 
weather forced his small band to hold up for 
the winter. While Marquette's account does 
not provide vivid descriptions, it does leave 
some hints as to the general appearance of 
the area. His camp, in a small oak grove 
straddling the river, was about three miles 
southwest of what is now downtown Chi- 
cago, on the south branch of the Chicago 
River. Today it is within the neighborhood 
of Bridgeport. During the course of their 
four-month stay, Marquette's group killed 
four deer, several prairie chickens, and 
three buffalo. Today, deer are still seen oc- 
casionally in the forest preserves skirting the 
city, while prairie chickens are only to be 
found in small preserves many miles away; 
wild buffalo have not been seen in Illinois, 
let alone Chicago, since the early nine- 
teenth century. 

Following the Jolliet-Marquette visits, 
there is a time gap in descriptions of the 
Chicago area. Explorers, missionaries, and 
traders, such as Robert La Salle and Henri 
de Tonty, continued to use the Chicago por- 
tage, but few others bothered to record their 
observations. Little more was written about 
the region until the eady 1 800s. 



Chicago shoreline changes, From 1902 
U.S. Geological Survey map. 



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In 1 795 the federal government ac- 
quired a piece ot land six miles square at 
the mouth of the Chicago River, and eight 
years later began the construction of Fort 
Dearborn near the river mouth. The stage 
was now set for the influx of settlers. 

By 1816 the federal government had 
acquired most of the land that was to make 
up the future metropolis. This was a twenty- 
mile-wide strip running southwest from 
Lake Michigan, where its midline coincided 
with the Chicago River's outlet. The parcel 
was bordered on the north and south by 
Indian boundary lines; outside this corridor 
the land was still held by the Potowatami, 
Ottawa, and Chippewa Indians. 

Before any land within the corridor 
could be privately purchased, it first had to 
be surveyed. Government surveyors 
marked off the land into six-mile-square 
parcels, called townships. These, in turn, 
were subdivided into thirty-six sections, 
each one mile square. Today almost all of 
Chicago's main thoroughfares lie along 
these section boundaries. The field notes of 
the men who made the original survey 
comprise our most accurate record of what 
the Chicago area was like in a virgin state. 
Notes accompanying the maps told what 
kinds of vegetation could be found at any 
point, and prospective buyers used the 
maps to locate sites that were adequately 
drained or which were near stands of timber 
that could be used for lumber or fuel. 

The reports of early travellers give us a 
general overview of the landscape. Colbee 
Benton, who journeyed to Chicago from the 
Indiana shores in 1833, paused long 
enough to record this impression of the 
countryside: 

Engraving, Chicago in 1830, from the Lake, from H 
Chicago, 1884. 




Oil painting. Chicago in 1831: ani^i unknuK\n. 

. . . The country about Ch/cago, for the 
distance of twelve miles from the lake. Is 
mostly a' low prairie covered with grass 
and beautiful flowers. Southwest from 
the town there is not one tree to be seen: 
the horizon rests upon the prairie. North, 
on the lake, is sandy hills and barren. 
Between there and the north branch Is a 
swampy, marshy place, and there is a 
marshy place on the south branch. The 
town stands on the highest part of the 

story of Chicago, Vol. !, p. Ib-i, by A. T. Andreas, 




prairie, and in the wet part of the season 
the water is so deep that it is necessary to 
wade from the town for some miles to 
gain the dry prairie. • 

An 1821 map reveals that most of 
the Chicago area was then covered by 
prairie. From the lakeshore to about twelve 
miles inland the land is extremely flat. Be- 
fore it was drained by ditches, sewers, and 
roadside culverts the area remained wet for 
a good part of the year. It was across this 
prairie that travellers to other parts of Illinois 
would pass. Their horses and carriages 
would be nearly hidden by the prairie 
cordgrass and big bluestem grass, while 
their narrow-wheeled vehicles sank to the 
axles in the soft prairie sod. An account of a 
ride across this prairie between what is now 
the suburb of Riverside and the Chicago 
Loop suggests what the prairie was like in 
1836: 

We were detained a shorter time at the 
ferry (across the Des Plaines River) and 
reached the belt of trees at the edge of 
the Nine-mile Prairie, before sunset, 
hiere, in common prudence, we ought to 
have stopped till the next day, even if no 
other accommodations could be af- 
forded us than a roof over our heads. We 
deserved an ague for crossing the swamp 
after dark, in an open wagon, at a foot 



Field Museum Bulletin 



pace. Nobody was aware of this in time, 
and we set forward; the feet of our wea- 
ried tiorses plashing in water at every 
step of the nine miles. There was no 
road; and we had to trust the instinct of 
the driver and horses to keep us in the 
right direction. . . . The driver bade us to 
look to our right hand. A black bear was 
trotting alongside of us, at a little dis- 
tance. After keeping up his trot for some- 
time, he turned off from our track. . . . ' 

A prominent feature on the 1 82 1 map is the 
Chicago Portage — a tenuous connection 
between the south branch of the Chicago 
River and the marshy area leading to the 
larger river system to the southwest. The 
south branch of the Chicago River ended 
somewhere near what is now 27th Street 
and Western Avenue. About a mile west, 
near 31st Street and Kedzie Avenue, began 
a low, marshy area known as Mud Lake; 
between was the Chicago Portage. In wet 
seasons boats had to be carried overland 
only 200 feet or so, but in dry seasons they 
were portaged for many miles before 
reaching water deep enough to float. Even 
at that, the route provided a remarkably 
short avenue between the upper Great 
Lakes and the Mississippi valley. The 
journey was not easy. Gurdon Hubbard, 
travelling this route through Mud Lake in 
1 81 8, gives a graphic account: 



The mud was very deep, and along the 
edge of the lake grew tall grass and wild 
rice, often reaching above a man's head, 
and so strong and dense it .was almost 
impossible to walk through them. . . . 
Only at rare intervals was there sufficient 
water to float a boat. . . . Four men only 
remained in a boat and pushed with 
these poles, while six or eight others 
waded in mud alongside, . . . Those who 
waded through the mud frequently sank 
to their waist, and at times were forced 
to cling to the side of the boat to prevent 
going over their heads; after reaching the 
end and camping for the night came the 
task of ridding themselves of the blood 
suckers. The lake was full of these abom- 
inable black plagues and they stuck so 
tight to the skin that they broke in pieces 
if force was used to remove them. 
Those who had waded the lake suffered 
great agony, their limbs becoming 
swollen and inflamed. . . . It took us 
three consecutive days of such toil to 
pass all our boats through this miserable 
lake.' 

Hubbard's Slough of Despond is now long 
gone. It was first replaced by the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal and then by the Chicago 
Sanitary and Ship Canal, both of which 
cut through the low divide and Mud Lake. 
Interstate highway 1-55 now also runs over 



Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal under construction in /890s. 




this same course, and factories are built 
upon the trails of lolliet, Marguette, LaSalle, 
and Hubbard. 

Although the 1821 map uses only one 
kind of symbol to indicate forest land, there 
were in fact, different types of forest. Fires 
that were driven by prevailing westerlies 
across the prairie and into some wooded 
areas may have tended to keep the drier 
woods open. Today, such open woods are 
sometimes called savannahs. A denser kind 
of forest was more apt to develop in places 
less accessible to fire, such as river flood 
plains, the eastern banks of rivers, and lands 
isolated by marshes and streams. It is this 
type of forest growth that remains in the 
Chicago area today. Black oak, white oak, 
hickory, and walnut were the trees most 
coi'nmonly noted by the early surveyors. 
Nearer the lakeshore they encountered 
black, white, red, and pin oak, cottonwood, 
pine, and cedar. 

The most thoroughly described areas 
were the forests near the larger settlements. 
In the Chicago region there were wood- 
lands along the lakeshore both north and 
south of the Chicago River. Today this area 
is occupied south of the river by the Hyde 
Park area and north of the river by the 
"Magnificent Mile" and the "Gold Coast." 
Settler John Caton described how the lake- 
shore appeared in the early 1830s, looking 
north and south from what is now the Loop: 

. . . there were along where Michigan 
Avenue now is walled with palatial- 
mansions innumerable sand hills rising 
to a considerable height, overrun by the 
wild juniper loaded with its fragrant ber- 
ries at the feet of which stretched away 
to the southeast the soft smooth beach of 
firm glistening sand . . . along the beach 
north of the river where also the drifting 
sand has been piled by the shifting winds 
into a thousand hills stretching farther 
back from the waters than on the south, 
but here the juniper bush was replaced 
by a stunted growth of scraggy pines 
often hilled up by the drifting sand. . . . 
Further back was a broad ramble among 
stately oaks sparsely scattered over the 
even plain among which a horseman 
could be seen at a great distance, and if 
one sought a deeper solitude it might be 
found still further west in the densely 
tangled mass of bushes among which 
one could not see a deer at a distance of 
twenty feet.^ 

Juliette Kinzie also wrote that the land 
north of the river was 



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Looking south on Michigan Avenue, from about Adami itreet, in late 1880s. Railroad tracki are in same location as today, but ;us; beyond is Lake Michigan shore- 
line-a few hundred vards west of present shoreline. 



... a vast range of sand hills, covered 
with stunted cedars, pines, and dwarf 
willow trees. . . .'' 

The shoreline was probably very much 
like that found today at the Illinois Beach 
State Park, near Waukegan — not at all like 
beaches of the better known Indiana Dunes. 

Today the beach of Lake Michigan 
within the city limits of Chicago is almost 
entirely artificial. The prickly pear cactus, 
once common along the lakeshore, has 
vanished. In the years since the city's 
founding the shoreline has been filled, 
dredged, and bulkheaded beyond recogni- 
tion. New land has been created, extending 
the shore a half mile into the lake in some 
places. Much of the city that was burned in 
the 1871 fire and reduced to rubble, now 
forms the foundation of Grant Park, where 
before there was open water. The gently 
undulating sand hills that once lay near the 
shore have been shaved down, and the 
removed material been used as land fill in 
the alternatingswales — once a rich habitat 
for plants and animals. 

The oak woods that once touched the 
lakeshore were ideal for suburban settle- 
ments that are now neighborhoods such as 
South Chicago, Hyde Park, and Rogers 
Park, but segments of forest along the Des 
Plaines and the north branch of the Chicago 



River may still be seen. The waterways 
themselves have been altered beyond rec- 
ognition; streams have been channeled, 
rivers straightened, new channels exca- 
vated. The section of the south branch of 
the Chicago River that once touched the 
original portage site was filled in many 
years ago when more navigable channels 
were dug. The wetlands of the Calumet and 
Portage regions have been drained and 
filled to make way for residential and in- 
• dustrial areas. A few miniscule parcels of 
prairie remain near Chicago, but none are 
to be found within the city limits. A rare 
prairie remnant within the suburb of Mark- 
ham, on the south side, is of same type that 
once comprised much of the wet prairie 
that stretched to the city's center.' 

When Chicago area residents realized 
at last that the natural environments were 
neither indestructible nor infinite, it was 
already too late. Their approach to environ- 
mental matters must have been similar to 
that of an Ohio senate committee, which in 
1857 airily dismissed suggestions to protect 
a very common bird: 

The passenger pigeon needs no protec- 
tion. Wonderfully prolific, having the 
vast forests of the North as its breeding 
grounds, travelling hundreds of miles in 
search of food, it is here to-day and else- 



where to-morrow, and no ordinary de- 
struction can lessen them, or be missed 
from the myriads that are yearly pro- 
duced.' 

Fifty-seven years later the last pas- 
senger pigeon died. 

NOTES 

].The Autobiography of Curdon Saltonstall 
Hubbard: R. R. Donnelley & Sons, 1911. 

2. A Visitor to Chicago in Indian Days, by Colbee 
C. Benton: Paul Angle and lames R. Cetz, eds., 
The Caxton Club, 1957. 

3. "The Prairies and loliet," by Harriet Martineau, 
in The Prairie Stale, by Paul Angle: University 
of Chicago Press, 1968, 

4. Hubbard, op. cit. 

5. "|ohn Dean Caton's Reminiscences ot Chicago 
in 1833 and 1834," by Harry E. Pratt: journal of 
the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 28, 
April, 1935. 

6. VVan-8un, the Earl) Day in the Northwest, 
by luliette Kinzie; R. R. Donnelly & Sons, 1932. 

7. The combined acreage of prairie remnants near 
Chicago may not exceed 300. These include the 
Gensburg-Markham Prairie in Markham and the 
VVoodvvorth Prairie near Glenvievv, both ot which 
have been preserved. The Wolf Road Prairie in 
Westchester, Chicago Ridge Prairie in the south- 
west suburb of Chicago Ridge, and the Calumet 
Prairie near Calumet City have not been pre- 
served, but citizens' organizations are currently 
trying to save them. 

8. Our Vanishing Wildlife, W. T. Hornaday, New 
York Zoological Society, 1913. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



New Exhibit: 

THERE'S A SOUND IN THE SEA 

Children's Whale Pictures and Poems 
Opening Date: Saturday, May 22. 




Douglas Carrier, Age I 



This temporary exhibit, featuring the art 
and poetry of children, will remain on view 
in Hall 9 until August 8. 

The theme of the exhibit is the slaughtering 
of the great whales, which has brought some 
species perilously near extinction. By draw- 
ing attention to the plight of these creatures, 
it is hoped that public concern will be suffi- 
cient to influence those bodies responsible 
for the regulation and enforcement of 
whaling activities in theoceansof the world. 



In addition to the display of about 90 poems, 
drawings, and paintings — mostly by chil- 
dren under 12, from the United States and 
Canada — information panels about whales 
and whaling will be on view. Recorded 
whale sounds will be played on a continuous 
tape. The exhibit was organized by Ms. 
Tamar Griggs, of Vancouver, B.C.; orga- 
nized and produced by Pacific Science 
Center, of Seattle; and -supported by the 
National Audubon Society and Smithsonian 
Institution Travelling Exhibition Service. 



A generous selection of whale and 
whaling books, ranging in price 
from $1.00 to $15.95, is available at 
the Field Museum Book Store. A 
whale poster and a "Save the 
Whale" pin may also be purchased; 
10% discount to Field Museum 
members. 



'♦^•'♦^ rjT^*''*'4^"rrz'*'*^»^":T7r''V»»iv":'7TV'r^^ 



iteiber^ Hig»i» 



MEMBERS' NIGHTS are those two very special evenings in 
May when the Field Museum staff traditionally rolls out the 
red carpet for all its members. It is the only occasion during 
the year when the Museum holds open house. Curators, tech- 
nicians, artists, preparators, and Museum educators are on 
hand to discuss their research, demonstrate techniques, and 
to answer questions. — All of this embellished with live 
music and food and drink served in Stanley Field Hall. 

Among the many fascinating activities awaiting you on 
this year's Members' Nights (identical programs both nights) 
are: 

• Totem pole restoration — a Field Museum conservator will 
explain techniques for preserving and restoring these artifacts 
from the Pacific Northwest. 

• Special screenings of films on volcanoes and earthquakes. 

• Preview of a major forthcoming exhibit opening later this 
year: The Pawnee Indian earth lodge. 

• Can you imagine a monster reptile that could fly? This one, 
a pterosaur, had a wingspread of more than 50 feet! You can 
pop your eyeballs at a fantastic full-scale model of this crea- 
ture newly hung in Stanley Field Hall. 

• Try your hand at operating a Mexican loom: spin- 
ning and twining and related techniques will be demon- 
strated. 

• See and actually touch a variety of tropical snakes and 
other reptiles. 

• View a fascinating film/slide/tape program about the open- 
ing of "King Tut's" tomb — sealed in Egypt more than 3,000 
years ago. 

• Tannery: See how large animal skins are mounted or pre- 
pared for study. 

• Games and craft participation will be awaiting the young- 
sters, including the ever-popular Anthropo/ogy Came — now 
in its fourth vear. 



• How to make natural history collections? Scientists will 
show you how to mount and arrange an insect collection and 
how to dry and mount plant specimens. 

• See how the geology preparator works on the restoration 
of a 19-foot mosasaur, an ancient swimming reptile. 

• See a fascinating exhibit of endangered and threatened 
plant species of the original thirteen colonies; or, close by, 
you will be shown a special arrangement of fungi common to 
the Chicago area. A staff botanist will answer questions. 

• If you are 15 to 19 years old, perhaps you would like to 
join the Field Museum canoe trip into Canada this summer. 
Then see the full-hour slide show of last year's canoe trip; 
trip leaders will be on hand to answer questions. 



There is, of course, much, much more; and you can 
take a break at any time for refreshments and music in Stanley 
Field Hall. Live music will be performed at intervals through- 
out the evening by an ethnic instrumental ensemble. 

The evening's activities will begin at 6:00 p.m. and con- 
tinue until 10:00. Free parking will be available in the lot 
just north of the Museum and in the nearby Soldier Field lot, 
east of Soldier Field. Free transportation by CTA bus will also 
be available at 30-minute intervals throughout the evening 
between the Museum's south entrance and the Loop (stop- 
ping at the southwest corner of State and Jackson, southwest 
corner of Michigan and lackson, and the southeast corner of 
Michigan and Balbo). 

In addition to complimentary refreshments in Stanley 
Field Hall, full meal service, reasonably priced, will be avail- 
able in the cafeteria from 6:00 to 8:00 p.m. 

So reacquaint yourself with your Museum on Thursday, 
May 6, or Friday, May 7. The staff looks forward to wel- 
coming you. 





gi5.''^l^^*Si-^'^ 



THE n^VNBC CARTH LrODGC 

Preview of a Major Forthcoming Cxhibit 



By John White 



Some 2,000 years ago an American 
community developed the first 
truly successful adaptation to life on 
the Great Plains. This involved the inven- 
tion of the earth lodge, the development 
of hunting techniques suitable for the buf- 
falo, and the perfection of a horticultural 
riverine sedentary lifeway. These people ex- 
panded up the various river systems of the 
Platte and Missouri. Their villages at last 
were to be found in the foothills of the Rocky 
Mountains. All along these tributaries of 
the Mississippi the villages of scattered, 
rectangular earth lodges could be found. 

Then something happened. For some 
unknown reason the weather became harsh. 
In the Southwest the Pueblo cultures, at 
their height, sought the cliff faces to build 
their fortified settlements. Then these, too, 
were abandoned. The villages of the rect- 



angular earth lodge builders were covered 
with many feet of wind-blown silt. We 
know there was terrible drought in the 
1200s. The Norse settlements on Greenland 
lost contact with Iceland,, which in turn lost 
contact with Europe. The old church an- 
nals speak of bitterly cold winters and of 
summers in which it snowed. Whatever was 
happening, it was very widespread. 

Perhaps a hundred years or so after the 
square lodges were deserted a new people 
began to settle up the valley of the Platte 
River. The weather had become more 
pleasant. These new people lived in much 
the same manner as the old. The main dif- 
ferences were that their lodges were now 
round and the villages were much more 
compact. It was as if in the interim the spirit 
of warfare had come to the plains, for the 
much larger communities were often for- 



The author (right), discusses construction of Pawnee earth lodge with Kevin Williams {left), builder of the 
model, and Sol Tax, director of the Smithsonian Institution Center for the Study of Man. 








' p~* - ».** , 



*-.L^ 






tified and occurred on land that was easily 
defended. The descendants of these people 
of the round earth lodges became those we 
know as the Pawnee. 

The Pawnee had a reputation for great 
spiritual wisdom. The Calumet Ritual, the 
use of a wand with spread-eagle feathers 
and gourd rattle, is a formalized method to 
make peace between enemies. It origi- 
nated in the Pawnee Hako Ceremony. This 
ritualized mechanism for ending hostilities 
and promoting peace and good will was 
found throughout the Midwest by the earliest 
French explorers. 

With the 1800s warfare became en- 
demic on the Great Plains. There were thou- 
sands of Siouian-speaking people, as well 
as expatriate Easterners dislocated by the ad- 
vancing frontier, all competing with the 
sedentary villagers for an ever-decreasing 
supply of buffalo. Then came the forts with 
their garrisons, followed by ex-Civil War 
armies, and finally a veritable flood of im- 
migrants in search of land. 

The chaos of the last century seemingly 
crushed Pawnee culture and scattered the 
pieces to the four winds. The great villages 
of spacious earth lodges along the Platte 
River in Nebraska crumbled and returned 
to the soil. The voices of the old men, the 
holy songs, the stories, all faded into the 
ever-blowing wind. There were many who 
saw the miracles wrought by the men of 
power, the doctors. The hands that reached 
down into boiling kettles to bring up choice 
pieces of meat ... the seeds that were planted 
and grew into mature plants in the space of 

a few minutes The children who saw 

these performances in the great lodges in 
Nebraska were to travel to the south with 
their families. To the place called Okla- 
homa. There they themselves grew up, 
raised families, and in turn grew old. 

The old Pawnee Way became a mem- 
ory, which became fainter and fainter. It 
was like a picture puzzle of some painting 
of great beauty and meaning. Over the years 
the pieces had become scattered, some of 

lohr: White is coordinator of the Native 
American Program. 



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them mislaid, others taken away, and many 
others lost forever. A great many of those 
pieces of culture still remained with the 
Pawnee people. There were the stories told 
by the Old Ones, now long gone. There were 
songs, ancient songs, each with its history, 
its own story. For this is the way much his- 
tory was transmitted in Native North Ameri- 
ca, it was the song which carried on the 
memory of an event. The singing united 
those who had gone on before with those 
who yet remained, the words and singing 
style conveyed great depths of meaning and 
feeling combined. It is difficult to even speak 
about this phenomenon in English, for it is 
very different from a history book or lecture. 
Perhaps those who remember Verdun, in 
World War I, feel something akin when they 
hear It's a long way to Tipperary, but I don't 
really know. My mother can sing this song 
with feeling, with her mind full of memories 
of handsome young Doughboys marching 
off to war, but I don't have those memories. 
To me the song seems stilted and archaic; 
to many it has probably become high camp, 
the ultimate indignity. We have much to 
learn from the Pawnee people, for they 
honor and respect their history. That which 
has survived the vicissitudes of time still has 
meaning. 

A major effort is now being made for 



the first time, to involve a tribe in the devel- 
opment of a significant Museum exhibit. For 
the first time the fragments of culture that 
had been scattered to the four winds are 
being searched out. Artifacts are being 
documented and photographed. Unpub- 
lished manuscripts are being photocopied 
and the vast anthropological literature sifted 
through. Photographs are being obtained 
from the film archives of various institutions, 
such as the Smithsonian Institute. Pawnee 
texts and songs, originally recorded on wax 
cylinders by Dorsey in 1902, have been 
traced from the Field Museum to Columbia 
University, to the Library of Congress, and 
finally to the University of Indiana. Now, 
tapes of more than 15 hours of old songs, 
sung by men and women born in the great 
earth lodges along the Platte River, will be 
going back to the Pawnee people. The 
children and grandchildren of some of those 
singers, now themselves grandparents, lis- 
tened to their voices here in the Field 
Museum. 

The Pawnee Earth Lodge Project is an 
attempt to bring a glimpse of history into the 
Field Museum. Inside an authenticly re- 
constructed Pawnee earth lodge Museum 
visitors will be able to hear some of those 
ancient songs and hear of Pawnee history 
and culture. They will be able to hear some 



of the old stories, as told by the Pawnee 
themselves, and handle replicas of tradi- 
tional Pawnee craftwork. This appears to be 
as close to a cross-cultural experience as we 
can achieve within the Museum walls. 

In addition, the Pawnee tribe will be re- 
ceiving copies of the manuscript materials 
we have found as well as much docu- 
mentary information on traditional ma- 
terial culture. The project also funded a 
traditional crafts and culture workshop in 
Pawnee, Oklahoma, during the last two 
weeks of April. Some of the crafts explored 
were pottery, twined weaving of bags, buf- 
falo-hide tanning, porcupine quill work, 
and painting of leather. There were also 
evening sessions of listening to the remark- 
able old recordings as well as tapings of 
commentaries by elders. 

Through the use of funding from the 
National Endowment for the Arts, the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Humanities, the 
W. Clement and Jesse V. Stone Foundation, 
and matching funds from Field Museum, 
this complex and multifaceted project is 
being undertaken. Hopefully, it will serve 
as a bridge between cultures and as an 
enrichment to us all. 

During Members' Nights, the Pawnee 
Earth Lodge Project staff will be on hand 
to discuss this major enterprise. D 




I Model builder Williams and author view completed lodge model with delegation of Pawnee Tribe members from Oklahoma. From left: Kevin Williams. Sam 

I Osborne, Myra Eppler, Effie Osborne, Ella lim, and John White. 



Field Museum Bulletin 13 



Prime candidate for the title "most spectacular 
creature of all time" is this remarkable flying rep- 
tile that flourished more than 65 million years 
ago. A 50-foot model is on view in Stanley Field 
Hall. 

By John Bolt 




14 May 1976 



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Pteranodon ingens, one of the largest pterosdun known-an "advanced" 
species, with short tail and toothless, birdlike beak. Several functions have 
been suggested tor the long, bony crest on the skull. The crest mav onlv have 
helped to balance the head: or a membrane may have stretched between the 



crest and the animal's back. Engineering studies suggest that such a mem- 
brane could function as a steering device. Pteranodon was definitely a fish- 
eater, as shown bv fossilized stomach contents. It also had an expandable 
throat pouch, which probably served to store food for brief periods. 



I ~ ~ I he fossil record shows only three 
|_f |_| groups of flying vertebrates (an- 
imals with backbones). Two of 
J I these groups — birds and bats — 

I J have survived to the present. The 

third became extinct about 65 million years 
ago, at the end of the Cretaceous geologi- 
cal period. This group, the pterosaurs (often 
called pterodactyls), includes the first verte- 
brates to develop powered — as opposed to 
gliding — flight and the largest flying animals 
ever to appear on earth. 

For many years, the largest known 
pterosaur was Pteranodon, with a wingspan 
of about 25 feet. Pteranodon is probably 



•* Pterodactylus antiquus, one of the smallest known 
pterosaurs. This specimen is shown approximately 
natural size. Photo is of a cast of a fossil found near 
Solnhofen, in southern Germany. The original 
specimen is in a museum in Germany: the cast is 
on view in Field Museum's special pterosaur 
display. 



one of the most commonly pictured fossil 
vertebrates, ranking just behind Tyranno- 
saurus, Brontosaurus, Triceratops, and a few 
other dinosaurs. It has even made the mov- 
ies, with a cameo appearance in which a 
model was drawn jerkily along a wire to 
the terror of the heroine and assorted other 
cavepersons. 

Pteranodon is indeed impressively 
large; future film-makers, however, will 
have available an even more monstrous 
monster. A recent article in the journal 
Science describes a pterosaur with a wing- 
span of as much as 50 feet. This animal is 
known from several partial skeletons found 
in Upper Cretaceous rocks (about 75 million 
years before present) in Big Bend National 
Park, Texas. The wingspan has been cal- 
culated from incomplete wings, and so may 
not be exactly 50 feet: it might be somewhat 
smaller or larger. It is clear, however, that 
the Texas pterosaur is considerably larger 
than Pteranodon, and is thus the largest 



flying animal ever found. To give Field 
Museum visitors some impression of the size 
of the animal, a kitelike, life-size model 
has been recently suspended in the north 
end of Stanley Field Hall. An exhibit of ac- 
tual, though smaller, pterosaur specimens 
may be seen in the northwest corner of the 
second floor. 

What sort of creatures were the ptero- 
saurs? Most readers probably know they 
were reptiles; the "family tree" shown here 
indicates that they were distantly related to 
dinosaurs and birds. They were probably 
warm-blooded, and skin impressions show 
that at least some had a hairlike body cover- 
ing. Body impressions also show that, in- 
stead of feathers, pterosaurs had a wing 
membrane made of skin, like that found in 
bats. >■ 



John Bolt is assistant curator of fossil rep- 
tiles and amphibians. 



Field Museum Bullelir 



Millions of years 
before present 




Fossils which preserve such features as 
skin impressions are, of course, rare; they 
do reveal a great deal about pterosaurs, 
however. Some of the most remarkable 
pterosaur fossils are those showing pre- 
served stomach or mouth contents. These 
are generally fish remains, although some 
examples include various invertebrates in 
addition to fish. The direct evidence thus 
seems to suggest that pterosaurs were pri- 
marily fish-eaters. However, it would cer- 
tainly be wrong to accept this evidence at 
face value. In the first place, direct evi- 
dence of feeding habits is totally lacking 
for most kinds of pterosaurs. Second, most 
known pterosaurs come from sediments 
which are deposited in shallow seas. Such 
animals can be expected to rely on marine 
organisms, including fish, for most of their 
food. The habits of pterosaurs living near 
the sea are not likely to be typical of the 
group. We know very little about ptero- 
saurs from other environments. 

One of the most famous fossil-pro- 
ducing areas in the world is near Solnhofen, 
in southern Germany. In the Upper Jurassic 
(about 150 million years ago), a shallow 
sea covered the area around Solnhofen. 
Limestones that were formed in near-shore 
areas of this sea preserve many kinds of 
animals, often with astonishing detail. 
Among the most interesting fossils from the 
Solnhofen area are pterosaurs, of which 
eighteen kinds are now recognized. Most of 
the pterosaurs on exhibit in Field Museum 
are from that region. Although most Soln- 
hofen pterosaurs can be broadly character- 
ized as fish-eaters, the variety of sizes and 
skull types represented shows that there 
must have been numerous subspecialties 
even among fish-eaters. The fish-eaters 
probably hunted on the wing, gliding over 
the water and seizing prey near the surface. 
Many were capable of swimming also, using 
the webbed hind feet as paddles. Some 
Solnhofen pterosaurs have long jaws which 
bear thin, closely set teeth in a sort of comb- 
like arrangement. It has been suggested that 
the dentition in fact acted as a strainer, al- 
lowing the animal to feed on very small an- 
imals which it strained out of the water. 

Jurassic pterosaurs, including the Soln- 
hofen specimens, are of modest size; the 
largest has a wingspan of about five feet, 
the smallest about one foot. Cretaceous 
pterosaurs, on the other hand, tend to be 
quite large. The Texas pterosaur is a typical 
Cretaceous form in this respect; in one way, 
however, it is quite atypical: it is apparently 
not a fish-eater. The Texas pterosaur was 

■^Diagram by Pat Brew 



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- - r »i»A.\^ -• w^aMA^'* •-♦ A»>AV»'*^A;^\^^*V>/,%:.V>»#V'/il| 




Nyctosaurus gracilis, a pterosaur from the Upper 
Cretaceous of Kansas. Wingspan is about nine feet. 
This animal, a smaller relative of Pteranodon, 
lacks a crest. 

Several hundred specimens of Rhamphorh\nchus.>- 
most of them incomplete, have been found at 
Solnhofen. This example contains two bones from 
one wing (near bottom of picture! and most of the 
bones of a second wing. Two claws belonging to 
one wing can be seen near top of photo. A sort of 
mirror effect has been achieved here by splitting 
the limestone matrix, exposing the specimen; both 
halves of the slab are shown. The left slab bears 
the impression of the bones imbedded on the right. 
Specimen is shown about one-third actual size. 
Specimen courtes\ of Carnegie Museum. 



found in an area which, at the time the ani- 
mal lived, was hundreds of miles from the 
sea and had no permanent lakes. It is there- 
fore unlikely that the animal was a fish-eater. 
Clues to its possible feeding habits are 
found in its long neck, and the fact that its 
remains were found near the remains of 
large dinosaurs similar to Brontosaurus. The 
Texas pterosaur may thus have been a 
scavenger/carrion feeder, like vultures. The 
long neck would enable it to reach inside 
even a dinosaur carcass. Q 




Field Museum Bulletin 17 



B(0)(0)1 




Botany of the Black Americans, by Willicim Ed Crime; Scholarly 
Press, St. Clair Shores, Mich. 230 pp., $12.50. 
Harvest of a Quiet Eye, photographs and text selections by Charles 
F. Davis, introduction by Edward Way Teale. Tamarack Press, Mad- 
ison, Wis. 168 pp., $20.00. 

April was publication month for two distinctly different, yet 
equally distinguished, works by a botanist and a photographer. 
William Ed Crime, author of Botany of t/ie Black Americans, is man- 
ager of systematic botanical collections of Field Museum's Depart- 

llluitration from Botany of the Black Americans 




ment of Botany. Charles F. Davis, whose photographs and text 
selections comprise Harvest of a Quiet Eye, teaches landscape 
photography at the Museum. 



Botany of the Black Americans is concerned with the medic- 
inal, nutritional, and other utilitarian and even recreational values 
that early Black Americans attributed to specific plants; it is also 
a compendium of observations of early botanists and naturalists 
to substantiate such claims. Some 245 plant species are discussed 
by Crime; of these, he says, 17 owe their presence in the Ameri- 
cas "strictly to the institution of slavery." 

A typical entry is that for Mammea americana (mammee tree): 
"A strong resinous gum abounds in the bark of this tree is gener- 
ally used by the negroes for extracting chigoes (chiggers) from their 
feet, tor on being applied to the part it draws them out bag and all. 
Melted down with a little lime juice, and dropped into sores, it is 
effectual in destroying maggots at the first dressing. A bath of the 
bark hardens the soles of the feet like the mangrove bark." — Noted 
by I. Lunan in 1814. 

An introduction gives us historical perspective on the cul- 
tural-economic situation of New World slaves and how this related 
to needs that indigenous species and plants introduced by the slaves 
were able to satisfy. 



Harvest of a Quiet Eye is a felicitous harmony of text with art. 
The text for the most part is taken from the journals and other writ- 
ings of John Burroughs (1837-1921), among the most eloquent 
nature writers this country has produced; and Davis's eye for 
selecting good Burroughs may nearly equal his skill in finding good 
subject matter for his camera. 

The creative strength of the book lies, of course, in the 43 stun- 
ning color plates — views of nature in her various moods and sea- 
sons. There is plenty of justification for comparing the best of Davis's 
nature scenes to the best of Ansel Adams and Eliot Porter. Subtlety 
and understatement most often seem to be the desired effect, but 
there are also scenes of high dramatic content: a latticework of bud- 
ding branches viewed against a cloudless sky; at twilight, a leaf- 
less thicket half-submerged in snow; a carpet of jade-green ferns 
glowing with filtered sunlight. There are also many historic shots of 
Burroughs and his friends — these, of course, taken by earlier, 
though unnamed photographers. The quality of the four-color print- 
ing is uniformly high. 



Musa paradisiaca L. . 

From Rumphius. Herbarium Amboinense (1747) 



Both of the above books may be purchased directly or ordered 
through the Field Museum Book Store: 10 percent discount to 
members. 



18 May 1976 



'»"•-•• -'- ^ •»■•■•• ■ ; •»-»• 



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MAY at Field Museum 



New Exhibits 

FLYING REPTILE EXHIBIT 

"Pterosaor." An aluminum and brown-fabric model of tfie largest 
known flying creature— an extinct pterosaur (also known as a 
pterodactyl) now hangs at second-floor-eye-level in Stanley Field 
Hall. The model has a wingspan of 51 feet and a body length of 31 
feet A special exhibit of pterosaur fossils and a scientifically accurate 
epoxy model of the skeleton of Rhamphorhynchus muensteh are 
displayed in cases in the northwest arcade, second floor 



Continuing Exhibits 

BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

"Man in His Environment." The most talked-about environ- 
mental exhibit in the country deals with natural systems and man's 
impact on them. Man in His Environment asks you to take a global 
view of the most serious environmental problems now confronting 
all mankind 



ANTHROPOLOGY EXHIBIT 



"Anthropology Game." Try to identify the unusual artifacts on 
display in the South Lounge, second floor. 



WHALE EXHIBIT 

"TTjere's a Sound in the Sea." A special traveling exhibit, con- 
sisting of nearly 90 original whale poems and paintings by children 
from all over the United States and Canada, opens on May 22 in 
Hall 9 The images created by the children are fresh, bright, and 
often poignant. 



ESKIMO ART EXHIBIT 

"19th Century Alasiian Eskimo Art." Compare the new with 
the traditional in this handsome exhibit of early to mid- 19th century 
traditional art and the souvenir art of the 20th century. Join a public 
tour each Tuesday at 11:00 am. or 1:00 pm The exhibit closes 
June 15- 



Special Programs 

MEMBERS' NIGHTS. MAY 6 and MAY 7 

The Annual Open House for Members features special 
programs, exhibits, entertainment, and behind-the-scenes activities 
in the scientific, education, and exhibition departments from 6:00 to 
10:00 pm 



FIELD MUSEUM ON TELEVISION 

"What Do You Think It Is?" On Wednesday. May 19. Barbara 
Reque of the museum's Department of Education, makes a guest 
appearance on the What do \^ou think it is? segment of the Garfield 
Goose Show at 8:00 a.m. on Channel 9. Chicago. 



Continuing Programs 

ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 

"Environment: The Sum of Its Parts." The best and newest 
environmental films are offered in conjunction with the Man in His 
Environment exhibit. The May theme is "Adaptations for Survival: 
Special adaptations of flora and fauna" Films are shown at 11:00 
am and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, second floor north. 



May 1,2: 
May 7, 8, 9: 
May 14, 15. 16 
May 21, 22. 23 
May 28. 29. 30 



The Great Barrier Reef (54 min ) 
Baobab: Portrait of a Tree (53 min ) 
Birds Paradise: The Waddensea (27 min ) 
Life in a Tropical Forest (30 mm ) 
Polar Ecology: Predator and Prey (22 mm ) 



(CALENDAR continued on back cover) 



MAY at Field Museum 



(CALENDAR continued from inside back cover) 



ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

Contemporary Canadian Eskimo Art and Artists are 

illustrated in three films which can be seen daily at 12:00 noon. For 
location, inquire at entrances. 

Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min ) 

Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19 min) 

Kalvak (20 min ) 

SATURDAY DISCOVERY PROGRAM 

Tours, Demonstrations, and Participatory Activities 

are offered every Saturday. 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Topics vary but 
often include: 

Ancient Egypt— A half-hour tour through the Egyptian collec- 
tion which includes an explanation of the whys and hows of 
mummy-making. 

Sna/ces— Live snakes will be featured in the Hall of Reptiles and 
Amphibians 

Folktales of the Alaskan Eskimo — Half-hour story-telling 
sessions provide insight into how different regions of Alaskan 
Eskimos look at and relate to their environment. 

EaWy Man— A half-hour tour traces major trends in the physical 
and cultural evolution of man. 

For specific times for each of the above events, phone the museum, 
or inquire on arrival at museum entrances. 

SPRING JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

"Eskimo Hunters." A free, self-guided tour includes a "hunt" 
through the museum's newest exhibit, 19th Century Alaskan 
Eskimo Art. All children who can read and write are invited to par- 
ticipate. Journey sheets in English and Spanish are available at the 
information booth. Bring pen or pencil. 



WEAVING DEMONSTRATIONS 

The Ancient Art of Weaving demonstrated on a two-harness, 
handcrafted Mexican floor loom, by members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild, every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10:30- 
11:30 a.m. and 12:00-1:00 p m. On Mondays, May 4 and 18, the 
demonstrations include spinning. South Lounge, second floor. 



Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to tiie Public 



May 4, 7:30p.m 

May 11,7:30pm. 

8:00 p.m. 
May 12,7:00 p.m. 

7:30 p.m. 

May 13,8:00 p.m. 
May 16, 2:00p.m 
May 18,7:30 p.m. 



Kennicott Club (meets first Tuesday of each 
month) 

Chicago Nature Camera Club 
Chicagoland Glider Council 
Chicago Ornithological Society 
Windy City Grotto, National Speleo- 
logical Society 

Chicago Mountaineering Club 
Chicago Shell Club 
Chicago Audubon Society 



Coming in June 



"Between Friends/Entre Amis," a Bicentennial gift of the 
Canadian people to the people of the United States. The gift: a beau- 
tiful temporary exhibit is based on 220 original color prints of the 
land and the people along the entire U.S./Canadian border. The 
exhibit was produced by Lorraine Monk, executive producer. Still 
Photography Division, National Film Board of Canada. Members' 
preview is tentatively scheduled for June 18. 



Nature Camera Club Meets 

"Quintessence of Africa" will be the topic 
of Lester Peterson at the Tuesday evening, 
May 11, meeting of the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club, His slide show will feature 
exquisite birds, intriguing animals, hand- 
some people, and turbulent waters, Mr. 
Peterson is one of Chicago's best known 
traveler-photographers. Guests are wel- 
come. The meeting convenes at 7:30 p.m. 



May Hours 

The Museum opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes 6:00 p.m. every 
day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, the museum is open to 
9:00 p m Food service areas are open 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9:00 am. to 4:00 p.m.. Monday 
through Friday (closed May 31). Please obtain pass at reception 
desk, first floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 



Field Museum of Natur^JJJistorv Bulletin 




^V 1 

4. i • i\ i^. 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

June, 1976 
Vol. 47. No. 6 

Edil(>rlDcsii;ner: David M. Walsten 
Proiliiition: Oscar Anderson 
Calciuliir: Nika Senikoff 

Staff i>holOi;r(iphcr: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Director: E. Leland Webber 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. VaiTington. 

President 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild. Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 



CONTENTS 

3 Ancient Ecuador Revisited 

hy Jorge G. Mtircos, Donald W. Lathrap, 
and James A. Zeidler 

9 Between Friends/Entre Amis 

A't'ii' exhibit opens to public June 18 

10 From Birth to Flight: Evolution of pterosaur 

nu>del In Stiinley Field Hull 

12 A Major Acquisition: Field Museum receives 

bequest of important beetle collection 
by Henry Dybas 

14 Tenth Anniversary for Women's Board 

by Ellen Thorne Smith 

16 Members' Children's Workshops 

18 Field Trips for Members 

19 June at Field Museum 

Calendar of cominii events 



COVER 

View along Canada-United Stales border, taken near Melita. in 
southwestern Manitoba. The photo, by John De Visser. is one of 
more than 200 appearing in Between Friends/Entre Amis, a hook re- 
cently published in Canada. The volume is. in effect, a photo essay 
on the spirit of friendship pervading the relationship between the two 
countries. A temporary exhibit, "Between FriendslEntre Amis," 
opening June 18 in Hall 26, is drawn from a selection of these breath- 
taking photos. All were taken at points along the border, from the 
Arctic Ocean to the Bay of Fundy. For more on the book and the ex- 
hibit, see page 9. 



LIFE TRUSTEES 



William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
ClilTord C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M, Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Nulural History Bulklin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago. Illinois hflftO.S. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are 
welcome. Poslmasler: Please send form .1.S79 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. Illinois htlMI.S, ISSN: tWI.S-OTO.' 



-^i.'. 



—■ ^-- 



r— ~ 







*7-:* 



Alignment of houses forming the eastern border of the plaza at Real Alto. 
The wall trench and postholes of the nearest house have been partially 



excavated . The wall trench of the next house is unexcavated but visible. The 
line of houses extends to the most distant point visible in the background. 



Ancient Ecuador Revisited 



By Jorge G. Marcos 
Donald W. Lathrap 
and James A. Zeidler 



Recent excavations at Real Alto 
push back by 1,500 years or 
more the beginnings of settled 
farm life and the roots of civili- 
zation in the Western Hemi- 
sphere. 



"Ancient Ecuador" includes, both in 
the exhibit and in the catalog, data and 
hypotheses derived from ongoing research 
at the Early Formative site of Real Alto. 
Chanduy Valley, on the coast of Ecuador. 
Some of the conclusions from these data 
are quite revolutionary; this is what gives 
the exhibit its unique vitality. After one 
year of excavations at Real Alto we would 
like to evaluate many of the assumptions 
expressed in the catalog and put forth in 
that exhibit. 

Our excavation has proved beyond all 
reasonable doubt that Real Alto was a 
permanently settled village occupied for at 
least 1.000 years. The 80 domestic struc- 
tures, the remains of which we found at 
different levels in the area excavated, have 
(Continued on p. 4) 



THE FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY s exhibit Ancient Ecuador: 
Culture. Clay and Creativity. 3000-300 
B.C. has continued to attract large crowds 
on its tour to several major United States 
cities. It is currently on i/fii at the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History. Wash- 
ington, D.C.. where it can be seen through 
July 15, 1976, and from there will travel 
to the Krannerl Art Museum. Urbana 
(Sept. 5-Oct. 3, 1976}; the Heard Museum, 
Phoenix (Dec. II. 1976-Jan. 25. 1977); 
and the Minneapolis Institute of Arts 
(March 8-May 8, 1977) before returning to 
Ecuador. The catalog is now in its second 
printing. The authors of this article believe 
that the success of the catalog and exhibit 
is attributable to the Field Museum's 
dynamic presentation of ongoing research. 



The authors have recently returned from 
Ecuador, where they have finished the first 
year of a two-year program of excavation 
by the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign. under the auspices of the 
Graduate Research Board and the Center 
for Latin American Studies of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, the National Science Foun- 
dation, and the Archaeology Museum of 
the Banco Central of Ecuador. Donald W. 
Lathrap is research associate . South 
American archaeology, with Field Mu- 
seum's Department of Anthropology, and 
professor of anthropology at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois; Jorge G. Marcos and 
James A. Zeidler are graduate students 
in the Department of Anthropology at the 
University of Illinois. — Ed. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Chronological Chart 
of the Formative 



Based on uncorrected radiocarbon dates 



B.C. 



300 



400 



500 



600 



700 



800 



900 



1000 



1100 



1200 



1500 




Phase 6 



2000 



2100 



2200 



2300 



Phase 3 



2400 



2500 
2600 



2700 



2800 



2900 



3000 



Loma Alia 



3100 



permitted us to map the community at 
several stages of its development. These 
are only a fraction of the thousands of 
structures erected during the long occupa- 
tion of the site. We were able to determine 
differences in floor plan and settlement pat- 
terns for the three major time periods at the 
site — from the small beehivelike oval 
houses of the people who lived at the site 
prior to the introduction of pottery making, 
through the elliptical large houses of Val- 
divia II to V. to the similar but less care- 
fully aligned houses of the vast proto- 
Machalilla occupation at the north end of 
the site. 

It is interesting to note that in Valdivia 
III times the village was well planned with 
a long axis of some three hundred meters, 
roughly oriented north to south; the 
breadth of the village was about two hun- 
dred meters. A linear plaza was sur- 
rounded by household structures arranged 
in a straight line. The better preserved 
north end of the village was closed in by 
the alignment of houses. The southern end. 
now largely destroyed by winds, gullies, 
and roadbuilding, probably had the same 
closure. This distribution of houses around 
the plaza suggests that the floor plan of the 
houses had served as a kind of modular 
template for the village plan. 

THE PLAZA was divided into a smaller 
northern precinct and a larger southern one 
by two mounds that projected from the 
lines of houses surrounding the plaza. It is 
apparent that since Valdivia 111. two cere- 
monial structures were maintained on top 
of the repeatedly resuifaced and enlarged 
mounds that could be considered proto- 
types for the obsessively reconstructed 
pyramids of Classic Maya civilization. By 
Valdivia VII the village had become an 
administrative and religious center control- 
ling several farmsteads scattered along the 
Rio Verde and other lesser rivers such as 
El Rio Real, thus managing some 600 acres 
of riverine agricultural bottom lands. This 
system of a control center with satellite 
settlements implies a stratified society, far 
different from the hunter-gatherers, proto- 
agriculturalists. or simple fisherfolk who 
until somewhat recently the Valdivians 
were thought to be. 

In the catalog (p. 13) we read; ".. .civi- 
lization cannot appear until a truly produc- 
tive agricultural system has been devel- 
oped." At Real Alto we have a large body 
of corroborating evidence, indicating that 
an intensive agricultural system had been 
in operation since very early in the occupa- 
tion of the site. 



Prior to the excavation of Real Alto v.e 
had proof that by Valdivia VI cotton tex- 
tiles were made on a loom by the people of 
Real Alto: however, at the bottom of 
trench C. where the aceramic settlement 
was exposed, we found spindle whorls of 
sandstone, which suggest that cotton was 
being cultivated by the early fanners of 
Real Alto some 5.500 years ago. We have 
also found a large amount of ceramic ves- 
sels that imitate the bottle-gourd; one of 
us had discussed in ample detail . in the cata- 
log, the antiquity of bottle-gourd cultiva- 
tion by the Valdivia people and the pre- 
Valdivians of northwestern South Amer- 
ica. But the most important material that 
we have obtained through this excavation 
is several lines of evidence indicating that 
the Valdivians had de\ eloped or inherited 
an efficient agricultural system based on 
maize, which reinforces Zevallos" long- 
held and hotly debated hypotheses. 

We have found rim sherds decorated 
with corn kernel impressions (similar to 
sherds #15 and #16 in the catalog) to be of 
common occurrence among Valdivia 111 
material, which suggests the importance of 
corn to the Valdivians. and shows that the 
grain was generally available for the ceram- 
ists of the various households to use as 
stamps. The large number of nianos and 
mctutcs that appear at the site — at least 
one in every two-by-three-meter unit of 
excavation — indicates the economic im- 
portance of these mills. Their use in dedi- 
catory or ceremonial roles suggests that the 
Valdivians recognized and celebrated such 
importance. Fragments of the hand-held 
stones and the milling slabs have been used 
as the lining for the tomb of a high status 
burial. A round pit containing fragments 
of nianos and mutates suggests the burial 
of these fragments, one at a time, by each 
member of a feasting group, as an offering 
to Mother Earth to propitiate next year's 
crop. The careful placement of these tool 
fragments, deliberately broken at the side 
of the pit. is ourclosest approach to mason- 
ry, and is strikingly suggestive of what has 
been found ethnographically among pres- 
ent day native groups, such as the Navajo, 
who rely on intensive maize agriculture as 
the basis for their diet. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL comparisons can be 
brought to bear on the accumulated data 
from Real Alto to demonstrate further the 
existence of such an agricultural system. 
Where we have records of long sequences 




Fotshcnl horn \aUivia III (2M)-2IMt 
made h\ csiision. 



C.) nilh mi iiniiMiiiUy complex anil well cxfciital dcsii:n 



of cultural development in Mesoamerica it 
is clear that early groups who relied on 
hunting for a major part of their diet 
brought in a very mixed bag of game, and it 
was only aftcrlhe introduction of intensive 
maize agriculture that the Virginia white- 
tail deer became the predominant meat 
source. At Real Alto the most common 
animal bones, indeed almost the only mam- 
malian remains, are those of the Virginia 
deer. It has been noted elsewhere that the 
Virginia deer becomes part of a maize agri- 
cultural system, as it tends to come in great 
numbers to the maize plots to feed on the 
juicy stalks. This implies that maize 
draws the most desirable of protein sources 
within easy access of the agriculturalist- 
hunter; at the same time the deer becomes 



a pest that must be checked in order to 
maintain the crop. 

The large amount of deer bones found at 
Loma Alta and their proportion in the total 
animal remains recovered imply that such a 
maize agricultural system was in opera- 
tion. Elizabeth Wing (in personal com- 
munication), of the Department of Anthro- 
pology . Florida State Museum, has empha- 
sized the significance of this high quantity 
of Virginia deer bones, unusual at a 
Formative site of Mesoamerica or the 
Andean area. She has also observed that 
our recovery of the tiny bones of small fish 
indicates that the preservation of animal 
bone is excellent; hence, that the exca- 
vated material is a reliable indicator of the 
original quantities. From Dr. Wing's ob- 



Fieid Museum Bulletin 




(iffcring suggests a ritual related to corn and iigrictiltaral productivity. 



servations of the fish bones we have 
learned that there was definitely a prefer- 
ence for three particular species of fish: 
catfish. Pacific white sea bass, and young 
sand shark. Dr. Wing has pointed out that 
fisherfolk will eat all varieties of fish, 
fresh or dried, that they are able to catch, 
while agriculturalists select the sources of 
protein that complement their more varied 
diet. 

Real Alto has produced other data that 
can be compared with existing ethno- 
graphic models of groups practicing inten- 
sive maize agriculture. Linda Klepinger, a 
University of Illinois physical anthropol- 
ogist who worked with us at Real Alto, 
observed that the excavated adult skele- 
tons exhibited extreme wear on the teeth 
that could have been caused only by the 



mastication of an abrasive staple. Dr. Wing 
noticed that the molars of adult dog skele- 
tons at the site were also severely worn. 
The ethnographic evidence obtained from 
present day maize agriculturalists of Cen- 
tral America and Mesoamerica shows that 
in grinding cooked maize to make the inasa 
from which tortillas are prepared, an abra- 
sive sand from the wear of the mciiw and 
the metate becomes included in the corn- 
meal, making such a staple a very abrasive 
food. The indigenous maize-eaters of these 
areas experienced an early wearing down 
of their molars; and because they fed left- 
overs to their dogs, the dogs also had the 
same anomaly. 

A very small gastropod. Cerithidea 
piilchra. inhabits the mangrove swamps 
and muddy estuary beaches, from where 



the Valdivians collected the bivalve 
Anadara titbenulosa. Unlike Anadara, 
which has a meaty and tasty edible part, 
this gastropod is quite bitter in taste and the 
edible portion is too small to warrant the 
labor of extracting it from the shell. How- 
ever, after being fired in a split-cane 
kindled fire, it is easily crumbled to pure 
lime. Because of its shell structure, C. 
piilchra is an efficient source of lime by 
volume. It is, or was until a few years ago 
when the Chanduy mangrove stands dis- 
appeared, the favorite source of lime for 
the valley inhabitants. Today, the El Real 
women still fire the shells of larger marine 
gastropods to obtain the lime with which 
they cook maize, prior to grinding it into 
masa. The amount of C pidchra collected 
from the site suggests the use of great quan- 




titles of lime by the Valdlvians. Part of 
such lime could have been used in the mas- 
tication of tobacco and/or coca leaves, but 
because of all other corroborating evidence 
ue can. with some certainty, suppose that 
it was used mainl> in the preparation of 
maize. 



IN REAL ALIO we ha\ e been able to observe 
that the Valdivia ceramic tradition \\as 
e\en richer and more elaborate than had 
been previously thought. Some remarks 
follow which revise and update iheAiicieni 
Ecuador exhibit and catalog. 

Prior to the exhibit and the catalog, stu- 
dents of Ecuadorian pottery believed that 
post-fire crusting, resist smudging, and bi- 
chrome finger painting were introduced 
into the coastal Ecuadorian ceramic tradi- 
tion by later cultures. However, the Field 
Museum exhibit shows that these tech- 
niques had been used to decorate Valdivia 
pottery before such contact occurred. 

Some vessel forms, namely the neckless 
olla or tecomate and the flat-bottom, 
flaring-wall bowls also found from the 
Mesoamerican and Andean Early Forma- 
tive Periods, are present at Real Alto from 
Valdivia phases II and III. These forms 
have been reported as appearing in later 
Valdivia phases, or are totally absent from 
the ceramic description in reports from 
some other Valdivia sites. Their appear- 
ance so early ih the Valdivia complex at 
Real Alto will undoubtedly he of great im- 
portance in studying Andean and Meso- 
american interrelations with Tropical 
Forest cultures of northwestern South 
America. 

In the catalog. Lathrap links the begin- 
ning of the figurine traditions in Meso- 
america and the Andean area to the figu- 
rines which began in Valdivia times in 
Ecuador. He argues that these earliest 
Valdivia figurines precede the New World 
hollow figurine tradition (in Peru, in Meso- 
america, and during the Chorrera period in 
Ecuador) by 1.000 years. This hypothesis 
is strengthened by new data recovered in 
the current Real Alto excavations. The late 
Emilio Estrada. Ecuadorian archaeologist 
who did the first work on the Formative 
Stage in coastal Ecuador, had observed the 



: A melate, or hand mill, from the earliest Val- 
divia occupation at Real Alto. This well shaped 
mill and the small handstones. or manos, were 
used for /^rinding corn . 



Field Museum Bulletin 




Twojras-mcnr.'. of poticn- made dining Vatdivia III (2J00-2I50 B.C.). The right /.v decorated H-ith red paint in the zone behw the rim. The piece is 
excised sherd at tlie left is typical of the pha.w. The hou I fragment at the similar in shape and design to the earliest potteiy in Mesoamcrica. 



existence of hollow figurines in tiie Macha- 
iilla phase. However, these were deleted in 
the final report of his excavations, and of 
those he carried out with Clifford Evans 
and Betty J. Meggers, published in Snuth- 
sonian Coiitrlhiitioihs to Anthropology. 
Volume 1, in 1965. Marcos, while ex- 
cavating a Machalilla site at Loma Baja. 
San Pablo, found a realistic breast frag- 
ment of a Machalilla hollow figurine (No. 
255. Ancient Ecuador). There are several 
other complete examples of Machalilla hol- 
low figurines in the exhibit, and some Val- 
divia figurines depicting pregnancy. Sev- 
eral of these Valdivia examples are hollow, 
with a rattle included in the ventral region. 
These figurines therefore could be con- 
sidered antecedents of the later hollow 
figurines. Moreover, at Rio Perdido 
(OGCh-20), a late Valdivia and Machalilla 
satellite site to Real Alto excavated by Ron 
Lippi (University of Wisconsin graduate 
student), a hollow figurine u ith the style of 
head gear, facial treatment, and ear spools 
typical of the Chorrera mate figurines (such 
as No. 416, Ancient Ecuador) was re- 
trieved from a definitely Machalilla 
stratum. This find, made by rigorously con- 
trolled excavation, pushes the beginning 



of the traditionally "Chorrera style" of 
figurines to the Machalilla phase. 

In this excavation Lippi also found the 
first Chacras (Manabf) style figurines ever 
recovered in the Guayas coast, changing 
an earlier assumption, presented in the 
catalog, that Chacras figurines were a 
Manabi variant of teiminal Valdivia. The 
finding of this style of figurine at Rio 
Perdido shows that the Chacras figurines 
of Manabi are not a local phenomenon but 
belong to a widely distributed style at a 
given time in the development of the Early 
Formative of Coastal Ecuador. 

In this transitional period between Val- 
divia and Machalilla. a thin, engraved, red 
to orange ware appears overlying the mid- 
dle Valdivia deposits at the northeast sec- 
tion of the Real Alto site, mixed with late 
Valdivia and eariy Machalilla sherds. A 
decorative motif occurring at this time 
anticipates the harpy eagle crest motif 
(Fig. 80, Ancient Ecuador) which in turn 
relates to the treatment of the harpy eagle 
crest in Chavin and Olmec art. 

Our observations and excavations at 
Real Alto have produced convincing evi- 
dence that the people of tropical north- 
western South America had a culture much 



more elaborate in socio-economic aspects 
than that of simple fisheifolk or even incipi- 
ent agriculturalists previously postulated 
for coastal Ecuador during. the Formative 
Stage. These conclusions push backward 
1,500 years or more the beginnings of 
settled farm life and the roots of civilization 
in the Western Hemisphere. 

It is rewarding to find that the apparently 
controversial hypotheses formulated in the 
catalog about the socio-economic develop- 
ment of the Valdivia and Machalilla phases 
have been proven to be, if anything, rather 
conservative in scope, since our present 
data show that many of the phenomena dis- 
cussed actually began earlier and/or cov- 
ered a wider area than we had previously 
estimated. It is also rewarding to see an 
institution like the Field Museum of Natu- 
ral History, through the production of the 
exhibition, presenting some unproven but 
intentionally provocative hypotheses. 
Most of all it is our desire that the Ecua- 
dorian exhibit will stimulate an escalating 
program of archaeological research in this 
crucial area of the New World. We hope 
that by 1985 such work will make our pres- 
ent understanding as obsolete as the for- 
mulations of the mid-sixties now appear. 



New exhibit opens June 18 



Between Friends/Entre Amis 



"Between Friends/Entre Amis," an exhibit 
opening to the public in Hall 26 on June IS. 
is an outgrowth of a recently published 
book by the same name. The book was 
conceived as a bicentennial gift from the 
people of Canada to the people of the 
United States: and this. too. is the rationale 
of the exhibit — a selection of stunning, 
color photos taken from the book. 

In the book's forward. Pierre E. 
Trudeau. prime minister of Canada, ob- 
serves that the book "is about people — 
about the Canadians and Americans who 
live in harmony close to that long thin line 
known as the International Boundary. It 
is about the boundary itself, which both 
links these people and helps to define their 
separate national identities. 

■"This book is also a celebration — a 
joyful recognition of that striking triumph 
of the human spirit reflected in the atmos- 
phere of peace and friendship which per- 
vades the many relationships between two 
proud and free nations. It is a celebration, 
as well, of the two hundredth anniversary 
of the .American Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, and of the innumerable accomplish- 
ments of a great country during two 
centuries of freedom. 

"No one should think it strange that 
Canadians should involve themselves in 
the observance of an American anniver- 
sary. Over hundreds of years we have 
worked and played together, laughed and 
mourned together, fought side by side 
against common enemies. Our two peoples 
have helped each other repair the havoc of 
natural disasters, inspired and applauded 
each other, opened our hearts and oiu' 
homes to each other as to valued and wel- 
come friends. 

"Let no one seek to devalue the 
achievements of our friendship by glossing 
over its occasional difficulties. It is true 
that, as is not uncommon among lifelong 
friends, we have sometimes had serious 
differences of opinion, misunderstood 
each other, struggled against each other's 



competing ambitions. Long ago we even 
fought each other, usually in relation to the 
very boundary which this book illumi- 
nates. 

"The true nature of our international 
relationship, however, is revealed by the 
fact that it is defined not by our differ- 
ences, but by our capacity and eagerness 
to resolve them. 

"Our International Boundary, and 
the men and women who view it from 
opposite sides, have a vitally important 
lesson to teach other members of the com- 
munity of nations. It is well expressed on 
a plaque marking the border line between 
Alaska and the Yukon Tenitory — a plaque 
which proclaims that the friendship be- 
tween Canada and the United States is 
'a lesson of peace to all nations." 



In 1975, the National Film Board of 
Canada sent thirty-two Canadian photog- 
raphers to examine the United States- 
Canada border. The photographers were 
asked to interpret the border, to photo- 
graph the land and people in the immediate 
vicinity of it. to document places in both 
countries where there is a sense of the 
border present in the daily lives of the 
people that live there. They were to range • 
more than twenty miles from the Inter- 
national Boundary vista only in the sparse- 
ly populated parts of the continent, where 
people in one of the countries live a con- 
siderable distance from their nearest neigh- 
bours across the border. The photog- 
raphers travelled the entire length of the 
"division with height and length, but no 
breadth, that is legally the border" and 
recorded, "objects of interest susceptible 
of photographic delineation." as had H.L. 
Hime, a young Canadian photographer 
who set out to photograph western Canada 
in 1858. 

The result of their work is this re- 
markable 3.^6-page book, published by the 



National Film Board of Canada.* On the 
occasion of the United States bicentennial. 
President Gerald Ford will receive the 
first copy. 

The temporary exhibit at Field Museum is 
an extension of the book and, in itself, is 
"a gift from the people of Canada to the 
people of the United States." It was pro- 
duced by Lorraine Monk, executive pro- 
ducer. Still Photography Division. Na- 
tional Film Board of Canada. 

Each photo is a distinguished work of 
art. with the subject matter either a view 
of the land in its various guises along the 
boundary, or of those who live. work, 
worship, or play within a very short dis- 
tance of the boundary. 



*On sale at Field Museum Book Shop. $29. ."iO; 
10 percent discount to niemhers. 



Prospective Volunteers 

A three-session Museum orientation 
for Members interested in joining the 
Department of Education as volun- 
teers will be held July 8, 15, and 22 
from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. The 
sessions are designed to prepare 
such persons for the role of facilitator 
— a person who aids groups visiting 
the Museum by providing informa- 
tion, guidance, and suggestions that 
will make their Museum visit even 
more meaningful. 

Volunteer facilitators will become 
eligible for further training to work 
more extensively with a broad range 
of educational programs in the Mu- 
seum. 

Interviews with prospective volun- 
teers will be held June 28 through 
July 2. Please write to Carolyn 
Blackmon. Field Museum, for further 
information about the program. 



Field Museum Bulletin 








4:*. 
^ 

^^i 



FROM BIRTH TO FLIGHT: Pterosaur {a stylized model) rises 
from the floor of Stanley Field Hall and soars to a fixed 
position at balcony level. At upper left. New York de- 



signers Robert Malone and Karen Wermuth discuss the 
project with Museum staff. In two days Malone and Wer- 
muth assembled the 51-foot, 33-poimd model from lengths 





Jl\i 



Pholos In n.n, H.ilu 



I of aluminum tubing, plywood, and nylon fabric. The 
j model will remain on view at Field Museum throughout 
I the summer. In conjunction with the model display, a tem- 



poraiy exhibit of pterosaur fossils and models, together 
with text and diagrams, may be seen in the balcony area 
of the second floor, west. 



Field Museum Bulletin 11 



A Major Aquisition: Field Museum Receives Bequest of Important Beetle Collection 



By Henry Dybas 



Last February a truckload of steel cabi- 
nets was received by Field Museum ento- 
mologists with a special excitement, for 
they contained an extraordinary collection 
of North American beetles — some 83,000 
specimens. The collection was a bequest of 
the late Joseph N. Knull, for many years 
professor of entomology at Ohio State 
University. 

The Knull beetles comprise the most 
important collection of North American 
insects ever acquired by Field Museum. 
The collection reflects Knull's special in- 
terest in several families of beetles: the 
longhom beetles (family Cerambycidae), 
click beetles (Elateridae), metallic wood- 
borers (Buprestidae), and checkered, or 
clerid, beetles (Cleridae). These families 
include many destructive, hence econom- 
ically important, insects. The collection 
also includes more than 200 new species 
that were discovered and subsequently 
named and described by Knull in the scien- 
tific literature. 



.losef Knull was born at Harrisbiu-g, 
Pennsylvania, on October 12. 1891. He at- 
tended the public schools of that city and 
received a B.Sc. in biology from Pennsyl- 
vania State College (now Pennsylvania 
State University) in 1915. He was then 
employed as an entomologist with 
Pennsylvania's Bureau of Plant Industry, 
where he developed his lifelong interest in 
forest insects, particularly in the beetle 
families mentioned above. Returning to 
graduate school at Ohio State University, 
he received a master's degree in entomolo- 
gy in 1924. From 1930 to 1933 he served 
as research entomologist with the Forest 
Research Institute of the Pennsylvania 
State Department of Forests and Waters, 
and in 1933 was with the Forest Insect 
Investigations Division of the U.S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. In 1934 he was 
appointed curator of insects and assistant 
professor of zoology and entomology at 
Ohio State University where he subse- 
quently attained the rank of professor. 




m^,^"^ 






Dr. KniiU colU'ctint; 
in field, using 
lime-honored 
method of 
shaking insects 
from foliage into 
■ella. Photo 
in 1957. 



retiring in 1962. Knull died in April, 1975, 
at the age of 83. In his long career, he pub- 
lished more than 200 papers in economic 
entomology and on the taxonomy and clas- 
sification of the several beetle families 
that are so richly represented in his col- 
lection. 

The Knull collection contains about 
2,700 identified species and 80 to 90 per- 
cent of the known United States species 
within the cerambycid, elaterid, buprestid, 
and clerid groups. Such a comprehensive 
representation of species (as with any 
group of insects) is truly extraordinary, 
for many species are extremely rare or 
occur in very limited areas, and a surpris- 
ing number are still known from only one 
or a very few specimens. The Knull collec- 
tion is especially rich in such forms and 
contains many species that are found in few 
or no other collections. 



Beetles, or Coleoptera, constitute the 
largest order of living things — one of 
every four kinds of animals on the face 
of the earth is a beetle. It is difficult to 
fully convey the diversity and richness of 
this group. About 270,000 species have 
already been described and every large 
collection, such as the Knull collection, 
contains many additional species that are 
still to be named. The vastness of the 
beetle order is suggested by the fol- 
lowing anecdote related by the noted 
Yale ecologist and limnologist, G. E. 
Hutchinson, in an essay that has become 
something of a classic in biology: 

"There is a story, possibly apocryphal, 
of the distinguished British biologist, 
J.B.S. Haldane, who found himself in 
the company of a group of theologians. 
On being asked what one could conclude 
as to the nature of the Creator from a 
study of his creation, Haldane is said to 
have answered, "An inordinate fondness 
for beetles.'"' 

Among the many new species of 
beetles discovered and named by Knull 
is the large and strikingly colored Jiini- 
pcrella miiahilis. shown opposite. The 
drawing, executed by Knull, reveals his 
special ability as a scientific illustrator. 

Henrx Dvhas is eiinitor of insects. 



The species. v\hich he found boring into 
living juniper trees in the Santa Rosa 
Mountains in southern California, is un- 
doubtedly the most spectacular buprestid 
beetle discovered in the United States 
within the past se\eral decades. The 
name minihiUs. in fact, means "mar- 
velous. "" 

The original specimens (known to bi- 
ologists as type specimens) of most o'i 
the nev\ species described by Knull are 
in the newly acquired collection, as v^ell 
as long study series of many hitherto 
poorly known species. These study 
series are important for the extent to 
which they show variation and geo- 
graphic and seasonal distribution. For 
nearly 30 years Professor Knull and his 
wife Doroth\- (in her own right a promi- 
nent entomologist, specializing in the 
leaf-hoppers or Cicadellidae) made sum- 
mer trips to many parts of North Amer- 
ica, particularly to the Southwest, in 
order to build up their research collec- 
tion and to add. in other groups of in- 
sects, to Ohio State University's general 
reference collection. Evidence of the 
sustained collecting that built up Knull's 
long study series of previously rare or 
unknov\n species is readily apparent 
from the labels on the pinned specimens. 
The metallic wood-boring beetle Xenor- 
hipis hidalgoensis. for example, was first 
described by Knull as a new species 
from specimens which the Knulls col- 
lected in Texas in 1952. They continued 
to make collecting trips to the same area 
over the years, and additional specimens 



of this species were added in 1953. 1954. 
1957, 1961, and 1964. resulting in a long 
study series. Every drawer in the collec- 
tion likewise shows the sustained effort 
and care that were hallmarks of Knull's 
work. 

In the Knull collection, economicalh 
imponant species (v\hich may do damage 
as larvae or as adults) include twig- 
borers, wood-borers, wireworms. and 
round-headed borers: some are destruc- 
ti\e to living trees, including fruit trees, 
as uell as to agricultural crops: others, 
such as certain clerid beetles, are bene- 
ficial predators and in some instances are 
effective in controlling destructive bark 
beetles. 

As the primary reference and research 
materials of systematic entomology, col- 
lections are important in providing a 
basis for classification and identification 
by which all the knov\ledge concerning a 
species can be stored and readily re- 
trieved. Systematic collections are there- 
fore essential for the applied and more 
immediately relevant fields of medical, 
veterinary, agricultural and forest en- 
tomology, but they are also basic and 
essential to much work in the area of 
ecoloc\ and evolutionarv biologv. 



The systematic collection at Field 
Museum, which includes more than 
2.650.000 fully prepared insect specimens 
and more than 102.000 identified species, 
is used not only by our staff and associ- 
ates, but by other professional entomolo- 





Drawer of Knull 
beetles is viewed by 
the author (right) 
and John Kethley. 
associate curator 
and head. Division 
of Insects. 



Juniperellii niirabilis. a netv species of beetle 
in the family Buprestidae first described hv 
J. .V. Knull in 1947. The drawing is b\ Knull. 



gists and graduate students in this 
country and abroad. Over the years, a 
great deal of significant research, re- 
sulting in a large number of publications, 
has been based on the study of this col- 
lection. For those biologists who cannot 
come to Field Museum to study speci- 
mens in the collection, specimen loans 
are frequently made by mail. Dozens of 
such loans. in\ol\ing many thousands of 
specimens, are made each \ear. In 1975 
one third of these loans were to scien- 
tists in ten foreign countries. 

.Although the Knull beetles have been 
at Field Museum for only a short time, 
they are already being incorporated into 
the Division of Insects" systematic col- 
lections, and sections of the collection 
are being studied by specialists. For 
example. John Chemsak. of the Univer- 
sity of California at Berkeley, has 
examined the Cerambycidae. and is pre- 
paring a list of type specimens of this 
family in the collection. Chemsak is co- 
author (with E. Gorton Linsley) of an 
extensive monograph on the Ceram- 
bycidae of North America, of w hich six 
parts have already been published. 
Though never a formal student of 
Knull's, Chemsak's original interest in 
the Cerambycidae was generated by 
Knull's 1946 work on '"The Long-homed 
Beetles of Ohio." 

Field Museum's indebtedness to 
Joseph Knull for his gift is great indeed. 
As part of the Museum's collection it 
will continue to be valuable as a scien- 
tific resource for generations to come. 

1. Hutchinson. G.E.. 1959. "Homage to 
Santa Rosalia or Why are there so many 
kinds of animals?" American Naturalist, vol. 
4.^. pp. 145-l.'i9. 



Dave Walslen 



Field Museum Bulletir 




-MuA/mi}n(A 





'6m£A^'^ ll^&OJid 



By Ellen Thome Smith 



In the early spring of 1966. James Palmer, 
President of the Board. of Trustees of 
Field Museum, and Leiand Webber. Mu- 
seum director, asked me to organize a 
Women's Board. This was a great surprise 
to me. but 1 was even more surprised to 
hear myself saying 1 would try to do so! 
They promised that there would be little 
work for me to do (I had heard that one 
before), as 1 would be given a competent 
secretary who would take care of every- 
thing. My third surprise was that she did! 
All I had to do was make a tentative list 
of women board members for the trustees 
to approve, and Ruth Montgomery, the 
secretary, would compose a letter inviting 
them to become "Charter Members." 

We started out with the trustees" 
wives, and asked each to suggest five ad- 
ditional members. I added several natural 
history-minded friends as well as some 
active members of the Museum, and 
acceptances poured in. (Surprise number 
four!) 

Our first event was a luncheon given 
May 26. attended by 84 ladies, in Mr. 
Palmer's office, where he gave us a warm 
welcome. Mr. Webber observed that prob- 
ably our most important role would be in 
the field of public relations, explaining the 
Museum's aims and opportunities to 
others. 

Ably guided by Dr. Donald Collier, 
chief curator of anthropology, and Dr. 
Kenneth Starr, curator of Asiatic archaeol- 
ogy and ethnology, we saw the Mayan 
rubbings — a temporary exhibition — and 
then visited the third floor conservation 
laboratory, where Mrs. Christine Dan- 
ziger, conservator, demonstrated restora- 
tion and preservation techniques. 

After partaking of a special beverage 
to alleviate ""museum feet,'" we were 
served lucheon, and several members 
stayed on to tour other parts of the 
Museum. 

This first luncheon is typical of many 
which followed — usually three or four a 
year, so that by now, ten years later, we 
have covered all the departments of the 



Museum and most of the temporary ex- 
hibits — except that after a time the "spe- 
cial beverage"" became known as "refresh- 
ments,"" and finally as "sherry!"" 

Our second event in 1966 was a tea in 
honor of the foreign consuls of Chicago 
and their wives, given on July 12, a very 
hot day. The committee in charge of this 
event, chaired by Mrs. William H. Arnold, 
planned each detail with meticulous care, 
which accounted for its success. 

One member of the Women"s Board 
was assigned as special hostess to each 
of the 35 consuls. She was briefed in ad- 
vance regarding her "country-for-the- 
day,"' its exhibitions and expeditions, and 
any of its contacts with the Museum. A 
brief but impressive ceremony was held 
during which each consul was presented 
a special consular membership card, 
admitting him and his family and the future 
guests he was urged to bring. The flags 
of all countries represented were hung 
from the second floor balcony in Stanley 
Field Hall, creating a most festive ap- 
pearance. The Museum staff was especial- 
ly delighted by this event, as it was felt 
that consuls so honored would be especial- 
ly interested in facilitating expeditions 
to their various countries undertaken by 
explorers from "their Museum."" 

On September first, we were honored 
by being allowed to benefit from the Mar- 
shall Field presentation of its Fall De- 
signer Collection and luncheon at the 
Sheraton-Blackstone Hotel. By then there 
were 155 charter members of the Women"s 
Board, with acceptances still coming in, 
and a nominating committee was ap- 
pointed to select officers. Mrs. Homer 
Livingstone consented to be chairman, 
and the committee members were Mes- 
dames Robert Gwinn, Gaylord Freeman, 
Jr., and Joseph L. Block. They proposed 
the following slate, which was elected for 
two years: Mrs. Hermon D. Smith, presi- 
dent: Mrs. Walter A. Krafft, first vice 
president: Mrs. Claude A. Bamett, second 
vice president: Mrs. George H. Watkins, 
secretary: Mrs. Thomas M. Ware, assis- 



tant secretary: Mrs. Austin T. Cushman. 
treasurer; and Mrs. Robert E. Straus, 
assistant treasurer. All agreed to continue 
in office for one additional year, with the 
exception of Mrs. Straus, who asked to be 
replaced. She was succeeded in 1968 by 
Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II. Several 
committees were formed. Miss Nora 
Chandler heading both the program and 
volunteer committees; Mrs. William D. 
Mackenzie, publicity: and Mrs. R. 
Winfield Ellis, decorating. In 1967 two 
more committees were added: Mrs. Henry 
P. Isham. by-laws: and Mrs. Gardner H. 
Stem, social (planning menus and table 
decorations and similar arrangements). 
Officers and all committee chairpersons 
formed the executive committee, which 
met approximately once a month. 

In the spring of 1968 Women"s Board 
Secretary Ruth Montgomery decided to 
return to her native Alaska, and her place 
was ably taken by Virginia (Mrs. David) 
Straub, who retired this past January, 
giving up the reins to Alexandra "Lexi"" 
Mente. 

Our meetings were often scheduled 
as previews for temporary exhibits such as 
"Color in Nature"" and "Contemporary 
African Arts."" or the accession of some 
specific object of unusual interest, such as 
the great auk (an extinct bird species), 
which was combined with a visit to the 
Division of Birds, orthe coelacanth (which 
had been thought extinct) — leading us to 
the Division of Fishes. 

The opening of new permanent exhib- 
its such as "Man in His Environment"" 
called for special evening previews, which 
ranged from small dinners of 200 for the 
Tibetan Hall opening (1967). to 860 for 
the Contemporary African Arts Festival. 
Some were formal seated dinners, and 
some have been informal "sit where you 
like"" buffets. Our first formal ball was 
a dinner dance sponsored by the Women"s 
Board to celebrate the 75th anniversary 
of the Museum"s founding, and to dedicate 
the new Stanley Field Hall. Just before 
the occasion, several spanows had flown 







(^ 


ll^ 


^ttl^. 




T ^H 


M'<Mr^ 






l5 


1^ 






^1 




^ ,.. 


■if.. 




^^^^IV 



T/ie author (left) chats willi outgoing Women's Board President Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
at recent hoard luncheon. 



into the hall und perched in the fig trees, 
which would never do. The Division of 
Birds suggested mixing bird seed with 
whiskey to make them easy to catch. All 
the day before we tried this, but the birds 
flew out the doors — for air, we think. 



The late Jean Harvey chaired a commit- 
tee of expert decorators: Maud Moss, 
Catharine Ellis, and Eleanore Palmer 
transformed the new hall into Fairyland. 
The 450 guests were greatly impressed 
when their cars and taxis were ushered 
over the sidewalk to an awning-covered 
red carpet, leading up all those front stairs, 
but they gasped as they came in the door. 
Lights played on the fountains, and shone 
from each of the flower-filled balcony 
openings above both sides of the hall, 
while the center floor was covered with 
beautifully decorated tables, each with its 
own set of tall candelabra. 

In December of 1969 Mary Ward 
dreamed up an Old Fashioned Christmas 
Afternoon Wassail Party for young and 
old. The Women's Board bought Christ- 
mas decorations and a fireproof decorated 



Christmas tree some thirty feet high, 
designed to last for years. The party was 
such a success that we repeated it in 
December, 1973, under Sally Searle's 
management. The Women's Board has 
set aside a sum sufficient to replace tired 
decorations each Christmas, including the 
tree if necessary. 

The gala event for 1975 was a dinner 
party on April 17 for the opening of the 
exhibit "Ancient Ecuador: Culture, Clay, 
and Creativity 3,000-300 B.C." with Mrs. 
Patrick Shaw as party chairman. The way 
to plan a good party, she observed, was 
to get a good committee and sit back. The 
Museum staff made everything so easy. 
To Virginia Straub, who was absolutely 
indispensable, she presented the "Stanley 
Field Hall Mirth and Hilarities Award." 

Our most recent dinner, run by Mary 
Ward, was Novejnber 7, 1975 — a fitting 
opening for the "Man and His Environ- 
ment," the exhibit so carefully planned by 
the Museum, and so long in the making. 

But the Women's Board is not all 
glamour and entertainment. We have 
interested ourselves in all kinds of Museum 
activities, such as volunteering to help in 



different departments (11 Women's Board 
members are currently Museum volun- 
teers) and docent training with the 
Raymond Foundation, taking children and 
their teachers on guided tours. Three 
of the Women's Board members sit on the 
Museum Board of Trustees; eight serve 
on trustee committees. 

Although fund-raising is not formally 
part of our job, we suddenly found our- 
selves in the midst of the $25 million 
Capital Campaign, and an amount of $1.8 
million was attributed to efforts of the 
Women's Board. And now the Commit- 
ment to Distinction campaign. Where and 
when will it all end? The obvious answer 
is "Never." For the task of maintaining 
Field Museum is a many-faceted one. with 
new projects, new exhibits continually 
being dealt with. The Women's Board 
takes great pride in having been so closely 
involved with such activities in its first ten 
years of life. We look forward to many 
more. 



New Women's Board Officers 

The new president of Field Museum's 
Women's Board is Mrs. Joseph E. Rich, 
elected at the board's annual meeting on 
May 11. Mrs. Rich succeeds Mrs. Thomas 
E. Donnelley 1 1 . who was elected in 1974. 
Other new officers elected at the meeting 
were Mrs. Edward F. Swift, second vice- 
president; Mrs. Robert Wells Carton, re- 
cording secretary; Mrs. T. Stanton 
Armour, corresponding secretary. 

Continuing in their respective offices 
are Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow, first vice- 
president; Mrs. Philip K. Wrigley, third 
vice-president; and Mrs. Arthur S. Bowes, 
assistant treasurer. 

Newly elected members-at-large are 
Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing and Mrs. Noel 
Seeburg, Jr.; Mrs. Corwith Hamill, Mrs, 
Gardner H. Stern, and Mrs. Frank H. 
Woods are continuing as members-at-large. 



Women's Board Presidents 

1966-1976 

1966-69: Mrs. HermonDunlap Smith 
1970-71: Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
1972-73: Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
1974-75: Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley U 
1976- : Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 



Field Museum Bulletin 



iwieiwiBe^r cHiLDRGt^'i wo^kit^oFi 



July, 1976 

Members' Children (or grandchildren) are invited to partici- 
pate on Wednesdays in July Workshops. The workshops 
offer children an opportunity to work with actual specimens 
and learn scientific and ethnological techniques. The pro- 
grams for younger children last about one hour, those for 
older children about one hour and a half. 



July 7 



July 7 



INSECTS 

Elizabeth Deis — Leader 
10:30 a.m. Ages 7—9 
1:00 p.m. Ages 10—13 

Where to find insects — (in some unexpected places) 
Ways to catch them — (easy and strenuous) 
How to keep them — (alive or dead) 



LIFE IN AN OLD DEAD TREE 

Marie Svoboda — Leader 

10:30 a.m. & 1:00 p.m. Ages 6—7 

An old dead tree may not look like much to us, but to certain 
kinds of animals, it is a great place to live. This program reveals the 
different kinds of animals that might be found living in such a tree. 




July 14 



AFRICAN DRUMS AND STAMP DESIGNS 



Morning 10:30 a.m. 
Afternoon 1:00 p.m. 
Age 7—9 



Grace Fuller and Jean Carton — Leaders 
Natalie Newberger — Leader 



Learn African rhythms and dance steps to the beat of West Afri- 
can drums and gongs, and produce designs using Ashanti stamps 
with authentic Adinkra symbols. 



DINOSAURS TO SERPENTS 

Ann Ross — Leader 
10:30 a.m. Ages 7—9 
1:00 p.m. Ages 10—13 

Learn about a turtle weighing as much as 600 pounds, a snake as 
long as 30 feet, and a lizard that runs on the water. Find out about 
reptiles big and small and how they arc related to dinosaurs and 
other prehistoric reptiles. 



July 21 

THE ART OF CHINESE PAPER CUTTING 

Edith Reming — Leader 
10:30 a.m. & 1:00 p.m. 
Ages 10—13 



July 28 

FOSSILS 

Martha Lussenhop & Ellen Hyndman — Leaders 
10:30 a.m. & 1:00 p.m. 
Ages 10—13 



Learn the Chinese technique of cutting paper designs free hand What is a fossil? How are fossils formed? Learn to identify fossils 
and producing rubbings from them. and to understand ways living things are fossilized. 



A BIRD IN THE HAND 

Lorain Stephens — Leader 
10:30 a.m. Ages 7—9 
1:00 p.m. Ages 10—13 



PLANT IMMIGRANTS 

Phil Hanson — Leader 
10:30 a.m. & 1:00 p.m. 
Ages 10—13 



An introduction to the wodd of birds: their structure, ecology. Participants will study some of the weeds and other plants that are 
behavior, and some ideas on how to become better acquainted not native to this part of the country. How did they get here and 
with them. how did they survive? 




Reservations are necessary and we urge that they be sent in 
early. The size of each session is linnited and applications 
will be processed in the order they are received. A child can 
be scheduled into only one program. Please send a separate 
application for each child in your family who wishes to 
participate. 



Pletisi' send loupini cr 
facsimilc In: 
Children's Workshops 
Field Museum 
Roosevelt Rd. tit 
Lakeshore Dr. 
Chicago. III. 60605 



Application for July Workshops 

Program '^'"'^ 

1st choice 

2nd choice 

3rd choice 

4th choice 

Name 

Address 

Membership in name of 



Field Museum Bulletin 17 



Members* Field Trips 

To help you in your future planning. Field Museum is happy to 
make advance announcement of three field trips planned for this 
summer and fall. In order to avoid disappointment sign up early — 
space is limited. All trips will be led by Field Museum staff scientists. 



Shark Fields of Parke County, Indiana 

Aug. 12—15. 1976 
4 days — 3 nights 

Limited to 20 persons selected in order applications are received. 
We will explore an area where Field Museum scientists have col- 
lected hundreds of fossil sharks from black shale of the coal age. 
The group will be guided on foot through rough country by Dr. 
Rainier Zangerl, former chairman Department of Geology, and Dr. 
Eugene R. Richardson, curator, fossil invertebrates. There will be 
opportunities to examine the rocks found in shrinking ponds where 
sharks were trapped millions of years ago. Participants may them- 
selves find sharks and associated animals. The hikes will be rugged, 
for which appropriate clothing will be needed. Good food and com- 
fortable motel rooms will be the reward at the end of the day. The 
group will travel on an air-conditioned motor coach. Total cost. 
$172.50 per person. 



Michigan's 
Upper Peninsula 

Sept. 27 through Oct. 1, 1976 
5 days — 4 nights 

A five-day geology-botany trip. The group will travel by air-condi- 
tioned motor coach to Marquette, Mich. There we'll visit geological 
localities that show the roots of an ancient Precambrian mountain 
chain that once stretched across this region. A visit will be made to a 
working iron mine and its ore-milling operations, following the ore 
from rough form to pellets ready for shipment to steel mills. 

The unique plant life of an acid bog and the maple-beech-hem- 
lock forest in autumn colors will be the botanical highlights of the 
trip. The weather should be cool and pleasant, and the fall colors 
at their peak brilliance. The trip, limited to 44, will be led by Dr. 
Edward Olsen, chairman of the Department of Geology, and by Dr. 
William Burger, associate curator of botany. Cost of the trip; $260.00 
per person. 



Late Summer Weekend 
in Historic Galena, Illinois 

Aug. 28—29, 1976 

Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, curator, fossil invertebrates, will conduct 
a study tour through the geological area (once a major lead- 
producing region) of this history-laden river town, which is built on 
rocky limestone bluffs. A tour of President Ulysses S. Grant's home 
will be included in the itinerary. Saturday evening will be free for 
participants to enjoy the charming downtown area, with its unique 
variety of pre-Civil War architecture. Total cost: $62.50 per person. 



Trip fee includes cost of motel rooms, transportation, meals, and 
gratuities, based on double occupancy. A small additional fee will 
be charged for single accommodations. Reservations may be made 
by writing to the Membership Department, Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. A $25.00 deposit 
should accompany your application. For further information please 
call Dorothy Roder, 922-9410, ext. 219. 




EGYPT TOURS FOR 1977 

Several trips to Egypt during January, February, and March, 
1977, are planned, jointly sponsored by Field Museum and 
the Oriental Institute of Chicago. The itinerary has not been 
finalized, but each will be about 18 days long. Further infor- 
mation will be announced later. The tours will be open to 
members of both institutions. Interested Museum Members 
should write to Mrs. Dorothy Roder, Membership Secretary, 
Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road and Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 



Members' Nights: 19,566 Guests! 

Members' Nights this year (May 6 and 7) once again proved to be 
events of special interest to Field Museum members, with nearly 20, 000 
persons attending; 8,571 came to Thursday night's open house, 
10,995 to Friday night's. This compared to a combined total of 6,933 
in 1973, 12,092 in 1974, and 15,551 in 1975. 

Fifty-eight persons took out new memberships on the two eve- 
nings, including one life membership. Szabo Food Service, the Mu- 
seum's caterer, was kept busy dispensing 66,000 cookies, 700 
gallons of fruit punch, and 100 gallons of coffee. 



JUNE at Field Museum 



New Exhibit 

CANADIAN BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

"BETWEEN FRIENDS/ENTRE AMIS." An exhibit of 
220 original color prints of the land and the people along the 
entire U.S./Canadian border opens June 18 (Members' Pre- 
view. June 17). The exhibit, in Hall 26, is a Bicentennial gift 
from the Canadian people to the people of the United States 
and was produced by the Still Photography Division of the 
National Film Board of Canada. 



New Program 

SUMMER JOURNEY FOR CHILDREN 

"FRIEND OR FOE?" A free, self-guided tour about ani- 
mals that have been feared, misunderstood, or misrepre- 
sented in the past— such as the bat. toad. wolf, hyena, rattle- 
snake, tarantula, and coyote. All children who can read 
and write are invited to participate. Journey sheets in 
English and Spanish are available at the information booth. 
Bring pen or pencil. 



seen daily at 12:00 noon. For location, inquire at entrance. 
Eskimo in Life and Legend (23 min.) 
Eskimo Artist Kenojuak (19 min.) 
Kalvak (20 min.) 



Special Exhibits 

WHALE EXHIBIT 

"THERE'S A SOUND IN THE SEA." This special exhibit 
features nearly 90 original whale poems and paintings by 
children from all over the United States and Canada. The 
images created by the children are fresh, bright, and often 
poignant. Hall 9. through August 8. 

FLYING REPTILE EXHIBIT 

"PTEROSAUR." An aluminum and brown-fabric stylized 
model of the largest known flying creature — an extinct 
pterosaur— now hangs at balcony level in Stanley Field 
Hall. The model has a wingspan of 51 feet and a body 
length of 31 feet. A special exhibit of pterosaur fossils and a 
scientifically accurate epoxy model of the skeleton of 
Rhamphorh\;nchus axe displayed in cases in the northwest 
arcade, second floor. 



Last Chance to See 

ESKIMO ART EXHIBIT 

"19TH CENTURY ALASKAN ESKIMO ART." Com 

pare the new with the traditional in this handsome exhibit of 
early to mid- 19th century traditional art and the souvenir art 
of the 20th century. Exhibit closes June 15 

ESKIMO FILM PROGRAM 

CONTEMPORARY CANADIAN ESKIMO ART 
AND ARTISTS are illustrated in three films which can be 



BICENTENNIAL EXHIBIT 

"MAN IN HIS ENVIRONMENT." Six areas that wind 
through 8.000 square feet of exhibition space include two 
film theatres. A salt marsh — recreating one at Sapelo Island. 
Georgia— offers a unique opportunity to study basic ecolo- 
gical principles within a total marsh environment. Man in 
His Environment takes a global view of some of the most 
serious environmental problems now confronting all man- 
kind and asks visitors to involve themselves in decisions that 
have to be made. Hall 18. 



(CALENDAR continued on back cover) 



JUNE at Field Museum 



(CALENDAR continued from inside bacl< cover) 



Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 



Special Programs 

ENVIRONMENT FILM SERIES 

"ENVIRONMENT: THE SUM OF ITS PARTS." The 

best and newest environmental films are offered in conjunc- 
tion with the Man in His Environment exhibit. The June 
theme is "An Endangered Animal: The Whale." Films are 
shown at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, 
second floor north. 
June 4, 5. 6: In Search of the Bowhead Whale 

(50min.) 
June 11,12, 13: Whales (22 min.) 
June 18, 19, 20: Whales. Dolphins and Men (52 min.) 
June 25, 26, 27: After the Whale (30 min.) 



EVERY SATURDAY 

"DISCOVERY PROGRAM." Tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities are offered every Saturday from 
11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Topics vary but often include: 

Ancient Egypt— A half-hour tour through the Egyptian 
collection, including an explanation of the hows and 
whys of mummy-making. 

Sna/ces — Live snakes are featured in the Hall of Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians. 

Folktales of the Alaskan £s/c/mo — Half-hour story- 
telling sessions provide insight into how Alaskan 
Eskimos of different regions view and relate to their 
environment. 

Earlf^ Man — A half-hour tour traces major trends in the 
physical and cultural evolution of man. 

For specific times for each of the above events, phone the 
museum, or inquire on arrival at museum entrances. 



June 1,7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club (meets first Tuesday 
of each month) 

June 4, 8:00 p m Chicago Anthropological So- 
ciety (meets first Friday of every 
month) 

June 8,7:30 pm Chicago Nature Camera Club 

June 9, 7:00 p. m Chicago Ornithological Society 
7:30 p m. Windy City Grotto 

June 10, 8:00 p m Chicago Mountaineering Club 

June 13, 2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

June 22, 7:30 p m Chicago Audubon Society 



Coming in July 

"MEMBERS' CHILDREN'S WORKSHOPS." morn 
ings and afternoons on Wednesdays. Throughout July. 
Advance registration essential. For details see p. 14. 

'THE TRIBAL EYE." The outstanding film series, pro- 
duced by Britisher David Attenborough, illustrates tribal 
societies from the Arctic to Africa — their rituals and their art. 
The series will be shown at the museum on Fridays, Satur- 
days, and Sundays starting in July. 

Summer Hours 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 
6:00 p.m. every day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, 
the museum is open to 9:00 p.m. From June 26 through 
Labor Day the museum remains open until 9:00 p.m. on 
Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, Food service 
areas arc open 1 1:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at reception 
desk, first floor north. 

MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922 9410 



July/August 
1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




///u//rr,W/. 



r.VPRlMTUH-S voriF>3trs . ini^ .VaMJfma/r. 2,3. ///^ t',/ r, J„^,/,r^ _i„™. ii^/!.„ 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

July/August, 1976 

Vol. 47, No. 7 

Edilorl Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and director: E. Leiand Webber 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. Yarrington. 

Chairman 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Slanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormIck Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Siimuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughslon M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 "Whip-poor-will,'" painting by John James 
Audubon, reproduced in Field Museum's 
four-volume elephant folio edition of The 

Birds of America 

4 Gemstones: Beware and Be Aware 

by Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

8 Western Australian Field Program, 1976-77 

by Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates 

10 Our Environment 

14 Field Briefs 

16 Field Trips for Members 

18 The Tribal Eye 

Film series on tribal societies 

19 July/August at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

"Whip-poor-will." painting by John James Aadiihon. reproduced 
in The Birds of America. Photo by Ron Testa. See page 3. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are 
welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. ISSN; 0015-0703. 




''Whip-poor-will," 

by John James Audubon 

il^S5-KXSl). is the cover illustration 
tor this month's Bulletin. It was exe- 
cuted between 1827 and 1830 and was 
first published as plate 218 in his The 
Birds of America, issued in London 
between 1827 and 1838. 

The larger moth in the painting is a 
cecropia, Hyaioplwru lecropiu: the 
smaller one an io. .-lutomeris io. Both spe- 
cies are common in temperate North 
America. The foliage is of the red oak. 
Qiieniis horeolis or of the black oak. 
Q. relnrina. 

This is a reduced reproduction of the 
plate (39.5 x 29.5 inches) in the four- 
volume elephant folio edition on display 
(one volume at a time) in the north lounge. 
The set was given to Field Museum in 
I'>'70by Mrs. Ch\e Runnells. 

This rare and beautiful work, one of the 

landmarks of .American ornithology, con- 
sists of 87 parts of five hand-colored, cop- 
perplate engravings— 435 illustrations in 
all. The Museum's set is of particular 
value because it is one of two existing sets 
enriched with an additional 13 plates and 
was originally the property of Euphemia 
Gifford. cousin and close friend of Audu- 
bon's wife. Lucy. .Audubon himself, ac- 
cording to a letter addressed to .Miss Gif- 
tord. took ""satisfaction in attending to the 
colouring and finishing of each separate 
plate or engraving. . . ."" 

The illustrations were printed life- 
size; and Audubon acknowledged that ""it 
renders the work rather bulky, but my 
heart was always bent on it. and I cannot 
refrain from attempting it."" With this tlrst 
"number" he was ready to seek subscrip- 
tions and issued his prospectus on March 
17. 1827. From this time until 1839 he trav- 
eled between Europe and .America, fi- 
nancing and overseeing the publication of 
The Birds of America and its text, titled 
Oniiihoiogical Biography (5 vols.. 1831- 
39). and index. A Synopsis of the Birds of 
\orlh America {l»i9). D 

Field Museum s four-volume etepham folio edi- 
tion oJAuduhons The Birds of America. This 
photo was taken before the volumes were placed 
on permanent display in their air-conditioned 
case in the north lounge. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



GEMSTONES: 

Beware and 
Be A^ are 



All gemstones are minerals, but 
not all minerals are gemstones. 
Therein lies a problem for a 
professional mineralogist, 
especially one at a large museum such as 
the Field Museum. Of the approximately 
2.500 known minerals, only about 50 have 
ever been used as gems; and fewer than 15 
of these comprise the most commonly 
owned gems. Now anyone would think 
that a professional mineralogist ought to be 
able to become pretty expert at spotting the 
identity of only 15 out of 2.500 diffeient 
i>bjects of his attention and training. Un- 
fortunately this isn't true — not because 
nature has made these 15 more difficult to 
recognize, but rather because man has in- 
tervened to throw all sorts of distractions 
in his way. 

Gems have monetary value, and if 
something is worth money, is in short 
supply, and in high demand, there is a 
strong incentive to cheat. The peculiar 
thing about gemstones is that there is ac- 
ceptable cheating — and unacceptable 
cheating! The rules of the game are un- 
usual to say the least. 

It is a familiar sight at a museum such 
as ours for a well-dressed lady to arrive, 
carrying with her a box or bag of assorted 
jewelry. The reason for the visit is that she 
has already asked a jeweler to evaluate 
some inherited jewels, but the jeweler 
raised an eyebrow, casting some doubt on 
a stone's authenticity. And now she turns 
to the museum, hoping the staff mineralo- 
gist may reassure her of her jewel's worth. 



Edward Olscn is ciiialor of mincrcdogy and 
chairmuii nj llic Dcparlincnl of Gciiloi;y. 



By Edward Olsen 

The jeweler, by necessity, has a commer- 
cial interest; but it occurs quite naturally 
to the lady that the museum, which isn't in 
the gemstone business and has "no ax to 
grind," might be able to give an unbiased 
identification. The reason she doubts the 
jeweler is very simple; how could the 
stone be a fake when it has been in the 
family for generations? "After all, it came 
from my grandparents!" 

In spite of the fact that the Bible says 
men cheat men — and have been doing so 
for a long, long time — somehow it is as- 
sumed that only mid-20th century tech- 
nology is capable of conniving in the gem- 
stone industry with any kind of tlnesse. It 
usually comes as a shock that a stone, 
given to grandmother in the 19th century, 
could be a phony. 

Men have, in fact, been faking gem- 
stones for millenia. Pliny the Elder, who 
lived from AD 23 to 79, wrote eloquent 
warnings to Romans about the use of glass 
imitations. The Egyptians learned to man- 
ufacture glass and to color it with various 
mineral pigments. They began making imi- 
tation emeralds, turquois. lapis lazuli, and 
jasper — all this as far back as Egypt's 19th 
Dynasty, 1587-1328 BC! Artificial dyeing 
of gems, the changing or enhancement of 
colors, the making of doublets and recon- 
stituted gems, goes back centuries; the 
origins in time are not known. To be sure, 
the inventor of any process that improves 
something of little value to a condition 
where it's worth more is certainly going to 
keep it a secret. Historians have no 
problem in establishing the date when 
Watt made the first steam engine. Ar- 
chimedes the first simple water pump, and 
Newton learned that, statistically, apples 



almost never fall up; but the quiet genius 
who first discovered that the gentle 
heating of pale green beryl crystals turned 
them a divine aquamarine blue is not re- 
corded. His name is more likely to appear 
in a bankbook than in a history book. 

Let's take a look at what the present 
gemstone industry regards as acceptable 
imitations. Synthetic gemstones are real 
gemstones, not fakes. That is, they are 
exactly like their natural counterparts 
except in point of origin; Synthetic stones 
are made by man and natural ones are 
made by nature. Mineralogically, chemi- 
cally, virtually in every characteristic, 
they are identical. A synthetic ruby, for 
example, is a ruby — one made by man. 
None of the standard mineralogical tests 
can distinguish a synthetic ruby from a 
natural one. Major jewelers, with decades 
of experience, cannot tell them apart. In 
recent years the number of gemstones that 
are being synthesized has increased; ruby, 
topaz, sapphire, star sapphire, emerald, 
and diamond can now be made by man. 
But some gemstones, topaz for example, 
are not commercially synthesized, simply 
because the demand for topaz is low and 
the supply of natural stones is more than 
adequate. 

Rubies and sapphires, on the other 
hand, are more popular and these stones 
are produced commercially on a large 
scale. The major problem for the con- 
sumer is that there is generally no way of- 
telling if the ruby ring offered for sale con- 
tains a natural stone (which by and large 
has more intrinsic and monetary value) or 
if it is synthetic. Occasionally it is possible 
to recognize a synthetic stone simply be- 
cause it is so flawless. Natural stones 



luly/Augusl 1976 



sometimes contain minor tliiws or irregu- 
larities, hut when man makes a synthetic 
it's perfect or he doesn't market it. 

A real problem with the synthetics is 
that they are relatively inexpensive to 
produce and, as a consequence, are avail- 
able just about anywhere. American tour- 
ists buy jewelry in places like India, Hong 
Kong, and Sri Lanka (formerly called 
Ceylon). While the settings are genuine 
native work, the stones set in them these 
days are more often synthetics that are 
manufactured in the United States and 
then sent to he cut and polished in coun- 
tries where labor costs are lower. The 
tourist assumes the stones are natural and 
of local origin, and pays accordingly. 

Man also synthesizes stones that 
seldom occur in nature in gem quality, or 
never occur in nature at all. Rutile is a 
mineral that does occur natiually, hut is 
rarely of gem quality. Synthetic rutile is 
sold underthe names ""titania" or "KenNa 
stone." It has a brilliancy and display of 
flashing colors that outshines the best 
diamonds. It is easily recognized, and re- 
spectable American jewelers never at- 
tempt to sell it as diamond. Similarly, 
there is a synthetic stone called ■"YAG" 
(yttrium-aluminum-garnet) that does not 
occur naturally. This stone has many of 
the optical properties of the best dia- 
monds, and to the unwary buyer could 
easily pass for diamond. It is. however, 
sold as a synthetic under its proper name 
here in the United States. Elsewhere in the 
world there is no guarantee that dealers 
are so scrupulous. 

The heat treatment of natural gem- 
stones has been going on for centuries. 
The color of certain stones, with gentle 
heating, will change and sometimes he 
improved. Yellow topaz may turn to a 
rose-red; blotchy amethysts may become 
uniform in hue: strongly heated amethysts 
turn a brownish-yellow; heated carnelians 
turn red; yellowish zircon may turn color- 
less or blue-white and take on the bril- 
liancy of diamond; sapphire may become 
colorless and. when properly faceted, pass 
for diamond. Light green beryl may turn 
to blue aquamarine: gray zoisite may turn 
a deep blue, becoming what is then called 
tanzanite. 

Not all stones, however, change 
color. For example, most green beryl 
crystals remain green when heated. But 
heat-treated stones are considered quite 
acceptable in the gem trade. As a matter 
of practice, most mines which extract 
gems that are known to improve their color 
by heating will routinely heat-treat all 



gems the\ mine, taking advantage ot 
u hatever improvements they can get, and 
selling the unchanged stones for lesser 
\alues. 

In recent years the inacliiition of cer- 
tain gemstones has become an acceptable 
practice. In this process stones of gem 
clarity are exposed to radioactive particle 
bombardment, principally by neutrons 
and gamma rays. White diamonds may he 
turned various shades of green, plain 
quartz may turn to a smoky color, and 
topaz may turn a sherry brown. While 
most of these changes are permanent, 
others are only temporary. Some 
irradiation-colored stones will, in time, 
fade hack to their original colorless state, 
especially if exposed to sunlight or to flu- 
orescent lights such as those found in 
home lighting fixtures. Irradiated stones, 
especially diamonds, are so identified 
uhen sold. There are instances of gem- 
stones other than diamonds not being la- 
beled as such, and large sums of money 
have been lost as the color of the pur- 
chased gems faded completely. 

In addition to these generally ac- 
cepted practices there are certain fraudu- 
lent ones, on which the legitimate gem 
industry frov\ns. hut over v\hich it has 
little control. Technicallv. the easiest of 



these practices is the manufacture of col- 
ored glass imitations of gemstones. com- 
monly called "paste"; but the eye of an 
experienced jeweler can usually spot such 
imitations with ease. There are also sev- 
eral optical devices in use by gemologists 
that can easily detect glass imitations. 

A common misconception is that all 
glass is pretty much the same: but the 
word "glass" is a generic word, like "au- 
tomobile." Just as there are big differ- 
ences in quality among different kinds of 
automobiles, so too there are big differ- 
ences between different kinds of glass. 
There are lime glasses, soda glasses, 
barium glasses, lead glasses, and so on. 
The old test of scratching a windowpane 
with a diamond ring to prove it is indeed a 
diamond really doesn't prove anything. 
Many imitation glass "diamonds" are 
made from types of glass that easily 
scratch the softer window glass. 

Fradulent synthetic stones may cur- 
rently be found on the market. These are 
not glasses but actual synthetic minerals. 
The falsehood lies in the fact that they are 
marketed under incorrect names. The best 
example of this is the synthetic mineral 
corundum, which can be synthesized to 
have the same optical and color properties 
of alexandrite, a very rare gemstone. Co- 




Typical cut gemstone viewed from the siile. Tlie top portion is the crown; tlie lower portio 
pavilion. The eJite Jividini; tlieni is the girdle. 



Field Museum Bulletii 




I'arlially Syiillielic Gemstones: Doublet cuul 
Triplet Construction. {A) Typical donlilet with 
(I crown of real gemstone and a pavilion 
(loner part, crosshatched) of inferior material. 
IB) Doublet in wliieh only the top portion of 
the crown /.v of real gemstone. The remainder 
of the crown and all of the pavilion are of 
inferior material. IC) Typical triplet with a 
crown and pavilion of inferior material and a 
thin plate of genuine gem.itone sandwiched in 
between. ID) Unusual triplet made of a crown 
and a pavilion of inferior materials. The 
crown has been hollowed out and filled with 
a colored liquid to give color to the whole 
piece. (E) Triplet with most of the crown 
and most of the pavilion of inferior material: 
a fairly thick layer of genuine gemstone lies 
between. 



riiiuliim stones are sold as "synthetic alex- 
andrite"; however, alexandrite is. miner- 
alogically and chemically. entirely 
different from corundum. A truly syn- 
thetic alexandrite is not available commer- 
cially. 

Among the most ingenious of the 
fraudulent gem-making schemes is the 
fashioning of doublet cut stones. For 
example, a true, natural ruby might he cut 
to form the top part, or crown, of a stone 
for a ring. The bottom, or pavilion, of the 
stone is cut from some cheap material 
such as quartz, red glass, or garnet, and 
the bottom is then melted (fused) or 
simply glued to the top. The whole stone 
is then set into a ring with a metal setting 
that recesses the stone so that it can be 
viewed only from the top, or with just a 
side view of only the crown. The ring 
might then be sold as, say, a 6-carat ruby 
and in reality contain only 2 or 3 carats of 
genuine ruby! A similar fake is the triplet 
stone — a faceted stone in which both the 
crown and the pavilion are made of some 
worthless material. Sandwiched between 
these is a thin layer of the actual gem ma- 
terial, or perhaps only a layer of colored 
glass or even plastic. Set into jewelry so 
that it can only be viewed from the top, 
such a triple-layered stone appears to be 
one stone of uniform color. 

Besides these methods of obvious 
fakery, there are more subtle methods. A 
certain gemstone may have very weak 
color, but after faceting the color may be 
artitlcally "improved." For example, a 
pale red ruby, which is worth relatively lit- 
tle, may get a red paint job on the pavilion, 
so when it is viewed from the top, set into 
a piece of jewelry, it will appear dark red. 
Similarly, a pale sherry-colored topaz can 
be "improved" by painting gold gilt on the 
pavilion or backing it with gold foil. Pale 
yellow diamonds are worth less than clear 
ones — so-called white diamonds. By 
painting the pavilion of a yellowish dia- 
mond with a light violet color, the stone, 
viewed from above, will appear white. 
The violet cancels out the yellow tinge. 

In all these cases — doublets, triplets, 
and stones with painted pavilions — the 
setting invariably has a metal layer on the 
underside so that the pavilion of the stone 
cannot be viewed from below. When a 
stone has a setting with such a metal layer 
it is wise to be cautious — it may be hiding 
something. 

Most agate that is sold has been "im- 
proved" in a different way. Because agate 
is slightly porous it can be penetrated by 
various dyes. Most of the brightly colored 



agates sold today have been artificially 
dyed. Similarly, the current demand for 
turquois has been met by imitation mate- 
rials. One such false turquois is another 
slightly porous mineral called howlite, 
which has most of the physical properties 
of turquois (hardness, density, etc.); in 
addition, it abs.orbs a beautiful blue dye. 
Howlite is thus sold as imitation turquois. 
It is. however, so much like real turquois 
that it can be easily sold as the real thing. 
Similarly, much common turquois is only 
very pale green or pale blue, even yel- 
lowish; so it is quite common today for 
poor quality turquois to be dyed a lovely 
blue, increasing its value severalfold. 
Such dyed turquois can easily pass most 
of the standard tests a mineralogist can 
perform on it. 

Probably the most recent entrant into 
the fake gem market is in the family of 
modern plastics. Since around 1900. when 
plastics first appeared, the numbers and 
kinds have increased. Today plastic imita- 
tions are marketed in jewelry, especially 
for amber and turquois. 

What can the gem and jewelry pur- 
chaser do to be reasonably certain he or 
she is getting authentic material? The first 
rule is to buy from a reputable jeweler, 
one who will stand behind what he sells. 
The purchaser should always obtain a re- 
ceipt describing the item and the stones in 



t 




Rough boules and faceted stones of synthetic 
pudparadscha sapphire (above) and of synthetic 
blue spinel (below). These and other synthetic 

gemsloiws are on view in a special display in the 
Gem Room (Hall 31). 



July/August 1976 



it. Reputable jewelers are usually (but not 
aluays) members of a self-regulatory asso- 
ciation such as the National Retail Jew- 
elers Association or the American Cicni 
Society. 

Another consideration is that if you 
are purchasing an expensive stone, buy it 
as an unset stone and have it placed in a 
setting of your choice. That way you get 
to see the " "naked" " stone and can view it 
from all angles for clarity, uniformity of 
color, freedom from serious flaws, and so 
forth. If you prefer a piece of jevselry that 
is already in a setting be cautious if. below 
the stone, the setting has a metal layer. 
preventing its being viewed from below . 

When traveling in known gem-pro- 
ducing countries, such as Sri Lanka or 
Brazil, do not think you can walk into bar- 
gain prices. Mine owners, miners, and 
mineral dealers in these countries are fully 
aware of the prices you'd pay back home, 
and will charge all they can get. The only 
bargains you might get are synthetic 
stones, glass imitations, or natural stones 
being sold under incorrect names. In addi- 
tion, you may find that although you seem 
to be getting a bargain price on a good 
stone, local and provincial taxes, duties, 
and ""gratuities"" can bring the price up to 
normal market values or beyond. .Also, 
there is no reason to assume that the 
country where a gem or piece of jevvelry is 
purchased is necessarily the country of 
origin. Stones are frequently sent from the 
coimtry of origin to another country for 
cutting, polishing, or setting into jewelry. 
Brazilian smoky quartz goes to Europe, 
.American synthetic rubies and sapphires 
go to India, and American and Australian 
jade goes to Hong Kong and Taiwan. 

For the unwary gem and jewelry 
buyer, the traps are numerous. Even ex- 
perts are hoodwinked on occasion, and 
this has been going on for centuries. If you 
mherit a piece of jewelry from your grand- 
parents, and you like it. wear it in good 
spirit and enjoy it. The fact that it came 
from grandmother is not necessarily a 
guarantee it is entirely genuine. In the 
case of very expensive purchases, if you 
have any doubts, a reputable jeweler will 
not object to your submitting it to the 
Gemological Institute of America (labora- 
tories in New York City and Los .Angelesi 
for a certificate of authenticity. Their tests 
cost a little extra but the trouble can be 
well worth it. If this is done, it is then wise 
to keep the certificate in a safe place so 
that some day your granddaughter can 
say. with confidence, "It came from my 
grandparents."" Q 





Typical meteorites: The specimen ut lop is o) slone and is uhiuil 4' 2 inches ii/i/c. The 
specimen heUm- — tiboiil 30 inches wide — sIidhs chtinicteristic siirfiice fetiliires of an iron meteorite. 



The Great Meteorite Hunt: $100 Reward! 

A newly discovered meteorite could be 
worth $100 to the lucky finder. The Field 
Museum"s Department of Geology will 
award this amount to anyone for a spec- 
imen that can be authenticated and re- 
covered by the Museum for scientific 
studies. 

Meteorites are solid bodies that have 
fallen to earth from outer space, probably 
from small planets (asteroids) v\hose or- 
bits are located between the orbits of Mars 
and Jupiter. They are generally recog- 
nized by their unusually heavy weight 
compared to ordinary rocks of the same 
size, A stone meteorite weighs about half 
again as much as an ordinary rock of the 
same size, and an iron meteorite weighs 
about three and a half times as much as an 



ordinary rock. Some meteorites have a 
metallic appearance and are magnetic. 
Many have black or dark-brown crusts — 
thin coatings formed by frictional heating 
of the surface during entry into Earth's 
atmosphere. 

If you know of an object which you 
suspect to be a meteorite, contact Paul 
Sipiera, c/o Department of Geology, Field 
Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt 
Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 
60605. Free tests will be made on your 
specimen to determine if it is an actual 
meteorite. A fact sheet that shows how to 
identify meteorites is available from Mr. 
Sipiera on request: please enclose a long 
self-addressed stamped envelope (No. 10 
size). Only new finds qualify for the $100 
reward. No purchased specimens qualify. 
There is no closing date for the hunt. C 



Field Museum Bullelii 



Western Australian Field Program, 1976-77 



By Alan Solem 



The Western Australian Field Pro- 
gram, the largest and most complex 
collecting expedition undertaken 
by Field Museum of Natural History 
since the Philippine Zoological Expedition 
of 1946. was announced at a press confer- 
ence on May 4. In cooperation with the 
Western Australian Museum. Peilh. ten 
to fifteen representatives of Field Mu- 
seum will investigate aspects of the bi- 
ology and geology of both the Kimberley 
region in northwest Australia and 
southern coastal areas of that great conti- 
nent, which is about the size of the contig- 
uous 48 states and has an equal variety of 
habitats (see map). A small mountain of 
specimen containers, collecting gear, gen- 
erators, field clothes, medical supplies, 
and camping equipment have already 
started on their way by ocean freight. Pur- 
chase orders for three land rovers 
equipped to traverse rough country have 
winged their way to Perth. 

The culmination of two years of 
plans, dreams, crises, challenges, trivial 
decisions, grand ideas, and detailed re- 
search preparations occurs this fall, as the 
expedition members jet their way to Aus- 
tralia. There will not be a group departure 
with a fanfare. One or two at a time, we 
will clear our desks for mail to accumu- 
late, leave instructions for our staffs, and 
board planes at O'Hare. Then our parts of 
the field program begin. Jet age travel al- 
lows almost precise timing of arrivals and 
departures. This eliminates the long ship- 
board journeys of earlier years and the 
need for a group departure. 

At the time this was written, we knew 
that mammalogists. malacologists. a world 
authority on ectoparasites of vertebrates, 
an acarologist. and a bryologist — all as- 
sembled from Field Museum staff, asso- 
ciates, renowned specialists, and graduate 
students — would depart for Perth. If at- 
tempts at fund-raising still underway 
prove successful, then workers on fossil 
mammals and various marine organisms 



Alan Solcm is iiiniUtr of iiivcrtchratc.s 



also will travel to Australia for additional 
field activities. We will be joined in the 
tleld for brief to more extended periods by 
staff from the Western Australian Mu- 
seum. 

These diverse interests and areas of 
expertise are focused primarily on the 
Kimberley area of northwest Australia 
lying between Broome and Darwin. This 
region has been dry land and was never 
glaciated during perhaps the last 500,- 
000.000 years. Until 125,000,000 years ago 
the Kimberley was an isolated corner of 
the great southern continent, Gondwana- 
land. About that time Gondwanaland 
broke up into several large pieces (India. 
Africa. Madagascar, South America. 
Antarctica. Australia). Australia slowly 
drifted north to its present position, col- 
liding with parts of Indonesia and New 
Guinea. Starting in the last few million 
years, the northern coastal fringes of Aus- 
tralia have received an invasion of wet- 
adapted animals and plants whose ances- 
tors came from southeast Asia and Indo- 
nesia, but the interior regions may have 
been semiarid or desert for at least 75.- 
000.000 years. Because the Kimberley is 
so isolated and difficult of access, still 
mostly iminhabited. and not yet exploited 
economically, even basic collecting sur- 
veys have not been made. 

We will find hundreds of new species 
of arthropods, more than a hundred new 
species of land snails, a number of new 
bryophytes, and possibly some new 
mammals. But the main focus of our work 
is not to find "new" species. We want to 
understand the distribution and something 
of the ecology of organisms in an area that 
has not yet been exposed to massive de- 
velopment by man. Undoubtedly we v\ill 
discover or locate species that could be 
endangered by coming development. In 
this respect the results of our work will 
help the Australian national and state gov- 
ernments to protect the rarest and most 
endangered of the Kimberley biota. 

The ideas that are generated during 
our collecting and observations will affect 
the subsequent research efforts and 
thoughts of all participants. The interac- 



tions between specialists in different disci- 
plines will be numerous, intensive and, 
from our present vantage point, unpredict- 
able. For example, when a specialist in 
land snails, one on liverworts, and one on 
mites all start poking into the same rock 
crevices and shaded nooks, discussing the 
factors that influence "their" organisms, 
all three will benefit in a way that lunch- 
time discussions in Chicago never can 
duplicate. The intellectual value of this 
combined effort far exceeds the value of 
individual trips to the same region. 

Equally important, the areas to be 
worked mostly are remote, difficult of 
access, and quite dangerous to the lone 
traveler. With two or three land rovers we 
can penetrate areas that one vehicle would 
not dare enter. By sharing vehicle use. 
costs are lowered. By sharing a base camp 
at Beverley Springs cattle station (see 
map), about 2.000 miles north of Perth, we 
have a supply and specimen storage center 
from which the field parties can radiate on 
ten-to-fourteen-day collecting transects. 
"Corner grocery shopping" does not exist 
in the Kimberley. so we must carry or 
warehouse our food and fuel supplies. We 
also must be prepared for minor medical 
problems, although the Australian tlying 
doctor service could be contacted for 
major emergencies. American Hospital 
Supply Corporation, of Evanston, III., is 
donating all medical supplies needed for 
the expedition members. 

Portions of the field program are 
starting at different times. The first group 
going into the field will be the mammal 
party, primarily funded and led by Mr. 
and Mrs. William S. Street, field asso- 
ciates of Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory who have led several previous 
mammal-collecting expeditions to Alaska, 
Peru, and the Middle East. They will be 
joined by Ms. Laurel E. Keller, graduate 
in mammalogy from Oregon State Univer- 
sity. Dr. Fritz Lukoschus of the Catholic 
University, Nijmegen, Netherlands (a 
world authority on certain skin and fur 
ectoparasites of vertebrates), and a 
second field assistant in mammalogy, ei- 
ther from the United States or Australia. 



luly/Augusl 1976 



From August through November they will 
be collecting in the Kimberley area, con- 
centrating on the semiarid inland regions 
rather than the scattered rain forest 
patches near the coast that have been the 
target for pre\ious collecting efforts b\ 
Australian and American mammalogists. 

Late in August 1 will leave for Perth 
and, in mid-September, be joined by John 
Kethley. associate curator of insects at 
Field Museum. We will start north by land 
rover, collecting as we go. from places 
which I visited in early 1974. then join the 
mammal part> in mid-October. In No- 
\ember. two malacologists. Field .Asso- 
ciate Mr. Laurie Price from New Zealand, 
and a graduate student from the Uni\er- 
sity of .Arizona, uill join Kethley and 
myself. The first rains should hit the Kim- 
berley during the early part of December. 
Shortly after this Kethley and I will return 
to Perth, with the others remaining in the 
Kimberley to study aspects of snail 
ecology during the wet season. The land 
snail work, which embraces both a survey 
of what lives where and studies on ecolog- 
ical interactions between closely related 
species, has been funded by a three-year 
grant from the National Science Founda- 
tion. From late January through March. I 
will work in Perth, dissecting the material 
collected to find seasonal variations in 
anatom\ and to identify places where 
probable intense interactions between 
species are occurring. For this phase of 
the work. I will be joined b\ scientific il- 
lustrator Elizabeth Liebman. When the 

PRINCIPAL AREA OF INVESTIGATION S^ 

\ ^DARWIN 



rains end about late March. I w ill return to 
the field uith the students for another six 
weeks in the Kimberley. We will all return 
to Perth to pack and ship the collections, 
and then begin a collecting trip east to 
Adelaide and on up to Alice Springs in 
central .Australia. Late in June. 1977. 1 
w ill return to Chicago. 

John Kethley will be surveying the 
litter arthropod fauna from many of the 
same sites from which snails are being col- 
lected, making general insect collections, 
and paying particular attention to a very 
primitive group of free-living soil mites 
and to certain mites that live on mil- 
lipedes. Initially Kethley and I will share a 
land rover, but early in January he will 
join forces with John Engel. assistant cu- 
rator of bryology at Field Museum, for a 
survey of first the humid southwest parts 
of .Australia and then a more extensive 
survey of Tasmania, with some collecting 
in the state of Victoria, in southeastern 
.Australia. This work is being funded by 
Field Museum and the Kroc Environ- 
mental Fund. 

John Engel will fi\ first to Tasmania 
in late November for some early summer 
I.Australian season) field work, then over 
to Perth about January I. His main effort 
will be towards an ecological and system- 
atic survey of Tasmanian bryophytes. 
w hich has been funded by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation. Engel. 
Kethley. and I will join forces for a surve\ 
of humid regions and areas east of Perth, 
then Kethley and Engel will continue east. 




Maps of United States 

And Australia Superimposed 



K) 



returning to Tasmania for intensive sam- 
pling, and then collecting in Victoria. 
Kethley will return to Chicago late in 
March, and Engel in .April or May. 

William Turnbull, curator oj' fossil 
mammals, together with Ernst Lundelius 
of the Llniversit> of Te.xas. are attempting 
to raise money for fossil mammal-col- 
lecting in the Pilbara and Canning Basin 
areas just south of the Kimberley. No Ter- 
tiary mammal record exists for northwest 
■Australia, and discovery of fossils would 
give much insight into the e\olution of 
.Australia's unique mammalian fauna. 
Several of the Field Museum and Western 
.Australian Museum staff are tr\ing to 
fund a period of marine collecting in the 
Bonaparte and Buccaneer archipelagoes, 
off the northwest coast of Australia, from 
April through June 1977. following the end 
of the cyclone season. Vital to the success 
of this portion of the field program is ob- 
taining a suitable ocean-going vessel. Up 
to fifteen scientists, students, and skilled 
collectors would be collecting land and 
marine organisms from these offshore is- 
lands. 

In summary, the Field Museum of 
Natural History and the Western Aus- 
tralian Museum in Perth are cooperating 
to partly survey one of the last large un- 
sampled land areas left on earth — the 
Kimberley block of Australia. The col- 
lecting itself will be important, but the 
ideas generated and the problems attacked 
by this work will form the intellectual 
basis for years of work by scientists 
throughout the world. Scientists in Eu- 
rope. North America. Australasia, and 
Japan will share in study of these collec- 
tions. All type specimens of new species 
will be deposited in Australia, together 
with a share of the general collections. 
These will be immediately and conve- 
niently available for future use by Aus- 
tralian v\orkers who monitor changes in 
the Kimberley area as exploitation 
changes the environment. 

Our preliminary surveys will point 
out areas that need further exploration by 
others, will review biological problems of 
interest, and make possible many ad- 
vances in our knowledge of the systemat- 
ics, ecology, and evolution of organisms 
from the southern lands. Behind the 
glamour of "expedition"' and "remote 
areas" lie the varied purposes and cooper- 
ative needs of many scientists. 

We're off to Australia soon. Reports 
from the field will keep you informed of 
our problems and progress "down 
under." □ 



Field Museum Bulletin 



Ows EniiwD[f(o)ijDiMi(gm(t 



Snails: Sensitive Indicators of 
Man's Environmental Impact 

In early 1973, Alan Solem. curator of in- 
vertebrates, was asked by the Office of 
Endangered Species (OES) to survey the 
land snails of eastern North America in 
order to determine which species were in 
imminent danger of extinction or whose 
existence was restricted to such a small 
area that they could easily be wiped out by 
collectors or developmental activities. 
Although more than 350 land snails are 
known from this area, checking all these 
species and varieties was neither possible 
nor necessary, since most are widely dis- 
tributed and common. 

Museum study and search of the liter- 
ature resulted in Solem identifying 48 spe- 
cies or races as being potentially endan- 
gered. Field inspections with contract 
support made it possible to identify six as 
being immediately endangered, seven as 
potentially endangered, and six as in no 
danger. The remaining snails, located 
mostly in national parks, could not be in- 
vestigated within support limits. Dissec- 
tion and study of several little known spe- 
cies investigated during this work 
subsequently resulted in technical reports 
in The Nauliliis. a leading malacological 
journal, as well as the formal recommen- 
dations to the OES that led to the listing of 
1 1 of these snails among a total of 32 pro- 
posed as endangered or threatened. Solem 
is continuing work on developing means to 
preserve several threatened midwestern 
land snails. 

The OES proposal to list these spe- 
cies appeared in the April 27. 1976, issue 
of the h'c'ch'iiil Rci,'isli'r {pp. 17742-7), with 
15 snail species listed as endangered. 17 as 
threatened. Other proposals are expected 
to follow as surveys are completed on the 
more than 2,000 different species of land 
and freshwater snails found in the conti- 
nental United States. Scientists estimate 
that as many as 20 percent of these species 
may be found to be endangered or threat- 
ened. 

The "endangered" proposals involve 
species which are restricted to a very 
small area or those that now occur in such 
small numbers as to be in immediate 



danger of extinction. The "threatened" 
proposals are for species that occur over a 
wider range or in larger numbers, and that 
face a less imminent threat over most of 
their range. 

A determination that any of these 
species are threatened or endangered will 
provide them with legal protection from 
collectors, and will require federal agen- 
cies to ensure that actions they authorize, 
fund, or carry out do not jeopardize the 
continued survival of the species. 

The value of snails as indexes of 
man's impact on the environment is far 
greater than that of most larger animals 
listed as threatened or endangered, such 
as the timber wolf and the mountain lion. 
Snails are extremely sensitive indicators 
of pollution levels. If the continued exis- 
tence of land and freshwater snails can be 
assured, then they provide a way to assess 
the current health of the entire ecosystem. 
This enables man. who also is dependent 
upon healthy ecosystems for his continued 
well-being, to better guide his destiny. 
Land snails are particularly significant in 
the cycle of reducing dead plants back to 
chemicals, and freshwater snails are, in 
addition, important in the fish world's 
food chain. 

Snails also may have unexpected 
health benefits for man. Recently, a sub- 
stance called mercenene has been found in 
clams which some investigators believe 
could be an effective weapon against 
cancer. Snails and other mollusks rarely 
get cancer, and chemical zoologists sus- 
pect that mercenene may be responsible 
for the metabolic and biological defenses 
which certain mollusks have against 
cancer. Mercenene and similar substances 
are believed to be present in other mol- 
lusks, including snails. In laboratory tests 
mercenene has inhibited the growth of cer- 
tain cancers in mice, and it has demon- 
strated no side effects on human tissue, 
say the researchers. In addition to these 
properties, research on snails also has 
shown them to be remarkable organisms 
whose systems can produce a wide variety 
of poisons, antibiotics, tranquilizers, an- 
tispasmodics, and antiseptic chemicals. 

Lodged in one place and often re- 
stricted in food source and movement, the 



land snail species that have survived to the 
present day are remarkable for their abili- 
ties to adapt to natural environmental 
changes such as fires, floods, or climatic 
changes: but they cannot cope with acid 
mine wastes, municipal wastes, soil run- 
off, pesticides, and other man-caused 
threats to their existence. 



Interior Official Supports PCB Ban 

"PCB residues have been found in hsh 
samples from all major river systems 
throughout the United States, and in most 
of the bird samples taken since 1970. 
PCBs are literally everywhere." That is 
the assessment of PCB distribution given 
by Assistant Interior Secretary Nathanial 
P. Reed, who recently testified before a 
House Committee. 

"The ubiquity of PCBs in our envi- 
ronment looms as a dark cloud casting an 
ominous shadow upon all of our living 
natural resources which depend on a clean 
and healthy environment," Reed said. 
"With more than one-third of the U.S. 
population living near the Great Lakes, 
and a majority of the population residing 
about other waterways, we must be cog- 
nizant of the potential impact of the tons 
upon tons of PCB-infested materials which 
are daily deposited into these waters from 
industrial and domestic sewage effluents, 
landfills, waste incineration, runoff from 
materials deposited in the soil and from 
atmospheric fallout " 

Reed said PCBs posed an immediate 
threat to efforts to preserve and protect 
threatened and endangered species. He 
said under present conditions, "PCBs may 
very well be the deciding factor in the 
siuvival of some species in spite of our 
best efforts for preservation." Reed noted 
that success in controlling the sea lamprey 
in the Great Lakes has been for naught 
because the fish cannot be eaten because 
of PCB contamination. He said the pol- 
lutant represented another environment 
stress on the canvasback duck because it 
feeds heavily on fingernail clams which 
concentrate PCBs at inordinately high 
levels. 

Reed concluded. "I support a national 



luly/AugusI 1976 



ban on all domestic and Imported PCBs. 
We must have as our goal the elimination 
of PCBs from the en\ironment ofthc L.S. 
as rapidly as possible." 



Vandalism on Natural Resource Lands 

Vandalism is a gieat and glowing pioblem 
on the national resource lands adminis- 
tered by the U.S. Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment. Much of the senseless damage is 
being done to lands and resources as well 
as to facilities such as campgrounds, 
toilets, and signs. 

Motorcyclists ha\c torn up an ancient 
Indian intaglio in the \uha Desert of 
Southern California, "pot hunters" have 
looted and destroyed artifacts of the 
Anasazi culture in southwestern Colorado, 
petroglyphs have been stolen by commer- 
cial black market operators and souvenir 
hunters, vandals in Nevada destroyed a 
delicate recorder used to monitor ponds 
containing three nearly extinct species of 
desert fish, desert tortoises in several 
states have been smashed by off-road 
vehicles or collected by people wanting 
a free pet: these are a few examples. 

Natural resource lands comprise 
about one-fifth of the total U.S. land 
area. Yet the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment, which is responsible for those lands, 
does not have law enforcement authority 
to stop the destruction. The BLM Organic 
Act, passed by the Senate and now before 
the House, would give the agency enforce- 
ment authority. 

P'ederal Judge Dismisses Wolf Case 

The U.S. District Court for the District 
of Columbia has dismissed a suit which 
sought to require the Interior Department 
to prepare an environmental impact state- 
ment on a wolf research and control project 
proposed by the State of Alaska. The 
Alaska Department of Fish and Game 
had proposed to remove about 100 wolves 
from a relatively small area of about 3.3 
million acres near Fairbanks (Alaska 
totals more than 37? million acres) to stim- 
ulate moose survival and learn the effects 
of the control measure on wolf and moose 
populations. Since the Department of Fish 
and Game was established in 1960 when 
Alaska became a state, the wolf popula- 
tion has grown to a historic high under 
improved management programs. 

The preservationists charged that the 
program constituted a major federal action 



w hich would have a significant effect on the 
hinnan environment. They requested that 
an environmental impact statement be 
prepared. Interior refused, saying that the 
proposal was not a federal action even 
though a small percentage of the area 
w as federal land managed by the Bureau 
of Land Management. 

,Iohn E. Crawford, chief of BLM's 
Wildlife Division, pointed out in an affi- 
da\it that "the state has jurisdiction over 
the management of wildlife on public lands 
and BLM has responsibility for the 
management of habitat on BLM lands." 
The judge subsequently ruled that no 
federal action is involved. 



Dead Eagle Was Chemical Garbage Can 

.■\ bald eagle found dead last year on the 
shore of Cass Lake, Minn., was a victim 
of pesticide poisoning, report U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service biologists. The re- 
mains of the adult male bird were examined 
at the FWS Patuxent Wildlife Research 
Center, Laurel, Md. 

Chemical analyses of the eagle's brain 
and carcass revealed the eagle had been 
exposed to a wide assortment of highly 
toxic organochlorine insecticides and 
industrial chemicals. Brain residue levels 
of pollutants often are diagnostic in deter- 
mining cause of death. 

The brain contained 7.5 parts per 
million dieldrin, a long-lived insecticide 
which until recently was widely used 
against corn rootworm. Brain levels above 
4 or .s paits per million are considered 
lethal to birds. 

Other insecticides found in the dead 
eagle's brain included DDT, along with 
DDE and DDD, which are breakdown 
products of DDT: heptachlor epoxide; 
chlordane isomers: mirex; toxaphene: and 
hexachlorobenzene. 

PCB s— DDT-like substances of 
grave concern to environmentalists — also 
v\ere discovered at 88 parts per million 
in the brain. The rest of the body con- 
tained the same residues as the brain and 
in higher amounts. 

"The presence of sublethal amounts 
of DDE in the eagle body is significant 
and disturbing." says J. B. Elder, an FWS 
environmental contaminants specialist. 
The Cass Lake eagle was found within 
one mile of an active nest that has been 
under observation for 12 years by forest 
service biologists. "During this 12-year 
period, no young eagles were fledged from 
the nest." reports Elder. "If the male eagle 



was one of the mated pair, it is probable 
that the female also carries a high body 
biuden of DDE and other pesticides." 
DDE is known to cause thin-shelled, often 
infertile eggs. The substance could be 
responsible for the unsuccessful hatching 
record of the Cass Lake pair. 

The insecticides and other pollutants 
foLuul in the eagle are fat soluble com- 
pounds. Birds and other animals often 
carry high residue levels in body fat with- 
out apparent harm to the individual. 
Dining periods of stress — such as migra- 
tion, nesting, or food shortages — fat re- 
serves are withdrawn. When this occurs, 
the stored insecticide is mobilized in the 
blood and may reach lethal levels before 
the excess can be metabolized and ex- 
creted. Thus birds may die, as did the 
Cass Lake eagle, many months after con- 
tamination and hundreds of miles from the 
source. 

Among the contaminants present in 
the Cass Lake eagle, only PCBs are 
present in significant amounts in Minne- 
sota environments. Although the eagle 
died in Minnesota, the use of DDT, diel- 
drin, heptachlor, and toxaphene has been 
restricted in the state since 1970 and 
"background levels" are low. 

DDT and dieldrin now are under 
nationwide restriction: however, they 
were used heavily in other states long 
after Minnesota restrictions went into 
effect. The later and heavier use in other 
legions is reflected in continued high resi- 
dues in aquatic environments and fish. 

Reintroduced Fisher Thri\es in W. Virginia 

The fisher, a member of the weasel family, 
has been reintroduced and is siuviving in 
West Virginia. The Wildlife Management 
Institute reintroduced the fisher in 1969 
after trading New Hampshire wild turkeys 
for 23 of the little fiirbearers. 

The institute has determined that the 
fishers are reproducing and have occupied 
approximately 2,000 square miles in the 
state. The animal has been seen mostly 
in high mountain areas and has added a new 
dimension to the expectations of back- 
coimtry travelers who want to see one of 
the "black cats." 

Biologists say there are probably no 
more than 200 fishers in the state so fai', 
but they are imable to predict what will 
happen in futiue years. They do not think 
the animal will reach densities found in 
northern states because West Virginia is 
on the southern fringe of the fisher's 
natural range. 



Fii'ld Mus.'um liiillc 



OUR ENVIRONMENT , 




Greatly cnUiracd. ^ivIir^J nuulrl of Dutch cin, hark hectic. (Acliial spccimcir^ an ahoul hail the 
size of a match head.) 1 he model u■<^v made in 1956 .for the MiLseumS Dutch elm dt.scasc e.xhd>,t. 
now in temporary storaiie. The model-maker was Sam Grove, jormer arlist-preparal. 
Museum. 



at the 








t>,i,' i^allerie.s and larval timnels of the Dutch elm hark beetle. The photo at lejt is oj a i;allcry and 
tunneh o/Hylurgopinus rufipes. the native hark beetle: the specimen at rii^ht shows a f^allery and 
timnels o/'Scolytus multistriatus, the European elm hark beetle. The gallery <>/■ Hylurgopinus /.s 
characteristically horizontal to the groimd. that ,.rScolytus is vertical. The galleries occur on the 
wood surface of the trunk and may he .found hy peelini; away the hark. 



"Magic Bulkt" tVir Dutch Elm Disease? 

Du Pont has Just come out with a fungi- 
cide, l.ignasan Bl.P. which ■■promises 
control of Dutch elm disease." according 
to Flm Research Institute, an independ- 
ent, nonprofit organization located in Har- 
risvilie, N.H. Arhorists, home-owners, 
and park supervisors have been looking 
desperately for a cure for the disease since 
it fust appeared in the United States in the 
early 1930s. 

Once a tree is infected with the 
fungus Ceratocystis ulmi it is doomed, 
unless treated. A great variety of chemi- 
cals have been used against the fungus and 
its vectors, or carriers — the European elm 
bark beetle (Svolytis inidtistriatus) and its 
close relative, the native elm bark beetle 
iHylurg.opinus rufipes): but the prevention 
capabilities and cure rate of these chemi- 
cals have been uniformly poor, and some 
of the fungicides and insecticides are so 
highly toxic to man that their use. in any 
case, was impractical. 

So elms in some areas have been 
slaughtered by the beetle-fungus team. In 
Champagne-Urbana, HI.. 20.000 elms 
were killed in 11 years; only about 100 
trees survived the disaster. 

Although elm owners have had their 
hopes up before, there now seems to be a 
basis for optimism with Lignasan BLP. It 
is a water-soluble liquid with a single ac- 
tive ingredient; methyl 2-benzimidazole- 
carbamate phosphate (0.7'^f solution). Du 
Pont prescribes it as "'a protective treat- 
ment for uninfected trees and as a thera- 
peutic treatment at first sign of disease in 
infected trees." The Environmental Pro- 
tection Agency has now approved its use. 
The fungicide is available to trained arbor- 
ists and others trained in the identification 
of Dutch elm disease and injection tech- 
niques. The Chicago-area distributor is 
Permalawn. Inc.. of Evanston. 

1 ignasan BLP is injected into holes 
drilled into the tree's base, two gallons for 
each four inches of tree diameter. Treat- 
ment may be made at any time during the 
growing season, but is recommended for 
spring application when trees are in the 
half-to-full-leaf stage. Treatment after 
damage to the tree's crown exceeds 5 per- 
cent may not be effective, says the manu- 
facturer. 

In studies conducted by the Elm Re- 
search Institute in ?<?> states, the following 
results were obtained; Of 78.s healthy 
trees injected with Lignasan BLP. one 
became infected with Dutch elm disease; 
of 785 healthy trees not injected, .30.3 be- 



luly/Augusl 1976 




yiew alony a residential boiilevarJ in CInunpa'jnc- 
devastuteil by Dnth elm disease. 

came infected and 117 died: of 250 in- 
fected trees treated. 29 died: of 250 in- 
fected trees not treated. 177 died. 



Mexican Wolf Barely Holding Its Own 

Only about 200 Mexican wolves — the 
smallest of the timber wolf clan in North 
America — are estimated to exist in v\idel\ 
scattered packs in the high country of 
Mexico and perhaps the southwestern 
United States — areas cunently subject to 
intensive human pressure. 

The animal originally ranged from 
southern Arizona to west Texas and 
throughout the nonhem part of Mexico 
except Baja California and the coastal 
lowlands. .-Mthough they were essentially 
eliminated from the United States many 
years ago. Mexican wolves regularlv 
crossed the border into Arizona and Nev\ 
Mexico through the early 1950s. Todav . 
north of the border the species is a rare 
vsanderer. 

This wolf is protected by national law 
in Mexico and cannot be taken lawfulK 
except by special permit issued by the 
federal directoi' general of wildlife, but the 
regulation is difficult to enforce and not 
generalK applied. In .Arizona it has been 
protected b\ regulation, but it has received 
no legal protection in Texas or New 
Mexico. 

As recently as 1944 the animals still 
occurred over the greater part of ihcii 



Urhana. III., hejcrc and iijwr the cununiinity was 

original range in Mexico, and little effort 
had been made by the Mexican people 
to eliminate them. With the sale by lumber 
companies of extensive tracts of land to 
cattle ranchers, however, the situation 
began to change. Within a few years the 
v\olf reportedly was eliminated from the 
eastern part of its former range in Mexico 
and was decreasing in the western portion. 

The spread of agriculture and live- 
stock, and the construction of new roads 
gi\ing access to remote areas led to a 
decline in wild prey — deer, antelope, and 
bighorn sheep — as well as to intensified 
efforts to eradicate the wolves. They were 
poisoned and trapped in large numbers. 
.A joint Me\ican-U.S. predator control 
program under the auspices of the World 
Health Organization initialK' worked with 
traps and strychnine, but in 1954 com- 
poimd lOSO came into w idespread use and 
was distributed to stockmen b\ the Pan 
.American Sanitary Bureau. 

Despite intensive persecution, how- 
ever, the Mexican wolf may still be holding 
its own in some areas and may be a prom- 
ising candidate for captive propagation 
efforts. 

.An official determination that an 
animal is an endangered species affords it 
the protection of the Endangered Species 
■Act of 197.^. Among other things this 
means that it is unlawful for any person 
subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States to: 

• Import or export the animal from the 
United States: 



• Take any such animal within the 
United States or on its tenitorial seas: 

• Take any such animal upon the high 
seas: 

• Possess, sell, deliver, canv . transport, 
or ship b\ any means any animals 
taken in violation of the above: 

• Deliver, receive, carry, transport, or 
ship anv such animals in interstate 
or foreign commerce in the course of 
a commercial activity: 

• Sell or offer for sale in interstate or 
foreign commerce any such animal. 

This formal listing action brings the 
total number of animals officially listed as 
endangered to 42S. .A total of 139 of these 
are species found in the United States and 
its territories. In addition, the official 
list of threatened species now numbers 
1 1 animals. 



Michigan Hunters Fined in Eagle Killing 

A Burton. Mich., man charged in the 
November shooting of a bald eagle near 
Lake City, Mich., was fined S5.000 and 
sentenced to six months in jail after plead- 
ing guilty in U.S. District Court in Grand 
Rapids. 

The himter was charged under the 
Bald Eagle Protection .Act for the illegal 
killing of an immatme bald eagle. The 
judge suspended the six-month jail sen- 
tence and S3. 500 of the fine, but he then 
placed the defendant on two months pro- 
bation. A codefendant entered a plea of 
guilty to the charge of accessory after the 
fact and was fined SlOO in the shooting 
death of the eagle. 

A witness who heard a rifle shot in 
the vicinity of the killing observed a truck 
in the area several hours later. The w ilness 
reported the vehicle's license number to 
wildlife authorities v\ith a description of the 
suspects, and an investigation led to an 
indictment. 

The witness is eligible for potential 
rewards totaling SI. 900. A provision of 
the Bald Eagle Act authorizes payment 
of reward money to a witness whose infor- 
mation leads to the arrest and conviction 
of anyone killing a bald eagle. The act 
provides that a reward shall not exceed 
one half of the fine paid b\ a convicted 
eagle killer. In addition to the govern- 
ment's reward offer, the National Wild- 
life Federation, Michigan United Conser- 
vation Clubs, and the National .Audubon 
Society also offer rewards for information 
leading to the arrest and conviction of 
suspects involved in eagle killings. 

(Conliniied on p. I6l 



Field Museum Bulletin 



teM IbirW^ 




Donald Collier, left, rctiiiiii; anlhropolotiy ciiialor. is 
Ncilioiuil Museum of Anlltropoloiiy. Mexico City, a 
exhibit at its opening at Field Museum in April, 1974. 



sliown witli Ignacio Bernal. director of the 
tliey \iew the Contemporaiy African Arts 




Adrian Desmond (rt.j, author of the jnst-pnhlished The Hot-Blooded Dinosaurs (Dial), is shown at 
Field Museum with William Turnbull, curator of fossil mammals, as they examine a fossil jawbone of 
Gorgosaurus. a dinosaur. Desmond was in Chicago recently on a promotional tour for his widely 
reviewed book, which is a study of dinosaurs and paleontologists generally, as well as an extended 
defense o] the thesis that dinosaurs were warm-blooded creatin-es . Desmond, who is a specialist in 
the history of science as well as a paleontologist, is a doctoral candidate at Harvard. 



Donald Collier Retires 

Donald Collier, curator of Middle and 
South American archaeology and ethnol- 
ogy, retired May 1, after 35 years as a 
member of Field Museum's Department 
of Anthropology staff. One of the world's 
leading authorities on indigenous cultures 
of South and Middle America. Collier 
most recently co-authored (with Donald 
W. Lathrap and Helen Chandra) Ancient 
Ecuador: Culture, Clay and Creativity 
(Field Museum Press, 1975), a catalog rai- 
sonne which accompanied an exhibit of 
the same name, also co-produced by Col- 
liei". The catalog is now in its second 
printing and the highly acclaimed exhibit 
has been shown in New York and Kansas 
City (following its initial showing at Field 
Museum); currently it is at the Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

Collier received his B.A. from the 
University of California and his Ph.D. 
from the University of Chicago. He joined 
the Field Museum staff in 1941 as assis- 
tant curator. In 1943 he was appointed 
curator and in 1964 became chief curator. 
Department of Anthropology. His field 
work has been done in Peru, Ecuador, 
Guatemala, Mexico, Oklahoma, Mon- 
tana, South Dakota, Washington, and the 
American Southwest. From 1949 to 1973 
he also served as lecturer in anthropology 
at the University of Chicago. 

He is the author of two monographs 
in Fieldiuna: Aiithropolotiy: "Survey and 
Excavations in Southern Ecuador" (with 
John V. Murra) and "Cultural Chro- 
nology and Change as Reflected in the 
Ceramics of the Viru Valley, Peru"; and 
of Indian Art of the Americas, also pub- 
lished by the Field Museum. In addition, 
he has contributed 46 articles to the Field 
Museum Bulletin. Indians before Co- 
hinihiis (University of Chicago Press, 
1947), a general book on North American 
archaeology, was written with the late 
Paul S. Martin and George I. Quimby, 
and is still in print. 

Collier comes from a family distin- 
guished for its contributions to Native 
American studies. His father, John Col- 
lier, was U.S. Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs from 1933 to 1945 and was the 
principal architect of the Indian New 
Deal. He was one of the founders of the 



luly/AugUil 1976 



Inter-American Indian Institute and wrote 
the uideK read Indians of the Anwiicas. 
John Collier. Jr.. Donald's brother, is well 
known for his work in visual anthro- 
pology. Collier's vsife. Malcolm, who also 
recei\ed a doctorate in anthropology from 
the Lni\ersity of Chicago, has done field 
work among the Nasaho Indians and has 
participated actively on several of her 
husband's expeditions. For nine years she 
v\ as director of the .Anthropology Curric- 
ulum Study Project (sponsored b\ the 
National Science Foundation! and cur- 
rently is doing research and v\riting on 
Jens Jenson and the Prairie School of 
Landscape .Architecture. 

.Although formally retired from his 
post as curator. Collier will continue to be 



active in the field and at the Museum as 
curator emeritus. Between times he hopes 
to catch up on his sailing off Wisconsin's 
Door Count\ . 



Harold M. Grutzmacher, 1904-1976 

Harold M. Grutzmacher. Field Museum 
employee for more than 36 years, died on 
May 6 in Grayslake. III., at the age of 72. 
Mr. Grutzmacher joined the Museum in 
1932 as a printer and in 1962 he was pro- 
moted to head of the Di\ision of Printing. 
He retired in 1969. Grutzmacher's son. 
Harold. Jr.. now of Ephraim. Wis., was a 
temporary employee of the Museum from 
1946 throuizh 19.s6 while a student. 



CORRECTIONS 



The article "Tenth .Anniversar> for 
Women's Board." which appeared in the 
June. 1976. Bulletin, stated incorrectK that 
Mrs, William D. .MacRenzie ser\ed as the 
first publicity chairman of the Women's 
Board. The post v\ as actualK held b\ Mrs. 
Wallace D. Mackenzie. 



The caption beneath a painting repro- 
duced on page 5 of the May. 1976. Bulletin 
stated mistakenly that the artist was 
unknown — a patent contradiction of the 
artist's clearly legible signature, "C. F. 
Browne." appearing in the lower right 
(Continued on />. /iS) 



Museum Gift Shop Offers New Line 
Of Nati>e .American Artware 

Warren Loschky. manager of Field 
Museum's Gift and Book Shop, an- 
nounces the recent arrival of a new line 
of Nati\e .American art and reproduc- 
tions at the Gift Shop. .Among the new 
items are the following: 

SOUTHWEST 

Kachina Dolls (originals of "The .Assas- 
sin." or "The Robber FIv": "The 



Whipper's Uncle": and "The Bumble- 
bee" ($47-S86) 

Pueblo Sand Paintings by Leonora Price 
and Da\id V. Lee (S36-S45) 

Blackware Pottery by Carlos Sunrise Dun- 
lap, of San lldefonso. N.M. (S19-S95) 

Miniature Black-on-Black Bowl b\ Dolores 
Naranjo. of Santa Clara. N.,M. (S65) 

Car>ed Redware and Blackware from Santa 
Clara. N..M. (S22-S54) 

Hopi Painted Ware by Rosetta Huma and 
\ina Harvey (S31-S47) 

.Acoma Painted Ware b\ E. Histia and R. 
Torivio (S19-S47I 



CAS ADA. SORTHWEST COAST. 
ALASKA 

Sweetgrass Thimble Baskets (53.50) 

-Manitoulin Leather Dolls (S9) 

Corn Husk and Feather Dolls with car\ed 

apple faces (S4()-S4.s) 
Bark and Quillwork Box (S4,s| 
Prints — Northwest Coast st\ lizations. 

East Coast traditions (S17.50-S20) 
Tlingit and Haida car\ ing reproductions 

(S11-S45) 





Left: bhwk-on-hkiek bowl by Carlos Sunrise Dunlap, of San lldefonso. 
N.M. Right; Acoma painted ware by E. Histia. of New Mexico. Among 



a choice selection of Southwestern artware now available at the Field 
Museum Gift Shop. Other items include kachina dolls and sand paintings. 



field Museum Bulletii 



MEMBERS' 
FIELD TRIPS 



As the result Dtoiiradvance annoiiiieement 
in the June Bulletin of three field trips for 
members, two are almost filled as we go to 
press: the August 12-15 trip to the shark 
fields of Parke County. Indiana ($172.50). 
and the August 28-29 trip to Galena. Illi- 
nois ($62.50). If you are interested in either 
of these trips and wish to put your name on 
a waiting list, please call us at 922-9410. 
ext. 219. But hurry! 

We still have spaces available for the 
five-day geology-botany trip to Michigan's 
Upper Peninsula. September 27 through 
October I. There we'll visit geological sites 
that show the remnants of an ancient Pre- 
cambrian mountain chain. A visit will be 
made to a working iron mine and its ore- 
milling operations, following the ore from 
rough form to pellets ready for shipment to 
steel mills. 

The botanical highlights of the trip will 
be unique plant life of an acid bog and the 
maple-bcech-hemlock forest in autumn 
colors. The weather should be cool and 
pleasant, and the fall colors at their peak 
brilliance. The trip, limited to 44. will be led 
by Dr. Edward Olsen. curator of miner- 
alogy, and by Dr. William Burger, asso- 
ciate curator of botany. Cost of the trip: 
$260.00 per person. 

Trip fee includes cost of motel room, 
transportation, meals, and gratuities, based 
on double occupancy. A small additional 
fee w ill be charged for single accommoda- 
tions. Reservations may be made by 
writing to the Membership Department. 
Field Museum of Natural History. 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. A 
$25.00 deposit should accompany your 
application. For further information please 
call Dorothy Roder. 922-9410. ext. 219. 



Cafeteria Hours 

The Field Museum cafeteria will be 
open until 7:30 p.m. on those evenings 
(Wednesdays. Fridays. Saturdays, and 
Sundays) on which there is a concert in 
Grant Park (late June through August). 
On other evenings the cafeteria closing 
time is 4:00 p.m. 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

(Coii't. from p. 13) 

Wounding Eagle Costs $500 

A bald eagle that was shot and wounded 
last year near Miller City, 111., has been 
treated in Minnesota and released to the 
wilds. But the shooting that broke the 
eagle's wings cost an Indiana man $500. 
The hunter was charged with violating the 
Migratory Bird Tieaty Act 

The eagle had been downed on a goose 
club in southern Illinois. The injured bird 
was then sent to the University of Minne- 
sota's Raptor Rehabilitation Center in St. 
Paul. There the bird's wings were repaired 
and it was held for two months" convales- 
cence before being released to the wilds. 

Wild Animals Make Lousy Pets 

Wild animals do not make good pets. And 
most people who attempt to raise wild 
mammals or birds fail in their superfi- 
cial role as foster parents of wildlife. That 
is the double-edged opinion of Gary Duke. 
a wildlife professor in charge of the raptor 
rehabilitation program at the College of 
Veterinary Medicine. University of 
Minnesota. 

'T feel compelletl to harp on this sub- 
ject," says Duke, adding that "most wild 
orphans were not orphans in the first 
place." People who adopt wild animals, 
he observes, often believe they are helping 
a motherless nestling, when in fact, the 
act of kindness may become a kiss of 
death for the so-called orphan. 

The typical backyard rabbit nest is a 
good example to illustrate the problems 
associated with misguided interest, he 
says. During daylight hours, a lactating 
rabbit will not make many trips to the 
nest to nurse her young. If the nest is 
located in a flowerbed neai' the kitchen 
window, observers may panic if the parent 
rabbit is not around. 

"With good intentions, the concerned 
person or persons remove the young rab- 
bits from their nest. The following day 
the rabbits start going downhill, and one 
of them dies. The would-be foster parents 
call the Department of Natural Resources 
or the Fish and Wildlife Service or they 
call us. 

"If the rabbits lia\e not been out of 
the nest too long, I tell the caller, "Put 
'em back and let the mother do her thing." 
Often, however, too much time has 
elapsed and the foster parents end up 
with a shoebox full of dead lahbits." 



The adoption of v\ ild babies is a per- 
plexing problem. On one hand, wildlife 
agencies have encouraged the public to 
respect and appreciate wildlife. On the 
other, the affection mania has been re- 
sponsible for the untimely demise of 
mammals and birds that were loved to 
death as short-lived pets. 

The problem centers on the individual 
animal. Professional management focuses 
on wildlife populations. Do losses from 
adoption seriously affect a healthy w ildlife 
population? Argued in a technical vein of 
hard-nosed biology, which allows for some 
cropping of surpluses from any species, 
probably not. The same parameters that 
apply to pheasants would apply to song- 
birds, for example. But it would take Old 
World courage to suggest a recipe for 
robin pie, once a table delicacy in the 
South. And adjustments must be made to 
protect dwindling populations. What 
would happen, conservationists ask, if 
people were allowed to take individuals 
from the Kirtland's warbler population, 
an endangered species? 

Some wildlife managers believe the 
problem is a matter of common sense, 
humane considerations, and perspective. 
They question whether "respect" and 
"love" should be used interchangeably 
when establishing a perspective for wild- 
life. The play on words also plays on 
himian emotions and impressions, they say. 

"Perspective is absolutely essential."" 
a veteran wildlife manager said. '"A sugar- 
coated treatment of wildlife negates wild- 
ness and distorts the facts. Giving wild 
animals names and promoting the love 
syndrome creates a fairyland concept of 
nature. The wild pet fad is just one of 
several problems that break down true 
wildness. There is no "Blue Fairy" in real 
nature. Let's tell it like it is and keep 
wildlife in acciu'ate perspective. A back- 
yard bird feeder is most acceptable; bring- 
ing a fawn indoors is not." 

Duke observes that "We can't criti- 
cize people who are enthusiastic and want 
to help, but the adoption problem is 
something we should clarify. The main 
point to be made is that people should be 
absolutely sure the mother animal is not 
available to care for her young before 
interfering with the natiual processes of 
nature." 

Anyone who attempts to raise a wild 
animal takes on the taxing and laborious 
responsibilities of feeding and care that 
foster parents assume when they adopt a 
child. But there is a noticeable shortage of 



July/AuSLSt 1976 



"baby books" and animal hospitals for 
wild pets. Science is still struggling with the 
problems of wildlife diseases and nutri- 
tional requirements, says Duke. 

"Most veterinarians are qualified to 
treat domestic animals but few ha\e the 
training to diagnose diseases in wildlife. 
The training simply isn't available. Here 
at the center we're learning about diseases 
and nutrition as we care for wild things. 
The training gap can cause frustration and 
expense for pet owners when their wild 
orphans become ill. Treating fractures is 
one thing, but diagnosing exotic diseases 
is another matter entirely." 

The gap is further widened by a 
federal regulation that requires a veteri- 
narian to have a "special purpose salvage 
permit" if he handles endangered or pro- 
tected species. While addressing his im- 
mediate area of expertise — treating and 
handling wild birds in captivity — Duke 
says that exotic pet birds may carry bac- 
teria for diseases in poultry. Moreover, 
other diseases are transmitted to still othci' 
wild pets. Frounce, a disease triggered by 
an organism carried normally by wild 
pigeons, can produce lesions in the mouth 
of a hawk or owl that eats pigeons carrying 
the organism. The St. Paul center recentlv 
received a raptor whose mouth was so 
filled with lesions that the bird was unable 
to swallow food. 

In custody of an inexperienced per- 
son, the odds of a wild bird surviving are 
shockingly poor. Duke estimates that 
"only two out of every hundred will make 
it." He tells of a woman in Rochester, 
Minn., aconcerned person whodiscovered 
an ailing golden crowned kinglet on a 
sidewalk. "I'm always interested in trying 
to help, but when she called I told her the 
bird's chances for recovery were rather 
poor. She insisted I see the kinglet anyway. 
She drove to St. Paul, with the bird in a 
box. When she delivered it to my office. 
I reached in the box. picked up the biid. 
and it diedl " 

Stress — a word that Duke does not like 
to use in the technical sense "because 
it is too vague" — is, in one form or another, 
mingled among the things that affect a wild 
animal's reaction to handling and captiv- 
ity. Properly cared for. large birds appear 
to get along rather well in captivity, but 
the smaller birds, he notes, are "less 
resilient." 

Duke expresses doubt about the dedi- 
cation and expertise that most people 
would muster while acting as substitute 
parents for wildlife. The possession of 



any wild bird wears thin for the amateur, 
particularly when feces and feathers are 
scattered around the house, he says. 

Critical ramifications are involved 
v\ilh the feeding and care of any wild 
animal. Captivity has a marked effect 
on the w ild behavorial mechanism inherent 
in all wildlife. An owl. for example, likes 
to be active at night, yet most owl keepers 
probably go to bed with the rest of the 
wiirld when darkness sets in. During night 
flights, an owl will hunt and take on nour- 
ishment. Duke examined an owl delivered 
to the center and discovered it had rickets 
— "a victim of improper care." 

Even when a wild pet survives and is 
set free, the complicated problem of "re- 
habilitation" arises. For humane odds in 
the wilds, it must be retrained to become 
wild again. Careless owners of raptors 
have been known to sustain their pets on 
hotdogs and hamburgers — crude care that 
often becomes a death warrant for captive 
birds when they are set free. 

Proper feeding is not only critical for 
birds of prey that must learn how to hunt 
when they are released — a skill consider- 
ably more difficult than eating seeds — but 
feeding is also a complex matter when 
raising common wild birds. Says Carl 
Madsen, a noted eagle authority with the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, "One can 
go to a store and buy quality cat food or 
dog food, but it would be almost im- 
possible to buy, say, proper kildeer or robin 
foods." 

"Madsen is right," says Gary Duke. 
"Take the seed-eaters, forexample. A per- 
son might successfully raise a seed-eater 
on sunflower seeds. When the bird is re- 
leased — and this is the ultimate goal for 
any wild thing being cared for — it will 
go out into the woiid searching for sun- 
flower seeds. It won't find enough sun- 
flower seeds lo keep it alive, of course, 
and it will ignore other useful seeds 
because it was not trained by a parent 
to seek and eat them." 

Ownership of exotic animals carries 
risks beyond the ordinary complications 
associated with raising rabbits or song- 
birds. Leading veterinary journals have 
become disenchanted with the chic set 
strolling down the avenues with ocelots, 
lions, and other exotic beasts. The journals 
have published many articles advising 
veterinarians to tell their clients that exotic 
animals make poor pets. 

Professional wildlife people suggest 
the same thing, not only for biological 
reasons that defend wildness. but also be- 



cause wild animals are unpredictable. Wild 
pets are not generally cuddly and affec- 
tionate, they say. And the most trusted 
beast may turn on a child or adult and 
inflict serious injury. The liability involved 
was compared by a biologist to having 
"an unfamiliar cocked and loaded pistol 
on a living room chair." 

"Profit" is still another reason why 
people snatch babies from wild nurseries. 
A limited number of people engage in 
illegal imports of exotic animals. "These 
people attempt to sell the animals for 
profit," says David Swendsen, assistant 
special-agent-in-charge at the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service Regional Office in 
Twin Cities, Minn. 

After 20 years of law enforcement 
with the service, Swendsen is "con- 
vinced" that regulations to control and 
prohibit the possession of wildlife are 
necessary. "We have to begin somewhere, 
and this is why we have regulations and 
laws to protect wildlife — even from the 
well-meaning people who morally think 
they are doing no wrong when they pick 
up wildlife." 

Birds of prey and most other species 
are protected by rigid state and federal 
laws. A long list protecting migratory 
birds excludes, among the species, only 
starlings and English sparrows. The en- 
dangered species act protects a wide 
variety of foreign and resident wildlife. 
Within the legal framework now in force 
to protect wildlife, few species may be 
taken into personal custody. 

Despite the laws of courts and nature, 
people still tinker with wildlife in ob- 
noxious ways. In doing so. Swendsen says, 
they gamble with potential fines, embar- 
rassment, and prison sentences for serious 
convictions — such as selling migratory 
birds. In 1975. three Minnesota residents 
were convicted in U.S. District Courts 
of selling migratory birds, a felony under 
the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. D 

Traditional Iroquois Mask-Carving 

From Monday. July 26, through Simday, 
August I, Museum visitors will be able to 
observe Jacob Thomas, noted Iroquois 
ceremonial leader, demonstrate mask- 
carving. The carved wooden masks of the 
Iroquois "Falseface Society" are one of 
the most striking aspects of contemporary 
traditional Iroquois culture. Some of 
Thomas's work will be used in the new 
Iroquois exhibit, which will be on view 
later this year in Hall 5. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



THE TRIBAL EYE 

Film Series on Trilnil Societies 

A six-fllm series free to members and 
visitors; no advance registration neces- 
sary. Selected tribal societies are 
treated, showing the relationship be- 
tween their artistic achievements and 
their history, social organization, and 
physical environment. Narrated by 
David Attenborough. Films in the se- 
ries vvili be shown Fridays at 2:00 and 
7:00 p.m., Saturdays and Sundays at 
2:30 p.m. in the 2nd floor North 
Meeting Room, Field Museum. 

July 16. 17. 18: The Crooked Beak 
of Heaven views the Kwakiut and other 
Indian tribes of .America's northwest 
coast. Focuses on their long wintei' 
dramas, wood-sculptured totem poles, 
and potlatch ceremonies. 

July 23. 24. 25: Behind the Mask 
studies the Dogon people of Mali. 
emphasizing their carved masks, im- 
ages, and granary doors, the role of 
priests and blacksmiths and the impor- 
tance of various ceremonies in tribal 
life. 

July 30. 31: Ai(.i;. I: Man Blong 
Custom surveys the artistic and cere- 
monial traditions of the Melanesian is- 
lands, explores the rituals of the cult 
house, traces the decline of the ancient 
religious customs under the influence 
of Christian missionaries, and shows 
how these customs have begun to re- 
vive. 

Alii;. 6. 7. 8: Woven Gardens 
studies the weaving of hand-knotted 
rugs by the women of the nomadic 
Quashqai of Iran, showing how a rug 
may contain clues to the ancestral his- 
tory of the tribe. 

Alii;. 13. 14. 15: Kingdom of 
Bronze examines the "lost wa,x" 
method of casting in bronze employed 
for some 500 years by the Nigerian 
metalworkers of Benin to create mag- 
nificent figurines in honor of their 
rulers and for fertility rites. 

Aii.i;. 20. 21. 22: Across the Fron- 
tiers explores the impact — positive and 
negative — of the modem world on 
tribal cultures. Discusses the inevita- 
bility of change, and argues that tribal 
art remains meaningful even in today's 
technological society. 



MHI D BRIFFS 

iCont.fiom p. 15) 

corner of "Chicago in 1831." This was an 

error made no less embarrassing to the 

editor by the fact that the original painting 

hangs in the Chicago Loop office of a 

Field Museum trustee. Edward Byron 

Smith. 

In 1914 Charles Frances Browne 
completed the painting, which is subtitled 
"Looking West from the Head of La Salle 
Street." Browne was born in 1859 and 
died in 1920; he did much of his work in 
the Midwest, particularly Chicago. He 
specialized in landscapes, taught at the 
,\rl Institute of Chicago, and was art critic 
for the Cluccii;o SiiiiJiiy Trihiine. 



B(o)(o)te 



The Cashiiiiihiui of Ensteni Peru 
Studies in Anthropology and Material 

Culture, Vol. One 
Jane Powell Dwyer, editor 
Published by the Haffenreffer Museum of 

Anthropology, Brown University, 
Providence, R.I., 238 pp. (paper), $10.00 

Among anthropologists, there is a growing 
interest in material culture studies; re- 
search on the objects people make is no 
longer seen as less important than the 
study of social organization and religion. 
One aspect of this trend is the reevalua- 
tion of museum collections. Scholars are 
using fresh approaches and new research 
techniques to study the materials which 
have been tucked away in the storerooms 
of the world's great museums for decades, 
sometimes for centuries. Evidence of this 
trend is the ever-increasing number of re- 
searchers from all parts of the world who 
visit the Field Museum's anthropology 
collections, finding here a wealth of unex- 
plored data. 

The Ccishiiuiluiii of Ecisieni Pern rep- 
resents this new trend in anthropology. A 
handsomely-designed volume, it is the 
first in a series that is to be based on ar- 
chaeological and ethnographic collections 
of the Haffenreffer Museum, located in 
Bristol, R.I. This book concerns the 
Cashinahua, a group living in the tropical 
forest of eastern Peru. It is the most com- 
plete work in English on the material cul- 
ture of the South American tropical forest; 



similar studies have appeared only in 
German. 

Phyllis Rabineau, custodian of Field 
Museum's anthropology collection, is 
author of the article "Artists and Leaders: 
the social context of creativity in a tropical 
forest culture," and of the 88-page catalog 
of the Cashinahua collection. Other pa- 
pers in the volume describe weaving, ce- 
ramics, and graphic design. A thorough 
description of Cashinahua daily life and 
social organization is contributed by Ken- 
neth Kensinger. Kensinger, who assem- 
bled the collection at the Haffenreffer 
Museum, as well as smaller Cashinahua 
collections at Berkeley and the University 
of Pennsylvania, acquired his knowledge 
of their culture during many years of field 
work. 

Phyllis Rabineau's work describes 
and interprets in depth one aspect of the 
Cashinahua materials — ceremonial head- 
dresses made of feathers. Although all 
adult Cashinahua men make feather head- 
dresses, some men make headdresses 
which are admired by the members of the 
community, while other headdresses are 
criticized as poorly designed or poorly 
executed. Rabineau examines the formal 
properties which provide the basis for 
these distinctions, and isolates the social 
factors which encourage or stifle indi- 
vidual creativity among Cashinahua men. 
The symbolism of feathers as a medium of 
spiritual power provides an insight into 
why some men are able to produce accept- 
able headdresses and others are not. Se- 
cure social position, linked with mental 
well-being, allows men to competently 
handle ritual items. Conversely, marginal 
social status and erratic psychological 
makeup result in aberrant handiwork. 

The catalog of the collection de- 
scribes the manufacture and use of objects 
from all aspects of Cashinahua life. Native 
terms are given for each type of object, 
and photographs and drawings are pro- 
vided. The entire book is endowed with 
vitality by Kensinger's field photographs, 
showing Cashinahua making and using 
both secular and sacred objects. The 
Cashinahua of Eastern Pern may be pur- 
chased directly or ordered through the 
Field Museum Book Shop. 



Between Friends/Entre Amis, the book on 
which the current exhibit of the same name 
is based, may be ordered at the Book Shop. 
Ihe publisher has announced a prepublica- 
tion price of $32.50 (until .Aug. I). The 
price thereafter will be $42.50. 



|uly/Aususn976 



JULY/AUGUST at Field Museum 



SPECIAL SUMMER PROGRAMS 

"The Tribal Eye." An outstanding film series, produced 
by Britisher David Attenborough. illustrates tribal societies 
from Africa to the Arctic— their rituals and their art. Films 
will be shown, from July 16 through August 22, on Fridays 
at 2:00 p.m and 7:00 p.m.; Saturdays and Sundays at 2:30 
p.m. Meeting Room, second floor north. (See page 18 for 
details.) 

Museum Highlight Tours. From July 6 through August 
31 (Monday through Friday) museum education staff and 
volunteers conduct tours through a number of the anthro- 
pology and natural science exhibits. Meet at the information 
booth, 2:00 p.m. 

"Friend or Foe?" A free, self-guided tour for children, 
about animals that have been feared, misunderstood, or 
misrepresented in the past— such as the bat, toad, wolf, 
rattlesnake, and tarantula. All children who can read and 
write are invited to participate. Journey sheets in English 
and Spanish are available at the information booth. Bring 
pen or pencil. 

Members' Field Trips. Sign up now for this year's Mem- 
bers' summer and fall field trips. (See page 16 for details.) 





SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

"Between Friends/Entre Amis." A newly opened 
exhibit of 220 color photos of the land and the people taken 
along the 5,525-mile United States/Canadian border. The 
exhibit, in Hall 26, is a Bicentennial gift from the Canadian 
people to the people of the United States and was produced 
by the Still Photography Division of the National Film Board 
of Canada. Through September 7, 

"There's a Sound in the Sea." This special exhibit 
features nearly 90 original whale poems and paintings by 
children from ail over the United States and Canada. The 
exhibit, complete with excerpts from the "Song of the 
Humpback Whale" album, also incorporates scientific infor- 
mation on the evolution, biology, and intelligence of whales 
— and the tragic results of commercial whaling. Through 
August 8. 

"Pterosaur." An aluminum and brown-fabric stylized 
model of the largest known flying creature — an extinct ptero- 
saur—hangs at balcony level in Stanley Field Hall. The 
model, having a wingspan of 51 feet and a body length of 
31 feet, dramatizes the pterosaur fossils and a scientifically 
accurate epoxy model of the Rhamphorhtjnchus skeleton 
on display in the northwest arcade, second floor. 

"Man in His Environment." The Field Museum's 
Bicentennial exhibit takes a global view of some of the most 
serious environmental problems now confronting all man- 
kind and asks visitors to involve themselves in decisions that 
have to be made. A salt marsh— recreating one at Sapelo 
Island, Georgia — offers a unique opportunity to study basic 
ecological principals within a total marsh environment. 
Hall 18. 

(CALENDAR continued on back cover) 



Field Museum Bulletin 



JULY/AUGUST at Field Museum 



(CALENDAR continued from inside back cover) 



CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

"Environment: The Sum of its Parts." The best and 
newest environmental films are offered in conjunction with 
the Man in His Environment exhibit (see above). Films are 
shown at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, 
second floor north. 

The July theme is "Human Alternatives: Key environ- 
mental problems that we now must face." 

July 2, 3, 4: But is This Progress (51 min.) 

July 9,10,11: The Greai Sea Farm (25 min.) 

Should Oceans Meet? (30 min.) 

July 16, 17, 18: Energi;: A Matter of Choice 

(22 min.) 

July 23, 24, 25: Multipli'and Subdue the Earth 

(67 min.) 

July 30, 31, Aug. 1: PoUution-A Matter of Choice 
(53 min.) 

The August theme is "The Question of Tomorrow; 
Documentary and fantasy versions of what the future can 
hold for us." 



Aug. 6, 7, 



Aug. 13, 14, 15: 
Aug. 20, 21. 22 
Aug. 27, 28, 29: 



Eggs (10 min.) 

Technology;: Catastrophe or Com- 
mitment (22 min.) 

Future Shock (42 min.) 
The Unexplained (52 min.) 

Coping with Tomorrow. Super- 
conductors (18 min.) 

Man and the "Second" Industrial 
Revolution (19 min.) 





"Discovery Program." Tours, demonstrations, and parti- 
cipatory activities are offered every Saturday from 11:00 
a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Topics vary but often include: 

Sna/ces — Live snakes are featured in the Hall of Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians (Hall 19). 

Earli; Man — A half-hour tour traces major trends in the 
physical and cultural evolution of man. 

Dinosaurs— Visit the Hall of Dinosaurs (Hall 38) and 
make a clay dinosaur to take home. 

Ancient Egi;pt—A half-hour tour through the Egyptian 
collection (Hall J), including an explanation of the hows 
and whys of mummy-making. 

For specific programs and times, phone the museum or 
inquire on arrival at museum entrances. 

Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 

July 14, 7:30 p m Windy City Grotto, National 
Speleological Society 

July 21, 8:00 p.m. Illinois Mycological Society 

(meets third Wednesday of alternating 
months) 
Aug. 11,7:30 pm Windy City Grotto, National 
Speleological Society 

Summer Hours 

The Museum opens at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 6:00 p^m. 
every day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, the 
museum is open to 9:00 p.m. Through Labor Day (on Grant 
Park concert nights) the museum remains open until 9:00 
p.m. on Wednesday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. Food 
service areas are open 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m., 
Monday through Friday (closed July 5). Please obtain pass 
at reception desk, first floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 



September 
1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

September. 1976 
Vol. 47. No. 8 

EdilorlDesifiner: David M. Walsten 
Prodiutiun: Cscar Anderson 
Ciilendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1><93 

Director: E. Leiand Webber 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. Yarrington. 

Chairman 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sulhvan 
William G. Swartchild. Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 



Pollen 

By William Burger and Christine Niezgoda 
Photography by Fred Huysmans 

Shedding Light on "Discovery" 

By Sally Parsons 

Field Briefs 

A Backward Glance: Field Museum 75. 50, 
aiul 25 Years Agti 

Members' Field Trip to Michigan 

Inching Along to a Metric America 

By Edward Olsen 

Our Environment 

September at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



8 
9 

11 
12 

14 
19 

COVER 



Pollen grain of Dorstenia contrajerva (mulberry family) as seen 
through Field Museum's scanning electron microscope. Magnified 
about 10.230 times. Photo by Fred Huysmans. For more on pollen 
see page 3. 



LIFE TRUSTEES 



William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
Jiunes L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



nbincJ July/ 



ntiers of the 



Fivid Museum itfNuuinil Hisi,>rv HiilUr 
August issue, by licid Museum ,.l N.iUir.i 
Chicago, lllinuis Mlhos SLibsciiptuins si- 

Museum subscribe thiiuigh Museum membership. Opinions expressed by autho 
own and do not necessarily retieet the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited r 
welcome. Postmaster: Please send t'orm -1.'>79 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. Illinois 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




tr~P cr-p 



\=^^ 




By William Burger 
and Christine Niezgoda 

Photography by Fred Huysmans 



For persons who suffer from hay 
fever, pollen is a wind-borne afflic- 
tion. For those who look carefully 
at flowers, pollen is a powder, often yel- 
lowish, produced at the tips (anthers) of 
stalks (filaments) near the flower's center. 
For bees, pollen is an important part of the 
food supply, gathered to supplement the 
honey made from nectar. For the plants 
that produce it, pollen is an essential part 
of their sexual reproductive cycle. 

Pollen grains are formed within the 
anther sacs (male apparatus of the flower) 
from special reproductive cells known as 
pollen mother cells. These divide twice to 
produce four grains. Uncommonly, the 
four grains may remain together to form 
what is known as a tetrad; occasionally 



polyads are formed from more than four 
grains. Usually, however, the four pollen 
grains separate and, together with the pro- 
ducts of many other pollen mother cells, 
fill the anther sacs. When the pollen is 
mature the anther sacs open and the pollen 
is ready for dispersal. 

To accomplish its function the pollen 
grain must be able to travel long distances, 
withstanding dessication and physical 
stress along the way. In the flowering 
plants, pollen may be carried by a great 
variety of dispersal agents, such as insects, 
birds, bats, and the wind. If all goes well, 
the tiny grain will be carried to the recep- 
tive surface, or stigma, of the female floral 
parts in a distant flower. Here something 
special happens. The pollen grain "germ- 



inates": it begins to grow in the form of a 
narrow tube, first on the surface of the stig- 
ma, and soon down into the tissues towards 
the ovule, bringing the male sperm nucleus, 
to the female egg cell. But this can happen 
only when the pollen grain lands on the 
appropriate stigma — in a flower of the 
same species. 

Foreign pollen may germinate, but its 
growth soon ceases. This suggests that 
there must be a process of recognition, a 
dialog between the "male" pollen grain 
and the "female" stigma. The outer wall 
must carry recognition substances that tell 



H'lllitiin Burger is assuciare curator, vascular 
pkinis. and Christine Niezgoda is an herbarium 
assistant in the Department of Botany. 



Left: Preserved specimen of Dorstenia contrajerva L. Moraceae family (mulberry). Center: Enlargement of inflorescence shown in upper 
right of left photo. Right: Pollen grain (3,41 IX) taken from preserved inflorescence. 




Field Museum Bulletin 




Ambrosia artemissifolia, common ragweed; Compositae (daisy 
family). Echinate, or spiny, surface. This pollen is a common cause 
ofhayfever. (4,605X) 



Leiicaena canescens; Leguminosae (pea family). Porate grain (with 
pores); foveolate, or honeycombed, surface. (2,730X) 



Diplacus longiflorus; Scrophulariaceae family (figwort). Pentacol- 
pate grain (having 5 furrows); granulate surface. (2,930X) 



Bathysa peruviana; Rubiaceae (coffee family). Reticulate, or net- 
veined, surface with unusual protrusions in the furrows. (6,730X) 




September 1976 




Schleiniizia microphylla; Leguminosae (pea family). Four grains Leucaena leucocephala; Leguminosae (pea family). Tricolpate grain 
forming a tetrad. Striate surface. (1,615X) (having 3 furrows); foveolate, or pitted, surface. (2,030X) 



Bouchetia sp.; Solanaceae (potato family). Four grains forming a Pipladenia cohibrina; Leguminosae (pea family). Twelve grains 
tetrad. Verrucate, or warty, surface. (1,765X) forming polyad. Verrucate, or warty, surface. (3,475X) 




Field Museum Bulletin 5 



Juslicia sp.; Acanthaceae (acanthus family). Reticulate, or net- 
veined, surface with areolae (small rounded projections). (2,470X) 




Hackelia sp., stickseed; Boraginaceae (borage family). Pandurate 
or fiddle-shaped, grain. (9,500X) 



the stigma "this is the right pollen, get the 
welcome ready." Recent studies have 
shown that pollen grains do exude sub- 
stances to which the stigma responds. If the 
pollen grain is of the right kind, its chem- 
istry will trigger responses in the stigma 
that promote the growth of the pollen tube, 
and ultimately result in fertilization. The 
recognition substances in the pollen wall 
are the same as those responsible for the 
allergic reactions in hay fever. 

In flowering plants the pollen grain 
has another important function. The pollen 
tube also carries a second nucleus to the 
ovule which then unites with two other fe- 
male nuclei; this union produces the nutri- 
tive material called endosperm that will 
nourish the new embryo as it develops 
within the protective seed. The process of 
pollination is, therefore, much more so- 
phisticated than we might suspect. The 



transfer of pollen by wind or bees is only an 
early part of the process that culminates 
with the fusion of a male nucleus with the 
egg nucleus to form an embryo in the pro- 
cess of fertilization. 

The physiology of pollination is it- 
self a fascinating study, but an equally 
fascinating study — of special interest to us 
at Field Museum — is the use of pollen 
grains as taxonomic aids: pollen, it has 
been discovered, is often of value in de- 
monstrating relationships between flower- 
ing plants. It is the basic architecture of 
the wall of the pollen grain that interest us. 
This information, fortunately, can be ob- 
tained from preserved as well as from liv- 
ing plants; and many of the two million 
specimens preserved in our herbarium col- 
lection can therefore yield such informa- 
tion. The pollen wall preserves so well that 
we can retrieve information from plants 



that were collected more than a century 
ago. 

Field Museum's scanning electron 
microscope (SEM) is an essential tool in this 
research, for it provides a unique view of 
the pollen grain, impossible to obtain with 
an optical microscope. Instead of the fuzzy 
outlines with very little depth of field, as 
seen under the optical microscope, with the 
SEM we can observe with remarkable clarity 
and great depth of field the pollen grain as 
a three-dimensional object. Characters that 
are diagnostic in the study of pollen include 
size, surface sculpturing, the number of 
pores and furrows and their placement on 
the pollen wall. SEM photos reproduced on 
pages 4 and 5 give an idea of the complexi- 
ty and variety of some of these characters. 
All photos were made by Fred Huysmans, 
Field Museum's scanning electron micro- 
scope technician. 



September 1976 



Shedding Light on"Discovery'' 



By Sally Parsons 



A BIG SQUARE BOX on wheels was sit- 
ting outside Hall 27 of the Field Museum 
one recent Saturday. Visitors peering in 
saw a lot of dirt, some funny looking 
stones, broken pieces of clay, and a trowel. 
Actually, the visitors were confronting two 
square meters of Illinois prehistory. The 
authentic full-scale model, complete with 
potsherds and stone tools, is a reconstruc- 
tion of an archeological dig from Dixon 
Mounds, in southwestern Illinois. It repre- 
sents evidence of human culture of the 
Mississippian period — about 1,000 years 
ago. 

Lee Erdman is the builder of the box 
(or "square" to those in the know). He ex- 
plained to the visitors what they were look- 
ing at. This particular Saturday in July 
marked the inauguration of Lee's presenta- 
tion on Illmois archeology; it also marked 
the end of six months of painstaking pre- 
paration by Lee and Nancy Nelson. Nancy 
and Lee are two of the sixteen volunteers 
who make possible the "Discovery" pro- 
gram, an ongoing weekend series of tours, 
demonstrations, and participatory activi- 
ties presented to Museum visitors. 
"Discovery" is one of only a handful of 
such programs in the country. Each presen- 
tation relates directly to an exhibit or, as in 
the case of "Illinois Archeology," supple- 
ments existing exhibits by tying in with the 
Museum's general frame of reference. 

In 1975 these enthusiastic volunteers 
offered fourteen different tours and eight 
kinds of demonstrations/activities to 
32,000 visitors. Most of these events take 
place on Saturdays. On a typical Saturday, 
a Museum visitor can choose from among 
seven to ten of these events, on subjects 
ranging from Chinese art to dinosaurs. 

The "Discovery" program began in- 
auspiciously in a file folder of Carolyn 
Blackmon, head of program development 
in Field Museum's Department of Educa- 
tion. Carolyn is also coordinator of the 
volunteer program and, as such, places 
volunteers in the various Museum depart- 
ments where they can best be of service. 
Until 1974, no opportunities existed for 

Volunteer Carol Mudloff (left) explains taxi- 
dermy techniques to Saturday visitors. 



volunteer work on weekends. So Carolyn 
filed away for future reference the names 
that came her way — including Lee's. His 
full-time job as a conveyor belt sales- 
man did not allow him to develop and 
strengthen his academic background in 
anthropology. Sydney Allport's circum- 
stances were similar — her job as a map 
librarian did not permit expression of her 
life-long interest in Egyptian archeology. 

Sydney's and Lee's interest in volun- 
teering did not go long unnoticed. The 
Museum received a grant from the 
National Endowment for the Arts to ex- 
pand its public programming. And Julie 
Castrop, a member of the Department of 
Education, expressed interest in developing 
a weekend volunteer series. Julie's interest 
stemmed from a perceived need to better 
acquaint weekend Museum visitors with 
the exhibits and to provide more back- 
ground information on exhibit subjects. 
The Department of Eaucation has success- 
fully achieved this objective for many years 
with school groups. But what about that 
elusive entity — the "general public"? 



"There's so much here that it's some- 
times difficult for the visitor to get oriented 
without assistance," Julie stated. "A rock 
labeled 'samarskite' might induce ecstasy 
in the soul of a geology curator, but what 
does it mean to a family walking through 
the geology hall? And what, if any, cultural 
values are communicated to the lone visitor 
who wanders through hall after hall of na- 
tive American artifacts?" 

With such questions in mind, in Octo- 
ber 1974, Julie and eleven volunteers began 
to evolve a set of programs to answer some 
of these needs. Now, almost two years 
later, the wheels are still in motion. The 
volunteers continue to test new ideas, drop- 
ping the ones that fail and expanding into 
new areas. Seven of the original eleven 
volunteers are still active in "Discovery." 
Nine more have jumped aboard, each 
bringing his or her own special talents and 
interests. >- 



Sally Parsons, 
writer. 



volunteer, is a free-lance 




Field Museum Bulletin 



Who are these intrepid souls who give 
up the sixth day of their busy work weeics 
to spend at the Museum? Their occupa- 
tions range from sales representative to 
social worker, from exhibit designer to 
entrepreneur. Many majored in anthro- 
pology or science in college and supplement 
bread-and butter work with outlets at the 
Museum that satisfy their intellectual 
interests. Others became volunteers be- 
cause the Museum awakened their curiosity 
in natural history and they wanted to share 
their enthusiasm with others. 

Beth Stoneburg, a data collector for 
the U.S. Department of Labor, is one such 
volunteer. She has an academic back- 
ground in economics. Beth applied to be a 
"Discovery" volunteer on the same day she 
came in as a casual visitor and took a tour 
offered by one of the other volunteers. 
Several months and about six geology 
books later, Beth began her own tour — 
"The Restless Earth." 

"It's neat being part of a prestigious 
institution like the Field Museum," Beth 
remarked. "It's fulfilling and there's a 
great sense of belonging. 

In 1975, more than 14,000 visitors 
flocked to a presentation of Dave Humbard 
and Bonnie Samuelson. Many approached 
with trepidation. Dave, a member of the 
Chicago Herpetological Society and an 
avid amateur reptile fancier, brought in 
live snakes and other reptiles from his 
home. He and Bonnie gave visitors the 
opportunity to touch the reptiles— for 
many a new and awesome encounter. The 
volunteers also helped visitors find answers 
to their questions by referring them to the 
exhibits. Dave's "roommates" include 
boas, Burmese pythons, an anaconda, and 
a monitor lizard. His greatest satisfaction 
has been in dispelling misconceptions and 
fears about reptiles. 

Carol Briscoe, journalism major 
turned advertising manager, came to the 
Museum offering her writing experience to 
develop visitor guidebooks. Then, some- 
what hesitantly at first, she began to apply 
her knowledge of Egypt by giving tours of 
the Ancient Egyptian hall, one of the con- 
sistently most popular programs. 

Carol admitted she's basically timid, 
but "I found out there's a bit of a ham in 
me too. And I feel appreciated." 

The volunteers get the ideas for their 
presentations from a variety of sources: 
walking through the exhibits, burrowing 
into their own backgrounds, and picking 
up on suggestions from Julie, other volun- 
teers, and curators. Sometimes a special 



exhibit spurs them into action. The 
Ecuadorian pottery exhibit spawned a 
body-stamping activity as well as bilingual 
tours. The recent Alaskan Eskimo art 
exhibit triggered tours and Eskimo folktale 
sessions. Often, several volunteers become 
interested in the same subject and merge 
their talents and energies into developing 
different approaches or larger projects. 

"Discovery" is not without con- 
straints. Since the main resources of the 
Museum — the library, the collections (ex- 
cept the relatively small segment on dis- 
play) and the scientific staff — are not avail- 
able on weekends, volunteers must often 
do their research at university libraries. 
Sometimes, after months of study, a 
chosen exhibit hall will close down un- 
expectedly for renovation. And even the 
most brilliantly conceived ideas can fall flat 
for lack of money or materials. But once 
these constraints are accepted, the volun- 
teers find their ideas meet with hearty en- 
dorsement — and healthy criticism — from 
Julie. "The Discovery volunteers," she 
observes, "have made an extremely valu- 
able contribution to the Museum, bringing 
the exhibits to life for the visitors." 

Because of the success of "Dis- 
covery," the Department of Education 
would like to expand the program to Sun- 
days, providing a full range of educational 
services. Julie will be recruiting ten or 
twelve new volunteers to begin orientation 
sessions in October. If they're as lucky as 
the veterans, they'll have the opportunity 
to look behind the scenes into areas of the 
Museum the general visitor never gets to 
see. 

Those interested in applying are en- 
couraged to call Julie Castrop at the 
Museum (922-9410, extension 362) for an 
application form. 

Prospective Volunteers 

A three-session Museum orientation for 
Members interested in joining the Depart- 
ment of Education as volunteers will be 
held October 14, 21, and 28 from 10:00 
a.m. to 3:00 p.m. The sessions are designed 
to prepare such persons for the role of 
facilitator — a person who aids groups visit- 
ing the Museum by providing information, 
guidance, and suggestions that will make 
their Museum visit even more meaningful. 

Interviews with prospective volunteers 
will be held September 13 through Septem- 
ber 24. Please write to Carolyn Blackmon, 
Field Museum, for further information 
about the program. 



Field Briefs 



A New Wrinkle in Taxidermy: 
Stuffed People? 

The following enquiry appeared recently 
in "Beeline," a question-and-answer 
column that appears regularly in the 
Chicago Daily News: 

"I recently visited the Field Museum 
of Natural History, and was impressed by 
the lifelike appearance of the figures in the 
Stone Age cavemen dioramas. Or ARE 
they real people — stuffed? If so, how could 
I arrange eventually to leave my body to 
the museum for use in an exhibit? 1 had 
planned on leaving it to science, but I think 
1 would like something like this better ..." 
— W.H., Chicago. 

Answer: "The figures in the Field 
Museum's cavemen exhibits are not real 
people, stuffed. They are made of fiber 
glass or plyester resins. Once, they were 
made of plaster of Paris, but beginning a 
few years ago they were remade, because 
the other materials are more durable and 
require less care; and, as you indicated, 
they also are more lifelike. Furthermore, 
stuffing a human body is illegal under laws 
pertaining to taxidermy. And the ways in 
which a human body legally may be dis- 
posed of do not include stuffing. ..." 



Stolen Eskimo Pipes Recovered 

Thanks to persistent efforts by the Chicago 
Police Department and by Senior Sargeant 
of the Guard Glenn Peterson (Security and 
Visitor Services), the Museum has re- 
covered three rare Eskimo walrus ivory 
pipes stolen from the building last Febru- 
ary. The pipes had been taken from a dis- 
play case in the temporary "19th Century 
Alaskan Eskimo Art" exhibition. Two of 
the pipes were recovered in damaged con- 
dition, according to James W. VanStone, 
curator of North American archaeology 
and ethnology. Two Chicago men were 
charged and convicted of felony/theft in 
connection with the case. 




September 1976 



A Backward Glance... 



75 years ago 

From Annual Report of the Director for 
1901: "The sum of $1,000.00 was be- 
queathed to the Museum by the late Hunt- 
ington W. Jackson. This brings to mind the 
fact that the president during the year 
supported the movement to amend the law 
regarding the inheritance ta.\, and the 
Museum is to be congratulated on the 
success with which the concerted efforts of 
the various institutions in the country have 
been crowned, the objectionable law 
having been repealed by the United States 
and the State of Illinois. ..." 

"Work in [the taxidermy] division has 
been unusually active and results of the 
very highest character have been attained. 
New methods in mounting specimens have 
been adopted and in consequence a perfec- 
tion of work never before attained has been 
secured. Five large groups are nearing com- 



pletion, one of zebra and four of the Vir- 
ginia deer in spring, summer, autumn, and 
winter, this last being distinguished by a 
wealth of accessories and detail never be- 
fore attempted in this class of work. . . ." 

"Important accessions in [the Anthro- 
pology] Department have resulted from 
several expeditions in the field: Mr. 
[Charles F.] Newcombe among the Haida 
Indians, Dr. [Merton L.] Miller among the 
tribes of the Shahahtian stock. Dr. [J.W.] 
Hudson in California, Assistant Curator 
[Stephen C] Simms among tribes of the 
Pyman and Yuman stock. Assistant Cura- 
tor [Charles L.] Owen among the Apache 
and Navajo tribes, and Curator [George 
A.] Dorsey among the Osage, Pawnee, and 
Wichita tribes. . . ." 

"A femur and humerus of a dinosur, 
the largest ever discovered, were placed on 
exhibit. The femur. . . was 6 feet 8 inches 
high and weighed 675 pounds. . . . Work- 
ing of the dinosaur quarries in Colorado, 
which were discovered and partially ex- 



ploited in 1900, was continued during 
several months of the summer of 1901 by a 
party under the direction of Assistant 
Curator Elmer S. Riggs. The work involved 
considerable blasting, tunneling, and the 
construction of a temporary ferry. . . ." 

"The collections in Hall 79, devoted to 
ores of the base metals, have been com- 
pletely reinstalled. The old cases were 
remo\ed and new cases, purchased in part 
from the United States Commission to the 
Paris Exposition, substituted. These cases 
are constructed of mahogany and plate 
glass and represent a permanent style of in- 
stallation. . . ." 

50 years ago 

From Annual Report of the Director for 
the year 1926: 

"One of the most notable purchases 
of the vear is a valuable collection of 



As 1901 expedition to Colorado 's dinosaur country comes to an end, workers prepare crates for shipment of giant bones back to Chicago. Black lent labove, 
right) is photo lab. Note wagon loaded with plaster-encased bones and pet fawn in tower right. 







Field Museum Bulletin 



Chinese archaic jades, which was brought 
together in China by A.W. Bahr. This Col- 
lection was bought from Mr. Bahr for 
$75,000, towards which Mrs. George L. 
Smith contributed $10,000. Others who 
contributed funds for this purchase are 
Miss Kate S. Buckingham, Mrs. John .1. 
Borland, Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, Mr. 
Martin C. Schwab, Mr, Julius Rosenwald, 
and Mr. Otto C. Doering. 

"One of the last important tasks per- 
formed for the Museum by the late Carl 
E. Akeley was the installation of his admir- 
able Lion Spearing Group, which was pre- 
sented to the Institution by Mr, Richard T. 
Crane, Jr. Mr. Crane also defrayed the 
expense of the installation of this group." 

"A gratifying manifestation of in- 
terest in the work of the Museum was dis- 
played in the cooperation accorded by the 
Chicago Daily News in the sending of a 
zoological expedition to Abysinnia. The 
Chicago Daily News contributed the funds 
for the expenses of the expedition and sent 
one of its representatives with the party, 
whose frequent reports on its activities are 
being given an imposing amount of space 
in both that paper and associated news- 
papers in various parts of the country. 
. . . Dr. Wilfred H. Osgood is in command 
of this expedition, which is known as Field 
Museum-Chicago Daily News Expedi- 
tion. . . ." 

"Additions to the staff during the year 
[included] Mr. J. Eric Thompson, of 
Cambridge, England, Assistant Curator of 
Mexican and South American Archaeology 
[and] Mr. Henry Field, Assistant Curator 
of Physical Anthropology. . . ." 

"A most noteworthy deposit in the 
Museum. . . was the Judge R. Magoon 
Barnes collection of birds' eggs. This col- 
lection was begun in 1883 as a continuation 
of a small boy's accumulation. Since that 
time, as a result of more than forty years' 
active and diligent effort, it has grown to 
be the largest and most important collec- 
tion of eggs of North American birds in 
existence. Containing as it does, 38,731 
specimens, something over 400 completed 
series, and nearly 500 other partial series, 
it represents ... a vast amount of time and 
effort. There are many full series of eggs of 
birds now wholly unobtainable, such as 
the Passenger Pigeon, Whooping Crane, 
and Trumpeter Swan. . . . 

"The Field Museum-Oxford Univer- 
sity Joint Expedition has now been in its 
fourth consecutive year at the vast ruins of 
ancient Kish, first capital of the earliest 
known civilization of Western Asia. After 



completing the great palace of the plano- 
convex bricks in 1925, the more serious 
task of excavating the enormous group of 
mounds in central Kish was commenced. 
Two stage towers of the early Sumerian 
period and at least three temples lie beneath 
the great range of hills now known to the 
Arabs as Ingharra, and under the name 
Harsagkalama to the ancient Babylonians. 
Operations at the larger of these towers, or 
ziggurats, were started with a force of a 
hundred and fifty men early in the season. 
The temples lie west and north of this 
tower. One of them was partially refaced in 
the age of Sargon (2750 B.C.) with better 
brickwork than the virginal, sun-dried 
brick of the Sumerian structure. 

25 years ago 

The following items were culled from 1951 
issues of the Bulletin: 



January: "Two of the Museum's cura- 
tors were retired from active duty as of 
December 31, 1950. They were William J. 
Gerhard, curator of insects, and Paul C. 
Standley, curator of the herbarium. As 
both are desirous of continuing scientific 
research, they will retain connection with 
the Museum, each having been appointed 
curator emeritus in his division. [Note: 
Gerhard died in 1958, Standley in 1963.] 
.... The vacancy in the curatorship of the 
Division of Insects caused by the retirement 
of Mr. Gerhard has been filled by appoint- 
ment of Rupert L. Wenzel as curator of 
insects. Mr. Wenzel first became associated 
with the Museum as a volunteer assistant 
in the Division of Insects in 1934 while still 
a student. . . . Henry S. Dybas, assistant 
curator of insects, was promoted to asso- 
ciate curator of insects. Mr. Dybas has 
been associated with the Museum since 
1941, beginning as assistant in the Division 
of Insects." 

May: "Brjan Patterson, curator of 
fossil mammals, and Orville Gilpin, chief 
preparator of fossils, are afield on a 
paleontological expedition to explore the 
early Cretaceous Trinity Sands of north- 
central Texas in continuation of the suc- 
cessful search begun last year for a fossil 
micro-fauna. 

June: Dr. Rainer Zangerl, curator of 
fossil reptiles, will accompany Professor 
Bernhard Peyer, director of the Zoological 
Museum, University of Zurich, Switzer- 
land, on a trip to a number of famous 



vertebrate fossil localities in South Dakota, 
Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada. . . . The Mu- 
seum has recently received the paleo- 
botanical collections of the Walker Mu- 
seum of the University of Chicago as a gift 
from that institution. 

July: "An idea of the strain imposed 
by scientific research upon the patience and 
endurance of its practitioners may be ob- 
tained from the experiences of Bryan 
Patterson . . . and Orville Gilpin, . . . who 
washed and sifted more than 15 tons of 
sand in search of tiny, almost microscopic 
specimens of fossil vertebrates on their re- 
cent expedition to northern Texas. . . . The 
geologists returned to the Museum last 
month, bringing as a result of their hercu- 
lean task some 1,600 pounds of concen- 
trate. Still further sifting of this will be re- 
quired to complete the work of culling the 
fossil specimens. . . . An expedition to 
collect Upper Cretaceous and Eocene fossil 
plants in Alabama, Mississippi, and Ten- 
nessee was begun last month by George 
Langford, curator of fossil plants, and Dr. 
R.H. Whitfield, associate in fossil plants. 

October: Miss Harriet Smith, of the 
Museum's Raymond Foundation lecture 
staff, is on leave of absence until February 
15, to make a lecture tour in schools 
throughout the Middle West under the aus- 
pices of The School Assembly Service. Her 
lecture, entitled "Treasure House," ac- 
companied by the Museum's color film 
"Through These Doors," will carry the 
message of this institution to thousands of 
children and teachers in many states. . . . 
Henry Dybas . . . recently joined Dr. Eliot 
Williams of the faculty of Wabash College. 
... on an insect-collecting trip in caves of 
southern Indiana. They were accompanied 
by Rodger Mitchell, Harry Nelson, and 
Eugene Ray, who were temporarily em- 
ployed in the Museum's Division of Insects 
during the summer. . . . 

December: Rupert L. Wenzel left Chi- 
cago recently for an extended tour of Euro- 
pean museums to study beetles of the 
family Histeridae. He will go first to 
Vienna to supervise the packing of the 
Bernhauser Collection of staphilinid 
beetles recently purchased by this Museum. 
. . . Loren P. Woods returned to his desk 
from a brief trip to southern Illinois to 
collect cave fishes and their relatives. 
Robert ^^ Inger, assistant curator of fishes, 
made a trip to southwestern Missouri, 
where he collected not only cave fishes but 
salamanders, crustaceans, and flatworms, 
all remarkable for their loss of color in the 
cave environment." 



September 1976 



Members Field Trip to Michigans Upper Peninsula 



Sept. 27 through Oct. 1. 1976 
5 days — 4 nights 



Among the most popular membership activities sponsored 
by Field Museum are the field trips. In the past, these 
excursions have usually emphasized matters of geolog- 
ical interest. But now the Museum is pleased to offer a geology- 
botany trip to Michigan's Upper Peninsula, an area of particular 
interest to botanists as well as to geologists. 

Under the experienced leadership of Dr. Edward Olsen, 
chairman of the Department of Geology and a distinguished 
mineralogist, the group will explore localities that show the roots 
of an ancient Precambrian mountain chain which once stretch- 
ed across this region. A visit will also be made to a working iron 
mine and its ore-milling operations, following the ore from rough 
form to pellets ready for shipment to steel mills. 

Dr. William Burger, associate curator of botany, will take 
the group to an acid bog area and on a lecture hike through a 
magnificent maple-beech-hemlock forest, explaining how such 
plant communities arise, flourish, and are gradually replaced by 
other communities. Since the trees will be in the full splendor of 
autumn color, photography buffs will do well to bring along 



their cameras. Dr. Burger, past president of the Chicago Nature 
Camera Club, will, of course, be on hand to offer suggestions. 



Cost of the 5-day, 4-night tour is 
$260.00 per person. This covers all 
transportation, as well as motel room, 
meals, and gratuities, based on dou- 
ble occupancy. A small additional fee 
will be charged for single accom- 
modations. Reservations may be 
made by calling or writing Dorothy 
Roder, Membership Department, 
Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
The application should be accopn- 
panied by a $25.00 deposit. Phone 
number: 922-9410, ext. 219. The 
tour date is not far off, so call or 
write now! 





Full-size reproduction of 
Field Museum 's new shoul- 
der patch, now available at 
the Gift Shop. Price: $2.00. 
Members receive a 10% dis- 
count; they also receive, 
free, the separate "MEM- 
BER" strip patch, below. 
The background is white, 
the borders and elephants 
blue, and the lettering red- 
orange. 



Field Museum Bulletin 



IT BEGAN IN FRANCE in the late 18th 
century and spread through Europe 
(except England). It finally encom- 
passed England, crept into Canada, and is 
now on the verge of engulfing the United 
States. This creeping monster is not "The 
Blob" of late night TV rerun fame, but the 
metric system. 

Although metric has been allowed in 
the United States since 1866, and has been 
the official language of the core sciences, 
physics and chemistry, for about a century, 
it has been little noticed by the average per- 
son in his or her daily life. Like any slowly 
creeping change, most people prefer to ig- 
nore or resist it. A gentleman, Thomas 
Lounsbury, once quipped, "One must view 
with profound respect the infinite capacity 
of the human mind to resist the introduc- 
tion of useful knowledge." 

At the present time, however, one 
senses an uneasiness across the land. On 
Interstate 80 in Illinois we are mentally 
jolted by a sign announcing that MoHne is 
a mere 100 kilometers away. A new Chev- 
rolet, recently rented in Arizona, carried 
the usual speedometer with bold red 
numerals showing miles-per-hour, but also 
with a second band of numbers in blue in- 
forming the driver of his speed in kilo- 
meters-per-hour. A can of macaroni and 
cheese weighs 14% ounces, but its label 
also announces that this is 418 grams. A 
12-ounce can of corn tells us it also weighs 
340 grams and provides us with 6 grams of 
protein and 70 grams of carbohydrates. A 
bank in a Chicago suburb has a large sign 
that reports the time and temperature. 
During the past winter there was a break in 
a cold, cold week— a delightfully balmy 
day— and we were informed by the sign 
that the temperature was only 20° (Celsius, 
of course)! Closer to many people's hearts 
—we have just been informed by the fed- 
eral government that by 1980 the familiar 
bottle-size designations of spiritusfrumenti 
and other alcoholic beverages— the pint, 
the fifth, the magnum, and so forth— will 
be abandoned in favor of six sizes ex- 
pressed in millihters! Where will it all end? 
It will end when America goes entirely 
metric. 

The present (English) system of 
weights and measures is the one with which 
we are all familiar— or are we really? We 
are used to the words, but most of us are 
not terribly familiar with the system itself 
—if we may indeed call it a "system." The 
word system usually means some logical, 
sensible arrangement of ideas designed so 
they can be easily handled and remem- 



Inching 

Along to a 

Metric 

America 

By Edward Olsen 






uo = 




***'^_ 



bered. But the present Enghsh system of 
weights and measures is a hopeless hodge- 
podge that has come down to us through 
time from many different sources. 

How many of us know the number of 
feet or inches in a mile? These are not some 
'neat, round numbers, but messy numbers 
like 5,280 and 63,360. It isn't often we need 
to know those particular numbers; how- 
ever, in making daily food purchases we 
face' a word like ounce. But there is more 
than one kind of ounce (which, for some 
goofy reason, is abbreviated "oz" — 
bringing to mind, of course, Frank Baum's 
children's classic. The Wizard of Ouncel) 
One of the ounces is a liquid ounce. How 
many to a gallon? Another is the dry- 
measure ounce. There are supposed to be 
16 of them to a pound— but this isn't com- 
pletely true because it depends on the 
thing being sold. If you are buying a pot 
roast you get 16 oz. to a pound, but if 
you're buying gold you get 12 to a pound. 
One is an ounce in something unpronounc- 
able called avoirdupois, and the other is 
something called rroy weight. Besides this, 
the real horror comes in attempting to 
make money-saving purchases. Americans 
and American manufacturers are hopeless- 
ly wedded to fractional measures— and 
most people hate fractions anyway. We see 
packaged products sold with weights like 
9-7/8 oz. If someone offered you a can of 
beans weighing this much for 40 cents, 
would it be a better or worse buy than a can 
weighing 1 1 Va oz. for 50 cents? The aver- 
age person wouldn't have a chance of 
figuring out this problem even with a 
pocket calculator. 



g-fv.-^'9 



^-a>. 



s- -^C* 






»>— ^ — 



H 



-OLD YOUR BREATH— it can get 

worse. Maybe you're the kind of 

. person who likes to do home auto 

repairs. There you are, lying on the cold 
ground beneath your car with dirt, rust 
flakes, and oil falling in your face, trying 
to loosen a boU. You try a wrench. It's a 
13/32-inch size and just a bit too small to 
get around the bolt head. So, you grope 
around for the next size larger. It is not, of 
course, a simple problem of finding a 
14/32-inch wrench because 14 and 32 are 
both even numbers. You have to do some 
mental arithmetic while the oil continues 



-^— »-^ ~ ^ Edward Olsen is ctiralor of mineralogy. 



September 1976 



to drip in your face. "Let's see now — 2 into 
14 is 1, and 2 into 32 is 16. So, the wrench 
I want is a 7/16-inch." Contrast this to 
metric wrenches and bolts. Your 10-milli- 
meter wrench is too small so you quickly 
grab your 1 1-millimeter wrench. No arith- 
metic, no aggravation, fewer oil drips in 
the eye. It's logical, simple, and fast. Why, 
on earth, with such a clumsy, illogical 
system as the one we've been using, would 
we want to resist the metric system? 



As A MATTER OF FACT, most Ameri- 
cans could adapt to metric with little 
difficulty. For example, a volume of 
one liter is only a little more than a quart. 
So if you've been used to buying a quart 
of milk each day, a liter of milk will give 
you about the same amount. For pur- 
chases and cooking of food by weight, the 
gram or kilogram (1 kilogram = 1,000 
grams) would be used. But a pound is close 
to half a kilogram. If you are used to cook- 
ing up two pounds of potatoes for Sunday 
dinner, then one kilogram will be close to 
what you need — it's actually two pounds 
and three ounces — close enough. When 
measuring length, the meter is only a shade 
more than a yard long. The meter itself is 
divided into 100 centimeters and each cen- 
timeter is divided into 10 millimeters. Tape 
measures are already being sold in centi- 
meters with the millimeter marks on them. 
It's really neat! Doing home carpentry is a 
snap. With the present system you may 
want to cut a board to fit somewhere and 
you measure it as 20 7/16 inches — a clumsy 
number to remember. In metric it's a neat 
52 millimeters. 

Probably the only metric measure in 
day-to-day life that will be difficult getting 
used to is the temperature measure of Cel- 
sius. It is divided into 100 units with zero 
being the freezing point of pure water, and 
100 being its boiling point. On the present 
Fahrenheit scale, water freezes at 32° and 
boils at 212 °. This means, from the temper- 
ature of freezing to the temperature of 
boiling, there are 212 - 32 = 180 degree 
divisions, or roughly twice as many as on 
the Celsius scale. This means that the Cel- 
sius scale isn't quite as sensitive as the 
Fahrenheit scale to small changes. A two- 
degree change from, say, 88°F to 90°F is 
only about one degree of change on Celsius 
(approximately 31 C to 32°C). This means 
that for weather reporting it will be neces- 
sary to use decimal portions of Celsius de- 
grees — like 31. rc and 32.2°C. We'll get 



used to it; however the Fahrenheit scale has 
something more going for it than that. For 
the human being, exposed to the weather, 
there is nothing important about the freez- 
ing point or boiling point of water. When 
the outside temperature is 32°F ice forms, 
but the average person is not terribly un- 
comfortable. When the temperature finally 
drops to 0°F it is about as cold as anyone 
can stand it. 

Subzero temperatures on the Fahren- 
heit scale are unbearable. On the other 
hand, when summer temperatures soar to 
the 90s, most people are uncomfortably 
hot. But when it reaches 100° F it becomes 
unbearable for almost everyone. So it 
turns out that the Fahrenheit scale is really 
a rough kind of comfort scale, and the 
numbers and 100 have a sensory mean- 
ing. On the Celsius scale, the same comfort 
range is -17.8° C to 37.8° C, both numbers 
that do not convey much meaning to any- 
one. Nevertheless, we'll gradually get used 
to the Celsius scale, which comes as part 
of the metric package. 



IN THIS COUNTRY, full use of metric is 
being fought by trade unions. Millions 
of workers own tools made in dimen- 
sions of the present system. If they all have 
to discard their tools and buy new ones 
made to metric dimensions it will cause 
major economic upheaval for them. They 
feel the federal government ought to make 
funds available for such conversion pur- 
chases. Although the fears of the trade 
unions are real, they are also exaggerated. 
The change-over won't happen suddenly. It 
will take a period of years. Industry, more- 
over, can be expected to cooperate. For the 
first batches of American manufactured 
goods, over an initial period of ten years, 
it would be simple to produce nuts, bolts, 
valves, etc. to metric dimensions which 
were close enough to the present tool di- 
mensions so that the old tools could still 
be used, and gradually replaced, as they 
wore out, with metric ones. For example, a 
head bolt on an auto engine could be made 
at 1 1.1 millimeters, which is close enough 
to 7/16 inches that an auto mechanic could 
use his old wrench to remove the head. 
Years from now, the same bolt could be 
made to an even 11 millimeters, with mini- 
mal disruption. On the other hand, major 
tool items, like die presses, could be grad- 
ually converted to metric. But these are not 
items the trade workers purchase; they are 
machine tools used by manufacturers. Both 



the cost of gradual conversion of these 
major machines, and the cost of the aver- 
age worker's tools, could be minimized by 
accelerated depreciation allowances on the 
taxes of both workers and companies. 
Other countries have done it. We can also. 

It's amusing that in England it was not 
the workers who resisted the conversion— 
but the beer and ale drinkers, who abound 
in that country, transcending economic, 
educational— even class distinctions. The 
English pub-dweller's thirst is calibrated to 
"ha' o' pint o' bitters" or "a pint o' 
stout." The idea that the pint, ennobled by 
centuries of use, would go into oblivion 
along with units like the crown, the guinea, 
and the shilling, was too much for the 
otherwise facile British mind. Again, the 
conversion can be made quite close. The 
old British pint (imperial pint, that is— 
which is not the same as our pint, but about 
20 percent la ger) is 568 milliliters, or 68 
milliliters (a mere 2.4 oz., imperial) more 
than half a liter. So, as the old mugs break 
they can be replaced with half-liter and 
quarter-liter mugs, which are within a slurp 
of the usual pint and half pint. Rest easy, 
England! 

In 1975 Mr. Ford signed the Metric 
Conversion Act. It commits the United 
States to a voluntary conversion program 
during the next ten years. The program will 
include educational efforts to familiarize 
the public and industry with the system. It 
will be overseen by a seventeen-member 
board appointed by the president with re- 
presentation from labor, manufacturing, 
science, engineering, state and local gov- 
ernments, small business, building con- 
struction, education, consumers, and con- 
cerned groups. It is designed to give 
everyone a say in the matter and make it as 
painless as possible. 



AMERICANS are adaptable people. In 
order to survive in a metric world 
around us we are going to have to 
convert. It seems ironic that the country 
which was born 200 years ago by breaking 
away from Mother England, should be the 
last major nation in the world to cling 
tenaciously to the old, clumsy system of 
weights and measures— the English 
System! D 




Field Museum Bulletin 



Oonrf IEniiwDif(o)ijiiiM(inDf^ 



"Look-Alike" Sea Turtles 
To Be Treated as Endangered 

Three non-endangered species of sea turtles 
that look like their endangered cousins 
have been proposed as the first species to 
be treated as endangered under the "Simi- 
larity of Appearance" clause of the En- 
dangered Species Act of 1973. 

The proposal would treat the green sea 
turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, and Pacific 
ridley sea turtle as "endangered" because 
they so closely resemble three other species 
already listed as endangered: the hawksbill, 
Atlantic ridley, and leatherback. The rule- 
making is necessary because the en- 
dangered turtles cannot properly be pro- 
tected from commercial exploitation since 
many specimens are captured each year and 
brought into the United States mistakenly 
or fraudulently labeled as belonging to one 
of the three look-alike species. Interested 
persons have until September 14, 1976, to 
comment on the proposal. (See below.) 

Distinguishing between legal and il- 
legal species is difficult in the case of adult 
specimens and is especially pronounced in 
the case of turtle parts, products, or young 
specimens. Expert herpetologists have 
acknowledged that in some instances after 
turtle oil is processed into perfume, turtle 
meat into soup, and turtle hide into shoes 
or leather goods, there is no way to distin- 
guish the meat and hide of one sea turtle 
from that of another. Differentiation is 
also very difficult if the item to be iden- 
tified is merely a small piece of shell as 
opposed to the entire carapace. Accurate 
identification of some young specimens is 
practically impossible due to the lack of 
distinct coloration. In fact, even in the case 
of complete adult specimens of the Atlantic 
and Pacific ridleys, differentiation is a 
difficult process for biologists. 

The traffic in turtle parts and products 
is enormous and is bolstered by new uses 
such as turtle leather as a fashion com- 
modity and turtle oil for cosmetics. The 
relatively high returns for small catches of 
turtle encourage both legal exploitation 
and poaching. Turtle products include high 
protein meat, hide for leather items, shell 



for jewelry and curios, and calipee for soup 
and health food preparations. 

At the entry port of El Paso, Texas, 
approximately 10,000 turtle skins, more 
than 11,000 pairs of boots and shoes, and 
nearly 2,000 boot parts were imported in a 
single 6-month period from May 1975 to 
November 1975. At the port of Miami, 
shipments of more than 10 tons of turtle 
meat are documented. Large quantities of 
turtle soup, turtle oil, turtle-shell jewelry, 
and turtle curios also are brought in. Fish 
and Wildlife Service prosecutions of im- 
porters reveal that commercial dealers can- 
not tell the difference between the endan- 
gered and unlisted species. And when, as 
in the El Paso and Miami importations 
referred to above, identification is not 
possible, it is quite possible that some of 
the volume is composed of endangered 
parts and products. 

At present, when the government 
cannot prove that a given item is from an 
endangered turtle, rather than from a 
green, loggerhead, or Pacific ridley turtle, 
prosecution for an Endangered Species Act 
violation is impossible. Yet if the item is in 
fact from an endangered turtle, and prose- 
cution is prevented by its resemblance to 
an unlisted species, the loss of control over 
the endangered species is substantial. The 
harm to the endangered species is the same 
whether or not the item can be distin- 
guished. And when this harm is repeated 
unchecked by prosecution for thousands of 
items, it poses a very real threat to the en- 
dangered species. This threat could be con- 
trolled if prosecution were made possible 
by treating the presently unlisted species as 
endangered. 

Although the proposed rulemaking 
generally would prohibit persons subject to 
the jurisdiction of the United States from 
taking or importing green. Pacific ridley, 
or loggerhead sea turtles, such a prohibi- 
tion should not prove to be a hardship to 
any private enterprise. The value of all sea 
turtles landed in the continental United 
States, about $50,000 in 1971, is insigni- 
ficant in relation to overall U.S. fisheries 
income. 

The proposal would allow the Fish and 



Wildlife Service and National Marine 
Fisheries Service to issue permits for the 
taking of turtles provided the applicant 
supplies reliable data which adequately 
identifies the turtles so as to distinguish 
them from endangered species. 

Importation of sea turtles or products 
from foreign sources is far greater than 
those derived from U.S. fishermen. Im- 
ports of products identified as green sea 
turtle in 1970 included 113,900 pounds of 
meat, 25,195 pounds of calipee (used to 
make soup), 2,500 pounds of oil, and 2,200 
skins. In 1971, almost 45,000 skins identi- 
fied as Pacific ridley were imported. Such 
imports are probably substantially higher 
at present, but exact figures are unavail- 
able. 

The green, loggerhead, and Pacific 
ridley sea turtles were themselves proposed 
for the threatened species list last year by 
the Fish and Wildlife Service and National 
Marine Fisheries Service. The proposal 
came after a joint status review by both 
agencies found seriously decreased popula- 
tions of these species throughout the world. 

Persons wishing to comment on the 
current proposal should write to the Direc- 
tor, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. 
Box 19183, Washington, DC 20036, or to 
Director, National Marine Fisheries Ser- 
vice, Department of Commerce, Washing- 
ton, DC 20235. 



Dual Image for Mourning Dove 

The mourning dove is a game bird. Or is it 
a songbird? 

Actually, the mourning dove is a town 
and country bird wearing two hats. It 
means different things to residents of dif- 
ferent states. The cooing dove is hunted in 
31 of the contiguous states, according to 
John Ellis, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
biologist. 

But the dove has been the subject of 
squabbles in 17 states where it's protected 
as a songbird and may not be hunted. The 
bird with a melancholy call leads a double 
life. Fact and fantasy of public opinion, 
which ultimately become the nuts and bolts 



September 1976 



mourning dove populations in '■cail- 
count" surveys over 800 routes chosen 
randomly throughout the country. 

Observers who make call-count sur- 
veys listen for cooing doves at stations 
spaced at one-mile intervals over a 20-mile 
course. Each route is checked once between 
May 20-June 10. Ellis says the technique 
has been recognized as a feasible means for 
gathering data on changes in the dove 
population. 

"We're in the process of conducting 
call-count surveys in the Great Lakes 
region," Ellis says. "Using this monitoring 
technique, we keep abreast of trends and 
changes in the mourning dove population." 



California Cougars Not Threatened 

From a study conducted by the California 
Department of Fish and Game, it seems 
that the cougar in that state is not 
threatened with extinction. 

The study was authorized in legisla- 
tion enacted in 1971 that also changed the 
cougar's status from a game animal to a 
protected nongame mammal for a four- 
year period and established a four-year 
moratorium on mountain lion hunting. 
The legislature in 1974 extended the mora- 
torium to January 1, 1977. 

The department has recommended 
that the moratorium be extended for an- 
other year while a final management plan 
is being completed. 

The study determined there were ap- 
proximately 74,000 square miles of moun- 
tain lion habitat in California with a 
population of about 2,400 of the big cats. 
Prior to that study, there had been various 
estimates of the lion population dating 
back to 1919, when 600 was the estimate. 



Acid Rain Bad for Wildlife 

Researchers have found that acid precipi- 
tation is seriously reducing certain species 
of wildlife and has ominous long-term im- 
plications for other forms of life. Acid rain 
is the term given atmospheric moisture 
laden with hydrochloric, sulfuric, and nitric 
acids put there by auto exhausts and the 
burning of other fossil fuels. 

Scientists at Cornell University have 
documented that brook trout and other 
animals in the Adirondack Mountains are 
harmed by acid rain which has increased 
the acidity of lakes and streams. Acid con- 
centrations in temporary rain pools were 



of legislation, have created an image pro- 
blem for the mourning dove. Depending 
on where you raise the point, the mourning 
dove could be a game bird or it could be 
a songbird likened to the cardinal. 

What is the opinion of a professional 
biologist, say John Ellis, who stands be- 
tween the bird's two-sided image? 

"The mourning dove is the most im- 
portant migratory game bird in the U.S.," 
Ellis claims. He explains that American 
hunters harvest more doves than one might 
imagine — in fact, he adds, more than any 
other migratory bird species in the U.S. 

"In terms of birds in the bag, hunter 
recreation days, and sporting interest, the 
mourning dove is the 'statistical cham- 
pion,' " Ellis says. Though the statistics 
may surprise many people, the champion 
of sorts is not a contender for regal sport- 
ing honors in the Great Lakes region. Re- 
gionally, the trim bird is hunted only in 
Illinois and Ohio. 

Mourning dove, populations are 
susceptible to high annual losses from 
natural mortality. Surplus birds are squan- 
dered in the natural process, a fact that 
fuels the ire of many sportsmen who do not 
have an opportunity to harvest doves. Des- 
pite losses to natural mortality, the dove 
population rebounds with good nesting 
vigor each year, averaging two eggs per 
nest. Ellis says that clutches of two or three 
eggs are not uncommon in dove production 
areas. 

Mourning doves, he observes, are 
hunted over 73 percent of the land in the 
lower 48 states. He also notes that sports- 
men hunt 74 percent of the "current breed- 
ing population." 

"When there is a good breeding popu- 
lation, there is no biological reason to pro- 
hibit hunting," Ellis suggests. "But it boils 
down to more than biology, because 
public sentiment has been a big factor in 
the management of the species." 

Although opinions on the mourning 
dove vary across the land, data indicate the 
dove could be hunted in most states with- 
out apparent harm to the cooing popula- 
tion. High dove densities occur from North 
Dakota to Oklahoma, and in portions of 
the Southern Great Plains and adjacent 
lowlands. Lesser breeding populations, 
though huntable, are distributed along the 
Continental Divide, the Great Basin, and 
through most of the Northern Appalachian 
and Great Lakes states. 

Working cooperatively with the states, 
the Fish and Wildlife Service, charged with 
managing migratory birds, monitors 



found to be exceptionally high. Frogs, 
toads, and salamanders use those tem- 
porary ponds to breed and are most sus- 
ceptible to the pollutants. 

Researchers at the University of Min- 
nesota point out that acid damage to trout 
and salmon fisheries in Scandinavia has 
been "devastating." They say the acidity 
there probably can be traced to European 
industrial pollution and the resultant acid 
rains falling into streams and lakes. They 
said that human diseases have not been 
traced to acid rain, but there is 
evidence to cause concern. 



Court Rules for "Natural" Beauty 

A Wisconsin circuit judge has ruled that 
the town of New Berlin's weed and grass 
control ordinance is unconstitutional. This 
earth-shattering decision means that 
Donald Hagar, a wildlife biologist, can let 
part of his yard revert to native grasses to 
benefit wildlife. 

Hagar's "wildlife habitat" had viola- 
ted a town ordinance which said weeds and 
grass "in any recorded subdivision" could 
not exceed 12 inches in height. Judge 
William Graming ruled that Hagar could 
continue cultivating his yard "sensitive to 
the environment and wildlife." 



Vitamin C Aids Fish 

Scientists have known for years that fish 
use vitamin C for proper bone growth and 
to increase their tolerance to environmental 
stresses. Yet, they never knew exactly how 
this occurred. Now they do, and the dis- 
covery may help biologists better combat 
the effects of pollution on fish. 

Biologists at the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service's Fish Pesticide Laboratory in 
Columbia, Missouri, first learned of the 
mechanism while studying channel catfish 
that were affected by the insecticide toxa- 
phene. This pesticide is widely used on 
cotton crops in the South where channel 
catfish are also raised commercially. 

About six years ago, biologists noticed 
that the channel catfish grown on fish 
farms in that area were developing a curva- 
ture of the spine that, in extreme cases, 
broke the fish's back and stunted growth 
as much as one-third. Last year. Fish and 
Wildlife Service scientists linked this syn- 
drome to toxaphene residues in the water. 
Concentrations as low as 37 parts per tril- 
lion in the water were found to have serious ) 



Field Museum Bulletin 



OUR ENVIRONMENT. 



long-term effects on catfish. Earlier this 
year, they documented for the first time the 
specific role vitamin C plays in this pro- 
cess, and the implications are significant 
for future fish culture as well as for better 
understanding of the chronic effects of 
pollutants on fish. 

The mechanism works this way: Vita- 
min C is used by fish in a number of ways 
and in various parts of the body. One pri- 
mary function of the vitamin is to aid in 
the formation of collagen — the protein 
framework, or base, upon which bone 
develops. Calcium and phosphate minerals 
are deposited within and around this 
framework, forming a skeleton. An insuf- 
ficient supply of vitamin C can increase 
the mineral ratio, making the backbone 
brittle and finally snapping it, which can 
result in internal bleeding. If the fish sur- 
vives, its growth is severely stunted. In 
addition, with a decrease of collagen, the 
ability of fish to heal wounds or regenerate 
tissue is affected. Finally, vitamin C is an 
essential nutrient of the liver and is used as 
a key defense to detoxify poisonous sub- 
stances in the environment. Without it, 
fish cannot respond as well nor adapt to 
stresses. 

Biologists at the service's Fish Pesti- 
cide Research Laboratory found that when 
catfish were chronically exposed to toxa- 
phene residues, even in trace amounts, 
their ability to form collagen was inhibited. 
Research showed that most of the vitamin 
C is diverted to the liver, where it is used to 
neutralize the effect of toxaphene. So much 
of it is diverted that there isn't enough of 
the nutrient left for other metabolic pro- 
cesses. 

The result is a functional deficiency 
of the vitamin, even though the amount 
may be the same as in a healthy fish, and 
reduced growth and the broken back con- 
dition can occur. Brook trout and fathead 
minnows exhibit similar symptoms when 
exposed to low concentrations of toxa- 
phene. 

Although there is no known method to 
increase the vitamin C content of fish in the 
wild, the discovery of its importance in 
fish metabolism has been quite beneficial 
to the multi-million dollar fish farming 
business of the South where up to 5 percent 
of pond-cultured catfish showed the 
symptom. Vitamin C is now included in 
many commercially prepared fish foods 
and its inclusion in the diet of farmed cat- 
fish is helping to eliminate the "broken 
back syndrome." 

However, the discovery of vitamin C's 



importance in fish metabolism is equally 
beneficial to biologists studying the chronic 
effects of pollutants. Biologists believe that 
the mechanism which fish use in detoxify- 
ing toxaphene is the same used to neutralize 
the effects of other pollutants, but further 
studies are necessary before any firm con- 
clusions can be drawn. 



Critical Habitat for Tennessee Fish Species 

Critical habitat for the snail darter, a three- 
inch-long species of fish discovered in 
Tennessee in 1973, has recently been de- 
termined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service. The snail darter, Percina tanasi, 
occupies a 17-mile stretch on the Little 
Tennessee River in Loudon County, 
Tennessee. It inhabits only portions of 
clean, gravel shoals with cool, swift, low- 
turbidity water. The food of the snail 
darter is almost exclusively snails which 
are abundant on these shoals and which 
also require clean gravel bottom for their 
survival. 

One consideration used in deter- 
mining the endangered status that was 
given to the fish last fall was the threat- 
ened destruction or modification of its 
habitat and range. 

FWS was determined that impound- 
ment of water behind the Tennessee Valey 
Authority's proposed Tellico Dam would 
result in the total destruction of the snail 
darter's present known habitat and even- 
tually cause the last natural occurring pop- 
ulation of the fish in the wild to be 
destroyed. The dam project, underway for 
about eight years, is more than half 
completed. 

Several specimens of the species have 
been transplanted to the Hiwassee River, 
a tributary of the Tennessee River, and 
appear to be doing well. However, bi- 
ologists believe it will take several years 
before they know for sure if the trans- 
planted population survives and re- 
produces. 



Proposed Regulations Would Aid 
Breeders of Endangered Species 

Zoos, circuses, game bird breeders, and 
other persons who breed endangered 
species in captivity will be helped by new 
regulations proposed by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. The regulations, proposed 
recently in the Federal Register, simplify 
the process of transferring ownership of 



certain endangered species which are being 
bred in captivity. Sixteen species, four of 
them native to the United States, are found 
to be bred extensively enough in this coun- 
try that they are being proposed as "cap- 
tive, self-sustaining populations." 

"These breeders play a vital role in 
the conservation of endangered species," 
says an FWS spokesman. "In fact, if it 
weren't for them, some species that are no 
longer found in the wild would be extinct. 
These captive populations not only provide 
gene pools which, of themselves, are 
worthy of preservation; they also make 
possible the reestablishment and rejuvena- 
tion of wild populations as well as man's 
continued, legitimate use and enjoyment of 
the species without jeopardizing its exis- 
tence. 

"For example, there are almost 300 
tigers in captivity in the United States. 
Of these, only about 10 came from the 
wild — all the rest were bred here and more 
than 25 individuals have been able to breed 
them." 

The proposal recognizes that a species 
may be critically endangered in the wild, 
but through the efforts of zoos or other 
propagators, is being bred in captivity in 
such numbers that a captive population 
capable of perpetuating itself has been 
established. In most cases, the continued 
existence of the "captive, self-sustaining 
population" is dependent upon the ability 
of institutions to quickly transfer owner- 
ship of breeding stock and surplus animals 
among themselves. Effective husbandry 
requires that breeding season, weather, 
compatibility of animals, and other uncon- 
trollable factors be considered in move- 
ment of animals. 

The proposed regulations would 
determine that "captive, self-sustaining 
populations" of the following endangered 
species have been attained in the United 
States: tiger, leopard, jaguar, ring-tailed 
lemur, black lemur, brown-eared phea- 
sant, Edward's pheasant, Humes pheasant 
(bar-tailed pheasant). Mikado pheasant, 
Palawan peacock pheasant, Swinhoe 
pheasant, white-eared pheasant, Nene 
goose (Hawaiian goose), Hawaiian duck, 
Laysan teal (Laysan duck), and masked 
bobwhite (masked bobwhite quail). The 
regulations would set up a greatly simpli- 
fied system of permitting qualified persons 
to buy or sell these species for purposes 
that would not result in the import, export, 
or death of the animal or the loss of its 
reproductive ability. The regulations also 
provide for a recordkeeping system suf- 



September 1976 



ficient to enable the service to monitor the 
well-being of the captive populations. 

The service considered data provided 
largely by the American Game Bird 
Breeders Cooperative Federation and the 
International Species Inventory System of 
the American Association of Zoological 
Parks and Aquariums in making these 
proposals. 



Wild Horse .\nd Burro Decision Reversed 

The U.S. Supreme Court has overruled a 
lower court decision which had declared 
the Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971 un- 
constitutional. The case involved action 
brought by the New Mexico Livestock 
Board declaring that the act infringes on 
state authority. The board had rounded up 
and sold at public auction burros allegedly 
molesting cattle on national resource land 
covered by grazing permits. .After the sale, 
the Bureau of Land Management asserted 
jurisdiction and demanded that the animals 
be returned to the public lands. 

Speaking for the court. Justice Thur- 
good Marshall said that Congress has ade- 
quate authority under the property clause 
of the Constitution to enact such legisla- 
tion. That clause provides that "Congress 
shall have pow er to dispose of and make all 
needful rules and regulations respecting the 
territory or other property belonging to the 
United States.'" 

The Livestock Board had argued that 
burros are neither federal property nor 
public lands and thus outside the scope of 
legislative power under the property clause. 
The court held that Congress exercises 
"complete power" over public property 
and that such authority "necessarily in- 
cludes the power to regulate and protect 
the wildlife living there." 

The court swept aside the board's 
contention that the act violates traditional 
state power over wild animals by stating 
that state powers exist only "in so far as 
their exercise may not be incompatible 
with, or restrained by, the rights conveyed 
to the federal government by the Constitu- 
tion." 

The International Association of Fish 
and Wildlife Agencies filed an amicus 
curiae brief in the Supreme Court, taking 
the position that the burros were feral ani- 
mals, not wildlife, and that the court need 
not address the question of federal-state 
authority over wildlife on the public lands. 
The court, however, failed to draw a dis- 
tinction and the decision does speak to 



federal-state wildlife authority. The de- 
cision changes little since Congress already 
has exerted such authority as it did in the 
1973 Endangered Species .Act. 



Bighorns Losing to Burros? 

Bighorn sheep near Lake Havasu, .Arizona, 
are losing a battle with feral burros for a 
place to live, according to the Wildlife 
Management Institute. A recent helicopter 
survey of the area by the .Arizona Game 
and Fish Department disclosed more than 
twice as many burros as bighorn sheep. 
The department estimates that the approxi- 
mately 450 burros in the area are multiply- 
ing at a 20 to 25 percent annual rate, far 
faster than the sheep. Experts say that is 
because the survival rate for burro foals is 
almost 100 percent and that of bighorn 
lambs is rarely more than 20 percent. 

Competition between burros and big- 
horn for forage and water has been ex- 
tremely tough on the sheep. Burros will 
physically defend a waterhole from other 
animals. They easily displace bighorns 
from water and feed sources. Authorities 
say that during the colder months sheep get 
water they need from plants. But during 
the summer, waterholes may mean the dif- 
ference between life and death, and the 
ever-increasing number of burros maintain 
year-round control of the watering places. 

Managers say that not much can be 
done about the burros at present because of 
ill-conceived protective provisions of the 
Wild Horse and Burro .Act of 1971. There 
is no federal law to help the bighorn until 
their population, has been reduced to a 
threatened or endangered status. 



Peregrine Falcons Restocked 

Close to 30 peregrine falcons — an endan- 
gered species — were released into the wild 
in Colorado and five Eastern States this 
summer by the Interior Department's U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Cornell Univer- 
sity, and theXtates involved. 

The birds were released in New York, 
New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, and .Maryland. Also, four birds 
were released in Colorado along the eastern 
slope of the Rockies where they have 
dwindled in recent years. The exact loca- 
tions are not being announced because a 
trial effort in 1974 resulted in the shooting 
of several birds by people who don't like 
falcons. 



The peregrine falcon was killed off by 
DDT and by auto exhaust east of the 
Mississippi River by the early 1960s. The 
auto exhaust and DDT picture has im- 
proved to the point where scientists now 
believe the birds can live a healthy life. 

Last year, 16 peregrine falcons were 
released in the wild along the East Coast 
and 12 of them survived. Two of the fal- 
cons were killed in fights with their natural 
enemy, the great horned owl. .A third, 
placed at the site where the other two were 
killed by the owls, was recaptured and 
brought back to the breeding lab at Cornell 
University, so the owls wouldn't kill it, too. 
The fourth bird lost was killed by electrocu- 
tion when it hit a power line. 

The 12 success stories, though, are 
very heartening to scientists involved in 
this project. The birds have not only 
adapted admirably to the wild and found 
adequate food supplies, but, more impor- 
tant, they have not migrated to Latin 
America or elsewhere during their first 
year. 

This was one of the unknowns when 
the experiment was begun last year. Many 
falcon species do migrate when weather 
conditions force them off .Arctic and far- 
north breeding grounds. They head as far 
south as Latin .America each year. How- 
ever, they pick up considerable pollution 
from DDT and other pesticides in use in 
many of the countries to the south. 

The 16 birds that were released last 
year were bred and reared in captivity by 
scientists at Cornell University's Orni- 
thology Laboratory. The scientific theory 
they wanted to test concerned the migra- 
tory instinct in these birds. They believed 
that birds would not migrate north of their 
birthplace, because they would identify the 
length of daylight hours and the movement 
and position of the sun as characteristic of 
their home territory. 

The theory seems to have been borne 
out after a year of detailed radio tracking 
of the 16 birds. They have shown a ten- 
dency to migrate, but it is from west to 
east. Released inland over New York and 
other Eastern States, the falcons move east 
with the autumn weather and the ap- 
pearance of waterfowl — a food supply — in 
great numbers along the coast. They did 
not head south with the onset of winter, 
"but, instead, survived well along the coast. 

This year's release program was begun 
in early June. Four birds were released in 
Pennsylvania, three in New York, six in 
New Hampshire, seven in Maryland, four 
in New Jersey, and four in Colorado.* 



Field Museum Bulletin 



These, of course, are in addition to the 12 
survivors of last year's experiment. The 
species being restocked in the old haunts of 
the rock peregrine is not the same bird that 
once lived there. The rock peregrine was 
never scientifically identified as a different 
subspecies, but is considered to have been 
a different race of peregrine falcon than the 
American peregrine. Regrettably, there are 
none like it left in the world. The American 
peregrine falcons being released under this 
program are of a different build, plumage, 
and migratory behavior than the original 
inhabitants of that ecological niche. 

As last year's experiment showed, this 
subspecies is the most likely replacement 
for the rock peregrine. 



Bald Eagle Proposed 
For Endangered Lis! 

The bald eagle, symbol of the Nation, 
representative of courage, strength, and in- 
dependence, has been proposed for listing 
as endangered in 43 states and as threat- 
ened in five others. 

Many people believe the bald eagle is 
already listed as endangered. The species is 
protected by the Bald Eagle Protection Act 
of 1940, but only the southern subspecies 
is listed as endangered. The proposal, 
published in the July 12 Federal Register, 
would provide maximum protection for the 
species by extending the coverage of the 



Endangered Species Act of 1973 to all bald 
eagles in the continental United States. 
(Bald eagles do not occur in Hawaii, and 
their population in Alaska is considered 
healthy.) The 1973 Act prohibits any feder- 
al agency from authorizing, funding, or 
carrying out any action that would 
jeopardize the existence of listed species. 

Endangered species receive complete 
federal protection. None can be killed, 
placed into commerce, or possessed with- 
out a special permit. Permits are given only 
for scientific purposes or to enhance the 
propagation or survival of the animal. 
Threatened species regulations can be as 
stringent as endangered species controls, 
or more relaxed. 

For the convenience of wildlife mana- 
gers, bald eagles have been arbitrarily 
separated into two subspecies with 40 de- 
grees north latitude dividing the northern 
and southern breeding populations. The 
southern subspecies was listed as en- 
dangered when the first list was compiled 
in 1967, with the northern subspecies re- 
maining unlisted. However, confusion has 
resulted, since the two populations have 
overlapping ranges. The current rule- 
making resolves this problem by simply 
listing the species, Haliacetus leucoceph- 
aliis, as endangered in the "lower" 48 
states except in Minnesota, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, Oregon, and Washington, where 
it would be listed as threatened. 

The proposed listing of the bald eagle 
as endangered in some states and threat- 



Bald eagles have been arbitrarily separated into two subspecies, with 40 degrees north latitude dividing 
the northern and southern breeding populations. 




ened in others expresses the biological con- 
ditions in these respective areas. While the 
outlook for the species is not bad in every 
state, and some regions have even experi- 
enced encouraging increases, existing 
populations are believed to be depleted 
enough to warrant the additional protec- 
tion of the Endangered Species Act. A pro- 
vision of this law would help slow further 
deterioration of this species' critical 
habitat. 

Losses of eagle habitat have been par- 
ticularly severe in the lower Great Lakes 
region. New York, and New England. Only 
a single nesting p.air of bald eagles remains 
in New York state where they used to be 
common, and this pair didn't produce any 
offspring last year. The 33 pairs in Maine 
produced only 14 offspring. 

Shooting continues to be the leading 
cause of premature death among adult 
and immature bald eagles and accounts for 
40 to 50 percent of birds picked up by Fish 
and Wildlife field personnel. Some people 
misidentify them for other species while 
hunting and others deliberately kill them 
because of an ingrained prejudice against 
all birds of prey. 

There is still much hope for the bald 
eagle, however. While in the entire "lower 
48" there are only about 700 active nests, 
the population in Alaska is thriving with an 
estimated 10,000 nesting pairs. In the upper 
Great Lakes region and on the Pacific 
Coast, eagle populations currently appear 
to be maintaining themselves. Fish and 
Wildlife Service biologists working with 
state game and fish agencies have for the 
last two years successfully transplanted 
bald eagle eggs from healthy nests in Wis- 
consin and Minnesota to nests in Maine 
where eagles are riddled with pesticides. 
The species has also benefited from pro- 
grams such as captive breeding, monitor- 
ing, and other research conducted at state 
and federal facilities. 



J. Francis MacBride. 1891-1976 

J. Francis MacBride, a Field Museum 
curator for more than 34 years, died on 
June 15 in Riverside, California, at the age 
of 85. He was born in Rock Valley, Iowa, 
in 1891 and came to Field Museum in 1922 
as assistant curator of botany. In 1936 he 
was named associate curator and in 1945 
he became curator, Peruvian botany. 
MacBride retired from his post in 1956. 



September 1976 



SEPTEMBER at Field Museum 



NEW EXHIBIT 

Male and Female: An Anthropology Game. The 

popular Members' Nights activity is now a special exhibit. 
Approximately 30 anthropological artifacts from all over the 
world are on exhibit in the South Lounge. Visitors have the 
opportunity of guessing whether these objects were used by 
men, women, or both. Careful — it's not as easy as it looksl 



LAST CHANCE TO SEE 

Between Friends/Entre Amis. Canada's gift to the 
American people on the occasion of our Bicentennial— a 
documentary exhibit of 220 superb color photographs taken 
along the entire United States/Canadian border. Produced 
by the Still Photography Division, National Film Board of 
Canada, the exhibit encompasses the land and the people 
along the 5.525mile stretch Hall 26 to September 7. 



NEW PROGRAM 

Autumn Journey for Children: My Kind of Town. 

September 1 thru November 30. A free, self-guided tour 
about the geology, eariy history, and animals of the Chicago 
area. All children who can read and write are invited to par- 
ticipate. Journey sheets are available at the information 
booth. Bring pen or pencil. 




SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

Man in His Environment. This unique exhibit takes a 
global view of some of the most serious environmental 
problems now confronting all mankind and asks visitors to 
involve themselves in these problems— and the need for 
solution. A salt marsh— recreating one at Sapelo Island, 
Georgia — offers a unique opportunity to study basic eco- 
logical principles within a total marsh environment. Hall 18. 

Pliny's Natural History: The First Encyclopedia. In 

an attempt to bring together all the knowledge of the ancient 
world. Pliny, the Roman (AD 23-79) compiled what has 
been called the first encyclopedia — viewed today as an 
astonishing mixture of fact and fiction. Two rare editions 
(printed in 1513 and 1530) of this work, now among many 
other rare works in the Field Museum Library, are currently 
on exhibit in the South Lounge 

Pterosaur. An aluminum and fabric stylized model of the 
largest known flying creature — an extinct pterosaur- 
spreads its wings across Stanley Field Hall to dramatize a 
special exhibit of pterosaur fossils in the northwest arcade, 
second floor. 



SPECL\L PROGRAM 

Man in His Environment Film Series. Now in its third 
and final cycle. The best and the newest environmental films 
are offered in conjunction with the museum's major new ex- 
hibit: Man in His Environment. Many of the films have never 
been shown at the Field Museum before. Films are shown at 
11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, second floor 
north. All programs run approximately 1 hour. 

The September theme is "Adaptations for Survival: Re- 
lationships of Certain Animals to Each Other and to the 
Environment." 

Cry Wolf 

Deadly) African Snakes 

Sea Turtles 
The Octopus 



Sept. 3, 4, 5: 
Sept. 10. 11.12: 
Sept. 17. 18. 19: 



Sept. 24, 25, 26: 



The Spider 

Private Life of the Herring 

Gull 

Private Life of the Gray Seal 

Ma[;fl[^: Ecohgi; of an 

Aquatic Insect 



(CALENDAR continued on back cover) 



Field Museum Bulletin 



SEPTEMBER at Field Museum 



(CALENDAR continued from inside back cover) 



CONTINUING PROGRAMS 



COMING ATTRACTIONS 



Saturday Discovery Program. Tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities are offered every Saturday from 
11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Topics vary but often include: 

Cal^okia Archaeo/ogy — Discover an ancient Illinois 
civilization. A brief glimpse into the largest society north 
of Central America in Pre-Columbian times. 

Dinosaurs— Visit the Hall of Dinosaurs and make a clay 
dinosaur to take home. 

Ancient EgK/pt—h half-hour tour through the Egyptian 
collection, including an explanation of the hows and 
whys of mummy-making. 

Illinois Archaeologi/ — An overview of the field archaeo- 
logical techniques featuring a full-size model excava- 
tion, slides, and artifacts. Discussion includes cultural 
development in Illinois from 8,000 B.C. up to the his- 
toric period. 

Sna/ces — Live snakes are featured in the Hall of Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians. 

For specific programs and times, phone the museum or in- 
quire on arrival at museum entrances. 



SPECIAL-INTEREST MEETINGS 
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 



Edward E. Ayer Film/Lecture Series. To mark the 
opening of the west entrance and the reopening of Simpson 
Theatre, the museum is offering a film/lecture series of 
superior quality. Join us each Saturday, October 2 through 
November 27, at 2:30 p.m. in Simpson Theatre. 

Oct. 2: Curtis Nagel: Our Encfianfed /s/ands o/Hau.'a// 

9: Edward M. Brigham: Wilderness '76 

16; Andre de la Varre, Jr.: Grand Rhine Alpine 

Journey/ 

23: Dennis Glen Cooper: Isle Ro\)ale 

30: Dick Reddy: Mark Twain in Itali; 

Nov. 6: Kenneth Armstrong: Australia — Great Land 

Down Under 

13: John Goddard: Exploring African 

Wonderlands 

20: Ted Walker: The Sea and Shore of Baja 

27: Quentin Keynes: Search for the Twisting 
Makonde 

Adult Education Courses— Autumn Series. Natural 
history and anthropology noncredit courses are being 
offered to ages 18 and over beginning in October. Watch 
your mailbox for a special Adult Education Courses bro- 
chure. We recommend that you register early because class 
enrollment is limited. 



Sept. 7,7:30 p.m. 
Sept. 8,7:00 p.m. 

7:30 p.m. 

Sept. 9.8:00 p.m. 
Sept. 12,2:00 p.m. 
Sept 14. 7:30 p.m. 
Sept. 16,8:00 p.m. 



Kennicott Club 

Chicago Ornithological 

Society 

Windy City Grotto, National 

Speleological Society 

Chicago Mountaineering Club 

Chicago Shell Club 

Nature Camera Club 

Illinois Mycological 
Association 



Sept. 21. 7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 



SEPTEMBER HOURS 

THE MUSEUM opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 5:00 
p.m. every day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, the 
museum is open to 9:00 p.m. Food service areas are open 
weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.; weekends to 4:00 p.m. 

THE MUSEUM LIBRARY is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 
Monday through Friday (closed September 6). Please obtain 
pass at reception desk, first floor north. 

MUSEUM TELEPHONE: 922 9410 



October 

1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



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1 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

October, 1976 
Vol.47, No. 9 

Editor! Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika SemkofT 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



CONTENTS 

3 The Field Museum-Street Peruvian Expedition, 1976 

A report on the recent five-month collecting trip 
by Field Museum mammalogists 

By John J. Pizzimenti, assistant curator of 
mammals 

1 Field Briefs 



1 1 Members' Tours to Egypt 

12 Sahara: The Growing Giant 

The relentless advance of earth's largest desert is 
a complex and disturbing phenomenon 
By Burt and Susan Ovrut 

19 October at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. Yarrington. 

Chairman 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughslon M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



COVER 

Specimens of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus> in the Field 
Museum insect collection. The monarch easily qualifies as Illinois' 
most widely recognized butterfly species. Abundant throughout the 
state, it has been observed as early as April 20 in Illinois and as late as 
November 13. Its larvae feed only on milkweed, a widely occurring 
group of which more than 100 species are known to occur in North 
America. It is from this food plant that the monarch elaborates a 
substance poisonous to vertebrates. The poison, recognized as a type 
of cardiac glycoside, or cardenolide, is a po werful heart drug that will 
also induce vomiting in birds. A couple of good-sized bites from a 
monarch wing (where the poison is most concentrated) are enough to 
make a bird very sick — and teach him to avoid the butterfly in the 
future. 

One year ago — on October 1, 1975 — the Illinois legislature passed 
a bill recognizing the monarch as the state's official insect, thus 
gaining for the butterfly the same symbol status as the cardinal, oak. 
violet, and fluorite (official state bird, tree, flower, and mineral, 
respectively). Much of the credit for promoting the bill goes to Mary 
L. Hinman, a Decatur, Illinois, schoolteacher. 

October is an appropriate month to honor the monarch, for it is 
then particularly in evidence. Before freezing weather arrives, mon- 
archs hatched in late summer head for their respective wintering 
regions. Most monarchs seen in Illinois migrate to recently discovered 
wintering grounds at an elevation of 9,000 feet in a remote part of the 
Sierra Madre, north of Mexico City. A portion of the monarch 
population of eastern United States heads for Mexico's Yucatan 
Peninsula; the western population winters along the California coast 
between Monterey and Los Angeles. In springtime the butterflies head 
northward again. Some individuals travel to Mexico from as far away 
as Canada 's Maritime Provinces. 



Field IHiLieiim oJ'Ntiliiral Hislury Biillelin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago. Illinois fin6n.S, Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year lor schools. Members of the 
Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed b\ .ujlhorsare their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum f nsoliciled manuscripts are 
welcome. Postmaster: Please send form .VS79 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. Illinois 6060.S. ISSN: OOl.S-070.'. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago. 111. 




In camp, on the weslern slopes of the Andes, expedition members Mike Mortimer, Bill Street, and "Rolo" Estrada await their evening meal. 

The Field Museum-Street Peruvian Zoological Expedition, 1976 

By John J. Pizzimenti 
Photos bv the author 



Peru! Land of the Incas. Home of 
llamas, alpacas, and vicunas. Where 
Indians labor up to 16,000 feet and 
show little effect from the altitude. These 
were some of my impressions of a country 
I'd not yet visited. And long before 1 had 
finished five months of field work in the 
Peruvian Andes, these impressions along 
w ith hundreds of others became part of an 
e.xperience I'll long remember. 

The Andes of southern Peru, one of 
the most impressive mountain areas in the 
world, are starkly beautiful — almost 
treeless. Rising abruptly from a coastal, 
nearly absolute desert, they reach altitudes 



usually associated with commercial jet 
liners, not pack animals. Because of the 
intricate physiography and complex 
climatic patterns of Peru, a myriad of 
diverse habitats exists within a country 
geographically similar to (but about three 
times the size oO the state of California. 
The diversity provides a wealth of "natural 
experiments" in which scientists can study 
geographical and ecological variation of 
animal populations; these, in turn, give us 
greater understanding of the processes of 
evolution. The fauna of this region was, 
in fact, of great importance to Charles 
Darwin in his formulation of the theorv of 



evolution more than a century ago. And it 
was a small South American mouse, Phyl- 
lotis darwini, discovered by, and named 
after Charles Darwin, that brought the 
Field Museum-Street Zoological Expedi- 
tion of 1976 to Peru. 

William S. and Janice Street, for 
whom the expedition was conamed, pro- 
vided much of the financial support for 
the expedition; support was also provided 
by the National Science Foundation as well 
as bv Field Museum. The Streets were also i 



John Pizzimenti is assistant curator of mammals 



Field Museum Bulletin 




El Misli, an active volcano, resembles Japan's Fujiyama as it rises to more than 19,100 Jeel in southern Peru — more than a mile higher than its Japanese 
counterpart. In the foreground is puna vegetation, typical of the Peruvian altiplano. 



particularly helpful during the initial 
preparations and arrangements, and sub- 
sequent in-the-field physical adjustments 
that are part of all expeditions abroad. Bill 
Street's diplomatic talents and globe- 
trotting experience were invaluable in ob- 
taining official assistance in Washington 
D.C. and Lima. (Street is a retired cor- 
poration executive and served for a time as 
president of Frederick and Nelson, a divi- 
sion of Marshall Field and Company.) 
Through his contacts our expedition was 
afforded the greatest courtesies and assis- 
tance from a variety of sources. In parti- 
cular, Marshall Field and Company and 
Northwest Orient Airlines were most help- 
ful in the logistics of the expedition. 

Scientific expeditions are no new 
experience for the Streets. They have led 
major field parties to such remote areas of 
the world as Afghanistan, Nepal, and Iran, 
and they are now in the "outback" of 
western Australia on the largest Field 
Museum expedition in recent history. (See 
June, 1976, Bulletin, p. 8.) 

On January 7, field assistant Mike 
Mortimer and I were met in Lima by 
Peruvian mammalogist Hernando de 



Macedo of Museo de Historia Natural. 
Dr. de Macedo helped launch the expedi- 
tion from Lima and introduced us to 
Rolando Estrada, a Peruvian biologist 
who joined us there. The Streets arrived a 
few days later and assisted in the final 
preparations needed for living and working 
in the Andes. (Homo sapiens did not 
evolve on a 13,000 foot slope!). 

We set out to scout our first base camp 
in the Rimac Valley, not far from coastal 
Lima. The Rimac River descends more than 
14,000 feet in about 50 miles — attesting to 
the steepness of the western slopes. We 
drove to over 13,000 feet near the top of 
the valley in about three hours and soon 
discovered the meaning of the local term 
"suroche." Altitude sickness! My com- 
panions told me I looked green, but their 
complexions also seemed sallow. We de- 
cided to camp about half way up the valley, 
where we worked the middle elevations of 
the Rimac and adjacent Santa Eulalia 
valleys. Here we trapped several species of 
Phyllotis as well as rice rats (Oryzomys), 
which are adapted to agricultural habitats. 

Phyllotis darwini, commonly known 
as the leaf-ear mouse, is part of a group of 



The Peruvian Zoological Expedition is 
an excellent example of the joining of 
Field Museum resources with the contri- 
bution of funds and time by talented 
and interested donor-members of the 
Museum. During the last 15 years the 
William S. Streets have contributed to 
and participated in six major Field 
Museum expeditions. As a result, collec- 
tions have been built, research on the 
collections has been published, and a 
number of young persons have been 
advanced in their graduate training for 
professional careers in biology. 

We wish to express appreciation to 
Mr. and Mrs. Street for their great 
contributions to Field Museum and to 
biological knowledge. At the same time 
we commend their example as one that 
we hope other members of the Museum 
may wish to emulate. The staff and I 
will be happy to discuss opportunities 
for field participation with prospective 
donors at any time. 

E. Leland Webber 
President 



October 1976 



twelve similar species which inhabit the 
Andes from Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego. 
at the southern tip of the continent. Al- 
though most species of Phyllolis are easily 
identified by color, size, or other external 
features, a few are difficult to distinguish 
except by internal or genetic character- 
istics. Close similarity between two species 
may be due to recent speciation (one 
species splitting into two) or because of an 
evolutionary process called "conver- 
gence." Since evolution is a process of 
genetic and morphological, or structural, 
change in populations over a period of 
time, it is possible for two species to 
"diverge" (become dissimilar), especially 
if they occupy different environments, 
or "converge" (become more similar) if 
they occupy environments that are similar. 
Since evolutionary changes are usually 
very slow (often taking hundreds or 
thousands of years), an approach which 
looks at variation through space (not 
time) was employed in our study of this 
process and how it relates to the environ- 
ment. 

In looking at populations in different 
localities and different environments, 
similarities and differences soon become 
obvious to even the untrained eye — one 
need only look at the diversity of morph- 
ology in the human species to gain some 
appreciation of adaptation to different 
environments. The main purpose, then, of 
our Peru expedition was to study the dif- 
ferent populations and species of the leaf- 
ear mouse in as many different environ- 
ments and localities as possible. By collect- 
ing data on the mice, as well as on their 
habitats, 1 hoped to demonstrate changes 
in morphology and genetics of the animals 
that were correlated with changes in their 
biotic and abiotic environments. This goal 
may be intuitively logical and simple to 
understand, but it has rarely been achieved 
in evolutionary studies; the reason for this 
is the broad data base necessary to glean 
the evidence needed, and because popula- 
tions rarely change dramatically in 
response to a simple and obvious environ- 
mental factor. 

The methods we employed were stan- 
darized for the whole expedition so that 
data from each locality could be compared 
with that from every other locality. Live 
traps and snap-type traps baited with oats 
were set in lines of 25 stations, at 10-meter 
intervals, to sample the populations over a 
period of several days. Live-trapped indivi- 
duals were needed to provide samples of 
proteins from blood and organs such as 
the liver and kidney, and to make micro- 




William S. Street 



scope slides for karyotype studies, which 
involve the comparison of chromosomes. 
The protein and chromosome data would 
be used in studying the genetic or genea- 
logical relationships among the different 
populations. Snap-trapped individuals 
were necessary to study the stomach con- 
tents and thus learn about the food prefer- 
ences of each species. 

We also collected and preserved ecto- 
parasites such as fleas, ticks, and mites 
from most specimens and preserved the 
skins and skeletons of all the rodents for 
analyses of morphological variation. 



(These studies are now underway in our 
laboratories at Field Museum.) 

Tally sheets were always maintained 
for our traplines so that we would know 
exactly where and when each individual 
was captured; this would enable us to later 
calculate population densities for each 
species. The information thus gained 
would be important in analyzing competi- 
tion between the different rodent species 
and in determining how environmental 
resources were partitioned by the com- 
munity. Some species were trapped at 
night, others only during the day; a few >■ 



Field Museum Bulletin 



were active 24 hours a day. Some preferred 
a rocky habitat, others preferred the stone 
walls of llama corrals, and still others were 
to be found in the open, grassy hilltops. 
All these data would eventually provide a 
clearer picture of the ecological niche of 
each competing species, and each trap 
record added one more piece to the evolu- 
tionary and ecological puzzle I was trying 
to solve. 

Before completing our studies at each 
locality, we carefully measured and col- 
lected samples of the different plant species 
along the traplines. The plants would be 
useful for comparison of stomach contents 
and would also be used to test my hypo- 
thesis that plant diversity would be signi- 
ficantly correlated with rodent diversity at 
the different localities. Detailed informa- 
tion on other factors such as the type of 



soil or rock, the degree of slope, and any 
other item that might appear significant in 
the ecology of the rodent community was 
noted at the same time. 

From the Rimac Valley we traveled 
south along the coastal desert and trapped 
Phyllotis and Oryzomvs in several river 
valleys and lomas — patches of vegetation 
which survive primarily on moisture from 
fog along the coast; these appear as jade- 
green oases in the desert of rock and sand. 
Intervals of ten years or more between 
rains are not uncommon on the coastal 
Peruvian desert. The contrast between the 
deep azure of the Pacific — alive with birds, 
shellfish, and herds of basking sea lions — 
and the brilliant but lifeless desert was for 
me as aesthetically moving as it was bio- 
logically interesting. 

Our first extensive look at the alli- 



plano (the high Andean Plateau generally 
above 11,000 feet) came in the department 
of Moquegua above the small mountain 
city of Torata. Although it rained on us 
nearly every day, and fog was the rule 
rather than the exception, the altiplano is 
usually a cold and relatively dry environ- 
ment. Basically there are two seasons — a 
cold, dry season, which lasts from March 
or April to about November; this is fol- 
lowed by a somewhat warmer, wet season, 
which ordinarily has its peak in January or 
February. 

We visited the altiplano from March 
through May, often encountering daily 
fluctuations in temperature from 20° to 
70° F., especially above 12,000 feet. We 
experienced sudden downpours that would 
drench us in moments if we were caught 
out on the traplines, and hailstorms that 



Puna vegelalion at an altitude of some 13, 000 feel. Needlegrass rStipa ichuA afoot or two in height, predominates among other scrubby species known col/ec- 
tivelv as tola. Snowcapped Cliachani. in the background, rises to an elevation of nearly 20.000 feel several miles northwest ofElMisti. 




^"^ 




October 1976 



-,"^^ 







*^ 



The Permian coastal desen— stark, barren, nearly lifeless. Because a decade or more of drought is not uncommon here, the only oases of Ife occur alons 
occasional river valleys and foggy lomas. 




dropped marble-size chunks of ice. One 
morning we were stunned to find five 
inches of snow covering all our traps; we 
were thus prevented from finding them 
until following the afternoon melt. 

Winds could also be strong and gusty, 
and more than once they blew down a rain 
fly or shook the tents until we thought they 
might break. Because of the thin air, there 
is high insolation on sunny days, and we 
often stripped to the waist, or wore only a 
light shirt. But if a cloud mass moved in, 
the mercury sometimes plummeted 30 
degrees in a matter of minutes, quickly 
sending us for our down vests and jackets. 

Puna is a term used to describe the 
vegetation of the altiplano, which in many 
ways resembles that of the drier parts of 
the southwestern United States. The plants 
are often thorny, stiff, dry, and have re- 
duced leaves with a wa.xy or hirsute epider- 
mis to minimize water loss. 

Our visits came in the spring — a time 
of reproduction and new growth for most 
plants and animals. The ancient terraced 



slopes appeared velvety green, deceptive 
of the cold, bitter, and dessicating winds 
that seasonally sweep this high plateau. 

Ichu grass, a common plant of the 
puna, is stiff and needle-sharp, and grows 
in thick bunches. Tola is a term used to 
describe several species of short, scrubby 
plants not unlike those found in our native 
sagebrush communities out west. Azorella, 
sometimes called cushion plant, occurs in 
the highest elevations. A tiny member of 
the parsley family, Azorella differs from 
familiar parsleys by its colonies which grow 
in thick, compressed "mats" over rocks 
and boulders, giving the appearance of 
huge green coral heads. 

Lichens and mosses also abundantly 
grow on rocks and in crevices at these high 
elevations. Several species of cactus and 
dry, treelike shrubs dot the lower {11,000- 
foot) elevations, and together with a great 
diversity of small, weedy forbs and short 
grasses comprise the remainder of the puna 
vegetation. The only tree native to the 
southern Peruvian puna is Polylepis, an 



unusual member of the rose family that 
grows to 15 or 20 feet. But this naturally 
rare species has nearly been eliminated by 
man, who uses it as firewood. 

.Moving from the western slopes to 
the central mountains, we noticed a strik- 
ing change in the rodent fauna. Se\eral 
species new to our traplines added excite- 
ment and renewed interest in examining the 
daily catch. The chocolate mouse, Akodon 
Jelskli, was one of these. Its rich brown 
color and large white ear patches, pure 
white belly, reddish brown feet, and red- 
dish brown nose, make it one of the most 
beautiful of small mammals. 

We also trapped several other species 
of Akodon and Phyllotis, plus several 
other genera including Calomys and 
Neotomys. In one area we captured five 
species of Phyllotis and three of Akodon, 
all on a single trapline in a 24-hour period. 
Very few areas of the world offer an oppor- 
tunity to study closely related mammals 
that partition their environment in such an 
ecologically packed situation, and this was >■ 



Field Museum Bulletin 



one of the reasons I had chosen Peru for 
my studies. 

Before we finished our work, we had 
trapped an adequate sample of more than 
15 species of rodents in about 50 different 
localities from sea level to nearly 15,000 
feet. The specimens and data, now safely 
stored in Field Museum, are currently 
undergoing a variety of detailed analyses. 

We found the people of Peru generally 
warm and friendly and interested in our 
work. Our Peruvian colleague, Rolo, often 
pointed out interesting aspects of the 
'archeology and cultural sights that abound 
in southern Peru. Part of our cultural 
experiences involved food, and Rolo 
proved to be a prolific source of culinary 
delights both at camp and in the altiplano 
cities. 

Always exciting were our shopping 
trips into the mercado, or open market, 



where vendors bark everything from cloth- 
ing and hardwares to blankets and leather 
goods. Countless varieties of fruits, grains, 
and vegetables as well as meats, fish, and 
fowl— many of which U.S. markets rarely 
see— made shopping in the noisy, bargain- 
ing atmosphere a memorable, if not joyous 
event. To transform the unusual foods into 
palatable fare often required imagination 
and dexterity by whomever was elected 
"cook for the day," since our kitchen ran 
on one-burner kerosene stoves. There were 
many memorable meals (and only a few 
that I'd rather forget!). 

Many persons and organizations were 
involved in the expedition, each con- 
tributing in some special way to the accom- 
plishment of our "mission." The exper- 
iences we shared will be with us for a long 
time to come . . . the long hours of plan- 
ning and preparing as well as the delight- 



ful hours of driving into unseen vistas . . . 
the exhilaration of seeing our first condor 
soaring high, and the exhaustion of push- 
ing a truck miles back to camp . . . the 
pleasure of meeting new friends, and the 
pain of separation from family ... the joys 
of discovery, and the aggravation of car 
problems a hundred miles from a mech- 
anic. 

Murphy's Law ("Whatever can go 
wrong, will go wrong — and at the worst 
possible moment!") is always most appar- 
ent to me when I'm in the field. But in 
spite of this, our expedition seems to have 
succeeded beyond our expectations. The 
analyses of the plants and animals will 
keep us and our Peruvian colleagues busy 
for the next few years. But our efforts 
should result in a greater understanding of 
the evolutionary processes of mammals 
within the context of their ecology. D 




Rolando "Rolo" Estrada, 
Peruvian member of the 
expedition team, places 
vials of tissue specimens in 
a tank of liquid nitrogen 
(—320 ' F). Protein 
analyses of these tissues for 
genealogical studies are 
currently being done in 
Field Museum laboratories. 



Museum study skins are required for identification of the various species. 
A tag attached to each specimen carries data on external measurements, place 
and date of capture, name of the collector, and species name. These skins, 
stuffed with cotton, are stored in Field Museum's mammalian research 
collection. Such specimens are "biological documents" necessary for studies 
of variation. Their value goes far beyond the present project, as they are 
permanently available for future studies. 







.4 specimen is weighed and measured by field assistant Mike Mortimer. The 
data are used in ideniif lying species groups and in studying variability in 
populations. 



Field Museum Bulletin 9 



Field Briefs 



Herpetology Auction 

The Chicago Herpetological Society's 
annual auction will be held on Sunday, 
October 3, from noon until the last item 
is sold, at the Latvian Community Center, 
4146 N. Elston Avenue (one block north 
of Irving Park Road), in Chicago. An 
admission fee of $1.00 will be charged 
persons who are not members of the 
society. Items to be auctioned include a 
variety of living reptiles and amphibians, 
as well as aquaria, cages, books on her- 
petology, and related equipment. 

The society is a nonprofit scientific 
and educational organization which meets 
the last Wednesday of every month at the 
Chicago Academy of Sciences, in Chicago. 
More information about the society may 
be obtained by phoning Bonnie Samuelson 
at 222-0400, ext. 309, 9 a.m.— 5 p.m. 



John Terrell Leaves for South Pacific 

John Terrell, Field Museum's curator of 
Pacific Islands archaeology and anthro- 
pology, left Chicago at the end of August 
for the Solomon Islands in the South 
Pacific. His journey will take him to 
Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, 
Papua New Guinea, and the islands of 
Choiseul and Bougainville in the Solomons 
archipelago. 

"People often ask me where I will be 
digging next," says archaeologist Terrell, 
an authority on the prehistory and bio- 
geography of Melanesia, the islands in the 
southwest Pacific inhabited by dark- 
skinned villagers who settled there thous- 
ands of years ago. "This trip is mostly 
for talk, not digging. I will be meeting with 
colleagues, students, officials and villagers 
to discuss my hopes for an international 
program to study the prehistory, anthro- 
pology, linguistics and biology of the 
people who live on the islands in the beau- 
tiful Bougainville Strait 600 miles east of 
Port Moresby, New Guinea." If Terrell's 
journey is successful, he will be seeking 
funds from private and government 
sources for an initial expedition to this 
little-known area of the Pacific in late 
1977 or early 1978. 



A Defender of the Fallh and His Miracles 

(The following arlicle firsl appeared in the 
February, 1933, Field Museum News, and 
was written by Berthold Laufer, then 
curator of the Department of Anthropol- 
ogy. The statue of Wei-to may still be seen 
in Hall 24.) 

An exhibit of carved wooden images of 
Buddhist and Taoist deities was recently 
installed in George T. and Frances Gaylord 
Smith Hall (Hall 24). Most of these were 
obtained from ancient temples in and 
around Si-an-fu. One of them is a statue of 
Wei-to, the loyal protector of Buddha's 
temples and a staunch defender of his faith. 
This statue, well carved and finely lac- 
quered, is glorified by a tradition. During 
the seventh century there lived at Si-an-fu 
a Buddhist priest, Tao Siian by name. 
Like all monks he was devoted to contem- 
plation, looked upon as the means of at- 
taining self-perfection. Meditation na- 
turally led to dreams, in which he had con- 
tact with the supernatural. Tao Siian wrote 
his memoirs, in which he records his con- 
versations with the gods. Among others 
Wei-to appeared and ordered his statue 
made exactly like his apparition. Tao Siian 

IVei-to, "defender of the faith" 




obeyed, and thenceforward images of Wei- 
to were set up as the guardians of Buddha's 
temples and clergy. 

All other Buddhistic divinities are 
derived from types created in India, where 
Buddhism was born. Wei-to is the only one 
conceived in China. He has the appearance 
of a handsome Chinese youth with a 
smiling countenance, yet is a powerful 
general fortified by a suit of mail, ever 
ready to strike demons and foes of the 
faith. 

The temple from which came the Wei- 
to now in the Museum was erected on the 
spot where Tao Siian lived and taught. 
According to tradition this statue was a 
descendant of Tao Slian's work, permeated 
by his spirit. It was regarded, therefore, as 
a great miracle-worker. Wei-to, above all, 
was a good provider, an efficient money- 
raiser, and bill collector. In some monas- 
teries the monks placed his statue in the 
kitchen, entrusting its supervision to his 
care. Sometimes they even recited incanta- 
tions, threatening him with corporal pun- 
ishment if he should neglect to supply them 
with provisions. 

Whenever a temple was in need of re- 
pairs, or a pagoda was to be restored, Wei- 
to was instrumental in raising the necessary 
cash. The brotherhood would stage a pro- 
cession through the city. One monk, carry- 
ing a shrine harboring Wei-to's picture, 
and beating a wooden drum in the shape of 
a fish, solicited funds from the wealthy. If 
this was unsuccessful, a monk would de- 
posit Wei-to's image on the threshold of 
the house of a prominent family, obstruct 
the entrance, and remain seated there 
cross-legged like a Buddha, for days if 
necessary, until the contribution was made. 

If the monks again failed in this quest 
of charity, they resorted to extreme 
measures. One would be locked in a cage 
just high enough to allow him to squeeze 
in, and would then be exhibited in the mar- 
ket place. The door of the cage was pad- 
locked, and the news was broadcast that he 
was doomed to die of starvation unless the 
money was raised. The people were urged 
to have pity. To arcmse their feelings, it was 
said that the prisoner's bare feet rested on 
iron spikes. This in a way was true, but the 
spikes were so deeply sunk into a plank 
that it formed a smooth surface. Moreover, 
the man was always secretly released before 
harm could befall him. 

It will thus be seen that "rackets" are 
not of recent origin, but that they have a 
history whose threads may take us back to 
the intricate mysteries of the Orient. 




The Greal Pyramids near Giza. 



Members' Tours to Egypt 



Karnak, Luxor, Abu Simbelf These are 

some of the legendary sites in Egypt that 
will be visited by Museum members this 
winter. Seven separate, but similar, tours, 
with Chicago departures December 
through March, will visit major sites of the 
ancient Egyptian kingdoms as well as many 
of the Islamic, early Christian, and Clas- 
sical monuments. 

Each of the 18-day, 17-night tours, 
limited to twenty persons each, will be 
accompanied by an Egyptologist from the 
Oriental Institute. In addition to the 
numerous historic sites, superb museum 



collections in Egypt will be visited, and 
special arrangements have been made to 
acquaint members first-hand with the 
activities of the Epigraphic Survey at 
Chicago House, Lu.xor. There will also be 
an excursion by boat between Aswan and 
Luxor. Four of the tours, all identical, 
will travel downstream on the Nile; three 
tours, all identical, will travel upstream. 
Tour dates are (#1) Dec. 29-Jan. 15; (#2A 
and #2B) Jan. 8-25; (#3) Jan. 15-Feb. I; 
(#4) Jan. 29-Feb. 15; (#5) February— dates 
to be announced; (#6) March 12-29; (#7) 
March — dates to be announced. 



Total cost of each tour, per person, 
is $2,385.00, which includes a tax-deduc- 
tible contribution of $500.00 to Field 
Museum. The tour price also includes air 
fare and all other transportation and 
transfers, hotels (double occupancy), 
meals, and gratuities. Itineraries, registra- 
tion forms, and other information may be 
obtained by writing or calling Dorothy 
Roder, membership secretary, Field 
Museum (922-9410, ext. 206). If writing for 
an itinerary, please specify preferred tour 
number. 



.4 bii Simbel. Facade of the temple ofHathor viewed from east bank of the Nile. 




Field Museum Bulletin 




This oasis in southern Morocco illiislniies ihc fertility that water can bring to the desert. The women 
harvest wheat, fruit, and dates for their own consumption and for export. At this oasis the water is 
available at the surface, but usually it is buried deep under the sand and extensive labor is needed in 
building wells and underground reservoirs. 



SAHARA 

The Growing Giant 



The relentless advance 
of earth 's largest desert 
is a complex and 
disturbing phenomenon 



By Burt A. and Susan Ovrut 
Photos by the authors 



A boundless horizon was already ex- 
panding before us, and we could dis- 
tinguish nothing but an immense plain 
of shining sand, and over it a burning 
sky. At this sight the camels uttered 
long moans, the slaves became sullen 
and silent . . . . 
This was the impression left by a young 
French explorer, Rene CailHe, of his first 
sight of the Sahara Desert in 1828. He was 
travelling from Timbuctu northwards to 
Morocco, and the above description was 
written as the last remaining shrubs and 
pasturage of the Sudan* died away at El 



*The word Sudan is used here in its traditional 
sense to designate the territory bounded in 
the north by the Sahara, in the south by the 
equatorial forests, in the west by the Atlantic, 
and in the east by the Red Sea. The word de- 
rives from the Arabic suda meaning "blacks" 
and thus refers to the land of the blacks. This 
use of the term should not be confused with the 
nameof the nation in eastern Africa. 



Araouane, leaving only the Great Desert 
before him. 

Time has done nothing to alleviate the 
awesome heat and barrenness of the 
Sahara. In fact, drought and persistent 
over-grazing of the Sudan by livestock have 
extended the desert. In the 150 years since 
Rene Caillie's journey, the desert has ex- 
panded 100 miles south of El Araouane. 

Despite its present climate, there are 
many indications that the Sahara was once 
much wetter and greener than it is today. 
Prehistoric rock paintings lying in isolated 
regions of the desert are testimony to the 
abundant life once surrounding their 
painters. The drawings depict animal life 
now seen only hundreds of miles away in a 
green savannah environment. These sites 
are usually found near the dry beds of 
ancient rivers which were once powerful 
enough to cut extensive channels and polish 
smooth the surrounding stones. Now, only 
a few shrubs remain, growing by means of 



extensive root systems feeding on the water 
still present, but deep under the sand. 

Why the Sahara was once so much 
wetter, and what factors led to its remark- 
able desiccation are puzzles with complex 
solutions, rooted in geography, climate, 
and in man himself. 

The Sahara Desert is a depression sur- 
rounded by highlands. To the north lie the 
Atlas Mountains of Morocco and Algeria, 
snowcapped peaks with a maximum eleva- 
tion of almost 14,000 feet. To the south lie 
the Fouta Djalon Plateau of Guinea, the 
Adamaoua Massif of the Cameroons, the 
Ruwenzori of Uganda, and the highlands 
of Ethiopia. These southern ranges are all 
well watered by the tropical storms of 
equatorial Africa and enormous quantities 



Burt Ovrut is a graduate student at the University 
of Chicago. He and his wife, Susan, have made 
extensive trips into the Sahara and neighboring 
regions of Africa. 




A member of the Toureg tribe — the "Blue Men " of the desert — leads his camels outside Tamanrasset, Algeria. The introduction of the camel into Africa 
in the declining vears of the Roman Empire was a turning point in the history of the Sahara. Along with improved irrigation methods, it enabled a gradual 
human repenetration of the desert to begin. 



of water drain northward towards the 
Sahara. 

In the Fouta Djalon these waters 
coalesce to form the Niger River, which 
works its way northward through ever in- 
creasing aridity to Timbuctu. Here, as 
though sensing the nearness of the desert, 
the ri\er turns east, passes through the 
Tosaye Gorge and bends abruptly to the 
south. The Niger now flows away from the 
desert and enters the Gulf of Guinea in 
Nigeria. Thus, none of the water from the 
Fouta Djalon enters the desert. However, 
there is a great deal of geological evidence 
to show that in the distant past the Niger 
River did not turn abruptly at Timbuctu, 
but actually continued flowing north for 
several hundred miles and terminated in a 
great inland lake. Upon drying up, this lake 
left behind large salt deposits. These have 
been mined by Arabs and Sudanese for a 
millenium, first at Terhazza and in more 
recent times at Taoudenni. To this day 



camel caravans transport salt from 
Taoudenni to the saltless Sudan via 
Timbuctu. It was along this ancient track 
that Rene Caillie travelled on his way to 
Morocco. 

Northward from the Adamaoua 
Massif and the highlands of the Central 
African Republic flow the Logone and 
Chari Rivers. These rivers unite at Fort 
Lami, Chad, and travel together perhaps 
100 miles into the desert before terminating 
in yet another inland lake — Lake Chad. 
Though still very large. Lake Chad is show- 
ing signs of desiccation. It certainly has 
diminished in size since its "discovery" by 
European explorers in 1823. A modern 
tourist visiting Waza National Park in the 
Northern Cameroons will be enjoying its 
abundant wildlife on the dry bed of a once 
larger Lake Chad. 

From the Ruwenzori and the Uganda 
highlands flows that most famous of all 
rivers— the White Nile. Moving northward 



through Equatorial Province of the Sudan, 
the river encounters increasingly arid con- 
ditions and, like the Niger and Chari 
Rivers, the Nile begins to change. The river 
becomes confused and runs in many chan- 
nels through dense swamp. This is the Sudd, 
whose marshes stopped all exploration of 
the Nile until Samuel Baker forced his way 
through it in 1863. It is here at the Sudd 
that the river tries to terminate in another 
inland lake. However, unlike the ancient 
Niger and the modern Chari, it fails to do 
so and continues flowing until reinforced 
by the Blue Nile from Ethiopia at Khar- 
toum. From here the united Nile succeeds 
in forcing its way across the Sahara Desert 
through Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea. 
The Nile River is at present the only source 
of surface water to traverse the great 
Sahara Desert. 

The elevation of the Atlas Mountains 
and their proximity to the desert would 
tend to make them a powerful watershed ►■ 



Field Museum Bulletin 



for the Sahara, and they undoubtedly were 
so in the past. However, their present role 
deters rather than aids the flow of water 
into the desert. 

Anyone driving eastward from Port- 
land or Seattle in our American Northwest 
will notice the abrupt change from semi- 
rain forest to hot, sagebrush desert as he 
passes through the Cascade Range. Pacific 
air, blocked by the high peaks, is forced to 
precipitate most of its moisture on the 
western side of the range, leaving eastern 
Oregon and Washington states semiarid 
deserts. Thus, the Cascade Mountains are 
said to create a "rain shadow" where very 
little rain will fall. In exactly the same 
manner, moisture-laden Atlantic and 
Mediterranean air coming from the north 
is blocked by the Atlas Mountains, creating 
a rain shadow southward and helping to 
form the Sahara Desert. Now, of course, 
not all precipitation occurs on the northern 
side of the Atlas. A certain amount does 



manage to land south of the divide, to 
coalesce into streams and to flow towards 
the desert. However, the volume of these 
streams is usually too small and the heat of 
the desert too great for them to survive for 
long. Within 30 to 40 miles from their 
source all that remains of these mountain 
torrents are a few surface puddles, most of 
the water having percolated into the gravel 
bed. 

It happens from time to time that a 
particularly severe storm strikes the Atlas 
or perhaps that the winter has deposited 
large quantities of snow on the peaks, 
which then melts suddenly in the spring. At 
times like these, the mild Saharan streams 
take on a new life and thunder out of the 
mountains, often with fatal fury pushing 
far into the desert before finally succumb- 
ing. The former French colonial admini- 
stration in Algeria at the turn of this cen- 
tury recorded flood waters in the Saoura 
Wadi reaching as far as Touat, more than 



400 miles from the Atlas Mountains and 
deep in the desert. The fury and suddenness 
of these floods was such that the French 
Foreign Legion absolutely forbade its 
troops to camp in a seemingly dry wadi bed 
for fear of having them swept suddenly 
away as they slept. Today the power of 
these floods is mitigated by dams, but an 
unwary traveller may find bridges washed 
out and roads under water. 

It is these intermittent torrents that 
give the greatest insight into the nature of 
the prehistorical Sahara. During the Ice 
Ages, when glaciers and snow claimed most 
of Europe, the temperate zone with its 
relatively heavy rainfall was pushed far to 
the south. The occasionally severe storms 
that occur now were then commonplace 
and the Atlas streams flowed perennially 
far into the desert. Over the millenia large 
river valleys were cut into the desert rock. 
The magnificent but now dry valleys of the 
Draa, the Saoura, and a hundred others 



The sand of the Sahara is moving south into the forested areas of the Sudan. This Land Rover is on a main road in southern Niger. A once-green forest is now 
choked with sand, and only skeletonlike acacia trees remain. 





This lomb of a Moslem holy man was built between an oasis and a sand dune in Taghit, Algeria. The 
Sahara has always been the home of man, but it has never been densely populated. Oases are small, and 
few in number, and their total area is insignificant in comparison with the arid surface of the Sahara. 



were created at that time. It is along these 
ancient valleys that today's floods course 
into the desert. 

There are two mountainous highlands 
deep within the Sahara that are now as 
waterless and lifeless as any place on earth. 
They are the Hoggar Mountains in Algeria 
and the Tibesti Mountains of Chad. Vol- 
canic in origin, the shattered basalt 
columns and lava flows give an impression 
of the surface of the moon, barren and life- 
less. A few thousand seminomadic Toureg 
and Tibbu tribesmen eke a living out of this 
bleak environment. The recent drought has 
driven many Toureg into the only town in 
the area, the old French administrative 
capital of Tamenrasset. Yet, here in these 
mountains where summer temperatures are 
over 120° F. it may occasionally rain and in 
the winter even snow. The French records 
for Tamenrasset show the following item 
for January 1922. 
On January 1 5th, at 8 p.tn., a hurri- 
cane broke over the region, followed 
by a torrential rain. The roofs of the 
houses almost all fell in . . . . Rain con- 



tinued to fall on the J 6th and the wadi 
overflowed .... The rain fell less 
heavily on the 1 7th, the wadi subsided 
and the weather cleared. There was 
seen to be snow on the neighboring 
summits. 

The Ice Ages here, as in the Atlas 
Mountains, would have turned these now 
rare deluges into common occurrences and 
major rivers would have issued forth from 
the well watered heights. A myriad of dry 
river valleys that flow radially in all di- 
rections from the Hoggar and Tibesti prove 
that this was indeed the case. 

Thus, a picture of the Sahara during 
the last Ice Age emerges. Though the 
region was semiarid and hot, relief was to 
be found in a Niger River that terminated 
deep in the Sahara and a greatly expanded 
Lake Chad. From the well watered high- 
lands of the Atlas, Hoggar, and Tibesti 
flowed hundreds of rivers, some of them 
like the Saoura of major extent. It was an 
environment ideally suited for elephants, 
lions, ostriches, giraffes, and all the other 
denizens of the present African plains. And 



where there is water and food, there 
follows that most interesting denizen of 
all — man. 

First as hunters and later as nomadic 
herdsmen, these people roamed the Saharan 
steppes. As the European glaciers receded 
and the Sahara became dryer, they found 
themselves more and more confined to the 
vicinity of the larger wadis. To be near the 
ever-diminishing water supply, encamp- 
ments were made on the banks of these 
ri\ers. Here, the usual human debris of 
flint chips, broken pottery, and bones was 
deposited and forgotten. Occasionally — 
perhaps in a mood of exuberance or as a 
religious ceremony — someone saw fit to 
leave behind less mundane evidence of 
human habitation. On smooth rock walls 
of the river valleys people painted and 
carved scenes of their contemporary life. 
All the animals of the hunt — giraffes, 
gazelles, ostriches, and many other species 
were recorded. So were lions, hyenas, and 
other animals that made life so insecure. 
Later the herds of long-horned oxen were 
immortalized on the stone. Human figures 
were recorded too, usually in the act of 
hunting though sometimes a more abstract, 
perhaps magical role was given them. 

However, the drying up of the Sahara 
had begun. The European ice cover was re- 
ceding. Storms in the Atlas became less fre- 
quent and storms in the Hoggar and Tibesti 
became rare. Perennial streams dwindled 
until dwarfed by their valleys, became 
intermittent, and then died altogether. The 
Niger River, however, with its headwaters 
in the tropics was not affected much by the 
end of the Ice Age. Its fate was different. 
Two nearby river systems are occasionally 
separated by terrain of such low elevation 
that, during a heavy flood, water from one 
system may actually cross to the other. If 
this happens often enough, a permanent 
channel may be cut, and the water from the 
weaker of the two rivers diverted to the 
stronger. The two rivers become one, the 
original connecting channel being recogniz- 
able as a sharp bend in the new river. The 
stronger river is said to have captured the 
weaker one and the sharp bend of the old 
connecting channel is called an "elbow of 
capture." 

That the Niger was captured by a 
vigorous Saharan river with its headwater 
in the vicinity of the Hoggar and its ter- 
minus in the Gulf of Guinea there can be 
no doubt, though exactly when this occur- 
red is uncertain. The great bend of the 
Niger between Timbuctu, Tosaye, and Gao 
is a textbook example of an "elbow of cap- 
ture." This diversion of Niger water from> 



Field Museum Bulletin 







I he scenes oj animals on ihis and the facing page are 
supported an abundance of plant and animal life. 

the desert cut off the old terminus lake and 
it eventually dried up, leaving the large salt 
deposits that later played an important role 
in the economy of the desert. The cause of 
the progressive shrinking of Lake Chad is 
less clear, although river capture seems to 
play a part in it. Temporary capture of the 
Logone by the Benue River during flood 
season has been observed but no per- 
manent channel as yet exists. There is some 
evidence that previous captures of tributary 
streams of the Logone by tributaries of the 
Benue have occurred, thus weakening the 
Logone and Lake Chad in favor of the 
Benue system and the Atlantic Ocean. The 
Nile has remained relatively unchanged 
since the last Ice Age. 

When the water supply finally disap- 
peared, human habitation became unten- 
able. Larger and larger regions of the 
Sahara were taken over by the advancing 
sand. Human and animal life fled both 
northward to the Mediterranean coast and 
southward toward the Sudan. Many of the 



in a barren and inhospitable area deep in the Sahara Desert. They are testimony to a lime when the region 



animals today associated only with equa- 
torial Africa found themselves north of the 
expanding desert, cut off from the larger 
southern herds. These isolated "residual 
fauna" managed to exist in North Africa 
until the colonial hunters of the last century 
drove them to extinction. Thus, when Han- 
nibal's army crossed the Alps into Italy in 
217 B.C. it was on the backs of North 
African elephants. Later, Roman soldiers 
hunted lions for sport and ostriches for 
profit in their African provinces. 

The introduction of the camel into 
Africa during the declining years of the 
Roman Empire, coupled with improved 
tools for well-digging and irrigation, al- 
lowed a gradual human repenetration of 
the desert to begin. The reoccupation of the 
southern lee of the Atlas Mountains took 
perhaps half a millenium. The beautiful 
Moroccan oases of Draa and Tafilit along 
with those of the Wadi R'ir district in 
Algeria were probably established during 
that period. The Arab conquest of North 



Africa in the 7th century A.D. and the sub- 
sequent political unrest seems to have ac- 
celerated this process. The oases of the 
Saoura Wadi in lower Touat, deep in the 
Algerian desert, were established by the 
end of the 10th century. Even so, many of 
the more remote oases such as In Salah on 
the fiercely hot and barren plateau of 
Tidehelt did not exist until after the 13th 
century. Many of these oases were poorly 
watered, and it was only after the French 
colonial administration greatly improved 
the water supply by sinking new wells that 
they blossomed into the lush gardens that 
they are today. 

The gradual human reoccupation of 
small, favored portions of the desert has a 
heroic quality about it, which brings 
sharply into focus man's role in the desic- 
cation of the Sahara. At the beginning of 
this century French archaeologists working 
in the hot, dusty savannah of Algeria and 
Tunisia found a curious artifact — the olive 
press — scattered everywhere at old Roman 



October 1976 




sites. These finds pointed undeniably to the 
conclusion that the olive must have been 
grown in North Africa during the Roman 
period. The enormous number of presses 
found indicated that the olive tree was 
widely grown and in great abundance. This 
discovery came as quite a shock, since in 
North Africa at the time shade of any kind 
was hard to find and olive trees non- 
existent. The fact that since the Roman 
period the olive had fallen out of cultiva- 
tion in North Africa was ascribed to a sup- 
posed increase in the aridity of the Sahara 
and its fringe regions over the past two mil- 
lenia. 

This theory was shattered, however, 
when at the prompting of some of the more 
enlightened scholars of the day, the govern- 
ment launched trial projects and succeeded 
in growing olive trees with no difficulty at 
all. If the olive could still be grown, it could 
not then have been drought nor aridity that 
had brought the desert to the very shores of 
the Mediterranean. The answer could only 



lie with man. The Carthaginians and later 
the Romans found the Mediterranean 
Coast probably not unlike it was found by 
the French a century ago, semiarid and 
minimally cultivated. The Romans built 
public works systems of dams and cisterns 
to collect water, and aqueducts to transport 
the water to where it was most needed. 
Some of the ruins ol these constructions 
still exist. Such extensive irrigation greatly 
expanded the amount of arable land, al- 
lowing wheat and olive trees to grow where 
nothing had been cultivated before. 

For almost a millenium, through all 
the vicissitudes of history, these irrigation 
systems were kept in repair and the fields 
and orchards tended. Then, in the 11th 
century, the labor of countless generations 
was destroyed, totally and irrevocably 
when the Banu Hilal Arabs swept across 
North Africa. Likened by Ibn Khaldun, the 
Arab historian, to a plague of locusts, the 
Banu Hilal plundered, murdered, and des- 
troyed wherever they went. The irrigation 



systems collapsed, fields were abandoned, 
and the olive trees cut for firewood. Civili- 
zation succumbed to the sword and the 
relentless desert moved in to reclaim what 
it had lost so long before to the Romans. 
The Mediterranean coast remained barren 
until this century. 

The causes of desiccation may be 
much more intricate and subtle than eco- 
nomic or military catastrophe. Recent 
studies in West Africa have led to the 
rather startling conclusion that humani- 
tarian programs to eliminate sleeping sick- 
ness by destroying the tsetse fly may be 
contributing to the spread of the Sahara. 
Sleeping sickness is even more of a scourge 
to cattle than it is to man. Its eradication 
means improved health in cattle and there- 
fore greater bovine population. This has 
led to overgrazing in the Sudan during a 
period of drought and the subsequent 
advance of the desert sand. A more spec- 
ulative, but very possible cause of desicca- 
tion in southern Algeria and Libya, is the v 



Field Museum Bulletin 






The Saoura wadi in Algeria was once a powerful 
river flowing through ihe Sahara. Now dry, its 
bed can be clearly distinguished. Periodically, a 
severe storm at the river's sources in the Atlas 
Mountains will flood the Saoura. If a traveller 
were caught in the wadi during such a storm, he 
could suffer the ironic fate of death by drowning 
in the Sahara. 
■<. This ksar, a fortified town, is in Morocco, in 
the Draa valley. The walls are built simply of clay 
or hardened mud, but it is a complex structure, 
containing markets, houses, shops, and cafes. 
Oasis-dwellers needed the protection of fortified 
walls against attack by nomadic tribes. 



vast quantity of oil being taken from the 
desert in these regions. It is conjectured 
that ground water may be filling the vast 
underground areas vacated by the oil and 
thus drastically lowering the water table. 

It is clear, then, that there is more to 
the spread of the Sahara Desert than the 
large scale climatic and geographical 
changes outlined above. Man, too, plays 
his role. He can irrigate, plant, and reclaim 
areas of the desert for himself. Or, he can 
destroy, let his animals overgraze, and al- 
low the desert to expand. It has become 
fashionable in the last ten years to attribute 
the rapid expansion of the Sahara south- 
ward into the Sudan solely to climatic 
changes and increasing aridity. If we are to 
learn anything at all from the strange story 
of the olive in North Africa, it must be that 
supposedly obvious explanations of desert 
expansion may be totally wrong. There is 
more to the relentless march of the Sahara 
Desert into the Sudan than a few years with 
no rain. D 



October 1976 



OCTOBER at Field Museum 



NEW EXHIBIT 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This exhibit 
lets you look, as an anthropologist would, at 38 artifacts 
from the museum's great collections. Each object in the 
game is (or once was) used by men, by women, or by both 
sexes. You, the visitor, must guess which sex uses (or used) 
each. It's a fascinating way to discover that economic and 
social roles of the sexes are not universally the same. South 
Lounge, second floor. 



NEW PROGRAMS 

Edward E. Ayer Film/Lecture Series. To mark the 
opening of the west entrance and the reopening of Simpson 
Theatre.the museum is offering a film/lecture series of 
superior quality. Join us each Saturday, October 2 through 
November 27, at 2:30 p.m. in Simpson Theatre. 

Curtis Nagel: Our Enchanted Islands of Hawaii 
Edward M. Brigham: IVi/derness '76 
Andre de la Varre, Jr.: Grand Rhine Alpine 

Journe]^ 
Dennis Glen Cooper; Isle Roi/ale 
Dick Reddy: Mark Twain in Ital\j 
Kenneth Armstrong; Australia — Great Land 

Down Under 
John Goddard; Exploring African 

Wonderlands 
Ted Walker; T^ie Sea and Shore of Baja 
Quentin Keynes; Search for the Twisting 
Makonde 
The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North 
Shore Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving on a variety of 
looms including a two-harness, handcrafted Mexican floor 
loom and demonstrate spinning using a drop spindle. 
Demonstrations are from 10;00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. every 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday in the South Lounge, 
second floor. 



Oct 


2 




9 




16 




23 




30 


Nov 


6 



13: 



20: 
27; 



SPECIAL PROGRAM 

Man in His Environment Film Series. Now in its third 
and final cycle. The best and the newest environmental films 
are offered in conjunction with the museum's major new 
exhibit; Man in His Environment. Many of the films have 
never been shown at the Field Museum before. Films are 
shown at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. in the Meeting Room, 
second floor north. All programs run approximately 1 hour. 

The October theme is "Ecosystems; Natural Com- 
munities in Various Areas of the World." 
Oct. 1, 2. 3; Mzima: Portrait of a Spring 

Kodiak Island: Birds' Paradise: The 

Waddensea 
The Great Barrier Reef 
Galapagos: Islands for Evolutionar]^ 
Discoveru: Billion Dollar Marsh 

Baobab: Portrait of a Tree 



Oct. 8, 9, 10; 



Oct. 15, 16, 17 
Oct. 22, 23, 24 



Oct. 29,30, 31; 



SPECIAL EXHIBITS 



Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global 
view of some of the most serious environmental problems 
now confronting all mankind and asks visitors to involve 
themselves in these problems— and the need for solution. A 
salt marsh— recreating one at Sapelo Island, Georgia — offers 
a unique opportunity to study basic ecological principles 
within a total marsh environment. Hall 18. 

Pliny's Natural History: The First Encyclopedia. 

Pliny, the Roman, (AD 23-79), compiled what has been 
called the first encyclopedia — viewed today as an astonish- 
ing mixture of fact and fiction. Two rare editions (1513 and 
1530) of this work, now among many other rare works 
belonging to the Field Museum Library, are currently on 
exhibit in the South Lounge, second floor. 

Pterosaur. An aluminum and fabric stylized model of the 
largest known flying creature- an extinct pterosaur- 
spreads its wings across Stanley Field Hall to dramatize a 
special exhibit of pterosaur fossils in the Northwest Arcade, 
second floor. 



(CALENDAR continued on back cover) 



OCTOBER at Field Museum 



(CALENDAR continued from inside back cover) 



CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

Saturday Discovery Programs. Tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory activities are offered every Saturday 
from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m. Topics vary but often include: 

Dinosaurs — Visit the Hall of Dinosaurs and make a clay 

dinosaur to take home. 
Ancient Egypt— A half-hour tour through the Egyptian 
collection, including an explanation of the hows and 
whys of mummy-making. 
Sna/ces— Live Snakes are featured in the Hall of Rep- 
tiles and Amphibians. 
Traditions in Chinese Art. A half-hour tour traces the 
origins and development of Chinese art styles. 
For specific programs and times, phone the museum or 
inquire on arrival at museum entrances. 




Autumn Journey for Children: My Kind of Town. 

A free, self-guided tour about the animals, geology, and 
early history of the Chicago area. All children who can read 
and write are invited to participate; families will enjoy it too. 
Journey sheets are available at the information booth. Bring 
pen or pencil. 



SPECIAL-INTEREST MEETINGS 
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 

Oct 1,800 p.m. Chicago Anthropological 

Society 
Oct. 5, 7:30 p. m Kennicott Club 
Oct. 12, 7:30 p m Chicago Nature Camera Club 

8:00 p.m. Chicagoland Glider Council 
Oct. 13, 7:00 p m Chicago Ornithological Society 

7:30 p m Windy City Grotto, National 
Speleological Society 
Oct 14, 8:00 p.m Chicago Mountaineering Club 
Oct 19, 7:30 p m. Chicago Audubon Society 



OCTOBER HOURS 

The Museum Opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes at 
5:00 p.m. every day except Friday. On Friday, year-round, 
the museum is open to 9:00 p.m. Food service areas are 
open weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.; weekends to 4:00 
p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. 
Monday through Friday. Please obtain pass at reception 
desk, first floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 



November 
1976 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 




Cash.Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: 
The Nonmodern Moneys of the Worlc 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

November, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 10 



CONTENTS 



Cash, Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: The Nonmodern 
Moneys of (he World 

By Bennet Bronson, assistant curator of Asiatic archaeology 
and ethnology 



EditoiiDesii^m-r: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar .\nderson 
Calendar: Nika SemkofT 
Staff pliotoiiraplicr: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded IS93 



COVER 

Brass cannon used in Borneo during nineteenth century as 
medium of exchange; 38 cm long. Cat. No. 162448. Photo by 
Ron Testa. For more on nonmodern moneys of the world 
seep. 3. 



President and Director: E. Leiand Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Bluine J. Yarringlon. 

Chairman 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bovven Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 



Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 
JiimesJ. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runneils 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild. Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John G. Searle 
Jtihn \L Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J, Howard Wood 



Field Miisiitm of \iiliirnl HiMiin Biillilin is published monlhlv. except combined July/ 
.August issue, by Field Museum iifNatural Hislorx. Roosevelt Roud at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago. Illinois MIHIS, Subsenplions: Sh a year; S.' a year for schools. Members of the 
Museum siibsLnbe through Museum membership, Opinions expressed by authors are Iheir 
ou n and do not necessarily relleel the policy ol" Field Museum, Unsolicited manuscripts are 
welcome. Postmaster; Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 6060.S. ISSN: OOI.S-0703, 







Nonmodern Moneys of the World 




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V ^^^^^^"V^i* "V 


■■'i>^ •■ 


v\ ^^ V^/"^ 


Hh j":i^K .'■"•■. VII , 


Regions of Premodern J 
Money Use \ 


s 




^CSi-.- 


/ . ' 




I Mediterranean VI 


/ 

Melanesia 




r 


r/I 


\^^.\ ) 


1! Middle East VII 


Micronesia 




\ 


/ V 


c ^ 


III India-Pakistan VUI 


Northwest Coast 


\^ 




yy 


IV China-Korea-Japan IX 


Middle America 






V Southeast Asia X 


West Africa 




Arabic numerals refer to 


figures illustrating text. 


pages 3-15 



Cash,Connon, and Cowrie Shells: 

The Honmodern 
HToneys 
o! fhe World 




By Bennet Bronson 



1. Facsimile of gold oban, Japanese coin of Tensho period (AD 1588). Length: 156 mm. 
#27079 IB) 



The Other Moneys 

This issue of the Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History 
Bulletin is intended both 
as an introduction to and as a cata- 
log for a special exhibit that will be 
on display at public Chicago-area 
locations. The exhibit focuses on a 
subject of special interest to banks 
as well as to their customers: 
money. The money involved, how- 
ever, is of a kind quite different from 
that familiar to most of us. 

The following pages illustrate 
and discuss no fewer than eighty 
varieties of money used by some 
fifty societies of the past and pres- 
ent. Although they differ widely in 
value, materials, and mode of use, 
these moneys have two things in 
common: each was, in its time and 
place of origin, real money with 
most of the essential functions we 
associate with that term, and each 
was invented independent of our 
modern Western economic tradition. 

Bennet Bronson is assistant curator. Asiatic 
archaeology and ethnology. 



Every type of currency used today traces its 
beginnings to the monetary system evolved in 
Western Europe between the 14th and 15th cen- 
turies. Even the remotest and most socialist nations 
now produce minted coins and paper bills, have 
banks with savings and checking account services, 
and in general make full use of a system much like 
our own. But it is important to reaUze that many 
other systems once existed, in Europe as well as the 
rest of the world. It is those systems, used by most 
of the world's societies during most of recorded 
history, which concern us here. 

What Money Is 

Much of the money illustrated in these pages is 
made of shell, of teeth, of fiber, or of stone; but 
much of it is also fashioned from metals such as 
iron, copper, silver, and gold. We feel instinctively 
that the metallic kind is more like real money than 
the first. But let us stop and consider. . . . 

What makes money valuable? It is valuable 
simply because a group of people somewhere have 
agreed that it is so. Pacific islanders were once 
astonished to learn that there were places where 
good pigs could be bought with printed slips of 
paper. And how do some valuable items become 
money? Because those particular items have an ac- 
cepted relative value or rate through which they can 
be converted into other things, and an accepted 
mode of conversion — a procedure through which 
they can be used to pay for goods and services. In 
the language of economists, a precious commodity 
is not money unless it is ( 1 ) a standard of value and 
( 2 ) a means of payment and medium of exchange. 

Such, at any rate, is the definition we have 
used here. We have therefore omitted from the 
exhibit some varieties of moneylike objects — for 
instance, gems from our own society, the famous 
"coppers" of the Northwest Coast Indians, and 
the kula ornaments of the southwestern Pacific — 
because (though often fabulously valuable and 
indeed standards by which the worth of all else 
could be measured) these objects were not used as 
regular exchange media. We have not been exces- 
sively persnickety about definitions, however. If 
an object was used more or less like money, if it is 
intrinsically interesting, and if a good example 
exists in the Museum's collections, it has been 
included in the exhibit. 

How Money Began 

The problem of monetary origins has been badly 
confused by arguments over definitions and by 



nationalistic claims, since some people believe that 
money is synonymous with civilization and there- 
fore wish to claim their ancestors invented it. On 
balance, our opinion is that the concept of money 
arose independently several times in different 
parts of the world. Indeed, the idea seems so use- 
ful and natural that the proper question may not 
be "Where was it invented?" but rather, "Why 
was it not invented everywhere?" For, as the map 
on page 2 shows, there are several vast areas 
where money seems to have been unknown prior 
to the introduction of modern currencies. Nothing 
like money existed anywhere in the central and 
eastern Pacific, or Australia, or southern Africa. 
Astonishingly, in view of the complexity of the 
ancient societies and economies there, it is not 
known to have existed in pre-Columbian South 
America. 

The only possible conclusion from these facts 
is that money is a natural development but not an 
inevitable one. It gives flexibility to an economy 
and makes accounting and judging efficiency 
easier; many peoples must have developed it spon- 
taneously. Yet, we should not allow ourselves to 
believe that using money is the only route to eco- 
nomic rationalization or to large-scale organization 
of labor and exchange. The traditional societies of 
the western Pacific— Hawaii, Samoa, New Zealand 
—built complex and successful societies without 
money. And the ancient empires of western South 
America— the Incas and their predecessors— devel- 
oped elaborate bureaucratic states whose popula- 
tions numbered in the millions, without anything 
resembling money. 

The Difference between Coinage and Money 

It is not hard to confuse the question of the origin 
of money with that of the origin of coinage. The 
answer to the first is shrouded in the mists of 
time and controversy; the answer to the second is 
well understood, although it is perhaps not as 
crucial a question as historians once thought. 

True metallic coinage appears between 700 
and 500 B.C. in at least three separate places: 
China, India, and Asia Minor— the Asian portion 
of modern Turkey. All three areas had already 
used money in the form of uncoined ingots and 
seashells for at least several hundred years; what 
was new was the idea of having some authority, 
perhaps a government or some respected firm, 
stamp those ingots with a mark authenticating 
their weight and purity. Any such ingot, particu- 
larly if small and composed of precious metal, is 
considered a coin. 




2. New Ireland pig money, or birok: 19th c. * 136991 IB I 

Although the idea of the coin spread rapidly 
after its invention, it rarely triumphed completely 
over other forms of money. With the possible ex- 
ception of the Chinese and Romans during certain 
periods, all ancient peoples (and indeed most peo- 
ples down to the end of the 19th century AD. ) 
continued to make extensive use of both food and 
uncoined metal as value standards and exchange 
media. Only rarely, in fact, were gold and silver 
coins treated differently from ingots and jewelry in 
the marketplace: they were weighed, tested, and 
exchanged at their bullion value no matter what the 
government of the period said the coins were worth. 

Copper and iron coinage may be a different 
matter, however. Such coins seem often to have 
been exchanged at face value, particularly in the 
Roman and Chinese empires, and are in that sense 
perhaps the most "modern" of any of the moneys 
discussed here. 

Big Money and Small Change 

The problem of the value of nonmodern moneys is 
an especially interesting one both to economists 
and to the general pubhc. When we read, for in- 



stance, that a Borneo gong could be purchased 
with twenty dollars' worth of glass beads, can we 
conclude that the gong is worth twenty dollars? 
Obviously not in any very meaningful sense; the 
dollar price depends entirely on the fact that one 
commodity — beads — is relatively scarce in Borneo. 
Likewise, we may read that a Greek coin was the 
equivalent of twenty modern dollars because it con- 
tains a sixth of an ounce of gold. Yet we also realize 
that originally that coin bought much more than 
twenty dollars does nowadays. And comparing the 
value of a Borneo gong with a Greek coin becomes 
absurd if we take the conversion-into-dollars 
approach. Both currencies, like almost all nonmod- 
ern money, lacked liquidity. We cannot conceive of 
an exchange on which they could be traded back and 
forth until a consensus about their relative value 
was reached. 

A different approach has therefore been tried 
here. Instead of asking what each kind of money 
is worth in terms of other kinds, we have looked 
for records stating what each would normally buy. 
Moreover, we have focused as much as possible on 
the prices of food, figuring that the value of 
swords, slaves, and beads may vary arbitrarily in 



different societies while the value of food, being 
closely related to the minimum value of labor, 
should be fundamental and to a degree stable. 

We find some surprising results when we look 
at nonmodern moneys in this way. For instance, 
the casual reader of the next few pages might 
think that the magnificent silver tetradrachms of 
the Greeks are the highest-denomination money 
shown. But he would be wrong. The tetradrachms 
were indeed moderately valuable pieces, in their 
day worth perhaps a week's labor by a skilled 
craftsman or a month's food for a farm family. 
They are small change, however, by comparison 
with the string of New Ireland pig money {fig. 2) 
or the Dentalium shells from Puget Sound (fig. 3), 
both of which were once worth many years' worth of 
food. Possession of just one of these automatically 
made its owner rich. 

Each of the illustrations of money on the fol- 
lowing pages has a letter with it in parentheses. B 
means "big money," a piece which originally had 
enough value in exchange to feed a family for a 
long period of time; M means that the piece is of 
"moderate" value, enough to feed the family for a 
few weeks; S indicates that the money is "small 
change" and would purchase no more than a few 
days' worth of food. 

Kinds of Money 

The bewildering array of nonmodern moneys that 
once existed may be assigned to four general cate- 
gories: (1) metal coinage, (2) uncoined metal 
money, (3) shell money, and (4) a miscellaneous 
group which includes currencies made of food, fur, 
fiber, glass, teeth, and stone. The order in which 
they are named here is not an order of importance. 
Coins were indeed overwhelmingly important for a 
few hundred years; now, however, they have been 
largely replaced by an item from the fourth group 
— money made of plant fibers matted into paper. 

Each of the first three groups has a geographi- 
cal focus where it is known to have existed in 
especially great variety. Metal coinage is most 
variable, if not necessarily oldest, in the area bor- 
dering the eastern Mediterranean. Uncoined metal 

3. Strinns of Dentalium shells from Puget Sound: Wthc. #87982. 14341 (B) 



money centers in West Africa, and shell money 
was most prevalent in that southwestern Pacific 
region known as Melanesia. The miscellaneous 
group naturally has no single center of variation 
but is also common in Melanesia, an area as 
notable for its cultural diversity as for its inhabi- 
tants' interest in money. 

Metal Coinage 

We no longer believe, as economists once did, that 
the use of coinage is a necessary concomitant and 
cause of social and economic development. Many 
civilizations, including some very efficient and 
businesslike ones, have done quite well without 
coins and, indeed, without money of any sort. 

But coins (that is, small and often disk-shaped 
metal ingots stamped with a more or less believ- 
able guarantee of uniform weight and purity) do 
have certain advantages. They are rather easier to 
use than uncoined metal currencies. They are often 
but not necessarily lighter and more compact than 
currencies of shell and foodstuffs. And— a decisive 
advantage— they can be easily monopolized by 
official bodies, giving governments an extraordi- 
narily profitable source of revenue. 

The notion that state-owned mints are reve- 
nue-raising institutions has been routinely denied 
by government spokesmen for some 2,500 years. 
Such spokesmen have traditionally argued that 
official control of money manufacture is a public 
service, promoting standardization and economic 
confidence. Yet it is significant that governments 
have on the whole been very insistent about pro- 
viding this particular public service— grisly penal- 
ties for counterfeiters are as old as coinage itself, 
and every nation's history contains decrees forbid- 
ding barter and requiring the use of official coin in 
paying taxes and legalizing business transactions. 

It is also significant that the idea of coinage 
spread with such remarkable speed after its inven- 
tion in the 7th or 8th century B.C. Although both 
the Egyptians and Mesopotamians (the Sumeri- 
ans, Assyrians, and Babylonians) had maintained 
highly complex economies for two thousand years 
without suffering from the lack of coinage, coined 



4. Silver tetradrachm. 
Greece, ca. 490-430 B C . 
26mm. #302936 (Ml 




6. Silver tetradrachm 
of Alexander the Great 
ca. 336-323 BC : 25 
if 303118 (M) 



7. Silver denarius of 
Julius Caesar. Rome, 
ca 50B.C: 20mm. 
* 195691 ail 




10. Copper denarius of 
Caesar Augustus. 
Rome. 27 B CAD. 14: 
27 mm. ' 194715 ISI 




13. Copper as ofMarcu 
Aurelius, Rome. AD. 
161-180: 32 mm. 
* 194759 (SI 




16. SiViter shekel o/ 
Tyre.ca. .300 BD :2 
mm. # 194697 IM I 




9. Silver denarius of 
Brutus. Rome. ca. 40 
BC : 18 mm. * 195035 
(Ml 




12. Copper as of Nero. 
Rome. AD. 57-68: 27 
mm. #194725(8) 




15. Silver tetradrachm 
of Carthage, ca. 350 
BC :23 mm. 0303122 
(Ml 



8. Silver tetradrachm 
of Marc Antony. Rome, 
ca. 30BC :27mm. 
* 303131 (Ml 




11. Copper as of 
Hadrian. Rome. .4 D 
117-1.38: 26 mm. 
"194748(81 




14. Copper foUis of 
Constantine I. Rome. 
AD 307-337: 21 mm. 
* 301606 (SI 




17. Silver tetradrachm 
of Ptolemy I. Egypt. 
323-284BC :24 mm. 
0297467 IM I 



18. Silver coins of Gupta pe 
India. AD 300-400( n 10 mi 
mm. 0194858. 194870 IM I 



19. Silver coins. Sassanian per. . 
Persia. AD 200-600: 32 mm. 
34mm. 19118.5. 191103 (Ml 



money came to be seen as absolutely essential 
almost as soon as it was invented. By 500 B.C. 
numerous underdeveloped kingdoms with primi- 
tive economies began competing to serve their 
publics by establishing mints. By the time of 
Christ, money manufacture was an official monop- 
oly in every part of the Old World that possessed 
a moderately powerful central government. 

Coins of Ancient Greece. The Greeks and their 
immediate neighbors used metallic coinage much 
earlier than the other civihzations of the Mediter- 
ranean and the Middle East. The Greek world was 
on a coinage standard by 500 B.C. at the latest, 
while such areas as Eg>'pt, Babylonia, Persia, and 
Phoenicia continued to use grain money and un- 
coined bullion until 300 B.C. or even afterward. 
Considering that all these peoples were more eco- 
nomically developed than the Greeks in the year 
500, it is clear that coin-using and economic develop- 
ment were hot closely connected. 

Silver was the chief currency metal among the 
Greeks, and the finest quaUty silver was traditio- 
nally Athenian. The owl-impressed tetradrachm of 
Athens (figs. 4 and 5) circulated widely through the 
region. But the fact that each city-state minted its 
own coins made standardization difficult and forced 
merchants to test each coin— some made by mints 
that were less scrupulous about short weighting and 
debasing than the mints of Athens — before accept- 
ing it. Not until the conquests of Alexander the 
Great was a genuinely international (though not al- 
ways more trustworthy) coinage devised. 'Hiis, rep- 
resented here by a tetradrachm decorated with a 
head of Apollo (fig. 6), proved to be an esthetic and 



financial success. The Alexandrine coinage became 
so popular that imitations and descendants of it 
continued to circulate throughout the Mediterra- 
nean, the Middle East, and India for several hun- 
dred years. 

Coins of Rome. Despite its power and international 
importance from 200 B.C. onward, Rome produced 
comparatively little coinage until the late days of 
the Republican Period and the establishment of the 
Empire by Caesar Augustus in 27 B.C. After that, 
coinage flowed in vast quantities from the imperial 
mints. It became the standard of the whole world 
west of central India and north of the Sahara. 

The coinage that set this standard was largely 
made of nonprecious metals, partly because the 
Roman emperors were chronically short of silver 
and gold (the Empire had an unfavorable balance 
of trade with India, Persia, and China) but also 
partly because Roman economists had begun to 
sense the importance of an adequate money supply 
in keeping an economy healthy. Three of the coins 
shown here {figs. 7, 8, and 9) are from the late 
Republican Period; like most surviving examples of 
this earUer coinage they are of silver. The five 
copper coins {figs. 10-14) span the history of the 
Empire from Caesar Augustus to the first Christian 
emperor, Constantine (A.D. 307-337). 

23. Iron cash. Sung period, China, 
AD. 1101-26: 32 mm. * 124868 IS) 



Coins of Carthage, Egypt, and Tyre. The intensely 
commercial Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon, as well 
as their former colonists at Carthage, came late to 
coin-using. The Sicilian-Punic coin shown here {fig. 
15) is one of the earliest to have been minted by 
the Carthaginians; it is not earher than 350 B.C. 
The Tyrian shekel {fig. 16) is even later, about 300 
B.C. The tetradrachm {fig. 17) of Ptolemy I (one 
of Alexander's generals, who subsequently ruled 
Egypt — 323 to 284 B.C.) may not have been used 
in Egypt at all except as payment for foreign mer- 
cenary troops. Egypt appears to have retained its 
old monetary system based on uncoined bullion 
and grain down to the eve of the Roman takeover 
at the end of the first century B.C. 

Coins of India and Iran. India and Iran produced 
coins as early as 400 or 500 B.C. Indeed, coins of a 
sort, the so-called "Puranic" coins, may be as 
early in India as they are in China and the Medi- 
terranean world. However, neither India nor Iran 
seems to have shifted completely to a coin econ- 
omy until very late, despite centuries of famiharity 
with Greek and Roman moneys. The Indian exam- 
ples shown {fig. 18) represent one of the earliest 
mass-circulation coinages to be produced there. 
They date to the Gupta Dynasty, probably be- 
tween A.D. 300 and 400. The Iranian coins {fig. 

^Continued on p. 9.) 




20. Bronze knife coin, Chou per., 
China, 500-300BC: 189mm. 
#124597 IS) 



24. Bronze cash. Yuan or Mongol 
per., China; 39mm, uncat. (M) 





2\.Bronze spade, or axe. coin, Chou 
per., China. 500-300B.D.: 91 mm, 
* 124567 (SI 



'7 Wear The 
Morning Star'''' 



An Exhibition of American 
Indian Ghost Dance Objects 
Opens Saturday, November 6 




Wovoka. the Paiute prophet, before 1921. 
Courtesy Nevada Historical Society 



"A dramatic and powerful resurgence of traditional re- 
ligious movements has taken place in contemporary 
Native American societies. The fires of the sweat lodges 
have been rekindled; the music of the sacred Sun Dance is 
again heard on the plains: the grandfather peyote is still 
honored in the rituals of the Native American Church; 
and the Ghost Dance, one of the most dramatic of cere- 
monies, is being sung and danced by Native Americans in 
the plains area. " — Ron Libertus, curator of the museum. 
Minneapolis Regional Native American Center. 

1 Wear The Morning Star opened at the Minneapolis 
Institute of Arts earlier this year, as the first public 
exhibit of ritual Ghost Dance materials. It opens at the 
Field Museum November 6 with sixty ritual garments 
and other artifacts, photographs of 19th century Ghost 
Dances and continuous tapes of original Ghost Dance 
songs. The title of the exhibit, taken from one of those 
songs, was created by the Northern Arapaho— one of the 
more than thirty Plains Indian tribes which adapted the 
Ghost Dance of the Paiute to their own needs. 

Ghost Dance was a religious movement, borne of one 
man's impressive visions. Around 1889, Wovoka, a Pai- 
ute in Nevada, began passing on to his people messages 
he believed he received from God: "Live peacefully, do 
not lie, work hard." As the introduction in the handsome 
catalog accompanying the exhibit states, "beside this 
general ethic, God gave Wovoka directions for dancing 
. . . the Ghost Dance, and further advised him that if 
Indians would live and act in the prescribed manner, they 
would soon experience a remaking of their (own) world 
.... Threatened with poverty, subjection, and extinction, 
tribes rapidly took up this doctrine of hope. 

Men and women in thirty tribes (including Sioux, 
Pawnee, Cheyenne, Navaho, Crow, and Shoshoni) ac- 
cepted the Ghost Dance with its glorious promise of a 
return of the buffalo, and dead friends and relatives, and 
the disappearance of the white man. The white man mis- 
interpreted the pacifism of the new religion. When a 
handful of whites at Pine Ridge Agency overreacted to 
Sioux who ignored Wovoka 's warning against violence, 
the result was the infamous massacre at Wounded Knee 
(Dec. 29, 1890). 

The muslin and buckskin shirts and dresses shown in 
this exhibit were created by early Ghost Dancers exclu- 
sively for their own participation in the ritual perfor- 
mance. Designs and decorations usually reflected each 
wearer's personal vision of a garment which would "lift 
the wearer out of danger when the tidal wave swept the 
white man off the earth." Hence, the basic designs were 
air symbols — birds, rainbows, stars. Sioux who partici- 
pated also beUeved their Ghost Dance shirts were bullet- 
proof, a tragic misbelief borne out at Wounded Knee. 



8A 



oiisiriK 



Staff Appointments 

Judy "Gail" Armstrong has been ap- 
pointed custodian of collections, De- 
partment of Geology. She holds an M.S. 
in biology (paleontology) from Wayne 
State University and served as assis- 
tant curator of Wayne State's Museum 
of Natural History. Ms. Armstrong 
succeeds Katherine Kreuger, who re- 
signed from the post. 

Gordon C. Baird joined the geology 
staff in August as assistant curator of 
fossil invertebrates. He received his 
Ph.D. from the University of Rochester 
(New York). His doctoral dissertation 
was on regional variation in the ecology 
of ancient animal communities. 

David A. Cawthon has been named re- 
search assistant in the Division of In- 
vertebrates. He holds an M.S. in biologi- 
cal sciences from the University of 
Illinois, where he did work on popula- 
tion ecology of grain insects. 

Lucy A. Drews has joined the Museum 
as a library speciaUst. She holds an 
A.M.L.S. in library science from the 
University of Michigan and has served 
on the University of Cincinnati library 
staff. 

John J. Fay, who holds a Ph.D. in 
biology from the City University of 
New York, is now serving as visiting 
assistant curator of botany. Most re- 
cently he was a botanist at Pacific 
Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, 
Hawaii. 

Victoria Grigelaitis is a new assistant 
in the Department of Education, where 
she works on the adult education pro- 
gram, environmental field trips, and the 
weekend volunteer program. She re- 
ceived her B.A. in Spanish from Roose- 
velt University. 

Michael E. Moseley has been named 
associate curator. Middle and South 
American archaeology and ethnology. 



He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard Univer- 
sity and most recently was associate 
professor of anthropology at Harvard 
and associate curator at Peabody Mu- 
seum, Harvard. 

Alan Resetar is the new custodian of 
the herpetology collection, Division of 
Reptiles and Amphibians, where he for- 
merly served as a volunteer. He suc- 
ceeds Ray Bernard, who has left the 
Museum to continue his education. 

Carol Scholl has joined the Department 
of Education as instructor in geology. 
She holds an M. A. in geology from Kent 
State University and has most recently 
served as a staff geologist for an en- 
vironmental consulting firm. 



Ayer Series for November 

The Edward E. Ayer Film/Lecture 
Series opened its fall series in the beauti- 
fully renovated James Simpson Theatra 
The series continues in November with 
four outstanding presentations. Nov. 6: 
Kenneth Armstrong, "Australia — 
Great Land Down Under"; Nov. 13: 
John Goddard, "Exploring African 
Wonderlands"; Nov. 20; Ted Walker, 
"The Sea and Shore of Baja"; and Nov. 
27; Quentin Keynes, "Search for the 
Twisting Makonde." Starting time is 
2;30p.m. 

Kroc Environmental Education 
Program Offers Lecture/Films 

Sunday, November 14, and Sunday, De- 
cember 5, are the dates to remember as 
the Ray A. Kroc Environmental Educa- 
tion Program brings two exciting na- 
ture film/lectures to Field Museum. 
Both will be presented in the newly 
reopened James Simpson Theatre. 

The World the Eye Cannot See, pre- 
sented by John Paling, brings together 
a selection of animals and plants whose 
hfestyles could never have been revealed 



except by the specialist cameras of Ox- 
ford Scientific Films. Honeybees as seen 
by high-speed photography that reveals 
surprising views of the way they enter 
and leave their hives; driver ants and 
leafcutter ants; hummingbirds in high 
speed shots showing actual pollination 
of exotic tropical flowers; carnivorous 
plants so highly specialized that they 
show some animal characteristics: the 
Trinidad annual carnival of insects; and 
other views of animal behavior make up 
this exciting and rare film. The film/lec- 
ture will be presented at 7:00 p.m. 
Coffee will be served afterward and 
visitors will have the opportunity to 
meet Dr. PaUng, a former lecturer at 
Oxford University. 



Living among Whales, to be presented 
by Roger Payne on December 5, in- 
cludes exclusive and rare footage on the 
hves of right whales, perhaps the rarest 
of all whales. Dr. Payne is perhaps best 
known as the first scientist to recognize 
the repeated pattern of "songs" emitted 
by humpback whales. He has spent the 
last sixteen years doing research in 
biological acoustics and is currently at 
the Institute for Research in Animal 
Behavior, operated jointly by the New 
York Zoological Society and Rockefeller 
University. The film lecture begins at 
2:30 p.m. 

Nature Camera Club Features 
African Safari Slide/Lecture 

Guest speaker for the Tuesday, Novem- 
ber 9, meeting of the Nature Camera 
Club of Chicago will be Harry Hirsch, 
noted amateur wildhfe photographer. 
The title of Mr. Hirsch's slide show will 
be "Elephant Walk, the Fifth Safari," 
featuring animals of southern Africa. 
The program will begin at 7:45 p.m. All 
interested persons are invited to attend. 



8B 



Membership Tops 25,000! 

Since the first of the year more than 
1,900 new names have been added to 
Field Museum's membership roster. 
Dorothy Roder, membership secretary, 
reports that the membership total at 
the end of September was 25,092 — an 
8.3% increase for the nine-month period 
since January 1, when the total was 
23,145. Five years earUer the member- 
ship was at 19,342, and ten years earlier 
there were 9,581 members. 



Museum Guides Now Available 
in Japanese and Spanish 

Japanese- and Spanish-reading visitors 
to Field Museum now have the option of 
using guide books to the Museum in 
either of these languages. The transla- 
tions are otherwise identical to the new 
English language Visitor Guide, show- 
ing detailed floor plans as well as pro- 
viding basic factual information about 
the Museum. Although editions of the 
guide in other languages are not yet 
available. Museum staff members speak 
an astonishing variety of European and 
Asian languages and are available to 
interpret or answer questions of visitors 
who cannot communicate in Enghsh. 



Filing date: Sept. 30. 1976. Title: Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin Frequencv of publication: Monthly except 
combined .July August issue. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr. Chicago. III. 6060.5. 

Publisher: Field .Museum of Natural History. Editor: David 
M, Walsten. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other 
security holders: none. Nonprofit status has not changed 
during preceding 12 months. 



Av No- Actual Mo. 

Copies Copies 

Each issue Single issue 

Preceding Nearest to 

12 months Filing dale 



Total copies printed 

Paid circulation (sales through 
dealers, vendors, carriers) . . . 

Paid circulation (mail sub- 
scriptions) 

Total paid circulation 

Free distribution 

Total distribution 

Office use. left-over 

Total 



28.863 . . , 30.000 

23.540 24.910 

23,540 24,910 

1.596 1,503 

25.136 26,413 

3.726 3,587 

28,863 30,000 



Members'Tours to Egypt 

Sponsored jointly by Field Museum and the Oriental Institute 



Karnak, Luxor. Abu Simbel! These are 
some of the legendary sites in Egypt 
that will be visited by Museum mem- 
bers this winter. Seven separate, but 
similar, tours, with Chicago departures 
December through March, will visit 
major sites of the ancient Egyptian 
kingdoms as well as many of the 
Islamic, early Christian, and Classical 
monuments. 

Each of the 18-day, 17-night tours, 
limited to twenty persons each, will be 
accompanied by an Egyptologist from 
the Oriental Institute. In addition to 
the numerous historic sites, superb 
museum collections in Egypt will be 
visited, and special arrangements have 
been made to acquaint members first- 
hand with the activities of the Epi- 
graphic Survey at Chicago House, 
Luxor. There will also be an excursion 
by boat between Aswan and Luxor. 



Four of the tours, all identical, will 
travel downstream on the Nile; three 
tours, all identical, will travel upstream. 
Tour dates are (#1) Dec. 29-Jan. 15; 
l#2A and #2B) Jan. 8-25; (#3) Jan. 
15-Feb. 1; (#4) Jan. 29-Feb. 15; (#5) 
February — dates to be announced; 
(#6) March 12-29; (#7) March — dates 
to be announced. 

Total cost of each tour, per person, 
is 82,385.00, which includes a tax-deduc- 
tible contribution of S500.00 to Field 
Museum. The tour price also includes 
air fare and all other transportation and 
transfers, hotels (double occupancy), 
meals, and gratuities. Itineraries, regis- 
tration forms, and other information 
may be obtained by writing or calling 
Dorothy Roder, membership secretary, 
Field Museum 1922-9410, ext. 206). If 
writing for an itinerary, please specify 
preferred tour number. 



I certify that the statements made by me above an 
and complete. — Norman W. Nelson. Asst. Dir.. Adn 




Interior of Great Temple at Abu Simbel. Egypt, built by Rameses II. 



ol iheOrifnlal liiMilult 



8C 



Ebony Carvings from Africa Highlight 
Holiday Offerings at Field Museum Shops 



:^^'«?53l 



'S-? 






1 



^ 



25% off to Members until November 30 

A selection of beautifully carved 
ebony sculptures from East Africa are 
stealing the sfiow at the Field Museum 
shops. What's more, the sculptures are on 
sale— to Members on/y.' — at 25% off (this 
includes the customary 10% discount for 
Members). The sale lasts only through 
November 30. The collection of 34 carvings 
from Tanzania includes 18 Makonde pieces 
and 16 Masai figures. The Makonde 
carvings are an intriguing response to 
change in Africa, mixing traditional techni- 
ques and concepts with Western art 
consciousness. Three distinct styles are 
demonstrated. In "Tree of Life" (at left) 
naturalistic figures are worked together in 
sculptures that retain the form and spirit of 
the tree trunk; relief panels show more 
stylized figures in everyday pursuits. 

The "spirit" carvings are unique lattice- 
works of elastic, attenuated dream figures; 
the warrior figures (like that at right) are a 
more direct response to Western naturalism, 
capturing in ebony the grace and dignity of 
the Masai people. The largest of these pieces 
is more than 30 inches tall. Prices range 
from $55 to $250 (less 25% discount for 
members!). Stock is limited, so select your 
sculpture now. 

Holiday and Note Cards include a new 
selection illustrated with details from Ch'ing 
Dynasty beaded belts in the Field Museum 
Chinese collection. These tastefully innova- 
tive greeting cards (imprinted with 
"Season's Greetings," or "Holiday Greet- 
ings." or with no message) are available with 
envelopes for $2.50 for a box of 25 (10% 
discount for Members). 

Metropolitan Museum of Art En- 
gagement Calendar for 1977 features 
art treasures from the tomb of Tutankha- 
mun, the Egyptian boy-king; 56 stunning 
four-color plates are included in this 116- 
page calendar. Comes already boxed — 
ready for gift mailing. $3.75 (less 10% for 
Members). 



"Tree of Life." 6"x28" 
$200.00 (less discount) 



Mail orders for greeting cards or engagement calendar 
should be addressed to: Gift Shop, Field Museum of 
Natural History. Roosevelt Rd at Lake Shore Dr.. 
Chicago. Ill 60605 Illinois residents include 5% sales 
tax All orders should include 40c per item for postage 
and handling 



Masai figure. 5"X31 " 
$55.00 (/ess discount) 



8D 



(Continued from p. S. I 

19) are of similar date and were minted under the 
Sassanians, arch-enemies and close trading part- 
ners of the Romans. 

Coins of China. The Chinese may have been the 
first in the world to make a coin-based money sys- 
tem universal within their society. The Greeks 
began experimenting with coins as early as the 
Chinese, but their silver coinage remained an 
upper-class, big business currency down to the 
time when they joined the Roman Empire, while 
China had been turning out a cheap bronze coin- 
age made of a copper-tin-lead alloy since 500 B.C. 
The Chinese had in fact no high-value coinage. 
They continued to use uncoined silver ingots for 
large transactions until the 16th century A.D. 

The most ancient Chinese coins are in the 
shape of tools, perhaps a legacy from a time when 
actual tools, as in parts of 18th-19th century West 
Africa, functioned as media of exchange. Best 
known among these early tool-coins are the axe (or 
spade) and knife moneys of the Chou Dynasty; both 
of the types illustrated here {figs. 20-21) date to 
somewhere between 500 and 250 B.C. However, a 
more uncommon type of Chou coin proved to be the 
money of the future: a disk with a hole in the center. 
Such pierced round coins, often called "cash" by 
Westerners, became the standard Chinese money by 
200 B.C. and remained so for the next 2,000 years. 

A string of 370 ordinary cash (fig. 22) acquired 
in Peking in 1908, as well as two unsuccessful mone- 
tary experiments of earlier times are shown on page 
8. One (fig. 23) is a cash made of iron dating to .\.D. 
1101-26. The other (fig. 24) is an extra-large cash 
theoretically worth a thousand of the ordinary vari- 
ety, issued by a Mongol emperor in 1310. All three 
experiments were made for the same reason: be- 
cause the Chinese government hoped to economize 
on copper, the market price of which was often very 
close to the cost of the metal in a standard cash. 
None of these indirect attempts at debasement met 
with public acceptance, however. In spite of their 
weight— a major business deal might involve sev- 
eral thousand pounds of coin— strings of cash in the 
ancient design remained the only real money to the 
Chinese for almost fifty generations. 

Korean and Vietnamese Coins. Like the coinage of 
Rome, Chinese coins circulated far beyond the bor- 
ders of the country of origin. As early as the Han 
Dynasty (221 B.C. A.D. 224) we find government de- 
crees forbidding the export of coinage in an effort to 
halt a potentially disastrous drain of copper abroad. 
The decrees seem to have had little effect. So much 
coinage was exported that the Chinese cash became 




25. Bronze cash. Korea, age 
unknown. .30mm. *125027(SI 



a, and often the, normal domestic exchange medium 
for most of east and southeast Asia. 

It is therefore understandable that the earliest 
known coinages produced locally in Vietnam, Korea, 
and Japan followed the Chinese model. The exam- 
ples shown here are typi- 
cal: A Korean cash of 
unknown age inscribed 
Ch'ang-p'ing (fig. 25) and 
a Vietnamese cash of the 
Sheng-yuan period, about 
A.D. 1400 (fig. 26). Other 
uncoined moneys did cir- 
culate in both places, how- 
ever. The Vietnamese, for 
instance, almost certainly 
used silver ingots. 

Coins of Japan. As with 
those of Vietnam and Ko- 
rea, the earliest native 

. 2^. Brome cash. Sheng-vuan 

Japanese corns were mod- p^r.. Vietnam. ca. ad i400: 
eled on Chinese proto- 2.'.mm.uncatjsi 
types. Figure 26a shows what is believed to be the 
earliest of these, one of the Wado kaichin which 
dates to the reign of the emperor Gemmei in the 
8th century A.D. Chinese-type money continued to 
circulate in Japan for many centuries, being used 
side-by-side with uncoined gold and silver. 

In the 14th century, however, the Japanese 
began doing something the Chinese never tried: 
they introduced a high-value precious metal coin- 
age. The example shown is a gold ryo of 1558-69 
[fig. 27), a second ryo, or koban, of 1533-35 (fig. 
28), and an oban produced in 1588 (page 3, fig. 1). 
All were of enormous value and rarely entered into 
ordinary purchases and business deals. Great nobles 
occasionally paid their obans out for horses, swords, 
or castles; ordinary people made do with ingots, 
rice, and Chinese-style cash. 



ado kaichin, 
* 125025 (SI 





26a. Bronze cash. 
'^ Japan. 8th c. AD : 



28. Gold koban, Ashikaga per., Japan, 
AD 1533-35; facsim. 20 mm. #26971 
(Bl 
1 27. Gold ryo, Ashikaga per, Japan, AD 
1558-69, facsim. 62 mm, *26947 IBI 



Uncoined Metal Moneys 

Whether or not shaped into coins, metals in general 
made good money; they are durable, often scarce, 
often valuable in proportion to weight and bulk, and 
difficult to imitate using another, less scarce ma- 
terial. With the significant exception of the ancient 
Peruvians and the native copper-using cultures of 
the United States and Canada, all peoples with 
knowledge of metals have used them in monetary 
roles. Many have formed their metals into coins. 
Just as many, however, have preferred to use un- 
coined metal as money, either by (a) leaving it in a 
raw ingot or nugget form, or (b) shaping it into use- 
ful or decorative objects and using these as ex- 
change media. 

Ingots, Nuggets, and Dust. Raw metals used as 
money include almost the entire range of metaUic 
elements and alloys known to antiquity: gold, silver, 
iron, copper, lead, tin, zinc (in brass), and nickel (in 
nickel silver, a copper-zinc-nickel alloy). Only two 
examples are shown here: a tin "hat money" ingot 
{fig. 38) from 19th century Malaysia and a copper- 
lead-silver "beancake money" ingot {fig. 35) from 
17th- 19th century Japan. The hat and beancake 
moneys have been given a definite shape and 
stamped with dies to indicate purity. If any of the 
people who used them had trusted these marks, 
rather than routinely testing each ingot before ac- 
cepting it, the Malay and Japanese examples could 
be considered coinage. 

The key to a successful monetary system based 
on raw metals is a widely accepted system of 
weights and measures, which is why weights and 
units of money often bear the same name, like the 
British pound, the Italian lira, the Thai baht, and 
the Biblical talent. Figures 29-34, 36, and 37 illus- 
trate weighing systems for gold and silver: two Su- 
merian one- and three-mina weights made of hema- 
tite {fig, 34), dated to about 2300 B.C.; a Chinese 
pocket scale from the 19th century A.D. {fig. 37); a 
group of the deadly scarlet and black seeds of the 
precatory bean {fig. 36) which, under the name 
"rati," served as the standard weight unit for pre- 
cious metal in ancient India and Southeast Asia; 
and five of the famous brass Ashanti gold weights 
from 19th century Ghana {figs. 29-33). It is worth 
noting, however, that very few ancient systems of 
weights seem very precise 'jvhen checked on modern 
scales. The large variation among weights suppo- 
sedly of the same value is sometimes explained by 
deficiencies in ancient manufacturing techniques. It 
is sometimes also explained by deliberate fraud. 
Constant weighing and testing was no guarantee 
against being cheated. 




29-33. Five brass gold-weights. Ashanti. Ghana. 18th-19th cAD: 50-81 
mm, * 84698. 172445, -62, -70. 195346 





34. Two hematite gold weights. 
Early Dynastic per., Sumeria, ca. 
2300 B C : 57 mm, 24 mm. 0228521. 
231471 



35. Copper-lead-silver "beancake' 
money. Japan. 17th-18th c. A.D.: 
89mm. »27270(Mj 




37. Portable lacquer scale for 
precious metals, China. 18th-19th 
A. a- 141mm. 0235153 



38. Tin "hat money" ingot, so-i 
because of peaked shape: Malay 
peninsula. 19th c. AD : 45 mm. 
#292161 (Si 



19 




T 



44. Iron money with cowries, S Cameroon. 19th c. A D : 



39. Bronze gong (of Chinese manufacture?}, 
Borneo, 19th c. AD: 396 mm, * 87071 
(M-B) 



Shaped Metal Moneys, Regular weighing is also a 
feature of the use of certain of the second group of 
uncoined metal moneys, those shaped into useful or 
decorative objects. The splendid gong {fig, 39) and 
cannon {shown on cover) currencies of Borneo were 
so treated, each piece being valued largely by 
weight; a slight surcharge was applied when, as in 
the case of the large gong shown here, the piece was 
of unusually old and fine workmanship. The same 
may have been true of the unique copper axe cur- 
rency {fig, 40) of the Aztecs and their neighbors in 
15th century Mexico, unique because— in spite of 
the abundance of precious metals and the high level 
of metallurgical knowledge in several areas — it is 
the only metal money known from the pre-Columb- 
ian New World. 

Constant weighing of unprecious shaped money 
was less common in the heartland of such currencies 
— west Africa between the 15th and 19th centuries. 
In this respect some of the African moneys came 
very close to modern coinage, especially the widely 
used Kissi "pennies" of Liberia (fig, 41 ) and the ma- 
nilla bracelets of the entire coastal region {fig, 42), 
notorious because of their close early connection 
with the slave trade. Other sorts of African metal 
money seem to have varied in value according to 
size, like the brass collar money of the Bateke in 
Zaire {fig, 43), the various iron tool moneys of Ni- 
geria, the Cameroons, and Gabon {fig, 44), and the 
kumah earrings (which may have served as money 
only in bridewealth exchanges) of the Mubi in nor- 
thern Nigeria (fig. 45). 

Shell Money 

The third of the world's premodern moneys to be 
considered here — and probably the oldest— are 
those made of shell. The material is as natural for 
the part as is metal, for the shells of many species of 
mollusc are small, relatively uniform in size, and 
rare everywhere except along that stretch of coast 




42. Manilla bracelet, 
Nigeria, 19th CAD : 
58 mm, *226651 IS) 



45. Bronze kumah ring, 
used as bridewealth. 
N. Nigeria, 19th c. A D : 
25 mm, * 221763 IS-M) 




43. Brass collar money, Bateke, Zai 
19th c. AD. : 292 mm.' #91276 (Ml 



11 



where those species occur. Shells are in fact even 
harder to counterfeit than metal coins, although one 
occasionally sees laboriously carved bone copies of 
money shells, some of which may have been made 
with fraudulent intent. 

Money made from shells has been used at one 
time or another in most places, but the great major- 
ity of known varieties come from just one area, 
Melanesia. More kinds of shell money are or were 
used in Melanesia than in all the rest of the world 
combined. 



46. White shell disk money. 
Duke of York Isls.. late 19th 
c.AD . 0106049 IS) 



, r 




50. Cowrie shells, Nigeria. 
1890; 029681 (S) 



^>^^^^ 

.W'^ 



3 ^ 



~ / 



'} 




48. String of shell disks, supposedly money, 
Solomon Isls., 19th c. AD: shell diam. 50mr, 
0276740 



51. Imitation cowrii 
shell made of horn; 
China. 800-600BC: 
21 mm. #121058 



Shell Disk Moneys. The commonest shell moneys in 
Melanesia are strings of small disks made by grind- 
ing large numbers of flat shell fragments into a cir- 
cular shape, putting holes in them, and stringing 
them on vines or fiber cords. Similar sorts of disk- 
shaped beads are currently popular in the United 
States as jewelry. 

Several kinds of Melanesian disk moneys are 
illustrated here: white, blue, and red pele from the 
Duke of York Islands {fig. 46), a strikingly hand- 
some black-and-white money from northern New 
Ireland (fig. 47), a small number of large disks, said 
to have been used as money, from the Solomons {fig. 
48). The handsome shell and glass-bead belt from 
New Britain {fig. 49) may have been used more as a 
costume accessory than as money, although the 
shells on it could have served to 'purchase other 
things if the need arose. 

Most of these closely resemble the well known 
wampum of the North American Indians. No wam- 
pum is shown here. While it was used monetarily by 
the French and British settlers (wampum was legal 
tender in the British colonies until the 1740s), it 
seems never to have functioned as money among the 
Indians themselves. 

Cowries. Curiously, the greatest of all the money 
shells was little used in Melanesia: the small, in- 
folded shell known as the cowrie. Originating in the 
Indian Ocean and parts of the Pacific, the cowrie 
was used as money in a great variety of places— an- 
cient China and India, parts of New Guinea, perhaps 
in Egypt and North America, and almost every- 
where in Africa down to the present day. It is said to 
have had the widest circulation of any single kind of 
money that has ever existed. No modern currency 
circulates in nearly as many places as did the cowrie 
during the past. 

Travelers and economists tend to become enthu- 
siastic on the subject of the cowrie. One economist 
says, "The surface and shape are attractive and 
decorative. . . . They are easier, cleaner, and pleas- 
anter to handle than coins, which are usually re- 
garded as ideal; they are as easy to count in pairs, in 



12 



quartettes, or in fives, and practically impossible to 
counterfeit . . . and cowries surpass all other shell 
currencies in sohdity and uniformity." 

Since all cowries look pretty much the same, 
only two examples have been included here: a short 
string of them collected in the 19th century in nor- 
thern Nigeria [fig. 50), where the individual shells 
were being used as very small change, and a fake 
cowrie carved from bone and excavated in the nor- 
thern Chinese province of Honan {fig. 51). A green 
color and inscriptions on the back of the latter were 
added by a modern Chinese antique dealer. 

Other Shell Moneys. Besides cowries and strung 
disks, shell moneys have been made in numerous 
other forms. Notable among these are the grooved 
arm rings of Tanga Island in the Bismarcks {fig. 
52), laboriously ground from the massive shells of 
the giant Tridacna clam, wide specimens of which 
are worth large sums in local trading. The New Ire- 
land pendant {fig. 53) is also a big-money item. The 
eyelike decoration in the center is the only part 



• *•"■•* 



/ -'-. 



9 

{ 







il . Black-and-white shell disk money. Cape St. Alaric. New 
Ireland. 19th c. AD : * 106082 (SH ' 




52. Shell arm-ring money. Tanga Is.. Bismarck Arch.. 19th , 
diam.. * 136769 IM) 



y^^W 



'•'■/ 



'^: 



53. Fiber and shell pendant. 
New Ireland. 19th c. 
a 106104 IB I 



49. Girdle of money shells and 
glass beads. Admiralty Isls-. 
19th c. A.a. *997744 (Ml 



13 



made from shell — it is the operculum, or "door," 
from the shell of a species of marine snail. 

Whether a flat piece of pearl shell with a fiber 
tail from Yap, in Micronesia, is actual money is un- 
clear in the Museum records, but the turtle shell 
tray from nearby Palau (fig. 54) definitely qualifies. 
Made and used exclusively by women, such trays 
enter into numerous business transactions. 

The one example of New World shell money pic- 
tured on page 6 (fig. 3) is perhaps the most valuable 
of all in terms of original purchasing power. Similar 
strings of Dentalium shells served as exchange 
media from British Columbia south into northern 
CaUfornia. This example comes from the Puget 
Sound area, where it was equal in value to one or 
two slaves. The bone object shown on page 14 (fig. 
55) is a purse for \\o\Aing Dentalium shells made by 
the Yurok Indians, among whom acquiring such 
shells was as much an obsession as is acquiring dol- 
lars among some modern Americans. 

Money from Food, Fur, Fiber 
Glass, Teeth, and Stone 

While the great bulk of nonmodern moneys were 
made of either metal or shell, there are important 
exceptions. Some of these are represented here. 




54. Women 's money of turtle shell, Palau Is 
0252623(SI 



Carolines. 20th c. 175 1 




55. Bone purse for Dentalium shells, Yu 
mm. #86673 



ok Indians. Calif., 19th c. 140 



Edible Money. A very major exception to metal or 
shell moneys is money consisting of foodstuffs; 
indeed, food (and on occasion, drugs) served as 
small change in nearly all early economies which 
made use of money. However, some people enjoyed 
foodstuff moneys much more elaborately. 

Barley and wheat were as important as silver 
and gold to businessmen in ancient Egypt and the 
Middle East. While in Sumer and Assyria grain was 
a common exchange medium but rarely a unit of 
account, in Egypt it had all the functions of true 
money. Prices were routinely expressed in bushels 
of barley. It was even possible to deposit barley in 
special banks and to write checks and letters of 
credit against those deposits when buying other 
kinds of goods. Rice played a similar role in the 
great civilizations of Southeast Asia, although with- 
out the refinement of a grain banking system. Stan- 
dard measures of unhusked rice were an accounting 
unit and a means of payment in ancient Java, and 
rice survives as an exchange medium for small 
transactions in most of the rural parts of Asia where 
it is grown. 

Cocoa or cacao beans among the ancient Aztecs 
and Mayas are an even more famous example of 
foodstuff currencies. The Spanish conquistadores of 
Mexico and Guatemala were amazed to find that 
cocoa beans served not just as small-change money 
but as the fundamental money for local and inter- 
national trade throughout the region. Peter Martyr, 
one of the more impressionable Spanish observers, 
wrote 

O blessed money which yieldeth sweete and 
profitable drink for mankind and preserves the 
possessors thereof from the hellish pestilence of 
avarice because it cannot be long kept or hid 
underground! 
Peter Martyr underestimated the lengths to 
which avarice will go, however. Reliable reports 
exist of cacao beans which had been laboriously 
hollowed out and filled with clay to make them heav- 
ier and seem more fresh. 

Stone, Fur, Teeth, Glass. Regrettably, we cannot 
show an example of one of the most famous of all 
nonmodern currencies, the millstonelike money of 
Yap, in Micronesia. Carved from volcanic stone and 
weighing up to several hundred pounds, the Yap 
"coins" are a subject of controversy among experts, 
some of whom feel they qualify as money and some 
of whom think not. Since there are none in Field 
Museum's collection, we shall not have to face the 
issue here. 

The exhibition does include several other mon- 
eys of considerable interest, however: exceedingly 



14 



valuable stone beads manufactured by the Porno 
Indians of California, the almost equally precious 
dog tooth money of the Admiralties and bat tooth 
currencies of the Solomon Islands, a curious lan- 
yardlike object (supposedly a spear- thrower! braid- 
ed with flying fox fur from New Caledonia, and a 
string of the familiar glass aggry beads of West 
Africa. The aggries which the Portuguese found in 
circulation there when they first arrived in the 16th 
century were enormously valuable, so attempts to 
copy them in European factories began almost im- 
mediately. Many such attempts failed, but enough 
succeeded so that by 1875 the region had become 
flooded with good imitations. After that the aggry 
underwent severe inflation and declined to the 
status of costume jewelry and small change. 

Money of Plant Fiber. The final kind of currency to 
be considered here differs from most of the other 
moneys discussed so far. It is not durable, not espe- 
cially pleasant to handle, and not intrinsically rare. 
Nonetheless, it is important. Money made of plant 
fibers formed into sheets and printed with ink — that 
is, paper money — made its first appearance about 
AD. 1000 as yet another of the experiments tried by 
Chinese governments to cut down on the cost of 
money manufacture. The new invention was greeted 
with widespread suspicion and was soon dropped 
only to be revived again by a whole series of later 
Chinese governments, all with financial problems of 
their own. 

The Chinese bill shown here (fig. 56) is quite 
late, dating from 1851 and having a face value of 
1,500 cash. However, it closely resembles earlier 
moneys going back as far as the early Ming Dynas- 
ty, about 1400, and may not be dissimilar from that 
first of all paper bills from AD. 1000. 

The continuing Far Eastern experiments with 
paper money eventually met success in a round- 
about way. The Europeans had long been conscious 
of the existence of Chinese paper money (it was first 
described by Marco Polo) and had for several 
centuries used letters of credit, checks, and other 
financial instruments written or printed on paper. 
By the 17th century this tradition had developed to 
the point where banks were issuing "bank notes" — 
in essence, negotiable deposit certificates which, as 
someone eventually realized, were in fact embryonic 
paper money. The final step was taken in 1704 when 
the British government agreed to recognize the 
notes issued by the Bank of England, a quasi-gov- 
ernmental body, as legal tender. Europeans had at 
last graduated to the use of true paper money, at 
least partly in imitation of the Chinese experiments 
begun some 800 years before. 






f- 















1 ' .^1v,<f, ^-r^. 



-5 Vi 




56. Paper monev. worth J..WOcash. Ch'ingper.. 
China, AD. 1854: 22Hmm. it2:i329.5 (Ml 



The old/new invention became instantly popu- 
lar with the more improvident Western govern- 
ments, many of whom (like the Continental Con- 
gress in the early days of the American Republic) 
had many habilities and few assets other than a 
printing press. By the end of the 19th century the 
idea had spread back as far as China and Japan. 
Today all Far Eastern nations make extensive and 
successful use of paper moneys. However, the bills 
they use are adaptations of Western money, not 
direct survivals of the concept they themselves pio- 
neered. 



15 



November at Field Museum 



NEW EXHIBITS 

I Wear the Morning Star— opens November 6, An exhibit of traditional 
ceremonial painted garments and objects designed by the Western Plains 
Indians in the late 19th century for the religious Ghost Dance movement. 
Hall 9 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This exhibit lets you look, 
as an anthropologist would, at 38 artifacts from the museum's great collec- 
tions. It's a fascinating way to discover that economic and social roles of 
the sexes are not universally the same South Lounge, second floor- 

NEW PROGRAM 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education Program: The World that 
the Eve Cannot See. A film/lecture illustrating forms of nature that could 
never be revealed without the aid of special cameras. Sunday. Nov. 14. 
7;00 p.m. Simpson Theatre, ground floor 

SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Edward E. Ayer Film/Lecture Series. A film/lecture series high- 
lighting remote areas of the world. Saturdays through Nov. 27. 2:30 p.m 
Simpson Theatre, ground floor. 



Nov. 6 
Nov. 13 
Nov. 20 
Nov. 27 



Kenneth Armstrong: Australia— Great Land Down Under 

John Goddard: Exploring African Wonderlands 

Ted Walker: The Sea and Shore of Baja 

Quentin Keynes: Search for the Twisting Makonde 



Man in His Environment Film Series. These films expand on the 
topics in the museum's Man in His Environment exhibit or introduce con- 
cepts beyond those of the exhibit Films are shown at 11:00 am. and 1:00 
p.m. Meeting Room, second floor north. 

The November theme is "Human Alternatives: Key Environmental 
Problems that we Now Must Face." 

Nov. 5. 6. 7: Pollution: A Matter of Choice 

Nov. 12. 13. 14: But is This Progress? 

Nov. 19. 20. 21: Energy to Burn 

Urban Alternatiues 
Nov. 26. 27. 28: Greaf Sea Farm 

Should Oceans Meet? 

SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of some 
of the most serious environmental problems now confronting all mankind 
and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems— and the need 
for solution Hal/ 18. 

Pliny's Natural History: The First Encyclopedia. Pliny (AD 23 79). 
compiled what has been called the first encyclopedia— viewed today as an 
astonishing mixture of fact and fiction. Two rare editions (1513 and 1530) 
of this work are on view in the South Lounge, second floor. 



Pterosaur. A stylized model of the largest known flying creature— an 
extinct pterosaur— spreads its wings across Stanley Field Hall to dramatize 
a special exhibit of pterosaur fossils in the Northwest Arcade, second floor. 

CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore Weavers' 
Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday. 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. South Lounge, second floor. 

Saturday Discovery Programs. Every Saturday, 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 
p.m.. you are invited to take tours, follow demonstrations, and participate in 

special museum-related activities. 

Autumn Journey for Children: My Kind of Town. A self-guided tour 
about the animals, geology, and early history of the Chicago area. Journey 
sheets are available at the information booth. 



SPECIAL-INTEREST MEETINGS 
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 

Nov. 2.7:30 p.m. KenmcottClub 

Nov. 5,8:00 p.m. Chicago Anthropological Societal 

Nov. 9,7:30 p.m. Nature Camera Club 

8:00 p.m. Chicagoland Glider Council 

Nov. 10, 7:00 p.m. Chicago Ornithological Society 

7:30 p.m. Windy City Grotto. National Speleological Society 

Nov. 11,8:00 p.m. Chicago Mountaineering Club 

Nov. 14, 2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

Nov. 16.7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 

Nov. 17. 8:00 p.m Illmois Mycological Society 

COMING IN DECEMBER 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education Program: Living Among 
Whales. A film and lecture on the lives of right whales— perhaps the rarest 
species of large whales. Sunday, Dec. 5, 2:30 p.m. Simpson Theatre, 
ground floor. 

NOVEMBER HOURS 

The Museum Opens daily at 9:00 a.m. and closes 4:00 p.m. every day 
except Friday. On Fridays the museum is open to 9:00 p.m. Food service 
areas are open weekdays 11:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.; weekends to 4:00 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through 
Friday (closed Thanksgiving, Nov. 25). Please obtain pass at reception desk, 
first floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922-9410 



December 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

December, 1976 
Vol. 47, No. 11 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

3 Treasures of Tutankhamun, traveling exhibit on view 
at Field Museum April 15 through August 15 

By David Silverman 

4 Appointment Calendar for 1977 features photos of 
treasures from the tomb of King Tutankhamun 

back December at Field Museum 

cover Calendar of coming events 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Chairman 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bereher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Gahtzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 



COVER 

Gold mummy mask of Egyptian king Tutankhamun, who 
died ca. 1325 B.C. The sohd gold mask was placed over the 
head and shoulders of Tutankhamun's mummy. Decorated 
with colored glass, carneUan, lapis lazuU, quartz, feldspar, 
and obsidian. The features appear to be a hkeness of the 
teenage king, verifiable from the mummy itself. The cobra 
and the vulture, symbols of royalty, adorn the striped head- 
dress, while a false beard of divinity is attached to the chin. 
Engraved on the shoulders and back is a spell from the Book 
of the Dead. Height 56.5 cm. Photo by Lee Boltin. Repro- 
duced courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York. 



LIFE TRUSTEES 



William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive. Chicago, Illinois 60606. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. 
Members of the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Mu- 
.seurn of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Ilhnois 60605. 
ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Photo b\' Lee Boltin: reproduced courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Canopic coffin. This miniature inlaid gold coffin, originally containing the 
king's intestines, was placed in a compartment in the Canopic chest and 
covered by an elaborate stopper. It is decorated with carnelian and colored 
glass. The coffin was apparently made for Smenkhkara, Tutankhamun's 
predecessor and possibly his brother. The wings of the goddesses of Upper 
and Lower Egypt enfold the mummiform figure. The pharaoh holds the crook 
and flail scepters of Osiris, lord of the netherworld. Length 39.4 cm. 



Treasures of 
Tutankhamun 

Exhibit Opens at Field Museum ApriMS 



By David P. Silvermfin 

W Whether you refer to him as Nebkheperura (his coronation 
name), Tutankhaton (his given name), Tutankhamun (his 
later name), or just King Tut (a short, modern version of the 
name), he is one of the most famous sovereigns of all time. Now he is 
about to become even more familiar to millions of Americans, as fifty- 
five of the most beautiful and best preserved artifacts from his tomb 
are displayed in museums across the United States. The two-year 
traveling exhibition includes a four-month showing at Field Museum. 

A Bicentennial tribute to the American people from the people of 
Egypt, the exhibit was arranged by the Organization of Antiquities of 
the Egyptian government and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New 
York. Entitled "Treasures of Tutankhamun," it will be seen at Field 
Museum, in cosponsorship with the Oriental Institute of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, from April 15 to August 15, 1977. 

The tomb of this boy-king (who died around 1325 B.C. while still 
in his teens) was lost for thousands of years. Although ancient Egyp- 
tian tomb-robbers managed to locate and enter the tomb twice, loyal 
necropolis guards were able to prevent any serious looting. Through 
some stroke of fate, the final reseahng of the entrance was successful, 
and the tomb eluded discovery until 1922. On November 4 of that year 
the intrepid British archaeologist Howard Carter, sponsored by the 
Earl of Carnarvon, uncovered the top of sixteen steps leading to the 
entrance of the tomb. 

What Carter saw when he was finally able to peer through a small 
opening into the antechamber left him speechless. In the hght of his 
candle, flickering in the centuries-old air, the strange shapes of images 
emerged from the gloom. Lord Carnarvon, standing behind Carter, 
inquired anxiously, "Can you see anything?" It was all Carter could do 
to reply, "Yes, wonderful things." 

Although, as Carter commented, there was "everywhere the glint 
of gold," the treasures buried with Tutankhamun had a straightfor- 
ward purpose: they were the necessities and the luxuries that the 
young king would need in order to make his afterhfe as pleasant as the 
life he had enjoyed on earth. It is their very quantity and richness that 
make them so astounding to modern eyes. Some scholars have spec- 
ulated that this magnificence, which may have been extraordinary for 
the Egyptians themselves, could have been the tribute of a grateful 
country to the king who had led them back to their traditional behefs 
after the chaos of the preceding Amarna period. 

The grace and naturahsm of the figures are somewhat distinct 
from the more rigid style usually associated with Egyptian art. This 
new style originated in the Amarna period, when there was a tendency 
toward more hfeUke representations and a freedom from convention. 
When Tutankhamun restored the age-old beliefs, the art reflected the 
return mainly in the subject matter; old gods regained their prom- 
inence. The style, however, still exhibited much of the Amarna realism. 
Coupled with it is a new balance and harmony, characteristics that the 
young king hoped would signify his reign. D 



David P. Silve 
hamun "exhibition. 



is the project Egyptologist for the "Treasures of Tutank- 



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Dr. Twomey: "Arizona" 


12 

Ayer lecture 2:30 p. m. , 

W. Sylvester: "Sea Adventure 

to Adriatic" 


19 

Ayer lecture 2:30 p. m. , 
D.Jones: "London" 


26 

Ayer lecture 2:30 p. m. : 
K.Muller: "Huichol-Tribe of 
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December at Field Museum 



SPECIAL PROGRAMS 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education Program: Living Among Whales. 
Sunday. Dec 5, 2:30 p.m., Roger Payne presents a lecture/film about the rare right 
whale; 5 years studying a right whale colony has afforded an unusual view of these 
marine giants. Sinipson Theatre, ground floor 

Holiday Season Choral Performance. Sunday, Dec. 19, 2 p.m . Seaford 
College Chapel choir, of England, performs liturgical music ranging from piainsong 
hymn to Stravinsky Stanie\^ Field Hall 

Museum Highlight Tours. December 27 through 30, education staff and volun- 
teers lead tours through anthropological and natural science exhibits. Meet at informa- 
tion booth, 2pm 

Adult Education Program: Winter Series. Begins the first week in January 
with 10 natural science and anthropology courses Series brochures were mailed to 
all Chicago-area members. For additional information call 922-9410. ext, 360 or 362. 

Man in His Environment Film Series. Films are shown at 11 a.m. and 1 p.m. 
Meeting Room. 2nd floor north 

The December theme is "The Question of Tomorrow: Documentary and Fantasy 
Versions of What the Future Can Hold For Us," 

Dec, 3, 4, 5: Energy Neuj Sources 

Man and the Second Industrial Reuolution 

Dec 10,11,12; Future Shock 

Dec, 17, 18, 19: Superconductors Tomorrow's Energy Breakthrough is Here 
Jetspeedat Ground Zero Supercool Superconductors 

Dec 24. 26: Otv 

Winter Journey for Children: All that Glitters Throughout the ages, gold and 
silver have made poor men rich, built their empires, and filled everyone's teeth A free, 
self guided tour explores these elements and their properties. All children who can 
read and write are invited to participate; families will enjoy it too Journey sheets 
available at information booth. 



Egypt 1978 

Several tours to Eg\;pt are planned for Januar\;. Februari;. and 
March of 1978. Watch for additional information in future issues 
of the Bulletin. 




SPECIAL EXHIBITS 

I Wear the Morning Star. Exhibit of garments and objects designed by Western 
Plains Indians for the Ghost Dance, a pacifistic religious movement borne of one 
man's impressive visions and adapted by 30 tribes in the late 19th century Hall 9. 
Through Feb 6. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This exhibit of 38 artifacts is a great 
way to learn that economic and social roles of the sexes are not universally the same. 
South Lounge, 2nd floor. No closing date, 

Man in His environment takes a global view of some of the most serious environ- 
mental problems confronting all mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in 
these problems— and the need for solution. Hall 18 No closing date, 

Pliny's Natural History: The First Encyclopedia. Two rare editions (1513 
and 1530} of Pliny the Elder's work — viewed today as an astonishing mixture of fact 
and fiction — are on view in the South Lounge, 2nd floor. No closing date. 

Pterosaur. A stylized model of the largest known flying creature— an extinct ptero- 
saur-dramatizes a special exhibit of pterosaur fossils; Northwest Arcade, 2nd floor. 
No closing date, 

CONTINUING PROGRAMS 

Tbe Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore Weavers' Guild 
demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. 10 a.m. 
to 12 p.m South Lounge, 2nd floor. Through Dec. 17, 1976. (Demonstrations resume 
Jan. 17.) 

Saturday Discovery Programs. Saturdays, 11 a.m. to 3 p m., tal<e tours, follow 
demonstrations, participate in museum-related activities. 

SPECIAL-INTEREST MEETINGS 
OPEN TO THE PUBLIC 

Dec. 3. 8:00 p.m Chicago Anihropo/ogica/ Society 

Dec. 7,7:30 pm KennicotI C/ub 

Dec. 8, 7:00 p.m Chicago Ornithological Societ^j 

Dec. 8. 730 p.m IVindy Oly Grodo. Nat/ona/Spe/eo/og(ca/ Society 

Dec. 9.8:00 pm. Chicago Mountarneering Club 

Dec. 14, 7:30 p m. Chicago Nature Camera Club 

Dec. 14, 8:00 p.m. Chicagoland Glider Council 

Dec. 21. 7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Societii 

DECEMBER HOURS 

The Muaeum Opens daily at 9 am . closes at 4 p.m. weekdays and 5 p.m. week- 
ends. On Friday, year round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. Food service areas are 
open weekdays 11 am to 3 p.m.. weekends to 4 p.m. The museum is closed Christ- 
mas Day and New Year's Day. 

The Muaeum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through Friday. Obtain 
pass at reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922-9410