Skip to main content

Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

See other formats


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 


Field Museum 

of Natural History 


January, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 1 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 


3 Our Environment 

9 Elephants and the Art of Taxidermy 

10 The Eyes Have It 

The Remarkable Vision of Birds 
By Eugene R. Slatick 

12 What's the Weight, by the Way, of a Quarter-Tril- 
lion Locusts? 

15 Fieldiana 

Title and Price List for 1975 and 1976 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 

16 Books 

Melvin Traylor, curator of birds, reviews new work 
on the birds of Nepal 

17 Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
Vol. 47 


Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Remick McDowell 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

19 A Major Operation 

by Berthold Laufer. late curator of anthropology 

back January at Field Museum 

cover Calendar of Coming Events 


American bittern {Botaurus lentiginosus), wading bird 
common over much of North America. Its eyes are posi- 
tioned low on the side of the head, so that when it points 
its head upward to blend with the reeds, it can still see 
what is happening in front. Photo courtesy Canadian 
Government Office of Tourism. For more on bird vision 
seep. 10. 


William McCormick Bla 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
shore Drive. Chicago, Illinois 60605 Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. 
Members of the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum, Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. 
ISSN: 0015-0703, Second class postage paid at Chicago, 111 

Qmrr Enmm®mmi(Bmil 

Grizzly bear diorama, Hall 16 

Grizzly Critical Habitat 

Approximately 20,000 square miles 
in Idaho, Washington, Montana, and 
Wyoming have been proposed for 
listing as critical habitat for the 
grizzly bear, a threatened species, the 
Fish and Wildlife Service announced 
recently in the Federal Register. 

The proposed areas actually 
merge to form four zones of about 13 
million acres. These are located in: 
• The region where Wyoming, 
Montana, and Idaho come together, 
in Yellowstone National Park and 

adjacent areas, including parts of 
Custer, Shoshone, Teton, Targhee, 
Beaverhead, and Gallatin national 
forests, and part of Grand Teton Na- 
tional Park. 

• Northwestern Montana, in 
Glacier National Park, the Bob Mar- 
shall Wilderness Area, most of the 
Flathead National Forest, and adja- 
cent areas, including parts of the 
Lewis and Clark, Helena, and Lolo 
national forests, and small parts of 
the Blackfeet and Flathead Indian 

• Extreme northwestern Mon- 

tana and northern Idaho, in the 
Cabinet Mountains, mostly in the 
Kootanai, Kaniksu, and Lolo Na- 
tional forests; and 

• Extreme northern Idaho and 
northeastern Washington, mostly in 
the Kaniksu National Forest. 

These areas coincide approxi- 
mately with the present regular dis- 
tribution of the grizzly bear in the 48 
contiguous states, and are the only 
remnants of the original range of the 
species which once covered a region 
approximately 50 times as great, 
from Canada to Mexico, and from the 

Great Plains to the Pacific. These 
areas contain the only significant 
grizzly populations south of Canada, 
and, insofar as is known, provide all 
biological, physical, and behavioral 
requirements of those populations. 
Among the important characteristics 
of these areas is their relative inac- 
cessibihty and lack of the kinds of 
human developments and activities 
that tend to result in conflicts be- 
tween the bears and man. This degree 
of isolation and freedom from exces- 
sive human presence seems critical to 
the survival of the grizzly. It is true 
that there are many natural or man- 
made sites scattered over these areas 
that are seldom or never utilized by 
the grizzly bear. It would not be pos- 
sible, however, to attempt to identify 
all of these sites and exclude them 
from the overall designation. 

There has been widespread and 
erroneous beUef that a critical habi- 
tat designation is something akin to 
establishment of a wilderness area or 
wildlife refuge, and automatically 
closes an area to most human uses. 
Actually, a critical habitat designa- 
tion applies only to federal agencies. 
It is essentially an official notifica- 
tion to the agencies that the En- 
dangered Species Act requires them 
to ensure that their activities in a 
critical habitat area do not jeopar- 
dize endangered or threatened 
species or result in the destruction or 
modification of the habitat. 

Public comments on the proposal 
may be sent through February 9, to 
the Director, U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service, Washington, D.C. 20240. 

Annual Seal Slaughter 

A massive killing of 23,110 fur seals 
occurred last summer on United 
States government land. From June 
28 to the end of July, up to 1 ,000 seals 
a day were slaughtered under the 
auspices of the National Marine Fish- 
eries Service of the U.S. Department 
of Commerce. 

These killings were legalized by 
the Fur Seal Act of 1966, which has 
provisions calling for the United 
States to kill the marine mammals on 
their breeding grounds, the Pribilof 
Islands, situated in the Bering Sea 
800 miles southwest of Alaska. 

The basis of the Fur Seal Act was 
an attempt to stop other nations 
from killing the animals at sea. As a 
consequence, 15 percent of the U.S. 
kill goes to Canada and 15 percent to 

The purpose of the annual slaugh- 
ter is to save the herd; but the result 
has been to reduce the total fur seal 
population from an official figure of 
five million fur seals before the pas- 
sage of the act to 1.2 million in 1976, 
as reported by the federal govern- 

In spite of the rapidly dwindling 
herd, Mark Keyes, Seattle veterinar- 
ian on duty during the slaughter, 
reported that plans had been made to 
start in 1977 the slaughter of two- to 
four-year-old female seals as well as 

In 1976 the intent was to kill only 
bachelor male seals, but this is diffi- 
cult because sexually immature seals 
of both sexes gather on the same 
hauling grounds from which they are 
driven inland for the kill. The kill is 
done by beating the seals with clubs. 

Each fur skin is removed from 
the seal's body and shipped to Green- 
ville, South Carolina, where it is com- 
mercially processed and sold at auc- 
tion. A single firm holds a processing 
contract with the federal govern- 
ment. The carcasses are sold (also 
under contract) to an association of 
fur-breeders and recycled as food for 
ranch-raised mink. 

The kill takes place in the name 
of conservation. By keeping the num- 
ber of seals down, government biolo- 
gists claim, the seals can thrive. In 
reality, say opponents, the Pribilof 
seal herds are thus threatened with 
annihilation. According to the Com- 
mittee for Humane Legislation, head- 
quartered in New York City, the 
number killed is diminishing even 
though every available seal is herded 
inland to the killing fields. The num- 
ber killed in 1976 — 23,110 — is less 
than one-quarter the number of skins 
promised the furriers by the biolo- 
gists. In 1972 testimony to the Con- 
gress concerning marine mammals, 
official data indicated that the federal 
management of seals would result in 
an annual kill of 100,000 seals. 

The projected off-shore drilling 
for oil near seal breeding grounds is 

also cited by the Committee for Hu- 
mane Legislation as a serious threat 
to the animals' survival. Oil slicks 
and nets, they contend, are extremely 
hazardous to seals. 

Bird Repellent Developed 
for Use on Fruit Crops 

U.S. Fish and WildUfe Service re- 
searchers have developed a bird re- 
pellent for use on sweet cherry crops 
that allows growers to raise cherries 
successfully and still have birds in 
their orchards. If its use is registered 
with the Environmental Protection 
Agency— and scientists think it will 
be— it would be the first time a 
chemical has been approved for pro- 
tection of fruit from bird damage. 
Its use on other crops also looks 

The chemical, methiocarb, is a 
short-lived carbamate that breaks 
down rapidly in sunUght. The com- 
pound is a potent emetic, and when 
birds eat a few cherries they soon 
learn to associate its taste with its 
effects. The effect is temporary, 
however, and birds recover com- 
pletely. In 10 years of field-testing at 
practical repellent-use levels, no 
birds have been found whose death 
was attributed to methiocarb. No 
chronic effects have been observed 
and reproduction is normal. The 
treatment appears to work on every 
major species of bird which attacks 

Nationwide, more than $70 mil- 
lion worth of sweet cherries are 
grown annually and orchards are 
easy targets for birds which can and 
do inflict considerable damage on the 
ripening fruit. Damage in some 
orchards is now kept in food crops. 
Experiments conducted by FWS bio- 
logists over the last several years led 
to a registration of methiocarb in 
1976 for use as a corn seed protectant 
against blackbirds. In many Eastern 
and Midwestern states blackbirds 
cause heavy damage to newly 
planted cornfields by eating the 
seeds shortly after they sprout. 
Methiocarb seems to be an effective 
solution to this problem, too. 
Methiocarb was also registered for 
use in 1976 as an insecticide on 

cherry and peach crops with a dis- 
tinctly high permissible residue 
tolerance of 25 parts per million on 
cherries and 15 parts per million on 
peaches. Methiocarb also looks 
promising as a bird repellent on blue- 
berries, grapes, grain sorghum, and 
sprouting rice. 

Critical Habitat for 
Four Endangered Species 

The critical habitat, or living space 
animals need to survive, has been 
officially hsted for four endangered 
species — the American crocodile 
{Crocodylus acutus), California con- 
dor {Gymnogyps californianus). 
Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis), and 
Florida manatee (Trichechus 

The Fish and Wildlife Service 
published a final rulemaking Septem- 
ber 21 listing the areas which ought 
to remain unruined if the species are 
to have a decent chance to be saved. 
The rule went into effect October 22. 

It is by no means a guarantee, how- 
ever, that man will be prevented from 
destroying the species. 

Critical habitat for these four 
species, as well as for the snail darter 
{Percina tanasi) and the whooping 
crane {Grus americana), was pro- 
posed on Dec. 16, 1975. A final rule- 
making designating critical habitat 
for the snail darter was issued on 
April 1, 1976. As for the whooping 
crane, so much information was re- 
ceived in response to the December 
16 proposal that more time will be 
required for evaluation. 

This determination is being made 
in accordance with Section 7 of the 
Endangered Species Act of 1973, 
which requires all federal agencies 
to ensure that actions authorized, 
funded, or carried out by them do not 
adversely affect the critical habitat 
of endangered and threatened 
species. The specific delineations of 
critical habitat in this rulemaking 
will assist federal agencies in know- 
ing the areas where their respon- 
sibilities may apply. The designa- 
tions, however, are not comparable 
to establishment of wilderness areas 

or wildlife refuges. No legal jurisdic- 
tion is assumed, and no prohibition of 
particular activity is made. The only 
specific effect of the rulemaking is 
that federal agencies will have to 
evaluate their actions with regard to 
the requirements of Section 7. The 
Fish and Wildlife Service emphasizes 
that the determinations apply only to 
federal agencies and only to their 
actions that may adversely affect 
the species involved. It is thought 
that many kinds of actions in the 
designated areas would not be detri- 

The critical habitat being desig- 
nated for the American crocodile 
covers the area inhabited by nearly 
all of these huge reptiles that survive 
in the United States. The area is lo- 
cated in extreme southern Florida, 
mostly in Everglades National Park 
and the northern Florida Keys. The 
200 to 300 crocodiles here are depen- 
dent upon the waters of Florida Bay 
and the associated marshes, swamps, 
creeks, and canals. All known breed- 
ing females, of which there are less 
than 10 in Florida, inhabit and nest 
in the dehneated area. >■ 


Manatee diorama. Hall N 

The California condor, of which 
only about 60 survive, is among the 
two or three most critically endan- 
gered birds in the United States. Ten 
separate parts of its remaining range 
in southern CaUfornia are being 
recognized as critical habitat. The 
largest of these, the Sespe-Piru 
Condor Area in Los Padres National 
Forest, covers about 250 square 
miles of territory used by the species 
for nesting and related year-round 
activity. Six smaller blocks of land, 
totaling about 135 square miles also 
mainly in Los Padres National 
Forest, are utilized for nesting or 
roosting. Three larger areas, cover- 
ing about 540 square miles, are lo- 
cated on rangelands to the north, and 
are where the condor searches for 
the carrion on which it feeds. 

The Indiana bat, though number- 
ing several hundred thousand, is 
endangered because it is losing the 
relatively few special kinds of caves 
in which it concentrates during the 
winter. Thirteen of these caves, lo- 
cated in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Missouri, Tennessee, and West 
Virginia, are being designated as 
critical habitat. It is anticipated that 
additional caves, and possibly other 
parts of the bat habitat, will also be 
designated in the near future. 

There are 600 to 1,000 manatees 
in the United States, the major con- 
centrations being in Florida. Certain 
water areas are now known to be of 
particular importance, and these are 
being designated critical habitat. 
They include the Crystal River in 
Citrus County; portions of the Little 
Manatee, Manatee, Myakka, Peace, 
and Caloosahatchee rivers and Char- 
lotte Harbor in west-central Florida; 
waters along the coasts of Lee, 
Collier, and Monroe counties; sounds 
along the southern tip of Florida; 
Biscayne Bay and adjoining water- 
ways near Miami; Lake Worth, and 
the Loxahatchee, Indian, and 
Banana rivers, and portions of the 
Intracoastal Waterway along the 
east coast; and the St. Johns River. 

Biologists who set out to deter- 
mine what constitutes a critical habi- 
tat use these guidelines: ( 1 ) space for 
normal growth, movements, or ter- 
ritorial behavior; (2) nutritional re- 
quirements, such as food, water, 

California condor 

minerals; (3) sites for breeding, 
reproduction, or rearing of offspring; 
(4) cover or shelter; or (5) other bio- 
logical, physical, or behavioral re- 

Shark Repellent that Works? 

"The first known chemical that can 
prevent a shark from biting," is the 
way Eugenie Clark, director of the 
Cape Haze (Fla.) Marine Biological 
Laboratory, describes "Albro," an 
extract from dorsal and anal fin 
glands of the Moses sole (Pardachi- 
rus marmoratus). 

Clark and co-workers discovered 
that the sole, native to the Red Sea, 
secretes a milky substance that can 
kill small marine animals and stun 
sharks and barracuda, causing tem- 
porary paralysis. The toxin destroys 
red blood cells. Remarkably, the 
Moses sole is valued by Red Sea coas- 
tal peoples as a food fish; the poison 
is destroyed by cooking. 

A component of the sole's milky 
secretion was observed to have an 
inhibiting effect on the toxin and is 
thought to protect the sole from its 
own poison. The inhibitor also coun- 
teracts the toxic effects of venom 
from bees and scorpions as well as 
from cobras, mambas, and coral 
snakes. Plans are underway to make 
the shark repellent commercially 

EPA Cancels Mirex 

The Environmental Protection Agen- 
cy announced on October 20 the can- 
cellation of current registrations of 
the pesticide Mirex. Mirex, a persis- 
tant chlorinated hydrocarbon like 
DDT, has been used since 1962 to con- 
trol fire ants throughout the South. 
In announcing his decision, EPA Ad- 
ministrator Russell Train said that 
the cancellation "concludes one of 
the longest and most difficult chap- 
ters in environmental history." 

The state of Mississippi, which 
owns the only Mirex 4X fire ant bait 
formulating plant currently in opera- 
tion, offered a plan last fall to volun- 
tarily cancel the registration of Mirex 
after EPA discovered residues of the 
pesticide in human tissue samples 
taken in the South. Mirex has caused 
cancer in laboratory animals, and, 
according to Train, is considered a 
human carcinogen. It is also known 
to be toxic to several forms of non- 
target organisms, especially those in 
the aquatic environment. 

The cancellation plan would per- 
mit aerial application of a diluted 
formulation until Dec. 31, 1977. 
Ground appUcation could continue 
until June 30, 1978. However, Hooker 
Chemical Company, which produces 
technical Mirex, refuses to sell this 
concentrated form of the chemical to 
Mississippi unless the state promises 
complete indemnification, thus pro- 
tecting Hooker against financial 
losses from possible lawsuits. 

National Parks Declining? 

National park facilities and services 
are deteriorating because of inade- 
quate funding and lack of employees. 

according to a report released recent- 
ly by the House Committee on Gov- 
ernment Operations. The report, 
entitled "The Degradation of Our 
National Parks," outUnes the find- 
ings and recommendations which are 
the result of an extensive investiga- 
tion conducted by the Conservation, 
Energy, and Natural Resources Sub- 

The report charges that "The 
Park Service's resources are now, and 
have for the last several years been, 
inadequate to carry out the tasks 
which the NPS is mandated to per- 
form. The guardian of our National 
Parks has, despite its best efforts, 
seen its resources deteriorate . . . park 
buildings, roads, bridges, trails, his- 
toric sites, and archaeological relics 
are not being maintained according 
to the Park Service's own stan- 

Subcommittee Chairman Leo J. 
Ryan (Cal.) stated that "This report 
well documents the sad state of con- 
ditions presently existing in our 
national parks. It's about time the 
Interior Department, the OMB, and 
the Congress respond to the obvious 
need for additional resources of one 
of our most dedicated and respon- 
sible federal agencies — the National 
Park Service." 

California Falcon 
Program Successful 

For the first time in California, young 
prairie falcons bred in captivity have 
been introduced successfully into the 
wild. The breakthrough occurred last 
year when Gary Beeman, a falconer 
operating under a permit from the 
state, produced 10 young prairie fal- 
cons. This year 12 young were raised 
and two were placed in a nest of wild 
prairie falcons in northern California. 
They were adopted and fed by their 
foster parents and are now foraging 
for themselves. 

Beeman noted that even under 
the best of conditions a pair of prairie 
falcons in the wild would require a 
minimum of eight years to produce 
22 young, the number he brought off 
in two years. Techniques used in Bee- 
man's captive raptor breeding pro- 
gram will be used to supplement wild 

Diorama of Illinois woodland. Hall 29 

populations of the endangered pere- 
grine falcon in California. H 

Certified Wildflower Varieties 
to Become Available 

Certified varieties of native wildflow- 
ers are being released after ten years 
of cooperative tests by the U.S. Soil 
Conservation Service (SCS), the Kan- 
sas and Nebraska state agricultural 
experiment stations, and the Nebras- 
ka Department of Roads. 

The plants, according to SCS, con- 
trol erosion, are beautiful, and pro- 
vide wildlife food and cover. The 
newly domesticated wildflowers 
include purple prairie clover, pitcher 
sage, and thickspike gayfeather. 
Authorities expect the plants to be 
used initially to beautify and stabilize 
road rights-of-way. 

Scs' Plant Materials Center at 
Manhattan, Kansas, will produce and 

distribute foundation seed to selected 
seed growers this fall. Assuming a 
good growing season, there should be ' 
limited quantities available by the 
fall of 1978. 

Pollution Control- 
Environmental Conference 

A "how-to" session on putting prof- 
its on the black instead of the red side 
of the ledger when dealing with pollu- 
tion cleanup is to be held in Chicago 
at a high-level industry and govern- 
ment conference January 17 and 18. 
The meeting place is the Hyatt Re- 
gency O'Hare. 

The conference, titled "Beyond 
Environmental Regulations: Indus- 
try Takes the Initiatives," is cospon- 
sored by the midwest EPA office, the 
U.S. Department of Commerce, state 
chambers of commerce and manufac- 
turers' associations in Illinois, Indi- 

ana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, and 
Minnesota. Corporations cosponsor- 
ing the conference include Common- 
wealth Edison, Eli Lilly, Dow Chemi- 
cal, Hydroscience, Republic Steel, 
3M, and St. Regis Paper Company. 

The first day of the conference 
will zero in on achievements by cor- 
porations who have made process 
changes that save money, conserve 
resources, and reduced pollution. The 
day's agenda will be geared towards 
corporate decision makers. The sec- 
ond day will cover specific technical 
approaches of midwest companies in 
process changes and will be aimed at 
environmental managers. 

Bald Eagles and Ospreys 
Recovering in Lake States 

Bald eagles and ospreys are doing 
well on national forests in the Lake 
states, according to the Wildlife 
Management Institute. A 1976 sur- 
vey by the U.S. Forest Service shows 
that eagle numbers "are holding up 
well and may even be increasing." 
The osprey had its best reproductive 
season since at least 1962. Biologists 
located 249 osprey nests this year 
compared to 238 in 1975. At least 120 
young were fledged, the highest num- 
ber ever recorded for the area. 

This year researchers located 414 
bald eagle nests. That is 16 more than 
last year. Those nests produced a 
minimum of 187 young, a few more 
than were noted in 1975. All things 
considered, biologists are encouraged 
by the continued improvement in 
eagle and osprey populations in the 

'Wolves' Frighten Northern 
Minnesota Residents 

The following report, taken from the 
November 11 Tower News, published 
in the northern Minnesota village of 
Tower, recounts the frightening ex- 
periences of local residents, presum- 
ably with wolves: 

"The menacing presence of wolves 
in the vicinity of communities and 
farms has now become a reality in 
Tower-Soudan. While many people 
previously had regarded stories of 
wolf kills with indifference and had 

questioned the credibility of the ac- 
counts, an incident during the past 
week has changed the opinions of 
many local residents. 

"At dusk last Thursday, as John 
Pahula was returning to his home in 
Soudan, after having spent the day 
at his cabin on Armstrong Bay of 
Lake Vermilion, he sighted two 
wolves approaching him just off the 
right-hand side of the trail. Almost 
simultaneously, he caught a glimpse 
of another wolf on a hill to his left. 

"John was accompanied by his 
constant companion, his little Pedro. 
While Pedro wasn't a tiny dog, he 
was described as just a little smaller 
than a medium size dog. Ordinarily, 
Pedro was inclined to rush to his 
master for protection and guidance in 
unusual circumstances, but on this 
occasion he apparently felt that he 
had to protect the life of his master. 
He rushed off in pursuit of the two 
wolves while the third wolf sped 
down the hill, across the trail and off 
into the woods after the dog. Mr. 
Pahula heard one loud yelp, followed 
by an ominous silence. He called in 
vain for his dog, and then hurried 
back to [the nearby home of a friend] 
relate the story and enlist his assis- 

"Darkness prevented a search of 
the nearby woods that evening, but 
Mr. Pahula [and his friend] went out 
Friday morning to look for Pedro, 
although both men felt that they 
already knew it was hopeless. They 
soon found the spot where little 
Pedro had been attacked and killed. 
They tracked the trail where the 
wolves had dragged their prey, and 
they ended their search on a heart- 
breaking scene, a tiny hank of hair, 
three small bones and Pedro's collar. 

"While Mr. Pahula will never 
really know, he feels that Pedro's 
pursuit of the wolves was a valiant 
effort to protect his master, and be- 
lieves that Pedro sacrificed his life for 

"A number of people in the area 
have reported having seen wolves in 
the vicinity of Soudan and along the 
highway, although none of them have 
had the tragic experience of Mr. 
Pahula. Those who have sighted the 
animals feel that citizens should be 
warned of the dangers involved in 

walking in the woods or working in 
the woods without some means of 
protection. However, residents are 
reminded that it is illegal to kill a 
wolf, since they are protected. 

"Mr. and Mrs. John Spollar had 
what Mrs. Spollar described as 'a 
most terrifying experience' in Sep- 
tember, when they encountered a 
pack of at least five wolves during 
one of their daily walks on the Six- 
Mile Lake Road. As they rounded a 
curve in the road, Mrs. Spollar spot- 
ted some animals on top of an adja- 
cent hill. Before realizing that they 
were wolves, the thought crossed her 
mind that it was an odd place for a 
herd of cattle. One of the animals 
raised its head, and she noted the 
similarity between the animal and a 
German Shepherd dog which the 
couple used to have. In that split 
second, she realized that she was 
facing wolves. 

"She shouted, 'Wolf,' to her hus- 
band, whose vision of the scene was 
blocked by the brush around the 
curve. He picked up a rock and threw 
it at the creatures, who were all 
standing with their heads raised. Thg 
■couple had no means of protection, 
not even a pocket knife or matches, 
and they fled. 'We ran as fast as we 
could,' related Mrs. SpoUar. 'My 
heart was pounding so, I thought I'd 
have a heart attack. When I saw the 
look of fear on John's face, I was even 
more terrified, if that were possible.' 

"The fact that the animals stood 
their ground and seemed to have no 
fear of the two humans caused them 
further consternation. Mrs. Spollar 
began shouting as she ran, in an 
effort to frighten the animals. When 
asked if the wolves chased them or 
followed them, she replied that they 
never did look back, and never did 
ascertain if there were more than five 
wolves or if the animals had chased 
them at all. 

"Traveling to Ely several weeks 
later, the couple spotted a lone wolf 
along the highway, and they and the 
occupants of a truck stopped to 
watch the animal, which showed no 
signs of fear. 

"The SpoUars still enjoy their 
daily walks, but they are now con- 
fining their travels to more heavily 
traveled roads." 

Elephants and the Art of Taxidermy 

A brief span of time — perhaps fifteen years at most — sepa- 
rate the DumboUke representation of Indian elephants below 
and the stunning hfelike African elephants at the right. The 
Indian elephants and the mammoth, lower right, were on 
view in the 1890s at Field Museum's first quarters — the 
building which had served as the Palace of Fine Arts, in Jack- 
son Park, during the World's Columbian Exposition. (At its 
founding in 1893 the museum was named "The Columbian 
Museum of Chicago"; the following year the name was 
changed to "Field Columbian Museum." Shortly before the 
death of founder Marshall Field in 1906, the name was again 
changed to "Field Museum of Natural History.") 

The pair of African elephants at right were acquired by 
then chief taxidermist Carl Akeley during a 14-month expedi- 
tion to Africa in 1905-06. They may still be seen, of course, in 
Stanley Field Hall, every bit as impressive and lifelike as 
when mounted 70 years ago. (The foreground in this photo 
has been added by a retouch artist.) The Indian elephants 
and the mammoth were disposed of before the museum 
moved to its present building in Grant park in 1921. 

The Eyes Have It 

The Remarkable Vision of Birds 

By Eugene R. Slatick 

Most of us know from experience that birds have 
sharp eyesight. Perhaps we found this out try- 
ing to sneak up on a crow, only to have it fly 
away before we got close. Maybe we realized it when we 
watched a barn swallow catch insects on the wing, or a 
hawk swoop down on a field mouse, or a ruffed grouse fly 
unerringly through thick woods. Such things tell us that 
there is little that escapes a bird's eye. Birds need to see 
well if they are to survive. 

The eyes of a bird are very large compared to the size 
of its body. We may not realize this because the Hd- 
opening of the bird's eye is often small. The eyes of some 
hawks and owls are about the same size as our eyes. In 
fact, the eyes of birds take up so much that they leave 
little room for eye muscles. A bird can move its eyes only 
a little, at best. An owl can't move its eyes at all because 
they fit so snugly. But the lack of eye movement doesn't 
create any problems. Most birds have eyes on the side of 
their heads which take in a wide view at a glance. Even 
those birds with eyes in the front of their heads, like 
hawks and owls, can still get a wide view by turning their 
heads on flexible necks. Sometimes an owl seems to twist 
its head completely around, but it cannot quite accom- 
plish this. The owl turns its head almost 270 in one direc- 
tion, and then quickly flicks it around to the other side to 
continue surveillance. 

Like our eye, a bird's eye has a lens that can be 
focused, an iris that controls the amount of light that 
enters, and a retina that records scenes and transmits 
them to the brain. But the bird's eye has several features 
that make it something special — they illustrate how 
nature perfects a basic design to improve an animal's 
change of survival. 

For example, when seen in cross section, the shape of 
the eye of most birds is a little flatter than our eye. That 
type of eye gives a wide view. Birds that need very keen 
vision, like hawks, have an eye in which the lens area pro- 
trudes. This gives a narrower field but a larger image of 
distant objects, and the bird can see more details — just 
like a telephoto lens on a camera reveals distant scenes 
more clearly. The huge, bulging eye of an owl is still 
another variation. It is designed to collect a lot of light, 
like a "fast" photographic lens. 

But eye shape isn't all that makes a bird's vision 

By permission of the Pennsylvania Game News ® 1974 by the 
Pennsylvania Game Commission 

special. The retina of a bird's eye has many more light- 
sensitive cells than a human's retina. These very tiny 
cells are the rods and cones. The rods are sensitive to very 
dim Hght but not to color, while the cones respond to 
brighter light and give sharp detail and color vision. The 
avian eye may be equipped with a million cones per 
square millimeter — 7 times more than our eyes contain. 
No wonder a falcon is said to be able to spot a pigeon at 
3,500 feet when the lighting is right. Sparrow hawks are 
said to have vision 8 times sharper than ours. The vision 
of the buteo hawks may not be quite as good as this, but 
their eyes are still about 5 times sharper than ours. 

Many of the cones in a bird's eye contain tiny drops 
of colored oil that help sharpen the image, just like photo- 
graphic filters help improve some pictures. The drops are 
generally yellow, but some may be red, orange, and green. 
In nocturnal birds they are pale yellow or colorless. The 
yellow drops help offset haze. Red drops probably give 
contrast to certain objects and improve vision when look- 
ing into water. About 20 percent of the droplets in song- 
birds, ducks, and herons are red, whereas the total is less 
in hawks and swallows. The kingfisher reportedly has the 
most — up to 60 percent. 

Birds that are active during the day have more cones 
than rods in their eyes. This gives them sharp, colored 
vision during the day, but comparatively poor sight qual- 
ity in dim light or at night. Birds of the night, like owls, 
have more rods than cones, enabling them to see very well 
at night; during the day, however, they don't see in great 
detail and probably not in much color. The difference in 
quality might be comparable to that of a sharp color 
photograph that is reproduced in black and white in a 
newspaper. The newspaper print gives a clear enough pic- 
ture, but it lacks the fine detail of the photograph. We can 
see surprisingly well on a moonht night, but imagine 
how well an owl must see at night — its night vision is 50 
times better than ours. 

Almost all birds have at least one place on the retina 
that gives the sharpest vision. Such a place, called the 
fovea, is surrounded by a region named the central area, 
which gives a picture almost as sharp. Many birds that 
hunt or feed on the wing, like hawks and swallows, need 
to judge distances accurately, so they have two foveae. 
One generally sees straight ahead while the other scans 
below. Many birds of the open fields and shores — hawks, 
ducks, shorebirds — have a central area that extends 
horizontally across the eye. It enables those birds to see 
the horizon and landscape in good detail without con- 
stantly turning the head. 


I I Binocular L_J Monocular 

Sometimes we see a bird cock its head in an unusual 
position and think it is listening for something. A robin 
does this while hunting worms. But the bird isn't listen- 
ing for the worms: it is looking for them, shifting its head 
so it can examine the ground with the sharpest part of 
its eye. 

A bird's eye has a puzzling feature called the pecten, 
a folded, tissue-like membrane of blood vessels that pro- 
trudes into the eye. It is large in predatory birds and 
smaller in other birds. The pecten probably is a device 
that assures the eye of sufficient nutrients and oxygen, 
although scientists have suggested many other purposes. 

Birds have been called "glorified reptiles," because 
they can be traced back millions of years to reptilian an- 
cestors. One of the clues to this lineage is the pecten, 
also possessed by reptiles. Another is the sclerotic ring, a 
ring of a dozen or more bony plates surrounding the 
cornea, present in both birds and reptiles. It helps the 
bird's eye keep its shape when the eye muscles adjust the 
lens for various distances. The sclerotic ring ranges from 
a simple circle in songbirds to a large prominent structure 
in owls. 

You might have noticed that birds blink differently 
than we do. Most of them bUnk with a third eyelid, or nic- 
titating membrane, attached to the part of the eye near 
the bill. The other lids are usually used only when sleep- 
ing. The third lid, usually semi-transparent, cleans the 
eye and protects it against strong glare and wind. Some 
diving birds are thought to use the third lid when under- 

In making the bird a sharp-eyed animal, nature didn't 
limit itself just to physically improving the eye. It also 
positioned the eye in the head to perform a function. 
Most birds have eyes on the side of the head that can see 
almost all the way around. The eyes of such birds are 
generally flat — the shape that gives the widest field of 
view. This group of birds has a certain amount of bin- 
ocular vision, which is the area that can be seen by both 
eyes. The familiar pigeon, for example, has a visual field 
of 340', including a binocular field of 24'. Generally birds 
that catch insects while airborne have a binocular field 
larger than the field of birds that feed from the ground. 
Predatory birds have eyes facing forward so that both 
can be used to judge distances. Hawks have a binocular 
field of 35 to 50 , whereas in owls it is up to 70 . The total 
field of view of these birds is reduced consequently to 
about 250 for hawks and 110 for owls. Ornithologists 
are not certain if birds see in three dimensions, or stereo- 
scopically, when they use binocular vision. A bird that 
does not have much binocular vision can judge the dis- 
tance of an object by moving its head to get different 

The bittern and woodcock have eyes in interesting 
positions. The eyes of the bittern are low on the side of 
the head, so that when it points its head upward to blend 
in with the reeds, the bittern can still see what is happen- 
ing in front. The woodcock, on the other hand, has eyes 
set far back and high on the head, allowing it to see 
around while it probes the ground for food with its beak. 

Although we know a lot about how a bird sees, we 
don't know just what it sees because its brain may receive 
the picture in a way different from ours. We can only ima- 
gine how a field mouse looks to a hawk high in the sky, or 
how an owl sees the landscape in the dark of night. It has 
been said that birds may not have sharper eyesight than 
we have but can assimilate what they see much faster and 
in more detail. One ornithologist made the analogy that a 
bird could tell whether a clock was operating simply by 
observing the movement of the hour hand, while we need 
to look at the minute hand. 

A bird's eye also "sees" the time on the biological 
clock. It unconsciously records seasonal changes in the 
amount of light. The brain takes that and other stimuli 
into account, and directs the bird to migrate or mate. 

Although our eyes are better than those of many 
animals, we find our match in the birds. As many out- 
doorsmen know, however, being "hawkeyed" or "eagle- 
eyed" is also a matter of training. Birds scrutinize the 
woods, fields and waters because it is a matter of sur- 
vival for them. Perhaps with some practice we might 
learn to see a little more like a bird and maybe see new 
and interesting things in familiar scenes. LJ 


Whafs the Weight, by the way, of a quarter-trillion locusts'? 

Strange you should ask, because I just happened 
across that morsel of information while browsing 
through the Guinness Book of World Records: "about 
500,000 tons," says Guinness. A swarm of this size, 
Guinness goes on, was observed flying over the Red 
Sea in 1889, and it covered an estimated 2,000 square 
miles — about the size of the state of Delaware. The 
weight of those insects would be equal to more than 
1,200 fully loaded 747 jumbo jets. 

And if locust swarms aren't your dish of tea, per- 
haps you'd be more impressed by the fact that the 
lowly ribbon worm (Linens longissimus) has made it 
into the record books by virtue of its inordinate 
length. One specimen, washed ashore at St. Andrews, 
Fife, Scotland, in 1864 measured out to 180 feet, thus 
claiming the honored title "earth's longest worm." 
Even by Woolworth's standards that's a lot of ribbon. 

The longest measurements for any type of ani- 
mal were those of a giant jellyfish (Cyanea arctica) 
washed onto the Massachusetts coast in 1865. Its 
bell, or body, was IVz feet in diameter and its ten- 
tacles measured 120 feet; thus, the total length with 
tentacles extended would have been about 245 feet. 

And speaking of length, the world's longest 
snake was no slouch by any standards. That speci- 
men was a 27'/2-foot anaconda (Eunectes murinus), 
captured in Colombia in 1944. The longest snake in 
captivity was "Colossus," a female reticulated python 
(Python reticulatus) which measured 28 feet six 
inches in 1956. At that time the snake, kept in the 
Highland Park Zoological Gardens, Pittsburgh, was 
growing about 10 inches each year. She died in 1963. 
The longest crocodile known was a 27-foot salt-water, 
or estuarine, crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) killed in 
the Philippines in 1823. Its weight was 4,400 lbs, 
some of which had been gained by dining on local 
villagers. The longest of living lizards was a Komodo 
monitor (Varanus komodoensis), which taped out at 
10 feet 2 inches in 1937 when it was on display at 
the St. Louis Zoological Gardens. Its weight was 
365 lbs. 

The longest frog on record is a Goliath frog 
(Rana goliath) from west Africa, measuring 13.38 
inches from snout to vent and 32.08 inches extended. 
It weighed 7 lbs., 4.5 oz. Perhaps the longest recorded 
frog leap — 17 feet 4% inches — is that of "Wet Bet," 
a frog which performed this feat at the 1973 Cala- 
veras County (California) Jumping Frog Jubilee. 

Length records among fishes include 59 feet for 
a 90,000-lb. whale shark (Rhiniodon typus) caught 
in the Gulf of Siam in 1919, 37 feet for a great white 
shark (Carcharadon carcharias) captured off New 
Brunswick in 1930, 26 feet 3 inches for a Russian 
sturgeon (Acipenser huso) , and 14 feet (between anal 
and dorsal fins) for an ocean sunfish (Mola mola) — 
the largest of the bony fishes — caught in Australian 
coastal waters in 1908; its weight was 4,928 lbs. 

Among spiders, the giant is the bird-eating 
spider (Theraphosa leblondi) of South America. A 
2-oz. male collected in French Guiana in 1925 had 
a 3y2-inch body and a leg extension of 10 inches. A 
much larger, extinct relative was the 9-foot Ptery- 
gotus buffaloensis, a sea scorpion that lived some 
400,000,000 years ago. 

A claw span of 12 feet VA inches makes a 14-lb. 
specimen of the giant spider crab (Macrocheira 
kaempferi) the largest crab known; there are uncon- 
firmed reports of 19-footers. The species occurs in 
deep waters off the coast of Japan. The heaviest of 
the true crab species is Pseudocarcinus gigas from 
the Bass Straits, off Australia; 30-lb. specimens are 
known. Lobsters — close cousins of the crab — are still 
heavier; the greatest authenticated weight is 42 lbs. 
7 oz. for a North Atlantic lobster, Homarus ameri- 
canus, caught off Virginia in 1934. 

The longest insect known is the tropical stick 
insect (Pharnacia serratipes), which measures about 
13 inches. The birdwing butterfly (Ornithoptera 
victoriae) of the Solomon Islands is also known to 
exceed 12 inches in wingspread. The heaviest insect 
is equatorial Africa's Goliath beetle (Goliathus 
goliathus), which has tipped the scales at 3.52 ounces. 
Among centipedes the longest species measured — 
Scolopendra morsitans — grows up to 13 inches long 
and comes from the Andaman Islands in the Bay 
of Bengal. The longest millipede species are Graphi- 
dostreptus gigas (Africa) and Scaphistostrepus sey- 
chellarum (Seychelle Islands), both measuring more 
than 11 inches long. 

Size records among moUusks include 43 inches 
by 29 inches for a 579V2-lb. clam (Tridacna derasa) 
found in 1917 on the Breat Barrier Reef; 55 feet for 
an Atlantic giant squid (Architeuthis sp.) washed 
ashore on Newfoundland in 1878 and estimated to 
weigh 4,480 lbs.; and 25 feet 7 inches — radial 
spread — for a 118-lb. 10-oz. octopus (Octopus apol- 
lyon) caught in Puget Sound in 1973. 


This remarkable fish, fantasized bv Dutch artist HieronvYnus Bosch, would have garnered all sorts of records. 

The largest accurately measured vertebrate 
animal was a female sulfur-bottomed, or blue, whale 
(Balaenoptera musculus), caught in the South Atlan- 
tic in 1912. It measured 110 feet, 2y2 inches. Another 
female of the species, caught in the same area in 
1931, was calculated to weigh 183.34 tons, ex- 
clusive of blood, and its live weight estimated at 
about 195 tons. 

The largest eye of any living animal is that of the 
giant squid ( Architeuthis sp.), exceeding 15 inches 
in diameter. 

The largest land animal is the African elephant 
(Loxodonta africana africana). The largest known 
specimen, shot in Angola in 1955, weighed about 
24,000 lbs. Its standing height was about 12 feet, 
6 inches. (The mounted carcass is now on view at the 
Smithsonian Institution.) 

For those whose special pleasure is diminutives, 
what could be more gratifying than to know that 
the smallest land mammal is Savi's white-toothed 
pygmy shrew (Suncus etruscus), full-grown speci- 
mens weighing between 0.062 and 0.09 oz. Mature' 


individuals measure 1.32 to 2.04 inches, plus a tail 
length of 0.94-1.14 inches. 

The fastest land animal, as any speed buff can 
tell you, is the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Zoolo- 
gists estimate the cat's maximum speed at 60-63 
m.p.h. Under controlled conditions on an oval track, 
a cheetah was clocked at 43.4 m.p.h. average speed 
for 1,035 yards, but the animal was not running at 
its top speed. The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra 
americana), nearly as fast as the cheetah, has been 
clocked at 61 m.p.h. over a 200-year distance. 

The longest-lived land mammal, exclusive of 
man, is probably the Asiatic elephant (Elephas maxi- 
mus). The oldest known specimen is Modoc, a female 
who, at 78, was still alive and well at last report. 

The largest known herds of any animal species 
are those of the South African springbok (Antidor- 
cas marsupialis). A herd viewed in 1888 in Cape 
Province, South Africa, was estimated to contain 
100,000,000 individuals. 

The longest known gestation period among 
mammals is that of the Asiatic elephant (Elephas 
maximus), with a minimum period of 609 days and 
a maximum of 760 days. 

The shortest gestation period may be that of the 
American opposum (Didelphis marsupialis), which is 
normally 12 to 13 days, but sometimes as brief as 
.8 days. 

Wing beats, too, have found their way into the 
record books. The fastest recorded wing beat of any 
bird is 90 beats per second — claimed by Heliactin 
cornuta, a tropical American hummingbird. Not to 
be outdone, a lowly midge (insect) of the genus 
Forcipomyia has moved its wings at the phenomenal 
rate of 1,406 beats per second! Butterflies, at the 
other end of the scale, manage to stay aloft with aver- 
,age wing beats for sustained flight as slow as 5 beats 
per second (Papilio machaon, a swallowtail). 

But these achievements pale to mere exhibition- 
ism when compared to utilitarian feats of the domes- 
tic cat and dog. In 1853, in Liverpool, England, a 
bull terrier by the name of "Jenny Lind" killed 500 
rats in 90 minutes. A tabby cat by the name of 
"Minnie" is credited with 12,480 rat kills from 1927 
to 1933 at the White City Stadium in London. 
Another Tabby, named "Mickey," killed more than 
22,000 mice in Lancashire, England, over a 23-year 

Specimens of the Goliath beetle, the heaviest known 
insect (3.52 oz.j, are displayed by Rupert Wenzel, chair- 
man of the Department of Zoology. 

Note: Records cited above include only those considered authentic 
by Guinness. Their discussion here does not constitute validation 
or recognition by Field Museum. 


Fieldiana: 1975 and 1976 Titles 

Fieldiana is a continuing series of sci- 
entific papers and monographs in the 
disciplines of anthropology, botany, 
zoology, and geology; the series is 
intended primarily for exchange-dis- 
tribution to museums, libraries, and 
universities, but all titles are also 
available for public purchase. 

The following titles were pub- 
lished during 1975 and 1976 and may 
be ordered from the Division of Publi- 
cations. Members are entitled to a 10 
percent discount. Publication number 
should accompany order. A catalog 
of all available Fieldiana titles is 
available on request. ( Please specify 
discipline: anthropology, botany, ge- 
ology, or zoology.) 

Fieldiana Anthropology 

"Chapters in the Prehistory of Arizona," 
by Paul S. Martin, et al. Vol. 65, No. 2: 
pubUcation 1201. $9.75 

"Mrs. Kadiato Kamara: An Expert Dyer 
in Sierra Leone," by Loretta Reinhardt. 
Vol. 66. No. 2: publication 1230. $1.25 

"Ethnological and Biogeographical Sig- 
nificance of Pottery Sherds from Nissan 
Island, Papua New Guinea," by Susan 
Kaplan. Vol. 66, No. 3; publication 1231. 

"The Bruce Collection of Eskimo Material 
Culture from Port Clarence, Alaska," by 
James W. VanStone. Vol. 67; pubhcation 
1244. Price to be announced. 

Fieldiana Botany 

"Flora of Guatemala Rubiaceae. Madder 
Family," by Paul C. Standley and Louis 
O. Williams. Vol. 24, Part XI, Nos. 1-3; 
publication 1202. $8.75 

"Austral Hepaticae III Stolonophora, A 
New Genus of Geocalycaceae," by John 
Engel and R. M. Schuster. Vol. 36, No. 
11; publication 1208. $1.00 

"Tropical American Plants, XVII, ' by 
Louis O. Williams. Vol. 36, No. 10: publi- 
cation 1210. $1.50 

"Notes on Calvatia (Lycoperdaceae), I," 
by Patricio Ponce De Leon. Vol. 38, No. 1; 
publication 1215. $.75 

"A Partial Revision of 'Paullinia' Sapin- 
daceae) for Ecuador. Peru, and Bolivia," 
Part I. by Donald R. Simpson. Vol. 36, 
No. 12; publication 1225. $1.50 

"New Species of 'Digitaria, Pennisetum, 
and Poa' (Graminae) from Costa Rica," 
by Richard W. Pohl. Vol. 38, No. 2; pubh- 
cation 1228. $.75 

"Flora of Guatemala— Vernonieae. Aster 
eae, Inuleae, HeUantheae, Anthemideae 
Cynareae, Mutiseae, Cichorieae, Eupa 
torieae, Helenieae, Senecioneae," by Dor 
othy L. Nash and Louis O. Williams. Vol 
24, Part XII; publication 1229. $18.00 

"Notes on 'Calvatia' (Lycoperdaceae), II 
'Calvatia cretacea' (Berk.) Lloyd, An Arc- 
tic Montane Plant," by Patricio Ponce De 
Leon, Vol. 38. No. 3; pubhcation 1233. 


"AcutocapiUitium, a New Genus in the 
Lycoperdaceae, " by Patricio De Leon. 
Vol. 38, No. 4; publication 1237. $.75 

"Flora of Guatemala," by Dorothy L. 
Nash. Vol. 24, No. 4; publication 1238. 

Fieldiana Geology 

"Pyritic Cone-In-Cone Concretions, " by 
Bertram G. Woodland. Vol. 33, No. 7; 
publication 1200. $1.25 

"Caryocrinitidae (Echinodermata: Rhom- 
bifera) of the Laurel Limestone of South- 
eastern Indiana," by T. J. Frest. Vol. 30, 
No. 4; publication 1203. $1.50 

"The MammaUan Fauna of Warsasi Rock 
Shelter, West-Central Iran," by PriscUla 
F. Turnbull. Vol. 33, No. 8; pubUcation 
1204. $1.25 

"Phylogeny of the Chelydrid Turtles: A 
Study of Shared Derived Characters in 
the Skull," by Eugene S. Gaffney. Vol. 33, 
No. 9; publication 1205. $1.50 

"Time Factors of Differentially Preserved 
Wood in Two Calcific Concretions; in 
Pennsylvanian Black Shale from Indi- 
ana, " by Bertram G. Woodland. Vol. 33, 
No. 10: pubUcation 1206. $1.25 

"The MammaUan Fauna of Madura Cave 
Western AustraUa Part II," by WUUam 
D. Turnbull and Ernest L. LundeUus, Jr. 
Vol. 31, No. 2; pubUcation 1209. $2.75 

"Geochronology, Stratigraphy, and Ty- 
pology, " by John Andrew Wilson. Vol. 33, 
No. 11; pubUcation 1211. $1.00 

"Phosphatic Microfossils from the Ordo- 
vician of the United States," by Matthew 
H. Nitecki, Raymond C. Gutschick, and 
John E. Repetski. Vol. 35. No. 1; pubUca- 
tion 1214. $1.00 

"A New Species of Globidens from South 
Dakota, and a Review of Globidentine 
Mosasaurs, " by Dale A. RusseU. Vol. 33, 
No. 13; pubUcation 1217. $1.50 

"Taphonomy of Eocene Fish from Fossil 
Basin, Wyoming," by Paul O. McGrew. 
Vol 33, No. 14; pubUcation 1218. $1.00 

"Perrao-Carboniferous Fresh Water Bur- 
rows," by Everett C. Olson. Vol. 33, No. 
15; pubUcation 1219. $1.25 

"Ptycholepis marshi Newberry, A Chon- 
drostean Fish from the Newark Group of 
Eastern North America," by Bobb 
Schaeffer, David H. Dunkle, and Nicholas 
G. McDonald. Vol. 33, No. 12; pubUcation 
1220. $1.50 

"Ziphodont Crocodiles: Prisichamsus 
vorax (Troxell), New Combination from 
the Eocene of North America," by Wann 
Langston, Jr. Vol. 33, No. 16; pubUcation 
1222. $1.50 

"SUurian Ischadites tenuis n. sp. (Recep- 
tacuUtids) from Indiana, " by Matthew H. 
Nitecki and Charles C. Dapples. Vol. 35, 
No. 2; pubUcation 1223. $1.00 

"Reconstruction and Interpretation of 
Brittsia problematica D. White (Fern, 
Pennsylvanian), " by Hermann W. Pfef- 
ferkorn. Vol. 33, No. 17; pubUcation 1224. 


"The Brain of 'Mesonyx,' a Middle Eo- 
cene Mesonychid Condylarth, " by Leon- 
ard Radinsky. Vol. 33, No. 18: pubUcation 

1226. $1.00 

"Some Notes on Pennsylvanian Crusta- 
ceans in the IlUnois Basin," by Frederick 
R. Schram. Vol. 35, No. 3; pubUcation 

1227. $.75 

"Functional Morphological Models: Evo- 
lutionary and Nonevolutionary, " by Rob- 
ert E. DeMar. Vol. 33, No. 19: publication 
1234. $1.00 

"Paracanthopterygian and Acanthoptery- 
gian Fishes from the Upper Cretaceous of 
Kansas, " by David Bardack. Vol. 33, No. 
20: pubUcation 1235. $1.00 >- 


"Ordovician Batophoreae (Dasycladales) 
from Michigan," by Matthew H. Nitecki. 
Vol. 35, No. 4; publication 1236. $1.00 

"Type Fossil Mollusca (Hyohtha, Poly- 
placophora, Scaphopoda, Monoplaco- 
phora, and Gastropoda) in Field Muse- 
um," by G. G. Forney and Matthew H. 
Nitecki. Vol. 36; publication 1239. $9.50 

"Upper Devonian Receptaculites Char- 
dini n. sp. from Central Afghanistan," by 
Matthew H. Nitecki and Albert F. de Lap- 
parent. Vol. 35, No. 5; publication 1242. 

Fieldiana Zoology 

"Philippine Zoological Expedition, 1946- 
1947, Milhpeds of the Genus Polydesmo- 
rhachis Pocock (Polydesmida: Platyrha- 
cidae), ' by Richard L. Hoffman. Vol. 65, 
No. 6; publication 1207. 

"An Additional New Stenus from Aus- 
tralia (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) 100th 
Contribution to the Knowledge of Steni- 
nae," by Volker Puthz. Vol. 65, No. 7; 
publication 1212. $.75 

"Notes on Rodents of the Genus Gerbillus 
(Mammalia: Muridae: Gerbellinae) from 
Morocco," by Douglas M. Lay. Vol. 65, 
No. 8; publication 1213. $1.00 

"Taxonomy and Evolution of Liontail and 
Macaques (Primates: Cercopithecidae)," 
by Jack Fooden. Vol. 67; publication 1216 

"An Evaluation of Seth E. Meek's Contri- 
butions to Mexican Ichthyology," by 
Robert Rush Miller. Vol. 69, No. 1; publi- 
cation 1232. $1.50 

"Review of the Pselaphid Beetles of the 
West Indies (Coleoptera: Pselaphidae)," 
by Orlando Park, John A. Wagner, and 
Milton W. Sanderson. Vol. 68; publication 
1240. $4.25 

"Rhinodoras boehlkei, A New Catfish 
from Eastern Ecuador (Osteichthyes, 
Siluroidei, Doradidae)," by Garrett S. 
Glodek, Glenn L. Whitmire, and Gustavo 
Orces V. Vol 70, No. 1; publication 1241 

"Supplementary Catalogue of Type Speci- 
mens of Reptiles and Amphibians in Field 
Museum of Natural History," by Hymen 
Marx. Vol. 69, No. 2; publication 1243. 
Price to be announced. 

In addition to its continuing Fieldi- 
ana series. Field Museum Press also 
published in 1976 the monograph 
Endodontoid Land Snails from Pacif- 
ic Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: 
Sigmurethra), Part I, Family Endo- 

dontidae, by Alan Solem; 508 pp., 
$31.50. This work may also be or- 
dered from the Division of PubUca- 

Field Museum has also reissued the 
popular Mummies, by Richard A. 

Martin, in conjunction with the 
"Treasures of Tutankhamun" exhibit 
opening April 15. First published in 
1945, the 48-page booklet has now 
been revised and updated by David 
P. Silverman, project Egyptologist 
for the forthcoming exhibit. Lavishly 
illustrated with new bibliography. 
Price to be announced. 


Birds of Nepal with Reference to Kash- 
mir and Sikhim, by Robert L. Fleming 
Sr., Robert L. Fleming Jr. and Lain 
Singh Bangdel; published by Robert L. 
Fleming Sr. and Jr., Box 229, Kathman- 
du, Nepal; 349 pp., 150 color plates. 
$15.50 at Field Museum Shop; 10% dis- 
count for members. 

It was with real delight that I received 
my long-awaited copy oi Birds of Nepal. 
Bob Fleming Sr. has been a field associ- 
ate and friend of Field Museum for more 
than 40 years, and a resident for more 
than 20 years of Nepal, where he served 
as representative of the Board of World 
Missions of the Methodist Church. 
Fleming has sent the Museum hundreds 
of bird and mammal specimens, includ- 
ing new records for the country. This 
field guide to the birds of Nepal is a fit- 
ting culmination to Fleming's lifetime of 
collecting and observing the avifauna of 
the Himalayas. For the last 10 years, 
Bob Jr. has worked with him, adding 
many new species to the known avi- 
fauna. The new book is a field guide that 
will serve all the western Himalayas as 
well as Nepal. 

In the introduction are descriptions 
of the different life zones of Nepal, 
which, in such a mountainous country, 
must be defined by altitude, and a guide 
to birdwatching in Nepal. Then follows 
the heart of the book— portraits in color 
of each species, with explanatory text 
on the facing page. The latter condenses 
a surprising amount of information into 
a short paragraph: altitudinal range, 
length, seasonal status, abundance, 
habitat, field marks, voice, status in 
Kathmandu Valley where most bird- 
watching will be done, and range in the 

Himalayas. Finally, there are two ap- 
pendices listing those birds found in 
Kashmir and Sikhim, but not in Nepal. 
On the endpapers are maps of Nepal as a 
whole and of the Kathmandu Valley. 

The colored plates — the key to a 
successful field guide— are beautiful. 
Two Nepalese artists have done a fine 
job of rendering the birds Ufelike, and 
the color reproduction is excellent. By 
having the text on the facing page, the 
maximum number of figures on a given 
plate is seven or eight, and there is none 
of the crowding that so often character- 
izes field guides. Birds of Nepal should 
be as useful in the field as it is attractive 
in the hand. 

The sequence of families followed in 
this book will be unfamiliar to those 
raised on Peterson's guides, but this is 
of little consequence, for many of the 
famihes will be equally unfamiliar. Just 
the names of the pittas, minivets, bar- 
bets, scimitar-bills, honey-guides, trago- 
pans and griffons should excite any 
bird-watcher to head for his nearest 
travel agent. Publication of this guide 
should do much to stimulate interest in 
the birds of the Himalayas, an area that 
heretofore has only been covered in 
multi-volume works. 

Not least important is the fact that 
with faith and determination, the Flem- 
ings were their own publishers, and not 
only wrote their book but supervised 
every aspect of its production in Bom- 
bay. This was no trifling task, for the 
distance from Kathmandu to Bombay is 
roughly that from Chicago to Denver. 
Now their labors have been rewarded, 
and we are the beneficiaries.— Me/ym 
Traylor, curator of birds 


Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 47 (1976) 


Ancient Ecuador Revisited, by Jorge G. 
Marcos. Donald W. Lathrap, and James A. 
Zeidler: June, p. 3 

Anthropologist in China. An. by Berthold 
Laufer: Feb., p. 3 

Backward Glance. A: Field Museum 75, .50, 
and 25 years ago: Sept.. p. 9 

Between Friends Entre Amis, new exhibit 
opens: June. p. 9 

Blackball Mine: Haven for Bats, by Thomas 
Lera: March, p. 3 

Botany of the Black Americans, by William 
Ed Grime (book review I: May, p. 18 

Cash. Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: The Non- 
modern Moneys of the World, by Bennet 
Bronson: Nov., p. 3 

Cashinahua of Eastern Peru, The. Jane 
Powell Dwyer, ed. (book review): July/ 
Aug., p. 18 

Earl\ Chicagoland. by Philip Hanson: May, 
p. 3 

E.xhibit of Whale Pictures and Poems: Mav, 
p. 8 

Field Museum-Street Peruvian Expedition. 
1976. The. by John J. Pizzimenti: Oct.. p. 3 

Fish Collecting in Belize, by David W. Green- 
field and Terry Greenfield: Jan.. p. 3 

Forty-si.x Years Ago: Feb., p. 18 

From Birth to Flight: evolution of pterosaur 
model in Stanley Field Hall: June. p. 10 

Gemstones: Beware and Be Aware, by Ed- 
ward Olsen: July Aug., p. 4 

George Langford. 1876-1964. by Eugene S. 
Richardson: Feb.. p. 10 

Harvest of a Quiet Eye. by Charles F. Davis 
(book review!: May 18 

Here's to the Amethyst, by Patricia M. 
Williams: Jan., p. 11 

Hickory Creek Revisited, by James Bland: 
Jan.. p. 8 

/ Wear the Morning Star, new exhibit opens: 

Inching along to a Metric America, by Ed- 
ward Olsen: Sept..D. 12 

Iroquois Prayer: Intention and Anticipation. 
by David Blanchard: April, p. 12 

Major Acquisition:. A. Field Museum re- 
ceives bequest of important beetle collec- 
tion, by Henry Dybas: June, p. 12 

Members' Field Trip to Michigan: Sept., p. 11 

Members' Nights. May 6 and 7: May, p. 9 

Members' Tours to Egypt: Oct., p. 11 

Nineteen Twenty-one: Field Museum's New 
Home: .'\pril, p. 10 

Pawnee Earth Lodge. The. by John White: 
May. p. 12 

Pollen, by William Burger and Christine 
Niezgoda: Sept.. p. 3 

Pterosaur, by John Bolt: May, p. 14 

Sahara: The Growing Giant, by Burt Ovrut 
and Susan Ovrut: Oct., p. 12 

Scanning Electron Microscopy Summer 
Workshop: April, p. 19 

Shedding Light on "Discovery," by Sally 

Parsons: Sept.. p. 7 
Tenth Anniversary for Women's Board, by 

Ellen Thorne Smith: June. p. 14 
Treasures of Tutankhamun. by David P. 

Silverman: Dec. p. 3 
Trees of Stone, by Edward Olsen: Feb.. p. 12 
Trilobites: Creatures from the Ancient Seas. 

with photos bv Riccardo Levi-Setti: March, 

p. 6 
Volunteers Honored: March, p. 14 
Weekend Trip for Geology Buffs : April, p. 20 
Western Australian Field Program, by Alan 

Solem: July Aug.. p. 8 "Whip-poor-will": 

July/Aug., p. 3 
Wilderness Canoe Trip: April, p. 21 


Blanchard, David: Iroquois Prayer: Inten- 
tion and Anticipation: April, p. 12 

Bland. James: Hickory Creek Revisited: 
Jan., p. 8 

Bolt. John: Pterosaur: May. p. 14 

Bronson. Bennet: Cash. Cannon, and Cowrie 
Shells: The Nonmodern Moneys of the 
World: Nov.. p. 3 

Burger, William (with Christine Niezgoda): 
Pollen: Sept.. p. 3 

Davis. Charles F.: Harvest of a Quiet Eye 
(book review): May 18 

Dybas, Henry: A Major Acquisition: Field 
Museum receives bequest of important 
beetle collection: June, p. 12 

Greenfield, David W. (with Terry Green- 
field): Fish Collecting in Belize: Jan.. p. 3 

Greenfield, Terry (with David W. Green- 
field): Fish collecting in Belize: Jan.. p. 3 

Grime. William Ed: Botany of the Black 
Americans (book review): May, p. 18 

Hanson, Philip: Early Chicagoland: Mav, 
p. 3 

Lathrop, Donald W. (with Jorge G. Marcos 
and James A. Zeidler): Ancient Ecuador 
Revisited: June, p. 3 

Laufer, Berthold: An Anthropologist in 
China: Feb.. p. 3 

Lera, Thomas: Blackball Mine: Haven for 
Bats: March, p. 3 

Levi-Setti. Riccardo: Trilobites: Creatures 
from the Ancient Seas: March, p. 6 

Marcos, Jorge G. (with Donald W. Lathrap 
and James A. Zeidler): Ancient Ecuador 
Revisited: June. p. 3 

Niezgoda. Christine (with William Burger): 
Pollen: Sept., p. 3 

Olsen, Edward: Gemstones: Beware and Be 
Aware: July/Aug., p. 4 

: Inching along to a Metric America: 

Sept., p. 12 
: Trees of Stone: Feb.. p. 12 

Ovrut. Burt (with Susan Ovrut): Sahara: 
The Growing Giant: Oct.. p. 12 

Ovrut. Susan (with Burt Ovrut): Sahara: 
The Growing Giant: Oct., p. 12 

Parsons. Sally: Shedding Light on "Dis- 
covery": Sept., p. 12 

Pizzimenti, John J.: The Field Museum- 
Street Peruvian Expedition. 1976: Oct., 
p. 3 

Richardson, Eugene S.: George Langford, 
1876-1964: Feb., p. 10 

Silverman. David P.: Treasures of Tutank- 
hamun: Dec, p. 3 

Solem, .Alan: Western Australian Field Pro- 
gram : July/Aug.. p. 8 

Smith. Ellen Thorne (Mrs. Hermon Dunlap 
Smith): Tenth Anniversary for Women's 
Board: June. p. 14 

White. John: The Pawnee Earth Lodge: 
May. p. 12 

Williams, Patricia M.: Here's to the Ame- 
thyst: Jan., p. 11 

Zeidler. James A. (with Jorge G. Marcos and 
Donald W. Lathrap): Ancient Ecuador Re- 
visited: June, p. 3 


acid rain: Sept.. p. 15 

aggry beads: Nov.. p. 15 

Akodonjelski (chocolate mouse): Oct.. p. 7 

alligator. American: Jan.. p. 17 

Allport. Sydney (volunteer): Sept.. p. 7 

Alter. Joanne H.: Feb.. p. 20 

altiplano: Oct.. p. 6 

amethyst: Jan.. p. 11 

Anadara tuberculosa: June, p. 6 

.Anderson, Carrie F. (volunteer): March, 

p. 15 
Anderson, Cleo M. (volunteer): March, p. 15 
Armstrong. Judy (staff): Nov.. p. 8B 
Arner. Michael: March, p. 17 
Australia: July .Aug.. p. 8 
Automeris io: July Aug.. p. 3 
Ayer film-lecture series: Nov., 8B 
Azorella: Oct., p. 7 
Baird, Gordon (staff): Nov., p. 8B 
bald eagle: Apr., p. 5: July/Aug.. pp. 11. 13; 

Sept.. p. 17 
bats: March, p. 3 
bayou darter: Jan.. p. 16 
Belize, collecting fish in: Jan.. p. 3 
Benton. Colbee: May. p. 5 
Bernal. Ignacio: July Aug.. p. 14 
Beverly. Leslie (volunteer): March, p. 15 
Bicentennial award for Field Museum: Jan., 

p. 22 
bighorn sheep: Apr., p. 3: Sept.. p. 17 
Bilandic, Michael: Jan., p. 22 
Birds of America. The (Audubon): July/ 

Aug., p. 3 
birok (pig money): Nov.. p. 5 *" 


black oak: July/ Aug., p. 3 

blackbird: Apr., p. 5 

Blackmon, Carolyn (staff): Sept., p. 7 

Blaschke, Frederick (staff): Feb.. p. 19 

Bolt, John (staff): March, p. 17 

Bowen, Idessie (volunteer): March, p. 15 

Briscoe, Carol (volunteer): Sept., p. 8 

broad-winged hawk: Apr., p. 7 

burro: Apr., p. 3; Sept., p. 17 

Bushman: Feb., p. 22 

Calhoun, Louva (volunteer): March, p. 14, 15 

Canadian goose: Apr., p. 4 

carbon monoxide: Apr., p. 9 

Carnes, Alice (staff): March, p. 17 

Carrion, Leonard (staff): Apr., p. 11 

"cash": Nov., p. 9 

Castrop, Julie (staff): Sept., p. 7 

Caton, John: May, p. 6 

Cawthon, David A. (staff): Nov., p. 8B 

Cedros Island mule deer: Jan., p. 16 

Cerambycidae of North America: June, p. 13 

Cerithidea pulchra: June, p. 6 

Chachani: Oct., p. 6 

Champagne-Urbana, 111.: July/Aug., p. 12 

Chemsak, John: June, p. 13 

Chicago, settlement of: May, p. 3 

Chicago Herpetological Society: Oct., p. 10 

China: Feb., p. 3 

Chorrera: June, p. 4 

coins, ancient: Nov., p. 7 

Collier, Donald (staff): July/Aug., p. 14 

Collier, John, Jr.: July/Aug., p. 15 

Colher, John, Sr.: July/Aug., p. 14 

Collier, Malcolm: Julv/Aug., p. 15 

Condit, CarlW.: Feb., p. 20 

Cornell University Laboratory of Ornith- 
ology: Apr., p. 5 

cotton bollworm: Apr., p. 9 

cotton budworm: Apr., p. 9 

cougar (California): Sept., p. 15 

cowrie shells: Nov., p. 12 

Craft, Kinuko Y.: March, p. 16 

crocodile, American: Jan., p. 16 

Cukers, Velta (volunteer): March, p. 15 

Daley, Richard J.: Jan. p. 22 

Davis, Charles: Feb., p. 20 

DeBlase, Alyce( volunteer): March, p. 14 

Dentalium (shell money): Nov., p. 6 

Desmond, Adrian: July/Aug., p. 14 

De Visser, John : June, p. 2 

Draeger, Harlan: Feb., p. 20 

Drews, Lucy A. (staff): Nov., p. SB 

Duke, Gary: July/Aug., p. 16 

Dutch elm disease: July/Aug., p. 12 

Eckley, Alice (volunteer): March, p. 15 

Eichholtz, Gretchen (staff): Feb., p. 22 

Ekman, Anne (volunteer): March, p. 15 

ElMisti: Oct., p. 4 

elk: Apr., p. 3 

Elm Research Institute: July/Aug., p. 12 

endangered species, breeders of: Sept., p. 16 

Engel, John ( staff) : July/Aug., p. 9 

Eppler, Myra: May, p. 13 

Erdman, Lee (volunteer): Sept., p. 7 

Ericksen, Bob: Feb., p. 20 

Ericksen, Joan Root: Feb., p. 20 

Eskimo pipes stolen: Apr., p. 18; Sept., p. 8 

Estrada, Rolando: Oct., p. 4 

European elm bark beetle (Scolytis mul- 
tistriatus): July/Aug., p. 12 

falconry: Apr., p. 7 

False Face Society: Apr., p. 16; July/Aug., 
p. 17 

Fay, John J. (staff): Nov.,p.8B 

fish, bhnd cave: Jan., p. 6 

fisher (W. Virginia): July/Aug., p. 11 

Formative period (Ecuador): June, p. 3 

Foster, Robin B.: Feb., p. 22 

Gayford, Peter (volunteer): March, p. 14 

gemstones, (diagram): July/Aug., p. 3 

Ghost Dance: Nov., p. 8A 

Gilpin, Orville( staff): March, p. 16 

golden eagle: Apr., p. 5 

grackle: Apr., p. 5 

Great Meteorite Hunt, The: July/Aug., p. 7 

Grigelaitis, Victoria ( staff) : Nov. , p. 8B 

Grove, Sam (staff): July/Aug., p. 12 

Grutzmacher, Harold M. (staff): July/Aug., 

p. 15 
Gurewitz, Sol (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Haldane, J. B. S.: June, p. 12 
Hall, Johns.: March, p. 5 
Hawaii creeper: Jan., p. 6 
Hicks, Robert (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Hirsch, Harry G.: March, p. 16; Nov.,p. 8B 
Horicon National Wildhfe Refuge: Apr., p. 4 
Hubbard, Gurdon S.: May, p. 4 
Humbard, Dave (volunteer): Sept., p. 8 
Hutchinson, G. E.: June, p. 12 
Huysmans, Fred (staff): Apr., p. 11; Sept.. 

p. 2, 3 
Hyalophora cecropia: July/Aug., p. 3 
ichu grass: Oct., p. 7 
Illinois Arts Council: March, p. 14 
litis, Hugh H.: Feb., p. 20 
Indiana bat {Myotis sodalis): March, p. 4 
Japanese language museum guide: Nov., 

p. 8C 
Jim Ella: May, p. 13 
Jordan, Julia (volunteer): March, p. 15 
Juniperella mirabilis: June, p. 13 
Keller, Laurel E. (staff): July/Aug., p. 8 
Kennedy, Helen (staff): March, p. 15 
Kennicott Club: Feb., p. 22 
Kethley, John (staff): July/Aug., p. 9; Feb., 

p. 22 
King Tut: Dec, special issue on Tutank- 

Kinzie, Juliette: May, p. 6 
Kirtland's warbler: Jan., p. 16 
Klein, Lawrence (staff): Feb., p. 22 
Klepinger, Linda: June, p. 6 
KnuU, Dorothy (Mrs. Joseph N.): June, p. 13 
KnuU, Joseph N.: June, p. 12 
Kosky, Laurie (volunteer): March, p. 15 
Lambeosaurus: March, p. 16 
Langford, George (staff): Feb., p. 10 
Lauf, William J. (staff): Feb., p. 22 
Laufer, Berthold (staff): Feb., p. 3; Oct., 

p. 10 
Lewis, Phillip, named chairman of Depart- 
ment of Anthropology: Jan., p. 22 
Liebman, Elizabeth (staff): July/Aug., p. 9 
LignasanBLP: July/Aug., p. 12 
Linsley, E. Gorton: June, p. 13 
little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus): March, 

p. 4 
Lukoschus, Fritz: July/Aug., p. 8 
Lundelius, Ernst: July/Aug., p. 9 
MacBride, J. Francis (staff— obit.): Sept., 

p. 18 
de Macedo, Hernando: Oct., p. 4 
Machalilla: June, p. 4 

MacLeod, Stewart (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Malone, Robert: June, p. 10 
marine turtles: Sept., p. 14 

membership: Feb., p. 22; Nov., p. 8C 
meteorites: July/Aug., p. 7 
Metric Conversion Act: Sept., p. 13 
metric system: Sept., p. 12 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act: July/Aug., p. 16 
Mockler, Walter (volunteer): March, p. 14 
monarch butterfly: Oct., p. 2 
money: Nov., pp. 1-15 
Mortimer, Mike (staff): Oct., p. 3 
Moseley, Michael E. (staff): Nov., p. 8B 
mourning dove: Sept., p. 14 
Mudloff, Carol (volunteer): Sept. p. 7 
Mueller, Le Moyne (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Myotis lucifugus (little brown bat): March, 

p. 4 
Myotis sodalis (Indiana bat): March, p. 4 
National Science Foundation: July/Aug., 

p. 9 
native elm bark beetle {Hylurgopinus ru- 

fipes): July/Aug., p. 12 
Nebkheperura (King Tutankhamun): Dec, 

p. 3 
Nelson, Nancy (volunteer): Sept., p. 7 
Newell's Manx shearwater: Jan., p. 16 
Nordhouse (Mich.) Dunes Area: Apr., p. 9 
Nyctosaurus gracilis: May, p. 17 
O'Brien, John (volunteer): March, p. 14 
ohve trees: Oct., p. 17 

Olsen, Edward, named chairman of Depart- 
ment of Geology: Jan., p. 22 
Onyx Bridge: Feb., p. 13 
Oryzomys (rice rats): Oct. p. 4 
Osborne, Effie: May, p. 13 
Osborne, Sam; May, p. 13 
osprey: Apr., p. 5 
Paling, John : Nov., p. 8B 
."aliner, James: June, p. 14 
Paragould meteorite: Feb., p. 18 
passenger pigeon: May, p. 7 
Payne, Roger: Nov., p. 8B 
PCBs: July/Aug., p. 10 
pele: Nov.. p. 12 

peninsular pronghorn antelope: Jan., p. 16 
"People Who Start Pollution Award": Apr., 

p. 9 
Perci'na fanas/ (snail darter fish): Sept., p. 16 
peregrine falcon: Apr., p. 7; Sept., p. 17 
Peru: Oct., p. 3 

Petersen, Glenn (staff): Sept., p. 8 
Petrification: Feb., p. 12 
Petrified Forest National Park: Feb., p. 1, 13 
Phacops rana milleri: March, p. 2 
Phyllotis darwini: Oct., p. 4 
pig money (birok ): Nov., p. 5 
poUen: Sept., p. 3 
Po'ouli: Jan., p. 16 
Polylepis: Oct., p. 7 
Price, Laurie: July/Aug., p. 9 
Pteranodon: May, p. 15 
pterodactyl: May, p. 15 
pterosaur: May, p. 15; June, p. 10 
puna: Oct., p. 7 
Pgymy Society: Apr., p. 17 
Quercus borealis: July/Aug., p. 3 
"Quiet Day": Apr., p. 9 
Rabb, George: Feb., p. 20 
Rada, M. E. (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Ralte, Lalchumi (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Raptor Rehabilitation Center (U. of Minn.): 

July/Aug., p. 16 
Real Alto, Ecuador: June, p. 3 
red oak: July/Aug., p. 3 
red-tailed hawk: Apr., p. 8 


rehabilitation of Field Museum: Apr., p. 1 1 

Resetar, Alan (staff): Nov., p. 8B 

Rettig. Cheryl: Feb.. p. 20 

Rettig. Neil: Feb.. p. 20 

Rhamphorhynchus: May. p. 2. 17 

Samuelson. Bonnie (volunteer): Sept.. p. 8 

scanning electron microscope: Apr., p. 9, 11 

Schneider. Ahce (volunteer): March, p. 14 

SchoU. Carol (staff): Nov.. p. SB 

Schmidt, Karl P. (staff ): Feb.. p. 19 

Scioto madtom: Jan.. p. 16 

sea turtles: Sept.. p. 14 

SEM: Apr., p. 9, 11 

Shanower. Ann (volunteer): March, p. 15 

shell money: Nov.. p. 11 

Sipiera. Paul: July/Aug.. p. 7 

snail darter fish {Percina tanasi): Jan.. p. 16; 

Sept.. p. 16 
snails: July/Aug.. p. 10 
sodium cyanide poison for covotes: Jan.. 

p. 17 " 
Spanish language museum guide: Nov.. p. 8C 
starling: Apr., p. 5 
Stevenson, Dorothy (volunteer): March, 

p. 14 
Stoneburg. Beth (volunteer): Sept., p. 8 
Street. Janice (Mrs. William S.): July/Aug.. 

p. 8: Oct., p. 3 
Street, William S.: July/Aug., p. 8; Oct., p. 3 
Sudan: Oct., p. 12 

Swarthchild, James (volunteer): March, p. 14 
Tax, Sol: May, p. 12 
temperature, global: Apr., p. 8 
1080: Apr., p. 8 

Terrel. John (staff): Oct.. p. 10 
Thomas. Jacob: July/Aug.. p. 17 
tola: Oct.. p. 7 

tridacna as money: Nov., p. 3 
trilobites: March, p. 2. 6 
Turnbull. William (staff): July/Aug., p. 9. 14 
turtle, marine: Jan.. p. 17 
Tutankhamun: Deep. 3 
Tutankhaton: Dec. p. 3 
Validivia: June. p. 4 
Vandahsm on natural resource lands: July/ 

Aug.. p. 11 
VanStone. James (staff): Sept.. p. 8 
Vespula germanica: Jan., p. 16 
vitamin C: Sept., p. 15 
Voris, Harold, Kennicott Club speaker: Jan., 

p. 22 
Voris, Helen (volunteer): March, p. 14 
wampum: Nov., p. 12 
Webber, E. Leland (staff): Jan., p. 22: March, 

p. 15 
Wellnhofer, Peter: May, p. 2 
Wermuth, Karen: June, p. 10 
whale pictures and poems, exhibit of: May. 

p. 8 
White. John (staff): May, p. 12,13 
Whitmer. La Donna (volunteer): March. 

p. 15 
Wild Horse and Burro Act of 1971: Apr., 

p. 3; Sept., p. 17 
wild horses: Apr., p. 3: Sept., p. 17 
Williams, Kevin (staff): May, p. 12, 13 
Wing, Ehzabeth: June, p. 5 
Winter, Blair (volunteer): March, p. 14 
wolves (Alaska): July/Aug., p. 11 
wolves (Mexican): July/Aug., p. 13 
Wounded Knee: Nov., p. 8A 
Wovoka: Nov., p. 8A 

A Major Operation 

(The following article first appeared in the 
May, 1932. Field Museum News (former 
name of the Bulletin^ and was written by 
Berthold Laufer. then curator of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. The stone turtle may 
still be seen in Hall 24. ) 

In this time of reductions, when the weight 
of ladies, income, wages, and almost every- 
thing except taxes is reduced, the following 
story may merit rescue from obUvion. 

Although the incident is posted on a 
label explaining an exhibit at the north end 
of the East Gallery (George T. and Frances 
Gaylord Smith Hall), many visitors to the 
Museum may have missed their chance to 
read a curious story. The exhibition case in 
question contains a single large monu- 
ment—a huge turtle sculptured from stone 
as the support of a tablet inscribed in 
Chinese. This turtle has been in existence 
for exactly 1,190 years. 

In 1908 when traveling in China and 
Tibet on behalf of Field Museum, I spent 
several months at Si-an-fu, the center of 
the ancient Chinese civilization. One day 
this turtle was carried into my courtyard by 
four men of herculean physique. It is 
carved from a solid block of stone, and it 
then weighed about 1,200 pounds. Immedi- 
ately the thought of the cost of its trans- 
portation to Chicago loomed in my mind 
and was a source of great concern to me. 

Five hundred large boxes filled with 
numerous antiques had already accumu- 
lated as the result of my treasure hunts, and 

were awaiting transportation on mule carts 
to Honan-fu, the nearest railroad center 
(present seat of the Chinese government). 

It was a journey of from eight to ten days 
(depending on weather and road conditions) 
to reach that point. The normal freight rate 
at that time was $8 per cart, but unscrupu- 
lous speculators took advantage of my situa- 
tion and drove the price up to $18. intimi- 
dating the muleteers, who were kept away 
from me. It took two weeks of negotiations 
to break this conspiracy, and little assistance 
was received from the local government, 
which was powerless against these rack- 

The turtle therefore had to be reduced 
in weight to save expenses, not only in trans- 
portation on the mule carts, but also in rail- 
road freight from Honan to Hankow, in 
steamer freight on the Yangtse from Han- 
kow to Shanghai, and finally on the ocean 
steamer from Shanghai to Seattle. I hired 
two stonecutters who for three weeks oper- 
ated on the turtle, pounding on its belly, 
boring into its interior and hollowing its 
entrails out, removing masses of superfluous 
stone to the extent of 460 pounds. This re- 
ducing process resulted in a savings of 
several hundred dollars in the cost of trans- 
porting it to Chicago. 

Although now reduced to 740 pounds, 
the good turtle has not changed its ap- 
pearance or equanimity. It still is as com- 
plete, robust, and steadfast as before. Ac- 
cording to Chinese belief, the turtle is an em- 
blem of longevity, strength, and endurance, 
and is reputed to reach an age up to three 
thousand years. 

Stnne turtle, on view in Hall 24. 


January at Field Museum 


The Place for Wonder. Visit the newly opened The Place for Wonder 
gallery. Open to visitors of all ages, this room provides a "hands- 
on" approach to numerous natural history specimens and artifacts. 
The gallery is staffed by museum volunteers and is open to the 
public: weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; weekends, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 
Ground floor. 


Japanese Noh Drama Performance. Thursday, January 27, high 
school and college-age persons are invited to a demonstration/per- 
formance of the ancient Japanese noh drama, Sotoba Komachi— a 
tale of demons. This multi-media demonstration is performed at 10 
a.m. and repeated at 11 a.m. and 1:15 p.m. in Simpson Theatre, 
ground floor. Reservations are necessary for admittance. Write 
Group Programs, Field Museum. 


I Wear the Morning Star. Exhibit of garments and objects designed 
by Western Plains Indians for the Ghost Dance, a pacifistic reli- 
gious movement borne of one man's impressive visions and adapted 
by 30 tribes in the late 19th century. Hall 9. Through Feb. 6. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This exhibit of 38 artifacts 
is a great way to learn that economic and social roles of the sexes 
are not universally the same. South Lounge, 2nd floor. No closing 

Man in His Environment takes a global view of some of the most 
serious environmental problems confronting all mankind and asks 
visitors to involve themselves in these problems — and the need for 
solution. Hall 18. No closing date. 

Pliny's Natural History: The First Encyclopedia. Two rare editions 
(1513 and 1530) of Pliny the Elder's work — viewed today as an 
astonishing mixture of fact and fiction— are on view in the South 
Lounge, 2nd floor. No closing date. 

Pterosaur. A stylized model of the largest known flying creature— 
an extinct pterosaur — dramatizes a special exhibit of pterosaur fos- 
sils; Northwest Arcade, 2nd floor. No closing date. 


Saturday Discovery Programs. Saturdays, 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.; take 
tours, follow demonstrations, participate in museum-related activi- 

Winter Journey for Children: "All that Glitters." Throughout the 
ages, gold and silver have made poor men rich, built their empires, 
and filled everyone's teeth. A free, self-guided tour explores these 
elements and their properties. All children who can read and write 
are invited to participate; families will enjoy it too. Journey sheets 
available at information booth. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Resumes Jan. 17. Members of the 
North Shore Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning 
every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. South 
Lounge, 2nd floor. 


Jan. 4,7 
Jan. 7,8 
Jan. 11,7 
Jan. 11,8 
Jan. 12,7 
Jan. 12,7 

30 p.m. Kennicott Club 

00 p.m. Chicago Anthropological Society 

30 p.m. Chicago Nature Camera Club 

00 p.m. Chicagoland Glider Council 

00 p.m. Chicago Ornithological Society 

30 p.m. Windy City Grotto, National Speleological 

Jan. 13, 8:00 p.m. Chicago Mountaineering Club 

Jan. 18, 7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 


The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 4 p.m. weekdays and 5 
p.m. weekends. On Friday s, year-round, the museum is open to 9 
p.m. Food service areas are open weekdays 11 a.m. to 3 p.m., week- 
ends to 4 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through Fri- 
day (closed Jan. 3). Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum Telephone: 922-9410 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 


.^ « 

^jS.'^- ^. ^ 


*- "l 


Field Museum 

of Natural History 


February, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 2 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


Blaine J. Yarrington. chairmar 

George R. Baker 

Gordon Bent 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Stanton R. Cook 

O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson. Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley H 

Marshall Field 

Nicholas Galitzine 

Paul W. Goodrich 

Remick McDowell 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

William H. MitcheU 

Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 

James J. O'Connor 

James H. Ransom 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

John S. Runnells 

William L. Searle 

Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 

Robert H. Strotz 

John W. Sullivan 

William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

E. Leland Webber 

Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 


Valcamonica: World's Richest Treasury of Rock 

by Lois Bolton Lundy 

The Return of the Fisher 

by Roger A. Powell 

13 "Treasures of Tutankhamun" Dinner-Lecture Series 

14 Letters from Antarctica, 1976-77 

by Edward Olsen 

16 Books: Legion of Night, 

A study of the moth genus Catocala, by Theodore D. 

17 Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

18 Field Briefs 

back February at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 


A Roman cinerary urn from the 1st century A.D. Cinerary 
ash urns have a wide distribution, and are known from 
tombs in France, Germany, Italy, central Europe, Spain, 
Syria, and Egypt. Vases of this type were also used for 
household purposes. Some have been discovered with rem- 
nants of oil or fruit still inside. Others, containing the ashes 
of the dead, have come from ancient columbaria (vaults for 
urns). Glass cinerary urns were used from about the 1st cen- 
tury B.C. to about the middle of the 3rd century A.D., when 
cremation was superseded by burial in large sarcophagi. 

The type of glass vase shown here was made by forming 
molten glass sheets into tubes or by pressing such a sheet 
into a mold. Upon exposure to air and moist earth, glass 
deteriorates progressively deeper from the exposed surface. 
The upper area separates into layers and the inner parts 
granulate or pulverize. The iridescence— due to the separate 
thin layers of the surface allowing Ught to refract from 
layer to layer as in a prism— is prized for its beauty. Since 
some types of ancient glass do not develop iridescence, this 
characteristic is often useful in the identification and study 
of a given piece. Height: 37.2 cm, width: 29.8 cm. Cat. No. 
24606. Photo by Ron Testa. 

—Joyce A. Korbecki 

scientific assistant 

Department of Anthropology 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive. Chicago. Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: S6 a year: $3 a year for schools. 
Members of the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the poUcy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IlUnois 60605. 
ISSN: 001.5-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, III, 

Bronze Age carving of elk foundat Cemmo 

Copyright = Centro Camuno Preis 

Valcamonica: World's Richest Treasury of Rock Carvings 

Bv Lois Bolton Lundy 

The richest concentration of rock art known in 
Europe today is to be found in a narrow, 75- 
kilometer-long valley of the Oglio River in 
the central Alpine area north of Brescia, in Lom- 
bardy, Italy. Some 130,000 engravings, discovered 
over a 20-year period, represent only an estimated 
15 to 20 percent of the area's total treasures. Be- 
cause of the enormous number of engravings, their 
superb state of preservation, and the clear stylistic 
identification of the epochs to which they belong, 
they comprise an important aid to understanding 
man's artistic, cultural, social, economic, and even 
political evolution. These rock carvings amount to 

Lois Bolton Lundy is a former Field Museum staff member now 
living in Italy. 

an almost continuous 8,000-year-old diary of the 
daily life of the Camunian people from prehistory to 
the Roman occupation and beyond. 

In the heart of the valley's rock-carving area is 
the village of Capo di Monte, where the Camunian 
Center for Prehistoric Studies (Centro Camuno di 
Studi Pristorici) is headquartered. The staff of the 
center, founded in 1964, is engaged in various 
aspects of archeological research, including explora- 
tion and laboratory analysis of carvings, as well as 
pubhshing, exhibitions, and seminars; the center 
also houses one of the world's most comprehensive 
libraries on rock art. 

"Prehistoric research," observes Emmanuel 
Anati, director of the center, "contains all the 
premises to change our own lifestyles. Since it is 

%^'-* '■*- -- '-'^ 


"-^N !■' t.' 

^ ^P- -^«^'^ ^^^^^-^^ 

Battle scene found at Naquane 

Photo courtesy Lois Bolton Lundy 

about man, his past, and his behavior, it concerns 
every one of us. It loses interest when the archaeolo- 
gist and his followers see only objects to catalog or 
describe, without making any historical reconstruc- 
tion. We're looking into the past to find the meaning 
of the present. In historic expression of human life. 

we search out the essence of a destiny uniting all 
men. We're looking for an identity and definition of 
our era and our society through continuous close 
contact with the vestiges of history." 


The rock-carvings of Valcamonica are divided 
into six periods, starting from a Pre-Boreal stage 
some 10,000 years ago and continuing to the Sub- 
Atlantic age on the eve of Romanization of the area 
in the first century B.C. Epi-Paleolithic hunting 
peoples etched images of animals, mainly elk, onto 
the rock — an exercise that may have been part of a 
ritual to ensure a successful hunt. Subsequent 
changes in style and subject matter reflect new 
material and ideological influences on the human 

The evolution of art does not appear to follow a 
linear development. Each phase tends to reflect con- 
temporary influences rather than a development out 
of the artistic style of previous generations. From 
the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age, elements of style 
can be analyzed as a search for expression, syn- 
thesis, simplification, or symbolizing of shapes. 
Each period reflects the aesthetic and intellectual 
values of the age, while the style and range of sub- 
ject matter, the composition, and the artist's selec- 
tion of area on the rock face indicate ideological- 
conceptual needs, together with the social, eco- 
nomic, and technological level of artists of the 

Why Valcamonica? 

When the valley's huge Pleistocene glacier re- 
treated between 12,000 and 10,000 years ago, it left 
rock fashioned in fascinating, provocative shapes. 
Not only were the shapes a stimulus to man's imagi- 
nation, but the glacier-smoothed surfaces were a 
clear invitation to self-expression. The Pre-Boreal 
climatic stage, which signaled the introduction of 
human life in Valcamonica, lasted approximately 
from 8,000 to 7,000 B.C. As temperatures rose and 
pine trees and birches began to grow in the valley, 
bands of hunters came in search of animal prey. 
These hunters are responsible for the oldest carv- 
ings in the area. At that time, fauna was still of a 
Pleistocene type, and elk, the largest member of the 
deer family, dominated this early period of rock 
carvings. As temperatures continued to rise in the 
successive Boreal period, and vegetation increased, 
the subarctic fauna which had occupied the valley 
for thousands of years began to disappear and 
various types of deer and wild goats appeared. 

After a new cold spell — between 6,000 and 5,000 
B.C.— which seems to have precluded human habi- 
tation in the valley, a new human presence returned 
in the Atlantic climatic period, a little before 5,000 
B.C. It was the beginning of a generally warm, 
humid period in which man turned from the search 
for food to the production of food. The Camunians of 
this period put more emphasis on agriculture and in- 
troduced innovations into their own culture. This 
Atlantic period was followed by a cooling-off period, 
the Sub-Boreal stage, which lasted from 3,000 to 800 
B.C. Fir trees, alders, pines, and oaks, in the lower 
altitudes, flourished while fields covered the valley. 
This was the period of maximum cultural, and per- 
haps even demographic development, among the 

From then on, there have been only minor clima- 
tic variations, with hot and cold spells occurring 
every 200 to 300 years, right down to the present 
day. Throughout all of these periods, the natural en- 
vironment, the climate, the flora and fauna, and the 
economic resources shaped man's thinking, be- 
havior and lifestyle. And rock art was a physical 
manifestation of man's reaction to his existence in 
this world. 

areas and the natural cracks of the rock. All the 
characteristics of the engravings are thus rendered 
clearly evident and the differences in marks left by 
various instruments may be clearly distinguished. 
It also permits analysis of figure overlapping as a 
means of establishing stratigraphy. 

The coloration also serves a protective function: 
the coloring used inhibits the growth of lichens and 
other organisms which otherwise readily attach to 
the surface. These organisms, which constitute one 
of the main causes of decay, are unable to grow on 
the rocks. Coloration also allows the observer to 
look at the carvings as they were seen by prehistoric 
man. The presence of coloring materials at the foot 
of some rocks and traces of colors in a few engrav- 
ings indicate that prehistoric man colored his en- 
gravings. Deterioration accounts for their present 
uncolored appearance. The chromatic contrast is 
generally created by using black and white, though 
prehistoric man used yellow, red, brown, green, and 
violet as well. When the "neutral" (so-called be- 
cause it eliminates personal interpretation) treat- 


Exploration and discovery is the culmination of 
a lengthy process that starts with observation of 
preselected areas, aerial photographs, and the geo- 
logical study of rocks appearing there. The pre- 
historic Camunian artist's favorite rock was fine- 
grain, Permian sandstone. The locations where this 
rock appears are naturally the first to be examined 
by archaeologists, although carvings may also be 
found on granite, conglomerate, and on schist — 
which means the whole valley must be explored. 
When carvings are found, the rocks must be cleaned 
and washed, the degree of deterioration studied, re- 
maining incrustations examined, and the rock docu- 

Many of the carvings were made with a pecking 
technique, which involved hammering on the sur- 
face with a pointed tool to create pock-marked areas 
and lines. There are also threadlike carvings made 
by scratching. Many of these are often invisible if 
the rock is not properly cleaned, so it was essential 
to find a way to provide a clearly legible and copi- 
able surface. This minimized the possibility of errors 
in personal interpretation. When rock carvings are 
not clear enough to be seen by the naked eye, a prep- 
aration of "neutral" color is applied to bring the 
carvings into relief. This coloration method puts the 
smooth surfaces in chromatic contrast to the pecked 

Iron Age stela at the Camuno Center 

Photo courtesy Lois Bolton Lundy 

merit is finished, the rock is ready for examination. 
Documentation then proceeds with a survey, 
tracings, photographs, and analysis of hammering 
and overlappings. This procedure leads to a study of 
all the data available on the rock surface. 

The great advantage of the life-size integral 
tracing is that it gives one the opportunity to define 
every mark on the rock, to the point of even dis- 
tinguishing between individual peck marks. From 
the tracing, used as a record and integral part of re- 
search, the crucial analytical factors of the carving 
become apparent. It is possible to tell which of the 
marks were man-made, which occurred naturally, 
and whether natural cracks and forms were used by 
the carver as part of his engraving. One may deter- 
mine whether a sketch was made prior to carving, 
what type of color was used, and the raw materials 
employed. Tracing often means reenacting the 
artist's original work, which leads to definition of 
the steps employed in the carving. Almost every 
rock, out of more than 800 recorded in recent years 
in Valcamonica. is full of innumerable details which 
the eye and mind of the researcher might not have 
picked up in their full significance without the pre- 
liminary treatment and time-consuming tracing. 


The analysis of such a huge number of engraved 
rocks, recorded over the course of 20 years, creates 
a cultural context for the Camunian artist. All the 
elements of each single phase of existence are 
examined in order to reconstruct the artist's daily 
life: the technological level, arms and common tools, 
domestic animals bred, wild animals hunted, eco- 
nomic activities, beliefs, mythology, religion, family 
Hfe, community work division, and the sociopolitical 
structure. One notes the new factors that entered 
into the culture over the course of thousands of 
years, making it increasingly more complex and dis- 

The study in Valcamonica permits reconstruc- 
tion of 8,000 years of cultural evolution from the ar- 
rival of the first bands of Epi-Paleolithic hunters 
through the various stages of tribal life, each with 
its own innovations, activities, and beliefs until 
the advent of the Romans and beyond. The eight- 
millenium sequence reveals the cultural processes 
which led to such a change in our existence — from a 
society made up of small bands of hunters to our 
contemporary civilization. □ 

Copyright ^ Centro Can 

Above and below: Bronze Age compositions 

Cupyright ' Centro Camuno Preis 

The author, followed by his Newfoundland, searching out fishers in Upper Michigan. '"'"'"« ""'""v "/''"• """""■ 

The Return of the Fisher 

By Roger A. Powell 

The first time I saw a fisher — a large member 
of the weasel family — I was driving down an old 
logging road in Superior National Forest, in north- 
eastern Minnesota. A black object appeared at the 
edge of the road, streaked across in front of my jeep, 
and disappeared before I could even think "fisher." 
There is nothing particularily exciting about my ex- 
perience, nothing unique or strange. The same scene 
occurs now and then to people in the woods 
wherever the fisher is found. It is becoming a more 
frequent (though still infrequent) scene in the 
western Upper Peninsula of Michigan. But this 
experience was a reinforcing factor which helped to 
convince me that I should study the fisher. 

Since Autumn, 1973, I have been living in 
Ottawa National Forest, located in Michigan's 
Upper Peninsula and studying fisher ecology and 
behavior. The main thrust of my work has been to 

estimate the amount of energy that fishers burn up 
while running through the woods on their daily 
routine and consequently to determine how much 
food a fisher must eat in order to replace the energy 
burned. I have used a variety of laboratory tech- 
niques and much modern technology ( oxygen analy- 
sis, calorimetry, radio telemetry) but the largest 
part of my data has been collected by means of such 
old-time equipment as a dog sled to haul gear and 
such old-time techniques as tracking in the snow. 

During the winter, animals in northern climates 
leave trails in the snow which are much like books 
waiting to be read. I obtain a great deal of satisfac- 
tion from following animal tracks and determining 
what the animal I am following has been doing. If 

Roger A. Powell is a graduate student at the University of 

you were to accompany me in the woods one winter 
afternoon, you might have an experience much like 
the following. 

Imagine that we are snowshoeing down an old 
unplowed logging road; it is still early winter and 
the snow is no deeper than 18 inches, so one of my 
Newfoundland dogs accompanies us for the fun of 
it. The dogs' major job is to haul traps, bait, and 
other gear and to haul fishers out of the woods 
when they have been live-trapped, but the dogs like 
to come along on hikes, too. We are lucky and before 
travelling too far, find a fresh fisher track crossing 
the logging road. By determining which direction 
the five toes on each foot point, we can tell the direc- 
tion the fisher was travelling. 

The track first leads downhill through open 
hardwood forest. Frequently the track goes along 
the tops of fallen trees, into hollow logs, and over 
old stumps. (Was he trying to get a better view of 
the forest from on top of a stump?) Fresh scratches 
on the bark of a tree and bark scrapings in the snow 
indicate that the fisher climbed a tree. The track re- 
sumes some ten feet from the tree, showing that the 
fisher jumped as he came down. Like squirrels, 
fishers can turn their hind feet around and come 
down a tree head-first. 

Next, the track leads us into a thick spruce bog. 
Whereas the track went in a fairly straight line in 
the hardwood forest, now it hardly goes five feet 
without changing direction. The fisher must have 
snooped under and between each of the spruce trees 
looking for snowshoe hares, the tracks of which can 
be seen all over the bog. At the far side of the bog is 
a patch of thick alder which also has many hare 
tracks. The fisher track leads us through the alder 
very much as it led us through the spruce — lots of 
turns, lots of over-and-under. It must have been 
easier for the fisher to get through the thick tangle 
of alder than for us on showshoes. 

Once through the alder, the fisher track begins 
to go uphill through more hardwoods. The going 
gets easier for us again, as the hardwood forest is 
fairly open. At one point the track makes a short 
"z" pattern just before a ten-inch-deep hole the 
fisher dug in the snow. Close scrutiny shows that 
there is a little spot of blood in the hole and some 
short hair at the bottom: the fisher caught a mouse. 
A short way further on is another hole in the snow, 
and this one is surrounded by feathers. There are 
only a few feathers, though, and no blood, so the 
fisher must have cleaned up the leftovers of a ruffed 
grouse killed by some other predator. 

One mouse and a leftover grouse are hardly 
enough to satisfy a hungry fisher, which can devour 
an entire snowshoe hare in one sitting. Such a meal 

is enough to last a fisher for two to four days, and a 
fisher which catches a hare will usually take a long 
nap after dinner. The fisher we are following con- 
tinues through the hardwoods in almost a straight 
line. A few zigzags here and there to snoop into 
hollow logs or run along fallen trees do not change 
his basic direction of travel. This sort of travel is so 
completely different from the travel in the bog that 
one might be surprised that it is the same animal. 
But after half to three-quarters of a mile of running 
through hardwood forest, the fisher track leads us 
right up to a porcupine den in a large hollow tree. 
The tracks get confusing here, because the fisher 
ran up and down the trails left by the porcupine go- 
ing to and from his den tree and feeding trees. Old 
porcupine trails and fresh porcupine tracks make 

"Like all members of the weasel family, fishers are curious: they 
like to inspect and to get a good view of everything that catche<< 

'Head of male fisher raised by Powell 

"Two fisher kits at about nine weeks. At 
this age. kits have had their eyes open for 
only one tc two weeks and they are not com- 
pletely weaned. Between eight and ten 
weeks of age these hand-raised fishers were 
fed a mash made from finely ground veni- 
son and a commercial milk formula. They 
regularly made a mess of themselves with 
the mash, and Kaloosit. our Newfoundland, 
cleaned their faces, a tongue being a better 
cleaner than a wash cloth. After ten weeks, 
they ate road-killed mammals and birds and 
live-trapped mammals. They were not able 
to kill a snoivshoe hare, however, until 
four months of age. " y 

v*«*7 j:. 


■•/ carefully c<u . r ,, /;, ,,';,;/). " says Powell, shown here. "This is for a fisher to snoop. Fishers are excitable, and I had two fishers 

mainly to keep the fisher calm and warm. Fishers like to snoop chew. bite, and claw their way through the traps, which are made 

into cavelike places, so a trap that simulates a hollow log or the of welded. 12-gauge steel wire. Covering the trap, rnaking a dark, 

space under a spruce or fir tree made by snow is a natural place warm place for the fisher, keeps the animal calmer" 

the fisher track hard to discern. The porcupine can- 
not be seen up in the nearby trees where the 
branches freshly stripped of bark show where he has 
been feeding. But a pound on the big opening of the 
den tree produces scratchy rustles far up inside the 
hollow tree as the porcupine moves further up and 
away from us. The fisher probably came by while 
the porcupine was up in a feeding tree. He could not 
kill the porcupine in the tree, so he went his way. 
The porcupine later came down out of the feeding 
tree and went into the hollow den tree, in which he is 
also safe. His daily winter schedule consists mostly 
of walking to his feeding trees in the early evening, 
eating during the night, and returning to his den in 
the morning. 

Every once in a while a fisher will find a porcu- 
pine travelling from its den tree to a feeding tree. 
Under these circumstances the fisher has a chance 
of killing the porcupine. The weasel-shaped fisher is 
small enough and quick enough so that while 
circling the porcupine it can jump in whenever the 

opportunity arises and bite the porcupine on the 
face, where there are few quills. Then the fisher will 
jump back again before the porcupine can counter- 
attack with its tail. The fisher is large enough to 
make a bad wound with each bite on the face. 
Several such wounds on the face during the course 
of thirty to forty-five minutes will slow down the 
porcupine so that the fisher can turn it over and be- 
gin to dine at the chest and belly. The myth that 
fishers turn porcupines over and kill them by biting 
the belly probably originated from observations of 
fisher-killed porcupines which had been eaten 
starting at the belly. A Httle common sense will 
show us that the porcupine has to be killed first in 
order to be turned over; thus, the attack at the un- 
protected face. When a porcupine gets old and very 
large, attacks on the face do not quickly weaken it. 
A few test attacks lets a fisher know that such a 
big porcupine may be too hard to kill to be worth 
the effort. 

In order to pick up the fisher track again, we 


make a wide circle around the porcupine den tree 
and find where the fisher track leaves the porcupine 
trails. Again the track begins to lead downhill 
towards a spruce bog. We find another old logging 
road and decide that three hours of tracking over 
two miles is enough for one afternoon, and hike back 
out of the woods on the road. In the back of our 
minds, though, we think that perhaps if we had 
followed the fisher a little further we might have 
found where he caught something to eat. Or we 
might have found where he curled up in a hole in a 
tree to rest up a bit before moving on, still hunting. 
This track has been fairly typical, though, in that we 
followed the fisher for a fair distance and have 
found no evidence that he got a good meal. Obvious- 
ly, the fishers in the Upper Peninsula do get enough 
to eat, for their population is well established and 
reproducing itself. This fisher just had to run fur- 
ther to find a meal than we were wilUng to hike. 

Fishers are native to north America and their 
original species range extended as far south as Geor- 
gia in the Appalachian Mountains, southern Illinois 
in the central forests, and California in the West. 
They could be found in most of northern North 
America, where there was an extensive continuous 
forest canopy. But by the early part of this century, 
the fisher had vanished from most of its range in 
the United States. Extensive logging had destroyed 
the vast forests, and trappers had overharvested 
their populations to obtain the beautiful and val- 
uable pelts. With such a two-pronged attack, the 
fisher retreated to Canadian forests, which were 
less populated and less logged. 

Strangely enough, logging also facilitated the 
return of the fisher to some of its former range. By 
the 1950s, porcupine populations in Upper Peninsu- 
la Michigan had grown so high that they caused 
significant damage to the timber crop. Porcupines 
had also become a nuisance at cabins and summer 
homes where they chewed on such items as ax han- 
dles and boat seats to obtain salt. Because the fisher 
is the only predator which consistently preys on 
porcupines, the Michigan Department of Natural 
Resources and the United States Forest Service 
cooperated to release 61 fishers live-trapped in 
northern Minnesota in the hope that the fishers 
would establish themselves, reproduce, and even- 
tually reduce the high porcupine population. Ottawa 
National Forest proved to be good fisher habitat, 
and everything desired from the release has 
occurred. Work done by a colleague and myself 
shows that fishers reduced the porcupine popula- 
tion to nearly one fourth of its size in the late 1950s 

and in the early 1960s. Work done by another 
graduate student appears to show that the porcu- 
pines have acquired a healthy reproducing popula- 
tion that is no longer top-heavy with old individuals. 
Porcupines now appear to be performing a natural 
function of slowly pruning the forest: killing trees 
in the forest by eating bark, thus opening small 
areas of forest to early successional trees. At normal 
population levels, porcupines help to maintain the 
diversity of species and ages of trees in the forest. 

Although fishers and porcupines have many 
adaptations which show that they have evolved 
together as predator and prey, porcupines are not 
the most important food of fishers in Ottawa Na- 
tional Forest. Fishers eat more snowshoe hares 
than porcupines and spend much of their time hunt- 
ing in snowshoe hare habitat. I have found fisher 
activity patterns to be oriented around hare habitat. 
For several days in a row, a fisher may stay in a re- 
stricted area which is good hare habitat — an area 
which can be encompassed by a circle about three 
quarters of a mile in diameter. Then one day the 
fisher will move perhaps several miles to another 
area of hare habitat where it will settle down for 
several more days. While travelhng between areas 
of hare habitat, the fisher will check out porcupine 
dens and cover much territory, but once back in 
hare habitat it will seldom move more than about 
half a mile straight-line distance from one day to the 
next. During a day a fisher will usually have two or 
three hunting trips lasting two hours or so apiece; 
the rest of the time is spent sleeping. While hunting 
in hare habitat fishers move very slowly, frequently 
stopping, watching and waiting for hares as they 
move in and about their hiding places. When a fisher 
flushes a hare from a hiding place, it quickly attacks 
the hare. Because it is difficult to discern temporal 
relationships between fisher and hare tracks left in 
the snow, it is impossible to calculate how frequent- 
ly hares flushed by fishers manage to escape. Fish- 
ers probably flush many more hares than they are 
able to catch because a fisher catches a hare only 
about once every two days. If a fisher is able to 
catch a hare, it uses the typical neck bite to kill it. 
Frequently the fisher is unable to bite the hare's 
neck immediately upon capture, but has to hold the 
hare with all four feet and juggle it so that a hold on 
the back of its neck can be secured. Once the hare is 
held by the back of the neck it takes a very short 
time to become completely immobilized. 

Because male fishers weigh about twice as much 
as female fishers ( 10 to 14 pounds for males in Mich- 
igan; five pounds for females), males require more 
food. My work has shown that a male fisher uses up 
the energy obtained from a snowshoe hare in two to 


three days, while such a meal will provide energy for 
a female for three to four days. A porcupine, of 
course, will last a fisher considerably longer, but 
considerably more energy is required to capture a 
porcupine. In order to reduce energy expended to 
procure food, fishers will consume carrion when they 
find it. Road-killed and starved deer are eaten by 
fishers when they can find them; a dead deer will 
last a fisher for weeks if no other animals find it and 
help the fisher consume it. I have seen tracks of 
fishers, coyotes, bobcats, foxes, and weasels all 
visiting the same deer carcass. 

The fisher is slowly reoccupying its former 

range in many parts of the country. Several 
northern states have had fisher populations natur- 
ally expand and reestablish themselves in areas 
where they had been exterminated. Other states, 
like Michigan, have imported live-trapped fishers 
and released them in former fisher habitat. Most of 
these releases have been successful and it appears 
as though fishers can fairly easily reestablish them- 
selves when habitat destruction by man and trap- 
ping cease. Biologists will, we hope, be able to study 
fishers for a long time to come, and will be able to 
enjoy the beauty of fishers in forests over much of 
the northern United States, n 

''Treasures of Tutankhamun" 
Dinner-Lecture Series 

To provide a richer background for viewing the forthcoming "Trea- 
sures of Tutankhamun" exhibit (April 15-August 15). Field Museum is 
offering its members a Tuesday evening lecture series on topics related 
to King Tutankhamun's reign and burial. This series, to run concur- 
rently with the exhibit, will be given by internationally known Egyptolo- 
gists and is free to Museum members. Reservations are necessary and 
are limited to two per family. Lectures begin promptly at 8;00 p.m. 
Seating capacity for the lectures, in James Simpson Theatre, is 900. 

Also available to Museum members is a dinner to be served before 
each lecture. Dinner in the Museum's new food service area will be 
served at 6:00 p.m. and will afford an opportunity for guests to meet the 
speaker of the evening. A confirmed dinner reservation will automati- 
cally reserve a lecture ticket. Dinners are $6.00 each: no refunds will be 
made. Preference will be given those who request the entire diimer- 

lecture series. Reservations will be confirmed in order of receipt. Seat- 
ing capacity for the dining area is 350. Complete information and a 
reservation form will be mailed to all Field Museum members in the 
near future. The coupon provided in that mailing should be returned 
with a self-addressed, stamped envelope. Because of the large number 
of reservations anticipated, all reservations should be made by mail 
rather than by phone. 

The "Treasures of Tutankhamun" exhibit will be open until 7:30 
for Members on April 26 only. Please note that the dinner-lecture orig- 
inally scheduled for April 19 has been rescheduled for April 26. 

All lectures will be repeated for the general public on the following 
Fridays: April 1. 22; May 13; (una 10, 24: July 15. Reservations are also 
necessary for the pubhc lectures and are limited to two per family. 
Members may, of course, also attend the pubhc lectures. 

Lecture #1. March 29 

"Discovery of the Tomb": lecturer: 
Mme. Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt. 
Conservateur-en-chef, Department des 
Antiquites Eqyptiennes, the Louvre: 
Paris, France 

Lecture #3. May 30 

"The Reign of Tutankhamun": lecturer: 
Klaus Baer. professor of Egyptology, the 
Oriental Institute of the University of 

Lecture #5. June 2'1 

"Daily Life in Ancient Egypt" — with 

special emphasis on the eighteenth 
dynasty and Tutankhamun: lecturer: 
Nora Scott, curator emeritus. Depart- 
ment of Egyptian Art, Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art. New York 

Lecture #2, April 26 

"The Amarna Period": lecturer: Donald 
B. Redford. professor. Department of 
Near Eastern studies, University of 
Toronto: Toronto, Canada 

Lecture #4. June 7 

"X-Raying the Royal Mummies of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty": lecturer: James 
Harris, chairman of the School of Dentis- 
try, the University of Michigan: Ann 
Arbor. Michigan 

Lecture #6. July 12 

"The Decorative Arts of Egypt from the 
Royal Collections"; lecturer: John 
Cooney. research curator. Department 
of Ancient Art. the Cleveland Museum of 


Letters from Antarctica, 1976-77 

Edward Olsen, chairman of the Department of 
Geology and curator of mineralogy, left Chicago 
early in December to spend three months searching 
for meteorites in Antarctica. The following, dated 
December 7, is the first of a series of reports ex- 
pected from Olsen as his work there progresses. 

It all began in the summer of 1975, when I first 
heard about the Yamato Mountains meteorites, all 
thousand of them! Until then the number of known, 
distinct meteorites — representing all the collecting 
done by mankind over the centuries — was around 
1,900. Although some 70 million meteoric objects 
impact the earth's atmosphere each day, fewer than 
about 500 make it through to the surface of the 
earth each year. Of course, two-thirds of those fall 
in the oceans, because two-thirds of the earth is 
covered with water. That leaves about 160 to 165 
potentially to be found on land. But, in spite of the 
fact the earth is crowded with people, a great deal of 
the land surface is unoccupied— the mountains, the 
deserts, the tundras — because mankind occurs in 
concentrated population centers. So, the chances for 
recovery are sHm. On top of that, over much of the 
land area of the earth there are rainy times, snowy 
times, heat alternating with cold, soils that contain 
acids from plant and leaf decay— all factors that 
cause the average meteorite to weather away rapid- 
ly. When all is considered, 1,900 meteorites re- 
covered isn't bad. Then the Yamato Mountains dis- 
coveries came along. 

Back in 1969 a team of Japanese geologists, 
working in the region of the Yamato Mountains in 
Antarctica (on older maps they were called the 
Queen Fabiola Mountains), came across nine small 
meteorites that were just simply sitting out on the 
surface of glacial ice. The following year, during the 
Antarctic summer which runs from November 
through about mid-February, they returned to the 
area and recovered 560 more! Subsequent summer 
searches have turned up about 400 more, bringing 
the total to almost 1,000. 

It could be that these are a thousand fragments 
of a single meteorite that crashed onto the rock-hard 
ice. But no— of the dozen or so that have been 
studied to some extent, there are at least six dif- 
ferent kinds. Assuming, when they are all studied, 
that at least several hundred are distinctly different 
falls (and perhaps all thousand are), the high con- 

centration in a geographically small area (only 18 
square miles) is a puzzle for which there is no good 
explanation at the present time. 

Speculation, however, runs something like this: 
If meteorites, landing on the polar ice cap in Antarc- 
tica over a long time (like hundreds of thousands of 
years), are gradually buried under successive layers 
of ice accumulation, they are effectively in cold 
storage. They are not rained on; they are not oxi- 
dized away; they suffer no soil acids. The polar ice 
moves downhill, as we know it does, like a painfully 
slow river. If it runs up against a mountain barrier 
it gets warped upward. Strong winter winds, 
carrying ice particles, abrade the ice surface, and the 
upturning end gradually is abraded away, leaving 
behind, frozen into it, any material that can't be 
moved by the wind. 

Thus, meteorites that fell over eons of time, 
over the wide area, of the polar cap, are exposed by 
the combination of ice movement, warping, and 
abrasion. This seems to be the only explanation so 
far that fits. If that can happen in one place in An- 
tarctica, it could have happened again elsewhere 

Meteorites are the only tangible objects we 
have from space other than the returned lunar sam- 
ples. The meteorites we know come from a variety 
of planetary objects representing a number of con- 
ditions. From meteorites we have been able to tell 
the age of the solar system, to tell whether the sun 
was more active or less active billions of years ago 
than it is now, to tell the chemical history of the 
solar system, of comets, and of possible planets be- 
yond our solar system, and to tell how biological 
activity came to be in the solar system and the 
chances of it occurring elsewhere in the universe. 
Meteorites are generally homely objects— but 
packed with information when you know how to 
wheedle answers out of them. 

I've been "wheedling" meteorites for almost 15 
years. I have also harbored a secret desire to go to 
that mysterious continent Antarctica, for as many 
years. It is clearly the last place in the world where 
one can carry off a truly primitive expedition, in the 
19th-century sense of that word. Until the Yamato 
meteorites there was no excuse for me to go. When I 
saw my chance, however, I lunged at at. It could be 
the last real adventure in an old man's life! 

In the summer of '75 I decided to put together a 


proposal to the U.S. Antarctic Research Program 
(USARP) to go down for a field search, and try to 
duplicate the Japanese finds— or, if not that, to 
demonstrate that the Japanese finds represent a 
special case, one that cannot easily be duphcated 
anywhere else. In the process of getting together a 
proposal I discovered that Dr. William Cassidy of 
the University of Pittsburgh had already submitted 
one. Since I was too late, by a few months, I decided 
the only way to get in on it was to see if I could join 
him. I could offer experienced eyes. So it was that I 
became part of the search effort. 

Antarctica is a strange and mysterious place. It 
straddles the South Pole, is half again larger than 
the United States, and, over the whole continent, 
the average temperature never gets above freezing. 
This doesn't mean, of course, that it never gets 
above freezing on some days. Along its northern 
coasts and valleys, and for some distance inland odd 
days may have temperatures in the 50s during the 
summer. In the winter, however, it's the coldest 
place on earth. Several years ago the Russian 
station, Vostok, recorded a low of 127 F below zero! 

Getting to Antarctica isn't easy. After re- 
ceiving approval from the National Science Founda- 
tion's Office of Polar Operations, you have to take a 
thorough physical examination. I took mine at the 
Naval Hospital at Great Lakes Naval Station just 
north of Lake Forest. If you aren't in good condition 
you don't go. After passing the physical you go to a 
four-day orientation session, held either in Virginia 
or Arizona. In the sessions you find out the logistics 
of getting yourself and your gear down to the main 
U.S. station at McMurdo Sound. You also find out 
all the details of clothing, living conditions, aircraft 
and field safety and the restrictions on the kinds of 
activities you can perform. One of the first things 
they hand you at the sessions is a book entitled 
"Survival in Antarctica." It's your first stunning 
jolt — this isn't just another field trip. Everyone 
gets a little scared at this point. 

Once back home you begin the laborious process 
of getting together the bits and pieces of personal 
equipment and clothing. The USARP people supply 
you with all the cold weather clothing, but some 
items you want to pick out personally. 

Finally the day comes. I left Chicago in a snow- 
storm ( how a propos ) and flew to Los Angeles. From 
there a Navy bus met all Antarctic arrivals and 
drove us to the Naval Air Station at Point Mugu, 
near Oxnard, California. The bus traveled along 
lovely California Route 1, that runs along the coast 
and gives good views of surf and rock and moun- 
tains. After checking in at the Naval Base, about 80 
individuals — biologists, geologists, meteorologists, 

physicists, and some military personnel — boarded 
an Air Force C-141. It's a strange looking plane. The 
wings are attached at the top of the body, rather 
than below, and they droop towards the ground. It 
has the appearance of a giant moth. When you get 
inside two things strike you; the seats face to the 
rear, and there are no passenger windows! Also, 
there is no interior finishing, so the bare metal walls 
line the cabin: pipes, conduits, valves, gauges, and 
all the hardware that is normally hidden in com- 
mercial planes is sticking out. When the engines 
start the roar is deafening. An air force man walks 
down the aisle and issues ear plugs, which you're 
only too happy to use. Overhead a single row of 
Ughts illuminate the cabin, and are none too bright 
for reading. The flight goes smoothly from Pt. 
Mugu, to Hickam Field Air Force Base near Pearl 
Harbor, Hawaii. After a stop of several hours you 
take off and arrive at an Air Force field near Pago 
Pago in American Samoa. 

Finally, after refueling, we left there and flew to 
Christchurch, on the South island of New Zealand. 
There we spent three days, adjusting to the time dif- 
ferential and getting outfitted with cold weather 
clothing— parka, fur hat, several kinds of mittens 
and gloves, thermal underwear and socks, thermal 
underwear and socks, thermal boots, woolen shirts, 
and on and on. No one is going to freeze. All this is 
done in the 80 F heat of the New Zealand summer, 
which starts in November and is quite warm by 
early December when we arrived. 

Christchurch is hke a Httle bit of England, with 
bright red buses, right-hand cars drive on the left 
side of the street, and the rather British accents of 
the people. It is located on a low, fertile plain, and to 
the east stands a snowcapped range of ruggedly 
beautiful mountains, the Southern Alps. From 
Christchurch we fly to McMurdo Sound in Antarc- 
tica. That will be covered in the next letter. 



Legion of Night: The Underwing 
Moths, by Theodore D. Sargent. Univer- 
sity of Massachusetts Press. Amherst, 
Mass.: 222 pp.: $15.00. {Available at 
Field Museum Shop: 10% discount for 
members. ) 

A VERY SPECIAL CLASS of natural his- 
tory books are those which qualify as 
technically thorough and authorita- 
tive—thus of interest to the specialist, 
yet are accessible and stimulating to the 
general reader. Sargent's Legion of 
Night, a comprehensive study of moths 
belonging to a single genus, is a superb 
example of this select category. The 
book is an in-depth treatment of the 
genus Catocala occurring in eastern 
North America. 

Commonly known as the "under- 
wings" for their characteristically 
showy lower pair of wings, the Catocala 
may indeed be regarded as arcane sub- 
ject matter, and of real interest only to 
lepidopterists whose particular fancy is 
moths. But among the moths, the un- 
derwings rank along with the silk moths 
(saturniids) and hawkmoths (sphingids) 
as the most attractive to many collec- 

Sargent's text includes detailed 
descriptions of 71 species and color 
plates of each, and there is a respectable 
abundance of charts, graphs, and tables 
based on the author's observational 
data. But the book is in no sense a mono- 
graph or taxonomic treatise; several 
chapters deal individually with the be- 
havior of moths toward artificial Hght; 
how to attract underwings with bait; 
their courtship behavior; and the vari- 
ous ways in which the moths feed, 
develop, and transform from egg to 
caterpillar to pupa to moth. Sections on 
coloration differences within species, 
and how and why birds attack under- 
wings offer fascinating fare even for 
readers whose knowledge of biology is 

In the delightful chapter "Of Men 
and Names" Sargent discloses some of 
the curious history of scientifically 
naming and describing underwing 
moths in the early hterature: 

In the flurry of naming the Catocala during 
the late nineteenth century, the tendency 
was to attach a name to every apparently 
new specimen that came to hand, hoping that 
time would prove the name worthy of species 
rank. Accordingly, many forms were origin- 
ally described as new species: (e.g. "sinuo- 
sa," a form of coccinata; "gisela," a form of 
micronympha; "aholah," a form of similis). 
In this same vein, there was a tendency to 
attach new names to very minor variants 
(e.g., "moderna, " a small maestosa), and this 
practice led to the rather embarassing situa- 
tion of females being described as new forms 
(e.g., "basalis," the female of habilis; "cur- 
vata, " the female of robinsoni; "hinda, " the 
female of innubens). 

With all this activity, it was inevitable 
that some species would be described by two 
or more authors, thereby creating synonyms. 
The decision as to which name should stand 
in such a circumstance is based upon the rule 
of priority (i.e., which name was published 
first). This rule is ordinarily, and in principle, 
easy to apply. But given the competitive 
furor of the times and the personalities in- 
volved, considerable controversy did arise, 
and the ensuing disputes were often heated. 

Perhaps the flavor and personalities of 
that era can best be recalled through ex- 
cerpts from the writings of some of the prin- 
cipals. For example, the Reverend George D. 
Hulst in a paper entitled "Remarks Upon the 
Genus catocala , with a Catalogue of Spe- 
cies and Accompanying Notes" (1880), ob- 
served in his introductory comments: 

It is very certain that full knowledge will 
largely reduce the so-called species. By the 
necessities of the case, species are at first 
very largely multiplied. They are very gener- 
ally based upon a single specimen, often 
faded, rubbed, or mutilated. . . . 

This paper was not received with equa- 
nimity by A. R. Grote, as the following 
response makes clear: 

The publication of a paper on the species 
of Catocala, by a clergyman, the Rev. Mr. 
Geo. D. Hulst . . . obliges me to notice its 
contents briefly. The criticism that I make on 
this paper is. that its publication was entirely 
unnecessary from a scientific point of 
view. . . . 

In a somewhat lengthy preamble, in 
which I find nothing original which is at the 
same time important, Mr. Hulst likens the 
present knowledge of the species o/ Catocala 
to a diseased infancy. In this Mr. Hulst con- 
founds the state of his own mind on the sub- 
ject with that of others. . . . 

Actually, what really incited Grote's 
wrath became clear when Hulst sided with 
Herman Strecker* in one of the interminable 
conflicts between him and Grote: 

We are sorry in our service of science to 
be compelled to judge between Messrs. 
Strecker and Grote in a matter which has 

been so prolific of ill-feeling between them. 
Both claim priority in the naming of three 
species of Catocalae. Attempting to get at 
the truth, irrespective of personal feeling 
toward either of these gentlemen, to both of 
whom we are under obligation for favors, we 
give our judgment in favor of the names of 
Mr. Strecker. . . . 

Grote's views on Strecker are abun- 
dantly clear: 

Mr. Strecker's work is, on the whole, of 
such an indifferent character that I am un- 
willing to criticize it. He has made propor- 
tionately more and more unexcusable 
synonyms than any other writer, and his 
slovenly descriptions and confessed un- 
acquaintance with structure place him on a 
level with the worst amateur who has 
"coined" a "species. " In vulgarity and mis- 
representation he is. fortunately, with a 
rival. . . . 

Strecker was rarely bested in these 
matters. He had previously reviewed Grote's 
"Check List of North American Noctuidae, 
Part I" (1875), and concluded his brief state- 
ment as follows: 

The whole thing is scarcely worth the 
time devoted to this review, but as the adver- 
tisement would lead us to expect quite a dif- 
ferent production, than that really furnished, 
we have given this cursory warning because 
the price demanded is entirely too big to pay 
for trunk paper. . . . 

To return to the situation referred to by 
Hulst, the question at issue concerned the 
dates of publication of Grote's descriptions 
of C. anna, adoptiva, and levettei. and 
Strecker's descriptions of these same species 
as C. amestris. delilah, and Judith. An ac- 
cusation of antedating was made: 

With regard to the species re-described 
by Mr Strecker under the date of "August, " 
whereas the publication was not received 
until November 12, I have shown that Mr. 
Strecker placed a false date, and have ex- 
posed his motive fordoing so. . . . 

In this particular case, most scholars 
now agree that Grote had his names first in 
manuscript, but that Strecker's were pub- 
lished first and so have priority. In fairness, 
however, it must be noted that questions 
regarding Strecker's methods were not com- 
pletely unreasonable. . . . 

No doubt the day of lively controversy 
over the matter of names has passed by — 
certainly the luxury of such personal and 
polemical writing is rarely countenanced in 
today's scientific journals. 

"Herman F. Strecker (1836-1901), of Read- 
ing. Pennsylvania, was one of the great 
lepidopterists of his time. In 1908 Field 
Museum acquired the Strecker collection, 
numbering more than 50,000 specimens. See 
"The Sculptor Who Collected Butterflies," 
in the January, 1975 . Bulletin. 


Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

March and April, 1977 

Saturdaijs. 230 p.m. 

This season's film lectures are to be held in the reno- 
vated and recently opened James Simpson Theatre, 
whose entrance is conveniently located just inside the 
Museum's west entrance. This is of special interest to the 
handicapped, for the new west entrance is now at ground 
level and all steps between curbside and theatre have 

been eliminated. The west entrance also provides free 
admission to the theatre. Access to other Museum areas, 
however, requires the regular admission fee (except on 
Fridays) or membership identification. Plan to have din- 
ner in the Museum's new dining area before attending 
the lectures. 

March 5 

Arizona's Desert Wonders 
Presented b\; Arthur Twome\) 

Discover the Sonoran Desert, a unique environment that sup- 
ports a variety of plant and animal life. The giant saguaro cactus 
and the colorful, deadly gila monster are among the many 
startling phenomena living in this desert wilderness. 

March 12 

Land and Sea Adventures 
Presented b{; William S\jluester 

Follow the voyage of a freighter as it journeys from New York 
City to the Adriatic, stopping at exotic ports along the way: 
Casablanca, Genoa. Venice, the Yugoslavian Riviera; then on 
to the spectacular Alps by car. 

March 19 

Royal London 
Presented b\^ Doug Jones 

The city of London is vibrant with history; trace its development 
through visits to famous landmarl^s across the city. 

March 26 

The Huichol; People of the Sacred Cactus 
Presented btj Kal Muller 

Lost in time in their rugged Sierra Madre sanctuary, the Huichol 
Indians of Mexico still live by their pre-Columbian beliefs. Daily 
activities as well as major rituals are captured on film. 

April 2 

The Andes 

Presented b{; Thayer Soule 

Travel the full 4,000-mile length of the Andes-from Venezuela 

to Patagonia; see archaeological sites, colorful markets, and 
remote corners — an intriguing close-up of the Andes range- 
April 9 

The Real Yellowstone 

Presented by Fran William Hall 

Explore Yellowstone out of season as well as in season and 
venture where the car does not go; an eloquent presentation of 
majestic summer and winter moods. 

April 16 

Chambers of the Sea 

Presented b^J Stanton Waterman 

An award-winning underwater photographer introduces us to 
the Sinai reefs in the Red Sea and to remote atolls in the Indian 
Sea— areas rich in colorful, exciting marine life. 

April 23 

America's Heartland 

Presented fay Walter Berlet 

From the Gulf of Mexico to Minnesota, the Mississippi River is 
home to a diversity of wildlife and is testimony to early western 
settlement. The beauty of the river is more significant than the 
myths and tales it has inspired. 

April 30 

Birds of Prey 

Presented bv Alan Degen and Neil Rettig 

Two raptors, the great horned owl and the red-tailed hawk, are 
common to the Chicago area. Wildlife specialist Degen and well 
known photographer Rettig join forces in presenting unique 
sequences of hawk eggs hatching, nesting cycles, and prey- 
predator relationships. 



James Marvin Weller, 1899-1976 

James Marvin Weller, a field associate 
of Field Museum since 1963, was born 
on August 1, 1899, to Stuart and Har- 
riet Weller. His interest in geology was 
well defined when he was still a young 
boy, as he joined his father, a University 
of Chicago invertebrate paleontologist, 
on field trips to the Missouri Ozarks. All 
of his undergraduate and graduate work 
in geology was done at the University of 
Chicago, where he received his B.S. 
(1923) and Ph.D. (1927). 

Weller's first formal employment- 
while still a high school student— was as 
an assistant geologist, for four sum- 
mers, with the Illinois State Geological 
Survey. During this period he mapped 
the Carboniferous rocks of Illinois. 
From 1920 to 1922 Weller took time out 
from college to work in India as an ex- 
ploration geologist for a British oil 
company. In 1923 he married Phyllis 
Vincent Gothwaite, a childhood sweet- 

In 1925 WeUer's career as a survey 
geologist resumed as he rejoined the 
Illinois State Geological Survey, re- 
maining there for twenty years. In 1936 
and 1937, while still with the Survey, 
Weller was appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of geology at the University of 
Illinois. The Survey period was a prolific 
one for Weller, as he produced more 
than 90 technical articles. His work at 
that time was divided equally between 
stratigraphy (the study of rock strata) 
and paleontology, and his more im- 
portant papers in stratigraphy dealt 
with cyclic deposition; his classic de- 
ciphering of the complexities of the coal 
cycle— which he called cyclothems — 
also appeared then and he wrote on 
sponges, crinoids, brachiopods, snails, 
and his special interest — trilobites. 

He left the Illinois Survey as head 
of stratigraphy and paleontology in 
1945 to return to the University of Chi- 
cago, where he was named professor of 
invertebrate paleontology and director 

James Marvin tt'ellerin his studv 

of the Walker Museum of Paleontology. 
He spent 1952 to 1954 in the Phihppines 
with the U.S. Geological Survey, search- 
ing for coal deposits. 

Weller retired in 1965; in 1971, 
with the onset of ill health, he and his 
wife moved from Chicago to the milder 
climate of Cahfornia. There, on July 
21, 1976, he died. Weller is survived by 
his wife, his daughter Harriet, and a 
brother. Professor Allan Weller, of the 
University of Illinois. 

Weller held membership in a num- 
ber of academic and professional 
societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and 
Sigma Xi, which he served as president 
in 1950-51. He was an honorary member 
of the Society of Economic Geologists, 
which he also served as president. He 
was also editor of the Journal of Paleon- 
tology and the Journal of Geology, and 
was a member of the Commission of 
Stratigraphic Paleontology. 

His technical papers number more 
than 160, many of which have been 
translated into foreign languages, in- 
cluding Russian. His books include The 
Geology of Edmonson County (his doc- 
toral dissertation, published in 1927), 
Stratigraphic Principles and Practice 
(1960), and The Course of Evolution 
(1969), which synthesized the existing 
knowledge of fossil plants and animals. 
The latter two works, still in print, are 
classic textbooks. 

Weller's life work, his teaching, and 
writings have contributed immeasur- 
ably to our understanding of the 
geology of IlUnois and neighboring 
regions, and his association with Field 
Museum is one that will be permanently 
cherished by his former colleagues in 
the Department of Geology. 

—Matthew H. Nitecki 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates 


A Kushite King— in Bronze 

For close to 100 years, beginning early 
in the eighth century, B.C., pharaohs 
from the Sudan ruled ancient Egypt. 
The Sudan bordered Egypt on the south 
and was known as Kush; those ancient 
Sudanese kings are known today as 
Kushites and the era during which they 
ruled Egypt is called the Kushite Period 
or Kushite Dynasties. Within the 
scheme of Egypt's ruling families, the 
period is designated Dynasty XXV. 
This time of Kushite domination was for 
the most part characterized by a con- 
tinuation of Egyptian ideas in art and 
religion rather than by new ideas enter- 
ing Egypt from an outside source. 

A recent publication by Edna R. 
Russmann, The Representations of the 
Kings in the XXV Dynasty (Bruxelles- 
Brooklyn, 1974), is concerned with the 
surviving examples of royal figures 
from this period. A small bronze 
statuette of a Kushite ruler in the Field 
Museum collection can now be added to 
the list of known sculptures of these 
Dynasty XXV rulers. Although the 
statuette is uninscribed there is no 
doubt about its date, for the figure is 
adorned with a characteristic pendant 
necklace; and this is worn in the style 
typical for that period: the ends of the 
suspension cord are brought forward 
over the shoulders. The central element 
of the necklace is often a ram's head 
emblematic of the Egyptian god Amun, 
but unfortunately, the crudeness of this 
figure's casting and the wear on its sur- 
faces makes definite identification of the 
pendant impossible. One may interpret 
the raised areas on the forehead of this 
statuette as the remains of the bases of 
two uraei (sacred serpents) which 
originally projected from the front of 
the head; at the back there is a curious 
raised area. Together, these prom- 
inences may be viewed as a combina- 
tion of the close-fitting cap with 
uraeus and a supporting base for a 
crown or as tails of the uraei descending 
to the shoulders. The pose of this 
statuette corresponds to two other 
known bronze figures of this period; one 
is in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 
and the other is in the Hermitage Mu- 
seum, Leningrad. 

—EarlL. Ertman 

Departmen t of Art 

The University of Akron 

Staff Notes 

Kenneth John Grabowski has joined the 
library staff as library assistant. He 
holds a BA in psychology from North- 
eastern Illinois University and is com- 
pleting work toward an MS in biology. 

John Terrell, who joined the Field 
Museum anthropology staff in 1971, 
has been promoted to associate curator, 
oceanic archaeology and ethnology. 
Bennet Bronson, who also joined the 
anthropology staff in 1971, has been 
named associate curator, Asian archae- 
ology and ethnology. 

Luis de la Torre, curator of mam- 
mals, has resigned from that post, 
which he had held since 1971. As re- 
search associate de la Torre will con- 
tinue to be affiliated with the Museum. 

Harriet Smith, lecturer in the 
Raymond Foundation since 1947, has 

Mummies Booklet Revised 

Of special interest to those who want to 
bone up on their Egyptology prior to the 
opening of the "Treasures of Tutank- 

Bronze statuette of 

Kushite ruler, front and 

back views. Height: 

10 cm. Cat. No. 17238. 

hamun" exhibit, opening April 15, is the 
newly revised Mummies, now available 
at the Field Museum Shops for $1.50; it 
may also be ordered, postpaid, from the 
Division of Publications. The profusely 
illustrated booklet was written by 
Richard A. Martin, late curator of Near 
Eastern archaeology, and has been re- 
vised by David P. Silverman, project 
Egyptologist for the Tutankhamun ex- 
hibit. A new bibliography has been 


February at Field Museum 


I Wear the Morning Star— thru Feb. 6. Exhibit of garments 
designed by Western Plains Indians for the Ghost Dance, a paci- 
fistic religious movement born of one man's impressive visions and 
adopted by 30 tribes in the late 19th century. Hall 9. 


The Place for Wonder. Visit the newly opened The Place 
for Wonder gallery. Open to visitors of all ages, this room provides 
a "hands-on" approach to numerous natural history specimens 
and artifacts. The gallery is staffed by museum volunteers and is 
open to the public promptly; weekdays. 1 p.m. and 2 p.m.; week- 
ends, 10 a.m., 11 a.m.. 1 p.m., and 2 p.m. Located near the new 
cafeteria, ground floor. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This game/exhibit 
of 38 artifacts is a great way to learn that economic and social 
roles of the sexes are not universally the same. South Lounge. 
2nd floor. No closing date. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 

— and the need for solution. Hall 18. No closing date. 

Pterosaur. A stylized model of the largest known flying creature 

— an extinct pterosaur— dramatizes a special exhibit of pterosaur 
fossils. Northwest Gallery, 2nd floor. No closing date. 


Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays. 10 a.m. to 
3 p.m.; take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in museum- 
related activities. 

Winter Journey for Children: All that Glitters. Self-guided 
tour begins in the geology halls and ends in the gem room with its 
display of gold and silver. All children who can read and write are 
invited to participate; families will enjoy it too. Journey sheets are 
available at the information booth. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday. 
Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. South Lounge, 2nd 


Feb. l,7;30p.m. Kennicott Club 

Feb. 4,8;00p.m. Chicago Anthropological Society 

Feb. 8, 7;30 p m. Chicago Nature Camera Club 

Feb. 9, 7;00p.m. Chicago Ornithological Society; 

7;30 p.m. Windy City Grotto. National Speleological 

Feb. 10, 8:00 p.m. Chicago Mountaineering Club 

Feb. 13, 2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

Feb. 15, 7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 


On Fridays at 2:30 p.m. (March 5 through April 30) the museum 
offers its popular Ayer film/lecture series. The March 5 lecture is 
entitled Arizona. All lectures are in Simpson Theatre, ground 


The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 4 p.m. weekdays 
and 5 p.m. weekends. On Fridays, year-round, the museum is 
open to 9 p m. Food service areas open daily at 9 a.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday (closed Feb. 21). Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


March, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 3 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Animals Are Human, Too 

(Or Are Men Just Little Calculators?) 
By John Terrell, associate curator of Oceanic 
archaeology and ethnology 

Kimberley Snail Hunt — Round One 

By Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates 

Waterways of Ancient Peru 

By Michael Moseley. associate curator of Middle 
and South American archaeology and ethnology 


Letters from Antarctica, 1976-77 

By Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


Field Briefs 

back March and April at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 


Blaine J. Yarrington. cAmrman 

George R. Baker 

Gordon Bent 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Stanton R. Cook 

O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson. Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Marshall Field 

Nicholas Galitzine 

Paul W. Goodrich 

Remick McDowell 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

William H. MitcheU 

Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 

James J. O'Connor 

James H. Ransom 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

John S. Runnells 

William L. Searle 

Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 

Robert H. Strotz 

John W. SuUivan 

William G, Swartchild. Jr. 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

E. Leland Webber 

Julian B. Wilkins 


Six beautifully engraved tickets to the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition of 1893 from a set donated to Field Museum 
library by Miss Dorothy Rea of Richmond, Missouri. The set 
had been given to Miss Rea by Harlow N. Higinbotham, 
President of the Exposition. Mr. Higinbotham served as the 
second president of the board of trustees of Field Museum 
and was among the earliest donors to the library. He pur- 
chased and donated the Kunz Collection of books on geol- 
ogy, mineralogy, and gemmology, a collection that contains 
many rare works on these subjects. 


William McCormick Bla 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive. Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; .53 a year for schools. 
Members of the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. Illinois 60605. 
ISSN: 0015-0703. 

Animals Are Human, Too 

(Or Are Men Just Little Calculators?) 

By John Terrell 

A surprising number of biologists and social scientists 
these days are quarreling about an issue in psycholog\' 
that must seem astonishingly simple-minded to anybody 
who owns a dog or cat, or to any parent who has raised a 
child through puberty to adulthood. What some of my 
colleagues are calling "The Great Scientific Debate of the 
20th Century" is astounding because it often sounds like 
a repeat of the controversy set off in 1858 when Charles 
Darwin and Alfred Wallace shocked Victorian society by 
announcing their discovery of the theory of evolution by 
means of natural selection. 

What is this 20th century fracas in the lofty world of 
science all about? Putting it simply, the issue is this one: 
Hou- like an animal is Man? How much of human nature 
is dictated by our biology, by our animal nature? How 
extensively are human beings really governed by wisdom 
and social custom? Or are we, like other animals, driven 
deep down inside by instincts, blind passions, and ancient 
biochemical urges? 

Until 1975, when Edward O. Wilson, a brilliant zoolo- 
gist at Harvard, published a monumental book called 
Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, most social scientists 
and probably most biologists thought this Victorian 
issue touched off by Darwin and Wallace had long ago 
been put to rest. Conventional wisdom has taught for 
years that the human species is uniquely different from 
all other animal species. Fifteen years ago when I was an 

John Terrell is associate curator. Oceanic archaeology and 
ethnology. Among his special interests are perception and 
epistemology. the relationships between individuals and the 
environments they make for themselves, and the biogeograph- 
ical strategies and behaviors of human populations. In 1974 he 
organized and chaired a special Wenner-Gren Foundation con- 
ference at the Smithsonian Institution on the relevance of 
theoretical models in biology and biogeography to the study of 
mankind. He is perhaps best known for his interests in human 
biogeography. His papers relevant to this interest include: 
"Biology. Biogeography and Man" EWorld Archaeology.' 8. .3); 
"Island Biogeography and Man in Melanesia" ^Archaeology 
and Physical Anthropology in Oceania.' 11.1): and "The Savage 
and the Innocent: sophisticated techniques and naive theory in 
the study of human population genetics in Melanesia" ^Year- 
book of Physical Anthropology.- 19). 

undergraduate studying anthropolog>' at Harvard it was 
explained to me by my professors that evolution had 
given us a brain which was so large and powerful that the 
human species had been freed by evolution from the rigid 
grip of biological predestination. I was told that human 
beings ruled themselves culturally, not biologically. 
While my psychology teachers avoided the word like the 
plague, it was pretty clear, too, that animal behavior was 
different from human behavior because animals were con- 
trolled by something called instincts. If herring gulls, for 
example, were presented with a certain kind of stimulus, 
they had to behave in a fixed, stereotyped fashion. Some- 
how their behavior was in their genes and was passed 
down from one generation of gulls to the next by sexual 

What Wilson and other sociobiologists are trying to 
do is challenge the smug notion that man is innately dif- 
ferent from other animals. These scientists are saying, in 
effect, that human beings are more animal than most of 
us care to admit. They define sociobiologA' as the syste- 
matic study of the biological basis of all social behavior. 
They claim that it is high time biologists began studying 
the biological foundations for human social behavior, too. 

Many people— not just biologists and social scien- 
tists—believe that the human species is unique. It is not 
surprising that Wilson and other sociobiologists are 
being accused so widely of trying to destroy the dignity 
of mankind. 

The trouble with Wilson and his colleagues, however, 
is they are taking matters too far in one direction. They 
are right when they insist that human beings are animals. 
But they seem afraid to admit that animals are human, 

The late British biologist C. H. Waddington in a 
review oi Sociobiology: The New Synthesis published in 
the New York Review of Books back in August 1975 had 
this to say: 

Is it not surprising that in a book of TOO large pages about 
social behavior there is no explicit mention whatever of 
mentality:' In the index, covering more than thirty pages 
of three columns each, there is no mention of mind, mental- 
itv. purpose, goal, aim. or any word of similar connotation. 

He went on to add that something very similar to 
mind or purpose is often implied in Wilson's text ( I would 

myself point to Wilson's discussions, for instance, on 
learning and socialization). But he concluded that Wil- 
son's failure to deal forthrightly with animal mentality is 
the weakest feature in the whole grand structure he has 
built for sociobiology. If sociobiologists are going to 
include human beings within their field of research, they 
have got to deal with the role played by goals, aims, pur- 
poses, and the total nature of experience felt both by 
mankind and by "lesser" animal species. 

I suspect anyone who has a dog or cat knows exactly 
what Waddington was talking about. Nearly every pet 
owner can relate countless stories about how Rover or 
Zenobia is so human. While pet fanciers are liable to give 
their animals too much credit for being human, pets are 
often incredibly adept at manipulating their loving mas- 
ters for their own pet purposes. Animals really can be 
more capable of conscious mental activity than some 
people give them credit for being. 

On the other side of the fence, however, Wilson's crit- 
ics have taken matters too far in the opposite direction. 
Wilson is obviously right in saying that people have not 
gotten away entirely from being animals. Ask any parent 
with a child old enough to have passed through most of 
the stages of childhood and adolescence. You don't have 
to tell them that biological changes during growth and 
maturation get involved in how children act. They know 
it all too well. 

Many parents have also experienced an uncanny 
thing. Little Lucy or young Johnny — perhaps only for a 
year or two— reminded everybody of Aunt Mary or Uncle 
George who died years ago, long before Lucy or Johnny 
was born. Why? While it is true that, just like pet owners, 
parents are notorious for exaggeration when it comes to 
the kids, is it not possible for human beings to inherit 
some kinds of behavioral characteristics? Dog breeders 
can control selectively for the inheritance of some beha- 
vior traits in dogs. Is human behavior entirely divorced 
from biological inheritance? 

It may surprise you to learn that scientists aren't 
doing a very effective job of answering questions like 
these. But it is important to understand why it is so diffi- 
cult to come up with answers. To be sympathetic to the 
scientist's plight, you need to know how evolution can 
operate to make animals more intelligent over the course 
of millions of years. Seeing how difficult the job is for 
nature to perform suggests why human beings are unique 
in the animal world in being as flexibly adaptable and 
clever as they are. Evolution is the reason why we are 
such an uncommon kind of animal. 

How to make a better thinking machine 

The easiest way to imagine how hard evolution has to 
work to make animals brighter over countless genera- 
tions is to forget at first about animals. We humans are 
too prejudiced by our sense of superiority to give them a 

square deal. Think instead about little calculators like the 
one you can buy to add up your purchases at super- 

Why do the companies that make these calculators 
hire people to make better machines? Not because they 
like change for its own sake. If a calculator company has 
been making good, dependable, efficient, and economical 
machines for a long time, it isn't going to change its 
product fundamentally unless it has to do so. And when 
is that? When someone in top management has sensed 
that people are not buying as many company calculators 
as they used to. If there is any change in the needs, 
wants, and tastes of the consumer, a company had better 
follow suit or it will end up bankrupt. When a company 
neglects to keep pace with the market, it's a sure bet that 
some competitor will step in and take over. In short, com- 
panies (and evolution) don't play around with a good 
thing until it looks like it isn't such a good thing any 
more. Machines aren't changed, and animal species don't 
evolve in the direction of greater intelligence, unless there 
is good reason to do so. 

In addition, few companies and no animal species try 
to do everything. A company may want to be No. 1 in 
some part of the market, but not in all parts. It's too 
much work and it costs too much to try to be best in 
everything you do. In the calculator business, for exam- 
ple, manufacturers of Httle calculators don't try to com- 
pete with General Motors. They make mini's and leave 
cars to the auto makers. 

This second point brings me to the conclusion of my 
story. There are all sorts of ways you can design a mini- 
calculator. Separate designs sell best in different mark- 
ets. Most people, for instance, may only want a fairly 
simple machine to take to the food market; they would be 
wasting their money if they bought a mini-calculator that 
did more than add, subtract, multiply, and divide. The 
mechanism of such a simple calculator is quite basic. The 
buttons you push on its face activate it to perform stan- 
dard functions, like adding and dividing. The ability for a 
mini-calculator to do something at the touch of a button 
is created during manufacturing by "hard-wiring" in a 
fixed set of things to do when each button is pushed. 
Hard-wired functions can't be changed. Push the appro- 
priate button and the machine has to do what it has been 
fixed to do. In short, hard-wired functions such as adding 
and subtracting are a calculator's "instincts." 

While most people may only want a fairly simple cal- 
culator to do basic arithmetic, brainy mathematicians 
may want to buy more sophisticated calculators that can 
do all sorts of difficult mathematical formulas. Since it 
would be very expensive to make machines with separate 
buttons to do every possible calculation that a brilliant 
mathematician might want to do, it is a wise idea to sell 
these scholars special calculators which are intelligent 
enough to learn how to do complex things when shown 

how to do them. The ability for calculators to learn how 
to do something is called "programmability." 

While companies make mini-calculators that can't 
learn anything and which operate entirely by hard-wired 
"instincts," no company makes a little machine which 
has to be taught everything from scratch — i.e., complete- 
ly programmed — every time you turn it on. Really so- 
phisticated calculators are made with a combination of 
hard-wired functions, like adding and dividing, and pro- 
grammability. Jobs that must be done over and over 
again by anyone using even a "bright" calculator are 
hard-wired. Peculiar jobs that aren't done very often are 
left up to the user to program when needed. 

How nature makes a better animal 

It may be evident how this discussion of calculators 
translates into biological terms. The "companies" equal 
particular species to which different kinds of animals 
belong. The consumer market is the same thing, more or 
less, as the natural world to which all species must adapt 
if they are to survive. The designer is the creative force of 
evolution. The calculators are, of course, animal brains 
with different levels of intelligence. 

A clam or an oyster is like a fairly simple calculator 
made to be taken to the supermarket. A dog or a cat is 
like a sophisticated machine that does simple tasks at the 
touch of a button, because of hard-wired instincts, and 
also complex tasks, such as rolling over and playing dead 
or manipulating its owner, because of hard-wired basic 
functions and a lot of programmed learning. People, in 
keeping with such an analogy, are even more sophisti- 
cated calculators than dogs and cats. And like all intelli- 
gent animals, people are like calculators with extensive 
memory stores so that they can learn a lot of things. 

It may be clear why evolution took so many miUions 
of years to come up with the human species. We are ex- 

tremely complex organisms. We are expensive for nature 
to manufacture, because we use a lot of materials and 
food energy, we are intricate to assemble, and we take a 
long time to mature. In truth, we may not even be all that 
durable or dependable once we have been assembled. But 
— and this is what matters — once evolution got to the 
point where it was useful and feasible to invest so heavily 
in intelligence, we proved to be an exceptionally flexible 
animal which could perform all kinds of tasks and which 
could solve all kinds of problems, from simple to sophisti- 
cated, because of our remarkable program learning abil- 

So we're all sort of human 

It's not difficult so see why many people find the Great 
Scientific Debate of the 20th Century a little simple- 
minded. The sociobiologists are looking for the genetical- 
ly-inherited, "hard-wired," biologically-controlled beha- 
vior patterns which undoubtedly exist in every species of 
animal. Even in human beings. But when they are talking 
about intelligent species including the human species, I 
am tempted to ask them: So what? 

Of course our species is not entirely different from 
the rest of the animal world. But we are an immensely 
complex, incredibly "programmable" kind of animal. Our 
human nature may not be entirely free from our basic 
biological hard-wiring, but what difference does that 
make? This 20th century debate seems to be a quibble 
over nothing important. 

Sociobiologists would retort that we are really ter- 
ribly ignorant about how much hard-wiring there is in our 
species. That we surely are. But I'd like to take the side of 
the other animals. As Donald R. Griffin of Rockefeller 
University wrote recently in the American Scientist: 

Only extreme skeptics deny the reality of human mental 
experiences, such as images of objects and events that 
may be remote in time and space from the immediate flux 
of sensations. But the possibility that something similar 
might occur in animals has been subject to such an effec- 
tive taboo that, for half a century, the question has been 
strenuously evaded. Recent advances in ethnology call 
into question the rigidity of these inhibitions and suggest 
that it may be time to reopen the question of mental conti- 
nuity between animals and men. 

In short, let's not forget that animals are human, too. 
Writing about the inventiveness of chimpanzees, Wilson 
remarks in Sociobiology that it is "of surpassing interest 
to know all of the many ways they use tools and form 
traditions. Each scrap of information on this subject ob- 
tained in future field and laboratory studies, however 
loosely connected to previous information, should be 
regarded as potentially important." Why stop with the 
chimpanzees? n 

Kimberley Snail Hunt — Round One 

By Alan Solem 

As a participant in the Western Australian Field Pro- 
gram, Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates, has been in 
Australia since September. The following is the first 
report of his continuing field work there. 

The Kimberley Region of Northwest Australia is a quite 
large block of land, about the size of Oregon, Washing- 
ton, Idaho, and Montana combined. It is inhabited by 
very few people, many kangaroos, countless cattle, don- 
keys, and goats, plus billions of bush flies. Probably 99 
percent of the Kimberley is essentially snail-free, and 
land snails are abundant on less than one-fiftieth of the 
remaining 1 percent. From mid-September until just be- 
fore Christmas, I've bounced and lurched 22,000 km in a 
landrover, traveling to, in, and back to Perth from the 
Kimberley, searching for these scattered snail havens. 
Fortune mostly smiled on my travels, and far more ma- 
terial was obtained than I had anticipated. 

As are all expeditions, this time has been a mixture of 
trials, triumphs, tribulations, tragic comedy, and de- 
lights in unpredictable sequences. Perhaps the greatest 
continuing trial was the heat, which often reached 115' in 
the shade by early afternoon. All too frequently we had 
to be out in the open sunlight, frequently moving heavy 
boulders that reflected the heat back at us as we worked. 
Bend my head, and my vision blurred as my glasses filled 
with dripping sweat. Clothes were completely soaked just 
riding in the landrover to a collecting area, and stayed 
soaked all day. Water intake reached r/2 gallons a day. 
Our triumphs were in finding the well hidden snails, 
whether a lonely live few eking out existence on the 
fringes of "snail-habitable country," or the Ningbing 
Range north of Kununurra, home for the most amazing 
group of camaenid land snails yet known and never before 
visited by a malacologist. The Ningbings are a center of 
diversity for snails that will take several visits to work 
out in detail, and undoubtedly will yield many more or- 
ganisms of distributional interest. 

From the crack of dawn until dusk, with a few de- 
lightful exceptions, we were escorted by clouds of bush 
flies. Usually about half were content (temporarily) to sit 
on the backs of our sweatsoaked shirts, while the other 
half of them tried to avoid our head shakes and hand 
flicks to get at the moisture in our eyes, nose, mouth, 
and ears. At first light of dawn it was sheer luxury to lie 
inside a zipped-up tent and hear their excited buzzing, 
and watch the tent rope with a solid line of resting flies 
waiting for me to emerge. 

Comic to the viewer, but not to the actor, was a dance 
and shirt removal after accidentally brushing against a 
nest of green ants — whose immediate reaction was to 
bite the nearest thing available when disturbed. More 
tragic was the loss of some rare, hard-collected specimens 
of two new species. Clutching the bag containing this 
treasure, I was scrambling down a steep hillside and 
slipped, dropping the bag, twisting in midair and sitting 
firmly on top of the bag, turning the prized specimens 
into squashed, useless mincemeat. Or after four days of 
snailless hunting near Halls Creek, to finally see two 
specimens of a minute species — crush one with my 
tweezers and knock the other one into a deep and un- 
reachable crevice. 

The delights were many and varied. Flights of cocka- 
toos chattering and quarreling in the early light. Late 
afternoon breezes bringing relief from the heat. A green 
oasis, possibly holding snails, after a long dusty ride 
through dry savannah. That magic moment at sunset 
when the last fly quit bothering you until dawn. Seeing a 
lifestyle of great independence and self-sufficiency by the 
owners and managers of the stations, a pattern of living 
that overawes the city dweller used to specialized ser- 
vices. Beginning to understand the varied ways in which 
organisms adapt to the harsh environment of the Kimber- 
ley. Gaining greater knowledge of how and where to look 
for particular snails on a hillside or in a mountain range. 
A full moon and scudding clouds fortelling the rains to 
come. A myriad of impressions and memories. A sense of 
accomplishment as the collecting chests filled with speci- 
mens. The change from exploring new areas, to re- 
sampling known populations as I retraced my way back 
to Perth. The shock and joys of civilized comforts, 
ranging from air-conditioning to parking meters to traffic 
jams to pizza. 

Adventures and disappointments were few, and luck 
in collecting mostly incredibly good. A six-week session 
of "rain roulette" (would we get stranded by early heavy 
rains, since there was precedence of a Western Australian 
Museum landrover getting mired in November in the 
Kimberley and extricated the next May) ended without 
our losing, and only one five-day stretch of no success in 
finding snails marred a highly successful exploration. 

Now I am busy in Perth dissecting and measuring 
the collected materials so that I can plan intelligently 
more field work in April and May. Carl Christensen, a 
graduate student at the University of Arizona, and 
Laurie Price of Kaitaia, New Zealand, a field associate of 

An undescribed species found over a 
20-mile area north of Geraldton, 
Western Australia, that seals itself 
directly to rock surfaces. 

Field Museum of Natural History, are carrying out bio- 
logical observations in the Napier Range on the southern 
fringe of the Kimberley during the current wet season 
and mapping the detailed distribution of species along 
this range. Thus, the work continues in several dimen- 
sions. Illustrator Elizabeth Liebman is in Perth working 
with me on the anatomical variations, which are far more 
varied and intricate than we had anticipated. Thus, on a 
number of fronts, work on the grant-funded project en- 
titled "Camaenid Land Snails of Western and Central 
Australia" continues actively, and smoothly. 

The beginning of this study was modest and seren- 
dipitous. Back in 1964 William Turnbull, curator of fos- 
sil mammals, was going to the Northwest Cape region 
of Western Australia to hunt for Tertiary mammals. I 
asked him to "pick up some land snails for me." One day 
he did "pick up some snails from under the same bush." 
Dissection revealed peculiarities of structure far greater 
than I had ever seen among closely related species. The 
limited data available on rainfall patterns and the general 
ecology of the area suggested that interactions between 
these species, on the few days each year when they could 
be active, would be intense, and interesting biological 
ideas could be tested by studying this group. 

Early in 1974, a preliminary reconaissance in the 
Pilbara region of Western Australia, plus the Northern 
Territory near Darwin and then around Alice Springs, 
was undertaken to see whether a major research effort 
was required and, if so, what areas should be emphasized. 
This seed money from Field Museum and the Ray A. 
Kroc Environmental Fund led directly to the requested 
funding from the National Science Foundation for this 
project and the entire Western Australian Field Program 
(see July /August I^IQ Bulletin). 

As finally evolved, my part of this endeavour, which 
is funded jointly by Field Museum and the National 
Science Foundation, is concerned with the evolution, 
ecology, and distribution of one family of land snails, the 
Camaenidae. In the New World, this group ranges from 
Costa Rica to Peru and on the larger islands of the West 
Indies. In the Old World, the camaenids extend from 
India and southern China to the Solomon Islands, with a 
great radiation of species in the northern two-thirds of 
Australia. Understanding the evolution and history of 
this group is a key to understanding the evolution of the 
higher land snails. 

Prior to 1974, only very limited materials from Western 
Australia were available for study in Museum collections. 

This snail has secreted a cover- 
ing, the epiphragm, to retard 
water loss. The epiphragm is 
punctured with tweezers so 
that the snail can be readily 
drowned and preserved. 

Casual collections over a decade by members of the staff 
of the Western Australian Museum, Perth, showed that a 
rich and highly varied fauna existed in the Kimberley 
region. My own collections in the Pilbara in 1974 showed 
that the radiation of camaenids was far greater than we 
had anticipated. In cooperation with the staff of the 
Western Australian Museum, particularly Barry Wilson, 
head. Division of Natural Sciences, and Shirley Slack- 
Smith, curator of mollusks, plans for cooperative field 
investigations of the Kimberley region were developed. 
As part of general surveys by the Western Australian 
Museum staff, land snails in the Prince Regent River 
basin were collected in 1974, the Drysdale River area in 
1975, and the Napier Range in 1975 and 1976. These acti- 
vities added a number of new species and enabled me to 
concentrate my field activities in other parts of the Kim- 
berley. Joint investigations of the Mitchell Plateau 
region were made by Western Australian Museum staff 
and myself in October 1976, and I, together with Carl 
Christensen and Laurie Price, explored areas of the East 
and South Kimberley in November and December. 

At this point, I don't know how many species we 
collected, and only the work of the next months will an- 
swer that question. Many of these are new to science, 
and nearly all are represented by enough specimens pre- 

served in alcohol so that I can work out their anatomy 
and relationships to other species. The shell form is 
simple in this group, and many unrelated species have 
shells that look almost identical in size, shape, and color 

From several areas I have, or will have by May, 
samples taken from the same populations in different 
months, so that I can study the sequence of reproductive 
activities in several species that live under different 
climatic conditions. The areas covered range from places 
with a long, dependable, heavy wet season, to places that 
get only four or five significant rains a year. In these 
places, the snails can be active perhaps 20 days a year, so 
I am studying how the several species have specialized in 
feeding, shelter-seeking, and activity patterns to mini- 
mize competition with each other. 

Completing and writing up these studies will take 
nearly two years, and then they will be published in a 
series of technical reports. Here I can summarize initial 
impressions and give an overall "snail's eye" view of the 
Kimberley. Two things dominate this region — the al- 
ternation of wet and dry seasons and the annual burning 
of nearly every part of the countryside during the dry 
season. The "big wet," as it is known locally, can start as 
early as mid-November and last well into March. At the 

northern tip of the Kimberley, near Kalumburu Mission, 
over 100 inches of rain will fall in these months, with 
virtually no rainfall the rest of the year. During the 
period of heavy rains, even the main roads are closed to 
travel, and after the end of the rains, side roads, ranch 
tracks, and bush tracks mainly stay closed to vehicular 
travel for two months or more, until the creeks and rivers 
partially empty and until someone takes the trouble to 
regrade creek crossings, fill in washouts, and have a 
pretty good reason for entering that area. Thus, much of 
the back country areas may be closed for six to eight 
months each year. During the "wet," when the snails are 
active and could be observed and collected easily, travel 
to them is impossible. During the dry season, when the 
snails are hidden in secure crevices and totally inactive, 
travel to seek them out is possible. Thus, my field work 
had to take place in the late dry season. 

I needed to be able to explore widely, to move on if 
snails were absent, to return to areas of abundance and 
diversity easily. I worked first the wetter areas of the 
West Kimberley, from Gibb River north to Kalumburu in 
October, collected the still very wet northern part of 
the East Kimberley between Wyndham and the Northern 
Territory border in early November and mid-November, 
then moving south to the drier East Kimberley in late 
November and early December, covering the region be- 
tween Halls Creek and Fitzroy Crossing. "Rain roulette" 
lasted from early November to mid-December. Would we 
get hit by an early deluge and stranded for a few days (or 
much longer)? Some brief showers did soak us thor- 
oughly, and two IVs-inch rains prevented us from going 
into some areas. The showers did bring local snails out of 
hiding, but we were not stranded. A very late start to the 
wet season did give us a great deal of luck in travel and 
collecting, but was a near disaster to many stations. One 
station lost 6,000 out of 34,000 cattle this dry season. 

Complicating all of our collecting was the effects of 
fire. Natural bush fires caused by lightning or spontane- 
ous combustion have been a part of the ecology of the 
Kimberley since long before man arrived, but the growing 
practice to fire deliberately the entire countryside each 
year has wrought many changes in the landscape. In the 
late dry season fires creep or roar (depending upon the 
winds) across the plains, up the hillsides and into gullies 
and canyons. Snails, insects, reptiles hidden near the sur- 
face are incinerated. Only those individuals lucky enough 
to be sheltering deep in rock piles or under boulders thick 
enough to insulate them from the heat of the fire survive 
to come out with the rains. The same lucky individuals 
also are safe from collectors, since rocks big enough to 
protect them from a roaring fire probably are too big to 

At times, we might work six to eight hours on a 
series of hillsides, finding dead shells, but no living speci- 
mens. We might try five or six places in a mountain range 

before hitting a small pocket of shaded, moist rocks with 
four or five adult snails within excavating distance of our 
hands and crowbars. Or, on occasions, we might find an 
area of incredible abundance, which we photographed and 
collected in with great joy. Simple turning of a rock 
might yield 20 or 30 live snails sealed to its underside, 
as shown on page 7, or excavating in a rock slide an area 
two feet square and a foot deep yielded a pile of dead and 
live snails. To balance these areas of abundance, two 
visits to the Limestone Billy Hills east of Fitzroy Cros- 
sing yielded exactly one live snail. 

How do we decide where to search? What clues do we 
use? Partly it is hunch and intuition while looking at 
topographic and geologic maps. Once we have entered an 
area, there are several clues. If snails are abundant, then 
dead, bleached shells on the bare ground (fatalities of 
desiccation or fire in previous years and washed out by 
the last rainy season) indicate living snails up slope (or 
at least in the recent past). In fringe areas, we must 
search for pockets of moisture, a few fig trees in a shaded 
canyon, or a pile of boulders above the flood level of a 
nearby stream. Places where snails can survive the long 
and harsh dry season of the Kimberley area. Shaded 
slopes of ravines, but not areas scoured out by the raging 
torrents produced by several inches of rain. An art of 
looking, not a science. 

So "Round One," the exploratory search in probably 
the largest area of the world previously unsampled for 
land snails, is over. "Round Two," study of this material 
to enable maximum effectiveness of additional field work 
is underway in Perth, with additional rounds of field 
work, study, write-up, and publication of results to come. 

Members' Nights 


Q Members' Nights, customarily held 
I during the spring, will occur this year in 
the fall: on October 6 and 7. The change 
has been made to avoid conflict with 
viewing of the special "Treasures of 
Tutankhamun" exhibit, which will be 
featured at Field Museum from April 15 
through August 15. 

Members should make note of the 
fact that a special preview of the Tut- 
ankhamun exhibit, for Members only, 
will be held on Wednesday and Thurs- 
day, April 13 and 14, from 10 a.m. to 9 
p.m. The exhibit opens to the public on 
Friday, April 15. 


Waterways of 
Ancient Peru 

Sophisticated irrigation systems of the 
Moche and Chimu empires rivaled 
modern technology 

By Michael Moseley 

The world's increasing population confronts man with 
the pressing problem of how to feed his ever-growing fam- 
ily. One course of solution lies in transforming the deserts 
that cover one-eighth of the land surface into fertile food- 
producing regions. How this transformation might be 
achieved is a core question of Field Museum's Programa 
Riego Antiguo (Ancient Irrigation Program), a multidis- 
ciplinary investigation of prehistoric irrigation agricul- 
ture on the arid coast of Peru. 

Sandwiched between the rugged Andes Mountains 
and cool waters of the South Pacific, the Peruvian Desert 
is a long, narrow strip of barren waste. Showers of conse- 
quence fall about once per decade, and 1925 witnessed the 
last torrential rains of major significance. The dearth of 
precipitation makes this one of the bleakest, most barren 
landscapes in the world. Travelers can cross miles of 
sand-strewn plains and parched hills without encounter- 
ing a single cactus or blade of vegetation. 

Yet, as an archaeologist who has wandered this 
shadeless wilderness for more than a decade, I can attest 
to its extraordinary content of numerous archaeological 
sites and impressive ruins. Long-abandoned villages dot 
the shoreUne one after another, while sun-bleached walls 
of forgotten cities push back into desert dunes beyond 
the track of modern men. Indeed, the ancient societies of 
the Andean coast have left behind tracery of once-thriv- 
ing civilizations that rank with the Inca and Aztec as the 
most sophisticated and evolved of any in the native New 

To ask how vast populations and splendid civiliza- 
tions once flourished in the desert is to ask how man fed 
himself, and fed himself well. Understanding rests first 
on knowing what nature offered, and second on knowing 
how man manipulated nature's offerings. At a glance the 
desert is baked and barren. Yet, in many ways nature 
offers compensating hospitality. *' 

Michael Moseley is associate curator, Middle and South Ameri- 
can archaeology and ethnology. 


The Huaca deiSqythif^gest adobe structure in South Amer- 
ica, measuring 160 meters wide by 350 meters long, was the 
focal painty the Moche state. Occupied for more than 500 
years, the site was abandoned about A.D. 700, possibly as a 
result of the failure of its irrigation system. 

; the American Museum of Natural Hi' 


Courtesy Michael Moseley 

Charles Ortloff. hydrologist, sites a level down an abandoned 
canal. Such preliminary measurements are followed by precise 
surveying which is necessary before the workings of the canal 
can be reconstructed. 

First, the coastal plain, though dry, is remarkably 
cool and constant in temperature. A consistent ocean 
breeze rarely allows the thermometer to push above 90 or 
fall below 65 \ Contemporary concerns such as air condi- 
tioning or central heating have little relevance in this 
amenable climate. 

Second, wildlife in the coastal waters is uniquely 
bountiful. The marine biomass is the most abundant of 
any in the New World oceans, and today Peru surpasses 
all other nations in fishing. Thus, a rich seafood cuisine 
has long been available to ancients and archaeologists 

Third, favorable temperatures, and near-constant 
sunshine create hothouselike conditions for plant growth, 
leaving only water as the missing ingredient for produc- 
tive agriculture. 

Fourth, and finally, towering tens of thousands of 
feet above the desert, craggy Andean mountain peaks 
catch rain clouds and gather substantial precipitation, 
some of which cascades down the western continental 
slope in short streams and rivers. Spaced 15 to 20 miles 
apart, these watercourses cross the arid coastal plain 
creating oasislike valleys before disgorging into the sea 
These greenhouse valleys shelter an auspicious combina- 
tion of water, land, plants, and sun that has long at- 
tracted man. 

That is what nature offers. However, the rise of large 
populations and great civilizations is a story of how An- 
dean people created an artificial symbiotic relationship 
that interposed man in conjunction with water, plants, 

and land. Investigating this symbiosis is the concern of 
the Programa Riego Antiguo (P.R.A.). The study area is 
the valley of the Rio Moche, where I and many of the 
P.R.A. staff worked previously. This work began in 1969 
and dealt with the immense ruins of Chan Chan, the 
sprawling adobe capital of the Chimu empire. Between 
about 1,000 and 1,400 AD. Chimu rulers forged together a 
mighty coastal empire stretching from southern Ecuador 
to central Peru. Then the empire did battle with its great- 
est adversary, the Inca, and upon losing passed into ob- 
scurity shortly before the arrival of Pizarro's conquista- 
dores. Our archaeological explorations dealt with earlier 
phenomena as well, including the Chimu's pohtical prede- 
cessors, the Mochica or Moche state, which was another 
populous desert kingdom. Its capital was on the south 
side of the Rio Moche at the site of the huacas, or pyra- 
mids, of the sun and the moon. Built around the time of 
Christ, the two enormous adobe mounds are probably the 
largest mud-brick constructions in the New World. 

Yet, finding or exploring great ruins does not tell us 
why they were there or how their builders made a living 
and supported themselves. These are the more arduous 
sides of archaeology. Excavation and recovery of mum- 
mified food remains demonstrate that the Chimu and 
Moche peoples based their economies on productive agri- 
culture. Aerial reconnaissance and jeep survey of the 
wastelands on either side of the Rio Moche have revealed 
vast prehistoric canals and extensive ancient field sys- 
tems spread over many miles. This was a key find. 

The great canals and expansive fields comprise the 
economic fossils of Prehispanic agriculture that solemnly 
testify to man's former skills in making the barren desert 
productive. They owe their survival and preservation to 
forgotten builders who made the watercourses larger and 
longer than the modern canals, encompassing far more 
land than is farmed in the same region today. Of course 
the ancient presence of massive waterworks is not unex- 
pected, since productive farming had to support the peo- 
ple and enterprises of the Moche and Chimu empires. 
However, the unexpected lies in the disparity between 
the amount of land farmed today and the larger amount 
of land reclaimed by Precolumbian people— agricultural 
productivity was demonstrably greater in the past than 
in the present! 

In the summer of 1976 the P.R.A. staff initiated field 
studies of the Prehispanic irrigation system in the Moche 
Valley. Supported by the National Science Foundation, 
the program goal is to generate an understanding of the 
strategy and technology of ancient agriculture. Sophisti- 
cated irrigation systems are highly complex phenomena. 
Today, planning, constructing, and operating such sys- 
tems requires skills of specialists trained in many differ- 
ent disciplines. Recreating and recapturing the planning, 
building, and running of an equally sophisticated but 
long-abandoned system is a new scientific endeavor, no 


less demanding of skills from many fields. Thus, the 
P.R.A. staff includes not only myself, Thomas and Shelia 
Pozorski ( Field Museum research assistants), and Eric E. 
Deeds (Harvard University) as archaeologists and an- 
thropologists; but a hydrologist, Charles R. Ortloff (Uni- 
versity of Portland): a geographer, James S. Kus (Cali- 
fornia State University, Fresno); a soils geologist, Fred 
L. Nials (Eastern New Mexico University); and a paly- 
nologist (a botanist who specializes in the study of pol- 
len), Lonnie Pippin (Washington State University); in 
addition to participating Peruvian scientists. 

A first step in the P.R.A. studies was calculating the 
maximum expanse of land farmed with water diverted 
from the Rio Moche in prehistoric times. Using aerial 
photographs of the lower valley, Eric Deeds traced out 
ancient canals that reclaimed 211 square kilometers of 
terrain and contrasted this with recent agriculture in the 
same area, which embraces only 128 square kilometers, or 
about 40 percent less land. The next step entailed quali- 
fying these figures. Contemporary agricultural practices 

Massive aqufducts and rock cuts were necessary to build the 
La Cumbre Canal, which brought water 70 km south from the 
Chicama vallev to the fields of Chan Chan. 

have a relatively short history, starting less than five 
centuries ago with European conquest and colonization of 
the Andes. In contrast, native hydrology developed 
slowly over the course of more than three millennia. Thus, 
all Prehispanic canals in the Moche Valley were not neces- 
sarily built and used at the same time. 

Our studies indicate people began diverting dis- 
charges from the Rio Moche onto the parched desert by 
1500 B.C. Thus, man interposed himself in a symbiotic 
agricultural relationship with land, plants, and water at 
an early date. Canals were first built upstream in areas of 
steep gradients where water flow was easy to control. 
With time new channels were dug further down river 
nearing the coast. Ultimately, the ancient irrigation sys- 
tem assumed a configuration similar to a series of nested 
.Vs (»>). The point of each V represents the intake of 
two canals at the Rio Moche. The diverging arms of the V 
reflect the-course of the canals as they spread apart from 
the river and reach out into fertile lands near the shore. 

When the Moche Empire rose to power, irrigation 


^'% ' "/-' ■■'■ 

Courtesy Michael Moselev 


was well established; however, much river water still 
escaped into the ocean without productive use. People of 
the desert kingdom quickly expanded the canal system 
on both sides of the river, bringing wide tracks of new 
land under cultivation and reducing the loss of water. 
Dug by hand, the toil of thousands of laborers went into 
the waterworks. This tremendous investment in expand- 
ing the local economy probably correlates with the valley 
being the seat of the empire, and the rulers at the sun and 
moon pyramids having extensive human resources at 
their command. Work with geologist Nials and palynolo- 
gist Pippin near the old capital on the south side of the 
valley revealed evidence of a severe blow to the Moche 
economy: sometime after the expansion of the southern 
canals vast quantities of wind-borne sand began accumu- 
lating behind the beach. Pushed by ocean winds, waves of 
dunes slid across the southern fields, eventually choking 
off the main canals and cutting the water supply to the 
sun and moon pyramids. Today, blankets of soft sand 
often 10 to 20 meters thick cover much of the south side 

of the valley, destroying its economic potential. P.R.A. 
staff members are attempting to discern if this destruc- 
tion resulted from man's mismanagement of his resour- 
ces, or simply from a quirk of nature. 

When the Chimu subsequently assumed power it is 
little wonder that they turned their attention to the re- 
gion north of the river and built Chan Chan there. Wide, 
flat plains abound north of the river. Even with dunes 
smothering the southern fields, a scarcity of water — not 
arable land — remained the critical factor in farming. The 
Chimu enlarged and extended the northern canals to 
about twice their former size. Opening so much land put 
supply pressures on the Rio Moche. Compensation was 
sought by constructing a giant 70 km-long canal to bring 
water from the next river valley north to the vicinity of 
Chan Chan. This great intervalley conduit, the La Cum- 
bre canal, ranks as one of the most prodigious engineering 
feats of the Precolumbian World. Again the extraordi- 
nary labor investment made in this canal and other 
Chimu irrigation works correlates with the valley being a 

Workmen clear administrative structures in one of the Ciuda- 
delas ("palaces") of Chan Chan, the capital of the Chimu em- 

pire. From this center, the Chimu rulers controled a 1,000-mile- 
long empire, second in size only to thatofthelncas. 

»- *^ 



K-)0 4.' »• i ■ 



major political center commanding vast human resources. 
The Chimu agricultural system is the largest and 
best preserved of the ancient hydrological undertakings 
in the P.R.A. study area. Thomas and Shelia Pozorski 
began canal excavation studies with these remains at the 
same time that geographer Kus started mapping the 
associated fields. Although preliminary in nature, the 
research suggests the strategy' of native engineers em- 
phasized efficiency and long-term stability. Many canal 
excavations reveal little evidence of either annual clean- 
ing or maintenance. Some channels seem to have trans- 
ported water for decades with no need for systematic 
upkeep. Fields, likewise, show few signs of annual plow- 
ing or reworking. Furrows conducting water to individual 
plants are not laid out as today in parallel, straight lines. 
Instead of allowing water to flow directly from one end of 
a field to the other, ancient furrows were cut in a tight 
zigzag fashion. This required water to move back and 
forth in a sinuous or S-shaped course. The intent was to 

Precolumbian furrows, such as these in Chan Chan, are easily 
recognized by their folded. S-shaped path, which maximized 
scant water resources by giving the water time to soak into the 
desert soil. 


Courlesy Michael Moselev 

allow the water time to soak in, presumably producing 
higher yields with less water. One problem now confront- 
ing the staff scientists is to identify specific Chimu crops 
by examining ancient pollen in the fields. When com- 
pleted, this work will contribute to exact quantitative 
assessments of early agricultural productivity. 

The La Cumbre canal is in many ways the Chimu's 
greatest hydrological monument. Yet, studying the des- 
iccated and long abandoned conduit is a formidable task. 
Simply cleaning the La Cumbre and rebuilding its numer- 
ous fallen aqueducts would be an undertaking running 
into the millions of dollars. Instead, hydrologist Ortloff 
has to work with widely spaced archaeological cuts re- 
vealing the dimensions and configuration of the old 
channel. He then walks and maps sand-filled stretches of 
canal recording when the banks widen, narrow, or elevate 
— each change possibly affecting the original flow and 
water velocity. Once relevant statistics are recorded, the 
next step is to run "theoretical water" through the math- 
ematically reconstructed section of canal. We call this 
"theoretical water" because the nearest real water is 
miles away and modern technology has no practical 
means of filling the La Cumbre canal. Nor can it tell us 
how much water the conduit carried, how fast, or by what 
means it slowed the water's velocity upon reaching an 
aqueduct and then increased flow again after safely 
crossing. This information has to come from mathemati- 
cal models and the physics of fluid dynamics. The multi- 
ple-step calculations involved lie beyond the mathemati- 
cal ken of an archaeologist such as myself, but apparently 
not beyond the understanding of Chimu technicians. Less 
than 5 percent of the La Cumbre has received such study 
to date, but the initial findings suggest native engineers 
had a truly remarkable grasp of the empirical end of fluid 
dynamics. What the P.R.A. staff is currently struggling 
with is whether or not this grasp and knowledge was 
cjual to or greater than the understanding modern 
hydrologists have about irrigating the same region. 

Thus, in overview the Field Museum has launched a 
program of inquiry into a new but very relevant topic of 
investigation. Like many pioneering studies, the P.R.A. 
staff generates as many questions as answers. It now 
seems likely that ancient engineers may have consciously 
manipulated the underground water table. This would 
have been advantageous in assuring a continuous source 
of water to the 125 wells supplying Chan Chan, in addi- 
tion to feeding farm areas below the city with subsurface 

P.R.A. members will have to move a lot of theoretical 
water through a multitude of calculations to assess these 
and other propositions. However, with continued support 
from the Field Museum and the National Science Founda- 
tion, the past strategy and technology of irrigation agri- 
culture will undoubtedly offer modern man much in the 
quest to feed his ever-growing family, [j 


Letters from Antarctica, 1976-77 

By Edward Olsen 

The following report is the second from Edward Olsen, 
chairman of the Department of Geology and curator of 
mineralogy, who has been searching for meteorites in 

The only word that adequately describes the scene that 
meets your eye, as you emerge from the plane which has 
just landed you in Antarctica is awesome. The seventy or 
so individuals in our flight walked out onto ice and no one 
said a word, even those who had seen this sight before. 

The sun shone brightly on white, white sea shelf ice. 
To the east, Mt. Erebus stood, 12,450 feet rising from sea 
level— a snow-clad volcano with smoke billowing from its 
crest. To the west lay the Royal Society Range, white 
craggy mountains with streamlined, curving glaciers 
sweeping between the peaks to the shores of Ross Sound. 
It is a sight relatively few have seen; one impossible to 

We were soon picked up by a truck with an oversize 
plywood cabin set on it— the so-called McMurdo bus. We 
drove slowly over the dazzlingly bright ice shelf to the 
shore of Ross Island, up the slope of the shore, and into 
McMurdo Station. Because there is no flat place on Ross 
Island for an airfield, the planes land on the permanent 
ice shelf that surrounds the volcanic island on three sides. 

McMurdo Station is the largest "town" in Antarc- 
tica. It consists of about 50 buildings that house the 
science operations in the interior of the continent, and the 
U.S. Navy Support Force that provides transportation, 
supply, construction, and equipment. In 1961, seventeen 
nations signed a 30-year treaty setting aside Antarctica 
for peaceful, noncommercial, scientific studies. The na- 
tions that are active in research here are the U.S., Britain, 
U.S.S.R., New Zealand, Japan, Argentina, Chile, Ger- 
many, Italy, Poland, and Australia. In the U.S. the re- 
search program is called USARP (for U.S. Antarctic Re- 
search Program). It is operated entirely by the National 
Science Foundation. The annual budget is $45 milhon, 
with $5 million of that going for the scientific programs, 
and $40 million for the naval support force. It seems clear 
that the main reason for such an expenditure is not pri- 
marily to support science, but rather to maintain a U.S. 
presence in Antarctica. The U.S. keeps four year-round 
stations: McMurdo, South Pole, Siple, and Palmer, with 
smaller stations manned only during the summer months, 
November through February. 

The time will come, 1991, when the 30-year treaty will 
have run its course and need renegotiation. In a world 
increasingly starved for natural resources, the negotia- 
tion will be less simple than the last one. There is oil here, 
along with coal, chromium ore, copper ore, and a host of 
other metals utilized by a modern technological society. 
-Shortages 25 years from now will make it possible to con- 
sider mining even in this most inhospitable climate on 
earth. Already some nations are seining the ocean waters 
inside the treaty boundary for krill — small shrimplike 
creatures that are a rich source of protein. Sealing and 
whahng went on here after the treaty was signed, and 
threatens to be started again by some countries in spite 
of the current treaty. A U.S. presence here is desirable — 
for if we are not here, others will be here anyway, and we 
will have no say in future negotiations. 

Well, back to my letter, and the purposes for which I 
came down to this strange land. The first" week in Mc- 
Murdo was spent getting together supplies and equip- 
ment. I also spent two full days in a snow-and-ice survival 
school. I learned how to spend a night dug into an ice 
trench, how to use an ice axe to chmb ice and snow cliffs, 
how to use crampons, how to recognize crevasses and 
climb out of them if you fall in. Walking through deep 
crevasses in an active glacial tongue is an eerie experi- 
ence. It's a world of icicles and a pale blue aura all about 

After the week, our party got together for final plans. 
It consists of us two Americans (Dr. William Cassidy of 
the University of Pittsburgh, and I) and one Japanese, 
Dr. Keiso Yanai of Japan's National Institute of Polar 
Research. Dr. Yanai has worked for eight summers in the 
Antarctic, and eight years ago made a trek from the 
coast, over the ice to the South Pole. He was a main fac- 
tor in the successful search for meteorites the Japanese 
made over the past several summers near the Yamato 
Mountains. He personally recovered about 600 of the 992 
specimens they recovered. Having him along makes me 
feel a good deal better. So, it is a joint U.S. -Japan expe- 
dition. We signed a formal agreement on the partition of 
any specimens recovered. 

Our first field camp was at the foot of Wright Upper 
Glacier in one of the unglaciated "dry valleys" on the 
west side of McMurdo Sound. There are a series of half-a- 
dozen valleys that were obviously once full of glaciers, 
but are now bare rock, the glaciers having wasted away. 


No one understands why they stay dry. Each valley has 
glaciers at the upper and along its sides feeding into it, 
but although the ice moves down into the valley the front 
wastes away by some summer melting and (mostly) wind 
erosion at the same rate— so there is no net advance into 
the valley. 

Our first camp was a rock at the very edge of the 
glacial tongue in the Wright Valley. Down the valley 
were bare rock outcrops and glacial boulders. No plants, 
no birds, no animals — the valley floor looks like Mars. I 
found a little orange lichen and a rare kind of black lichen 
—just a few tiny specks on rocks. No sequoia ever looked 
so good to my eyes. How on earth do these exist here? 
Very dry (less than a few inches of annual precipitation), 
total darkness and bitter cold in the winter, and short, 
cold summers. It's amazing. 

The valley is surrounded by towering mesas and 
buttes of sedimentary rocks and igneous sills. It looks 
exactly like parts of Utah, and northwestern Colorado. 

The first day in the field, the weather was cool, about 
38 F and mildly breezy. Dr. Yanai and I took a 14-mile 
trek on crampons over the Wright Glacier looking for 
meteorites. We probably passed some; however, the 
number of glacial boulders was so great it would be im- 
possible to spot them unless we walked right onto one. 

The upper end of the glacier is fed by ice in an unusual 
way. The polar plateau here ends in a 1,000-foot cliff of 
rock, about four miles wide. Over this, spill several ice- 
falls— enormous masses of ice that look like so many 
frozen Niagaras. It is an awesome sight. We searched the 
foot of the falls, but found no meteorites. It is a danger- 
ous avalanche area. 

The next day. Dr. Yanai and I trekked the five miles 
or so of terminal moraine rocks that are bulldozed up 
along the end of the glacier, just in front of our camp. We 
found nothing other than the rocks of the valley walls. It 
was decided that the best place to continue the search 
would be up on the polar ice cap, in a situation similar to 
the kind of place where the Japanese had such success. 
After a couple of days waiting for the Navy helicopter, it 
arrived and moved our camp about 10 miles to the south- 
west, up onto the polar cap at an elevation of about 6,200 
feet. We set up camp in a spot I never would have chosen. 
We were on a thin patch of dry snow right out in the 
middle of the ice sheet. Only half a mile away were some 
level rock benches protected by ridges of outcropping 
rock. Our ice camp sloped badly, which created a number 
of problems. Also, with no protection, our equipment 
must all be staked down into the ice, or weighted down. 

The first day the weather was excellent. We traversed 
the open ice to the west. Dr. Yanai, with binoculars, 
spotted a black rock all alone in the middle of a blue ice 
area. Blue ice is, incidentally, ancient ice that has recrys- 
tallized to larger crystals, which take on a pale blue color. 
We trekked on crampons over to it. It was a meteorite! I 

could not tell the type it is right off. It weighed an esti- 
mated 3,000-4,000 grams (later weighing it came to 4,108 
grams — about 11 lbs.). Almost at once, we spotted anoth- 
er black spot about half a mile off. It, too, turned out to 
be a meteorite of at least 10,000 grams, maybe 15,000 
grams! (Later weighing, it came to 13,782 grams— about 
37 lbs.). Binocular search of the rest of the region showed 
nothing. Because of the rolling undulations of the surface 
one can't see very far off. 

We left markers where we found them, photographed 
them in position, and then packed them a half mile back 
to camp. Then the weather closed in. During the night the 
sun shone brightly, not a cloud in the sky. However, the 
wind rose to a constant 25 mph, the tents flapped and 
popped, and the temperature fell to about 6 F. After a 
dinner of sukiyaki and cup of warm sake, we crawled into 
our sleeping bags with all our clothes on — heavy socks, 
wind pants, thermal underwear, wool shirt, even mittens 
and hat with ear flaps pulled down. After shivering for a 
while, each person pulled a towel over his eyes to block 
out the all-night sunlight and tried to go to sleep. Beneath 
your sleeping bag is a thin rubber pad, a thin layer of 
snow, and then hard blue glacial ice. As you He there you 
hear, deep down beneath you, a sound like the whipping 
of a sheet of metal— ivuk, wuk, . . . (ri//e— followed by a 
slow, groaning sound. These are the sounds of the glacial 
ice moving, ever so slowly, downhill. It is an eerie sound, 
and occasionally when it ceases for ten minutes or more, 
you hold your breath, fearing that the quiet period will be 
followed by a sudden cracking, and a small crevasse will 
open right under your sleeping bag. But then it starts 
again — wuk . . . wuk . . . wuk . . . groan. A unique experi- 
ence. fCoritinuedonp. 19.) 


ndiicm ©irn 

Trustees Named 

George R. Baker and O. C. Davis have 
recently been elected to five-year terms 
on Field Museum's Board of Trustees. 
Mr. Baker is executive vice president of 
General Banking Services Groups, Con- 
tinental Illinois Corporation, and a di- 
rector of Midland Company, Reliance 
Corporation, Reliance Insurance Com- 
pany, and W. W. Grainger, Inc. He is 
chairman of the Continental Illinois 
Leasing Corporation and for both the 
Better Business Bureau of Metropolitan 
Chicago and Continental Illinois Ven- 
ture Corporation he serves on the boards 
of directors. Mr. Baker is also a member 
of the executive board of the Chicago 
Area Council Boy Scouts of America. 

Mr. Davis is president and director of 
Peoples Gas Co. He serves as a director 
of Harris Bankcorp, Inc.; Harris Trust 
and Savings Bank; AMSTED Indus- 
tries, Inc.; The American Gas Associa- 
tion; and the Chicago Crime Commis- 

sion. He is also district vice chairman of 
the IlUnois State Chamber of Com- 
merce, a member of the National Petro- 
leum Council, and is on the advisory 
council (natural gas) to the U.S. Secre- 
tary of the Interior. 

New Gallery Opens 

The Museum's newest gallery, "The 
Place for Wonder," officially opened on 
January 24. The attractive ground floor 
facility does what all museum visitors 
wish museums would do: it allows peo- 
ple to touch things. Here one can pet a 
stuffed owl and feel the way its feathers 
fluff softly back in place as it is stroked; 
handle a vacated wasp nest; play a West 
African musical instrument; turn 
quartz crystals to catch their sparkle in 
light. The choices are almost unlimited 
in The Place for Wonder, a special exper- 
iment in museum visiting. 

In bright, comfortable surround- 

ings, children and adults find drawers of 
museum treasures stacked in butcher- 
block tables. In each drawer, a question 
card suggests ways to learn about ob- 
jects: "How do you think people used 
this tool?" "Does this fossil remind you 
of a plant or animal living today?" Car- 
peted benches serve both as seats and 
counters, allowing visitors to conveni- 
ently examine materials related to 
major Field Museum exhibits. Walls are 
painted in pimento and orange; one wall 
is covered with some 60 varieties of rare 
tropical hardwoods and four Illinois 
woods. The tables and benches continue 
the natural spirit of the wood wall. The 
innovative design is the work of Donald 
Skinner, chief graphics designer at the 

Trained volunteers are on hand to 
answer questions and to point the way 
to a new awareness of the museum 's reg- 
ular exhibits. Funds for this exciting 
new gallery were contributed by the Ser- 
vice Club of Chicago. 

Birders: Raise Your Binoculars! 

Field Museum members with an ornithological bent will be 
interested to know that a birding excursion to Horicon Marsh, 
50 miles northwest of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is scheduled for 
Saturday, April 23. 

A deluxe motor coach will pick up participants at Field 
Museum at 7:00 a.m. and return in the evening. Total cost of 
the outing is $15.00 per person, which includes a picnic lunch. 
Participants should bring a scope or binoculars and sufficient 
warm clothing and wet weather outerwear and boots in the 
event of inclement weather. (Clothing that is not needed may 
be safely left in the motor coach. ) 

The excursion will be led by Mrs. Roger Brown, past presi- 
dent of the Evanston-North Shore Bird Club; assisting will be 
Mrs. James Ware, also a past president of the club. The number 
of reservations is limited to 38, so persons interested in the out- 
ing are advised to send in the coupon at right (or facsirnile), 
together with the $15.00 fee as soon as possible. These should 
be directed to Dorothy Roder, Membership Department, Field 

Museum of Natural History, 
Drive, Chicago, II 60605. 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 

Field Museum Horicon Birding Trip 
April 23, 1977 

reservations for the Horicon Birding Trip. 

. State . 




Amount enclosed ($15.00 per person) 


( make checks payable to Field Mu 
Return this coupon lor facsimile) today! 


Antarctica I Continued from p. 1 7.) 

The next day we remained huddled in the tent while 
30-35 mph winds lashed the tent walls. The temperature 
was 1 F and the wind chill must have been somewhere 
around -30 F. All you can do is try to sleep. You can't get 
out and walk around because, on the slippery surface, the 
wind can knock you down and set you sliding down the 
glacier slope. You can't even read in your sleeping bag 
because your fingers, in mittens, become painfully numb 
in five minutes and you can't turn the pages. Before the 
cold gets you, you're convinced you'll die of boredom. 

The next several days the wind dropped to about 15 
mph and we could go out and traverse the blue glacial 
surface. No additional meteorites were discovered. 

By radio we arranged for a Navy helicopter pick-up 
to go back to McMurdo Station for a few days of rest. The 
climatic conditions, on the ice cap, in tents, are severe 
enough that one becomes totally weary after a couple of 
weeks. Happily our much needed rest coincided with 
Christmas. We left the camp standing and went back to 
McMurdo, and a shower, shave, and a Christmas dinner 
in the Navy mess hall that consisted of turkey, ham, filet 
mignon, shrimp cocktail, sweet potatoes, raisin sauce, 
oyster dressing, corn, peas, salads, cranberries, rolls, 
pumpkin pie, pecan pie, fruit cake, ice cream, coffee, milk 
(powdered), and a choice of wines. After a couple of weeks 
of cold biscuits, clammy bacon, stale bread, Japanese 
sukiyaki, and pepper soup, we were ready for this feast. 

Speaking of food, for anyone who has camped out in 
more moderate climates, camping habits in Antarctica 
are unusual. There are no bears, no mice, no ants, no flies, 
no hot sun, and no rain. As a result, food can be left out 
anywhere, in any condition. A half-eaten loaf of bread, 
half a boiled ham, etc. can be set outside of a tent, in the 
open, unwrapped, and a week later be just like it was 
when you put it out, only perhaps a little drier. Nothing 
attacks it or causes it to decay! On the other hand, there 
are major disadvantages. Butter is never softer than a 
rock; you do not butter a piece of bread, you hack off 
butter chips and crunch them up on a piece of bread. 
Canned juices, from which you need daily vitamin C, have 
to be cut open and the "juice" chopped out and either 
eaten like sherbet or melted before you can drink it. 
Canned fruit, similarly, must be chopped out and melted 
before it can be eaten. Virtually everything you eat is "on 
the rocks." 

Dishes can't be washed with soap because the water, 
made by chopping glacial ice and melting it, is so ultra- 
soft the soap film clings to dishes. Nor can dishrags be 
used because once wetted they freeze solid and there's no 
warm place to dry them. Instead, dishes are wiped clean 
by using wads of dry toilet paper. 

Because it is such a chore to get water ( it takes a long 
time to melt ice on a small camp stove) you don't use it 
for washing, nor is it desirable to wash. Wet hands chap 
easily. Finger tips then split and bleed. Hands are cleaned 

by grabbing a chip of granular snow and rubbing your 
hands with it. It removes dirt before it melts much from 
hand heat and gets you only minimally wet. Tooth brush- 
ing is done conveniently with snow also. It makes your 
teeth ache, but they do clean up. 

After a few days of rest in McMurdo, we flew back to 
our camp, loaded it in the helicopter, and flew southwest, 
higher onto the polar cap, to the Mount Dewitt nunatak. 
(A nunatak is an Eskimo word from the northern arctic, 
that describes an isolated peak of rock sticking up 
through an ice cap.) Here we found a better camp spot in 
a small hollow surrounded by rock on three sides and a 
steep wall of polar cap ice on the fourth side. In this de- 
pression we were somewhat protected from stray winds. 
Dewitt nunatak is surrounded by vast areas of blue ice, 
and a promise of further meteorite finds. 

For the first couple of days the winds were only 15 to 
20 mph, and temperatures around 8 F. The area is about 
7,500 feet above sea level and we expected colder, windier 
conditions. They came! The winds picked up to 40 mph, 
and the temperatures hovered around 2 to 5 F. For the 
next four days the winds continued, and traverses across 
open ice on crampons were difficult. Then, quite sudden- 
ly, one evening the wind stopped completely. The utter 
silence was overwhelming. It continued for over a day 
that way. New Year's Eve, we cheered at the midnight 
hour as we trudged over the ice, taking advantage of the 
windless conditions. We crossed some heavily crevassed 
areas, hopping nimbly over them, and avoided stepping 
on snow bridges. I deliberately kicked down a snow 
bridge into one, and peered into a cold, blue world that 
went dozens of feet downward. 

Out on our New Year's Eve traverse two things hap- 
pened. While hiking along, two skuas (sea birds) flew by. 
They were more than 50 miles from the coast. It was a 
shock to see other living creatures in this utterly lifeless 
world. I waved to them and one flew to me, hovered for 
almost 15 seconds over my head, looked at me intently, 
and then glided away. I enjoyed the brief visit. Later we 
ran across a large glacial boulder. It was coal-rich shale 
and we found fossil wood, leaves, and bark of trees that 
once lived in Antarctica, 350 million years ago, when this 
continent was a tropical, life-filled place. 

Until Antarctica I had never reahzed how much I was 
conscious of living plants and animals when out-of-doors. 
Here, with virtually none of these, there is a very lonely 
and unsatisfying aspect to the land. The air itself, lacking 
the aromatic scents of trees, grass, and flowers, is com- 
pletely pure, and uninteresting. Breathing the air is like 
drinking distilled water— completely tasteless. 

As I write this, no new meteorite finds have been 
made, although we have traversed miles of windswept ice 
fields Hke those on which the Japanese made so many 
finds a thousand miles away. Although this is disappoint- 
ing, I am still pleased we found those we did. n 


March and April at Field Museum 

(From March 15 through April 15) 


Ayer Film/Lecture Series. This series highlights familiar and 
not so-familiar areas of the world. Saturdays, at 2:30 p.m., in Simp- 
son Theatre, ground floor. 

March 19 The Great Cit\^ of London 
by Doug Jones 

March 26 The Huichol— Tribe of the Sacred Cactus 

April 2 The Andes 

by Thayer Soule 

April 9 The Real Yellowstone 

by Fran William Hall 

Spring Journey for Children— Houj to Read a Bird. An ac- 
tivity-oriented self-guided tour through the museum's bird halls, 
including a visit to the museum's newest diorama, the Salt Marsh, 
in the Man in His Enuironment exhibit (Hall 18). Learn about birds: 
compare their beaks, their feathers, their sizes and shapes. Families 
will enjoy Journeys too. Journey sheets are available at the infor- 
mation booth. 

Adult Education Courses— Spring Series. Natural history 
and anthropology noncredit courses are being offered to ages 18 
and over, beginning in April. Watch your mailbox for a special 
Adult Education Courses flyer. We recommend that you register 
early because class enrollment is limited. 


The Place for Wonder. Visit the newly opened The Place for 
Wonder gallery. Open to visitors of all ages, this room provides a 
"hands-on" approach to natural history. Staffed by volunteers, it is 
open to the public promptly: weekdays, 1 p.m. and 2 p.m.; week- 
ends, 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2 p.m. Located near the new 
cafeteria, ground floor, 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This game/exhibit 
of 38 artifacts is a great way to learn that economic and social roles 
of the sexes are not universally the same. South Lounge, 2nd floor. 
No closing date. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 
— and the need for solution. Hall 18, main floor. Permanent exhibit. 


Weekend Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays, 10 
am, to 3 p.m.: take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in 
museum-related activities. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. South Lounge, 2nd floor. 


March 15, 7:30 p.m Chicago Audubon Society 

Aprils, 7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club 

April 7, 7:00 p.m. The Primitive Arts Society 

April 8, 8:00 p.m Chicago Anthropological Society 

April 12, 7:30 p m Chicago Nature Camera Club 

April 13, 7:00 p.m. Chicago Ornithological Society 

April 13, 7:30 p m Windy City Grotto, National 
Speleological Society 


The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 5 p.m. During the 
Treasures of Tutankhamun exhibit, April 15 through August 15, 
the hours are 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Monday through Wednesday and 9 
a.m. to 9 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. On Fridays, year-round, 
the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday (closed April 8). Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


April, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 4 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 


6 Tutankhamun and the Fall of the Eighteenth 

B\ William J. Murnane 


Field Briefs 

back April and May at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leiand Webber 


Blaine J. Yarrington. chairman 

George R. Baker 

Gordon Bent 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Stanton R. Cook 

O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Marshall Field 

Nicholas Galitzine 

Paul W. Goodrich 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

WiUiam H. Mitchell 

Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 

James J. O'Connor 

James H. Ransom 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

John S. Runnells 

William L. Searle 

Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith 

Robert H. Strotz 

John W. SuUivan 

William G. Swartchild. Jr. 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

E. Leiand Webber 

Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 


Outside front cover: Floral perfume vase from the tomb of 
Egyptian king Tutankhamun, discovered by British archae- 
ologist Howard Carter in 1922. The vase will be on view at 
Field Museum, together with other treasures from 
Tutankhamun's tomb, April 15 to August 15. An extra- 
ordinary feat of stone cutting, the vase and base with their 
intricate handles are formed of only two pieces of alabaster 
joined together. Tied around the neck are the papyrus plant 
of Lower Egypt and the lotus of Upper Egypt, representing 
the unification of the two lands. The support has a repeated 
motif of an ankh, meaning Ufe, with outstretched arms 
holding the hieroglyph for dominion. Alabaster with pig- 
ment. Height 50.17 cm. Photo by Lee Boltin; courtesy the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Additional artifacts from the tomb of Tutankhamun are 
shown on pages 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, and 17. 

Costs for organizing the "Treasures of Tutankhamun" 
exhibit are being met in part by a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities, matching grants from 
Exxon Corporation and the Robert Wood Johnson Jr. Char- 
itable Trust. All costs of installation of the exhibit in Chi- 
cago are being paid for by the participating institutions: 
Field Museum and the University of Chicago. 

Inside front cover: Howard Carter opening the door of the 
second shrine. Photo by Harry Burton; courtesy the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. 

Inside back cover: Howard Carter (second from left) remov- 
ing the roof section of the first shrine. Photo by Harry Bur- 
ton; courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year: $3 a year for schools. 
Members ol the Museum subscribe through Museum membership. Opinions expressed 
by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Un- 
solicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 606Q.S. 
ISSN : 0015-C703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, III. 

By William J. Murnane 

he "Treasures of Tutankhamun" exhibition re- 
kindles some of the public fascination that the 
discovery of his tomb engendered more than half 
a century ago. The story of how a royal burial was recov- 
ered nearly intact after three millennia is indeed one of 
the great romances of Egyptology, but amid all the pub- 
licity and attention lavished anew on the treasures, there 
is good reason to fear that "King Tut" himself may not 
receive his full share of the limelight. 

Tutankhamun presided over a period that marked his 
country's reemergence from a period of crisis. The crisis 
pivoted around the crown's struggle to preserve itself 
against three power elites: the army, the civil service, 
and the priesthoods. It was by means of these three 
groups that the pharaohs of the Eighteenth Dynasty had 
ruled Egypt. Earlier rulers had kept a tight hold on power 
by being directly involved with all branches of govern- 
ment, particularly the army; and royal control over 
patronage theoretically allowed those earlier rulers to 
dominate the three groups. By the earlier fourteenth cen- 
tury, however, some of these controls were breaking 
down: peaceful relations with the other middle eastern 

« Page 4: Shawabty for the king. A shawabty was meant to act 
for its owner when asked to perform duties in the afterlife. Typi- 
cal shawabties are simply generalized, mammiform images; the 
individual quality of the face here, possibly a portrait of Tut- 
ankhamun, is rare. The finely carved statuette is inscribed as a 
gift from the general of the army. Minnakht. Wood, gold leaf, 
pigment; height 38.4 cm. 

■•Page 5: Vase in the form of an ibex. This vase was fitted with 
real ibex horns, only one of which remains. The glass eyes and 
red-stained ivory tongue further enhance the animal's realism. 
A cosmetic or perfume had been placed in the hollowed-out 
body through an opening in the back. Alabaster, ivory, horn, 
glass, copper or bronze, pigment. Height 27.9cm. 

Photos by Lee Boltin; courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of 

superpowers eliminated the need for the king to campaign 
at the head of his army, and the independence of the royal 
house was increasingly compromised by the alliances it 
formed with its subjects, such as Amenhotpe Ill's highly 
pubUcized marriage into a provincial military family early 
in his reign. 

The most visible rivals at that time were the priests. 
Traditionally, the pharaoh was the sole representative for 
worshipping the gods for his people. Priests, however, 
often functioned for him in this role and were also the 
intermediary between the people and their king. When 
the gods were invested as official sponsors of a success- 
fully aggressive military policy early in the Eighteenth 
Dynasty, the enrichment of the priesthood was acceler- 
ated. By the time of Amenhotpe III, the most conspicu- 
ous of the priesthoods was that of the god Amun, or 
"Amun-Ra, King of the Gods." The temple of Amun at 
Karnak was the apex of a vast financial empire consisting 
of land, manpower, and treasure, and Amun's priests 
exercised a powerful influence over much of the populace. 
Amun's high priest, moreover, functioned as the overseer 
of the priests of all the other gods of Egypt, with an au- 
thority that extended well beyond his normal responsibil- 
ities. It was only a matter of time before the king would 
have to deal with this high priest and other overmighty 

The explosion that followed has been described many 
times: the estrangement from Amun by Amenhotpe IV— 
Amenhotpe Ill's successor— and his espousal of a new 
cult centered on the sun's disk (the "Aton"); the chang- 
ing of Amenhotpe IV's name to Akhenaton and the mov- 
ing of his capital from Thebes in Upper Egypt to Amarna 
in Middle Egypt; and his attempt to suppress the priest- 
hood of Amun, as part of an overall scheme to reaffirm 
the crown's preeminence. 

William J. Murnane is a research associate of the Oriental Insti- 

It was into this historical context that Tutankhamun 
was born (about the eighth year of Akhenaton"s reign, c. 
1343 B.C.). Tutankhamun's name was not originally pre- 
fixed to that of Amun, but to that of the Aton: thus, we 
first hear of him as Tutankhaton ("Living image of the 
Aton"). The fragmentary inscription from Amarna that 
preserves his name also tells us that he held the title 
"king's son of his body," but the name of the father is not 
given and the early years of Tutankhamun and his elder 
brother Smenkhkara are virtually unrecorded. Later, as 
king, Tutankhamun would formally refer to his "father" 
Amenhotpe III, a filiation accepted by many scholars, 
especially those who believe that Akhenaton ( Amenhotpe 
IV) and Amenhotpe III were coregents for as long as 
eleven years. The same "father" term may also be trans- 
lated as "forefather," a frequent usage in Egyptian. Tut- 
ankhamun and his brother could have been Akhenaton's 
sons by a minor wife — a woman kept in the background 
for much of the king's reign because of his closeness to 
Nafertiti, his chief queen, and to her own six daughters. 
Although Tutankhamun's actual paternity does remain 
in question, it is certain that he and Smenkhkara were in 
line for the throne by right of birth. 

During Tutankhamun's boyhood, the position of the 
royal house became steadily more embattled. Akhen- 
aton's reforms were unpopular, a situation that was ag- 
gravated by his violent raction to any opposition. By the 
time Akhenaton died — probably during the seventeenth 
year of his reign — he had left Smenkhkara, his sometime 
coregent and now successor, in a very delicate position. 
Akhenaton's legacy could not easily be repudiated by one 
whom he had, after all, raised to the throne; but some 
accommodation had to be reached with the dispossessed 
supporters of Amun. From what we know of Smenkh- 
kara's reign, it seems that he attempted a strategic re- 
treat—quietly burying the more objectionable of Akhen- 
aton's official acts while salvaging the essence of the new 
ideology; but Smenkhkara died too soon to see it through. 
Upon his death (c. 1334 B.C.), his younger brother Tut- 
ankhamun, the last surviving male of the Eighteenth 
Dynasty line^ became king. 

The new king assumed as his royal names Nebkhep- 
rure ("Lord of Manifestations is Ra") and his personal 
name, Tutankhaton ("Ruler of Southern Heliopolis 
[Thebes]"). Closely associated with him during his first 
years on the throne were two women: Akhenaton's Queen 
Nafertiti, who seems to have briefly reentered the lime- 
light, and Ankhesenpaaton, Akhenaton's third daughter. 
The latter emerged now as Tutankhamun's chief queen. 
Tutankhamun seems to have occupied Akhenaton's capi- 
tal at Amarna for several years after becoming king and, 
during this time, he may well have continued Smenkh- 
kara's cautious policy of appeasement, perhaps even 
acknowledging the cult of Amun within the very confines 
of Amarna. But half-measures were no longer feasible, 

Entrance to the tomb of Tutankhamun 

Photo by Harry Burton- courtesy Metropolitan Museum of Art 

especially since Tutankhamun's senior advisers probably 
favored more drastic policies. The subsequent change was 
sudden and public: in his fourth year, or thereabout, the 
king was pressured to change his hame from Tutankh- 
aton to Tutankhamun. Likewise, his queen Ankhesenpa- 
aton, was to be called Ankhesenamun; at the same time, 
the court returned to Thebes. The way was now clear for 
undoing all the ill that Akhenaton had wrought, and 
though serious persecution of his memory did not begin 
at least until later, during the reign of Haremhab (1321- 
1293), Akhenaton's legacy was not totally ignored. 

The jackal-headed god 
Anubis guarding the 
entrance of the 
treasury beyond 
Tutankhamun's burial 
chamber. Behind 
Anubis stands the 
gilded wooden shrine 
m ummified in ternal 
organs, with a figure 
of one of four 
goddesses guarding 
each of the four sides 
^ of the shrine. 

Closely connected with this reaction is Tutankh- 
amun's most outstanding achievement: his restoration of 
the great religious endowments to the status they had 
enjoyed before Akhenaton. The restoration program was 
undoubtedly forced on Tutankhamun, but his official 
sponsorship earned him the priests' gratitude and prob- 
ably contributed to the splendor of his burial. The procla- 
mation of their gratitude, preserved on two damaged 
stelae, states that the king 

arose [upon the] Horus-[throne] of the [liv]ing, like 
his father. Re, every day . . . (being) a good ruler who 
performs benefactions for his father(s), all the gods. 

-< Page 8: Painted ivory chest. This elaborately inlaid chest is a 
technical and artistic masterpiece: its ivory reliefs are excep- 
tionally refined in both the carving and painting. The front 
panel shows the king and queen hunting, while the sides and 
back depict running and fighting animals. The lid portrays 
Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun. his queen, in a garden. The 
chest's overall shape is reminiscent of a shrine. Wood, gessoed 
and gilded, ivory, ebony, alabaster, bronze or copper, calcite, 
glaze, pigment. Height 53 cm. 

-< Page 9: Child's chair. The dimensions of this chair suggest that 
it was used by Tutankhamun during his childhood. Ebony, its 
main material, was imported to Egypt from farther south in 
Africa. Desert plants and ibexes adorn the gilded armrests; 
ivory inlay decorates the back. Ebony, ivory, gold, bronze or 
copper. Height 78.1 cm. 

Photos by Lee Boltin; courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of 

Photo by Harry Bun 
courtesy Metropolita 
Museum of Art. 

having restored what was ruined (to be) a monument 
for the length of eternity and having repelled evil- 
doers throughout the Two Lands (=Egypt). * 
The bland official prose goes on to describe the disas- 
trous situation that faced Tutankhamun at his accession. 
The literary form of this passage, though stereotyped, is 
probably not far from truth: 

When His Majesty arose as king, the temples of the 
gods and goddesses from Elephantine [down] to the 
marshes of the Del[ta we]re .... [having fal]len into 
decay. Their sh[ri]nes had fallen into ruin, having 
become mounds overgrown with w[ee]ds (?), their 
sanctuaries were like something that did not exist, 
their halls were a trodden path. . . . The gods were 
ignoring this land. If one se[nt an arm]y to Djahy 
(Syria) in order to widen the borders of Egypt, no 
success of theirs came to pass. If one prayed to a god 
to ask something of him, [in] no [wise] did he come, 
(and) if one petitioned to a goddess in like manner, 
in no wise did she come. . . . 
Tutankhamun responded generously to the call. He 
had statues of Amun and of Ptah, the god of Memphis, 
fashioned out of electrum (an alloy of gold and silver, 
much favored by the Egyptians), lapis lazuli, turquoise, 
and other precious and semiprecious stones, and he in- 
creased the number of carrying poles that bore the gods' 
statues in processions. (Characteristically, Amun got 
thirteen poles to Ptah's eleven.) The other gods of Egypt 

*Brackets in the translation indicate where hieroglyphs in the 
original text were broken or missing. 


were also accommodated according to their relative 
standings. Tutankhamun"s decree dealt with the various 
cults in summary fashion, saying that the gods' images 
were fashioned out of electrum, their shrines rebuilt, and 
the divine offerings of food and other items were reinsti- 
tuted. This entailed much expenditure of precious metals, 
as well as materials such as cloth and incense, from the 
royal treasury. What distinguishes Tutankhamun's res- 
toration from other acts of royal generosity was his rein- 
statement of local families to the positions they had prob- 
ably held before Akhenaton's revolution. 

Filling such posts from old reliable families is worth 
noting, for it suggests what we might otherwise suspect 
— that Akhenaton had frequently confiscated local en- 
dowments and diverted them to the cult of the Aton 
under his own appointees, thus ignoring the families that 
had traditionally controlled these holdings. If so, Tut- 
ankhamun's restoration did much more than just con- 
tinue Smenkhkara's reinstatement of the old gods. By 
giving local men a vested interest in provincial cult en- 
dowments, Tutankhamun was reactivating one of the 
normal channels of local administration; for between 
them, the priestly corporations and local officials — espe- 
cially if they were agents of the king— controlled most of 
the cultivated land in Egypt, and the people who worked 
it. These magnates would now have a renewed loyalty to 
the crown that was reinstating them. 

Tutankhamun, as we have said, "presided" over 
these policies. The state fiction of an all-conquering king 
was maintained to his benefit, but we know that the high 
officials of the army and civil government must have been 
the real masters of the situation. A surprising number of 
these officials had served under Akhenaton, and had wit- 
nessed the failure of the new order from close quarters. 
The most prominent among these men was an official 
named Ay, who, at Amarna, had been known as "overseer 
of all His Majesty's horses" and "true king's scribe": his 
wife Tiyi was the "nurse" of (or for?) Nafertiti. It is not 
known whether this couple were Nafertiti's real parents 
or just her foster parents, but Ay's influence at court is 
certain. His principal title, "God's father," probably 
means something like "councillor," which admirably fits 
the position he must have held under Tutankhamun. 

Another powerful personality who now emerged on 
the scene was the "supreme general" and later king, 
Haremhab. Unlike Ay, whose formal position is not de- 
fined by his titles, Haremhab's role is clearly indicated. 
He may have sprung from one of the military families 
that flourished earlier in the dynasty; he may also have 
served Akhenaton at Amarna as the "overseer of works 
at Akhetaton" ( the ancient name of modern Amarna ) and 
as "general of the Lord of the Two Lands," under the 
name of Pa-Aton-em-hab. If so, he would have changed 
his name when the official reaction set in. Under Tut- 
ankhamun he was made "supreme general of the king" 

Dynasty XVIII ( 1570-1293) 

Ahmose I 1570-1546 

Amenhotpe I 1551-1524 

Thutmose I 1524-1518 

Thutmose II 1518-1504 

Thutmose III 1504-1450 

Hatshepsut 1503/1498-1483 

Amenhotpe II 1453-1419 

Thutmose IV 1419-1386 

Amenhotpe III 1386-1349 

Amenhotpe IV/Akhenaton 1350-1334 

Smenkhkara 1336-1334 

Tutankhamun 1334-1325 

Av 1325-1321 

Haremhab 1321-1293 

and "deputy of His Majesty in the entire land." This last 
position, never attained by anyone under Tutankhamun's 
predecessors, implies a quasi-royal power throughout the 
Nile valley — a status that would have been impossible 
under a stronger monarch. 

In Haremhab's coronation inscription, showing him 
with his queen, he boasts that he had been appointed 
"chief adviser of the land in order to make fast the laws of 
the Two Banks as hereditary prince of this entire land." 
His latter title, "hereditary prince," seems to have been 
the legal basis for his power, for it was later used by 
princes in line for the throne. Haremhab's prominence, no 
doubt, put him at odds with other overmighty subjects, 
and in the coronation inscription we are given a glimpse 
of this intrigue as he blandly recalls that, "when he (Har- 
emhab) was called into the presence of the sovereign, 
when the palace had fallen into rage, he was able to an- 
swer the king and he satisfied him with what came forth 
from his mouth." We do not know whether this refers to 
one incident or to a frequent situation. The remarkable 
fact is that he could boast of it with impunity. In Harem- 
hab's tomb (just recently discovered) he is depicted in 
loyalist poses before the sovereign and the fact that he 
chose to be buried near the northern capital at Memphis 
suggests that his base of operations was in that region. 

ther royal officials under Tutankhamun filled a 
more conventional mold, such as "Overseer of the 
Treasury" Maya, who survived into the reign of 
Haremhab and who was probably responsible for reseat- 
ing Tutankhamun's tomb after an attempted robbery. 
Another was Amenhotpe, or Huy, viceroy of Ethiopia, 
who was appointed by Tutankhamun. Scenes depicted on 
his tomb at Thebes show Huy directing tribute to Tut- 




ankhamun; particularly interesting is the depiction of the 
negroid "Chief of Miam, Hekanefer." Hekanefer's tomb 
has been excavated in lower Nubia, so we know that he 
was a willing partner with the Egyptian administrators 
of his land. He held the title, "child of the nursery," mak- 
ing him, officially at least, one of the king's boyhood 
associates; Hekanefer's other functions were related to 
the delivery of various goods to the court. His is an inter- 
esting example of how a Nubian could be used by the 
Egyptians in ruling that region. Hekanefer's appearance 
in Huy's tomb chapel suggests cordial relations between 
the two. When Huy died (during Tutankhamun's reign) 
he was apparently succeeded by Nakhtmin, an associate 
of Ay of whom we shall hear more presently. 

It is likely that such powerful men as Ay, Haremhab, 
and Nakhtmin carefully guided the boy-king. And if the 
king were to die without heir, what would be more logical 
than for one of these advisers to seek to rule in name as 
well as deed? This is precisely what happened after Tut- 
ankhamun's death, in his tenth regnal year, when he was 
about 18. The demise of the last male of the Eighteenth 
Dynasty line left the succession open to anyone who 
might wed his widow. Queen Ankhesenamun. Concurrent 
with the succession crisis in Egypt, the renascent Hittite 
empire was carving out a sphere of influence for itself in 
northern Syria, and Ankhesenamun looked to the Hit- 
tites in search of a husband. The "Deeds of (Hittite) King 
Suppiluliumma" as told by his son. King Mursili II, re- 
lates what transpired: 

When the people of Egypt heard of the attack on 
Amka they were afraid. And since, in addition, their 
lord, Nibkhururiya, had died, the queen of Egypt . . . 
sent a messenger to my father and wrote to him: 
''My husband died. I have no son. But you, they say, 
have many. If you would give me one of your sons, 
he would become my husband. I shall never select 

■* Page 12: Pair of earrings. These earrings are in the form of hy- 
brid birds with wings and bodies of falcons and the heads of 
ducks. The tubes, which were inserted through enlarged pierc- 
ings of the king's earlobes, end in quartz buttons. Under the 
transparent stones are painted portraits of Tutankhamun. 
Gold, colored glass, quartz, alabaster, and faience. Height 11.1 

•<Page 13: The god Ptah. Ptah was the principal god of Memphis, 
the original capital of Egypt, and was the patron of artists and 
craftsmen. According to his cult's mythology, Ptah created the 
entire world and even the other gods by uttering the name of 
each thing or being. Ptah is usually shown mummiform and in a 
skullcap; the feathered garment he wears here is most unusual. 
Wood, gessoed, and overlaid with gold, faience, glass, and 
bronze. Height 52.7 cm. 

Photos by Lee Boltin: courtesy the MetropoUtan Museum of 

one of my own servants as a husband! . . . I am 

But the royal house had finally overreached itself. 
The Egyptian magnates would never tolerate an un- 
known quantity on the throne of the pharaohs, and Sup- 
piluHumma was too suspicious to act hastily. When his 
son finally did set out for Egypt, he was killed, almost 
certainly under orders from Haremhab. Then Ay became 
king. Tutankhamun's young queen now vanishes from 
history and it is Tiyi, Ay's consort from Amarna, who is 
represented as his queen in the royal tomb at Thebes. It 
was Ay who presided at Tutankhamun's funeral, acting 
thus as the "heir of burial" who had primary legal claim 
to his predecessor's legacy. 

ith the rise of King Ay, the principle of hereditary 
succession that had restrained the magnates 
since Akhenaton's death suddenly collapsed. 
Anyone with talent, ambition, and high connections could 
now aspire to the supreme power, and although Ay had 
seized the prize, he was probably aware of Haremhab as a 
potential threat and rival. Haremhab is notably absent 
from the private donors to Tutankhamun's burial, but we 
find objects that were dedicated by the treasurer, Maya, 
and by the "royal scribe" and "general" Nakhtmin, who 
perhaps became viceroy of Nubia at this time. A muti- 
lated statue of Nakhtmin refers to him as a "king's son" 
(abbreviation of the viceroy's title, "king's son of Kush") 
and as "hereditary prince," the title on which much of 
Haremhab's authority was based. Possibly Ay hoped to 
build up Nakhtmin, with his center of operations in the 
south, as a counterweight to Haremhab in the north; but 
if so, he was to be disappointed. Nakhtmin was ousted 
during Ay's reign and succeeded by a probable supporter 
of Haremhab— a man whose family continued to hold the 
post for several generations thereafter. Ay continued to 
reign at least into his fourth regnal year, and at his death 
the crown passed to Haremhab, the most logical candi- 
date. Haremhab wed, or had already wed, the Lady Mut- 
nodjme, Queen Nafertiti's sister, thus in effect marrying 
into the late royal family. 

Haremhab's long experience in government had 
made itself felt, and during his reign he gave the country 
the stability it needed following the Amarna period. His 
vizier and successor, Harnesses I, reinstated the principle 
of hereditary kingship, and by the time the great kings of 
the Nineteenth Dynasty came on the scene the royal 
house had achieved an efficient centralized control over 
the several branches of government. The king appointed 
high officials and personally led his army into battle; a 
subtler policy towards the powerful priesthoods was also 
evolving. The king's position as Lord of the Two Lands 
was secure, and would remain so until towards the close 


Howard Carter cleaning the third coffin of Tutankhamun 

Metropolitan Mus 

of the eleventh century, when a combination of internal 
and external difficulties was to topple it. 

Meanwhile, the remains of Tutankhamun continued 
to rest in the Valley of the Kings. His official memory did 
not long outlast his death, for Haremhab appropriated 
Tutankhamun's monuments and took the credit for the 
pious deeds done under Tutankhamun. Yet, the boy- 
king's tomb was respected, for the robbers who broke in 
some time after the burial were apprehended and the 
tomb resealed. Gradually, sand and rubble accumulated 
over the entrance, so that when Ramesses VI's tomb was 
constructed almost directly above it during the twelfth 
century B.C., stone chippings from the new tomb were 
dumped on top of the now forgotten tomb, keeping it safe 
until Howard Carter discovered it in 1922. 

In the long run, Tutankhamun gained an immortahty 
that may seem disproportionate to his achievements; the 
deeds of a Thutmose HI or a Ramesses II are known to 
historians, but Tutankhamun's name, thanks to the 

splendor of his preserved treasures, lives throughout the 
modern world, n 

Page 16: Couble cartouche-shaped box. >■ 

This gold box. found in the bottom of the sarcophagus, has two 
compartments, originally filled with ointments similar to those 
poured over the mummy. The large cartouches contain repre- 
sentations of Tutankhamun as a child, seated beneath the sun's 
disk. Gold, colored glass; calcite or quartz silver; height 15.9 

Page 17: The sun god on the lotus. This finely carved head has t 
the features of Tutankhamun as a child and identifies him with 
the sun god. According to an Egyptian creation myth, the sun 
god emerged from a blue lotus as the first human being. The 
portrait was discovered in the rubble that filled the entrance 
corridor. Wood, gessoed and painted; height 29.8 cm. 

Photos by Lee Boltin; courtesy the Metropolitan Museum of 




n(gU(oi isffD 

Third Annual 
Wilderness Canoe Trip 

July 19-29 

Applications are now open for a July 
canoe trip through Ontario's Quetico 
Provincial Park, a membership benefit 
cosponsored by Field Museum and the 
Voyageur Wilderness Program of Ati- 
kokan, Ontario. 

The Quetico, just north of Superior 
National Forest, in Minnesota, is one of 
our last remaining wilderness areas. 
Transportation in this land of rock, 
pines, and glacial lakes is by muscle 
power only. To enjoy the unspoiled 
beauty of Quetico, one must earn his 
way in— by paddling a canoe and carry- 
ing the canoe and gear over portages, 
which may be from a few yards to a mUe 

The group, hmited to 30 persons, 
will spend eight days and seven nights 

canoeing and camping— not fighting 
nature, but learning to Uve with it. All 
equipment, food, and guide services, as 
well as bus transportation between Field 
Museum and the Quetico, are included 
in the package. The trip is limited to 
Museum members 15 through 19 years 
old who are able to swim. Applicants 
will be interviewed by trip leaders, who 
will then select the final group. 

Dates: July 19 through July 29, 1977 
Total cost: $195.00 
Deadline for application: May 15 
Notification of participants: By June 1 

A slide presentation by Voyageur repre- 
sentatives will be given on May 7. Infor- 
mation on time and location wiU be 
mailed. For applications and further 
information, write: Quetico Canoe Trip, 
Membership Department, Field Muse- 
um of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 

Treasures of Tutankhamun 

Members' Previews 

April 13 and 14 

A special preview of the forthcoming 
exhibit, "Treasures of Tutankhamun," 
wiU be provided Field Museum members 
on Wednesday, April 13, and Thursday, 
April 14, from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

Admission to the preview will be 
an invitation card, being mailed to all 
members. This must be presented at the 
entrance. The card will admit no more 
than two persons, a limitation imposed 
because of the large number of viewers 
expected. However, your membership 
card will entitle you and your immediate 
family to priority admission to the ex- 
hibit from April 15 to August 15. 

To avoid crowds, exhibit viewers 
are encouraged to come early. 

Weekend Geology Field Trips for Members: Starved Rock and the Baraboo Range 

An overnight trip for Museum members to Starved Rock State Park, 
80 miles southwest of Chicago, will take place on Saturday and 
Sunday, June 4 and 5, under the leadership of two Field Museum 
geologists: Gordon Baird, assistant curator of fossil invertebrates, 
and Matthew Nitecki, curator of fossil invertebrates. 

The flat, horizontal rocks of central Illinois are interrupted by the 
spectacular upfolding of older rocks; eons ago these formations were 
cut into picturesque glens and canyons. Field trip participants will 
explore and study these formations and consider the influence they 
have had on the region's economy. 

Field Museum Members will again have an opportunity on Satur- 
day and Sunday, June 11 and 12, to explore Wisconsin's Baraboo 
Range, a field trip which was so successful last year. The trip leader 
will be Edward Olsen, chairman of the Department of Geology. The 
Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock—y/hat is left of 
an ancient mountain range and now stands above the younger rocks 
and sediments. The range consists of quartzite— more than one billion 
years old — which, although compressed into vertical folds, retains the 
original sedimentary structures. The mountains were further modified 
by glaciers, forming beautiful Devil's Lake and picturesque glens, 
and changing the course of rivers. Our "lecture tour" will take us 
through the range and along the shores and hinterland of Devil's Lake. 

The Starved Rock and Baraboo Range groups wUl leave the 
Museum at 8:00 a.m. on Saturday mornings (June 4 and 11, respec- 
tively) and return on Sunday evenings between 6:00 and 7:00 p.m. 
The cost of each educational tour is $65 per person, which includes all 
expenses of transportation on a deluxe charter bus and overnight 
first class accommodations | Price is based on double occupancy; single 
accommodations extra). The fee also includes all meals and gratuities, 

except personal extras such as alcoholic beverages and special food 

Hiking clothes and boots or sturdy shoes are strongly recom- 
mended for the scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, 
but young people interested in natural history are welcome. Each 
group is limited so get your reservation in early! 

For further details write or call Dorothy Roder, Field Museum 
922-9410. ext. 219. 

wish . 

Field Museum Field Trip 

. reservations for field trip to: 

(how many) 
D Starved Rock (June 4-5) 
n Baraboo Range (June 1112) 



City State 


Amount enclosed ($65 per person) 

(Make check payable to Field Museum) 

Return this coupon or facsimile todav! 



April and May at Field Museum 

(From April 15 through Ma^; 15) 


Treasures of Tutankhamun — April 15 through August 15. 
The long-awaited exhibit, on loan from the Egyptian government, 
features a dazzling display of 55 of the most beautiful and best- 
preserved objects from the tomb of the legendary pharaoh. Among 
these are the startling golden effigy of Tutankhamun, the graceful 
gilt statuette of the Goddess Selket, a gilded figure of the young 
pharaoh harpooning, and a small gold shrine of exquisite crafts- 
manship. The exhibit also includes superb examples of Tutankh- 
amun's funerary jewelry, furniture, writing materials, musical 
instruments, games, and decorative objects of alabaster and ivory. 
(Cosponsored by the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute.) 
Monday through Wednesday. 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; Thursday through 
Sunday. 9 a.m. to 9 p m. 

The Magic of Egvptian Art — April 15 through August 15. A 
supplementary exhibit to run concurrently with the Tutankhamun 
exhibit at Field Museum features artifacts from the Oriental Insti 
tute's permanent collection including objects used in the actual 
embalming of Tutankhamun and at his funerary banquet. Oriental 
Institute, 1155 East 58th Street. Chicago. Tuesday through Satur- 
day, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sunday. 12 a.m. to 4 p.m. 


Ayer Film/Lecture Series. This series highlights familiar and 
not-so-familiar areas of the world. Saturdays, at 2:30 p.m., in Simp- 
son Theatre, ground floor. 

April 16 Chambers of the Sea 
by Stanton Waterman 

April 23 America's Heartland— The Great River Story 
by Walter Berlet 

April 30 Birds of Prey 
by Neil Rettig 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Education Program. Begin 
ning May 7, the museum offers its spring series of weekend envi- 
ronmental field trips to areas in and around the Chicago area. 
Watch your mailbox for your copy of the environmental field trips 
flyer. Advance registration is required. 


The Place for Wonder. Visit the newly opened The Place for 
Wonder gallery. Open to visitors of all ages, this room provides a 
"hands-on" approach to natural history. Staffed by volunteers, it is 
open to the public promptly: weekdays. 1 p.m. and 2 p.m.; week- 
ends. 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2 p.m. Located near the new 
cafeteria, ground floor. 

Male and Female; Anthropology Game. This game/exhibit 
of 38 artifacts is a great way to learn that economic and social roles 
of the sexes are not universally the same. South Lounge, 2nd floor. 
No closing date. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 
— and the need for solution. Hall 18. main floor. Permanent. 


Spring Journey for Children— Hoiu to Read a Bird. An 
activity-oriented self-guided tour through the museum's bird halls. 
Learn about birds: compare their beaks, their feathers, their sizes 
and shapes. Families will enjoy Journeys too. Journey sheets are 
available at the information booth. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays. 10 
a.m. to 3 p.m.: take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in 
museum-related activities. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday. 
Wednesday, and Friday. 10 a.m. to noon. South Lounge. 2nd floor. 


April 17. 2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

April 19. 7:30 p m Chicago Audubon Society 

May 3. 7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club 

May 5, 7:00 p.m. The Primitive Arts Society 

May 6, 8:00 p.m Chicago Anthropological Society 

May 10, 7:30 p.m Chicago Nature Camera Club 

May 11, 7:00 p.m Chicago Ornithological Society 

May 1 1, 7:30 p m Windy City Grotto, National 

Speleological Society 

May 12, 8:00 p m Chicago Mountaineering Club 


The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 6 p.m. Monday 
through Wednesday and 9 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. On 
Fridays, year round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


May, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 5 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 

3 Field Briefs 

6 On Coming and Going in Saamiland 

By Myrdene Anderson 
Paintings by Stanley Roseman 

12 Tigers without Their Stripes 

By David M. Walsten 

14 Letters from Antarctica III 

By Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

22 Volunteers Honored 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leiand Webber 

back May and June at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of cominsr events 


Blaine J. Yarrington. c^oiV^ 
George H Baker 
Gordon Bent 
Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H, Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs, Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie. Jr. 
,lohn G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J, Howard Wood 


Regnor, a Saami, or Lapp, of east Finnmark, a far northern 
county of Norway. Life-size oil painting by Stanley Rose- 
man, New York City artist. In 1976 Roseman spent several 
weeks in northern Norway doing portraits of the Saami, 
several of which are reproduced in this issue. See "On Com- 
ing and Going in Saamiland," by Myrdene Anderson, p. 6. 
Regnor wears the traditional costume of east Finnmark. 

Cover photo by Manu Sassoonian 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605, Subscriptions: $6 a year: ,$3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum, Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60606. ISSN: 0015-0703. 


Ferdinand Huysmans Succumbs 

Ferdinand "Fred" Huysmans, Field 
Museum's scanning electron microscope 
(SEM) technician, died recently after a 
brief illness ; he was 64. Huysmans came 
to Field Museum in 1961 as assistant 
photographer and in 1974 he became the 
Museum's first SEM technician. He soon 
developed a reputation for his thorough 
craftsmanship and technical expertise. 
In September of last year Huysmans 
was awarded a certificate of commenda- 
tion by the Royal Microscopical Society, 
Oxford, England, for his SEM photo- 
graph of a pollen grain (reproduced on 
cover of September 1976 Bulletin ). 

Born in Bogor, Java, in 1912, Huys- 
mans was a photographer's apprentice 
for a time in the Netherlands, then re- 
turned to Java as head of the photo- 
graphic studio of the Botanical Gardens 
in Bogor. Later he worked as a photog- 
rapher in Leiden, the Netherlands. He 
came to the United States in 1960 and 
at the time of his death was a resident of 
Arlington Heights, 111. He is survived 
by his wife, Adeline, and two daughters. 

Anthropology Internship Program 

Do you hear it? Opportunity is knocking 
for advanced undergraduates and early 
graduate students currently working 
toward a degree at an accredited college 
or university. 

Internship curatorial and research ap- 
plications for appointments in the De- 
partment of Anthropology for 1977-78 
are now being considered by the Center 

for Advanced Studies at the Field Mu- 
seum. In this program, student interns 
and staff members in the anthropology 
department are jointly involved in a 
one-to-one learning experience in which 
the students participate in projects built 
around museum collections or the re- 
search activities of the scientific staff. 
By mutual agreement between student 
and supervisor, each student is made 
individually responsible for the final 
design and implementation of a curator- 
ial project and for completing an appro- 
priate report or museum undertaking. 

An intern can select either research or 
curatorial activity. Research— theoreti- 
cal as well as applied — may be concerned 
with any aspect of anthropology, human 
geography, ethnology, biological an- 
thropology, or archaeology. A chosen 
project must meet with the approval of 
the center as well as both supervisor 
and intern. Curatorial projects may be 
related to any aspect of museum work 
and administration, including exhibits 
planning, conservation, collection man- 
agement, computer data banking, and 
exhibits research. 

These internships require full-time 
work at Field Museum for six months. 
In exceptional cases, applications for a 
three-month appointment will be con- 
sidered. Accepted interns will receive a 
monthly stipend of $300 and up to .$240 
for round-trip travel expenses. 

Applications for fall 1977-winter 1978 
internships must be postmarked no later 
than July 1, 1977; applicants will be 
notified of results by early August. Ap- 
pointments should commence prior to 
October 4, 1977. 

Internship applications and essay 
forms may be obtained by writing Dr. 
John Terrell, Center for Advanced Stud- 
ies, Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chi- 
cago, II. 60605. 

This internship program is supported 
by a grant from the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts. 

Antonio Molina Honored 

Antonio Molina, a field associate in 
botany since 1963, has recently been 
honored by the government of his native 
Honduras. The Honduras Ministry of 
Public Education, in awarding national 

prizes in science, art, and literature, 
selected Molina for the coveted science 

Molina is associate professor of bot- 
any at Escuela Agricola Panamericana, 
Tegucigalpa, Honduras, where he is also 
curator of the herbarium. He collabo- 
rated with Louis O. Williams, past 
chairman of Field Museum's Depart- 
ment of Botany, in writing the treat- 
ment of the family Juglandaceae for the 
Flora of Guatemala which was published 
in Fieldiana: Botany in 1970. Molina 
has also collected several thousand 
plant specimens now housed in Field 
Museum's John G. Searle Herbarium. 

Most Important Collection of 

North American Indian Art 

Ever Assembled to Be Subject 

of Members' Tours 

"Sacred Circles — 2,000 Years of North 
American Indian Art" is the title of an 
art exhibit now on view in Kansas City, 
Missouri, and which will be the subject 
of three June tours for Field Museum 
members. Two separate, all-day trips 
will be made by air to Kansas City on 
Wednesday, June 1, and on Sunday, 
June 5; a third, overnight trip, by air, 
will leave Chicago on Saturday, June 11 
and return the following day. The 850- 
piece exhibit is to be seen at Kansas 
City's Nelson Gallery-Atkins Museum 
of Fine Arts. The only other showing for 
this magnificent array of art and arti- 
facts opened last October for three 
months at London's Hayward Gallery, 
where it drew nearly 200,000 viewers. 

The exhibition represents a wide 
diversity of Indian culture over a 2,000- 
year period, with artifacts from Alaska 
to Florida, Maine, and California. Some 
90 museums (including Field Museum) 
and individuals in six countries have 
loaned the exhibited materials. Guest 
lecturer for the three trips will be Har- 
riet Smith, a Field Museum Department 
of Education staff member since 1947. 
A past president of the Chicago Archae- 
ological Society, Miss Smith has written 
and lectured extensively on the archae- 
ology of midwestern Indians; she has 
also participated in archaeological digs, 
notably at Murdoch Mound (Cahokia, 
111.), where she was director of excava- 
tion. *" 

Howard Carter, left, prepares treasures for removal fromTutankhamun's tomb ( 1922). chotobvHai 

courtesy Metropolitan Museum of Art 

Field Museum Kansas City Tour 

I wish . 

. reservations for tour on: 

(how many) 
n June 1 ($157.00) 
(J June 5 ($157,00) 

n June 11 12 ($181.00 per person double 
occupancy; $197.50 single) 

Name . 
Street . 



Amount enclosed . 

(Make check payable to Field Museum) 

Return this coupon or facsimile foday' 

The cost of the June 1 and June 5 
trips is $157.00 per person; the over- 
night trip of June 11-12 is $181.00. The 
fee includes round trip air fare, coach 
class, including tax and security charges 
(air fare subject to change); round trip 
limousine transfer between airport and 
museum; sandwich lunch at the Atkins 
Museum and dinner on return flight; 
taxes and gratuities (except at Kansas 
City's Hotel Alameda) and entrance 
fees; guidance by tour lecturer from 
Chicago; and (for June 11-12 trip) ac- 
commodations at Hotel Alameda, single 
supplement $15.60. 

Reservations may be made by send- 
ing coupon printed here (or facsimile) 
together with full payment to Dorothy 
Roder, Membership Department, Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. For further 
details Mrs. Roder may be phoned at 
922-9410. ext. 219. 

Tutankhamun Treasures 
Now on View 

In the above photo, British archaeolo- 
gist Howard Carter is shown in the 
tomb he had located not long before, in 
1922. Fifty-five of the priceless trea- 
sures he discovered, now on loan from 
the government of Egypt, went on ex- 
hibit at Field Museum on April 15 and 
will continue to be on view daily until 
August 15, from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. Mon- 
day through Thursday and 9 a.m. to 9 
p.m. Thursday through Sunday. 

Concurrent with the exhibit at Field 
Museum, the University of Chicago's 
Oriental Institute (1155 E. 58th St.) is 
exhibiting "The Magic of Egyptian 
Art," featuring objects from the insti- 
tute's permanent collection that were 
used in the actual embalming of Tut- 
ankhamun and at his funerary banquet. 
Also on display are examples of ancient 

Egyptian writing, religious objects, and 
portraiture. The entire collection of Tut- 
ankhamun's embalming and banquet 
material and most of the thirty-seven 
pieces that comprise the exhibit have 
never before been on public view. 

"The Magic of Egyptian Art" is free 
to the public. Oriental Institute museum 
hours are 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday 
through Saturday, and 12 noon to 4 
p.m. Sunday. 

Charles F. Davis Book Honored 

Harvest of a Quiet Eye: The Natural 
World of John Burroughs, by Charles F. 
Davis, Field Museum nature photogra- 
phy instructor, was recently named 
among 10 winners in the 21st Annual 
Midwestern Books Competition. The 
award was made on the basis of typog- 
raphy, design, and quality of produc- 
tion. The book, published by Tamarack 
Press, Madison, Wisconsin, combines 
the writing of naturalist John Bur- 
roughs with Davis's sensitive color pho- 
tographs. Harvest of a Quiet Eye may 
be purchased at the Field Museum 
shops. $20.00 (less member's 10% dis- 

Ellen Thorne Smith 

With the death of Ellen Thorne Smith 
on March 16, 1977, Field Museum lost 
one of its warmest friends and most 
dedicated supporters. During her forty 
years' association, her interests encom- 
passed the whole Museum, whether she 
was working as a volunteer in the Bird 
Division, as president of the Women's 
Board, or as trustee. Even more impor- 
tant to Ellen than the institution were 
the individuals with whom she came in 
contact, for above everything else she 
loved people. 

Ellen's first relationship was with 
the Division of Birds in 1936, when 
Rudyerd Boulton, then curator, ac- 
cepted her offer to work as a volunteer. 
She soon proved to be the epitome of 
the volunteer — enthusiastic, willing to 
do any task no matter how tedious, and 
regularly present three to five days a 
week. Her desire was to free the time of 
the curators for research, and as her 
knowledge and skills increased, she 

graduated from cataloging to rearrang- 
ing parts of the collection, and to iden- 
tifying and processing incoming speci- 
mens. The culmination of her scientific 
work was the publication of "Review of 
Pionus maximiliani (Kuhl)," in the 
Museum scientific series, Fieldiana. Her 
abilities were the salvation of the Bird 
Division during the war, for by 1943 
curators Boulton and Emmet Blake 
were gone, and Ellen was the sole staff, 
handling all correspondence, processing 
loans, and caring for the collection 
through 1945. 

Besides her general help to the Bird 
Division, Ellen carried through several 
projects on her own. She wrote Chicago- 
land Birds. When and Where to Find 
Them, which was published by the Mu- 
seum in 1958, and revised it for a second 
edition in 1972. She planned and super- 
vised the preparation of the exhibit 
Resident Birds of Chicago, selecting 
with equal care the birds and the plants 
that accompany them. When the oppor- 
tunity arose to exchange North Ameri- 
can birds for an authentic specimen of 
the long-extinct great auk, Ellen per- 
sonally selected the 1,900 specimens 
that were sent to Brussels. Her final 
major contribution to ornithology was 
to take the measurements of long series 
of all the ducks and geese of North 
America, for inclusion in volumes 2 and 
3 of the Handbook of North American 
Birds. This task entailed not only end- 
less hours at Field Museum, but ex- 
tended visits to museums in New York 
and Cambridge as well. 

In 1966 Ellen was asked to lead the 

formation of a women's board of the 
Museum. She accepted the challenge 
and set about her new responsibilities 
with her usual thorough and pragmatic 
effectiveness. The sound early course 
that she set for the Women's Board has 
resulted in an organization that has, in 
its eleven years, become central to the 
well-being and strength of Field 

She was elected the first woman 
trustee of the Museum in 1969 and in 
the ensuing seven years her dedication 
and wise counsel was brought to bear 
in still other dimensions of the institu- 
tion, at board meetings and as a mem- 
ber of the Program Planning and Eval- 
uation Committee and the Resource 
Planning Committee. 

But even after Ellen's activities ex- 
tended to the Museum as a whole 
through the Women's Board and the 
Board of Trustees, she maintained her 
connection with the Bird Division. 
Every Members' Night saw her man- 
ning the special bird display, where her 
particular pleasure was instructing and 
entertaining the children. Her warm 
affection for and interest in people of 
all ages shone from her clearly, and it 
was reciprocated by all who knew her. 

Ellen Smith was one of the great 
builders of Field Museum. Such lives 
are seldom seen, but when that near- 
unique combination of commitment and 
talent is brought to bear in an institu- 
tion, that institution and those who are 
a part of it are singularly blessed. 

-M.A. T., E.L. W. 

On Coming 
and Going 
in Saamiland 

By Myrdene Anderson 
Photos by the author 

With paintings by Stanley Roseman 

Photographs of paintings by Manii Sassoonian 


Northernmost Fennoscandia, surely one of earth's 
least hospitable lands, has been home for the past 
few millennia to the Saami, or Lapps, a society of 
highly mobile people who have retained much of their cul- 
tural identity up to the present time. The region they 
occupy today — roughly the size of the state of Montana 
—cuts across the borders of Norway, Sweden, Finland, 
and the U.S.S.R. Today most Saami live in Norway; rela- 
tively few reside in the Soviet Union. 

The Saami language, spoken by some 35,000, is 
placed in the Finno-Ugric group and most closely resem- 
bles Finnish, Hungarian, Estonian, and several rather 
obscure tongues spoken in northwestern U.S.S.R. About 
15,000 persons who speak no Saami, but only the national 
language in the country where they reside, nevertheless 
regard themselves as Saami. The total number of Saami 
would be increased severalfold were we to include those 
who have been assimilated into national cultures, either 
through mixed marriages with non-Saami or by other 
reasons of choice. 

Whatever population criteria are used, the Saami 
have never been numerous, and their numbers have de- 
creased over the past century. However, most residents 
of Fennoscandia north of the 62nd parallel are thought to 
have some Saami ancestry. It is also likely that some 
Americans whose forebears came from Fennoscandia 
may be Saami or part Saami— a fact early obscured as the 
newcomers to America identified their origins only by 

The geography and its relevance 

My personal experience with the Saami began in 1972, in 
the township of Kautokeino, or Guov'dageai'dno, located 
in Norway's Finnmark County, just north of the 69th 
parallel. It was here that I lived with the Saami for nearly 
five years doing anthropological research on their folk 
natural science. Although I had at first sought to concen- 
trate on the folk botany and folk zoology of these people, 
I soon found myself equally intrigued by their concepts of 
time and space, geography, and meteorology. All are of 
primary importance to a mobile, even nomadic, people 
situated in a region of minimal biological stimuli — that 
is, an environment with relatively few plant and animal 

Most of the Kautokeino region has snow cover eight 
or nine months of the year. During this period of short 
daylight hours, only a few species of trees and large 
shrubs are visible in the broad white expanse of the inland 
area where the reindeer spend the winter. The summer 
pasturage along the coast, on the other hand, has a rela- 

Myrdene Anderson is a graduate student in anthropology at 
Yale University. 

Saami folk, resplendent in smiles and traditional costume, chat as well as Laestadian Sect meetings, the latter being held in 
outside church following confirmation service. The state church state churches, in private homes, or other secular buildings, 
in Norway is Evangelical Lutheran, and Saami attend church 

tive abundance of herbaceous plants, but most Saami are 
so involved in routine moving about during the summer 
that they have little opportunity to develop an interest in 
the flora. 

The population and the economy 

tural centers of the Saami. Here they see the colorful 
native dress, observe the midnight sun, and experience 
the pleasures of fishing and hunting in Europe's last wil- 
derness. But there is a growing articulate minority 
among the Saami who object to tourism, and who feel 
that their natural resources of land, water, and produc- 
tive species are so limited that even neighboring Saami 
should be excluded from their use. 

Kautokeino township, with an area of 3,800 square miles 
(twice the size of Delaware), has some 2,800 inhabitants. 
About 90 percent speak Saami, and nearly 40 percent are 
engaged in reindeer management (which, by law, is the 
sole privilege of the Saami in Norway). The rest of the 
local Saami are mostly dairy farmers or are engaged in 
sheep-raising, hunting, trapping, or fishing; the entire 
population derives some income from tourism, and about 
5 percent of the working population is engaged full-time 
in this occupation. 

During the summer months, in particular, tourists 
from all over the world and numbering several times the 
local population visit Kautokeino, one of the main cul- 

Saami attitudes on mobility 

A significant trait that the Saami have in common with 
their visitors — be they tourists, journalists, researchers, 
or neighbors — is their mobility. Moreover, they have a 
unique affinity for persons who are always "on the go," 
especially if the orbits of such persons intersect with their 
own. The most mobile Saami are the reindeer-raising 
families of the inland areas. The men who live along the 
coast and who are employed as fishermen or as seamen 
are mobile in quite a different way, being at sea for 
months at a time. Traditionally the farm workers, culti- 

(text con 't on p. 10) 

Perhaps more than any other indigenous minority in 
Europe, the Saami have been able to retain their cultural 
identity. They have their own language, a distinctive 
dress, and a highly individual lifestyle; a number of them 
continue to live as nomads, following the reindeer in their 
seasonal migrations. Not surprisingly, Saami society has 
been the object of scrutiny by specialists in various as- 
pects of human culture, but little has been published 
about them in the lay literature. 

Quite recently, however, scientist-humanist-at-large 
Jacob Bronowski devoted a segment of his widely tele- 
vised film series "The Ascent of Man" to the Saami. 
Among the millions who viewed Bronowski's documen- 
tary was New York artist Stanley Roseman. who was so 
intrigued that he packed his painting gear and flew last 
September to Norway. In Kautokeino, Finnmark Coun- 
ty, he spent several weeks creating his own "documen- 
tary in oils" of these colorful people. It was a unique ex- 
perience for Roseman, 31, whose work in portraiture is 
documented by the National Portrait Gallery in Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Roseman has also sketched some of the most signifi- 
cant musical and theatrical events of recent years in the 
U.S.; for several months he lived and travelled with the 
Ringling and Barnum & Bailey Circus, sketching and 
painting aspects of the personal lives of circus people. 

Below: Myrdene Anderson (left) and Ronald Davis, artist Stan- 
ley Roseman's business manager, carry freshly painted canvas 
across river on which rowboat had been used only the day 
before. Painting of Bier An'te, held bv Davis, is reproduced at 
left. (Detail). 


Ldi'la and Kris'tien. in nativity-like 
scene, with their newborn. The sfyZp 
of crib is traditional. 

His work of the theatre has culminated as an interna- 
tional traveling exhibition, "The Performing Arts in 
America," which opened February 14 at the Library and 
Museum of the Performing Arts at Lincoln Center in New 
York City. 

The conditions under which Roseman had to paint in 
Kautokeino were immeasurably different from the studio 
facilities he was accustomed to in New York. At the time 
of his visit, the Kautokeino region was already coming 
under the blanket of winter, and for only two hours a day 
was the lighting at all adequate. Transportation, too. was 
a problem. On one occasion Roseman had to transport his 
large, stretched canvases by rowboat across a river. The 
following day. the canvases with their wet paint had to be 

carried in a gale over thin ice which had formed on the 

The obstacles would have been far greater for Rose- 
man. a total stranger in the far north, had he not met at 
the outset Myrdene Anderson, a Yale University graduate 
student who was just concluding five years' work among 
the Saami and whose article "On Coming and Going in 
Saamiland" appears here. She spoke the Saami language 
fluently and had developed a close rapport with many 
members of the Kautokeino community. Through Ander- 
son, Roseman was able to locate appropriate, willing sub- 
jects for his canvas, and much of the reserve which Saami 
characteristically have towards outsiders was over- 
come. — Ed. 

(Con 't from p. 71 

vating potatoes and hay, have been the women; today, 
however, men are increasingly involved in the operation 
of heavy farm machinery or they are attracted to agricul- 
tural work by government subsidies. 

Reindeer herders are also the beneficiaries of govern- 
ment subsidies. This aid, however, has the disadvantage 
of interfering with traditional modes of mobility. Women 
complain that their reindeer-herding activities are cur- 
tailed by their now having homes with modern conveni- 
ences (built with the aid of government subsidy) and by a 
modern school system which ties them as well as their 
children down for 10 months of the year. 

Reindeer migration 

A reindeer herd, its herders, and its other, nonherding 
owners are together known as a sii'da, and a single herd 
may be owned by one family or by as many as twelve. The 
average number of productive reindeer per family is 
about 200 head, but this number and total herd size may 
vary greatly. 

Accompanied by their herders, the reindeer graze on 
separate winter and summer range lands; the winter 
range lands are near Kautokeino, the residential base; the 
summer grazing lands are toward the west and north, 
along the seacoast. Each herd has its own spring and 
autumn migration routes, varying in length from 75 to 
250 miles over the tundra. Herds with pasturage on river 
islands must swim across or be ferried over the turbulent 
channels. During the spring migration in particular, the 
herders are joined by family members. When there is 
snow cover, the transportation between herd and home is 
by reindeer-drawn sleigh or by snowmobile. When there 
is solid winter ice, the waterways serve as highways, but 
during the May ice breakup and the flooding that follows, 
travel of any sort may be risky or impossible. 

Commuting to and from the herd is incessant, irregu- 
lar, and rather uncoordinated. But during migration, 
numerous persons and nearly as many dogs move in the 
same direction as the reindeer, all seemingly driven by 
the same instinctive rhythm. Some members of the sii'da 
may make the migration journey by road, if for no other 
reason than that road vehicles may be required at the 

The family: comings and goings 

Many Kautokeino families have summer cabins on the 
seacoast, some stay in the homes of trading partners who 
are settled there, and still others spend much of the sum- 
mer in traditional tents or sod huts. Members of families 
located near the one coastal road that has through traffic 
are all involved in selling homemade souvenirs to the 
summer tourists. (Con't on p. 16> 

An'te Niilas 



Paintings of the Saami 
by Stanley Roseman 


/?;,s 'ten 



Tigers Without 
Their Stripes 

By David M. Walsten 

Thanks to nursery rhymes and tv 
commercials, Mother Nature is com- 
monly seen as a lady of caprice, if not 
malice. The fact is that animals hideous 
or bizarre enough to instill such super- 
stition are sometimes created as the re- 
sult of genetic mutation or by injury to 

the organism early in its development. 

One such freak is the gynandromorph, 
which exhibits male as well as female 
characteristics. Accidents of this sort 
have been observed in a wide range of 
animal life, but are perhaps commonest 
among the insects. Those shown here 
are all specimens of the tiger swallowtail 
(Papilio glaucus), a common North 
American butterfly. In these butterflies 
the male-female difference occurs not 
just in the visible characteristics, such 
as wing pattern, but may also involve 
the internal organs of reproduction. In 
some gynandromorphs (also called gyn- 
anders) one side of the body may have a 

testis while the other side has an ovary. 

The condition of gynandromorphism 
is ordained shortly after fertilization of 
the ovum, or egg, and such individuals 
always develop from a female egg; that 
is to say, one with two x chromosomes 
— a configuration known as XX. (Eggs 
destined to develop normally as males 
have an x chromosome and a Y chromo- 
some—a configuration known as XY.) 
For reasons that are not fully under- 
stood, an accident of some sort may 
occur to one of the X chromosomes, re- 
sulting in an XO configuration. Such a 
cell gives rise to tissues with male char- 
acteristics. After a normal fertilized XX 


cell undergoes its first division, the two 
resultant cells both have an XX config- 
uration. If an accident occurs to an x 
chromosome in one of these two cells, 
the configuration of that cell becomes 
XO or, in effect, male, while the unaffec- 
ted cell remains female. As embryonic 
development continues, all the cells 
from the xx cell inherit and transmit 
female characters: those from the xo 
cell inherit and transmit male charac- 
ters. The resulting mature insect, known 
as a bipartite gynandromorph, is exactly 
50 percent male and 50 percent female. 

If the accident occurs to one of the 
cells during the four-cell stage, the re- 

sulting individual is 25 percent male and 
75 percent female. The later the accident 
occurs, the less obvious are the male 
characters. Butterflies in which the acci- 
dent occurs at the eight-cell stage or 
subsequently, may show a splattered, or 
"mosaic," effect in the wing pattern. 
The specimens illustrated here show the 
effect of that accident occurring at vari- 
ous stages in the early development of 
the embryo. 

In some insects the fertilized egg may 
sometimes be binucleate (i.e., with two 
nuclei instead of the normal complement 
of one). If one of these two nuclei is fe- 
male (xx), while the other is male (XY), 

the resulting individual will be gynan- 
dromorphic. This phenomenon has been 
observed particularly in adults of the 
commercial silkworm [Bombyx mori). 
The production of a greater number of 
gynandromorphs in certain wasp spe- 
cies has been artificially induced by sub- 
jecting the female insect to a tempera- 
ture of 37°C. 

The specimens shown here are from 
the Herman F. Strecker collection, 
acquired by Field Museum in 1908. 
Though not on public exhibit, the 
Strecker specimens have been much 
studied and photographed by geneti- 
cists and insect physiologists. D 


Letters from Antarctica III 

Bv Edward Olsen 




Edward Olscn surveys bleak Antarctic vista 

The following report is the third from Edward Olsen. 
chairman of the Department of Geology and curator of 
mineralogy, who recently returned from searching for 
meteorites in Antarctica. His earlier reports appeared in 
the February and March Bulletins. 

The summer season in Victoria Land: Antarctica has not 
been bad — not as bad as winter in Chicago, which was 
the worst winter in 104 years. In camp up on the Dewitt 
Nunatak, which pokes up through the Antarctic polar ice 
cap on the flank of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains, the 
only really uncomfortable weather was the long wind 
storms mixed with, wind-driven grains of ice. Tempera- 
tures never got below OF and were generally 5' to 10 
above zero. Except for a white-out condition one morn- 
ing, the sun showed itself brightly 24 hours a day, adding 
considerable cheer to a scene of barren, plant-less, 
animal-less rock surrounded by rolling plains of hard blue 

We thought this would be a good place to search for 
meteorites, in an attempt to locate specimens on a scale 
similar to that of the Japanese. Their field parties had 
explored the Antarctic ice cap near the Yamato Moun- 
tains, which lie almost 2,000 miles away on the other side 
of Antarctica. There, the Japanese had recovered 992 
specimens, which they believe represent fragments from 
about 320 separate meteorite falls. 

In our former camp, some miles to the south of the 
present one, we did recover two meteorites; however, the 
Dewitt Nunatak region turned out to be a dud. Days of 
traversing on crampons over the ice fields in fierce winds 

Until 1969, only 1,900 meteorites were known. 
These represented all that mankind had collected. 
Most of these were collected in the last 200 years, 
and a large portion are now in the Field Museum 
collection, one of the world's four largest. 

The Japanese, in accidentally encountering al- 
most a thousand more specimens in Antarctica, 
added a large percentage to the world supply of 
these extraterrestrial objects (although it isn't clear 
at the present time how many distinctly different 
meteorite falls all these fragmental specimens repre- 
sent: it is probably close to 100, give or take a little). 
The expedition this past winter to Antarctica, re- 
covering 11 more, adds a significant number to the 
world total. It should be pointed out that all me- 
teorite finds in the past, everywhere in the world, 
have resulted from accidental discoveries. The past 
winter's expedition is the first time in history that 
men have set out to discover meteorites, and found 
them, in an area where they have never been ob- 
served, nor ever reported to have been seen falling. 
It 's an exciting first. 


produced only windburn and aching legs. The landscape 
is so utterly barren that it begins to get to you after a 
time. My former field experience has always been in re- 
gions of spruce trees, birds, rabbits, foxes, lemmings, 
fish-filled lakes, and — the most prevalent life forms — 
mosquitoes and black flies. I began to yearn even for 
some insects. When, on occasion, the wind would die, the 
silence is absolutely complete. You become conscious that 
there is a constant low-level ringing in your own ears — 
and it's all you can hear. 

Once, while trudging across the ice, two skuas sailed 
into view. ( Skuas are sooty-gray carnivorous gulls with a 
taste for penguin eggs, fish, and an occasional stray 
baby penguin.) They were a welcome sight. I waved my 
arms and one of them flew to me and hovered overhead, 
eyeing me quizzically. Although skuas are not much 
loved by man, I felt a sincere friendliness toward this one. 
Finally, it was decided to give up on the Dewitt area, 
and give up for the season with only two meteorites. Two 
are better than none at all, but still a disappointment. On 
an appointed day a U.S. Navy helicopter sailed into view 
in the late morning, looking like a huge orange dragonfly. 
It set down, we folded our tents, and packed our camp in- 
to it and took off (in a howling wind, as usual) back to 
McMurdo Station. It was only late January, but it 
seemed pointless to continue. Of the several potentially 
promising areas we had planned to examine, only one had 
yielded specimens, and only two at that. 

After a few days in McMurdo, one of the helicopter 
pilots, Lt. Ken Kraper, sought us out and told us about 
an extensive region of blue ice he had seen from the air 
adjacent to another nunatak, Allan Nunatak, 35 miles 
north of Dewitt. Our set of air photos did not cover this 
region so we wouldn't have known it was there if we 
hadn't been told. It lies 130 miles northwest of McMurdo 
and is near the limit of helicopter range. 

The next day we gathered minimal equipment 
together and flew out. It was decided to make a prelimin- 
ary survey by helicopter. We flew a search pattern about 
50 feet above the ice at 15 to 20 knots. Within five 
minutes a large black rock was sighted off the port side. 
We set down and were flabbergasted to find a large stone 
meteorite (that weighed out later at 20 kg — about 44 
pounds). Everyone — pilot, copilot, and the three of us 
then searched the adjacent area on foot. Through binocu- 
lars I spotted a small dark rock about 500 feet away. It 
turned out to be a neat Httle 1.5 kg (3.3 pound) iron 
meteorite. No others were found in the vicinity so we took 
off again and continued our search pattern. 

To make a long story short, in the course of an hour 
we found two more stone meteorites. We would have con- 
tinued longer; however, heavy clouds were moving in 
from the east. We had to fly at almost 10,000 feet to get 
over them, and that height in a helicopter I found a little 

It looked as if this area, Allan Nunatak, would be a 
good place to put in a camp: however, the season was 
drawing to an end, and the helicopter operation was soon 
to shut down. Bad weather could be expected, and field 
camps were being brought in rather than sent out. We 
managed to get the promise of another day of helicopter 
flying out there. 

A few days later we went out again and continued 
the search pattern. Again, within five minutes we spotted 
the first one, which turned out to be a rare type of stone 
meteorite, called an achondrite. Continued search turned 
up three more within an hour. The search was getting 
exciting by this time. Then the Navy air crewman, 
Dennis Shatzel, spotted a number of boulders that might 
have been a moraine, but were too isolated out in the 
middle of the ice field. We set down, all hopped out of the 
helicopter, each person running to a different rock and 
shouting he had a meteorite. They were all meteorites, all 
33 pieces! It became clear they were fragments of a single 
meteorite fall that broke on impact. The two largest 
pieces were huge, weighing around 250 pounds each. 
There was a third large piece at 130 pounds, three pieces 
in the 50-80 pound range, and 27 pieces that weighed a 
few pounds down to a few ounces. It turned out the whole 
mass weighed 900 pounds (407 kg), making it by far the 
largest meteorite ever recovered from Antarctica and 
among the five or six largest stone metoerites every re- 
covered in the world! 

Straining our backs, we managed to load all the 
pieces into the helicopter. We had enough weight to carry 
so we decided to end the search. We took off and headed 
eastward, across the mountains, to the Ross Sea, where 
we followed the coast to the place where the Ross Ice 
Shelf edge met the open, iceberg-filled water. There, in 
a jolly good mood, we set down on the ice, and hiked to 
the ice edge. There were groups of killer whales rolling 
and lunging around just in front of the ice. Some of them 
stood on their tails, turning their heads from side to 
side, to see what kinds of creatures we were. A couple of 
us hiked for half a mile to see a group of Adelie penguins 
that were standing around on the ice. It was amazing. 
They didn't move as we walked up to them, and they 
watched us with grave curiosity. They are very engaging 
little people. We also saw some seals lolling on the ice 
(Weddell seals and a pair of elephant seals farther off). 
We stayed away from them; they will bite. But more of 
concern is the fact that where they are there are probably 
holes or cracks in the ice, and we could stumble into one 
and suffer an icy bath. 

In a thoroughly good mood we took off for McMurdo 
Station. Because many field parties were being brought 
in before bad weather could trap them out there, we had 
no more opportunities for field work on 
helicopter searches. The field season had ended with a 
bang. Altogether we had recovered eleven meteorites 

iCon't on p. 20) 


iCon'tfromp. 10) 

Not all reindeer-raising families, however, move to 
the coast for the summer; and some families in the same 
sii'da may occupy as many as six wooden dwellings dur- 
ing the year rather than the customary two. Despite the 
plenitude of a family's seasonal dwellings spaced over the 
landscape, at any given time they may all be unoccupied, 
for much time is spent moving one's self as well as one's 
family, retainers, dogs, provisions, and equipment from 
one place to another. 

Many activities, other than moving, are carried out 
away from the home sites, with the reindeer as the main 
focus of attention. The animals are seldom within a day's 
walk of any residence; in the winter, however, the herd 
may be only hours away by snowmobile — if the herd can 
be located and has not dispersed into smaller segments or 
joined a larger herd. During the summer, on the other 
hand, the herd may be days away from the herder's resi- 

Each reindeer is individually owned; pride and the 
responsibility of ownership helps to explain why everyone 
— children included— enjoys involvement in the cycle of 
reindeer work. Many of the events can be truly exciting- 
outwitting and maneuvering dispersed animals, or driv- 
ing a herd to massive roundup for the ear-marking of 
fawns, for herd-sorting, for migration, or finally for 
slaughtering. Major activities of this sort may occur a 
dozen times a year for each siVda, but customarily one 
assists members of other sii 'das in their roundups as well, 
hoping to locate one's stray reindeer there. Between epi- 




rs --»'*.■ rj^,«"»<. ^w~ ■««sf»>'ss55- ' 

Left, above: Saami girl leads reindeer caravan to next habita- 
tion. Boy's modern tricycle, in striking contrast with tradition- 
al sleigh, rides behind him. 

Left, below: Saami couple share bit of humor. Note man's 
reindeer hide leggings. 

Above: The reindeer roundup. 

Below: Gas for the snowmobile and other motorized vehicles is 
as essential as lichen for the reindeer and must be cached at 
proper interval's for future use. 

sodes of hectic, strenuous activity a great deal of time is 
spent just waiting, partly because of the difficulty in 
coordinating the activities of the dispersed persons and 

The usual slaughter season for reindeer is autumn 
and early winter; before and after this the animals are too 
thin for slaughter, but for certain kinds of hides a few 
reindeer are culled during the summer. Travel conditions 
and herd location are the factors which determine wheth- 
er the slaughtering is done at a dwelling site, on the 
range, or at the slaughterhouse. 

Most of the yearly slaughter is sold commercially or 
is locally bartered; the remainder is used by the family. 
Non-reindeer-owning friends assist at the earliest round- 
ups and sample the season's first meat, eagerly awaited 
by everyone. For these occasions the basis of the group- 
ing is the sii'da and its members' trading partners. 

The scatter of individuals, the choreography 

The unit of mobility among the reindeer-herding Saami is 
the individual rather than the family or the sii'da, for an 
entire family is seldom in the same place at the same 
time; and the members of a sii'da are even more scat- 
tered. Members of households as well as nonmembers 
come and go continually, arriving and leaving together or 
singly, and losing or acquiring traveling companions in 
the process. Even small children go out visiting on a 

whim, have a snack at a neighbor's, take a nap, and move 
on to the next dweUing. The only pair that almost invari- 
ably travels together is a herder and his dog; but even the 
herding dog may make rounds without his master, check- 
ing out the meal scraps at a neighboring house or tent, 
sleeping it off, and moving on to the next habitation. 

Even though the sii'da (the unit of herd cooperation) 
and the family (the unit of residence) are not basic units 
of mobility, the individual Saami is not a loner. He will 
have a companion or companions for many of the recur- 
ring activities of his life— constellations that separate 

and reunite endlessly across family, sii'da, and regional 
Hnes. Companionship will sometimes be sought out on 
the basis of convenience; at other times grouping appears 
to be fortuitous. Most of the time the companion is from 
outside the family, often from outside the sii'da, and 
sometimes even from outside the community. A compan- 
ion from outside the Kautokeino community is likely to 
be a resident of the coastal area, and his relationship to 
the reindeer owner and his family is that of guest-host, 
host-guest, or trading partner. These coastal residents, 
who generally speak only Norwegian, may or may not 

Biret and Bier Ante, a married couple. Portrait ofBiret is reproduced on p. 11 (top); portrait ofBierAn'te is reproduced on p. 8. 


regard themselves or be regarded by others as Saami; 
nonetheless, the relationship between the two can be 
strong and enduring, and highly valued by both sides. 

In late winter and spring, with the longer daylight 
hours, it is considered great sport to go ice-fishing for 
freshwater fish. Trout, char, and the lavaret whitefish 
{Salmo and Salvelinus species and Coregonus lavaretus, 
respectively) are virtually the only species considered 
delicacies. During the open-water season, Atlantic sal- 
mon {Salmo salar), is caught in the bays and up the larger 

Except in summer, the hunting and snaring of game 
birds and animals are popular but casual pastimes done 
on the way to or from another activity. The most common 
game birds are the willow grouse {Lagopus lagopus) and 
ptarmigan (L. scoticus), a number of geese and duck spe- 
cies, the blue hare {Lepus timidus), and the red fox {Vul- 
pes uiilpes ). None of the game species are ordinarily eaten 
or otherwise used by the inland Saami. Captured for sheer 
sport, the game is discarded on the spot or taken home, 
then thrown out after it has begun to spoil. 

Early summer is the usual time to fell trees for fire- 
wood. Trees are no longer to be found near the main resi- 
dential sites, and the only species of any size and occur- 
ring in any concentration is birch {Betula pubescens). 
Other deciduous species, which provide bark used in 
tanning hides, include several species of willow, of which 
the tree-size Salix caprea is the most valued, and gray 
alder {Alnus incana). These are harvested as needed 
throughout the year. Persons on a tree-cutting or fire- 
wood-hauling trip are likely to share equipment or vehicle 
transport with others on the trip, and more than likely 
they are from the same area. 

Children forage on a number of herbaceous plants 
scattered in the wild, and they may make all-day treks in 
search of angelica (Angelica archangelica), the tall, hol- 
low stalk of which is a favorite vegetable snack. They also 
chew on the sorrels Rumex acetosa and Oxyria digyna 
and eat the flowers of several heathers. Before the twenti- 
eth century, some of these species were extremely impor- 
tant in the diet of all Saami, but today very few persons 
can name wild edible plants other than angelica. The 
names used are usually Norwegian, because these plants 
are sought in the summer by the children in company 
with their coastal Norwegian-speaking playmates. 

Late summer is berry-picking time. While numerous 
kinds of berries in the heath family grow in varying abun- 
dance both inland and along the coast, most of these are 
picked and eaten only by children. Exceptions are the 
cloudberry {Rubus chaemaemorus), growing on the tun- 
dra and ripening in August; and the cowberry {Vaccinium 
vitis-idaea), ripening in September, the richest patches at 
lower altitudes. These berries are often cash crops. 
Adults rarely go berry-picking alone. The usual berry- 
picking unit is never the family, but often groups of men 

and boys or women and girls from both the inland and 
coastal areas. 

Boots, pails, and habitations 

Tools, utensils, clothing, and furniture are also mobile, 
largely because they are not identified with any particular 
location and their users are numerous. They are generally 
left where last used, then used again by the next person 
to come along. Snowmobiles that have run out of fuel or 
snow cover may be left in the otherwise featureless land- 
scape to be picked up at a later time — perhaps six months 
later. Even small frame structures may change location. 

Sheds, outhouses, cabins, and houses of the Kauto- 
keino region have all been constructed since World War 
II. Those built before the war were destroyed by the 
German army of occupation in anticipation of pursuit by 
the Soviets. All livestock was also destroyed then and 
nearly all inhabitants of the area evacuated. A few resi- 
dents, especially those of Kautokeino, hid out in small 
groups during the war's final winter of 1944-45. When 
they emerged from hiding they lived in tents and later in 
barracks, before constructing more permanent houses. 
By 1950 many had government-subsidized homes, but 
these were so poorly put together that in recent years the 
Norwegian government has again had to subsidize the 
construction of dwellings. Meanwhile, any smaller build- 
ings may have been moved from place to place much as 
one would move a tent. 

The correlates of mobility 

No assemblage of humans could withstand the atomistic, 
autonomous mobility that prevails among these Saami, 
yet remain an integrated society, were not their comings 
and goings necessary for their very survival. The mobility 
of the Saami is predictable only through the monitoring 
of information that is initiated or transmitted by each 
person as he moves about in his particular activity. With 
the accumulation of this constantly revised, updated 
information, each person has a remarkable knowledge of 
who is going where — how, when, and why. He is then able 
— indeed, obliged — to coordinate his own activities. 

When they meet, the first order of business between 
traveling Saami is the exchange of such information. In- 
stead of perfunctory 'hellos,' they ask one another: 
"Where are you coming from? Who was there? Did you 
see anyone along the way? Did you see any reindeer?" If 
one is not traveling he is asked: "Has anyone passed 
through recently? What did he say? Where was he head- 
ed? Have you heard any other news?" These dialogues, 
which might be small talk among any other people, are 
vital to the Saami's highly mobile way of life. D 


(Con't from p. J 5) 

with a total weight of just over half a ton (460 kg)! 
Among them was the largest meteorite ever found in 
Antarctica. It was definitely a successful field season. 

It's interesting to compare these finds with the 
Japanese finds on the blue ice field adjacent to the Yama- 
to Mountains, 2,000 miles away. Their average meteorite 
fragment weighed only 100 grams. Our average was 
5,000 grams (leaving out the huge 407 kg one). Their total 
weight recovery was about 100 kg; ours was 460 kg. So it 
was, that we found fewer meteorites but larger ones. 
This leads to the possible conclusion that their 992 frag- 
ments may represent far fewer than their estimate of 
320 different falls. Problems of this kind can be solved 
when other regions of Antarctica are search and the 
number of meteorites per square mile determined. It 
seems likely that other countries with stations in Antarc- 
tica will attempt similar searches in regions near their 
stations. In fact, I was later interviewed, at McMurdo, 
by Australia's minister of science, a cabinet member, 
who was visiting the U.S. Antarctic operation. We talked 
for half an hour and I was flattered to watch him taking 
notes on what I said. It's clear that the Australians will 
include a meteorite search group in their future Antarc- 
tic operations from their own bases. 

One thing is clear. Antarctica is a storehouse for 
meteorites, where they are well preserved in the ice, and 
concentrated by ice movements. Searches here have a 

high probability of yielding specimens. For any other 
part of the world such searches are very much "needle-in- 
the-haystack" operations. Because meteorites are the 
only tangible objects we have from far reaches of the 
solar system, searches for additional specimens are very 

Looking back on the period of just over two months 
in Antarctica some things stand out. It is a remarkably 
awesome place, and just a bit frightening. I never got a 
feeling of love for the land there — I was fascinated, but 
felt no warmth towards it. Perhaps it was the lack of any 
living plants or creatures — the utter barrenness of the 
ice cap, a featureless plain whose monotony was relieved 
only by an occasional nunatak of bare rock poking up out 
of the ice. Also, I always had the feeling that I was 
walking on the back of an impassive giant. At any 
moment, I feared, she could change her mood and wipe 
me out like stepping on an ant. Antarctica is always 
clearly the master, and I was allowed to be there only by 
her deference. 

In spite of this cold, frightening aspect, there was 
one recurring theme which satisfied the soul of the 
romantic. Each day I could walk into a small ravine in 
the ice, or a valley in a nunatak, or stand on a ridge of a 
hill, and say to myself, "Only two have seen this place 
before — God and I". There are few places on this earth 
anymore where it is like that. □ 

Weekend Geology Field Trips for Members: Starved Rock and the Baraboo Range 

An overnight trip for Museum members to Starved Rock State Park, 
80 miles southwest of Chicago, will take place on Saturday and 
Sunday, June 4 and 5, under the leadership of two Field Museum 
geologists: Gordon Baird, assistant curator of fossil invertebrates, 
and Matthew Nitecki, curator of fossil invertebrates. 

The flat, horizontal rocks of central Ilhnois are interrupted by the 
spectacular upfolding of older rocks; eons ago these formations were 
cut into picturesque glens and canyons. Field trip participants will 
explore and study these formations and consider the influence they 
have had on the region's economy. 

Field Museum Members will again have an opportunity on Satur- 
day and Sunday, June 11 and 12, to explore Wisconsin's Baraboo 
Range, a field trip which was so successful last year. The trip leader 
will be Edward Olsen, chairman of the Department of Geology. The 
Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock — what is left of 
an ancient mountain range and now stands above the younger rocks 
and sediments. The range consists of quartzite— more than one billion 
years old — which, although compressed into vertical folds, retains the 
original sedimentary structures. The mountains were further modified 
by glaciers, forming beautiful Devil's Lake and picturesque glens, 
and changing the course of rivers. Our "lecture tour " will take us 
through the range and along the shores and hinterland of Devil's Lake. 

The Starved Rock and Baraboo Range groups will leave the 
Museum at 8:00 a.m. on Saturday mornings (June 4 and 11, respec- 
tively! and return on Sunday evenings between 6:00 and 7:00 p.m. 
The cost of each educational tour is $65 per person, which includes all 
expenses of transportation orj a deluxe charter bus and overnight 
first class accommodations (Price is based on double occupancy; single 
accommodations extra). The fee also includes all meals and gratuities. 

except personal extras such as alcoholic beverages and special food 

Hiking clothes and boots or sturdy shoes are strongly recom- 
mended for the scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, 
but young people interested in natural history are welcome. Each 
group is hmited so get your reservation in early! 

For further details write or caU Dorothy Roder, Field Museum 
922-9410, ext. 219. 

I wish . 

Field Museum Field Trip 

. reservations for field trip to: 

(how many) 
n Starved Rock (June 4-5) 
n Baraboo Range (June 11- 12) 



City S 


Amount enclosed ($65 per person) 

(Make check payable to Field Museum) 

Return this coupon or facsimile toda\^! 



Workmen install huge glass panes in- 
side north portico of the Museum. The 
strikingly beautiful, new "front door" 
opened in mid-April. 


Wlimteers Honored 

David Weiss (rt.l. who 
volunteered more than 
885 hours in 1976 to 
the Department of 
Anthropology, re- 
ceives commendation 
from Field Museum 
President E, Leland 

Field Museum's Volunteers have again 
outdone themselves! Just in terms of 
hours of service to the Museum in 1976 
they surpassed their 1975 record per- 
formance by more than 13 percent, with 
a total of 32,957 hours given by 208 
volunteers. Their performance during 
this period is even more remarkable 
when we consider the disruptions 
caused by the Museum's vast renova- 
tion program. 

Working with 44 staff members in 
anthropology, geology, publications, 
botany, zoology, education, exhibition, 
and the library, the volunteers con- 
tributed expertise in photography, 
cataloguing, searching and researching. 

writing, editing, teaching, organizing 
(people as well as materials), and even 
morale-building. They also contributed 
skills as basic, yet as essential, as clean- 
ing and typing, and in areas as special- 
ized as inventing! 

Every volunteer is a specialist in 
his own right, and the contribution of 
each is unique; but what the 208 do 
have in common is their spirit of un- 
selfish dedication and loyalty to Field 
Museum. For this, the Museum shall 
be forever indebted. On February 16, as 
a token expression of their appreciation, 
the Museum staff honored these very 
special people at a dinner-reception in 
Stanley Field Hall. 

The volunteer program at Field 
Museum is aimed at providing a vehicle 
for personal growth and continuing edu- 
cation. Anyone age 18 or over who has a 
serious interest in the natural world and 
is able to give at least one day each week 
is invited to participate in the program. 
Persons interested should call 1922- 
9410, ext. 247) or write Carolyn Black- 
mon. Depart ment of Education. 

Special recognition is given the follow- 
ing volunteers: 

John O'Brien (907 hours). Education: 
assisted in preparation of Harris Ex- 
tension materials and resources ma- 


David Weiss (885.5 hours), Anthropolo- 
gv; curatorial assistance. Oriental 

Sol Gurewitz 1838 hours), Anthropolo- 
gv: photographing artifacts, record- 
ing data. 

David Blanchard (838 hours), Anthro- 
pologv: research and publication of 
archival photographic material. 

LeMoyne Mueller (714.5 hours), Zoolo- 
gv: curatorial assistance, inverte- 

Jim Swartchild (708.5 hours). Anthro- 
pology: photography, anthropological 
collections and public relations. 

Paul Gritis (682.5 hours). Zoology: 
curatorial assistance, primate mono- 

Alice Schneider (673 hours). Anthropol- 
ogy : Chinese rubbings monograph. 

Louva Calhoun (621.5 hours). Anthro- 

pology: illustrating lithic tools for 

500 hours or more: 

Peter Gayford, Anthropology; cata- 
loguing, Chinese rubbings research, 
Egyptian antiquities. 

Ralph Hogan, Anthropology: Chinese 
translation and research. 

400 hours or more: 

Betty Lou Girardi, Zoology: research 
and curatorial assistance in inverte- 

Fleur Hales, Photography Div.. photo- 
graphing specimens and Museum 

Margaret Martling, Botany: cata- 

M. E. Rada, Anthropology: curatorial 
assistance, invention of measuring 

devices for research. 

Maija Sedzielarz, Anthropology: re- 
search Northwest Coast collections. 

Harold Voris, Library, cataloguing. 

,300 hours or more: 

Zoe Emas, Anthropology: clerical assis- 
tance, Asian collections. 

James Burd, Anthropology: curatorial 
assistance, Asian collections. 

Frederica Irvin, Anthropology: cata- 

Llois Stein, Anthropology: cataloguing. 

Anne Leonard, Anthropology: research, 
tapacloth project. 

Malcolm Jones, Education: teacher, 
resource facilitator. 

Carole Schumacher, Geology: cata- 

Lorain Stephens, Zoology: compiling 
bird gazeteer. 

1976 Field Museum Volunteers: 

Bruce Ahlborn 
Sydney AUport 
Carrie F. .Anderson 
Cleo M. Anderson 
Nancy Anixter 
John Appel 
Jean Armour 
Judy Armstrong 
Steven Arnam 
Gwenn Barnett 
Rae Barnett 
Dodie Baumgarten 
John Bayalis 
Carol Beatty 
Virginia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
Phoebe Bentley 
Leslie Beverly 
David Blanchard 
Betty Blum 
Sharon Boemmel 
Idessie Bowens 
Hermann C. Bowersox 
Carol Briscoe 
Jean Brown 
Donna Buddington 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
James E. Burd 
Louva Calhoun 
Jean Carton 
Alma Chomsky 
Shauna Clark 
Janet N. Connor 
Valerie Connor 
Eugenia Cook 
Diana Coultas 
Velta Cukers 
Stephen Daggers 
Georgette D'Angelo 
Anne De-Vere 
Marianne Diekman 
Delores Dobberstein 

Marybeth Dowell 
Mary C. Downey 
Stanley Dvorak 
Millie Dybas 
Alice Eckley 
Bonnie Eiber 
Anne Ekman 
Zoe Emas 
Lee Erdman 
Mariliss Erickson 
Suzanne Faurot 
Jo Fitch 

Jonathan C. Fox 
Arista Francis 
Gerda Frank 
Arden Fredrick 
Grace Fuller 
Peter Gayford 
John Gelder 
Nancy Gerson 
Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi 
Anita Goldberg 
Lorna Gonzales 
Helen Gornstein 
Herbert Graff 
Stacia Greenberger 
Vicki Grigelaitis 
Paul Gritis 
Sol Gurewitz 
Florence Hales 
Margaret HamU 
Janet L Harry 
Lois Hewitt 
Peter Hewitt 
David R. Hickey 
Audrey Hiller 
Ralph Hogan 
Nancy Hordorwich 
Mary R. Horner 
Claxton Howard 
Dorothy Huff 
David Humbard 

Julie Hurvis 
Diane L. Hutchinson 
Lisette B. Hyde 
Ellen Hyndman 
Frederica Irvin 
Ira Jacknis 
Malcolm Jones 
Julia Jordan 
Dorothy Karall 
Adria Katz 
Myrette Patur Katz 
Lisa Kent 
Marjorie King 
Nancy Kirchner 
Karen Kohn 
John Kolar 
Larry Kolczak 
Eva L. Kopel 
Jean Kordick 
Laurie Kosky 
Allan Koss 
Anita Landess 
Alfreda Leisz 
Anne Leonard 
Elizabeth Lilly 
Ruth Loucks 
Martha Lussenhop 
Susan Lynch 
Edna MacQuilkin 
Dorothy Magos 
Catherine Majeske 
Margaret Martling 
Melba H. Mayo 
Margaret C. McKibben 
Cecily McNeil 
Withrow Meeker 
Sunil Mehrotra 
Margot T. Merrick 
Barbara Mish 
Carolvn Moore 
Tom Mudloff 

LeMoyne Mueller 
Janet Musikantow 
Mary Naunton 
Nancy Nelson 
Natalie Newberger 
Ernest L. Newton 
Herta Newton 
Joan Nidey 
Bernice Nordenberg 
Ila Nuccio 
Janis O'Boye 
John C. O'Brien 
Joan Opila 
China Oughton 
Anita Padnos 
Rebecca Pare 
Raymond Parker 
Susan Parker 
Sally Parsons 
Gail Patrik 
Christine Pavel 
Hazel Pensock 
Kathleen Picken 
David Poster 
Ann Prewitt 
Elizabeth Rada 
Col. M. E. Rada 
Lalchumi Ralte 
Sheila Reynolds 
Yvonne Robins 
William E. Roder 
Carolyn Rohlen 
Tracy Ronvik 
Barbara Roob 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 
Helen Ruch 
Alice Schneider 
Carol Scholl 
Richard Scholl 
Carole Schumacher 

Betsy Schwartz 
Alexandra Schweitzer 
Beverly Scott 
Maija Sedzielarz 
Alice Seeburg 
Laura Seidman 
Ann Shanower 
Sharon R. G. Shattan 
Louise Sherman 
Gertrude Silberman 
Samuel Silberstein 
Eric Slusser 
Janet Sobesky 
Irene Spensley 
Llois Stein 
Lorain Stephens 
Lucille Stern 
Dorothy Stevenson 
Beth Stoneburg 
Beatrice Swartchild 
James H. Swartchild 
Patricia Talbot 
Dana Treister 
Edith Turkington 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Barbara Vear 
Sue Vento 
Robert Vistv, Jr. 
Harold C. Voris, M.D. 
Cheryl Walczak 
Harold Waterman 
Nancy Weisman 
David Weiss 
Louise D. White 
La Donna Whitmer 
Jan Wisseman 
Reeva Wolfson 
Nan Zamata 
Lynn Zeger 
Marilvn Zwissler 


May and June at Field Museum 

{Ma\) 15 through June 15) 

Special Exhibits 

Treasures of Tutankhamun — through August 15. This ex- 
hibit, on loan from the Egyptian government, features a dazzling 
display of 55 of the most beautiful and best-preserved objects from 
the tomb of the pharaoh who lived 3,300 years ago. Among these 
are the startling golden effigy of Tutankhamun, the graceful gilt 
statuette of the goddess Selket, a gilded figure of the young 
pharaoh harpooning, and a small gold shrine of exquisite crafts- 
manship. The exhibit also includes superb examples of Tutankh- 
amun's funerary jewelry, furniture, writing materials, musical in- 
struments, games, and decorative objects of alabaster and ivory. 
(Cosponsored by the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute.) 
Monday through Wednesday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; Thursday through 
Sunday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Magic of Egvptian Art — through August 15. A supple- 
mentary exhibit at the Oriental Institute, 1155 East 58th Street, 
runs concurrently with the Tutankhamun exhibit at Field Museum. 
It features artifacts from the Oriental Institute's permanent collec- 
tion, including objects used in the actual embalming of Tutankh- 
amun and at his funerary banquet. Tuesday through Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sunday, 12 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Continuing Exhibits 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to feel, try 
on, handle, sort, and compare natural history artifacts and speci- 
mens. The possibilities are endless— and so are the chances to ask 
questions and get answers. (Trained volunteers are on hand to 
help and guide in exploration.) Opens promptly: weekdays, 1 p.m. 
and 2 p.m.; weekends. 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 2 p.m., and 3 p.m 
Located near the new cafeteria, ground floor. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 
— and the need for solution. Hall 18, main floor. 

Continuing Programs 

Spring Journey for Children: How to Read a Bird" — 
through May 31. A highly acclaimed self-guided tour for children 
(with or without parents) directs them through the museum's bird 
halls. The Journey shows how to observe different characteristics 
of birds, and reveals the reasons for these differences. Journey 
sheets are available at the information booth, main floor. 

New Programs 

Audio Information System. The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide, enables visitors of all ages to visit up to 50 
selected exhibits in any sequence they choose. Complete with 
background music, sound effects, and factual information supplied 
by the museum's scientific and education staff, this system pro- 
vides an entertaining as well as educational experience. Specially 
designed audio receivers and maps are available for a nominal fee 
at the entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor. 

Summer Journey for Children: Spelunking — June 1 

through August 31. Self-guided tour for children (with or without 
parents) leads them to exhibits that exemplify the geology and 
biology of caves. The Journey poses numerous questions about 
caves. Among them are: in what type of rock are caves found? 
How do caves differ from other environments? What animals live 
in caves? Journey sheets are available at the information booth, 
main floor. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays, 
10 a.m. to 3 p.m.: take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in 

museum-related activities. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. South Lounge, 2nd 

Museum Hours Now through August 15 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 6 p.m. Monday 
through Wednesday and 9 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. On Fri- 
days, year-round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 

Wdl Histor^^ulletin I 


■'A A ^ 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


June, 1977 
Vol. 48 No. 6 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


Blaine J. Yarrington, cAoi'm 
George R. Baker 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
0. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson. Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F, Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W, Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blaii 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Hughston M. McBain 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
JohnT. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
Louis Ware 
J. Howard Wood 

Field Museum of Natural Historv Bulletin is published monthlv. except combined Julv 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago. II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year: $3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field- Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 

Second class poslaye p:iid al Chicago. III. 


3 Field Briefs 

4 Prehistoric Agriculture in the Midwest 

by Thomas J. Riley and Glen Freimuth 

9 Our Environment 

10 Endangered and Threatened Species 
of the United States and Puerto Rico 

12 Life in Ancient Peru 

by Robert A. Feldman, research assistant in anthropology 

18 Looking for 'Unimproved' Land 

by Mike Madany 

back June and July at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 

The editor gratefully acknowledges the editorial assistance of 
Hermann C. Bowersox, a Field Museum volunteer, in the pre- 
paration of this issue. 


Spring at Wolf Road Prairie with fragile purple prairie phlox 
(Phlox pilosa), golden hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canes- 
cens), brilliant scarlet Indian paintbrush (Castilleja coccinea), 
and more than two dozen other native wildflowers provides a 
kaleidoscope of color in early June. This spring show has been 
performed without interruption for the past few thousand 
years. Photo by John Kolar. 

In the 1920s, this 80-acre tract of vanishing prairie, located 
at 31st Street and Wolf Road in Westchester, 111. ( 15 miles west 
of Chicago's Loop), was threatened with development (see Feb. 
1975 Bulletin ). Today the Wolf Road Prairie is again in danger 
of being developed into a residential area. 

This past year, an organized request was made to the 
Village of Westchester for a special assessment to install 
utilities which would pave the way to the construction of homes 
in the prairie area. Though the special assessment is but a 
first step in a lengthy and expensive route to the urbanization 
of the prairie, if approved, it could well mean that in a few years 
the more than 140 species of native plants will be replaced by 
bluegrass, crabgrass, dandelions, and plantain. 

Save the Prairie Society, a group of people committed to 
preserving this piece of Illinois heritage, is currently pur- 
chasing parcels of the prairie with funds donated by the Joyce 
Foundation, La Grange Park Garden Club, Lyons Township 
High School Conservation Club, and more than 100 private 
citizens. Society members are also attending Westchester 
village board meetings to keep abreast of the special assess- 
ment activities. These efforts are being made to ensure that 
future generations may see firsthand the spring blooming of 
Wolf Road Prairie. For more on prairies and other natural areas 
of lUinois see "Looking for 'Unimproved' Land: The Illinois 
Natural Areas Inventory," p. 18. 


The "Tut" Exhibit: 
A Major Historic Event 

Friday, April 15, 1977, was one of the 
most memorable dates in the history of 
Field Museum, as it marked the opening 

of the four-month "Treasures of Tut- 
ankhamun" exhibition. Fresh from a 
four-month stay at Washington D.C.'s 
National Gallery of Art, "Tut" opened 
at Field Museum with all the fanfare ap- 
propriate for the arrival of a distin- 
guished head of state. As shown in the 
photo below, crowds waited patiently in 
line in front of the Museum on that his- 
toric morning before the doors opened. 

But queueing up is essentially a 
thing of the past. Once the Museum has 
opened its doors for the day, those wish- 
ing to view the Tutankhamun exhibit 
are issued a number at a special desk, 
"Tut Central," in the center of Stanley 
Field Hall. Television screens, located at 
convenient points in the Museum, indi- 
cate which numbers are then being ad- 
mitted to the exhibit, so that if there is a 

waiting period, visitors may meanwhile 
view other exhibits, see a museum film, 
visit the dining or gift shop areas, or 
enjoy other Museum facilities. Members 
do not have to wait, but may go to the 
exhibit immediately. 

Costs for organizing the "Treasures 
of Tutankhamun" exhibit were met in 
part by a grant from the National En- 
dowment for the Humanities, matching 
grants from Exxon Corporation and the 
Robert Wood Johnson Jr. Charitable 
Trust. All costs of installation of the ex- 
hibit in Chicago were paid for by the 
participating institutions: Field Muse- 
um and the University of Chicago. 

Questions about matters pertinent 
to the Tutankhamun exhibit may be an- 
swered by diahng "Tut Central": 922- 

Prehistoric Agriculture 
in the Upper Midwest 

Long before the coming of European set- 
tlers, the Indians of the upper Midwest em- 
ployed highly sophisticated techniques of 
crop production 

By Thomas J. Riley and Glen Freimuth 

r-_ -1 

^J \^ kj kj kj ^J Lri 

The designs on this and the facing page are types of geometric 
garden beds made by prehistoric peoples of the upper Midwest. 
(From W. B. Hinsdale, Atlas of Michigan Archaeology, Ann 
Arbor, 1931.) 



o r 

o I 

Widely scattered across the landscape of Wisconsin 
and southern Michigan are a series of archaeologi- 
cal phenomena that have puzzled ethnologists and 
archaeologists alike for more than a century. These are 
the famous ridge-and-furrow agricultural fields of the 
upper Midwest. Even now, archaeologists do not know 
who constructed them, whether they are early or late 
among the prehistoric agricultural Indians of the eastern 
United States, or why the garden beds were built in 
rather geometrical patterns that almost presage the prac- 
tices of American farmers engaged in present-day tractor- 
and-plow farming. 

During the historic period, Indians in the eastern 
United States and Canada universally made garden plots 
of small "corn hills," very much like those recorded by 
the Pilgrims in the 1620s in eastern Massachusetts. A 
number of historic and protohistoric agricultural plots 
showing cornhills have survived: in the Connecticut 
River valley in Massachusetts, in New York, Ontario, 
Wisconsin, and as far west as Iowa along the Rock River. 
These plots can all be ascribed to various tribes of Native 

Thomas J. Riley is assistant professor of anthropology at the 
University of Illinois at Urbana. Glen Freimuth is a graduate 
student at the University of Illinois at Urbana and an instruc- 
tor at Richland College, Decatur, III. 

Americans from the seventeenth to the end of the nine- 
teenth century, and it is fair to say that the Indian groups 
east of the Mississippi River almost universally used this 
agricultural technique during historic times. 

In contrast to these cornhill agricultural plots, the 
prehistoric garden beds of Wisconsin and Michigan are 
not mounds, but hnear trench and earthwork features, 
constructed in any one of four regularly duplicated geo- 
metric patterns. Some of the plots consist of parallel lines 
of ridges and furrows, while others are short sets of three 
or four ridges about 18 feet long with furrows between 
them. These sets are perpendicular to one another to 
make a checkerboard effect. One pattern has a central 
mound with ridges and furrows radiating like spokes on a 
wheel. Another pattern, mentioned by early reporters, is 
five-sided and surrounded by an outer ditch. The garden 
beds range in area from less than an acre to more than 120 
acres, with the furrows between beds varying from 8 to 24 
inches in depth. 

These basic features were obviously important in the 
agriculture of some prehistoric occupants of the Great 
Lakes area. Who were these farmers and why did they 
spend so much time building these geometric plots that 
have been described by one archaeologist as being quite 
like "formal gardens"? 

The question of who built them has been one of the 
major mysteries behind the garden beds for 140 years. 
Henry Schoolcraft (1793-1864), one of the fathers of 
American ethnology, was the first scientifically oriented 
traveller to report their presence in Michigan. He sug- 





cizii n n r— 1 nnn czznnnn c 


gested that the garden beds in Michigan were being built 
around or before A.D. 1500. His observations were based 
on a primitive use of dendrochronology — he counted the 
rings of recently cut oaks that had grown over one of the 
Michigan garden plots. 

Increase Lapham (1811-1875), a surveyor who con- 
ducted a systematic mapping of the prehistoric earth- 
works of Wisconsin around 1850, recorded the presence of 
garden beds in several localities of the southern and cen- 
tral parts of that state. He was also the first researcher to 
try to put the garden beds into a cultural perspective. 
Lapham observed that a set of garden beds had been con- 
structed over a set of effigy mounds about five miles 
north of Milwaukee, and that they were quite different 
from historic Menominee and Winnebago cornhill gar- 
dens. From his observations, he concluded that there 
were four phases to Indian cultures in Wisconsin prehis- 
tory: (1) the moundbuilders who constructed the effigy 
mounds and other edifices in the state, (2) the garden bed 
cultivators who came after the moundbuilders, (3) the 
prehistoric corn hill farmers, and (4) the historic Indians 
who were also cornhill agriculturalists. 

Lapham's conclusions were cautiously made, and we 
know now that the prehistory of Wisconsin, and indeed 
that of the upper Midwest in general is much more com- 
plex and of much longer duration than Lapham or other 
early investigators thought. Lapham's work is impor- 
tant, however, when considered in conjunction with 
Schoolcraft's as we attempt to bracket the construction 
of the garden beds between A.D. 500 (the middle part of 
effigy mounds culture), and A.D. 1500-1600 (School- 
craft's tree ring observations). 

This has still left archaeologists with plenty of room 


Experimental garden 
bed at the University 
of Illinois 

for speculation on the builders of these agricultural plots, 
and there have been numerous attempts to attach the 
garden beds to one or another culture of the upper Mid- 
west. Paul Radin, an ethnologist writing in 1911, sug- 
gested that the garden bed builders were ancestors of the 
present-day Winnebago of Wisconsin. George Irving 
Quimby, an archaeologist (and Field Museum staff mem- 
ber 1942-65), was impressed by the geometric arrange- 
ments of the plots and suggested that they were con- 
structed at the end of what archaeologists call the Middle 
Woodland period— around A.D. 500 to 600. Middle Wood- 
land was characterized in parts of Michigan and Wiscon- 
sin by the construction of linear earthworks that ex- 
pressed the same fascination with geometric form as the 
garden beds, and Quimby used this fact alone to justify 
his conclusions. More recently, G. Richard Peske con- 
ducted excavations at two Wisconsin sites which con- 
tained remnants of ridge-row garden beds. Based upon 
his excavations, Peske concluded that the garden beds 
were the result of row heaping done with hoes made of 
bison scapulas and possibly with clam shells and were 
constructed sometime between A.D. 1000 and 1300. 

Radin's, Quimby's, and Peske's ideas have not been 
universally accepted by other investigators, and the gar- 
den beds have variously been attributed to the prehis- 
toric ancestors of the Mascouten, the Sac-and-Fox, Pota- 
wotamie, and other known tribes of the upper Midwest. 
But aside from the fact that the garden beds were prob- 
ably constructed between A.D. 500 and 1600, we know 
Uttle about the particular cultures that produced them. 

A second major question about the garden bed fea- 
tures is why they were built. What function did this form 
of technology serve in the agriculture of prehistoric Indi- 
an societies? To answer this, archaeologists from the 
University of Illinois, Urbana, recently decided to look at 
environmental conditions peculiar to Wisconsin and 
Michigan that might be related to the garden bed phe- 
nomena of those two states. The research was prompted 
by the suggestion that the garden beds were adaptations 
to environmental conditions not found elsewhere in the 

Richard Yarnell, a University of Michigan researcher, 
had noted in 1964 that almost all the prehistoric archaeo- 
logical sites in Wisconsin and Michigan that had yielded 
the remains of cultivated plants were south of the line 
that represented at least 130 frost-free days during the 
summer growing season. He concluded, on this and other 
evidence, that the most important environmental factor 
related to prehistoric Indian agricultural in the upper 
Midwest was the duration of the frost-free season. 

To see whether the garden beds were related to frost- 
free zones, we plotted the known garden beds against 
U.S. Department of Agriculture maps of the frost-free 
seasons of the Great Lakes Area. A positive correlation 
was noted, with known garden beds falling on either side 
of the present 150 frost-free-day zone. In fact, the 150 
frost- free-day line almost perfectly bisects the distribu- 
tion of reported garden beds in Michigan and southern 
Wisconsin, while the modern 120 frost-free day line bi- 
sects a set of central Wisconsin beds. 

Starting with this information, we explored the pos- 
sibility that the mounding and furrowing in the garden 
beds might be adaptations to abnormally early frost con- 
ditions. Adding to our evidence, we found that early im- 
migrants to central and southern Wisconsin had experi- 
mented with maize agriculture in the 19th century, but 
had abandoned this crop because of abnormally early 
frosts. For some time, 19th-century farmers thought that 
it was impossible to get adequate yields of corn because 
of the short growing season in the state, but as forests 
were cleared and expanses of open ground became larger, 
it was discovered that the problems of early frosts disap- 
peared. Apparently, early frosts occurred only in what 
climatologists call "coldspots," where forest cover im- 
peded the circulation of air and colder, chilling air sank to 
the ground, forming a frost trap. This condition is often 
intensified on clear, windless nights by the rapid radia- 
tion of heat from the ground. The result is what farmers 
sometimes call a "moon frost" because of the clear condi- 
tions that precipitate it. Moon frosts, or radiation frosts 
as they are known to climatologists, can occur in pro- 
tected pockets of Wisconsin and Michigan as early as 
August 15, and can destroy a nearly mature corn field in 
the course of a night. 

In spite of the technological weaponry of modern 
agriculture, frosts continue to be a problem for farmers in 
many areas. In cranberry bogs, frost is combatted by 
flooding the bogs on chill windless nights. The plants are 
entirely submerged, and protected from the cold layer of 
air near the ground by heat radiating from the ground 
into the water. However, flooding can only be used on 

crops such as cranberries that can tolerate submergence 
in water. Early in the twentieth century, the production 
of fog or smog from smudge pots was used to alleviate 
frosts in Germany and in the American South. The fog, 
which lay along the ground like an artificial cloud layer, 
served to reflect heat back into the soil and thus keep the 
lower layers of air from producing frost conditions. 
Today, a variety of methods, including fires and large 
fans, are used to produce artificial wind to keep frost con- 
ditions from occurring in California and Florida. 

All these are modern methods of combating radiation 
frosts, and prehistoric agriculturalists did not have the 
technological expertise to protect their crops through the 
use of electrical fans, smudge pots, and the like. How, 
then, do subsistence farmers in various parts of the world 
today protect their crops from abnormally early frosts? 

The Enga of the New Guinea highlands live in an area 
that is marginal for sweet potato agriculture, because of 
the frequent early frosts that can potentially destroy 
their major food source. Eric Weddell, a McGill Univer- 
sity researcher who has studied Enga agriculture, notes 
that the Enga protect their sweet potato tubers by plant- 
ing them in large, often oblong, mounds. The mounds are 
about two feet high, thus raising the planting surface 
above the natural ground. On clear, windless nights when 
frosts could be expected to form, cold air sinks to the low 
ground below the mounds, keeping the summits frost- 
free. This simple maneuver of mounding protects Enga 
sweet potato crops from occasional, but disastrous, 
killing frosts during the growing season. 
Weddell's description of the mounding methods of 


temperature and 

humidity in the 

experimental garden 


the Enga, and their function as a frost-drainage device, 
suggested to us that perhaps early agriculturalists in 
Wisconsin and Michigan built their ridge-and-furrow 
garden plots for the same reason. Working on this as- 
sumption, we constructed a test to simulate the ridge-row 
beds and test their frost drainage capabilities. 

In the spring of 1976, we constructed an experimental 
garden bed at the Ornamental Horticulture Laboratory 
of the University of Illinois. The two most common types 
of garden plots, parallel ridges and the checkerboard de- 
sign, were simulated in our test plot, which measured 107 
feet long east-west and 78 feet wide north-south. Ridges 
and furrows were built with one-foot, two-foot, and three- 
foot differences between the tops of ridges and the bot- 
toms of furrows. 

We monitored air temperature, soil temperature, and 
humidity of the air within two and one-half inches of the 
ground during the autumn of 1976 to determine whether 
the ridge-and-furrow field systems could have served as 
frost-combating devices. Unfortunately, there were few 
nights in which conditions for radiation frost were pres- 
ent in the fall of 1976, but we did get several frosty nights 
in mid-October when localized frost occurred. 

On the mornings of October 16 and 17, we recorded 
temperatures at our simulated garden beds in which the 
furrows of the beds with a two-foot differential had got- 
ten down to temperatures of 31 and 30 F., while the 
ridgetops stayed at 34° F. and 33° F. These nights were 
either clear or partly cloudy and the wind direction was 
from the north and west with a velocity of less than five 
miles per hour. The measurements, which were on rows 
aligned east-west in the checkerboard pattern, demon- 
strated that the ancient fields could indeed serve as frost- 
combating devices. The winds from the north and west on 
these evenings probably abated during the periods when 
the minimum low temperatures were obtained. 

Microclimatologists have developed adequate ex- 
planations for the phenomenon of temperature inversion 
within very small areas, and those conditions were appar- 
ently met during the periods of early killing frosts that 
we recorded in our experimental garden beds. 

While our conclusions are still tentative in the sense 

that they must be replicated under more controlled condi- 
tions, we are confident for a number of reasons that the 
Wisconsin and Michigan garden beds built by unknown 
American Indians sometime over the last 2,000 years did, 
in fact, function in much the same way as smudge pots, 
sprinklers, and other devices in modern-day agriculture, 
to combat the threat of early killing frosts, in those north- 
ern climes. 

The distributions of this kind of agricultural tech- 
nique, the threat of early frosts in the area of their distri- 
bution, and the problems that early European farmers 
had, with frosts, all point to the conclusion that we 
reached in our experimental field. 

But the mysteries of the prehistoric formal garden 
beds have by no means been solved. We still don't know 
who built them, how these early agronomists developed 
the idea of this type of combating device, or, for that 
matter, why they disappeared from the repertoire of 
Native American agricultural techniques. 

Some researchers have suggested that the ridge-and- 
furrow type of agriculture has a long and complex history 
in North America, beginning with early attempts at the 
introduction of maize from South America into the Amer- 
ican Southeast sometime before the birth of Christ. At 
Fort Center, Florida, William Sears has discovered large 
circular mounds that were apparently used for water 
drainage as long ago as the time of Christ. In the 1930s 
A. R. Kelly discovered ridges and furrows that may have 
been used for field drainage in Georgia. They were under 
a southeastern ceremonial mound that dated to the last 
century of the first millenium A.D. Finds of possible ridge- 
and-furrow agricultural fields have recently made by 
Ross Morell and Melvin Fowler in southern Ilhnois, 
dating to perhaps A.D. 1000. 

It is possible, then, that the Wisconsin and Michigan 
fields may not be absolutely unique in eastern United 
States prehistory. In fact, the idea of mounding in long 
ridges might, at one time, have been a widespread tech- 
nique used by different Indian groups to meet differing 
environmental conditions, ranging from flooding during 
the spring and autumn in the southeast, to frost drainage 
in the northern Great Lakes states, d 

Opening day of Field Museum. May 2. 1921 




Eight Crocodile Species Proposed 
for Endimgered List 

Eight crocodile species found in more 
than 40 countries around the world have 
been proposed for treatment as endan- 
gered species because they look like 
other crocodile species that are, in fact, 
Usted as endangered. 

The Endangered Species Act of 
1973 allows a "similarity of appear- 
ance" treatment if law enforcement 
problems result from look-alike animals. 

The eight species being proposed 
occur in Central and South America, 
China, and South and Southeast Asia. 
The force of American law does not, of 
course, extend to these foreign coun- 
tries. American citizens, however, are 
forbidden under the law to trade or 
traffic in these animals, their parts or 
their products. None may be imported 
or exported to or from the United 

The species are: the common cai- 
man, brown caiman, dwarf cairridn, 
smooth-fronted caiman, American 
crocodile (other than the Florida popula- 
tion which is already Hsted as endan- 
gered), Johnston's crocodile. New 
Guinea crocodile, and the saltwater 

This initiative is being taken by the 
U.S. Fish and WildUfe Service largely 
because of law enforcement problems 
caused by the inabiUty to identify cro- 
codile products at American ports of 
entry. The proposed eight species so 
closely resemble the eight species that 
are already listed that inspectors have 
substantial difficulty differentiating 
between the endangered species and the 

look-alike species, especially in the case 
of products made from their hides. 

The differentiating characteristics 
of crocodUians are minute and often 
depend on the size and shape of the 
scales, their color, or the presence of 
follicle glands which are not readily 
apparent in processed hides. The color 
of most hides imported into the United 
State has been changed by preservation 
processes and tanning. Further, many 
products such as wallets, belts, and 
handbags have been dyed red, green, or 
brown, making it virtually impossible to 
positively identify the exact species. 

Most Alligators off Endangered List 

A significant wildlife conservation 
accomplishment was recognized recent- 
ly when most of the nation's alUgator 
populations were removed from the U.S. 
endangered species Ust. The alligator 
was removed from the endangered cate- 
gory and placed in the threatened 
category in all of Florida, and the costal 
portions of Georgia, Louisiana, South 
Carolina, and Texas. About 75 percent 
of the U.S. aUigator population inhabits 
this area. The animal remains classed 
as endangered in all of Mississippi, 
Alabama, Oklahoma, and North Caro- 
lina, as well as inland areas of South 
Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, and 

An earlier action in 1975 had re- 
moved alligator populations in Louisi- 
ana's Vermihon, Cameron, and Cal- 
casieu Parishes from the endangered 
hst. The new rule will allow state and 
federal wildlife agency employees to 
'■apture and remove nuisance alligators. 
It also permits employees to kill 
nuisance animals if there is no place to 
relocate them. Twenty years ago the 
alligator was headed toward extinction. 
Improved management programs have 
brought it back. 

Lake Erie May Never Be "Clean" 

The Environmental Protection Agency 
(EPA) says that efforts to halt the algae 
growth caused by phosphorus pollution 

in the Great Lakes may be effective by 
1985, but western Lake Erie will never 
be as "clean" as the other lakes, accord- 
ing to the Wildlife Management Insti- 

Increases in the nutrient phos- 
phorus, largely from human sources, 
going into Lake Erie have accelerated 
the natural process of eutrophication. 
If unchecked, this process could cause a 
lake to Uterally grow itself to death, 
becoming clogged with algae until 
decomposition of organic matter re- 
moved oxygen from the water and fish 
and other fauna could not survive. 

According to research, there is a 
physical limitation to water quality 
improvement in the Great Lakes. 
Western Lake Erie, a small basin that 
collects water and phosphorus from a 
large area of land, has a calculated 
natural phosphorus concentration 50 
percent higher than the next highest 
lake. This suggests that total removal 
of cultural wastes could never bring 
western Lake Erie to the levels possible 
in the other Great Lakes. 

Spotted Owl Appears 
in Good Numbers 

Bureau of Land Management biologists 
have located 193 nesting pairs of spot- 
ted owls in western Oregon, and only 
about 63 percent of the owl's habitat on 
BLM lands has been inventoried, the 
Wildlife Management Institute reports. 
A total of 325 pairs have been found 
on all lands in western Oregon. That 
number probably will increase as the 
count progresses. It should exceed 400, 
which the Oregon Endangered Species 
Task Force Group has recommended 
as necessary to ensure the owl's sur- 
vival. That group, made up of scien- 
tists from the Forest Service, Oregon 
Department of Fish and Wildlife, U.S. 
Fish and Wildhfe Service, and Oregon 
State University, believes that the 
existence of 400 pairs of the diminutive 
owls would make official listings as an 
endangered species unnecessary and 
would allow the bird's removal from the 
state's threatened species list, blm's 
Oregon nongame biologist, Bill Neitro, 
says the critical elements for the spot- 
ted owl are nesting sites in decadent 
trees and small rodents for food. 

of the United States and Puerto Rico 

The following table lists all fish, amphibians, reptiles, 
birdSy and mammals of the 50 states and Puerto Rico 
that are currently classified as endangered (E) or 
threatened (T) by the U.S. Department of the Interior. 

In addition to these vertebrates, many mollusks, in- 
sects, and plant species have also been proposed or are 
listed as threatened or endangered. 


Shortnose Sturgeon Acipenser 


Longjaw Cisco Coregonus alpena 

Lahontan Cutthroat Salmo clarki 

Trout henshaivi 

Paiute Cutthroat S. clarki seleniris 


Greenback S. clarki stomias 

Cutthroat Trout 

Gila Trout S. gilae 


Apache Trout 
Humpback Chub 
Mohave Chub 

Moapa Dace 
Wound fin 

Colorado Squawfish 

Kendall Warm 
Springs Dace 


Scioto Madtom 

Devil's Hole 

Comanche Springs 

Tecopa Pupfish 

Warm Springs 

Owens River 

Pahrump KilUfish 

Big Bend Gambusia 

Clear Creek 

Pecos Gambusia 

Unarmored Three- 
spine Stickleback 

S. apache 

Gila cypha 

G. robusta jordani 


Moapa coriacea 


Rhinichthys osculus 

Chasmistes cujus 
Noturus trautmani 
Cyprinodon diabolis 

C. elegans 

C. nevadensis 

C. nevadensis 

C. radiosus 


G. gaigei 
G. heterochir 

G. nobolis 


Gila Topminnow 



Crotaphytus silus 

occiden talis 


Leopard Lizard 


Fountain Darter 


Puerto Rican Boa 

Epicrates inomatus 





San Francisco 



Watercress Darter 

E. nuchale 


Garter Snake 


Okaloosa Darter 

E. okaloosae 





Maryland Darter 
Bayou Darter 

E. sellare 
E. rubrum 



Snail Darter 
Blue Pike 

Percina tanasi 



vitreum glaucum 


Newell's Manx 

Hawaiian Dark- 
rumped Petrel 

California Least 


Puffinus puffinus 


Sterna albifrons 







Brown Pelican 


Santa Cruz Long- 


occiden talis 


toed Salamander 



Hawaiian Goose 

Branta sandvicensis 

Desert Slender 


Aleutian Canada 

B. canadensis 








Texas Blind 


Laysan Duck 

Anas laysanensis 





Hawaiian Duck 

A. wyvilUana 


Houston Toad 

Bufo houstonensis 



Mexican Duck 
California Condor 

Florida Everglade 

A. diazi 










Hawaiian Hawk 

Buteo solitarius 




American Crocodile 
American Alligator 

Green Sea Turtle 
Loggerhead Sea 

Hawksbill Sea 

Atlantic Ridley Sea 

Pacific Ridley Sea 

Leatherback Sea 


Crocodylus acutus 

Chelonia mydas 
Caretta caretta 



L. olivacea 


Bald Eagle (lower Haliaeetus 
forty-eight states) leucocephalus 



American Peregrine 

Artie Peregrine 

Attwater's Prairie 

Masked Bobwhile 

Whooping Crane 
Mississippi Sandhill 

Yuma Clapper Rail 

California Clapper 


Clapper Rail 
Hawaiian Gallinule 

Hawaiian Coot 

Hawaiian Stilt 

Eskimo Curlew 

Falco peregrinus 

F. peregrinus 

cupido attwateri 

Colinus virginianus 

Grus americana 

G. canadensis pulla 

Rallus longirostris 

R. longirostris 

R. longirostris 

Gallinula chloropus 

Fuiica americana 



Numenius borealis 

Puerto Rican Plain 

Plain Pigeon 
Puerto Rican Parrot 

Puerto Rican Whip- 

Hawaiian Crow 
Small Kauai Thrush 
Large Kauai Thrush 

Molokai Thrush 
Nihoa Millerbird 
Kauai Oo 


Kauai Akiola 
Kauai Nukupuu 
Maui Nukupuu 
Hawaii Adepa 

Maui Akepa 
Oahu Creeper 

Hawaii Creeper 
Molokai Creeper 

Laysan Finch 

Nihoa Finch 



Maui Parrotbill 

Bachman's Warbler 

Kirtland's Warbler 
Dusky Seaside 

Cape Sable Sparrow 

Santa Barbara Song 

Columba inomata 

Amazona vittata 




Corvus tropicus 
Phaeomis palmeri 
P. obscurus 

P. obscurus rutha 
Acrocephalus kingi 
Moho braccatus 
Palmeria dolei 


H. procerus 
H. lucidus hanapepe 
H. lucidus affinis 
Loxops coccinea 

L. coccinea ochraceu 
L. maculata 

L. maculata mana 
L. maculata 


Psittirostra cantans 

P. cantans ultima 
P. psittacea 
P. bailleui 


Dendroica kirtlandii 


A. maritime 

Melospiza melodia 




Hawaiian Bat 

Lasiurus cinereus 



Gray Bat 

Myotis grisescens 


Indiana Bat 

M. sodalis 


Utah Prairie Dog 

Cynomys gunnisoni 


Delmarva Peninsula 

Sciurus niger 

Fox Squirrel 



Morrow Bay 


Kangaroo Rat 




Salt Marsh Harvest 





Sperm Whale 

Physeter catodon 


Pacific Gray Whale 




Finback Whale 




Sei Whale 

B. borealis 



Blue Whale 
Humpback Whale 

Right Whale 
Bowhead Whale 
San Joaquin Kit 

Northern Swift Fox 
Red Wolf 
Eastern Timber 

Mexican Wolf 
Northern Rocky 

Mountain Wolf 
Grizzley Bear (lower 

forty-eight states) 
Black-footed Ferret 
Eastern Cougar 

Florida Panther 
Ocelot (in U.S.) 
Mar gay (in U.S.) 
Jaguar (in U.S.) 
Hawaiian Monk 

Florida Manatee 

Key Deer 

Columbian White- 
tailed Deer 

Sonoran Pronghorn 

Wood Bison 

B. musculus 

Balaena glacialis 

B. mysticetus 
Vulpes macrotis 

V. velox hebes 
Canis rufus 

C. lupus lycaon 

C. lupus baileyi 
C. lupus irremotus 

Mustela nigripe 
Felis concolor 

F. concolor coryi 
F. pardalis 
F. wiedii 
Leo onca 

Trichechus mana 



O. virginianus 



Bison bison 



Life in Ancient Pern 

Studying the 4,000-year-old rubbish of a Peruvian coastal people 
may provide insights into the origins— and future— of human 

Agriculture has been the mainstay of Hfe in South 
/ I America for more than 3,000 years, and because of 
^ Aits importance archaeologists are actively con- 
cerned with the origins and consequences of plant domes- 
tication. The Field Museum's recent exhibition "Ancient 
Ecuador: Culture, Clay and Creativity" (opened April 
1975) dealt with the consequences of agriculture in Ecua- 
dor. In the catalog for that exhibit, research associate 
Donald W. Lathrap wrote: 

Text and illustrations copyright ® 1977 by Robert A. Feldman 

By Robert A. Feldman 

civilization cannot appear until a truly productive agricul- 
tural system has been developed. Large groups of city 
dwellers who are not producing their own food can be fed 
only after really efficient patterns of agricultural produc- 
tion have been envolved. It is an urban population that 
provides the context for craft specializations, a large pro- 
fessional priesthood, a professional military, a bureau- 
cracy, and finally writing— the various characteristics by 
which we define civilization. 
While this statement is certainly true for the elaboration 

Simplified reconstruction drawing of a 
late phase of Huaca de los Idolos (ca. 
2750 B.C.) shows the large size of As- 
pero's public architecture. Central 
rooms with clay frieze and wall niches 
could be reached only by first going 
through larger entry rooms. 

Scale: 1 inch = 10.3 meters 


This finely made 

footed grindstone (ca. 

2750 B.C.) capped a 

dedicatory burial on 

Huaca de los Sacrifi- 

cios. Stonework of this 

quality had previously 

been thought to begin 

at least 500 years later, 

in early pottery-using 


and florescence of civilization— and indeed for its very 
origins in most areas of the world— it does not hold with 
equal force for the central coast of Peru, that stretch 
along the Pacific Ocean from Lima to Chimbote, some 400 
km to the north. There, the unusual richness of the sea 
allowed large concentrations of people to form stable vil- 
lages in which the day-to-day contacts and conflicts of 
the residents resulted in the formation of the rules and 
controls that formed the basis of later Peruvian civiliza- 

Behind this seemingly minor point lurks a concept of 
great importance: it was not agriculture, in and of itself, 
that created civilization, but rather the large, stable com- 
munities that agriculture can support. If another stable, 
adequate food source is at hand, such as the marine and 
littoral resources of the central Peruvian coast, then the 
complex developments leading to civilization can take 

During the first half of 1974, I directed excavations 
at the preceramic settlement of Aspero, in the Supe val- 
ley about 175 km to the north of Lima. Aspero is a large 
midden, or archaeological site composed of shells, fish 
bones, ash, sand, cooking rocks and other habitational 
garbage. The extreme dryness of the Peruvian coast cre- 
ates a near-ideal situation for archaeology, with excellent 
preservation of the organic remains that rapidly decom- 
pose in more humid environments, though one can have 
too much of a good thing— the garbage still smells after 
4,000 years! (A colleague once remarked that the great 

quantity of peanut shells in another midden reminded 
him of Yankee Stadium after a double header. ) As a result 
of the excellent preservation, we can easily find what the 
prehistoric people were eating and can recover craft items 
such as textiles, fish nets, and gourd containers. 

The cause of the desert dryness is a set of cold ocean 
currents that moving northward, cool the winds off the 
ocean and thus prevent rainfall. These currents are also 
responsible for an upwelling of nutrient-rich water from 
the ocean depths that creates one of the richest marine 
environments in the world, supporting millions of tons of 
anchovies. The ancient Peruvians made nets of plant 
fiber, including (after 3,000 B.C.) domesticated cotton, 
and easily harvested enough fish to support large, stable 
communities of hundreds of families. 

Additional food came from the abundant colonies of 
mussels and clams on the beaches, from the birds and sea 
lions that preyed on the anchovies, and from the animals 
and plants that inhabited coastal marshes and river bot- 
toms. In rare years abnormalities affected the currents 
and stopped the upwelling, thus dispersing the anchovies 
and poisoning the shellfish with red tides.* Rains also fell 
on the normally bone-dry land, so that when the sea 
failed, the desert bloomed, and though the times were 
hard, the coastal peoples survived and prospered. 

The preceramic inhabitants of Aspero were not just 
happy fisher folk who passively enjoyed the bounties of 
nature. Within their stable community they developed 
specialized crafts, engaged in trade over great distances, 

Robert A. Feldman is a research assistant in anthropology at 
Field Museum and a doctoral candidate at Harvard University. 

♦Red tides are massive concentrations of toxic microorganisms 
that color the seawater red. 


and erected monumental public buildings— in other 
words, these nonagricultural peoples were developing the 
bases of civilization. 

How does the archaeologist know these things about 
a people dead for 4,000 years? At this point in time we 
must be content with the material remains of their ac- 
tions, interpreting their form and distribution by analogy 
with recent cultures or by using the complexity or scale of 
the artifact as a reflection of the people behind it. Several 
lines of evidence must be brought together, not just from 
one site but from many. 

For example, two small stone beads I found at As- 
pero— very finely shaped and made of a distinctive heat- 
treated red flint, a difficult material to drill small holes 
through— were interesting but not very enlightening in 
themselves. However, beads of the same stone and same 
fine workmanship were found at another preceramic site 
some 65 km south of Aspero. We can now see that the 
beads at both sites were probably made by the same per- 
son, a craft specialist who traded his wares from one set- 
tlement to another. The beads were not the only evidence 
for trade. Screening the midden yielded a small fragment 
of Spondylus seashell, whose nearest source is the tropi- 
cal waters of southern Ecuador, some 1,300 km to the 

Other foundations of civilization were also being laid. 
The most common artifacts that I found were cotton tex- 
tiles. Preceramic textiles were usually twined rather than 
woven, and thus different in technique from the later 
tapestries and embroideries for which Precolumbian Peru 
is so noted; but their basic designs and such iconographic 
elements as symmetrical repetition of motifs and crea- 
tures such as snakes, birds, and composite-animal "mon- 
sters" first appeared in the preceramic. The central role 
of textiles in ceremonies, noted among the Incas, can also 
be seen in the preceramic. Offerings of burnt textiles 
placed below the floor were used to consecrate houses and 
temples; textiles were the most common item placed in 
graves with the dead, and their manufacture engaged a 
major part of the work of the inhabitants of Aspero. 

They also built large public structures, which one is 
tempted to call "temples," but this word is too loaded 
with connotations. I have instead called them "huacas," 
an Inca world for a sacred building, object, or place, but 
which is now applied by archaeologists to any prehistoric 
mound. Whatever one labels them, it is clear that these 
mounds were not ordinary buildings. The largest, Huaca 
de los Idolos, was more than 30 by 40 meters at its base 
and 10 meters high. Two others were of comparable size. 

Field Assistant Paul Espinosa finishes excavation of the wall 
frieze in the central room of Huaca de los Idolos. Rock rubble 
above was part of fill intentionally placed in the room prior to 
a rebuilding. 



.^' *'*^ »''**•M►58^'''''^^»*t ^'i^'*.- 

.-.-'*'■' r -\.*i*3i<^A^--* ''' ""*•■■■■ -^■«»'.i^^T'' '" 

^^^'■■^ • J* 


.-v^:.^-^^-- '■ ''}^-:*^^ " - ■'-.'"' ' ' r-" ^ "-'' 



~-. ^- ''- ..'^ 

--■=". -- -r-^ '-...-' :- ..■:^-..- 3;- ^_ ■•--",„.,. , ' 

'^ ^ . ■■ ■ - 


" * ' ■ ' "■ , . " ' ■-V." 

_ -■ . ■ . ~ - --"^ 

"^ ' - - -" '"■-...--- 

_ . 


" - * 


Huaca de los Sacrificios prior to its excavation gave little indication of the elaboration of its internal architecture. 

while there were more than half a dozen smaller mounds. 

When we consider the amount of work that went into 
building the huacas, it appears that a tremendous amount 
of labor was spent on tasks that brought no immediate 
benefits to the workers. Rooms were repeatedly rebuilt, 
while the old ones were partially filled in to add to the 
height and impressiveness of the supporting mound. The 
rebuildings were not needed to repair old or damaged 
construction; even today, after 4,000 years, the plaster 
still looks fresh. I feel that the rebuildings were done cere- 
moniously, either on a regular basis or as part of special 
observances of human or natural events. The labor in- 
vested was consciously expended in an extravagant man- 
ner, as if to say to the world "Look what we are capable 

While it is doubtful that there was a full-time priest- 
hood or bureaucracy running the show, the regularity and 
formality of the huacas tell us that someone was in con- 
trol. This is a very significant point. One of the most im- 
portant features of civilization, especially in the Andes of 
Peru, is that it allows a few to direct the labor of many. 
The pyramids of Egypt would never have been built if a 
committee had been in charge of the construction! 

A basic feature of Andean statecraft, as shown to us 
by Spanish accounts of the Inca, was that taxation was in 
the form of labor, not goods or money. Thus, a man might 
have to serve in the army, or cultivate an acre of corn, or 
help repair a suspension bridge to pay his taxes; a woman 
would often be given a quantity of the state's wool to 
weave into cloth, her labor paying her share of her fam- 

ily's taxes. The huacas at Aspero show us that 3,000 
years before the Incas started their conquest of the Ande- 
an world, people were giving their labor to community 
projects, establishing the basic economic underpinning of 
Andean government. 

Andean religion also traces some of its many roots 
back to the preceramic. The fantastic beings shown on 
some preceramic textiles are unmistakably related to 
later "deities." The wall niches, painted murals, and clay 
friezes that decorated the walls of the preceramic huacas 
continued to be important, even diagnostic, features of 
public buildings. 

The building of huacas by centrally controlled labor 
groups in the preceramic might have remained just an 
interesting footnote to prehistory if it were not for devel- 
opments that occurred at the end of the preceramic: peo- 
ple began to grow more of their food. While the reasons 
for the shift from marine fishing and collecting to farming 
are not yet fully known, a major factor appears to have 
been geological uplift of the coast, which drained the shal- 
low bays and lagoons fished by the preceramic peoples. 
They were thus forced to rely more on agriculture to feed 

But this change was not simple. Naturally watered 
farm land is rare on the desert coast, and most of that 
was already being used to grow cotton for textiles and 
nets and gourds for net floats and containers. Irrigation 
was needed, but to build irrigation canals requires large 
labor investments and a centrally coordinated work force. 
These were the very features developed in building the 


huacas. In a sense, the preceramic peoples were "pre- 
adapted" for irrigation agriculture. They were thus able 
to rapidly open up areas of the desert and to quickly sur- 
pass the level of development attained in the preceramic, 
moving on to civihzation. 

/t is a fact of archaeological life that spectacular or 
impressive finds are few and far between. Thus, I was 
very lucky to encounter two such finds at Aspero. 
While clearing the dirt from along a wall on the Huaca de 
los Sacrificios, I started to discard a "loose" stone, and 
found to my surprise that it would not move. Clearing 
further, I discovered to my delight that it was really one 
of four legs of a finely made grindstone that covered the 
body of a late fetal or newborn infant adorned with more 
than 500 beads and two unusually large twined textiles. 
The burial had been carefully placed on the floor. More 
work revealed a second burial, this time an adult placed 
in ahgnment with the first. 

The infant burial was obviously important, but what 
did it signify? Grave goods other than a few textiles or 
gourd bowls are rare in the preceramic, especially with 
infants, who were often simply interred in the garbage. It 
appears that the burials were related to the huaca, as a 
dedication or consecration of the structure. We know that 
children and llamas were sacrificed by the later coastal 
peoples to dedicate important structures. That the As- 
pero burials had a similar intent is supported by my sec- 
ond find: a cache of clay figurines. 

Fragments of human figurines made of unfired clay 
had been found at other preceramic sites, so when one of 
the workmen began finding smoothed lumps of white clay 
among an unusual concentration of basketry, matting 
and other plant material in a small room on the Huaca de 
los Idolos, I instructed him to be particularly observant. 
The diligence paid off, as the torso and head of a little 
figure was soon recovered from the cache. In all, pieces of 
over a dozen figurines, as well as several pounds of clay 
lumps, were found. Most represented females, some of 
which appear to be pregnant. The figurines are all very 
similar to each other— probably the product of only one 
artist— but different from the figurines found at other 
preceramic sites. 

The other contents of the cache are the same as those 
found in burial bundles at another settlement, where a 
preceramic cemetery has been excavated. It is interesting 
to note that some of the bundles contained no bodies, but 
only plant material. By analogy to this site, we can con- 
clude that the figurines at Aspero are symbolic of sacri- 
fices, and served to consecrate a new phase of building in 
the huaca. 

Besides giving us this important glimpse of prece- 
ramic ceremonial activity, the figurines provide us with 

Reconstruction of an Aspero figurine shows a seated man 
wearing a wrap-around skirt, tasseled hat, and bead necklace. 
Figurines from the cache in Huaca de los Idolos provide the 
first evidence of what early Peruvian clothing looked like when 

our first picture of the type of clothing worn. Large num- 
bers of textiles have been found in the past, but most 
were fragmentary and none gave any clear indication of 
how they were used. The largest Aspero figurine, a male, 
is shown wearing a bead necklace (portraying the same 
type of red bead as the two I found), a hat with tassels or 


bands falling down over the shoulders, and a peculiar 
skirt or kilt, swept out above the waist. Other figurines 
show body paint and beaded wristlets, in addition to the 
necklace and hat. 

Evidence gathered by the excavations at Aspero 
show that settled village life, craft specialization, the con- 
struction of monumental pubUc architecture, and the 
division of society into separate classes were all well de- 
veloped in coastal Peru prior to 2,500 B.C. These impor- 
tant developments were similar to those taking place at 
the same time in the Valdivia culture of Ecuador; but 
significantly, unlike in Ecuador, where maize agriculture 
formed the subsistence base of society, Aspero was sup- 
ported in the main by marine resources. It thus appears 
that it was not agriculture, per se, that led to civilization, 
but rather large groups of people living in close proximity 
for extended periods of time. By comparing the paths 
toward civilization in these two areas, we can begin to 
isolate the important forces that were at play in all areas, 
and develop a general theory of the origins— and hope- 
fully, the future course— of civilization. In this way we 
can use the past to illuminate the present and point 
toward the future. 

Small female figurine was the first found. Most of the figurines 
in the cache were female, some of which were represented as 
pregnant. >• 

Massive size of rock walls forming Aspero mounds indicate 
that they were built by large organized work groups. The pat- 
terns of labor control developed during the preceramic formed 
the foundations of later Andean economic life, t 



"- ^ 

.--!>*«=■■•-'- " ; ^ ^ 


Aerial photo of the rolling hill country of western Illinois 
reveals the pattern of land use. Forests survive only on ridge 
tops too steep for cultivation, while the valleys are farmed. In 

Looking for 
'Unimproved Land: 

The Illinois 
Natural Areas 


By Mike Madany 

Mike Madany is a field assistant for the Illinois Natural Areas 

the center of the picture, where the canopy is discontinuous and" 
the forest floor visible, pasturing and/or selective logging is 
taking place. 

About twenty years ago Illinois residents began to 
do more than just fret about the future of their 
state's natural areas— the dwindling prairies, for- 
ests, swamps, and marshes. Since its organization in 
1957, the Illinois chapter of the Nature Conservancy, 
notably, has played a big role in preserving more than 
6,000 acres of such natural land. 

The Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, created in 
1963, has with the Illinois Department of Conservation 
and private organizations such as the National Land 
Institute of Rockford, purchased and preserved numer- 
ous areas. As a result, the strict regulations safeguarding 
all dedicated Illinois nature preserves now cover more 
than 23 square miles of public and private land. 

All of these organizations are, however, hampered by 
severe limitations of staff and of money for purchasing 
land. Much of the time they are forced to react in crisis 
situations: a certain natural area is threatened by indu- 
strial or agricultural interests, so a local conservation 
group becomes aware of the planned development and 


Above, left: The rugged topography of the Mississippi River 
bluffs in south-central Illinois have resisted human abuse better 
than the state's more productive areas. Here, at Fults Hill 
Prairie, red cedar and shortgrass prairie plants struggle for 
survival in the thin, dry, rocky soil. Below, left: Bedrock expo- 
sure, such as this in Winnebago County, provides habitat for 
numerous rare plant species, including relics of past plant 
migrations. Above, right: Cuckoo flower ^Cardamine pratensis 
palustrisy was unknown in Illinois prior to the summer of 1975, 

when Keith Wilson, a INAI field worker, discovered it in a 
number of bogs near the Wisconsin border. Below, right: One of 
the most unusual areas discovered by the INAI in Illinois is this 
system of calcareous seep springs in McHenry County. Here 
"islands" of prairie dock CSilphium terebinthinaceumA with 
grass-of-Parnassus /Parnassia glaucaj at their base, are sur- 
rounded by continuously flowing seepage water that discharges 
from the surrounding moraines. (Photos by Marlin Bowles, 
Illinois Dept. of Conservation.) 


mounts a campaign for preservation. By the time one ot 
these agencies intervenes there is usually an adversary 
relationship — a situation hostile to the prospects of 
positive settlement. The owner may have favored preser- 
vation a few years ago but now he can realize a consi- 
derable profit from his development and is not open to 
other suggestions. The only solution then is condem- 
nation, and this can be done only by government action. 

To compound the problem, agencies such as the Illi- 
nois Nature Preserves Commission and the Department 
of Conservation strive to preserve representative samples 
of different natural communities. When making deci- 
sions on acquiring land they must take into account re- 
plication of existing preserves and the rareness of the 
threatened area, all within the context of a limited land 
acquisition budget. Is this endangered tract indeed the 
"last virgin tamarack bog," or is there a much better 
example of the same type of community just a few miles 
away that has escaped attention? 

It was with these problems as a backdrop that the 
Illinois Natural Areas Inventory was launched in early 
1975. The purpose of the three-year project was ambi- 
tious — to locate and describe the significant natural 
areas of the state. Funding for the Inventory is suppUed 
under a $654,000 contract from the Department of Con- 
servation to the Department of Landscape Architecture 
of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 
conjunction with the Natural Land Institute. The federal 
Bureau of Outdoor Recreation is providing partial reim- 
bursement of funds to the Department of Conservation. 

The main objective of the project is to provide data 
for a comprehensive plan to preserve natural areas in the 
state. It is intended to realize optimum benefit from the 
limited public acquisition dollars and will include natural 
areas in regional plans and environmental impact state- 

The first months of the project's existence were dedi- 
cated to training the staff of five field ecologists and re- 
fining the methodology for the survey. Research was 
carried out to determine the value of various aerial photo- 
graphs, vegetation maps, and soil maps for determining 
areas of high potential for natural areas. 

After field-testing the procedures of the survey, the 
various techniques were honed down to the essentials. 
Thoroughness had to be commensurate with the three- 
year time limit and the immensity of the task. The term 

Field assistant Rob Moran records plant species occurrence within a 
'U-meter quadrat hoop. By comparing the relative density of different 
species, field workers can get an idea of both the quality of individual 
prairie communities and significant differences between prairie types. 
Since one of the purposes of the Illinois Natural Areas Inventory is to 
preserve representative examples of each indigenous natural communi- 
ty, it is essential to know how to separate different communities by 
objective scientific methods. (Photo by Jerry Paulson.) 


"natural area" was defined for the Inventory's purposes 
as a place which fulfilled at least one of the following 

• An area with relatively undisturbed natural commu- 
nities or, in cases where certain existing communities 
are so rare that none is of high quality, the best re- 
maining example. 

• An area that provides habitat for endangered plants 
and animals. 

• An area where plants or animals occur as relict popu- 
lations, at least 100 miles from the species' general range. 

• An area which exhibits outstanding geological fea- 

• An area used by schools for teaching and research. 

In the fall of 1975, INAI conducted a separate search 
for railroad right-of-way prairies. Autumn was the best 
time for such work since the native prairie grasses then 
turn bright shades of gold and red that contrast strongly 
with the longer-lasting greens of alien grasses and weeds. 
The fieldworkers flew more than 7,000 miles of track at 
low altitudes and selected more than 700 potential prairie 
sites. Promising areas were investigated on foot and 
they discovered 104 separate stretches of high quality 
prairie totalling 191 acres. 

Railroad prairies are among the fastest disappearing 
of natural areas in the state. While the survey was being 
conducted several potential sites were destroyed. Some 
of this damage was caused by construction or improve- 
ment of railbeds; some was caused by the enlargement 
of agricultural fields adjacent to the right-of-way. Her- 
biciding of right-of-ways for maintenance, ostensibly to 
kill brush and weeds, has ruined many miles of prairie; 
ironically, these spots are converted to solid stands of 
hardy Eurasian weeds. 

The arrival of winter found the INAI staff busy pre- 
paring for the following summer's main assault. Conser- 
vation groups and knowledgeable individuals were con- 
tacted to provide information on existing natural areas 
and stations for rare plants and animals. Thousands of 
aerial photos were studied at county offices of the 
Agricultural StabiUzation and Conservation Service. 
Potential natural area— noncultivated land and forests 
with little evidence of logging or grazing— were noted on 
both topographic maps and county road maps. 

After this background research, many hours of air- 
time were spent checking these potential natural areas 
and the field workers developed a variety of clues in their 
aerial sleuthing. An uneven forest canopy, for instance, 

Survey director Jack White wades past a beaver lodge in a southern in Illinois occur in such regions along the river valleys. (Delayed shut- 
Illinoi-i bottomland swamp Some of the largest tract<i of lirgin timbir ter photo by Jack White ) 


Aerial view of black oak (Quercus velutina> savanna on a sand dune in 
Pembroke Township. Kankakee County. The open structure of the can- 

opy and the grass-covered understory indicate a relatively undisturbed 
community. /Photo by John Bacone.) 

suggested logging in the not too distant past. Long lat- 
eral lines in a prairie indicated that the area may once 
have been under cultivation. Atnarsh covered by a solid 
stand of cattails might have been an area with an altered 
water level. 

Each area that survived aerial scrutiny was visited 
on foot by a fieldworker and further checked for signs of 
disturbance. Each step of the process was designed to 
leave only those areas which met the size and quality 
standards of the INAI. At the outset of the Inventory it 
was decided that the minimum size for forests or wet- 
lands would be 20 acres, while for prairies, areas down to 
one-quarter acre would be recognized. The standards for 
quality took into account lack of alteration of the water 
level, degree of disturbance to the soil profile, and the 
composition of the vegetation itself. 

June 1, 1976, marked the beginning of a new phase of 
INAI activity as the five district representatives con- 
verged on the headquarters in Urbana along with eight 
summer employees to begin an intensive two-week 
training session. The trainees learned how to use the 
vegetation sampling equipment and were familiarized 
with the forthcoming summer's work. For each natural 
area that would be visited, a four-page "final field 
survey form," covering everything from location and 
ownership to type of plant communities and history of 

use, would be filled out. To ensure uniform results, the 
workers were drilled intensively on the proper way to fill 
in each of the 80 different parts. 

The following three months were exceptionally active 
as the two-person teams visted each natural area iden- 
tified the prior winter. Each district representative was 
expected to finish one-half of the counties in his district. 
Counties differed greatly in the amount of natural areas; 
some, especially those in the heavily agricultural center 
of the state, were nearly devoid of natural areas, while 
others, especially in the rugged topography and poor 
soils of the south and northeast, were dotted with natural 

A typical day for the field crew might begin at 6:30 
in some small-town motel. Forms, species checklists, 
aerial photographs, and topographic maps are gathered 
and loaded into the car along with soil probes, wedge 
prisms, rangefinders, compasses, slope meters, in- 
crement borers, measuring tape, and aluminum quadrat 
hoops. After breakfast the crew speeds to its destination. 
If today's natural area is on private land, the workers 
must find the owner and secure permission to enter. 

The first step in "doing" a natural area is tramping 
its length and breadth to determine its boundaries. This 
data is recorded on acetate overlays taped to aerial 
photos. The location of other features — trails, fences, 


powerlines. buildings, colonies of rare plants — and the 
extent of various natural communities is also ascertained 
and recorded. After a morning of preliminary investiga- 
tion the team repairs to a local cafe. 

Here the conversation is as rife with jargon as that 
of the truckers sitting in the next booth. "Well, do you 
think that place will qualify as a category II natural 
area? Or should we put Hypericum adpressum down as 
an exceptional feature?" 

"Did you see the Quercus velutina? It had to be a 
Class 9." 

"Hey, that Juncus I thought was uaseyz— it just keyed 
out to a weird form of plain old dudleyi. " 

While waiting for dessert to be served one of the crew 
might be copying down 20 random numbers from a statis- 
tical table to ensure the objectivity of the vegetation 
sampling that afternoon. 

Vegetation sampling can be at times the most frust- 
rating and time-consuming activity of the final field sur- 
vey. If the team is recording the contents of a series of 
20 circular plots in some northern Illinois sedge meadow, 
trying to remember whether the bluish-green leaves 
belong to Carex haydenii or Carex Buxbaumii can be in- 
deed vexing, especially on a hot, humid, windless day. 
On the other hand, there is no telling what one will find 
while vegetation sampling. Perhaps there will be a new 
plant discovery for the county in the next plot. Or, better 
yet, the next few steps may lead to a species new to the 
state or even the ultimate — a plant thought to be extinct 
in Illinois. 

In forests the procedures are more complicated. 
Looking through a square of specially prepared glass 
known as a wedge-prism gives a quick approximation 
of which trees were dominant in terms of basal area. 
Density of trees within different size classes is ascer- 
tained with the aid of a rangefinder and measuring tape. 
At alternate points the types and numbers of shrubs and 
saplings within a given radius are recorded. When the 
natural area is finally sampled, graded, and mapped to 
the prescribed degrees of accuracy, the team can return 
to its base and begin an evening of work. The samphng 
data must be tabulated and analyzed, the final field 
survey form must be filled out and grades determined 
for the natural communities. Tomorrow promises an- 
other natural area, the possibility of earthshaking finds 
— and the same routine. 

As August began, plans were completed for another 
separate survey— this time for cemetery prairies. A ceme- 
tery which was established on the original prairie sod 
during pioneer times may contain a patch of relatively 
undisturbed prairie. The Inventory received the coopera- 
tion of noted prairie expert Robert Betz (a Field Museum 
research associate). Betz had pioneered work with ceme- 
tery prairies by visiting more than 900 of them in nor- 
thern Illinois over the past 10 years and initiating pre- 

servation action for 30 areas. With those cemeteries 
visited by Betz studied and evaluated, there remained 
more than 3,000 other cemeteries to be checked for prairie 

To carry out this herculean task, an army of 87 volun- 
teers was marshalled to cover the 93 counties having 
potential for prairie. These volunteers spent the week- 
ends of August and September driving down dusty roads 
searching for clumps of spruce or some other clue to the 
presence of the cemetery marked on the map. The volun- 
teers found that most cemeteries had lost all but the most 
tenacious prairie plants, thanks to careful manicuring 
and mowing by caretakers. However, here and there were 
patches of unplowed, ungrazed prairie— often the only 
natural prairie vegetation in the county. A total of 138 
cemeteries were found to have some potential for preser- 
vation and management; 27 of these were of sufficient 
size and quality to be designated natural areas. 

What has the Inventory accomplished so far? About 
half the work has been completed; in the end, a 
total of 1,000 areas probably will be inventoried. In 
addition to finding many areas previously unknown to 
preservation organizations, the fieldworkers have discov- 
ered five species of plants new to Illinois and scores of 
county records, thus updating distribution data for many 
rare species. No other state has undertaken an inventory 
of natural areas as detailed as this. If a given area is pre- 
served, the masses of information gathered during the 
survey will serve as valuable benchmark data for future 

However, one disturbing trend was discovered in the 
course of the past year's work: In every part of the state 
the continual destruction of natural land has been docu- 
mented. Upon completion of the survey, data about 
natural areas that has been collected will be placed in a 
computer and cross-referenced so that local agencies 
involved in land preservation can readily retrieve the 
desired information. The Illinois Department of Conser- 
vation plans to expand a program to encourage preser- 
vation of the areas, and the computerized system will 
be invaluable for setting priorities. It is essential, how- 
ever, that the information gathered by the Inventory be 
used as speedily as possible so that the computerized 
file will not become merely a historical memento. D 

For locating certain categories of natural areas there is no 
substitute for cooperation from the public. This is espe- 
cially true for small areas and habitats of endangered 
species. Persons with information which could be of value 
to the INAI may write: Illinois Natural Areas Inventory, 
214 Mumford Hall, University of Illinois, Urbana, II 
61801. Phone (21 7) 333-2200. 


June and July at Field Museum 

(June 15 through July 15) 

Special Exhibits 

Treasures of Tutankhamun— through August 15. This ex- 
hibit, on loan from the Egyptian government, features a dazzling 
display of 55 of the most beautiful and best-preserved objects from 
the tomb of the pharaoh who lived 3,300 years ago. Among these 
are the startling golden effigy of Tutankhamun. the graceful gilt 
statuette of the goddess Selket, a gilded figure of the young 
pharaoh harpooning, and a small gold shrine of exquisite crafts- 
manship. The exhibit also includes superb examples of Tutankh- 
amun's funerary jewelry, furniture, writing materials, musical in- 
struments, games, and decorative objects of alabaster and ivory. 
(Cosponsored by the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute.) 
Monday through Wednesday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; Thursday through 
Sunday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Magic of Egyptian Art— through August 15. A supple- 
mentary exhibit at the Oriental Institute, 1155 East 58th Street, 
runs concurrently with the Tutankhamun exhibit at Field Museum, 
it features artifacts from the Oriental Institute's permanent collec- 
tion, including objects used in the actual embalming of Tutankh- 
amun and at his funerary banquet Tuesday through Saturday, 10 
a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sunday, 12 noon to 4 p.m. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This fascinating 
game/exhibit of 39 artifacts lets you play anthropologist. Look at 
the artifacts and decide whether they were used by men or 
women. Discover that economic and social roles of men and 
women are not universally the same. Game scorecards are avail- 
able. Elevator lobby, ground floor. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to feel, try 
on, handle, sort, and compare natural history artifacts and speci- 
mens. The possibilities are endless— and so are the chances to ask 
questions and get answers. (Trained volunteers are on hand to 
help and guide in exploration.) Opens promptly each day of the 
week at 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2 p.m.; on Saturdays and 
Sundays the gallery also opens at 3 p.m. Located near the new 
cafeteria, ground floor. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 
—and the need for solution. Hall 18, main floor. 

New Programs 

Summer Journey for Children: Spelunking— through 

August 31. Self-guided tour for children (with or without parents) 
leads them to exhibits that exemplify the geology and biology of 
caves. The Journey poses numerous questions about caves, 
among them are: In what type of rock are caves found? How do 
cave environments differ from others? What animals live in caves? 
Journey sheets are available at the information booth, main floor. 

Audio Information System. The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide, enables visitors of all ages to visit as many 
as 50 selected exhibits in any sequence they choose. Complete 
with background music, sound effects, and factual information 
supplied by the museum's scientific and education staff, this system 
provides an entertaining as well as educational experience. 
Specially designed audio receivers and maps are available for a 
nominal fee at the entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor. 

Continuing Programs 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays, 
10 a.m. to 3 p.m.: take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in 
museum-related activities. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Members of the North Shore 
Weavers' Guild demonstrate weaving and spinning every Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. South Lounge, 2nd 

Museum Hours Now through August 15 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 6 p.m. Monday 
through Wednesday and 9 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. On Fri- 
days, year-round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 
Tutankhamun Information: 922 5910 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 


Field Museum 

of Natural History 


July/August 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 7 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 


3 Field Briefs 

4 Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds 

New exhibit of bird paintings 

6 Guests of Summer : 

Garrulous tree-climbers who change color 
by Floyd Swink 

7 Living Jewels of the Tropics 

by David M. Walsten 

Photos courtesy of Kenneth T. Nemuras 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



10 Treasures of the Des Plaines 

by Philip Hanson, senior program developer, Department 
of Education 

18 Our Environment 

back July and August at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 

Blaine J. Yarrington, c/ia/r; 
George R. Baker 
Gordon Bent 
Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F, Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph K. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 

The editor gratefully acknowledges the editorial assistance of 
Hermann C. Bowersox, a Field Museum volunteer, in the pre- 
paration of this issue. 


Two toucans and a toucanet of South America. Painting by 
Guy Tudor. The original painting, of which this is a detail, is on 
view in Hall K with other bird paintings beginning July 12. For 
more on the paintings see page 4. The birds shown here are a 
plate-billed mountain-toucan, Andigena laminirostris, of Ecua- 
dor (upper left); a crimson-rumped toucanet, Aulacorhynchus 
haematopygus, of Colombia (upper right); and a red-billed tou- 
can, Ramphastos tucanus, of Guyana (bottom). The painting 
was commissioned for Manual of Tropical Birds, by Field Mu- 
seum emeritus curator Emmet R. Blake, and will appear in 
Volume 11 of this four-volume work. Volume 1 was recently 
published by the University of Chicago Press. Copyright ® 1977 
The University of Chicago. 

Field Muf^eum uf Niilural History Bulletin is published monthly, except LOmbined July 
•August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake .Shore Drive. 
Chicago, 11. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3679 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. II. 60605. ISSN: 0016-0703. 

<d cl.i 

t.tjic p.iid .It t hi^ 

. Ml 


Museum Receives Five Grants 

Five grants totaling $169,150 have been 
awarded to Field Museum for a wide 
range of new and continuing programs 
of research, education, and preserva- 

Continued support from the Nation- 
al Science Foundation (NSF) in the 
amount of $114,200 has been received 
for the investigation of Prehispanic 
irrigation in South America. Archaeo- 
logical excavations on the desert coast 
of Peru have revealed irrigation sys- 
tems (dating from 500 B.C. to A.D. 1400) 

demonstrably more productive than 
modern counterparts. Mapping and 
excavation of ancient canals supports 
the hypothesis that native engineers 
developed the principles of fluid dyna- 
mics and the technical hydraulic skills 
needed to optimize canal delivery sys- 
tems some six or seven centuries before 
Western technology made the same 
discovery. Project director is Michael 
E. Moseley, associate curator of Middle 
and South American archaeology and 

NSF provides $15,700 in continuing 

support of a five-year renovation of the 

(Continued on p. 14) 

Future scientist examines specimens in Field Museum's exciting neiv "hands on" gallery, the Room for Wonder. 

Copyright ^ 1977 The University of Chicago 

Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds 

"Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neotropical 
Birds" is a new exhibit of original bird 
paintings, opening July 12 in Hall K. 
Featured in the exhibit is the work of 
Guy Tudor (whose paintings appear on 
the facing page and this month's cover) 
and of Richard V. Keane. Tudor and 
Keane are the principal illustrators for 
Manual of Tropical Birds, Volume I, by 
Emmet R. Blake, published July 1.* All 
of the paintings in the exhibit were pre- 
pared for the Manual. 

Guy Tudor is a free-lance, self- 
taught artist who specializes in paint- 
ings of birds. A native of New York City, 
he has made numerous field trips to 
study birds in Central and South Amer- 
ica and his paintings have appeared in 
Time-Life Books, Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica, Reader's Digest, Scientific Ameri- 
can, Natural History, the Wilson Bulle- 
tin (an ornithology journal), and other 
periodicals. He has also illustrated a 
number of field guides. 

Richard V. Keane, a native Chicago- 
an, has been on the faculty of the Art 
Institute of Chicago since 1955 and re- 
ceived both his bachelor's and master's 
degrees from the Art Institute. As a 
boy, he visited Field Museum, "an inex- 
haustible treasure," to sketch speci- 
mens and he continues to bring his 
drawing classes there. He has sketched 
and painted birds in their natural habi- 
tats in Europe, Asia, Africa, the West 
Indies, and Mexico; and his work has 
appeared, notably, in publications of 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., and in 
various books on wildhfe. 

The author of Manual of Neotropical 
Birds, Emmet R. Blake, is curator emer- 
itus at Field Museum and a scientist 
whose career has combined to an unusu- 

■* Barbets (family Capitonidae) and wood- 
peckers (family Picidaej of Central and South 
America. Painting by Guy Tudor This illus- 
tration is to appear in Volume II of the four- 
volume Manual of Neotropical Birds, by 
Emmet R. Blake. Volume I was recently pub- 
lished by the University of Chicago Press. 
The original painting, about twice the size 
of this plate, will be on view in the new 
exhibit "Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neo- 
tropical Birds. " opening July 12. 

al degree laboratory research, field stud- 
ies, and adventure. Although widely 
known as an ornithologist, he has also 
been a professional boxer, swimming 
instructor, World War II counter-espio- 
nage agent, and writer. 

Born in South CaroUna, Blake at- 
tended Presbyterian College, Clinton, 
S.C, graduated at 19, and was in gradu- 
ate school at the University of Pitts- 
burgh when he interrupted his studies 
to go on a year-long expedition for the 
National Geographic Society up the 
Amazon and into the jungles and moun- 
tains of the Brazil- Venezuela boundary. 
A few months after his return, he re- 
ceived an offer to conduct a collecting 
expedition to Venezuela from Field Mu- 
seum. Blake succeeded in reaching the 
9,000-foot summit of Mount Turumi- 
quire and in only 35 days collected 803 
birds, 96 reptiles, and 37 mammals — 
perhaps a record performance for one 
man. In 1935 he joined the scientific 
staff of Field Museum as assistant in 
the Division of Birds and in the follow- 
ing years rose to be curator in charge. 
He has participated in eight major col- 

lecting trips, mainly in tropical Amer- 

"But expeditions are only a part of 
museum work," says Blake. "On return- 
ing from any expedition, specimens, 
often in the thousands, must be identi- 
fied and catalogued, the new forms de- 
scribed and named, and the entire collec- 
tion studied critically as steps in the 
preparation of the final technical re- 
port." Such reports document our 
knowledge of nature and are the basis of 
publications for the laymen. Blake has 
written numerous articles and books, 
technical and popular, based on his field 
work and research. His 650-page Birds 
of Mexico, A Guide for Field Identifica- 
tion (University of Chicago Press, 1953), 
now in its seventh printing, is recog- 
nized as an authoritative work on the 
avifaunaof that country. D 

*Manual of Tropical Birds. Vol. I, by Emmet 
R. Blake: published by the University of Chi- 
cago Press; 704 pp.. $50.00. Volume I (the 
first of four projected volumes) covers the 
families Spheniscidae (penguins) to Laridae 
(gulls and allies). 

Emmet R. Blake, emeritus curator of birds, in his laboratory 


of Summer: 


Tree -Climbers 

Who Change 


By Floyd Swink 

Photos by Marie Swink 

Floyd Swink is taxonomist at Morton Arboretum. Lisle, III. 

Summer guests of Theodore Johnson, a resident of 
northern Wisconsin's Sawyer County, use his spare 
"cottage" only during the day. Around dusk they leave 
the cottage, climb into aspen or birch trees nearby and 
don't return until dawn. This remarkable routine conti- 
nues from about June 1 to early September, with the 
first hint of freezing temperatures. The guests then 
vanish and Johnson doesn't hear from them again for 
about nine months. While at Johnson's, however, he 
hears from them every night as they vocalize in the 

Johnson's fair-weather friends are tree frogs (Hyla 
versicolor), and the guest cottage, located on Johnson's 
porch, is 6 inches long, 2V2 inches wide, and IV2 inches 
high. The cottage doorway is 1 inch square. 

As their Latin name (versicolor = "color-changing") 
suggests, these frogs are often able to blend in with their 
surroundings by changing color, chameleon-fashion, 
from light green to gray. How are these guests able to 
locate the cottage each spring? "I haven't the froggiest," 
says Johnson, a 




Phyllomedusa tomoptera, a hylid, or 
tree frog, of Ecuador. Photo by George 

by David M. Walsten 

Photos and resource materials courtesy 
of Kenneth T. Nemuras 

rilliant colors are characteristic 
of many frog species of the Amer- 
ican tropics; but the dendro- 
batids, or poison-arrow frogs, are 
the most spectacular, as sug- 
gested by the color photos on 
pages 8 and 9. They are also no- 
torious—as their common name 
suggests — for their highly toxic 
skin secretions, long used by Indians on the tips of ar- 
rows, darts, spears, and other flesh-piercing weapons. 

The Indians obtain the poison, a neurotoxin, by hold- 
ing the dead frog above a fire, thus causing the skin to 
"sweat" droplets of the poisonous fluid. Birds or small 
mammals shot with a poison-dipped missile are paralyzed 
almost immediately; such a wound would ordinarily have 
little effect on a human or large animal. 

The dendrobatids, of which there are some 70 species, 
are rather small, slender frogs distinguished by two 
scutes, or plates, on the dorsal side of each finger and toe. 
They are also unusual for the manner in which they care 
for their young. As soon as they are laid, the eggs are 
attached to the male's back. After hatching, the young 
tadpoles — which may number from 2 to about 20— re- 
main on the parent's back for a period of several weeks. 
When they are sufficiently developed to fend for them- 
selves, the father enters the water; the young are dis- 
lodged and on their own. 

Some dendrobatids also exhibit interesting territorial 
behavior. Males of the Panamanian dendrobatid Colo- 
stethus inguinalis maintain territories along rocky river 
shores. If approached by another male, the territory 
"owner" stands up and shouts his territorial claim. If this 
fails to discourage the intruder the owner butts him with 
his head. Males of Dendrobates pumilio, also of Central 
America, will wrestle with one another, standing on their 
hind legs. 

Other living "jewels" of the tropical Americas are to 
be found among frogs of the families Atelopodidae and 
Hylidae, also pictured on pages 8 and 9. The Atelopodi- 
dae, numbering about three dozen species, are also con- 
fined to the tropical Americas. Many of them do not hop 
in the manner of "conventional" frogs, but walk — and 
rather slowly at that. 

The Hylidae, or tree frogs, include several hundred 
species and occur worldwide; they are most prevalent, 
however, in South America. An example of this group is 
shown above. The tree frogs are sometimes called the 
acrobatic clowns of the amphibian world. The barking 
tree frog, Hyla gratiosa, can perform on a miniature 
trapeze. This special ability is due to the presence of large 
suction discs on the tips of the fingers and toes. The grip 
is so firm that the frog can hang by the suction of a single 
disc. The jewelry of the tree frogs is their eyes, which 
may be ruby red, jade green, opalescent, golden, or virtu- 
ally any other color of the rainbow, n 

Living Jewels of the Tropics: (Top row, 1. to r.) Dendrobates pumilio, family Dendrobatidae; 
photo by Ken Nemuras. Dendrobates auratus, Dendrobatidae; photo by R. Wayne Van Devender. 
Agalychnis callidrys, Hylidae; photo by R. Wayne Van Devender. (Middle row, 1. to r.) Atelopus 
varius, Atelopodidae; photo by Joseph T. Collins. Dendrobates histrionicus, Dendrobatidae; 
photo by Joseph T. Collins. (Bottom row, 1. to r.) Agalychnis calcarifer, Hylidae; photo 
by Robert S. Simmons. Dendrobates granulifera, Dendrobatidae; photo by Joseph T. Collins. 
Atelopus varius, Atelopodidae; photo by Joseph T. Collins. Photos courtesy Ken Nemuras. 

*— < 

of the 
Des Plains 

by Philip Hfinson 

Dolomite outcropping along valley of Des Plaines River, near Lemont, Illinois. Photo taken in 1890s. 

Parts of this valley, in Chicago's 
'backyard,' retain botanical gems of 
centuries past 

For much of its 100-mile length, the Des Plaines 
Valley of northeastern Illinois is like countless 
other broad, flatbottomed valleys of the Midwest. 
But this tributary of the Illinois River, originating near 
the Wisconsin border, has a section between the town of 
Willow Springs (five miles southwest of Chicago's Mid- 
way Airport) and the city of Johet that is remarkable for 
the communities of native prairie plants scattered along 
its valley floor. Among these plants are species that exist 
nowhere else or few other places in the world. Why do 
they grow here in this brief strip of valley? What is 
unique about this section of the Des Plaines? 

The answer to these questions is basically one of 
geology. The 20- mile valley segment is enclosed by ab- 
rupt, sometimes vertical bluffs, exposing the pale dolo- 
mite* bedrock. The 70-foot deep, mile-wide valley is not 
the handiwork of the present stream — which is sluggish 
and indolent for most of the year; it was fashioned in- 
stead by torrential waters from glaciers of the last ice age 
as they warmed and melted. 

The glaciers also left behind mounds of debris— boul- 

Philip Hanson is senior program developer. Department of Education. *Dolomite is calcium magnesium carbonate, a type of limestone 


ders, gravel, and pulverized rock that were imbedded in 
the ice. The mounds, or moraines, were deposited parallel 
to the ice front, and effectively dammed back the waters 
flowing from the glacier. One of these morainal dams was 
breached in two places, the resultant torrents carving out 
the Des Plaines Valley and its principal branch, the Sag 
Valley (the location of the present Calumet Sag Channel), 
which two valleys join about two miles downstream from 
Willow Springs. 

For several millennia the volume of glacial melt- 
waters that charged down the Sag and Des Plaines was 
immense— comparable to that flowing today through the 
St. Clair River, which connects Lakes Huron and Erie. 
By 10,000 years ago, however, the water flow had much 
abated, and the main features of the present Des Plaines 
Valley were already well defined. 

The events that created the valley also set up a vari- 
ety of habitat conditions, each favoring the development 
of a particular plant and animal community. For example, 
the dolomite bedrock was exposed in many places where 
the glacial debris, or till, had been washed away, thus 
creating a harsh environment that could appeal to only a 
limited number of hardy, specialized plants. Elsewhere, 
parallel to the river bank, were low gravel ridges, depos- 
ited by the current during higher water conditions. Drain- 
age from such relatively level surface is poor; thus, 
much of the floodplain within the valley is wet for long 
periods — a condition that is augmented by flowage from 
seep springs below the bluffs. In contrast, gravelly ridges 
above the mean water level stay relatively dry, for their 
coarseness favors rapid water loss through drainage and 

Marshes and wet prairie, which provide their own 
unique habitats, occur in the low spots in the valley's 
floodplain, such as pockets in the bedrock, and along the 
river edge. Here are to be found the plants and animals 
that cannot withstand the periodic dryness of other sec- 
tions. Much of the valley floor, then, is a grassland com- 
munity, primarily prairie, interspersed with marsh and 

The periodic incursion of prairie fires, blowing in 
from the west, prevented the development of woodland 
communities on the west bank of the Des Plaines. But on 
the east bank, insulated by the river from prairie fires, 
there were numerous oak groves. Many fine old oak trees 
can still be seen in the area of Lockport and Lemont 
(about two miles and ten miles upstream from Joliet, 
respectively). On the west side, however, the sparse trees 
are mainly those planted as windbreaks or for shade. 

At frequent intervals there is a transition from one 
type of prairie to another. Dry prairie merges to mesic, or 
moderately moist, prairie, then to wet prairie. Little blue- 
stem grass (Andropogon scoparius), and side oats grama 
grass {Bouteloua cortipendula) are the most common 
plants in the dry areas. Moister areas have a greater 

abundance of big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi). 
Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) marks the begin- 
ning of wet prairie, while blue joint grass (Calamogrostis 
canadensis), sedges, and the uncommon tufted hair grass 
(Deschampsia caespitosa) are predominant in the wet 
prairie. Because of the unusual geology of the area, the 
driest prairie plants are sometimes to be found growing 
next to large tracts of cattail [Typha latifolia), a marsh- 

The calcareous nature of the area is indicated by the 
presence of calciphiles, or calcium-loving plants, such as 
purple angelica (Angelica atropurpurea), prairie alum 
root (Heuchera richardsonii), swamp betony (Pedicularis 
lanceolata), and the aromatic low calamint (Satureja ar- 

The variety of grassland habitats together with the 
large expanses of marsh and fen also support a diversity 
of animal life. A great variety of migratory waterfowl, in 
fact, must once have prevailed in the Des Plaines Valley, 
along the Sag Valley, and in the Calumet area (immedi- 
ately south of Chicago). Collectively, these areas pro- 



vided some 25 square miles of prime wetland habitat, 
important to early settlers as a source of game. 

An old history of Will County, where much of the 20- 
mile segment of valley is located, gives an idea of the 
variety of birds that once lived in this valley: An early 

Metropolitan Sanitary District ( 

The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal near Romeoville (then Humeol 
in 1899, shortly before completion. 

remembers two species of birds quite common here when 
his father removed to this section, in 1834, but which have 
long since disappeared. One of them was about the size 
and very similar to the English curlew. It had a bill about 
seven or eight inches long, and when disturbed would rise 
in the air, and circHng overhead, pronounce very distinctly 
the word chelee. The other was somewhat smaller in size, 
but similar in appearance, and could say very plainly "go 
to work." But as soon as the EngUsh and Irish came in, 
who are fond of birds as food, and took to shooting them, 
they soon disappeared.' 

The first bird described above was very likely the 
long-billed curlew (Numenius americana). a species no 
longer seen in this area but found along the Texas coast 
and western grasslands. The second bird is probably the 
Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis), now close to extinc- 

A visitor to the town of Lockport in 1850 describes a 
hunt that took place in the valley directly west of the 

This afternoon we spent in snipe shooting, in the bottoms 
immediately below the town, and in the space of three 
hours we brought home forty couple of these birds, in addi- 
tion to many ducks and teal.' 

' History of Will County. Illinois (1878), by George H. Woodruff, 
W. H. Perrin, and H. H. HiU 

' A Glimpse of the Great Western Republic ( 1852), by A. A. T. Cunyng- 

Tennessee milk vetch ^Astragalus tennesseensisA a calciphilic plant 
that may still occur in the Des Plaines Valley, although it has not been 
seen there for years. Last year Robert Betz, a Field Museum research 
associate, discovered the plant in a similar habitat in central Illinois. 

Marlin Bowles. Illinois Department of Conservation 


'*'r..y .A< 



Clumps of tufted hair grass ^Deschampsia caespitosaA an uncommon species found in wet prairies of the Des Plaines Valley. 

At the point where the Des Plaines River approaches 
the southwest edge of Chicago, it was once connected to a 
long marsh known as Mud Lake, which lay in the area 
now traversed by the Stevenson Expressway between 
Harlem and Western Avenues. At the east end of the 
marsh was a low continental divide. Rain falling east of 
the divide entered the Great Lakes basin, flowing even- 
tually into the Atlantic Ocean. Rain faUing west of the 
divide flowed into the Des Plaines, down the lUinois, then 
the Mississippi, and finally into the Gulf of Mexico. By 
taking a short portage across this divide and through 
Mud Lake, a small boat had easy access from much of 
northeastern North America to the Gulf of Mexico. The 
Des Plaines River Valley, though minuscule on the face 
of the continent, thus provided a vital, natural corridor 
for travel and commerce. This same portage had been 
used for centuries by Indians, and the river was an impor- 
tant trade route between the midwestern prairie tribes 
and those of the northeastern woodlands. 

Not surprisingly, there were many campsites in the 
Des Plaines Valley. Some were on islands; others were 
along the bluffs, where seep springs provided fresh water. 
The earliest European explorers learned of the portage 
and the valley route from the Indians. Thus, Jolliet and 
Marquette first used it in the 1670s, followed by countless 
other European and American explorers and traders. 
Many paused to camp in the valley itself. In 1698, Jean 
St. Cosme, a French missionary, camped on an island 
called Isle a la Cache, today the site of the town of Romeo- 

ville, about seven miles upstream from Joliet. 

Jolliet, in 1673, was the first to note that a canal cut 
through the divide would eliminate the need for a portage. 
By connecting the Chicago with the Des Plaines River, he 
pointed out. water traffic could flow easily from the Great 
Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. The notion of a canal 
through the Des Plaines Valley was to be brought up 
again and again, including a proposal by Albert Gallatin, 
Thomas Jefferson's secretary of the treasury, in 1805. 

Finally, in 1836, construction of the Illinois and 
Michigan Canal was begun. In 1848 the 100-mile canal 
(long enough to bypass the shallow rapids north of Joliet 
and those further south at the town of Ottawa) was 
opened for traffic. Until about 1914 freight and passen- 
gers were to pass down the valley of the Des Plaines, but 
with the proliferation of railroad lines— which offered 
speedier transportation — the canal became obsolete. 

A second major construction project, in the 1890s, 
would permanently alter the face of the Des Plaines Val- 
ley and even change the course of the river itself. The 
growing city of Chicago, which got its drinking water 
from Lake Michigan, was beginning to pollute that sup- 
ply with sewage. To solve this difficulty, it was proposed 
that a new channel follow the route of the Illinois and 
Michigan canal completed a half century earlier. The pur- 
pose of the new channel would be to drain the sewage 
away from Lake Michigan and the city by reversing the 
flow of the Chicago River. By 1900 the Chicago Sanitary 

(Continued on p. 16) 


Field Briefs con't from p. 3 
museum's extensive mammal collec- 
tion. Part of the grant will be used to 
purchase moveable cases permitting 
better utilization of storage space for 
the 120,000 specimens. The collection, 
one of the top five in the United States, 
is particularly noted for its holdings of 
South American mammals. The pro- 
ject is under the supervision of Rupert 
L. Wenzel, chairman of the Department 
of Zoology. 

An NSF grant of $9,500 supports 
the twelfth year of a summer anthropo- 
logy course for high-ability high school 
students. The course, an introduction 
to the scientific study of man, offers an 
unusual opportunity for secondary 
school students to learn the variety and 
scope of anthropological research. One- 
fourth of the course is devoted to arch- 
aeological excavation and laboratory 
analyses that contribute to a continuing 
program in local prehistory. Extensive 
use is made of Field Museum's exhibits 
and specimens from its famous anthro- 
pological collections. The course is 
directed by Harriet M. Smith, Depart- 
ment of Education. 

A grant of $18,500 from the Nation- 
al Endowment for the Arts will be used 
for an inventory control project of 
300,000 anthropological artifacts being 
moved into the museum's new storage- 
study facilities. During the move, 
inventory control will be carried out by 
means of a computerized file of the 
anthropology catalog. Project director 
is Phillip Lewis, chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology and curator of 
primitive art and Melanesian anthro- 

The Illinois Department of Con- 
servation, under its Historic Preser- 
vation Program, has granted the 
Museum $11,250 to study ways of 
cleaning, restoring, and preserving the 
Museum's exterior. 

Bolt Appointed Associate Curator 

John R. Bolt, who joined Field Mu- 
seum's Department of Geology in 1972, 
has been promoted to associate curator 
of fossil reptiles and amphibians. Dr. 
Bolt's research has dealt mainly with 
the morphology and evolution of early 
land vertebrates. Currently he is 
studying the functional evolution of the 
middle ear of frogs and of the evolution 
of dentition in early reptiles. 

New Visitor Guide 

A completely revised, 52-page Guide to 
Field Museum of Natural History is 
now available at the Field Museum 
shops for 50c. The Guide contains 
detailed floor plans, general information 
about the museum, its history, exhi- 
bits, educational programs, and volun- 
teer activities, and a separate section 
on each of the four curatorial areas: 
anthropology, botany, geology, and 

The completely revised and updated 
Guide was written by Nika Semkoff 
Levi-Setti, public relations assistant, 
and designed by Marjorie Korobkin. 

Identification for "Tut" 

Field Museum members and their 
immediate family are entitled to 
priority admission to the 
"Treasures of Tutankhamun" 
exhibit, on view at the Museum 
until August 15. However, addi- 
tional identification, such as a 
driver's license, is required of 
members when obtaining an exhi- 
bit admission ticket at the "Tut 
Central" desk in Stanley Field 

Gilpin Retires 

Orville "Gilly" Gilpin, chief preparator 
of fossils, has recently retired after 39 
years of service to Field Museum. 
Gilpin worked on hundreds of fossil- 
building projects involving almost 
every known type of fossil vertebrate. 
He also participated in numerous geo- 
logical field trips over the years. He 
will probably be best remembered, 
however, for his restoration work with 
dinosaurs and fossil reptiles. 

Gilpin's best known work is per- 
haps the two dinosaur skeletons recon- 
structed in Stanley Field Hall: the 
erect Gorgosaurus and the slain 
Lambeosaurus lying at its feet. When it 
was completed in 1956, the Gorgosaurus 
reconstruction became the world's first 
self-supporting dinosaur skeleton. (Its 
iron supports are within the bones. ) 

Gilpin considers the Edaphasaurus 
skeleton in hall 38 his greatest chal- 
lenge. "The restoration went well," he 
says. "The challenge of this project was 
the actual mounting." Iron bars had to 
be inserted through the reptile's back- 
bones, and each bone on the spine had to 
be drilled and fitted with a piece of iron. 
Gilpin describes the project as one of 
trial and error. If an iron rod didn't fit, 
it had to be pulled out and tried again, 
like a three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle. 

Preparator Orville Gilpin (rt.) and Curator William D. Turnbull put finishing 
touches on fossil skeleton of Lambeosaurus, now on view in Stanley Field Hall. 


John R. Millar in 1945, when he was on the staff of the Museum's Harris Public 
School Extension. 

October Members' Nights 

Field Museum's traditional Members' 
Nights, which had been scheduled for 
October 6 and 7, have been postponed 
to spring, 1978. The postponement is 
deemed necessary because many of the 
areas in the curatorial departments will 
be in the midst of renovation, making 
the accommodation of large numbers of 
visitors difficult or impossible. How- 
ever, by spring. 1978. enough of the 
renovation work will be completed so 
that the customarily large Members' 
Night crowds can be easily accommo- 

John R. Millar 
Retired Deputy Director 

John R. Millar, who served Field Mu- 
seum for half a century, died in Chicago 
May 8, at the age of 78. He had been 
living for several years in Florida and 
was visiting in Chicago at the time of his 

He joined the Museum in 1918 as a 
boy just out of high school and retired 
in 1968. During his career, Millar held 
the positions of preparator. Depart- 

ment of Bdtany; curator of the Harris 
Public School Extension |an educational 
division of the Museum); chief curator 
of the Department of Botany: chair- 
man. Department of Exhibition; and 
deputy director of the Museum. 

In his position as preparator in the 
botany department he took part in a 
number of collecting expeditions in- 
cluding the Southern Florida Expedi- 
tion of 1918-19; the 1922 Stanley Field 
Expedition to then British Guiana: 
the 1926 Captain Marshall Field Brazi- 
lian Expedition; and the 1938 Sewell 
Avery Expedition to Nova Scotia, of 
which he was the leader. 

Almost as soon as he joined the 
Museum Millar became involved in its 
move from the original structure in 
Jackson Park to the present Museum 
building at Roosevelt Road and Lake 
Shore Drive. He directed several mov- 
ing gangs and "accomplished the job 
easily and comfortably by using roller 

E. Leland Webber, president of 
Field Museum, observed that "Millar 
was among the leading staff members in 
the Museum's history, since he carried 
major responsibilities in more areas of 
the Museum than any other person be- 
fore or since." 

Ralph Gordon Johnson, 
Research Associate 

The recent death of Ralph Johnson was 
a profound loss to the scientific commu- 
nity at large and in particular to the 
Field Museum, where he had been a 
research associate since 1962. He was 
also professor of paleontology and chair- 
man of the Department of Geophysical 
Sciences at the University of Chicago. 
Johnson's work with Eugene S. Richard- 
son, curator of fossil invertebrates at 
Field Museum, was concerned with the 
coal age fossils of Mazon Creek, in 
Grundy County, Illinois. 

Johnson was one of the prime moti- 
vating forces in Mazon Creek studies 
since he first teamed up with 
Richardson. That collaboration, begun 
in 1966, produced the now classic paper 
which first formally delineated the 
differences between the Essex and 
Braidwood faunas of the Mazon Creek 

His associations with Field Mu- 
seum reflect a life-long interest in natu- 
ral history. Born in Oak Park, Illinois, 
in 1927. some of his early contacts with 
wildlife came from association with 
Henry Dybas. Field Museum's curator 
of insects. A childhood interest in rep- 
tiles culminated in a Ph.D. thesis, in 
1954, on venomous snakes, at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, under the direction 
of the Museum's famed herpetologist 
Karl P. Schmidt. 

Johnson's professional associa- 
tion with the University of Chicago 
began in the early fifties, when he was 
asked to temporarily teach inverteb- 
rate paleontology: he stayed on for the 
rest of his life. His interest in inverteb- 
rate biology began in 1955, when he 
spent a summer at the Pacific Marine 
Station in California. Ever mindful of 
the dictum "the present is the key to 
the past," Johnson constantly strove 
to relate his findings in living biological 
communities to fossil ones. He became a 
contributor to one of the first compen- 
diums on paleoecology, and is acknow- 
ledged as a pioneer in this field. Later he 
worked with the Marine Biological 
Laboratory in Woods Hole, Mass. 
Johnson was editor of the journal Evo- 
lution from 1966 to 1970 and a cofound- 
er and an editor of Paleobiology . He was 
also a trustee of the Shedd Aquarium. 

—Frederick R. Schramm 


Lakeside daisy 
^Actinea herbacea^ 

Des Plaines con't from p. 13 

and Ship Canal was completed. Its course was cut deep 
into the bedrock of the valley, and piles of excavated 
earth and rock 70 feet high paralleled the new waterway 
down the center of the valley. In the 1930s the new chan- 
nel was lengthened and otherwise improved to accommo- 
date barge traffic. 

The ready availability of rail and water transporta- 
tion attracted industry to the valley. Oil refineries, elec- 
tric generating plants, and quarrying and gravel opera- 
tions soon turned the valley from a carpet of prairie and 
marsh to a mosaic of natural areas interspersed with 

Despite the coming of industry to the valley in recent 
decades, much of the remaining land has remained as it 
was in the time of Louis JoUiet. While most of the deep- 
soil prairies in Illinois were quickly converted into farm- 
land, the shallow-soil, boulder-strewn bottomlands of the 
Des Plaines Valley were spared. The valley was also sub- 

ject to flooding as well as drought, making crop farming 
there a risky or impractical enterprise. The most common 
agricultural use was as pastureland. 

What has now created fresh interest in this segment 
of the Des Plaines Valley is the discovery there of plants 
once thought to be extinct in Illinois. Among these is the 
leafy prairie clover (Petalostemum foliosum) which, until 
1974, had not been seen in the state for more than 70 
years. In the past three years, however, it has been dis- 
covered in three separate locations in the Des Plaines 
Valley— all tiny colonies within four miles of one another. 
Another recent find in the valley is prairie satin grass 
{Muhlenbergia cuspidata), unique to dry calcareous 
prairie soils. The discovery of these two species means 
more than just restoring two plant names to a list of Illi- 
nois flora; it means that the type of habitat capable of 
supporting these two specialized prairie plants has man- 
aged to retain its integrity during a century and a half of 
human settlement and disruption. 

Research on the leafy prairie clover and satin grass 


suggests that they have adapted themselves to an unusu- 
al set of environmental conditions that the Des Plaines 
Valley can fulfill: but the exact reasons for survival here 
of these plants remain unclear. If we wish to speculate, 
however, a possible reason is that competition between 
plants in the shallow-soil valley may not be as great as on 
deep-soil prairies. Also, the high calcium concentration in 
the soil may inhibit the growth of nonadapted species, 
thus giving an advantage to those that are adapted. 

The leafy prairie clover was formerly found in major 
river valleys in four northern Illinois counties. Today it is 
known to occur only in southern United States and in 
Illinois near Romeoville. In the Southeast it is found only 
in the limestone glades of central Tennessee and northern 
Alabama, where its habitats are gradually disappearing. 

Prairie satin grass is usually found on the dry west- 
ern prairies. Its rediscovery on the Des Plaines prairies in 
Will County is its first sighting in Illinois in 60 years. It 
is not known to occur anywhere further east. 

Two rare, but possible residents of this same section 
of Des Plaines Valley prairie are the lakeside daisy (Ac- 
tinea herbacea) and Tennessee milk vetch (Astragalus 
tennesseensis). The lakeside daisy has been found in only 
four limited regions of the world, one of them being the 
Des Plaines Valley south of Joliet. Botanists are thus 
optimistic about its also being present in the valley sector 
north of that city. The Tennessee milk vetch, also a calci- 
phile and a close associate of the leafy prairie clover, was 
known to formerly occur in the Des Plaines Valley. It has 
recently been found in a similar habitat in western Illi- 

The ecological importance of the Des Plaines Valley 
is not just that of a refuge for a few rare wild plants. Its 
significance is that of a natural community that still has 
all of its dynamic characteristics intact, and thus is able 
to provide the proper environment for the rare plants 
mentioned here as well as for 150 other prairie species. 

Though much open space remains in the Des Plaines 
Valley, not all of it contains prime natural areas. Exactly 
how much land falls into this category is to be determined 
by an lUinois Natural Areas Inventory (INAI) survey, the 
results of which will be made available to interested or- 
ganizations. (For more on the INAI surveys, see June 
1917 Bulletin, p. 18.) 

Old quarries, now filled with water, support diverse 
populations of aquatic insects and other invertebrates. 
These provide excellent outdoor laboratories for studying 
the dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. Biology classes at 
Lewis University, of Lockport, have used the quarries 
in this way for several years. 

Several groups are currently working to preserve 
various parts of the valley. Open Lands Project is coordi- 
nating efforts to obtain long-term preservation of the val- 
ley's prairie areas. Another group called Save the Valley 
is trying to preserve portions of the valley west of the 

Leafy prairie clover ^Petalostemum foliosum^ 

town of Lemont. Where the valley passes through Cook 
and Du Page Counties, the forest preserve districts of 
these counties have acquired large tracts of land within 
and adjacent to the valley. D 





New Proposed Injurious 
Wildlife Regulations 

The Interior Department's U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service has recently pro- 
posed wildlife importation regulations 
which would streamline and clarify the 
present regulations governing injurious 
wildlife. The proposal also would add a 
number of forms of fish and wildlife to 
the present list of injurious wildlife that 
may be imported only under permit 
issued by the Secretary of the Interior 
for scientific, educational, zoological, or 
medical purposes. 

The Service proposes to add a num- 

ber of additional high-risk species to the 
1900 Lacey Act restrictions on wild- 
life imports without otherwise changing 
the concept of the present regulations. 
These new proposed regulations will 
result in increased protection to human 
beings, to the interest of agriculture, 
horticulture, forestry, wildUfe, or to the 
wildhfe resources of the United States. 
A number of venomous snakes, sting- 
rays, piranhas, vampire bats, and the 
like are included on the new list. 

The proposed regulations do not 
involve a complete ban or prohibition on 
the importation of any species. How- 
ever, they attempt to ensure that crea- 
tures which pose a threat are imported 
only by responsible people for justi- 
fiable purposes. Economically, on a 
national basis, the overall effect of these 
proposed regulations is expected to be 
insignificant. If implemented as pro- 
posed, these regulations would affect 
those people who have previously im- 
ported species of wildUfe on the so- 
called "dirty list" for purposes for 
which permits cannot be issued. 

The proposal would add the follow- 
ing species to the existing hst of injur- 
ious wildhfe for the reasons assigned: 

• Vampire bats feed only on fresh blood 
lapped from wounds inflicted on warm- 
blooded vertebrates including domestic 
mammals and man. They are carriers 
and transmitters of rabies. 

• Ferrets, stoats, and weasels have been 
destructive to native wildlife where they 
have been introduced deliberately or 

• Bulbuls are gregarious birds that 
feed on fruit, berries, and insects. Two 
species are estabhshed in the United 
States, and other species could become 

• Starlings and mynahs listed in the 
proposal are gregarious, aggressive, and 
omnivorous. Species of these birds have 
demonstrated an ease of colonization 
and have been introduced widely 
throughout the world. Four species are 
estabhshed in the United States and 

• The Japanese white-eye — a small 
bird— is estabhshed in Hawaii, where 
it appears to compete with native 
species for food. It readily colonizes new 
habitats and would compete with many 
continental species if established. 

• The African clawed frog, established 
in southern California, feeds on almost 

aU other forms of aquatic animals, and 
not only competes with but preys on 
native amphibians. 

'The giant toad, already established in 
the United States, competes with and 
preys on other wildhfe species. 

All the snakes listed, such as pit 
vipers and cobras, are venomous and 
can inflict serious, even fatal, bites on 
humans. Some species listed are fre- 
quently imported and may be sold to 
persons unaware of the danger involved. 
There are 50 species of fish included on 
the list. They are either parasitic, veno- 
mous, electric, large agressive preda- 
tors, or superior competitors and would 
be detrimental if introduced into U.S. 
waters. There are presently no known 
safe and efficient means for control of 
these fish if they become estabhshed. 

The Boundary Waters Canoe Area: 

A Wilderness Ecosystem 

in Need of Protection 

The Boundary Waters Canoe Area 
(BWCA) in northeasternmost Minnesota 
is larger than all other designated 
wilderness areas in the eastern United 
States combined— yet it isn't totally 
protected. A special provision of the 
Wilderness Act stipulates that "...the 
management of the Boundary Waters 
Canoe Area ... shall be in accordance 
with regulations established by the 
Secretary of Agriculture with the gene- 
ral purpose of maintaining, without un- 
necessary restrictions on other uses, 
including that of timber, the primitive 
character of the area..." 

This provision— with its double 
negative, "without unnecessary re- 
strictions"— has been the basis for 
controversy since the Wilderness Act 
was passed in 1964. The U.S. Forest 
Service has interpreted the provision to 
mean that logging is permissible, and it 
has allowed timbering in large portions 
of the virgin forest along the southern 
part of the area. Conservationists, on 
the other hand, claim that the intent 
and spirit of the Wilderness Act re- 
quires that the virgin forest be pro- 
tected and preserved to "maintain the 
primitive character" of the land. 

The virgin forest ecosystem of the 
BWCA, with its associated lakes and 
wetlands, has developed over thou- 


sands of years in response to the cli- 
mate, physical setting, and the inter- 
actions of wildlife and other ecosystem 
components including such natural 
disturbances as wildfire and windstorm. 
More than a million acres in size, 
the BWCA contains vast acreages of 
virgin forest over half of its lands. The 
other half has been logged, beginning 
in the late 1800s and continuing through 

This activity has left its mark. 
While much of the area of early logging 
has partially recovered by natural 
reforestation and in a few more decades 
will have at least a resemblance to 
virgin forest, timbering in the modern 
style, with rock-raking, herbiciding, 
pine-planting, and the construction of 
gravel roads, has left a more permanent 

The region is a popular recreational 
area because of the myriad of inter- 
connecting lakes and streams, most of 
them accessible only by canoe. Visitor 
use has increased by about 10 percent 
per year since 1972, and restrictions are 
now necessary at the more popular 
entry points. Use also has extended 
into the back country away from water- 
ways via foot trials. Thus, the present 
policy of preserving only the forest 
fringes visible from lakes and streams 
in nearly half of the area is an unsatis- 
factory compromise in the eyes of many 

Over a period of time the shifting 
mosaic of the virgin forests in the bwca 
has created diverse and unique habitats 
suited to a wide variety of wildlife. The 
primeval forest was not a vast area of 
mature climax forest, but a composite 
of many successional stages following 
natural disturbances such as fire, wind- 
storm, and insect infestation. Moose, 
beaver, and ruffed grouse favor areas 
of young growth of birch, aspen, and 
the other hardwoods that sprout after 
fires. Bear are also common in such 
regions, because of the prevalance of 
berries in open areas. All of these spe- 
cies shifted their populations from 
place to place, following fires, utilizing 
the early post-fire vegetational stages 
as feeding areas. In the mature forests 
of pine, spruce, and fir, woodland cari- 
bou were found in association with 
ground and tree lichens, although even 
these animals used the open areas of 
recently burned regions for certain 

habitat needs. 

While the white-tailed deer was not 
common in the primeval forests of the 
BWC.-^ (its range was primarily confined 
to the mixed hardwood forests of cent- 
ral Minnesota and the prairie border to 
the west and south), other species such 
as the pine marten, fisher, squirrel, 
spruce grouse, pileated woodpecker, and 
a variety of warblers were frequently 
found in patches of older forests. And 
the eastern timber wolf was a major 
predator throughout the region. 

As man's encroachment continued 
into the BWCA in the 1890s, however, 
major changes in the natural patterns 
of vegetation and wildlife unsued. While 
logging opened up areas of browse and 
created a diversity of habitat, it in no 
way duplicated the processes of natural 
forces such as fire and windstorm. 
Proponents of wilderness protection 
argue that by permitting the burning 
of natural fires under carefully moni- 
tored conditions, equally diverse habi- 
tat areas can be created and the natural 
mix of wildlife found within the BWCA 
forest ecosystem maintained— all in 
keeping with the wilderness philosophy. 

Attempts to preserve the remaining 
virgin forest in northeastern Minnesota 
and to restore some of the cutover land 
date back to the 1920s. The bwca was 
incorporated into the National Wilder- 
ness Preservation System in 1964 with 
passage of the Wilderness Act. which 
designated for protection areas "where 
the earth and its community of life are 
untrammeled by man. where man him- 
self is visitor who does not remain... 
retaining its primeval character... 
managed to preserve its natural condi- 
tions. ..where the imprint of man's work 
is substantially unnoticeable." 

To many, however, it is question- 
able whether the Forest Service, by 
permitting logging and mechanized 
travel in portions of the bwca, is up- 
holding the philosophy upon which the 
Wilderness Act was created. They argue 
that the natural balance between physi- 
cal factors, such as weather and fire, 
and biological factors, which involve 
the entire mosaic of vegetation types 
as well as the associated wildlife, must 
be restored if the BWC.^ is to remain a 
true wilderness system. As an alter- 
native, they propose that the vast 
acreages of the Superior National 
Forest outside of the BWCA be managed 

for intensive game production, commer- 
cial logging, and motorized recreation. 

Debate over management of the 
bwca wilderness was brought to a head 
in 1972 when the Minnesota Pubhc 
Interest Research Group (MPiRGi filed 
a lawsuit arguing that under the 
National Environmental Policy Act of 
1970 (NEPAi, an environmental impact 
statement was required before timber- 
ing activities could be continued in the 
bwca. The case was successful and an 
impact statement was issued. A year 
later, MPIRG, joined by the Sierra Club, 
renewed the suit on two counts: first, 
that the statement was incomplete, and 
second, that the logging activities 
themselves were prohibited under the 
spirit of the Wilderness Act. The suit 
(MPIRG vs. Butzi was successful in the 
district court, and Judge Miles Lord 
halted logging in almost all of the virgin 
forest areas of the BWCA. The decision, 
however, was overruled by the 8th 
Circuit Court of Appeals last summer, 
and the timber cutting that had been 
enjoined for 3'/2 years again became 
possible. While commercial loggers have 
voluntarily agreed to delay cutting of 
virgin timber under an agreement 
established by Rep. James L. Oberstar 
(Minn.), the Supreme Court recently 
turned down a request to review the 
lower court decision: thus, logging is 
expected to resume once the six-month 
moratorium expires September 15. 

With the ultimate resolution of this 
matter still uncertain, a legislative 
initiative has been taken up in Con- 
gress. Congressmen Oberstar and 
Donald M. Fraser, also of Minnesota, 
have introduced bills which address the 
issue of wilderness preservation. Under 
Rep. Oberstar's bill, a large portion of 
the virgin forest in the BWCA would 
remain in the wilderness system. The 
remaining 40 percent of the wilderness 
would be designated as a national re- 
creation area, subject to timbering as 
well as mechanized recreation. In con- 
trast. Rep. Fraser's bill offers . complete 
wilderness protection under the same 
standards that apply to other units of 
the federal wilderness system— HE. 
Wright. Jr., courtesy Conservation 
News. The author is a professor of 
geology and ecology at the Univer- 
sity of Minnesota and sponsor of the 
Friends of the Boundary Waters 


July and August at Field Museum 

(July 15 through September 15) 

Special Exhibits 

Treasures of Tutankhamun — through August 15. This 
exhibit, on loan from the Egyptian government, features a dazzling 
display of 55 of the most beautiful and best-preserved objects 
from the tomb of the pharaoh who lived 3,300 years ago. Among 
these are the startling golden effigy of Tutankhamun, the graceful 
gilt statuette of the goddess Selket, a gilded figure of the young 
pharaoh harpooning, and a small gold shrine of exquisite crafts- 
manship. The exhibit also includes superb examples of Tutankha- 
mun's funerary jewelry, furniture, writing materials, musical instru- 
ments, games, and decorative objects of alabaster and ivory. 
(Cosponsored by the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.) 
Monday through Wednesday, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.; Thursday through 
Sunday, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. For information on Tutankhamun 
exhibit call 922-5910. 

The Magic of Egyptian Art - through August 15. A supple 
mentary exhibit at the Oriental Institute, 1155 East 58th Street, 
runs concurrently with the Tutankhamun exhibit at Field Museum 
It features artifacts from the Oriental Institute's permanent collec 
tion, including objects used in the actual embalming of Tutank 
hamun and at his funerary banquet. Tuesday through Sunday 
10 a.m. to 4 p.m.; Sunday. 12 a.m. to 4 p.m. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit takes a global view of 
some of the most serious environmental problems confronting all 
mankind and asks visitors to involve themselves in these problems 
— and the need for solution. Hall 18, main floor. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. This fascinating 
game/exhibit of 39 artifacts lets you play anthropologist. Look at 
the artifacts and decide whether they were used by men or 
women. Discover that economic and social roles of men and 
women are not universally the same. Game scorecards are avail- 
able. Elevator lobby, ground floor. 

Continuing Programs 

Audio Information System. The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide, enables visitors of all ages to visit up to 50 
selected exhibits in any sequence they choose. Complete with 
background music, sound effects, and factual information supplied 
by the museum's scientific and education staff, this system pro- 
vides an entertaining as well as educational experience. Specially 
designed audio receivers and maps are available for a nominal fee 
at the entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor. 

Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds. Opens July 
12. An exhibit of exquisite bird paintings appearing in the recently 
published Manual of Neotropical Birds (University of 
Chicago Press), Vol. I, by Emmet R. Blake, emeritus curator of 
birds. Hall K, ground floor. (For more on these paintings see p. 4) 

Summer Journey for Children: Spelunking — through 
August 31. Self-guided tour for children (with or without parents) 
leads them to exhibits that exemplify the geology and biology of 
caves. The Journey poses numerous questions about caves. 
Among them are: in what type of rock are caves found? How do 
cave environments differ from others? What animals live in caves? 
Journey; sheets are available at the information booth, main floor. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Saturdays and Sundays, 
10 a.m. to 3 p.m.: take tours, follow demonstrations, participate in 
museum-related activities. 

Continuing Exhibits 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to feel, 
try on, handle, sort, and compare natural history artifacts and 
specimens. The possibilities are endless — and so are the chances 
to ask questions and get answers. (Trained volunteers are on 
hand to help and guide in exploration.) Opens promptly; week- 
days, 1 p.m. and 2 p.m.; weekends, 10 a.m., 11 a.m., 1 p.m., 2 p.m., 
and 3 p.m. Located near the new cafeteria, ground floor. 

Museum Hours Now Through August 15 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m., closes at 6 p.m. Monday 
through Wednesday and 9 p.m. Thursday through Sunday. On 
Fridays, year-round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: 922 9410 
Tutankhamun Information: 922 5910 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 


September 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 8 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff Levi-Setti 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


Blaine J. Yarrington. chain 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Roberto. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
WiUiam G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
JohnT. Pirie. Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John G . Searle 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 


3 Field Briefs 

4 Silver Anniversary for Bushman 

Chicago's famed gorilla came to Field Museum in 1952 

7 Gorillas in Captivity 

By William E. McCarthy 

10 Cannibals, Catalogs & Computers 

The AIMS project at Field Museum 

By Lenore Sarasan, Marilyn J. Miller, and members of 

the Department of Anthropology 

14 In Search of Meteorites 

Account of recent field trip to the Southwest 
By Paul Sipiera 

18 Members' Children's Workshops 

20 Our Environment 

back September and October at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 


This poster advertising use of Chicago's Rapid Transit to 
visit Field Museum dates from the late 1920s or early 1930s. 
The representation of a Hopi Indian bride is based on a figure 
in the "Hopi Apartment" exhibit in Hall 7. The artist was 
Rocco D. Navigate, of Chicago, who died in 1962. 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin sxibscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. II. 60606. ISSN: 0015-0703. 


Grants Totaling $129,500 
Awarded to Field Museum 

Five grants totaling $129,500 have been 
awarded to Field Museum for a wide 
range of new and continuing research, 
education, and preservation programs. 
Continued support in the amount of 
$40,000 has been received from the 
National Science Foundation (NSF) for 
Floristics of Veracruz. This project — 
producing detailed systematics and 
ecological accounts of the plants of 
Veracruz— is a cooperative, interna- 
tional effort involving botanists at Field 
Museum and the Institute de Investi- 
gaciones Sobre Recursos Bioticos of 
Mexico. The pilot project is exphcitly 
designed for the comprehensive treat- 
ment of all plants of Mexico. 

An NSF grant of $33,400, for con- 
tinued support of the project entitled 
Care and Use of Systematic Collections 
of Fishes, is earmarked for employing 
additional personnel to reorganize the 
1.3 million fish specimens in the mu- 
seum's collection. An additional 130,000 
specimens — some dating back to the 
1890s — need to be identified, cataloged, 
and shelved. Part of the curatorial sup- 
port money will go for a 50 percent 
expansion of storage areas. 

The museum has also been awarded 
$28,100 from NSF for continued sup- 
port of Flora of Costa Rica. The mu- 
seum's Department of Botany has had a 
major interest in the plant life of Central 
America, and has perhaps the world's 
largest collection of plant specimens 
from that area. Through this grant, 
native and naturalized plants of Costa 
Rica are being inventoried to produce 

an encyclopedic botanical reference 
for use by scientists in related fields. 

A grant of $25,000 from the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts (NEA) 
will be used for development and design 
of a comprehensive system of informa- 
tion and directional signage for the 
museum's exterior and interior. The 
Museum has also been granted $3,000 
from NEA to support a Native Ameri- 
can arts festival to be held in conjunc- 
tion with new exhibits on Pawnee and 
Iroquois culture. 

Staff Appointments 

Larry Gene Marshall has joined the 
Department of Geology as visiting 
assistant curator of vertebrate paleon- 
tology. A major responsibility of 
Marshall's will be to organize the fossil 
mammal collection. Marshall obtained 
his Ph.D. in paleontology from the 
University of California in Berkeley. 

Ronald W. Turner has been appointed 
assistant curator and head. Division of 
Mammals. He will oversee the general 
administration of the division as well as 
participate in research and field work. 
He earned his Ph.D. in ecology and 
systematics from the University of 
Kansas. Turner was an associate in 
mammals at the Museum of Natural 
History at the University of Kansas and 
has worked with the United Nations 
World Health Organization. 

Linton Pitluga has joined the Depart- 
ment of Education as group resource 
coordinator, and will be responsible for 
marketing education programs to 
organized groups. He most recently 
served as director of the Cernan Space 
Center, River Grove, 11. Pitluga has an 
M.S. in science education from the State 
University of New York, Oswego. 

Rick Shannon has been named exhibit 
designer. Department of Exhibition. He 
has designed model classrooms for the 
Cincinnati Department of Education 
and holds a B.S. in industrial design 
from the University of Cincinnati. 

William J. Maurer is the new assis- 
tant development officer. Department 
of Planning and Development. He was 
most recently director of coorporate 
and foundation relations at the Chicago 
College of Osteopathic Medicine. 
Marshall holds a B.A. in history from 
Loyola (Chicago) University. 

Trustees Named 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour, Robert O. 
Bass, and Edward R. Telling have been 
elected to five-year terms on the Board 
of Trustees of Field Museum. Donald 
Richards has been elected a life trustee. 

Mrs. Armour, of Lake Forest, is 
corresponding secretary of the Women's 
Board of Field Museum and has been a 
museum volunteer since 1974. Robert O. 
Bass, of Chicago, is president and chief 
operating officer of Borg-Warner Cor- 
poration. He also serves as a director of 
SCM Corporation, Raymond Corpora-- 
tion, and Illinois Manufacturers' Asso- 

Cdward R. TelUng, of Northbrook, 
is senior executive vice president-field 
of Sears, Roebuck and Company and is 
a director of Allstate Insurance Com- 
panies, Homart Development Company, 
and American Can Company. Donald 
Richards, of Miami Beach, Fla., is a 
benefactor of Field Museum and, in 
1946, founded the Donald Richards 
Bryological Fund, which supports 
the collection and study of mosses and 
related plants at Field Museum. 

Ayer Film-Lecture Series 

The ever-popular Edward E. Ayer film 
lecture series resumes October 1, with a 
new program featured each Saturday 
through November 26. The nine pro- 
grams will be presented in the newly 
renovated James Simpson Theatre and 
start at 2:30 p.m. (seating begins at 
1:45). Each program lasts about 90 
minutes and is recommended for adults. 

Access to the theatre is easiest by 
way of the new ground level west en- 
trance. The west entrance provides 
free admission to the theatre: however, 
access to the rest of the Museum 
requires the regular fee or membership 
identification. Reserved seating is avail- 
able for members and their immediate 

The October programs include 
"Switzerland Today," October 1; 
"Colorado," October 8; "Northwestern 
Adventure— Idaho, Oregon, Washing- 
ton," October 15; "A New Norway," 
October 22; and "Ceylon — the Magic 
Island," October 29. A complete listing 
of the series programs will appear in 
the October and November Bulletins. D 

Silver Anniversary for Bushman 

After nearly a lifetime at 
Lincoln Park Zoo, the celebrated 
gorilla came to Field Museum, 
where he has continued to draw 
crowds for a quarter century 

One of the perennially popular exhibits at Field Museum 
is Bushman, the magnificent specimen of lowland gorilla 
who has been in view there since 1952. After spending 
nearly all his life at Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, Bush- 
man died on New Year's Day, 1951, at the age of 23. In 
life, he had been viewed by an estimated three million 
visitors a year, and his enormous popularity convinced 
officials that the presentation of Bushman at Field Mu- 
seum would continue to serve an invaluable educative 

Thus, in 1952, Bushman took up permanent residence 
at Field Museum, where he may now be seen in the Anni- 
versary Exhibit (Hall 3). At the time of his installation 
Colin Campbell Sanborn, then curator of mammals, wrote 
the following piece on Bushman for the Bulletin.* 

Bushman of Lincoln Park Zoo, who died a year ago, 
has been mounted for permanent preservation at Field 
Museum and placed on exhibition. He thus is in the 
unique position of becoming his own monument. This 
makes pertinent some observations on the subject of 
gorillas in general. 

PubHshed references to gorillas based mainly on stor- 
ies of natives appeared as long ago as 1625. The gorilla 
was not again mentioned until 1819, and it was not until 
1847 that any actual specimens came to the hands of sci- 

It was in that year that Thomas S. Savage, an Ameri- 
can missionary returning from Africa, stopped at the 
Gaboon River with the missionary stationed there, Rev. 
J. L. Wilson, who showed him the skull of a gorilla. Dr. 
Savage, being familiar with the chimpanzee, recognized 
the skull as that of a new animal and with Rev. Wilson's 
help secured four skulls and some bones of the animal. 
Dr. Savage and Dr. Jeffries Wyman, Hersey Professor of 
Anatomy in Harvard University, studied this material 
and gave the world the first description of the animal, 
which they named Troglodytes gorilla. The name gorilla 
was taken from the account of Hanno, who in his account 

Bushman as he appears today at Field Museum. 

*Excerpted from "Zoo's Famous 'Bushman' Becomes Own 
Monument,' by Colin Campbell Sanborn, which appeared in 
Chicago Natural History Museum Bulletin, January, 1952, 
p. 5. 

of the Carthaginian explorations, described "wild men" 
found on the coast of Africa. 

Since the original discovery, and with the further ex- 
ploration of Africa, no less than seventeen other supposed 
types of gorillas have been described, each one from a 
new locality being thoughi to be different. However, with 
a greater amount of material available for comparison, 
the supposed distinguishing characters proved to be 
merely normal variation in the species. Today only two 
kinds of gorillas are recognized — the coast gorilla, Gorilla 
gorilla gorilla Savage and Wyman, and the mountain 
gorilla. Gorilla gorilla beringei Matschie. 

The coast gorilla is found in that part of West Africa 
known as the Cameroons and French Equatorial Africa. 
The mountain gorilla Uves in a narrow strip of highland 
forest, usually about 7,000 feet above sea level, in the 
eastern Belgian Congo. 

Both gorillas are large animals, old males standing 
about six feet and in the wild weighing 350 pounds or 
more. The girth of the great chest is 63 to 64 inches, or 
more than five feet. The powerful arms have a girth of 18 
inches and a length of 34 inches and the distance from 
fingertip to fingertip is about eight feet. The mountain 
gorilla differs from the coast gorilla by its longer and 
thicker coat, which is darker in color, by the presence of a 
beard, by a callosity on top of its head, and by its shorter 
arms and longer legs. 

The first white man to shoot a gorilla was the well 
known French-American author, Paul du Chaillu, who 
went to West Africa in 1855. His highly colored account, 
for which the publishers are to be blamed, continued 
many of the myths by which public interest had been cap- 
tured. In spite of all that has been published since, it is 
still believed by many that the gorilla walks upright, lives 
in trees, attacks hunters, and carries off women. The lat- 
ter story is still being used by motion-picture producers 
to this day. Perhaps it is fortunate that they do not know 
the Malay story about attractive young Malay men being 
kidnapped and carried to their treetop nests by older fe- 
male orangs. 

It has been well established that the gorilla is a ter- 
restrial mammal. It may rise on its hind legs, apparently 
in order to look over the top of bushes, but it does not 
travel in this erect posture. It moves on all fours, the 
arms resting on the knuckles of the hands, not flat on the 
palm. A study of the structure of the gorilla shows that it 
is not built to walk in an upright position. 

The gorilla may ascend a leaning tree, but it does not 
climb nor does it travel from tree to tree by swinging from 
its arms. Its bed, also, is made on the ground and is never 
a nest of sticks in trees as so often described. The animal 
turns about to make a hollow in the ground and pulls into 
it for a bed such leaves, sticks, or vines as may be on the 
forest floor. New nests are made each night. 

Gorillas associate in family groups composed of 

males, females, and young, with as many as twenty-five 
individuals living together. There are conflicting stories 
by reliable observers concerning their reaction to the 
presence of man in their immediate vicinity. The rule ap- 
pears to be that when approached the group will move off, 
but if followed, old males will show more or less fight, 
depending on the individual. In other words, offered 
enough provocation a gorilla will make some show of de- 
fiance, barking, beating its chest, and even charging to 
within a certain distance of its pursuer. . . . 

It is certain that gorillas need special and individual 
care and grow and thrive when this is provided. The late 
Bushman of Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago is an outstand- 
ing example. His birth is estimated at January, 1928, and 
he was received by the zoo in August, 1930. He died on 
January 1, 1951, at the approximate age of 23 years. This 

Young Bushman with his keeper Eddie Robinson. From the 
time he arrived at Lincoln Park Zoo in 1930 until his death on 
New Year's Day, 1951, Bushman was cared for by Robinson. 

Chicago Park District 

is close to the record age for a gorilla, but chimpanzees 
and orangutans have li\ ed in zoos for slightly more than 
26 years. 

Bushman was a coast gorilla from the French Cam- 
eroon, raised from a baby by Dr. W. C. Johnson, a mis- 
sionary at Yaounde. He was acquired by Jules L. Buck, 
animal collector, and sold to Lincoln Park Zoo for $3,500 
in 1930, at which time he weighed but 38 pounds. Keeper 
Eddie Robinson, by his love, understanding care, and 
firm hand, raised Bushman to his prime when he stood 6 
feet 2 inches, weighed 565 pounds, was valued at from 
$125,000 to $250,000, and was voted by the American 
Association of Zoological Parks and Aquariums "the 
most outstanding and most valuable single animal of its 
kind in any zoo in the world." This is an achievement and 
sets a record that will long stand. 

Bushman was not given special training or taught 
tricks. Neither was he subjected to psychological studies. 
Keeper Robinson took Bushman outside for exercise at 
the end of a 75-foot rope nearly every morning for four 
and a half years. Wrestling, racing, and football were 
sports at which Bushman became adept, but he was never 
offered a place on any team. He was always obedient and 

as gentle as a six-year-old 170-pound gorilla could be ex- 
pected to be. The time soon came, however, when Bush- 
man did not want to return to his cage. A slap in the face 
from Robinson caused him to dash for the monkey-house 
and across the basement, dragging Robinson with him. 
After some petting he returned to his cage, which he was 
never allowed to leave again. 

He still obeyed Robinson's commands, would sit on 
his chair, which was on scales so that a record of his 
weight could be kept. He liked to be fed by hand through 
the bars and at no time became ill-tempered or vicious. 

His personality appealed to the pubhc and an esti- 
mated three miUion people came to see him every year. 
News of his first serious illness in 1950 brought 120,000 
sympathizers in one day to call on him. His only fears 
were of snakes, turtles, and crocodiles. 

On his death the Chicago Park District presented 
him to Field Museum where he was preserved for poster- 
ity in a lifelike position by staff taxidermists Leon L. 
Walters and Frank C. Wonder, and artist Joseph B. 
Krstolich. For a month he was returned to the monkey 
house, a part of which was dedicated with fitting cere- 
monies on October 19 as Bushman Hall. . . . 

Bushman "shoots" former Lincoln Park Zoo Director Alfred E. Parker. 

Chicago Park District 


Snowflake. the only known albino gorilla, now in the Barcelona, Spain, zoo. 

United Press International 

Gorillas in Captivity 

By William E. McCarthy 

Seemingly content gorilla families are now enjoy- 
ing their own style of gracious living in Chicago's Lincoln 
Park Zoo's Great Ape House, opened in July of last year. 
Some of these gorillas — the last species of great apes to 
be scientifically described — will produce offspring for 
years to come, and could reach the ripe old age of 45 or 
even 50. 

But captive gorillas were not always so lucky, and 
their wild kindred in the African tropics continue to have 
a rather brief life expectancy. Both subspecies — the low- 

William E. McCarthy is a volunteer staff writer. 

land gorilla and the less frequently captured mountain 
gorilla— are now classified as endangered, and thus pro- 
tected—but they continue to face many external threats 
to their existence, and most die before reaching 20. 

The first gorilla to be seen in the United States ar- 
rived in Boston in 1898; it survived only a few days, how- 
ever. In 1911 a young female lowland gorilla from West 
Africa was brought to New York City's Zoological Park; 
she, too, died shortly after her arrival. This high mortal- 
ity was typical of the 20 or so gorillas imported into Eu- 
rope and the United States before 1914; 18 died within a 


A variety of factors contributed to the high death 

rate. Young gorillas have a better chance of surviving the 
shock of capture and displacement, but the gorilla mother 
as we might expect does not easily relinquish her young. 
It was commonplace in former times for collectors to ex- 
pedite matters by killing the mother; in the process, the 
young frequently suffered psychological as well as physi- 
cal trauma. 

An inadequate diet was also a serious problem; goril- 
las were given the same fruit diet as other apes, instead of 
the special selection of fresh fruits and vegetables that 
today's experts believed to be essential for their health. 
Consequently, many of the captive animals languished 
and died of malnutrition or outright starvation. 

If poor diet didn't kill them, there was a good chance 
that they would succumb to any one of a number of infec- 
tious diseases. Gorillas, especially the young, are highly 
susceptible to pulmonary ailments such as colds, pneu- 
monia, and tuberculosis. Yaws, which affects millions of 
humans in the tropics, attacks gorillas as well; and they 
are also prey to a variety of parasites, the most serious 
being a threadlike gastrointestinal nematode which is 
known only to attack gorillas. It is a more serious afflic- 
tion in captive gorillas than in wild ones. The emotional 
and constitutional upset that follows capture weakens 
the animal, and lowers its resistance to the parasite. 

To ease the shock of transition to captive life, an ac- 
climatization station was set up by the Barcelona, Spain, 
Zoo in Equatorial Guinea, on Africa's west coast. There, 
professionals built up the disease resistance of the young 
animals with vitamins, treated them for parasites, and 
gradually acquainted them with their not too distant 
relative. Homo sapiens. 

The most famous graduate of this station (closed in 
1969) is a male lowland gorilla named Snowflake, now in 
the Barcelona Zoo. Captured when about two years old, 
Snowflake is the world's only known white gorilla. (Un- 
like true albinos, his eyes are blue rather than pink.) 
Snowflake has adapted well to captivity— so well, in fact, 
that he has fathered a baby. 

Now THAT IT IS ILLEGAL to import gorillas into the 
United States, greater interest has been taken in breeding 
the captive animals; but this process — as is true with 
many animal species, be they mammal, bird, or reptile— 
is difficult to promote in the synthetic environment of a 
man-made enclosure. Not until 1956 were zookeepers able 
to satisfy the needs of gorillas to the extent that a baby 
was conceived and born in captivity. On December 22 of 
that year the first captive-born gorilla, Kolo, began life at 
the Columbus, Ohio, Zoo, after a gestation period of eight 
and a half months. Meanwhile, zookeepers have obviously 
learned something more about the ways of gorillas, for in 
the two decades since Kolo's birth about 130 have been 
born in captivity. 

Ron Testa 

Bronze life-size bust of gorilla by Carl Akeley. Better known for 
his taxidermy, Akeley mounted the two fighting bull elephants 
now on view in Stanley Field Hall. He served on the Field 
Museum staff from 1896 to 1909. 

While gorillas almost always have single births, a 
female in the Kansas City Zoo became pregnant with 
twins in 1974, but both were aborted. A rare case of live 
and healthy twins was recorded on May 3, 1967, in the 
Frankfurt, Germany, Zoo when a lowland gorilla named 
Makula gave birth to fraternal twins — both females. 

Ronald Nadler, a psychologist at the Yerkes Center 
for Primates in Atlanta, Georgia, believes that the key to 
breeding gorillas is social interaction with other members 
of the species. Primate specialists at various zoos have 
gradually come around to Nadler's way of thinking, and a 
few institutions, like Lincoln Park Zoo, have replaced the 
traditional barred, single-animal cages with large enclo- 
sures for family groups. 

Other institutions that now have such facilities in- 
clude Houston Zoological Gardens and Krefeld, West 
Germany, Zoo. Another will be Brookfield, Illinois, Zoo's 
Tropic World for Apes and Monkeys, now under con- 
struction. Lincoln Park's Great Ape House, which accom- 
modates orangutans and chimpanzees as well as gorillas, 
simulates the environment of a tropical rainforest, with 
artificial thundershowers occurring twice a day. 

Lincoln Park now has 18 gorillas, with three on loan 
(a male adult and two juveniles) to the London Zoo. The 
gorilla groupings are changed once or twice a year to 
enhance the likelihood of breeding success. The zoo's 
first captive-born gorilla was Kumba, born July 22, 1970. 
The most recent (the zoo's seventh) was born July 23, 

A Lincoln Park gorilla who has never mated is Sin- 
bad, acquired by the zoo in 1948 when about a year old. A 
solitary resident of the old primate house, Sinbad may be 
incapable of living peaceably with others of his species: 
When a female was placed in his cage as a potential mate, 
he attacked her; the keepers finally had to separate the 
animals by blasting them with water from a fire hose. 
Moving the unpredictable ape to a new environment 
would require sedation, but his keepers feel this would be 
dangerous, possibly fatal, for an animal of his age (30 
years) and weight (480 lbs). So Sinbad, the third oldest 
gorilla in captivity, has remained alone and celibate. 

The dean of captive gorillas in the United States is 
46-year-old Massa, a male lowland gorilla at the Philadel- 
phia Zoo who has been in this country since 1931. The 
oldest female is 39-year-old Carohne, in Central Park Zoo. 

The largest gorilla is believed to have been Mbongo, 
a lowland male who died at the San Diego Zoo in 1942. 
His authenticated weight was at least 645 lbs shortly be- 
fore his death. Unsubstantiated claims to the weight rec- 
ord include that of St. Louis Zoo's Phil, who reportedly 
weighed 776 lbs. With excessive weights now considered 
unhealthy (males in the wild rarely exceed 450 lbs), it is 
no longer fashionable to allow gorillas to grow much 

heavier than 550 lbs. Chicago's Bushman weighed 565 in 
April 1950, but he was 23 lbs lighter when he died eight 
months later. 

The total number of lowland gorillas now in captivity 
is estimated to be 450. (The International Zoo Yearbook, 
Vol. 17, lists 424 as of January 1, 1976, with a few zoos 
not reporting.) About 200 are males, 250 females. Only 
about 15 mountain gorillas are in captivity, 5 male, 10 
female. The only three of this subspecies in the United 
States are at the Oklahoma City Zoo, one being on loan 
from the Bronx Zoo and another on loan from the Tel 
Aviv Zoo. 

The purchase price most often mentioned for a gorilla 
today is $15,000, but this is a meaningless figure since 
gorillas can no longer be imported here. Although some 
nations continue to purchase gorillas from wild animal 
dealers, it is reassuring to note that even before these 
animals were classified as endangered, most U.S. zoos 
had informally agreed not to obtain them in this way; 
thus discouraging the slaughter of wild females. In the 
light of currently successful breeding programs, there is 
good reason to expect that the number of gorillas in 
captivity will continue to multiply, and that there will 
never be any future need to capture these animals in the 

Bronze bust of 
Bushman. The 
identity of the 
sculptor (the man 
in the photo?) and 
the present loca- 
tion of the fine 
bust are a 

Chicago Park District 


The AIMS Computerization Project at Field Museum 

By Lenore Sarasan, Marilyn J. 
Miller, and members of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. 

A COMPUTER HAS BECOME a highly valued member of 
Field Museum's Department of Anthropology. This July, 
staff anthropologists started moving more than 300,000 
archaeological and ethnological specimens— about 75 per- 
cent of the total anthropology collections— into a new 
modular storage area. With the help of computer pro- 
grams designed specifically for the purpose, the staff is 
making an inventory of every specimen moved. 

"This move is an enormous job, but it is giving us the 
chance to do the first comprehensive inventory of our col- 
lections since Field Museum was founded in 1893," says 
Joyce Korbecki, departmental assistant. "When we 
finish, we will have a new kind of catalog which will be of 
tremendous use, not only to us, but also to visiting scien- 
tists and the Museum's public, as well. We are really ex- 
cited by what the future holds." 

The new storage area, recently completed as part of 
Field Museum's current renovation program, will house 
anthropological specimens of all shapes, sizes, and de- 
scriptions. These artifacts, collected from all over the 
world since the Museum began, have been stored until 
now in rooms scattered throughout the institution. The 
present move brings them together for the first time in a 
modern, environmentally controlled, four-floor facility 
made possible by grants from the National Endowment 
for the Arts, the National Science Foundation, and the 
Museum's recent successful $25-Million Capital Cam- 
paign. Because of renovation activities throughout the 
building, most of the old anthropology storerooms must 
be vacated within the next 12 months. 

Phyllis Rabineau, custodian of the anthropology col- 
lections, explains that two winters ago the department 
began investigating inventory methods for the move. 
"We had wonderful help from many people in computer 
sciences at Illinois Institute of Technology, especially 
Charles Bauer, Peter Greene, and Richard Weiland. Com- 
puter science classes from IIT came here and during pilot 
moves experimented with describing specimens, which 

carry only their catalog numbers for identification. We 
examined every technique we could think of— note cards, 
punch cards, mark-sensitive pads and cards, and so forth 
— to gather information about the artifacts. All of us, 
however, soon realized that anthropology specimens are 
too varied, often too fantastic, to be described easily by 
just looking at them, even by our curators. We were 
forced to conclude that in order to move and inventory at 
the same time we had to have easy access to our catalog 
information at the time the specimens passed through 
our hands." 

"We faced a serious dilemma," recounts Korbecki. 
"The only way to achieve instant access to all our catalog 
material was to convert 78 cumbersome, handwritten 
ledgers to machine-readable form— an awesome task even 
without tight time restraints." A survey of available 
computer programs failed to turn up any efficient and 
economical way of entering data on so many specimens. 
The department faced the choice of abandoning the plan 
to do an inventory during the move or devising their own 
system of computerization. They decided to try to design 
their own system. 

Only five months before the move began, AIMS (An- 
thropology Information Management System) was born. 
Lenore Sarasan, systems analyst for AIMS, recalls the 
project's beginnings: "The first few weeks were not easy. 
The move was set to begin in less than five months and 
we needed to maximize the number of specimens we could 
enter data on per hour. We quickly realized that the job 
was too great to be accomplished using traditional data 
entry techniques so we had to develop an entirely differ- 
ent approach to data entry. The result is a set of pro- 

Lenore Sarasan is the systems analyst for the AIMS proj- 
ect; Marilyn J. Miller is a research writer and editor. 







: i.;' /:--~x fr, ^ 




Jfl^f .f>J~^ 

<*i/<«. / 






A Portion of a page of an 
anthropology catalog 
ledger treating specimens 
from the Indians of 
British Columbia. The 
double page is 14 V2 x 21 
inches and the catalog 
volume weighs 9 lbs. 
Seven ty-eigh t ledgers 
have been filled with such 
entries— about 4,000 
entries each — since the 
first was recorded in 

The catalog page shown 
above translated to the 
video screen of the com- 
puter terminal. The mate- 
rial has been edited and is 
ready for transmission to 
the computer, where it 
will be stored on a magne- 
tic disc. The transmission 
command also brings a 
new page onto the screen 
with column headings and 
20 catalog numbers. 


grams we call pandora, pandora is simple in concept, 
easy to use, and has exciting possibilities for all the scien- 
tific departments at Field Museum as well as other mu- 

Three students from the University of Illinois (Chi- 
cago Circle Campus), George Wolf, Reynaldo Granja, and 
Ed Martin, took Sarasan's specifications for the new data 
entry approach and transformed her ideas into the PAN- 
DORA computer programs. And finally, last April, the 
entry of catalog data into computers at the UICC began. 

Using a cathode ray tube (TV screen) terminal, data 
inputters "build" a page of the old catalog onto the ter- 
minal screen and then telecommunicate the data to a 
computer at the university. The UICC computer center 
made every effort to ensure the success of the project. Eb 
Klemens, George Yanos, and Louis Warshawsky lent 
their expertise, often assisting with special arrangements 
when such action was needed. Six data fields were se- 
lected for use during the inventory: catalog number, brief 
object description, provenience, number of specimens, 
subject-index code, and present storeroom location. 

Directed by PANDORA, the computer automatically 
enters the 20 catalog numbers and headings for the data 
fields contained on each page of the old catalogs onto the 
terminal screen, eliminating numerical errors. The re- 
mainder of the catalog page is then typed on the screen 
by entering data in columns, i.e., 20 object names are 
entered, then 20 proveniences, and so on. This columnar 
approach, which is the secret of PANDORA 's speed, sub- 
stantially minimizes eye fatigue, because the inputter 
does not have to follow entries back and forth across the 
oversized, handwritten catalog pages. He or she simply 
works down the page. 

Columnar entry also takes advantage of the substan- 
tial repetitive material in the catalogs by using another 
special pandora feature, the "repeat factor," which 
allows an inputter to write any item of data from 1 to 20 
times. For example, all the items on a catalog page may 
come from the Solomon Islands. The inputter can type in 
"20" and "Solomon Islands" once and the computer 
writes the information Solomon Islands down the pro- 
venience column 20 times. This repeat feature not only 
eliminates a substantial amount of typing— more than a 
thousand characters of data per page are entered by ac- 
tually typing in about 150 characters — but also provides 
the inputter with frequent pauses that lessen fatigue and 
result in greater accuracy. 

Another feature unique to PANDORA is the "beep 
function," as simple as it is useful. PANDORA is a set of 
interactive programs which enables the computer to re- 
spond to the inputter and give commands to the terminal 
after each item of data is tjqjed. Since the university com- 
puter is serving many terminals at once, response time 
varies. The beep function is an audio signal that elimi- 

nates the need to glance at the terminal screen, letting 
the inputter know when the computer is ready to accept 
more information. 

Once an entire page has been entered, the inputter 
can briefly proof for errors which can be corrected imme- 
diately, and if there are none, he or she can enter the data 
into the computer with the stroke of a single terminal key 
which also prompts the computer to put up the numbers 
for the next page. 

"This is the first radical innovation in our collection 
management procedures in 86 years!" cheerfully reports 
Donald Collier, curator emeritus of Middle and South 
American archaeology and ethnology, who is supervising 
not only the AIMS Project but also the entire storage 
move. "AIMS is tailored to our needs and fits our tradi- 
tional cataloging procedures beautifully." 

The speed and accuracy afforded by the AIMS ap- 
proach is impressive— checking of the printouts has un- 
covered almost no data errors and very few typographical 
errors, in spite of the fact that the average rate of entry 
was between 300 and 600 specimen listings, of up to 80 
characters each, per hour. "This phenomenal rate, how- 
ever, would have been useless if it hadn't been coupled 
with the dedication and enthusiasm of our data inputters 
—Susan Campbell, Timothy Liston, Patty Figel, Linda 
Allen, and Barbara Davis," explains Collier. "At times 
they kept the terminal operating 20 hours a day, seven 
days a week to enter all the data needed before the move 

One of the inputters, Susan Campbell, who worked 
the night shift for a month to ensure the project's suc- 
cess, comments on the experience. "It was absolutely 
fascinating. The items ran the gamut from a hand cooked 
at a cannibal feast to Sitting Bull's shirt, but the more 
anomalous objects stand out. One was 'Base with seven 
ornate figures. Figures missing'— which I was tempted 
to enter as 'Figureless base.' Another was 'Half a 
potsherd!' " 

Once all necessary data on the specimens to be moved 
had been computerized, 20 special catalog books were 
printed by the computer, each of which numerically listed 
the specimens in a particular storeroom. During the cur- 
rent move, anthropology staff are using these books to 
look up every specimen as it is moved into the new stor- 
age facility. They record its new location in the modern 
facility, note whether the specimen with a given number 
fits its catalog description, and insert relevant remarks. 
All these newly collected data are then computerized and 
transmitted to the computer file as soon as each old store- 
After the move is completed in 1978, computers will 
be used to print up a list of all the specimens that should 
have been (but apparently were not) carried out of the old 
storerooms. These are the missing specimens and the 
curators can begin looking for them. Similar lists will be 




CAT . NJ« 



• MVD 





UDl 339 




051 139 






051 425 

J51 53r 




051 537 

J61 6?« 



- — 



051 54 1 





051 029 





051 666 

!-bl 07^ 








06 18 

051 323 





051 n4 




J4 1 7 
04 I 7 

Of 1 846 
051 847 

OblMt 4 


eRiTiSM cCLuxeiA i 

04 17 

05! 86 4 






051 865 



ZUM 1 





HOP I 1 

07 14 

.... .... 

051 92 1 


uNflMbf-tD e«Sr.ET 

1-OPI 1 


051 923 

a, 19^0 





Jbl -JJ 9 


mCPI 1 

07 15 

051 929 

One page of the printout of all the specimens in a storeroom to make an inventory of the objects as they are moved into the 
listed in numerical order. This printout is specially formatted new stonage facility and to record their new locations. 

generated by the computer to account for all specimens 
on exhibition and those remaining in unmoved storage 

In addition to making an inventory possible, AIMS, 
which is being funded by a grant from the National En- 
dowment for the Arts in Washington, D.C., will lead to 
several other kinds of printed outputs. New catalog cards 
will be produced by computer printers for use in the new 
storage facihty, special listings will be made on ethnic 
groups and geographical areas, and two new sets of mas- 
ter catalog books will be produced, one for the depart- 
ment office and another for the storage facility. 

The overall costs of this pioneering project are 
estimated at about $18,500. This sum includes the 
purchase of various kinds of equipment, consultant 
fees, programming fees, salaries for terminal operators, 
time on the computer, printout costs, data-bank storage 
costs, and so forth. 

While .'MMS was designed to achieve the specific, neces- 
sary goal of helping with the inventory and move, plans 
are being made to expand the data in the computerized 
catalog file and to develop AIMS to handle many of the 
routine and special chores done around museums. The 
department is seeking new grants to investigate these 
further applications and to acquire a minicomputer. 
Much can be said in favor of such an acquisition by one of 
the world's largest and oldest museums of natural his- 
tory. A minicomputer could not only handle present and 
future needs in the Department of Anthropology, but 
elsewhere in the scientific, educational, and administra- 

tive departments of the institution. 

Some future applications being considered are the 
development of more simplified, more efficient, more 
accurate methods of accessioning and cataloging speci- 
mens and processing loans — highly repetitive work now 
done by hand. There is also the need often raised by schol- 
ars and laymen for special catalog information on popular 
and esoteric parts of the collections which is all but im- 
possible to gather using old methods. 

"We certainly want to keep improving and develop- 
ing AIMS, if at all possible," remarks John Terrell, associ- 
ate curator of Oceanic archaeology and ethnology. "Our 
system has proved to be less expensive and far easier 
to manage than other computer approaches suggested 
for museum applications. If museums are to keep pace 
with the ever mcreasing demands made on them by the 
public and scientific communities, it is inevitable that 
computers will be needed in the future more and more. 
But no one, we believe, should venture into using com- 
puters until they have a well defined goal in sight that 
can be reached in no cheaper, easier way. Realistic and 
attainable aims should be defined. Later, if new goals 
arise as the earlier ones are achieved, it is time to go on to 
bigger and brighter things. In short, our philosophy is: 
Think small, think simple, be realistic, and stay open- 
ended. Don't try to create the Platonic, perfect system. 
Take a tip from nature, instead. Evolve it." 

Whatever the course of the future, it is clear that 
computerization has already proved to be invaluable to 
Field Museum. 


In Search 

By Paul Sipiera 

UfOs and other phenomena of extraterrestrial origin have 
aroused a good deal of public interest in recent years. 
The only confirmed "visitors" from outer space, however, 
have been meteorites. 

These are chunks of metal or stone believed to have 
been fragments of a developing planet situated some- 
where between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, but this 
supposed planet never finished forming. The gravitation 
of Mars and Jupiter, according to this theory, prevented 
the smaller bodies from accreting into a planet-sized ob- 
ject. Since that interruption— presumably bilhons of 
years ago—an infinite number of these fragments of 
space debris have been pulled out of their original orbits 
by the gravitational forces of both Mars and Jupiter or 

^, :-««'-^» ■ . . 

have been knocked into highly eccentric orbits by collid- 
ing with one another. 

Many of these fragments now have orbits that inter- 
sect Earth's and, as a consequence, millions of microscop- 
ic particles collide with the Earth each day; a few larger 
fragments are seen at night as meteors, or "shooting 
stars." Occasionally, a particularly large meteor will be 
pulled in by the Earth's gravity, and a brilliant fireball 
is observed during its brief passage through our atmo- 
sphere. It is from such fireballs that most meteorites 

Meteorites are relatively rare objects, and their dis- 
covery is cause for great excitement among geologists. 
Although most meteorites fall into the oceans, enough 

/<« ♦- 

Dick Umstot, of Odessa, Texas, 
with his electronic metal detec- 
tor, was a boon to the Field 
Museum-Harper College search 
team. He is shown here with 
Valerie Ocker, of Hoffman 
Estates, Illinois, who holds a 
3 newly found two ounce iron 
stt .5™ meteorite. 


The Bacubirito meteorite; an iron meteorite found in Sinaloa, Mexico, in 1863. 

fall on land to provide scientists with about 6 to 10 new 
specimens each year. Most are discovered as "finds" — 
those which have been lying on the Earth's surface for 
countless years. But the ones that cause the greatest ex- 
citement are those that are actually observed falling. One 
such famous meteorite is the 1938 Benld, Illinois, fall. 
This stony four-pound meteorite crashed through a 
garage roof, penetrated the roof and back seat of a car, 
bounced off its muffler, and became entangled in the 
springs of the seat cushion. (The Benld meteorite is now 
on view in Hall 34.) Obviously not all falls are quite this 
spectacular or so accessible to human observation, but 
meteorites are continually falling to Earth, and there is 
no way of predicting where or when the next may fall. 

New meteorites are currently the object of a special 
search by the Department of Geology. In response to a 

Paul Sipiera has been a visiting scientist at Field Muse- 
um and is an instructor in geology at William Rainey 
Harper College. 

publicity campaign, hundreds of reports and numerous 
specimens have come to the Museum from all over the 
United States during the past two years. In spite of this 
seemingly good response, however, not a single previ- 
ously unreported meteorite has come to light. 

In 1976 it was decided to adopt the highly successful 
meteorite recovery methods of H. H. Nininger, one of the 
early pioneers in the science of meteoritics. By his meth- 
od, a flat, dry, relatively rock-free geographic site is se- 
lected for the search and a team armed with descriptive 
literature and a few meteorite specimens for comparison 
canvasses area residents to learn if any objects resembl- 
ing a meteorite have been seen. Although a meteorite can 
fall in any location, certain areas, because of their particu- 
lar geography and climate, have produced more meteor- 
ites than others. Meteorites in warm, moist climates 
deteriorate much more rapidly than those in cold, dry 
climates. In the Great Plains states, where rocks are gen- 
erally uncommon and farmers are continually plowing, a 
meteorite can "stick out like a sore thumb." It was into 
just such an area that our ten -per son research team (my- 


A sampling of stone and iron meteorites. Clockwise from top left: 1912; SYi x 7 inches. Iron meteorite found in Greene County, Tennes- 

Stone meteorite that felt in Brown County, Texas, in 1909; SVi x 6 see, in 1842; 4 x 10 inches. Stone meteorite (the Benld meteorite) that 

inches. Stone meteorite that fell in Bath County, Kentucky, in 1902; fell in Macoupin County, Illinois, in 1938; /Vi x 9 inches. Stone mete- 

6% X 5 inches. Iron meteorite found in San Miguel County, Colorado, in orite that fell in Bihar, India, in 1861; /'/z x 9 inches. 

self, two volunteers, and seven students) from Field 
Museum and William Rainey Harper College, of Palatine, 
Illinois, began our investigations in May of this year. 

The region chosen was the West Texas Plains, which 
met the basic requirements quite well and which had been 
very productive of meteorites in the past. Since many 
area residents were already familiar with meteorites, the 
chances were considered highly favorable for finding an 
entirely new specimen. 

Before our arrival, local newspapers obliged our re- 
quest to publish articles on meteorites and the planned 
activities of the search team. Responding readers were 

subsequently interviewed and their specimens examined. 
Past experience had conditioned us to be a bit skeptical of 
reported finds, but in the case of W. E. Hollingsworth, of 
Plainview, Texas, our follow-up of his find was fortunate 
indeed. The object he had discovered while plowing a field 
in 1938 proved to be a genuine, 4.4-pound stony mete- 

We could not be certain whether Hollingsworth 's was 
a totally new meteorite or part of a meteorite shower that 
fell on the Plainview area early in this century. For the 
moment it did not matter. What was significant was that 
we actually had our first meteorite! Even though subse- 
quent search of the area of his discovery failed to turn up 


any additional specimens, we were not disappointed. 

Our next area of study was the site of an ancient 
meteorite impact crater near Odessa, Texas. Having vis- 
ited the famous meteor crater some 220 miles northeast 
of Phoenix, Arizona, I was expecting to find a crater at 
least as impressive. But this crater, about 500 feet wide 
and 30 feet deep, is now largely filled in, and virtually 
nothing is being done to preserve it. Although the crater 
itself was somewhat disappointing, our visit to the office 
of the local newspaper, the Odessa American, was a pro- 
ductive one. The newspaper gave us the names of several 
readers who believed they had meteorites. The meteorites 
of all the respondents — except one— proved to be false 
alarms. But Dick Umstot, the exception, not only had a 
garage full of them, he had electronic gadgetry for seek- 
ing them out. 

The next day Umstot took us on a meteorite hunt 
about a mile from the crater. After briefing us on the use 
of metal detectors, he had us scatter about and comb the 
area for sounds of metal beneath the surface. After only 
several minutes we found one. Then Umstot, with a few 
deft sweeps of his detector and several jabs of his knife 
into the soil, came up with a nice golf ball-sized meteorite. 
"That's how it's done!" he annoimced with justifiable 

By the day's end, thanks to Umstot, we had several 
iron meteorite specimens totalling more than 15 pounds. 
All were fragments of the huge iron meteorite shower 
that formed the crater near Odessa more than 20,000 
years ago. But still we did not have a previously unre- 
ported find. 

The final recovery investigations of the trip took 
place near Monahans, some 40 miles southwest of Odes- 
sa. Three residents of that area reported possible finds. 
The first two proved to be false alarms, but Mrs. Jerry 
Brown, the third and last of the respondents, had what 
appeared to be a very nice little fragment of an iron mete- 
orite that had been found on the sand hills of eastern New 
Mexico in 1965. 

At first appearance the object did seem to be a mete- 
orite, but final confirmation had to await chemical analy- 
sis. A positive test for nickel and cobalt is very impor- 
tant, because these elements are found in specific percen- 
tages in all confirmed metallic meteorites. It was a big 
letdown when a preliminary analysis of Mrs. Brown's 
"meteorite" revealed no nickel whatever, and a second 
test confirmed the first — that the specimen contained 
neither nickel nor cobalt. This specimen was found and 
not actually seen falling; this fact, together with its 
chemical deficiencies, means that it cannot be confirmed 
as a meteorite. But if a fall had actually been observed at 
the recovery site, it would then present a strong case for 
an entirely new type of meteorite. Because the Earth has 
a great variety of shapes and forms for metallic ores and 

W. E. Hollingsivorth, ofPlainview. Texas, found this 2.4 pound 
stone meteorite while plowing in 1938. 

minerals, this report will be recorded as only a very good 
possibility, not as a bona fide meteorite. 

Leaving West Texas, we traveled through New Mexi- 
co and Arizona, passing out literature to the residents 
and talking to willing listeners about meteorites. The 
final stop on the trip was at the great meteor crater in 
Arizona. For the layman as well as the scientist, this 
huge pock mark on the Earth's surface is truly an impres- 
sive sight. Astronauts trained here, and scientists in as- 
sorted disciplines from all over the world have studied its 
structure. We were pleased to be permitted entry into the 
crater to examine its unique characteristics and to specu- 
late on the circumstances of its formation. 

The field trip to the Southwest is over, but our search 
for new meteorites continues — as a joint effort of the 
Field Museum and Harper College. As the trip demon- 
strated, the future successes of the search will depend to 
a great extent on public cooperation and willingness to 
share observations. 


Members Childreris Workshops 

October 1977 

Members' Children (or grandchildren) are invited to partici- 
pate on Saturdays in October Workshops. The Workshops 
offer children an opportunity to work with actual specimens 
and learn scientific and ethnological techniques. The programs 
for younger children last about one hour, those for older chil- 
dren about one hour and a half. 

October 1 5: 

For ages 9 to 13 
Time: 10:30 am. 
Leader: Betty Deis 

Learn where to find insects in the fall, how to keep them alive 
during the winter, and how to preserve them for i;our collection. 

October 15: 

African Drums & Stamp Designs 

For ages 8 to 10 

Time: 10:30 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. 

Leader: Natalie Newberger 

Be a member of a rhythm band using authentic African instru- 
ments. Make a necklace or sash decorated with Adinkra Sf,'mbols as 
\jour costume. 


For ages 10 to 13 

Time: 10:30 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. 

Leader: Bob Cantu 

Your name can be written in hieroglyphs. Learn how to write 
it and decorate an interesting charm of baked clay; which can be used 
as a necklace. 

October 22: 

Dinosaurs to Serpents 

For ages 7 to 13 

Time: 10:30 a.m. (ages 7-9) 

1:00 p.m. (ages 10-13) 
Leader: Ann Ross 

Learn about a turtle weighing 600 pounds, a snake 30 feet 
long, and a lizard that runs on water. Find out about reptiles big and 
small and how the\; are related to dinosaurs and other prehistoric 


October 22: 

The Art of Japanese Paper Folding 

For ages 9 to 12 

Time: 10:30 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. 

Leader: Molly Ozaki 

Learn how to make objects, such as a crane, by folding paper. 
Also write your name in Japanese characters. 

Chicagoland's Fossils 

For ages 7 to 13 

Time: 10:30 a.m. (ages 7-9) 

1:00 p.m. (ages 10-13) 
Leader: Carol Scholl 

Explore Chicago's past by learning how fossils were formed mil- 
lions of years ago. Take a journey through time by touring the exhibits 
of Chicago area fossils. 

October 29: 

indians of North America 

For ages 7 to 12 

Time: 10:30 a.m. (ages 7-9) 

1:00 p.m. (ages 10-12) 
Leader: Delores Dobberstein 

Play Indian games and reproduce Indian toys. See the authentic 
articles in our Indian halls. 

Masks from around the World 

For ages 6 to 9 

Time: 10:30 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. 

Leader: Jean Vondriska 

Children uiill search through the exhibit halls to find masks from 
different cultures. Listen to music and stories from mask ceremonies 
and make a mask to take home. 

Reservations are necessary and we urge that they be sent in early. The 
size of each session is limited and applications will be processed in the 
order they are received. A child can be scheduled into only one pro- 
gram. Please send a separate application for each child in your family 
who wishes to participate. 

Please send coupon or 
facsimile to 
Children's Workshops 
Field Museum 
Roosevelt Rd at 
Lakeshore Dr 
Chicago. Ill 60605 

Application for October Workshops 


Isf choice_ 
3rd choice. 
4th choice_ 


Membership in name of_ 





Geckos for Roaches 

Tired of those pesky cockroaches on the 
kitchen counter? Fed up with a cricket- 
covered carpet? Well, shun that poison 
like Rachel Greenberg, of Tallahassee, 
Fla., did, and get after them nature's 
way— with a tokay gecko. 

That may sound strange, but Mrs. 
Greenberg swears it's true. She says 
the cockroaches have become quite 
scarce around her house since she 
bought four tokay geckos— they're 
blue-colored Asian lizards with orange 

They're very innocuous," she says. 
"You hardly know they're there. People 
have come into my house and see them 
in the corner and gasped. And these 
were graduate students in biology." 

Mrs. Greenberg says she bought 
the geckos because she was tired of the 
army of cockroaches that regularly 
tromps through her house. A friend 
suggested the little-known Asian lizards 
and, to Mrs. Greenberg's surprise, her 
pet store confirmed the claims that the 
gecko feeds on the bothersome insects. 

"They'll even eat small mice," says 
the sales clerk at the pet store where 
Mrs. Greenberg got her geckos. "They 
get pretty big, over a foot in body 

So, Mrs. Greenberg bought four 
for $40, but one of them died rather 
mysteriously soon after she brought it 
home. "I feel very attached to them," 
she admits. "The day that one died, I 
felt very depressed." 

But the other three went hard to 
work. At night. 

"They're nocturnal," Mrs. Green- 
berg says. "They sleep all day and then 
get up at night. So I haven't seen any- 
body eating anything. I've never seen 
any bodies. I don't see any cockroach 
arms or legs or anything. It's bizarre." 
However, her son says he saw one the 
other night, eating away at a cockroach 
in a rare public display of the gecko's 

Anyone planning on getting a tokay 
gecko should be forewarned that they 
can bite man as well as eat roaches! 

Lightning Detection Device 

Each year thousands of acres of land 
throughout the U.S. are destroyed by 
fire— many a result of Hghtning. Some 
35 percent of all wildfire on public lands 
in the 14 western states are caused by 
lightning, and, according to many esti- 
mates, one lightning strike out of ten 
produces a fire. Typically, a lightning 
fire is the most costly type of fire and 
creates the most damage. Because it 
frequently occurs in remote areas, detec- 
tion and containment of a lightning fire 
can be a slow and difficult task. Of 
course not all wildfires are bad. Like 
many natural phenomena, fire plays an 
important role in the dynamic inter- 
change of natural forces. By setting 
back the stages of succession, in a con- 
trolled situation fire can enhance the 
availability of habitat for wildlife. This 
trend in thinking is gaining greater and 
greater acceptance among professional 
foresters and wildlife biologists who 
view controlled wildfire as a valuable 
management tool. The key word, how- 
ever, is "control." 

Bureau of Land Management engi- 
neers have recently perfected a sophisti- 
cated detection system (LDS) that is 
expected to play an important role in 
such control LDS is an offshoot of an ear- 
lier research performed by E. P. Krider 
of the University of Arizona in conjunc- 
tion with NASA's manned space pro- 
gram. NASA scientists, concerned over 
an incident in which a manned rocket 
was struck by lightning prior to launch- 
ing, provided the initial impetus for the 
development of a lightning detection 
system. Encouraged by the findings, 
BLM researchers carried the project de- 

sign a step further and modified the de- 
tector for use on public lands. 

Time is the most critical factor in 
fire controj. While the LDS cannot dis- 
criminate between those strikes which 
start fires and those that do not, it does 
alert authorities to potential locations. 
Simply stated, the lds senses changes 
in the electromagnetic field produced by 
large hghtning return-stroke currents. 
A single lightning bolt has both a down- 
ward and an upward return stroke. Once 
activated, the detector unit plots the 
location of the strike on an x-y coordi- 
nate. With intersecting vectors (two or 
more units), it can pinpoint the location 
of the strike to within one mile. Al- 
though radar is capable of picking up 
large, moisture-laden thunderstorms, 
unlike the LDS, it cannot detect "dry" 
lightning. Since the moisture associated 
with a thunderstorm is often sufficient 
to extinguish any fires which might 
start, these storms rarely present the 
most severe fire hazard. Dry lightning, 
however, poses a far more serious and 
unpredictable threat. Thus the lds, 
coupled with radar, can provide a com- 
prehensive detection system. 

The system has already been exten- 
sively tested in Alaska. In 1976, six op- 
erational field units were installed 
throughout the state, and all of the 227 
lightning fire starts for the season were 
accurately computed by one or more of 
the detection units. This year five more 
units have been put into operation in 
what are considered to be some of the 
most critical fire hazard areas: Califor- 
nia, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Utah. 

Rustlers Steal Trees 

If you are one of the fortunate few who 
have a walnut tree or perhaps a grove of 
them, be on the lookout for rustlers. 

In Iowa, two men were charged with 
larceny after they allegedly chopped 
down $30,000 worth of walnut trees and 
were preparing to sell the lumber. 

One of the men operated a tree ser- 
vice and was hired to chop down some 
trees near Sioux Rapids. But he and an 
employee also allegedly chopped down 
14 nearby walnut trees. The lumber, 
estimated to be worth at least $30,000 if 
sold for furniture, was found ready for 
rail shipment. 


Near Chicago, thieves hauled away 
20 walnut trees from the Cook County 
Forest Preserve without detection. 

A Pope County, Illinois, farmer dis- 
covered walnut stumps left behind in 
place of his trees, which were appraised 
at $1,300 per 1,000 board feet. 

An Indiana farmer, wakened in the 
darkness of early morning by his watch- 
dog, found a truckload of his trees, 
chopped and ready for hauling as the 
night's work of rustlers. The trees, 
worth $10,000, were cut a few nights 
before but thieves couldn't haul them 
due to thickening mud around their 

These people are a new breed of pro- 
fessional criminal, tree rustlers, now il- 
legally harvesting over $2 million in 
black walnuts annually in Illinois and 
Indiana alone. And they seem nearly 
impossible to catch. 

A top quality trunk, measuring 
about 18 inches in diameter with few, if 
any, notches or marks commands up to 
$1,900 per 1,000 board feet. A trunk 
may be worth $4,000. 

$80,000 for 18 Walnut Trees 

At a recent sale in Ohio 18 black walnut 
trees, including one the hardwood indus- 
try considered the most perfect and 
valuable black walnut tree in the nation, 
brought $80,000. When the bidding was 
over, the new owner of "the perfect 
tree" put its value alone at $30,000. 
The tree, called the Bicentennial Tree by 
its new owner, was between 180 and 200 
years old. It measured 57 feet to its 
first limb and was more than 130 feet 
tall. Its diameter was 38.4 inches at 
4.5 feet above the ground, and its 
circumference at that height was 10.5 

The big tree will be cut for a yield of 
approximately 2,000 board feet of 
walnut. That is enough to cover about 
700 livingroom or bedroom suites. 

Cactus Rustling in Southwest 

Sophisticated rustlers in the nation's 
Southwest are today going after cacti 

rather than cattle. Giant saguaro cac- 
tus, especially, are highly prized for 
landscaping purposes. A large crested 
specimen can bring as much as $1,000. 
A small potted rainbow cactus sells for 
.$25. Efforts to stop the illegal traffic — 
some plants are shipped as far away as 
Japan — are hamstrung in most instan- 
ces by weak laws and insufficient en- 

Arizona recently acted to change 
all this, however, when it strengthened 
its laws to require that all individuals 
either possessing, taking, or transport- 
ing native plants from the protected 
groups (including members of the cactus 
family) must obtain special permits is- 
sued by the state commission of agri- 
culture and horticulture. The permits 
specify which species of protected native 
plants may be taken, the area from 
which they may be taken and the man- 
ner in which the plants may be taken. 
Individuals failing to obtain such per- 
mits are in violation of the law and sub- 
ject to arrest. Other Southwestern 
states are expected to follow suit. 

In the meantime, reports the Na- 
tional Wildlife Foundation, thousands 
of cacti continue to be rustled annually. 
The long term environmental impact of 
illegally removing the stately saguaro 
cactus and other varieties from their 
natural setting could be serious. 

Critical Habitat Proposed 
for Houston Toad 

Critical habitat has been proposed for 
the Houston toad, a small and endan- 
gered brown frog inhabiting central 
Texas. Critical habitat designation 
means that all agencies of the federal 
government must ensure that none of 
their actions impinge on the needs of an 
endangered species. 

The Houston toad is among the rar- 
est and most critically endangered am- 
phibians in the United States and has 
been officially listed as endangered since 
1970. Much of the hope for the survival 
and recovery of this species depends 
upon the maintenance of suitable, undis- 
turbed habitat. For several years, the 
Fish and Wildlife Service has recognized 
the plight of this species and has pro- 
vided funds for a survey of the remain- 
ing populations. 

In late 1976, the service received the 
results of an extensive survey of suit- 
able habitat of central Texas and its res- 
ident Houston toads. Four major areas, 
one in Burleson, one in Bastrop, and two 
in Harris Counties, were found to con- 
tain this secretive, shy species. These 
areas contain the last remaining habitat 
and breeding sites for the species; there- 
fore, the Fish and Wildlife Service has 
decided to propose these areas as critical 
habitat under Section 7 of the Endan- 
gered Species Act of 1973. 

The main threat facing the Houston 
toad is from agricultural and urban ex- 
pansion, particularly in suburban Hous- 
ton (Harris County) where two of the 
major "toad habitats" occur. By declar- 
ing critical habitat for all populations, it 
is hoped that the survival of this unique 
species will be ensured. 

Eastern Timber Wolf Proposed for 
Threatened List in Minnesota 

The eastern timber wolf of Minnesota, a 
subspecies of the gray wolf, is being pro- 
posed for reclassification from the en- 
dangered species category to that of a 
threatened species. This move reflects 
an increase in numbers, extension of the 
animal's range in northern Minnesota, 
and the fact that it is no longer in danger 
of extinction in that part of its range. 

"Endangered" means that a species 
is in danger of extinction throughout all 
or a significant portion of its range. 
"Threatened" means that a species is 
Ukely to become endangered within the 
foreseeable future throughout all or a 
portion of its range. 

Numerous attacks on domestic ani- 
mals have been reported recently in 
Minnesota as the wolf has extended its 
range. The reclassification to threatened 
will allow a Umited killing of wolves, 
when necessary, by authorized state or 
federal agents, according to the pro- 
posal. The wolf population in Minnesota 
is estimated at about 1,200. 

In other states in the "lower 48" 
outside of Minnesota the gray wolf 
would continue to be listed as endan- 
gered. In Alaska this species is not list- 
ed because its population is numerous 
and healthy in the wild, numbering an 
estimated 10,000. 


Depredating wolves in Minnesota 
are presently dealt with by live trapping 
and relocating the culprits. Detailed 
studies of the relocated animals, how- 
ever, indicate that once removed from 
its own territory and relocated onto 
another wolf pack's turf, the lone new- 
comer may be subjected to fatal attacks 
by the resident pack. 

The proposal establishes five zones 
in Minnesota for wolf management, with 
the first three zones consisting of 9,800 
square miles in the northeast proposed 
as critical habitat. The wolf will be af- 
forded a sanctuary where no kiUing may 
occur in its prime range in the 4,412 
square miles of zone 1. In the other 
zones, wolves may be killed if they com- 
mit significant depredations on lawfully 
present domestic animals. Killing may 
only be done by authorized federal or 
state employees. 

The wolf in Minnesota has been a 
subject of controversy for the last sev- 
eral years because of its increase in num- 
bers and extension of range to settled 
areas. On October 4, 1974, the state 
petitioned the U.S. Fish and Wildhfe 
Service to exclude the wolf from the en- 
dangered category. 

In response, the service initiated a 
review on November 21, 1974. Further 
actions were withheld until the recovery 
team formulated its plan for the animal. 
In late 1976 the recovery team — com- 
posed of state, federal and academic 
wolf specialists — recommended reclas- 
sification and management. This pres- 
ent proposal is based largely on the re- 
covery team's recommendations. 

Status Review of Bobcat and Lynx 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is 
undertaking a review of the status of 
two closely related species of North 
American wild cats: the bobcat {Lynx 
rufus) and the lynx {Lynx canadensis). 
The review will determine whether these 
species, or any populations thereof, 
should be proposed for listing as endan- 
gered or threatened, in accordance with 
the Endangered Species Act of 1973. 

The bobcat originally occurred 
throughout the lower 48 states, as 
well as in southern Canada and northern 
Mexico. In recent years it reportedly 

has declined because of habitat loss and 
excessive killing by man. There has been 
considerable concern that rapidly rising 
fur prices may have resulted in wide- 
spread depletion of bobcat populations 
by trappers. The lynx, which still occu- 
pies much of Alaska and Canada, has 
been eliminated from most of its range 
in the northern part of the lower 48 

Bald Eagle Status Report 

The people who keep tabs on eagles be- 
Ueve Minnesota has the largest popula- 
tion of bald eagles in the United States, 
with the exception of Alaska. The U.S. 
Fish and Wildhfe Service annually con- 
ducts land and aerial studies of the 
eagles in the Chippewa and Superior 
national forests, Voyageurs National 
Park, state parks and wildlife reserves. 

This year's study indicates the Min- 
nesota eagle population is generally sta- 
ble, says Lee Grim, a seasonal naturalist 
for Voyageurs National Park. The study 
is not yet complete but biologists figure 
the state's eagle population is holding 
its own and may be up a bit. 

There are an estimated 3,000 bald 
eagles in the lower 48 states, with 600 to 
800 of them nesting pairs. The others 
are nonbreeding adults, generally five 
years old and younger. The 1976 survey 
showed Minnesota had 186 "territories" 
with 121 active nesting pairs. They pro- 
duced 159 young. 

This year the Superior National 
Forest was found to contain 35 territor- 
ies, compared with 32 last year, says 
Karl Siderits, wildlife biologist for the 
forest. There could be many nests which 
haven't been discovered in the densely 
wooded forest. "The eagle population in 
Minnesota has been very stable in re- 
cent years, and is much improved over 
the 1960s," says Siderits. 

At Chippewa National Forest, 106 
territories were counted this year, com- 
pared with 94 last year. The forest's 
wildlife biologist, John Mathison, said 
10 new nests were found this year, 
bringing the forest's total to 187. 
Eighty-three of the nests were occupied 
by breeding birds, for roughly 78 per- 
cent, compared with 71 percent occu- 
pancy last year. Mathisen said more 

eagles are attempting to nest in the 
Chippewa this year than at any time 
since record keeping started in 1963. 
Mathisen, too, believes Minnesota has 
more eagles than any state except Alas- 
ka. One reason why eagles do well in 
Minnesota, he speculates, is that a bet- 
ter job is done in protecting nest sites 
than formerly. 

Eagle pairs defend their individual 
territories against other eagles. Howev- 
er, wildlife biologist Jim Stutzman of 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 
Bemidji says eagles are quick to desert 
their nests when the territory is dis- 
turbed, generally by people. The service 
monitors nests to prevent activities that 
threaten the birds, and the area is scout- 
ed for hazards to the nest. In many 
cases a buffer zone is created around the 
nest sites to help preserve the species 
from extinction. 

Siderits is convinced the future of 
eagles is on federal and state lands. 
Elsewhere, he says, there's little concern 
for the bird and much nest destruction. 

The bald eagle is the largest bird of 
prey in North America except for the 
California condor. Despite its size of 12 
to 14 pounds and wingspan of 80 inches, 
the bald eagle is not capable of carrying 
off anything larger than a rabbit. Much 
of its diet is carrion. The bald eagle is an 
opportunist that both scavenges and 
kills its own prey. Eighty to 90 percent 
of its diet is fish, and the rest is mostly 
waterfowl. Eagles generally build their 
nests within one-fourth mile of a lake. 
Most of the cone-shaped nests are lo- 
cated in Norway and white pine. They 
weigh several hundred pounds, measur- 
ing seven feet across and nine feet deep. 

Eagles have a life expectancy of 25 
to 30 years and mate for life. The Minne- 
sota birds return early to the northern 
part of the state, and the female lays 
one to three eggs early in April and does 
most of the setting for the next 35 days. 
For four months the eaglet is entirely 
dependent on its parents for food. By 
the time it is 10 to 12 weeks old, it is 
fully feathered and ready to migrate, 
usually in September or October. Most 
northern Minnesota eagles winter along 
the Missouri and Mississippi River val- 

Despite a $5,000 fine for killing an 
eagle, many of the migrating birds are 
shot each year. The white head and tail 


feathers which distinguish the American 
bald eagle don't appear until it is four to 
five years old. Easily mistaken for a 
hawk, the young eagle often is shot acci- 

Outlook Good for Whooping Cranes 

Whooping crane production this year 
has exceeded all expectations and the 
outlook for this endangered bird, a sym- 
bol of America's wildUfe conservation 
effort, has never been brighter. 

That's the report from Keith M. 
Schreiner, associate director of the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service. Not only is 
there a record number of whoopers, but 
fjossibilities of greater success next year 
are high. 

In all there may be 126 whooping 
cranes in existence — in the wild and in 
captivity. Twenty-nine were hatched 
this spring and, even if half die from 
weather, predators, accidents, and other 
causes, 1977 will have been a spectacu- 
lar year. 

The major 69-bird wild flock that 
summers and breeds in Canada pro- 
duced 34 eggs, two of which were almost 
immediately eaten by unknown preda- 
tors. Sixteen of the remaining eggs were 
flown to Grays Lake National Wildlife 
Refuge in Idaho and placed in nests 
under greater sandhill cranes, cousins of 
the whoopers. 

This effort is part of a joint FWS-Ca- 
nadian Wildlife Service project to estab- 
lish a second population of the endan- 
gered birds in the wild. So far 12 chicks 
are known to have survived from the 16 
eggs. Of the other whoopers reared by 
sandhills in this way over the last two 
years, five are still living. 

Of the 16 eggs left in Canada, 15 
hatched. Eleven of the chicks have sur- 

Good news for the whooping crane 
also has come from Fws's Patuxent 
WildHfe Research Center at Laurel, Md., 
where four pairs of whoopers from the 
19-bird international captive flocks pro- 
duced 22 eggs. Last year the flock pro- 
duced only five. 

Eight of these eggs were flown to 
Grays Lake in May, but were wiped out 
by a 17'/2-inch snowstorm that killed 
two hatched chicks and caused sandhills 

to abandon the remaining nests. A sec- 
ond batch of six eggs flown out in late 
May fared much better — three hatched, 
two didn't hatch and one was eaten by a 

Two other chicks remain at Patux- 
ent, a third died and another egg is 
being incubated by a pair of sandhills. 
Two eggs were infertile and one had an 
early embryo death. The 22nd egg disap- 
peared from a sandhill crane nest at 
Patuxent, probably either destroyed by 
an adult or removed by a predator. 

Fws biologists expect as many as 
three other pairs of whoopers at Patux- 
ent to produce eggs in the near future. 
Four other whoopers, two from Patux- 
ent, are being held for breeding purposes 
at the San Antonio Zoo and at the Inter- 
national Crane Foundation in Wiscon- 
sin. A fifth is at the Audubon Park Zoo 
in New Orleans. 

The final 1977 tally of whooping 
cranes won't be in until late fall when 
the Grays Lake flock migrates 800 mileb 
to New Mexico near the Bosque del 
Apache National Wildlife Refuge and 
the Canadian flock makes its way south 
to the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge 
in Texas, a distance of 2,450 miles. 

It's a vulnerable time for the whoop- 
ing crane chicks and not all are expected 
to make it. After surviving a brutal win- 
ter, they currently face a drought that 
has lowered marsh water levels at Grays 
Lake. This has reduced the amount of 
vegetation and saturated soil where the 
chicks can forage for insects and other 
invertebrates and has left them with 
fewer areas in which to hide from coyo- 
tes. Because of this, fws has stepped up 
its control efforts at the refuge and 12 
coyotes have been killed so far this year. 

"Normally a whooper in the wild 
will lay two eggs, but rarely does more 
than one chick survive," Schreiner said. 
"At Patuxent we've taken the eggs 
away from the whoopers, not only sav- 
ing the eggs, but also causing the birds 
to recycle. One pair laid nine eggs this 
year, so we'll concentrate on producing 
eggs for the smallest Grays Lake flock 
in Idaho." 

Another plan being considered is to 
have whooper eggs hatched by sandhills 
at Patuxent, raised there for a year and 
then released at Grays Lake when they 
are stronger and better able to fend for 
themselves. This would cut down con- 

siderably on the tremendous mortaUty 
whoopers experience during the first 

After several years of studying and 
raising the birds, biologists have over- 
come a number of obstacles. Probably 
the biggest breakthrough has been the 
simulation at Patuxent of conditions in 
Canada's Northwest Territories where 
the whoopers naturally breed. 

"By extending daylight hours 
through artificial means, we've man- 
aged to simulate the photoperiod of the 
whoopers' nesting grounds in Canada," 
Schreiner said. "Starting about Valen- 
tine's Day we extend the dayUght to 14 
hours and then increase it by three per 
cent weekly until June when daylight is 
almost 24 hours. This helps them get 
into breeding condition. Since the birds 
haven't mated naturally in captivity, an 
animal physiologist perfected a tech- 
nique for artificially inseminating the 
whooping cranes." 

Raptor Information Center 

In an effort to promote and enhance the 
study of bald eagles, the National Wild- 
life Federation, with the aid of a grant 
from Exxon Corporation, has estab- 
lished the Raptor Information Center in 
Washington, D.C. The center will assist 
in the conservation of bald eagles and 
other raptor species by: (1) identifying 
and protecting critical bald eagle hab- 
itat; (2) increasing communications and 
acting as a "clearing-house" for rele- 
vant literature and; (3) identifying and 
encouraging the support of priority bald 
eagle research including annual cen- 
susing. Specifically, the center will work 
actively with the public, scientists, and 
agency and National Wildlife Feder- 
ation personnel to identify key bald 
eagle habitat areas and make arrange- 
ments for their purchase or protection 
through landowner agreements. 

The center intends to develop a 
computerized system of information 
sources and to generate a bald eagle 
bibUography. Initially emphasizing the 
bald eagle, the center will also create a 
computer-based service to answer such 
questions as "Who's doing what?" 
and "Where are the data?" 


September and October at Field Museum 

(September 15 to October 15) 

New Exhibits 


Pawnee Eartii Lodge— opens October 15. Field Museum's 
newest permanent exhibit is a full-size replica of a traditional 
Pawnee earth lodge. The circular lodge, symbolic of the universe, 
is constructed of Cottonwood tree trunks with wiltow lath, prairie 
grass, and dyed plaster. The interior is furnished with traditional 
buffalo robe-covered beds. Clothing, tools, weapons, and trade 
store items are placed as the Pawnee stored them — under beds, 
against wall posts, and suspended from the ceiling. The Pawnee 
earth lodge exhibit was partially funded by grants from the National 
Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the 
Humanities. Hall 5, main floor. 

Exotic Fliers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds. An exhibit 
of exquisite bird illustrations appearing in the recently published 
Manual of Neotropical Birds (University of Chicago Press), Vol. 1, 
by Emmet R. Blake, emeritus curator of birds. Hall K, ground floor. 

New Programs 

On Your Own. Adult- and family-oriented self-guided tour 
booklets are available, for 25 cents, at the entrance to the Museum 
Shop, main floor north. Adult series: Animals in Eg[;ptian M]^th- 
olog\;. The Iroquois: Culture in Transition, and China in the Ch'ing 
Dxjnastx;. Family series: Friend or Foe?, The Arfist's Zoo. Chicago. 
Mi; Kind of Town, and Tibet: Nomads of the Mystic Mountains. 

Autumn Journey: Cook's Tour. Self-guided tour leads chil- 
dren through the museum's exhibits of Plains Indians, Woodland 
Indians, and Indians of California to learn about their food, cooking 
utensils, recipes, and food preparation. Free Journey pamphlets 
are available at the information booths, main floor. 

Ayer Film/Lecture Series— begins October 1. Each Saturday, 
at 2:30 p.m., sit back and enjoy a ninety-minute adventure in a 
remote or familiar area of the world. These beautifully produced 
films are personally narrated by their film makers. Reserved seating 
is available for members and their families. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. 
Simpson Theatre, ground floor west. 
October 1 Switzerland Today October 8 Colorado 

by Willis Butler by Frank Nichols 

October 15 

Northwestern Adventure: Idaho. Oregon. 
Washington by Dennis Cooper 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to feel, 
handle, sort, and compare natural history artifacts and specimens. 
Trained volunteers are on hand to help guide in exploration. Open 
weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; weekends; 10 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m. 
to 4 p.m. Ground floor, near the new cafeteria. 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit offers a worldwide 
perspective of environmental problems. It asks you to consider our 
present realities and future possibilities. Hall 18, main floor. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory museum-related activities. An educational 
and entertaining way to spend part of a weekend. Saturdays and 
Sundays, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. The exhibit where 
visitors become anthropologists. Examine 38 artifacts, decide 
which were used by men, by women, or by both sexes. Discover 
that economic and social roles of the sexes are not universally the 
same. Ground floor, near the elevator. 

Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 


1, 7:00 p.m. The Primitive Arts Society 

2, 8:00 p.m. Chicago Anthropological Society 
6,7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club 
8, 8:00 p.m. Chicago Mountaineering Club 

11,2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

13, 7:30 p.m. Chicago Nature Camera Club 

14, 7:00 p.m. Chicago Ornithological Society 

14, 7:30 p.m. Windy City Grotto, National Speleological 

Sept. 20, 7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 

The Ancient Art of Weaving— resumes October 3. Weaving 
and spinning demonstrations every Monday, Wednesday, and 
Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. South Lounge, 2nd floor 

September and October Hours 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m. and closes at 5 p.m. every 
day except Fridays On Fridays, year-round, the museum is open 

to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor north. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410. 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

^^??*'^^^^' :ii 


r^ *^1^f' 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


October 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 9 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff Levi-Setti 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 


3 Field Briefs 

6 Kimberley Snail Hunt — Rounds II through IV 

Searching for Land Snails in Western Australia 
By Alan Solem. curator of invertebrates 

10 Pere David's Deer 

The Species that vanished from its natural habitat 3,000 

years ago 

By Dale J. Osborn, research associate 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 

14 In the Daze of Good King Tut 

By Florence Johnson 

15 Tut in Retrospect 

16 Egypt Tours for Members 



Blaine J. Yarrington. chain 
Mrs. T. Stanton Ar 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 
William R. Dickin; 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H.Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Joseph R. Rich 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C.Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V.Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
JohnT. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 

18 Native Americans through the Camera Lens of Charles 
H. Carpenter 

Photos taken at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904 
By Alan Koss 

24 The Pawnee Earth Lodee 

Replica opens to public October 15 

26 Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

27 October and November at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 

The editor gratefully acknowledges the editorial assistance of 
Hermann C. Bowersox, a Field Museum volunteer, in the pre- 
paration of this issue. 


Door County, Wisconsin, shoreline in October. Photo by John 

Field Museum uf Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago. II. 60605. Subscriptions: SB a year; S3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 


"Uniguide," Portable Audio 
Guide Now Available 

The museum's newly installed audio 
system, Uniguide, enables visitors of all 
ages to visit up to 50 selected exhibits 
in any sequence they choose. Complete 
with background music, sound effects, 
and factual information supplied by the 
museum's scientific and education 
staff, this system provides an enter- 



Hj 1 



^^^^J^B \ 


taining as well as educational experi- 
ence. Specially designed audio receivers 
and maps are available for a nominal fee 
at the entrance to the Museum Shop, 
main floor north. 

Xika Semkoff 
Levi-Setti, public 
relations, and 
Matteo Levi- 
Setti test Uni- 
guide headsets 
at Uniguide's 
new counteron 
the main floor. 

Riccardo Levi-Setti 

Governor Thompson Signs 
Bills Benefitting Museums 

Illinois Governor James R. Thompson, 
center, is shown on August 13 at Field 
Museum after signing into law Senate 
Bill 557 and House Bill 1458. The bills 
are designed to promote and preserve 
Illinois' cultural heritage through the 
purchase of artwork for public buildings 
and by providing additional monies for 
museums located on Chicago Park Dis- 
trict land. Shown with the governor are 
Victor Danilov (left), president of the 
Museum of Science and Industry, and 
E. Leland Webber, president of Field 

Senate Bill 557 provides funds for 
the purchase of artwork for public build- 
ings constructed or renovated begin- 
ning in fiscal year 1979. It stipulates 
that half of one percent of construction 
or reconstruction funds will be used for 
purchasing art by Illinois artists for the 

House Bill 1458 allows the Chicago 
Park District to levy a maximum tax of 
9 percent of the full fair cash value of 
property within the Chicago Park Dis- 
trict. The tax will be used for construct- 
ing, operating, and maintaining mu- 
seums and aquariums on park district 
land. The current levy is 6.5'percent. It 
is estimated that the legislation could 
provide up to S2.5 million in new monies. 

He is a contemporary artist, and 
has had several commissions: sculp- 
tures for the Papua New Guinea Bank- 
ing Corporation in Port Moresby, for 
the University of Technology at Lae, 
and a mural for the Indonesian Embas- 
sy at Port Moresby. His latest work is 
a series of large sculptures outside the 
new museum in Port Moresby. David's 
visit to the U.S.A. was as a participant 
in the International Visitor Program, 
sponsored by the Bureau of Cultural 
and Educational Affairs, U.S. Depart- 
ment of State. 

The last time I saw David, prior to 
his July visit, was in March, 1954, when 
he was only a week old. I took the photo 
of him (shown here), in his mother's 
arms, in a maternity hospital on the 
east coast of New Ireland. My wife Sally 
and I were on the way toKavieng, the 
administrative town, and had stopped 
to say goodbye to two young women 
who had given birth to two new Lossu- 
ans, one of whom was David. 

At that time, David Lasisi bore 
neither of those two names, but was 
called Galip, after a nut much favored 
by New Irelanders. Later, Galip was 
named David when he was christened as 
a Methodist. The name Lasisi is that of 
a malanggan carving, and taken by him 
in later years as he became interested in 
this major art form of his culture. 

David Lasisi, then called Galip, in his mother's arms. Photo 
taken in 1954, when David was about one week old. 

A Visitor from New Ireland 

Last July, a young man from Lossu, in 
New Ireland, visited Field Museum, 
partly to see me, partly to see the col- 
lection from his home culture. Lossu is 
the village I have studied, in 1953-54 
and 1970, and David Lasisi is the first 
person from that village to come to Chi- 
cago. Over the years I have daydreamed 
about possible visitors from Lossu, 
wondering who it would be, a political 
figure, a teacher, someone coming to 
study at an American university. It 
turned out that David is an artist, a 
printmaker, poet, and actor, but pri- 
marily a sculptor. Because I have been 
studying the art of New Ireland, I was 
delighted that the first Lossu visitor 
was an artist. 

Phillip Lewis, Chairman of the Department of Anthropology, and Field Museum 
visitor David Lasisi. artist from Lossu, New Ireland. They are holding a malang- 
gan carving from New Ireland. Each of the four heads on the 70-year-old carving re- 
presents a deceased person who was honored in the ceremony for which the carving 
was made. 

Malanggan is the name given to the 
splendid carved and painted sculpture 
made and used for certain memorial 
ceremonials, also called malanggan. 

When I first heard that a Lossuan 
was coming to Chicago, and his name 
was David Lasisi. I didn't know who 
he was! I checked the census and genea- 
logies compiled by me in 1953-54, and 
1970, when I was last in Lossu. It was 
only when David Lasisi finally arrived 
in person that I was able to place him on 
my genealogies. He turned out to be 
Galip, the second child of Judas and 
Rakel, and was a member of the Sak- 
wila clan. I even found a note penned in 
red ink in 1970 "David, away at 
Rabaul." Thus, I had not met him in 
1970, when he was a teenager away at 
school, and not living in Lossu. 

When he did arrive at the Museum, 
we talked about much in the two days 
he was here: he saw our New Ireland col- 
lection, and I promised to send him an 
enlarged photograph of his father, 
Judas, who had died recently, so that 
David can make a tombstone with his 
father's image sculptured in cement. 
I was very pleased to see that he had 
developed into an articulate, vital young 
man. His government and the former 
Australian territorial government are 
to be congratulated for educating him, 
and our own government, too, deserves 
credit for making possible his trip to the 
United States. Especially noteworthy 
is the fact that he has been encouraged 
to be an artist, who may carry on his 
country's fantastic artistic achieve- 
ments and to strike out into new paths 
of art. 

— Phillip Lewis 


Department of Anthropology 

Freeman Joins Mammals Staff 

Patricia W. Freeman has been named 
assistant curator of mammals. Prior to 
her Field Museum appointment. Dr. 
Freeman was a scientific assistant at 
the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York. She obtained her doc- 
torate earlier this year from the Univer- 
sity of New Mexico, where her research 
included evolution in bats. 

Members' Nights for Spring. 1978 

Field Museum's traditional Members' 
Nights, originally scheduled for October 
6 and 7, have been postponed to spring, 
1978. The postponement is deemed 
necessary because many of the areas in 
the curatorial departments will be in 
the midst of renovation, making the 
accommodation of large numbers of 
visitors difficult or impossible. How- 
ever, by spring of next year enough of 
the renovation work will be completed 
so that the customarily large Members' 
Night crowds will be able to visit all 

Gamelan Is Coming to Town! 

Restoration of the Museum's Sunda- 
nese (West Javanese) gamelan is Hear- 
ing completion, the gamelan is an en- 
semble of 23 musical instruments con- 
sisting of bronze and wood sounding 
parts supported by polychrome sculp- 
ture frames. The Museum's gamelan 
was performed in daily concerts during 
the World's Columbian Exposition of 
1893 and is part of the third group of 
anthropological artifacts to be acces- 
sioned by the Museum when it was first 

Field Museum's gamelan appears to 
be the oldest — about 130 years old — and 
one of the finest complete gamelan out- 
side of Java. It is the only known game- 
lan in which the sculptures represent 
the total view of the Javanese concept 
of the cosmos. This same ensemble was 
recorded during the 1893 exposition on 
33 wax cylinders. These have been pre- 
served and are now in the Library of 

As soon as the restoration and Hght 
tuning of the instruments have been 
finished, and additional instruments 
arrive from Java, the gamelan will be 
played in concert and placed on display. 

A troup from Sunda will perform on 
some of the instruments in James Simp- 
son Theatre in November (exact dates 
to be announced). Educational pro- 
grams will include the instructing of 
local musicians and music students, 
with a debut performance of the entire 
23-instrument gamelan scheduled for 

Louis Pomerantz, internationally 
known art conservator, is responsible 

for the artistic and structural restora- 
tion of the instruments. Ernst Heins, of 
Amsterdam, an ethnomusicologist and 
renowned gamelan expert, is special 
external adviser. Sue Carter-De Vale, an 
ethnomusicologist and professional 
harpist (whose doctoral dissertation 
was on Field Museum's gamelan), is 
program and research director. Bennet 
Bronson, Field Museum's associate 
curator of Asian archaeology and ethno- 
logy, is project director. 

Richard Leakey to Speak 

Noted anthropologist-paleontologist 
Richard E. Leakey will give an illus- 
trated lecture at Field Museum on Fri- 
day, Oct. 28, at 7:30 p.m. in James 
Simpson Theatre. He will also auto- 
graph copies of his Origins, coauthored 
with Roger Lewin and published in 
October by E. P. Dutton. 

Leakey is director of the National 
Museums of Kenya and the son of 
famed anthropologists Louis and Mary 
Leakey. He has continued his parents' 
pioneering field work in East Africa; in 
1972 his team unearthed fossil "1470," 
the oldest complete skull of early man, 
which is credited with pushing back 
humankind's known origins some two 
million years. 

His excavations at Lake Turkana in 
northern Kenya suggest that perhaps 
three or even more species of primitive 
hominids existed simultaneously in the 
same geographic region millions of 
years ago. Why "our" line— Homo- 
survived while others vanished is the 
central question of Leakey's and 
Lewin 's new Origins. 

The book was recently awarded the 
"Man in His Environment Book 
Award," created to stimulate the writ- 
ing of good books on ecological themes 
for a popular readership. Origins is 
available at the Museum Shops; $17.95, 
10 percent discount for members. 


Rounds II through IV 

By Alan Solem 

A favorite saying of a distinguished former chief curator 
of zoology at Field Museum, Wilfred H. Osgood, was 
"No zoologist should ever go anywhere for the first 
time." He meant that you went with preconceptions. 
Your first visit involved getting reoriented, shedding 
ideas, finding new ones, and generally learning how to 
operate effectively. By the end of your first visit you 
think you know what you are doing. Then, back at the 
Museum, when you study the specimens, you receive all 
kinds of surprises. Only then do you know what you 
should have been doing in the field from the beginning 
and you would give a great deal to "do it over again." 
Unfortunately, usually you can't. 

This saying came to my mind time and time again as 
from January through April, I dissected, measured, 
identified, classified, and described many of the land 
snail species I had collected in the Kimberley from Sep- 
tember to Christmas of last year. Because of my 1974 
collecting in the Pilbara Region of Western Australia, I 
could and did operate effectively in survey collecting 
through the Kimberley, but actual study produced a 
great many surprises. Snails collected under the same 
rocks and logs that in the field had looked alike to all 
malacologists who visited the Mitchell Plateau (myself, 
Barry Wilson, Fred Wells, Laurie Price, Shirley Slack- 
Smith, and Carl Christensen) turned out to differ widely 
in anatomy and to belong to distinct species ; what looked 
in the field like a series of variable species along the 
-,,.,.,. - Ningbing Range turned out to include three very distinct 

In the Napier Range, in March, after regeneration during wet Alan Solem is curator of invertebrates. His "Kimberley Snail 
season. Hunt — Round I" appeared in the March, 1977, Bulletin. 


A slope in the Napier Range, in October, after being burned. 

genera that showed complex convergences in shell struc- 
ture; and patterns of variation in anatomy proved far 
more complex than had been anticipated. 

The success of "Round Two" in Perth (museum study) 
was in large measure due to illustrator Elizabeth Lieb- 
man, whose sharp eye and skilled hands could translate 
my dissections into two-dimensional drawings, retaining 
essentials of structure and presenting contrasts and com- 
parisons far better than camera or words could hope to 
achieve. Always present in my mind was the knowledge 
that "Round Three" — wet season field work on the 
fringes of the Kimberley — was proceeding, and that 
"Round Four"— a last session in the field — had to be 
planned for and activated. About 40 species, of the 
perhaps 125 total, were measured, dissected, illustrated, 
and preliminary descriptions typed and edited while in 

A stream of letters to Carl Christensen, graduate stu- 
dent from the University of Arizona, and Laurie Price, 
field associate of Field Museum from Kaitaia, New Zea- 
land, suggested problems, asked for specimens, for- 
warded data, and hoped for news of rain. Situated at 
Napier Downs Station, about 100 miles east of Derby, 
they were attempting to find out how the many snails of 
the Napier Range behaved once the rains came and they 
could enter this season of activity. 

My collecting had been, of necessity, in the late dry 
season. Live snails could be found sealed to rocks or 
buried in soil, sitting and waiting for the rains to come. 
The late start of the rains meant that we could get about 
and into areas for snail "prospecting," but there were 
disadvantages. As a collector, I could obtain live speci- 
mens unless the annual burning of the vegetation had 
fried all live snails within rock pile excavation hmits. But 

these snails were sitting, waiting for rains to come. What 
would they feed on? How quickly would they activate? 
When would they mate? How quickly would eggs be laid? 
When would young appear? How often would they be 
active? How fast would they grow? In short, how they 
would go about the ordinary processes of living, once 
rains gave them the opportunity to be active. As a biolo- 
gist, I needed a different set of data. 

So a team of malacologists joined a team of mammalo- 
gists. Laurel Keller (technical assistant at Field Muse- 
um) and Roger Buick (technical assistant at Western 
Australian Museum), for the wet season at Napier 
Downs. And here we had a classic demonstration of the 
capricious nature and unpredictability of weather in a 
semiarid cUmate. The rains came late, hghtly, and only 
touched small areas at first. Just as I was packing to 
leave the Kimberley before Christmas, a line squall 
dumped a half-inch of rain on part of a slope. In October 
and the day before, I had spent a total of 8 fruitless hours 
in search for live specimens of one species. Within 20 
minutes after the rain stopped, 50 snails could be seen 
crawling on the rock faces where the rain had penetrated 
the deep crevices into which they had retreated months 
before. Where the driving rain had not hit rock faces, no 
snails were seen. 

Often the wet season begins with a two-to-four-inch 
soaking, but in 1976-77, such rains did not come to the 
Napier Range until February, a record late arrival. The 
short, wind-driven showers had activated small parts of 
the populations piecemeal, and detection of overall 
patterns of activity was more than difficult. 

Matching the late rains in the Kimberley, was a total 
lack of rain near Perth and in the southwest part of 
Western Australia. I had planned opportunistic field 
work in this region as rains came, and was chagrined to 
find Perth enter and complete its driest summer in 72 
years. No rain fell in Perth between mid-December and 
May 1, for a new record of dryness. Nice for beach activi- 
ties, but hard on crops and devastating to snails. Areas 
sampled in 1974 were revisited, with twice the field time 
producing a quarter of the live specimens. 

Meanwhile, dissections of snails collected in October 
had revealed a complex and interesting series of varia- 
tions in species from the Mitchell Plateau, a mountain of 
bauxite scheduled to be developed by AMAX Corpora- 
tion. A comprehensive survey of this area by staff of the 
Western Australian Museum and Field Museum had 
yielded very important late dry season data. What were 
the snails and mammals doing reproductively in the late 
wet season? Nobody knew. So Darryl Kitchener, curator 
of mammals at the Western Australian Museum, and I 
proposed a short wet season survey, involving three 
mammalogists and three malacologists. Generous 
support in the form of transportation, vehicle use on the 

Mitchell Plateau, housing, and "tucker" (Australian 
slang for "food") was provided by AMAX Corporation. 

So early in March, two Western Australian Museum 
mammalogists and I flew north, joining Laurel Keller and 
the two student malacologists in Derby. We then received 
object lessons in the power of wet season weather. 
Cyclone Karen battered first the coast near the Mitchell 
Plateau, then the coast far south of Derby. The plane that 
was to fly us into the Mitchell Plateau was stranded by 
high winds 1,000 miles south for two days. At last the 
plane arrived, our gear was loaded, and then news came 
that the airstrip at the Mitchell Plateau was washed out 
and we couldn't go. Five days later, we did get five people 
into the Mitchell Plateau. They enjoyed excellent collect- 
ing, and then were stranded on the Mitchell Plateau for 
four days by Cyclone Leo. The mammalogists flew to 
Perth, but the two malacologists were to drive a land- 
rover south, sampling snail populations on their way. 
After five months in the bush, the thought of a return to 
civilization was more than enticing. Unfortunately, 

"The success of "Round Two" in Perth . . . was in large measure 
due to illustrator Elizabeth Liebman. whose sharp eye and 
skilled hands could translate my dissections into two-dimen- 
sional drau'ings. " 

Sunset on Avers Rock, Central Australia 

Cyclone Leo had turned a 100-yard river into a raging 
five-mile wide torrent, washing out both highway and 
railroad bridges on March 24. It was April 7 before ap- 
proaches to the railroad bridge could be repaired, allow- 
ing the landrover to start south. Excellent collections 
resulted from the wet season activity, but clearly Round 
Three was thoroughly controlled by the weather. 

Meanwhile the drought continued in the south, and 
dissections revealed more and more interesting things in 
the Kimberley. Originally I had planned to collect along 
the south coast and across the Nullarbor, then go up to 
Alice Springs and join colleagues from Melbourne, Vic- 
toria, and Mt. Gambler, South Australia, for the last seg- 
ment of field work in Australia. But the severe drought 
conditions meant that mostly I would be collecting dead 
shells on the way. To drive to Alice Springs via the 
Kimberley would add only 1,500 kilometers, permit re- 
visiting many populations and getting early dry season 
samples (What was the reproductive condition of adults? 
Were there size classes of juveniles? Where were they 
sheltering? Was food stored undigested in the stomach? 
and many other questions), plus get further into the 
Ningbing and associated areas. This seemed scientifically 
far more profitable. 

Early in May, collections to date and gear were packed 
for shipment from Perth to Chicago, illustrator Elizabeth 
Liebman was left with mounds of drawings to complete, 
and a reduced field team of Laurel Keller, myself, and a 

whippet puppy named "Lucky" headed north on "Round 
Four." From the harsh burned landscape of the dry 
season to the lush green just after the wet season was a 
shocking contrast visually. Snails were incredibly abun- 
dant near the surface of rock piles, and sampling from 
known colonies was quickly completed. A few hectic days 
in the Ningbing Range, a dash through the Tenami 
Desert to Alice Springs, then 10 days of collecting 
between Alice Springs and Ayers Rock. My last field 
station in Australia was at Mt. Olga in the late afternoon 
—yet another new species — and finally the spectacular 
view of sunset on Ayers Rock. A grueling four-day drive 
to Melbourne (5 flat tires, 2 completely wrecked), pack- 
ing, two hectic weeks of study at museums in Melbourne 
and Sydney, and then the Australian Field Program was 

As I write this, the joint shipment of gear from Perth, 
65 cases of mollusk, mammal, insect, and fossil mammal 
specimens has just arrived at Field Museum and cleared 
customs. It now can be unpacked and study resumed. 
Ideas are fermenting, manuscript accumulating, and the 
impressions and knowledge gained through months in 
the field will be tested in the lab over the next two years. 
And then back to the field, to areas that time limits pre- 
vented visiting, to places not visited because of drought, 
and to test out new theories gained from the studies 
under way. For knowledge is cumulative and the ques- 
tions raised will outnumber those answered. 




By Dale J. Osborn 

A record not to be found in the 
Guinness Book of Records but 
remarkable, nonetheless, is that of 
Pere David's deer: the animal has 
survived in captivity for more than 
3,000 years, having died out in its 
natural habitat— the swamps of 
northern China— during the Shang 
dynasty (1766-1122 B.C.). This ex- 
tirpation of the species occurred 
when the lowlands were drained and 
converted to productive crop land; 
it may well be the first known in- 
stance of such destruction by man. 

Fortunately, the species was 
perpetuated on the private, enclosed 
grounds of an imperial park not far 
from Peking. There was plenty of 
room for them in the park, as it was 
some 40 miles in circumference, all 
enclosed by a high wall, built about 
A.D. 1400. 

The first Westerner known to 
have seen the deer was Pere Jean 
Pierre Armand David (1826-1900), a 
French Lazarist missionary who 
collected thousands of zoological 
and botanical specimens during his 
years in the Orient. Of special note 
were his discovery of the giant 
panda and the Roxellana, or snow, 
monkey, both of which he found 
in Szechuan Province. 

One day in 1866, Pere David 
peered over the imperial park wall— 
its grounds being strictly off limits 
to foreigners— to see a large herd of 
"gentle animals with a foolish ex- 

DaleJ. Osborn is curator of special pro- 
jects at Brook field Zoo. 

The eleventh duke of Bedford, who may well be credited with saving the Pere David's 
deer from extinction, described them as having "a solemn and somewhat melancholy 
expression. " 

pression, . . . the feet of a camel, 
and the elongated tail of certain 
antelopes," he wrote in his diary. 
"The Pekinese call it ssu-pu-hsiang- 
'four dissimilarities.' " 

So eager was Pere David to obtain 
specimens of the ssu-pu-hsiang 
(also called milu in Chinese) that he, 
or his intermediaries, bribed guards 

into smuggling the skin and bones 
of two carcasses out of the park, 
knowing that the guards were not 
loathe to do a bit of poaching for 
themselves. He sent the remains 
to the Paris Academy of Science, 
where French naturalist Alphonse 
Milne Edwards noted that the 
animal's features were closer to 


Pere David's deer as shown in Alphonse Milne Edwards original paper on the species (1866). 




^!5?wPT*^5Q|Br ' 

•*>'' CT> "■ ' ■"•% ■^ 

'•' ' " ^M J 

•^^'Hw ■**■-* -^« '■'* 

Fi/// grown mate Pere David's deer are about 48 inches high at 
the shoulder and weigh more than 400 lbs. 

those of the European red deer (elk, or wapiti, in North 
America) than to those of the reindeer. He wrote that its 
coat resembled the reindeer's, but its nose and skull were 
more like the deer's. It differed from the latter, however, 
in the branching of the antlers and the length of the tail. 
He named it Elaphurus davidianus, after the priest. It 
comprised a new genus as well as a new species. 

Shortly after P^re David secured the skin and bones 
he was able to get three live animals through the offices 
of the French charge d'affaires. These were kept on the 
embassy grounds for nearly two years, then shipped to 
the London Zoological Society. They died en route, 

In August 1869, thanks to Peking's British legation, 
another young pair of deer was secured, and these 
managed to survive the long journey to England. During 
the next year or so the French and British shipped 
enough additional animals to stock several British and 
European zoos. The small groups continued to breed 
often enough to just about maintain themselves. 

Some years after P^re David's discovery, two catas- 

trophes nearly wiped out the large imperial park herd. 
In 1894 a severe flood caused the collapse of a section of 
the park wall and most of the deer escaped, only to be 
killed by local peasants. Six years later, during the Boxer 
Rebellion, the few deer remaining in the park were nearly 
exterminated by British soldiers who broke into the park 
and machinegunned the herd to prevent the Chinese 
insurgents from using them for food. The survivors of 
this slaughter were taken to Peking where the last one 
died in 1921. 

In 1900 the eleventh duke of Bedford, recognizing the 
plight of the Pere David's deer, requested that European 
zoos send their breeding stock to the 3,000-acre Woburn 
Abbey Park, in England. The zoos responded warmly 
and a herd of 16 to 18 was acquired. This was the first 
known instance of zoos cooperating to save an endan- 
gered species. 

During World War I the species again had a close 
brush with extinction when starvation and a disease of 
the intestinal wall nearly wiped out the Woburn herd. 
Later the disease became so prevalent in a herd of Jap- 
anese sika deer in the park that they were destroyed to 
prevent reinfecting the Pere David's. 

By 1922 the Woburn herd, having recovered, num- 
bered 47 adults, plus 17 fawns born in that year alone. 
In 1935 the herd had increased to more than 200. The deer 
showed no ill effects from intensive inbreeding, with the 
possible exception of two albinos. 

In 1945 the twelfth duke of Bedford decided that 
herds should be established elsewhere in order to mini- 
mize the danger of epidemics. Two male calves were sent 
to Whipsnade, a spacious enclosure belonging to the Lon- 
don Zoological Society. The following year two female 
calves joined them, and in 1947 one of them gave birth to 
the first Pere David deer born outside Woburn in nearly 
50 years. 

In 1956 the London Zoo sent four specimens to a 
place near the origin of their ancestors: the Peking Zoo. 
Surplus animals were regularly sent to other zoos and by 
1963 the world population of the species was about 400. 
Today there are more than 700. Virtually every major 
zoo in the world has a small herd, and the deer is found in 
such far-flung places as Edmonton, Alberta; Lago 
Hermoso, Argentina; Pretoria, South Africa; and Mel- 
bourne and Sydney, Australia. The first Pere David's 
deer to arrive in this country came from Woburn to the 
Bronx Zoo in 1946. Brookfield Zoo, near Chicago, ac- 
quired its first pair from Woburn in 1950 and now has 

The Chinese name, "four dissimilarities," is totally 
apt, for many features of Pere David's deer differ from 
those of even its closest relatives. The deer lacks a white 
rump patch and is the only species with a long tail tuft; 
in Pere David's it may reach the hocks. The antlers are 
unique in that they appear to be set backwards on the 


head. The hoofs are large and spreading, and the dew- 
claws— the first digits on the hind feet — are excep- 
tionally large, an adaptation to the animal's original 
marshy habitat. Such large spreading hoofs also occur in 
other swamp dwellers — the barasingha, or swamp deer, 
of India and the sitatunga, or swamp buck, of Africa — as 
well as in the reindeer. In comparison with the elk and red 
deer, Pere David's has small ears, a narrower and more 
elongate head, and a straighter profile. The face was 
described by the eleventh duke of Bedford as having "a 
solomn and somewhat melancholy expression which is 
enhanced by the Pere David's habit of spending long 
periods just standing about doing nothing in particular. 

The call of a rutting Pere David's stag is not like the 
"roar" of a red deer stag, but rather a "bray." The animal 
is also more prone to "bark" when alarmed. Early in the 
rut, before the velvet peels from the antlers, males may 
fight with their teeth; they will also rear onto the hind 
legs, "boxing" with the forefeet like red deer. The two 
species also share the habit of wallowing. Antlered Pere 
David's use the long back tines for digging. By turning 
the head sideways and digging downward, they scoop up 
mud and deposit it on their backs. 

Unlike the red deer, Pere David's seek shade in sum- 
mer, feed on reeds and other water plants, wade into 
lakes, and swim in deep water. In this respect they are 
even more aquatic than the Chinese water deer. 

The gait of Pere David's is a stiff- legged creep remini- 
scent of that of the African swamp buck. One observer 

described it as "slow and stately," and called the deer's 
faster gait a "lolloping trot." The peculiarities of the 
deer's locomotion is further emphasized by a "crackling" 
of the hoofs, as in giraffes and reindeer. 

The comments of zoo visitors, on seeing these deer 
for the first time, are about as complimentary as those in 
the priest's own diary or the descriptions of the duke of 
Bedford: "What funny-looking deer!" "Why do they 
walk so slowly?" "They walk like their feet hurt." "Look 
at that one covered with mud. Ugh! ' ' 

The fate of the ssu-pu-hsiang has also become the 
fate of many more wild animals. Hundreds of species are 
on the brink of extinction as the result of being crowded 
into smaller and smaller areas. This of course is the con- 
sequence of man's constantly expanding his own living 
area and his ever-increasing demand for more crop land, 
more space for grazing domestic animals and timber- 
productive forests. 

A close relative of Pere David's deer, the Formosan 
deer, has also died out in its natural habitat but survives 
in captivity. Przewalski's horse, found in zoos, is close to 
extinction in the wild. Zoos have been instrumental in the 
restoration of the European bison, or wisent, in the 
forests of Poland. Our own North American bison, close 
to extinction at the start of this century, has also been 
restored to a healthy status on national parks and ranges. 
But there is a limit to man's capacity to restore and to 
accommodate the special needs of the very animals that 
he has pushed so close to extinction. 

Pere David's fawns 
are spotted like the 
fawns of other deer ^ 
and elk 

Courtesy Brookfield Zoo 


In the Daxe of the 

By Florence Johnson 

Dateline: Chicago. "King Tuts Exhibit 
set an oddball record at the Field Mu- 
seum. Anyone who got in line after 5 
a.m. Tuesday didn't get to see Tutsville 
that day." 

It was 4:30 a.m. — two days earlier 
— when we got in line. Amber arch 
lamps lighted the expressway through 
the sleeping city as we made our way 
from suburban Arlington Heights to 
the trafficked loop downtown. It seemed 
ridiculous to be wandering around the 
big city at such an unearthly hour but 
we had only one purpose in mind when 
we decided to spend the weekend in 
Chicago: to see the Treasures of Tut- 
ankhamun, regardless of the cost. If, 
as the ads said, this was the exhibit we 
had been waiting for since 1325 B.C., 
then what difference would it make 
what time we started out or if we had 
any sleep at all? 

Word had it that those arriving by 
7 a.m. were not getting in although the 
doors would not be open for another two 
hours. Only a week remained for the 
showing in Chicago, and it would take 
nothing less than dogged endurance to 
get in. Yet, as we neared the parking 
area, the thought crossed our minds 
that such an early venture might be 
completely uncalled for. How many, 
like us, would actually line up for an 
ancient Egyptian exhibit in the wee 
morning hours? 

But, to our amazement, there they 
were in startling relief beneath the 
marbled Corinthian columns of the Field 
Museum — row upon row of covered 
bodies sprawled on the ground, encased 
in sleeping bags, snuggled in quilts, 
slumped in folding lawn chairs, hidden 
under plastic tents. Other shadowy 
figures paced aimlessly, being careful 
that no one would usurp their squatter's 

Parking lots were jammed. Hordes 

Florence Johnson is publicity director 
for Bethel College and Seminary, St. 
Paul, Minnesota. 

of people emerged from cars, carrying 
armloads of outdoor gear and bleary- 
eyed children dragged from their beds. 
In the mass confusion surrounding the 
museum, it was difficult to determine 
where one line ended and another began. 
Clearly, two lines descended each stair- 
way at the north and south doors but 
then merged somewhere together on the 
east and west sides of the building. 
So it seemed wise to ask a policeman 
where we should go. "If I were you," 
he advised, "I'd go home. More people 
are already around here than can pos- 
sibly get in." But we couldn't turn back, 
not at 4:30 a.m. (In the back of our 
minds, however, was an alternate plan. 
If we didn't make it on Sunday, there 
would be Monday to try again.) 

Walking a block to the east, half 
a block north and another half block 
toward the building, we finally found an 
end to a line and unloaded our stuff on 
the ground. Twenty feet away from us 
were a dozen portable toilets which had 
been specially installed for the waiting 
crowds. Incessant banging of the doors 
sounded like the volley of a gun. Within 
an hour, lines were forming even to get 
into the Johns. 

Camaraderie developed as people 
melded into groups. Our immediate 
circle included two young women with 
an unending supply of bologna sand- 
wiches, a couple from India in light 
clothing who expected the day to be 
hot, and a smiling middle-aged couple 
who observed the passing scene from 
folding chairs and said nary a word. 

Stretching out under the trees, we 
occupied ourselves with people- 
watching and scanning the horizon for 
signs of the sun. Chilly air swept inland 
from Lake Michigan while occasional 
flashes of lightning signaled an ap- 
proaching storm. As we looked around, 
we couldn't help ask ourselves what we 
were doing out here at 5 a.m.! Rain 
pattered on the leaves and dripped in- 
discriminately on cowering bodies 
below. Now we knew how hippies must 
feel, sprawled on the ground in damp. 

dusty clothes. But we, at least, had a 
hot thermos of coffee and cinnamon 
rolls to help keep us warm. 

Shivering in the cold, the lady from 
India pulled her cotton sari tighter 
around her body and arms. "Would you 
like some coffee?" we asked. But she 
politely refused. "I'd hate to have to use 
one of those awful stalls," she con- 
fessed. We learned that this was their 
third attempt to get into the museum. 
"My husband said we can't afford to go 
to Cairo (although there are four other 
American cities where the exhibit is yet 
to go)* so if ever I'm going to see the 
treasures, it has to be now." Their two 
children were left snug in their beds 
with a sitter at home in Indiana. When 
asked what time they would return, 
they simply replied: "Later." 

As the rain increased, umbrellas 
popped up and our circle of people 
draped a plastic sheet over their heads 
as they sat in a huddle playing cards. 
Enterprising children walked by, selling 
donuts and Koolaid while others found 
their refreshments at a snack stand 
near the head of the line. At 7:30, in the 
pouring rain, we finished our coffee, 
sitting back-to-back with an umbrella 
over our heads as the water dripped 
down on our legs. Presently a policeman 
came along and encouraged people to 
move closer together to prevent late- 
comers from crashing the Unes. This 
exercise was repeated regularly, and 
we seemed to make great strides for- 
ward although the width of the line 
broadened significantly each time. 

* Treasures of Tutankhamun will be on 
view at the New Orleans Museum of Art 
September 15 through January 15, 
1978, the Los Angeles County Museum 
of Art February 15 through June 15, 
the Seattle Art Museum July 15 
through November 15, 1978, and the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York City December 15, 1978, through 
April 15, 1979. 


G€>od King Tut,,. 

A continual stream of people moved 
alongside, heading toward the front 
entrance. Were they just milling about 
to stretch their legs, going up to get 
information or food, or barging in ahead 
of us all? It appeared the latter was 
happening more often than not and that 
in the anonymity of the crowd it was 
difficult to determine who rightfully 
belonged in line. 

The crowd welcomed every bit of 
information that was passed along. 
"Did you hear that the museum is losing 
money on the exhibit?" "How can that 
be with a million people already getting 
in?" "But we heard it cost a milUon just 
to get the exhibit," another said. People 
even were eager to receive a gospel 
tract, thinking it was exhibit infor- 
mation to be read in advance. 

By 8:00 it had stopped raining, 
but the sky was overcast and the air 
clammy and cool. Most of the crowd 
now was standing, slowly inching their 
way up the line. For entertainment we 
watched an Irish setter bounding 
through the grass playing fetch with 
his master and early morning traffic and 
joggers going back and forth along the 
Outer Drive — all to the tune of a 
blaring rock radio station which an- 
noyed everyone around. 

Suddenly a burst of enthusiasm 
rose from the crowd. The museum was 
opening half an hour ahead of schedule 
and now the procession began a steady 
move. As the minutes raced by, pro- 
gress reports were announced from the 
door. "There is now a four-hour wait 
to see the exhibit." Let's see — the 
museum is open from 9 to 9 so that 
means eight hours of people can still 
get in. 

Standing was more common than 
walking now, and doubts kept coming 
to mind. How many people crashed the 
line ahead of us? Another announce- 
ment. "Six hour waiting time for the 
Tut exhibit." People now were de- 
scending the museum steps, walking 
briskly with a confident look. 

"Did you get tickets?" we asked 
as they passed by. Nodding yes, we 
further inquired as to the exact time 
they got in line. 

As we approached the bottom of 
the steps, another call came forth: 
"Eight hour wait to see Tut." At least 
a hundred people were ahead of us, we 
estimated, and that number would be 
multiplied four times by each of the 
lines — plus those reserved tours which 
were being admitted at the west en- 
trance. Moving up each step, our spirits 
rose until finally at 10 o'clock we set 
foot inside the door. They couldn't cut 
us off now, could they?. . . 

before — 5 % hours after we first got in 
line — were numbered 5,270 and 5,271, 
and these we presented seven hours 
later at the entry to the Tut exhibit and 
then walked right in. Meanwhile, we 
left the museum, drove back to Arling- 
ton Heights, made a quick change of 
clothes, sat mesmerized during an 
hour-long church service, and had a 
light noontime snack plus a brief after- 
noon nap before returning to the mu- 
seum to claim our reward. 

"Treasures of Tutankhamun is the 
most important and beautiful exhibition 
of ancient Egyptian art ever to come to 
the United States." So reads the fore- 
word to the souvenir booklet describing 
this display. How important? How 
beautiful to the nearly million and a 
half people who saw it at Chicago's 
Field Museum? For me, important and 
beautiful enough to spend weeks of 
dreaming, hours of waiting, and forever 
wanting to see it again. 

Tut in Retrospect 

"Treasures of Tutankhamun" has 
moved on to the New Orleans Museum 
of Art, after establishing itself as the 
most popular temporary cultural exhi- 
bit in Chicago's history, drawing more 
than 1.348,000 viewers. Total Field 
Museum attendance during the four- 
month period of the exhibit was 
1,742,000. Field Museum's neighboring 
institutions, the Shedd Aquarium and 
the Adler Planetarium, experienced 
attendance increases of 55 to 70 percent 
during June and July, much of which 
may be attributed to Tut's presence. 
The Oriental Institute, which cospon- 
sored the exhibit, also had a great in- 
crease in attendance. The Tut gift shop, 
specializing in Tut-related merchan- 
dise, had total sales of $3,364,000. 

In response to the exhibit, a great 
many viewers, members and nonmem- 
bers ahke, wrote to express their grati- 
tude, excitement, or pleasure. Following 
are some of their comments: 

. . . What can I say to let you know how 
magnificent an experience this was; 
may I add my plaudits and thank you: 
the photographs were outstanding they 
brought the discovery of the tomb to 
hfe. the audio tour was excellent and the 
actual items from the tomb breath- 

The whole presentation of the ex- 
hibit was done in a first rate manner, 
from the design and layout which gave 
the impression of actually entering the 
tomb, to the photographs which gave 
the feeling of sharing the moments of 
discovery and the excitement of the find 
and even the way the crowd was han- 
dled in entering the Field Museum itself. 

What a pleasure it is to find some- 
thing so rare done on such a plane of 

Toledo, Ohio 

. . . Bravos and accolades for your han- 
dling of the Treasures of Tutankhamun 
exhibit . . . This has been handled in the 
most professional and exemplary man- 
ner of anything in my memory. It is a 
pleasure to be a member. My most 
hearty congratulations on this most 
superb offering . 

Oak Park. II. 

. . . Congratulations on the amazing new 
'King Tut' exhibition. It is museology 
at its most expert peak. 


. . . Courtesy and unfailing kindness 
were shown during my visits to see King 
Tut. Finally made it on the third try! 

- B.M.H. 

. . . We were not only thrilled with the 
King Tut Exhibit but, as always, we 
came away grateful for the Field Mu- 

We were struck by the pleasant at- 
titude and the kindUness of Museum 
personnel throughout the day. Wher- 
ever we strolled there were crowds and 
a quiet spirit of an enjoyable learning 
experience. We came away happy to be 
a small part of it . 

- R.B.H. 

Quincy, It. 

... I can't remember another event of 
this magnitude and importance that 
has been handled so successfully. All of 
the effort and hard work has produced a 
truly outstanding event for which 
Chicago and its Field Museum can be 
proud . 

- E.J.F. 
Wilmette, II. 

. . . Please consider this letter as my ap- 
plication to join your wonderful organi- 
zation. I saw the "King Tut" exhibit . . . 
and was very much impressed with the 
wonderful work your organization is 
doing . 

- D.M.B. 

... it was superb in its presentation, 
imaginative and professional, but most 
of all I would Uke to commend everyone 
in the Museum for their courteous and 
pleasant attitude toward everyone. 
Thank you. I was truly impressed. 

Houston, Tex. 

... It was a refreshing and inspiring day 
in my Hfe. . . . 

- D.L.H. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

. . . Your maintenance staff is to be com- 
mended for doing on outstanding job 
under unbelievable conditions. I too, am 
responsible for a public building so I 
could appreciate what problems the 
tremendous crowds would cause . 

- G.J.Z. 

. . . Although I waited over five hours to 
actually see the display, there was none 
of the anxiety of useless line-waiting so 
often associated with vastly popular 
events. Your numbered ticket and TV 
monitor system was brilliantly logical 

New York 

. . . We arrived at the Field the day 
after King Tut closed, and rather ex- 
pected a scene of shambles and chaos. 
Instead, we found a very clean, orderly 
and calm museum. Even the cafeteria 
was clean and inviting . 

Arlington, Tex. 



i^' '^^•t^Tir'?*'^*--''*- 

^. < 

Feluccas on the banks of the Nile— photo taken on last year's tour 

Egijpt Tours for members 

Following last year's eminently successful (and fully 
booked!) tours to Egypt, tfie Field Museum and the Oriental 
Institute of Chicago are again sponsoring four tours to Egypt's 
legendary sites, with Chicago departures January through 
March. Major sites of the ancient Egyptian kingdoms— in- 
cluding the actual tomb of King Tutankhamun — will be visited. 

Each of the 19-day. 18-night tours, limited to 19 persons 
each (except that departing January 24. which will have 23). 
will be led by an Oriental Institute Egyptologist, a representative 
of the sponsoring institutions, and accompanied by a local 
Egyptian guide and a tour manager. 

In addition to the numerous historic sites, superb museum 
collections in Egypt will be visited, and special arrangements 
have been made to acquaint members first-hand with the acti- 

vities of the Epigraphic Survey at Chicago House. Luxor. There 
will also be a deluxe boat cruise between Aswan and Luxor. 
Tour dates are: Jan. 5 to 23. Jan. 24 to Feb. 11. Feb. 28 to 
March 18. March 27 to April 14. 

Total cost of each tour, per person, is $2,695.00. which in- 
cludes a tax-deductible contribution of $500.00 to Field Mu- 
seum/Oriental Institute. The price also includes air fare and all 
other transportation and transfers, hotels (double occupancy), 
and nearly all meals and gratuities. Itineraries, registration 
forms, and other information may be obtained by writing or 
calling Dorothy Roder. membership secretary, Field Museum 


On Location at the 1904 
St. Louis Fair: Charles H. 
Carpenter, then Field 
Museum 's photographer, 
records American Indians 
in their sadness and 

splendor ByManKoss 

Its COMMON KNOWLEDGE that Field Museum was large- 
ly an outgrowth of the World's Columbian Exposition of 
1893. Less well known is the fact that the Museum, 11 
years later, benefitted greatly from the Louisiana Pur- 
chase Exposition — the St. Louis Fair of 1904. After that 
fair's closing, the Museum acquired large collections of 
natural history specimens that had been exhibited there. 

Also acquired were several thousand photos taken at 
the fair by Charles H. Carpenter, the Museum's photo- 
grapher from 1899 to 1947. The photos— made with eight- 
by-ten-inch glass plate negatives— were of people repre- 
senting racial and ethnic types who were brought to the 
St. Louis Fair as "living exhibits" from around the 
world. Most of Carpenter's glass plates are today in the 
Museum's photograph file, which numbers several 
hundred thousand negatives. Carpenter's timing was 
both fortunate and sad, for many of those who posed 
for him at the fair represented societies that have now 
vanished and even then were on the verge of extinction. 

Of particular interest are Carpenter's photos of 
Native Americans. It is from this group, including men, 
women, and children of more than 20 North American 
tribes, that the photos reproduced here were selected. 
Even tribal leaders, who had distinguished themselves in 
warfare against the United States Army posed for Car- 
penter, among them Geronimo (at left). 

The Native American exhibits at the St. Louis Fair 
included workrooms and booths where artisans, such as 
the Pomo woman shown opposite, plied their respective 
crafts. Typical Native American dwellings were con- 
structed on the 1,240-acre fair site and included wig- 
wams, teepees, and even large timber-and-earth struc- 
tures such as the Pawnee lodge. (The design of the 
Pawnee earth lodge recently completed in Field Mu- 
seum's Hall 5 was based in part on Carpenter's photo- 
reproduced on page 25. ) 

Alan Koss is a Field Museum volunteer. 


Fair visitors peer through window and un- 
wittingly share Charles Carpenter's camera 
lens with a group of Cheyenne. 

-< Geronimo 11834-1909), Chiricahua Apache 
medicine man and prophet who led his peo- 
ple in uprisings against the U.S. govern- 
ment in the 1880s. A contemporary news- 
paper account noted that Geronimo ". . . was 
accompanied to the exposition by Captain 
Sayre of the U.S.A., under whose charge the 
eld Indian has been since his stay at Fort 
Sill. Geronimo spends the day in the Indian 
building at the World's Fair and as pastime 
writes his autograph for visitors. He has a 
special tepee in the Apache village and 
makes his home with his tribe at night . . . 
Long years of captivity have broken his 
spirit but he is still warlike, proud and erect, 
the true representative of a once powerful 
race. " 

Pomo Indian woman sewing a grass mat ^ 


Arapahoe Indian teepees set up on the fairgrounds 




k Indian trading post reconstructed as part of the 
fair's industrial exhibit. 

Young men of the Oglala Sioux tribe. >■ 

mA family of Oglala Sioux Indians. Note the 
combination of European and traditional dress 
and the Christian crosses worn by the mother 
and children. 



The Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Opens October 15 

Hall 5 is the site of Field Museum's spectacular new 
replica of a 19th-century Pawnee earth lodge, open 
to the public on Saturday, October 15. 

The museum's Pawnee earth lodge is 38 feet in 
diameter and 18 feet high at the central fire hole. 
Its traditional east-facing entryway is 16 feet long, 12 feet wide, 
and eight feet high. 

The Pawnee people built their earth lodge frames of 
Cottonwood tree trunks with willow lath. Prairie grass was 
secured to the willow lath and sod blocks were cut for outer 
walls. A mudlike mixture was used for the round portion of the 
roof area. The Field Museum's lodge is also constructed of 
Cottonwood, willow, and prairie grass. Only the sod blocks 
and roof area are of different material— dyed plaster. 

The replica will move visitors back in history to the 1850s 
when the Pawnee— hunters and farmers— lived in earth lodges 
along the Loup River in Nebraska. (The Pawnee Indians were 
forced to move westward from Nebraska to Oklahoma during 
the 1860s and 1870s. An "agreement" to move was signed 
by the Pawnee and U.S. government in 1859 as the result of 
settler expansion into Nebraska.) 

The earth lodge interior will be furnished with traditional 
buffalo robe-covered beds. Pawnee clothing, tools, weapons, 
and trade store items will be kept, as the Pawnee stored them, 
under beds, against wall posts, and suspended from the ceiling. 
Two holes in the center of the lodge recreate the essential 
fire hole and an underground food storage area. 

Original earth lodges, twice the size of the museum's 
replica, were constructed to shelter extended families of 30 to 





Fi/// s(>e Pawnee earth lodge built at the St. Louis Exposition 
of 1904. Photo by Field Museum photographer Charles Car- 
pen ter. 

* Interior of Field Museum's partially completed earth lodge 

Exterior of the partially completed earth lodge at Field Mu- 
seu m . 

50 people. The earth lodge at the Field Museum will seat 45 
visitors on its buffalo robe-covered beds and on the floor. It 
will be the environment for formal programs for museum visi- 
tors and preregistered groups of adults and school children. 

Members of the Pawnee (Oklahoma) tribe have gener- 
ously served as corib^-^iants to the creation of the earth lodge, 
have made some of its objects, and have participated in taping 
four programs of seasonal Pawnee activities and ceremonies 
of the middle 19th century. Members of the museum's educa- 
tion department and trained volunteers will add continuity to 
the programs. 

Dave Walsten 


Edwcird E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

October and November 

Saturdays. 2:30 p.m. 

This season's film lectures are to be held in James Simpson Theatre, 
renovated eariier this year. The entrance to the theatre is conve- 
niently located just inside the Museum's west entrance. This is of 
special interest to the handicapped, for the new west entrance is now 
at ground level and all steps between curbside and theatre have 
been eliminated. The west entrance also provides free admission to 
the theatre. Access to other Museum areas, however, requires the 
regular admission fee (except on Fridays) or membership identifi- 
cation. Plan to have dinner in the Museum's new dining area before 
attending the lectures. 

The illustrated lectures are approximately 90 minutes long and 
recommended for adults. Reserved seating is available for members 
and their families. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. 

October 1 

SWITZERLAND TODAY Presented fay Willis Butler 

Famous for its spectacular Alpine scenery, this highly industrialized little coun- 
try still retains its picturesque charm. In his latest film, Butler highlights Switzer- 
land's geography, history, economy, government, and sports. 

October 8 

COLORADO Presented by Frank Nichols 

Film highlights of Colorado include Dinosaur National Monument, Mesa 
Verde, the Royal Gorge, annual festivals and rodeos, and many other fasci- 
nating areas and events. 

October 15 


Presented fay Dennis Cooper 

Travel the rugged northwest coast through the Olympic rain forests up to the 
majestic Olympic Mountains— Rainer, Baker, and Hood. Cruise on the in- 
credible Cooper steamboat through Puget Sound and down the Snake River, 
Idaho. See a wilderness of wild animals, towering mountains, and white water. 

October 22 

October 29 


Presented fay Ed Lark 

Ceylon is an island of vast differences in geography, weather, people, and plant 
and animal life. Discover a beautiful country of tropical jungles, impressive 
mountains, rare gems, monsoons, gigantic reservoirs, and magnificent temples 
and stone carvings of Buddha as you tour its cities and villages, 

November 5 


Presented fay Dick Reddy 

Follow Mark Twain's travels as he rafted the Neckar River, visited Heidelberg 
Castle, Baden Baden, and other beautiful historic places from Berlin to the 
castles of King Ludwig II at Linderhof. 

November 12 


Presented fay Ralph Cerstle 

From snow-covered peaks to the mighty river, you explore Cartagena, a 
living museum of the colonial era: La Guajira and San Andres on the Carib- 
bean coast: modern Bogota with its skyscrapers, collections of Precolumbian 
artifacts and fabulous emeralds: Cali— its orchid farm and sugar cane: and 
San Agustin, Colombia's most interesting archaeological site. 

November 19 


Presented fay William Sylvester 

This is the story of people and places in and on both sides of the Alps, quaint 
villages, age-old traditions in the Alpine heartland, and the enchanting Rivieras 
along the Mediterranean. 

November 26 

A NEW NORWAY Presented by John Roberts 

A memorable journey through the land of modern Vikings shows us Norway's 
people, countryside, and way of life. Visit Stavanger and her industries of the 
sea: Bergen: Finnmark, home of the Lapps: Oslo the capital and cultural 
center: Telemark for skiing; and Geiranger one of the most photographed 
fjords in the world. 


Presented by Bob Roney 

A rich visual documentation of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and of man's 
way of viewing nature: from exploration to exploitation. 


October & November at Field Museum 


New Exhibits 

Pawnee Earth Lodge — opens October 15. Field Museum's 
newest permanent exhibit is a replica of a traditional Pawnee earth 
lodge— the home and ceremonial center as it existed in the mid- 
19th century. The circular lodge, symbolic of the universe, is con- 
structed of Cottonwood tree trunks with willow lath, prairie grass, 
and simulated mud Participatory formal programs (45 minutes) 
provide visitors with the opportunity to learn about daily Pawnee 
life while seated on buffalo robe-covered beds. Check museum 
electronic monitors for specific times. Hall 5. main floor. 

Contemporary Southern Plains Indian Metalwork— 

opens October 15. An exhibit of contemporary metalwork created 
by 15 outstanding Native American craftsmen from western Okla- 
homa. The 110 items comprise the first comprehensive exhibit 
documenting the historic development of an unusual Native Amer- 
ican craft technique, German silver metalwork. Check museum 
electronic monitors for specific location. Through January 15. 

Ayer Film/Lecture Series. Each Saturday, at 2:30 p.m.. sit 
back and enjoy a ninety-minute adventure in a remote or familiar 
area of the world. The films are personally narrated by their film 
makers. Reserved seating is available for members and their fami- 
lies. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. Simpson Theater, ground floor west. 
October 15 Northwestern Adventure: Idaho. Oregon. Wash- 
by Dennis Cooper 

October 22 A New Norway' 
by John Roberts 

October 29 Ceylon: The Magic Island 
by Ed Lark 

November 5 Cerman\,^ 

by Dick Reddy 

November 12 Columbia: From the Andes to the Amazon 
by Ralph Gerstle 

Iroquois Kitchen. This exhibit shows how traditional Native 
American ritual is preserved in a modern setting. Hall 5. main floor. 

Exotic Flyers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds. An exhibit 
of exquisite bird illustrations appearing in the recently published 
Manual of Neotropical Birds (University of Chicago Press). Vol. 1. 
by Emmet R. Blake, emeritus curator of birds. Hall K. ground floor. 
No closing date 

New Programs 

Native American Arts and Artists — October 15. 16, 17. Be- 
ginning at 9:30 a.m.. outstanding craftspeople will demonstrate 
traditional Indian arts: woodcarving, bonecarving, silverwork, bead- 
work, and quillwork. A rare opportunity to see artists at work and 
to ask questions. Check museum electronic monitors for specific 
times and locations. 

"Origins," An Illustrated Lecture— October 28. at 7:30 p.m 
Richard E. Leakey, director of the National Museums of Kenya and 
distinguished anthropologist and paleontologist, will present a lec- 
ture, with slides, of his pioneering and exciting study of human 
evolution. Mr. Leakey, son of Louis and Mary Leakey, will also 
autograph copies of his new book. Origins, following the lecture. 
Simpson Theater, ground floor west. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to feel, 
handle, sort, and compare natural history artifacts and specimens. 
Trained volunteers are on hand to help guide in exploration. Open 
weekdays. 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; weekends. 10 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m. 
to 3 p.m. Ground floor, near the new cafeteria. No closing date. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. The exhibit where 
visitors become anthropologists. Examine 38 artifacts, decide 
which were used by men. by women, or by both sexes. Discover 
that economic and social roles of the sexes are not universally the 
same. Ground floor, near the elevator. No closing date. 

Autumn Journey: Cook's Tour. Self-guided tour leads chil- 
dren through the museum's exhibits of Plains Indians, Woodland 
Indians, and Indians of California to learn about their food, cooking 
utensils, recipes, and food preparation. Free Journey; pamphlets 
are available at the information booths, main floor. Through No- 
vember 30. 

On Your Own. Adult- and family-oriented self-guided tour book- 
lets are available, for 25 cents, at the entrance to the Museum 
Shop, main floor north. Adult series: Animals in Eg{^ptian Mythol- 
ogy. The Iroquois: Culture in Transition, and China in the Ch'ing 
Dynasty. Family Series: Friend or Foe?. The Artist's Zoo. Chicago: 
My Kind of Town, and Tibet: Nomads of the Mystic Mountains. 

(Continued on back cover) 

October and November at Field Museum 

(CALENDAR continued from inside bac^ cover) 

Man in His Environment. This exhibit offers a worldwide per- 
spective of environmental problems. It asks you to consider our 
present realities and future possibilities. Hall 18, main floor. Per- 
manent exhibit. 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Weaving and spinning demon- 
strations every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. 
South Lounge, 2nd floor. 

Audio Information System. The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide. enables visitors of all ages to visit selected 
exhibits in any sequence they choose. Complete with background 
music, sound effects, and factual information supplied by the mu- 
seum's scientific and education staff, this system provides an enter- 
taining as well as educational experience. Specially designed audio 
receivers and maps are available for a nominal fee at the entrance 
to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Javanese Music and Dance Performance— November 9, 
at 8:00 p.m. The Performing Arts Program of the Asia Society will 
perform Penca. a dance from the Art of Self-Defense, and Topeng 
Babakan. a village mask dance with one dancer changing masks 
and assuming the roles of four or five different characters. Both 
dances will be accompanied by the museum's newly renovated 
gamelan— Javanese orchestral ensemble. Simpson Theater, 
ground floor west. Free tickets are available at west door. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory museum-related activities. An educational 
and entertaining way to spend part of a weekend. Saturdays and 
Sundays, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Javanese Dancers Perform November 9 

Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 

7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club 

8:00 p.m. Chicago Anthropological Society 

2:00 pm Chicago Shell Club 

7:30 p.m. Nature Camera Club 

7:00 p m Chicago Ornithological Society 

7:30 pm Windy City Grotto 

8:00 p.m. Chicago Mountaineering Club 

7:30 p.m. Chicago Audubon Society 

2:30 p. m Illinois Audubon Society 

October and November Hours 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m. and closes at 5 p.m. During 
November, the museum closes at 4 p.m. Monday through Thurs- 
day: 5 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays, On Fridays, year-round, the 
museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p,m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum telephone: 922 9410 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Field Museum 

of Natural History 


November 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 10 

3 Field Briefs 

Monkeys Inside and Out 

Exhibition of drawings and paintings opens November 
15 in Hall 9 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff Levi-Setti 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


Blaine J. Yarrington. chairman 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

George R. Baker 

Robert O. Bass 

Gordon Bent 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Stanton R. Cook 

O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson. Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Marshall Field 

Nicholas Galitzine 

Paul W. Goodrich 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

WiUiam H. Mitchell 

Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 

James J. O'Connor 

James H. Ransom 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

John S. Runnells 

William L. Searle 

Edward Byron Smith 

Robert H.Strotz 

John W. Sullivan 

William G. Swartchild. Jr. 

Edward R.TeUing 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

E. Leland Webber 

Julian B. Wilkins 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
WiUiam V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
JohnT. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John G. Searle 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 

6 Mammal-Collecting in the Australian Outback 

by Laurel E. Keller, technical assistant. Division of 

11 Cloud Forests 

By William Burger, associate curator of botany 

18 Warp of Cedar, Weft of Spruce: Baskets of the Pacific 


Exhibit of Native American Indian baskets opens 
December 15 

by Helen Chandra, Dept. of Exhibition; Maija Sed- 
zielarz, volunteer; and Ron Weber, Dept. of Anthro- 

22 Rebirth of the Gamelan 

Javanese orchestral ensemble resurrected after 80 

years in Museum storage 

by Sue Carter-De Vale and Louis Pomerantz 

24 On Your Own at Field Museum 

by A udrey Hiller 

27 A Christmas Afternoon at Field Museum 

Members' Christmas party, Monday, December 19 

back November and December at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 

The editor gratefully acknowledges the editorial assistance of 
Field Museum volunteers Hermann C. Bowersox and William 
E. McCarthy in the preparation of this issue. 


Cloud forest and waterfall above the Ri'o Sarapiquf in Costa 
Rica. Photo by William Burger, associate curator of botany. 
See "Cloud Forests," p. 11. 

Fifhl Museum of Natural Histon' Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II, 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 


Curator Terrell Returns 
from South Pacific 

John Terrell, associate curator of 
Oceanic archaeology and ethnolog>'. has 
just returned from another trip to the 
South Pacific. He was away for seven 
weeks attending an international con- 
ference in Sydney. Australia, and doing 
ethnohistorical research with archival 
collections in New Zealand and Aus- 
tralia. The conference, on "Exchange 
Systems in Australia and the Pacific 
Islands," celebrated the 150th anniver- 
sary of the famed Australian Museum. 

Terrell's research focused on the 
Solomon Islanders in the 1 9th and early 
20th centuries and was part of the 
groundwork he is laying for a new series 
of expeditions to Bougainville, Choiseul, 
New Georgia, and the Shortland Islands 
in the northwest Solomons. His trip 
was supported by a Fellowship for Mu- 
seum Professionals awarded him by the 
National Endowment for the Arts. 

NSF Grants 

Five separate grants, totalling$175,400, 
have been awarded by the National 
Science Foundation to Field Museum 
for research in five Museum depart- 

"Care and Use of the Systematic 
Collection of Mammals," a project 
under the direction of Ronald W. Turner, 
assistant curator and head of the Divi- 
sion of Mammals, has been awarded a 
grant of 810,600. 

"North American Ordovician Re- 
ceptaculitid Algae," a project under 
the direction of Matthew Nitecki, cura- 
tor of fossil invertebrates, has received 
a grant of S67.100 to support two years' 

"Floristics of Costa Rica, " a pro- 
ject under the direction of William C. 
Burger, associate curator of botany, 
has received a grant of S23,100. 

"The Care and Use of Systematic 
Collections of Insects." a project under 
the direction of Rupert L. Wenzel, chair- 
man of the Department of Zoology, has 
received a grant of §46,000 for three 
years' work. 

"Systematics and Biogeography of 
Camaenids." a project under the direc- 
tion of Alan Solem, curator of inverteb- 
rates, has received a grant of S28,600 for 
continued support. 

5,000-year-old Sumerian Stag 
Reunited with Antlers 

Holding his remarkable discovery. Uni- 
versity of Heidelberg graduate student 
Michael Miiller-Karpe. 22 (below), dis- 
plays the antlers of a 5.000-year-old 
Sumerian copper stag which he uncov- 
ered in a small box of dried mud in a 
Field Museum storeroom. Miiller-Karpe 
was examining hundreds of metal ves- 

Om nership and Circula 

Filing date: Sept. 14. 1977. Title: Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin. Frequency of publication: Monthly except 
for combined July .August issue. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Drive.. Chicago. Ill, 60605. 

Publisher; Field Museum of Natural History. Editor: David 
M. Walsten. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other 
security holders: none. Nonprofit status has not changed 
during preceding 12 months. 

.41-. no. Actual No. 

copies copies 

each issue single issue 

preceding nearest to 

12mos. filing dale 

Total copies printed 

Paid circulation (sales through 
dealers, vendors, carriers! . . . 

Paid circulation ( mail sub- 

Total paid circulation 

Free distribution 

Total distribution 

Office use. leftover 


;ifv that the statements made 
Deplete. - Norman W Nelson. 

38.666 53.000 

28.698 47.537 

28.698 47.537 

1.401 965 

30.099 48.502 

8.567 4.498 

38.666 53.000 

sels from the ancient Near East when he 
came across the box with its precious 
contents which "looked like green cor- 
al. " He had no idea what he'd found 
until he recalled a world-famous, mainly 
antlerless stag decorating a rein-holder 
elsewhere in the museum. His keen mind 
suddenly identified the "coral" as the 
corroded antlers of the 7'i-inch stag. 
The stag is a very rare example of deco- 
rative Sumerian art created 1.000 years 
before the art of Egypt's Tutankhamun. 





Illustrations from Living New World Monkeys (Platyr- 
rhini): foot of golden tamarin, drawn by Samuel H. 
Grove; head of silvery-brown tamarin by E. John Pfiff- 
ner; and vertical clinging in tarsier and spotted frog, by 
Marion Pahl. Reproduced courtesy the University of 
Chicago Press. 

New Exhibit^ 
"Monkeys Inside 
and Oiit^ " 
Publication of 
Work by Philip 

The world's outstanding authority on 
the monkeys of tropical America, Philip 
Hershkovitz, has been on the Field Mu- 
seum staff since 1947. Now curator 
emeritus of the Division of Mammals, 
his main endeavor during the past sev- 
eral years has been the completion of 
the first volume of a monograph entitled 
Living New World Monkeys (Platyr- 
rhini), to be pubhshed this month by the 
University of Chicago Press.* An exhib- 
it, "Monkeys Inside and Out," featuring 
some of the art work in Hershkovitz's 
book, opens November 15 in Hall. 9. 

Hershkovitz's 1,137-page work has 
been described by Ronald Singer, emi- 
nent University of Chicago zoologist, as 
". . . monumental, ... a masterpiece of 
detailed knowledge and conceptualiza- 
tion. A 'classic,' scholarly enterprise of 
grand proportions. . . ." It is the most 
thorough and comprehensive treatment 
of hving New World monkeys ever pub- 

Hershkovitz states that in writing 
the work he had two primary objectives: 
"The first of these was investigation 
into the origin, evolution, dispersal, and 
interrelationships of New World mon- 
keys. The second was the definition and 
treatment of primates as wild animals 
with no other destiny than living in 
harmony with nature." 

*Living New World Monkeys (Platyr- 
rhini), Vol. I, » 1977 The University of 
Chicago Press; 1,137 pp., $75.00 through 
December, 1977; $80.00 thereafter. 

This first volume (of a projected 
three) is divided into three parts. The 
first part includes a brief history and 
the definition, characterization, and 
comparison of primates as a taxonomic 
unit. Part two deals with the compara- 
tive anatomy and evolution of living 
New World monkeys. Part three is on 
the taxonomy and biology of the fam- 
ilies CalUtrichidae (marmosets and tam- 
arins) and Callimiconidae (callimicos). 
This is followed by a bibliography of 
more than 2,500 sources of pubUshed in- 
formation and a gazetteer Usting more 
than 700 collecting and observation lo- 
calities shown on the distribution maps. 

Hershkovitz spent a total of 11 
years in the tropics studying monkeys 
and other mammals in their natural 
habitat. Most of his expeditions have 
been of a few years' duration to permit 
the observation and collection of large 
numbers of animals with the changing 

Born in Pittsburgh, Hershkovitz 
matriculated at the University of Pitts- 
burgh and continued his undergraduate 
and graduate work at the University of 
Michigan. Working with seemingly end- 
less energy and enthusiasm, he has writ- 
ten more than 200 scientific papers on 
mammals and a number of book-length 
monographs in addition to New World 

The 520 figures and 7 color plates in 
the new work were produced by several 
artists. Most were done over a period of 
years by Samuel H. Grove, Marion Pahl, 
and E. John Pfiffner. Grove, now direc- 
tor of the Museum of the Southwest, 
was on the Field Museum staff for 28 
years. He was a student at the Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago and studied biology at 
Washington University, Miami Univer- 
sity, and Northeastern University. His 
work has been widely exhibited and has 
appeared in a great number of popular 
and scientific publications. Marion Pahl, 
a graduate of the Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, joined the Field Museum staff in 
1956. Before that she operated an art 
school and fine arts gallery in Berwyn, a 
Chicago suburb. Since leaving the Mu- 
seum in 1969 to do free-lance work, Pahl 
has continued to do scientific illustra- 
tions for the Museum as well as for vari- 
ous pubUshers of textbooks, encyclope- 
dias, and trade books. Her paintings are 
in private collections and her botanical 
drawings are in the collection of the 
Hunt Botanical Library, Carnegie Insti- 
tute. E. John Pfiffner studied art at the 
Chouinard Art Institute, Los Angeles, 
and served on the Field Museum staff 
from 1955 to 1963. A free-lance illus- 
trator since 1963, Pfiffner has provided 
the illustrations for a great variety of 
books and scientific papers. D 

Author Philip Hershkovitz observes artist E. John Pfiffner at 
work on illustration for Living New World Monkeys. 

Mammal- Collecting 
In The Outback 

By Laurel E. Keller 

Photos courtesy of the author 

This report by mammalogist Laurel Keller is 
the Bulletin's third on the Western Australian 
Field Program, which involved Field Museum 
personnel 1976-77. The two earlier reports, by 
Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates, appeared 
in the March and October, 1977, issues of the 

We stood dusty, hot, and road-weary outside the Roebuck 
Hotel in Broome, Western Austraha. Our three land- 
rovers had traversed 1,600 miles of flat, isolated Austra- 
lian interior to reach this jumping-off point to the Kim- 
berly.* Broome is a small fishing and pearling port, 
inhabited by some 1,500 Polynesians, Japanese, Chinese, 
Aboriginals, and Caucasians. A year's preparation had 
preceded this trip, and despite our fatigue, everyone was 

Our first field team consisted of William S. and 
Janice Street, Field Museum field associates from 
Seattle; Dr. Fritz Lukoschus, ectoparasite specialist 
from the Catholic University in Nijmegen, Netherlands; 
Nick AUen, field assistant from the University of Wes- 
tern Australia; myself, and Snow Wallace, cook/camp 
aide from Shark Bay, Australia. The Streets have led and 
supported Field Museum expeditions to other far-flung 
regions, such as Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Peru. 
They had not only contributed magnanimously to the 
funding of this trip, but their experience, interest, and 
hard work made the entire enterprise a more profitable 
and greater learning experience for us all. [The last prior 
expedition of the Streets was reported in the October 
1976 Bulletin, pp. 3-9: "The Field Museum-Street 
Peruvian Zoological Expedition, 1976," by John J. 
Pizzimenti — Sd. ] 

Dr. Fritz Lukoschus is a leading world authority on 
fur and skin mites and spent most of his time at our base 
camps hunched over microscopes looking for tiny ex- 
ternal parasites not visible rei the naked eye. Both Nick 

Dingos, or Australian wild dogs, drawn centuries ago on a cave 
wall of the western Kimberley by Aborigines. 

Allen and I have been affiliated with universities, and 
relished the opportunity to work in the field on a new 
fauna and with experienced "field hands." We could 
always count on Snow Wallace, an Austrahan "bush- 
man," for first-hand stories of the people and places of 
the Kimberley, as well as logistical support and tremen- 
dous beef stews. 

After deciding how to cram tents, food, traps, 
dissecting equipment, generators, microscopes, sleeping 
bags, personal clothing, three extra tires, eight five- 
gallon water containers and six people effectively into 
three landrovers, we left for a point about 70 miles north 
of Broome, on the Dampier Peninsula, where we set 
up our first camp. The inland vegetation here and in 
much of the southwestern Kimberley locally is called 
"pindan," or low woodland, with a prominent layer of 
wattle, or acacia shrubs, over red sandy soils. Perennial 
tussock grasses and forbs, with an open shrub layer, also 
acacia, and scattered mixed species of trees, form beach 
dune communities along the coast. 

♦The Kimberley -Region is a block of land about the size 
of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana combined. 

Laurel E. Keller is 

a technical assistant in the Division of 

Field objectives, written so easily in research pro- 
posals, sometimes were reached only after infinite pa- 
tience in the field. There we were at our first camp, ener- 
getically searching, spotlighting, and checking our traps 
for four days without finding a single sign of a mammal. 
Finally, on the fifth morning, I returned to one of our 
coast sites to find a specimen of that worldwide pest, 
the common black rat, Rattiis rattus. I couldn't help 
grinning as I entered it in the field catalog as our first 
specimen from northwestern Australia, but we gave it 
the .'full treatment" practiced in all the future processing 
of collected mammals. Fritz Lukoschus checked it under 
a dissecting scope, removing the ectoparasites, and then 
gave it to me. I cataloged it and, when time perrnitted, 
removed the stomach for food analysis and internal 
parasite investigation, and stripped the intestines for 
additional parasite work. It then passed on to either Nick 
Allen, who took standard measurements and made study 
skins, or to the Streets who also took measurements, 
made blood smears (for blood parasite work), and placed 
the animals in preservative. From each collecting loca- 
tion, we also gathered plant and soil samples for future 
species habitat descriptions. 

From our first "character building" camp we drove 
northward into the west Kimberley. This region reminds 
me of the "Lost Valley." Horizons of open woodland 
resembling well kept parks of eucalyptus, and various 
tall grass species spotted with spinifex {Triodia, spiky 
clump grass) were set against ranges of limestone, sand- 
stone, or basalt. It is possible in some areas to identify 
15 species of eucalyptus along one mile of road. We 
worked in the Napier and Leopold ranges, often enjoying 
the facilities and hospitality of the local station (cattle 
ranch) personnel. These are vast, self-sufficient oper- 
ations, consisting on the average of more than a million 
acres, with 35,000 head of cattle, and generally run by 
just a handful of dedicated settlers. During the "mus- 
tering" season (roundup). Aborigines work with the 
settlers to round up and sell "bologna bulls" — range 
bulls sold to canned meat outfits. 

We found this area exciting, for the large "roos," 
or kangaroos, were abundant and it was possible to see 
five species in an hour of spotlighting. Rock rats, native 
marsupial cats and mice, echidnas (egg-laying mam- 
mals), dingos, and seven species of bats were collected 
near rocky outcroppings. Fruit bats and tree bats of sev- 
eral species were mist-netted along permanent water 
pools. On the "dirt tracks" (unpaved roads), cattle, wild 
donkeys, and emu were constant menaces as they crossed 
before us unexpectedly. 

We chose five sites for intensive faunal sampling 
and set about to evaluate our techniques. Four types of 
traps, each specifically effective for collecting certain 
groups of mammals, were used. In addition to the mouse 
trap and large rat trap used to collect small mammals 

such as native mice, rats, and marsupial mice (with 
pouches similar to kangaroos), we set two different size 
live traps to capture live specimens of small to medium- 
size animals such as mice, native cats, and small walla- 
bies. We baited our traps with "universal bait" (peanut 
butter, sardines, raisins, honey, oatmeal), which amused 
Snow, who never failed to remark "best fed ants in the 
Kimberley!" Traps were set systematically. Each trap 
line was checked every morning and left set for at least 
four nights. This scheme was used throughout the Kim- 
berley, and enabled us to gather statistical information 
on the effectiveness of the traps used and to provide 
estimates of abundance between and among the mammal 
species collected. 

Collecting bats required other techniques. Mist 
nets (fine mesh nylon nets 7 by 20 feet square) were 

Nick Allen, mammals party field assistant, holds black fruit 
bat, Pteropus alecto. At dusk, hundreds would fly over our 
camp to fig tree feeding grounds near Fitzroy Crossing. 

attached to poles and placed over flyways, such as along 
streams, between trees, or outside caves. Spotlighting, 
with "head torches," strapped to the head, or powerful 
200,000-footcandle spotlights attached to the car battery, 
was used at night to search for predominantly nocturnal 
mammals such as bats, marsupial mice, possums, 
rodents, dingos, and grazing kangaroos. 

These techniques enabled us to successfully sample 
the native mammals of the Kimberley while gathering 
important information on geographic distribution, habi- 
tat preference, and population structure. We also col- 
lected external and internal parasites, and data on food 
habits and reproduction. From this additional data we 
expect to establish a broader base from which to interpret 
why a particular species exists and functions in its chosen 
ecological habitat and niche. 

From the Leopold Range, we moved south, 
working in the Fitzroy Crossing area of beautiful lime- 
stone gorges, then headed north to the Admiralty Gulf 
region. Driving into this country is an awesome ex- 
perience. The landrover reaches the crest of an outlying 
hill and in the horizon one surveys hills covered with tall 
Livistonia cabbage palms reaching 40 feet in the air. It 
is a unique and beautiful region of the Kimberley with 
laterite, basalt, and sandstone formations carved by 
rivers falhng off to the sea. My reaction was one of dis- 
belief: "Where am I?" 

Here we were met by members of Australian 
agencies representing the Western Australian Museum, 
National Parks Board, Dept. of Aboriginal Affairs, Dept. 
of Fisheries and Wildlife, and two television crews. We 
divided ourselves into international teams to conduct a 
complete survey of all the fauna of the Mitchell Plateau 
region. The wildlife was fascinating, particularly the 
mammals. Blossom bats, three species ot marsupial mice, 
small rock wallabies, bandicoots, and six species of native 
rodents were collected. In all, 37 species of the approxi- 
mately 56 species known from the whole Kimberley 
region were collected in two and a half weeks! However, 
the weather at times was unbearable. Daily temperatures 
reached 117'F., with humid showers in late afternoon. 
Can you imagine a cameraman asking "Would you please 
do that again?" when they knew that they, too, would 
have to climb that "bloody hill" again in the heat? 

I also will remember the plateau as the farewell 
site of our first team. Field teams are unusual phe- 
nomena. A group of specialists is gathered together from 
literally different corners of the world at a specific place, 
for a specific purpose, for a finite period. The past and 

Limestone caverns of the southeast Kimberley are ideal bat 
habitats. Specimens were shot down with .22 calibre revolvers 
loaded with dust shot, disabling but not killing the animals. 
Field assistant Keith Morris, with revolver, is aided by local 
helper Roy Munster, holding flashlight. 

Late morning and most of the afternoon were spent in camp 
processing specimens. Fritz Lukoschus uses dissecting micro- 
scope to locate external parasites while Nick Allen and I pre- 
pare kangaroo and wallaby for study. 

future are irrevelant, the team interacts intensively in 
the "present" on a 24-hour basis, then disbands to return 
to their respective personal lives. Fritz Lukoschus flew 
back to the Netherlands to resume his teaching commit- 

ments, the Streets returned to Perth, thence to explore 
more of the "down under" beauty, and Nick Allen re- 
turned to his doctoral work at the University. I found it 
difficult to say goodbye. 

At the Plateau, I was met by Keith Morris, another 
University of Western Australia graduate student, and 
later by Roy Munster, a local Australian interested in 
bats. We finished the dry season work in the arid south- 
east corner of the Kimberley. Passing through the old 
historic cattle and goldrush areas of the Ord River basin, 
we worked in the Durrack and Lawford ranges, where the 
land is characterized by gently sloping deep sandy soils 
with spinifex understories and sparse low woodlands. 
The mammals we captured reflected this southern, desert 
element in our study areas. The bats particularly were 
abundant. The end of the dry season is a stressful period 
for much of the wildlife of the Kimberley. Many of the 
frequented watering sites dry up and daily highs may 
exceed 115 F. Bats, as other wildlife, concentrate around 
the remaining water supplies (permanent pools in the 
river beds, fresh water springs, and cattle tanks) and it 
was possible to observe 40 to 50 bats, and mist-net six 
species in one hour. 

With the first thunderstorms foretelling the 
coming of the wet season, I left the Kimberley after 
nearly five months in the field, driving to Perth for the 
Christmas holidays. Two and a half weeks later I re- 
turned north, to be astounded by the transformation of 
the countryside. I had left a dry, burnt land with few 
permanent water pools, and returned to green horizons 
of lush regrowth and running rivers. The resilience of 
the natural environment was incredible, comparable to 
the transformation from snowy winter to budding spring. 

Roger Buick, a graduate of the University of Wes- 
tern Australia, myself, and two "snail people" (Carl 

Loading the landrover 

was a hot, grimy 

business, happily 

completed here by 

Janice and William 

Street, myself, and 

Fritz Lukoschus. 

Christiansen and Laurie Price) under the direction of 
Field Museum's Alan Solem, comprised the wet-season 
team. The snail people and the mammal faction coop- 
erated enthusiastically, with occasional lively dissent 
about the merits of snail studies versus mammal studies, 
and such matters as which day of the week it was, when 
to drive 100 kms to the nearest air-conditioned pub, and 
when we would get the next letter from the outside world. 
We resampled the Napier, Leopold, and Fitzroy areas 
to gather comparable biological information during this 
season. Particularly, we were interested in determining 
what changes might occur in the distributions, habitat 
preferences, reproductive cycles, and feeding habits of 
the mammals collected as they responded to the altera- 
tion in their micro-environment through this second 
season of the year, the "wet." In other words, we stayed 
through the wet season to get the complete picture of the 
annual lifecycle of the animals we studied. However, 
the proposal was again far simpler than the accomphsh- 
ment January, the first full month of the wet, was al- 
most completely rain-free, and in February when the 
station managers generally expected quite a bit of rain, 
we received much less. The accessibility of the various 
study areas during this atypical weather deceived us. 
We ventured forth in our trusty landrover after a one- 
inch rainfall only to sink over our hubcaps into a black 
mudhole. For three days, from sunrise to sunset, we lay 
on our stomachs and dug with shovels and hands to free 
the vehicle from the ooze. We succeeded only by bailing 
out the entire pond by bucket. 

Wet season work climaxed with a trip north to 
resample the Mitchell Plateau region, where we were 
joined by two mammalogists from the Western Austra- 
lian Museum, and again combined snail and mammal 
collecting to the benefit of all. The Amax Corporation 
provided us with the luxuries that one dreams of in the 
field: air-conditioned living quarters, sheets and pillow- 
cases, cold drinks over ice, and the warm hospitality of 
gracious hosts! Only the weather didn't cooperate, for we 
flew into the aftermath of a tropical cyclone (hurricane), 
waded for two weeks, and left upon the threat of another 
cyclone. As in our previous visit, however, the mammals 
were unique. 

Returning to Perth, the largest city in Western 
Australia (100,000), after such an isolated experience in 
the field was pretty incredible. In addition to the ne- 
cessary reorganization of specimens for shipment, identi- 
fication, listing, and donation of specimens to the Western 
Australian Museum, and paperwork involved in the 
processing and exportation of nearly 1,250 mammal 
specimens, I did a great deal of people-watching. The 
number of new faces, paved streets, and automobile 
commotion took some reorientation on my part! Finally, 
goodbyes were said to the many persons we had known 
at the Western Australian Museum, various private and 

William Street, a sponsor of the mammal party, examines a 
newborn marsupial mouse under a dissecting scope at camp 
in the western Kimberley. Several months earlier, he and Mrs. 
Street had done similar work in the Peruvian Andes. 

government agencies, and my field assistants, all of 
whom provided enthusiastic support for the successful 
completion of our Australian Field Program. 

The second phase of the Australian project, the 
cataloging and laboratory analysis, has now begun. This 
will provide raw material for: 1) a preliminary faunal 
survey (including systematics, geographic and habitat 
descriptions, and information on population structure, 
based on comparative trapping techniques); 2) a food 
habits study (with Dr. John O. Whitaker, Indiana State 
University), based on stomach contents; 3) an analysis of 
intestinal endoparasites (with P. Thomas, University of 
Adelaide, Australia); and 4) a comprehensive study of 
the reproductive cycles of the species examined. The 
potential of this easily accessible Australian collection 
for future research here at the Field Museum and other 
American and European institutions, and in applications 
to the research and conservation work of our Australian 
counterparts is enormous! 

As I sit in the laboratory here at the Field Museum, 
August 1976 and our arrival in Broome, northwestern 
Australia, seems like an event both of last week and of 
years ago. I remember the local Aussies of the bush 
referring to this phenomenon as "Kimberley time," 
where the eight-hour work day, the seven-day week, and 
the progression of months forming defined seasons are 
all unfamiliar terms. Here in Chicago, we just say "Time 
sure flies!" D 



^L^^ ' ^itttlt 



* ^^«i 




Of tropical plant communities, 
among the most interesting to 
the botanist are cloud forests. 
These usually occur on steep tropi- 
cal slopes at higher elevations or on 
small mountains that abruptly rise 
above the surrounding land. 

Here the prevailing winds are 
forced upward, become cooler, and 
produce clouds and mist or rain. 
(The rising air expands because of 
lower pressure at higher elevations 
and the expansion causes what is 
called adiabatic cooling. Refrigera- 
tors work on the same principle, 
first compressing gas and then 
allowing it to expand and produce 
the cooling effect. ) 

Cloudiness and rain or drizzle 
have a secondary effect: they screen 
out the sun and tend to moderate 
the daily temperature cycle. If the 
slopes are at elevations of 5,000 to 
10,000 feet, the combination of 
cloudiness, wind, and altitude can 
make it quite chilly even in mid- 
day. The combination of cool, moist 
weather with frequent cloudiness 
means that water stress — the threat 
of drying out— is much less severe in 
a cloud forest than in most other 
plant formations. While a lowland 
rain forest may receive as much pre- 
cipitation as a cloud forest, the 
longer clear periods of hot sunshine 
in the rain forest create very differ- 
ent growing conditions there. »" 

William Burger is associate curator of 


The unusual weather conditions of the cloud forest 
create an appearance that is quite unlike that of forests in 
the wet lowlands and very different from that of seasonal- 
ly very dry forests, but it is impossible to define the cloud 
forest precisely; and attempts to show where one begins 
or ends, even on a single mountain slope, are quite arbi- 

Cloud forest trees average between 30 and 80 feet in 
height, while trees in a lowland rain forest are generally 
twice as tall. The crowns of typical trees in the two com- 
munities also differ considerably. The broad, spreading 
crowns of the tall rain forest "emergents" that stand 
above the forest canopy are not to be found in a cloud 
forest. Instead, crowns tend to be compact or very irregu- 
lar—conditions often due to breakage by high winds. In 

Flowers o/Columnea gloriosa, an epiphytic member of the Ges- 
neriad, or African violet, family. 





. - >••- 


'^: '-)'^ 




Tree fern in Costa Rica 's Monteverde Cloud Forest preserve. 

the cloud forest, branches tend to be denser and more 
numerous, and bear smaller, stiffer leaves. Both condi- 
tions are probably in response to frequent winds. 

The understory of the rain forest is also distinctly dif- 
ferent from that of the cloud forest. While the rain forest 
usually has a very dark interior, with few small trees and 
shrubs, the cloud forest understory is usually better illu- 
minated and has a great variety and profusion of plants— 
especially on very steep slopes and where high winds 
cause frequent branch falls. The more open nature of the 
cloud forest favors the abundant growth of small trees, 
shrubs, and epiphytes— which spend their hves perched 
on other plants. Epiphytes are not to be confused with 
parasites — such as mistletoe— which get their water and 
nutriment directly from the supporting plant, or host. 
Epiphytes may get nourishment from debris caught in 
the bark of the supporting branch, but their roots do not 
invade the host's tissues. Because of frequent rain and 
misting, cloud forests usually support more epiphytes 
than any other kind of vegetation and it is here that the 
epiphytic orchids, bromeliads, gesneriads, ferns, and 
other "perching" plants are most diverse. >■ 



Winds may be especially strong for part of the year 
on mountain tops and in saddles between ridges. These 
windy sites often support so-called mossy forests, or elfin 
forests, which consist of densely crowded, crooked, and 
stunted trees only 10 to 30 feet tall. Their tops are gen- 
erally rather flat and uniform in height — the result of 
strong, persistent winds. Usually, there are few shrubs 
but a great many mosses on trunks and branches as well 
as on the ground. 

Where slopes are gentler and winds more moderate, 
the cloud forest gives way to the montane forest, which 
tends to be taller, and has a darker understory with fewer 
shrubs and epiphytes. Like the cloud forest, the montane 
forest is also cool— because of the higher elevation— and 
most of the trees retain their leaves throughout the year. 

The cooler conditions that characterize cloud forests 
also make them ideal for human habitation and exploita- 
tion. Thus, cloud forests are often replaced by coffee or 
tea plantations, potato or barley fields, dairy pastures, 
and the like. While cloud forests do not directly produce 
food for large-scale human consumption, there are sound 
utihtarian reasons for protecting them, the most impor- 
tant being water conservation. Along ridges and steep 
slopes these forests intercept the clouds, capture their 
moisture, and pass it on to feed small brooks and streams. 
These, in turn, maintain water tables and river flow in the 

Because cloud forests are often on steep slopes, their 
destruction can result in severe soil erosion. In their ab- 
sence, torrential downpours may result in flooding during 
the rainy season and during the dry season streams that 
once carried water year-round may cease to flow alto- 
gether. Watershed management, especially where reser- 
voirs for household water supply or hydroelectric power 
are involved, is one of the important ways to ensure the 
preservation of tropical cloud forests. 


Concern over the destruction of cloud forests has yet 
another, but less utilitarian dimension. Cloud forests can 
be regarded as cool or moist islands standing above a sea 
of hotter and drier lowland vegetation. And Hke islands in 
the sea, they are often the homes of plants and animals 
that can survive nowhere else. The more isolated the 
cloud forest — that is, the more distant from other cool 
montane forests — the greater the percentage of plants 
and animals that are apt to be unique. Thus, the destruc- 
tion of a cloud forest may well result in the extinction of 
species that are found nowhere else. 

The destruction of large portions of our planet's 
natural diversity is, apparently, ongoing and irreversible. 
Land that once supported montane tropical forests and 
cloud forests now produces milk, coffee, tea, grains, and a 
host of other useful products, including strawberries 
shipped by air to help us maintain our escalating stan- 
dard of hving. But let us hope, while sipping our coffee 
and savoring our strawberries, that a few of these unu- 
sual forests can be saved and their unique biota pre- 
served. D 

Moisture-laden winds from the Caribbean obscure the top of 
Cerro Zurqui in Costa Rica 's central highlands. 


For Christmas, 

' 'Give Field Museum ' ' 

Whether you are trying to decide on a 
Christmas gift for the small child or for 
"the man who has everything, " a gift of 
membership in Field Museum is always 
appropriate. And for the budget-minded 
shopper it's one of those unusual finds — a gift that 
costs no more than it did a few years ago! 

For the adult, a membership provides a wealth 
of opportunities to further explore the realm of natural 

Clip and mail this coupon or facsimile 

history; for the child it can open the doors to a lifetime 
of scientific interest or professional endeavor. Infinitely 
more than a storehouse of fascinating specimens and 
exhibits. Field Museum offers to its members at every 
age level a varied selection of exciting learning ex- 
periences via the classroom, workshop, film, or field 

Perhaps equally important: with a Field 
Museum membership you are giving a shared relation- 
ship, for Field Museum is indeed its members. 

to Field Museum of Natural History, 

Roosevelt Rd at Lk Shore Dr . Cliicago. Ill 60605 

I wisti to send gift mermberstiips to the following 

Gift recipient's name 

Gift recipient's name 

My name 

City State Zip 


D Annual $15 D Life $500 

City Stale Zip 

n Annual $15 □ Life $500 



D Check enclosed payable to Field Museum 

D Please bill me 

D Send gift card announcement in my name 



Warp of Cedar, Weft of 
Spruce: Baskets of the 
Pacific Northwest 

Exhibit of native American Indian 
baskets opens December 15 

By Helen Chandra, Maija Sedzielarz, and Ron Weber 

Photos bv Bon Testa 

The Indians of the Pacific Northwest have long been 
noted for their skill in woodworking. The complex carved 
figures, boxes, and masks are full of dramatic power. 
Among the northernmost groups, the soaring totem poles 
once stood in front of their villages as magnificent testi- 
mony to the artist's use of his native forest resources. 
But there is another Northwest Coast art that also uti- 
lized the products of the forest, a simpler, quieter art: the 
women's art of basketry. 

■< Baskets made by Northwest Coast Indians show an aston- 
ishing variety of forms, functions, and techniques. Clockwise 
from lower left: (1) Haida ceremonial hat in twined spruce root 
with totemic painted design. Cat. #79498; (2) Hupa acorn 
storage basket in twined weave with overlay, #86230; (3) Hupa 
boy's cradle with attached sunshade and toys in twined open- 
work, #60121; (4) Tlingit berry basket in twined spruce root 
with false embroidery, #84122; (5) Hupa woman's hat in 
twined weave with overlay, #258599; (6) Nootka trinket basket 
with lid, in wrapped twined weave, #82732; (7) Tlingit 
drinking cup in twined weave with false embroidery, # 78993; 
(8) Nootka bottle covered with wrapped twined weave, for 
tourist trade, from the collection of M. E. Rada; (9) Salish 
basket with pedestal base, coiled with imbrication, #85564. 

Most of the baskets on exhibit were collected at the turn 
of the century. Although some women continue to make bas- 
kets, for their personal use and for sale to tourists, many tradi- 
tional forms and techniques have already disappeared from the 

From Yakutat Bay, Alaska, to Cape Mendocino, 
California, Indian women have woven and sewn baskets 
that, in the richness of their designs, the variety of their 
uses, and the diversity of their techniques, are not sur- 
passed anywhere in the world. Forms and functions range 
from huge storage containers large enough to hold several 
bushels of acorns to small, lidded, trinket baskets; from 
open fishing traps to watertight drinking cups; from 
babies' cradles to chiefs' hats painted with representa- 
tions of the clan's totemic animal. The brocadelike pat- 
terns of a Tlingit berry basket, in designs with such 
intriguing names as "the track of the snail," contrast 
vividly with the bold jagged lines that decorate a Salish 
storage trunk. All three of the basic basketry techniques 
known — plaiting, twining, and coiling— were employed 
by one or more groups of the Northwest Coast. In some 
instances, fundamentally different techniques were used 
for similar purposes by neighboring groups. In other 
instances, traditions intermingled to the point that vari- 
ations of one or more techniques are found on a single 


Along much of the coast the Japan Current warms and 
moistens the air as it blows across the Pacific. The air 
rises up thfe flanks of the coastal mountains, is cooled, 
and releases its moisture in the form of abundant rains 
on the westward facing slopes. This warmth and mois- 
ture produces a lush growth of coniferous forest. The red 
cedar, which furnished most of the wood for the large 
plank houses and the canoes as well as for the men's art of 
carving, also provided bark, which was one of the most 
important raw materials for basketry. Also utilized, for 
construction and for decoration, were the roots of the 
Sitka spruce, various ferns and woodland grasses, and 
roots and branches of some deciduous trees. 

The collection and preparation of basketry materi- 
als and their coloring with vegetable and mineral dyes 
were skills passed from mother to daughter. It was said 
that the difference between a really fine basket made by a 
superior craftsman and more inferior work began with 
the careful selection of the roots deep in the forest. 


Plaiting is the simplest of the three basic techniques and 

The temporary exhibit was organized by Helen Chandra, writ- 
er/coordinator. Department of Exhibition; Maija Sedzielarz, 
volunteer. Department of Anthropology; and Ron Weber, 
research assistant for the Northwest Coast, Department of 
Anthropology; under the general direction of James W. Van- 
Stone, curator of North American archaeology and ethnology. 
The exhibit was designed by Rick Shannon. 


A. The Chilkat subgroup of the Tlingit, other Tlingit, and the 
Haida, made three characteristic variants of the same 
twined spruce root basket. The Tlingit basket (left) was 
decorated with bands of dyed weft and false embroidery. 

the one most widely diffused through the area. In plaited 
baskets, the weft is woven over and under perpendicular 
strands of warp {see fig. B). Both warp and weft are often 
of the same material. Variations in the pattern are made 
by varying the weaving sequence, orienting the weaving 
diagonally, and by employing different colors. Plaited 
baskets, mats, or portions of baskets finished in a combi- 
nation of techniques were most frequently made by the 
Tsimshian, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, and Nootka, but the 
Haida, southern Tlingit, and Salish also occasionally 
used this method. 

Although twined baskets were found almost every- 
where on the Northwest Coast, the baskets of the various 
groups show enormous variety and diversity. Materials, 
basic shapes, decorative additions, and details of manu- 
facture vary from region to region. Basic twining is done 
with two wefts (horizontal elements) which twist around 

B. Plaiting was used by most groups for both baskets and 
mats. Tlingit berry baskets, red cedar, #84152 (left) and 
#78848; Salish matin twilled weave. #19626. 

Cat. #84011; the Haida (center), with bands of dyed weft 
and skip-stitch designs on the rim, #84153; and the plain 
Chilkat basket (rt.) with skip-stitch design on the rim, 

each other and a warp (vertical element). In the northern 
regions, the Tlingit and Haida women made the majority 
of their baskets of spruce root, using basic twining. Orna- 
mentation was added by inserting dyed grasses or spruce 
root, or by varying the number or spacing of the basic 
twining elements. Although the TUngit and Haida bas- 
kets are of nearly identical form, their decoration distin- 
guishes them. The Chilkat tribe of the Tlingit made finely 
woven baskets with decoration produced solely by regu- 
larly varying the weave to form relief designs of diago- 
nals, diamonds, and triangles. The Haida and most other 
Tlingit used this design technique also, but they included 
decoration made by the insertion of dyed weft to form 
solid colored bands running horizontally around the 
baskets. Most Tlingit groups added a type of decoration 
known as false embroidery to the horizontal bands of 
color to produce bands of complex design (see fig. A ). 

A variation called wrapped twining is characteris- 
tic of baskets made in the central portions of the North- 
west Coast. This included British Columbia, Vancouver 
Island, and the Puget Sound areas. Here, Kwakiutl, 
Nootka, and Salish women used a flexible weft of cedar 
bark or spruce root to wrap around two perpendicular 
rigid elements, and produced both openwork and tightly 
woven containers, the form depending on their destined 
use {see fig. C). 

By using rushes, grasses, and other soft materials, 
Salish women of Washington employed basic and 
wrapped twining to produce soft and flexible baskets and 
bags, often decorated with animal or geometric shapes. 
These designs were made by overlaying the wefts with 
dyed grasses. A related variety of wrapped twined basket 
with soft warp was produced by the Chinook of the Co- 
lumbia River valley. Historically, the wrapped twined 
baskets of the Nootka may have been related to these 
Salish and Chinook twined baskets. 


Rounded, rigid twined baskets were made by the 
women of northwest California — the Yurok, Karok, and 
Hupa — as well as some of the groups living along the 
Oregon coast (see plate, p. 18). The materials most fre- 
quently used were hazel and willow shoots and also 
spruce roots. These twined containers are consequently 
quite different in appearance from those found in any 
other area. The baskets are decorated with bands of geo- 
metric overlay design. Overlay designs can be distin- 
guished from false embroidery by the slope of the stitches 
forming the design. Overlay elements always are paral- 
lel to the weft elements, while false embroidery elements 
are perpendicular to the weft. 

Coiled baskets, which are actually sewn rather than 
woven, were made only by Salish women. Coiled baskets 
in the northern SaHsh area are rectangular in cross sec- 
tion with right angle corners, (see fig. D). Southern Sa- 
lish groups of the Puget Sound area made similar coiled 
baskets with an elliptical horizontal cross section. Each 
of these groups used distinct designs and placed them in 
characteristic ways. Designs were made by beading and 
imbrication. In beading, a colored strip of material is laid 
on the outside of the coil, and fastened into place with the 
sewing. In imbrication, a technique unique to the Salish, 
a decorative strand is lapped over and under each stitch. 
The result is a continuous series of rectangular blocks 
that completely cover the stitches. 

Reasons for Diversity 

The ultimate reasons for the extreme diversity of form, 
function, and technique of Northwest Coast basketry are 
multiple and complex. The prehistory of the Northwest 

C. Wrapped twining was used both for openwork, such as the 
Kwakiutl berry basket. #87822 (left), or for tightly woven 
work, such as the Chinook bag, #61958. 

D. Coiled baskets were produced only by the Salish. Burden 
basket with imbrication in "butterfly" design. #103222. 

Coast is only beginning to be studied in depth, and future 
work may reveal much more about the origins of the bas- 

The area of the greatest diversity of basketry 
manufacture is the region of Puget Sound and the Gulf of 
Georgia in the Salish area. Here, varieties of plaiting, 
coiling, and twining existed simultaneously. This area is 
also the area of greatest productivity of natural resources 
and has always been the area of greatest population den- 
sity. The diversity of baskets may reflect the extreme 
richness of the area and the competition that occurred 
over these resources. 

As in the case of the languages, some of the bas- 
ketry techniques may have originated before a particular 
group of people migrated to the coast, as much as 10,000 
years ago. Examples are the similar twined baskets of the 
Tlingit and the Haida, who speak closely related lan- 
guages; and the coiled baskets of the SaHsh speakers, 
who are the only makers of coiled baskets in the area. 

Certain specialized functions were best served by 
particular techniques. An example of this is openwork 
weaving. Since this technique holds the warp and weft 
fast at regularly spaced intervals, it is particularly well 
suited to fishtraps and for open baskets to wash clams 
and fish. 

In some cases, the wide availability of a material 
such as red cedar (the material most used in plaiting) can 
go far to explain the widespread distribution of this tech- 
nique in the area. 

And finally, the demand for status items led to 
their dispersal and adoption. An example is the closely 
woven and painted spruce root hat, which was traded by 
the Tlingit and the Haida to the southern groups, and 
which eventually was copied by the Kwakiutl. 

All these various factors together created a rich 
and fascinating assemblage of an ancient art. D 


Rebirth of the Gamelan 

Javanese orchestral ensemble 
resurrected after 80 years! 

by Sue Carter-De Vale 

In October, 1975, Dr. Ernst L. Heins of the University of 
Amsterdam, specialist in the music of West and Central 
Java, came to Northwestern University to be guest lec- 
turer for a class in ethnomusicology I was teaching 
there.* He asked if I could arrange a viewing of some 
Sundanese gamelan instruments in storage at Field Mu- 
seum and, a few days later, accompanied by Dr. Bennet 
Bronson, associate curator of Asian archaeology and 
ethnology, we had the extraordinary pleasure of seeing 
these 23 unique, 130-year-old instruments. As we left the 
Museum, Dr. Heins remarked that it was indeed a shame 
to have such a fine, complete gamelan laying idle in stor- 

Several months later, in Amsterdam, I had my first 
performing experience on another gamelan— an experi- 
ence that further inspired me to see what could be done to 
restore Field Museum's ensemble in its own home city. 

*Sue Carter-De Vale's doctoral dissertation, "A Sundanese 
Gamelan: A Gestalt Approach to Organology," is based on 
largely on the gamelan in Field Museum 's collection. 

I began to have hope that others, in Chicago, might some 
day also have the special pleasure of gamelan perform- 
ance. Home again, I discussed the matter with Field 
Museum Director E. Leland Webber, and within a month 
we had submitted a grant proposal to the National En- 
dowment for the Arts. 

Not long afterward, I had occasion to visit the 
Library of Congress, in Washington, D.C., where I 
learned that the library housed the oldest known gamelan 
recordings, and that these were of Field Museum's own 
ensemble performed at the 1893 Fair! Because the newly 
invented phonograph had only first been used in 1890 for 
the scientific collection and analysis of music, it would 
never have occurred to me to look for gamelan recordings 
made at an exposition scarcely three years later. 

Again in Chicago, I received a letter from Dr. 
Heins, informing me that a Miss Norma Boreel, one of 
the gamelan players at The Hague's Gemeente Museum, 
was the granddaughter of the man who had conducted 
Field Museum's gamelan in 1893. When she learned of 
my own interest, she offered to lend her grandfather's 
photo album and other of his possessions relevant to the 

November 22, 1976, was truly a red letter day, for 
the Museum was then informed that it had been awarded 
the NEA grant for the restoration and eventual perform- 
ance of the gamelan. 

With Dr. Bronson as project director and myself as 
program and research director, our initial task was to 

Louis Pomerantz, 
gamelan conservator, 
works on base of 
saron, one of several, 
single-octave metallo- 
phones in the gamelan 


find a conservator who was an expert in the restoration of 
polychrome sculptures, for all the colorful, carved stands 
and resonators of the instruments were sadly in need of 
repair. For this important responsibility we were fortu- 
nate in finding the reknowned conservator, Louis Pomer- 
antz, of Evanston. Dr. Heins was named external expert 
adviser. Dr. Walter McCrone. an analj'tical chemist, of 
Chicago, was secured to do extensive laboratory analysis 
of pigments, metals, wax, polishes, and fabrics used in 
the construction of the instruments. Mr. Pomerantz ac- 
quired a splendid crew of volunteers to serve as assistant 

Our final hope was to secure funding to replace 
some of the string and wind instruments and the drums, 
now too fragile to be played, and to add certain instru- 
ments so that the gamelan could be played in the distinct 
musical styles of both Central and West Java. A gener- 
ous grant from the Walter E. Heller Foundation made 
this possible. 

On November 9 a selection of the gamelan instru- 
ments will be played in public for the first time in more 
than eight decades, and in January the entire ensemble 
will be played, just as it had been at the 1893 Fair. The 
November performance will be by visiting Sundanese 
Penca and Topeng Bakakan troupes. Director of the Jan- 
uary performance will be Pak Hardja Susilo, Javanese 
dance and gamelan master at the University of Hawaii. 

The Gamelan Project: 
A Conservator's Challenge 

Louis Pomerantz 

When asked if I would be interested in undertaking the 
task of restoring the gamelan, 1 was intrigued by the 
prospect on several counts. For one, my wife was born in 
West Java, where Field Museum's gamelan is believed to 
have been built, and in committing myself to this project 
1 would become better acquainted with that island's 
culture, of which I had only a vague notion. Secondly, the 
technical challenges inherent in the conservation and 
restoration of the gamelan appealed to me. 

These curious musical instruments are brilliantly 
painted, hand-carved, wooden sculptures, with subtle 
symbols hidden in their intricate designs. The materials 
they were made from include various woods, cloth strips, 
rope (horsehair?), iron nails, multiple layers of oil paint, 
gold leaf, mirror glass lined with slivers of lead, leather 
strips, parchment, and plant reeds. The poor state of 
preservation of the 130-year-old instruments was due to 
a gradual shrinkage of the wood over the years, and more 
recently to water damage. In many places the film of 
paint was like a glove that is now too large for the hand. 
There were splits and cracks in the wood; some of the in- 

Walter MtCnin, . aruih'lical clwrnist. examines large gong. 

struments had been crudely fixed in the past, requiring 
structural repairs now; in some areas the paint had flaked 
off, elsewhere decorative mirror chips were missing; the 
shellac outer coating had turned a blackish-brown, con- 
cealing the brilliance of the original color beneath. The 
amount of conservation and restoration work that wa 
required seemed formidable indeed, and 1 would require 
help if the job were to be done in time. 

As expected, the project — beginning last January 
— has attracted a number of talented volunteers, includ- 
ing some with a desire to become professional conserva- 
tors. My senior volunteer is Helen Urban, a grandmother 
who flies to Chicago from her home in Des Moines, Iowa, 
every Monday, just to participate in the gamelan resto- 
ration. Lisa Kent, a Smith College sophomore, reluctant- 
ly returned to school in Massachusetts following a sum- 
mer's work on the gamelan. A graduate of the School of 
the Art Institute of Chicago iSAIO, Christine Abiera, has 
just entered Washington University to prepare for a 
career in conservation following six months of volunteer 
work with us. A skilled needlepoint worker, Shawna 
Clark, spends her day off from a department store to 
work at the Museum, dividing her time between the gam- 
elan and other volunteer projects. Judith Spicehandler is 
a talented painter of calligraphic subjects whose assis- 
tance is made possible by an SAIC work/study grant. 
Anna Campoli is an SAIC graduate with a special interest 
in etching. Elizabeth Peacock, a data-processing special- 
ist with an interest in a conservation career, is our most 
recent volunteer. 

As Sue De Vale would say, "The gamelan has been 
working its powers and has us in its grip." We all look 
forward to that day when it will be reborn and played 


On Your Own 
A t Field Museum 

by Audrey Hiller 

"With so much to see, where do we start?" This question 
confronts hundreds of family groups every year as they 
enter majestic but somewhat overwhelming Stanley Field 
Hall at Field Museum. 

Family trips to the Field Museum can be fun or fran- 
tic—beneficial or boring. The temptation is there to try to 
cover as much of the ten acres of exhibits as possible in 
the time available. 

What can a family do — with an hour to spend at the 
Field Museum, or two hours, or three or four? With the 
programs developed by the Museum's Department of 
F^ducation, says Dr. Alice Carnes, the department's head, 
guidance and help for a profitable visit that is entertain- 
ing as well as educational are available to those who want 

The Place for Wonder, Museum Journeys, Uniguide 
(the audio information system). Weekend Discovery Pro- 
grams, printed Self-Guided Tours, and the new Pawnee 
Earth Lodge taped and live programs — all are possible 
embarkation points. Those starters— all in the form of 
printed materials — are available at the Museum at no 
charge or at a nominal cost. 

Place for Wonder 

A five-year-old girl is opening a drawer filled with animal 
coverings and carefully pulling out a wolf skin; her older 
brother, at the same time, is looking through a magnifier 
at a fish-shaped fossil. Father has taken a seashell from a 
cabinet and Mother is browsing among books on animals 
and fossils that she has selected from the all-levels book 
collection. This family group could be one who has discov- 
ered the new "hands-on" gallery on the Museum's ground 
floor. Place for Wonder is a good introduction for Mu- 
seum-visiting for parents as well as children. 

To handle, sort, compare, feel, and try on natural his- 
tory specimens and artifacts is to get behind the Muse- 
um's barriers, to feel you are inside the glass cases. 
Trained volunteers are on hand to help. The area is open 
to children and parents on weekdays from 1 to 3 p.m. and 
on weekends from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. Weekday mornings 
are reserved for school groups. 

Audrey Hiller is a Department of Education volunteer. 

The gallery has a quotation at its entrance: "We hope 
you will find two things here: 1. That all life is full of vari- 
ety; and 2. That you can make connections among the 
objects in this room, the Museum exhibits, and your own 

At separate cabinet-tables for different scientific 
areas, children and their parents can handle an assort- 
ment of museum specimens. They might inspect a butter- 
fly's wings with their own magnifier at one, or examine a 
hawk's claws at another. They could compare rocks and 
minerals in another area or try on the fabrics and jewelry 
of West Africa while listening to the rhythmical music of 
that land. All of these and other items are here with the 
idea that visitors can find their own answers by observ- 
ing, classifying, and drawing conclusions about relation- 

"Whole families can share in these activities," said 
the Education Department's Carol Scholl. "Once the 
initial hesitancy is overcome, observation can lead to dis- 
covery and the beginning of an on-going learning experi- 
ence." Carol is currently working on development of 
labeling in the gallery for the blind and visually handi- 

A large selection of books on natural history sub- 
jects, from colorful picture books for preschool to high 
school level references, is scattered throughout, encour- 
aging a shared activity of looking up, identifying, and 
reading for parents and children. A set of slides of birds 
of the Chicago area with their identification is one of 
many slide sets that can be viewed at a light table. 

Carolyn Blackmon, one of the Education Depart- 
ment's staff responsible for development of the Place for 
Wonder, says the hall is so popular, more volunteers are 
needed to extend the hours when it is open to the public. 
Only 25 visitors can be accommodated at one time. Any- 
one wanting to be interviewed for this or other volunteer 
activity may call the Volunteer Office at the Museum 

Museum Journeys 

"Cook's Tour" — the fall Journey, leads visitors through 
some North American cultures with food on their minds. 
What is hominy? What do you do with buffalo meat to 
make it edible? A chart in the Journey booklet directs the 
museum journeyers to look at their own eating experi- 
ences and compare them with those of the Woodlands, 
Plains, and Porno Indian. "What kinds of tools did they 
use to prepare food?" "How were the foods preserved?" 
Answers can be written or drawn in on the Journey 

Museum Journeys are printed guides for self-con- 
ducted tours that lead to specific exhibits and explore an 
aspect of natural history. The summer Journey, for exam- 
ple, was on spelunking and took the visitor on a trip 


through the world of caves, their biology and geology. 

Journey booklets are designed with children in mind 
and are ideal as a family project. By posing questions, a 
Journey helps the young visitor to get more out of the 
exhibits. Each Journey has a theme that is cross-disci- 
plinary; it may relate the main subject to the environ- 
ment or people, plants, or animals and let visitors draw 
their own conclusions. Not all the answers are obvious; 
some are subjective and the questions require thinking, 
not just label-reading. The answers may be a drawing or 
an opinion. By discussing the questions with their chil- 
dren, parents can make the answers a family learning 

The current Journey booklet, available without 
charge at the information booth on the main floor, is a 
colorful souvenir to take home from a visit to the Muse- 
um. New Journeys are published four times a year, in 
September, December, March, and June. 

In addition to the free current Journeys, other Jour- 
neys are available in the Museum Shop for a nominal fee. 
A choice of subjects allows those not interested in the 
current Journey's subject, or wanting to continue the 
Journey idea, to do so. Four are on sale now with more to 
follow. "Friend or Foe" deals with animals whose reputa- 
tions are in question. "Tibet, Nomads of the Mystic 
Mountains" is about the Asian people of that remote 
area. "Chicago, My Kind of Town," is about the changes 
that have taken place in Chicago over millions of years, 
and "Artist's Zoo" gives everyone an artistic challenge. 


Did you know that lions are the only large cats who live 
together in family groups called prides? This is just one 
of many facts one can glean while listening to the Uni- 
guide, the Museum's new audio information system, and 
looking at the relaxed African lion family scene of parents 
and playful cubs in Hall 31. 

Or did you know that the fierce-looking Bushman, 
the Museum's famed gorilla, was once himself intimi- 
dated into returning to his Lincoln Park Zoo enclosure by 
a tiny snake? This proud specimen now has a prominent 
position in the Anniversary Exhibit in Hall 3 and is as 
lifelike as when he was a star attraction at the Zoo more 
than a quarter-century ago. On his glass case and on 
many others throughout the Museum is a sticker that 
tells visitors they can hear more about this exhibit on the 
Uniguide handset. 

A Uniguide sticker shows that here a hidden trans- 
mitter sends out a coded audio signal via a beam of modu- 
lated, invisible light. The Uniguide phone captures the 
light, decodes it, and it is translated into voices, music, 
and sound effects. 

These "Sounds and Stories of the Field Museum" are 
transmitted to hand-held phones which are available for a 
nominal fee at the entrance to the Museum Shop. Back- 

Answers may be written or drawn in Museum Journey hook- 

ground music, sound effects, and factual information 
supplied by the Museum's staff will be wired into areas of 
the Museum that are broadly representative of themes 
and exhibits — from mummies to mastodons and moose to 
meteorites. A map is provided with the Uniguide receiver 
so that a family may choose the subjects of special inter- 
est to them as they take their self-conducted tour. At this 
writing, 35 areas are wired for sound, with a total of 50 
expected to be ready by the time installation is com- 

"Write your own name in hieroglyphs" or "Try print- 
ing with an Adinkra stamp (a method used by West Afri- 
can people to make colorful fabrics)." These are just two 
of the do-it-yourself Weekend Discovery activity choices 
available to Museum visitors. 

Stemming from the recognized need to better ac- 
quaint weekend visitors with the exhibits and to provide 
background on exhibit subjects, the Discovery programs 
came into existence two years ago under the direction of 
the Education Department's Julie Castrop. Vicki Grige- 
laitis coordinates the program, which varies from week to 
week with several program options available each Satur- 
day and Sunday. 

Volunteers supplement existing exhibits with "in- 
the-halls" action. The programs are conducted by indi- 
viduals who have a background in a subject, or who wish 
to expand their own knowledge in an area, or who want to 
transmit their enthusiasm for a subject to others— but 
are working Monday to Friday at other jobs. On their 
days off on weekends, they give tours, conduct demon- 
strations, or provide participatory activities for Museum 


Subjects ranging from "People of the Totem Poles" 
to "Early Man" and "Chinese Jades" are among the cur- 
rent "tours" available. These are discussion programs 
with artifacts or slides, using an exhibit as a focal point. 

Visitors receive a short listing sheet of daily activi- 
ties as they enter the Museum, and the current Weekend 
Discovery programs are listed there each Saturday and 

Self-Guided Tours 

"What is the p'i-p'a? What does his calligraphy tell you 
about the man of China in the 1700s? What does a singing 
cricket in your home mean?" 

These questions are answered in one of the Self- 
Guided Tour sheets now available at a nominal fee in the 
Museum Shop. The booklets lead the visitor into an in- 
depth experience in specific exhibit halls. While Museum 
Journeys are created with children in mind, the Self- 
Guided Tours are planned for adults or family groups of 
high school age and up. 

"The material is more straightforward, not asking 
questions, but focusing on objects in an exhibit," says 
Julie Castrop, who coordinates preparation of the printed 
tour guide sheets. "They create a context for them not 
already obvious in the exhibit." 

"China in the Ch'ing Dynasty" is a self-guided tour 
booklet which leads one to the Museum's Ch'ing Dynasty 
exhibit in Hall 32 and answers the questions above and 
many more. 

Some tour booklet material is in the form of anthro- 
pological comments on an exhibit, as in "The Iroquois: 
Culture in Transition." "Animals in Egyptian Mythol- 
ogy" directs the visitor to zoology exhibits showing the 
real animals — scarab, cobra, mongoose— represented in 
the ancient Egyptian art and statues exhibit on the 
ground floor. 

Some self-guided tour booklets include lists of recom- 
mended books for further study. More tour sheets are in 
preparation and will be available soon. 

Pawnee Earth Lodge 

On the sloping roof of the Pawnee earth lodge are five 
lifesize Pawnee figures, looking out over the Museum's 
limited horizons instead of the flat lands of Oklahoma. 
Inside the lodge, sitting on buffalo robe-covered beds, 
amidst the tools and crafts of the Pawnee, the visitor is 
transported in imagination to the mid- 19th century in 
Pawnee, Oklahoma, as the people hved in that place and 
time— hearing, seeing, touching, smelling some elements 
of their lives. The new recreation of a Pawnee earth lodge 
of Cottonwood, willow, mud, and thatch brings together 
authentic materials to let the visitor envision the people 
who lived there. 

Volunteers who have had extensive training take 

groups through a brief lecture at the lodge's tunnellike 
entrance, introducing the Pawnee and their history. As 
the group enters the lodge and is seated on the buffalo 
robe-covered seats, they hear a taped program which 
changes with the changing seasons. The artifacts which 
the tape explains are handed to visitors for their inspec- 
tion. Volunteers also act as resource people to answer 
questions. The total tour time at the lodge is 40 to 45 
minutes, with schedules of starting times posted at the 
lodge entrance. The public is admitted on weekdays at 
11:15 a.m. and 12:30 p.m., and on weekends at 10 and 
11: 15 a.m. and 12:30 and 1:45 p.m. 

When regular programs are not scheduled, visitors 
may walk into the tunnel entrance to see the lodge interi- 
or and hear a seven-minute tape, activated by a push- 
button. A picture panel outside the lodge provides a story 
and comparison of the old days in Pawnee life in Nebras- 
ka and life as it is now lived by many Pawnee in Okla- 

Other Educational Programs 

Interested parents can call to the attention of their chil- 
dren's teachers the possibilities for help with visits to 
Field Museum. Requests for guided programs for school 
groups exceed the supply to such a degree that only 
twenty percent of school groups wanting educational 
tours can be accommodated. The Museum's professional 
instructional staff and trained volunteers take school 
groups through special areas of interest, but these are 
often booked up for specific dates as much as a year 
ahead. If a school group can be flexible in its choice of 
dates, an educational tour often can be arranged. 

As an alternative, for tours on their own, help is 
available to teachers and leaders of community groups 
from the Museum's Harris Extension. The Harris materi- 
als prepare children for a visit and help teachers with 
follow-up ideas after the trip. Booklets and activity sug- 
gestions cover specific areas of the Museum, such as 
birds. Woodland Indians, and prairies. These materials 
are available without charge to teachers and leaders of 
community groups so they may conduct their own tours. 
Teachers and leaders may send inquiries to Harris Exten- 
sion at the Museum. 

Field Museum's other educational programs geared 
to adults and families include the Kroc environmental 
field trips, adult education courses, the Ayer film lecture 
series, weaving demonstrations with North Shore Weav- 
ers' Guild members explaining weaving and spinning on 
Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 10 a.m. to noon, 
and exhibit-related special programs. 

The Field Museum Bulletin lists on its back cover the 
current calendar of special and continuing events. Before 
leaving home for a Museum visit, members might refer to 
this listing to make the best use of their time at the Muse- 
um and check the latest ' ' specials. ' ' □ 




V ,^^ 

Special Invitation for Members! 

"A Christmas Afternoon at Field Museum ' 

Entertainment, music for dancing, refresliments 
4:30 to 7 : 00 p,m., Monday, December 19 

Please send me . 

. adult tickets. $2.50 ea. 

. tickets for children, $2.50 ea. 

Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 

Reservations are limited and will be filled in order received. 



For further informalion call Women's Board. 922-9410 






November and December at Field Mii sett m 

(November 15 through December 15) 

New Exhibits 

Pawnee Earth Lodge. Field Museum's newest permanent 
exhibit is a traditional Pawnee earth lodge — the home and cere- 
monial center of Pawnee Indians, as it existed in the mid- 1800s. 
Daily programs, inside the 38-foot-diameter lodge, provide oppor- 
tunities to learn about Pawnee culture. Check electronic monitors 
for specific times. Hall 5. 

Contemporary Southern Plains Indian Metalwork. 

Exhibit of 110 examples of contemporary metalwork created by 
15 Native American craftsmen from western Oklahoma. Hall 4. 
Through Jan. 15. 

Iroquois Kitchen. This exhibit shows how traditional Native 
American ritual is preserved in a modern setting. Hall 5. Per- 

Monkeys Inside and Out — opens November 15. Exhibit of 
monkey illustrations appearing in the recently published Living 
New World Monkei^s, Vol. 1, by Philip Hershkovitz, emeritus 
curator of mammals. Hall 9. No closing date. 

Exotic Flyers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds — moves to 
Hall 9, November 15. Exhibit of exquisite bird illustrations 
appearing in the recently published Manual of Neotropical Birds. 
Vol. 1, by Emmet R. Blake, emeritus curator of birds. No closing 

New Program 

Javanese Music and Dance Performance November 9, 
at 8:00 p.m. The Performing Arts Program of the Asia Society will 
perform Penca. a dance from the Art of Self-Defense, and Topeng 
Babakan. a village mask dance with one dancer changing masks 
and assuming four or five roles. Both dances accompanied by 
the museum's newly renovated gamelan — Javanese orchestral 
ensemble. Simpson Theatre, ground floor west. Free tickets 
available at west door. 


Ayer Film/Lecture Series. Each Saturday, at 2:30 p.m., sit 
back and enjoy a 90-minute adventure in a remote or familiar 
area of the world. The films are personally narrated by their film 
makers. Reserved seating available for members and their families. 
Doors open at 1:45 p.m. Simpson Theatre, ground floor west. 

Nov. 19 

Nov. 26 

The Alps to the Riuiera 
by William Sylvester 

Yosemite and the High Sierra 
by Bob Roney 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to handle, 
sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. Weekdays, 1 p.m. to 
3 p.m. Ground floor. Permanent. 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game. The exhibit where 
visitors become anthropologists. Discover that economic and 
social roles of the sexes are not universally the same. Ground 
floor. No closing date. 

Autumn Journey for Children: Cook's Tour. Self-guided 
tour leads children through museum exhibits to learn about food, 
cooking utensils, recipes, and food preparation of other cultures. 
Free Journet^ pamphlets available at information booth, main 
floor. Through Nov. 30. 

On Your Own. Adult- and family-oriented self-guided tour 
booklets are available for 25c at entrance to the Museum Shop, 
main floor north. 

Audio Information System, The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide, enables visitors of all ages to visit selected 
exhibits in any sequence they choose. Specially designed audio 
receivers and maps available for a nominal fee at entrance to the 
Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory museum-related activities. Every Saturday 
and Sunday, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Special-Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 

Nov. 1, 7:30 p.m. 

Nov. 3, 7:00 p.m. 

Nov. 4, 8:00 p.m. 

Nov. 6, 2:00 p.m. 

Nov. 8, 7:30 p.m. 

Nov. 9, 7:30 p.m. 

Nov. 9, 7:30 p.m. 

Nov. 10, 8:00 p.m. 

Nov. 15, 7:30 p m, 

Nov. 27, 2:30 p.m. 

Kennicott Club 
Primitive Arts Society 
Chicago Anthropological Society 
Chicago Shell Club 
Nature Camera Club 
Windy City Grotto, National 
Speleological Society 
Chicago Ornithological Society 
Chicago Mountaineering Club 
Chicago Audubon Society 
Illinois Audubon Society 

The Ancient Art of Weaving. Weaving and spinning demon- 
strations every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday, 10 a.m. to noon. 
South Lounge, 2nd floor. 

November and December Hours 

The Museum opens daily at 9 a.m. and closes at 4 p.m. 
Monday through Thursday; 5 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays. On 
Fridays year-round, the museum is open to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday through 
Friday. Obtain pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum telephone: 922 9410 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

t.„U-i M til ^. i 

liJ i;^v 


Field Museum 

of Natural History 


December, 1977 
Vol. 48, No. 11 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Nika Semkoff Levi-Setti 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 


3 Peru's Golden Treasures 

Exhibit on view at Field Museum February 
16 to May 21 

By Michael Moseley, associate curator. 
Middle and South American archaeology and 

4 Appointment Calendar for 1978 
Features photos of Peruvian treasures 

back December and January at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 


William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
J. Roscoe Miller 
James L. Palmer 
JohnT. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John G . Searle 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 


Blaine J. Yarrington, chairman 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

George R. Baker 

Robert O. Bass 

Gordon Bent 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Stanton R. Cook 

O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Marshall Field 

Nicholas Galitzine 

Paul W. Goodrich 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

William H.Mitchell 

Charles F. Murphy. Jr. 

James J. O'Connor 

James H. Ransom 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

John S. Runnells 

William L. Searle 

Edward Byron Smith 

Robert H. Strotz 

John W. Sullivan 

William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

Edward R. Telling 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

E. Leland Webber 

Julian B. Wilkins 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year: S3 a year for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. 
Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. II. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 


Pair of ceremonial gold hands and arms or gloves, with 
the fingers, thumbs, and nails carefully depicted (the 
latter with applied silver). The arms are decorated 
with longitudinal bands containing embossed wave 
pattern, birds, scales, and triangles. On the backs of 
the hands are depicted files of warriors, in profile, with 
domed and plumed headdresses, breastplates, and 
short skirts. The eve form is in the Lambayeque style. 
Chimu (900-1470 AD). Length: 53.9 cm and 54.6 cm, 
left and right, respectively. These hands, together 
with other treasures of ancient Peru, will be on view 
at Field Museum beginning February 16. 

Peru 's Golden Treasures has come to the United States 
under the auspices of the Government of Peru; its 
appearance in the United States has been organized 
by the American Museum of Natural History. The 
exhibit is supported by a federal indemnity from the 
Federal Council on the Arts and the Humanities. 
All items in the collection were assembled by Sr. 
Miguel Mujica Gallo of the Museo Oro del Peru. 

The cover photo and all other photos in this 
issue are reproduced courtesy of the Royal Ontario 
Museum, Toronto. 

Peru*s Golden Treasures 

By Michael Moseley 

From February 16 through May 21 Field Museum will 
host the largest collection of Peruvian gold artifacts 

ever shown in the United States; more than 200 beauti- 
fully wrought pieces, all pre-Columbian, will be on view in 
Hall 26. 

Raiment of the ruling class, headdresses, funerary 
masks, jewelry, children's clothing, tools, eating utensils, and 
a variety of decorative objects— all are to be found in this re- 
markable assemblage. The pure "goldness" of many of the 
pieces is enough to bedazzle the modern viewer, but more 
important is the historic- aesthetic essence of the collection 
— remnants of a once-thriving, highly sophisticated civilization. 
Jewelry items were often wrought with as much symmetry and 
style as those created by today's master craftsmen, and even 
the most utilitarian objects were rendered with a special aes- 
thetic sense or even whimsy. 

Assembled from the magnificent collection of the Museo 
Oro del Peru, in Lima, the exhibit displays the arts of five 
cultures: Inca {1300-1532 A.D.), Chimu (900-1470 AD), 
Moche (200-700 AD), Nazca (200-5 A.D.), and Vicus (200 
BC-300 AD). The objects that have been preserved from 
these ancient cultures represent but the smallest fraction of 
those amassed by the Incas in their mountaintop capital of 
Cuzco, in what is today south-central Peru. 

Upon first entering the city in 1533, the Spanish con- 
quistadores were awe-struck by the opulent splendor. But the 
golden gardens and palaces which they immediately beheld 
were a fraction of Cuzco's treasures. In a vain attempt to 
ransom his freedom, the Inca ruler Atajualpa gave his Casti 
ian conquerors "a roomful of gold and two rooms full o 
silver," worth more than $50 million by today's standards 
Yet, like the conquistador who gambled away his share o 
the vast fortune in a single night, all these objects of metal 
smiths' art were lost— lost to Spanish smelters and formless 

Most surviving examples of native goldwork come 
from buried graves looted long after the conquest of Peru. 
These rare and beautiful objects reflect an ancient metal- 

Michael Moseley is associate curator. Middle and South 
American archaeo!og\j and ethnologi;. 

smithing tradition that began millenia before its Inca culmina- 
tion. The symbolism and social roles played by precious metals 
among the earliest cultures remain elusive, because the jewelry 
and art works are from plundered tombs, not archaeological 
excavations. Yet. as the exhibit makes clear, the elite among 
these ancient peoples went to their graves richly bedecked 
with golden crowns, necklaces, gloves, and boots; their 
mummified bodies were wrapped in fine cloth and they wore 
ornate gold face masks. 

Among the Inca the importance of precious metals 
is better known. Conquistadores estimated that the lords of 
Cuzco collected annually six million ounces of gold and twenty 
million of silver from their vast empire. Gold was symbolic of 
the sun, and silver of the moon. Only individuals of royal blood 
— the "children of the sun"— could legitimately possess 
objects fashioned from gold. To ensure this royal monopoly, 
the law stipulated that all gold brought into Cuzco could 
never again leave the sacred city. Precious metals found many 
uses in addition to decorating palace buildings and ornamental 
gardens. As a sun symbol, gold was an adornment of the elite 
and even worked into their clothing and robes. 

The hammered discs or small cast ornaments were 
sewn to shirts and capes; gold, often inlaid with shell or semi- 
precious stone, was used for ear and nose ornaments. Many 
golden objects were covered with paint, so that the gold was 
not visible. Thus, the property of being intrinsically of gold 
was at least as important as the object's appearance. 

Many metalsmiths serving the lords of Cuzco came 
from foreign provinces, particularly along the Pacific desert. 
About AD 1470, the Inca incorporated the Chimu, a large 
and wealthy coastal empire with many skilled craftsmen. This 
conquest not only enriched the Inca's coffers, but brought to 
Cuzco Chimu metalsmiths, who excelled in working gold and 
silver for their new masters. 

^w^ he history of Ancient Peruvian gold is a long and varied 
tradition which lasted three millenia. The new exhibit 
presents a glittering reflection of this history, and a 
tantalizing glimpse of the wonders greeting Francisco Pizarro 
and his band of Spanish adventures when they landed in 
Peru more than 400 years ago. D 


'?i:'^^.^- • : 




^-^ t 





<M - Q 

s 1 K S : 

^^ §1 1 



•s :| 

^ a 2 
a : 5 

"^ t J5 ro OK 












«• — CO"! 





1 S C 








s i 1 


^ a 5 
^ - 5 


1 «t 



18 2 
|S a a 

S~ l^ ft 







-jj o a ^ ^'^ 




K § o 

1 1 1 

eg § "^ 


~ -S 

"1 1 -^ 

■^ "^J ^ 

? <o (^ 

:S a a 
S ^ ? 














■ |» 





z s ^ S 

c Q 





J .s £ 





, » ^' 

^^ . \ 









8 I CQ I- 





> -a ■- 



o , 

S (5 




c^ ^c\ ■* ^ ? 

"=■ ^ S- I 2 s . 

■a "^ 5 
^ ■§ J 

R ;§ "? R S 'S ■ 
• S -5 -^ ^ 'n 

^5 ^: 










* ^^ — CMCS 

.. ^ <N O -O 














1^ ~ ■!, O 
^ ^ "a "^ 


'^ 03 ^ rj 

^ S 





_3 o ^ 










ON "* 







~ ^ ^ CM CN 

I.^ "» — " 
"■ r*, ^ oi j^ 

^ — — CM 
* •— — CM 





>- - "°'iS 







■^^ o - . 
t: CQ rvj 


^ ^ 1^ g "^ 


y-^^ f 

- - 5 5 ^ ^. ,S "^ 


g I z 









»; a a 





"a ^ 
K a a 



^ j5 fO O 1^ 
"^ *" — CN <N 

>- - "*~2S 

^ ^ — CO 





"■ ". cs" 

^ rMO. -O <^ O 

a » ^<n "/I t^ "• 

> '^ ^'^ — c^c^ 

* * — CM (N 















■— •— CN 
— — CN 






~ — CM CM 
1^ ^ — GO 

^ O O f^ 

^ ^ CM f^ 

^ CN O •© 

. CN 

_ ^ 03 "1 
^ — — CN 

CM O- "O -" 





































^, -S ? s 

G «5 5 d; 













■«< "S '■? "5 
^ c :| 'I 

3 I £5 I- 












(S d^' ^ 




" — CM CM 

— CM (N 
CM O -O 

^ s '"_;:-cM 
J ro O ^*' ,^ 

(N O <© _- 






" ■* — CS CM 




of Natural History 





X 111 


special film 
program 2:00 p.m. 

CN lis 

\ 1 ^ a-s 


"^ 'S ■5 ^ 


^ 1 




















■^ Jo 

a: t2 

§ s 

1 ^ 










-^ ■ ■ 


■5 ^ 

XT) il 


July 1978 





5 M T W T f S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 31 









S M I W I f S 

1 2 3 
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 





r^ \ 

•^- ^ ^ i^^ g gfe . 


'/ 4 ^Ji' 

















S « 3 

t^ a: ^ 







^ 9 


-^ -ci. 








(SI ti 






,1 ^ 




is 5 




~ 9 



1- ■§ ^ rS; 





~ 9 




00 II 

1: f- 

fS *^ 





1/1 * ''^ — — (N 

|>- 111 



c§ t2 iC 





S " 2 li ;" 






(N o ;0 „S 







il Historx; 


— ' 


? i: 

1 ^ ill 
5 1 1 i z 

CO 1 


of Nature 


1 u 






S 1 ^ ■§- 











ri ^ ^ ^ 

^ ' 









September 1 




"" — CM CM 





u^ ill 




o in rM o ■'^ 
^ — — Ol <^ 



S St 

S It 








^ ^-co'n 






s fe r^ 











00 1 



UJ "■ °°— CNCM 
CO ►^ ^ ■— 00 





t" .- vn t^ O O 





<^ . 

- ^OK^ 



1 i 


K 1^ e 








3 1 CQ ^ 













3 2 2 

5i a a 
eg "^ g 

















ft: a a 
[g "^ g 


fN III! 





a.H 1 





s 1 z 









^ tc 


















- / 







v>^.ir. ' ^^ 

<^ ^-^ ^ 




•^ A -■*vMifc. VWfcKasr. 






il History 






Ayer Lecture 2:30p.m. 

i ^ 



Ayer Lecture 2:30p.m 


Ayer Lecture 2:30 p.m. 


S M T W T F S 

1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 1) 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
"j, 25 26 27 28 29 30 

of Nature 







S M I W T F S 

12 3 4 5 6 7 
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 
22232425 26 27 28 
29 30 31 










new mixin 











last quarter 

^ ^ 

November 1978 




Do your Christmas 
shopping now at 
Field Museum Shops 







Bulletin for 
special events 














V ^ -^ 


/* '* 

' , ' ^• 


• "M . tf 1 



J - 
















7 Archival Film 
Premier: 1940 
jj_^v Galapagos Expedi- 
tion narrated by 
an expedition 
member, 1:30 p.m. 














<; Q a ^ 


> E 



















E -S S 





^ t^ o -o 

tC - ^ 1 1 -- i^ -S 

i ts^i 1- 

■S: * a a ? s S3 

m 11 



December & January at Field Museum 

New Exhibits 

Pawnee Earth Lodge. Field Museum's newest permanent 
exhibit, in Hall 5, is a traditional Pawnee earth lodge — the home 
and ceremonial center of Pawnee Indians as it existed in the mid- 
1800s. Daily programs provide opportunities to learn about 
Pawnee culture. Public programs: Monday through Friday, 12:30 
p.m.: weekends at 11:15 a.m.. and 12:30 p.m. Meet at the North 
Information booth. Programs are limited to 30 people. 

Contemporary Southern Plains Indian Metalwork. 

Exhibit of 110 examples of contemporary metalwork created by 
15 Native American craftsmen from western Oklahoma. Hall 4. 
Through January 15. 

Iroquois Kitchen. This exhibit shows a traditional Native 
American ritual preserved in a modern setting. Hall 5. Permanent. 

Monkeys Inside and Out. Exhibit of monkey illustrations 
appearing in the recently published Living New World Monke^;s. 
Vol. 1, by Philip Hershkovitz, emeritus curator of mammals. Hall 
9. No closing date. 

Exotic Flyers: Portraits of Neotropical Birds. Exhibit of 
exquisite bird illustrations appearing in the recently published 
Manual of Neotropical Birds. Vol. 1, by Emmet R. Blake, emeritus 
curator of birds. Hall 9. No closing date. 

Exhibit of Native American Basketry opens December 15. 
A rich and varied art form, expressed in utilitarian objects: cradles, 
fish traps, mats, hats, even drinking cups. Made by Indians of the 
Northwest Coast mostly around 1900. Hall 27. No closing date. 

New Programs 

Javanese Gamelan. Field Museum's gamelan, an ensemble 
of 23 fine bronze and wood musical instruments, has been re- 
stored for exhibition and performance. It is the oldest and perhaps 
finest gamelan outside Indonesia and has not been played since 
the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893. Several events are 
planned for coming weeks and months to introduce and demon- 
strate this extraordinary collection. For additional details consult 
January 1978 Bul/elin. 

January 7 lecture: "The Gamelan in Dance and Drama." 
by Hardya Susilo, gamelan master. University of Hawaii; 2:00 
p.m.. Simpson Theatre. 

January 14 lecture: "Music for the Javanese Theatre." 
by Sue Carter-De Vale, gamelan program and research director; 
2:00 p.m.. Simpson Theatre. 

Lecture series tickets: $3.00 for members, $5.00 for 
nonmembers. Remaining single tickets, if still available, will 
be sold on the day of the lecture: $1.50 for members, 
$2.50 for nonmembers. 

January 14: Members' dinner (6:30 p.m.), featuring Javanese 
cuisine, w:th gamelan performance (8:00 p.m.), $10.00 per person. 

Tickets for gamelan concert only; $2.50 for members, $5.00 for 
nonmembers. For all tickets, send check to "Gamelan," Field 
Museum, including self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to handle, 
sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. Weekdays, 1:00 p.m. 
to 3:00 p.m.; weekends, 10:00 a.m. to noon and 1:00 p.m. to 
3:00 p.m. 

Winter Journey for Children: "Hidden Faces." Self-guided 
tour leads children through Museum exhibits to learn about masks 
and their uses in different cultures. Free Journey pamphlets 
available at Information Booth, main floor. Through January 31. 


"On Your Own": Self-guided tour booklets, adult- and family 
oriented, are available for 25c at entrance to the Museum Shop, 
main floor north. 

Audio Information System. The museum's newly installed 
audio system, Uniguide. enables visitors of all ages to visit selected 
exhibits in any sequence. Audio receivers and maps available 
for $1.25 per person. $3.75 for a family of up to 5 at the entrance 
to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory museum-related activities. Every Satur- 
day and Sunday, 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. except for Christmas 
and New Year's weekends. 

Special Interest Meetings 
Open to the Public 

Dec. 20, 7:30 p m Chicago Audubon Society 

Jan. 3, 7:30 p.m. Kennicott Club 

Jan. 5.7:00 p.m. Primitive Arts Society 

Jan. 6, 8:00 p m Chicago Anthropological Society 

Jan. 8, 2:00 p.m. Chicago Shell Club 

Jan. 10, 7:30 p.m. Nature Camera Club 

Jan. 11. 7:30 p.m. Windy City Grotto 

Jan 12. 8:00 pm Chicago Mountaineering Society 

December and January Hours 

The Museum Opens daily at 9 a.m. and closes at 4 p.m. 
Monday through Thursday; Saturdays and Sundays, 5 p.m. On 
Fridays the museum is open to 9 p.m. Museum closed on Christ- 
mas and New Year's. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Obtain a pass at reception desk, main floor. 

Museum telephone: 922 9410