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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

January 
1979 



Field Museum of Natural History B 






Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

January, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 1 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walslen 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 
3 Field Briefs 



9 
10 



The Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic 
Expedition 

By Ted Karamanski 

Soviet Union Tour for Members 

Chance Encounter of a Good Kind 

By Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Goerge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshal] Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



14 Of Land Bridges, Ice-Free Corridors, and Early 
Man in the Americas 

By Glen Cole, curator of prehistory 

22 Conflicts between Darwin and Paleontology 

By David M. Raup, curator of geology 

30 Index to Volume 49 (1978) 

Prepared by Kenneth Grabowski, library assistant 

back January and February at Field Museum 
cover Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Lake Michigan and the Indiana Dunes. Photo by ]ohn 
Kolar. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July/August 
issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 
60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin 
subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy 
of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to 
Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago II. 60605. ISSN: 
0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, It. 




FIELD BRIEFS 



Scanning Electron Microscope 
Adult Education Course 

The SEM course will again be offered this 
spring, beginning March 20. The course will 
meet once a week for five weeks, each 
session lasting from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. 
Instructors are Alan Solem, curator of 
invertebrates, and Christine Niezgoda, her- 
barium assistant. Department of Botany. 
Course fee is $60.00. Enrollment is limited 
to 24 persons. 

Information on dates and registration 
may be obtained by calling 922-y410, 
X-382, or by writing: Adult Courses: SEM; 
Dept. of Education, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, III. 60605. 



The Place for Wonder: 
Opportunities for Volunteers 

The Department of Education announces 
that volunteer opportunities are now avail- 
able in the Place for Wonder, Field Muse- 
um's ground floor gallery where natural 
history specimens may be examined first 
hand by visitors both young and old. Place 
for Wonder volunteers will participate in a 
unique teaching situation that utilizes the 
hands-on and inquiry method approach to 
education. Who may serve as a volunteer? 
Persons with one day a week to share, who 
enjoy working with children and families, 
and want responsibility are invited to call 
Vicki Grigelaitis, the volunteer coordinator, 
at 922-9410, ext. 360. 



CORRECTION 



In the article "Solem and Snails " by 
Patricia Williams, which appeared in the 
November, 1978, Bulletin, an incorrect 
number of pages was given for the 
monograph Endodontoid Land Snails from 
Pacific Islands (MoUusca: Pulmonata: 
Sigmurethra), Part I, Family Endodontidae, 
by Alan Solem (Field Museum Press, 1976). 
The correct number of pages is 508. 



Loren Woods Retires 

Loren P. Woods, curator of fishes, has 
recently retired after more than 40 years of 
service to Field Museum. Woods first came 
to the Museum in 1938 as a staff member of 
the James Nelson and Anna Louise Ray- 
mond Foundation (now part of the Depart- 
ment of Education). He was assistant 
curator of fishes from 1941 to 1947 and was 
then appointed curator. 

Over the years he has participated in 
expeditions to the Indian Ocean, Western 
Atlantic, Southeastern Pacific, Western 
Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Surinam, Puer- 
to Rico, Virgin Islands, Florida Keys, and to 
many of the states, particularly in the 
Midwest. 

As curator emeritus, Woods is continu- 
ing his research on the beryciform and 
pomacentrid fishes. Associate curator of 
fishes Robert K. Johnson has succeeded 
Woods as head of the Division of Fishes. 



Borden Expedition Film 

Saturday, February 3, is the day to see the 
exciting feature-length film, "The Cruise of 
the Northern Light," taken during the 
Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic 
Expedition. (The expedition is the subject of 
a two-part article concluded in this issue; 



see p. 4.) The 60-minute film will be shown 
at 1:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. Ad- 
mission is $3.00 for nonmembers, $1.50 for 
members and students with I.D. 

Mrs. Rochester B. Slaughter, a member 
of the expedition, shot the film and it was 
subsequently shown at various places in the 
Chicago area. In 1976, the film was given to 
Field Museum by Mrs. George L. Simpson, 
of Eau Claire, Wis., niece of Mrs. Slaughter, 
who died in 1949. 

Introducing the film on February 3 will 
be Mrs. Foster Adams (the former Mrs. 
John Borden), who accompanied the expe- 
dition. The film narrator will be expedition 
veteran Rev. Theodore Purcell, S.J., of 
Washington, D.C., who was only 15 at the 
outset of the expedition. 

Egypt Tour for Members 

Three seats are still available on the Field 
Museum tour to Egypt departing Chicago 
February 15. The per-person all inclusive 
price is $2,950. (Includes a $500.00 tax- 
deductible donation to Field Museum.) 

Join with us and visit Cairo, Beni 
Hassan, Ashmunein, Luxor, the Valleys of 
the Kings and Queens, Aswan, and much 
more of this fabled land. The luxury of a 
Nile River cruise is also in the itinerary. 
Write or call Michael J. Flynn, Field 
Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, III. 60605 (922-9410) 




The Place for Wonder: volunteers needed 



Ronlbsta 




\ The Borden- 
^ Field Museum 
1927 Alaska 



 Arctic 



Four of the surviving Sea Scout veterans of the Northern Light's 
cruise, shown at the helm of another schooner during a 1978 reu- 
nion. Left to right: Bruce Andrews, Rev. Theodore Purcell, Ken Mc- 
Clelland, and Otto Carstensen. Rev. Purcell will he at Field Museum 
on Saturday, Feb. 3. to narrate a feature-length film on the 1927 ex- 
pedition. 

The first installment of the account of the Borden-Field Mu- 
seum 1927 Alaska Arctic Expedition appeared in the Novem- 
ber 1978 Bulletin. That segment told of preparations for the 
adventure, of the group's departure from San Francisco on 
April 21, 1927, aboard the schooner Northern Light, and 
subsequent events to July 15. At this point the vessel was in 
the Arctic Ocean at Cape Serdzekamen, on the northeastern 
coast of Siberia. 

Mrs. John Borden (now Mrs. Foster Adams), wife of 
the expedition's sponsor and a member of the expedition, sub- 
sequently wrote a book-length account of the venture. The 
Cruise of the Northern Light (MacMillan, 1928). The follow- 
ing text (italics), with the author's permission, is excerpted 
from the book: 

]uly 15: All ive could think of when we made out the 
grotesquely familiar forms was Alice in Wonderland: ' 'The 
time has come' the walrus said." The tremendous ugly 
creatures were a shapeless mass until their heads were raised to 
peer around; then they jabbed one another with their tusks 
and a few minutes later were again asleep. The light-colored 
boat with its white figures probably seemed to them a cake of 
moving ice .... The great Nansen and fohansen and other 
explorers on their dash to the North Pole, have been attacked 
by these huge monsters. We cruised up in the launch and took 



Expedition 



Part II 



By TED KARAMANSKI 



some moving pictures as the enraged bulls neared us, somer- 
saulting their huge bodies in and out of the water, showing us 
their stupid whiskered faces as they came up snorting. 

July 16: An umiak is the most valuable part of an 
Eskimo's equipment, an efficient craft, fully equal to one of 
our ship's boats, and in some ways preferable. [It] is about 
thirty feet long and in smooth water will hold a cargo of more 
than two tons yet it is so lightly constructed that two men can 
carry it over the ice, an important feature north of Bering 
Strait where a boat may be hemmed in by the ice for a long 
period, and inability to escape means serious suffering. A 
whaleboat is much heavier and the slightest accident may 
stove it in, while the skin boat can be jammed into ice and re- 
main uninjured. Its broken ribs need not be repaired until 
convenient .... 

]uly 17: Our position was 55 miles east of Wrangel and 
forty-three miles south of Herald Island, 330 miles north of 
the Arctic Circle, and 180 miles from the Siberian shore. We 
were swallowed up within the Arctic whiteness of the North. 
The great Polar ice-pack, that relentless terror, nearly sur- 
rounded our little ship on its sweep across the Pole of Inac- 
cessibility and a million square miles of unexplored 
territory .... 

Leaving the Siberian coast, the Northern Light headed 
eastward again, and after several days reached Pt. Hope, 
Alaska. 

]uly 23: Primitive implements of carved ivory and 
jade, which the Eskimos are beginning to realize are in- 

Ted Karamanski is a doctoral candidate in history at Loyola 
University. 



teresting to white men, have recently been excavated from 
underneath the mounds. We made an important collection of 
these articles which were pressed upon us by the male popula- 
tion, and they are now part of a much larger collection that 
we presented to the Field Museum. There were ivory labrets 
formerly used by the men as chin ornaments, whaling knives, 
flints, and crude stones for killing birds .... 

The igloos that the Eskimos live in today stand above 
ground, mere hovels of moss-covered whalebone. We called 
on the native mayor {of Tikeraq, a Pt. Hope Eskimo settle- 
ment! i^rid were nauseated by the stench of seal blubber, and 
intestines lying in the main entrance. The center chamber was 
a small square box, used for sleeping and eating, into which 
light penetrated from (a gut-covered] aperture in the mud 
roof .... Four squaws sat on the floor, each holding a small 
child and anxiously watching the supper that hissed on a very 
modern stove. Sugar, tea, and tobacco, luxuries beyond the 
reach of the less fortunate Chuckchees, were in evidence .... 
The oldest woman, . . . became ecstatic over my gay colored 
coat, although Mrs. Slaughter was wearing a far more attrac- 
tive blue parka .... 

July 25: Little John lone of the Eskimo guides] joined 
us near the pilot-house, where we were standing enjoying the 
shimmering, golden sunshine, and announced, "Now Capt'n, 
you can come see your kayak." 

"My kayak?" my husband looked a trifle puzzled. 

I followed, and witnessed the formal and touching gift 
of a kayak, harpoon, poke, and immamidik. They were 
childishly happy in their ability to please "Cap'n"; their black 
eyes fairly sparkled with delight. Little John explained: "Wood 
in boat seven years old — skin new every two years." — And 
then — "You give Museum." 

The gut coat and harpoon was given by the older and 
more silent John. We shook hands all round, — and nearly 
kissed. 

August 1: Mr. Hine, [Field Museum's chief bird taxi- 
dermist], while waiting for us, stopped at the [Nomej hotel 
and made trips back into the foothills for bird specimens. 
[The U.S. Department of Agriculture had issued a special per- 
mit for Hine to obtain migratory and nonmigratory bird 
species for the Museum.] He collected fox, golden-crowned, 
and Savannah sparrows, an Alaskan longspur, red poll, and a 
golden plover, rare in that vicinity. The plover, he explained, 
migrates through China and India to Australia and Polynesia 
covering many thousand miles. The Eskimos came on board 
just before we sailed, seemingly delighted to be with us again. 

August 2: We stopped at Fairway Rock, a small granite 
formation five or six hundred feet high, to let Mr. Hine shoot 
water birds. The soft colors of green, yellow, pink, and 
lavender were lovely rising out of a dull blue sea and as the 
fog came and went we had a full view of the turreted, castle- 
like rock. We could just see thousands of little heads above a 
soft green carpet, and after the first shot millions of birds flew 
in all directions. We there acquired murres, paroquet auklets, 
horned and tufted puffins, pigeon guillemots, and a glaucous- 
winged gull. The feathers of the tufted puffin are like silk. It 
was interesting to compare the many yellow vermilion, 



The Borden-Field Museum 1927 expedition is 
the subject of a feature-length film to be shown 
in James Simpson Theatre on Saturday, Feb. 3, 
at 1:30 p.m. Mrs. Foster Adams (the former 
Mrs. John Borden) will introduce the film, and 
the narrator will be Rev. Theodore Purcell, 
S.J., who. like Mrs. Adams, served as a mem- 
ber of the expedition. 

The 60-minute film was a recent gift to 
the Museum by Mrs. George L. Simpson, a 
niece of Mrs. Rochester B. Slaughter, who was 
the expedition's official photographer. 

Admission to the film is $3.00 for non- 
members, $1.50 for members and for students 
with I.D. 

orange, and scarlet vermilions in the bird's legs and claws, — 
the colors still brilliant in the first hour after death. In fact, a 
notable change can be seen almost instantly in the flesh part 
of a bird as the warmth of life leaves its body. What surprised 
us most about the Arctic water birds is the exact similarity of 
coloring of male and female in auklets, murres, and 
guillemots .... 

In Nome my husband later acquired a collection of 
ivory carvings, valuable to a museum of Natural History, 
which had been dug up by the natives themselves from an up- 
per and two lower stratas of earth below the present settle- 
ment on Little Diomede. There were three distinct periods of 
civilization represented. We added this collection to the Pt. 
Hope articles and presented them to the Museum. 

August 5: The next day was beautiful, thank good- 
ness, and a glorious day in the Arctic is more wonderful than 
anything any of us had ever seen anywhere else in the world. 
We realized why explorers, such as Stefansson and Amund- 
sen, continually return to the Frozen North and gladly 
undergo many hardships along with the glorious life. We had 
heard in Unalaska that "north of St. Lawrence Island the sun 
would shine. " We found it to be true. Good weather in the 
Polar Sea meant calm waters, radiant sunsets, and the long 
white nights burning with sunshine, more exquisite than any 
hour on the blue Mediterranean or any clear white day in 
Switzerland. The North has a weird, intoxicating beauty 
which is indescribable . No one can grasp the full ecstasy of an 
Arctic summer night without having drunk deep of its 
spell . . . . A thrilling element of hovering danger followed 
us always. There were no harbors for hundreds of miles at a 
stretch and no lighthouses of a civilized coast to guide 
us ... . 

There are summers when navigation to Wrangel is im- 
possible at any time. We of course could not take any chances 
on being caught in the pack north and west of Alaska, and off 
the Arctic coast of Siberia, or our helpless vessel would drift 
to a cold, unmarked grave. On the other hand if a ship is 



caught in the ice of the European Arctic it usually drifts south 
into open water and freedom. The danger was so constantly 
with us that I began to feel that the pack was a giant octopus, 
thrusting its deadly tentacles in all directions. The mere word 
"ice" brought shivers and goose-flesh. My readers may think I 
overestimate this silent, white enemy and wonder why we 
continued — but they must remember that we were sailing in 
search of Museum specimens in the graveyard of the seven 
seas. More ships have gone to "Davy Jones' Locker" in the 
waters north of Bering Strait, considering the comparatively 
short span of years sitice the Bering Sea was first discovered, 
than on any other body of water in all the world. The great 
polar ice-pack, that fiend of the North, continues to take its 
relentless toll. 

August 6: That night Captain Borden and a mate 
sighted Wrangel Island at 10:30. After a continuous watch of 
thirty-six hours my husband then went below, but two hours 
later was suddenly awakened by the engines being signalled 
off. Hearing much confusion on deck he dressed hurriedly 
and disappeared; in a few minutes I heard: "Ice 
ahead!" . . . Ice! Ice! — What a word! — The water was now 
29° (one degree over the freezing point of salt water) .... 

Climbing down from the high bed I pulled on my 
heaviest trousers, two sweaters, two parkas, and the in- 
valuable mukluks over many woolen socks, and started up 
the steps .... Everyone was staring out toward land not far 
distant .... There lay Wrangel .... 

Turning my head in the other direction there shone 
nothing but an endless sweep of ice. Out there — a thousand 
miles or so — challenged the North Pole. The veil that hid it 
from view — and continually lured ambitious, strong men to 
their doom— had been torn away by Peary, Amundsen, 
Ellsworth, and Byrd. How simple it seemed — to be able to fly 
from the deck of the Northern Light— still further north— out 
over that field of both solid and floating ice .... 

August 11: "May wc hang our flags to the shrouds?" 
asked Ryan. In a few minutes the Jackson Park and Columbia 
Yacht Club pennants fluttered, one above the other, from the 
turnbuckles. These little flags waved into shreds before the 
boys took them down, preparing to bring back in triumph 
"flags that had flown at Wrangel Island." 

Mr. Hine was equally excited. His thrill lay in the pros- 
pect of bringing the first birds from this Arctic island to the 
Field Museum .... Suddenly — "We see polar bear!" cried 
both Eskimos in the same breath. 

Nothing can adequately describe our feelings. "Polar 
bears! Polar bears!" rang over the ship .... Here were the 
wild beasts we had sailed thousands of miles to find. I believe 
we did not know whether to laugh or cry in our frantic 
excitement. 

"Look at them! — They are just standing there, " called 
Mrs. Slaughter .... Yes — there they were — two huge white 
bears on that gleaming streak of moving ice. We could even 
see them with our naked eye. Whether they saw the boat we 
didn't know, because bears are supposed to have poor 
eyesight. But their smelling powers are excellent .... Both 
animals were evidently startled .... 



We went below for warmth and relaxation. Sometimes 
I was Caliban secretly fearing the elements, but on this night 
of many thrills, the dangers and the possible fate of seafarers 
were soon forgotten. The victrola played incessantly and we 
sang loudly to our favorite tunes. Strange as it may sound on 
reading this, while sitting snug and safe at home, we knew we 
were safer on the Northern Light, although riding out a 
storm, or piloting through dense fog among reefs and shoals, 
than we would have been crossing State and Madison Streets, 
Chicago .... 

August 12: Wrangel Island is approximately 75 miles 
long and 25 wide. So far — we had been steaming along only 
one shore — the east. We knew from the chart that there is a 
good harbor on the south coast where both the Corwin and 
the Rodgers anchored in 1881. There also Stefansson's little 
colony had landed in September, 1921, and made their camp. 
But they each met a tragic death before August, 1923 . . . .A 
stark barren island — shadowed by tragedy. 

We now sought Rodgers Harbor as the logical place for 
the recent Russian settlement, the probability of which we 
were strongly doubting as we had carefully watched for any 
possible trace of human life or activity .... 

We were steaming nearer and nearer to the tiny group 
of houses we were watching so intently. Smoke poured out of 
only one chimney, curling lazily through the crisp, cool air up 
into the mountains behind .... We managed to stand in 
toward the village, about a half mile off shore. On deck lay 
cases of sugar, tobacco, tea, cartridges, canned goods, and 
other necessities of life. Also we hoped to send out for these 
wretched people, any radio news for the outside .... Three 
blasts of our whistle echoed shrilly against the brown 
mountains. 

At first we saw no one. Except for the smoke it could 
have been an abandotxed village. There were three small, 
well-built wooden houses .... From the center house smoke 
continued to rise. Huddled near these larger houses were ten 
or twelve much smaller dwellings .... Further to the right 
were three other houses, probably wood .... While we 
watched, hoping for some sign of human activity, a woman 
came to the door of the house from where we had seen 
smoke .... She stood there, it seemed to us, several 
minutes, but no other sign of life was noticeable .... We 
blew the whistle again, — merely a friendly salute. (If only 
others could imagine how terribly exciting it was to stand 
there — not knowing what would happen next. — My heart 
was in my throat most of the time.) 

When still no other people were visible a red flag of the 
"Union of Soviet Socialist Republic" suddenly flung out from 
the flagpole behind this same house. Someone had at last 
admitted our arrival .... 

A few minutes later quite a considerable number 
assembled on the beach, looking out toward the 
schooner .... We thought that they would immediately find 
their umiaks and set out toward the boat, in the way that we 
were visited by the Chukchees. But no — there was no boat of 
any description along the beach. — They made not the 
slightest attempt to speak with us. 



That was a strange turn in events! These human 
beings, perhaps thirty or thirty-five Cossacks and Siberian 
natives in all, were living on a desolate, ice-bound island, not 
far from the very edge of the Pole of Inaccessibility. The great 
polar ice-pack hemmed them in on the north and west coasts, 
leaving them only the exceedingly slim possibility of a 
navigable passage opening in the drift ice near the island 
again the following summer — perhaps not again for two or 
three years. Yet, — they did not make a move to beg for any 
supplies we would undoubtedly be carrying .... Whether 
the Cossacks kept the natives from coming out, whether they 
had no boats, — whether they one and all feared us, — perhaps 
we may never know. 

As anxious as we all were to climb on those shores— to 
be able to collect specimens of flora and fauna on that much- 
wrangled-over Wrangel Island — Captain Borden did not per- 
mit anyone to go ashore. We were glad enough to be safe on 
the yacht, in those uncertain ice-filled waters. 

How we would have enjoyed giving food or help to 
those lonely, stranded inhabitants! .... But we reluctantly 
and even sorrowfully left them to continue in their desperate 
struggle for food and existence in that ice-bound solitude of 
the Frozen North .... 



It was then we first realized that Eskimos are deathly 
afraid of a polar bear. This savage beast has meant destruc- 
tion of Eskimo hunters, women, and children .... They 
would not paddle nearer to the wounded prey that was 
thrashing angrily in the water, much too close. Instead they 
wanted to back away — jumping up and down in the boat, 
frantically excited, trying to scare off the offending, raging 
animal. We stood by, hardly daring to breathe at the thrilling 
scene enacted before our eyes. The whaleboat, — a hunter 
standing in the bow, — gun raised, two frightened natives, and 
a plunging, furious beast. 

August 13: Having acomplished everything and even 
more than we dared hope for on leaving San Francisco, our 
thoughts turned toward home, and the flags were hoisted. 
From the main mast soon floated a lovely thin streamer over a 
hundred feet long with thirteen stars in a row, followed by the 
red and white stripes. It was our Homeward Bound Pennant, 
following the time-honored custom of whaling ships on the 
Arctic after they had boiled down their fill of whale oil .... 

Before reluctantly turning away from our hunters' 
paradise everyone came on deck to watch the lavender-tinted 
hills of the island, and the pink afterglow of a wonderful Arc- 
tic sunset. Over the bow hung a large round pink moon 
covering the white vessel in its silvery radiance. By ten 
o'clock we were under full sail. The sea-scouts beamed with 
delight and everyone forward and aft rejoiced in a splendid 
climax to a long successful voyage. We had cruised for four 
cloudless days along the shores of this thrilling Arctic island. 
We had been sailing for many weeks along the white upper 
crust at the "Top of the world." And we were the first white 
women ever to reach Wrangel Island. Our party was the first 
to see the Russian village. Anyone with a spark of romance in 



%h% 




Mrs. Foster Adams (the former Mrs. John Borden), author of The 
Cruise of the Northern Light, with her husband at the Prague, 
Czechoslovakia, airport in 1976. Mrs. Adams notes that she and her 
husband continue to be "inveterate travelers, " adding that their re- 
cent trips have been by airliner rather than by schooner. Mrs. Adams 
will be at Field Museum on Saturday, Feb. 3, to introduce a film on 
the expedition. 

his or her city-bred soul could not help but feel the enchant- 
ment of that pale but glowing night. A magical lure gripped 
our senses. A fresh breeze blew almost caressingly, the flap- 
ping of the sails filled one with passionate ecstasy. It was a 
moment when one could easily appreciate a sailor's love for 
his ship, far greater than his desire for home. A fair wind, a 
fine ship and we were homeward bound! 

August 16: The next morning at eight o'clock Cape 
Onman came in sight. A fine warm day with a light northwest 
breeze and smooth sea. I had noticed the crew staring through 
their glasses most of the day and wondered why, then decided 
to ask my husband. 

"We are searching for a lost Hudson Bay steamer that 
was abandond two years ago and has been reported to have 
drifted south near Kolyuchin Island two different times, " was 
my answer. 

This was certainly blood-curdling! And here is the 
story: 

The Lady Kindersleys, insured for three hundred and 
fifty thousand dollars, was crushed in the pack and aban- 
doned August 31 , 1924, about 34 miles northwest of Pt. Barrow. 
Everything had been all right until her engines broke down. 
While the men worked on the engines, the ice closed in. They 
hurriedly wired the Boxer, the Board of Education boat, but 
she was unable to get any nearer than five miles on account of 
the solid ice-field. The men left the trading steamer almost im- 
mediately to escape with their lives, taking nothing with them 
but the clothes on their backs and managed to get over the 
five miles of ice where the Boxer picked them up. A vessel 
with a valuable cargo, and one insured for a heavy amount, 
now started on its helpless drift, not sinking immediately as 
was expected. 



In 1925 natives from Cape Onman and Kolyuchin 
Island reported seeing a stranded ship, caught in pack-ice, 
and drifting off Cape ]inretlin. 

In 1926 the same ghostlike apparition appeared again, 
this time inside Kolyuchin Island. 

The steamer had evidently missed the northwest cur- 
rent, and like the Vigilant was caught in the drift that circles 
south off the Siberian shore. It probably went north in the 
winter, and again south the following summer. The drift that 
the ship followed is of course, only problematical. A Russian 
in Nome informed [the Coast Guard] that he had visited 
among Chukchees who had served him butter packed in tin 
cases marked Lady Kindersleys. Whether the natives and Rus- 
sians succeeded in stripping the deserted, crumbling vessel, or 
whether she sank — no one knows. 

August 24: At 4 P.M. we were lying to, off the south- 
west side of Bogoslof Island in water too deep to anchor, 
sixty-five fathoms less than four hundred yards from the 
beach. We went ashore, the crew following in two separate 
watches. In the launch we were surrounded by hundreds of 
sea lions. Two persevering large bulls swam under us, a 
strange sensation. We had good opportunities for moving pic- 
tures and snapshots as the beasts came nearer and nearer. 
Here, in 1916 my husband had much the same experience: he 
was literally attacked by an angry herd of these huge 
monsters. The men in the boat were at first frightened but 
soon realized the ferocity was a bluff. 

On reaching shore we were amazed at the millions and 
millions of Pallas murres roosting in ledges of New Bogoslof, 
or Castle Rock .... We walked round old Bogoslof to see 
the new eruption which had arisen in the center of the crater. 
The first thing we did was to take the temperature of the hot 
sulphur water which surrounded it and found it to be 72Vi °. 

lAy husband and most of the crew decided to swim in 
the hot crater; Frances Ames and I hurriedly walked along the 
spit to get away. They had a beautiful time splashing about 
the greenish and copper colored water, finding below the sur- 
face a slimy green ooze in which they sank until their feet 
reached a hard strata too hot to stand on ... . The crater 
continually threw off steam, and strong sulphur fumes 
enveloped the adventurous men. 

While the men had their small boys' picnic, we crossed 
a narrow piece of lava-covered land toward the sea, and here 
sat on one of the many lava deposits to watch the hundreds of 
sea lions. The animals were over cautious on our approach 
and stampeded into the breakers before we could approach 
very close. When the sand colored beasts reached the water 
they bellowed and snorted at us from their safe distance. The 
bulls were larger and heavier than bull hair-seals but much 
smaller than the Pacific Walrus. More extraordinary still, the 
cows were smaller than hair-seal cows, and our first impres- 
sion was that of many bulls and half-grown pups. We sudden- 
ly realized, however, that sea lions also have harems. There 
were the useless bulls, and small groups of bachelors who 
seemed to be "talking it all over." 

On September 10, 1927, the Northern Light sailed 
through the Golden Gate back into San Francisco harbor. 



nearly five months since her departure. More than 10,000 
miles of water had passed beneath her keel. As a scientific 
enterprise the expedition had fulfilled all expectations and, to 
all accounts, it had proven to be a thrilling, highly enjoyable 
venture for everyone aboard. Ashley Hine returned to his 
duties at Field Museum, the Bordens, the Goodspeeds and the 
Slaughters resumed their professional and social activities in 
Chicago. Frances Ames returned to San Francisco and the Sea 
Scouts rejoined their families. 

In very short order the Museum took stock of the 
specimens acquired by the Borden expedition. On October 
12, Museum director D. C. Davies wrote Frances Ames in ap- 
preciation for her collected plant specimens: 

"I am informed that the plants recently received by Field 
Museum from the Borden-Field Museum Alaska-Arctic Ex- 
pedition were collected by you. It is found that 106 of the 
plants are good specimens which will be a most welcome 
addition to the Herbarium. On the whole they are much 
better than the usual collections received from Alaska, 
some are very excellent indeed, and they are very accep- 
table to the Department of Botany. Permit me to con- 
gratulate you and to thank you for your interest . . . ." 

On October 14, Berthold Laufer, head of the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology, filed with Davies the following report 
on the ethnological specimens acquired by the expedition: 
"I beg to report that the Eskimo material collected by Mr. 
John Borden . . . has been duly accessioned and listed, and 
consists of a total of 533 objects. The collection is most in- 
teresting and attractive, and has been brought together 
with intelligence and discrimination. It represents a very 
valuable addition to the Museum's previous collections 
relating to Eskimo life, and many objects in it are entirely 
new to the Museum, above all, copper knives and copper 
arrowheads from the so-called Blond or Copper Eskimo of 
northern Canada, of which the Museum heretofore did not 
have a single example, and a wonderful series of ancient 
mammoth ivory carvings engraved with designs of a style 
which reveals an ancient phase of Eskimo art hitherto 
unknown. The abundance of walrus ivory carvings, many 
of great beauty and artistic merit, renders the collection 
particularly valuable to the student of Eskimo art and very 
attractive to the general public. 

"I am exceedingly grateful to Mr. Borden for having ex- 
ercised so much care in labeling his material exactly accor- 
ding to the localities where it was obtained, and this ac- 
curate information enabled me to make a temporary ex- 
hibit of selected material from this collection in Stanley 
Field Hall within a short time. 

"As an interesting incident I may mention here that one 
day while I was going over Mr. Borden's collection Mr. 
Collins of the United States National Museum of Washing- 
ton called on me. He had just returned from an expedition 
to Alaska on behalf of the National Museum, hunting for 
old Eskimo material. 1 showed him Mr. Borden's collec- 
tion, and he was amazed at its fine quality and rarity, 
especially the stone and pottery cooking vessels, and said 
with reference to several objects that he had been unable to 
obtain them or that they were not even in the National 
Museum — all of which no doubt will be gratifying to you 
and the Board of Trustees as it is to myself." 

(Continued on p. 29) 



Treasures of Russia and the Ukraine 



20-day tour for Field Museum 
Members and their families 




i nv hremlin. Moscow 



ViE SPLENDORS OF OLD RUSSIA, the excite- 
ment of the New are in store for Field 
Museum Members and their families who 
Join the tour "Treasures of Russia and the 
Ukraine," leaving Chicago's O'Hare Airport 
June 1 9 and returning July 8. 

Highlights of this exclusive tour will 
include visits to the cities of Moscow, 
Vladimir, Kiev, Leningrad, Petrovorets, 
Novgorod, and Petrozavodsk. The group, 
limited to 35 persons, will be led from 
Chicago by two Russian-speaking escorts, 
with additional guides while in the Soviet 
Union provided by Intourist (the Soviet 
Travel Bureau). 

The tour cost — $2,970 (which in- 
cludes a $500.00 donation to Field 
Museum) — is based upon double occupan- 
cy and includes round trip air fare from 
Chicago to Moscow, with intra-Russian air 



transportation where required. The trans- 
atlantic airline is Swissair. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will 
be used throughout or, where necessary, the 
best hotels available. The package includes 
all meals, including inflight meals; all 
sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all ad- 
missions to special events and sites, where 
required; all baggage handling throughout, 
plus all necessary transfers; all applicable 
taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. 
Advance deposit required: $250.00 per 
person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, 
and registration information, please write or 
call Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IlL 60605. Phone: (312) 
922-9410, X-25L 





iH 



1. Green peach 
aphid air dried onto 
rubber cement and 
coated with gold for 
viewing in the 5EM. 
Magnification 204x. 



10 



Chance Encounter 
Of A Good Kind 

BY ALAN SOLEM 

Scientists have been defined as "children who 
never lost their sense of wonder and never 
stopped asking 'Why?'." There is no question 
but what the thrill of discovery and satisfaction of 
finding out "Why?" is a major part of our profes- 
sional world. 

Part of the joy of science at Field Museum 
is continually being surprised by the variety of 
structure and function in nature. Often, these sur- 
prises come very unexpectedly. One such occur- 
rence is shared with you here. 

As part of the evening adult education 
course on scanning electron microscopy offered 
last spring at Field Museum, I prepared objects 
and specimens brought in by the students for ex- 
amination and photographing in later sessions of 
the course. The range of things contributed includ- 
ed semiconductors, millipore filters, human hairs, 
snow leopard claws, spiders, flies, and an aphid 
off a house plant. One of the participants, Mary 
Ellen Rinkus, had asked how to get rid of aphids 
from a new house plant and a week later brought 
in one lone survivor on a leaf of the purple velvet 
plant, Gynura aurantiaca. 

When prepared for viewing and first seen. 



the limp and shrunken aphid did not look par- 
ticularly impressive (fig. I). Its mouthparts were 
hidden and the abdomen and legs were far less 
spectacular than those of a fly or spider. Just as I 
was about to abandon this aphid for a different 
sample, I noticed a couple of little bumps on its 
antenna. A slight reorientation and higher 
magnification view (fig. 2) confirmed my interest. 
This picture would have been past the limit of 
viewing with a dissecting microscope. Another 
click of the dial and refocusing showed that these 
bumps were hollow (fig. 3). Here would have been 
near the limit of a compound microscope. 

Later, I found out that the presence of these 
"bumps," or "primary sensoria," had been known 
for many years. Indeed, whether there are one or 
two on each antenna is significant to en- 
tomologists trying to identify families and genera 
of aphids. Standard monographs on aphids il- 
lustrate these "primary sensoria" as circles on 
outline drawings of the antenna (fig. 4). The 
limitations of optical microscopes had prevented 
more detailed study. But this evening we had fun 
in seeing something that was equally unknown 
and marvelous to teacher and students. 

Quickly focusing on the lower sensorium 
(fig. 5) and a nearby seta (projecting sensory hair) 
showed that the former had a hard covering, 
center hole with flanged edges, and a large, partly 



Alan Solem is curator of invertebrates. 




2. Portiott of aphid 
antenna. 
Maf^nificatiou 338x. 



collapsed pillowlike structure inside. Viewing at 
another angle and slightly higher modification 
(fig. 6) confirmed the type of edges and the col- 
lapsed internal soft structure. 

The upper sensorium proved to be much 
more complex. The entire structure was subdivid- 
ed into six areas (fig. 7), each with a separate little 
organ inside. The low partitions between each 
area are clearly seen at the lower left, and the pro- 



tective nature of the "canopy" which mixes open- 
ness with narrowing projections shows more 
clearly than at lower magnifications. A slight 
change in viewing angle (fig. 8) was followed by a 
high magnification look at one of the individual 
sense organs (fig. 9). The actual function of these 
organs can only be guessed at. Probably they sam- 
ple minute traces of chemicals in the air, but since 
previously they were not even recorded in the 




3. Portion of 
antenna at 876x 
magnification. 



11 



...Terminal 
filameni 



Primary sensorio 
Secondory sen^oria 



oceilijs 




Tarsus.. 



4. External anatomy of aphid. 

Drawing from "The Plant 
Lice, or Aphiidae, of Illinois, " 

Bulletin of Illinois Natural 
History Survey, 19 (3). 



technical literature, our lack of understanding as 
to their function must be expected. 

The next morning, our entomologists were 
visited by me with a sheaf of pictures in my hand. 
They were as amazed and delighted as the class 
and I were with these photographs. Quick checks 
in standard taxonomic works showed the publish- 
ed level of knowledge revealed in fig. 4. Our 
minds filled with many questions. First we had to 
find out which of the many thousands of aphid 
species we had been looking at. Field Museum has 
no specialist on aphids and, with the commerce in 
cultivated plants, aphids are continually being in- 
troduced to new areas. Mary Ellen Rinkus search- 
ed her plant in vain, visited the florist where two 
weeks before she had obtained her purple velvet 
plant, and triumphantly delivered aphid-loaded 
leaves to the Museum's shipping room. The aphids 
were preserved in alcohol. Curator of Insects 
Henry Dybas was planning to visit a major agri- 
cultural insect laboratory in California and agreed 
to hunt for an aphid specialist willing to identify 
the aphid. In due course, the specimens were ship- 
ped to Dr. T. Kono in Sacramento, who identified 
them as the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae 
(Sulzer). 




12 




5. Lower primary sen- 
sorium and seta of aphid 
antenna at 2,697 x 
magnification. 



6. Lateral view of lower 
sensorium at 7,250x 
magnification. 




7. Upper primary sensorium in vertical view at 
8,316x magnification. 

Specialists in insect structure and function 
will have to work out the meaning and variation 
of these structures. Are most aphid sensoria alike 
or do they differ radically among groups? What 
are their functions? Are they unique to aphids or 
found in related insects? These and new questions 
derived from seeking the answers can occupy 
scientists in many places, since initial chance 
observations such as these only open the door to 
research. 

In the same way that in the early 1600s the 
original Dutch and English microscopists looked 
into a new world with their new tool, the optical 
microscope, this generation of biologists is 
looking at a new submicroscopic world with our 
new tool, the scanning electron microscope. 
Thousands of scientists since the 1600s have used 
and continue to use optical microscopes to in- 
vestigate the world too small for our eyes to see, 
and have far from exhausted research possibilities. 
It will take thousands of scientists working for 
hundreds of years to exploit the research oppor- 
tunities revealed by use of the scanning electron 
microscope. To be able to participate in the begin- 
ning phases of this exploration is indeed one of the 
great joys in science at Field Museum, even know- 
ing that following up most of the queries raised 
must be left to others, perhaps even generations 
removed in time. 

Other chance encounters occur in my own 
research and some are followed up by me, but this 
is a series of different stories. □ 



8. (Middle) Slightly lateral view of upper 
primary sensorium at 5,544x magnification. 

9. (Below ) Detail of one organelle from upper 
primary sensorium at 24.092x magnification. 




Of Land Bridges, 
Ice-Free Corridors, 
And Early Man 
In The Americas 



BY GLEN COLE 

Photos by the author 
Artwork by Louva Calhoun 



Several questions which have long intrigued 
scholars interested in the native peoples of 
the New World are: Where did these people 
come from?, how did they get to this hemisphere?, 
and how long have they been here? Present day 
students of Early Man* in the New World are still 
concerned with these questions or certain aspects 
of them, although the emphasis has shifted to the 
time of arrival of the earliest immigrants. In 
general, there is no longer any real question as to 
where the ancestors of the American Indians came 
from although more specific problems remain. 
The means by which they arrived, particular 
routes taken after arrival, and manner of dispersal 
through the Americas remain unsettled issues. 

Individual papers devoted to Early Man in 
the New World have long been standard fare at 
scholarly meetings. Sessions within such meetings 
and occasionally an entire meeting might be given 
over to the subject. These are usually held under 
the aegis of anthropological or archeological 
organizations, and although contributions from 
persons in disciplines outside anthropological ones 
are usual enough, probably none has heretofore 
had such a diversity of input as did a recent 
meeting of the American Quaternary Association 
(amqua) held in Edmonton, Alberta, in Septem- 
ber 1978. 

Ten years ago AMQUA was founded for 
the purpose (amongst others) of promoting the 
study of the North American Quaternary, a 



period of geologic time covering the last 1.6 or 1.8 
million years, and facilitating communication be- 
tween workers in different fields. These com- 
munications are facilitated by the sponsoring of 
biennial scientific meetings that are built around a 
sympKjsium on a topic of broad interest to con- 
stituent AMQUA groups. These groups include 
general disciplines ranging from archeology to 
zoology, narrower disciplines such as climatology, 
ecology, limnology, physical geography, soil sci- 
ence and various biological and geological subdis- 
ciplines. 

Archeology might seem somewhat out of 
place in this company, at least from the viewpoint 
of the academic scheme of things in the United 
States; here it is usually grouped with the social 
sciences, as a subdivision of anthropology. As 
such, it is the only major discipline within AMQUA 
which falls outside the biological and physical 
sciences. More importantly, archeology is peculiar 
in that it is the only one of the disciplines repre- 
sented which is concerned only with a particular 
part of Quaternary time. Whether one considers 
that humans have been in the New World for 
15,000 years or twice that long, this constitutes a 
very small portion — less than 2 percent — of the 
Quaternary Period. 

This doubtless has been a factor in deter- 
mining the symposium topics of the four AMQUA 
meetings held previously. Three of these focused 
on particular aspects of the last part of the Quater- 
nary. The fifth biennial AMQUA meeting in Ed- 
monton followed this pattern but, in addition, 
was the first to use an archeological subject as a 
theme of the symposium. Accordingly, this sym- 
posium on "The Ice-Free Corridor and Peopling 
the New World" drew a large contingent of ar- 
chaeologists. 

AMQUA symposium topics and meeting 
places are not unrelated. Edmonton lies in the "ice- 
free corridor" area and field sessions before and 
after the regular meeting permitted participants to 
examine glacial features pertaining to mountain 
and continental glaciation. 

The whole subject of peopling the New 
World is marked by a dearth of sound evidence 
and, as a usual corollary to such situations, by a 
wealth of speculation. There is general agreement 
that the ancestors of the native American popula- 
tions must have come from Asia and, for want of 
reasonable alternatives, that they must have 



'"Early Man," as used here, refers to Early Man in the 
New World. From the vantage point of the Old World, 
Early Man in the New World is very late indeed. 



'Athabasca Glacier. One of several descending from the 
Columbia Icefield in the Canadian Rocky Mountains 
southwest of Edmonton, Alberta. This is a remnant of a 
once extensive glacial system which extended beyond 
the mountain front to meet Laurentide ice and form the 
southern end of the late Wisconsin ice barrier. 



Glen Cole is curator of prehistory. He describes himself 
as "an Old World prehistorian who is generally con- 
cerned with a much earlier time period than is covered in 
this article." Cole is, additionally, a charter member of 
the American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) and 
has followed with interest studies relating to Early Man 
in the New World. In this article he discusses recent 
developments in North American Early Man studies as 
presented at the 1978 biennial meeting of AMQUA, at 
Edmonton, Alberta. 



15 



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16 



T/ie Quaternary Period, which covers the last 1.6-1.8 
million years of geologic time, is divided into two 
epochs, the Pleistocene and the Holocene. The last 
major glacial stage, ending 10,000 years ago. is known, 
in North America, as the Wisconsin. The Wisconsin, 
punctuated by several cold stadials and warmer inter- 
vals has been variously subdivided. For purposes of this 
article, it is simply divided into an earlier and a later 
portion. The more recent, late Wisconsin, will be that 
period from 23,000 before present (B.P.) to the beginning 
of the Holocene. The figures represent thousands of 
years. 



entered the New World through Alaska. The ob- 
vious place to seek the "roots" of the native 
American, then, is the adjacent part of Asia. But 
vast areas of northern Asia — Siberia, Mongolia, 
Manchuria along with much of the rest of China 
— and much of the northwestern part of North 
America for that matter, are virtually unknown 
archeologically. Students of Early Man in the New 
World have had to seek comparative material as 
far afield as the Ukraine and other eastern Euro- 
pean areas. Some of the more important sites- in 
the Lake Baikal region of central Siberia, although 
a good deal closer to the Bering Straits area, are as 
far removed from it as are many well known 
Paleo-Indian sites in the lower 48 states. Nor is 
much known of the later Pleistocene archeology of 
the maritime provinces of China and other Asian 
countries of the north Pacific area. 

As more students of the American Quater- 
nary have been learning the languages of the coun- 
tries concerned, increasing amounts of informa- 
tion on the little that is known of those vast areas 
is becoming available. Even so, the New World 
archeologist has little comparative data to draw 
on. Not only are the data sparse, but the scholar 
who takes the trouble to learn Russian (or 
Chinese) soon finds that many of the Asian 
prehistorians are not nearly as interested in prob- 
lems of peopling the New World as he or she 
might have wished, and their reports are often not 
very informative or useful in this regard. 

Probably because of this paucity of direct 
evidence, students of Early Man in the New World 
have relied heavily on nonarcheological data in at- 
tempting to answer these questions. Incursions of 
people into the New World have been assigned to 
periods when land connections existed between 
Asia and North America. And then it has been 
supposed that man would not have been able to 
reach the central part of North America until the 
ice barrier separating the extreme northwestern 
portion of the continent from the rest of it was 
breached. 

Unfortunately, the nonarcheological data 
have been none too secure either. Not too many 
years ago there were those — including some 
geologists — who denied the existence of an Asian- 
American land connection. More recently there 
has been, and remains a lack of agreement on 
whether an ice-free corridor came into existence 
before the Paleo-Indians were well established in 
the New World. 

The single most important contribution to 
Early Man studies in recent years (and to ar- 
cheological studies in general) has been the 
development of radiometric dating techniques. 
These, especially radiocarbon dating, have been 
making possible a much more concise chronology 
than was attainable a generation ago and new 
dates are appearing regularly. And, other new 
data are continually being produced. New ar- 
cheological finds pertaining to Early American 




Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets and Bering land bridge boundaries at the time of the late Wisconsin maximum. 
Dashed lines indicate approximate position of the ice-free corridor, perhaps 12,000 years ago. 



Man are being made and some long standing 
studies are continuing. In addition to new and 
ongoing geological mapping projects, there are 
studies in geomorphology, glacial geology, 
sedimentology, and stratigraphy. There are 
paleontological and climatological investigations, 
studies of plant successions and faunal distribu- 
tions, to cite a few — studies that are not directed 
to the question of peopling the New World, of 
course, but which often provide information rele- 
vant to that subject. 

Before discussing some of the contributions 
presented and more pertinent information 
disseminated at the AMQUA sessions, it would be 
well to go over a little background material: 

Although ice in the form of mountain 
glaciers and polar ice caps has been on the earth 
since long before the Pleistocene Epoch, it seems 
that the period of the classic "Ice Age" marked by 
extensive continental glaciation in the Northern 
Hemisphere did not set in until ¥4 million years 
ago. There is considerable debate concerning ear- 
lier Pleistocene glaciations and correlations be- 
tween those of North America, Europe, and Asia; 
but that need not concern us here — there is quite 
enough disagreement concerning late Pleistocene 



glaciation. What is relevant to the question of get- 
ting Early Man to North America is the last major 
glacial period. A warm interglacial interval which 
ended an earlier glacial stage about 125,000 years 
ago was terminated by a cooling trend 75,000 
years ago. The following period of extensive con- 
tinental and mountain glaciations punctuated by 
intervals of glacial retreat is known in North 
America as the Wisconsin Age. By common, if not 
unanimous agreement, the Wisconsin is consid- 
ered to have ended at the convenient figure of 
10,000 years ago. The present nonglacial interval 
in which we are now living is known as the 
Holocene. 

The ice-free corridor was a narrow strip of 
land along the eastern flank of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, which was exposed when coalescing moun- 
tain (Cordilleran) and continental (Laurentide) 
glaciers had begun to retreat after the late Wiscon- 
sin glacial maximum. This is not to say that there 
were not earlier glacial episodes. It is this last cor- 
ridor that has loomed large in discussions of 
peopling the New World which is conventionally 
referred to as the ice-free corridor and which was 
the concern of the AMQUA symposium and field 
sessions. 



17 



Rated Clovis point 
(actual size) from 
Blackwater Draw 
locality no. 1 near 
Clovis, New Mexico. 
This type of point 
characterizes earlier 
Paleo-Indian occur- 
rences Cca. 11,500- 
11,000 B.P.). 



18 



Perhaps the area most crucial to the ques- 
tion of peopling the New World is the so-called 
Bering land bridge, a broad plain joining Asia and 
North America which was dry land from time to 
time during the Pleistocene but which now lies 
beneath the sea. Sea level fluctuated considerably 
during the Pleistocene because of climatic events 
which favored formation of enormous masses of 
ice at higher latitudes and elevations of the earth. 
On occasions when sea level had dropped by 150 
feet, enough of the floor of the Bering and 
Chukchi Seas emerged to form a land connection 
between Siberia and Alaska. This "vast arctic 
lowland," the land bridge along with the con- 
tiguous low-lying areas of Siberia and Alaska plus 
a little of the Canadian Yukon Territory, is known 
as Beringia. Much of Beringia was not glaciated 
even during periods of maximum glacial advance 
and so provided a refugium for arctic plants and 
animals. So much water was locked up in ice dur- 
ing the maximum extent of the late Wisconsin 
glaciation that sea level was lowered by more than 
300 feet, exposing a land bridge over 1,000 miles 
wide. 

The question of when man first arrived in 
the New World is a vexed one. Most students of 
Early Man have been inclined to see the existence 
of the Bering land connection as necessary for 
people to have been able to reach the New 
World. In this view hunters would have drifted 
gradually eastward into new terrain as directed by 
the presence of the large mammals upon which 
they preyed. The most likely time would have 
been during the period of 22,000 to 15,000 years 
ago, although people, if any were living in western 
Beringia then, could have reached the New World 
during an earlier period of reduced sea level before 
30,000 B.P. (before present). 

Others argue that man could just as well 
have moved across the Bering strait on winter 
pack ice or negotiated small passages between ice 
floes and islands by boat. Also in favor of the 
idea that boats were used are a few who are in- 
clined to favor colonization by seafaring people 
from Asiatic maritime provinces. By either of 
these views there would be no reason to restrict 
the time of man's entry into the New World to a 
period of low sea level. 

In any event, the entry of human im- 
migrants into the Americas would have depended 
on the degree of technological advancement they 
had reached. A string of islands such as the Aleu- 
tian chain would have been useless to people 
without boats, but it is now known that man, with 
the aid of boats or other means of crossing ap- 
preciable stretches of open water, reached 
Australia as much as 40,000 years ago. There is no 
reason to think that other people farther north in 
the Asian Pacific coastal area wouldn't have been 
similarly advanced technologically, and such peo- 
ple could have worked their way around the 
Pacific Rim, eventually reaching parts of the 
Pacific coast of North America. 



The presence of the Bering land bridge 
would be of no use to man if the cultural 
paraphernalia which would permit living in an 
arctic or subarctic environment had not yet come 
into being. Man does seem to have been able to 
exist in cold environments 200,000 years ago in 
the European area at least. Closer to Beringia, we 
know that Peking Man was living in northern 
China some 300,000 years ago, although under 
somewhat milder conditions, and there is no 
reason to suppose that this represents the nor- 
thernmost extension of human distribution at that 
time. 

None of this, of course, can be taken to in- 
dicate that humans actually did reach the New 
World at these early dates, but it does mean that 
certain arguments that have been used to discount 
claims for Early Man in the Americas can no 
longer carry the weight they once did. 

Firmly dated archeological evidence is 
needed to determine when peopling of the New 
World occurred, but no really secure evidence is 
found until the very end of the Pleistocene. This is 
now available in relative abundance since about 
12,000 years ago. Between 11,500 and 11,000 B.P. 
there is a rash of Early Man occurrences. Most of 
these in North America are characterized by a 
distinctive, fluted projectile point known as 
"Clovis" (after a site near Clovis, New Mexico, 
one of several in the Llano Estacado, where such 
points have been found). The complex of artifacts 
and activities centered around hunting of large 
Pleistocene mammals, particularly elephants, is 
known as the Llano, or Clovis, Culture (this is to 
be discussed in more detail later). There is sparse 
evidence of other big game hunters in Central and 
South America at the same time or even somewhat 
earlier. 

By 10,000 B.P. evidence of Paleo-Indian 
occupation is widespread in the Americas, ex- 
tending from the tip of South America to Alaska. 
Before 12,000, however, the evidence is much 
more meager. There is a mere handful of likely 
Early Man sites in the Americas between 15,000 
and 12,000 years ago. One of the most promising 
is the Meadowcroft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania, 
now being excavated, which has good evidence of 
human occupation as early as 15,000 to 16,000 
years ago and perhaps even before. 

There are a few possible Early Man sites 
which have been dated to the 20,000 to 30,000 
years ago range, notably a couple in Mexico, and 
a few more on the basis of equivocal evidence, to 
even greater ages. 

Probably the most exciting recent evidence 
in this very Early Man area, vying in interest with 
the Meadowcroft site, has been coming from the 
Old Crow Basin of the Canadian Yukon Territory. 
Although the work along the Old Crow River 
wasn't discussed per se at the symposium, some of 
the results of the work were presented at a "poster 
session" and during an informal talk given during 
the post-meeting field session. Two groups of 



Canadian researchers have been working in the 
area and a number of participants were present at 
Edmonton and on the field sessions, so there was 
ample opportunity for discussion. 

The Old Crow River has entrenched itself 
in a thick sequence of old lake and alluvial 
deposits. Large glacial lakes were formed in the 
basin on two separate occasions when the Por- 
cupine River, to which the Old Crow is tributary, 
was blocked by glaciers. During the interval bet- 
ween the lakes, deposits from coalescing alluvial 
fans covered much of the basin. 

Bones of various later Pleistocene mam- 
mals have been found in abundance at numerous 
sites along the Porcupine and Old Crow. Along 
with these bones were found several hundred bone 
artifacts; that is, bones that have been altered by 
man, whether from butchering activities, breaking 
to extract marrow, or as raw material for tool 
making. These have come mainly from secondary 
alluvial deposits, which means that earlier sedi- 
ments have been reworked by riverine activity 
so that material of different ages has been mixed. 
An age cannot be assigned, therefore, to the few 
stone tools that have been found associated with 
the worked bone on gravel bars in the river, but 
the bone pieces themselves can be directly dated 
by means of the radiocarbon in them. Several 
bone tools have yielded dates in the range of 
25,000 to 29,000 radiocarbon years B.P. R. 
Morlan of the Archeological Survey of Canada, a 
member of one of the projects, reported that some 
recently obtained dates on broken or flaked 
bones, which are apparently artifactual, are con- 
siderably older, in some cases exceeding the limits 
of the carbon 14 method. 

There is a possibility that the bone tools 
and other artifacts were made in the relatively re- 
cent past by Indians using the old mineralized 
bone, or perhaps, old nonmineralized bone 
preserved in frozen condition in permafrost and 
released from the river bluffs by stream action. Ex- 
perimental work on mineralized bone from the 
Old Crow basin sediments indicates that such 
bone cannot be worked, as can green bone, to pro- 
duce the kind of fractures seen in Old Crow arti- 
facts. The possibilities concerning frozen bone are 
still being explored. 

During the last few field seasons, two 
horizons in the river bluffs have been located from 
which the bone artifacts seem to be coming, but 
none have yet been found in undisturbed context. 

The presence of humans in Beringia 25,000 
to 30,000 and perhaps to more than 50,000 years 
ago doesn't necessarily mean that these people 
figure in the peopling of the Americas. Eastern 
Beringia has on occasion been connected with 
Asia at times when it was more or less isolated 
from the rest of the North American continent. At 
these times it can more properly be considered as 
an extension of northeastern Asia than as a part of 
North America. Various Asiatic animals are 
known from eastern Beringia that either never 



established themselves elsewhere in North 
America or did so at a time long after their ap- 
pearance there. This may also have been true of 
some early human inhabitants of the area. 

There are a few archeological sites scat- 
tered throughout Alaska which have yielded 
material for radiocarbon dates in the range of 
10,000 to 12,000 years ago. A long gap separates 
these dates from the 25,000 years and older dates 
from Alaska and the Yukon. This gap also pertains 
to the situation as known so far from the Old 
Crow Basin. This could simply be a chance result 
of the incomplete archeological record but, as one 
AMQUA discussant, T. D. Hamilton of the U.S. 
Geological Survey, suggested, other factors may 
also be involved. Hamilton has worked for the last 
16 years in another part of the Yukon drainage on 
the south side of the central Brooks Range in 
Alaska. Although he has studied and mapped 
more than 100 late Pleistocene to Holocene ex- 
posures in this area, no artifacts or other evidence 
of man's presence before about 6,000 years ago 
has been found. The absence of such evidence for 
a relatively well studied area "suggests that the 
distribution of Early Man in northwestern North 
America may not have been continuous in either 
space or time."* 

J. D. Jennings, in introducing his recently 
edited book on Ancient Native Americans (W. H. 
Freeman & Co., 1978), states that "at once the 
most important and least dramatic event in 
American history was the passage of the first man 
from Asia into the New World 30,000 or more 
years ago." In writing this, Jennings evidently sup- 
poses that the first people to set foot in the New 
World would ipso facto have become the 
ancestors of the Paleo-Indians and eventually the 
American Indians found at the time of European 
contact. Actually, there would be nothing par- 
ticularly odd in the early human inhabitants of 
eastern Beringia dying out or withdrawing during 
the deteriorating climate of the late Wisconsin 
glaciation. Within historic times we know of large 
areas of the American arctic that have become 
depopulated and of the extinction of entire local 
populations. It should also be remembered that 
technologically more advanced peoples in recent 
times were unsuccessful in establishing themselves 
on the opposite corner of the North American 
continent. Norse settlements founded in the tenth 
century A.D. failed to survive, evidently due to 
deteriorating climatic conditions in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. Although not without in- 
terest, the presence of those early colonists was 
essentially irrelevant to the peopling of the New 
World. So may it have been with the early 
Beringians. 

From time to time during the Quaternary, 



"All quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken 
from the Abstracts of the fifth biennial meeting, 
American Quaternary Association, Edmonton, Alberta, 
1978. 



19 



20 



at the maxima of certain glacial episodes, con- 
tinental ice encroaching on the mountain front 
was met by tongues of Cordilleran ice to form a 
continuous ice sheet. Just how often this happened 
is not known, since deposits of the earlier glacial 
episodes are much less well preserved or exposed 
than are those of recent glaciations. But even the 
configurations of late Wisconsin ice are unclear. 
Earlier Wisconsin glacial deposits are more exten- 
sive than those of the late Wisconsin in the cor- 
ridor area. It is not always easy to distinguish be- 
tween the earlier and later deposits occurring 
there. Organic material which would be suitable 
for radiocarbon dating is usually absent from 
these deposits. 

Not all fronts of an ice sheet were syn- 
chronized. An ice lobe in one area could be advan- 
cing while another front was at a standstill or even 
retreating. A warming trend, which could result in 
ice thinning and accelerated flow at the terminus, 
could effect separate ice masses, or discrete por- 
tions of the same one, differently. Effects of the 
warming could be manifest at the toe of a moun- 
tain glacier system long before they would be felt 
at the front of the more massive Laurentide ice 
sheet. Such seems to have been the case in Alber- 
ta, where Laurentide ice overran deposits of the 
retreating Cordilleran ice. (Because of the very dif- 
ferent rocks contained in the deposits derived 
from the two glacial systems, it is not difficult to 
distinguish between them.) However, the Lauren- 
tide ice did not reach the mountains in this area 
and did not encounter Cordilleran ice until much 
farther north. Laurentide ice did reach the Rich- 
ardson and MacKenzie mountains in the North- 
west Territories, but there the late Wisconsin 
glaciation was not extensive. Terminal moraines 
of the valley glaciers occur well back from the 
Laurentide ice margin so a rather rugged ice-free 
zone remained. Thus, even at the height of late 
Wisconsin glaciation there were appreciable ice- 
free reentrants at either end of the incipient cor- 
ridor. It was in the central part of the corridor 
mainly along the mountains in northeastern Brit- 
ish Columbia and a little of adjacent Alberta that 
there seems to have been a formidable late Wis- 
consin ice barrier. 

In summarizing geological evidence per- 
taining to the corridor area, N. W. Rutter, a 
University of Alberta geologist, concluded "there 
was only a short period of time when Laurentide- 
Cordilleran ice could have coalesced in Wisconsin 
time .... This could have been in Early Wisconsin 
time, which we know little about, and in Late 
Wisconsin time . . . for a maximum of about 
10,000 years." That is, the corridor has been 
blocked by ice for only about 10,000 of the past 
70,000 years. 

According to geologist W. H. Mathews of 
the University of British Columbia, who has been 
working in the British Columbian part of the cor- 
ridor, retreat of the ice there seems to have begun 



about 13,500 years ago. He estimated that it took 
nearly 2,000 years for the ice to withdraw to a 
point 150 miles to the northeast. 

Even after converging ice masses had 
withdrawn sufficiently to provide an ice-free cor- 
ridor, one shouldn't think that easy passage 
southward would have been assured. Melting ice 
provided a large volume of meltwater to supple- 
ment runoff from the mountins and local rainfall. 
Old drainage lines were still blocked by Lauren- 
tide ice and local drainages choked with glacial 
debris so that much of the floor of the corridor 
must have been inundated by the water of lakes- 
some of them very large — and by bogs and 
streams. These features in themselves would not 
necessarily have been serious obstacles to the 
movement of man and other animals, for they 
became quite passable when frozen over — a condi- 
tion which must have prevailed for at least several 
months of the year. 

A more crucial factor for human occupa- 
tion than water barriers would have been the 
availability of sufficient food plants to support the 
animals upon which man, in turn, depended for 
subsistence. (Such environments provide little in 
the way of vegetable foods suitable for human 
consumption.) It would seem likely that the ap- 
propriate regional vegetation would have become 
established quickly enough in suitable terrain 
within the corridor, but it is difficult to guess how 
long it might have been before this was sufficient 
to support sigificant numbers of game animals. It 
may be that this situation would not have been 
realized before a normal drainage connection with 
the MacKenzie River had been reestablished. At 
present there seems to be no very good estimate as 
to just when that might have been. 

Unfortunately, "The Paleoecology of the 
Ice-Free Corridor," discussed at the AMQUA 
meeting by J. C. Ritchie, a University of Toronto 
biologist, is too poorly known to contribute much 
to the subject of peopling the New World. There 
are a few scattered indications that the late 
Wisconsin glaciation was preceded by a period of 
environmental conditions similar to modern ones. 
There is no evidence as yet from the southern half 
of the corridor area for conditions prevailing from 
the time of the beginning of ice retreat until about 
13,000 B.P., at which time forested conditions 
already existed in many localities. Ritchie suspects 
a prior one or two thousand years may be unac- 
counted for in the known sections. In the northern 
corridor area there is a little general information 
on regional changes in vegetation patterns be- 
tween 14,000 and 13,000 B.P., but nothing, it 
seems, that might apply to the early stages of the 
corridor itself. 

With the abundance of water in the early 
corridor, one might think that fish would have 
provided a possible food base. Zoologist C. C. 
Lindsey, of the University of Manitoba, in discuss- 
ing "Aquatic Zoogeography and the Ice-Free Cor- 




'^^ 




View across the toe 
of the Athabasca 
Glacier. Such views 
with wasting ice, 
meltwater streams, 
and lakes would 
have been common- 
place to any inhabi- 
tants of the ice- free 
corridor in its earlier 
phases. 



-^ 



ridor," cited distribution of Yukon varieties of fish 
to indicate that streams normally tributary to the 
MacKenzie River, while still dammed by Lauren- 
tide ice, backed up to eventually spill over to the 
Yukon drainage; this temporarily extended its 
headwaters far to the southeast. Besides indicating 
that this part of the corridor, at least, was a very 
watery place, this suggests that fish may have 
been introduced at a very early stage of its 
development but again, no precise age can be 
assigned to the event. It may also be that refugia 
for fish persisted through the late Wisconsin. Lind- 
sey cited one such possibility somewhat farther 
south in the corridor. 

The results of recent field work have tend- 
ed to indicate that late Wisconsin ice was less ex- 
tensive than had once been supposed. A. MacS. 
Stalker, a geologist with the Geological Survey of 
Canada, is primarily responsible for working out 
the geology of the southern corridor area and is 
one who advocates a relatively weak advance of 
late Wisconsin ice. He nevertheless strongly 
doubts that an ice-free corridor had opened early 
enough to account for human occupation south of 
the ice sheet as early as 14,000 or 15,000 B.P. 
However, with the possibility that an essentially 
ice-free corridor may have come into being much 
earlier than currently seems to have been the case. 
Stalker, in his prepared comments for the Edmon- 
ton symposium, considered the nature of such a 
corridor. 

He finds it difficult to imagine that passage 
of Early Man through a corridor at this early time 
would have been feasible, for reasons such as have 
already been given. In addition to lingering spurs 
of ice, bogs, and barren landscape left by 
retreating glaciers, frigid glacial lakes, and tur- 
bulent rivers, "there would have been the chilling 
winds blowing from the glaciers . . . and extended 
periods of intense cold as man slowly worked his 
way 1,000 km south through the narrow part of 



the corridor, not knowing where he was going or 
what he had to face. . . ." 

Although some of the obstacles and dis- 
agreeable conditions Stalker envisages probably 
loom larger to the geologist studying the deposits 
and landforms left by long departed glaciers than 
they did to a people adapted to an arctic environ- 
ment, he stresses an important point: if anyone 
emerged from the southern end of the corridor, it 
was incidental to occupation of the corridor area. 
There is no reason at all to think that Early Man 
arrived either in eastern Beringia or in the central 
part of North America as the result of purposeful 
migration. Traversal of the corridor would not 
necessarily have taken a great deal of time. It is 
not inconceivable that a group of individuals, 
within the lifetimes of some of them, might have 
worked its way the length of the corridor and 
emerged onto the plains of southern Alberta and 
into Montana, but they could not have done so 
until sources of subsistence — food, clothing, and 
shelter — were available there. The concept of an 
ice-free corridor involves a good deal more than 
simply some more or less dry ground to walk on. 

On the basis of evidence currently 
available, the corridor does not appear to be a 
very promising route for immigrants into the cen- 
tral part of North America before 12,000 to 13,000 
years ago. Stalker suggests that "perhaps it is just 
as well that the finding of indications of the 
presence of man in North America prior to the 
maximum of the [late] Wisconsin renders an ice- 
free corridor unnecessary, and offers the possibili- 
ty that man may have migrated south in comfort 
and ease much earlier." 



("Of Land Bridges, Ice-Free Corridors, and Early 
Man in the Americas" will be concluded in the 
March Bulletin.) 



21 



y J" J' f /' ^ jc J" .r^ ^ ,j' --■■-jrr.^V" J" J' y^ JT"^ 



R 



CONFLICTS 

BETWEEN 

DARWIN 

AND 

PALEONTOLOGY 




REPUBLIC of MALDIVES 




Part of our conventional wisdom about evo- 
lution is that the fossil record of past life is 
an important cornerstone of evolutionary 
theory. In some ways, this is true — but the situa- 
tion is much more complicated. I will explore here 
a few of the complex interrelationships between 
fossils and darwinian theory, but let me first set 
the stage by commenting about the geologic rec- 
ord itself. 

There are about 250,000 different species of 
fossil plants and animals known. These have been 
named and described and specimens have been 
deposited in museums throughout the world. Field 
Museum has in its collections representatives of 
perhaps 20 percent of these known species. In 
combination with other museums, we thus have 
an enormous amount of statistical information on 
changes in the biological world that have occurred 
since the origin of life on Earth. In spite of this 
large quantity of information, it is but a tiny frac- 
tion of the diversity that actually lived in the past. 
There are well over a million species living today 
and known rates of evolutionary turnover make it 
possible to predict how many species ought to be 
in our fossil record. That number is at least 100 
times the number we have found. It is clear that 
fossilization is a very chancy process and that the 
vast majority of plants and animals of the past 
have left no record at all. 

To many people, the most interesting fos- 
sils are the oldest ones and the youngest ones. The 
oldest ones (up to 3,500 million years old) give us 
information about the origin and early evolution 
of life — at a time when physical and chemical en- 



vironments were very different from those that 
prevail today. The youngest rocks, on the other 
hand, are of interest because they include fossils of 
early man. These, of course, have been worked on 
with particular success by the Leakeys in East 
Africa. 

But these extremes account for only a small 
part of the quarter of a million fossil species — 
and for one interested in the broad range of evolu- 
tionary change, the extremes do not contribute 
much. In between is a long geologic interval which 
contains the basic record of the evolution of all 
major groups of plants and animals. Time control 
and quality of preservation are excellent compared 
with the rather thin record of the oldest or young- 
est fossils. (I might point out here that the East 
African material the Leakeys have worked on is 
relatively poor, there are only a couple hundred 
specimens, and age-dating is very uncertain.) 

Darwin's theory of natural selection has 
always been closely linked to evidence from fos- 
sils, and probably most people assume that fossils 
provide a very important part of the general argu- 
ment that is made in favor of darwinian interpre- 
tations of the history of life. Unfortunately, this is 
not strictly true. We must distinguish between the 
fact of evolution — defined as change in organ- 
isms over time — and the explanation of this 
change. Darwin's contribution, through his theory 
of natural selection, was to suggest how the evolu- 
tionary change took place. The evidence we find 
in the geologic record is not nearly as compatible 
with darwinian natural selection as we would like 
it to be. Darwin was completely aware of this. He 



22 



By David M. Raup, curator of geology 




Copyright 



1 meter 

1978 W. H. Freeman & Co. 



was embarrassed by the fossil record because it 
didn't look the way he predicted it would and, as a 
result, he devoted a long section of his Origin of 
Species to an attempt to explain and rationalize 
the differences. There were several problems, but 
the principal one was that the geologic record did 
not then and still does not yield a finely graduated 
chain of slow and progressive evolution. In other 
words, there are not enough intermediates. There 
are very few cases where one can find a gradual 
transition from one species to another and very 
few cases where one can look at a part of the fossil 
record and actually see that organisms were im- 
proving in the sense of becoming better adapted. 
To emphasize this let me cite a couple of state- 
ments Darwin made in his Origin of Species: At 
one point he observed, "innumerable transitional 
forms must have existed but why do we not find 
them embedded in countless numbers in the crust 
of the earth?"; in another place he said, "why is 
not every geological formation and every stratum 
full of such intermediate links? Geology assuredly 
does not reveal any such finely graduated organic 
chain, and this perhaps is the greatest objection 
which can be urged against my theory." 

Instead of finding the gradual unfolding of 
life, what geologists of Darwin's time, and geolo- 
gists of the present day actually find is a highly 
uneven or jerky record; that is, species appear in 
the sequence very suddenly, show little or no 
change during their existence in the record, then 
abruptly go out of the record. And it is not always 
clear, in fact it's rarely clear, that the descendants 
were actually better adapted than their predeces- 
sors. In other words, biological improvement is 
hard to find. Let me give an example: During the 
interval from about 65 to 200 million years ago 
there were a lot of flying reptiles known as ptero- 
saurs (see "Pterosaur," by John Bolt, in the May, 
1976, Bulletin). Their fossil record is quite good in 
spite of the fact that the skeleton of these animals 
is difficult to preserve. The giant Pteranodon was 
particularly spectacular. It was much larger than 



any bird living today and was widely distributed, 
particularly in the southern and southwestern 
parts of the United States. 

Figure 1 shows a reconstruction of Pterano- 
don as it probably looked. The mountains in the 
background are not there by accident: it is felt by 
some people that these reptiles could become air- 
borne only by climbing up on cliffs and jumping. 
Figure 2 shows the skeleton. Wings were formed 
by greatly extending the bones of one finger on 
each hand and filling in with skin the area enclosed 
by the dotted line. This is basically the device used 
also by some modern bats. There is little question 
that this animal was capable of flight — a conclu- 
sion based on sophisticated engineering studies 
involving extensive analysis of weight, lift, drag, 
and other aerodynamically important factors — 
along with wind tunnel experiments with scaled 
models. 

Figure 3 shows what Pteranodon probably 
looked like at rest and when flying. The most strik- 
ing aspect of Pteranodon is its size, demonstrated 




iQ^ Copyright © 1978 W. H. Freeman & Co, 



23 




From Science, March 
1975 (Vol. 187. No. 4180) 
cover illustration. 
Copyright '^ 1975 The 
American Association 
tor the Advancement of 
Science. Courtesy D. A. 
Lawson. 



24 



in Figure 4, where it is shown in comparison with 
other flying objects. On the left is a modern tailless 
aircraft — the Northrop YB-49 — with a wingspan 
of about 170 feet. Next to it is the largest known 
pterosaur, which had a wingspan of about 50 feet. 
Next is a smaller pterosaur. The drawing on the 
far right shows one of the largest living birds — a 
condor with a wingspan of about nine feet. Thus, 
some pterosaurs were larger than all flying birds 
and even many small airplanes. They achieved 
this size and were still able to fly because their 
design was nearly optimal. 

So here we have an adaptation which was 
apparently successful for many millions of years 
but which is now extinct and has not been 
repeated. That this animal went extinct implies 
some sort of failure. At least that is the conven- 
tional wisdom. Pteranodon, along with most 
other large reptiles, was replaced by mammals and 
birds. Mammals and birds were already around, 
but in small numbers. We assume in darwinian 
fashion that the big reptiles went extinct because 
there was something wrong with them; that is, 
they either couldn't compete with new forms that 
had evolved, or there was some change in environ- 
ment that they couldn't adapt to fast enough to 
survive. As we will see, this interpretation may 
not be correct. We don't have any real evidence 
that there was anything wrong with the flying rep- 
tiles — in fact, they lived on the earth for a much 
longer time than humans have been around. Dur- 
ing their tenure on earth the flying reptiles diversi- 
fied into several quite distinct species but it is very 
difficult to put these species into any sort of series 
of improvement. 

Here is another example: Figure 5 shows a 
fossil trilobite — a member of an extensive but 
now extinct group of arthropods. Figure 6 is a 
closeup of one eye of a trilobite. The eyes were 



generally large and quite similar to the eyes of 
modern insects, crabs, and other arthropods. But 
if we look at the individual elements of the trilo- 
bite eye, we find that the lens systems were very 
different from what we now have. Riccardo Levi- 
Setti (a Field Museum research associate in geol- 
ogy and professor of physics at the University of 
Chicago) has recently done some spectacular work 
on the optics of these lens systems. Figure 7 shows 
sketches of a common type of trilobite lens. Each 
lens is a doublet (that is, made up of two lenses). 
The lower lens is shaded in these sketches and the 
upper one is blank. The shape of the boundary be- 
tween the two lenses is unlike any now in use — 
either by humans or animals. But the shape is 
nearly identical to designs published independent- 
ly by Descartes and Huygens in the seventeenth 
century. 

The Descartes and Huygens designs had the 
purpose of avoiding spherical aberration and were 
what is known as aplanatic lenses. The only sig- 
nificant difference between them and the trilobite 
lens is that the Descartes and Huygens lenses were 
not doublets — that is, they did not have the 
lower lens. But, as Levi-Setti has shown, for these 
designs to work underwater where the trilobites 
lived, the lower lens was necessary. Thus, the tri- 
lobites 450 million years ago used an optimal 
design which would require a well trained and 
imaginative optical engineer to develop today — 
or one who was familiar with the seventeenth cen- 
tury optical literature. 

Most fossils are not as easily understood as 
this. We have no idea why most structures in 
extinct organisms look the way they do. And, as I 
have already noted, different species usually ap- 
pear and disappear from the record without show- 
ing the transitions that Darwin postulated. 

Darwin's general solution to the incompati- 



bility of fossil evidence and his theory was to say 
that the fossil record is a very incomplete one — 
that it is full of gaps, and that we have much to 
learn. In effect, he was saying that if the record 
were complete and if we had better knowledge of 
it, we would see the finely graduated chain that he 
predicted. And this was his main argument for 
downgrading the evidence from the fossil record. 
Well, we are now about 120 years after 
Darwin and the knowledge of the fossil record has 
been greatly expanded. We now have a quarter of 
a million fossil species but the situation hasn't 
changed much. The record of evolution is still sur- 
prisingly jerky and, ironically, we have even fewer 
examples of evolutionary transition than we had 
in Darwin's time. By this I mean that some of the 
classic cases of darwinian change in the fossil rec- 
ord, such as the evolution of the horse in North 
America, have had to be discarded or modified as 
a result of more detailed information — what 
appeared to be a nice simple progression when 
relatively few data were available now appears to 
be much more complex and much less gradualistic. 
So Darwin's problem has not been alleviated in 
the last 120 years and we still have a record which 
does show change but one that can hardly be 
looked upon as the most reasonable consequence 
of natural selection. Also the major extinctions 




upper lens 
unit 




optical 
nterface 



intralensar bowl 



sclera 



Eye of trilobite 
Crozonaspis struvei (Henry) 




such as those of the dinosaurs and trilobites are 
still very puzzling. 

Now let me step back from the problem 
and very generally discuss natural selection and 
-what we know about it. I think it is safe to say that 
we know for sure that natural selection, as a proc- 
ess, does work. There is a mountain of experimen- 
tal and observational evidence, much of it predat- 
ing genetics, which shows that natural selection as 
a biological process works. Darwin's strongest 
evidence for selection actually came from the ex- 
perience of plant and animal breeders who were 



employing artificial selection to produce evolution 
by breeding. And selection, be it natural or arti- 
ficial, can clearly lead to better adapted types 
through a series of generations and through 
gradual transformation of a population. 

So natural selection as a process is okay. 
We are also pretty sure that it goes on in nature 
although good examples are surprisingly rare. The 
best evidence comes from the many cases where it 
can be shown that biological structures have been 
optimized — that is, structures that represent opti- 
mal engineering solutions to the problems that an 



25 



26 



animal has of feeding or escaping predators or 
generally functioning in its environment. The 
superb designs of flying reptiles and of trilobite 
eyes are examples. The presence of these optimal 
structures does not, of course, prove that they 
developed through natural selection but it does 
provide strong circumstantial argument. 

Now with regard to the fossil record, we 
certainly see change. If any of us were to be put 
down in the Cretaceous landscape we would 
immediately recognize the differences. Some of 
the plants and animals would be familiar but most 



"The average duration of a 
species on the earth is less than 
10 miUion years. And the 
record of really abundant life 
goes back at least 600 million 
years, so there has been 
complete turnover in the 
biological world many times." 



would have changed and some of the types would 
be totally different from those living today. The 
average duration of a species on the earth is less 
than 10 million years. And the record of really 
abundant life goes back at least 600 million years, 
so there has been complete turnover in the biologi- 
cal world many times. This record of change 
pretty clearly demonstrates that evolution has oc- 
curred if we define evolution simply as change; 
but it does not tell us how this change took place, 
and that's really the question. If we allow that 
natural selection works, as we almost have to do, 
the fossil record doesn't tell us whether it was 
responsible for 90 percent of the change we see, or 
9 percent, or .9 percent. 

The very obvious question at this point is: 
what alternative mechanisms do we have to ex- 
plain the changes that we observe? A great many 
alternatives have been suggested both before and 
after Darwin. Some of the evolutionary theories 
that have been proposed belong to the lunatic 
fringe, but others are serious propositions by com- 
petent scholars. A currently important alternative 
to natural selection has to do with the effects of 
pure chance. It has been suggested that there are 
traits which are not important enough to the 
organism to be "seen" by natural selection, and 
that a purely random system of evolution could 
work for these traits. Let me give an example 
which may be important in the fossil record: 
Many organisms have shells which are coiled in a 
spiral fashion, such as snails, the pearly nautilus. 



and a great many other fossil and living organ- 
isms. Sometimes the spiral is left-handed, some- 
times it's right-handed. One is just the mirror im- 
age of the other. In most cases, whole species of 
snails are either exclusively left-handed or exclu- 
sively right-handed. In a few cases, both left- 
handed and right-handed forms occur within the 
same species. And it is pretty clear that this is a 
hereditary trait — although the genetic mechan- 
ism is often complex. 

In most cases, it's difficult to find an advan- 
tage the left-handed form would have over the 
right-handed form, or vice-versa. In such cases, 
the coiling direction that dominates the species 
may just be a matter of chance; that is, the one 
that got there first, or happened by chance to have 
more offspring gradually came to dominate the 
population. This is the sort of trait that might be 
subject to random evolution — a clear difference 
between animals but one not seen by natural selec- 
tion because it does not affect the general life and 
hard times of the organism. I should add that in 
some snails it has been shown that this situation is 
a little bit more complicated because copulatory 
behavior is affected by coiling direction; specifi- 
cally, the left-handed ones get along better with 
other left-handed ones than with shells of opposite 
coiling direction. This gives a selective advantage 
to homogeneity in a population without giving 
preference to left or right. So a left-handed strain 
that got started might be aided by natural selec- 
tion even though its origin was a matter of chance. 
In the general case, however, the symmetry differ- 
ence is probably neutral. 

It would seem that if evolution of shape 
and form in animals were a random affair, the 
result would be one of chaos. This, of course, is 
one of the major counter-arguments to the idea of 
random evolution (or random walk evolution as it 
is sometimes called). It is certainly true that one 
would be most unlikely to develop a functioning 
flying insect, reptile, or bird by a chance collection 
of changes. Some sort of guidance is necessary. 
And in these cases, of course, natural selection is 
the only mechanism we know of to produce a 
workable combination of characteristics. On the 
other hand, it may be that a great many of the dif- 
ferences that we observe within major animal 
groups are differences which do not have much 
effect on fitness. We are thus talking about the sur- 
vival of the lucky as well as the survival of the 
fittest. 

A large number of evolutionary biologists 
these days are studying the question that I've just 
considered — it's called neutral or nondarwinian 
evolution. Much of this research is concentrated in 
the Chicago area. Most of the work so far has 
been done with proteins of relatively minor impor- 
tance in the biological scheme where the case for 
selective neutrality can be made much more easily. 
Paleontologists have to work with obvious traits. 



and therefore, traits which are more likely to be 
seen by natural selection, so paleontologists are 
working at a scale different from that used by 
biologists. The whole problem of neutral evolu- 
tion represents a very exciting area and is one of 
the most hotly debated topics in evolutionary 
biology today. 

I would like now to concentrate on just one 
aspect of the problem. This has to do with the 
extinction of large groups such as the dinosaurs, 
the trilobites, and also somewhat smaller groups 
such as the flying reptiles that I have already 
discussed. 

We know that the dinosaurs went extinct 
about 65 million years ago and we know they 
went extinct rather suddenly. Now, when we say 
the dinosaurs went extinct we are saying that a 
couple of prominent reptilian orders died out at 
about the same time. It is important to remember 
that what taxonomists call a class or an order does 
not exist as such. It's an abstraction denoting a 
collection of species descended from a common 
ancestor. It is an abstraction just as a family name 
in a human community is an abstraction. There- 
fore, when we say the dinosaurs went extinct what 
we are actually saying is that the dinosaur species 
living at a certain time didn't leave any descen- 
dants which we would call dinosaurs. The conven- 
tional wisdom is that the dinosaurs must have had 
traits in common or requirements in common such 
that they couldn't cope with changes in environ- 
ment. And paleontologists have gone to great 
lengths to try to find out what happened. 

Conventionally, the approach is a com- 
pletely darwinian one based on the faith or belief 
that extinction can only be explained by finding 
some sort of Achilles heel shared by all members 
of the group. Along with this is the strong implica- 
tion that the successor group — mammals in the 
dinosaur case — was somehow better than the 
dinosaurs, and this implies that if both were living 
today, the dinosaurs would again lose out to the 
mammals. This scenario may be true, but it is a 
very difficult one to prove. We don't have any 
convincing arguments for why the dinosaurs died 
out. It has even been suggested that we have a 
tendency to make what can only be called a moral 
judgement in cases of extinction. If a group went 
extinct, it must have been bad. The good prosper, 
the bad die. 

What I would like to develop is an idea 
based on chance or randomness which may lead to 
the conclusion that the dinosaurs were simply 
unlucky. One way to approach this is to look at a 
completely different but analogous situation: one 
having to do with the evolution of surnames in 
human families. We know that family names die 
out. Surnames disappear from our communities. 
And the same question could be asked of them 
that is asked of the dinosaurs — does a human sur- 
name die out because its members are weak, or do 



"It was clever of the pterodactyls to think of 
flying, but that's all you can say for them. 
They were doomed from the start because 
they had no feathers and no wishbone, or 
furcula, as flying vertebrates should have. 
They didn't belong in the picture and public 
opinion was against them. The Archaeop- 
teryx was not much of a bird, but at least it 
had feathers. As for the pterodactyls, the 
best thing to do is just forget them. Bats are 
going to flop, too, and everybody knows it 
except the bats themselves. " — How to 
Become Extinct, by Will Cuppy (1941) 

something wrong, or does the family just have bad 
luck? 

One reason to turn to the evolution of sur- 
names for help is that the subject has been worked 
on extensively for about 150 years and several 
effective mathematical techniques have been 
developed for working with the problem. 

One of the first references to extinction of 
family names is found, of all places, in Malthus — 
in his famous Essay on Population. We normally 
associate Malthus with birth and population 
growth rather than death and extinction. But he 
mentioned in passing some data on the extinction 
of families in the town of Berne, Switzerland. He 
noted that over the 200-year period from 1583 to 
1783, fully three-quarters of the prominent 
families that were present at the start of the period 
went extinct before the end of the 200 years. This 
was a startling figure. The same phenomenon was 
found later in other situations — including the 
English peerage and various European royal fam 
lies. Wherever information was available, 
showed that the average life expectancy of a fam 
ly name is surprisingly short. This was intuitively 
unreasonable. Because all the data came from the 
upper classes of society, it was assumed that there 
was something debilitating or weakening about 
membership in the upper classes — and this gave 
rise to all sorts of sociological theory and specula- 
tion. But these speculations could not be checked 
because information was not available for the 
lower classes of society. 

It turned out, after some now classic mathe- 
matical analysis by Galton and Watson* that what 
Malthus and others had observed was exactly 
what should be expected by chance alone, and the 
social class had nothing to do with it! This was 
later confirmed by studies of whole communities. 

What this means is that families are inher- 



*F. Galton and H. W. Watson. 1875, "On the Probabil- 
ity of the Extinction of Families, "in the Journal of the 
Anthropological Society of London, Vol. IV, pp. 138-44. 



27 



ently prone to extinction even though the popula- 
tion as a whole is stable — or even growing. Now 
this is still counter-intuitive and hard to accept. 
We all know of families that are enormous and 
which have long histories. The biography shelves 
of any library are full of examples. But the fact is 
that the ultimate extinction of any family name is 
statistically inevitable. The only uncertainty is 
when. It is perhaps best understood by noting that 
a family has about an equal chance of increasing 
or decreasing in size during a single generation. 
This is because the chances are about 50-50 of any 
marriage producing a male heir unless, of course, 
the couple keeps having children for the express 
purpose of having a male heir. I must apologize 
for my emphasis on the male line but since it is the 
name-bearing line, it is easier to work with. The 
same results can be gotten with the female lines 
but it is less convenient to analyze. Anyway, the 



A good example of such disappearance is 
that of the earldom of Rochester. Henry Wilmot 
was declared the First Earl of Rochester in 1652 
but died seven years later leaving one son, John, 
who became the Second Earl. John died 21 years 
after that and his only son died as a child and the 
title became extinct. Now all three earls died of 
specific causes — John died of syphilis for exam- 
ple. One can say that John was unlucky, but the 
extinction of the line cannot be said to have hap- 
pened without cause. But if we look at a whole 
group of such families, their histories are indistin- 
guishable from a system controlled only by 
chance. By assuming a system of chance, we can 
accurately predict the approximate number of 
families that will be short-lived — even though we 
cannot predict in advance which families will be 
short-lived. 

Now, suppose we have an imaginary hu- 



28 



number of males in a family fluctuates up and 
down as a random walk. If the number happens to 
drop to zero, the family is, so to speak, out of the 
game. The surname is extinct and cannot recover. 
But there is no such limit on the high side. That is, 
success cannot guarantee immunity to extinction 
to the degree that extinction guarantees immunity 
from success. Thus, ultimate extinction is inevit- 
able and the smaller a family, the greater the 
chances of its becoming extinct in the next genera- 
tion. Most families die out quickly because they 
generally start out small and thus are dangerously 
close to extinction at the beginning. Most pub- 
lished family histories are written about those 
families which do survive to become large. And 
most family histories are written by family mem- 
bers and thus are about families that have not yet 
become extinct. The biography shelves of a library 
thus contain a most unrepresentative sample of 
families. And even these families are doomed in 
the long run by the random walk nature of family 
evolution. 

For the reader who is still skeptical, I rec- 
ommend any of the published catalogs of the 
English peerage. The English peerage provides a 
particularly clear-cut situation. When a single 
individual is declared to be a peer of England, with 
the title to be inherited through the male line, we 
have the start of what is, in effect, a new family 
with a single founder. Some lines last a long time 
but most disappear in the first one, two, or three 
generations. 



man community which has a variety of surnames. 
Most of the families will be small — either because 
they just started or because they are on the verge 
of extinction. Only a few families will be large. 
This imaginary community would have a tele- 
phone book much like that of Chicago in the sense 
that a few names are very abundant but most are 
not. Now suppose that the population were sud- 
denly reduced by epidemic disease. And suppose 
that family affiliation was not a factor in the 
reduction: that is, assume that Smiths were not 
more susceptible to disease than Browns. If this 
were to happen, there would be simultaneous ex- 
tinction of many families. Most of the disappear- 
ing families would be the small ones but some 
large ones would be included. If someone were to 
look at family records later, it might appear that 
the reduction in population size was due to extinc- 
tion of families — rather than the other way 
around — and one might be tempted to search for 
common denominators of failure among the 
families that died out in order to find out why they 
died out. But this would be entirely wrong because 
surname extinction was the effect rather than the 
cause of the population drop. 

I can illustrate the general principle by a 
hypothetical example. The left side of Figure 8, 
above, shows a random array of 15 letters — rang- 
ing from A to E. Each letter may be thought of as 
representing a different surname; A is the most 
common and B the least common. Now, if we 
remove letters randomly, we may get something 



like the middle of Figure 8. Ten letters were select- 
ed for removal by using a table of random num- 
bers. The letter A survived which is not surprising 
because it was the most common to begin with. 
But B also survived — by good luck. D and E went 
extinct. The right side of Figure 8 shows another 
try with the same original pattern. This time, A 
and D went extinct and B, C, and £ survived. B 
was lucky both times. 

Let me return now to the fossil record of 
evolution. The dinosaurs died out at the end of the 
Cretaceous period (about 65 million years ago). 
Several other important animal groups also died 
out at about the same time. The groups seem to 
have little in common. Some lived on land, others 
in the sea. Some were large animals, some were 
small. And so on. (There is nothing surprising, by 
the way, in the fact that all these groups died out 
near the boundary two periods in the geologic 
time scale because the boundary itself is defined 
on the basis of the extinctions.) Many paleontolo- 
gists have spent years trying to figure out what 
failing was shared by such different animal groups. 
Some explanations have been suggested but none 
of them is really convincing (to me, at least). The 
only thing we know for sure is that a lot of groups 
died out at about the same time. The fact of the ex- 
tinctions is not geologically unusual — only the 
number of extinctions in a short time. 

The business about extinction of human 
surnames may provide a solution. We may postu- 
late that the end of the Cretaceous period was a 
time when an unusually large number of species 
died out. This could have resulted from some sort 
of epidemic, or a worldwide change in climate, or 
from a rare astronomical event. If a lot of separate 



species died out, some families and orders would 
inevitably also die out, as we have seen through 
the surname analogy. Some species would survive 
by luck and some would survive because they 
were fit. But these differences in fitness need not 
have anything to do with membership in a group 
such as reptiles and mammals. 

Thanks to the mathematical techniques 
developed by people working with surnames, it is 
possible to test the geologic case against the prop- 
osition that species extinctions are not biased by 
the group to which the species belongs. It turns 
out that tests of several mass extinctions in the 
fossil record show that group membership (family 
name, if you will) is not statistically correlated 
with the extinctions. The dinosaur extinctions 
have not been fully tested yet. But experience with 
other extinction events leads one to look at the 
dinosaur extinctions as a possible chance phenom- 
enon. It may be that the mammals were not better 
than the dinosaurs but just luckier at a time when 
an unusually large number of species were dying. 
This leads to the rather disquieting conclusion that 
if the Cretaceous extinctions were to be reenacted, 
a different suite of groups might have survived 
and this suite might not include our ancestors. 

The ideas I have discussed here are rather 
new and have not been completely tested. No mat- 
ter how they come out, however, they are having 
a ventilating effect on thinking in evolution and 
the conventional dogma is being challenged. If the 
ideas turn out to be valid, it will mean that Darwin 
was correct in what he said but that he was ex- 
plaining only a part of the total evolutionary pic- 
ture. The part he missed was the simple element of 
chance! 



BORDEN EXPEDITION 

Continued from p. 8 

The Museum's Annual Report for 1927 car- 
ried this description of the zoological specimens 
collected: 

". . . The zoological results of this expedi- 
tion include a . . . group of Peninsula Brown Bears 
{Ursus dalli gyas) which are the largest carnivor- 
ous animals now living, rivalling in size the Cave 
Bear of Pleistocene times. Of the four specimens 
selected for a group, two were shot by Mrs. John 
Borden, one by Miss Frances Ames, and the 
fourth, ... by Mrs. R. B. Slaughter. The expedi- 
tion also obtained . . . Polar Bears and the com- 
plete skin and skull of a large male Pacific Walrus, 



Five of the eight Sea Scouts survive today: 
Andrews, Purcell, Carstenson, Ram and McClel- 
land. Andrews, who became an engineer, and 
Carstenson, who became a tool and die maker, are 
living in Florida. Ram, the only scout to become a 
professional mariner, is with the merchant marine. 



Purcell, a Jesuit priest, is a research professor at 
Georgetown University and a distinguished indus- 
trial labor relations authority. McClelland, a 
Chicago resident, is a retired physics teacher. 
Shortly after the expedition, McClelland made a 
name for himself by skippering the winning 
schooner. Blue Moon, in the 1929 Chicago-Macki- 
nac yacht race. 

Frances Ames, who collected botanical 
specimens on the expedition, is now Mrs. Douglas 
Wolseley, of Santa Barbara, CA. Mrs. Charles B. 
Goodspeed, widowed and remarried, is now Mrs. 
Gilbert W. Chapman, of New York. Mrs. John 
Borden (nee Courtney Letts), subsequently wife of 
the Argentine ambassador to the United States 
(1931-43), Felipe Espil (deceased), is now Mrs. 
Foster Adams, of New York. Mrs. Adams will be 
at Field Museum on Saturday, February 3, to in- 
troduce the film "The Cruise of the Northern 
Light," which will be shown in James Simpson 
Theatre. D 



29 



Index to Field Museum of N€itural History Bulletin, Volume 49 (1978) 



prepared by KENNETH GRABOWSKI 



Articles 



Adventures in Patagonia, by Larry G. MarshaU: March 4-11 
Ancona School Comes to Field Museum, by Carol Burch-Brown 

and Mary Hynes-Berry: Oct. 16-21 
Archaeologist as Witch, The, by Thomas J. Riley: June 6-11 
Archaeology in the Electronics Age, by Robert A. Feldman and 

Alan Louis Kolata: July/Aug. 4-8 
Beauty, Wealtfi, and Spirit: Feather Arts from Five Continents, 

by Phylis Rabineau: Dec. 3 
Bolivian Adventure: In Search of the Bones of Giants, by Larry 

G. Marshall: May 16-23 
Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic Expedition, The, 

(Part I) by Ted Karamanski and Dave Walsten: Nov. 6-9, 

20-24 
Buddhism and Taoism in Chinese Schulpture: A Curious Evolu- 
tion in Religious Motif by Art Pontynen: June 16-21 
China-Watchers of Yesteryear, by Audrey Hiller: Nov. 10-15 
Close Encounters of the Zeroth Kind by Edward C. Olsen: Sept. 

6-13 
Conservation of a Woven Hat Cover, The, by Christine Danziger 

and Jim Hanson: March 24 
Dayflowers. by Robert Faden: April 23-25 
Festival of Anthropology on Film, A, by Ira Jacknis and Jane 

Swanson: July/Aug. 16-21 
Gamelan, The, by Sue Carter-De Vale: Jan. 3-12 
Life in the Pre-Columbian Town of Galindo, Peru, by Garth 

Bawden: March 16-23 
Male and Female: Anthropology Game, by Michael Story: April 

12-13 
Mazon Creek Census, by Gordon C. Baird: Sept. 15-18, 20-21 
Mazon Creek Studies: The First 120 Years, by Matthew H. 

Nitecki: Sept. 22-26 
Natural History Quiz, by Ken Grabowski: July/Aug. 15, 22 
New Guinea Adventure: Sketch of a Working Anthropologist, 

by Susan B. Parker: May 4-9 
Peru 's Golden Treasures, by Robert A. Feldman: Feb. 3 
Prehistoric Missionaries in East Central Illinois, by Thomas J. 

Riley and Gary A. Apfelstedt: April 16-2/ 
Restoration of the Gamelan, by Louis Pomerantz: Jan. 13-18 
Royal Burials of Ancient Peru, by Geoffrey W. Conrad: Feb. 

6-11, 21-26 
Solem and Snails, by Patricia Williams: Nov. 16-19 
Terror Bird The, by Larry G. Marshall: Oct. 6-15 
Thumbelina: House Guest in Miniature, by Ivan Barker: 

April 22 
Versatile Gourd, The, by Alfreida RehUng: May 24 
Virunga: Or Whatever Happened to Albert National Park?, by 

Burt A. Ovrut and Susan Ovrut: April 4-9 

Authors 

Apfelstadt, Gary A.: Prehistoric Missionaries in East Central 

Illinois (with T. J. Riley), April 16-21 
Baird, Gordon C: Mazon Creek Census, Sept. 15-18, 20-21 
Baker, Ivan: Thumberlina: House Guest in Miniature, April 22 
Bawden, Garth: Life in the Pre-Columbian Town of Galindo, 

Peru, March 16-23 



Burch-Brown, Carol: Ancona School Comes to Field Museum 

(with M. Hynes-Berry), Oct. 16-21 
Carter-De Vale, Sue: The Gamelan, Jan. 3-12 
Conrad, Geoffrey W .: Royal Burials of Ancient Peru, Feb. 6-11, 

21-26 
Danziger, Christine: The Conservation of a Woven Hat Cover 

(with J. Hanson), March 24 
Faden, Robert: Dayflowers, April 23-25 
Feldman, Robert A.: Archaeology in the Electronics Age (with 

A. L. Kolata), July/Aug. 4-8 
Feldman, Robert A.: Peru's Golden Treasures, Feb. 3 
Grabowski, Ken: Natural History Quiz, July/Aug. 15, 22 
Hanson, Jim: The Conservation of a Woven Hat Cover (with 

C. Danziger), March 24 
HUIer, Audrey: China-Watchers of Yesterday, Nov. 10-15 
Hynes-Berry, Mary: Ancona School Comes to Field Museum 

(with C. Burch-Brown), Oct. 16-21 
Jacknis, Ira: A Festival of Anthropology on Film (with J. 

Swanson), July/Aug. 16-21 
Karamanski, Ted: The Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska 

Arctic Expedition (with D. Walsten), Nov. 6-9, 20-24 
Kolata, Alan Louis: Archaeology in the Electronics Age (with 

R. A. Feldman), July/Aug. 4-8 
MarshaU, Larry G.: Adventures in Patagonia, March 4-11 
Marshall, Larry G.: Bolivian Adventure: In Search of the Bones 

of Giants, May 16-23 
Marshall, Larry G.: The Terror Bird Oct. 6-15 
Nitecki, Matthew H.: Mazon Creek Studies: The First 120 

Years, Sept. 22-26 
Olsen, Edward C: Close Encounters of the Zeroth Kind, Sept. 

6-13 
Ovrut, Burt A.: Virunga: Or Whatever Happened to Albert 

National Park? (with S. Ovrut), April 4-9 
Ovrut, Susan: Virunga: Or Whatever Happened to Albert 

National Park? (with B. Ovrut), April 4-9 
Parker, Susan B.: New Guinea Adventure: Sketch of a Working 

Anthropologist. May 4-9 
Pomerantz, Louis: Restoration of the Gamelan, Jan. 13-18 
Pontynen, Art: Buddhism and Taoism in Chinese Sculpture: A 

Curious Evolution in Religious Motif June 16-21 
Rabineau, Phyllis: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit: Feather Arts 

from Five Continents, Dec. 3 
RehUng, Alfreida: The Versatile Gourd, May 24 
RUey, Thomas J.: Prehistoric Missionaries in East Central 

Illinois (with G. A. ApfelsUdt), April 16-21 
RUey, Thomas J.: The Archaeologist as Witch, June 6-11 
Story, Michael: Male and Female: Anthropology Game, April 

12-13 
Swanson, Jane: A Festival of Anthropology on Film (with I. 

Jacknis), July/Aug. 16-21 
Walsten, Dave: The Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic 

Expedition (with T. Karamanski), Nov. 6-9, 20-24 
WiUiams, Patricia: Solem and Snails, Nov. 16-19 

Kenneth Grabowski is Field Museum Library assistant. 



30 



Subjects 



Abbott, J. B.: March 4, 8, U 

Abiera, C: Jan. 17 

Abrams. C: Dec. 3 

Acad, of Sci. of USSR: Sept. 11 

Adamec, T.: Feb. 19 

Admiralty Islands: Feb. 15; May 5; Nov. 9 

Adonis (asteroidi: Sept. 8 

Advanced Tech. Lab. Advisory Bd.: Sept. 3 

Adventures in Patagonia (article): March 4 

African wildhfe: May 11: Oct. 23 

Agate. S.: Oct. 18 

Agricola, G.: May 7 

Agric. Res. Serv.: Oct. 5 

Akeley, C: April 7 

Alaska: Nov. 6 

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: 

Feb. 15 
Alaskan Peninsula: Nov. 20 
Albert Nat. Park: April 4, 7 
Albert Nile: April 6 
Albrecht, C. J.: Feb. 12; June 4 
Allen, C: April 17 
Allen, J. P.: Oct. 3 
alligator: July/Aug. 10 
Ameghino, C: March 4, 8 
Ameghino, F.: March 5 
American Forest Inst.: June 15 
"American Indian Dwellings" (program): 

Nov. 28 
American Law Inst. -American Bar Assoc: 

Feb. 12 
American Mus. of Nat. Hist.: Feb. 2, 16 
American Philosophical Soc.: Nov. 18 
American Soc. of Ethnohistory: May 26 
Amers, F.: Nov. 20, 22 
Ancient Irrigation Project (PRA): July/ 

Aug. 4 
Ancona School Comes to Field Museum 

(article): Oct. 16 
Andalgala, Argentina: Oct. 6, 8, 10 
Andalgalornis: Oct. 6 
Anderson, O.: Sept. 3 
Andrews, B.: Nov. 7 
Andrews, C. W.: Oct. 14 
animal hybrids: Feb. 12 
anklung: Jan. 7; Sept. 14 
Anna's hummingbird: April 22 
Anstey, E.: July/Aug. 17 
antelope: Oct. 23 

anthropology film series: July/Aug. 11, 16 
Anthropology internships: May 26 
Apfelstadt, G. A.: April 16 
Apollo asteroids: Sept. 6, 13 
Archaeologist as Witch. The (article): June 6 
Archaeology in the Electronics Age {article): 

July/Aug. 4 
"Ark, The Stationary" (program): July/Aug. 

23' Sept. 4 
Ariki Tafua: April 18, 21 
Armstrong, K.: Oct. 26 
Art Institute of Chicago: May 9 
"Art of Basketmaking, The" (program): 

Feb. 27 
Asia House Gallery: Sept. 19 
Asian Art Museum: April 14 
asteroid: Sept. 6 
Astrapotherium: March 6 
Atahualpa: Feb. 3 
Attu Island: Nov. 20 
Audubon Society: Oct, 5 
Ayer, E. E.: Nov. 26 
Ayer Lecture Series: Feb. 18 
Aymara Indians: Feb. 27 
Aztalan (Wis.): April 20 



baboon: April 8 

Baird, G, C: Sept, 15, 18, 21 

Baker, B,: March 12 

Bakhtiari: July/Aug, 2, 24 

Baranof Isl.: Nov, 9 

Bardack, D.: Feb. 19 

Barker, I.: April 22 

Barnett, R.: Jan. 16 

Barringer Crater: Sept. 6 

Bartlett, Capt,: Nov, 23 

barung: Jan. 9, 1 1 

Batara Guru: Jan. 5 

Bateson, G.: July/Aug. 18 

Baumgarten, D,: Jan. 16 

Bawden, G.: March 16 

Beagle, H, M, S.: March 5 

Beals, C, S.: Sept. 8 

Bear VaUey Nat. Wildl. Ref,: Oct, 5 

Beatty, V.: March 13 

Bedno, E.: Oct. 3 

bedug: Jan. 2, 4, 6 

Bellinger, F.: Feb. 18 

Bennett, H. H.: March 14 

Bering Sea: Nov. 22 

Berliner, P.: Nov. 28 

Bernice P. Bishop Museum: Nov. 17 

Bjerre, J.: Feb. 18 

Blackjack, A,: Nov. 23 

Blackmon, C: Sept. 4; Nov. 26 

Blackstone, Mrs. T. B.: June 16 

Blair, B.: March 3 

Block, M. (Mrs. P. D., Jr.): June 5 

Board of Trustees, F, M,: March 3 

Bolivian Adventure: In Search of the Bones 

of Giants (article): May 16 
Bolt, J. R.: Feb. 19 
bonang: Jan. 3, 8, 11 
bonang barung: Jan. 3, 12 
bonang panerus: Jan. 4 
Book of Chao: June 20 
Borden, C: Feb. 18 
Borden, C. L, (Mrs, J,): Nov, 6 




Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic 

Expedition (article): Nov. 6 
Borden, J.: Nov. 6-8, 24 
Boreel, N.: Jan. 6 
Boscoreale: Nov. 26 

Boundary Waters Canoe Area: July/Aug. 9 
Braidwood fauna: Sept. 16, 18, 25 
Brault, M.: July/Aug, 21 
British Museum: Sept. 4; Oct. 14 
British Mus. of Nat. Hist.: Feb. 14 
Brent Crater: Sept. 9 
Brooks, H. K.: Sept, 23 
Boule, M.: May 17 
Bronson, F.: Jan. 6, 13; April 12; May 9; 

June 5 
Brown, B, (Mrs. R, O,): June 5 
Brown, G.: May 25 
Buddhism and Taoism in Chinese Sculpture: 

A Curious Evolution in Religious Motif 

(article): June 16 
buffalo, African; April 5, 7; Oct, 23 



"Bugaku" (program): Sept. 28 

Burch-Brown, C: Oct. 16 

Burd, J,: March 12 

Burger, W. C: Jan. lOa-lOb; Feb. 19; April 3; 

June 3 
burial platform, Peru: Feb. 6 
Bushman (bust): Feb, 12 
Butler, R. F.: Nov. 26 
Butler, W.: Oct. 26 



Cahokia: April 16 

Calhoun, L,: March 12 

California Inst, of Tech.: May 11 

CampoU, A,: Jan. 16 

canoe trip for F. M. members: April 26 

Cape Serdzekamen (Siberia): Nov. 24 

cariama: Oct. 14 

Carnes, A.: Sept. 4 

Carpenter, F. M.: Sept. 23 

Carr, A.; Oct, 24 

Carr, J. C: Sept. 22 

Carstensen, O,; Nov. 7 

Carter, D. A.: Jan. 2-3 

Carter-De Vale, S.: Jan. 2-3; March 12 

Case, D.: March 25 

Cassai, M. A.: June 3 

Castrop, J.: April 26 

Catamarca (Argentina): Oct. 6 

cattail: March 26 

Century, S.: March 12 

Center for Advanced Studies, F. M,: May 26 

Chaffetz, S. (Mrs. H.): June 5 

Chagnon, N.: July/Aug. 19 

Chan Chan: Feb, 6; July/Aug. 8 

"Chan Chan, The Andean Desert Empire" 

(lecture): Feb. 16 
Chatham Strait: Nov. 9 
cheetah: Oct. 23 
Chicago Convention and Tourism Bureau: 

May 3 
Chicago Visitor Promotion Award: May 3 
Chimor: Feb. 4 

Chimu: Feb. 4; JulyfAug. 4, 7-8 
China House: April 14 
China-Watchers of Yesteryear (article): 

Nov. 10 
Chinese folk art: April 14 
"Chinese Puppet Plays and Lecture 

Demonstrations" (program): May 27 
Ch'ing Dynasty: Nov. 15 
Chiquimil: Oct. 6 
Chiquitoy Viejo: Feb. 21 
Chou Wang: June 22 

Chubb Crater (New Quebec Crater): Sept. 8 
Chubb, F. W.: Sept. 8 
Chugach Nat. For.: Feb. 15 
Chukchee: Nov. 24 
Clark, J.: May 26 

Clark, S.: Jan. 17; March 13; Dec. 3 
Close Encounters of the Zeroth Kind (article): 

Sept. 6 
Collins site: April 17 
colobus monkey: Oct. 23 
Columbian Expos, of 1893: Jan. 6, 13 
ColweU, R. K.: June 3 

Commonwealth Edison Co.: May 3; Sept. 18 
Conference on Legal Aspects of Museum 

Operations: Feb. 12 
Conrad, G. W.: Feb. 6 
Conservation of a Woven Hat Cover, The 

(article): March 24 
Cook, Capt. J.: Dec. 2 
Cooke, Jr„ C. M.: Nov. 17 



31 



Cope, E. D.: Sept. 22 

Cornell Univ.: Nov. 5 

coyote: Oct. 5 

craters, meteorite: Sept. 6 

Crequi-Montfort, Count: May 17 

Cruise of the Northern Light, The (book): 

Nov. 6 
Curtis, E. S.: July /Aug. 17 
Cuzco: Feb. 22 

Dalgaranga Crater: Sept. 9 

Dalzell, B.: Oct. 7 

Dana, J. D.: Sept. 22 

Daniel, G.: May 26 

Danziger, C: March 24 

Darrah, W.: Sept. 23 

Darwin, C: March 5; May 21 

Davey, E. H.: Oct. 16 

Davies, D. C: March 4; May 16; Nov. 6, 20 

Dayflowers (article): April 23 

DeCosta, Mrs. E. J.: Jan. 6 

Deis, B.: May 26 

demung: Jan. 9, 11 

Dence, M.: Sept. 8 

DeVere, A.: March 13 

Devil's Doorway (Wis.): March 14 

Devil's Lake (Wis.): March 14 

Diadaphorus: Oct. 7 

dik-dik: Oct. 23 

dike (lava bed): March 8 

Dillingham, Mr. and Mrs. L. S.: April 15 

"Discovering the Moche" (program): Feb. 27 

divining: June 6 

Dixon Mounds Museum: April 20 

dog, wild: Oct. 23 

Domenici, P.: May 25 

Donnan, C: Feb. 17 

Dorsey, G. A.: May 5; June 17 

Douglas, J.: April 20 

Dowager Empress: Sept. 19; Nov. 10 

dowsing: June 6 

Dreessen, M.: March 13 

Droit, G.: Feb. 14 

Dune Country (book): May 16 

DurreU, G.: Sept. 4 

Dybas, H. S.: Feb. 19 

eagle, African fish: April 7 

eagle, bald: Oct. 5 

Eastern Timber Wolf Recovery Team: July/ 

Aug. 9 
Eastman, C. R.: Sept. 23 
Echezu, L.: May 17 
Edinburgh Univ.: Sept. 4 
Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series: Feb. 18 
Edward E. Ayer Foundation: Nov. 27 
Egypt tours: Sept. 5; Oct. 3 
elephant, African: April 5; May 11; Oct. 23 
Emeus (moa): Oct. 12 
"enchanted city," Wolfe's: March 6 
Endangered Species Act of 1973: April 10; 

Oct. 4 
endangered species: April 10, 11; Oct. 4 
Endangered Species Scientific Authority: 

April 10 
Endodontoid Land Snails from Pacific 

Islands (book): Nov. 16 
Energy Policy and Conserv. Act of 1975: 

June 13 
Energy Res. and Develop. Admin.: April 11 
Engel, J. J.: Feb. 19; April 3 
Environ. Educ. Program: May 3 
erosion, beach: Oct. 22 
erosion, soil: May 11 



Eskimo: Nov. 5 

Essex fauna: Sept. 16 

Etruria: Nov. 26 

Etruscan art: Nov. 26 

Even, J.: Sept. 22 

Expedition, Borden-Field Museum 1927 

Alaska Arctic: Nov. 6 
Expedition, Joseph N. Field South Pacific: 

May 4 
Expedition to Argentina, Second Marshall 

Field Paleontological: Oct. 6 
Expedition to Patagonia (1922-24), 

Marshall Field Palaeontological: March 4 
Eyre, Mr. and Mrs. D.: April 15 

"Fabulous Rio: Portraits of Brazil" (lecture): 

Feb. 18 
Faden, R.: April 23; June 3 
Fairfax County Office of Consumer Affairs: 

June 12 
falcon: Nov. 10 
Falk, D.: Feb. 19 
Fawcett, W.: June 3 
"Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit" 

(exhibit): Dec. 1-3 
Fed. Council on the Arts and Humanities: 

Feb. 2 
Fed. Endangered Species Permit Office: 

April 10 
Fed. Energy Admin.: Nov. 5 
Fed. Highway Admin.: July/Aug. 10 
Feheley, M. F,: Nov. 3 
Feldman, R. A.: Feb. 3; July/Aug. 4 
Felton, Don C: March 6 
Festival of Anthropology on Film, A (article): 

July/Aug. 16 
"Festival of Intl. Music and Dance Series" 

(program): Oct. 27 
Fieldiana: Feb. 19 
Field, S.: Nov. 6, 21 
Firth, R.: April 18 
"fish dog": June 15 
Fitzpatrick, J. W.: June 3 
Flaherty, R.: July/Aug. 17 
Fleming, E.: Oct. 18 
Flynn, M. J.: Oct. 3 
Fogg Museum: June 16 
Forney, G. G.: Feb. 19 
Foxfire (book): April 10 
Francis Creek: Sept. 16 
Freeman, P. W.: Jan. 10b 
Frest, T. J.: Feb. 19 
Friend, M.: Feb. 15 
FuUer, Capt. A. W. F.: Dec. 2 

Gagaku: Sept. 28 

Galapagos Islands: Nov. 27 

Galindo: March 16 

Gallo, M. M.: Feb. 2 

Gambian sleeping sickness: April 7 

gambang gangsa: Jan. 4, 7, 10 

gambang kayu: Jan. 4, 7 

gamelan: Jan. 1-18; March 25 

Gamelan, The (article): Jan. 3 

gamelan master class: Feb. 26 

Garuda: Jan. 8 

Gayford, P.: March 12 

gazelle: April 5 

"Gem Room," Field Museum: June 2 

Gemeentemuseum: Jan. 6 

geothermal heat: Nov. 4 

Gerlach, N. H.: Feb. 12 

Oilman, B. I.: Jan. 6, 8 

ginseng: April 10 



giraffe: Oct. 23 

Glassman, S. F.: Feb. 19 

glyptodont: May 19, 21 

Godard, J.-L.: July/Aug. 20 

"God's Eyes" (Ojos de Dies): Sept. 14 

gong ageng: Jan. 2, 4, 9 

gong chime: Jan. 3, 12 

gong, hanging: Jan. 2, 4 

Gonzales, L.: March 12 

Goodden, R.: Feb. 14 

Goodspeed, Mrs. and Mrs. C. B.: Nov. 9 

gorilla, mt.: April 6, 9 

Goudvis, A.: Oct. 18 

Gould, S. J.: June 3 

gourds: May 24 

Grabowski, K.: Jan. 10c; Feb. 12; July/ 

Aug. 15 
"Grand Canyon by Dory" (lecture): Oct. 26 
"Great Sailing Adventures" (lecture): Feb. 18 
Greaves, G. F. (Mrs. D. C): June 5 
Grebe, H. C: Nov. 6 
Greenfield, D. W.: Feb. 19 
Greenpeace: May 10 
Grierson, J.: July/Aug. 17 
Grigelaitis, V.: March 12 
groin (pier), Longard: Oct. 22 
ground sloth: May 18, 21, 23 
guayule: May 12 
Gurewitz, S.: March 12 

Haas, F.: Nov. 18 

habitat rating system: Feb. 15 

Haida Indian hat, hat cover: March 24 

Hallagan, J.: Oct. 23 

Han, K.-H.: Oct. 27 

Handhrsch, A.: Sept. 23 

Hanson, J.: March 24 

Ham, A.: April 10 

hartebeest, Swayne's: Oct. 23 

Hartz, J. (Mrs. W. H., Jr.): June 5 

Hatcher, J. B.: March 6 

Heins, E.: Jan. 6, 18 

Helen L. Kellogg Trust: June 4 

Henze, M.: May 25 

Herculaneum: Nov. 26 

Herdina, J.: Sept. 26 

Hermes (asteroid): Sept. 6, 8 

Hickman, J. C: June 3 

Higinbotham Hall, H. N.: June 2 

HiUer, A.: Nov. 10 

HiUers, J.: July/Aug. 16 

Hine, T. A.: Nov. 6 

hippopotamus: April 4, 7; Oct. 23 

Ho, P.: Nov. 27 

Hodge, F. W.: July/Aug. 17 

Holbrook, J.: Nov. 7 

Holleford Crater: Sept. 9 

Holmes, B.: July/Aug. 18 

Homalodotherium: March 6 

Honolulu Academy of Art: April 14 

Houk, R.: Oct. 25 

"Houses of North Amer." (program): Nov. 26 

Howard, C: March 12 

Hsuan T'ung: Nov. 10 

Huaca del Sol: March 16 

Huffman, J. W.: Jan. 17 

Huichol Indians: Sept. 14 

Hume, I. N.: June 7 

hummingbird, Anna's: April 22 

hybrid names, animal: Feb. 12 

Hynes-Berry, M.: Oct. 16 

Icarus (asteroid): Sept. 13 

lU. Audubon Soc: Jan. 19; Feb. 27 



32 



lU. Dunes State Park: May 26 

m. fossil bed: Sept. 15-18, 20-26 

m. Geol. Soc: Sept. 25 

111. Nat. Hist. Surv.: May 25 

impala: Oct. 23 

Inca: Feb. 11, 16, 21-26 

"India" (lecture): Feb. 18 

Indiana Dunes: May 26 

Inger, R. F.: Jan. 10a; June 3 

Insect Educ. Centre: Feb. 14 

Institute de Pesca: Oct. 24 

Intl. Comm. for the NW Atlantic Fisheries: 

May 10 
Intl. Fest. of Music and Dance: Sept. 28, 

Oct. 27 
Intl. Program in Anthro., F. M.: May 26 
Intl. Union for the Conserv. of Nature and 

Natural Resources: May 11; Oct. 24 
"Iran" (lecture): Feb. 18 
Iranian locks: June 5 
irrigation project, ancient: July /Aug. 4-8 
ivory: Oct. 23 

Jackman, B.: Feb. 14 

Jacknis, I.: March 13; July/Aug. 16 

Jackson, W. H.: July/Aug. 16 

James, F. A.: June 2 

Janssen, R.: Sept. 23 

Jay, J.; Oct. 26 

jengglong: Jan. 4 

Jenkins, D. T.: Feb. 19 

Jersey Bluff: April 19 

Jersey Wildlife Preserv. Trust: Sept. 4 

Jivaro: Dec. 2 

John G. Searle Herbarium: March 3 

Johnson, Capt. I.: Feb. 18 

Johnson, R. G.: Feb. 10; Sept. 16, 26 

Johnson, R. K.: Feb. 19; June 3 

Jones, K.: May 26 

Jones, M.: March 12 

Jones, W.: March 4 

Joseph N. Field South Pacific Exped. of 

1909-1913: May 4-8 
Joseph, W. F.: Nov. 8 
"Journey into the World of Money" 

(program): Sept. 28 
Judson, M. (Mrs. R. D.): June 5 

kacapi: Jan. 7 

Karamanski, T.: Nov. 6 

Karisimbi volcano: April 7 

kasekten: Jan. 5 

Kellog, J. L.: June 5 

Kellogg Trust, Helen L.: June 4 

kempul: Jan. 4, 9 

kendang: Jan. 6 

Kennedy, J. (Mrs. R. L.): June 5 

kenong: Jan. 4, 10 

Kent, L.: Jan. 17 

Kerkhoven, E. J.: Jan. 7 

Kersh, I.: Sept. 14 

Kethley, J. B.: June 3 

ketuk: Jan. 10 

Keynes, Q.: Feb. 18 

King Cove: Nov. 21 

King Tutankhamun Exhibit: Jan. 10b; May 

3; Sept. 5; Oct. 3 
Klein, L.: Sept. 3 
Klaune Ntnl. Park: Feb. 15 
Koeppen, R. C: Jan. 15 
Kolar, Janet: Sept. 2 
Kolar, John: Sept. 2; Oct. 2; Nov. 2 
Kolata, A. L.: July/Aug. 4 
Kondo, Y.: Nov. 16 



Korbecki, J. A.: Nov. 26 

KragUevich, J. L.: Oct. 8 

Kraus, D. H.: Feb. 19 

Kroc, Mr. and Mrs. R. A.: May 3 

Kuang Hsu: Nov. 10 

Kudu: Nov. 28 

Kukailimoku: Dec. 2 

KuUk, L. A.: Sept. 11 

Kummel, B.: Sept. 3 

Kutkuhn, J. H.: Oct. 25 

Land and Water Conserv. Act: Oct. 5 

"Land of the Rio Grande" (program): Feb. 27 

Langford, G.: Sept. 23, 25 

Lansdowne, J. F.: Nov. 3, 28 

Lao Chun: June 20 

Lao Tzu: June 20 

L'Argentiere-la-Bessee: Feb. 14 

Late Woodland culture: April 19 

Laufer, B.: June 16-18, 22: Nov. 10, 14 

lead poisoning, waterfowl: Feb. 15 

lechwe, black: Oct. 23 

"Leon Mandel 1941 Zoological Exped. to the 

Galapagos" (program): Nov. 27 
Leonard. A.: March 12 
leopard: Oct. 23 
Lerner, C: May 26 
Lesquereux, L.: Sept. 22 
Levy, A.: Oct, 18 
Lewis, A. B.: May 5-9 
Lib. of Cong.: Jan. 6 
Lietz, W.: Jan. 6 
Life in the Pre-Columbian Town of Galindo, 

Peru (article): March 16 
Link, C: April 2 
Linnaeus, C.: April 23 
lion: April 8; Oct. 23 
Litton, M.: Oct. 26 
Livingston, J. A.: Nov. 3 
Livingstone, D.: April 6 
locks, Iranian: June 5 
"Locks from Iran: A Key to Culture" 

(exhibit): April 27 
Lomax, A.: July/Aug. 21 
Longard tube: Oct. 22 
Lor: July/Aug. 1 

"Lords of the Labyrinth" (program): Feb. 27 
Los Angeles County Mus. of Art: April 14 
Lund, R.: Feb. 19 

MacDougall, D.: July/Aug. 16, 20 

MacElvane Pit: Sept. 25 

Madesen, B.: Oct. 26 

Male and Female: Anthropology Game 

(article): April 12 
Malle, L.: July/Aug. 20 
Mammoth Hot Springs: Nov. 4 
Mandel, L.: Nov. 27 

Manicouagan-Mushalagan Crater: Sept. 9, 13 
maria basin: Sept. 13 
Marshall Field Palaeontological Exped. to 

Patagonia (1922-24): March 4-11; May 

16-23 
Marshall, J.: July/Aug. 19 
Marshall, L. G.: March 4, 11; May 2, 16; Oct. 

6; Nov. 26 
Martin, H. T.: March 6 
Martin, R. E.: Jan. 10b 
Martling, M.: March 13 
Marx, H.: Feb. 19 
Matthew, H. M.: Jan. 10b 
Mazon Creek Census (article): Sept. 15 
Mazon Creek fossils: Sept. 15-18, 20-26 
Mazon Creek Studies: The First 120 Years 

(article): Sept. 22 



Mbira music, African: Nov. 28 

McClelland, K.: Nov. 7 

McCrone, W. C: Jan. 15 

McVey, J.: Oct. 24 

Mead, M.: July/Aug. 18-19 

Mech, D.: July/Aug. 9 

"Mediterranean: East to Istanbul" (lecture): 

Feb. 18 
Meek, F. B.: Sept. 22-23 
Megatherium: May 19 
Mellema, R. L.: Jan. 15 
Mellinger, M.: April 10 
memorial fund. Field Museum; May 25 
Mendez, F.: Oct. 6, 9 
Mendez, J.: Oct. 6, 9 
Mentes, M.: Oct. 26 
Mentes, S.: Oct. 26 
mercury poisoning: Nov. 5 
metallophone, gamelan: Jan. 5, 8-9, 11 
meteorites: Sept. 6-13 
"Mexico: Legend of a Lost Crown" (lecture): 

Feb. 18 
Meyers, H.: Feb. 18 
Meyers, L.; Feb. 18 
Middlefork River: April 20 
MiluUc, D. G.: Feb. 19 
Minn. Dept. Nat. Res.: July/Aug. 9 
Mississippi waterbirds: June 14 
Mo. Dept. Conserv.: Feb. 15 
moa: Oct. 12 
Moche: Feb. 4, 8, 17, 20, 25; March 16-23; 

July/Aug. 4 
"Moche; Ancient Peru's Mastercraftsmen, 

The" (lecture): Feb. 17 
Moche Valley; March 16-23; July/Aug. 4-8 
monkey: April 8, Oct. 23 
Montagnais-Naskapi Indians: June 11 
Moodie, R.: Sept. 23 
Moore, O. K.: June 11 
Moran, L. H.: Nov. 26 
Moran, M. A.: Nov. 17 
Moran, R.: March 25 
Morin, E.: July/Aug. 20 
Morris, C: Feb. 16 
Morris, R.: June 12, 14 
Moseley, M.: Feb. 9, 16, 22 
Moses-in-the-cradle (oyster plant): April 23 
Mt. McKinley Nat. Park: Feb. 15 
Mt. Meru: Jan. 8 
Mt. St. EUas: Feb. 15 
Mt. Vesuvius: Nov. 26 
Moyer, J.: Feb. 12 
Muller, L.: March 13 
Mullen, M. F.: Sept. 3 
Mundt, G. C. F. W.: Jan. 6 
munggang: Jan. 5 
Museo Oro del Peru: Feb. 2-3 
Museum fiir Volkerkunde: May 5 
Mus. of Cult. Hist.: Feb. 17 

Nabokov, P.: Nov. 26 

Nadler, N. (Mrs. C. F.): June 5 

Nagle, C: Feb. 18 

Naples Nat. Mus.: Nov. 26 

Nastapoka Islands Arc: Sept. 9, 13 

Nat. Acad, of Sci.: May 12, 25 

Nat. Endowm. for Arts: Jan. 2, 6, 10b, 13 

Nat. Fish, Wildlife Lab.: March 26 

Nat. Geog. Soc: Nov. 26 

Nat. Mar. Fisheries Serv.: June 15: Oct. 24 

Nat. Oil Recycling Act: June 13-14 

Nat. Park Serv.: Oct. 24 

Nat. Park Syst.: Feb. 15 

Nat. Sci. Found.: Nov. 18 



33 



Nat. Wild. Scenic Rivers Syst.: Feb. 15 
Nat. Wildl. Fed.: April 10: May 10, 25: June 

12. 14: Oct. 23. 25 
Nat. Wildlife Health Lab.: Feb. 15 
Nat. Wildl. Ref. Syst.: Feb. 15 
Native American Program: Jan. 10b 
Natural History Quiz (article): July/Aug. 15 
Nazca: Feb. 9 

Nevling, L. I.: Jan. 10a; April 3: June 3 
Newberry. J. S.: Sept. 23 
New Guinea: May 4-8 
New Guinea Adventure: Sketch of a Working 

Anthropologist (article): May 4 
New Quebec Crater (Chubb Crater): Sept. 

8-10, 12 
Newton, E.: March 13 
1976 UA (asteroid): Sept. 6, 8 
Nitecki, M. H.: Feb. 19: Sept. 22 
Noe, A.: Sept. 23 
Northern Light (ship): Nov. 6 
Northwest Coast Indian basketry: Jan. 10b 
Northwestern Univ.: Jan. 10b 
Nyamuragira Vole: April 7-8 
Nyiragongo Vole: April 7 

O'Brien, J.: March 12-13 

OCLC (library computer): June 3 

O'Connor, J. J.: March 3: May 3 

octopus: March 26 

Ohio College Libr. Cent.: June 3 

oil crisis: June 12-14 

"Ojos de Dios" (God's Eyes): Sept. 14 

Okefenokee: July/Aug. 9 

Olsen, E. J.: Sept. 6 

"Orchestral Ensembles of China, Thailand, 

and Indonesia" (program): Oct. 27 
oribi: Oct. 23 
Oriental Inst.: Oct. 3 
Osaka Garyo-Kai: Sept. 28 
Osterburger. L.: Sept. 18 
"Outback Australia" (lecture): Oct. 26 
Ovrut, B. A.: April 4 
Ovrut, S.: April 4 
Owen, R.: May 21 
oyster plant (Moses-in-the-cradle): April 23 

Pachakuti: Feb. 22 

Pacific Island snails: Nov. 16-19 

Padnos, A.: March 13 

Padre Isl.: Oct. 24 

Painted Desert Nat. Mon.: March 11 

Paleontological Soc.: Sept. 20 

Panjan. T. A.: Jan. 10b 

paper cutout, Chinese: April 1-2 

"Papua New Guinea: Twilight of Eden" 

(program): Jan. 19 
Paris Mus. of Nat. Hist.: March 6 
Parker, S. B.: May 4 
Patagonia: March 4-11 
Patterson, B.: Feb. 19: Oct. 8, 10, 14 
Paul, R. C: Feb. 19: Nov. 16 
Pawnee Earth Lodge: Jan. 10b: Oct. 16-21 
Peabody Museum: Jan. 6; Feb. 3: March 16 
Peacock, E.: Jan. 16-17 
peat: July/Aug. 10 
Peking: Jan. 9, 11, 18 
Pelliot, P.: June 16 
Peppers, R.: Sept. 25 
peregrine: Oct. 5 
Perenyi, T.: June 3 
Perrault, P.: July/Aug. 13 
Peru's Golden Treasures: Jan. 10b; Feb. 

Ml, 16-17, 20-26; March 3; April 3 
Peru's Golden Treasures (article): Feb. 3 



Peru's Golden Treasures Lecture Series: Feb. 

16-17 
"Peruvian Music Performance" (program): 

Feb. 27 
Peruvian tour: Feb. 9 
Peters, G.: April 20 
Petrified Forest: March 11 
Petrunkevitch, A.: Sept. 23 
Pfefferkorr. H.: Sept. 25 
Phillips, T.: Sept. 25 
pigeon, carrier: May 11 
pigeon, homing: Nov. 5 
Pit 11 (Mazon Creek): Sept. 15, 17-18, 21-22, 

24-25 
Pitts. A. H.: June 24 
Pizarro, F.: Feb. 3 
Plains Indians: Dec. 3 
poaching: Oct. 23-24 
Podkamenaia Tunguska River; Sept. 10 
poisoning, waterfowl lead: Feb. 15 
"Poland " (lecture): Oct. 26 
Pola de Ayala, F. G.: Feb. 3 
"Policy Statement of F. M. on Antiquities; 

May 9 
pollution, air; April 11 
Pomerantz, L.: Jan. 6, 13 
Pomo Indians: Dec. 3 
Pontynen, A.: June 16 
"Potato Planters " (program); Feb. 27 
pot gong; Jan. 3 
Poulson, T. L.: June 3 
Power, J.; Nov. 7-8 
Pozorski, S.: July/Aug. 7 
Pozorski, T.: July/Aug. 7 
Pratt, D.: March 26 
Pray, L. L.: Oct. 13 
Prehistoric Missionaries in East Central 

Illinois (article); April 16 
Pribilof Islands: Nov. 22 
Princeton Univ.: March 6 
Pritchard, P.: Oct. 24 
Programa Riego Antiguo; July/Aug. 4-8 
Puerta de Corral Quemado: Oct. 7-8, 10-11 
"Puerto Rico " (lecture): Oct. 26 
puppet play, Javanese: March 25 
Purcell, T.: Nov. 7-8 
P'u-Yi, H.: Nov. 10 

Quetico Wilderness canoe trip: April 26 
Quinn, J. H.; Feb. 12-13, 19: May 23 

Rabb, G. B.; Feb. 19 

Rabineau. P.; Dec. 1-3 

Rada, Col. M. E.; Nov. 27 

"Rails of the World " (exhibit): Nov. 3 

Ram, S.: Nov. 7-8 

Rancho Nuevo; Oct. 24 

Ransom, J. H.; March 3 

Raup, D. M.; Sept. 3 

rebab: Jan. 4-6 

Red October (ship): Nov. 23 

Reed, C. A.; Feb. 19 

Rehling, A.: May 24 

Restoration of the Gamelan (article): Jan. 13 

Reykjavik (Iceland); Nov. 4 

rhinoceros, prehist.: Feb. 13 

Rich N. (Mrs. J. E.): June 5 

Richardson, E. S.: Feb. 19: Sept. 16, 22, 25 

Richter, K.: Feb. 18 

Riggs, E. S.: March 4, 6, 11; May 2, 16; Oct. 

6, 14: Nov. 26 
Riley, T. J.; April 16; June 6 
Rio Moche: March 17, 22 
Ripley, S. D.; Nov. 3 



Roberts, J. W.: Oct. 26 

Roman art: Nov. 26 

Rouch, J.; July/Aug. 19-21 

Royal Burials of Ancient Peru (article); Feb. 

6, 21 
Royal Imp. Mus.: Sept. 23 
Royal Ontario Mus.: Sept. 8 
Royal Trop. Inst.: Jan. 15 
rubber: May 11-12, 25: July/Aug. 10 
Runnells, J. S.; March 3 
Rutshuru River: April 6 
Ruwenzori Mts.: April 5-6 
Rwindi River: April 6 
Ryan, J.; Nov. 7-8 

Sabaro, M.: June 20 

Sabatini and Sons; Nov. 26 

Sack, S.: June 13 

Sakai. S.; Feb. 14 

salmon, Atlantic: June 15 

Salmonella: March 26 

salt bag, Bakhtiari; July/Aug. 2, 24 

salt bag. Lor: July/Aug. 1-2 

San Bernardino Mts.: March 11 

San Diego Mus. Nat. Hist.; Sept. 26 

Santa Cruz Formation; March 6, 9 

saron: Jan. 4, 8-9, 11, 14 

scapulamancy; June 11 

Scelidotherium: May 1-2, 21 

Schneider. A.: March 12 

Schram. F. G.; Sept. 26 

Schueppert, S.: March 13 

Schultze, H.-P.; Feb. 19 

Schumacher. C; March 13 

"Scotland " (lecture): Oct. 26 

Scudder. S. H.: Sept. 23 

seal, harp: May 10-11 

Searle Herbarium. John G.: March 3 

Searle, J. G.: March 3 

Searle, W.; March 3 

Second Marshall Field Paleontological 

Expedition to Argentina; Oct. 6-15 
seismograph: July'Aug. 4-8 
Semantics Symposium: June 3 
Semliki River; April 7 
Senosastroamidjojo: Jan. 8 
Sewell, J.: May 9 
Shabanou of Iran; April 27 
shadow play, Javanese: March 25: Sept. 14 
Sharpe, Sir A.; April 7-8 
Shell Makers: Introducing Mollusks, The 

(book): Nov. 19 
Sherwin-Williams Co.: Jan. 17 
Silverman, D.: Oct. 3 
Siren, O.; June 18 
Skiff. F. J. v.; May 5 
Slaughter, R. B.; Nov. 9, 21 
Slaughter, Mrs. R. B.; Nov. 9, 20 
slendro: Jan. 5 
Smith, E. B.; March 3 
Smithsonian Inst.; Feb. 12 
snail; Nov. 16-19 

Society of Typographic Arts: Sep. 3 
Sohn, I. G.: Feb. 19 
Soil Conserv. Serv.: May 11 
soil erosion; May 1 1 
Solem, A.: Nov. 16 
Solem and Snails (article): Nov. 16 
"Soul of Japan, The" (lecture): Feb. 18 
sparrow, house: March 26 
"Spell of Ireland, The" (lecture); Oct. 26 
Spelliscy, S.; June 15 
Spicehandler, J.: Jan. 16 
spider fossil: Sept. 17 



34 



spiderwort: April 23-25 

Spondylus (moUusk): Feb. 10 

Stahlecker, R.: Oct. 6, 9 

"Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural 

History" (exhibit): Nov. 27 
Stanford, J.: Feb. 15 
Stanley, H.: April 5 
Stanley, S. M.: Sept. 3 
"Stationary Ark, The" (program): July'Aug. 

23; Sept. 4 
Stein, L.: March 13 
Stein, M. A.: June 16 
Sternberg, G. F.: March 4, 8-9, 11 
Stevenson. A. E.: Nov. 6 
Stohler, R.: Nov. 16 
Stolze, R. G.: Feb. 19 
Stoner, B.: March 4 
Story, M.: March 13; April 12 
Straus, M. (Mrs. R. E.): June 5 
Strong. S. S.: Sept. 22 
Strucco, J.: May 1-2, 17, 20 
Stuessy, T. F.: Feb. 19 
Sulek, J.: Oct. 3 
suling: Jan. 7, 12 
Sullivan, J. W.: March 3 
Suminta Mein, Pak: Jan. 5 
Superior Nat. For.; July/Aug. 9 
swamp fire: July/Aug. 9 
Swanson, J.: May 26; July/Aug. 16 
Swartchild, J.: March 2, 12 
Swartchild, Jr., W. G.: March 3. 12; May 3 
Swearingen, Mrs. R. O.: June 5 
Swift, C. (Mrs. E. F.): June 5 
Sylvester, W.: Oct. 26 

tabasco sauce: Oct. 5 

Tahitian bridal veil (plant): April 23 

"Tahuantinguyo Music of the Andes" 

(program): May 27 
Taiei Company Ltd.: Nov. 5 
Takahashi, Y.: March 24 
Talbot, P.: March 12 
tarawangsa: Jan. 7 
Tarija: May 16-17, 22 
Taylor, K.; Feb. 19 
teak. Thai: Nov. 5 
Telea polyphemus: March 1 
Teteoceras fossiger Feb. 13 
Tenn. Val. Auth.: July/Aug. 10 
Terrell, J.: Feb. 19; May 26 
Terror Bird. The (article): Oct. 6 
terror bird [Andalgalornis): Oct. 6 
Testa, R.: Jan. 3, 10a; June 4; Dec. 1-3 
Texas Parks, Wildl. Dept.: Oct. 24 
Thevenin, A.: May 17 
Thomas, H. (Mrs. R. L.): June 5 
Thompson, D. H.: June 14 
Thompson, 1.: Feb. 19 
Thome, R. C: May 19-20, 22; Oct. 6, 9 
threatened species: July/Aug. 3; Oct. 4 
"Through Cloud and EcHpse" (Javanese 

shadow play); March 25 
Thumbelina: House Guest in Miniature 

(article): April 22 
Tibet: June 16 
Tieken, Mrs. T.; March 3 
T'ien Tsun: June 20 
Tiffany, L.: June 2 
Tiffany window: June 1-2 
Tikopia: April 18-19 
Tilghman N.: Oct. 5 
tires, recycled: July/Aug. 10 
"To and Fro: Migration of North American 

Animals" (program); June 23 



Tongass Nat. For.: Feb. 15 

"touch bone" (dinosaur femur): March 8, 11 

Tournouer, A.: March 6 

toxodont; May 21 

Traylor, M. A.: Jan. 10a 

"Treasures Lost" (lecture); Feb. 16 

"Treasures of Italy" (lecture): Feb. 18 

Triloka: Jan. 8 

Truffaut, F.; July/Aug. 20 

Tsavo Park: Oct. 23 

tsetse fly: April 7 

TuUy, F. J.: Sept. 25 

"Tully monster": Sept. 18, 21, 25 

Tunguska explosion: Sept. 9 

TurnbuU, W.: Feb. 13 

Turner, R.: Jan. 10b 

turtle, Atlantic ridley: Oct. 24 

turtle. 111. mud: Oct. 4 

turtle, ohve ridley: Oct. 25 

turtle, Pacific ridley: Oct. 25 

Tutankhamun Exhibit: Jan. 10b; May 3; 

Sept. 5; Oct. 3 
Tz'u Hsi: Sept. 19 

Unalaska Harbor: Nov. 22 
U. of Amsterdam: Jan. 18 
U. of Chicago: Jan. 10b; May 3, 9; Sept. 

23, 25-26; Oct. 3 
U. of Fla.: June 15 
U. of Hawaii: April 14; May 9 
U. of Kans.: March 6 
U. of Minn.: March 26 
U. of Ore.: Sept. 4 
U. of Va.; Oct. 22 
U. of Wis.: June 14 
Urban, H.: Jan. 16-17; March 13 
U. S. Army Corps of Engin.: Oct. 22 
U. S. Dept. of Agric: May 25 
U. S. Dept. of Energy: June 13 
U. S. Dept. of the Int. Geol. Surv.: Sept. 9 
U. S. Fish and Wildl. Serv.: Feb. 15; April 10; 

May 11: June 15; July/Aug. 9; Oct. 4, 24 
U. S. Forest Prod. Lab.: Jan. 15 
U. S. Marine Mammal Protection Act: 

May U 
U. S. Nat. Geothermal Energy Res. Prog.: 

Nov. 5 
Used Oil Recycling Prog.: June 13 

Vanderstappen, H.: May 9 

Vanik, C: Feb. 13 

VanStone, J. W.: Feb. 19 

Versatile Gourd, The (article): May 24 

Virunga National Park: April 4-9 

Virunga volcanoes: April 6 

Virunga: Or Whatever Happened to Albert 

National Park? (article): April 4 
Vitshumbi: April 8 
volunteers. Field Museum: March 12 
von Beringe, O.; April 9 
von Le Coq, A.: June 16 
Voris, H. K.: Feb. 19; Sept, 3 
Voyageur Wilderness Prog.: April 26 
Vredefort Ring: Sept. 9-10 

Wagener, A. P.: Jan. 17 

Walter E. Heller Foundation: Jan. 2, 6 

Walsten, D.; March 11; Nov. 6 

wandering Jew (plant): April 23 

warbler, Kirtland's: Oct. 5 

Ward, J.: July/Aug. 14 

Warner, L.: June 16 

wart hog: April 8 

waterbuck; April 8 



Watson, D. M. S.: Sept. 23 

Watson, O. M.: July/Aug. 14 

Wauer, R.: Oct. 24 

Wayang Puppets. Carving. Coloring, and 

Symbolism (book): Jan. 15 
wayang shadow puppet play: Sept. 14 
Weaver, B. L.: Oct. 3 
weaving, nomadic: June 23 
Webber, E. L.: March 3, 12 
Weekend Discovery Prog.: Nov. 14 
Weiss, B.: July/Aug. 14 
Weiss, D.: March 12 
Wells, J. (Mrs. R.): June 5 
Wenzel, R. C: Jan. 10a 
Wertime, J.: July/Aug. 2 
Wertime, S.: July/Aug. 2 
Western Rift Valley: April 5 
Westoll, T. S.: Sept. 23 
Whipple, F.: Sept. 12 
Whitmire, G.: April 26 
Whittlesey Foundation; April 17 
Wieser, Col.: Oct. 6 
Wilcox, K.: April 10 
wild dog: Oct. 23 
wildebeest: April 8 
Wildfowl Trust: Sept. 4 
Wildlife Management Inst.: May 11 
Willard, D. E.: June 3 
WiUiams, P.: Nov. 16; Dec. 3 
WiUiams, T. P.: Feb. 19 
Willow Slough State Game Preserve: 

Sept. 1-2 
"Winter Magic Around the World" (lecture): 

Oct. 26 
Wisconsin Dept. Nat. Res.: Oct. 5 
Witrock, R. B.: Sept. 3 
Wodinsky. J.: March 26 
Wolf Creek Crater: Sept. 9, 12 
Wolf, G.: July/Aug. 19 
wolf, gray: July/Aug. 9 
Wolfe, J. G.; March 7-9 
Wolfgang, K.: Feb. 18 
Women's Board Officers, F. M.: June 5 
Women's Board Presidents, F. M.: Sept. 3 
woodpecker, red-headed: May 25 
Woods, L.: Nov. 27 
Woody, J.: Oct. 24 
World Music Prog.: Sept. 14 
World's Columbian Expstn. of 1893: Jan. 

6-7, 13 
Worthen, A. H.: Sept. 22-23 
Wrangell Isl.: Nov. 23 
Wrangell-St. Elias: Feb. 15 
Wright, B.: July/Aug. 17 

"xylophone, " gamelan: Jan. 5, 7, 10 
xylophone (true), gamelan: Jan. 4-5, 7-8 

Yang Jen: June 22 

Yarrington, B. J.: March 3 

Yellowstone Nat. Park: Nov. 4-5 

Yokoyama, Henry: May 25 

"Yoruk: Nomadic Weaving Tradition of the 

Middle East" (exhibit): June 23; July/Aug. 

1-2, 24 
Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre: May 27 
Yu-ho Ecke, T.: April 14; May 9 

Zallinger, J.: Oct. 15 

Zallinger, R. F.: Oct. 15 

zebra, Grevy's: April 11 

zebra, Hartmann's mountain; April 11 

zither, gamelan; Jan. 5, 7 

Zool. Soc. of London: Sept. 4 



35 



January & February at Field Museum 



( January 15 through February 15 ) 



New Exhibits 



Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents. Opens 
February 15. Conceived and created by Field Museunn's own staff, this 
exhibit features exotic feather objects from around the world. Assembled 
almost entirely from in-house collections, "Feather Arts" will travel to 
three other museums nationwide after its four-month stay at Field 
Museum. The 260 artifacts, drawn from 1 ,000 years of history, include 
such rarities as an Hawaiian king's feather mantle which was given to 
George IV of England in 1821, and the feather shoes of an Australian 
sorcerer. This fascinating exhibit examines the symbolic and religious 
meaning of feathers over the centuries and illustrates the importance of 
featherwork as a universal art form. Hall 26. Through June 15. (Mem- 
bers' preview February 14, 1 to 7 p.m.) 

A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History. Opened December 8. 
This new exhibit unites 63 natural history specimens with samples of 
philatelic art. Planned on a rotating basis to cover the four disciplines of 
natural history, the first 8 months of the exhibit will be devoted to 
zoological specimens and their representations on stamps from all over 
the world. "A Stamp Sampler" was conceived by Field Museum volun- 
teer CoJ. M. E. Rada, exhibit guest curator. The exhibition was designed 
by Peter Ho, a University of Illinois graduate student. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Rails of the World. Through Jan. 28. An exhibition of 42 watercolors, 
painted by J. Fenwick Lansdowne, represents the little-known bird 
family of Rallidae. The exhibition is part of a national tour organized by 
the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. A combination 
of art, science, and artistic realism, the works were painted to illustrate 
the book Rails of the World, by S. Dillon Ripley, secretary of the Smith- 
sonian. Hall 21. 

The Hall of Chinese Jades contains beautiful jade art spanning over 
6,000 year* of Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of the hall illus- 
trates ancient jade carving techniques. Hall 30, second floor. 

Birds. Exhibits in Halls 20 and 21 examine the varied world of birds, 
from the antarctic emperor penguin to the common American sparrow. 
Three scenes are devoted to Chicago-area birds. Recently extinct birds 
(e.g., the Mauritius dodo, the passenger pigeon) and restorations of 
fossil birds are also on view. 

New Programs 

Under Coyote's Eye: A Play about Ishi. Sunday, Jan. 21 , 2 p.m. Ishi, a 
Yahi Indian from a now extinct California tribe, emerged into Western 
society in 1911 and shared the lost art, mythology, philosophy, and 
songs of his culture with a modern world. The Other Theatre of the Ber- 
nard Horwich Jewish Community Center interprets Ishi's way of life. 
Admission: nonmembers $3.00; members, students with ID, $1.50. 
James Simpson Theatre. 

"The Cruise of the Northern Light," a one-hour film taken during the 
Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic Expedition. Saturday, Feb. 3, 
1:30 p.m. Narrated by Rev. Theodore V. Purcell, S.J., who at 15, was 
the youngest expedition member. Unseen by the public for 50 years, this 
film documents the acquisition of valuable ethnological specimens. 



plants, birds, and mammals for Field Museum's scientific collections. 
Admission: $3.00; members, $1.50. James Simpson Theatre. 

The Galapagos— Las Islas Encantadas. Saturday, Feb. 10. This illus- 
trated lecture by J. de Navarre Macomb, Jr. looks at the natural wonders 
of the Galapagos Archipelago that influenced Darwin when he developed 
his theory of evolution. The physical terrain and wildlife of these fasci- 
nating islands are examined by experts in geology and Darwinian theory. 
Admission is free at the West Entrance of the Museum. 2:30 p.m. James 
Simpson Theatre. 

Courses for Adults, Winter Series. Beginning January 16, the Museum 
offers a variety of noncredit, undergraduate-level courses in anthropol- 
ogy and the natural sciences. These courses, available to persons 18 
years of age or older, include "Plants of the Great Lakes Region," 
"Aspects of Daily Life in Egypt," and "Documentary Films about Man." 
For more information call 922-9410, ext. 362. 

Continuing Programs 

Armchair Expeditions. Adult groups (clubs, p.t.a., societies, etc.) can 
now attend special slide programs; tour selected exhibits. Arrangements 
can be made to dine in one of the Museum's private dining rooms. 
Winter programs include "Life in Ancient Egypt"; "The Weaver's 
Walk"; and "The American Plains Indian." For more information call 
(312)922-0733. 

Winter Journey. "American Indian Dwellings." Through February 28. 
This self-guided tour for families and children describes different types 
of American Indian homes found on the main floor of the Museum. Free 
Journey pamphlets are available at the North Information Booth, and at 
the South and West doors. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. Field Museum's popular 
"Anthropology Game" has been expanded to include botany, geology, 
and zoology. The object here is to determine which one of a pair of 
apparently similar specimens is harmful and which is not. See if you can 
distinguish a vampire bat, a headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a 
deadly mushroom from its benign look-alike. Ground floor; no closing 
date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- and 
family-oriented, are available for 25(1 each at the entrance to the 
Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, and par- 
ticipatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in botany, 
geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an interest in natural 
history are needed to develop and present weekend programs. For more 
information call 922-9410, ext. 360. 

January and February Hours. The Museum opens daily at 9 a.m. and 
closes at 4 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays. On weekends the 
Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. On Fridays the Museum remains 
open until 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a pass at 
the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410 



FIELD MUSECafcdF NATCIRAL HISTORY BULLETIN 





■V.\' 



#^ #' 




ii^ 



X 



V 



Jl' 



.JC 




\ 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

February, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 2 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walslen 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 



Jr., 



William G. Swartchiid 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Goerge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahier 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Metals and Man in the Prehistoric Midwest 

By Thomas ]. Riley 

6 Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

March and April schedule 

7 Feather Arts 

Featherwork exhibit opens February 15 
By Phyllis Rabineau, custodian of the 
anthropology collections 

13 A Glimpse of the Porcupine Mountains 

Text and photos by John and Janet Kolar 

20 The Solar Eclipse of February 26 

By Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

22 Our Environment 

23 Soviet Union Tour for Members 

27 February and March at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Feather headdress made by the Jivaro tribe of Peru. A 
mosaic of feathers is mounted on barkcloth and orna- 
mented with equally colorful buprestid and scarab 
beetles. This unusual piece, one of 260 to be on view in 
Hall 26 beginning February 15, was collected in 1891 for 
the World's Columbian Exposition. Length 64 cm, width 
31 cm. Cat. no. 6052. Photo by Ron Testa. Cover story 
on p. 7. 



field hAuseum of Natural History Bulletin is published monthly, except combined July /August 
issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, 11. 
60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin 
sufjscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy 
of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to 
Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 11. 60605. ISSN: 
0015-0703. 




' 'c^^s--&^yt'S^}^' 



Marshall, Turnbull, and Testa 
On South American Fossil Dig 

Chubut Province, southern Argentina, is 
the site of a recent fossil dig by Field 
Museum paleontologists Larry G. Marshall, 
visiting assistant curator of geology, and 
William D. Turnbull, curator of fossil mam- 
mals. The object of their search is mammals 
of the Cretaceous period (135,000,000- 
65,000,000 years ago). Ron Testa, head of 
the Division of Photography, accompanied 
the paleontologists to document their work 
on film. Marshall's work was supported by 
a National Geographic Society grant. 

The Museum's first acquaintance 
with the Chubut Province fossil beds was 
more than half a century ago, when Elmer 
S. Riggs, former curator of paleontology, 
made significant finds there. 

Botanists Join Staff 

Two recent additions to the Department of 
Botany staff are Michael O. Dillon, visiting 
assistant curator, and Timothy C. Plowman, 



assistant curator. Dillon, a native of Kansas 
City, MO., received his B.A. and M.A. 
from the University of Northern Iowa and 
his Ph.D. from the University of Texas 
(Austin). A special interest of Dillon's is the 
Compositae (daisy family); his field work 
has included activity in Peru and Mexico. 
Plowman, a native of Harrisburg, Pa., 
received his B.A. from Cornell University 
and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Harvard Uni- 
versity. He then served as a lecturer at Har- 
vard and was a postdoctoral research 
fellow at the Harvard Botanical Museum. 
Plowman has done special work on medici- 
nal plants of the Upper Amazon Basin. 

Vandenbosch Named 
Women's Board Secretary 

The new secretary of the Field Museum 
Women's Board is Susan E. Vandenbosch. 
She succeeds Alexandra Mente, who had 
held the position since March, 1976. 
Previously Miss Vandenbosch was with 
Marshall Field & Company, where she 
coordinated special merchandising events. 



"Earthquake Charlie," Field Museum's newest resident, is eased onto the Museum's freight 
elevator by Museum employees. The Alaskan polar bear had just arrived from Franklin 
Park, a Chicago suburb, where he had been the "guest" of sporting goods retailer James 
Bell, Sr. 

A gift of Bell's to the Museum, Earthquake Chairlie has chosen as his permanent den 
The Place for Wonder, the ground-floor gallery where specimens may be touched, handl- 
ed, or otherwise closely examined. The bear is 8'5" long and d'S'/z" high (including plat- 
form): 38 inches is the girth of one front leg. 

The date of Charlie's installation in The Place for Wonder will be announced in a 
future issue of the Bulletin. 




benefit fashion shows, and other promo- 
tional activities. A native of Alma, 
Michigan, she holds a B.A. from Michigan 
State University. 



Anthropology Internship Program 

Stop, look, and recognize the roadsign of 
the 1979 poster for the Anthropology In- 
ternship Program offered by the Center for 
Advanced Studies at Field Museum. The 




program is supported by a grant from the 
National Endowment for the Arts, a federal 
agency. 

The postmark deadlines for applica- 
tions are April 3 for summer internships 
and July 3 for fall-winter internships, 1979. 
Applications may be obtained by writing: 
Anthropology, Center for Advanced Stud- 
ies, Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lakeshore Drive, Chi- 
cago, 111. 60605. 



Scanning Electron Microscope 
Adult Education Course 

The SEM course will again be offered this 
spring, beginning March 20. The course will 
meet once a week for five weeks, each 
session lasting from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. 
Instructors are Alan Solem, curator of 
invertebrates, and Christine Niezgoda, her- 
barium assistant. Department of Botany. 
Course fee is $60.00. Ertrollment is limited 
to 24 persons. 

Information on dates and registration 
may be obtained by calling 922-9410, 
X-382, or by writing: Adult Courses: SEM; 
Dept. of Education, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 



METALS & MAN 

in the 

PREHISTORIC MIDWEST 

By THOMAS J. RILEY 



Metals are one of the cornerstones of western 
technology, and they possess many proper- 
ties which other materials such as stone, 
wood, and bone do not have. Yet, for more than 
two million years of man's existence on earth, 
metals and their uses were unknown. Technologies 
depended on the inherent limitations imposed by 
stone, wood, bone, clay, and plant materials for 
tools to provide subsistence and basic creature 
comforts. It might be argued that human ingenuity 
peaked in the complex primary tools that were 
made from combinations of these materials. The 
lethal efficiency of prehistoric eskimo harpoons, 
for instance, is a function of the complex use of 
bone for point and toggle, sinew for hafting and 
line, and wood for both the foreshaft and the 
mainshaft. For modern man, the uses to which 
Solutrean flint projectile tips were put is over- 
shadowed by their delicate beauty suggesting an 
aesthetic in stone materials some 18,000 years ago. 

But, no matter how complex or beautiful, 
the tools made from these materials show a rela- 
tionship between man and material where man 
had to fit his ideas of utility within narrow limits 
imposed by the stone or bone that he was working 
with. The sculptor who works with marble must 
bow to the properties of stone as well as to limita- 
tions of talent and vision. 

Metals, on the other hand, have a vast ar- 
ray of properties that broaden the range of man's 
technological and aesthetic capacity. Copper, the 
first metal used by man. in both the Old and New 
World can be beaten into pins and beads, heated 
and annealed to make it soft and ductile, melted 
for casting, smelted from ores, and combined with 
other metals in alloys with different characteristics. 

The Bronze Age was one of the turning 
points of Old World technology. It began some- 
time before 7300 B.C. with the discovery of some 
of the more limited uses to which copper could be 
put. This was the first of a long and arduous series 
of discoveries that led to casting and alloying. The 



development of metal technology in the Old World 
saw the invention of new and more durable tools, 
more efficient weaponry, and a whole array of 
household conveniences that had been impossible 
with a technology based on stone, bone, plant 
fiber, and sinew. 

The study of the development of metal 
technology in the Old World has provided a 
number of important insights into the processes of 
cultural change that have led to our own industrial 
technology. The crucial question that has never 
been satisfactorily answered, however, is how the 
properties of copper first came to be recognized by 
ancient peoples. The occurrence and use of pure 
native copper in the ancient world is limited, and 
the artifacts that we have left for us to study are 
few and far between. 

Oddly enough, while deposits of pure cop- 
per are rare in the Old World, the metal is abun- 
dant here in North America. Few people realize 
that as the Bronze Age was unfolding in Asia, the 
Near East, and Europe, Native Americans were 
discovering on their own the properties of metals 
such as copper, silver, and even iron. For several 
thousand years eastern North American Indians 
tottered on the brink of the "metal ages." This 
American Indian experience with metals is giving 
archaeologists some new and valuable insights in- 
to the transition from stone-based to metal-based 
technologies. 

The first use of metals in North America 
occurred in a context quite different from that of 
the Old World. The discovery of copper and its 
uses in the Near East was by people already engag- 
ed in village agriculture. In North America, on 
the other hand, copper was first used by hunters 
and gatherers in the upper Midwest around 4200 
B.C. Agriculture would not become an important 



Thomas J. Riley is assistant professor of 
anthropology at the University of Illinois. 



part of these Indian cultures until the introduction 
of maize into the area some 4,000 years later. 

The North American copper-working 
tradition was heavily dependent on large, rich 
deposits of extremely pure native copper around 
the southern shores of Lake Superior and on Isle 
Royale (in Lake Superior) near its southwest 
margin. A second important source of copper for 
Native Americans in the midwest was in the tills of 
the great glacial advances of the Pleistocene. Large 
copper nuggets were pushed forward by the ad- 
vancing ice sheets from the area of the present-day 
Great Lakes to places as far south as central 
Illinois and Indiana. Even today Illinois farmers 
sometimes find in their fields large rounded 
fragments of pure copper that were deposited 
there more than 18,000 years ago. 

Between 4000 and 2000 B.C. Indians of 
Wisconsin were making a startling variety of tools 
from copper. By 2000 B.C. axes, spearheads, 
knives, awls, and even fishhooks were being pro- 
duced by ancient craftsmen in such numbers that 
well over 20,000 of them have been recovered by 
collectors and archaeologists. At this time, too, 
copper and the implements made from it were 
being traded south and east from Lake Superior, 
apparently over well established trade routes 
following major river courses. 



pits into copper-bearing deposits. Although most 
have been destroyed by modern mining, the re- 
mains of some of these pits can still be seen at Isle 
Royale and on Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula. 

Estimates of the copper removed from the 
Great Lakes area from the beginnings of the 
prehistoric copper industry at 4000 B.C. to Euro- 
pean contact are hard to come by, but at least one 
source has placed the possible yield at between 
200,000 and 1,500,000 tons of metal! More recent- 
ly Claire Patterson, a California Institute of 
Technology geologist, has estimated that about 
5,000 tons of copper was mined during the 
thousands of years of Indian copper exploitation 
in the Midwest. Even Patterson's low estimates 
represent a massive labor input over time with 
some ten million pounds of copper finding its way 
south to the Gulf of Mexico and east to Penn- 
sylvania and New York in trade and gift 
exchanges. 

For quite a long time archaeologists assum- 
ed that most of the copper tools made by 
prehistoric Indians were simply cold hammered 
from native copper nuggets, and that the 
technology that they represented was basically 
uninteresting. Unfortunately, few archaeologists 
have any training in metallurgy and cold hammer- 
ing was thought to be the simplest technology that 




Copper bird effigy. Eye is of 
pearl. From Hopewell Site, Ross 
County, Ohio. Cat. no. 56356. 
Gift of W. K. Moorehead. 



The trade in copper decreased during the 
thousand years before Christ and then increased 
again at about 150 B.C. with the development of 
what archaeologists have called the Hopewell In- 
teraction Sphere. Copper appears to have been 
considered an important metal by people who par- 
ticipated in this massive trade network that en- 
compassed the eastern United States from upper 
New York state to Florida. It is found in associa- 
tion with burials in conical mounds and was ap- 
parently used both for decoration and for the pro- 
duction of ceremonial objects. 

The exchange of copper from the Lake 
Superior region was so heavy that Native 
Americans had turned from collecting surface cop- 
per outcrops and nuggets to sinking deep mining 



could produce the array of tools that they re- 
covered from prehistoric Indian sites in the Mid- 
west. They did not realize that cold hammering is 
often accompanied by annealing — heating the 
copper to a temperature below its melting point to 
soften it so that the metal can be more easily 
reduced. 

At first glance, copper seems to be an easy 
metal to shape by cold hammering. Indeed, a 
number of simple tools such as awls can be pro- 
duced by simply hammering a lump of copper into 
an elongated form with a point at one end. But 
with extensive cold hammering alone, copper 
becomes brittle as it is reduced. After awhile the 
hammer-wielder finds his hammer bouncing off 
the deformed nugget with no appreciable results in 

(Continued on p. 24) 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 



March and April 

Saturdai;s. 2:30 p.m. 
James Simpson Theatre 

The ground-level west door entrance provides free admission to James Simpson Theatre. 
However, access to other museum areas requires the regular fee or membership identifica- 
tion. These illustrated lectures are approximately 90 minutes long, and are recommended 
for adults. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. 



March 3 ' 

Venezuela: Land of Natural Wonders 
by George Lange 

Beginning in tiie modern capital city of Caracas and 
ending at Angel Falls, the world's highest waterfall, 
this film includes exotic wildlife, rugged scenery, 
and scenes of Venezuela's diverse peoples. 

March 10 

Russia 

by Dick Reddy 

A tour of Russia, taking you- to some of her great 
cities and historical landmarks: Moscow, Leningrad, 
and Kiev; the Kremlin, the Winter Palace, and the 
Hermitage. The Bolshoi Ballet and Black Sea re- 
sorts are also on the itinerary. 

March 17 

Sweden — A Midsummer's Dream 
by Ric Dougherty 

See Sweden from the south at Malmo to the north 
at Kiruna. You will visit the famous glassmaking 
region around Orrefors and accompany the Lapps 
on a reindeer roundup. Folk arts and customs are 
also the subjects of Dougherty's camera. 

March 24 

German}; — Once upon a Time 
by Kathy Dusek 

Germany is rich in myth and legend. Think of all 
the folktales that originated there: Snow White, 
Hansel and Gretel, The Pied Piper, and many 
more. Travel to the land and the people that still 
exist in story-book Germany. 

March 31 

Egvpt-Gift of the Nile 
by Doug Jones 

One of the world's most ancient cultures is also in 
the forefront of modern events. From King Tut to 
Sadat, this film traces Egypt's remarkable history. 



April 7 

China after Mao 
by Jens Bjerre 

This is a rare opportunity to travel through modern 
China. Every scene abounds in unexpected sur- 
prises. You will see how the world's most populous 
nation is striving to become one of the most ad- 
vanced. 

April 14 

The Marsh —A Quiet Myster}; 
by Tom Sterling 

In an effort to increase public awareness of the value 
of wetlands, Tom Sterling has explored, studied, 
and filmed the marsh and its life. Filmed most ex- 
tensively in the Michigan marshlands, this work also 
incorporates the marshlands of Utah, Oregon, and 
Ontario. 

April 21 

O Canada! 
by Ken Richter 

"O Canada!" is a filmed exploration of two facets of 
Canada's identity: that 200 years ago Canada 
decided not to cut its ties to the Old World; since 
then it has made an effort to preserve the cultural 
heritages of many peoples who now live there. 

April 28 

Discover Japan 
by Ted Bumiller 

Japan, with its civilization so profoundly different 
from our own, both surprises and excites the trav- 
eler. Among the places you will visit are: Mount 
Fuji, Tokyo, Kyoto, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki. 





BY PHYLLIS RABINEAU 
Photography by Ron Testa 



On February 15, Field Museum will open the 
doors of a new exhibition, Feather Arts: Beauty, 
Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents.* For 
four months, 260 beautiful objects from many 
cultures, all made from feathers, will be on public 
view in Hall 26; the exhibit will then travel to 
hosting museums throughout the United States for 
an additional 18 months. This is the first major 
travelling exhibit to be drawn almost entirely from 
Field Museum's own permanent collections. Most 
of the objects have never before been on display, 
but were selected from the extensive research col- 
lections housed in the Museum's storage area. 

All colors of the rainbow, all sizes, shapes, 
textures, and moods will be found in the feather 
works drawn from cultures of all parts of the 
globe. In addition to explaining the techniques in- 
volved in creating the objects, the exhibit will ex- 
plore several themes, each a universal aspect of 
feather arts: plumage as body ornamentation, 
feathers used for wealth and status, and the sym- 
bolism of feathers in religious beliefs. (See the 
December 1978 Bulletin for additional informa- 
tion on the exhibition content.) 

As curator for this exhibit, it is an exciting 
time for me. A project I have worked on for over 
three years is about to be completed — something 
which has been a private research endeavor is at 
last to become quite public. Already, I have 
marvelled at the growing number of Museum 



* Members' preview Wednesday, February 14 



specialists working on various aspects of this pro- 
ject: preparators putting together Plexiglas display 
mounts, the conservator cleaning and reconstruc- 
ting long-unseen artifacts, the editor refining 
catalog copy, the ornithologists identifying 
specific feathers in each artifact, the photographer 
patiently adjusting the lighting for catalog 
photographs, the designer arranging a model of 
the exhibit hall. All of these people are using their 
special talents to create a marvelous experience for 
the Museum visitor. I have truly enjoyed the col- 
laborative effort which is making my idea a 
reality. By working closely with this team, I have 
learned a great deal — from our discussions have 
resulted fresh ideas about the artifacts as well as 
new insights into the process of collaboration. In 
the long run, while I will be happy to see Feather 
Arts in its final form, my greatest reward will be 
the invaluable experience of having participated in 
this undertaking. 

For most people working at the Museum — 
and undoubtedly for most of our visitors — feather 
arts are a revelation. They've never seen most of 
the objects, or at least never paid attention to 
them. Everyone knows what a Plains Indian eagle 
feather war bonnet looks like, but how many peo- 
ple know what kind of feather headdresses are 
worn in Brazil, the Philippines, or New Guinea? 
Even in the professional anthropological 
literature, feather arts are virtually ignored. 



Phyllis Rabineau is custodian of the anthropology 
collections. 



Overleaf. P. 8: 

Topknot plumes of 
the crowned pigeon 
decorate a man's 
ornamental comb 
from Papua New 
Guinea (detail). 
Total length 41 cm. 
Cat. no. 276369. 
P. 9: Two different 
styles of men's 
headdresses from 
Brazil. Above, a 
simple string of 
brown, yellow, and 
red, made by the 
Kayapo; length 112 
cm. Below, an in- 
tricately crafted 
and brilliantly col- 
ored feather "visor" 
made by the 
Urubu; diameter 32 
cm. Cat. nos. 
288190 (above), 
168283 (below). 















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A pair of head ornaments from the Philippines 
shows cut and trimmed feathers. These buoyant 



plumes responded to every movement, of the 
wearer's head. Height 49 cm (each). Cat. no. 
109407/1,2. 



though they are made almost everywhere. 
Volumes are written about ceramics, woodcarv- 
ing, textiles, and metallurgy, but these more 
delicate artifacts made from plumage are seldom 
mentioned. 

I began thinking about feather headdresses 
in my graduate studies at Brown University, 
whose small anthropology museum has a 
remarkably well-documented collection from the 
Cashinahua, a native people of eastern Peru. 
There were almost 100 feather headdresses, and I 
studied the individual variations among them. I 
soon became fascinated with the symbolic mean- 
ing of these objects and began to research not only 
featherwork but the religious ceremonies in which 
it was employed. To my surprise, I found that an- 
thropologists had given very little attention to this 
material, even though feather headdresses are the 
most striking form of visual art to be found in all 



of tropical South America. 

When I came to Field Museum as custodian 
of anthropology collections in 1974, I had a 
fabulously rich resource at hand: one of the 
world's great anthropology collections. My job 
was to care for the storage collections, and to help 
visiting researchers use them — to be a "librarian" 
of artifacts rather than books. From the start, I 
spent a great deal of time in storage rooms, learn- 
ing what riches could be found at Field Museum, 
so that I could help others locate collections they 
might need. 

In this "library" I found myself constantly 
drawn to the artifacts made from feathers, objects 
recently added to my experience. Delicate feather 
inlay jewelry from China, eerie black feather 
costuming from Melanesia, buoyant dance 
ornaments from the Philippines — it was an incred- 
ible discovery! Once again, I set out to read what I 



10 



A rare headdress from the Tor- 1 
res Straits (Papua New Guinea) was worn 
during special dances whose strenuous 
movements demonstrated the virility and 
stamina of the male performers to an ad- 
miring female audience. Length 50 cm, 
width 36 cm. Cat. no. 276369. 




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Gifts of feather 
capes were tradi- 
tionally used to 
seal political 
agreements among 
Hawaiian chiefs. 
This use was later 
extended to Euro- 
pean dignitaries, 
and this cape was 
presented to 
England's George 
IV by the Hawaiian 
King Kamehameha 
in 1821. Diameter 
80 cm. Cat. no. 
272588. 



could about these objects and their cultural con- 
text and, as before, I was surprised to find that 
there was precious little to go on. A few scholars 
had examined the techniques, the psychology, and 
the use of feather ornaments in scattered areas of 
the world, but it was largely unexplored terrain. 
One had to dig ever deeper for a few nuggets of 
fact or theory, and so it was only natural to try to 
relate information about feather arts from the 
Pacific, for instance, to additional data from 
South America. The similarities and the dif- 
ferences were always of interest to me. 

The idea of putting all these beautiful ob- 
jects together in an exhibit, comparing their uses 
and meanings, came about from the simple im- 
pulse of wanting to be able to walk into a room 
full of the things I had been looking at in widely- 
scattered corners of our storage areas. I began to 
talk about the idea at the Museum, and then I had 
a stroke of the most wonderful luck. A new collec- 
tion of Brazilian featherwork was given to the 
Museum by Mr. and Mrs. Theodore W. Van Zelst 
of Glenview, Illinois; they also offered a grant to 
cover part of the expenses for an exhibition as well 
as for a catalog on feather arts! 

And so the real work began: the final detec- 
tive work with scholarly sources, looking for data 
on cultural contexts of the artifacts; the intensified 
search in storage collections. Finally, last spring, I 
began to work closely with the exhibit designer. 



Clifford Abrams. We made the final selection of 
artifacts to be displayed, defined the theme areas, 
and decided which artifacts would best typify 
those themes. I set to work writing labels and 
catalog text while he designed the installation. 
Gradually we picked up more and more co- 
workers to take care of the hundreds of details in- 
volved in a project of this kind. 

There are still many problems to be solved, 
especially the thorny question of how to pack and 
ship these delicate and fragile objects. While cer- 
tainly not as valuable as the golden treasures that 
have recently been displayed around the United 
States, these objects are important as beautiful art 
works, fragile survivors of craft traditions no 
longer practiced, and often embodying spiritual 
beliefs which we must respect. However, most of 
the work has been completed, and for me this par- 
ticular project is almost ended. The designers and 
preparators will move on to the next exhibit— and 
I will return to the storerooms. For me, in a sense 
the work has only begun on feather arts. In the 
course of assembling this project, I have un- 
covered several provoking questions, some 
mysteries about the craft and context of feather- 
works. There is a lot more research waiting to be 
done, more feathers to be seen, and — it is 
hoped — some fieldwork to be done in a living 
craft tradition. I'm looking forward to the next 
step. D 




12 



A Glimpse 

Of The 

Porcupine 

Mountains 



Text and photos by 
John and Janet Kolar 



About 1,500,000,000 years ago a convulsion 
of volcanic activity devastated the southern 
edge of the Canadian Shield — a vast plain 
of Precambrian rock covering the northeastern 
fifth of our continent. Immense volumes of lava 
spread across the surface until the crust sagged 
beneath its weight, creating the trough of what is 
now western Lake Superior. 

Simultaneously, the edges of this basin 
lifted above the surrounding surface, forming, on 
the north. Isle Royale, and south of the lake, a 
ridge running from the Keweenaw Peninsula to 
near the present Wisconsin-Michigan border. 
Then, sections of the southern edge of this ridge 
broke off and lumped back toward their original 
elevation, forming lines of alternate cliff and 
valley, parallel to the lake shore. Today, these 
ridges, polished by glaciers and eroded by rivers 
draining northwestward into Lake Superior, are 
known as the Porcupine Mountains, the name 
originally given them by the Indians. 

Before the coming of white settlers, most of 
Michigan's Upper Peninsula was covered by a 
mixed conifer-northern hardwood forest. Then, 
around the mid-1800s, the hardwood component 
of this forest began disappearing into charcoal 
kilns. The charcoal, in turn, was used to fuel 
smelters that produced pig iron, which went to 
manufacturing centers of southern Lakes 

The photographic art of ]ohn and Janet Kolar fre- 
quently appears in the Bulletin. John Kolar is a 
Field Museum volunteer. 




Michigan and Erie. Because of the distance to 
lumber markets, the pines (softwoods) were not 
cut in great quantities until near the end of the cen- 
tury, when the Soo Canal was opened. The pro- 
ducts of the saw mills could then be shipped 
economically down the Great Lakes. As a result, 
accessible stands of pine were readily depleted. 
But within the mountain region, the irregular ter- 
rain and the turbulent rivers succeeded in preserv- 
ing many virgin stands of pine and hemlock, 
together with their original associations of ferns 
and lichens. Today, even areas that were logged 
are now tending toward stable native climax 
forest, passing through a natural succession of 
plant communities. Only in continuously disturb- 
ed areas along roads and in campgrounds do the 
introduced Eurasian weeds occur in abundance. 

Some 85 miles of trails are arrayed in a net- 
work across the Porcupine Mountains. A few 
cross the scrub oak cliffs above Lake Superior and 
eroded escarpments overlooking the interior river 
valleys; others descend to these valleys, following 
streams and rivers that acknowledge each 
geological stratum with a waterfall or rapids. 
Some trails come to abrupt ends at peaks or at 
overlooks; others meander along lake shores and 
swamps that are reminders of the last glacier. 
Several routes follow old logging and mining 
roads which were not prohibited until 1945. At 
that time, the state of Michigan designated 91 
square miles a state wilderness area in a modest 
gesture of deference to a land that was ancient 
when our species was new. D 



The Kolars camera 
lens found these 
mushrooms (family 
Agaricaceae ) nestl- 
ing in a shaded 
wood. 



Overleaf. Falls and 

rapids on Lower 

Presque Isle River. 

13 



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Lake of the Clouds, east end. At upper right may be seen marshes 
of Inlet Creek. Hills at left are overgrown with virgin stands of 
white pine and hemlock. 



Falls on the Union River 



Mushroom, family Agaricaceae 




17 




Patches of lichen grow on 
exposed rock face of Cana- 
dian Shield. 



Quiet section of the Carp 

River, west of Lake of the 

Clouds 



Edge of Presque Isle River is lush with 
American arbor vitae and brilliant sugar 
maple. Clearly visible is graze line, or 
browse line, of resident deer. 




18 



The Solar Eclipse 
Of February 26 

BY EDWARD OLSEN 

In Mark Twain's novel, A Connecticut Yankee in 
King Arthur's Court, the hero at one point, fin- 
ding himself in a tight spot, invokes the heavens to 
blot out the sun. When this happens, the 
populace, including the knights and ladies of the 
court, cry out in amazement and declare him a 
magician of the greatest kind — much to the con- 
sternation of his arch-rival. Merlin, the magician. 

In a similar situation one of the heroes of 
H. Ridger Haggard's nineteenth-century thriller. 
King Solomon's Mines, pulls off the same stunt 
and saves the expedition from the hostile designs 
of a large tribe of Africans. 

What these tricksters did, of course, was to 
wave their arms in the air and chant a "magic 
word" or two at the very moment a total solar 
eclipse was to begin. You have to agree it's pure 
magic for someone not only to remember, down 
to the minute, when a solar eclipse is going to take 
place, but to remember even the path of totality 
across the face of the earth. Anyone with that kind 
of memory deserves all good things that come to 
him. 

Eclipses are indeed awe-inspiring sights. 
On February 26, we in North America will have a 
chance to see what will be the last total eclipse to 
be visible from this continent in this century. Un- 



fortunately, the Chicago area will not be in a posi- 
tion to see a total eclipse; a partial one will be visi- 
ble, however. 

A total solar eclipse occurs when the moon 
passes directly between an observer on earth and 
the sun. The moon travels around the earth, and 
the pair — the moon and earth — travel around 
the sun. The moon, however, doesn't move 
around the earth in the same place as the earth 
goes around the sun. If it did, then every month, 
or twelve times a year, an eclipse would take place 
at lower latitudes on earth. Because of the tilt of 
the plane of movement of the moon around the 
earth, only an average of 2.37 total eclipses occur 
each year (that is, 237 eclipses in 100 years). 

Even when a total eclipse is taking place, it 
cannot be seen everywhere on earth. It's obvious 
that those parts of the earth on the side opposite 
the sun — the night side — cannot see it at all. For 
those places on the day side, it depends on 
whether you are in direct line with the moon and 
sun. Predicting where and when total eclipses will 
take place was one of the first real successes of the 
modern mathematical sciences, although there is 
some hint that primitive builders of stone rings — 
like the famous Stonehenge in Wiltshire, England 
— may have had some notion of how to predict 
this phenomenon several thousand years ago. 

For the eclipse on February 26, the path of 
totality will run from the northwestern United 
States (including parts of Oregon, Washington, 
Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota) across 
Canada, passing close to Winnipeg, then north- 
eastward across Hudson Bay, Labrador, and en- 



20 



i::,:.,.r..f!|H'l"'lf"" 




Viewing the solar eclipse of Oct. 19, 1865, in New York 



ding in Greenland. In Chicago we are situated at 
an angle so that we'll see the moon blot out only 
about half the sun's face. 

When viewing an eclipse, total or partial, 
there is a real danger of eye damage. Viewing the 
sun directly by eye can cause searing of the retina, 
which could lead to impairment of vision and, in 
extreme cases, blindness. Using ordinary 
sunglasses is not protection enough! 

The safest way to view the eclipse is this: 
Take a big cardboard box, large enough to get 
your head and shoulders inside of it. With a large 
nail, punch a small hole through one side. Then 
stand inside the box, facing away from the direc- 
tion of the sun, and move the box around so the 
image of the sun is projected through the hole onto 
the back wall of the inside of the box. When the 
moon's shape passes over part of the sun's face 
you'll see the image projected on the back wall of 
the box. Since you're only looking at a projected 
image of the sun you can't hurt your eyes. What 
you are doing is actually standing inside a simple 
lens-less camera — a so-called pinhole camera. 

Because the sun is the central luminary 
body of our solar system it is of great scientific in- 
terest to us. Also, since it is a star, it is the only 
star we can study at close hand. Is it getting more 
active? Is it getting less active? How does its radia- 
tion affect radio communications here on earth, 
and the atmosphere of the earth? These are ques- 
tions that can be studied during solar eclipses. 
Although it is possible to make scientific 
measurements of the sun on any clear day, certain 
kinds of measurements and observations can only 
be made during a total eclipse. This is why many 
astronomers set up temporary field stations along 
the path of totality prior to the eclipse. Most of 
their observations are made photographically. 

By pure coincidence, the sizes and distances 
of the moon and sun viewed from the earth are 
such that they each subtend about a half degree of 
arc. This means that under the conditions of a 
total eclipse, the moon can almost exactly cover 
the sun. Were the moon much larger, or much 
closer to earth, then the sun would appear 
somewhat smaller than the moon and disappear 
completely behind it. As it is, under the best con- 
ditions, the thin outer fringe of the sun's 
atmosphere is just visible with the bright center 
blotted out. This permits photographic 
measurements to be made on the solar atmosphere 
without being ruined by the glaring light from the 
face of the sun.* 



'Because the paths of the earth around the sun. and the 
moon around the earth, are not perfect circles, the 
earth-moon and earth-sun distances change sUghtly at 
different times of the year. This means that for some 
total eclipses the outer fringe and a thin edge of the sun's 
disc show around the outside of the moon. This is called 
an annular total eclipse. 




When the bright center of the sun is blotted 
out we can see long, streaming flares of hot gases 
shoot out thousands of miles into space from the 
sun's surface. From study of these flares we can 
determine some of the features of the magnetic 
and electrical fields that are generated around the 
sun. By means of the spectrograph we can also 
determine what chemical elements occur in 
various levels in the sun's atmosphere. 

One of the most dramatic uses of solar 
observations during a total eclipse first took place 
in 1919. Einstein's theory of relativity had already 
predicted that a ray of light can be bent from a 
straight path when it passes close to a very 
massive body. By measuring the apparent position 
of a star whose light rays pass close to the sun on 
their way to earth, it was indeed found that the 
star's light was slightly bent by the right amount. 
Since 1919 this bending of light rays has been 
measured many times during solar eclipses and 
verified with greater accuracy each time. 

Some measurements, however, made many 
times during total solar eclipses, have created a 
scientific puzzle that has still not been completely 
solved: The sun's surface has a temperature of 
about 6,000°C (about 11,000°F). Surrounding the 
surface is a region of gas called the chromosphere, 
which is hotter than the surface — around 
25,000°C (about 45,000°F). Above this is the sun's 
upper atmosphere, the corona. Its temperature is a 
scorching 1 million degrees C (1.8 million degrees 
F). How is it that the temperature way above the 
sun's surface is about 140 times hotter than the 
surface? 

This question, and others, will be studied 
during the coming eclipse. What a disappointment 
it will be if February 26 is a cloudy day! Q 

Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy. 



1462 diagram of 
how an eclipse 
occurs 



21 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Crustacean's Last Toehold: 
Rusty Drainpipe 

A 90-foot piece of iron drain pipe leading to 
an abandoned bath house in New Mexico is 
the only home for 2,500 remaining Socorro 
isopods. 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has 
proposed that this relative of the common 
sowbug be listed as an endangered species 
because of the link it may provide in the 
ecological and evolutionary web. 

This half-inch freshwater crustacean, 
which eats the algae lining the drain pipe, is 
one of only two freshwater species in a 
family that is otherwise entirely ocean- 
dwelling. 

Biologists think it may provide the key 
to understanding how this and other land- 
locked relic animals evolved from ancient 
marine isopods that lived in the oceans once 
covering much of the western U.S. 

The Socorro isopod adapted to the 
warm, fresh water of a spring, where it 
lived for millions of years until the spring 
was capped in 1949. After that, the only 
place left to this small creature was the sec- 
tion of drain pipe. 

This, the isopod's last toe hold, now is 
threatened by periodic drought and flushing 
of the pipes. 



Dogs for Combating Coyotes 

Komondors, which are shaggy, heavy dogs 
first bred in Hungary to keep wolves from 
preying on sheep, are the subjects of a 
$33,000 US Department of Agriculture ex- 
periment to see if they can do the same for 
western sheep ranchers who claim coyotes 
are killing their sheep. Weighing as much as 
120 pounds and costing up to $500, the dogs 
may be the sought-after alternative to 
shooting, trapping, and poisoning the 
clever coyotes. Komondors have already 
been found to frighten caged coyotes simply 
by walking past them. The tests, to examine 
ease of handling the dogs and their effec- 
tiveness in repelling coyotes, will be con- 
ducted'at Colorado State University in Fort 
Collins and the U.S. Sheep Experiment Sta- 
tion in Dubois, ID. 



Tipsy Birds 

Around Perryville, R.I., the small, red ber- 
ries of the Russian olive bush, overripe and 



slightly fermented, have been intoxicating 
flocks of birds that snack on them. Local 
farmers and motorists watch in amazement 
as birds haphazardly swoop down and over 
the highway, many missing their mark and 
slamming into trucks and cars. Such dive- 
bombing antics have strewn dead birds 
along the roadside, yet police are loath to 
charge the birds with f.w.i. — "flying while 
intoxicated." 




Feds Act to Reduce 
Bird-Aircraft Collisions 

The Federal Aviation Administration and 
the Interior Department's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service have stepped up measures 
to prevent collisions between planes and 
birds and to further advance airline passen- 
ger safety. 

Bird strikes, numbering about 1,200 
annually, cost an estimated $20 million 
each year in damage to military and civilian 
aircraft. A 4-pound bird striking a plane 
moving at 500 miles per hour impacts with 
a force of 80,000 pounds and has been 
known to shatter a windscreen and badly 
dent the opposite cabin bulkhead. More 
often, however, birds are sucked into the jet 
engines, which can be instantly knocked 
out. 

Bird strikes, or collisions, have also 
been blamed for the loss of 140 human lives 
in this country since such record-keeping 
was started in the 1940s. The most serious 
accident occurred in 1960 in Boston, where 
62 persons died after their airliner flew into 
a flock of starlings. 

Most bird strikes occur during take-off 
and landings, but the birds are also a threat 
in the air during the spring and fall migra- 
tion season when millions of ducks, geese, 
swans, and other birds migrate in dense for- 
mations at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet. 
Bird populations at airports also swell 
significantly at these times. 



Situated in many cases near water, 
mud flats, or marshy areas and quite often 
close to solid waste disposal sites, airports 
also attract birds because of architectural 
features that invite roosting, and decorative 
pools that birds use for bathing and drink- 
ing. Other attractions include standing 
water on runways or adjacent areas, tall 
grasses, fruit trees, and other vegetation, 
and the related insect and rodent food 
supply. 

Simple techniques include draining 
pools, filling the low spots on runways, 
removing certain trees and shrubbery, and 
cutting grasses to certain heights. Other 
techniques include relocation of existing 
garbage dumps that may be in air traffic 
corridors, and operating regular motor 
patrols of the runways to disperse birds. 
Dispersal methods such as distress calls and 
explosive noise devices are also used to 
reduce the risk of bird strikes. All of these 
deterrents are aimed at denying food, 
water, and roosting areas to the birds in an 
effort to make them seek other, safer 
habitats. 



Mastodons as Fox Bait 

A Siberian native has probably found the 
ultimate in well-aged trapping bait. The 
trapper had exceptionally good luck catch- 
ing foxes on his trapline using meat he had 
found frozen out on the tundra. Paleontol- 
ogists then discovered that the bait was 
from the leg of a 13,000-year-old mastodon. 
The paleontologists also found traces 
of an ancient settlement near the mastodon 
site. They estimated the age of the campsite 
to be about 13,000 years. 



Ultrasonic Pest Repellent 

Bob Brown, a California guitar player crip- 
pled by polio, has invented a device capable 
of making sound so shrill that it drives 
rodents wild, kills cockroaches, and sends 
fleas flying. The frequency of the sound is 
over a million cycles a second; the human 
ear can hear up to about 20,000 cycles. 

In a recent 12-month period. Brown 
sold 18,000 of his so-called "rat-repellent 
boxes." The government of Venezuela 
ordered 300 to kill cockroaches in food 
stores; 1,000 were bought by Spain to elimi- 
nate rodents from granaries. 



la 



Treasures of Russia and the Ukraine 

20-day tour for Field Museum Members and their families 



ThE SPLENDORS OF OLD RUSSIA, the excite- 
ment of the New are in store for Field 
Museum Members and their families who 
join the tour "Treasures of Russia and the 
Ukraine," leaving Chicago's O'Hare Airport 
June 1 9 and returning July 8. 

Highlights of this exclusive tour will 
include visits to the cities of Moscow, 
Vladimir, Kiev, Leningrad, Petrovorets, 
Novgorod, and Petrozavodsk. The group, 
limited to 35 persons, will be led from 
Chicago by two Russian-speaking escorts, 
with additional guides while in the Soviet 
Union provided by Intourist (the Soviet 
Travel Bureau). 

The tour cost — $2,970 (which in- 
cludes a $500.00 donation to Field 
Museum) — is based upon double occupan- 
cy and includes round trip air fare from 
Chicago to Moscow, with intra-Russian air 



transportation where required. The trans- 
atlantic airline is Swissair. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will 
be used throughout or, where necessary, the 
best hotels available. The package includes 
all meals, including inflight meals; all 
sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all ad- 
missions to special events and sites, where 
required; all baggage handling throughout, 
plus all necessary transfers; all applicable 
taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. 
Advance deposit required: $250.00 per 
person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, 
and registration information, please write or 
call Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 
922-9410, X-251. 

Red Square, showing Lenin's Tomb, Moscow 




23 



Copper ornaments and pendants from Hopewell 
Site, Ross County, Ohio. On view in Hall 4. 
The headdress is of two parts: a thick, solid 
headplate and wooden antlers covered with thin 
sheet copper. (Cat. no. 56080). The ear orna- 
ments (56201-2) and pendants (56114, 56128) are 
of copper. (The necklace is of freshwater 
pearls.) Gifts of W. K. Moorehead. 



24 




Continued from p. 5 

forming his tool. The metal, made brittle by cold 

hammering, often cracks and fractures. 

It took trained metallurgists interested in 
ancient technologies to begin to unravel the 
mysteries of native copper technologies in native 
North America. They did this by applying the 
techniques of metallography to the study of Indian 
copper working. Their research has shown that 
either hot working or successive anneals were im- 
portant to the manufacture of native copper arti- 
facts in the prehistoric Midwest. Unfortunately, a 
number of archaeologists have not understood the 
importance of their work, and at least two recent- 
ly published textbooks in American prehistory 
still cling to the notion that Native American cop- 
per from the Midwest was produced by simple 
cold hammering. 

Metallography, simply put, is the study of 
the internal structure of metals by various techni- 
ques including the use of powerful optical and 
electron microscopes. Metallographers most com- 
monly study the structures of metals to discover 
the physical properties that determine the utility 
of metals for commercial and industrial purposes. 
A few metallographers, however, have turned 
their attention to the study of ancient metal arti- 
facts to determine techniques of manufacture as 
well as the possible uses to which these tools were 
put. Native copper, like all metals, is crystalline 
in structure. When it is subjected to different 
treatments in manufacturing, the structure of the 
metal realigns itself in certain predictable ways. 
Extensive cold working, for instance, will deform 
the regular crystal alignments that metallo- 
graphers call grains by compressing them or 
breaking them up. Reducing copper by cold ham- 
mering produces lines of flow perpendicular to the 
force of the hammer blows. Metallographers can 
see these patterns of deformation through an op- 
tical reflecting- microscope when the metal is 
polished and etched with different corrosive 
solutions. 

Annealing is accomplished by heating cop- 
per to a temperature above 200° to 225 °C but well 
below its melting point of 1,083 °C. This allows 
the metal to recrystallize, often with the formation 
of distinctive paired linear structures called 
"twins" within the grains. 

Melting and alloying produce other, more 
complex structures within the metal. These 
microscopic structures permit the metallographer 
to reconstruct the techniques of manufacture of 
metal artifacts. In some instances they can deter- 
mine the temperature at which the artifacts were 
worked and whether or not they were heated and 
worked in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. 

In the spring of 1978, with the aid of Pro- 
fessor Heather Lechtman of the M.I.T. Center for 
the Study of Materials in Archaeology and 
Ethnology, I prepared a number of metallographic 
samples from copper artifacts found at several 
Hopewell Indian sites in Illinois. The samples were 




carefully cut from the artifacts with a jeweller's 
saw, mounted in a resinous medium, then ground 
and carefully polished so that surface abrasions 
were smaller than the wavelength of light. After 
this they were treated with solutions that would 
differentially etch the grain boundaries of the cop- 
per and accentuate the different planes of crystal 
alignments. 

One of the samples from a Hopewell burial 
mound group near Utica, Illinois, is shown below: 
a small piece of native copper that has been par- 
tially rolled by cold hammering after an apparent 
anneal in a reducing atmosphere, probably under 
the ashes of a wood fire. When the sample was 
subjected to analysis under the microscope, the 
different techniques of manufacture become clear. 
At a magnification of X50, the rolled end shows 
signs of the deformation of the metal perpen- 
dicular to the lines of force expected of cold ham- 
mering. On the thick end of the sample the grains 
are only partially deformed, and a number of par- 
tially bent "twins" suggest that the artifact was an- 
nealed before the final hammering process was 
begun. This part of the metal had not been reduc- 
ed as much as the rolled end, and it is likely that 
the hammering had occurred after the metal had 
been allowed to cool. It also appears that the 
metal was hammered on the end that was rolled 
before the turning process began. 




The tools of the metallographer, in this 
particular instance, permit the archaeologist to 
reconstruct the craft techniques of a Hopewellian 
craftsman who lived some 2,000 years ago in cen- 
tral Illinois. 

An interesting feature of prehistoric mid- 
western copper working for the archaeologist is 
that it seems to occur in association with an in- 
novation in stone tool technologies in the 
Midwest. Flints and cherts were one of the major 
materials from which prehistoric primary tools 
were made in North America. In Prehistoric North 



America some 10,000 to 3,000 years ago, Indian 
stone tool craftsmen began to treat flint with fire, 
"annealing" it before flaking stone tools from it. It 
is quite possible that the extensive copper working 
that is found in the Midwest from Archaic through 
late prehistoric times was simply an extension of 
the heat treatment of flint. Copper then, would 
have been considered just another stone which, 
when heated, showed properties different from 
those of flint in that it became soft and malleable 
rather than brittle and subject to fracture. It is 
possible that in the central part of what is now 
eastern United States the development of an exten- 
sive copper-working tradition depended on the in- 
novation of annealing flint and other stone 
materials, and that a copper industry of any 
magnitude and duration would have been im- 
possible without this innovation. 

We know that one of the early stages of 
copper manufacturing in the Old World, too, 
depended on annealing the metal to make it 
workable. Is it possible that the copper industry 
there began with the extension of heat treatment 
techniques from flint and chert to the new 
material, native copper? At present little work has 
been done on the occurrence of heat treatment of 
flint in the Old World, but I would expect that this 
particular innovation in stone-working precedes 
the extensive use of copper for tools and artifacts 
wherever native copper appears in western and 
eastern Asia. 

But copper was not the only metal used by 
prehistoric Americans. Small amounts of silver 
have been found in Hopewell sites in many of the 
Great Lakes states as well as in sites in Ontario. 
The silver has been beaten into thin sheets and 
used to cover reed whistles shaped like classical 
panpipes. Silver was also beaten onto a copper 
base to form large round earplugs shaped very 
much like large spools. Beads and head ornaments 
of silver have been found at a number of sites in 
western Wisconsin and Illinois. 

Meteoric iron, too, has been found at sites 
both in Ohio and Illinois. A set of meteoric iron 
beads was recovered from a Hopewell mound near 
Havana, Illinois, by researchers from the Illinois 
State Museum in 1945. When subjected to 
metallographic analysis, it was discovered that the 
small beads had been cold hammered around a 



Stylized serpent 
made of copper, 
restored. From 
Hopewell Site, 
Ross County, 
Ohio. Cat. nos. 
56701 (left), 56206. 
Gift of W. K. 
Moorehead. 



2S 




small cylindrical object to create center holes of 
the beads, then subjected to a light annealing pro- 
cedure. The manner of production parallels the 
manufacturer of copper objects. 

Prehistoric American craftsmen in the 
Midwest obviously recognized the importance of a 
number of native metals. Why didn't they develop 
that tradition into a regime of smelting, casting, 
and alloying that would have led to the beginnings 
of a bronze age in eastern North America? We 
shall probably never know the answer completely. 
It is probable that the abundance of native copjjer 
around the Lake Superior region made it un- 
necessary to develop procedures for smelting metal 
from copper oxide deposits, and thus the first 
major advance towards true metallurgy was not 
necessary in this part of the New World. 

In the Near East, on the other hand, the 
scarcity of native metals made it necessary to melt 
deposits of copper oxide ores to maintain the nas- 
cent copper industry. From that start the develop- 
ment of more difficult techniques for smelting cop- 
per from sulfide ores followed rather quickly. 

It is likely, then, that the eastern North 
American metal industry in prehistoric times suf- 
fered from an abundance rather than from a scar- 
city of relatively pure metals. Nevertheless, the 
achievements of prehistoric American craftsmen 
in extending the techniques of stone technology to 
copper, silver, and other native metals cannot be 
overlooked. It is an area where the metallurgists of 
our day using the sophisticated techniques of their 
trade can answer questions that the archaeologist 
left to his own devices cannot even begin to 
fathom. 



Above: Pan pipe of 
bone, with copper 
sheathing, original 
(left) and restora- 
tion. Cat. no. 
56708. Gift of W. 
K. Moorehead. 



Early engraving 
(1565) of Florida 
Indian chieftains 
adorned with cop- 
per pendants. 




26 



February & March at Field Museum 



(February) 15 through March 15) 



New Exhibits 



Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Con- 
tinents. Opens Feb. 15. Conceived and created by Field 
Museum's own staff, this exhibit features exotic feather ob- 
jects from around the world. Assembled almost entirely from 
in-house collections, "Feather Arts" will travel to other 
museums nationwide after its four-month stay at Field 
Museum. The 260 artifacts, drawn from 1,000 years of 
history, include such rarities as an Hawaiian king's feather 
mantle given to George IV of England in 1821, and the 
feather shoes of an Australian sorcerer. This fascinating ex- 
hibit examines the symbolic and religious meaning of 
feathers over the centuries and illustrates the importance of 
featherwork as a universal art form. Hall 26. Through June 
15. (Members' preview February 14, 1 to 7 p.m.) 

A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History. Opened 
Dec. 8. This exhibit unites 63 natural history specimens with 
samples of philatelic art. Planned on a rotating basis to cover 
the four disciplines of natural history, the first 6 months of 
the exhibit are devoted to zoological specimens and their 
representations on stamps from all over the world. "A Stamp 
Sampler" was conceived by Field Museum volunteer Col. 
M. E. Rada, exhibit guest curator. The exhibition was de- 
signed by Peter Ho. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Primitive Art. Art objects from Africa, the Americas, and 
Oceania are presented for comparison of the primitive 
societies. The relationship of primitive art to modern art are 
also considered. Hall 2. 

Gems. This anthropological/geological exhibit contains 
Field Museums fine collection of primitive jewelry from 
India, Algeria, South America, Italy, Egypt, and the Philip- 
pines. Second floor, south. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to 
handle, sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. 
Weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; weekends, 10 a.m. to noon and 
1 p.. to 3 p.m. Ground floor, near central elevator. 

Field Museum Gamelan. Field Museums 19th-century 
Javanese gamelan, an ensemble of 24 fine bronze and wood 
musical instruments, has been completely restored for ex- 
hibition. Hall K, ground floor. 



The Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures are scheduled every 
Saturday afternoon in March and April at 2:30 p.m. James 
Simpson Theatre. Reserved seating is available for members 
and their families. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. For complete 
March-April schedule, see page 6. March 3: ""Vene- 
zuela—Land of Natural Wonders," by George Lange; 
March 10: "Russia, '" by Dick Reddy. 



Continuing Programs 

Armchair Expeditions. Adult groups (clubs, P.T.A., 
societies, etc.) can now attend special slide programs; tour 
selected exhibits. Arrangements can be made to dine in one 
of the Museum's private dining rooms. Winter programs in- 
clude "Life in Ancient Egypt"; "The Weaver's Walk "; and 
"The American Plains Indian." For more information call 
(312)922-0733. 

Winter Journey. "American Indian Dwellings."' Through 
February 28. This self-guided tour for families and children 
desribes different types of American Indian homes found on 
the main floor of the Museum. Free Journey pamphlets are 
available at the North Information Booth, and at the South 
and West doors. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History (Botany, Geology, An- 
thropology, and Zoology) Game. Field Museum's popular 
Anthropology Game has been expanded to include the 
Museum's three other scientific divisions. The object is to 
determine which of a pair of similar-looking specimens is 
harmful and which is not. For instance, which South 
American tree frog is the source of poison for Indian darts? 
Or which shell animal contains a poison four times more 
deadly than cyanide? Ground floor. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25"^ each at the 
entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sun- 
day, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are 
available in botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend 
volunteers with an interest in natural history are needed to 
develop and present weekend programs. For more informa- 
tion call 922-9410, ext. 360. 



New Programs 

"Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit." An illustrated 
lecture by Phyllis Rabineau, curator-in-charge of the new 
"Feather Arts" exhibit. Feb. 28, 8 p.m. James Simpson 
Theatre. A lecture on diverse featherworking techniques; the 
use of feathers as ornamentation; and the cultural, religious, 
and symbolic significance of feather arts over the past 1,000 
years. Members, $1.50; nonmembers, $3.00. 



February and March Hours. During February the Museum is 
open 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays. March 
Mon.-Thurs. hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. February and March 
Saturday and Sunday hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. On Fridays 
the Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the 
year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Closed Feb. 19 (Presidents' Day). Obtain pass at the recep- 
tion desk, main floor. 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410. 



27 



',:>>.^a-»J3Ss:".«ag'.^av:^.. :^i--» 



FIELD MGSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 






Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

March, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 3 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Wakten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff photographer: Ron Tesla 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

WiUiam G. SwartchUd, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Goerge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Waiiam H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Qifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
Waiiam V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 
3 Field Briefs 

6 War and Peace — Pigeon Style 

By Patricia Williams, managing editor, scientific 
publications 

10 Adult Group Programs 

By Linton Pitluga, group resource coordinator. 
Department of Education 

12 China: A Photographic Portfolio 

Photos by Stanton R. Cook, Field Museum trustee 

20 Of Land Bridges, Ice-Free Corridors, and Early 
Man in the Americas, Part II 
By Glen Cole, curator of prehistory 

28 Field Museum Tours 

32 Our Environment 

35 March and April at Field Museum 
Calendar of coming events 

COVER 

Camera portrait of a man of Inner Mongolia, by Stanton 
R. Cook (below), chairman and publisher of the Chicago 
Tribune and a member of the Field Museum Board of 
Trustees. Cook visited China in September, 1977, with a 
group of Associated Press directors. Photo essay on page 
12. Photos courtesy Chicago Tribune. 




Stanton R. Cook 



Field Museum of Natural History BuUetirt is published monthly, except combined July/August 
issue, by Field Museum oi Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. U. 
60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; S3 a year (or schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin 
subscription- Opinions expressed by autt^ors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy 
of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to 
Field Museuiirof Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago U. 60605 ISSN: 
(»154)703. 



NSF Grant for Summer 
Anthropology Course 

High school students must complete appli- 
cation forms by April 6 for this year's col- 
lege-level, tuition-free anthropology course 
(June 25 through August 3, 1979) at Field 
Museum of Natural History. A $25 field 
trip fee is required for bus charters. The 
program is open to 27 high-ability high 
school students (priority given to juniors) 
who have the academic ability and interest 
in an intensive six weeks of anthropology. 

Students are selected on the basis of 
academic achievement, teachers' recom- 
mendation, and personal interviews. Appli- 
cation forms are available from high school 
officials or may be obtained from Miss Har- 
riet Smith, director of the N.S.F. Summer 
Anthropology Program, Department of 
Education, Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory (922-9410, X-361). 

Now in its fourteenth year, this pro- 
gram has been the only National Science 
Foundation-funded program in the U.S. 
that introduces all fields of anthropology 
for the career choice of high school 
students. 

Monday-through-Friday sessions 
(9:15-3:00) involve students in concepts of 
man's relationship to his environment and 
his fellow man, with varied activities that 
include individual research projects, work- 
shops, the study of museum specimens, and 
lectures by visiting professors and museum 
staff anthropologists. Representative of 
program and faculty are Today's Careers in 
Anthropology, by Phillip H. Lewis, chair- 
man. Department of Anthropology, Field 
Museum; Fossil Man. by Ronald Singer, 
physical anthropologist. University of Chi- 
cago; Midwestern Archaeology, by Stuart 
Struever, archeologist. Northwestern Uni- 
versity; Environmental Life of American 
Indians, by Merwyn Garbarino, ethnolo- 
gist. University of Illinois at Circle Campus; 
Africa — Tradition and Change, by Peter 
Knauss, political scientist. University of Illi- 
nois at Circle Campus; China, Longest 
Continuum, by Kenneth Starr, director, 
Milwaukee Public Museum; With the Gyp- 
sies in Pakhistan, by Joseph Berland, cul- 
tural anthropologist. Northwestern Univer- 
sity; Chicago's Ethnic History, by William 
Adelman, labor relations program. Uni- 
versity of Illinois at Circle Campus; and 
Behind-the-Scenes Demonstration of An- 
thropology Exhibits in Production at Field 
Museum, by James A. VanStone, curator. 
Department of Anthropology, Field 
Museum. 

A week of archeological field work at a 



local site provides application of the previ- 
ous weeks of study. The excavation is under 
the direction of David Keene, S.J., histori- 
cal archeologist. University of Wisconsin- 
Madison, with the cooperation of Edward 
Lace, naturalist-historian. Cook County 
Forest Preserves. Past participants have dis- 
covered abundant prehistoric and historic 
artifacts at this purported site of an 1828-32 
fur-trading post. 

Christopher Legge 1905-1979 

Christopher Legge, custodian of Field Mu- 
seum's anthropology collection from 1962 
to 1974, died on January 24, 1979. He will 
be long remembered for his dedication to 
the Museum and for his scrupulous devo- 
tion to the collection. 




Christopher Legge 

Chris Legge was an extraordinary 
man. His coming to Field Museum after a 
career in the British Foreign Service was in 
itself remarkable — as well as a stroke of 
very good luck for the Museum. But the 
event was hardly fortuitous. Chris's grand- 
father, James Legge (1815-97), was an orien- 
talist, famed for his translations of Chinese 
classics, and Chris seemingly inherited his 
grandfather's own love and fascination for 
the Orient. 

Born in Chelsea, England, in 1905, he 
graduated in 1928 from King's College, 
Cambridge, where he was an honors stu- 
dent and an outstanding athlete. Following 
graduation, Chris took a post with the 
Nigerian government, remaining in Africa 
for six years. He then — characteristically — 
did the unexpected, by going to Denmark 



for a year to study physical education. For 
the next two years he was a grammar 
school instructor in Australia. In 1938 he 
joined the British Foreign Service and was 
assigned to the Fiji Islands as district com- 
missioner. He remained there until 1961, 
then retired. 

When Chris applied for a position at 
Field Museum, he noted on his application 
form a special interest in "Oceanic archae- 
ology and ethnology, " never dreaming that 
in a few short months his responsibility 
would be one of the finest collections of 
such material in the world. So, at age 57, he 
embarked on an exciting new career — per- 
haps the one for which he was best suited. 

The union of Chris Legge with the Field 
Museum was a perfect match. The collec- 
tion of half a million artifacts required the 
attention of someone who was entirely 
devoted; and that devotion was embodied 
in Chris Legge. Colleagues in the Depart- 
ment of Anthropology would remark, half 
seriously, that Chris knew every single 
piece in the vast collection. But if he was 
respected for his dedication and knowledge- 
ability, he was equally loved for his man- 
ner. His pleasant charm, his gentle ways, 
and his desire to accommodate endeared 
him to everyone. 

After his retirement in 1974, Chris con- 
tinued to frequent his beloved Museum as 
he pursued the various projects that ap- 
pealed to his far-ranging intellect. Just 
before his death he completed a short 
biography of Richard Parkinson, an early 
explorer of the southwest Pacific. 

To have known and worked with Chris 
Legge was a rare privilege. Field Museum 
was immeasurably enriched by his pres- 
ence. — Ed. 



Anthropology Department Receives 
National Science Foundation Award 

The National Science Foundation in Wash- 
ington D.C. has awarded the Department 
of Anthropology a grant of $38,579 for the 
first of two years in support of systematic 
collections in anthropology (Phillip H. 
Lewis, principal investigator). This grant is 
for preventive and technical conservation 
of the Museum's outstanding textile hold- 
ings, numbering over 12,CXX) specimens 
from around the world, which have been 
described by one leading authority recently 
as "an incredibly rich resource." 

Impetus behind Lewis's successful pro- 
posal to the NSF came from three directions. 
First, the Department of Anthropology has 
declared development of its conservation 



division to be its first priority, now that the 
vast new four-floor Central Anthropology 
Storage Area (CASA) has been built within 
the Museum as a result of our recently com- 
pleted Capital Campaign. 

Second, new plans for textile care and 
storage were initiated by Joan B. Andrews 
of the University of Wisconsin (Milwaukee) 
in 1977. She was then one of the first "In- 
terns in Anthropology" at Field Museum 
sponsored by a grant to the department and 
the Museum's Center for Advanced Studies 
from the National Endowment for the Arts 
in Washington D.C. Andrews drew up 



many of the guidelines and proposals which 
later formed the basis for the successful pro- 
posal to the NSF. 

Third, and perhaps most important, 
during 1978 Jeannette Leeper, now registrar 
for the Laguna Beach Museum of Art, dem- 
onstrated conclusively that the economical 
procedures outlined by Andrews could be 
implemented effectively at the Museum to 
improve care and storage of the beautiful 
collections of tapa or "bark cloth" from the 
tropical regions of the world. At the same 
time. Museum Volunteers Sylvia Schuppert, 
LeMoyne Mueller, Karen McNeil and Judith 



John Terrell, associate curator of Oceanic archaeology and ethnology, presents ]eannette 
Leeper with honorary tapa specimen. 




Spicehandler carried out similar improve- 
ments for storage of African and North 
American textiles and comparable 
materials. 

In the photograph at left, Jeannette 
Leeper is seen in front of the new tapa stor- 
age facility she installed at the Museum 
with the aid of Museum Volunteer Lorraine 
Peterson. She is shown being presented last 
year with an honorary tapa specimen (from 
the Museum's Shop) by John Terrell, associ- 
ate curator of Oceanic archaeology and 
ethnology, prior to her departure for Cali- 
fornia. 

Through this grant from the NSF, the 
work of Joan Andrews and Jeannette Leeper 
is being extended to all of the Museum's tex- 
tile collections by conservation assistants 
Anna Campoli and Jan Di Girolamo, under 
the supervision of Christine Danziger, con- 
servator, and Phyllis Rabineau, custodian 
of collections. Volunteers Sylvia Schuppert 
and LeMoyne Mueller have also expanded 
their own work on preserving our large 
and impressive textile collections, which are 
of both great aesthetic and scientific value. 



Adult Education Course: 

Operation and Use of the 

Scanning Electron Microscope 

The scanning electron microscope has revo- 
lutionized the study and photography of 
small objects by research scientists. With 
500 times the depth of field obtained by op- 
tical lenses and the ability to magnify be- 
tween 20 and 100,000 times life size, it is an 
important and versatile instrument. Prepa- 
ration of specimens for study, basic 
machine operation, and adjustments for 
viewing difficult specimens are featured in 
the first two sessions of this course. In the 
last three sessions, material brought in by 
some of the participants is viewed and pho- 
tographed. All pictures become the proper- 
ty of the participants. 

The course is taught by Alan Solem, 
curator of invertebrates; and by Christine 
Niezgoda, assistant. Department of Botany. 
It meets once each week for five weeks, 
beginning March 20 or 21. Sessions last 
from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. The class is divided 
into four sections of six participants each. 
Course fee: $60.00. For additional informa- 
tion call Lynne Houck, 922-9410, X-362. 



Gamelan Master Classes 

Two courses on Indonesia's remarkable or- 
chestral ensemble, the gamelan, are offered 
in March. An introductory course includes 
basic techniques of performance, musical 
structure, and the cultural background of 
gamelan music in social and ceremonial 
uses. An intermediate course features Java- 




nese singing and simple gender accompani- 
ment on the gamelan. Prerequisite for the 
intermediate course is an introductory gam- 
elan course at Field Museum or at a univer- 
sity school of music. When the courses are 
completed, participants will give a public 
concert held at Field Museum. The instruc- 
tor for both courses is Sue Carter-De Vale, 
gamelan program director. Field Museum. 
The introductory course meets Tues- 
day evenings from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. for 10 
weeks beginning March 13. The intermedi- 
ate course meets Wednesday evenings from 
7:00 to 9:00 p.m. for 8 weeks beginning 
March 28. Participants should be physically 
able to remain seated on the floor for sev- 
eral hours— the position for playing many 
of the instruments. For information and 
registration, please call the Department of 
Education, 922-9410 X-362. 

The scanning electron microscope, which 
can magnify 20 to 100.000 times life size, 
has opened new worlds for the scientific 
investigator. 

A gamelan master class practice session 




War and Peace 
— Pigeon Style 



The author's son 

feeding pigeons in 

Trafalgar Square 



BY PATRICIA WILLIAMS 



Robins signal spring. Eagles symbolize power and 
authority; peacocks, pride. But the pigeon? 
Pigeons definitely have trouble with their image — 
especially among city dwellers, who are most like- 
ly to associate the bird with whitish droppings 
staining buildings, park benches, and, more per- 
sonally, clothing. However, this is a rather one- 
sided view. In matters of love and faith, war and 
peace, the pigeon has long played a symbolic — 
and sometimes active — role. 

Wendell Mitchell Levi, in his weighty book 
The Pigeon, wrote, "In the religions of early man, 
it held a place excelled by no other speechless 
creature. In martial strife, it has served its masters 
from earliest days. As a message-bearer in general, 
it had no equal. Poets, philosophers, and his- 
torians have extolled this bird." 

Poets, philosophers, historians, and, in 
fact, most nonscientific writers have tended to use 
the terms "pigeon" and "dove" interchangeably 
and that's o.k. Pigeons and doves are both 
members of the family Columbidae and, as stated 
in the Dictionary of Birds, "no sharp distinction 
can be drawn between Pigeons and Doves, and in 
general literature the two words are used almost 
indifferently while no one species can be pointed 
out to which the word Dove, taken alone seems to 
be proper." 




The pigeon commonly seen strutting down 
train platforms and roosting high on city buildings 
is the Rock Dove, a bird that also travels under the 
names Street Pigeon and Blue Rock. It might be 
said that a pigeon by any other name coos as 
sweetly — or makes just as big a mess, depending 
upon your point of view. However, just calling 
the bird a "dove" seems to improve matters. Can 
you imagine referring to the "pigeon of peace"? 
Hardly. 

Under both names, pigeon and dove, the 
bird's history has been linked with man's for 
thousands of years. As Levi pointed out, 
"Wherever civilization has flourished, there the 
pigeon has thrived." Archeological investigations 
have turned up carvings, inscriptions, and 
representations involving pigeons that date back 
thousands of years to the Sumerians, Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans. 

It has been said that at the coronation of 
King Arthur of England four kings walked before 
him, each carrying a sword of gold, and four more 
kings walked before the queen, each of these car- 
rying a white pigeon. At coronations in France 
large numbers of white pigeons were released to 
commemorate the happy occasion. 

In more modern history, Samuel Pepys 
added a pathetic note when he included the 
pigeons in his description of the Great Fire of Lon- 
don, saying, "Among other things the poor 
pigeons, I perceive, were loth to leave their 
homes, but hovered about the windows and bar- 
buies till they burned their wings and fell down." 

Wars stud the pages of history books and, 
although they are seldom mentioned, pigeons 
have been effective military allies since ancient 
times. Carrying messages to and fro, homing 
pigeons were used by Julius Caesar in his conquest 
of Gaiil and by many generals over the years, but 
really flew into their own on an international basis 
following the Franco-Prussian War. During the 
siege of Paris (November 1870 to January 1871) 
pigeons flew to Paris from other cities bearing 
thousands of messages. 

Although you might assume that advances 
in communications techniques would have out- 
moded the homing pigeon by the time of World 
War I, this was not so. Telephone or telegraph 
wires could be tapped or cut; rockets or flares 
become impractical, but the pigeon flew on. 
Major General Fowler (an amazingly appropriate 
name), chief of the British Army's Department of 
Signals and Communication, was reported as say- 
ing: "When troops are lost, or surrounded in the 
mazes on the front, or are advancing and get 
beyond known localities, then we depend ab- 
solutely on the pigeon for our communications. 
Regular methods in such cases are worthless and it 



Patricia Williams is managing editor of scientific 
publications. 



is at just such times that we need most messengers 
that we can rely on. In the pigeons we have them. 
I am glad to say they have never failed us." It has 
been estimated that from 20,000 to 500,000 
feathered fighters served all forces in World War I. 
Again, in World War II, pigeons were ac- 
tive participants and in the United States the 
Pigeon Corps numbered 3,000 enlisted men, 150 
officers, and 54,000 pigeons. G. I. Joe, the best- 
known American pigeon hero of this war, was sta- 
tioned in Italy when he flew 20 miles in 20 minutes 
to stop allied planes from bombing a village just 
taken by British infantry troops. The planes' 
motors were warmed and they were ready to take 
off when G. I. Joe flew in with news of the take- 
over. The speedy pigeon was decorated by both 
the Americans and the British. 

Most recently, pigeons were field-tested in 
Viet Nam to serve in an ambush-detection system. 
Each trained pigeon was equipped with a small 
transmitter that emitted a steady signal as the bird 
flew ahead of a convoy and watched for concealed 
humans. If the bird saw anyone lying, kneeling, or 
hiding off the road, it was trained to land. When it 
landed, the transmitter's signal stopped and the 
convoy was warned of potential danger. 

In contrast to its role in wars and despite 
the fierce and bloody battles which occur between 
males, doves are popular symbols for valentines, 
wedding cakes, and poems of love. Of course, not 
only do doves bill and coo as lovers do, but they 
are — even in this time of rising divorce rates — 
believed to mate for life. 

Doves are connected with both Venus and 
Aphrodite, mythical goddesses of love, and 
literature is filled with allusions linking the bird 
and love. Shakespeare often refers to pigeons and 
doves in his plays and, for example, has Rosalind 
say to Orlando in As You Like It, "I will be more 
jealous of thee than a Barbary cock-pigeon over 
his hen." 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning was very fond 
of doves and was known to present friends with 
pairs of the loverlike birds. Tennyson often includ- 
ed pigeons in his poems, but certainly the most 
sentimentally romantic pigeon-poem must be 
Verses Written in a Garden by Lady Mary Wortley 
Montague: 

See how that pair of billing doves 
With open murmurs own their loves 
And, heedless of censorious eyes. 
Pursue their unpolluted joys: 
No fears of future want molest 
The downy quiet of their nest. 
Kamadeva, the Hindu god of love, is 
represented with a dove for his steed and, cupid- 
like, is armed with an arrow of flowers and a bow 
whose string is formed of bees. Not only Hin- 
duism, but many of the world's religions have 
employed pigeons and doves in rites and as sym- 
bols. Ingersoll, in his book Birds in Legend Fable 
and Folklore, points out that the dove, "by which 
is meant the prehistorically domesticated blue 



rock-pigeon, almost deserves a chapter to itself" 
and he proceeds to almost give it one, tracing the 
bird's history "back to the misty dawn of civiliza- 
tion and religion in Mesopotamia, the Garden-of- 
Eden land, where arose the dual 'nature-worship' 
of the combining elements heaven and earth, male 
and female." 



G. /. Joe^ the best- 
known pigeon hero 
of World War II, 
was decorated by 
both the Americans 
and the British 



Mohammedans hold the pigeon in 
reverence and Levi states that "as recently as 1925 
a near riot was caused in Bombay when two Euro- 
pean boys ignorantly killed some street pigeons. 
The stock exchange and general market were clos- 
ed and a widespread strike threatened." 

References to pigeons abound in both the 
Old and New Testaments of the Bible. While many 
of those in the Old Testament concern the pigeon 
as a sacrificial offering, the bird plays a more ac- 
tive role in the story of Noah and the deluge. 
Noah sent forth a dove to see if the flood waters 
had subsided. On the first attempt, "the dove 
found no place to set her foot, and she returned to 
him in the ark, for the waters were still on the face 
of the whole earth" (Genesis 8:9). After a time, 
Noah sent the dove out again "and the dove came 
back to him in the evening, and lo, in her mouth a 
freshly plucked olive leaf; so Noah knew that the 
waters had subsided from the earth" (Genesis 
8:11). This must certainly be the best-known ex- 
ample of the pigeon's trustworthiness and homing 
instincts. 

In the New Testament, scripture states that 
on the occasion of Jesus' baptism by John the 
Baptist, "he went up immediately from the water, 
and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw 
the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and 
alighting on him" (Matthew 3:16). It is this 
reference that has inspired so much Christian art 
over the centuries. The Holy Spirit is depicted as a 
dove in stained glass windows, paintings, 
tapestries, and sculpture. Similarly, the spirit of 
man, or the soul, is also represented by the dove in 
various art forms. 

There are many stories concerning the 
multitudes of pigeons in St. Mark's Square in 
Venice and one of them asserts that the birds fly 
three times daily around the city in honor of the 



Trinity. Another story which offers an explana- 
tion for the great numbers of pigeons in the square 
holds that at one time it was the Palm Sunday 
custom of the clergy of St. Mark's to release 
pigeons fettered with little screws of paper to pre- 
vent their flying high. The people scrambled for 
the disabled birds and caught many of them. A 
few, stronger than the rest, managed to escape and 
fly to the safety of rooftops around the square. 
These sturdy high-fliers were, according to one 
writer, "regarded as sacred forever with their 
descendants" and the state provided them with 
food. 



Why do people enjoy feeding the pigeons? 
In 1887 the ardent English pigeon-fancier Rev. ]. 
Lucas tried to explain, "I have seen men of the 
careworn face and restless eye pause in the court- 
yard of Guildhall and watch them. Their anxious 
features relax into a smile; they become interested 
and amused at the docility and dignity of the 
birds, whose composure in the midst of a throng 
of pedestrians is exquisite." 

Alright. The pigeon is obviously a bird to 
be reckoned with: a war hero, religious symbol, 
and romantic model. Further, pigeon breeding and 
racing has given pleasure to hobbyists for cen- 




Pigeons in St. Mark's Square, Venice, 1887 



Although Chicago now has no central 
pigeon hangout to rank with St. Mark's or 
Trafalgar Square in London, the city's fairly new 
Civic Center seems to be a likely candidate. 
Already popular with the birds, the vast open 
square has ample room for soaring and wheeling 
between buildings, a large monument for staining, 
and a sizeable crumb-tossing population. Until her 
death in December, 1978, "the Pigeon Lady," a 
small, white-haired woman shod in tennis 
sneakers, was a familiar sight in downtown 
Chicago as she fed bread crumbs to the birds. 



turies; the bird has served as a medium for scien- 
tific research in the study of genetics, disease, and 
nutrition; and squabs (young pigeons from one to 
about 30 days old) are enthusiastically enjoyed as 
food. All very commendable, but, still, there are 
those who just don't have a good word to say for 
the bird. Why not? 

Well, there are several reasons — and good 
ones, too. In September 1963, the Chicago Daily 
News complained "It seems to us that the pigeon 
feeders are about the only people allowed to keep 
their pets at large." In reaction to a New York City 



health department study which showed that the 
average New Yorker inhaled 3 micrograms of 
droppings daily — courtesy of that city's five mil- 
lion pigeons — the Daily News editorialized, "It 
may be a good idea to keep flocks of pigeons 
around on the off-chance that the next Depression 
will get really desperate, but in the meantime they 
are a frightful, filthy nuisance. . . ." 

If during a "desperate Depression" you eat 
a wild street pigeon, you may get more than you 
bargained for. Although a pigeon may seem to fly 
overhead in solitary splendor, it is not really 
alone. Austin Rand, former chief curator of 
zoology at Field Museum, wrote, "The bird is like 
an island with its own flora and fauna, carrying at 
least some of the 70 or so plants and animals that 
have been recorded as living on or in the domestic 
pigeon. These include two species of ticks, eight of 
mites, a fly, a bug, six lice, nine roundworms, 
eighteen tapeworms, three flukes, eight proto- 
zoans, two fungi, nine bacteria, four viruses, and 
doubtlessly many others." He went on to state that 
"A thousand tapeworms have been found in the 
intestines of a single pigeon, 30 pigeon flies among 
the feathers of a single bird, and 20 lice on a single 
feather." 




Mourning dove 



Not surprisingly then, feral pigeons have 
been indicted as transmitters of disease and have 
been a source of continuing interest to the U.S. 
Department of Health, Education and Welfare. 
Pigeons are known to be carriers of encephalitis, 
for example, and the disease is transmitted from 
birds to man by mosquitoes. Some other pigeon- 
related diseases are pigeon ornithosis, Newcastle 
disease, aspergillosis, thrush, salmonellosis, cryp- 
tococcosis, and histoplasmosis. 

Pigeon droppings garner the most com- 
plaints and cause the greatest number of pro- 
blems. Dr. H. C. Scott of the U.S. Communicable 
Disease Center ran up a short list of problems 
caused by pigeon droppings: "Pigeon droppings 
deface and accelerate deterioration of buildings, 
statues, and automobiles, and may be deposited 
on unwary pedestrians. Large amounts of pigeon 
excrement may kill lawns and shrubbery. In addi- 
tion, pigeon droppings, regurgitated pellets, 
feathers and nesting material are common con- 
taminants of grain destined for use as human 
food." 



The Armed Forces Pest Control Board has 
cited the great number of man hours needed per 
year to clean up and repaint government installa- 
tions as a result of pigeon fouling. Further, at air- 
ports bird droppings on helicopter rotor blades 
can cause the blades to be unbalanced. This, in 
turn, causes a severe vibration when the engine is 
readied for take off. 

Pigeon nests, too, get their share of 
negative reaction as they clog drain pipes, in- 
terfere with awnings, and make fire escapes hazar- 
dous. Mites and insects residing in pigeon nests on 
window sills and building ledges may easily enter 
and infest the host building. 

An industry devoted to the repelling and 
barring of pigeons does a lively business as a result 
of the bird's untidy practices. Workers for these 
firms, however, often report that they are harass- 
ed as they go about their jobs by irate pigeon 
admirers. 

Dr. Rand's tally of pigeon residents, listed 
above, inspired Carl S. Miner to compose the 
following poem with which many of us may sym- 
pathize: 

Till now when I saw pigeons fly 
Away up yonder in the sky 
I much enjoyed their graceful motion. 
Then I had not the slightest notion 
That they were hosts to noxious things 
That crawl or creep or fly on wings. 
Now when I see them overhead 
I'm filled with fear, also with dread. 
Of what might happen. So in fright 
I pull my hat down very tight. 
Knowledge is power, but sometimes it 
Limits enjoyment quite a bit. 

Here you have both sides of the pigeon 
issue: dirty bird versus noble creature. The choice 
is up to you. Just remember this word of warning: 
You may choose to admire the pigeon, but never 
look up to it. LJ 



The late, lamented passenger pigeon, cousin of the 
Rock Dove 




Adult Group Programs 



BY LINTON PITLUGA 



Thursday, April 20, 1978. The time: 9:45 
a.m. The first group of the day is just arriv- 
ing at Field Museum; they leave the bus and 
enter the West Door. The group of 33 has 
been traveling since nearly 7 a.m. and they 
look slightly dazed from the droning of the 
bus. They welcome the end of the ride and 
the chance to shake off traveler stiffness. 

A museum volunteer greets the group 
and confers briefly with the leader. The rest 
of the group, unoccupied for the moment, 
forms into clusters to engage in revitalized 
conversation. The cavernous classic Greek 
lobby echoes with their voices. They are 
then invited to leave their wraps in the 
nearby coat closets. Some use the 
restrooms. The others are encouraged to 
enter the A. Montgomery Ward Theater for 
the slide lecture, which will begin as soon as 
all are seated. They are greeted by lecturer 
Bob Feldman, a Field Museum research ar- 
cheologist. 



At 10:05 a.m. the slide lecture begins. 
It will last nearly an hour. At about 11 a.m. 
the volunteer for this group returns to 
escort them to Hall 26 where they will see 
what they came for: Gold. Artifacts 
fashioned from gold are here in quantities 
that would astound even the conquistadors, 
comprising the temporary exhibit, Peru's 
Golden Treasures. Like the Treasures of 
Tutankhamun exhibit, which visited Field 
Museum in 1977, Peru's Golden Treasures 
seems to possess a magic that renders all 
other exhibits pedestrian. 

This is only one of the 15 adult groups, 
totaling 654 people, to visit Field Museum 
on this Thursday. Some will visit the Peru 
gold exhibit only briefly, while others will 
have arranged for a slide lecture, an audio 
tour, and even a catered meal in one of the 
Museum's private dining rooms. Three 
shifts of staff and volunteers will be on 
hand to greet and escort, and to ease each 



party through its schedule. Some staff and 
volunteers will still be at the Museum at 10 
p.m. when the last groups are leaving. 

Why did the groups come? Probably 
for a variety of reasons. Some, like the 
group from the University of Wisconsin at 
Green Bay, came for academic reasons; as 
did the group from the Lakeview Museum 
in Peoria. Others, from women's clubs, 
churches, travel agencies, social clubs, and 
corporations, came for the cultural enrich- 
ment of the experience, and also because 
such visits provide an interesting and 
unusual social experience. 

In recent years, there has been a grow- 
ing realization at Field Museum that a 
special need exists for programs and ser- 
vices designed specifically for adult groups. 
Certainly, a number of special temporary 

Linton Pitluga is group resource coordina- 
tor, Department of Education. 



The Pawnee earth lodge is an exciting highlight of the American Plains Indian program for adults. Volunteers present a program about 
Pawnee culture. The sculpted figures shown here stand upon the roof of the lodge. 




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Special temporary exhibits such as Peru's Golden Treasures have proven particularly popular with adult groups. 



exhibits, such as the Treasures of 
Tutankhamun, have attracted sizeable 
numbers of such groups, but what would 
happen if an ongoing selection of programs 
featured Field Museum's permanent ex- 
hibits? Now, with funding from the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts, Field 
Museum is finding the answer to this ques- 
tion. Since July 1977 a selection of adult 
group programs have been under develop- 
ment. These programs, described below, 
last for about an hour and a half and in- 
clude a slide presentation and a guided tour 
of exhibits. 

Life in Ancient Egypt 

This program, which draws upon the 
Museum's superb Egyptian collection 
presents the unique culture of ancient Egypt 
as reconstructed and interpreted from arti- 
facts found in the Nile Valley. The artifacts 
are viewed in the rich setting of the newly 
renovated Hall ]. 

The American Plains Indian 

Before the arrival of Europeans, the Great 
Plains were only sparsely populated by the 
Indians. After the introduction of the horse 
from Europe, the plains became a source of 
plenty, and Indians migrated there from 
regions where game and other life staples 



had become more difficult to come by. 
Then the white settlers arrived and much of 
the game — notably the buffalo — was no 
longer abundant, and a radical change of 
Indian lifestyles came about. 

Groups explore these cultures of the 
American plains Indian during the time that 
they flourished. Highlights of this program 
are a tour of the Pawnee Earth Lodge (a 
full-scale replica of a Pawnee dwelling) and 
the outstanding exhibits of art, clothing, 
personal and religious articles, and 
weaponry of the plains Indians. 

The Weaver's Walk 

Well before the dawn of history, in- 
habitants of this planet had mastered the art 
of interlacing strands of fibers together to 
create cloth. Since then, a rich variety of 
weaving techniques and textiles has been 
created. The Weaver's Walk explores this 
development and includes Field Museum's 
fine collections of exquisite textiles produc- 
ed for costume and decoration by cultures 
around the world. 

Special Temporary Exhibits 

Each year Field Museum hosts a number of 
special temporary exhibits, which adult 
groups are invited to tour. Group reserva- 
tions are now being accepted for Feather 



Arts: Beauty, Wealth and Spirit from Five 
Continents (see December 1978 and 
February 1979 Field Museum Bulletins). 
This exhibit, which opened February 15, 
will be on view until June 15. A special slide 
lecture by Phyllis Rabineau, costodian of 
collections. Department of Anthropology, 
may be arranged in conjunction with an 
Armchair Expedition. Other temporary ex- 
hibits to be featured in 1979 include Art of 
the Huichol, May 5 to September 3, and 
Treasures of Cypress, June 14 to September 
16. 

Dining at Field Museum 

Many Museum visitors, accustomed to the 
culinary pleasures of Chicago's fine 
restaurants, have also been pleasantly sur- 
prised by the high quality of Field 
Museum's cuisine, served in private dining 
rooms. With a range of attractive prices, a 
special selection of menus is available for 
breakfast, luncheon, and dinner. The 
menus include such delights as boned breast 
of chicken Kiev, roast prime rib of beef au 
jus, and delicate broiled fresh whitefish. For 
light meals, the crab bisque with date-nut 
finger sandwiches and French pastries are 
among the many items. An afternoon tea 
and a wine and cheese buffet may also be 
arranged as part of an Armchair Expedi- 
tion. 

11 



A PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTFOLIO 



BY STANTON R. COOK 



In 1977 Field Museum Trustee 
Stanton R. Cook, chairman 
and publisirer of tiie Chicago 
Tribune, toured Ciiina witli a 
group of other Associated 
Press directors. During their 
16-day visit they traveled to 
Peking, in the north; Shang- 
hai, and Hangchou, on the 
central coast; Ch'ang-sha and 
Kweilin, in south-central 
China; and Canton, in the 
south. They also spent time in 
Inner Mongolia, a region 



which Western visitors have 
rarely been privileged to see. 
Armed with two Nikon 
cameras. Cook took hundreds 
of photos of contemporary 
Chinese life — laborers, school 
children, artisans, dancers, 
street vendors, even horsemen 
in Inner Mongolia. The result 
is a remarkably vivid portrait, 
a sampling of which we see on 
these pages. Photos courtesy 
Chicago Tribune. 



12 



Countryside outside Kwei-lin, praised in many poems, 
is famous for its superb landscape. Town was founded 
in 214 B.C., is now becoming industrialized. 




13 





Upper left: Like the man on this 
month's cover, this youth is a 
resident of a commune in Inner 
Mongolia, some 250 miles west 
of Peking. 

Upper right; Work was begun 
on the Great Wall during the 
reign of Huang Ti, more than 
2,000 years ago. 
Left: Sign painters on Orange 
Island, not far from the city of 
Ch'ang-sha, in south-central 
China. 

Facing page, top: Part of the 
Temple of Heaven, in Peking, 
first built in 1420. The message 
reads: "Crab hold of revolu- 
tion. Increase production. Work 
hard. Get ready for the war. 
Improve effectiveness in all 
aspects of endeavor. ' 
Right: An artisan does 
cloisonne in the Peking Arts & 
Crafts Factory, in which 1,300 
men and women produce goods 
for export. The average salary: 
$22.50 per month. 
Far right: Dancers who stopped 
to perform at the Li An Tuge 
commune, in Inner Mongolia. 




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Above: Looking across Kunming Lake to the slope of 
Wan Shou Shan, site of the summer palace of the Chin 
dynasty, six miles from Peking. 

Left: Monument to the People's Heroes in Peking. 

Facing page, top: Ceiling in Summer Palace, just outside 
Peking. 

Right: One-third of a primary school student's time is 
spent learning characters. About 1,500 characters are 
needed to be literate, but only about 5,000 of some 
50,000 are in regular use. 



16 



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Left, above: Entrance to 
cave at Kweilin 

Left, below: Peking school 

children sing in Tien An 

Men Square, day before 

one-year anniversary of 

Chairman Mao's death. 

Above: The face of young 

China reflects optimism 

and, here, perplexity. 

Right: Bridge to Kunming 

Lake, near Peking. In 

winter, the lake's ice is cut 

into chunks and stored for 

summer use. 




19 



20 



Of Land Bridges^ 

Ice-Free Corridors^ 

And Early Man 

In The Americas 

Part II 



BY GLEN COLE 
Artwork by Louva Calhoun 

The previous installment of this article (January, 
1979, Bulletin) considered the Bering Land Bridge 
and the late Wisconsin ice-free corridor across 
Canada — the land bridge as the obvious route by 
which Asians moved into North America and the 
corridor as a route for people moving between 
Beringia and the mid-continent. It was seen that a 
feasible passageway through this corridor prob- 
ably did not exist until after 13,000 B.P. (before 
present). 

Nevertheless, there is good evidence that 
humans were living south of the ice sheet by 
15,000 B.P.; much more tenuous is evidence sug- 
gesting that Early Man may have been in mid-con- 
tinental North Anierica considerably before that. 

A big game hunting economy with a spe- 
cialized stone and bone technology appeared in 
North America south of the late Wisconsin ice 
boundary around 12,000 B.P.. Attention will be 
directed here to this well documented Paleo-Indian 
occupation, which was the main focus of the 
AMQUA (Atnerican Quaternary Association) ses- 
sions devoted to the peopling of the New World. * 

Curiously, much of the debate on Paleo- 
Indian origins hinges upon a single distinctive kind 
of artifact, the Clovis projectile point, which read- 
ily identifies this early cultural horizon. However, 
this artifact creates problems when it comes to 
searching for antecedents. The Clovis point has 
not been found in the Old World. It seems to have 
been an American innovation after the time when 
free interchange across the Bering Land Bridge oc- 
curred. Much weight tends to be given this artifact 
type by many of the investigators who have exam- 
ined Asian materials for sources of the Clovis 
culture. It is generally supposed that the kinds of 
stone tools — if not actual fluted points — made by 
the ancestors of the Paleo-lndians should include 
forms which anticipate such points. As nothing 



'To avoid confusion, the term "Paleo-Indian" will be 
used here to apply only to these big game hunters whose 
tool kit was characterized by fluted projectile points. 



reminiscent of fluting has been found, many stu- 
dents of Early Man in the New World suppose that 
stone working traditions that include "bifaces" 
(foliate or lanceolate artifacts shaped by removal 
of flakes from both surfaces or faces) would be 
appropriate as possible sources. 

Despite the fact that the Clovis point comes 
in a variety of sizes and shapes, it is easy to recog- 
nize and is an excellent horizon marker. This is 
largely because of the distinctive fluting. Fluting is 
a technique of trimming the central portion of a 
point at its basal end, probably to facilitate the 
attachment of a shaft. This is done by removing 
one or more shallow flakes from the butt end in 
the direction of the point. The fluting, which may 
be on one or both faces, usually does not extend 
more than half the total length and it may be much 
less than that. The fluting technique was eventual- 
ly so perfected that a single fluting flake might 
remove the entire central portion of a point for 
much or all of its length. These later artifacts, 
which also tend to be smaller and more delicately 
trimmed, are known as Folsom points, after a site 
near Folsom, New Mexico. 

Clovis points have been found over most of 
North America beyond the limits of the late Wis- 
consin ice, including all of the contiguous 48 
United States. For some 50 years it has been 
known that these fluted points are of considerable 
antiquity, since they have been found with the 
bones of extinct Pleistocene mammals. It was the 
evidence of fluted points found with the bones of 
an extinct bison species at the Folsom site in the 
late 1920s which led to the abandonment of the 
widely held opinion that man had been in the New 
World for only a few thousand years. With the 
advent of radiocarbon dating, the actual extent of 
that antiquity has been measured and, surprising- 
ly, it has developed that Clovis points, when 
found in datable contexts, cluster within a rela- 
tively narrow time span; nearly all of the securely 
dated finds occur between 11,500 and 11,000 B.P. 
The Folsom variety of fluted point is dated to a 
rather longer period, from about 11,000 to 10,000 
years ago. 

The Clovis culture is best known from sites 
in the central and southern Great Plains, especially 
in the Llano Estacado, because there Paleo-Indian 
artifacts were first found in stratified contexts. 
Such was the case at Blackwater Draw, near 
Clovis, New Mexico. Here there had been a large 



Glen Cole is curator of prehistory. He describes himself 
as "an Old World prehistorian who is generally con- 
cerned with a much earlier time period than is covered in 
this article." Cole is, additionally, a charter member of 
the American Quaternary Association (AMQUA) and 
has followed with interest studies relating to Early Man 
in the New World. In this article he discusses recent 
developments in North American Early Man studies as 
presented at the 1978 biennial meeting of AMQUA at 
Edmonton, Alberta. 



spring-fed pond which served as a water hole for 
end-Pleistocene and early Holocene animals. For 
this reason it was attractive to the Paieo- and later 
Indians, who hunted and camped there on occa- 
sion for several thousand years. Clovis points and 
other artifacts were found in sands overlying grav- 
els which were the aquifer for the pond. It was 
during the quarrying of these gravels that evidence 
of Paleo-Indian occupation was discovered. 
Folsom material occurred in more recent, higher- 
lying deposits. Unfluted projectile points, other- 
wise similar in size and shape to those of the 
Clovis and Folsom cultures, were found at still 
higher levels. No archeological material has as yet 
been found stratified beneath a level of Clovis ar- 
tifacts'Clovis points are sometimes found in asso- 
ciation with other artifacts. For example, Clovis 
hunters, at least on some occasions, would camp 
close enough to a slain elephant or other animal so 
that butchering tools and other implements used 
about the camp might be associated with points 
included with the skeletal remains. 

Clovis points have also been found — and in 
considerable abundance — in more easterly por- 
tions of the United States; less frequently they 
have been found in the western states and in 
northern Mexico. Unfortunately, nearly all of the 
eastern finds have been from the surface or have 
been turned up from superficial deposits by plow- 
ing and other surface disturbances, so they are 
devoid of context and cannot reliably be dated. 
Radiocarbon dates from sites in several eastern 
locations are consistent with those from the more 
westerly sites. 

Vance Haynes, a University of Arizona 
geologist and geochronologist, while recognizing 
possible regional variations in the Clovis tool kit, 
and noting considerable variation in size and 
shape in the projectile points, suggested that "the 
basic Clovis tool kit was essentially the same 
wherever it is found. . . . This implies a high 
degree of mobility and lack of dependence on a 
restricted environment. "**In this view, the Clovis 
hunters wandered over extensive areas in search of 
large game animals, especially elephants. 



'At the Meadowcroft site, artifacts older than 12.000 
years B.P. occur irj a stratified sequence, but no Clovis 
material seems to be present nor, apparently, have any 
other kinds of artifacts been reported in the 11,500 to 
10,000 years B.P. time period. Also, last year, artifacts 
found below an occurrence containing fluted points of 
the Folsom variety were reported from a site in north- 
western Missouri. These artifacts are not of a kind that 
could be regarded as part of the Clovis tool kit. The 
excavators estimate that the material must be older than 
15,000 years B.P. 



""All quotations, unless otherwise indicated, are taken 
from the Abstracts of the fifth biennial meeting, Ameri- 
can Quaternary Association, Edmonton, Alberta, 1978. 



But some investigators doubt that an immi- 
grant population could have spread so rapidly; 
they attach more weight to the apparent regional 
variations. Dennis Stanford, a Smithsonian Insti- 
tution archeologist, sees "Clovis as a technology 
diffused within a population already inhabiting 
the New World." He suggests that the technologi- 
cal concepts necessary for the fashioning of Clovis 
points — whether introduced from Asia or derived 
independently — "spread to populations already 
exploiting a variety of environments." Similarly, 
Robson Bonnichsen, a University of Maine arche- 
ologist, sees in Clovis points "structural patterned 
variation of shape and technological attributes 
[which] appear to occur on a regional basis." He 
thinks this would not be so "if these points repre- 
sent a single migration."* 

Haynes has observed that "the spread and 
development of the Clovis culture throughout 
North America and northern Mexico took place 
during a period of the greatest environmental 



'These days migrations are not in favor with most an- 
thropologists, including those who practice archeology. 
This is not to say that anthropologists deny the occur- 
rence of migrations in human history and prehistory but 
it is certain that such have often been misused as easy 
"explanations" for observed cultural distributions. It is a 
good deal simpler to dismiss discontinuous distributions 
of cidtural traits and complexes as a result of migrations 
than to try to understand them in terms of complex in- 
teractions between social, economic, and environmental 
factors which are unquestionably much more important 
in the overall picture of human cultural development. 





A Folsom and 2 
Clovis points (actual 
size). The smaller, 
more delicately 
trimmed and com- 
pletely fluted 
specimen is the 
Folsom point. The 
Clovis point at the 
left is from the 
Blackwater Draw 
locality in New 
Mexico; that in the 
center is from Union 
County, Illinois. The 
Folsom point is from 
the collection of Col. 
M. E. Rada. 




21 



ARCTIC OCEAN 




1,000 KM 



o 





BERING STRAIT 

BERING 
SEA 



^^^^ 



f 



°^. 



SIBERIA 



^^h 



'er 




^enr 



*^'/9. 



^. 



KAZAKH S.S.R.^- 



i 



\. 




T^\ 



MONGOLIA 



Distribution of important 
late Pleistocene Siberian 
sites. The clustering of 
sites near population 
centers in major river 
valleys is a better indica- 
tion of the activities of 
prehistorians than distribu- 
tion of prehistoric popula- 
tions. Nevertheless, 
prehistoric human activi- 
ties probably were concen- 
trated in the river valleys 
and sites certainly have 
been better preserved 
there: so future discoveries 
can be expected to extend 
the range of sites into 
unexplored ranges of river 
valleys to a greater extent 
than elsewhere in Siberia. 
The shaded areas indicate 
positions of the more 
important late Pleistocene 
ice sheets. 



22 



change since the end of the Sangamon interglacial" 
(the interglacial which preceded the Wisconsin). 
He notes that "... major vegetation changes oc- 
curred locally and regionally, there were marked 
changes in erosional-depositional processes and 
hydrology, and many forms of Pleistocene ani- 
mals became extinct." As a geologist, Haynes is 
interested in the causes, effects, and interrelation- 
ships of these factors. Bonnichsen, as an anthro- 
pologist, emphasized in addition that this was 
doubtless "also a period of cultural stress marked 
by new innovations — man's primary way of 
readapting." As an alternative to the hypothesis 
that the Clevis culture was brought by migrants 
from Beringia, he proposes that the introduction 
of a single hunting tool, the atlatl* and its atten- 
dant stone-working technology (pressure flaking 
and, perhaps, heat treatment of stone to improve 
its flaking properties) could have diffused rapidly 
to pre-existing populations. Such rapid diffusion 
of these generalized innovations could account for 
the sudden appearance of Clovis and other fluted 



points throughout the Americas. Also, as the real- 
ization of the more sophisticated hunting tool 
would have been left to craftsmen practicing 
regional technologies and influenced by local 
styles, one can account for the regional variations 
which Bonnichsen sees in Clovis projectile points. 
Once the matter of fluted points and their 
antecedents is put aside, many students of Early 
Man in the New World have no difficulties in find- 



*The atlatl is an implement devised to add propulsive 
force to a thrown spear or dart. It is a rod or board 
shaped for gripping at one end, with a device designed 
to engage the butt end of the dart shaft at the other. The 
use of the atlatl implies the use of a special kind of dart, 
perhaps compound with one or more shaft components 
armed with a bone or stone point. The use of this imple- 
ment doubtless facilitated the hunting of the thick- 
skinned mammoth. The atlatl was eventually replaced 
by the bow and arrow in most of North America but its 
use lingered in certain cases, as with the Aleuts and Eski- 
mos, until historic times. 



ing similarities between Clovis cultural material 
and its context and that of certain Eurasian sites. 
Haynes cites a number of traits, including kinds of 
artifacts, stone- and bone-working technologies, 
and certain site features, and notes the similarity 
to those of sites from Siberia's Lake Baikal area 
and further west along the Yenisei River. He sug- 
gests that "to invoke independent development of 
all these traits in the New World from a popula- 
tion base for which there is only tenuous evidence 
does not seem as reasonable as does an origin from 
the Siberian Paleolithic during a time when the 
Arctic-Steppe biome existed on the Beringia plat- 
form." Further, Haynes thinks there may have 
been "a close temporal link between the Clovis 
culture and its Old World antecedents." However, 
he is hard pressed to find suitable antecedents in 
Beringia; he suggests, nonetheless, that the Clovis 
culture developed from one of two contemporary 
traditions there before 11,000 B.P. 

Whether or not the immediate antecedent 
of the Clovis culture was imported in toto or 
whether it is the result of the introduction of a new 
hunting tool with its attendant technology to an 
indigenous population, there seems to be general 
agreement that there was some movement of peo- 
ple around 12,000 B.P. As one AMQUA discussant, 
Donald Clark of the Archeological Survey of 
Canada, pointed out, previously unoccupied ter- 
rain was becoming available with climatic amelio- 
ration and retreat of ice. That is, if contact was 
established between populations in eastern Ber- 
ingia and the mid-continent, people would have 
had to move into the intervening area; but, it 
should be noted, people living south of the late 
Wisconsin ice could have moved north as well as 
vice versa. So far, none of the very few dated 
fluted points from Alaska have proved to be as old 
as some of the Clovis points from south of the ice 
limits. Many investigators thus argue that the 
technology associated with the Clovis point was 
developed in the south, then moved northward as 
climatic and geographic conditions permitted. 
Those who are inclined to see the Clovis culture as 
introduced by an infusion of people from Beringia 



feel that it is merely a matter of time before older 
fluted points will turn up in Alaska and the Yukon, 
since that area is scarcely known archeologically. 

In any event, the prevailing opinion seems 
to be that people living in eastern Beringia in the 
waning phases of the late Wisconsin glaciation 
worked their way southward, very likely through 
an ice-free corridor; with them came the incipient 
Clovis culture, whether or not the distinctive 
fluted point had yet been developed. 

Most students of Early Man in North 
America investigating possible Old World roots of 
the Clovis culture direct their attention to material 
from north Eurasian sites. (The main interest in 
the western Pacific Rim is as a source of possible 
earlier American populations.) One of these inves- 
tigators, William Powers, a University of Alaska 
archeologist, cited cultural material from sites 
along the Aldan River in central Siberia. This in- 
cludes bifacial points and knives dating to the 
18,000-20,000 B.P. time range. A technology for 
the production of long thin flakes, or blades — 
another characteristic of the Clovis tool kit — is 
also present; and it may be that certain aspects of 
the Siberian ivory and bone technology, e.g. . atlatl 
dart foreshafts, also appear in the Clovis culture. 
Otherwise, the similarity to the Clovis tool kit is 
not striking. Unfortunately, the tool kits from 
Alaska that most closely resemble this Aldan 
River material lack the bifacial points. In the Alas- 
kan case, simple stone projectile points seem to 
have been replaced by composite tips comprised 
of laterally grooved bone points armed with inset 
microblades. 

Many investigators favor the idea that 
there occurred multiple migrations of people into 
North America via Beringia, while others believe 
that there was a single incursion towards the very 
end of the Pleistocene. Powers favors the first 
position as does James Hester, a University of 
Colorado archeologist. Hester holds that separate 
migrations account for different cultural entities 
which he detects in the North American archeo- 
logical scene. He sees these migrations as occur- 
ring "over a long period of time beginning as early 



Detail of diorama in 
Hall 4 demonstrating 
use of atlatl. 




2,000 -_ 






, 1 




-'•r-y-- 




1,000 - 










200 - 














(U 




100 - 


^ ? 




50 - 


LU C 


J 




I ii 



5 


40 - 


b Q- ^ 




< c 


30 - 






o 


1 ,J 


20 - 






CO 

■*-' o 










CO o 










~ CO 






1 


f 1 


f i^ 


10- 




0) 














c 




5- 




(D 
O 
O 

O 

X 

1 





24 



T/ie Quaternary Period, which covers the last 1.6-1.8 
million years of geologic time, is divided into two 
epochs, the Pleistocene and the Holocene. The last 
major glacial stage, ending 10,000 years ago, is known, 
in North America, as the Wisconsin. The Wisconsin, 
punctuated by several cold stadials and warmer inter- 
vals has been variously subdivided. For purposes of this 
article, it is simply divided into an earlier and a later 
portion. The more recent, late Wisconsin, will be that 
period from 23,000 before present (B.P.) to the beginning 
of the Holocene. The figures represent thousands of 
years. 



as 25,000 to 35,000 years B.P. and extending to a 
date as recent as 8,500 B.P." The Clovis culture 
would have developed from one of these migra- 
tions. The "single migration" position is held by 
many others. The prime advocate of this position 
who participated in the AMQUA symposium was 
Christy Turner, an Arizona State University physi- 
cal anthropologist. Turner, who has studied dental 
characteristics of a wide range of people around 
the Pacific Basin, argued that "low dental and 
other biological variability of Paleo-, skeletal, and 
living Indians suggests the initial founding migra- 
tion was singular, small, and late in the Pleisto- 
cene." He finds Paleo-Indian dental characteristics 
to be very much like those of living Indians, which 
suggests direct descent. The opinion of a majority 
of physical anthropologists who have studied the 
question is probably reflected in Turner's conclu- 
sion that "most of the ice-free New World appears 
to have been occupied by one people [via Beringia] 
. . . before the close of the Pleistocene." 

Turner also detects evidence for another 
past population network with its New World dis- 
tribution limited to the coastal areas of the north- 
western and arctic portions of North America. 
This past population network extended "from 
north China through the Amur basin, along the 
Sea of Okhotsk and southern Beringia to at least 
the Gulf of Alaska. When rising seas forced the 
removal of these Beringians, their descendants, 
namely Aleuts, Eskimos, and possibly Northwest 
Coast Indians, were the Holocene 'migrants' to 
Alaska." This group would be that represented by 
Hester's last "migration." It should be noted that 
Turner is not arguing that the ancestral Aleuts and 
Eskimos migrated to the New World in Holocene 
times. Rather, they were stranded there, so to 
speak, early in the Holocene. Although it is possi- 
ble that Hester's Holocene migration actually oc- 
curred, it seems more likely that these people were 
living in Beringia at the same time as the ancestral 
Paieo-Indians, much as Athabaskan Indians and 
Eskimos have co-existed in the American arctic 
and subarctic. 

General, as well as some very specific, simi- 
larities in archeological material in northern Asia 
and Alaska have led many investigators to recog- 
nize a paleoarctic tradition which encompasses 
several variants. Don E. Dumond, a University of 
Oregon archeologist, has observed that it "seems 
clear that the Alaskan representatives of the Paleo- 
arctic tradition hark back to the time when Alaska 
was a peninsula of Asia, thrusting against the con- 
tinental ice of the New World."* Within such a 
model, Beringia would have been populated in the 
late Wisconsin by people adapted to the exploita- 
tion of different resource bases. One such base 
would clearly have been the large mammals living 
on the arctic steppe of Beringia; a second would 



"Chapter! in Ancient Native Americans. /. D. fennings, 
editor, 1978. 



BERING SEA 



Anangula 



■*=3. 



4=a»< 




Map of North 
America indicating 
localities mentioned 
in the text. The 
shaded area indicates 
the Llano Estacado. 



# 



have been the sea mammals and other marine life 
of the southern coastal biome. With the submerg- 
ence of the central Beringian area, crucial evidence 
has been lost or has become inaccessible and it has 
not been possible to define the tool kits of the 
groups who exploited these resources. Despite the 
rudimentary state of terminal Pleistocene prehis- 
tory in Alaska, or perhaps because of it, the possi- 
bility of other variations has been suggested. 
Beringia was available for human habitation for a 
very long time so that regional variations had 
ample time to develop within these adaptations. It 
was the arctic steppe hunters, or some of them 
who did not use microblades, that Haynes viewed 
as likely antecedents of the Clovis population and 
culture. The Aleuts and Eskimos, in this view, 
would have descended from people adapted to life 
in the coastal zone, especially to the hunting of 
marine animals. 

Although some ancestral Paleo-Indian sites 
in eastern Beringia may have survived, any ances- 
tral Aleut-Eskimo sites that existed before about 



8,500 B.P. along former coastlines were submerged 
by the rising sea level at the end of the Pleistocene 
and early Holocene. In exceptional cases, high 
points occurred in the old land bridge and remain 
today as islands. Anangula, a small island just a 
mile or so from Umnak Island at the eastern end of 
the Aleutian chain, is such a case. Rather than 
retreat across considerable distances of gently 
shelving coastal plain before the rising water, 
people living there were able to move to higher 
ground locally. A low-lying portion of Anangula 
was occupied from ca. 8,700 to 7,200 years ago. 
Rising sea level finally caused this site to be aban- 
doned. Continuing occupation of the island is 
found in another more recent site on higher 
ground. Although it may be that the 8,700-year- 
old occurrence represents the earliest Paleo-Aleut 
occupation, it is quite possible that older, lower- 
lying sites have been destroyed by the wave activ- 
ity that has left a wave-cut terrace on the island — 
an earlier phase of the activity which is today 
destroying the older of the existing Anangula sites. 

25 



o 
o 



Schematic represen- 
tation of 6 of the 8 
Clovis points found 
associated with a 
single mammoth 
skeleton at Naco, 
Arizona. All of these 
points are fluted on 
both faces. This 
association is par- 
ticularly informative 
in that it provides an 
excellent example of 
the considerable 
variation in size and 
shape in the projec- 
tile points used by a 
single band of Paleo- 
Indian hunters or, at 
least, of the varia- 
tion that can be 
expected within a 
restricted geographi- 
cal area. If the 
points from other 
nearby Clovis sites 
are included, an 
even greater range of 
variation is evident. 
Although certain 
varieties may be 
more common in 
some areas than in 
others, forms similar 
to those from Naco 
and nearby sites 
have been found 
from widely scat- 
tered portions of ice- 
free North America. 

26 









As is, perhaps, inevitable in a situation 
where so little factual evidence is available, a wide 
diversity of opinion has been expressed concerning 
the peopling of the New World. The following, 
though based largely on data presented at the 
AMQUA sessions, should not be taken as an attempt 
to present a consensus of AMQUA participants, nor 
of the anthropological contingent. In some cases I 
am unsure where a consensus, if any, might lie. 
These comments, rather, should be regarded as 
incorporating views which seem reasonable to an 
outsider — to an Old World prehistorian who lacks 
firsthand knowledge of the evidence. 

In conclusion then, let us return to the sev- 
eral traditional questions posed at the beginning of 
the first installment: Where did the ancestors of 
the native Americans come from? How did they 
get to the New World? How long have they been 
here? 

There is no question that the ancestors of 
the native Americans came from Asia, but this is 
not really saying very much. Apart from the 
ancestral Aleuts and Eskimos (who only figured in 
populating the extreme north and northwestern 
part of North America), it should be recognized 
that the peopling of Beringia is a question separate 
from that of peopling the New World. It is possible 
that people bearing different cultures, perhaps of 
varied genetic background, at one time or another, 
lived in Beringia. This would have depended on 
development of cultural paraphernalia adequate 
to cope with a severe subarctic and arctic environ- 
ment. After all, Beringia was a large area available 
for a very long time —long enough to allow for 
the area to be occupied, abandoned, and reoccu- 
pied. Cultural differentiation could also have oc- 
curred within a once homogeneous population, 
and there was room enough for distinct popula- 
tions to co-exist in their own areas of economic 
specialization. 

Just when people actually did live there is 
another matter. The majority of datable Siberian 
sites have fallen into the 20,000-to-10,000-years- 
ago range. Radiocarbon dates from two sites along 
the Aldan River in central Siberia have recently 
been obtained for archeological material in the 
35,000-30,000 years B.P. range. Undated material 
suspected of being older is also known, but this is 
from sites farther south and west in Siberia. 

R. Klein, an Old World prehistorian famil- 
iar with the Eurasian evidence, has suggested that 
it was not until 35,000 or 40,000 years ago that 
Early Man had achieved the cultural capabilities 
necessary for living in the more continental por- 
tions of Europe where the most rigorous climatic 
conditions existed. He argues that it would not 
have been until some time later that these people 
would have been able to cope with the even more 
severe climatic conditions of northern Asia and to 
have reached its extreme northeast corner. If true, 
that would impose a limit on when the earliest 
immigrants from or via this area could have 



entered Beringia. Klein suggests 30,000 years ago 
as a basement date. At the Siberian end of Berin- 
gia, however, nothing that early has been found. 
The oldest dates reported from the sparse informa- 
tion available from northeastern Siberia are on the 
order of 13,000 years ago. As one AMQUA partici- 
pant observed, the best inferences that can be 
drawn on the nature of late Pleistocene occupation 
of northeastern Siberia are from evidence obtained 
from sites in Alaska and the Yukon. 

The climate of Beringia during the later part 
of the Pleistocene was in general probably less 
severe than that of much of central and northern 
Asia. Conceivably, such conditions could have 
permitted the survival of coastal populations ex- 
panding their terrain northward and into Beringia. 
However, until the very end of the Pleistocene, 
there is no evidence for human occupation along 
the Pacific Rim north of the Amur River. 

It could be that only those who occupied 
Beringia's eastern end and were on hand to take 
advantage of new land (including, perhaps, an ice- 
free corridor made available by retreating ice), 
provided the founding population for the Paleo- 
Indians. Whether or not anyone had managed to 
get into the New World south of the Wisconsin ice 
limits earlier is uncertain. But it does seem clear 
that if any did reach the mid-continent, they left 
no clear-cut archeological evidence; seemingly 
they contributed little if anything to the genetic 
constitution of the American Indian. 

There is a consensus that Early Man came 
to the New World via Beringia; but there is no 
agreement as to the route or routes by which the 
early Americans gained access to the rest of North 
America. The AMQUA symposium was oriented 
towards the ice-free corridor, so there was no con- 
sideration given to possible alternate routes. The 
Pacific coast is one sometimes proposed; among 
less plausible routes suggested is the north Atlantic 
by means of boat from ice floe to ice floe. The ice- 
free corridor very likely served as a route by which 
people passed, one way or another, sometime 
around 12,000 B.P.; but we have no firm archeo- 
logical evidence from the corridor itself for that 
period of time. 

The question of greatest interest to most of 
those concerned with the peopling of the New 
World is when it occurred. Despite improved 
dating techniques, continued field work, and bet- 
ter knowledge of the Old World literature, we still 
don't have a very good idea of when the very first 
people reached eastern Beringia. Nor do we know 
when the first people reached the mid-continent 
or, if it was a different event, when the first viable 
population was established south of the Wisconsin 
ice limits. The evidence is good that Early Man 
was in Beringia at least 30,000 years ago, but not 
that it was continuously occupied from that time. 
However, apart from a few situations which for 
one reason or another are not entirely certain, 
claims for human presence elsewhere in the West- 



ern Hemisphere earlier than 15,000 years ago are 
dubious at best. Evidence has been accumulating 
to indicate that Early Man had become established 
somewhat earlier than the 12,000 years ago or so 
that until recently had seemed the best estimate. In 
at least one situation, there is good evidence for 
regional occupation through the period 12,000 to 
15,000 years ago and there are a few other dates 
from scattered sites in the Americas that fall into 
that time range. If future geological work deter- 
mines that the ice-free corridor opened earlier than 
is now thought or that it closed considerably later, 
a simple solution to some rather sticky problems 
will be at hand. 

It may be wondered why some Quaternary 
scholars are so interested in determining just when 
humans established themselves in North America. 
For anthropological archeologists, the time that a 
viable human population was established could 
make a big difference in the way they regard the 
archeological data. In the case of the Clovis hunt- 
ers we have seen that two quite different points of 
view are dependent upon the dating of this event. 
If the New World south of late Wisconsin ice limits 
was largely or entirely uninhabited when the bear- 
ers of the incipient Clovis culture arrived, the ar- 
cheologist is then faced with this question: How 
did a small founding population spread so rapidly 
throughout the Western Hemisphere, adapting in 
the same short time to very different environments 
and developing considerable cultural diversity? 
On the other hand, if the Americas were populated 
before the Clovis culture appeared, the investi- 
gator is faced with another problem involving a 
different set of cultural processes: How did the late 
Pleistocene big game hunting complex come to 
appear more or less simultaneously in North, Cen- 
tral, and South America from a pre-existing popu- 
lation base that had previously followed quite a 
different mode of existence? 



One of several aspects of the AMQUA symposium 
not dealt with in this two-installment article con- 
cerned the post-Pleistocene dispersion of people 
throughout North America. For the reader inter- 
ested in pursuing the subject further. Ancient 
Native Americans, edited by Jesse D. Jennings (W. 
H. Freeman, 1978) can be recommended. This 
book also covers Pleistocene peopling of the New 
World and provided some of the background in- 
formation in these articles. The Bering Land 
Bridge, edited by David M. Hopkins (Stanford 
University Press, 1967), was another much used 
source of information and can be recommended. 
Much of the literature concerning the late 
Pleistocene prehistory of Asia is to be found in 
scholarly journals such as Arctic Anthropology, 
which are not apt to be generally available. How- 
ever, a useful book. Northeast Asia in Prehistory 
by C. S. Chard (University of Wisconsin Press, 
1974) may be easier to locate. 



27 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Exclusive Tour Packages for Members and Their Families 




Fabulous Machu Picchu, one of the sites to be visited on Field Museum's Peru tour 



PERU 



In 1978 Field Museum was host to a dazzling exhibit of 
golden treasures from ancient Peru. Now Field Museum 
members and their families can visit some of the archeo- 
logical sites where those treasures were discovered. A 
20-day tour (Oct. 27-Nov. 15) will visit the famed ruins of 
Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, Pachacamac, Purgatario, and 
others. Also on the itinerary are the Plains of Nazca 
(viewed from low-flying aircraft), the offshore Guano 
Islands, and the famous Pisac Indian Fair. The group, 
limited to 20 persons, will be led by Dr. Michael Moseley, 
associate curator of middle and South American arche- 
ology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in 
archeology. Both Moseley and Feldman have done exten- 
sive archeological work in Peru; a tour escort will also 



accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 
donation to Field Museum)— is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare between Chicago 
and Peru, as well as local flights in Peru. Delta Airlines will 
be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out. The package includes all meals, including inflight 
meals; all sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all admis- 
sions to special events and sites, where required; all bag- 
gage handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers; all 
applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 



28 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



COOK ISLANDS 



The Unique Opportunity to see a hidden comer of the 
fabled South Seas awaits a select group of Field Museum 
Members. Accompanied by three staff scientists, from July 
14 to 31, a visit to the Cook Islands will involve comfor- 
table living in a still-unspoiled paradise. It will be the dry 
season, with clear lagoon waters, sunshine guaranteed, 
and comfortable temperatures. 

For millions of years the tiny islands of the Pacific 
have undergone a cycle from birth as a volcano to death 
as an atoll sinking slowly beneath the ocean's surface. For 
a brief span of geologic time they stand as verdant moun- 
tains rising thousands of feet into cloud cover. Perhaps 
one, perhaps 10 million years later, they sink slowly into 
the water, with reefs formed from the bodies of billions of 
tiny animals and plants providing nooks and crannies for 
a profusion of marine organisms to dwell. Occasionally 
such a reef will become re-elevated, providing a honey- 
comb warren of caves and crevices with rich pockets of 
soil in which man can raise subsistence crops. 

The Cook Islands, located between Tahiti and Fiji, 
and only recently serviced by jet aircraft, offer one of the 
last relatively undeveloped island areas. Rarotonga, the 
largest and youngest island with towering peaks and nar- 
row valleys, is surrounded by a narrow, fringing reef and 
with small off-shore coral islands. A new, 150-room hotel 
provides a base with modern comforts. Aitutaki, only an 
hour away by small aircraft, is a classic atoll lagoon, rich 
in marine life and superb for snorkeling and scuba diving. 
There, a comfortable country-style motel provides ac- 
commodations right next to the lagoon reef, and the 
friendly, simple services of the Polynesian community. 
Mangaia, also a short flight away, is a raised reef island 
with small population and no tourist facilities. On a day's 
trip, transportation on a flat-bed truck or school micro- 
bus will supplement hiking into the raised limestone reef 
and journey to the lagoon areas themselves. 

Accompanying this trip will be Dr. Alan Solem, 
curator of invertebrates. Dr. Robert K. Johnson, associ- 
ate curator of fishes, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi, re- 
search associate, Division of Invertebrates. Dr. Solem 



has traveled through many islands and published exten- 
sively on Pacific Island organisms, concentrating both on 
the native animals of the forests and reefs, plus the 
changes wrought by the accidental and purposeful intro- 
ductions caused by human commerce. Through his eyes 
you will see the patterns of change through time, both 
before and since man's colonization of these islands. 

Dr. Johnson, a certified SCUBA diver and expert on 
coral reef fishes, has led and participated in many diving 
expeditions in the Caribbean and Pacific. He will be in 
charge of SCUBA exploration on the outer reefs and deep 
lagoon areas, comparing and contrasting the fish and in- 
vertebrate communities as they vary from wave expo- 
sure, depth, and substrate types. 

Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi, on several trips to Aus- 
tralia and the Pacific Islands, has collected and studied 
shallow water marine invertebrates, particularly species 
of the fish capturing and eating cone shells. In addition, 
she has published on several native land organisms from 
the Pacific Islands. 

There thus will be presented an overall view of 
Pacific Islands, their geologic and faunistic history, their 
contemporary diversity on land and in water, a view of 
the changes produced by man's habitation, all from the 
comforts of an international-class hotel, plus two nights 
on an atoll in simple comfort and a day on a little-visited 
island without tourist accommodations. The last three 
days of the tour will be spent in Hawaii. 

The Cook Island tour group, limited to 25 persons, 
will travel via Air New Zealand. The tour cost — $2,650 
(which includes a $400 donation to Field Museum) — is 
based upon double occupancy and includes round trip air 
fare from Chicago to the Cook Islands. The package 
includes all inter-island transportation, all meals (except 
lunches in Hawaii) and all inflight meals, all admissions 
to special events, where required; all baggage handling 
throughout, plus all necessary transfers, all applicable 
taxes, and tips. Advance deposit required: $400 per 
person. 



For full itinerary, additional details, 
and registration information, please write or 
call Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 
922-9410, X-251. 



29 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



THE 
SOVIET 
UNION 



A travelogue on the Sovi- 
et Union will be shown 
on Wed., March 28, at 
7:00 p.m. in Dining Room 
E. Experts on the Soviet 
Union will be present to 
answer questions. Re- 
freshments will be 
served. 




St. Basil's Church. Moscow 

The Splendors of Old Russia, the excitement of the 

New are in store for Field Museum Members and their 
families who join the tour "Treasures of Russia and the 
Ukraine," leaving Chicago's O'Hare Airport June 19 and 
returning July 8. 

Highlights of the exclusive tour will include visits to 
the cities of Moscow, Vladimir, Kiev, Leningrad, Petro- 
vorets, Novgorod, and Petrozavodsk. The group, limited 
to 35 persons, will be led from Chicago by a Russian- 
speaking lecturer and a Russian-speaking escort, with 
additional guides while in the Soviet Union provided by In- 
tourist (the Soviet Travel Bureau) . 

The tour cost— $2,970 (which includes a $500.00 
donation to Field Museum) — is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare from Chicago to 



Moscow, with intra-Russian air transportation where re- 
quired. The transatlantic airline is Swissair. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out or, where necessary, the best hotels available. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals; all 
sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all admissions to 
special events and sites, where required; all baggage 
handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers; all appli- 
cable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and registration 
information for all tours, please write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



30 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



ILLINOIS ARCHEOLOGY FIELD TRIP 



For many of us, the word "arche- 
ology" conjures up visions of 
great architecture in distant 
places: Egypt's Pyramids and 
Sphinx, Cambodia's Angkor 
Wat, and Mexico's Pyramids of 
the Sun and Moon at Teotihua- 
can. These sites, with their relics, 
are limitlessly fascinating. 

But right here in Illinois we 
also have exciting archeological 
sites, including the largest 
aboriginal structure north of 
Mexico— Monk's Mound at Ca- 
hokia. One of the most broadly 
based archeological research 



centers in the country is the 
Foundation for Illinois Archeo- 
logy, at Kampsville; and one of 
the largest covered excavations 
with the longest continuing 
research programs is at Dickson 
Mounds, near Lewistown. 

If you are interested in 
learning more about Illinois pre- 
history, as well as how scientific 
archeological research is con- 
ducted, you can join the Field 
Museum field trip of June 1-5, 
which will visit Dickson Mounds, 
Kampsville, and Cahokia 
Mounds. Limited to 30 partici- 



pants, the trip includes site visits, 
lecture and slide presentations, 
workshops and discussions led 
by staff archeologists working at 
the respective sites. The field trip 
director is Robert Pickering, a 
doctoral candidate at Northwest- 
ern University. 

For full itinerary, additional 
details, and registration informa- 
tion on the field trip, please write 
or call Michael J. Flynn, Field 
Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 
60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



Helton Mound, in the Lower Illinois Riuer Valleii, is ti/pical of the type oj site to he visited during 
the June archeology field trip. 




'?- -> f-'- '.:-v-i'*^isr^-,^> --Hit 



■i)^J».i>Jj^> 



31 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Wood as Fuel 

Doing a slow burn over high heating costs? 
Decided to save fuel dollars by turning to 
wood? The next logical question is, what to 
burn it in? Fireplaces, while decorative and 
romantic, have a meager efficiency of heat 
energy output of about 10 percent. In other 
words, the other 90 percent of the heat goes 
up the chimney. Controlled draft, metal 
stoves, on the other hand, boast an efficien- 
cy of 50-60 percent, but they vary greatly in 
heat-output capacity, steadiness and dura- 
tion of output, tendency to form creosote 
deposits, safety, durability, and ease of 
loading. 

Some antique stoves, such as the 
famous Franklin, are leaky and inefficient. 
But others, like the Art Sparkle, built in 
1894 by the Portland Stove Foundry, con- 
tain intricate baffle systems which allow 
smoke to rise until it hits the top of the 
stove, then draws it down around the sides 
of the firebox, through a stove pipe in the 
back of the stove, and finally, out the flue. 
The stovepipe stays cool while the smoke 
circulates numerous times through the 
stove, which retains most of the fire's heat 
and disperses it into the room. 

The masonry stove, or "Russian 
fireplace, " is a closeable fireplace with a 
convoluted flue. Unlike a conventional 
fireplace, the masonry fireplace absorbs the 
heat into its mass. A variation, the 
Kachelofen wood (or coalburning) heater, 
features a central core of cast iron sur- 
rounded by a ceramic tile wall. 

The single most important factor in a 
stove is the control of draft which regulates 
the crucial element, oxygen. In general, air- 
tight units have higher combustion efficien- 
cy, and double (or smoke) chambers pro- 
vide more surface area for heat transfer and 
more volume for better combusion. With 
these general principles in mind, wood 
stove buying still requires a great amount of 
homework and comparison shopping. Re- 
cent information indicates that more than 
500 companies are manufacturing wood 
stoves in the United States, offering more 
than 2,000 models. To confound the situa- 
tion, presently no standard safety re- 
quirements or installation regulations have 
been issued. 

One good source of information on 
woodburning is The Woodburner's En- 
cyclopedia, by Jay Shelton, a professor at 
Williams College and a pioneer in modern 
research on wood stoves. Shelton indicates 
that wood at $63 a cord is competitive with 
fuel oil at 50c a gallon (based on a wood 
stove efficiency of 50 percent and a furnace 
efficiency of 65 percent). 
32 



Wood is usually divided into two 
categories, hardwood or softwood, depen- 
ding on its density. Softwoods like pine are 
less dense, thus have a lower overall energy 
content and contain more volatiles, so they 
burn with more flame. Hardwoods, mostly 
deciduous trees like oak and hickory, burn 
longer and hotter. 

It is important to use dry wood, 
because "green" wood leaves a heavier 
creosote residue, a fire hazard. "Green" 
wood is heavier than dry wood because of 
the water content. How to tell? Two wet 
logs knocked together will resound with a 
dull thud rather than the sharper, ringing 
sound of dry logs. Also, freshly cut wood 
shows clear growth rings while dry wood 
will have darker-colored ends and cracks 
radiating from the center. 

Look for a 12-14 inch base on a tree to 
yield about half a cord. Fall, and preferably 
winter, are good times to cut wood, allow- 
ing plenty of time for the wood to dry 
before the next season, and reducing the 
chance of sprouting. Most important, wood 
holds only a fraction of water in the winter 
that it does in summer. 

If everyone turns to wood, will air 
pollution worsen? In large cities with dense 
housing, it is conceivable. But in suburban 
and rural area it has been found that wood- 
burning poses fewer air pollution problems 
than coal and many types of fuel oil. The 



Species 



Available BTU's 
in one cord 
(in 1,000's) 



Heat 
Value 
Rating 



Apple 23,877 1 

Beech, Amer 21,800 1 

Hickory 24,600 1 

Ironwood 24,100 1 

Oak, white 22,700 1 

Ash, white 20,000 2 

Birch, white 18,900 2 

Birch, yellow 21,300 2 

Maple, sugar 21,300 1 

Oak, red 21,300 1 

Elm, Amer 17,200 2 

Maple, red 18,600 2 

Tamarack 18,650 2 

Aspen 12,500 3 

Pine, white 12,022 3 



1 = best 

2 = average 

3 = poor 



sulfur content in wood is low and although 
carbon dioxide is produced by woodburn- 
ing, it is released in the same amount by 
naturally decaying wood. 

Some volatile substances are released 
in the woodburning process, but what they 
are or what health problems they might 
cause are simply not known. 

A decision to burn wood should be 
based on more than economics. It will 
likely involve some change in lifestyle 
although many profess that it is a satisfy- 
ing, fulfilling change. It will likely involve 
manual labor — some splitting, stacking and 
hauling, and a strong constitution — to grab 
the longjohns on a cold morning and go 
downstairs to start or stoke a fire. For those 
who are less than purists, a conventional 
home heating system alongside a new, "old" 
wood stove has proved a more than happy 
compromise. —Carol Waite, 

National Wildlife Federation 

New Hope for Snake bite Victims? 

Two Mississippi scientists may have found 
a new substance for treating snakebite vic- 
tims that is much more effective than the 
treatments now in use. 

Van Philpot of Houston, Mississippi, 
and Rune Stjerholm, a biochemist at Tulane 
Medical Center, have isolated the substance 
in the blood of pit vipers that prevents them 
from dying when bitten by their own kind. 
The isolation is believed to be the first ever. 

Snakebite victims are currently treated 
with an antitoxin obtained from immunized 
horses. One problem with the current treat- 
ment is that roughly a third of the popula- 
tion receiving the antitoxin has allergenic 
reactions, which sometimes prove fatal. 
The antitoxin also isn't effective for water 
moccasin bites. 

The new substance that has been 
isolated in the blood of the viper family 
would be effective for treating ail viper 
bites, which include rattlesnakes, asps, 
bushmasters, copperheads, and water 
moccasins. 

Jogging Can Be Hazardous 

A young man who was jogging near Old 
Faithful in Yellowstone National Park spot- 
ted a grizzly bear following him. When he 
stopped jogging, the bear came up to him, 
stood up, and slapped him once on each 
shoulder. The bear then ran off, leaving the 
jogger unhurt but surprised. 

Eleven days later another attack oc- 
curred on a man jogging in Kansas City, 
Missouri. According to an AP report, the 
185-pound jogger was knocked to his knees 



by the attack, which left him with three 
scratches and four puncture wounds. The 
jogger described his assailant as a bird with 
a white underbelly and tail and a wing- 
spread of 5 or 6 feet. 



Tecopa Pupfish Presumed Extinct 

The Tecopa pupfish, a IVi-inch fish native 
to the Amargosa River near Death Valley in 
California, is being removed from the en- 
dangered species list — but not because it is 
no longer endangered. For the first time, the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing 
removal of an animal because it is presumed 
extinct. Since 1970, FWS has been unable to 
find any trace of the fish which lived in the 
highly saline, warm water of the river. It 
apparently met its match with stream chan- 
nelization, pollution, and introduction of 
nonnative, competing species, said FWS. 
"The most depressing thing about this loss 
of life form is that it was totally avoidable. 
The human projects which so disrupted its 
habitat, if carefully planned, could have en- 
sured its survival," said Interior Assistant 
Secretary Robert L. Herbst. 

Although not included on the endan- 
gered species list, another of the 12 subspe- 
cies of pupfish, the Shoshone pupfish of the 
same area, is also mentioned in the rule- 
making as being extinct for the same 
reasons. 




Poaching Ring Broken Up 

The gamey flavor of freshly killed wild 
animals was so irresistible to many Detroit 
residents that they created an outlet for one 
of the nation's largest organized commer- 
cial poaching rings, which illegally killed 
more than 100,000 ducks, geese, deer, squir- 
rels, rabbits, fox, fish, and other animals in 
the last few years. The ring was broken up 
recently by federal and state wildlife law 
enforcement officers. 

An intensive 15-month undercover in- 
vestigation climaxed on January 20 when 25 
special agents of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service and 125 Michigan conservation offi- 



cers simultaneously arrested 53 people in 
the Detroit area for illegally killing, selling, 
buying, and marketing dozens of species of 
fish and game. 

"The entire operation is one of the 
most extraordinary cooperative wildlife law 
enforcement efforts ever engaged in be- 
tween a state and the federal government," 
observed a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
official. "Thanks to the teamwork and 
cooperation between the two enforcement 
organizations, the largest and most highly 
organized market hunting ring uncovered 
in recent years has been destroyed." 

The illegal commercialization involved 
nearly 300 deer, 1,700 squirrels, 4,400 
ducks, over 11,000 rabbits, and thousands 
of pounds of walleye fish. The poachers 
also killed and sold badgers, raccoons, red 
fox, pheasants, partridge, and geese. 

The existence of a poaching ring was 
first suspected in late 1975 when the Michi- 
gan Department of Natural Resources 
learned from tipsters that an organized 
group was supplying several Detroit retail 
markets with wild game. Federal law en- 
forcement officers were called in a year 
later to investigate possible violations of 
two federal wildlife laws. The Migratory 
Bird Treaty Act makes it a federal offense to 
kill, possess, or transport protected migra- 
tory birds, while the Black Bass Act outlaws 
interstate transfer of illegally caught fish. 

In the fall of 1977 and throughout the 
remainder of the investigation, four federal 
and two Michigan DNR undercover agents 
penetrated the organization. The agents 
posed as route men and customer suppliers 
and dealt frequently with ring members 
who routinely carried weapons. In their 
undercover capacity to obtain evidence, 
agents bought the carcasses of illegally 
killed game and fish more than 75 times. 

As route men, the agents would pick 
up the slaughtered game from poachers in 
southern Michigan and deliver it to another 
member of the ring for further processing. 
Customer suppliers would then deliver the 
meat to various retail meat markets in De- 
troit. The prices paid by the customers for 
the wild game were often much higher than 
for the same domestically produced species 
which could be bought legally. 

"We suspect market hunting rings exist 
in and around several other major U.S. 
cities," said an FWS official. "However, we 
hope that our success in dismantling this 
large operation and the publicity surround- 
ing it will reveal to the thousands of Ameri- 
can consumers just what they are doing to 
the nation's wildlife." 

Some of the methods used to obtain 
game and fish illegally included deer shining 
(locating the animal with a powerful light 
and then shooting it); luring flocks of ducks 
to baited feeding areas for slaughter; and 
cutting down trees with chain saws to drive 
raccoons from their dens for easier capture. 



U.S. Attorney James K. Robinson of 
the Eastern District of Michigan in Detroit 
said that those arrested under federal war- 
rants may be charged with violations of the 
Black Bass Act and/or the Migratory Bird 
Treaty Act which carries both misdemeanor 
and felony penalties. Robinson said that the 
matter would be presented before a federal 
grcmd jury in the near future. 



Chemical Company President 
Convicted of Polluting Waterway 

In a landmark environmental decision, a 
federal jury convicted the president of a 
Kentucky chemical firm of illegally dump- 
ing toxic chemicals into Louisville, Ken- 
tucky's, sewage system nearly two years 
ago. 

The conviction marks the first time 
that an individual has been convicted of 
criminal charges for polluting a waterway. 

It is also the first time that evidence ob- 
tained through a sophisticated chemical 
technique known as "oil spill profiling," or 
"fingerprinting," has been admitted into a 
federal court. The chemical test was done 
by a U.S. EPA lab and showed that samples 
taken from the Louisville sewer plant's 
entry chamber matched samples taken from 
a tank owned by the offending company. 

The chemical dumping caused the shut- 
down of the wastewater treatment plant for 
Louisville and other parts of the surround- 
ing county. During the three months the 
plant was closed, about 90 million gallons 
of raw sewage a day were dumped into the 
Ohio River. Two of the sewer's lines were 
still closed as of Dec. 27, causing from 7 
million to 15 million gallons of sewage to be 
channeled into the river daily. 




Research on PCBs in River Systems 

PCBs and Midwest weather have much in 
common. Both are cussed and discussed at 
great length, but there is not much that can 
be done with either. 

PCBs (short for a family of chemicals 
known as polychlorinated biphenyls) are 
highly stable, nearly indestructible com- 
pounds formerly used in electrical trans- 
formers, hydraulic fluids, plastics, paints, 
and a host of other products. High tempera- 
ture incineration (2700 °F.) is the only ap- 
proved method for their disposal. 

Although they have been manufac- 
tured since the 1920s, an accidental discov- 
ery in 1966 found the contaminant to be 
widespread in the environment. The dis- 
covery caused a clamor among ecologists 
and health authorities in speculation about 
their effects in the food chain, especially in 
aquatic organisms where toxic levels of 
PCBs can be found. 

Chronic exposure to PCBs can cause 
serious health effects to animals and man. 
In 1968, over 1,(XX) Japanese developed 
physical abnormalities when exposed acci- 
dentally to large doses of PCBs in rice oil. 
Their symptoms included severe acne, eye 
discharges, darkening of the skin, birth 
defects, and miscarriages. Very little is 
known, however, about the long-term ef- 
fect of PCBs on human health. 

PCBs characteristically accumulate in 
the body fat of animals — and man — and 
because of the stability of the chemicals 
organisms rid themselves of the contami- 
nant at extremely slow rates. 

The production for domestic use of 
PCBs was finally halted by the passage of 
the Toxic Substance Control Act of 1977. 
But the catch is, roughly one-half (250 mil- 
lion lbs.) of all PCBs ever manufactured are 
still in existence and much of it will be 
entering the environment for a long time. 

Their entry into the environment 
through the "back door" via leakage from 
landfills, runoff, accidental spills, and other 
means has been a concern to the Interior 
Department's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 



(FWS). Agency researchers are attempting 
to better understand just what happens to 
PCBs entering the environment, particular- 
ly through our river systems. 

Previous research has concentrated on 
freshwater bodies such as the Great Lakes, 
which act as a catch basin for the by-prod- 
ucts of human society. The present FWS 
concern is what happens to PCBs and simi- 
lar contaminants entering the environment 
through river systems. In addition, they are 
trying to see what happens to living organ- 
isms that come into contact with the con- 
taminant. The strategy of the FWS is to 
concentrate its efforts on the Mississippi 
River and apply the knowledge to other 
similar rivers throughout the United States. 

PCB levels in the Mississippi below 
Minneapolis and St. Paul are rather high, 
but at nowhere near the level at other loca- 
tions. Lake Pepin, 80 miles down river from 
the Twin Cities, receives a rather stiff dose 
of contaminants, which tend to settle out in 
the lake. High water levels during the spring 
thaw carry much of the sediment and con- 
taminant load to Lake Onalaska, 70 miles 
further down river at LaCrosse, Wise, 
where research efforts are concentrated. 

"There should be no cause for alarm or 
panic along the Mississippi concerning PCB 
levels," says an FWS spokesman. "They are 
there, but not in excessive quantities." 

Various fish in the Great Lakes system 
contain PCB levels in excess of the "5 parts 
per million" health authorities have estab- 
lished as safe to eat. Certain fishes, namely 
carp, exceed this 5 ppm base in Lake Pepin. 
The commercial sale of this fish was banned 
in the lake, curtailing a local business. 

FWS researchers are studying the bot- 
tom sediments, which range from clay and 
silt to sandy material. They hope to corre- 
late bottom types and PCB levels with the 
living organisms found in this type of habi- 
tat. The research pays particular attention 
to fingernail clams and the mayfly, which 
act as indicator species because they are 
common, widespread, and act as carriers 
for contaminants found in bottom sedi- 
ments. Fingernail clams and mayflies are 



fed upon heavily by other wildlife species. 
Fish are fond of mayflies and waterfowl, 
particularly scaup, dine on the tiny finger- 
nail clam. 



Cage Birds Continue Popular 

The cage-bird trade booms. Exports global- 
ly are around 7.5 million birds a year (1972 
figures). Japan alone imports over one mil- 
lion. Of birds now in cages in U.S. homes, 
80 percent started life in the wild in foreign 
lands. They are the "fortunate" ones; the 
survival rate between catcher and customer 
is around 20 percent. 

Rare species are especially prized. Wild 
populations are declining alarmingly — at 
least nine have plunged into the endangered 
category. Some countries have introduced 
import controls but most have not. 

Future Carburetors 
May Be Nonadjustable 

The EPA has announced changes in emission 
test procedures that could lead to nonad- 
justable carburetors in the early 1980s. The 
changes are being made because many car 
owners are adjusting their carburetors to 
improve performance, with a resulting in- 
crease in pollution. 

Under existing rules, prototype vehicles 
must meet emission rules when carburetor 
and spark timing settings are as specified by 
the manufacturer. Under the new rules, 
which take effect with 1981 models, cars 
must pass such tests at whatever settings are 
physically possible. 

As a result, auto companies will either 
have to produce nonadjustable carburetors 
and distributors or greatly reduce the ad- 
justment range of these devices. 

Auto industry reaction has been favor- 
able, with estimates that the rule change 
will cost less than $10 per car. However, 
there have also been warnings that during 
the first 600 to 1,200 miles of engine opera- 
tion, the cars may not run as smoothly as 
they might be expected to. 



34 




March & April at Field Museum 



(March 15 through April 15) 



New Exhibits 

Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Conti- 
nents. Opened February 15. Conceived and created by Field 
Museum's own staff, this exhibit features exotic feather objects 
from around the world. Assembled almost entirely from in- 
house collections, "Feather Arts" will travel to other museums 
nationwide after its stay at Field Museum. The 260 artifacts, 
drawn from 1,000 years of history, include such rarities as an 
Hawaiian king's feather cape given to England's George IV in 
1821, and the feather shoes of an Australian sorcerer. This 
fascinating exhibit examines the symbolic and religious mean- 
ing of feathers over the centuries and illustrates the impor- 
tance of featherwork as a universal art form. Hall 26. Through 
June 15. 

A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History. Opened 
December 8. This exhibit unites 63 natural history specimens 
with samples of philatelic art. Projected to eventually cover the 
four disciplines of natural history, the exhibit for the first 8 
months is devoted to the animal kingdom as illustrated on 
stamps from all over the world. 'A Stamp Sampler " was con- 
ceived by Field Museum volunteer Col. M. E. Rada, exhibit 
guest curator. The exhibition was designed by Peter Ho, a 
University of Illinois graduate student. 



Continuing Exhibits 

Birds. Exhibits in Halls 20 and 21 examine the varied worlds of 
birds, from the antarctic emperor penguin to the American 
sparrow. Three scenes are devoted to Chicago-area birds. 
Recently extinct birds and restorations of fossil birds are also 
on view. 



Man in His Environment. Gain a worldwide perspective of en- 
vironmental problems through the multi-media presentation 
of this thought-provoking exhibit. The center of the hall con- 
tains a recreated portion of a Georgia salt marsh encased in 
glass. The reconstruction allows visitors to study basic 
ecological principles visually, within a total marsh environ- 
ment. Detailed reading rails surround the exhibit. Main floor. 

The Hall of Chinese Jades contains beautiful jade art span- 
ning over 6,000 years of Chinese history. An exhibit in the 
center of the hall illustrates ancient jade carving techniques. 
Hall 30, second floor. 



New Programs 

Music from Around the World: Programs for Adults and 
Children. In March and April, the Museum hosts a series of ex- 
otic musical programs from the Far East. 

■Qamelan Mini-Concerts. " Sunday, March 18 at 2 p.m. and 3 
p.m. The Gamelan Master Class, under the direction of Dr. Sue 
Carole De Vale, offers free concerts on the Museum's 24-piece 
Javanese gamelan in Hall K. Ground floor. 

"Music of the Orient" with Ira Kersh. Saturdays, March 24 and 
March 31. This two-part program introduces children to the 
Oriental cultures through musical instruments and perfor- 
mances. Part 1: "Music of Asia." Enables children to use in- 
struments from Tibet, China, India, Indonesia, and Asia. Part 
II: "Indonesian Wayang Shadow Puppets." Introduces children 
to the music and folklore of Java and Bali. Participants learn 
to use puppets and accompany the action on bamboo rattles; 
advance reservations required. Parents, also invited, should 
purchase tickets if planning to attend with their children. 
Members admission: $1.50; nonmembers: $3.00. Tickets: 
922-9410, X-364. 




(Continued on back cover) 



3S 



March and April at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside cover) 



"The Japanese Koto: A Program of Traditional and Contem- 
porary Music." Sunday, March 25, 2 p.m. With Ricardo D. 
Trimillos, professor of music at the University of Hawaii. This 
concert, presented in traditional Japanese dress, offers 17th- 
and 18th-century classical compositions for the koto (a 
zitherlike instrument), followed by avante garde American and 
Japanese compositions. Admission: members, $5.00; 
nonmembers, $6.00. Pre-concert members' brunch available 
at 12 noon for $6.00. A post-concert reception, open to the 
public, will also be held. Admission: members, $4.50; 
nonmembers, $5.00. James Simpson Theatre. For tickets 
phone 922-9410, X-364. 



"On Music in India" with Mazir Ali Jairazbhoy, professor of 
music at the University of California at Los Angeles. Sunday, 
April 1 at 2 p.m. This multimedia lecture/demonstration ex- 
plains the fundamental concepts of Indian music, the role of 
music in the life of an Indian musician, and Indian musical 
styles. The sitar, a long-necked lute, will be played. Admission 
for members is $5.00; nonmembers, $6.00. A members' pre- 
concert brunch is available at 12 noon. Admission is $6.00. A 
post-concert reception, open to the public, will also be held. 
Admission: members, $4.50; nonmembers, $5.00. James 
Simpson Theatre. Tickets: 922-9410, X-364. 

Spring Journey. "The Meaning of Feathers. " Through May 31. 
Self-guided tour leads families and children through exhibits 
to discover what birds and their feathers mean to various 
cultures. Free Journey pamphlets are available at the North 
information Booth, and at the South and West doors. 

The Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures resume during March and 
April. These free, adult-oriented travel films begin each Satur- 
day afternoon at 2:30 p.m. in Simpson Theatre. Reserved 
seating is available for Members and their families. Admission 
free at the West entrance. Doors open at 1:45 p.m. March 17: 
"Sweden — A Midsummer's Might Dream. " March 24: "Ger- 
many — Once Upon a Time. " March 31: "Egypt — Gift of the 
Mile. " April 7: "China After Mao." April 14: "The Marsh— A 
Quiet Mystery."' 



Continuing Programs 

Armchair Expeditions. Geared for adults, these in-house "ex- 
peditions " include special slide lectures and tours of selected 
exhibits. Dining arrangements available. During March, the 
Museum features slide lectures on "Feather Arts" by Phyllis 
Rabineau, curator-in-charge of the exhibit. The following dates 
are available by reservation only: March 21 at 7:30 p.m., 
March 24 at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m., and March 28 at 7:30 p.m! 
Phone 922-0733 for more information. 



Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. Field Museum's 
popular ""Anthropology Game" has been expanded to include 
botany, geology, and zoology. The object here is to determine 
which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter"s axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the en- 
trance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 
a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available 
in botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an 
interest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410. 
X-360. 

March and April Hours. The Museum is open every day, 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m., except Fridays. On Fridays the Museum is open 9 
a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Closed 
Good Friday, April 13. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, 
main floor. 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410. 




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Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

April, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 4 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walslen 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leiand Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild. Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Goerge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pine, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Kimberley Snail Hunt — Round V 

By Alan Solem, curator of inver- 
tebrates 

8 Soviet Union Tour for Members 

9 Red Square and Beyond 

By Rev. Maurice ]. Meyers, S.J. 

10 Butterflies 

By Vladimir Nabokov 

15 Members' Tours to Galena, 
Starved Rock, and Baraboo 

16 What Is a Curator? 

By John Terrell, associate 
curator of Oceanic archaeology 
and ethnology 

18 Meteor-wrongs 

By Edward Olsen, curator of 
mineralogy 

22 Field Museum Honors Its Volun- 

teers 

24 Ross's Rosy Gull 

By Janette Neal 

27 Quetico Wilderness Canoe Trip 

28 Illinois Archaeology Field Trip 

29 Observations on the Mutability 
of Time 

By Alan Edward Rubin 

32 Members' Tour to Peru 

33 Members' Tour to the Cook 
Islands 

35 April and May at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Spring ferns at Waterfall Glen, DuPage 
County. Photo by John Kolar. 



field Museum of Natural History BuUetirt is published monthly, except combined July /August 
issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. 11. 
60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; S3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin 
subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy 
of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to 
Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago U. 6C605. ISSN: 
COlS-0703, 



Field Trips for Adults and Families 

With the long winter finally over, it's time 
at last to enjoy outdoor activities that don't 
involve snow. The Ray A. Kroc Environ- 
mental Education Program, resuming in 
May and June, features one-day trips to 
local areas of special biological and 
ecological interest. Groups are accom- 
panied by Field Museum staff or guest 
scientists with expertise in botany, zoology, 
or geology. The current schedule includes 
trips to the Starved Rock area, Volo Bog, 
Gensburg-Markham Prairie, the Indiana 
Dunes, and areas especially abundant with 
spring wildf lowers. 

Both adult trips and family trips are 
available, but early registration (by mail) is 
strongly recommended. 

Field Museum members are 
automatically mailed the field trip brochure 
with trip dates and registration form. 
Nonmembers may receive the brochure by 
calling 922-9410 ext 362, or by writing to: 
Department of Education — Field Trips, 
Field Muesum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. 




Environmental field trips are geared for family groups as well as for adults 



Borden Expedition Members Reunited. On Feb. 3 several members of the Borden-Field 
Museum Alaska Arctic Expedition of 1927 were reunited at Field Museum for a reception in 
their honor. Left to right: Bruce Andrews, of Ellenton, Fla.; Mrs. Foster Adams, of New 
York City; Rev. T. V. Purcell, of Washington D.C.; Dr. Courtney Cazden, of Stanford, 
Calif.; Kenneth McClelland, of Chicago; and Foster Adams, of New York. Andrews, 
Purcell, and McClelland were Sea Scout crew members of the expedition. Mrs. Adams, then 
Mrs. John Borden, was the wife of the expedition leader and a member of the expedition 
party. Dr. Cazden is the daughter of Mrs. Adams. 

Following the reception in their honor, a film of the expedition was shown in James 
Simpson Theatre, introduced by Mrs. Adams and narrated by Rev. Purcell. The film will be 
shown at the Museum again in the near future, date to be announced. 





Field Museum Selected as 
NEH Learning Museum 

A three-year Learning Museum grant has 
been awarded Field Museum by the Nation- 
al Endowment for the Humanities, a federal 
agency. The purpose of the $300,495 grant 
is to provide public, adult education courses 
in the humanities. Field Museum's collec- 
tions will provide the resource base and 
largely determine course content. Courses 
will involve multimedia instruction, per- 
forming arts presentations, cultural festi- 
vals, and lectures by distinguished special- 
ists. "China, its History, Culture, and Art" 
is the Learning Museum theme for 1979, 
with course activities beginning in May. 
Details will be announced. 

The Learning Museum program direc- 
tor is Susan Stob; program coordinator is 
Anthony Pfeiffer. For further information 
contact Learning Museum Program, De- 
partment of Education, Field Museum, 922- 
9410, X 395. 



Kimberley Snail Hunt 
Round V 



BY ALAN SOLEM 



Readers of the Field Museum Bulletin have often 
seen there articles about the thrills, traumas, 
adventures, and even misadventures during the 
course of a curator's field work. The accompany- 
ing photographs frequently show spectacular 
scenery; scruffy looking scientists in camp or hill- 
side; and animals, plants, or cultural relicts being 
collected, prepared, measured, or photographed. 
Our first flush of nostalgic writing about field life 
can be read with fascination even years later. 
Often these articles are penned hurriedly while we 
are in the initial culture shock of re-entry to city 
and museum life after the simplicity and uninter- 
ruptedly focused efforts in the field. Fun to do, 
sometimes dramatic, and a standard duty for the 
returned scientist, such Bulletin fare will continue. 

It is far more difficult, totally undramatic, 
much more fragmented, and quite unusual for us 
to try to write about the aftermath — the long 
period of specimen processing, data-taking and 
manipulation, idea-organizing, describing, writ- 
ing, synthesizing, illustrating, publishing, and the 
lecturing to scientific groups that normally follow 
from major field programs. We are subject to the 
everyday interruptions and multiple duties of 
working for a complex organization, plus the 
varied and complicated demands of living in a 
large city. Inevitably, the progress of such work 
must be fragmented and sporadic. The project 
may have to be put aside for weeks, or even 
months, while pressing deadlines and accumulated 
problems are met. Rarely is it possible to produce 
the research quickly or even to have a coherent 
follow-up story for presentation two years after a 
major collecting effort. 

My last field station in Australia was in the 
Olgas, barren red rocks near Ayers Rock in Cen- 
tral Australia, on May 27, 1977. After the incred- 
ible heat and humidity of the Kimberley (see 
March, October, November, 1977 Bulletin), the 
last camp-out, a few days and a thousand miles 
south, was memorable, since windshield, tent, 
and gear were frost-covered by dawn. A night 
spent in Mt. Gambier with friends, then drive 



through a storm that deposited a full half-inch of 
snow on the highway near Melbourne. The next 
morning, Melbourne papers heralded that record 
low temperatures for May (33° fahrenheit) had 
resulted in a total lack of reported crime in that 
city of 2 million people. Frantic packing of speci- 
mens and gear preceded flying back to the United 
States. 

Then began the long wait for the specimens 
to come. It took three months for the crates to go 
from Perth and Melbourne to New York; two 
months from New York to Chicago; and one 
month from a Chicago freight terminal to the 
Museum— a sad commentary on modern trans- 
portation efficiency. This delay did permit my 
partly catching up on letters and reports. At long 
last the by-now slightly battered green shipping 
cases, still with their coating of red Australian 
dust, lay on my office floor. Immediately, 150 
pint, half-pint, half-liter, and liter jars filled with 
specimens had to have their alcohol changed, 
since body fluids from the thousands of preserved 
snails had drastically diluted the original 95% 
alcohol level. 

Snails had been collected at some 300 dif- 
ferent stations. Often the same station had been 
visited on several different dates, over a period of 
months. Could I remember exactly what had been 
collected where? Of course not. Since most were 
unknown species and genera, this is not surpris- 
ing. Most of my time in the next two months was 
spent in sorting and organizing these specimens 
for study. Why my time? Why not an assistant? 
For several reasons. First, I didn't have an assistant 
available for such work. Second, this was an in- 
valuable chance for me to take an overall look at 
what I had collected. Two-thirds of the species had 
never been found before, and many that lived in 



Alan Solent is curator of invertebrates. His "Kimberley 
Snail Hunt — Round I" and "Kimberley Snail Hunt — 
Rounds II through IV" appeared in the March and Oc- 
tober, 1977, Bulletins, respectively. 



What Happened When 



Continuation^ 
of work 



First monograph published. 



First monograph page proof 



■^1979 



Worl< on third monograph^ 



"First monograph prepared' 



Second monograph prepared 



"Await arrival at Field Museum 
-of collections 



1978 



Collections processed . 
and sorted 











^ Study in Perth 


^^1977 


^r Major field work 






Dissect a 


nd ^/' 
^r Equi 








illustrate 


pment shipped 






J 


/l976 

"Details of 




Grant funding 


received^^ 


major field work planned 



Grant proposal prepared. 
Australian field program^/'1975 
developed 



Field 

reconnaissance .^1974 



Funding for field 
reconnaisance 
— sought- 



Project idea^l973 



different ways at the same station looked super- 
ficially very much alike to the untutored eye. At 
the same time that I was doing "routine sorting 
and processing," I was trying to evaluate subjec- 
tively the patterns of variation and make tentative 
guesses as to what order of study might make the 
most sense. Besides, actually handling specimens 
can be and remains a pleasant break from the ac- 
cumulated mass of letters from twelve-month 
absence, plus, asked-for reports and memos. Most 
important, detailed study and writing could not 
commence until sorting of the field collections had 
been completed. 

From October 1977 through January 1978, 
preliminary sorting, labeling, and cataloguing of 
the specimens continued. From my 1976-77 Aus- 
tralian field work, 1,843 lots and 42,000 specimens 
were processed. This was added to the 798 lots 
and 22,000 specimens collected in 1974. About 
two-thirds of these were camaenid land snails, the 
group I was mainly interested in. Now the work of 
detailed study and publishing could begin. 



The cold and snow of winter, 1978, was a 
marked physical contrast to the summer heat and 
blue skies in Perth the previous year. For illus- 
trator Elizabeth Liebman, work was much the 
same. I dissected, she illustrated the anatomy of 
species belonging to several genera that are com- 
mon in or restricted to the Kimberley region. We 
had made a major start on this material January 
through April, 1977, in Perth, based upon speci- 
mens I had collected from September through 
December, 1976. Many more specimens had been 
gathered by Laurie Price, Carl Christiansen, and 
myself in January through May, 1977. None of 
them had been studied yet. These specimens all 
had to be measured, checked for reproductive 
stage, and analyzed for similarity or structural dif- 
ferences from populations sampled in neighboring 
ranges. The whole package of information about 
each species then had to be organized for compari- 
sons with related taxa. 

All of the above tasks were my responsibil- 
ity. Snatching research work from interruptions 



proved, at times, to be extremely difficult. I have 
between 135 and 150 species of Western Australian 
camaenids, only 40 of wfiicfi had been named pre- 
viously, and their interrelations are unknown. 
Which species should I study arid write up first? 
Should I try to publish one massive monograph? 
A series of shorter reports? Where should I start? 

Dissections made in 1975 and 1976 on the 
materials collected in 1974 had "sampled" the 
anatomy of the Pilbara, Central Australia, and 
southwestern Western Australian taxa. My late 
1976 collections from the Kimberley had been 
similarly "sampled" by dissections in Perth. Com- 
paring the many drawings and dissections showed 
that the Southern, Pilbara, and Central Australian 
species had many features in common, but that 
the center of diversity was in the Kimberley. The 
snails there showed many variations. This made it 
necessary to start the major revisionary work with 
the Kimberley fauna. Did those species from the 
other areas have relatives in the Kimberley, or 
were they very different? Only study of the Kim- 
berley camaenids could determine this, so thor- 
ough study of the many Kimberley camaenids 
became the first order of business. But this area 
had almost a hundred species. Where should I 
start with this mass of material? Preliminary dis- 
sections had confirmed that several species were 
related to those from the Pilbara (these could wait 
until last), others seemed to have no relatives else- 
where (second priority), while a comparative few 
looked very much like species described from 
Eastern Australia (first priority). 

Materials borrowed from museums in Syd- 
ney, Melbourne, and Perth provided comparative 
anatomical material, and specimens collected for 
Field Museum in the 1960s and 1970s by Field 
Associate Laurie Price of New Zealand proved in- 
valuable. Since no anatomical work on Australian 
members of this family had been published in this 
century, every dissection was important. We 
found four groups of Western Australian species 
that had close relatives in Eastern States. But to 
define these groups properly, 20 other Eastern 
Australian genera had to be dissected and 10 illus- 
trated immediately; 4 closely related species had 
to be dissected and illustrated; and finally the 14 
Western Australian species in these four groups 
reviewed. A few other probably related species 
could not be dissected, but were reviewed as to 
shell variations. So a first project of reviewing 
these "Trans-Australian" taxa evolved into a logi- 
cal package, with a total of 29 species, 7 new to 
science, belonging to 10 genera, one new to sci- 
ence. Thus the dimensions of the first publication 
came into focus. 

What information should be published 
about each species? Some things are basic. Illus- 
trations to enable identification of the shells, 
words summarizing how the species differs in shell 
and anatomy from closely related species, data on 
the anatomical structures that vary within the 
genus or among closely related genera, a list of 



localities from which it has been collected, a sum- 
mary of the range in size, shape, color, and sculp- 
ture variation condensed into a formal description 
— all these are basic data in a systematic revision 
of a little known or previously unknown group of 
snails. But I was asking additional questions in my 
research. What are the overall geographic patterns 
of variations, i.e.. are members of the same spe- 
cies bigger (smaller) in the West Kimberley than 
the East Kimberley; are species commoner (rarer) 
than other taxa in the same (different) areas? What 
is the reproductive cycle in the camaenids from 
different parts of Australia? Are they reproduc- 
tively active at the same time, different times, over 
a short season, throughout the year, different 
times in different areas? Do they have special feed- 
ing habits when several species live together? How 
do species recognize members of the same species 
when ready to mate? Do parts of the anatomy 
vary seasonally in size and shape? Where do the 
snails shelter and what strategy do they use to sur- 
vive periods of drought? 

Besides, research papers are designed as 
much to focus on problems and pose currently 
unanswerable questions, as to provide answers. 
By providing data on local shell variation (or lack 
of it), seasonal variations in anatomical structures, 
species recognition mechanisms, where available, 
and the attention of Australian workers could be 
called to areas where data was inadequate. 

So these decisions led to the basic content 
of the report. Since it was to be published in the 
Records of the Western Australian Museum, 
Perth, Australia, the format of the report had to 
follow their style. With dimensions, content, and 
format decided, "all" that remained was to pro- 
duce the report. 

Up to this point, most of the work had been 
done by scientist and illustrator. Specimen-pro- 
cessing had involved label typing by Sharon Baco- 
yanis, then cataloguing by Andy Cawthon and 
CETA (Combined Employment Training Act) 
workers, but the dissecting, measuring, sorting, 
and grouping into species had been done by Alan 
Solem. Elizabeth Liebman had prepared 70 sepa- 
rate anatomical drawings, varying in complexity 
from simple outlines to highly detailed full page 
illustrations, and 42 outline drawings showing 
shell structure. Photographs of shells made in 
Perth, and scanning electron microscope pictures 
of shell sculpture details were organized into 11 
plates, while the shell and anatomy drawings, in 
consultation between Solem and Liebman, were 
sorted into groups and laid out as 35 text figures. 
Associate Dorothy Karall, as she has so skillfully 
for many years, mounted and labeled the plates 
and text figures for reproduction. The latter then 
were photographed, both to retain a working copy 
here in Chicago, and as security when the origi- 
nals, representing at least six months of work by 
Elizabeth Liebman, were sent to Perth for publi- 
cation. 

Meanwhile, I sat at microscope and type- 



writer for days and many nights composing page 
after page of manuscript. When the write-up of 
each genus was finished in rough form, I then 
lightly (if composed on a good day or evening) to 
very heavily (if composed on a bad day or during 
a period of constant phone or visitor interrup- 
tions) edited the rough manuscript in preparation 
for typing. Therein lay a problem. My highly effi- 
cient secretary for the past three years moved to 
California with her husband, .and it was nearly 
two months before Valerie Connor-Jackson was 
hired to take her place. Valerie was uniquely qual- 
ified after working through a 4,000-page manu- 
script on monkeys*, and her experience as a 
department secretary in botany enabled her to 
immediately take over office routine and produce 
the final manuscript. So on March 9, 1978, the 
first of several reports, 211 typed pages, 35 text 
figures, 11 plates, and 10 tables, was mailed to 
Perth for publication. Proof is expected this sum- 
mer, and publication is scheduled for September, 
1979. The team of Solem, Liebman, Karall, and 
Connor-Jackson then swung into high gear, and 
progress on Part II, dealing with another 28 spe- 
cies from the Kimberley, all belonging to one 
genus, was rapid. Assists from volunteer Kleinie 
Fieberg; CETA employees Loretta Brown, Joseph 
Strotter, and Jarmaine Leftridge; new Custodian 
of Collections, Margaret Baker, in preparing lists 
of the material studied and analysis of measure- 
ments, were essential. 

This time, three plates of photographs, 79 
drawings of shells and 102 anatomical illustra- 
tions, plus a map organized into 38 text figures. 



'Philip Hershkovitz's Living New World Monkeys 
(Platyrrhini), with an introduction to Primates. Vol. 1. 
(1,117 printed pages, figures, plates, tables, maps.) 



and 23 tables accompanied 281 typed pages of 
manuscript to Perth on September 15, 1978. This 
was the second "package," and months before it 
was finished, certain facts were obvious. I was suf- 
fering from an embarrassment of riches. The field 
work had been successful well beyond expecta- 
tions, and the material obtained was far more 
diverse in number of species and extensive in terms 
of number of specimens than had been anticipated. 
It would not be possible to complete study or illus- 
tration of all the species within the period for 
which I had grant funding. Available funds would 
carry Illustrator Elizabeth Liebman through Octo- 
ber, 1978, but that was the end. 

It was obvious that, when I had finished 
the basic systematic review, interesting answers 
would come to many of my general questions, and 
a whole host of new research questions, would be 
raised. But until the systematic revisions were 
completed, publication on these would be inadvis- 
able to impossible. Additional funding had to be 
sought, first to complete the systematic reviews, 
then to extract the general interest conclusions, 
and hopefully to build upon this foundation of 
work by extending the survey of camaenid snails 
to other regions. So illustrator and scientist 
worked frantically to complete dissection, meas- 
urements and illustrations of materials for Part III, 
review of a remarkable fauna from the Ningbing 
Ranges, by October 30. 

In a flurry of activity, this was successful, 
and the problem of the next stage of study could 
be faced. But that is another part of the continuing 
story, and for the future. Here you have a glance 
at a complex publishing project in mid-stream, a 
pay-off from the planning, sweat in the field, and 
infinitely longer hours of museum work that fol- 
lowed. 

So, the next time you read of an expedition, 
think of what must follow. . . . 




FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



THE 
SOVIET 




Bolshoi Theatre, Moscow 

The Splendors of Old Russia, the excitement of the 
New are in store for Field Museum Members and their 
families who join the tour "Treasures of Russia and the 
Ukraine," leaving Chicago's O'Hare Airport June 19 and 
returning July 8. 

Highlights of the exclusive tour will include visits to 
the cities of Moscow, Vladimir, Kiev, Leningrad, Petro- 
vorets, Novgorod, and Petrozavodsk. The group, limited 
to 35 persons, will be led from Chicago by a Russian- 
speaking lecturer and a Russian-speaking escort, with 
additional guides while in the Soviet Union provided by In- 
tourist (the Soviet Travel Bureau) . 

The tour cost— $2,970 (which includes a $500.00 
donation to Field Museum)— is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare from Chicago to 



Moscow, with intra-Russian air transportation where re- 
quired. The transatlantic airline is Swissair. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out or, where necessary, the best hotels available. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals: all 
sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all admissions to 
special events and sites, where required; all baggage 
handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers; all appli- 
cable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and registration 
information for all tours, please write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



Red Square and Beyond 



Stand in the middle of Red Square in Moscow and slowly turn in a 
full circle. To the south you see before you the bizarre cathedral that 
Ivan the Terrible had erected in thanksgiving for his victory over the 
Tartars of Kazan, dedicated to the protection of the Virgin and St. 
Basil the Blessed. You are back in the mid-16th century when Russia 
was just emerging as one of the great powers of Europe. As you turn 
to the right you are soon looking at the Kremlin Wall, pierced by the 
Spassky Gate that predates Ivan's cathedral by 100 years, though the 
walls, originally of oak, were first thrown up as a rampart 300 years 
before that. 

Through the opening of the Spassky Gate and peeking over the 
walls you see the towers of the great churches, the Ivan Belltower, as 
well as the palaces old and new in which so much of Russia from the 
Tsars to the Soviets flowed. Continue your pivot and before you is 
the cubist granite tomb of Lenin and you are back in our violent cen- 
tury, recalling the worldwide tumult and upheaval caused by that 
man on whose embalmed figure you can gaze by joining the crowd 
and silently entering that mausoleum. 

Further on at the far end of the square you see an odd building 
in red brick that clashes with the other decor of the square, the 
Historical Museum, built a century ago on the Russo-Victorian 
design of an Englishman. Turn your back to the Kremlin and you are 
looking at GUM, the State Department Store, the largest in the Soviet 
Union. It is not a flashy modernistic building, but an old-fashioned 
series of shops arranged along an open arcade that runs the whole 
great length of the building and several floors high. Thus, when one 
gets tired of sightseeing, the recreation of shopping is right at hand, 
or repose, symbolized by the Stalinesque hotel that rises beyond 
GUM, the newest addition to tourist comforts in the capital. 

With a final spin you have St. Basil's in the background once 
more. You may now notice that before the entrance to the cathedral 
there is a heroic statuary group dedicated to the popular heroes, 
Minin and Pozharsky, of the struggle against the Poles following the 
Troubled Times after Ivan the Terrible's death and Boris Godunov's 
usurpation, when Moscow and western Russia were overrun by 
foreign legions. 

If one could lengthen his range of vision on each gyration in the 
square, he would see the far reaches of Moscow with its remnants of 
the old in churches and monasteries and its new Soviet institutions, 
the university, the great stadia, the Exhibition of Culture and Pro- 
gress, out of the Moscow River that wanders in and out of the city 
and curves around most of it. 

Then in a longer stretch of vision we could look back into the 
past of Russia in its ancient cities surrounding Moscow— Vladimir, 
Suzdal, Tver, that were rivals of budding Moscow when the Tartar 
invasions overran the country in the thirteenth century and dealt a 
crippling blow to old Kiev. Kiev with Novgorod in a further projec- 
tion was the center of civilization that received the Viking invaders 
from the North and formed the River Road for trade with Constan- 
tinople. Both cities were cradles of Old Rus', the original state 
founded by the invading Norsemen. Kiev is now a great modern city 
with its ancient treasures overshadowed by modern construction and 
the rush of commerce, whereas Novgorod has not grown back to 
modern greatness but shines forth in its great Kremlin with the sister 
church of Kiev's Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom that date back to the 
twelfth century. A visit to these cities is a look back into the very 
origins of Rus'. In the Kremlin of Novgorod stands proudly with the 
blessing of the Soviet government the beautiful bronze memorial, 
erected during the last century in commemoration of the thousandth 
anniversary of the christianization of Rus', even as St. Vladimir in 
bronze holds up a colossal cross high above the Dnieper River at 
Kiev where the baptism of the peoples took place. 



Four hundred miles from Moscow and centuries removed in 
spirit is the city that Peter built to be a window on the West. For two 
centuries it was St. Petersburg, then when wartime enmities made 
the German-sounding name unwelcome, it became briefly 
Petrograd, only to end up as Leningrad. Peter had made it his 
capital, and all the tsars and their families lie entombed in the chapel 
of the Fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul from Peter to Alexander 111. 
Though it is no longer the capital, it is certainly a most interesting 
and unique city to visit. Peter's spirit and Catherine's energy still 
reflect from its gracious palaces and churches. The world-famous 
museum, the Hermitage, is here, as is Russia's greatest church, St. 
Isaac's, with Kazan Cathedral a ways up Nevsky Prospect a close 
second. No palace is more intriguing, especially in its gardens, then 
Petrodvorets, once Peterhof, the Russian Versailles. The miracle of 
Leningrad is that it was mostly rubble just thirty odd years ago after 
the merciless pounding the Germans gave it during a siege of almost a 
thousand days. 

So the Soviet Union is not just an industrial colossus, not a 
testing ground for communist change, not a military monster strain- 
ing to break loose and spew death on all the world. It is the inheritor 
of a great civilization that grew up on the steppes and in the forests of 
Eastern Europe and produced some of the greatest regal, eccleastical, 
political monuments in the world together with some of the greatest 
music and literature — a country well worth visiting and studying to 
catch some of its mystique and come to an understanding of its 
physical and spiritual power. Here is a giant that sprawls a quarter of 
the way around the globe, holding aloft the star of the North that 
casts long shadows on East and West. — Rev. Maurice ]. Meyers, 
S. ]., guest lecturer, Soviet Union Tour 




Cathedral of St. Basil, Moscow 




BUTTERFLIES 



BY VLADIMIR NABOKOV 



10 



I 



On a summer morning, in the legendary Russia of 
my boyhood, my first glance upoti awakening was 
for the chink between the shutters. If it disclosed a 
watery pallor, one had better not open the shutters 
at all, and so be spared the sight of a sullen day sit- 
ting for its picture in a puddle. How resentfully 
one would deduce, from a line of dull light, the 
leaden sky, the sodden sand, the gruel-like mess of 
broken brown blossoms under the lilacs — and that 
flat, fallow leaf (the first casualty of the season) 
pasted upon a wet garden bench! 

But if the chink was a long glint of dewy 
brilliancy, then I made haste to have the window 
yield its treasure. With one blow, the room would 
be cleft into light and shade. The foliage of birches 
moving in the sun had the translucent green tone 
of grapes, and in contrast to this there was the 
dark velvet of fir trees against a blue of extraordi- 
nary intensity, the like of which I rediscovered 
only many years later, in the montane zone of 
Colorado. 

From the age of six, everything I felt in con- 
nection with a rectangle of framed sunlight was 
dominated by a single passion. If my first glance 
of the morning was for the sun, my first thought 
was for the butterflies it would engender. The 
original event had been banal enough. On some 
honeysuckle near the veranda, I had happened to 
see a Swallowtail — a splendid, pale-yellow crea- 
ture with black blotches and blue crenulations, 
and a cinnabar eyespot above each chrome-rimmed 
black tail. As it probed the inclined flower from 
which it hung, it kept restlessly jerking its great 
wings, and my desire for it was overwhelming. An 
agile footman caught it in my cap, after which it 
was transferred, cap and all, to a wardrobe, where 
the reek of napthalene was fondly expected to kill 
it overnight. On the following morning, however, 
when my governess unlocked the wardrobe to 
take something out, the butterfly, with a mighty 
rustle, flew into her face, then made for the open 



window, and presently was but a golden fleck dip- 
ping and dodging and soaring eastward, over 
timber and tundra, to Vologda, Viatka and Perm, 
and beyond the gaunt Ural range to Yakutsk and 
Verkhne Kolymsk, and from Verkhne Kolymsk, 
where it lost a tail, to the fair Island of St. Law- 
rence, and across Alaska to Dawson, and south- 
ward along the Rocky Mountains — to be finally 
overtaken and captured, after a forty-year race, 
on a bright-yellow dandelion in a bright-green 
glade above Boulder. 

Soon after the wardrobe affair I found a 
spectacular moth, and my mother dispatched it 
with ether. In later years, I used many killing 
agents, but the least contact with the initial stuff 
would always cause the door of the past to fly 
open; once, as a grown man, I was under ether 
during an operation, and with the vividness of a 
decalcomania picture I saw my own self in a sailor 
suit mounting a freshly emerged Emperor moth 
under the guidance of my smiling mother. It was 
all there, brilliantly reproduced in my dream, 
while my own vitals were being exposed: the soak- 
ing, ice-cold absorbent cotton presed to the lemur- 
ian head of the moth; the subsiding spasms of its 
body; the satisfying crackle produced by the pin 
penetrating the hard crust of its thorax; the careful 
insertion of the point of the pin in the cork- 
bottomed groove of the spreading board; the 
symmetrical adjustment of the strong-veined, 
"windowed" wings under neatly affixed strips of 
semi-transparent paper. 



II 



I must have been eight or nine when, in a store- 
room of our country house, among a medley of 
dusty objects, I discovered some wonderful books 
acquired in the days when my mother's mother 

First published in The New Yorker Magazine, June 1948. 



had been interested in natural science and had had 
a famous university professor of zoology (Shimke- 
vich) give private lessons to her daughter. Some of 
these books were mere curios, such as the four 
huge brown folios of Albertus Seba's work (Locu- 
pletissimi Rerum Naturalium Thesauri Accurata 
Descriptio . . .), printed in Amsterdam around 
1750. On their coarse-grained pages I found wood- 
cuts of serpents and butterflies and embryos. The 
foetus of an Ethiopian female child hanging by the 
neck in a glass jar, used to give me a nasty shock 
every time I came across it; nor did I much care for 
the stuffed hydra on plate CII, with its seven lion- 
toothed turtleheads on seven serpentine necks and 
its strange, bloated body which bore button-like 
tubercles along the sides and ended in a knotted 
tail. 

Other books I found in that attic, among 
herbariums full of edelweiss flowers and crimson 
maple leaves, came closer to my subject. I took in 
my arms and carried downstairs glorious loads of 
fantastically attractive volumes: Maria Sibylla 
Merian's (1647-1717) lovely plates of Surinam 
insects, and Esper's noble Die Schmetterlinge 
(Erlangen, 1777), and Boisduval's Icones His- 
toriques de Lepidopteres Nouveaiix on Pen Con- 
nus (Paris, begun in 1832). Still more exciting were 
the products of the latter half of the century- 
Newman's Natural History of British ButterfUes 
and Moths, Hofmann's Die Gross-SchmetterUnge 
Europas, the Grand Duke Nikolai Mikhailovich's 
Memoires on Asiatic lepidoptera (with incompar- 
ably beautiful figures painted by Kavrigin, Ryba- 
kov, Lang), Scudder's stupendous work on the 
ButterfUes of New England. 

By my early teens, I was voraciously read- 
ing entomological periodicals, especially English 
and Russian ones. Great upheavals were taking 
place in the development of systematics. Since the 
middle of the century. Continental lepidopterol- 
ogy had been, on the whole, a simple and stable 
affair, smoothly run by the Germans. Its high 
priest. Dr. Staudinger, was also the head of the 
largest firm of insect dealers. Even now, half a 
century after his death, German lepidopterists 
have not quite managed to shake off the hypnotic 
spell occasioned by his authority. He was still 
alive when his school began to lose ground as a 
scientific force in the world. While he and his 
followers stuck to specific and generic names sanc- 
tioned by long usage and were content to classify 
butterflies by characters visible to the naked eye, 
English-speaking authors were introducing nomen- 
clatorial changes as a result of a strict application 
of the law of priority and taxonomic changes 
based on the microscopic study of organs. The 
Germans did their best to ignore the new trends 
and continued to cherish the philately-like side of 
entomology. Their solicitude for the "average col- 
lector who should not be made to dissect" is com- 
parable to the way nervous publishers pamper the 
"average reader" who should not be made to 
think. 



There was another more general change, 
which coincided with my ardent adolescent inter- 
est in butterflies and moths. The Victorian and 
Staudingerian kind of species, hermetic and homo- 
geneous, with sundry (alpine, polar, insular, etc.) 
"varieties" affixed to it from the outside, as it 
were, like incidental appendages, was replaced by 
a new, multiform and fluid kind of species, made 
up of geographical races or subspecies. The evolu- 
tional aspects of the case were thus brought out 
more clearly, by means of more flexible means of 
classification, and further links between butterflies 
and the central problems of nature were provided 
by biological investigations. 

The mysteries of mimicry had a special at- 
traction for me. Its phenomena showed an artistic 
perfection usually associated with man-wrought 
things. Such was the imitation of oozing poison by 
bubble-like macules on a wing (complete with 
pseudo-refraction) or by glossy yellow knobs on a 
chrysalis ("Don't eat me — I have already been 
squashed, sampled and rejected'). When a certain 
moth resembled a certain wasp in shape and col- 
our, it also walked and moved its antennae in a 
waspish, un-mothlike manner. When a butterfly 
had to look like a leaf, not only were all the details 
of a leaf beautifully rendered but markings mim- 
icking grub-bored holes were generously thrown 
in. "Natural selection," in the Darwinian sense, 
could not explain the miraculous coincidence of 
imitative aspect and imitative behaviour nor could 
one appeal to the theory of "the struggle for life" 
when a protective device Was carried to a point of 
mimetic subtlety, exuberance, and luxury far in 
excess of a predator's power of appreciation. I 
discovered in nature the non-utilitarian delights 
that I sought in art. Both were a form of magic, 
both were a game of intricate enchantment and 
deception. 




Ill 



Few things indeed have I known in the way of 
emotion or appetite, ambition or achievement, 
that could surpass in richness and strength the 
excitement of entomological exploration. From 
the very first it had a great many inter-twinkling 
facets. One of them was the acute desire to be 
alone, since any companion, no matter how quiet, 
interfered with the concentrated enjoyment of my 



11 



12 



mania. Its gratification admitted of no compro- 
mise or exception. Already, when I was ten, tutors 
and governesses knew that the morning was mine 
and cautiously kept away. 

In this connection I remember the visit of a 
schoolmate, a boy of whom I was very fond and 
with whom I had excellent fun. He arrived one 
summer night from a town some fifty miles away. 
His father had recently perished in an accident, the 
family was ruined and the stouthearted lad, not 
being able to afford the price of a railway ticket, 
had bicycled all those miles to spend a few days 
with me. 

On the morning following his arrival, I did 
everything I could to get out of the house for my 
morning hike without his knowing where I had 
gone. Breakfastless, with hysterical haste, I gath- 
ered my net, pillboxes, sailor cap, and escaped 
through the window. Once in the forest, I was 
safe; but still I walked on, my calves quaking, my 
eyes full of scalding tears, the whole of me twitch- 
ing with shame and self-disgust, as I visualised my 
poor friend, with his long pale face and black tie, 
moping in the hot garden — patting the panting 
dogs for want of something better to do, and try- 
ing hard to justify my absence to himself. 

Let me look at my demon objectively. With 
the exception of my parents, no one really under- 
stood my obsession, and it was many years before 
I met a fellow-sufferer. One of the first things I 
learned was not to depend on others for the 
growth of my collection. Aunts, however, kept 
making me ridiculous presents — such as Denton 
mounts of resplendent but really quite ordinary 
insects. Our country doctor, with whom I had left 
the pupae of a rare moth when I went on a journey 
abroad, wrote me that everything had hatched 
finely; but in reality a mouse had got at the 
precious pupae, and upon my return the deceitful 
old man produced some common Tortoise-shell 
butterflies, which, I presume, he had hurriedly 
caught in his garden and popped into the breeding 
cage as plausible substitutes (so he thought). Better 
than he was an enthusiastic kitchen boy who 
would sometimes borrow my equipment and come 
back two hours later in triumph with a bagful of 
seething invertebrate life and several additional 
items. Loosening the mouth of the net which he 
had tied up with a string, he would pour out his 
cornucopian spoil — a mass of grasshoppers, some 
sand, the two parts of a mushroom he had thriftily 
plucked on the way home, more grasshoppers, 
more sand, and one battered Cabbage butterfly. 

I also found out very soon that an entomol- 
ogist indulging in his quiet quest was apt to pro- 
voke strange reactions in other creatures. How 
often, when a picnic had been arranged, and I 
would be self-consciously trying to get my humble 
implements unnoticed into the tar-smelling chara- 
banc (a tar preparation was used to keep flies 
away from the horses) or the tea-smelling Opel 
convertible (benzine forty years ago smelled that 
way), some cousin or aunt of mine would remark: 



"Must you really take that net with you? Can't 
you enjoy yourself like a normal boy? Don't you 
think you are spoiling everybody's pleasure?" 
Near a sign NACH BODENLAUBE, at Bad Kissingen, 
Bavaria, just as I was about to join for a long walk 
my father and majestic old Muromtsev (who, four 
years before, in 1906, had been President of the 
first Russian Parliament), the latter turned his 
marble head toward me, a vulnerable boy of 
eleven, and said with his famous solemnity: 
"Come with us by all means, but do not chase but- 
terflies, child. It mars the rhythm of the walk." On 
a path above the Black Sea, in the Crimea, among 
shrubs in waxy bloom, in March, 1918, a bow- 
legged Bolshevik sentry attempted to arrest me for 
signalling (with my net, he said) to a British war- 
ship. In the summer of 1929, every time I walked 
through a village in the Eastern Pyrenees, which I 
was exploring lepidopterologically, and happened 
to look back, I would see in my wake the villagers 
frozen in the various attitudes my passage had 
caught them in, as if I were Sodom and they Lot's 
wife. A decade later, in the Maritime Alps, I once 
noticed the grass undulate in a serpentine way 
behind me because a fat rural policeman was wrig- 
gling after me on his belly to find out if I were not 
trapping song birds. America has shown even 
more of this morbid interest in my doings than 
other countries have — perhaps because I was in 
my forties when I came here to live, and the older 
the man, the queerer he looks with a butterfly net 
in his hand. Stern farmers have drawn my atten- 
tion to NO FISHING signs; from cars passing me on 
the highway have come wild howls of derision; 
sleepy dogs, though unmindful of the worst bum, 
have perked up and come at me, snarling; tiny tots 
have pointed me out to their puzzled mammas; 
broadminded vacationists have asked me whether 
I was catching bugs for bait; and one morning on a 
wasteland, lit by tall yuccas in bloom, near Santa 
Fe, a big, black mare followed me for more than a 
mile. 




IV 



When, having shaken off all pursuers, I took the 
rough, red road that ran from our house toward 
field and forest, the animation and lustre of the 
day seemed like a tremor of sympathy around me. 



Black Erebia butterflies ("Ringlets" as the old 
English Aurelians used to call them), with a special 
gentle awkwardness peculiar to their kind, danced 
among the firs. From a flower head two male Cop- 
pers rose to a tremendous height, fighting all the 
way up — and then, after a while came the down- 
ward flash of one of them returning to his thistle. 
These were familiar insects, but at any moment 
something better might cause me to stop with a 
quick intake of breath. I remember one day when I 
warily brought my net closer and closer to a little 
Thecla that had daintily settled on a sprig. I could 
clearly see the white W on its chocolate-brown 
underside. Its wings were closed and the inferior 
ones were rubbing against each other in a curious 
circular motion — possibly producing some small, 
blithe crepitation pitched too high for a human ear 
to catch. I had long wanted that particular species, 
and, when near enough, I struck. You have heard 
champion tennis players moan after muffing an 
easy shot. You have seen stunned golfers smile 
horrible, helpless smiles. But that day nobody saw 
me shake out a piece of twig from an otherwise 
empty net and stare at a hole in the tarlatan. 




their nervous wings half open butterfly fashion, 
the lower ones exhibiting their incredible crimson 
silk from beneath the lichen-grey primaries. 
"Catocala adultera!" I would triumphantly shriek 
in the direction of the lighted windows of the 
house as I stumbled home to show my captures to 
my father. 




VI 



However, if the morning hunt had been a failure, 
one could still look forward to mothing. Colors 
would die a long death on June evenings. The lilac 
shrubs in full bloom before which I stood, net in 
hand, displayed clusters of a fluffy grey in the 
dusk — the ghost of purple. A moist young moon 
hung above the mist of a neighbouring meadow. 
In many a garden have I stood thus in later years 
— in Athens, Antibes, Atlanta — but never have I 
waited with such a keen desire as before those 
darkening lilacs. And suddenly it would come, the 
low buzz passing from flower to flower, the vibra- 
tional halo around the streamlined body of an 
olive and pink Small Elephant Hawk-Moth poised 
in the air above the corolla into which it had 
dipped its long tongue. Its handsome black larva 
(resembling a diminutive cobra when it puffed out 
its ocellated front segments) could be found on 
dank willow-herb two months later. Thus every 
hour and season had its delights. And, finally, on 
cold, or even frosty, autumn nights, one could 
sugar for moths by painting tree trunks with a 
mixture of molasses, beer, and rum. Through the 
gusty blackness, one's lantern would illumine the 
stickily glistening furrows of the bark and two or 
three large moths upon it imbibing the sweets. 



The "English" park that separated our house from 
the hayfield was an extensive and elaborate affair 
with labyrinthine paths, Turgenevian benches, 
and imported oaks among the endemic firs and 
birches. The struggle that had gone on since my 
grandfather's time to keep the park from reverting 
to the wild state always fell short of complete suc- 
cess. No gardener could cope with the hillocks of 
frizzly black earth that the pink hands of moles 
kept heaping on the tidy sand of the main walk. 
Weeds and fungi, and ridgelike tree roots crossed 
and re-crossed the sun-flecked trails. Bears had 
been eliminated in the eighties (two such stuffed 
giants stood on their hind legs in our entrance 
hall), but an occasional moose still visited the 
grounds. On a picturesque boulder, a little moun- 
tain ash and a still smaller aspen had climbed, 
holding hands. like two clumsy, shy children. 
Other, more elusive trespassers — lost picnickers 
or merry villagers — would drive our hoary game- 
keeper Ivan crazy by scrawling ribald words on 
the benches and gates. The disintegrating process 
continues still, in a different sense, for when, now- 
adays, I attempt to follow in memory the winding 
paths from one given point to another, I notice 
with alarm that there are many gaps, due to obliv- 
ion or ignorance, akin to the terra-incognita 



13 



14 



blanks map-makers of old used to call "sleeping 
beauties. " 

Beyond the park, there were fields, with a 
continuous shimmer of butterfly wings over a 
shimmer of flowers — daisies, bluebells, scabious, 
and others — which now rapidly pass by me in a 
kind of coloured haze like those lovely, lush 
meadows, never to be explored, that one sees from 
the diner on a transcontinental journey. At the 
end of this grassy wonderland, the forest rose like 
a wall. There I roamed, scanning the tree trunks 
(the enchanted, the silent part of a tree) for certain 
tiny moths, called Pugs in England — delicate little 
creatures that cling in the daytime to speckled sur- 
faces, with which their flat wings and turned-up 
abdomens blend. There, at the bottom of that sea 
of sunshot greenery, I slowly spun around the 
great boles. Nothing in the world would have 
seemed sweeter to me than to be able to add, by a 
stroke of luck, some remarkable new species to the 
long list of Pugs already named by others. And 
my pied imagination, ostensibly, and almost gro- 
tesquely, grovelling to my desire (but all the time, 
in ghostly conspiracies behind the scenes, coolly 
planning the most distant events of my destiny), 
kept providing me with hallucinatory samples of 
small print: ". . . the only specimen so far known 
. . ." ". . . the only specimen of Eupithecia petro- 
politanata was taken by a Russian schoolboy ..." 
"... by a young Russian collector ...""... by 
myself in the Government of St. Petersburg, Czar- 
skoe Selo District, in 1912 . . . 1913 . . . 1914 " 

Then came a June day when I felt the urge 
to push on still farther and explore the vast marsh- 
land beyond the Oredezh. After skirting the river 
for three or four miles, I found a rickety foot- 
bridge. While crossing over, I could see the huts of 
a hamlet on my left, apple trees, rows of tawny 
pine logs lying on a green bank, and the bright 
patches made on the turf by the scattered clothes 
of peasant girls, who, stark naked in shallow 
water, romped and yelled, heeding me as little as if 
I were the discarnate carrier of my present remi- 
niscences. 

On the other side of the river, a dense 
crowd of small, bright-blue male butterflies that 
had been tippling on the rich, trampled mud and 
cow dung through which I had to trudge rose all 
together into the spangled air and settled again as 
soon as I had passed. 

After making my way through some pine 
groves and alder scrub I came to the bog. No 
sooner had my ear caught the hum of diptera 
around me, the cry of a snipe overhead, the gulp- 
ing sound of the morass under my foot, than I 
knew I would find here quite special arctic butter- 
flies, whose pictures, or, still better, non-illus- 
trated descriptions I had worshipped for several 
seasons. And the next moment I was among them. 
Over the bilberry shrubs, with fruit of a dim, 
dreamy blue, over the brown eye of stagnant 
water, over moss, over mire, over the intoxicating 
racemes of the lone and mysterious marsh-rocket. 



a dark little Fritillary, bearing the name of a Norse 
goddess, passed in a low, skimming flight. I pur- 
sued rose-margined Sulphurs, grey-marbled 
Satyrs. Unmindful of the mosquitoes that coated 
my forearms and neck, I stooped with a grunt of 
delight to snuff out the life of some silver-studded 
lepidopteron throbbing in the folds of my net. 
Through the smells of the bog, I caught the subtle 
perfume of butterfly wings on my fingers, a per- 
fume which varies with the species — vanilla, or 
lemon, or musk, or a musty, sweetish odour diffi- 
cult to define. Still unsated, I pressed forward. At 
last I saw I had come to the end of the marsh. The 
rising ground beyond was a paradise of lupines, 
columbines, and pentstemons. Mariposa lilies 
bloomed under Ponderosa pines. In the distance, 
fleeting cloud shadows dappled the dull green of 
slopes above timber line, and the grey and white 
of Longs Peak. 

I confess I do not believe in time. I like to 
fold my magic carpet, after use, in such a way as 
to superimpose one part of the pattern upon 
another. Let visitors trip. And the highest enjoy- 
ment of timelessness — in a landscape selected at 
random — is when I stand among rare butterflies 
and their food plants. This is ecstasy, and behind 
the ecstasy is something else, which is hard to ex- 
plain. It is like a momentary vacuum into which 
rushes all that I love. A sense of oneness with sun 
and stone. A thrill of gratitude to whom it may 
concern — to the contrapuntal genius of human 
fate or to tender ghosts humouring a lucky mortal. 

D 




-'M . ^-^ 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



Weekend Field Trips for Members 

to 
Starved Rock, Illinois 

Galena, Illinois 

Baraboo, Wisconsin 




Historic Galena 



By popular demand, Field Museum's weekend trips to Starved 
Rock, Galena, and Baraboo are being offered again this year, 
with two weekends to choose from for the Galena and Baraboo 
trips. 



Starved Rock. Dr. Gordon Baird, assistant curator of fossil 
invertebrates, will lead the group on the weekend of June 
16-17 to Starved Rock State Park; Buffalo Rock State and 
Matthiessen State Park will also be toured. Eighty miles south- 
west of Chicago, Starved Rock is so named for a 125-foot-high 
sandstone outcrop, where a group of Illini Indians more than 
200 years ago took refuge from another attacking tribe. The 
park is notable for its 19 canyons and their remarkable vistas. 
Tour members will stay at Starved Rock Lodge. Tour cost: 
$82.00. 

Baraboo. Dr. Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, will lead 
tour members through the Baraboo range and along the shores 
and hinterland of beautiful Devil's Lake. Two tours are sched- 
uled: May 19 and 20, and June 9 and 10. 

The Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock 
—what is left of an ancient mountain range and which now 
stands out above the younger rocks and sediments. The range 
consists of quartzite — more than one billion years old — which, 
although compressed in places into vertical folds, retains the 
original sedimentary structures. The mountains were further 
modified by glaciers, forming the lake and the picturesque 



glens, and changing the course of rivers. 

Hiking clothes are strongly recommended for the sched- 
uled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, but younger 
people interested in natural history are welcome. The cost of 
the Baraboo trips is $70.00 per person. 

Galena. Dr. Bertram G. Woodland, curator of petrology, will 
conduct two study tours through the geological area (once a 
lead-producing region) of this history-laden river town, which is 
built on rocky limestone bluffs. In addition to viewing geological 
features, tour members will have the opportunity to explore 
historic Galena's charming downtown area, with its unique 
variety of pre-Civil War architecture. 

An overnight tour is offered for the weekend of May 5-6; 
per person: $98.00. A two-night, three-day tour is offered for 
October 12, 13, 14 at a rate of $150.00. Accommodations are 
at the Chestnut Mountain Lodge. 

Rates quoted for all above tours are per person, double 
occupancy (single accommodations on request). Included are 
all expenses of transportation on charter buses and accommo- 
dations in first class resort hotels. The rate also includes all 
meals and gratuities, except personal extras such as alcoholic 
beverages and special food service. An advance deposit of 
$15.00 is required upon registration for each trip. 

For additional information and reservations, call or write 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Field Museum, Roose- 
velt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: 922- 
9410, X-251. 15 



What Is a Curator? 



16 



BV JOHN TERRELL 



As A Museum Curator I am always uneasy when 
people ask me innocently enough: "What do you 
do?" It is my experience that if you say you are a 
curator, their eyes will glaze over with incompre- 
hension. You are likely to get in reply something 
as noncommittal as "Oh, how nice." Or possibly: 
"Oh . . . How fascinating." Few people seem to 
feel comfortable admitting they are not sure what 
a curator does. 

I became a museum curator more than 
seven years ago when I was hired at Field Museum 
of Natural History as an assistant curator in the 
Department of Anthropology. I had had absolute- 
ly no formal training in "muscology." Throughout 
graduate school I had always assumed that I 
would end up as a professor, not a curator. 

When I arrived at Field Museum in Septem- 
ber 1971 I had in my mind the vague idea that 
curators look after museum specimens, do re- 
search that interests them, and help with public 
exhibitions. I suspect I would not have thought 
very differently even if I had taken museology 
courses, for it is my impression that such courses 
do not add up to very much. Today I think none 
of us can afford to be as naive as I was back then. 
What museum curators do is changing. We need 
to be aware of what those changes are. We also 
need to take a hand in bringing them about. 

Traditionally a curator has been someone 
who is steward of a collection of things housed in 
a museum. This conception of the role of curator 
in a museum is, as far as it goes, perfectly correct. 
If I have any quarrel with it, my argument would 
be that today this traditional role is far too limited. 

Like it or not, museum curators in the 1980s 
and beyond will have to be more than stewards of 
things. If museums are to take their place in the 
mainstream of life once again, all of us who call 
ourselves curators are going to find that we must 
increasingly also be managers of people. 

By this I am not saying that the goals of 
museums as modern institutions should be altered. 
There appears to be considerable agreement 
throughout the museum world that the goals of 
any museum are at least these three: to foster 
scholarly research, to preserve artistic, historical, 
and scientific collections, and to be a force in pop- 
ular education. Surely these are proper goals for 
museums, today and in the future. What is chang- 
ing — and what I think needs changing — are the 
means to those important ends. And what a cur- 
ator does is — or should be — part of those means. 

According to convention, at least at our 
larger museums where the luxury of curator-spe- 
cialists has been possible, the stereotype of a 
curator would be roughly as follows. A museum 



curator (inevitably portrayed as a man) is some- 
one who is terribly dedicated to some esoteric part 
of human knowledge, such as the artistic achieve- 
ments of Greece in the 4th century B.C., the peculi- 
arities of frog genitalia, or the potential of thermo- 
luminescence in artifact dating. 

Also according to their frequent portrayal, 
a curator is someone who works quiet, long hours 
all by himself behind the closed doors of his office 
or laboratory. There he works for years surround- 
ed by piles and piles of trays and boxes of miner- 
als, or stuffed owls, or pinned spiders, or human 
bones and ancient stones. Finally one day this 
aging curator produces what we have all been 
waiting for all these years: a great monograph 
recording all that he has learned and all that he has 
discovered. 

Like all stereotypes, this image of the dedi- 
cated curator-as-scholar is at best only a half- 
truth. Curators, especially at smaller museums, 
have always been more active in all the daily 
chores that need to be done around a museum. But 
what is changing today is that curators are being 
asked more and more to take on tasks that may 
have nothing to do with their scholarly interests 
and training. Their new responsibilities are taking 
them away from the things they love. Grumblings 
are growing louder in the curatorial ranks. 

What is happening to museum curators? 
How reasonable are their complaints? The ques- 
tion is not only "What does a curator do?" but also 
"What should a curator do?" Let us consider some 
of the tasks of the modern curator. 
Research: It is doubtful that a curator's office was 
ever an unassailable sanctuary for scholarly pur- 
suits free from the cares and demands of running 
museums. Yet no museum official would seriously 
contest the view that scholars and scientists are 
not going to be very useful people to have around 
museums if they cannot do what their training has 
equipped them to do. The question then is: How 
should curators balance their research tasks 
against other demands on their time and energies? 
Since even curators are human beings, the ines- 
capable conclusion is that curators cannot do too 
many things at once and still get anything done 
that is worth doing. And this is the reason why I 
say curators are going to find more and more that 
they must be managers of people as well as stew- 
ards of things. The solution, after all, to not being 
able to do something yourself is to help someone 
else do it. 

Preservation: The technical, scientific skills recog- 
nized today as essential to be able to conserve and, 
if necessary, to restore ancient artifacts, works of 
art, and the like are only rarely part of a curator's 
training as a research scholar. Nonetheless, be- 
cause they are stewards of museum collections. 



John Terrell is associate curator of Oceanic archae- 
ology and ethnology. 



curators must keep a watchful eye over how col- 
lections are stored, handled, studied, loaned, and 
exhibited. In short, they are responsible for the 
survival of the collections under their care, and at 
very least they must know when to call upon the 
services of the professional museum conservator. 
Teaching: According to the Oxford English Dic- 
tionary the first definition of a curator is "One 
appointed as a guardian of a minor, lunatic, etc." 
This definition would shock many, if not most, 
curators, because traditionally museums have 
been successful in attracting scholars to be curators 
precisely because they could avoid there the ter- 
rors and frustrations of teaching the young. In- 
deed, one well-known curator years ago is said to 
have defined teaching as "throwing dubious pearls 
before genuine swine"! This attitude against teach- 
ing appears to be changing today. And it needs 
changing, although no one even now would pro- 
pose that museums should stop being museums 
and become colleges or universities instead. On 
the contrary, we are beginning to see that muse- 
ums can offer a kind of teaching experience that is, 
unfortunately, all too rare in colleges and univer- 
sities. Stated simply, the kind of teaching that can 
be done very effectively at museums is what used 
to be called apprenticeship education, i.e., learn- 
ing by practical experience. I might add that if 
museums are to maintain both their academic ex- 
cellence and the quality of museum exhibits and 
public programs, curators must help the institu- 
tions in which they work to compete aggressively 
in the academic market place for the best talent be- 
ing produced by our nation's educational system. 
To do so, museums must assume part of the bur- 
den of educating potential museum professionals. 
Lecturing: It is traditional for museum curators to 
give public lectures on their specialized fields of 
scholarship. Today curators should also be ready 
to lecture on the goals and programs of the muse- 
ums they serve. 

Exhibitions: Curators customarily help plan and 
execute public exhibitions designed both to edu- 
cate and to entertain the museum visitor. As schol- 
ars and scientists, however, I think curators (and I 
include curators of education and the departments 
they direct) need to be concerned more than they 
often seem to be about making museology itself a 
true discipline. It may come as a surprise to many, 
but for the most part all of us in museums know 
next to nothing in a scientific way about how to 
make our exhibits entertaining, educational and 
genuinely effective. Too much of what we do in 
designing an exhibit is done by the seat of our 
pants. In truth, there is no way at present, for in- 
stance, to know beforehand how well an exhibit 
will work. This confused, frustrating state of af- 
fairs is a luxury museums can no longer afford. 
With their academic training, curators ought to be 
able to help improve that body of knowledge and 
technical skills called museology. 
Decision making and management responsibility: 
The extent to which the curatorial staff at any 



given museum is pressed into such vital areas as 
fund-raising, personnel recruitment and manage- 
ment, and the like appears to vary greatly from 
one institution to another. It has not been unusual 
in smaller museums to find curators saddled with 
far too many administrative tasks, for which they 
may be little suited both in training and in psycho- 
logical makeup. Unquestionably it is the duty of a 
museum's appointed management to make the best 
use of the training, talents, and inclinations of all 
personnel — including the curatorial staff — under 
its supervision. Yet it will not do to say that 
curators are not themselves part of the manage- 
ment team at most museums. It seems increasingly 
obvious that more and more people are reporting 
to them for advice, supervision, and daily guid- 
ance. At Field Museum, for example, curators 
customarily serve as legally recognized project 
directors for major museum exhibitions supported 
by state and federal grants. It has been said that a 
good manager is not someone who tells other peo- 
ple what to do, but rather someone who facilitates 
the work of those for whom he is responsible. Like 
a good museum director, therefore, I think we can 
also expect that a good museum curator will come 
to be judged more and more in the years ahead on 
how effectively he or she can serve as a good facili- 
tator of the work that museums, as responsive 
institutions, should be doing in promoting re- 
search, education, and the preservation of artistic, 
scientific, and cultural collections that constitute 
the heritage of mankind. 

Planning for the future: Curators as privileged 
scholars working on their own research goals 
without interference from the institutions that are 
their tolerant patrons are a thing of the past. But if 
curators are to be shouldered with museum re- 
sponsibilities and problems, then they must also 
have a real voice in setting the near and more dis- 
tant goals of their institutions. It may be naive of 
curators to view the time and effort taken away 
from their research work as a regrettable sacrifice. 
But it is only human to want to do what excites 
you most. And hopefully every curator likes his 
academic calling. Therefore, the sacrifice must be 
worth it. It is my feeling that people are willing to 
make such a "sacrifice" if they find that their con- 
tribution pays off in observable ways. For this 
reason I suspect curators must be asked to do 
more than participate in committee work and 
come up with helpful advice. They will need to 
feel that they are directly affecting management 
decisions about the goals and programs of the 
museums in which they work. 

After only somewhat more than seven 
years as a museum curator I can hardly claim that 
my answer to the question "What is a curator?" is 
in any way the sole or best one that could be of- 
fered. But 1 do think that most of my colleagues at 
museums would agree that what a curator does is 
changing. That is the reason why it so difficult to 
know what to say when someone asks: "What do 
you do?' D 



17 



METEOR- WRONGS 



BY EDWARD OLSEN 

Photos by Carol Small Kaplan 



It Is Estimated that somewhere around 70 million 
meteorites fall into the earth's upper atmosphere 
each day. Only about 500 of them each year sur- 
vive burning up and make it through to the 
ground. Over two-thirds of these end up in the 
oceans, because that much of the earth is covered 
with water. Most of the remainder fall in unin- 
habited places — deserts, bogs, grassy prairies, 
mountains, etc., where the chance of one being 
recovered is very slim indeed. Nevertheless, the 
sight of a "falling star" grabs the imaginations of 
people. 

Most of the meteorites that are recovered 
result from the interest and curiosity of ordinary 
people. A rock that looks out of the ordinary, or 
out of place, will raise a question in a person's 
mind. Often such curious rocks are collected and 
saved — sometimes for a couple of generations— 
before being reported. Unfortunately, all the 
things collected are not necessarily meteorites. In 
fact, the vast majority are not. 

Over the past eighteen years as a museum 
curator of a large meteorite collection I have been 
impressed by the number and variety of "meteor- 
wrongs" that have been brought in for identifica- 
tion. They are tributes to the ability of people to 
notice the unusual and try to find out what they've 
found: 

• About 15 years ago I received a phone call 
from a gentleman in Los Angeles. He said he had 
recently taken a vacation trip to a remote lake in 
Oregon, and described in detail getting to the lake 
— a main highway to a county road, turning onto 
a jeep trail, and finally walking cross-country to 
this beautiful trout lake, nestled in the mountains. 
There, while fishing, he had seen a large, strange, 
hackly rock. It was so weird, in this remote place, 
that he just knew it had to have fallen there — a 
meteorite. So, he broke off a hunk and later, in a 
nearby town, arranged to have some men go to 



the lake and fetch the main mass to town. It 
weighed several hundred pounds and had to be 
hoisted onto a truck. When it got to town he had it 
crated and sent it on its way to the Field Museum 
in his old home town of Chicago. As a boy he had 
enjoyed the Museum and the idea of giving it a 
large meteorite tickled his fancy. On the phone he 
said he was flying to Chicago on business and 
would bring the sample piece he'd broken off with 
him. The crate would arrive by railway freight 
shortly afterward. 

It really sounded good! The remote locality, 
especially in a low population state like Oregon, 
had everything going for it. 

Well, he arrived a day later. When he un- 
veiled the sample my heart fell. It was a fragment 
of coal-furnace ash — more commonly known as a 
"clinker." He was chagrined to say the least. A 
careful examination left no doubt. It was a clinker 
of the kind that used to be dumped from coal-fired 
home furnaces, or from steam locomotives. How 
did it get to such a remote valley in the Oregon 
mountains? Perhaps a prospector had long ago 
had a coal furnace for smelting ore. There were, 
however, according to the man, no signs of aban- 
doned habitation. Besides, the clinker was so big it 
had to have come from a sizeable furnace. 

Well, we never figured it out. For me it was 
the first of a long list of such mysteries. 
• One day a farmer from southeastern Mis- 
souri dropped into the Museum with a paper sack 
containing — he believed — a meteorite. He spilled 
the contents onto a table. Out tumbled large 
fragments of green bottle glass! They were all in ir- 
regular shapes and looked like hunks that had 
been scaled off the sides of the large steel ladles 
used to pour molten glass in a glass factory. (When 



Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy/. 





18 



A "right" and a "wrong": At the right is a pyrite nodule (3.5" long). Nodules of this kind 
form inside some sedimentary rocks. At the left is an iron meteorite (7" long). Both 
specimens have the same type of surface sculpting and the same color. A very close look- 
alike, the pyrite nodule is often brought to the Museum as a possible meteorite. 



the walls of the large ladles become too encrusted 
with glass they are hammered out and dumped.) 
The only trouble was that the farmer had plowed 
them up in his field! How did they get there? We 
never figured out that one either. His farm was 
nowhere near a glassworks. 

• A few years later, a farmer from southern 
Illinois came in with some "meteorites" he'd 
plowed up in his field. They were fragments and 
shards of bottle glass again — only this time it was 
deep blue glass! No explanation could be found. 
No glassworks were known in the area. It is, and 
has been, agricultural land since the first settlers 
came there, and the Indians before them did not 
make glass. 

• One day in the mid-1960s, a man from 
Chicago's North Side phoned. He had been on a 
hike with his sons in the woods near the Wisconsin 
border and had come across a strange rock. It was 
shiny and metallic inside and had a thin black 



i^^niM 



Manganese is mixed with iron, in a steel mill, to 
make certain special alloys. This meant that a 
large mass of a refined man-made metal from 
some mill had somehow gotten hauled out to -the 
woods along the Wisconsin-Illinois border north 
of Chicago. How did that happen? 

Since that time, over the past ten years, I 
have had chunks of the same stuff, from the same 
general area, brought in at least four more times! 
• Not too long after the first manganese inci- 

dent I got a call from a man who said he'd found 
some bright, shiny, metallic object while digging 
in his yard. He wasn't able to get in to the Museum 
but mailed the object in. The first thing I noticed 
about the piece was how "undense " it was — very 
light stuff, indeed. Well, it took some time, but 
tests finally showed it to be a piece of very pure 
metallic silicon. Well, silicon doesn't occur natur- 
ally either; it also has to be refined by man, chiefly 
from its oxide form, called quartz. It is a difficult 










These three "meteor-wrongs" are all man-made. That in the rear (8" long) is a light, frothy siUceous 
slag from a steel mill. A chunk of furnace clinker (3.5" across) from a coal-fired furnace is at the left. 
At the right is a piece of dark blue bottle glass (4" across) — slag residue from a bottlemaking 
operation. Each of these specimens was brought in as a suspected meteorite. 



coating on the outside. It weighed many hundreds 
of pounds, by his estimation. He found a small 
chunk that had broken off the main piece and said 
it was very dense, like a piece of iron — certainly 
more dense than an ordinary rock. It sounded en- 
couraging. 

A few days later he came into the Museum 
with his sample. It was much as he described it. It 
has a density like metallic iron, but was utterly 
nonmagnetic. This one took the better part of a 
day for testing. It turned out to be a fairly pure 
piece of metallic manganese. Manganese oxide is 
black, and that accounted for the coating on the 
outside. Manganese metal does not occur natural- 
ly; it has to be refined in a mill from its oxide ores. 



refining process. Silicon metal is used to make 
transistors and devices for electronic calculators. 
I never figured out how it got into the yard 
of a suburban house. Since then I've had at least 
half a dozen more pieces of the same stuff sent in 
or brought in, each from an unlikely place. 
• A man who had been on a fishing trip in 

the Great Okeefenokee Swamp region of southern 
Georgia called one day. He told of putting his tent 
up on an island one evening. As he hammered in a 
tent peg it struck something metallic just a few 
inches below the surface of the soil. He dug it out. 
It was rusty on the surface, but very dense, like 
iron, and very magnetic. This sounded like a win- 
ner at last. 



19 



He finally managed to bring the object in to 
the Museum. It looked just like a weathered iron 
meteorite. It was flattish and almost two inches 
thick. I cut off a piece and went to work on it. It 
took most of a day. It had iron in it all right, and 
some nickel. But there was too little nickel to be a 
meteorite. It also contained a lot of chromium as 
well as small amounts of vanadium. Meteorite 
metal has neither of these. It was a chunk of man- 
made steel. 

What was this piece of metal doing in a 
swamp, hundreds of miles from anything? It was 
too chunky and irregular to have been a part that 
might have fallen from an airplane. It was so rusty 
it had obviously lain there for a long time— so it 
couldn't be part of a satellite. It was another one 
we gave up on. 

• On the near northwest side of Chicago the 
owner of a three-storey apartment building re- 
ported finding a meteorite on his roof. He de- 



ested? Yes, indeed! 

She said she would go back to the ranch 
and bring it into town, where she had a house and 
yard. She called back a couple of days later to tell 
me she had it in town in her garage. She and her 
son had had to set up a block-and-tackle to lift it 
to the bed of their pickup truck. When it was low- 
ered into the truck it bounced a bit and put a deep 
dent into the truck's steel bed. I told her that the 
best thing to do was to cut off, with a hacksaw, a 
small piece — say, something about the size of a 
25(t piece. That is usually big enough to make all 
the necessary tests. 

About a week later she called again to tell 
me that she and her son were taking turns working 
the hacksaw. They had worn out at least a dozen 
blades and were nowhere near through. Finally, 
after another week had passed I received a pack- 
age in the mail from the lady. I opened it eagerly, 
because I was convinced it had to be a winner. The 




A type of quartzite, a terrestrial metamorphic rock known as a "graywacke. " it 
occurs in outcrops in northern Wisconsin and Upper Michigan. Specimens found 
in the Chicago area were carried there thousands of years ago by glaciers, and are 
frequently thought to be meteorites. This specimen is 6" long. 



20 



scribed a white-to-pale gray rock that weighed at 
least 50 pounds. It didn't sound at all like a 
meteorite. I told him that even if it had been one, 
there would be no way for it to land on his 
roof — and stop there! A fifty pound meteorite 
would go right through to the basement. 

He said it had to be a meteorite because he 
was thoroughly familiar with the flat roof of his 
apartment house and it was not there the last time 
he went up to the roof, some months before. 

I went to his house one evening after work 
and looked at it. It was a large fragment of lime- 
stone, complete with some fossils in it. I left him 
with the problem of how a fifty pound chunk of 
limestone was hoisted onto the roof without him, 
knowing about it — and why it was done at all! 
• In the summer of 1977 I received a phone 
call from a lady in Wichita, Kansas. She said she 
had grown up on a ranch over 30 miles from 
Wichita, and ever since she was a child remem- 
bered a large iron meteorite her father had talked 
about that was out on the ranch. Were we inter- 



piece of metal they had cut off was much larger 
than necessary. It was four inches across. They 
did a monumental amount of sawing by hand to 
get such a large piece. 

The metal was bright and shiny, just like a 
freshly cut iron meteorite. But clinging to one side 
of it was a black-colored slag that had thin finger- 
ings into the metal. The metal was from a smelter 
— man-made! The main piece weighed many hun- 
dreds of pounds. It was smelted iron that had been 
dumped 30 miles from a city that is not a steel mill 
town. She found that hard to believe — and so 
did I. 

I could go on and on about hunks of metal 
or strange rocks that are found in crazy places. 
I've long ago' stopped being amazed over such 
stuff. My biggest problem is trying to figure out 
what the objects are. People who bring in meteor- 
wrongs are always disappointed they are not 
meteorites, and are naturally curious about the 
true nature of the objects they've collected. Of 
course, many, many of these things brought in are 



ordinary terrestrial rocks that people think might 
be meteorites. Farmers are usually familiar with 
the bedrock of their area, so when they see some- 
thing that is definitely not the local bedrock they 
suspect it might be a meteorite. All of the Midwest 
was glaciated thousands of years ago. The ancient 
glaciers carried boulders from regions in the north 
and dropped them in this central region. So, it's 
not unlikely for a piece of dark, gray or black 
basalt to end up in an area where the local bedrock 
is white limestone or tan sandstone. Such a mass 
of basalt stands out. Also, there's a process called 
frost-heave. A farm field that is clear of glacial 
boulders can have such boulders many feet down 



wrongs. A while back we were visited by a curator 
from the British Museum, which has the largest 
meteorite collection in the world. He told us about 
a supposed meteorite that fell on the evening of 
September 25, 1580: 

It seems that Sir Francis Drake was engaged 
to a charming young lady. Before they were to be 
married, however, Drake was going on a sea jour- 
ney. He left, and two years passed by as he went 
around the world. The girl despaired of his return, 
and her father, who wanted her married, arranged 
with another family for their son to marry her. 
The eve of the wedding arrived. Farmers in the 





A stone "right" and a metal "wrong": The specimen at the left is an average stone 
meteorite (5" long). The other object is a close look-alike: a piece of refined manganese 
metal (5" long). The latter is man-made. The black coating on the outside of the 
manganese is manganese rust, which is pitch black in color. In appearance it closely 
matches the black fusion crust coating on the outside of the meteorite. 



at the base of the soil. A series of hard winters can 
freeze the soil to a considerable depth. When the 
freezing takes place, the ice expands', and a buried 
glacial boulder can be pushed upwards slightly. 
After many years the boulder appears on the sur- 
face. A farmer, knowing it was clear land before, 
naturally concludes it had to have come from 
above — a meteorite. 

Such natural terrestrial rocks are relatively 
easy to identify. The man-made metals, alloys, 
slags, clinkers, glasses, and such, are not so easy. 

The Field Museum isn't, of course, the only 
museum to face the problem of identifying meteor- 



area reported the fall of an iron meteorite. The girl 
said it was a sign from heaven that Sir Francis was 
returning, and called off the wedding. Well, sure 
enough, the next day Drake sailed into Plymouth 
harbor. All ended happily — the girl got her man, 
and the meteorite ended up being kept in Drake's 
large manor house. Centuries passed and the 
meteorite was always kept as a memento of the 
event. It got to be known as "Drake's meteorite." 
The curator from the British Museum recently 
visited the fine old English estate to examine this 
ancient treasure. Alas, another meteor-wrong — it 
was a cannonball! 



These specimens are the products of metal 
refineries. That on the left (2" long) is a piece 
of metallic silicon. That on the right (4" long) is 
of chromium-iron alloy. Both were brought to 
the Museum as suspected meteorites. 




21 



Volunteers Honored 



An impressive, record total of 49,621 hours were contributed 
by 280 Field Museum volunteers in 1978. Volunteer work was 
performed in a variety of Museum departments and divisions: 
anthropology, photography, botany, education, exhibition, 
geology, zoology, the library, membership, public relations, 
and publications, among others. 

Expertise was provided in cataloguing new acquisi- 
tions, textile conservation, collating, specimen identification, 
reorganizing old collections, typing, editing and writing, in- 



structional facilitating, filing, and even in routine mainte- 
nance tasks. 

In honor of their outstanding contributions, a buffet 
dinner was held for the volunteers in Stanley Field Hall on 
February 27. Museum President and Director E. Leiand Web- 
ber presented gifts of appreciation to the volunteers; he gave 
special tribute to Sol Gurewitz, a Field Museum volunteer for 
eighteen years. The evening was concluded with a presenta- 
tion of songs by Field Museum staff. 




22 -. -' »^;y«a-: 

Solomon Gurewitz 



Solomon Gurewitz: 

The Volunteer as Unpaid 

Museum Professional 



Most of Field Museum's staff rarely appreciate how unusually 
lucky we are in our volunteers, even though we seem to have 
more of them, and to get more and better work from them, 
than any comparable institution in the area. Visiting staff 
from other museums tend to be astonished when told that 
many volunteers here put in as much as several hundred man- 
or woman-hours in an average year. We, however, are not 
surprised. We take such remarkable performances almost for 
granted, and all because of one man: Mr. Solomon Gurewitz, 
the volunteer who set the pattern 18 years ago. He still works 
three days a week every week. Though unpaid, he is as pro- 
fessional as any member of the paid staff. All of us have come 
to expect that other volunteers will have at least part of the 
talent and dedication of a Gurewitz. 

He came to the Museum in 1961, freshly retired and 
enthusiastically interested in Asian culture. As there was no 
regular volunteer program in those days, he had to talk his 
way in. He succeeded easily, being then as now a good talker. 
Within a month he had shown he was capable of doing many 
of the tasks of a trained museum anthropologist. Within a 
year he was an indispensable member of the Anthropology 
Department's staff. 

He was given responsibility for rearranging and re- 
storing the Museum's large Oriental collections. He became 
expert enough on these materials to give many lectures and to 
guide high-powered professional visitors to materials they 
wished to study. He was often asked to advise on materials 
for exhibition, on the selection and packing of loans, and on 
cataloguing. He helped with almost everything and took 
charge when necessary, having become a true jack-of-all- 
museum-trades. 

About 15 years ago, he started to branch out in a new 



Carol Small Kaplan 



direction. Much of the Museum's collection had never been 
photographically recorded even though, as he pointed out, 
contemporary museological standards required this for 
reasons of both security and research. He convinced the 
authorities that the Museum's regular photography depart- 
ment could hardly keep up with new accessions, much less 
work its way through the enormous backlog of unrecorded 
material acquired in earlier years. He received authority to set 
up a special photography section within the Anthropology 
Department. Since then he has been the departmental 
photographer. He and several associates, all volunteers, take 
several thousand highly professional pictures annually. 

In the midst of this never-ending task, Sol still finds 
time to help orient new volunteers, to advise on numerous 
problems, to act as unofficial Departmental historian, and to 
be active in the Museum's professional and social life. It is an 
amazing achievement and, although we may appear to take it 
for granted, we are naturally both impressed and grateful. To 
show this gratitude, Sol was several years ago made an 
Associate of the Museum, and this year the annual Volunteer 
Party is being dedicated to him. But we have an ulterior 
motive besides gratitude. We want to publicize him as an 
example. His influence has already produced a few unpaid 
staff members almost as good as Sol. We hope that his exam- 
ple will help bring in more Gurewitzes in future years. — 
Bennet Branson, associate curator of Asian archaeology and 
ethnology 



Special Recognition 



Over 500 Hours 



Patricia Talbot (828 hours): Geology; compiling Mazon Creek fauna 
guide 

James Swartchild (742 hours): Anthropology; photography of new 
acquisitions and objects for special research and exhibition projects 

Sol Century (714 hours): Anthropology; cataloging new acquisi- 
tions; working on plans for more efficient storage of collections 

David Weiss (702 hours): Anthropology; working as general assis- 
tant to the curator; helping develop new security routines 

Miya Esperanza Diablo (671 hours): Education; educational 
facilitator and statistical analyst 

Jeanette Leeper (611 hours): Anthropology; textile conservation 

Claxton Howard (607 hours): Library; sorting, typing, and reading 
room assignments 

James Burd (606 hours): Anthropology; general assistant to the 
curator; in charge of planning departmental reorganization; 
cataloger 

John O'Brien (598 hours): Education; assisting in preparation of 
Harris Extension materials and resources 

Sol Gurewitz (579 hours): Anthropology; photography of new and 
unphotographed specimens; advising on Chinese collections 

Peter Gayford (578 hours): Anthropology; editorial and research 
work connected with forthcoming catalog of Chinese rubbings 

Alice Schneider (574 hours): Anthropology; editorial and research 
work on Chinese rubbings catalog 



Burke Smith, Jr. (501 hours): Zoology (Division of InscLtsi; 
curatorial assistance with orthoptera collection 

Over 400 Hours 

Louva Calhoun: Anthropology; illustrating stone tools for publica- 
tion 

Anne Leonard: Anthropology; tapacloth project researching 

Margaret Martling: Botany; cataloging library reprints 

Carolyn Moore: Anthropology; research and cataloging on Japanese 
collections 

LeMoyne Mueller: Anthropology; conservation of North American 
Indian beadwork collection 

Sylvia Schueppert: Anthropology; conservation of North American 
Indian beadwork collection 

Eleanor Skydell: Education; researching and developing the 
Weaver's Walk for Adult Group Programs 



Over 300 Hours 

Virginia Beatty: Botany; organizing and cataloging collection of New 
Zealand hepatics and general assistant to curator 

Rose Buchanan: Education; educational and public facilitator 

Mark Clausen: Public Relations; editing and writing 

Eugenia Cooke: Zoology, Division of Mammals: cataloging 
specimens; filing in departmental library 

Connie Crane: Anthropology & Exhibition; researching Northwest 
Coast mythology and working on related projects 

Julie Hurvis: Education; educational and public facilitator, and 
resource coordinator for Place for Wonder 

Ira Jacknis: Education; co-developer for "Festival of Anthropology 
on Film" 

Carol Landow: Education; educational and public facilitator 

Withrow Meeker: Anthropology; cleaning and conservation of 
Chinese shadow puppets; work on Philippines collections 

Debra Moskovits: Zoology, Division of Birds; researching and com- 
piling a gazetteer for bird collecting localities in Brazil 

Gary Ossewaarde: Education; exhibit facilitator 

Elizabeth Rada: Botany; cataloging botanical periodicals and typing 
research monographs 

Robert Rosbert: Anthropology; cataloging Kish and Pompeii 
collections 

James Skorcz: Library; compiling reference statistics, interfiling 
directory additions, and reading room projects 

Llois Stein: Anthropology; cataloging and researching Oceanic 
collections 

Lorain Stephens: Zoology, Division of Birds; researching and com- 
piling a gazetteer for bird collecting localities in Peru 

Beatrice Swartchild: Anthropology; research on Philippine textile 
collections — to be published as a catalog. Education; statistical 
analyst 

Volunteer list continued on p. 34 




23 



ROSS'S ROSY GULL 

Twice in the past four years 
this beautiful arctic species 
has been a mysterious 
visitor to the lower 48 states 
— once to Chicago, once to 
Massachusetts. 

^'---^ BY JANETTE MEAL 



24 



Not many birds make the front page of the New 
York Times, but the Ross's gull did. The 
appearance of one in Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts, in 1975 was called the birding event of the 
century, and caused a sensation among bird 
lovers. The bird was seen and identified on March 
2 of that year. On the morning of March 3, a 
group of 50 or so people, including the 
distinguished naturalist Roger Tory Peterson, who 
had left his Connecticut home at 3:45 a.m., waited 
and watched in the cold. At 10:00 they saw the 
Ross's gull feeding with a flock of Bonaparte's 
gulls. It was the 668th bird on Peterson's U.S. life 
list. As the word spread and the excitement grew, 
flocks of birders from the U.S. and beyond 
crowded into Newburyport. They lined the sea 
wall overlooking the Merrimack River estuary 
and the state beach on the Salisbury side of the 
river to see the gull. They frequently saw it feeding 
with Bonaparte's gulls three times daily. It didn't 
leave Newburyport until early May. 

Then, less than four years later, another 
Ross's gull briefly made the bird-watching 
headlines. This one happened along the wintry 
shoreline of Lake Michigan, not far from the 
Chicago Loop. The bird was first spotted mingling 
with Bonaparte's gulls on November 29, 1978. The 
following day it was seen by several expert birders 
in the vicinity of Lincoln Park, a few miles north. 
The news spread quickly, and by December 2, a 
Saturday, dozens of eager birders braved the bit- 
ter onshore winds in search of the bird. It was seen 
fleetingly only once more, and never again. Hun- 
dreds of birdwatchers around the country waited 
in vain for one more sign that the bird was going 
to be as cooperative as the famous Newburyport 
gull, but this second sight record for the the "lower 
48" vanished as suddenly as it had appeared. 

The Ross's gull is usually found in the high 
arctic. Before the 1975 sighting, never before had 
one been seen so far south. This was the first 



sighting of the bird in the U.S. outside of Alaska. 
We can only speculate on how the bird, in 1975 
and 1978, came to be so far from its usual habitat. 
It may have become separated from its own kind, 
joined a flock of Bonaparte's gulls in their 
breeding grounds in northern Canada and flown 
south with them. It may have been blown south 
by bad weather. Or it may have suffered from a 
case of mistaken identity and believed itself to be a 
Bonaparte's gull. 

The Ross's gull has a circumpolar distribu- 
tion in the arctic. It is seldom seen south of the 
Arctic Circle, although there are occasional 
sightings of the bird in northern Europe and 
Canada. Our knowledge of the gull is limited by 
the remoteness and inaccessibility of its habitat; 
however, we do know the basic facts of its life 
history. The gulls breed in Siberia, arriving there 
in late May or early June. They nest and raise their 
young quickly. By August they have left their 
nesting grounds and begun an eastward migra- 
tion. They pour through the Bering Straits in 
September and October. They continue north- 
eastward until they meet the pack ice and spend 
the winter at sea among the ice fields. In spring 
they follow the ice north as it melts, returning to 
their breeding grounds. 

The Ross's gull is small for this particular 
bird group — 12 to 14 inches (30. 5-35. 5cm.) long. 
In breeding plumage the head, neck, underparts, 
and tail are a delicate rosy pink. The back and 
wings are soft pearl gray. The trailing edges of the 
wings are white with gray outer tips. A narrow 
black band encircles the neck. The eyes are red, 
the feet vermilion. The beak is black and 
somewhat smaller and weaker than the beak of 
other gulls. The wingspan is about 10 inches 
(25.4cm.). The distinctive wedge-shaped tail is 5 
inches (12.7cm.) at the center, 4 inches (10cm.) at 
the outer edges. The bird weighs 8 to 10 ounces 
(200-250gms.). 



In winter the pink color fades to white, and 
the necklace disappears. A patch of gray appears 
on the back of the crown. 

In Juvenal plumage, the crown, neck, and 
mantle are brownish-black. The forehead and 
cheeks are white with dark patches behind the 
eyes. A dark band runs along the upper sides of 
the wings and back forming a W. The tail is white 
with a wide black terminal band. The feet are 
plum. The rest of the plumage is white with gray 
wing linings and considerable brown in the wing 
tips and coverts. 

Newly hatched chicks are about 5 inches 
(13cm.) long. Their down is dusty yellow with 
flecks of gray and black. The flecks tend to be 
darker on the head and lighter on the flanks. The 
breast is unspotted and whitish. The eyes are dark 
brown. The legs, feet, and bill are flesh-colored or 
gray, with a brown tip on the bill. 

The distinguishing characteristics of the 
Ross's gull are its pink color, its wedge-shaped 
tail, and the collar around its neck. 

The bird has a higher, more melodious, 
and more varied voice than other gulls. Its flight is 
more buoyant and ternlike. 

In summer the gull's diet consists of gnats, 
beetles, small moUusks, aquatic insects and lar- 
vae, worms, and crustaceans. In winter the diet 
consists of small fish and crustaceans. 

The history of the Ross's gull is as in- 
teresting as the bird is beautiful. The first scientific 
discovery of the bird was made by Sir James Clark 
Ross, a nineteenth-century British arctic and 
antarctic explorer. Ross was born in 1800 and 
joined the Royal Navy at the age of twelve. Be- 
tween 1819 and 1827 he sailed on four arctic ex- 
peditions with Sir William Edward Parry. In 1831 
he was a member of Booth's expedition, and with 
his uncle. Sir John Clark, helped determine the 
position of the north magnetic pole. Ross led an 
expedition to the antarctic in 1839 with two ships, 
the Erebus and the Terror. He led an attempt to 
rescue Sir John Franklin in 1848/49 with the ship 
Endeavor. He was recognized as an expert on the 
arctic and antarctic until his death in 1862. 

On June 27, 1923, Ross shot a gull at 
Igloolik on the east side of the Melville Peninsula 
in the Canadian Arctic. Parry's journal records the 
event: 

Mr. Ross had procurred a specimen of a 
gull having a black ring around its neck, and 
which, in its present plumage, we could not find 
described. This bird was alone when it was killed, 
but flying at no great distance from a flock of tern, 
which latter it somewhat resembles in size as well 
as in its red legs; but is on closer inspection easily 
distinguished by its beak and tail, was well as by a 
beautiful tint of most delicate rose-colour on its 
breast. * 

This was probably the first written descrip- 
tion of the Ross's gull. Several days later another 
member of the expedition shot another gull. The 
two skins were prepared and carried back to Great 



Britain. One was given to the University of Edin- 
burgh Museum, the other to a Joseph Sabine. 

The bird was described from the Edinburgh 
skin by Dr. John Richardson and named the 
cuneate-tailed gull (Larus rossii) in 1824. At the 
same time William MacGillivray, assistant keeper 
of the museum, gave the bird the temporary name 
of Ross's rosy gull (Larus roseus). Both men in- 
tended for Richardson's names to be used, but 
somehow it was MacGillivray's names that stuck. 
Today the scientific name for the bird is 
Rhodostethia rosea, from the Greek words 
rhoden, meaning "rose," and stethos, meaning 
"breast"; and the Latin word rosea, meaning 
"rose-colored." MacGillivray proposed this name 
after he learned that the name Rossia was used as 
the generic name of a mollusk. 

Virtually nothing more was learned about 
the Ross's gull for the next 50 years. In the 35 years 
after its discovery only two individuals were seen, 
one of them by Ross at Spitzbergen in 1827. In 
1844 Audubon wrote that the only two Ross's 
gulls known to exist in museum collections were 
the two from the second Parry expedition. 
Audubon did not see or paint a Ross's gull. He 
confessed that, "not having met with this beautiful 
little gull, I am obliged to refer to Dr. 
Richardson's description of it in the Fauna Boreali- 
Americana."** 

By 1881 only 23 specimens could be found 
in the world's museums, and no eggs or nests had 
been collected. 

To illustrate the rarity and value of Ross's 
gull specimens, consider the story of R. L. 
Newcomb. In October 1879 Newcomb shot eight 
Ross's gulls from the ship Jeannette, which was 
imprisoned in the ice and drifting away from 
Wrangall Island towards the northernmost of the 
New Siberian Islands. Large numbers of the gulls 
were seen flying over the ice. In June 1881 the 
Jeannette foundered near Henrietta Island. Many 
men perished during the journey in the ship's 
boats across ice and water through the New 
Siberian Islands, across the Laptev Sea, to the 
Siberian mainland at the Lena River delta. 
Throughout the long ordeal Newcomb kept three 
skins under his shirt. Not only did he save the 
skins, they helped to save him by providing in- 
sulation against the cold. 

In the late ninteenth and early twentieth 
centuries our knowledge of the Ross's gull in- 
creased greatly. Sightings were recorded and 
specimens collected. The basic facts of the bird's 
life history were determined. 

In August 1894 Fridtjof Nansen shot eight 

*Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a 
Northeast Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific Per- 
formed in the Years 1821-22-23 in His Majesty's Ships 
Fury and Hecla Under the Orders of Captain William 
Edward Parry {London: John Murray, 1824), p. 449. 

**Audubon, John James, Birds of America 
{Philadelphia: Audubon, 1944), VII, 130. 



25 



2* 



Ross's gulls from the ship Fram. which had been 
frozen in the ice pack for 10 months. Nansen left 
the Fram and saw more gulls about 30 miles north- 
east of Hvidtenland, the northeast group of the 
Franz Josef Archipelago. From July 11 to August 8 
Nansen and his companion, Johansen, saw single 
birds and sometimes small flocks. The crew of the 
Fram who remained on the ship also saw Ross's 
gulls about the same time. Nansen saw the gulls 
again in August 1899 near Franz Josef Land. This 
made it clear that the birds inhabited the pack ice 
north of Franz Josef Land and Spitzbergen, and 
suggested that they bred farther west in Siberia, or 
that they migrated westward. 

In 1897 S. A. Andree died attempting to 
cross the North Pole in a balloon. His body and 
diary were found in 1930 on White Island, which 
lies off the coast of North-East Land and between 
it and Franz Josef Land. The diary reported that 
after the balloon crashed Andree and his com- 
panions struggled 200 miles south. They saw 15 to 
17 Ross's gulls 120 to 190 miles north of White 
Island in late July and August. 

John Murdoch observed Ross's gulls at 
Point Barrow, Alaska, in the fall of 1881. For a 
month, beginning September 28, he saw the gulls 
traveling northeast. The next year he saw them 
from September 20 to October 9. In 1897 he saw 
only two Ross's gulls, on September 9 and 23. 
Murdoch reported seeing large loose flocks of the 
birds. He took more specimens, mostly immature 
birds, than were contained in all the world's 
museums at that time. 

The gulls appeared at Point Barrow on 
gray overcast days with easterly winds. They flew 
in from the southwest, sometimes stopping to feed 
on the beach, then continued on to the northeast. 
They appeared and disappeared quickly. The 
birds were seen in the fall more or less regularly, 
but their numbers varied. Some years many were 
seen, some years few, or none at all. The fact that 
the birds were not seen at Point Barrow in spring 
or summer led Murdoch to guess correctly that 
their breeding grounds were west of Wrangall 
Island, and that they reached the breeding 
grounds by following the melting ice north, not by 
a return migration through Point Barrow. 

Dr. Charles Brower was in charge of the 
trading post at Barrow in the 1920s. On 
September 26, 1928, thousands of Ross's gulls 
passed through Barrow. Brower wrote that he 
could have killed several hundred if he'd had the 
time. The skins were once so rare that they 
brought up to $200. By 1929 they were no longer 
so valuable. Although they were still eagerly 
sought by museums and collectors, they com- 
manded a price of only $10 or so. Ross's gulls were 
shot for food by Eskimos and were eaten fried or 
roasted. They tasted like golden plover! 

Sergius Buturlin conducted the major study 
of the species on its breeding grounds in 1905. He 
described the limits of the breeding area in north- 
eastern Siberia — from the Kolyma River delta 



near the Arctic coast, south to Aby Mlaya and 
Svedne Kolymsk, east to the Chaun and Indigirka 
Rivers, and west to Swjatai Nos. The southern 
part of the area is forested, but most of it is a mix- 
ture of swamp, moor, wet ground, lakes and 
rivers. The birds nest in dense alder thickets, not 
on the open tundra. 

Buturlin reported that the first gulls arrived 
on May 30. The next day he saw several dozen. 
They appeared tired, sitting quietly on the ice and 
not flying far away if they were approached. 
Buturlin found the gulls on a small shallow lake 
formed by snow melt, accompanied by terns and 
Sabine's gulls. They spent their time swimming, 
catching insects, and resting. The gulls were con- 
stantly seen in pairs, the males identifiable by their 
more intense coloration. The males courted the 
females by pecking at their heads and necks with 
open beaks, as if they were trying to kiss the 
females. The males stepped around the females, 
trilling, with their heads and breasts lowered, their 
tails and wings raised. 

After June 3 the gulls dispersed and 
established territories. The males, and sometimes 
the females, defended the territories. The nests 
were constructed of dry grass, sedge stalks, dwarf 
willow and dwarf birch leaves and twigs, and 
often lined with lichens. They were built on small 
mossy areas free of wet grass or on small islands 
above the water. Some nests were built in hollows 
in patches of dry dead grass. The nests were 
shallow cups about 4 inches (10cm.) in diameter 
and Vi inch (.6cm.) thick, standing 4 to 10 inches 
(10-25. 4cm.) above the surface. The nests were 
generally damp. 

The gulls nested in small colonies of four to 
thirty birds, almost always in the company of 
arctic terns. Other birds that shared the breeding 
grounds were glaucous-winged fulls, hoary red- 
polls, snow buntings, white-tailed eagles, willow 
ptarmigan, pectoral sandpipers, curlew sand- 
pipers, dunlin, red and northern phalaropes, 
snipe, golden plovers, ruff, oldsquaw, white- 
fronted geese, bean geese, and whistling swans. 

Buturlin found the first incubated eggs on 
June 13. By June 23 he had collected 36 eggs and 38 
skins. On June 26 he found an egg close to hatch- 
ing. There were usually three eggs per nest, but 
some nests held two or four eggs. The eggs 
measured 1.7 inches (43.3mm.) long and 1.2 
inches (31.6mm.) wide. They were dark olive 
green spotted with chocolate brown. They were 
roundish, the small ends not pronounced, and 
more spotted towards the longer ends. The spots 
were not sharply defined and varied in color, 
some being lighter and some darker. 

The incubation period lasted more than 3 
weeks. Second clutches were sometimes laid if the 
first clutches were lost. During the day the females 
left the nests to feed. At night the males defended 
the colonies. The gulls constantly fought with the 
terns, making the colonies noisy places. The gulls' 

Continued on page 34 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



Quetico Wilderness Canoe Trip for Members 



July 19-29 




Quetico Provincial Park, in western Ontario, is a mosaic of 
pure glacial lakes, pre-Cambrian rocks, and virgin boreal forest. 
Together with Minnesota's Boundary Waters Canoe Area, 
which it adjoins, this park is one of our continents's last remain- 
ing wilderness areas. 

Field Museum is sponsoring for the fifth consecutive 
year, a canoe trip to Quetico for its high school-age members. 
The Voyageur Wilderness Program, of Atikokan, Ontario, is 
cosponsor. The ten-day trip is not primarily for fishing, nor is it 
a crash course in ecology; rather, it is intended as a wilderness 
experience and, as such, can mean different things to different 
participants. To truly experience wilderness is to forsake many 
of the comforts and crutches of civilized life. It means hard work 
—paddling long hours and carrying canoes and gear over por- 
tage trails that range from a few yards to more than a mile long. 
But it also means entire days during which one's group will 
encounter no others; it means lakes clean enough to drink 
from; it means periods of intense silence and opportunities to 
see wild animals and to experience the northern lights. 



Martin Oudejans 

The group of 30 will be divided into single-sex units of 
five or six persons, each with a counselor or guide. All equip- 
ment, food, and guide services, as well as bus transportation 
between Field Museum and Quetico are included in the trip 
cost: $225.00. Applicants must be between 14 and 19 years 
old. Previous camping or wilderness experience is not neces- 
sary. The prime qualifications are proven swimming ability, 
good health, maturity and reliability. All applicants will be inter- 
viewed by Field Museum counselors; the deadline for applica- 
tions is May 25. Those chosen for the trip will be so notified by 
June 2. 

Slide presentations by Voyageur Wilderness Program 
representatives will be given on Field Museum's Members' 
Nights, May 2, 3, and 4. Program times and location will be an- 
nounced in Members' Night literature or may be obtained by 
phoning 922-9410, X-251. For an application or additional 
information, phone or write Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum 
Tours, Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL. 60605. 27 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



ILLINOIS ARCHEOLOGY FIELD TRIP 



For many of us, the word "arche- 
ology" conjures up visions of 
great architecture in distant 
places: Egypt's Pyramids and 
Sphinx, Cambodia's Angkor 
Wat, and Mexico's Pyramids of 
the Sun and Moon at Teotihua- 
can. These sites, with their relics, 
are limitlessly fascinating. 

But right here in Illinois we 
also have exciting archeological 
sites, including the largest 
aboriginal structure north of 
Mexico — Monk's Mound at Ca- 
hokia. One of the most broadly 
based archeological research 



centers in the country is the 
Foundation for Illinois Archeo- 
logy, at Kampsville; and one of 
the largest covered excavations 
with the longest continuing 
research programs is at Dickson 
Mounds, near Lewistown. 

If you are interested in 
learning more about Illinois pre- 
history, as well as how scientific 
archeological research is con- 
ducted, you can join the Field 
Museum field trip of June 1-5, 
which will visit Dickson Mounds, 
Kampsville, and Cahokia 
Mounds. Limited to 30 partici- 



pants, the trip includes site visits, 
lecture and slide presentations, 
workshops and discussions led 
by staff archeologists working at 
the respective sites. The field trip 
director is Robert Pickering, a 
doctoral candidate at Northwest- 
ern University. 

The per person cost of this 
field trip is $240.00. For full 
details and registration informa- 
tion, write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 
Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. 



Helton Mound, in the Lower Illinois Riuer Valleii, is ti;pical of the sites to be visited during 
the June archeology; field trip. 







28 



Observations 

On the Mutability 

Of Time 

BY ALAN EDWARD RGBIN 



About 600 years ago Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: 
The tyme, that may not sojourne, 
But goth, and never may retourne, 
As water that doun renneth ay, 
But never drope retourne may, 
and therein expressed the obvious irreversibihty of 
time. More recently, in "Chronomoros," Edward 
FitzGerald told of time's unvarying flow: 
Whether we wake or we sleep, 
Whether we carol or weep, 
The Sun with his Planets in chime, 
Marketh the going of Time. 
These phrases typify the concept of time as in- 
exorably ticking away, marking the passage of 
innumerable events and relegating them to an in- 
different oblivion. The sands of time flow on. 

Contrary to the notions of Chaucer and 
FitzGerald, however, time cannot be considered as 
flowing at a constant rate along a one-way street. 
The measurement of the finite velocity of light 
(first performed by the Danish astronomer, Olaus 
Roemer, in 1676) lay the groundwork for the des- 
truction of this concept. 

Light is the carrier of information, be it the 
spectral type of the nearest stars, the radial 
velocity of a remote galaxy, or the fact that there 
may be an ideal green wall clock on the other side 
of my office indicating a time of 9:07:04 to me. 

At a speed of approximately 300,000 
km /sec, the light reflected off the clock will span 
the five meters to my eye in less than 0.000000017 
second. For all practical purposes, then, when I 
observe the clock to say 9:07:04, it actually is 
9:07:04. 

Suppose I sent my cousin (of whom I'm not 
very fond) 300,000 kilometers away, lent him a 
telescope, and asked him to observe my wall clock. 
Clearly, it would take light precisely one second to 
travel from the clock to my cousin. When he reads 
9:07:04, fully one second will have elapsed since 
the clock indicated that time to me. At that point. 



Alan Edward Rubin is a graduate student at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois at Chicago Circle. He has been a lecturer 
at the Adler Planetarium and has taught a course on 
"Geology of the Solar System" at Field Museum. 



I will read 9:07:05. Another observer, 600,000 
kilometers from my clock would judge it to be just 
9:07:03. It can now be seen that there must be a 
quantum of light carrying that information of 
9:07:04 along with it, and if one were to ride on 
the light beam, it would stay 9:07:04 forever. 

At the speed of light, time stands still — in 
contradistinction to what I observe while sitting 
and watching my clock successively ticking off 
9:07:04, 9:07:05, 9:07:06. . . .If I were astride the 
light beam, however, I would be moving at 
300,000 km/sec relative to the clock, while in 
reality I'm not moving with respect to the clock at 
all. If I were to suddenly increase my velocity 
relative to the clock, I would notice a correspon- 
ding slow-down in the passage of the clock's time. 
The faster I went, the longer it would take the 
clock to get from 9:07:04 to 9:07:05. I would be 
able to measure how sluggish my wall clock had 
become by glancing at the Timex on my wrist. My 
Timex would tick away the seconds at the same 
rate my wall clock did before I started moving. But 
since my wristwatch would not be moving relative 
to me, it would be keeping what is referred to as 
"proper time." We can define proper time as the 
time kept by a clock that is stationary with respect 
to the observer. 

Let us imagine that my cousin has come 
back to earth for the moment to find me. I owe 
him money. As he enters my office, he notices me 
jumping out the window at 259,000 km/sec. 
Quickly, he pulls out his telescope and focuses on 
my wristwatch. He notes that two seconds of the 
wall clock pass for every one second indicated by 
my Timex, and concludes that my wristwatch is in 
bad adjustment. But the sluggishness he observes 
on my Timex is exactly equivalent to the slug- 
gishness I observe on the wall clock back in my 
office. It can now be seen that an observer will 
note that every relatively moving clock is slow; 
the faster the relative velocity, the slower the 
moving clock seems to run. 

This effect is known as "time dilation" and 
has been experimentally verified in the decay of 
high-speed muons. Muons are unstable massive 
sub-atomic particles that break down very rapid- 



29 



30 



ly. In fact, half of the muons that are stationary 
with respect to an observer will have decayed in 
about one millionth of a second. However, if an 
observer locates some muons which are moving 
relative to him, he will note that the muons live 
longer. The faster the muons are moving, the 
longer they will seem to live. 

So far, I have only discussed the apparent 
sluggishness of time in systems which are in 
relative motion. Many of the examples presented 
above are derived from Einstein's special theory of 
relativity. Time also appears to slow down, 
however, when it is being measured in a system 
that is being accelerated or in one that is experi- 
encing a gravitational field. Before we discuss this, 
it is germane to illustrate Einstein's "principle of 
equivalence," which states that the effects of 
gravitation are completely indistinguishable from 
the effects of uniform acceleration. 

Suppose I were to go to the moon (where 
the effects of air resistance are zero) and take 
along with me a cough drop and a silver dollar. 
Placing the cough drop in one hand and the silver 
dollar in the other, I will experience the weights of 
each of these objects as pressures on my hands and 
will judge that the weights differ. If I were to move 
my hands quickly downwards, the pressures 
exerted by these objects on my hands would 
decrease. An increase in the downward motion of 
my hands would correspond to a decrease in the 
pressure exerted by these objects. If I were to con- 
tinue this motion ever more rapidly, there would 
come a time when the objects would fly off my 
palms and lag behind in the downward motion. 
This will occur when the downward motion of my 
hands exceeds the free fall velocity of the objects. 
Now, the cough drop and silver dollar will fall at 
the same rate, remaining at an equal height, 
although they are no longer in contact with my 
hands. 

Let me now capture a scientifically minded 
small green demon and imprison him in an opaque 
box along with the cough drop and the silver 
dollar. The box rests comfortably in my hand. 
When my hand is at rest, the demon will note that 
the cough drop and silver dollar have different 
weights by placing them on a tiny green scale he 
always carries in his pouch. If I were to bring my 
hands downwards, the demon would note a 
sudden decrease in the weights of the objects. He 
would not be able to tell that the box was moving 
since he could not see through the walls. Again, if 
the free fall velocity of the objects were exceeded 
by the downward movement of my hand, the 
cough drop, silver dollar, scale, and demon would 
all start flying upwards. It would be as if these 
formerly heavy objects had suddenly aquired a 
negative weight, or that gravitation, which had up 
to that moment always acted downwards, 
suddenly began acting upwards. 

The demon could conclude that either the 
box was being accelerated in the direction of the 
unaltered gravitational field or that the masses 



below the box, which previously had pulled 
everything down, had disappeared, and new 
masses had appeared above the box, pulling 
everything toward the ceiling. There is no known 
experiment that the demon could perform inside 
the box to distinguish between these two 
possibilities. 

Let us now examine how time is altered by 
the presence of either a uniform acceleration or a 
gravitational field. Imagine a freely floating glass 
room which is far out in space and subject to no 
gravitational influences. My cousin and I are in- 
side, having tea. Outside the room is a circular 
disk which is rotating at a constant velocity. After 
synchronizing our watches, we decide to perform 
a little experiment. My cousin leaps onto the cir- 
cular disk and fastens himself there securely. After 
a while, we decide to compare watches and I 
notice that my cousin's watch is running a bit 
slow. We repeat this experiment several times 
more, varying only the distance from the center of 
the rotating disk to the point where my cousin 
straps himself down. I observe that the farther my 
cousin is from the center of the disk, the faster he 
is being accelerated and the slower his watch 
appears to run. Since Einstein's principle of 
equivalence equates an accelerating system with 
one that possesses a gravitational field, it can be 
concluded that clocks will also run slow when sub- 
jected to gravitational attraction. 

In an intense gravitational field, time will 
be much slowed down with respect to a distant 
observer. In the vicinity of a black hole, the 
distortion of time is maximized. A black hole gets 
its name from the fact that no light can escape 
from it and it can therefore never be directly 
observed. Around every black hole there is a 
spherical boundary called the event horizon, 
which lies at a radius (numerically equal to 2.95 
kilometers times the mass of the black hole in solar 
mass units) from the singularity inside. Any shoe, 
cat, rocketship, cigar, gastropod, or light beam 
that penetrates the event horizon will be swal- 
lowed up by the black hole and never emerge. The 
closer these objects come toward the event 
horizon, the slower the time will appear on their 
clocks as judged by a distant observer. Conse- 
quently, such an observer would never actually 
see any of these objects penetrate the event 
horizon. They would appear frozen at the surface 
of this boundary with their clocks remaining stop- 
ped for all infinity. 

Let us assume that I have just discovered a 
nonrotating black hole of ten solar masses and 
decided to send my cousin to investigate it. His 
mission is to approach and penetrate the event 
horizon, while keeping his clock on display at the 
stern of his spacecraft. I remain a good safe 
distance away. When my cousin is only 33 km 
from the hole, three seconds on my Timex will 
pass for every one second recorded by his clock. 
Events at this distance from the black hole 
transpire at one-third their normal rate. 



As my cousin's spacecraft came closer to 
the event horizon, his clock would run ever more 
slowly. It would take an infinite time for the clock 
to tick at the event horizon and the spacecraft 
would appear to be suspended there forever. 

My cousin, however, would not see himself 
as being frozen against the boundary of the event 
horizon. He would pass through it in what he 
would judge to be a reasonable amount of time 
and notice no strange pathological effects what- 
soever. A glance at his clock would indicate to 
him that his was functioning quite normally and if 
he were to look back outward toward my Timex, 
he would find it corresponds rather well with the 
clock in his ship. (The only discrepancy he would 
notice would be due to the relative motion of his 
clock with respect to mine, as discussed above.) 
The observation of his ship being frozen against 
the event horizon is therefore only a consequence 
of my point of view from the outside. 

Although I would be able to see my cousin 
poised in space forever, he himself would be 
heading toward the center of the black hole. As he 
approached the center, the tidal forces would 
grow ever stronger. Assuming the hole was ten 
solar masses, he would reach the center in 67 
millionths of a second according to his clock after 
he penetrated the event horizon. The tidal forces, 
however, would have torn him apart long before 
this. At the center of the hole there would be a 
singularity, a mathematical point containing all 
the mass of the hole, including, now, my cousin's. 
It is an object of zero volume, and consequently of 
infinite density. I could then assume that my 
cousin would not participate in any of my future 
experiments. 

I have stated above that "time cannot be 
considered as flowing at a constant rate along a 
one-way street." I have shown that time slows 
down with increased velocity according to the 
postulates of special relativity and that gravita- 
tional fields also will cause clocks to slow in 
accord with general relativity. So much for time's 
constant rate. But what about the second part of 
my statement? Can time still be thought of as 
flowing along a one-way street? Perhaps time can 
be slowed down and stopped, but can it ever 
actually flow backwards? Is the irreversibility of 
time absolute? 

According to electromagnetic quantum 
field theory, an anti-particle moving forward in 
time is equivalent to a particle moving backward 
in time. In the nuclear physical process of pair 
production, a photon is annihilated and an elec- 
tron and a positron (an anti-electron) are created. 
The positron can be represented by an electron 
going backwards in time. This postulate was first 
presented by R. P. Feynman in 1949, but it must 
be kept in mind that this time-reversal anti- 
particle equivalence has not been empirically 
verified. Perhaps it is empirically unverifiable. 
Nevertheless, mathematically, at least, time can 
be considered as occasionally flowing backwards 



when dealing with particle — anti-particle pairs. 

There is yet another mathematical solution 
dealing with the reversibility of time that stems, in 
this instance, from some of the theoretical specula- 
tion about black holes. If you recall, the black 
hole that I sent my cousin into was nonrotating. 
But just how reasonable is it to suppose that any 
star (including black holes) would possess no rota- 
tional velocity? Our sun rotates (with a period at 
its equator of 25.4 days); the pulsar— neutron star 
in the Crab Nebula rotates (about 30 times each 
second); in fact, all stars rotate. In general, the 
more massive the star, the greater is its rotational 
velocity. In order for a star to have collapsed upon 
itself to form a black hole, it must have been at 
least three times as massive as the sun. As the 
star's radius decreased, the potential black hole 
would have had to rotate more rapidly in order 
for angular momentum to have been conserved. 

From this we can conclude that a non- 
rotating black hole is most likely a fictitious 
entity. It was necessary to consider the 
nonrotating hole, however, because up until 1963 
there were no known mathematical treatments 
that could account for rotation of black holes. In 
that year, R. P. Kerr published such a treatment. 
Instead of the black hole having one event 
horizon, there are actually two. Also, a trip 
through the first event horizon does not necessari- 
ly doom the traveller into being sucked up by the 
singularity. It is possible for him (if he chooses his 
course carefully) to pass through the event 
horizons and emerge in another universe. Once 
there (wherever that might be) our adventurer 
could conceivably find another rotating black hole 
and return to our own universe at any point in 
time that he may choose. The Kerr solution allows 
him to possibly return to earth a million years in 
the future or ten billion years before he left. 

The main flaw in this solution is that it is 
necessary when performing the calculations to en- 
tirely disregard the star that created the black hole 
in the first place — a most fundamental oversight. 
This "wormhole" to the future or the past must 
therefore be regarded as a purely mathematical 
construction, and one that, given our present state 
of knowledge, cannot be taken too seriously. 

What, then, is time? It cannot be defined as 
flowing at a constant rate, as has been shown by 
special and general relativity. Moreover, there are 
certain mathematical solutions which seem to 
question time's apparent irreversibility. But in the 
daily personal worlds of most of us, time seems to 
exhibit no behavioral abberations, for this is in 
fact the world for which the concept of time was 
created, as a classically useful and fundamentally 
human expedient. D 




31 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Exclusive Tour Packages for Members and Their Families 




Fabulous Machu Picchu, one of the sites to be uisited on Field Museum's Peru tour. 



PERU 



32 



In 1978 Field Museum was host to a dazzling exhibit of 
golden treasures from ancient Peru. Now Field Museum 
members and their families can visit some of the archeo- 
logical sites where those treasures were discovered. A 
20-day tour (Oct. 27-Nov. 15) will visit the famed ruins of 
Machu Picchu. Chan Chan. Pachacamac. Purgatario. and 
others. Also on the itinerary are the Plains of Nazca 
(viewed from low-flying aircraft), the offshore Guano 
Islands, and the famous Pisac Indian Fair. The group, 
limited to 20 persons, will be led by Dr. Michael Moseley. 
associate curator of middle and South American arche- 
ology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in 
archeology. Both Moseley and Feldman have done exten- 
sive archeological work in Peru: a tour escort will also 



accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 
donation to Field Museum) — is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare between Chicago 
and Peru, as well as local flights in Peru. Delta Airlines will 
be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out. The package includes all meals, including inflight 
meals; all sightseeing via deluxe motor coach: all admis- 
sions to special events and sites, where required: all bag- 
gage handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers: all 
applicable taxes and tips: all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



COOIC ISLANDS 



The Unique Opportunity to see a hidden comer of the fabled 
South Seas awaits a select group of Field Museum Members. 
Accompanied by three staff scientists, from July 14 to 31, a visit 
to the Cook Islands will involve comfortable living in a still-un- 
spoiled paradise. It will be the dry season, with clear lagoon 
waters, sunshine guaranteed, and comfortable temperatures. 

Located between Tahiti and Fiji, the Cook Islands offer 
one of the last relatively unspoiled island areas. Rarotanga, with 
towering peaks and narrow valleys, is surrounded by a reef and 
coral islets. A new 150-room hotel provides a base with modern 
comforts. Aitutaki, an hour away by small plane, is a classic atoll 
lagoon, rich in marine life and superb for snorkeling or SCUBA div- 
ing. There, a comfortable, country-style hotel will provide two 
nights' accommodation right next to a lagoon reef, with the sim- 
ple, friendly services of the Polynesian community. Mangaia, also 
a short flight away, will be visited for a day, with an inland hike 
and a journey to the lagoon areas. The last three days of the tour 
will be spent in Hawaii. 

The tour's scientific lecturer/escorts will be Dr. Alan 
Solem, curator of invertebrates. Dr. Robert K. Johnson, associate 



curator of fishes, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi. research associate 
in invertebrates. Dr. Solem has participated in many expeditions 
to this part of the globe and has written extensively on its fauna. 
Dr. Johnson, a certified SCUBA diver and expert on coral reef 
fishes, has participated in many diving expeditions to both the 
South Pacific and the Caribbean. Dr. Girardi has also made many 
collecting trips to the South Pacific, concentrating on marine 
invertebrates. 

The tour, limited to 25 persons, will travel via Air New 
Zealand. The tour cost— $2,650 (includes a $400 donation to 
Field Museum)— is based upon double occupancy and includes 
round trip air fare to and from Chicago. Also included is all inter- 
island transportation, all meals (except lunches in Hawaii) and all 
inflight meals, all admissions to special events, where required; all 
baggage handling, plus all transfers, all applicable taxes and tips. 
Advance deposit required: $400 per person. 

For full itinerary and other information, write or call 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



Tour members will staii at the Rarotangan. the Cook Islands' new luxury/ hotel. 

n 




VOLUNTEERS continued from p. 23 

1978 Volunteers 



Bruce \hib()rii 
Ainv Xlluisi 
Carrie Anderson 
Cleo Anderson 
Si^ne Anderson 
Dolores Arbanas 
Judv Armstronj^ 
Beverlv Baker 
Mar<;aret Baker 
Dennis Bara 
Owen Barnett 
Sanda Bauer 
DcMiie Baum«arlen 
John Bayalis 
Vir»;inia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
Frances Benlley 
Phoebe Bentley 
William Benlley 
Leslie Beverly 
Kulh Blazina 
Marv Ann Bloom 
Sharon Boeniniel 
Marjorie B<)hn 
Julie Borden 
Idessie Bowens 
Hermann Bowersox 
Kristine Bradof 
(^arol Bris<'oe 
Rose Buchanan 
Teddy Buddinfjton 
James Burd 
Katherine Burdick 
Michael Burns 
Louva Calhoun 
Jean Carton 
Cathe Casperson 
Gilda Castro 
Sol ("enturv 
Karen Chesna-McNeil 
June Chomsky 
Robert Clark 
Mark Clausen 
John Collins 
June Connors 
Eugenia Cooke 
Collenane Cosey 
Richard Cox 
Mary Ann Cramer 
Connie Crane 
Velta Cukurs 
Alice Culbert 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Mary Derby 
Carol Deutsch 
Anne DeVere 



Miva Esperanza Diablo 
Marianne Diekman 
Jennifer Dillon 
Delores Dobberstein 
Stanlev Dolasinski 
Carolyn Donovan 
Marjjaret Dreessen 
Janet Duchossois 
Stanley Dvorak 
Bettie Dwinell 
Milada Dyl>as 
Sharon Ebl>ert 
Alice Eckley 
Anne Ekman 
Lee Erdnian 
Audrey Faden 
Martha Farwell 
Suzanne Faurot 
Lee Fefferman 
Linda Finney 
Marc Fleischer 
Gerry Fofiarty 
Gerda Frank 
Arden Frederick 
Nancv Frederick 
Werner Frey 
Royla Furniss 
Peter Gavford 
Patricia Geor^ouses 
Nancv Gerson 
Elizabeth Louise Girardi 
Shirlev Goldman 
Loma Gonzales 
Helen Gornstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Carol Graczyk 
Ralph Greene 
Paul Gritis 
Patrick Gullev 
Kathy Gunnell 
Sol Gurewilz 
Michael Hall 
Marjorie Hammerstrom 
Judith Hansen 
John Harding 
Marjiaret Hardinj; 
Patricia Hastings 
Shirley Hattis 
Maureen Hawkridge 
H.J. Hedlund 
Katherine Hill 
Audrey Hiller 
Vicki Hlavacek 
Patricia Hogan 
Ralph Hogan 
April Hohol 



Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Elmer Hulman 
David Humbard 
Julie Hurvis 
Adrienne Hurwitz 
Diane Hutchinson 
Lucinda Hirichison 
Ellen Hyndman 
James Jack 
Ira Jacknis 
Penny Jacobs 
Mabel Johnson 
Ernest Paul Jones 
Malcttlni Jones 
Julia Jordan 
i^titia Kaminski 
Dorothy Karall 
Dorothy Kathan 
Gayle Kedrick 
Ruth Keller-Petilti 
Shirley Kennedy 
Marjorie King 
Elaine Kinzelberg 
Ann Koopnian 
Carol Kopeck 
Eva Kopel 
(^arol Landow 
Betty Langedyk 
Viola Laski 
Katharine Lee 
Jeanette Leeper 
June Lefor 
Steve LeMay 
Anne Leonard 
Margaret Litten 
Elizabeth Lizzio 
Susan Lynch 
Edna MacQuilkin 
David Magdziarz 
Anna Main 
Judy Main 
Richard Main 
Catherine Majeske 
Kay-Karol Mapp 
Gabby Margo 
Gretchen Martin 
Margaret Martling 
Geri Matsushita 
Joyce Maluszewich 
Melba Mayo 
% illiam McCarthy 
Mark McCollam 
Ann McCorkle 
Patsy McCoy 



Jodie McNeel 
Elizal>eth Meeker 
Withrow Meeker 
Beverlv Mever 
Joanne Mitchell 
(Carolyn Moore 
\^ iley Moore 
Patricia Morin 
^cndv Morton 
Debra Moskovits 
LeMoync Mueller 
Anne Murphy 
Roger Mvers 
(^harlita INachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
JoAnn Nelson 
John Ben Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Natalie Newberger 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Barbara Nielsen 
Suzanne Niven 
Bernice Nordenberg 
Janis (VBove 
John O'Brien 
Joan Opila 
Gary Ossewaarde 
Anita Padnos 
Raymond Parker 
Susan Parker 
Sally Parsons 
Delores Patton 
Frank Paulo 
(Vleste Perry 
Mar\ Ann Peruchini 
Lorraine Peterson 
Diane Pieklo 
Kathleen Porter 
Elizabeth Rada 
Lori Recchia 
Erin Reeves 
Sheila Reynolds 
Elly Ripp 
Addie Roach 
William Roder 
Barbara Rooh 
Rr>bert Rosberg 
Brcnda Rosch 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Marie Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 
Dennis Roth 
Helen Ruch 



Marc ftamet 
Linda San<lberg 
Tim Schalk 
Alice Schneider 
Sally Schoch 
Sylvia Schuepperl 
Carole Schumacher 
Sandy Schweitzer 
Beverlv Scott 
Laura Seidman 
Jean Sellar 
Ruth Shaffner 
Ann Shanower 
Albert Shatzel 
Louise Sherman 
Judv Sherry 
Elaine Sindelar 
James Skorcz 
Eleanor Skvdell 
Burke Smith. Jr. 
Kav Snook 
Richard Spears 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Sjwnsley 
Steve Sroka 
Llois Stein 
Lorain Stephens 
Susan Streich 
Jane Swanson 
Beatrice Swartchild 
James Swartchild 
Patricia Talbot 
Terri Talley 
Jane Thain 
Clare Tomaschoff 
Peter Tortorice 
Dana Treister 
Harold Tsunehara 
Karen Urnezis 
Judv Valentine 
Barbara Vear 
Harold Voris 
Harold Waterman 
David Weiss 
Peyton Wells 
Fred Werner 
LaDonna Whitmer 
Ron \^ inslow 
Kurt Wise 
Reeva ^olfson 
Ken Young 
Karen Zaccor 
Joanne Zak 
Lvnn Zeger 
Faith Zieske 



GULLS continued from page 26 



34 



only enemies were skuas and vega gulls, which 
took eggs and chicks. Buturlin found that the gulls 
showed little fear of humans. If he disturbed them 
from their nests, they would return if he remained 
quiet as close as 30 or 40 yards away. 

Buturlin found three-day-old chicks on July 
1. On July 6 and 7 he found seven downy young in 
different stages of growth. The chicks hid from 
humans in clumps of carex, where they were well 
camouflaged, or they avoided humans by creeping 
through the grass to water and swimming away. 
The adults tried to distract humans by fluttering 
low over ground or water, then settling on the 
water, calling, and looking here and there. 
Sometimes they even tried to draw the human's 



attention to terns' eggs or nests by fluttering near 
them or landing near them. Fights with the terns 
were likely to ensue. 

The gulls began to leave the breeding 
grounds as soon as the young were strong enough 
to fly. This could be as soon as 20 days after 
hatching. On July 22, Buturlin found only three 
immature birds, and by August the breeding 
grounds were deserted. 

Relatively little has been learned about the 
Ross' gull since Buturlin's study. Much remains to 
be learned, but no matter how much is learned 
about the bird, it will retain its aura of mystery 
and fascination. It is a symbol of the endless en- 
chantment of the arctic. This small dainty-looking 
bird not only manages to survive in one of the 
most severe climates on Earth, it thrives there. D 



April and May at Field Museum 



(April 15 through May 15) 



Mew Exhibits 

"The Art of Being Huichol." Opens May 5. Members preview 
May 2, 3, and 4 during Members' Migiits. A major traveling 
exhibition of more than 150 objects of Huichol Indian art. The 
exhibit was organized by the Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco and Is sponsored by a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts and by the Museum Society of the Fine 
Arts Museums of San Francisco. The exhibit includes costumes, 
votive objects, weavlngs, embroidery, beadwork, and yarn 
"paintings." The "art of being Huichol" is the act of living a 
devout life, and spiritual themes dominate their art. The Huichol 
also value visionary experiences produced by the 
hallucinogenic peyote and these images are reflected in their 
dramatic yarn paintings. The Huichol live In an isolated area of 
Western Mexico, and they remain one of the few traditional 
Indian groups whose ancient beliefs and practices remain 
unchanged even today. Through September 3, Hall 27. 

"Lacquer Arts of Japan." Opens May 9. More than 150 delicate 
objects comprise this exhibit of exquisite lacquer art from 1 8th- 
and 19th-century Japan. "Lacquer Arts" Is planned in 
conjunction with "Japan Today," an international festival being 
held nationwide during April, .May, and June. The objects 
displayed include items recently donated to the Museum by 
John W. Leslie as well as specimens loaned by another Chicago- 
area collector. On view will be finely crafted inro (small sectional 
lacquer cases used to carry medicine), ojime beads, and nelsuke 
(miniature carved pendents which hang from silk cords). 
Portable shrines made of pins can also be seen. Examples of 
early Chinese lacquer art will be exhibited for comparison. 
Hall 32. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents. 

Opened February 15. Conceived and created by Field Museum's 
own staff, this exhibit features exotic feather objects from 
around the world. Assembled almost entirely from In-house col- 
lections, "Feather Arts " will travel to other museums nationwide 
after its stay at Field Museum. The 260 artifacts, drawn from 
1,000 years of history. Include such rarities as an Hawaiian 
king's feather cape given to England's George IV In 1821, and 
the feather shoes of an Australian sorcerer. This fascinating 
exhibit examines the symbolic and religious meaning of feath- 
ers over the centuries and illustrates the importance of feather- 
work as a universal art form. Hall 26. Through June 15. 



A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History. This exhibit 
unites 63 natural history specimens with samples of philatelic 
art. Projected to eventually cover the four disciplines of natural 
history, the exhibit for the first 8 months is devoted to the ani- 
mal kingdom as illustrated on stamps from all over the world. 
"A Stamp Sampler" was conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, exhibit 
guest curator. The exhibition was designed by Peter Ho, a Uni- 
versity of Illinois graduate student. 



New Programs 

"Peru and Its Birds." An illustrated lecture with David E. Will- 
ard, custodian of Field Museum's bird collection. Wednesday, 
April 18, 1979, at 8:00 p.m. Peru has one of the most diverse 
bird populations in the world. Dr. Willard spent 10 months there 
studying fish-eating birds and searching for new species. He 
surveys the major groups of Peruvian birds and discusses their 
ecology and behavior in this slide lecture. James Simpson 
Theatre. Members, $1.50; Monmembers, $3.00. A Members' 
dinner precedes the lecture at 6:30 p.m. Dinner: $7.50. Phone: 
922-9410, X 364 for reservations. 

"American Indian Featherwork." A free demonstration of 
American Indian featherworking techniques with Dixon Palmer, 
an Indian of Kiowa and Choctaw descent. Saturday and Sunday, 
April 21 and 22, 1979. 10:00 a.m. • 12 noon; 1:00p.m. - 3:00 
p.m. Stanley Field Hall. Mr. Palmer, whose Indian name Is Tsain- 
Sah-Hay or "Blue Hail, " Is a well-known expert in Indian feather- 
work. His specialty is creating beautiful feather warbonnets; he 
will demonstrate how these pieces are made, and explain what 
they mean in Indian culture. 

"Wings, Feathers, and Tales." Story Theatre with Maria Thes- 
pians. Directed by Zivlle Numgaudus. Saturday and Sunday, 
April 21 and 22, 1979, at 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. Delightful 
story-telling sessions about the Importance of birds and their 
feathers in folklore of cultures around the world. Ms. Num- 
gaudus, a drama teacher at Maria High School In Chicago, reads 
selected tales from North and South America, Canada, Hawaii, 
and New Zealand while her brightly costumed group interprets 
them through song, dance and drama. A program that will 
fascinate adults and children alike. Lecture Hall II. Members, 
$1.50; Nonmembers, $3.00. Tickets: 922-9410, X 364. 



(Continued on back cover) 



Members' Nights 



Mark your calendar now for Members' Night, Field 
Museum's annual open house for its Members, to be 
held this year on Wednesday, May 2; Thursday. May 3; 
and Friday. May 4. 

As in the past, free round-trip charter bus service 
will be provided between the Loop and the Museum. 
These CTA buses, marked FIELD MUSEUM, will origi- 
nate at the southwest corner of State and Jackson, 
with stops at the southwest corner of Michigan and 
Balbo. Two buses will be making continuous circuits, 
beginning at 5:45 and passing at about 15-minute 



intervals, until the Museum closes. 

Plenty of free parking is available In Soldier Field 
lots and the Planetarium parking area, with a shuttle 
bus continuously circling the areas and collecting and 
discharging passengers at the Museum's south steps. 

From 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. the Museum's food service 
area will provide complete dinners or snacks. 

So plan your Members' Night visit now, reacquaint 
yourself with your Museum. Entertainment and educa- 
tional programs will be offered on each of the three 
evenings, from 6 until 10 p.m. 



35 



April and May at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside cover) 



New Programs 



"The Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures" take place throughout 
April. These free, adult-oriented travel films begin at 2:30 p.m. 
on Saturdays. James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free at the 
West entrance. April 21: "O Canada!" April 28: "Discover 
Japan." 

"Free Gamelan Concert." Friday, April 20, at 7:00 p.m. 
Directed by Dr. Sue Carole DeVale. Field Museum's gamelan 
master class will demonstrate the Museum's 19th-century Java- 
nese gamelan to members of the American Musical Instruments 
Society. Open to the public. Hall K, ground floor. 

"The American Bald Eagle." A documentary filmed in the 
Florida Everglades, Alaska, and the Aleutian Islands which tells 
the story of America's endangered national bird. Saturday, April 
28, 1979, at 10:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. This 16-minute film 
identifies the characteristics, life cycle, habitat, nesting and 
breeding habits of the majestic bald eagle, and stresses the need 
to continue vital conservation efforts. James Simpson Theatre. 
Admission is free at the Museum's West entrance. 

"Our Bald Eagle: Freedom's Symbol Survives." With Thomas 
Dunstan, associate professor of biology at Western Illinois Uni- 
versity. Sunday, April 29, 1979, at 2:30 p.m. Dr. Dunstan's slide 
lecture on the plight of the American bald eagle is based on his 
research of the last 10 years. He discusses the vital efforts being 
made to conserve the American bald eagle population. Harvey 
Webster, of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, joins Dr. 
Dunstan and brings with him a live male bald eagle from the 
project on artificial breeding of captive populations in progress 
at the Cleveland Museum. James Simpson Theatre. Members, 
$1.50; Honmembers, $3.00. Tickets: 922-9410, X 364. 

"Great Scientists Speak Again." A series of six weekend film 
programs honoring the world's great scientists. Professor Rich- 
ard M. Eakin, University of California at Berkeley, impersonates 
famous men of science and creates an authentic atmosphere 
using the language, dress, and manner of the times. Professor 
Eakin relives the important scientific discoveries, methods of 
study, theories, and personal philosophies of these historic 
figures through his imaginative portrayals on film. Admission is 
free at the West entrance of the Museum. "William Harvey"; Fri- 
day and Saturday, May 4 and 5 at 2:30 p.m. A. Montgomery 
Ward Lecture Hall. "William Beaumont"; Friday and Saturday, 
May 1 1 and 12, at 2:30 p.m. A. Montgomery Ward Lecture Hall. 

A series of anthropological films about Japan will be presented 
in conjunction with "Japan Today" cultural festivities; 
"lyomande; The Ainu Bear Festival." Sunday, May 6, at 11:00 
a.m. and 2:00 p.m. A. Montgomery Ward Lecture Hall. Made in 
the 1930s, this film studies the Ainu tribe on Japan's northern 
island of Hokkaido. Admission is free at the Museum's West 
entrance. 

"Discovering the Music of Japan." Sunday, May 13 at 11:00 
a.m. and 2:00 p.m. A. Montgomery Ward Lecture Hall. Three 
major Japanese instruments — the koto, the shakuhachi, and the 



samisen — are demonstrated by skilled Japanese musicians in 
this film. 

"Members' Nights." Wednesday, May 2; Thursday, May 3; Fri- 
day, May 4. Field Museum's behind-the-scenes open house will 
be held on three consecutive evenings this year. From 6 p.m. to 
10 p.m., the Museum offers a thrilling selection of activities — 
special displays, lectures, games, tours, and demonstrations — 
especially for Members. Research areas open at 7 p.m. 



Continuing Programs 

"Armchair Expeditions." Geared for adult groups, these in- 
house "expeditions " include slide lectures and tours of selected 
exhibits. Dining arrangements available. Special "Feather Arts " 
slide lectures, presented by Phyllis Rabineau, curator-in-charge 
of Field Museum's current "Feather Arts" exhibit, are available 
in April. A visit to the exhibit follows. Reservations are required. 
Call 922-0733 for more information. 

Spring Journey. "The Meaning of Feathers." Through May 31. 
Self-guided tour leads families and children through exhibits to 
discover what birds and their feathers mean to various cultures. 
Free Journey pamphlets are available at the North Information 
Booth, and at the South and West doors. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. Field Museum's 
popular "Anthropology Game " has been expanded to include 
botany, geology, and zoology. The object here is to determine 
which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the en- 
trance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 
a.m. to 3 p.. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an 
interest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410, X 360. 

April and May Hours. During April, the Museum is open daily 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. except Fridays. In May, the Museum is open every 
day 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays, the Museum is 
open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULL 



/ 




I 







Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

May, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 5 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leiand Webber 



CONTENTS 


3 


Field Briefs 


5 


Members' Tour of the Soviet Union 


6 


Members' Nights 


8 


The Remarkable Manatee 




A Personal Adventure 




By Thor Janson 


10 


Members' Tour to the Cook Islands 


11 


Members' Tour to Peru 


12 


Inro as Art 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Goerge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Calitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searte 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarringlon 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insult, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Notes on Japanese Lacquer Exhibition Opening 
May 9 

By Carolyn Moore, Bennet Bronson, Mary Barrett, 
and Diane Zorich. Photos by Ron Testa 

20 What's in a (Rock) Name? 

By Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy; photos by 
Ron Testa 

26 China Tour for Members 

27 Project Antarctica: Members' Tour 

30 Illinois Archaeology Field Trip 

31 Weekend Field Trips for Members 

32 Our Environment 

35 May and June at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

A frolicking shishi, or lion-dog, is depicted on this 19th-century 
example of inro, a type of container used in ]apan initially for carry- 
ing seals, and later for medicines. Worn exclusively by men, they 
also served as status symbols. Like the one shown here, inro were 
often made of lacquer and were exquisitely fashioned. This example, 
9 cm. high, is executed in high relief using various elaborate gold lac- 
quer techniques. Signed "Kajikawa" (a school of lacquer artists. 17th 
to 19th century), ^255001. It is from a collection of remarkable 
lacquerwares recently donated to Field Museum by John Woodworth 
Leslie. These and other examples of Japanese lacquerware will be on 
view in Hall 32 beginning May 9. Photo by Ron Testa. See story pp. 
12-19. 



Field Museum of Natural Histor\/ Bulletin is published monthly, except combined luly/August 
issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. II. 
60605. Subscriptions: $6 a year; S3 a year for schools. Museum membwrship includes Bulletin 
subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy 
of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to 
Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago II. 60605. ISSN: 
0015-0703. 





John Witek, of International Harvester Company, slices through a Field Museum meteorite. 



International Harvester 
Cuts Meteorites down to Size 

Each year the Department of Geology 
receives requests from laboratories all over 
the world for the loan of meteorite 
specimens. These are used for a variety of 
experimental purposes and research 
measurements. 

Depending on the specific re- 
quirements of the laboratory requesting a 
meteorite loan, samples are frequently pro- 
duced by being cut from larger specimens. 
Samples of modest size can ordinarily be 
cut by the saws in the Department of 
Geology, but occasionally the piece re- 
quired must come from a meteorite that is 
too large for our saws to handle. When this 
occurs the Museum has to call on outside 
help. 



For the second time in a decade, the In- 
ternational Harvester Company, Manufac- 
turing Research Division, of Hinsdale, III., 
has come to our aid in this matter. Their 
saws, capable of handling objects as large as 
tractor engine blocks, are ideally suited for 
slicing chunks from "oversize" meteorites. 

Alex V. Peterson, the division's direc- 
tor of manufacturing research, recently 
took eight meteorites — the largest weighing 
155 pounds — and had them sawed for us. 
Plant staff members Gordon Walters and 
John Witek were responsible for the pro- 
ject, Witek doing the actual cutting. 

It was a problem, even for his heavy 
duty equipment, because of the odd sizes 
and shapes of the meteorites; they were dif- 
ficult to clamp firmly into position. None- 
theless, the cutting was completed in a 
week's time. For years to come, smaller sec- 



tions of these slices can be produced by the 
Museum's saws as requests for specific 
samples are received. 

The Museum is grateful to Interna- 
tional Harvester for the unique service they 
have most generously provided. 



Whitcomb Named to Anthropology Staff 

Newly appointed as assistant curator of 
Middle Eastern archaeology and ethnology 
is Donald S. Whitcomb, most recently a 
research fellow at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. A major, initial respon- 
sibility of Whitcomb's will be a presenta- 
tion of the exhibit "Treasures of Cyprus," 
opening June 14. In addition to cultures of 
the Middle East, Whitcomb's respon- 
sibilities will include Etruria and Rome. 

Whitcomb received his B.A. from 
Emory University, his M.A. from the 
University of Georgia, and his Ph.D. from 
the University of Chicago. His dissertation 
was on "Trade and Tradition in Medieval 
Southern Iran." Together with his wife, 
Janet H. Johnson (associate professor at the 
University of Chicago), he has worked on 
an excavation at Quseir al-Qadim, an Egyp)- 
tian port on the Red Sea, with Roman oc- 
cupations in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. 
and Islamic occupations in the 13th and 
14th centuries. 

Donald R. Fischer Named Chief, 
Security and Visitor Services 

Field Museum's new chief of Security and 
Visitor Services is Donald R. Fischer. He 
succeeds Anthony DeBlase, who had held 
the post since 1971. A native Chicagoan, 
Fischer has returned to his home town after 
more than twenty years service with the 
U.S. Army Military Police Corps. His final 
military assignment was as Criminal Intelli- 
gence Coordinator in Hawaii. 





Display case in neu' exhibit: Feather Arts: 
Continents, on view until July 15 in Hall 26. 



Beauty. Wealth, and Spirit froDi 



Museum Cohosts Carboniferous 
Congress in Urbana 

Field Museum is a cosponsor of the techni- 
cal sessions of the Ninth International Con- 
gress of Carboniferous Stratigraphy and 
Geology, to be held during the week of 
May 21 in Urbana, Illinois. This important 
congress, which meets every four years, last 
met in Moscow, in 1975. 

Members of the Department of Geol- 
ogy who are taking an active role in this 
year's congress include Gordon C. Baird, 
assistant curator of fossil invertebrates; 
Eugene S. Richardson, curator of fossil in- 
vertebrates; Bertram G. Woodland, curator 
of petrology; and Rainer Zangerl, curator 
emeritus. These men will lead field trips to 
specimen collecting localities in Illinois and 
Indiana. Baird and Woodland are organiz- 
ing a discussion group and will present 
research results at the technical sessions. An 
exhibit to be displayed at the congress is be- 
ing developed by John Harris, preparator, 
and other members of the staff. 



Definitive Work Published 
On Fossils of Mazon Creek 

Mazon Creek Fossils is the title of a 
581-page work published in May by 
Academic Press, a subsidiary of Harcourt 
Brace Jovanovich. Editor of the work, 
consisting of eighteen technical papers is 
Matthew H. Nitecki, curator of fossil 
invertebrates. The papers were originally 
presented during a symposium held at Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, in May, 1978. Authors of 
the papers include six members of the Field 
Museum Geology staff and three Field 
Museum research associates. 



The study of the fossils of Mazon 
Creek (some 50 miles southwest of 
Chicago) had its beginnings in the 
mid-1800s, when it first came to the 
attention of distinguished geologists James 
Dwight Dana and Edward Drinker Cope. 
Today Mazon Creek is recognized as one of 
the most important fossil beds in the world. 
The present volume is the most 
comprehensive work on the subject yet to 
appear. 

The 18 essays are arranged in four 
groups; "Historical and Geological Papers " 
(4), "Paleobotanical Papers" (3), 
"Invertebrate Paleontology Papers" (8), 
and "Vertebrate Paleontology Papers" (3). 

Contributions by Field Museum staff 
include "Mazon Creek Fauna and Hora: A 
Hundred Years of Investigation," by 
Matthew Nitecki; "Lithology and Fossil 
Distribution, Francis Creek Shale in 
Northeastern Illinois," by Gordon C. Baird; 
'The Occurrence and Origin of Siderite 
Concretions in the Francis Creek Shale 
(Pennsylvania) of Northeastern Illinois," 
coauthored by Bertram G. Woodland; 
"Polyplacophoran Molluscs of the Essex 
Fauna (Middle Pennsylvanian, Illinois)," 
coauthored by Eugene S. Richardson; 
"Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesean) 
Cephalopoda of the Mazon Creek Fauna, 
Northeastern Illinois," coauthored by 
Richardson; "New Chondrichthyes from 
the Mazon Creek Fauna (Pennsylvanian) of 
Illinois," by Rainer Zangerl; and 
"Amphibami4S grandiceps as a Juvenile 
Dissorophid: Evidence and Implications." 
by John Bolt. 

Contributions by Field Museum 
research associates include 'The Mazon 
Creek Biotas in the Context of a 
Carboniferous Faunal Continuum," by 



Frederick R. Schramm; "Eviu<;ni.c lor 
Subaerial Activity of Euproops danae 
(Merostomata, Xiphosurida)," by Daniel C. 
Fisher; and "Fishes of the Mazon Creek 
Fauna," by David Bardack. 

New Exhibition: 
"The Art of Being Huichol" 

This traveling exhibition of more than 150 
objects of Huichol Indian art opens in Hall 
27 on May 5. The exhibit was organized by 
the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 
and is sponsored by a grant from the Na- 
tional Endowment for the Arts and by the 
Museum Society of the Fine Arts Museums 
of San Francisco. The exhibit includes 
costumes, votive objects, weavings, em- 
broidery, beadwork, and yam "paintings." 
The "art of being Huichol" is the act of 
living a devout life, and spiritual themes 
dominate the art of these people. The Hui- 
chol also value visionary experiences pro- 
duced by the hallucinogenic peyote and 
these images are reflected in their dramatic 
yam paintings. The Huichol live in an iso- 
lated area of western Mexico, and they re- 
main one of the few traditional Indian 
groups whose ancient beliefs and practices 
remain unchanged even today. The exhibi- 
tion closes September 3. 



Spring Systematics Symposium 

On May 12 Field Museum will host its 
second annual Spring Systematics 
Symposium. The topic of this yeju-'s 
meeting is "Origins and Maintenance of 
Diversity." 

David M. Raup, chairman of Reld 
Museum's Department of Geology, will 
speak on "History of Phanerozoic 
Diversity." Other speakers include Sidney 
Anderson, American Museum of Natural 
History; Joseph H. Connell, University of 
California, Santa Barbara; Karen E. 
Loeblich, University of California, Davis; 
Howard L. Sanders, Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institute; and Robert H. 
Whittaker, Cornell University. 



Museum Geologist Honored 

Edward J. Olsen, curator of mineralogy, 
has been awarded The Distinguished Ser- 
vice Medal in Antarctic Research by the 
Office of Polar Programs of The National 
Science Foundation. The award is shared 
with two of his colleagues, William A. 
Cassidy of the University of Pittsburgh and 
William P. Glass of the University of 
Delaware. The award is in recognition of 
the innovation of the very successful mete- 
orite recovery program on the ice cap in 
Antarctica. Olsen collected meteorites in 
the region in 1977. 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Exclusive Tour Packages for Members and Their Families 



Very little time remains to sign up for Field Museum's tour 
of the Soviet Union; May 15 is the deadline for bookings. 
The tour. "Treasures of Russia and the Ukraine." leaves 
Chicago's O'Hare Airport June 19 and returns July 8. 

Highlights of the tour, exclusively for Field Museum 
members and their families, will include visits to the cities 
of Moscow, Vladimir, Kiev, Leningrad, Petrovorets, Nov- 
gorod, and Petrozavodsk. The group, limited to 35 per- 
sons, will be led from Chicago by a Russian-speaking 
lecturer and a Russian-speaking escort, with additional 
guides while in the Soviet Union provided by Intourist (the 
Soviet Travel Bureau). 

The tour cost-$2,970 (which includes a $500.00 
donation to Field Museum)— is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare from Chicago to 



Moscow, with intra-Russian air transportation where re- 
quired. The transatlantic airline is Swissair. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out or, where necessary, the best hotels available. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals; all 
sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all admissions to 
special events and sites, where required; all baggage 
handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers; all appli- 
cable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and registration 
information for all tours, please write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



Treasures of Russia and the Ukraine 




Church of the Assumption, Moscow 



Members Nights 

Field Museum's Open House for Members 

May 2, 3, 4 




Chicago's big social event for May will, with- 
out a doubt, be Members' Night at Field 
Museum. This, at least, is the opinion of 
the Museum staff, which is busy preparing a 
"feast" of unusual displays, "live" exhibits, dem- 
onstrations, and intellectual games for Museum 
Members. From 6 to 10 p.m.. on three successive 
evenings— May 2. 3, and 4— Members will also 
see what goes on in the non-public areas: the lab- 
oratories, preparation rooms, collection storage 
areas (where more than 99 percent of the Muse- 
um's specimens are kept); they will also have an 
opportunity to chat with curators and other staff. 
Members will have the opportunity to see many 
building improvements that have been made in 
the past three years as part of the Museum's $25 
million rehabilitation program. An additional at- 
traction on these three nights is the chance to 
preview the new exhibit "The Art of Being Hui- 
chol" — an exciting display of more than 150 ob- 
jects of Huichol Indian art. 

All of this activity will, of course, be supple- 



mented with food and drink, and the spacious 
grandeur of Stanley Field Hall will resound with 
live music. 

As in the past, free round-trip charter bus 
service will be provided between the Loop and the 
Museum. These CTA busses, marked FIELD 
MUSEUM, will originate at the southwest corner 
of State and Jackson, with stops at the southwest 
corner of Michigan and Balbo. Two busses will be 
making continuous circuits, beginning at 5:45 and 
passing at about 15-minute intervals, until the 
Museum closes. 

Plenty of free parking is available in Soldier 
Field lots and the Planetarium parking area, with a 
shuttle bus continuously circling the areas and col- 
lecting and discharging passengers at the 
Museum's south steps. 

From 6 p.m. to 7 p.m. the Museum's food 
service area will provide complete dinners or 
snacks. 

All Field Museum Members and their fami- 
lies are urged to come, and to reacquaint them- 
selves with their Museum. 



The Remarkable Manatee 

A Personal Adventure 



B^THOR JANSON 

Photos by the author 



"On the previous day, when the admiral went to 
the Rio del Oro, he saw three mermaids which 
rose well out of the sea. . . . They were not as 
beautiful as they are painted though they had 
something of a human face. " 
— From the ship's log of the Santa Maria, January 
9, 1493. 

Three months earUer, Christopher Colum- 
bus's tiny ship had first come upon the shores of 
the New World. Mariners, traditionally, have a 
special reputation for the spinning of tall tales. But 
in the case of Columbus's mermaids, we can 
believe that the account in his log had some basis 
in fact. Together with his discovery of the New 
World, Columbus had also come upon one of the 
Americas' most remarkable creatures, the 
manatee. 

This aquatic mammal belongs to the order 
Sirenia, often described as the most endangered of 
all mammal groups. Along with the order Cetacea 
(whales and dolphins), the sirenians are the most 
at home in a watery environment, having no hind 
legs and being unable to move on land. We have 
evidence that the Sirenia were evolved in North 
Africa from the same stock that gave rise to the 
Proboscidea (elephants). Early forms have been 
discovered in Eocene deposits (55 to 65 million 
years old) in Egypt as well as in the West Indies. 
The presence of the manatee genus Trichechus 
along the eastern and western shores of the Atlan- 
tic and its avoidance of the open sea are con- 
sidered further evidence that a continuous 
coastline once existed between Africa and 
America. 

Sirenians are the only animals on earth in 
which we find classical pachiostosis, which means 
that all of their bones — like ivory — are very 
hard and dense. They are also unique among 
mammals as the only large aquatic herbivores. In 
size, adults range from eight to twelve feet at 
maturity and weigh between 800 and 1,500 
pounds. Their bodies are fusiform, or torpedo- 
shaped, and their skin is very thick, not unlike an 
elephant's. This has a sparse growth of large 
hairs — about one per square inch of body surface. 

There are three living manatee species: the 
African (Trichechus senegalensis) , the Amazonian 
(T. ininguis), and the West Indian (T. manatus); 
and one species of dugong (Dugong dugong). The 
major difference between manatees and the 



dugong is in the tail: The dugong's is fluked, like a 
whale's, while the manatee's is round and rather 
spoon-shaped. The largest of the Sirenia of 
modem times was Steller's sea cow (Hydromalis 
gigas), which lived in the Bering Sea. This species 
was slaughtered into extinction in 1768, less than 
30 years after being discovered. 

Dugongs are listed in the I. U.C.N. Red 
Data Book as "vulnerable," in terms of threats to 
the species' survival. Their range is from eastern 
Africa to Australia, but their numbers are now 
much depleted in most of this area. The largest 
concentration appears to be along Australia's 
northwest coast. 

The continued survival of the three 
manatee species appears to be in a much more 
critical state than that of the dugong. The Red 
Data Book describes the African manatee, which 
ranges along Africa's west coast from Senegal to 
Angola, as "seriously depleted throughout its 
range" and the Amazonian species as "in real 
danger of extinction." 

The West Indian manatee is faring no bet- 
ter. It once flourished in coastal waters, rivers, 
and lagoons of the United States from as far north 
as North Carolina to southern Texas, the waters 
surrounding the Bahamas and Greater Antilles to 
the Yucatan, southern Mexico, and along the 
Atlantic shores of Central and South America to 
Brazil. Today, its occurrence in North America is 
limited almost exclusively to Florida, where a 
population estimated at 600 to 1,000 is actively 
protected. 

Throughout Latin America the manatees 
have been aggressively hunted for their much 
prized meat and oil. In some cases, as with the 
Amazonian species, intensive commercial ex- 
ploitation has brought them very near extinction. 
Where once they were commonly seen in groups 
of hundreds, even thousands, they are now so rare 
as to be virtually nonexistent. Only scattered 
enclaves along the South American coast continue 
to offer some refuge. 

Before the Spanish conquest, the manatee 
was a familiar sight to the Mayan Indians of 



Thor ]anson, supervisor of the Guatemalan Manatee 
Project, is on the faculty of the School of Biology, San 
Carlos University of Guatemala. 




Guatemala. Their high regard for this animal was 
not only because of its delicious meat, but because 
they believed it to have certain supernatural 
powers. The animal's earbone was worn as a 
talisman. The Mayans had a special process for 
drying manatee meat, the product being known as 
buccan. The name "buccaneer," according to one 
theory, was given to early freebooters and pirates 
who relied on buccan as a food staple. 

One of the earliest references to the New 
World manatee was that of the Spanish explorer 
Fuentes y Guzman, who wrote in 1700 that "not 
only in Lake Izabal and the Rio Dulce, but along 
the entire coast from Mexico to Nicaragua they 
are caught in huge quantities during the whole 
year." In the encyclopedia Biologia Centrali 
Americana (London 1882) we already find con- 
cern over the declining manatee population. The 
encyclopedia's article on the manatee notes that 
Lake Izabal was a primary reservoir for the species 
but doubt is expressed concerning its prospects for 
survival; hunting had already made serious in- 
roads into the lake's manatee population. 

In the late 1930s, Field Museum zoologist 
C. M. Barber spent several weeks on Lake Izabal 
collecting manatees. He described large herds that 
could easily be approached by canoe, but he often 
experienced days when none could be seen. 
Observed Barber: "It will be interesting to hear the 
facts someday from some competent field 
naturalist who is not too busy accumulating 
specimens so that he may spend the necessary time 
(to study the habits of the manatee). Let us hope 
that the manatee is not extinct before that day 
comes." 



"In a quick move- 
ment, she pushed her 
nose upward, 
nudging my hand. " 



At the same time that they were declining 
in Guatemala, manatees were becoming all but 
nonexistent along much of the Mexican and Cen- 
tral American coast. In some areas the animals 
had apparently begun to alter their behavior pat- 
terns — adaptations which have no doubt helped 
them avoid being wiped out. Their only defense 
against this fate was concealment. No longer 
would herds of manatee be seen grazing lazily, 
surfacing at frequent intervals, like dolphins. In 
1935 zoologist O. W. Barrett wrote that the 
manatee of the Indio River of southern Nicaragua 
were largely nocturnal and particularly surrep- 
titious, seldom being found in groups. 

Their continued survival in some waters 
might well be attributable to this change of habit. 
Hunters of manatee now had to stalk them for 
hours and days at a time, and in most areas great 
skill was required just to locate them. The hunter 
learned to be absolutely silent, knowing that the 
slightest noise could "spook" a manatee hundreds 
of meters away. Hunters came to Lake Izabal even 
from Honduras, hoping to bring home a supply of 
fresh manatee meat, described by a contemporary 
writer as "the most delicious flesh in the world, 
... its parts having no less than seven different 
and distinct flavors." 

Until very recently, manatees in Lake 
Izabal were most populous along the lake's 
western end, by the mouths of two large rivers, 
the Rio Polochic and Rio Oscuro. Heavy silting 
and frequent inundation of adjacent land had 
created there a swamp interlaced with small 
canals, not unlike those of the Florida Everglades. 
Among lush growth of grasses and water lilies the 



(Continued 
on p. 28) 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



COOfC ISLANDS 



The Unique Opportunity to see a hidden comer of the fabled 
South Seas awaits a select group of Field Museum Members. 
Accompanied by three staff scientists, from July 14 to 31. a visit 
to the Cook Islands will involve comfortable living in a still-un- 
spoiled paradise. It will be the dry season, with clear lagoon 
waters, sunshine guaranteed, and comfortable temperatures. 

Located between Tahiti and Fiji, the Cook Islands offer 
one of the last relatively unspoiled island areas. Rarotanga, with 
towering peaks and narrow valleys, is surrounded by a reef and 
coral islets. A new 150-room hotel provides a base with modern 
comforts. Aitutaki, an hour away by small plane, is a classic atoll 
lagoon, rich in marine life and superb for snorkeling or SCUBA div- 
ing. There, a comfortable, country-style hotel will provide two 
nights' accommodation right next to a lagoon reef, with the sim- 
ple, friendly services of the Polynesian community. Mangaia, also 
a short flight away, will be visited for a day, with an inland hike 
and a journey to the lagoon areas. The last three days of the tour 
will be spent in Hawaii. 

The tour's scientific lecturer/escorts will be Dr. Alan 
Solem, curator of invertebrates. Dr. Robert K. Johnson, associate 



curator of fishes, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi, research associate 
in invertebrates. Dr. Solem has participated in many expeditions 
to this part of the globe and has written extensively on its fauna. 
Dr. Johnson, a certified SCUBA diver and expert on coral reef 
fishes, has participated in many diving expeditions to both the 
South Pacific and the Caribbean. Dr. Girardi has also made many 
collecting trips to the South Pacific, concentrating on marine 
invertebrates. 

The tour, limited to 25 persons, will travel via Air New 
Zealand. The tour cost— $2,650 (includes a $400 donation to 
Field Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes 
round trip air fare to and from Chicago. Also included is all inter- 
island transportation, all meals (except lunches in Hawaii) and all 
inflight meals, all admissions to special events, where required; all 
baggage handling, plus all transfers, all applicable taxes and tips. 
Advance deposit required: $400 per person. 

For full itinerary and other information, write or call 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive. Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, 
X-251. 



Tour members will stay at the Rarotangar^. the Cook Islar^ds' r\ew luxury hotel. 




10 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Exclusive Tour Packages for Members and Their Families 




Fabulous Machu Picchu, one of the sites to be uisited on Field Museunn's Peru tour. 



PERU 



In 1978 Field Museum was host to a dazzling exhibit of 
golden treasures from ancient Peru. Now Field Museum 
members and their families can visit some of the archeo- 
iogical sites where those treasures were discovered. A 
20-day tour (Oct. 27-Nov. 15) will visit the famed ruins of 
Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, Pachacamac, Purgatario, and 
others. Also on the itinerary are the Plains of Nazca 
(viewed from low-flying aircraft), the offshore Guano 
Islands, and the famous Pisac Indian Fair. The group, 
limited to 20 persons, will be led by Dr. Michael Moseley, 
associate curator of middle and South American arche- 
ology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in 
archeology. Both Moseley and Feldman have done exten- 
sive archeological work in Peru; a tour escort will also 
accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 



donation to Field Museum)— is based upon double occu- 
pancy and includes round trip air fare between Chicago 
and Peru, as well as local flights in Peru. Delta Airlines will 
be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. 

Deluxe hotel accommodations will be used through- 
out. The package includes all meals, including inflight 
meals; all sightseeing via deluxe motor coach; all admis- 
sions to special events and sites, where required; all bag- 
gage handling throughout, plus all necessary transfers; all 
applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit required: $250.00 per person. 

For full itinerary and other information, write or call 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: (312) 
922-9410, X-251. 



11 




1 . Young man with 
\ under pine tree, 
III gold lacquer on a 
black ground. Signed 
"Kama Kansai" 
(early 19th c). 
Height 6.2 cm. 
#255068. 



INRO AS ART 

Notes on a Japanese Lacquer Exhibition 

BY CAROLYN MOORE, BENNET BRONSON, MARY BARRETT, AND DIANE ZORICH 

PHOTOS BY RON TESTA 



The LaCQUERWARE of Japan has long been famous. It is 
tough, brilliant in design, luxurious to the eye, and 
profoundly appealing to almost everyone. Yet on the whole it 
has been surprisingly neglected by Western museums and 
students of art. Perhaps because of prejudice in favor of "fine 
arts" such as sculpture and painting, or perhaps just because 
they have not seen enough of it, the majority dismiss Japanese 
lacquer as splendid but trivial. Recently, however, a minority 
has begun to take the subject more seriously. Lacquerwares 
are seen as important cultural documents and also as art, 
often of very considerable merit. Extremists have even 
claimed that certain lacquer pieces are "the most perfect 
objects ever to have come from the hand of man." 

On May 9, Field Museum will open an exhibition that 
may help viewers decide these issues for themselves. Entitled 
Inro, Shrines, and Netsuke: the Art Lacquer of Japan, the 
exhibition comprises some 350 objects that have been donated 
or loaned to the Museum within the past year: 100 lacquer 
inro with accompanying netsuke and ojime beads, 25 
miniature lacquer shrines, and about 25 lacquer boxes, trays, 
bowls, and so forth. The bulk of these come from the 
remarkable collection of lacquerwares recently donated by 
John Woodworth Leslie; in addition, 35 fine inro sets have 
been loaned for the exhibition by another noted Chicago-area 
collector. A number of objects have also been drawn from the 
comprehensive Japanese collection donated to Field Museum 
last year by Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Boone. Quite by chance, the 
generosity of these Japan-specialized collectors coincided with 
the Museum's decision to participate in a city-wide festival of 
Japanese culture, Japan Today, scheduled to begin April 26. 
The Museum was thus given both means and motive to install 
12 



its first Japanese exhibition in 50 years. 

Oriental lacquer (which should not be confused with 
the shiny paints known by that name in Western countries) is 
technically the resinous sap of several small trees and thick 
vines native to China and Japan but closely related to North 
American poison ivy and poison sumac. Like those plants, 
raw lacquer contains a contact poison that causes severe 
dermatitis. The nonpoisonous finished lacquerware is made 
by applying numerous coats of the purified resin over a very 
thin base of wood or other material and letting these harden 
slowly, each for several weeks or months, in a moisture-laden 
atmosphere. Interestingly, lacquer will not harden at all 
under dry conditions. Once "dry," the resin forms a natural 
polymer that is highly resistant to chemical and biological 
damage. Only extreme dryness harms it; otherwise it is as 
nondegradeable as most modern plastics. 

This paradoxical combination of durability and 
delicacy of appearance explains why lacquerwares have been 
popular in the Orient since ancient times and why they are 
quite often found at archeological sites in China, Korea, and 
Japan. The finds from China are the oldest. They go back 
more than 2,500 years, showing that (as Chinese and Japanese 
traditions have always maintained) it was the Chinese who 
invented the lacquer-making process. Local manufacture of 
lacquerware may not have begun in Japan until the seventh 



Carolyn Moore is a volunteer in the Department of Anthropology 
and a long-term student of Japanese lacquers. Bennet Bronson is 
associate curator of Asian archeology and ethnology. Mary Barrett, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, and Diane Zorich. of Loyola 
University, are student interns in the Department of Anthropology. 



century AD. However, once begun — as has happened in 
several other cases of foreign technology imported into Japan 
— the Japanese rapidly made up for lost time. By the 
twelfth century, Japanese lacquer workers could already teach 
their Chinese counterparts as much as they learned from 
them. By the early thirteenth century, the lacquerwares of 
Japan were unsurpassed, even in Chinese eyes. The later 
Tokugawa or Edo Period, between 1600 and 1850, became the 
last Golden Age of lacquer work. 

It was an age of gold literally as well as figuratively, 
for gold was the dominant color on lacquer of the period: 
gold on translucent black; gold inlaid with iridescent shell; 
gold dust mixed with other metals and mineral pigments; gold 
of many forms and shades inlaid into, sprinkled and 
mounded on, and cut down into golden surfaces, all by 
semisecret techniques known to the connoisseur by a 
bewildering variety of names. To be sure, decorative methods 
were used that might require no use of gold at all — for 
instance, the plain wood surfaces shown in figures 7 and 8, or 
the deep-relief effects seen in figures 2 and 3. But almost 
always, at least a little gold was present. It was the hallmark 
of a luxurious age. 

The most typical expressions of Tokugawa lacquer 
work are the small sectional cases known as inro, of which 26 
(all from the Leslie Collection) have been chosen for 
illustrations here. The original inro seem to have been 
utilitarian containers for medicines, seals, or aromatic herbs, 
worn hanging by a cord from the belt and kept from slipping 
by an ojime bead and a netsuke at the cord's other end. Inro 
soon lost this purely practical function, however. With the 
exception of pipe and tobacco cases, they were the only 
costume accessory worn by men in a society where jewelry 
and other adornment were not customary but where wealth 
was great and social competition intense. Inro therefore 
almost inevitably turned into important status symbols. 

The Tokugawa shoguns deliberately encouraged 
luxurious living by members of the old samurai aristocracy 
and at the same time permitted the rise of a newly prosperous 



urban merchant class. The result was an unprecedenieJ 
demand for inro, to which the lacquer artists responded -.'>',.;, 
a last great surge of creativity. Older techniques were 
perfected and many new ones developed. Designs reached 
new heights of technical finish and — naturally — of cost. 
Certain Tokugawa inro are among the best of all lacquerware 
and possibly the finest of any of the world's miniature art 
forms. 

Whether the most technically perfect are necessarily 
the most beautiful is a matter of taste. Many modern 
enthusiasts, Japanese and American alike, tend to prefer inro 
with simple, understated designs — like those we see in figures 
5 and 24 —to such wildly ornate "bourgeois" productions as 
the one shown on the Bulletin cover. But, as careful 
examination of the next few pages will reveal, even the 
gaudiest pieces may show great power and subtlety as well as 
an experimental, even daring, approach to problems of 
design. Motifs may be drawn from mythology, from other 
arts like landscape painting, print-making, and weaving, or 
from direct, often humorous, observation of everyday life. 
All are adapted to the constricted curving surface of the inro 
with impressive skill. Looking at a photograph, one easily 
forgets that the piece in question is only a few inches high. 

Inro passed out of use with the introduction of 
Western styles of dress in the mid-nineteenth century and 
continued to be made for only a few years after that. At the 
present day, lacquer arts of all sorts are in serious decline. 
The surviving traditionally trained masters are said to have 
few successors, and they themselves have been but a handful 
during the past fifty years or so. Very little good lacquer has 
in fact been made since the end of the nineteenth century, and 
this leads to a conclusion of interest to collectors and 
curators: Japanese lacquer, almost alone among the world's 
artistic media, is now essentially unfakeable. The skills are so 
rare and the traditional processes so time-consuming that a 
plausible fake would be prohibitively expensive, while a 
forgery made by non-traditional processes would hardly fool 
an alert ten year-old. D 




Opening an Inro. 
Although most inro 
are constructed like 
the two on the lower 
left, many other 
arrangements of the 
component parts are 
possible. All inro are 
designed to hang 
from a cord that 
passes through an 
ojime bead and is 
tied to a netsuke at 
the other end. 13 




2. Dragon and waves, executed in high relief on carved vermilion 
lacquer — a Chinese-originated technique called tsuishu. Unsigned. 
Height 9 cm. §255021. 



3. 100 different forms of the word ju, "longevity , " excised from thick 
black lacquer in tsuikoku technique. Unsigned. Height 7.7 cm. 
§254995. 



4. Female court figure holding peony, carved with gold lacquer 
techniques in high and low relief against a rust and brown ground. 
Signed "Kajikawa" (early 19th c). Unusually large — height 13.9 cm. 
§255031. 



5. Design of 3 birds, in flat gold and silver lacquer on a translucent 
copper-red ground. Signed "]ushu" (early 19th c). Height 7.8 cm. 
§254984. 





6. Design of bamboo carved in high relief with leaves in gold lacquer. 
Signed "S/ioto" {ISth-early 19th c). Height 8.2 cm. #255009. 



7. Herringbone-patterned wood inro with gold lacquer shells show- 
ing design of a court hat, or kanmuri, framed by clouds. Signed 
"Shogyokusai" (early 19th c). Height 8.7 cm. #254925. 



8. Carved wooden turtle with many details, covered by thin layer of 
transparent lacquer. Signed "Sui" (date unknown). Height 8.5 cm. 
§254916. 



9. Okame. a mythological figure, admiring flowering chrysanthe- 
mums. Executed in clear lacquer on cedar, with gold and silver lac- 
quer details on a brown ground. Signed "Yoyusai" (1772-1845). 
Height 8.3 cm. §255077. 





10. Young woman playing with children performing a shishima'i 
New Year's dance: in pearl shell, silver, ivory, and gold applied on a 
gold lacquer ground. Signed "Nakayama" (of the Shibayama school, 
probably early 19th c). Height 11 cm. §254937. 

12. Toy peddler blowing bubble for attentive child. Executed in 
coral, pearl shell, and other stones, on a gold fundame ground. 
Signed "Nakayama" (probably early 19th c). Height 9.5 cm. 
§255023. 



11. Plum blossom in pearl ilieli and glass with gold lacquer leaves on 
a black ground enriched with squares of cut gold. Signed 'Sakahisa' 
(date uncertain). Height 10 cm. #255096. 



13. Daikoku, a mythological guardian figure, scattering beans to 
chase away demons. Gold and silver lacquer detailing inlay of 
abalone shell. Height 9.2 cm. §255015. 





14. Various species of insects, in gold lacquer and shell inlaid on a 
black lacquer ground. Signed "Koma Bunsai" (late 18th-early 19th 
c). Height 6.5 cm. ^254992. 

16. Outline in form of a samurai in full battle dress, executed in 
several gold lacquer techniques and with pearl- and abalone-shell 
inlay, all over a brown lacquer ground. Signed "Yamada Joka" (a 
17th century artist, this inro is later). Very large, with height of 15.5 
cm. #254956. 



15. A series of floral designs, in sections that exhibit various types of 
nashiji (gold flake-ornamented) grounds. Unsigned. Height 9 cm. 
§255058. 



17. Entrance to a shrine as described in the Tale of Genji, in relief 
lacquer ornamented with colored lacquer and cut gold leaf. 
Unsigned. Height 9.2 cm. #255086. 





17 




18. An oni, a type of demon, poised to attack. Executed in relief with 
gold and various colored lacquers. Signed "Kajikawa" (probably 
early 19th c). Height 8 cm. if254962. 



19. A hanging vine with leaves and gourds, signifying autumn. The 
black ground is complexly textured, with the gold and silver plant 
motifs in low relief. Signed "Chikakusai" (date unknown). Height 8 
cm. §254919. 



20. furojin. the god of longevity, seated on a deer. In shibuichi metal 
alloy applied on low-relief lacquer. Signed "Tei Sai" (date unknown). 
Height 10.8 cm. §255061. 



21. Inro in the shape of a Buddhist prayer gong, with panels of fish 
scales and confronting dragon-fish as the handle. In gold and red 
lacquer. Unsigned. Height 6.1 cm. §255025. 



4 









■*■■"'■ ''"iWiliiiiiiiiiiilk 






^ 




_^, ■-■■'■   ■*.:  


1 


Wl 




'^B 










IS 




22. Design from a Japanese print: lady with parasol. The raised panel 
is framed with a mosaic of large gold flakes. Signed "Kajikawa" 
(probably early 19th c). Height 9 cm. §254978. 



23. Owl perching on a crooked maple branch. In cut gold-enriched 
relief against a brown mokume ground simulating wood or tree 
bark. Signed "Jitokusai Gyokuzan" (18th c). Height 7 cm. §254981. 



24. A design of two birds on a fruiting persimmon branch, in gold, 
silver and colored lacquer relief on a red-brown ground. Unsigned , 
possibly 18th c. Height 6.8 cm. §254974. 



25. A coiled snake poised to strike at a frog on the other side of the 
inro. High relief in gold and colored lacquers on a green ground. 
Signed "fokasai" (17th c, the inro is much later). Height 6.9 cm. 
§255074. 




19 



What's in a (Rock) name? 

The names of rocks continue to be the bugbear 
of geologists and rock hounds alike. 

BY EDWARD OLSEN 



PHOTOS BY 
RON TESTA 



It seems only logical that any of us interested in 
the natural world should want to learn the names 
of the creatures and objects that make up that 
world. Of course, it's understood that the 
creatures and inanimate objects of nature have no 
names in themselves — we are only learning 
names that other men have assigned them. No one 
knows, for example, what a robin calls itself, or if 
red trillium has any sense of its own identity. 
Nevertheless, there is a real feeling of satisfaction 
in being able to recognize, by name, some natural 
creature or object. It gives us a sense of belonging, 
a bond with others who enjoy the same things, 
and, in recounting to others our joys in natural 
settings, we can communicate complicated 
descriptions in a few simple words. 



More and more people are getting into 
natural history as a hobby. Each one seeks help in 
learning through a number of avenues: field guide 
books, taking courses, and joining clubs with 
others of similar interests. For most of these hob- 
byists there is pretty good help. Peterson's classic 
Field Guide to the Birds of Eastern North America, 
for example, requires little skill to use. You spot 
your birds, riffle through the pages of color plates 
until you get a match, and there you have it — a 
sense of real accomplishment. You read the basic 
description of the bird, its habits and habitat, and 
you've made a friend for life. 



Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy. 



A group of crystals of the mineral quartz, from arkansas (about half life-size). Quartz is a very common mineral in the 
earth's crust — a constituent of many rock types. Crystals of this size and quality, however, are rare. Most occur- 
rences are colorless (as here), but quartz also may he purple, violet, pink, yellow, amber, or black. 





'%J 



This is a radiating cluster of gypsum crystals (life-size) from Australia. Gypsum is widespread, ranging in crystal size 
from huge prisms six feet long down to dust-size grains. It is mostly colorless, but may be tan or amber in color. 



If you are a wild flower freak you have a 
bit hairier row to hoe. Plants come in more varied 
forms than birds, so you'll probably have to spend 
some time learning how to use a key to identifica- 
tion. You'll have more initial frustrations, but 
gradually a sense of familiarity will creep in as you 
successfully identify the first few dozen spring and 
summer wildf lowers in your area. With their 
shapes and structures as a basis, each newly en- 
countered species becomes a bit easier — just like 
learning a new language. 

So it goes, for those who are into all kinds 
of wild things: mosses, mushrooms, stars, mam- 
mals, fossils, snails, insects (especially butterflies), 
and on and on and on. The most benighted soul, 
however, in this whole scene is the poor fellow 
who decides that rock collecting is his thing. For 
him there is no avenue to the level of expertise en- 
joyed by his friend who might be deeply into bird 
watching. Although he may invest heavily in 
books — and half a dozen "new" ones enter the 
market each year — in hand lenses of different 
powers, reference kits, and may even join several 
organizations in the realm of mineralogy, he 
seems to be forever doomed to being unable to 
identify the objects of his affection — rocks. 

At some stage he may decide that the cause 



of this is a cabal of professional geologists, who 
resent amateurs for some perverse reason, and 
have invented a methodology and terminology so 
complex as to exclude him. Alas, professionals 
wish the answer were so simple. If it were, you can 
be certain that long ago some pro, for the sake of 
the kinds of royalties that Roger Tory Peterson en- 
joys for his bird books, would break ranks and 
publish the definitive field guide to the rocks and 
minerals of the earth. He'd become a wealthy 
man. The fact that it hasn't happened yet is 
because it cannot be done. Let me explain. 

Rock names are names given to objects that ' 
consist of a group of minerals. To start the process 
of naming a rock you have to be able to identify 
the minerals. What's a mineral? A mineral is a 
natural occurring (that is, not man-made or man- 
caused) chemical compound. To know even the 
simplest things about minerals you have to know 
a little something about chemistry — not a lot, but 
you must have some basic familiarity with 
chemical symbols and ideas. Right there, 95 per- 
cent of the amateurs are wiped out. Most people 
have never had any exposure to chemistry in 
school. Sure, one can always say that old time 
prospectors found minerals and didn't know any 
chemistry either. True, they also made lots and 



21 



This is a 12-inch-long cluster of prisms of stibnite, the world's main ore of the element antimony. These beautiful, 
large crystals are from Japan, where they were once mined as ore. They are now collectors' items. Most stibnite occurs 
as tiny gray needles, or even as shapeless lumps. 



% 



-^ 



^ ■' V 



ff f 



22 



lots of mistakes. True stories abound of goof-ups 
made by chemically-innocent prospectors and 
miners — like the partners who mined out a few 
tens of thousands of dollars in gold, abandoned 
the mine, and left behind several millions in 
platinum on their waste heaps. We're trying for 
some level of understanding where we don't make 
too many simple errors — like our friend the bird- 
watcher who can spot a rare type of sparrow in 
the dim dusk just by the way it perches on a 
branch. 

The next thing a mineral is, it's (usually) 
crystalline. Here the confusion for the beginner 
starts to compound. In his mind the word 
"crystal" can mean anything from the baubles on 
his rich aunt's chandelier, to the gift of glassware 
he gave his sister on the occasion of her wedding. 
Both are useless concepts in trying to understand 
the crystalline state. Again it has to do with 
chemistry, with atoms, and with three- 
dimensional geometry. Here's where the books 
come in. 

There are dozens (perhaps hundreds) of 
books on the market that purport to lead you into 
mineral and rock identification. All these books 
are well-intentioned, and with varying degrees of 
sophistication. Some attempt, futilely, to explain 
concepts of chemistry and then plunge on to 
minerals and rocks. Others use chemical jargon 
without much explanation, leaving the uninitiated 
reader frustrated. Almost all of them make the 
same fatal error — they show pictures of perfect 
museum exhibit-quality crystals of the minerals 
they're describing — lovely colorful prisms with 
nice smooth crystal faces. One of the most com- 
mon complaints of a collector is that, in the course 
of his collecting, he has never seen a sample of 
such-and-such a mineral that looks like the pic- 
tures in the books. Of course he hasn't. The books 



almost always illustrate the finest specimens that 
the writer can get his hands on. Artistically these 
photos please the writer and excite the potential 
collector (buyer), but the average collector is 
never likely to find such a specimen in a lifetime of 
looking. 

The next big problem encountered by the 
reader and, before him, the author of such books, 
is how to describe the mineral in the text. Going 
back to our example of bird watching, let's im- 
agine a bird book that gave the description of 
some common bird like this: "Rusty brown breast 
that may sometimes be blue, yellow, white, green, 
or red; back and wings often black, but may also 
be yellow, purple, brown, or pink; varies in size 
from 1/16 of an inch to 27 feet long; found on all 
continents, at all elevations, in all environments, 
at all times of the year"! 

It is obvious that the characteristics 
described here are so inexact they are utterly con- 
fusing, if not entirely useless. Well, many minerals 
are like that. Let's take a very common mineral as 
an example, potassium feldspar. Depending on the 
atomic arrangements in the innards of this fellow, 
he can be called orthoclase, microcline, adularia, 
high sanidine, low sanidine, or amazonite. Only a 
small change in the chemistry — adding a pinch of 
sodium and withdrawing a pinch of potassium — 
and you can name it anorthoclase, perthite, or 
moonstone. The colors of any one of these can 
vary widely. Take microcline for example. I've 
seen it white, gray, pink, brown, dark red, green, 
and even black — same mineral! Take the size of 
the crystals. They range from pinhead-size specks 
found in most beach sands, all the way up to a 
single crystal mined out in Europe (it's used to 
make kitchen scrubbing cleansers, among other 
things) that was the size of a Chicago city bus. 
This mineral has no distinctive locale — it's found 



everywhere in the earth's crust, in all ages of 
rocks, and in a large variety of rocks, from water- 
deposited sandstones to igneous, volcanic ash falls 
of the kind that buried Pompeii. 

Now how are you going to put a clear, 
understandable description in a book that covers 
all that? You're not. You know what professionals 
do when they encounter it in the field? They avoid 
all those names entirely and call it "K-feldspar" 
(the K is the chemical symbol for potassium). 
There are, by the way, several other common 
minerals, as well as several less common minerals, 
that look pretty much like it, especially when the 
grain size is small. So even pros can, and do make 
errors for this common breed when they work 
with their eyes only. 

What does the pro do when he's got to get 
some mineral right? He checks the more common 
ones under a polarizing microscope that can cost 
anywhere from $2,000 up to $30,000, depending 
on its versatility. Clearly, even the cheapest of 
these is beyond the pocketbook of most amateurs. 



For trickier minerals he may have to resort to 
x-ray methods, or even a huge device called an 
electron microprobe, the cheapest of which costs 
as much as a four-bedroom house. 

Probably the best bet for the dedicated 
amateur is to sign up for a course in basic 
mineralogy at a local college evening extension 
division. Here, if it's well taught, he'll see more 
run-of-the-mill examples of the common minerals 
that make up the bulk of the rocks he's likely to 
encounter. He'll get to handle them, ask questions, 
and see a number of simple, affordable lab tools 
that can aid somewhat in identification of some 
minerals. With that under his belt he can then arm 
himself with a couple of-the available books, being 
better able to interpret their descriptions and over- 
ly optimistic color plates. 

Once he's got a grasp on some of the basic 
minerals he's on his way to identifying rocks. This 
is even trickier, if one can imagine that. Let's con- 
sider a common rock, one called granite. Granite 
has three basic ingredients: K-feldspar, quartz. 



Fluorite is the state mineral of Illinois. This specimen, however, is from England. The crystal group shown here is 
about 20 inches across. The violet-colored fluorite is embellished here with strings of small, white quartz crystals. 
Though commonly violet, fluorite is also found in purple, blue, white, yellow, green, or amber, or maybe colorless. 



^O^- 



and some ferromagnesian (I won't explain that) 
mineral like hornblende or biotite. Now these 
minerals have to be within a range of proportions, 
otherwise it's not called granite. If you have, for ex- 
ample, 30 percent quartz (by volume), 20 percent 
hornblende, and 50 percent K-feldsar, it's granite. 
In fact, if you've got 80 percent K-feldspar, 10 per- 
cent hornblende, and 10 percent quartz, it's still 
granite. But if the quartz content drops down to 4 
percent, it's not granite — it's a syenite. If, 
however, the hornblende content gets as high as, 
say, 50 percent or 60 percent, you're going to find 
some geologists who'll call it an amphibolite. On 
top of this, names of our granite depend on the 
relative sizes of the mineral crystals in it, as well as 
on their relative proportions. 

Let's suppose the rock is 50 percent 
K-feldspar, 30 percent quartz, and 20 percent 
hornblende. We just got through calling this 
granite in the above paragraph. But let's suppose 
the K-feldspar crystals are great big things — a 



couple of inches across, with hornblende and 
quartz grains of smaller dimensions. The rock is 
then called a pegmatitic granite. A pegmatitic 
granite must not be confused with a granite 
pegmatite, which is a somewhat more complicated 
creature (cannot explain that here). Now, let's 
suppose that instead of all this, our granite con- 
sists of those same minerals, smaller now (below a 
half inch), not just randomly packed together but 
with the hornblende lying in separated parallel 
layers alternating with quartz-feldspar bands. 
Then it's called a granite gneiss (pronounced 
"nice"). Now let's suppose the hornblende content 
is really low, say under a few percent, and the 
K-feldspar and quartz occur in grains of about 
equal size, and those grains are pretty tiny, 
around a sixteenth of an inch. Now the rock is 
called an aplite. 

I can vary the proportions of just those 
three minerals and their relative grain sizes, and 
the geometry of their arrangements, and generate 



Malachite (green) and azurite (blue) from Bisbee, Arizona, where these minerals are mined as ores of copper. This 
specimen is about 8 inches long. Malachite and azurite, happily, only come in the colors shown here, which should 
make them easy to learn. Unfortunately, there are other minerals that occur with these same colors, often in the same 
localities. 




more names yet. But I'll stop here for this one — 
you either have gotten the idea by now or quit 
reading. 

I think you can imagine how the horrors of 
names compound when you have a rock that con- 
sists of four or more mineral ingredients. You can 
also imagine the knitted eyebrows when you bring 
a chip of a rock to a museum geologist and ask 
him what it is. Let's suppose the rock was a granite 
in the first place, but when you bopped it with 
your hammer only a piece of a large K-feldspar 
grain broke off. You're going to be told you've got 
a single mineral, and it could be from any of a 
huge number of kinds of rocks because K-feldspar 
occurs in granites, pegmatitic granites, granite 
pegmatites, aplites, granite gneisses, syenites, 
granodiorites, quartz monzonites, monzonites, 
granophyres, granulites, arkoses, and on and on 
and on. Suppose, on the other hand, you only 
broke off a piece that had mostly hornblende. 
Your expert would call it an amphibolite. Well, 
you get the picture. No one would dream of bring- 
ing in a single bird feather to find out what the 
bird was, yet people bring in unrepresentative 
samples of rocks all the time. Worse yet, they may 
take different pieces to different experts and get 
different answers — concluding, of course, that 
the experts are real dummies. 

Rock names are a mess. Yet no one has 
been able to come up with a better system. For the 
professionals, the names communicate, in a word 
or two, whole paragraphs of descriptive informa- 
tion. How do the pros handle this system? The 
same way that physicians handle all the masses of 
muscles, bones, nerves, tissues, etc. in your 
anatomy — they memorize it all. If they should 
get into some branch of geology where they 
seldom use most of the names, then they gradually 
forget them. I challenge any long-experienced 
marine geologist, geophysicist, geochemist, or 
petroleum geologist to define a jacupirangite or a 
pseudoleucite tinguaite for me! 

Even those professionals — known as 
petrologists — who work with many rock types 
do not seriously attempt to make identifications 
by eye in the field. I once knew an experienced and 
canny field petrologist who spent years mapping a 
complex area of numerous rock types. He found 
that he could spot certain features of certain rocks 
by eye, well enough to use these distinctions as 
mapping units in order to be able to interpret the 
complicated sequence of igneous intrusions, 
metamorphic events, ore formation, and crustal 
folding and faulting. For years he just called them 
"A," "B," "C," and so on. He didn't give a hoot 
what the official names were. When he was finally 
collating and writing out his final report, each 
rock type was sent out for an expensive chemical 
analysis, which in combination with microscope 
study allowed him to assign an officially recog- 
nized name. He gave them names that would give 



the maximum information, in a few words, to 
other professionals. Alas, however, the report 
would be like classic Greek to an amateur. 

The crust of the earth is highly varied, yet 
certain rock types are frequently seen: granite, 
gabbro, diabase, basalt, limestone, sandstone, 
shale. These names can be learned by an amateur, 
and he can learn to spot many of these in the 
course of his collecting. It is, however, not very 
satisfying to be able to know no more than eight 
or ten names. It's like knowing only a few com- 
mon birds for a bird-watcher. 

It's sad, but a rock collector will never be 
able to bootstrap himself into the kind of expertise 
that his friend the bird-watcher has achieved. No 
book will give him what a good field guide to 
birds, or wildflowers, or mosses, or et cetera, can 
give other natural history hobbyists. 

The situation of naming rocks is not pleas- 
ing to the professionals either. Each one yearns for 
a better system. Through the early part of the 
twentieth century a dozen schemes were devised 
for giving useful and informative names to rocks. 
They all became either hopelessly complicated or 
impossible to apply without having expensive 
chemical analyses made of every rock collected. 
The present system is a patchwork compromise of 
all these competing systems. 

Tom Barth (only recently deceased) was a 
superb petrologist — trained in Germany and 
Scandinavia — who worked with and studied the 
rocks that compose the earth's crust on all the con- 
tinents of the world. In his book Theoretical 
Petrology he starts his first chapter, entitled 
simply "Rocks" with this paragraph: 

"Rocks are made up of definite mineral 
assemblages. We may use an analogy from the 
zoological science and note that a mineral species 
will correspond to an animal species, whereas a 
rock corresponds to a fauna. It has become 
customary, and probably also necessary, to name 
the rocks according to their mineral content, tak- 
ing into consideration the qualitative mineral con- 
tent and relative proportions of the constituent 
minerals on the one hand, and the mechanical and 
textural relations on the other. In zoology this 
would mean that one had to introduce a special 
name for a fauna consisting of hares, foxes, fleas. 
Not only this; new names should be introduced as 
the relative proportions of these three animals 
were changed, and according to whether the hares 
are big and strong with silken fur or small and 
miserable from hunger and flea bites. Such 
analogies demonstrate how difficult it is to 
develop a satisfactory system of rock names, and 
explain why more than six hundred different rock 
names have been introduced (not counting com- 
pound names). They explain also why petrologists 
are helpless and, generally speaking, unhappy 
about it". 

Amen. 



25 



CHINA TOUR 
FOR MEMBERS 



.^^ ^.aviSt 




Looking toward the slope of Wan Shou Shan, site of summer palace of the Chin d{;nast{;. outside Peking 



Peking's Forbidden City, the Summer Palace of the 
Dowager Empress, the bustling activity of Canton, 
the ancient pagodas of Kunming. These are just a 
sampling of the exciting sights that lie in store for the 
23 persons (Field Museum members and their fami- 
lies) who will visit China on Field Museum's exclusive 
tour this November. The tour is for 21 days and goes 
by way of Europe. 

The tour departs Chicago's O'Hare Airport 
November 5 and returns November 25. In addition 
to fourteen days in China, three days and two nights 
will be spent in London. The tour escort will be Mrs. 
Katharine Lee, a Field Museum volunteer in the 
Department of Anthropology who is fluent in five 
Chinese dialects. Additional guides in China will be 
provided by the China International Travel Service. 

The tour cost— $4,400 (which includes a 
$500 donation to Field Museum) — is based upon 

26 



double occupancy and includes round trip air fare 
from Chicago to China. The airlines used will be 
TWA, British Airways, and Air Ethiopia. 

Deluxe Hotel Accommodations will be used 
throughout or. where necessary, the best hotels 
available. The package includes all meals (except in 
London), including all inflight meals; all sightseeing 
via motor coach; all admissions to special events and 
sites, where required; all baggage handling through- 
out, plus all necessary transfers; all applicable taxes 
and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance deposit re- 
quired: $500.00 per person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and regis- 
tration information, please write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 
922-9410, X-251. 



PRO JECT ANTARCTICA 



An exclusive for Field Museum Members and their families 

A 24r-day cruise to Antarctica and the Falkland Islands on the 

MS World Discoverer 



>V' 



« * 




■^^B^jlp 



^. 





y*m% t ■•■■ 

iiiiHii II •• 



^m jtf* '••II 

:' iiiiiiininn!r::iii • •• 





MS IVor/d Discoverer 



Until recently only explorers were able to view antarctica's 
wondrous beauty. There is no destination more remote, more 
unspoiled by the encroachments of civilization. Today only a 
virtual handful of adventurous travelers have experienced its 
majestic icebergs, extraordinary wildlife and fascinating natural 
history firsthand. 

Our itinerary includes the Islas Malvinas (Falkland 
Islands) with its rich concentration of unusual wildlife, a visit to 
the Patagonian coast, and of course the antarctic peninsula 
with its spectacular scenery, fascinating wildlife, and interna- 
tional scientific stations. The South Georgia Islands and the 
South Orkney Islands will also be visited. Dr. Edward Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy and a veteran of antarctic exploration, 
will be on hand as tour lecturer. Join us for this outstanding 
travel adventure that will certainly be one of your most unusual 
and memorable journeys. 

The cruise vessel will be the 3.200-ton tourist ship M.S. 



World Discoverer, which will take us from Punta Arenas on- 
wards. Built in 1974, the one-class vessel has all outside cabins 
with private lavatories and showers. There is a fully qualified 
physician on board. 

The tour leaves Chicago January 6, 1980 and returns 
January 30. Prices for the antarctica cruise per person: C deck 
twin: $3,230; C deck single: $4,870; B deck twin: $3,570; B 
deck single: $5,390; A deck, twin: $3,930. Air fare, in addi- 
tion, is $1,225 (round trip between Chicago and Punta 
Arenas, Argentina). Included in the tour price is a tax- 
deductible donation of $500.00 to Field Museum. Deposit re- 
quired at lime of registration: $1,000.00. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and registration 
information, please write or call Michael J. Flynn, Field Mu- 
seum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 
60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. 27 




Village along the 
Rio Duke 



28 



MANATEES con't from p. 9 

remaining manatees were able to find some refuge. 
For many years the area was considered the only 
good place to hunt manatees in the entire region. 
Today they are gone, and the general feeling 
among local fishermen is that the vacas marinas, 
or "sea cows," have been frightened off by a large 
refinery that was recently built along the lake's 
northwestern extremity. Whatever the reason for 
their disappearance, the animals have apparently 
learned that it is to their advantage to avoid man; 
they will rarely be observed near sites of human 
activity. 

Fascinated by what I had heard and read of 
these remarkable creatures and appalled by the 
realization they could soon become extinct, I 
decided to do what I could to forestall that fate. 
The first step was to observe and study them in 
their natural habitat. I chose Guatemala for my 
study area because it is the only region where 
manatees are known to live in a freshwater lake. It 
also seemed likely that this relatively isolated 
body of water — Lake Izabal — and the Sweet River 
(Rio Dulce), connecting the lake with the Atlantic, 
might offer some potential as a permanent, 
established refuge. 

I found encouragement at San Carlos 
University of Guatemala, where I was offered a 
situation as associate investigator with the univer- 
sity's school of biology. My first goal was to 
gather data on the population, distribution, and 
general ecology of the Guatemala manatee. This 
information could then be used in designing con- 
servation and management programs. Since very 
few studies have been made of the manatee in its 
natural habitat, I also hoped to gather raw data 
that was new to science. I secured enough addi- 



tional support to buy a small boat, an outboard 
motor, and a dugout canoe. A tent, camping 
equipment, a camera, and a notebook rounded 
out my basic needs for field work. 

I was to find the manatees most numerous 
in lagoons and waterways along the northern edge 
of el Golfete, a widening of the Rio Dulce, and 
here I was most successful in observing them. 

On April 1, 1977, while in my canoe, I 
entered the following in my notebook: 

"5:00 a.m. As I watched, totally cap- 
tivated, five forms slowly entered the lagoon. I 
was not seeing actual bodies, but fairly regular 
patterns of bubbles — three large arrays and two 
small ones. The formation entered very slowly 
and the fairly constant flow of bubbles gave the 
group the appearance of symmetry. The group 
reached the middle of the lagoon and paused, the 
larger bubbles in the lead followed at a distance by 
the smaller ones. Nothing happened for two or 
three minutes and I lost track of their position. 
Then at the other side of the lagoon I saw one 
large nose come above the surface of the water. 
Manatee! I watched them for more than half an 
hour. The small animals, infants or juveniles, sur- 
faced for air more often than the adults and re- 
mained longer on the surface. I observed behavior 
that I could only describe as play: nudging, bump- 
ing and tail-nipping. This play was always be- 
tween the two small ones or between the young 
and the adults. It was always the young inciting 
the play. They were very quiet. The only sounds I 
could hear were those made during their normal 
respiration and sometimes a spash. At about 5:45 
the family (?) swam out of the lagoon, as slowly 
and as peacefully as they had come." 



Of my many observations, the follow- 
ing — in which I made actual physical contact with 
the animals— is the most memorable. On 
November 8, 1977, I entered the following in my 
notebook: 

"Upon awakening I looked over the side of 
my boat and saw evidence of two manatees graz- 
ing on the other side of the lagoon. Then one head 
broke the surface and looked over in my direction. 
During the morning the two edged closer and 
closer to the boat. One was a juvenile male about 
six feet long; the other, an adult female, measured 
about 11 feet. 

"As I watched, I felt an unusually strong 
and persistent attraction towards them, a feeling I 
was not familiar with. I had the strongest, though 
unexplainable, impression that they were trying to 
communicate with me. I lowered my hand and 
lightly splashed the water. To my extreme sur- 
prise, the adult manatee, seeing this, came right up 
to the side of the boat and lifted her head above 
the water. I slowly lowered my hand until it was 
within an inch of her nose. In a quick movement 
she pushed her nose upward, nudging my hand, 
and disappeared back into the water. 

"I could hardly believe what had happened, 
and felt a tingling sensation over my whole body. 
I put my hand back into the water and in a few 
seconds found myself stroking a big, soft, manatee 
nose. She would stay for a few moments and then 
go away, only to return again in a minute or two. 
This went on for quite some time, until I decided 
to see what would happen if I entered the water. 
"I could not have been better received. The 
huge, but graceful, sirenian swam over to me and 
brushed up against my body. I rubbed her back. 
This she seemed to like very much. We swam 
together around the lagoon. I had begun to 
wonder what had happened to the young male, 
when I suddenly noticed him following at some 
distance. Eventually, he, too, came over and 
allowed physical contact. This interspecies 
meeting continued for most of the day, and the 
young manatee became increasingly playful. He 
would allow me to come just within reach and 



then would rocket away at full speed — which for a 
young manatee is about 12 to 15 miles per hour. 
At other times he would allow me to put my arms 
around the middle of his body and we would swim 
together. Unexpectedly, in a quick, jack-knifing 
movement, he would throw me off and swim 
around in circles. The older female was not in- 
terested in this sort of play, preferring to solicit 
my scratching and rubbing. 

"Near dark, after grazing for a time on 
tender grass along the bank, my new friends swam 
over to me. I realized that they were about to 
leave. I can only say that I feel that a (special) 
bond . . . existed between us. I watched from the 
middle of the lagoon as they swam out of sight. 
This had been one of the most joyful days in my 
hfe." 

I have not seen my manatee friends again 
and I am filled with sadness as I realize that little 
time remains in which to save them. As part of my 
program in Guatemala, I began to use all available 
channels to create public concern for the 
manatees' plight: the local press, magazine ar- 
ticles, radio programs, and materials for use in the 
public schools. I tried to impress government 
agencies with the need for conservation measures, 
and pointed out that the manatees could be useful 
in controlling water weeds. (Some waterways, 
once navigable, had become so badly choked with 
weeds that only the smallest canoes could now get 
through them. The so-called "English Channel," 
near Puerto Barrios, had formerly carried freight 
and passenger traffic; now, thanks to a heavy 
weed growth, the channel was completely useless 
for traffic.) 

The Guatemalan government is currently 
designing a "master plan" for tourist development 
of Lake Izabal and Rio Dulce, and in connection 
with this I have attempted to point out that since 
tourists often have a strong interest in the local 
wildlife, it would be economically advantageous 
to also set up a program for the active protection 
of the manatee and other wildlife. The prospects 
for establishing sujch a refuge at el Golfete appear 
promising. 




29 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



ILLINOIS ARCHEOLOGY FIELD TRIP 



For many of us, the word "arche- 
ology" conjures up visions of 
great architecture in distant 
places: Egypt's Pyramids and 
Sphinx, Cambodia's Angkor 
Wat, and Mexico's Pyramids of 
the Sun and Moon at Teotihua- 
can. These sites, with their relics, 
are limitlessly fascinating. 

But right here in Illinois we 
also have exciting archeological 
sites, including the largest 
aboriginal structure north of 
Mexico— Monk's Mound at Ca- 
hokia. One of the most broadly 
based archeological research 



centers in the country is the 
Foundation for Illinois Archeo- 
logy, at Kampsville; and one of 
the largest covered excavations 
with the longest continuing 
research programs is at Dickson 
Mounds, near Lewistown. 

If you are interested in 
learning more about Illinois pre- 
history, as well as how scientific 
archeological research is con- 
ducted, you can join the Field 
Museum field trip of June 1-5, 
which will visit Dickson Mounds, 
Kampsville, and Cahokia 
Mounds. Limited to 30 partici- 



pants, the trip includes site visits, 
lecture and slide presentations, 
workshops and discussions led 
by staff archeologists working at 
the respective sites. The field trip 
director is Robert Pickering, a 
doctoral candidate at Northwest- 
ern University. 

The per person cost of this 
field trip is $240.00. For full 
details and registration informa- 
tion, write or call Michael J. 
Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 
Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. 



Helton Mound, in the Lower Illinois River Valley, is tijpical of the sites to be visited during 
the June archeologi; field trip. 













"wsr's*^- 



j-'y:.^.-^. ^ •»».'. 



30 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 



Weekend Field Trips for Members 

to 
Starved Rock, Illinois 

Galena, Illinois 

Baraboo, Wisconsin 




Historic Galena 



By popular demand, Field Museum's weekend trips to Starved 
Rock, Galena, and Baraboo are being offered again this year, 
with two weekends to choose from for the Galena and Baraboo 
trips. 



Starved Rock. Dr. Gordon Baird, assistant curator of fossil 
invertebrates, will lead the group on the weekend of June 
16-17 to Starved Rock State Park; Buffalo Rock State and 
Matthiessen State Park will also be toured. Eighty miles south- 
west of Chicago, Starved Rock is so named for a 125-foot-high 
sandstone outcrop, where a group of Illini Indians more than 
200 years ago took refuge from another attacking tribe. The 
park is notable for its 19 canyons and their remarkable vistas. 
Tour members will stay at Starved Rock Lodge. Tour cost: 
$82.00. 

Baraboo. Dr. Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, will lead 
tour members through the Baraboo range and along the shores 
and hinterland of beautiful Devil's Lake. Two tours are sched- 
uled: May 19 and 20, and June 9 and 10. 

The Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock 
—what is left of an ancient mountain range and which now 
stands out above the younger rocks and sediments. The range 
consists of quartzite— more than one billion years old— which, 
although compressed in places into vertical folds, retains the 
original sedimentary structures. The mountains were further 
modified by glaciers, forming the lake and the picturesque 



glens, and changing the course of rivers. 

Hiking clothes are strongly recommended for the sched- 
uled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, but younger 
people interested in natural history are welcome. The cost of 
the Baraboo trips is $70.00 per person. 

Galena. Dr. Bertram G. Woodland, curator of petrology, will 
conduct two study tours through the geological area (once a 
lead-producing region) of this history-laden river town, which is 
built on rocky limestone bluffs. In addition to viewing geological 
features, tour members will have the opportunity to explore 
historic Galena's charming downtown area, with its unique 
variety of pre-Civil War architecture. 

An overnight tour is offered for the weekend of May 5-6; 
per person: $98.00. A two-night, three-day tour is offered for 
October 12, 13, 14 at a rate of $150.00. Accommodations are 
at the Chestnut Mountain Lodge. 

Rates quoted for all above tours are per person, double 
occupancy (single accommodations on request). Included are 
all expenses of transportation on charter buses and accommo- 
dations in first class resort hotels. The rate also includes all 
meals and gratuities, except personal extras such as alcoholic 
beverages and special food service. An advance deposit of 
$15.00 is required upon registration for each trip. 

For additional information and reservations, call or write 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Field Museum, Roose- 
velt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone: 922- 

9410, X-251. 

31 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 




Once hailed as a solution to many problems such as soil erosion, 
hillsides, trees, telephone poles — even abandoned automobiles. 



the kudzu is now regarded as a pest, covering 



The Rapacious Kudzu 

Kudzu! The very word has an alien, sinister 
sound. It conjures up the image of author 
Sax Rohmer's legendary villain. Dr. Fu 
Manchu, slipping a potion of deadly poison 
into the drink of an unsuspecting victim. 

However, kudzu is not a potion. It is 
merely an exotic, leguminous vine with a 
broad, three-pointed leaf, and woody stem, 
first introduced to the United States from 
Japan in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial 
Exposition. 

But what a vine! In a century, kudzu 
(Pueraria lobata) has virtually engulfed 
large parts of the South, spreading north- 
ward as far as central Kentucky, Virginia, 
and Maryland and westward into eastern 
Texas and Oklahoma. The region's long 
growing seasons, mild winters and abun- 
dant precipitation have enabled kudzu to 
grow — and spread — at phenomenal rates. 
The plant begins growing in the early spring 
with green tendrils radiating from its deep 
tap roots. Producing great quantities of 
foliage, the tendrils can grow 60 feet in a 
season, often climbing vertical obstacles as 
high as 40 feet. Allegedly, kudzu can shoot 
up as much as 12 inches in 24 hours! 

By late summer, when the plant pro- 
duces clusters of fragrant purple flowers, 
32 



the ground is covered with a thick maze of 
vines, sometimes several feet deep. The 
plant then produces pods, but they seldom 
contain seeds in this country. But not to 
worry! Although kudzu loses its leaves 
after a killing frost and dies back to its root, 
the perennial vine regenerates each spring 
and continues to spread year after year as it 
establishes new tap roots at nodes along the 
stems. To make matters worse, the plant is 
bothered little, thus far at least, by disease 
or insects. 

An estimated million acres or more of 
southern farm, forest, and pasture land are 
now covered by the spooky-looking 
growth. Little is safe from "attack." Fences, 
abandoned houses, unused railroad beds, 
junk cars, even telephone poles are quickly 
enshrouded. Predictably, that has led 
Southern folk — with wry humor — to tag 
kudzu with such descriptive nicknames as 
"mile-a-minute vine," "foot-a-night vine," 
or simply "the vine." With tongue in cheek 
farmers tell visitors, "When you plant kud- 
zu, drop it and run!" 

But how did this happen, you ask? 
Why didn't America's highly-respected 
agricultural scientists nip this viny. Oriental 
invader in the bud? Well, the truth of the 
matter is that these experts, for what was 
good reason at the time, actually aided and 



abetted the spread of kudzu — at least until 
the mid-1950s. 

First used in the U.S. as an ornamental 
vine to shade porches of southern homes, 
kudzu — by the early 1900s — was found to 
provide inexpensive forage for livestock. 
Later, spanning the Great Depression years, 
kudzu's deep roots, dense foliage, and rapid 
growth, along with its nitrogen-fixing qual- 
ity, provided the kind of ground cover 
needed to control gully erosion, stabilize 
road banks, and rejuvenate nitrogen-defi- 
cient soil. 

In fact, southern farmers were so en- 
thusiastic about kudzu that through World 
War II many communities formed "kudzu 
clubs" and elected "kudzu queens." Federal 
agencies gave away kudzu seedlings by the 
millions, and the Civilian Conservation 
Corps planted kudzu to help curb soil ero- 
sion. In those days the plant, now consid- 
ered a pest, was called the "miracle vine." 
And for good reason. Experiments at the 
Soil Conservation Service's (SCS) Southern 
Piedmond Conservation Experiment Sta- 
tion at Watkinsville, GA, for example, 
showed that land planted to kudzu had 
nearly 80 percent less water runoff and 
more than 99 percent less soil loss than land 
under cotton. 

The South's love affair with kudzu 



didn't last, however, farmers found that 
kudzu, as forage, had serious drawbacks. It 
was easily overgrazed and much of the vine 
is woody stem, useless as hay. Further, it 
could be mowed for hay only once a year 
and still remain healthy. (In fact, overgraz- 
ing and too-frequent mowing are about the 
only ways of controlling kudzu's spread in 
pastures or cultivated fields, short of using 
chemical herbicides.) 

Thus, as the serious soil erosion prob- 
lems of the 1920-40S diminished, govern- 
ment agencies slowly became disenchanted 
with kudzu, especially as the vine continued 
to spread — and spread — and spread. In fact, 
by the mid-1950s state highway depart- 
ments were employing chemical herbicides 
to eradicate kudzu stands along rights-of- 
way. 

In 1953, the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture (USDA) removed the plant from the 
list of cover crops permissible under the 
Agricultural Conservation Program. In 
1962 the SCS began limiting its recommen- 
dations of kudzu planting to areas widely 
separated from orchards, forests, fences, 
farm buildings, and other properties that 
could be overrun by the vine. The crowning 
blow came in 1970 when USDA finally listed 
kudzu as a common weed in the southern 
states! 

True, some farmers still use kudzu as 
forage for livestock. However, the more af- 
fluent agriculturalist has turned to other, 
more productive feed crops such as bahia 
grass, coastal bermuda, and fescue despite 
the fact that such vegetation requires fer- 



tilizing and more of the farmer's attention. 

Thus, although kudzu can still control 
soil erosion, stabilize soil, and grow well in 
nutrient-deficient soils, its aggressive grow- 
ing behavior has become an overwhelming 
liability. Many tree farmers, orchard grow- 
ers, woodlot owners, and the wood prod- 
ucts industry are especially critical of kud- 
zu's tendency to engulf all vegetation in its 
path. Trees both large and small, mature or 
sapling, are stifled and eventually killed. 

So that is the story of kudzu. Once — 
not long ago — highly acclaimed, it has 
fallen into disrepute. No longer do southern 
towns stage "kudzu festivals" or elect "kud- 
zu queens." Like water hyacinth and other 
exotic (introduced) plants which eventually 
proved to do more harm than good, kudzu 
is a pest. Its almost uncanny ability to grow 
and spread under the most adverse condi- 
tions — the very characteristic that once 
made it so popular, especially in reducing 
sedimentation and controlling soil erosion 
— now poses a problem for the South. 

Unfortunately, the vine has spread so 
widely throughout the South that only a 
massive eradication effort involving, 
among other things, extensive use of chemi- 
cal agents, could be effective. However, the 
great economic and environmental costs 
associated with such a campaign make its 
undertaking highly unlikely. 

Interestingly, kudzu is still considered 
a useful plant in China and Japan. The 
Chinese, for example, greatly value the 
plant's root, which contains a starch used in 
making a popular kind of flour. Also, the 



ancient Chinese revered the plant ;.;; i, 
alleged medicinal values. It was used app.ir- 
ently to treat such ailments as influen?,!, 
dysentery, and snake bitel 

The resourceful Japanese, who permit 
kudzu to grow wild on steep, uncultivated 
slopes, use the entire plant. Besides making 
hay from the leaves and using them as 
forage, the Japanese make a coarse cloth 
from the stem and derive a starch from the 
root. The starch is then used in making 
noodles and candy. 

Thus, although unlikely, it's possible 
that American researchers, too, will iden- 
tify new uses for kudzu. It remains effective 
in stabilizing steep road cuts and stream 
banks, partly because of the plant's deep 
roots. Because of the vine's ability to grow 
in poor soil, it is also useful in revegetating 
denuded strip-mined areas. But each of 
these uses also depends on that same char- 
acteristic of kudzu that resulted in its classi- 
fication as a pest plant in the first place — 
the vine's rate of growth! 

Is it difficult to locate "the vine" as you 
drive through the South? Hardly. During 
the growing season, it would be almost 
impossible to miss the many distinctive 
patches of leafy vines blanketing road 
banks, covering road fields and shrouding 
trees beside the region's highways. But if 
you stop along the road to examine the 
plant more closely, watch out! Don't get 
too close or tarry too long or you might get 
more wrapped up in kudzu than you in- 
tended! — Ken Hampton, National Wildlife 
Federation. 



No Longer a Wilderness 
Of Monkeys 

The world's primates are in trouble. As a 
species, Homo sapiens appear to be one of 
the few primates with a relatively secure 
future. The reasons for concern are varied 
but they generally all stem from human ac- 
tions. 

Of the 166 species of primates living 
today, nearly a third are considered en- 
dangered. Primates are subject to a wider 
variety of population pressures than any 
other mammals. Not only do they have to 
cope with the severe problem of habitat 
loss, but they are also subjected to sub- 
sistence hunting for food, trapping for zoos 
and medical research, and for sale as pets. 
Primates, as other large advanced mam- 
mals, are slow to mature and breed, 
resulting in slow recovery of depleted wild 
populations. 

The most serious problem confronting 
the world's primates is loss of their habitat 
to development, heightening the severity of 
the previously mentioned factors. Zoologist 
Jaclyn Wolfheim states, "The destruction of 
habitat overshadows all other proximate 



factors that influence the survival of 
primate populations. No degree of adap- 
tability or regulation of trade in animals can 
save a species if all of its habitat has been 
bombed with napalm, razed by bulldozers 
or planted in soybeans. Conversely it is dif- 
ficult to hunt a species to extinction if its 
original habitat is left intact." 

The above quote especially applies to 
the prosimians, one of two suborders of 
primates, that includes lemurs, indrises, 
lorises, tarsiers, and the aye-aye. Pro- 
simians, which have never been in demand 
for pets, food, or research, have experi- 
enced radical population declines almost 
exclusively in response to their loss of 
habitat. They are strictly Old World species 
living on the island of Madagascar and in 
some parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. 
This geographical restriction, their high 
degree of specialization, and their 
dependence on trees has been their 
downfall. 

Lemurs, indrises, and the aye-aye, all 
limited to Madagascar and to the nearby 
Comoro Islands, have lost the trees upon 
which they depend for food and shelter (85 
percent of Madagascar has been 



deforested). Exotic introductions have 
edged out Madagascar's prosimians, unable 
to compete with other mammals because 
the island's isolation prevented adaptations 
to selective pressures. 

Mainland prosimians, such as tarsiers 
and lorises, have better succeeded in 
adapting to changing habits, perhaps 
because they have been subjected to a wider 
variety of pressures throughout their 
development. 

The future of the anthropoids, the 
other primate suborder, is closely linked to 
the fate of tropical forests in Africa, South 
America, and Asia. Anthropoid species, in- 
cluding the marmoset, monkey, ape, and 
human families, are considered more flexi- 
ble than the prosimians: they have adapted 
to changing environments and their 
habitats are not as restricted. 

But the world's tropical forests are cur- 
rently under an alarming seige by 
developers to provide charcoal, lumber, 
and agricultural land in Third World na- 
tions to promote rapid economic expan- 
sion. Gibbons, gorillas, orangutans, mar- 
mosets, and many monkey species are los- 
ing the large tracts of forest they need to 

33 



live. Habitat deforestation has placed three 
marmoset species under extreme pressure 
throughout their restricted range in Brazil. 
Several agricultural development schemes 
threaten the remaining habitat of the golden 
lion marmoset {Leontopithecus rosalia 
rosalia), the most acutely endangered 
subspecies. Negotiations are underway to 
try to preserve an adequate portion of this 
dwindling habitat for the 400 golden lion 
marmosets remaining in the wild. This 
subspecies breeds well in captivity, and 
reintroductions will be conducted as soon 
as suitable areas are identified. 



The Research Controversy 

The use of anthropoid primates in 
medical research has long been a point of 
controversy among conservationists, 
medical researchers and humane activists. 
Primates, closer to humans phylogeneti- 
cally than any other animal, are very well 
suited for research in a variety of 
physiological, morphological, and 
behavioral studies. For some pathological 
and neurological research no alternatives 
exist. 

The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is 
the only animal other than humans that is 
susceptible to hepatitis B, making it in- 
valuable for vaccine development and 
testing. The U.S. Center for Disease Con- 
trol in Atlanta estimates an incidence of 
150,000 cases of hepatitis B for 1976, of 
which 1,500 were fatal. Chimpanzees are 
also the only animal model available for 
research on non-A, non-B hepatitis which is 
responsible for more than 80 percent of the 
post-transfusion hepatitis diagnosed in the 
U.S. Chimps are also important in research 
on other infectious diseases such as malaria, 
gonorrhea, and trypanosomiasis. 

Two macaque species, the rhesus 
macaque (Macaco mulatto) and the long- 
tailed macaque (Macaca fasicularis), have 
long been the most popular general purpose 
primates for experimental use. The rhesus 
macaque has been the most widely used 
primate for the safety testing of polio- 
myelitis and other vaccines. It was also 
used in the discovery of the Rh factor, an 
indicator of a blood disorder that can 
affect the developing human fetus. Baboons 
(Papio spp.) are also important as research 
models particularly in the areas of surgical 
technique development and neurophys- 
iology. 

Tougher To Get 

Several recent developments have 
caused heated debates among factions in- 
terested in the use and supply of experimen- 
tal primates. Continued population declines 
of chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and 
other primate species have led to reevalua- 
tion of the use of these primates and of their 
capture methods. In April, 1978 India 
34 



banned the export of rhesus macaques, 
citing severe population declines and the 
violation of an agreement with the U.S. 
that rhesus macaques would not be used for 
research involving nuclear arms. Suddenly 
the U.S. was left without a supplier of its 
most heavily used primate. It was hoped 
that Bangladesh would be able to supply 
some macaques, but for various reasons 
this has not been the case. Since captive 
stocks are limited, many researchers are at- 
tempting to replace the rhesus with long- 
tailed macaques but are finding these in 
short supply also. 

A major U.S. pharmaceutical com- 
pany wants to purchase 125 chimpanzees 
from suppliers in Sierra Leone, in western 
Africa. Trade in primates is regulated by 
the Convention on International Trade in 
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and 
Flora (CITES) requiring permits for the im- 
porting company from the importing 
and/or exporting nation. So far the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service's Wildlife Permit 
Office has refused the permit on the basis 
that not enough information is available on 
Sierra Leone's chimp population and also 



captive bred primates. A captive bred 
chimp, for example, may cost $5,000 to 
$10,000. Its wild counterpart may run less 
than half that amount. Also, researchers 
are only beginning to learn about primate 
social behavior, a prime determinant of 
breeding success. 

Because primates generally breed and 
mature slowly, large colonies would be 
needed to keep pace with yearly demands 
and to ensure genetic diversity and correct 
social unit size. The Southwest Foundation 
for Research and Education's (SFRE) baboon 
colony in San Antonio, TX, the world's 
largest, contains more than 1,100 baboons 
(Papio cynocephalus) . SFRE also maintains 
small chimpanzee and squirrel monkey 
colonies. Although SFRE's colonies are non- 
commercial, the Charles River Breeding 
Laboratories' Florida Keys facility is. 
Charles River has established a colony of 
2,500 rhesus macaques on an island 
previously uninhabited by primates. This 
year Charles River will sell its surplus of 560 
primates to researchers for $500 to $1,000 
each. Before India's rhesus ban, wild 
macaques could be purchased for less than 





Number 






Required 




Species 


1977 


Availability 


Rhesus macaque 


14,000 


Unavailable from the wild. Limited domestic 


(Macaca mulatta) 




production. 


Long-tailed macaque 


6,000 


Wild specimens commercially available. 


(Macaca fascicularis) 






Chimpanzee 


200 


Commercial trade only by special permit. 


(Pan troglodytes) 




Limited domestic production. 


Baboons 


1,300 


Wild specimens commercially available. 


(Papio spp. ) 






African green monkey 


2,100 


Wild specimens commercially available. 


(Cercopithecus aethiops) 






Squirrel monkey 


4,500 


Wild specimens commercially available. 


(Saimiri sciureus) 







that unsound collection methods would be 
used. 

A major point of contention in this 
permit application and in wild primate col- 
lection in general is the common methods of 
capture. Wild primates, given their agility, 
intelligence, and their often rugged habitat, 
are difficult to capture. Often they are 
trapped in snares and nets, resulting in the 
deaths of numerous animals. Sometimes the 
mother is killed to capture the young. Since 
most primates bear and raise only one or 
two of the young at a time, many adults 
may be killed to fill an order. 

One possible solution to the supply 
problem is development of captive breeding 
programs. So far, the success of these pro- 
grams has been limited, primarily because 
they have not been encouraged. Until 
recently, the supply of wild primates was 
adequate, and they were less expensive than 



$300. Continued primate behavior research 
may allow more colonies similar to SFRE's 
and Charles River's to be established. 

In 1974 the National Institutes of 
Health established the Interagency Primate 
Steering Committee (IPSC). Composed of 
representatives from the National Science 
Foundation, the Department of Defense, 
the Department of Health, Education and 
Welfare, and the NIH, the committee's 
stated goal is "... to develop a unified ap- 
proach to assure both short and long-term 
supplies of non-human primates for bio- 
medical research activities." IPSC has 
developed a "National Primate Plan" which 
outlines future requirements for govern- 
ment agencies and proposes methods for 
obtaining primates. By coordinating use, it 
is hoped that sufficient experimental 
primate supplies can be maintained. 

— John Hallagan, Conservation News. 



May and June at Field Museum 




Huichol shaman's hat, on view beginning May 5, with other examples of Huichol Indian art, in 
American Museum of Natural History.) 



Hall 27. (Specimen on loan from the 



(May 15 through June 15) 



New Exhibits 



"The Art of Being Huichol." Opened May 5. A major traveling 
exhibition of more than 150 objects of Huichol Indian art. The 
exhibit was organized by the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 
and is sponsored by a grant from the National Endowment for the 
Arts and by the Museum Society of the Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco. The exhibit includes costumes, votive objects, 
weavings, embroidery, beadwork, and yarn "paintings." The "art 
of being Huichol" is the act of living a devout life, and spiritual 
themes dominate their art. The Huichol also value visionary 
experiences produced by the hallucinogenic peyote and these 
images are reflected in their dramatic yarn paintings. The Huichol 
live in an isolated area of Western Mexico, and they remain one of 
the few traditional Indian groups whose ancient beliefs and 
practices remain unchanged even today. Through September 3, 
Hall 27. 



"Lacquer Arts of Japan." Opened May 9. More than 150 
examples of finely crafted inro, (small sectional lacquer cases 
used to carry medicine); nelsuke, (tiny carved pendants which 



hang from silk cords); and ojime beads, the status symbols of 
cultured merchants and a warrior aristocracy from 18th- and 
19th-century Japan. Planned in conjunction with "Japan Today" 
festivities, some of these objects surpass the finest Renaissance 
goldwork in delicacy and perfection of design. The pieces 
displayed include items recently donated to the Museum by John 
Woodworth Leslie. Miniature landscapes, dreamlike still lifes, 
and mythic dragons are flawlessly carved into these lacquer 
ornaments, forming a microscopic universe out of gold dust and 
inlaid pearl. Examples of Chinese lacquer art will be exhibited 
for comparison. Hall 32. See story on page 12. 

"Treasures of Cyprus." Opens June 14. An exhibit of jewelry and 
pottery that pre-dates Tutankhamun by 6,000 years. Bowls, jugs, 
vases, and religious idols made of stone, clay, and bronze reveal 
the Cypriot talent for using their natural resources to make 
important contributions to Western civilization. Situated at the 
crossroads of three continents — Europe, Asia, and Africa — 
Cyprus produced an art reflecting a remarkable assimilation of 
these foreign influences. Through September 16. Hall K. 



(Continued on back cover) 



35 



May and June at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



Continuing Exhibits 



"A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History." A one-case 
exhibit that combines 63 natural history specimens with samples 
of philatelic or stamp art. Planned on a rotating basis to cover the 
four disciplines of natural history, the first phase is devoted to 
zoological specimens and their images on stamps. Exquisite 
seashells and butterflies are among the specimens mounted with 
a leaping jaguar and fox in the second floor lounge. "A Stamp 
Sampler" was conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, exhibit guest 
curator, and was designed by Peter Ho, a University of Illinois 
graduate student. 

"Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five 
Continents." A breathtaking exhibit of 260 rare feather objects, 
assembled almost entirely from Field Museum's own collections. 
Headdresses adorned with iridescent beetles; hummingbird 
breasts glowing like gold on a shaman's headband; and an eerie 
hooded dance costume from the Cameroons, are just a few of the 
feather wonders on display in Hall 26. "Feather Art. " is divided 
into five theme areas: the visitor can explore the amazing 
structure and function of the the feather, and learn how feathers 
are used to express man's ideas about beauty, wealth, and spirit. 
After its July 31 closing here, "Feather Arts" will travel to three 
other museums across the country. 

New Programs 

Field Museum is honored to take part in "Japan Today," an 
international festival celebrating the cultural, intellectual, and 
economic heritage of contemporary Japan. The Museum has 
opened an exquisite exhibit of Lacquer art from 18th- and 19th- 
century Japan; special weekend programs are also planned to 
coincide with this event: 

"Nagashizuki — Japanese Hand Papermaking. " Saturday, May 
19, 1:30 p.m. To coincide with "Japan Today" cultural festivities, 
the Museum holds a multimedia lecture program on this ancient 
art form. With Timothy D. Barrett, craftsman and author. James 
Simpson Theatre. Admission: $3.50; Members, $2.00. 

"Japan's Living Crafts." Sunday, May 20, at 1 1 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
A film introduction to the lacquerware, silk, pottery, paper art, 
ironwork, and enamelware designed by Japan's senior craftsmen. 
Running time: 22 minutes. A. Montgomery Ward Lecture Hall. 
Admission is free at the West door. 

"The Path." The filming of an entire Japanese tea ceremony — an 
ancient tradition that has been described as a microcosm of 
Japanese culture. Sunday, May 27. 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. Running 
time: 34 minutes. For free admission to A. Montgomery Ward 
Lecture Hall, enter at the West door. 

"Great Scientists Speak Again." Free weekend film programs 
honoring the world's foremost scientists. Dr. Richard M. Eakin, 
Professor Emeritus of Zoology, University of California at 
Berkeley, impersonates great men of science on film and makes a 
personal appearance as Charles Darwin for the final program. 
Humorous and dramatic, the films are also scientifically and 
historically accurate. 



"Louis Pasteur": Friday and Saturday, May 18 and 19, at 2:30 
p.m. Running time: 24 minutes. "Gregor Mendel ": Friday and 
Saturday, May 25 and 26, at 2:30 p.m. Running time: 24 minutes. 
"Hans Spemann": Friday and Saturday, June 1 and 2 at 2:30 p.m. 
A. Montgomery Ward Lecture Hall. For free admission, enter at 
the West door. 

"Charles Darwin." A live dramatic presentation with Professor 
Eakin impersonating the great naturalist: Saturday, June 9, at 
2:30 p.m. James Simpson Theatre. Members, $2.00; 
nonmembers, $3.50. 

Summer Journey: "A to Z at Field Museum." Self-guided tour 
leads families and children through a cross section of exhibits 
introducing them to the Museum's four main areas: 
anthropqiogy, botany, geology, and zoology. Free Journey 
pamphlets available at the North Information Booth, and the 
South and West doors. 

Continuing Programs 

"Armchair Expeditions." Geared for adult groups, these in-house 
"expeditions" include slide lectures and tours of selected 
exhibits. Dining arrangements available. Reservations are 
required. Call 922-0733 for more information. 

Spring Journey. "The Meaning of Feathers." Through May 31. 
Self-guided tour leads families and children through exhibits to 
discover what birds and their feathers mean to various cultures. 
Free Journey pamphlets are available at the North Information 
Booth, and at the South and West doors. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. Field Museum's 
popular "Anthropology Game " has been expanded to include 
botany, geology, and zoology. The object here is to determine 
which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- 
and family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the entrance to 
the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 a.m. 
to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an 
interest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410. X 360. 

May and June Hours. The Museum is open daily from 9 a.m. to 6 
p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays, the Museum is open from 9 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Closed 
Memorial Day. May 28. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main 
floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922 9410 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

June, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 6 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Members' Tours to China and Antarctica 

4 Who Were the Lusignans? 

A medieval approach to Cypriot archaeology 
highlights new exhibit "Treasures of Cyprus," 
opening June 14 

By Donald Whitcomb, assistant curator of middle 
Eastern archaeology and ethnology 

The Tsavo Man-Eaters 

By Lawrence Kolczak 

Members' Tours 

Taylor Camp, Hawaii 

The Life and Death of a Hippie Community 
By Thomas J. Riley and Karma Ibsen-Riley 

Our Environment 

June and July at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



14 

17 
18 

23 

27 

COVER 



Waterfall at Starved Rock State Park. Photo by John Kolar. 
Sign up now for ]une 16-17 tour of Starved Rock, Buffalo 
Rock, and Matthiessen state parks. See page 17 for details. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is publisfied monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a 
year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Field Museum Tours to 
Antarctica and China 



China, Nov. 5-25 

Peking's Forbidden City, the Summer Palace of the Dowager Em- 
press, the bustling activity of Canton, the ancient pagodas of Kun- 
ming. These are just a sampling of the sights that lie in store for the 23 
persons (Field Museum members and their families) who visit China 
on Field Museum's exclusive tour this November . 

In addition to fourteen days in China, three days and two nights 
will be spent in London. The tour escort will be Mrs. Katharine Lee, a 
Field Museum volunteer in the Department of Anthropology who is 
fluent in five Chinese dialects. Additional guides in China will be pro- 
vided by the China International Travel Service. The tour 
cost— $4,400 (which includes a $500 donation to Field Museum)— is 
based upon double occupancy and includes round trip air fare from 
Chicago to China. Advance deposit required: $500.00 per person. 

For full itinerary, additional details, and registration information 
on all tours, please write or call Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. III. 60605. Phone: 
(312) 922-9410, X-251. 



Antarctica, Jan. 6-30, 1980 

Until recently, only explorers were able to view antarctica's wondrous 
beauty. There is no destination more remote, more unspoiled by the 
encroachments of civilization. Our itinerary includes the Falkland 
Islands, a visit to the Patagonian coast, the South Georgia Islands, the 
South Orkney Islands, and of course, antarctica. Dr. Edward Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy, will be tour lecturer. 

The cruise vessel will be the 3,200-ton tourist ship M.S. World 
Discouerer, registered in Hong Kong, which will take us from Punta 
Arenas, Argentina, onwards. Built in 1974, the one-class vessel has all 
outside cabins with private lavatories and showers. The ship's staff in- 
cludes a fully qualified physician. The tour leaves Chicago Jan. 6, 
1980 and returns Jan. 30. Prices per person: C deck twin: $3,230: C 
deck single: $4,870; B deck twin: $3,570; B deck single: $5,390: A 
deck, twin: $3,930. Air fare, in addition, is $1,225 (round trip be- 
tween Chicago and Punta Arenas. Argentina). Included in the tour 
price is a tax-deductible donation of $500.00 to Field Museum. 
Deposit required at time of registration: $1,000.00 per person. 




» i n. i ni» i I I !_ 1 0f)nmU : 




•^^^^: ^,.i ' W * » . 




Deception Island, antarctica 



Who Were the Lusignans? 

A Medieval Approach to Cypriot Archaeology 



BY DONALD WHITCOMB 



Treasures of Cyprus 
Exhibition Opens Jun 




Ruins of Salamis THOSE WHO ARE FAMILIAR WlTH the history of 

the Crusades may know of the principalities and 

feudal kingdoms which were established on the 

Levantine (eastern Mediterranean) coast and lasted 

Photos Courtesy f^j. hundreds of years; they may also have some 

The Smithsonian In- , i. V- i i i r 

g^ii-^^iQi^ ji^^y^i ij^^ understanding of the tremendous exchange of 

Exhibition Service ideas concerning government, society, culture, 



Donald Whitcomb is Field Museum's newly appointed 
assistant curator of Middle Eastern archaeology and 
ethnology. 



and the arts that prevailed between these Euro- 
peans and their oriental neighbors. 

An aspect of this history which is perhaps 
less widely known but which was one of the im- 
mediate results of the Crusades was the establish- 
ment of a Crusader kingdom on the island of Cy- 
prus. This Lusignan kingdom (named for its ruling 
family, the Lusignans, who came from western 
France) lasted for almost three centuries 
(1192-1489) after the fall of the Levantine 
kingdoms. 

Probably even enthusiasts of this segment 
of Cypriot history have not considered that the 




Lusignan period is but a late chapter in the long 
story of European and oriental interchange on this 
island. Much of the information we now have 
about this interchange has been revealed to us 
through archaeological research, and the ar- 
chaeology of medieval Cyprus can be seen as a 
beginning point in the unravelling of the history of 
civilization on this island and throughout the 
Mediterranean. 

On June 14 the exhibition "Treasures of 
Cyprus" will open at Field Museum. This collec- 
tion of some 150 artifacts, representing the art and 
archaeology of Cyprus, was organized by the 



government of Cyprus to honor the American 
Bicentennial and loaned to the United States. The 
exhibition is being circulated by the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. In view- 
ing this exhibition, we are reminded of the pivotal 
importance of this small island (about twice the 
size of New York's Long Island) in the historical 
changes and political vicissitudes from the earliest 
phases of western civilization. Patterns of present 
day international relationships often have start- 
lingly similar antecedents in earlier historical 
periods. 

The archaeological collections in the 
"Treasures of Cyprus ' exhibition include a 
number of very beautiful glazed vessels dating 
from the medieval period. Many of the finest were 
found in graves of the Lusignans, this practice of 
depositing valuables with the dead barkening back 
to some of the earliest archaeological periods. One 
of the richest Lusignan graveyards was at Episkopi 
near Limassol, on the southern coast, where Ri- 
chard the Lion-Hearted first landed in 1191. The 
medieval Cypriot view of this English king dif- 
fered greatly from the one we usually hear; one 
contemporary commentator on the effects on Cy- 
prus of the Third Crusade stated 

England is a country beyond Rumania in the north, 
out of which [came] a cloud of English with their 
sovereign, embarking on large vessels called smacks, 
and sailed towards Jerusalem. . . . The wicked 
wretch achieved naught against his fellow wretch 
Saladin, but achieved only that he sold our country 
to the Latins. . . . 

It was as a result of the failure of the Third 
Crusade that this orthodox Christian part of the 
Byzantine empire was taken over by the Lusignan 
dynasty founders. When an Arab sultan finally 
reclaimed all of the Levant for Islam with the fall 
of Acre in 1291, many more European knights set- 
tled in the feudal principality of Cyprus. The 
Lusignans, who continued to be crowned as both 
King of Cyprus and King of Jerusalem for almost 
300 years, turned the island into an almost perfect 
model of chivalry and a sort of Camelot — if one 
neglects the interests and aspirations of the "hum- 
ble folk." 

The growth and prosperity of the island 
kingdom during the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies was due mainly to the vigorous trade be- 
tween Europe and the Moslem East. This was 
conducted via Cyprus by Genoese and Venetian 
merchants. The latter, who were particularly im- 
portant, ruled the island in the late fifteenth and in 
the sixteenth centuries. (The real-life model of 
Shakespeare's Othello is generally believed to 
have been, not a black Moor, but an Italian mer- 
chant named Moro who lived in the great port of 
Famagusta.) A fourteenth-century traveller des- 
cribed Cyprus: 

Moreover there are very rich merchants, a thing 
not to be wondered at, for Cyprus is the furthest of 
Christian lands, so that all ships and all wares, be 
they what they may, and come they from what part 




20 



10 



40 



20 



80 Km 




Fnkomi 

F-iinaiiusta 



^ 



^ 



' I inusM,! 



<J- 



^ 



\ 



<i- 



% 



CYPRUS 



<c- 



of the sea they will, must needs come first to 
Cyprus, and in no wise can they pass it by, and 
pilgrims from every country journeying to the lands 
over sea must touch at Cyprus. 

The growth of these merchants is reminis- 
cent of earlier success of the Phoenicians (first half 
of the first millenium B.C.), specialists in commerce 
who were drawn to Cyprus for its great copper re- 
sources. (The word "copper," or its root, cuprum 
or cyprium, may be from the name of the island, 
or vice versa.) The Phoenicians settled in strategic 
coastal sites such as Kition (Citium, or Biblical 
Chittim), on the eastern coast and established rela- 
tionships with towns like Tamassos and Idalion in 
the copper-bearing mountains of the interior. 

Commerce in copper also occupied the 
Mycenaeans in the middle of the second millen- 
nium B.C., a search echoed in Homer's Odyssey: 

So now, going down to my ship and sailing with 
my companions across the wine-dark sea, towards 
men speaking strange tongues, 1 carry shining iron 
to Temese (Tamassos) in quest of copper. 

Cyprus in this period (the Late Bronze Age, 
called in Cyprus the Late Cypriot period) was 
known to its trading partners as the country of 
Alashiya. These trading partners included not 
only Mycenaean Greece but the kingdoms of the 

Levant and Egypt, where Cypriot ceramics today 
bear mute witness to commerce that occurred dur- 
ing the eighteenth dynasty (1570-1293, the dynas- 
ty of Tutankhamun). The influence of neighboring 
regions upon Cypriot history becomes clearer dur- 
ing the first millennium B.C. (the Iron Age), for 
which patterns of political domination are better 
documented. The island was divided into separate 
city-states, each with its king; most of these were 
part of the Mycenaean legacy. By 708 B.C., these 
kings had submitted to the Assyrian Sargon II; 
subsequently the political domination shifted 
briefly to the Egyptians and then to the Persian 
empire. Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) rein- 
troduced a Greek element, but his successors, the 
Ptolemies, ruled Cyprus from Egypt into the first 
century B.C. 

The Romans introduced what might be 
considered a first Italian influence upon the island, 
an interest which was two-fold. On the one hand, 
the commercial role of Cyprus in the empire 
fostered the development of copper mining on an 
enormous industrial scale, while cities such as 
Salamis became cosmopolitan centers of wealth 
and beauty. The Romans also seem to have re- 
sponded to the natural beauty of the island and to 
its reputation as the birthplace of Aphrodite, god- 
dess of love. The very ancient cult center at 
Paphos was adorned with a popular and famous 
temple and it is probably no accident that Mark 
Antony gave the island as a love-gift to Cleopatra 
in 36 B.C. (The lingering power of Aphrodite may 
perhaps be seen in the twelfth century, when Ri- 
chard the Lion-Hearted landed on Cyprus with 



his betrothed, the beautiful Berengaria, and mar- 
ried her.) 

Aphrodite and the pagan rites on her island 
soon gave way to stronger, more spiritual in- 
fluences. In 45 A.D. the Apostle Paul and Bar- 
nabas, the early Christian missionary, landed on 
the island and managed to convert Sergius Paulus, 
the Roman consul. Cyprus remained Christian, 
eventually becoming part of the eastern Byzantine 
empire, although the newer eastern power based 
on Islam made occasional attempts to bring Cy- 
prus under its control. It was the Arab geographer 



CHRONOLOGY 



Period 


Estimated Date 


Neolithic 


lA: 5800-5250 B.C. 




IB; 5250-4950 B.C. 




II: 3500-3000 B.C. 


Chalcolithic 


1:3000-2500 B.C. 




II: 2500-2300 B.C. 


Early Bronze Age 


1:2300-2100 B.C. 


OR Early Cypriot 


II: 2100-2000 B.C. 




Ill: 2000-1850 B.C. 



Middle Bronze Age 
OR Middle Cypriot 

Late Bronze Age 
OR Late Cypriot 



Iron Age 
Cypro-Geometric 

Cypro-Archaic 
CyproClassical 
Hellenistic 
Roman 



Medieval 



Byzantine 
Lusignan 

Venetian 

Turkish Occupation 

British Occupation 



I: 1850-1800 B.C. 

II: 1800-1700 B.C. 

Ill: 1700-ca. 1550 B.C. 

IA:ca. 1550-1450 B.C. 
IB: 1450-1400 B.C. 
IIA: 1400-1300 B.C. 
MB: 1300-1230 B.C. 
IIIA: 1230-1190 B.C. 
NIB: 1190-1150 B.C. 
IIIC: 1150-1050 B.C. 

Begins circa 1050 B.C. 

I: 1050-950 B.C. 
II: 950-850 B.C. 
111:850-725 B.C. 

I: 725-600 B.C. 
II: 600-475 B.C. 

I: 475-400 B.C. 
II: 400-325 B.C. 

I: 325-150 B.C. 
II: 150-50 B.C. 

I:50B.C.-150A.D. 
II: 150-250 A.D. 
Ill: 250-330 A.D. 

330-1191 A.D. 
1192-1489 A.D. 

1489-1571 A.D. 

1571-1878 A.D. 
1878-1960 A.D. 



Declaration of Independence 
of THE Republic of Cyprus 



August 16, 1960 



Shams-eddin Muqaddasi who neatly summarized 
the political patterns of the island: "The island is 
in the power of whichever nation is overlord in 
these seas." 



The tides of political change may be seen 
most vividly in the archeology of Cyprus's major 
ports. During the Lusignan and Venetian periods, 
the very prosperous trade with the Saracen coun- 
tries of the Levant and Egypt was centered on 
Famagusta, located on the island's eastern coast. 
Not far from Famagusta are the remains of Con- 
stantia, the Byzantine manifestation of the 



the island can even be seen in the final fall of the 
Lusignans when, abandoned by their Venetian and 
Genoese allies, they were defeated by an Egyptian 
Mamluk army at the Battle of Khirokitia, the site 
of the oldest and most important Neolithic settle- 
ment in Cyprus. This Mamluk control of Cyprus 
is especially interesting to me, even though it was 
short-lived, because my wife, Janet Johnson, and I 



Theater at Kourion 
(Ciiriimil. 




classical emporium of Salamis. Salamis was pre- 
ceded by Enkomi, a Late Bronze Age port already 
thriving in the second millennium B.C. A similar 
succession of port-sites may be seen in the south 
with the early Kourion followed by Curium, then 
Amanthus, and finally by Limassol. A second geo- 
graphical constant is the succession of towns on 
the central plain of the interior where early city- 
states such as Tamassos, Idalion, and Ledra found 
a final manifestation in the country's present 
capital, Nicosia. 

The recurring importance of a given area of 






are currently excavating Mamluk remains in 
Egypt. In fact, our site, Quseir al-Qadim, a small 
port on the Red Sea, has glazed ceramics some- 
what similar to those used by the Lusignans. We 
also found one Crusader coin in the excavations 
— perhaps a piece of change from the sale of some 
spices from the East. I have, therefore, special in- 
terest in the archaeology of medieval Cyprus as a 
parallel to the "Islamic archaeology" of its 
neighboring countries. 

Both medieval Cypriot and Islamic ar- 
chaeology fall into the range which many ar- 




Khirokitia, the oldest and most important Neolithic settlement in Cyprus 




Bull-shaped vessel. Early 
Cypriot period. Height: 12.5 
cm. 




Eiikonii (Alasia). on 
northeast coast. 



10 



chaeologists rather disdainfully call the "late" 
periods; some of the materials which I study are 
hardly archaeological at all. But these sherds and 
pots, even if only a few hundred years old, have a 
story to tell — they are evidence, albeit fragmen- 
tary — of how people lived. Some aspects reflected 
in the pottery record were never written down; 
other information may be checked against 
documentary sources. Because modern ar- 
chaeology is asking increasingly difficult questions 
about cultural processes and interactions, it is 
useful to have such a field of archaeology — 
where inferences and interpretations may be 
checked occasionally — to ensure we do not ex- 
plain too many things as "religious ritual" or as 
flying saucers. 



Thus, from looking at the archaeological 
remains of the Lusignans, we may be able to 
answer many questions about how the Crusaders 
lived and how their feudal society worked. But 
perhaps more important, as I have tried to suggest 
here and as suggested in the arrangement of the 
"Treasures of Cyprus" exhibition, the glazed 
ceramics of the Lusignans can show us something 
about the interpretation and appreciation of ar- 
tifacts from earlier archaeological periods. The Lu- 
signan pieces in the exhibition are not displayed all 
together, within the series of chronological cases; 
rather, each individual piece is grouped with 
earlier pieces which it illuminates in one fashion or 
another. (Thanks to John Carswell, curator of the 
Oriental Institute Museum, at the University of 



.ft- ,, --i-iiSSS 




Chicago, a few medieval sherds from that mu- 
seum's collections have been included in the ex- 
hibition for purposes of comparison.) For in- 
stance, on the bottom of a medieval goblet a sgraf- 
fito, or "scratched " design, depicts a wedding 
scene in which the design of the clothes of an em- 
bracing couple intermingles; the artistic concep- 
tualization is rather similar to a so-called plank- 
shaped idol from the Early Cypriot period {ca. 
2000 B.C.). The gestures of a dancer shown on 
another medieval goblet seem to reflect the pos- 
tures of little figurines made over 2,000 years 
earlier, and designs on a medieval wine jar seem to 
imitate designs of earlier periods. What we might 
have here is conscious reproduction of earlier ar- 
tistic shapes or motifs and, on the other hand, a 



graphic illustration of more basic, shared human 
characteristics. 

On a more abstract scale, the patterns of 
settlement and commerce suggested above might 
also be seen as conforming to atemporal patterns 
of human interaction stretching across different 
and unconnected time periods. This is not to sug- 
gest so much a cyclicality of history as an isolation 
of certain constraints which may produce super- 
ficial, or even deeper, nearly identical responses. 
When the Mycenaeans or Ptolemies are described 
as a "warrior aristocracy," just how different might 
their society have been from that of Lusignan cru- 
saders? It is through juxtapositions such as are 
possible within this exhibition of Cypriot antiqui- 
ties that questions like these might be raised and 
ideas suggested. 



11 




Terracotta figurine. Cypro 
Archaic 11 period, from 
Kouklia. Height: 14.5 cm. 



\ X 





Plank-shaped idol of Red 
Polished ware. Early Cypriot 
III period. Height: 28.5 cm. 



I 



Lusignan glazed bowl: 14th 
cent. A.D Height: 9 cm. 



12 



Jug decorated in "free-field" 
style. Cypro-Archaic period. 
Height: 22.5 cm. 




Bronze ring from top of tnpoi 
stand. Inscription is in Cypro 
Minoan script. Late Cypriot 
111 period. From Myrtou- 
Pigadhes. Diam.: 11.9 cm. 





Marble head of satyr. Roman 
(Julio-Claudian period). From 
Kourion. Height: 19 cm. 



"Treasures of Cyprus 



»» 



These and other art objects from nearly 

8,000 years of Cypriot history will 

be on view in Hall K beginning June 14. 



Lusignan glazed vase; brown 
and green sgraffito: 14th cent. 
From Nicosia. Height: 30.5 
cm. 



13 



The Tsavo 
Man-Eaters 



BY LAWRENCE S. KOLCZAK 



14 



Unlike the Other Specimens in Hall 22 at Field 

Museum, these two male lions are not attractive 
representatives of their species. Their skins are 
covered with scars, and they lack even the hint of 
a majestic mane. Their contribution to the African 
exhibit lies not in their physical appearance, but in 
their bizarre and macabre story. They are the 
documented killers of twenty-eight human beings. 
Their insatiable appetite for human flesh disrupted 
construction of the Uganda Railroad for nine 
months. 

In March, 1898, Col. J. H. Patterson, a 
British engineer, arrived in what is now Kenya. 
Only 130 miles of track had been completed on the 
railroad which would connect the coastal city of 
Mombasa with the shores of Lake Victoria, about 
750 miles inland. Thousands of laborers had been 
brought over from India to work on this project, 
and most of them were camped at the railhead, an 
outpost called Tsavo. Patterson was assigned to 
direct construction of a railroad bridge across the 
Tsavo River at this location. It is from the pub- 
lished account of his ordeal with the man-eaters 
that the quoted excerpts here are taken. 

A few days after Patterson's arrival at 
Tsavo, a lion entered one of the camps and 
dragged a sleeping workman from his tent. Patter- 
son followed the trail. 

On reaching the spot where the body had 
been devoured, a dreadful spectacle presented 
itself. The ground all round us was covered 
with blood and morsels of flesh and bones, 
but the . . . head had been left intact, . . . the 
eyes staring wide open with a startled, hor- 
rified look in them. . . . we found that two 
lions had been there and had probably 
struggled for possession of the body. 

Thinking the lions might return to the same 
camp that night, Patterson lay in wait. But the 
lions attacked another camp, a half-mile away. 
The camps were scattered along eight miles of 
track, and there were several thousand workmen 
to prey upon. 

Despite the heat, tent doors were no longer 



left open at night. The workmen constructed 
bomas (barriers made from thorn bushes) around 
their camps. Still, every few nights, a man was 
carried off and devoured. Time after time, the 
lions eluded Patterson's ambush attempts. 

Occasionally, the man-eaters made a 
mistake. One of them tore into a tent occupied by 
fourteen men, and made off with a sack of rice. In 
another incident, a man was rudely awakened as a 
lion stole his mattress out from under him. 

As the railhead moved further inland, most 
of the laborers went with it. The few hundred 
workers remaining behind to complete the bridge 
became more conscious of the lions' activities. 
They strengthened the thorn bomas encircling 
their camps, and kept fires burning all night. 
Watchmen rattled empty oil cans to frighten off 
marauders. Animal carcasses, laced with poison, 
were left outside the camps. 

Despite these precautions, on April 22, a 
lion penetrated the boma of the hospital camp, 
mauled two men, killed a third and dragged the 
victim out through the thorns. Immediately, the 
hospital was moved closer to the other camps. 
That night while Patterson stood watch at the 
abandoned hospital, a lion attacked the new 
hospital camp. It jumped over the boma, poked its 
head under the side of a tent, and seized a man by 
the foot. It pulled the struggling man from the 
tent, took him by the neck and killed him with a 
few vicious shakes. 

The brute then seized him . . . like a huge cat 
with a mouse, and ran up and down the boma 
looking for a weak spot to break through. 
This he presently found and plunged into, 
dragging his victim with him and leaving 
shreds of torn cloth and flesh as ghastly 
evidences of his passage through the thorns. 

Patterson found the man's remains the next morn- 
ing. "Very little was left . . . only the skull, the 
jaws, a few of the larger bones and a portion of the 
palm with one or two fingers attached." 

The hospital camp was again moved to a 



more secure location and encircled by a thicker, 
higher boma. At the abandoned camp, some tents 
were left standing and a few cattle were tied as 
bait. Patterson and the medical officer concealed 
themselves in a nearby boxcar. 

The men heard the growls of a lion ap- 
proaching the camp. Then there was silence, and 
they knew the lion was stalking its prey. They 
moved into the open doorway, expecting at any 
minute to see the lion enter the boma. After a few 
more minutes of silence, the lion suddenly lunged 
at the boxcar's open door. The startled men fired 
simultaneously, but missed the lion. The noise of 
the shots echoing in the empty car were enough to 
frighten him off. 

The boxcar experience apparently 
discouraged the lions from frequenting Tsavo. For 
more than six months, they restricted their ac- 
tivities to a district ten miles away. But in 
November, they returned and made a particularly 
bold attack on one of the camps. 

... in the middle of the night one of the 
brutes was discovered forcing its way 
through the boma. The alarm was at once 
given, and sticks, stones and firebrands were 
hurled in the direction of the intruder. All 
was of no avail, however, for the lion burst 
into the midst of the terrified group, seized an 
unfortunate wretch amid the cries and shrieks 
of his companions, and dragged him off 
through the thick thorn fence. He was joined 
outside by the second lion . . . they did not 
trouble to carry their victim any further 
away, but devoured him within thirty yards 
of the tent where he had been seized. 



Up until this time, only one of the lions 
entered the camps and made the kill. The other 
joined him outside to share the meal. Now, they 
entered the camps together, and each of them 
seized a victim. They feasted within hearing 
distance of the camps, and, in one instance, ig- 
nored more than fifty shots fired into the darkness 
in their direction. 

I have a very vivid recollection of one 
particular night when the brutes seized a man 
from the railway station and brought him 
close to my camp to devour. I could plainly 
hear them crunching the bones, and the 
sound of their dreadful purring filled the air 
and rang in my ears for days afterwards. The 
terrible thing was to feel so helpless; it was 
useless to attempt to go out, as of course the 
poor fellow was dead, and in addition it was 
so pitch dark as to make it impossible to see 
anything. 

This new reign of terror caused the 
workmen to strike. By the hundreds, they piled 
aboard the first passing train. The few who re- 
mained did little construction work. They spent 
their time fortifying their sleeping places. Beds 
were perched in trees, and atop water towers. 
Some men slept in pits which they covered with 
railroad ties. 

Patterson's request for assistance was final- 
ly answered, and on the evening of December 3, 
district officer Whitehead and a native soldier ar- 
rived at Tsavo. But before they had walked the 
half-mile from the station to Patterson's camp, 
they were attacked by one of the lions. Whitehead 



The notorious Tsavo man-eaters, on view in Hall 22. 




15 



16 



was mauled, and the soldier was carried off and 
devoured. 

The next day, several more officials 
arrived, along with a detachment of twenty 
sepoys, or native police. Patterson deployed his 
reinforcements, posting armed men in trees near 
every camp. He also had a trap constructed of 
railroad ties and concealed it within a tent. As 
bait, two armed sepoys slept in a protected com- 
partment at the rear of the trap. 

That night, Patterson heard the clatter of 
the trap door. 

The bait-sepoys . . . were each armed 
with a Martini rifle, with plenty of ammuni- 
tion. . . . they were so terrified when he came 
in and began to lash himself madly against 
the bars, that they . . . were too unnerved to 
fire. . . . then when at last they did begin . . . , 
they fired with a vengeance — anywhere, 
anyhow. Whitehead and I were at right 
angles to the direction in which they should 
have shot, and yet their bullets came whiz- 
zing all round us. Altogether they fired over a 
score of shots, and in the end succeeded only 
in blowing away one of the bars of the door, 
thus allowing our prize to make good his 
escape. 

After a week of unproductive nightly vigils 
and daylight forays into the wilderness, the rein- 
forcements returned to the coast. 

Within days of their departure, the lions 
entered a camp and, failing to find a human vic- 
tim, killed a donkey. Patterson found the half- 
eaten carcass and had a makeshift scaffold erected 
nearby. That night, from this unsteady perch, he 
heard one of the lions approach. 

... an angry growl . . . told me that my 
presence had been noticed. . . . matters quick- 
ly took an unexpected turn. . . . instead of 
either making off or coming for the bait . . . , 
the lion began stealthily to stalk me! For 
about two hours he horrified me by slowly 
creeping round my crazy structure, gradually 
edging his way nearer and nearer. 

... I could barely make out his form 
... I took careful aim and pulled the trigger. 
... I kept blazing away in the direction in 
which I heard him plunging about. At length 
came a series of mighty groans, gradually 
subsiding into deep sighs, and finally ceasing 
altogether; . . . one of the "devils" who had so 
long harried us would trouble us no more. 

... I examined the body and found 
that two bullets had taken effect. . . . The 
prize was indeed one to be proud of ... . The 
only blemish was that the skin was much 
scored by the boma thorns through which he 
had so often forced his way in carrying off his 
victims. 

In a similar ambush, the second man-eater 
was hit twice by shotgun slugs, but managed to 
escape into the darkness. Ten days passed with no 
sign of the lion, and Patterson hoped it had died of 
its wounds. But on December 27, it entered a 



camp and menacingly circled a tree in which 
several workers had taken refuge. 

Patterson stationed himself in that tree the 
following eveing, and succeeded in putting two 
more bullets into the lion. 

We awaited daylight with impatience, 
and at the first glimmer of dawn we set out to 
hunt him down. I took a native tracker with 
me, so that I was free to keep a look-out, 
while Mahina followed immediately behind 
with a Martini carbine. . . . suddenly a fierce 
warning growl was heard right in front of us. 
Looking cautiously through the bushes, I 
could see the man-eater .... I at once took 
careful aim and fired. Instantly he sprang out 
and made a most determined charge .... I 
fired again and knocked him over; but in a 
second he was up once more and coming for 
me as fast as he could .... The terror of the 
sudden charge had proved too much for 
Mahina, and both he and the carbine were by 
this time well on their way up a tree. In the 
circumstances there was nothing to do but 
follow suit, ... I had barely time to swing 
myself up out of his reach .... 

... [I] seized the carbine . . . and the 
first shot I fired from it seemed to give him his 
quietus, for he fell over and lay motionless. 
Rather foolishly, I at once scrambled down 
from the tree and walked up towards him. To 
my surprise ... he jumped up and attempted 
another charge. This time, however, a Mar- 
tini bullet in the chest and another in the head 
finished him for good .... 

With considerable difficulty, Patterson 
prevented the workmen from tearing the carcass 
to pieces. Upon examination, he found that the 
shotgun slugs had barely penetrated the lion's 
back, and that there were six bullet holes in the 
body. As with his companion, the second man- 
eater's skin had been disfigured by its numerous 
passages through the thorns. 

As the news of Patterson's success spread, 
the strikers returned and work on the railroad 
resumed. The workmen presented him with an in- 
scribed silver bowl. Patterson's ordeal was even 
mentioned by the British prime minister, before 
the House of Lords. And when President Theodore 
Roosevelt read the story, he wrote to a friend: "I 
think that the incident of the Uganda man-eating 
lions, described in those two articles you sent me, 
is the most remarkable account of which we have 
any record. ..." 

Patterson's final words on the subject: 

Well had the man-eaters earned all this 
fame; they had devoured between them no 
less than twenty-eight Indian coolies, in addi- 
tion to scores of unfortunate African natives 
of whom no official record was kept. 

The Tsavo man-eaters are not Field Museum's only con- 
nection with Col. ]. H. Patterson. His son, Bryan Patter- 
son, a distinguished paleontologist, served on the Field 
Museum staff from 1926 to 1955. During the summer of 
1979, Bryan Patterson returns to Field Museum as 
visiting curator. 



Field Museum Tours to 
Peru and the Cook Islands 



Peru, Oct. 27-Nov. 15 

A 20-day tour will visit the ruins of Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, 
Pachacamac, Purgatario, and others. The Plains of Nazca (viewed 
from low-flying aircraft), the Guano islands, and the Pisac Indian Fair 
will also be visited. The group, limited to 20, will be led by Dr. Michael 
Moseley, associate curator of middle and South American 
archaeology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in 
archaeology. A tour escort will also accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 donation to Field 
Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes round trip 
air fare between Chicago and Peru and local flights in Peru. Delta 
Airlines will be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. Deluxe accommodations will be used throughout. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals; all sightseeing; all 
admissions to events and sites; all baggage handling; all necessary 
transfers; all applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit; $250.00 per person. 



Cook Islands. July 14-31 

Between Tahiti and Fiji, the Cook islands offer one of the last relatively 
unspoiled island areas. Rarotanga, with towering peaks, is surrounded 
by coral islets. A new 150-room hotel provides a base with modern 
comforts. Aitutaki, an hour away by small plane, is a classic atoll 
lagoon, superb for snorkeling or SCUBA diving. There, a country-style 
hotel will provide two nights' accommodation. Mangala, also a short 
flight away, will be visited, with a journey to its lagoon areas. The last 
three days will be spent in Hawaii. 

The tour's scientific lecturer/escorts will be Dr. Alan Solem, 
curator of invertebrates. Dr. Robert K. Johnson, associate curator of 
fishes, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Girardi. research associate in invertebrates. 
The tour, limited to 25 persons, will travel via Air New Zealand. The 
tour cost — $2,650 (includes a $400 donation to Field Museum) — is 
based upon double occupancy and includes round trip air fare to and 
from Chicago. Also included is all inter-island transportation, all meals 
(except lunches in Hawaii) and all inflight meals, all admissions to 
special events; all baggage handling, plus all transfers; all applicable 
taxes and tips. Advance deposit; $400 per person. 



For additional information and reservations for all tours, call or 
write Michael J. Flynn. Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. 



Weekend Tours to Galena, 
Baraboo, and Starved Rock 

Baraboo, Starved Rock, Galena 

Starved Rock. June 16-17. $82.00. Group leader; Dr. Gordon 
Baird, assistant curator of fossil invertebrates. Buffalo Rock State Park 
and Matthiessen State Park will also be visited. Overnight accom- 
modations will be at Starved Rock Lodge. 

Baraboo. June 9-10. $70.00. Group leader: Dr. Edward Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy. Hiking clothes are strongly recommended for 
the scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, but younger 
people interested in natural history are welcome. 

Galena. Oct. 12, 13, 14. $150.00. Group leader: Dr. Bertram G. 
Woodland, curator of petrology, in addition to viewing geological 
features, tour members will have the opportunity to explore historic 
Galena's charming downtown area, with its variety of pre-Civil War 
architecture. Accommodations for two nights will be provided at 
Chestnut Mountain Lodge. 

Rates quoted above are per person, double occupancy (singles 
on request), included are all expenses of transportation on charter 
buses to and from Chicago, and accommodations in first class resort 
hotels; all meals and gratuities, except personal extras such as special 
food service. Advance deposit; $15.00 per person. 




Baraboo tour visits beautiful Devils Lake, Wisconsin, ]une 9-10. 



Taylor Camp, Hawaii 

The Life and Death 
Of a Hippie Community 



BV THOMAS J. RILEY AND KARMA IBSEN-RILEY 

Photos courtesy of the authors 



18 



Most Archaeological Research focuses on the 

remains of man's remote past. From ancient Egypt 
to the Mayan rainforest and even to southern 
Illinois the archaeologist's trowel peels away at the 
hidden corners of mankind's history to reveal the 
mosaic of the human condition over time. This 
involvement with the distant past gives the 
impression that the archaeologist's domain is 
purely ancient history, the story of human 
evolution and cultural development until the time 
of the invention of writing. 

Nothing could be further from the truth. 
Archaeologists are interested in the material 
aspects of human cultures right down to the 
present day. Most of us rarely get the chance to 
study recently abandoned archaeological sites, but 
there is a continuing growing interest in what the 
remains of our own society can tell us about 
human behavior in other societies as well as in our 
own. 

Archaeologist Mark Leone has recently 
studied Mormon communities in Arizona and 
elsewhere, systematically demonstrating the 
relationships between Mormon social organiza- 
tion, ideological structure, and the technological 
aspects of their community designs. Bert Salwen, 
a New York University archaeologist, has had a 
longstanding interest in the behavior patterns of 
our own society. His research has included the 
correlation of supermarket merchandise and 
neighborhood contexts in different ethnic areas of 
New York, studies of "territorial " and 
"cooperative" behavior among students in NYU 
dormitories and the effects of different kinds of 
behavior on the spatial arrangements of dormi- 
tory furniture, and even studies of differential 
vandalism in New York public facilities. 

The most famous of these studies is the 
"Garbage Project" conducted by researchers at the 
University of Arizona. There, garbage from a 
controlled sample of neighborhoods in Tucson is 
systematically collected and inspected. The idea 
behind the project is to systematically relate 
economic behavior at its most basic level, i.e.. 



products acquired and consumed — in other 
words, trash, to various aspects of American 
culture in this particular region. 

So archaeologists are not merely interested 
in the most remote past of peoples, but rather in 
the ways that society operates at different places 
and times, and the relationships that can be 
explicitly demonstrated between the technological 
and economic remains of a society and the social 
and ideological structure of the human group 
composing it. 

Recently we had the unique opportunity to 
study a small part of a modern phenomenon on 
the social scene in America, a small squatter camp 
in Hawaii that was an outgrowth of what has 
popularly been called the "hippie movement." 

The opportunity came during the summer 
of 1978 when the University of Hawaii-Honolulu 
and the University of Illinois at Urbana- 
Champaign conducted a joint archaeological field 
school at Ha'ena, the northernmost point on the 
island of Kauai in the Hawaiian chain. The 
archaeological field research was designed to 
study various aspects of land use at Ha'ena over 
time. Our primary emphasis was on the prehis- 
toric Hawaiian settlement there. 

Ha'ena is a rich archaeological complex 
with a large occupation of the beach area, 
extensive irrigated taro terraces, some of them 
buried under tons of storm borne sand, house 
platforms, enclosures, and old heiaii or temples. It 
is also the site of Taylor Camp, a self-styled hippie 
community that began in 1969 and lasted until its 
residents were evicted in 1977. Since Taylor Camp 
can be considered the last major adaptation to the 
Ha'ena area (it is now being proposed as a state 
park), it was a legitimate area of study for our 
research team. During the summer we conducted 



Thomas ]. Riley, a frequent contributor to the Bulletin, 
is a staff archaeologist with the Bemice P. Bishop 
Museum, Honolulu, and currently on leave from the 
University of Illinois-Urbana, Department of Anthro- 
pology. His wife, Karma Ibsen-Riley, is a free-lance 
writer. 




some limited mapping, surface collection, and 
excavation in the ruins of the camp. We also 
interviewed former residents of the community as 
well as local Ha'ena people who had watched from 
the outside as the community developed, 
prospered, and finally met its untimely end. 

The research that we began last summer is 
far from complete, but it gives an interesting 
picture of life in a particular hippie community in 
the 1960s and 70s. We were concentrating on the 
settlement patterns at Ha'ena over time, i.e.. how 
people distributed themselves across the 
landscape, and subsistence, the way they 
supported themselves from the land (and in the 
case of Ha'ena, from the sea). 

In most societies settlement and subsistence 
are closely related. People choose to live close to 
where they hunt, plant, or for that matter work at 
a 9 to 5 job. This was certainly the case with the 
Hawaiian settlements, historic as well as pre- 
historic, that we excavated at Ha'ena. Most of the 
native Hawaiian sites that we recorded were 
behind the Ha'ena beach and just below some of 
the large agricultural complexes near the two 
major streams in the area. The Hawaiians who 
settled at Ha'ena Point sometime before A.D. 1200 
were placing their settlements in between the two 
mainstays of their economy, the sea with its rich 
protein resources on the one side and the large 
irrigated gardens on the other. 



The Taylor Camp occupation contrasted 
markedly with this Hawaiian pattern. This may 
have been partly due to the series of events that 
led to the founding of the camp, but more 
importantly it was due to the kind of economy 
that supported the people living at the site. 

Taylor Camp was not a planned 
community. The land on which it was built had 
been loaned for use by Howard Taylor, a Kauai 
resident, to a small group of people {estimated at 
from 17 to 22 souls) who had been squatting at 
several of the county parks on Kauai during 1968 
and 1969. The county police had shooed the group 
from one park to another and the county was 
taking legal action against them when Mr. Taylor 
offered them the use of a small parcel of land 
bordering the beach at Ha'ena Point. 

Taylor Camp began with a series of tents, 
but quickly transformed itself into a set of more 
permanent structures as tents rotted and the 
inhabitants saw some possibility of permanent 
residence on the land. 

By 1972 there were 21 permanent houses at 
Taylor Camp. All of them were tree houses since 
local authorities would not issue them permits for 
ground dwellings. Some of these structures were 
quite elaborate indeed, with large bamboo pole 
foundations, clapboard siding, and windows 
facing the sea. In addition to the houses in the 
camp there was a communal shower, an open air 



Mount Miikaua, on 
the island of Kaimi. 
stands behind the site 
of Taylor Camp at 
Ha ena, in the 
foreground. Taylor 
Camp residents 
dubbed the peak 
"Buddha Mountain." 



19 



toilet, a small church, and even a cooperative 
store which operated on and oH until the camps 
closing. 

The community had grown in size as well 
as in structural permanence, and the estimates of 
population that we have obtained trom 
informants centered around 60 or 70 persons 
including children. 

Because Taylor Camp was not a planned 
community, there was no consistent theme to its 
growth, but the camp's size was artificially 
curtailed when Mr. Taylor, under subtle coercion 



well as the shower, a contraption ingeniously 
rigged from 55 gallon oil drums. A special 
attraction of Taylor Camp was the sauna 
constructed sometime before 1972 near the beach 
on the east boundary of the community. On the 
west side of the camp were the gardens, about two 
acres in extent, which are still producing a few 
vegetables today. 

What primarily interested us was how the 
inhabitants of Taylor Camp supported them- 
selves. The placement of the community in such a 
remote area of Kauai seemed to leave two options 




Four contiguous 2x2 
meter squares in 
Taylor camp oc- 
cupations cut 
through historic 
trash deposits to the 
Native Hawaiian 
occupations below. 



20 



from the community, asked that no more houses 
be built on the land. 

The limits of Taylor Camp's growth put 
certain stresses on the community, but also 
permitted the development of a permanent 
structure to the settlement. The best and most 
substantial houses were next to the beach. About 
50 meters back from the beach were several other 
houses constructed on the long-abandoned 
irrigated taro terraces. A community trail bisected 
the camp and led back through a parking lot area 
to the Kuhio highway, the main road that 
connects the north end of Kauai to Hanalei, the 
nearest town some seven miles to the east. The 
church appears to have been located on the west 
side of the camp close to the cooperative store. 
Near what must have been the center of the camp 
was the communal toilet, an open air "throne" 
mounted next to a concrete septic tank (a 
requirement of the local Department of Health) as 



open to community members. The first was to 
attempt to establish a local resource base very 
much like the native Hawaiian subsistence that we 
had noted from our excavations at other localities 
in the Ha'ena area. The second option was to tie 
the support of Taylor Camp into the local cash 
economy of Kauai. It seems that the majority of 
Taylor Camp residents chose the latter option, 
although an informant survey that we conducted 
as part of our research produced a wide range of 
opinion about the economy of the camp and the 
way that its residents supported themselves. 

Many local Ha'ena residents claimed that 
the economy of the camp was based on welfare 
support from county and state and on the 
production and sale of Cannabis sativa, which 
Hawaiians call pakalolo ("crazy weed") and we 
often call marijuana. 

One of our informants who had lived in the 
camp from 1972 until it closed disagreed. He 



stated that Taylor Camp was like any other 
community in the U.S. The majority of its 
residents worked at various jobs on Kauai and 
considered the camp an inexpensive and 
comfortable place to live. Some grew pakalolo for 
sale or home use, and a few were on welfare. But 
according to this informant there were no more 
people supported by welfare in Taylor Camp than 
in the community at large. 

Another resident who had lived there for 
the last two years of the camps existence seemed 
to contradict our first informant. He claimed that 
you could tell when the welfare checks came in 
because "everybody was drinking Heineken's." He 
also claimed that the camp was in his words 
"wired to Ching Young's store." Ching Young's 
was the local general merchandiser located in 
Hanalei. 

Our initial research at Taylor Camp tells us 
little about whether the camp was dependent on 
"welfare " or foodstamps for its maintenance, but 
it does support the view that it was "wired to the 
general store." Two massive trash pits were 
located in the garden area to the west of the camp. 
These were filled with glass and metal trash, all of 
which reflected a heavy dependence on the cash 
economy of our own society. Several smaller trash 
pits in the camp were filled with commercial 
containers for everything from spices to tinned 
limcheon meats. The small amounts of garbage 
[hat we collected from the upper levels of the site 
in the course of our excavations into the earlier 
Hawaiian components showed little or no use of 
resources such as the local limpet called opihi. or 
strombus shell. These shellfish are abundant in the 
area today and appear to have been among the 
chief inshore resources used by the earlier 
Hawaiian settlers at Ha'ena. Taylor Camp 
residents, however, don't seem to have had an 
interest in the resources of the sea. 

Our excavations in one particular 2X2m 
square at the site produced an interesting contrast 
in economy. The deep Hawaiian layers here 
produced thousands of grams of garbage, 
including shell, fishbone, pig and dog bone and 
even fish scales. A pit from the Taylor Camp 
period, on the other hand, yielded rotten tent 
fabric, metal grommets, a tab top from an 
aluminum beer or pop can and an empty tin of 
sardines that had been packed in Maine. 

The small size of the garden area — a little 
less than two acres — demonstrates that planting 
played a secondary role in the subsistence of 
Taylor Camp residents. 

The large amounts of metal and glass trash, 
and the fact that the garden area of the camp, even 
during its most intense planting, couldn't have 
supported even one-fourth of the residents of 
Taylor Camp, both suggested to us that the camp, 
despite its isolation, had to be dependent on a 
traditional American cash economy. 

Besides these, a major sign of the 



dependence of Taylor Camp on the outside is the 
number of abandoned cars that still pepper the 
landscape at the margins of the main camp. We 
counted at least 26 cars, most of them stripped of 
usable parts. The vast majority of these vehicles, if 
we can believe our informants, were left behind by 
Taylor Camp residents. Most were older models 
that had apparently died natural deaths in the 
camp parking lot. We were told by one former 
camp resident that if a car died even temporarily 
"it was a goner." It would be stripped of most 
usable parts by other camp residents and local 
outsiders in order to keep their own cars running. 
A working automobile was a valuable asset since 
it provided access to the general store as well as 
mobility for those who either worked in conven- 
tional jobs or grew their pakalolo in isolated areas 
far removed from the camp. 

The sheer number of these vehicles within 
the confines of the camp leads to the inference that 
Taylor Camp was almost completely tied in with 
the cash economy of the island. The importance of 
automobiles in Taylor Camp, as isolated as it 
seemed to be from the rest of Kauai, reflects the 
importance of automobiles to American society at 
large. The residents of the camp shared an 
American need for mobility. They do not seem to 
have rejected the earlier Hawaiian lifestyle 
represented in our excavations there so much as 
they were unaware of the potentials that the sea 
and the land offered them. 

Several of the informants that we talked to 
who were residents of the camp stressed the idea 
that they considered themselves to be living close 
to the land while they were at Taylor Camp. The 
archaeological remains that we mapped and 
uncovered there suggest to us that their 
perceptions of being close to the land included 
isolation from the main centers of trade and 
commerce on Kauai rather than dependence on 
the land for subsistence. 

Taylor Camp was a somewhat bizarre 
settlement in the eyes of the local residents of 
Ha'ena. Its residents often sunbathed in the nude, 
and some preferred to go about their daily 
activities without benefit of clothing. Their 
church, called the Church of the Brotherhood of 
the Paradise Children, welcomed Christian, 
Buddhist, Jew, and atheist alike. Worshippers 
shared experiences of God, the sun, or the 
mystical power of the pyramids. There were no 
police in camp and community members 
attempted to maintain order by good judgment, 
common sense, and community meetings. 

Taylor Camp was altogether unlike the 
outside community in its lack of bureaucratic 
structure. While the size of the community was 
constrained by the number of structures, there 
was a large transient population associated with 
the camp. These visitors stayed sometimes for a 
few days, and often for longer periods. A few of 
them managed to become community residents as 



21 




22 



Historic trash pit cuts through natural sand stratigraphy 
at Taylor Camp, intruding into ancient buried taro ter- 
race at its bottom. This trash pit produced tent fabric, 
grommets, and a can for Maine sardines. 

older members left and "willed" a transient or 
friend from the mainland a house or a room in one 
of the spacious treehouses. 

The large number of mainland visitors to 
the sparsely inhabited north end of Kauai, the lack 
of participation of camp members in community 
affairs and structures, the nudity, and of course 
the presence of "drugs" ail contributd to the 
suspicion with which the older, more fixed 
residents of Ha'ena viewed Taylor Camp. 

At the same time, our initial excavations 



and survey there suggest to us that Taylor Camp 
was well within the mainstream of the American 
value system. A tremendous value seems to have 
been placed upon mobility in the form of the 
automobile. The subsistence of the camp was 
based on a cash economy that required 
considerable monetary inputs rather than on a 
regime of planting and fishing. In terms of its 
support system at least, the camp was little 
different in orientation from the farflung bedroom 
communities of the large metropolitan centers of 
America. 

There were, of course, certain major 
differences. The residents of Taylor Camp were 
apparently younger than the average middle class 
suburbanite, and it is likely that they had smaller 
and fewer families to support. But like most 
American suburbanites they chose a lifestyle that 
was comfortable to them and then went to 
considerable pains to maintain it, even though it 
meant long treks for work, shopping, and leisure 
activities. There is little doubt that the form that 
Taylor Camp took would have been impossible 
without the automobile, and that cash, whether 
derived from the illicit sale of drugs, welfare 
fraud, or hard labor played an important part in 
the success of the community. 

Taylor Camp was an experiment in living 
in the late twentieth century that was spawned by 
an attempt at rejection of many of contemporary 
America's superficial values. But it was an 
experiment in alternative leisure styles rather than 
a Utopian settlement designed to explore the 
economic and organizational frontiers of human 
settlement. It existed within a fixed and commonly 
accepted value system that emphasized mobility 
and depended on a cash economy. Its history and 
growth can give us some new insights into the way 
that frontier communities develop in the twentieth 
century within our own cultural matrix and the 
basic value systems of a number of people in our 
society who attempted, for a variety of motives, 
to develop their own community structures and 
living styles. 

The camp is interesing to the archaeologist 
because it provides a setting to explore how 
closely the alternative lifestyles developed at a 
particular point in American history were tied into 
the economic and social matrix of the society at 
large. The externals of the camp — the church, 
nudity in everyday activities, etc. — placed the 
camp and its residents well outside the mainstream 
of rural American life on the north shore of Kauai. 
From the archaeologist's point of view, however, 
there was a vast sharing of basic economic and 
social values between Taylor Camp and the sur- 
rounding community. Taylor Camp and commun- 
ities like it may help explain this pattern of am- 
bivalence — the mosaic of acceptance and rejection 
of items, economic base, and social values by a 
large number of people in America during the late 
1960s and into the 1970s D 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Time of Death Can Be Set for Deer 

The Utah Division ot Wildlite Resources 
has developed a technique tor determining 
time ot death in a deer. The technique could 
be valuable in prosecuting poaching cases. 
What's involved is analysis of the 
vitreous humor, the fluid between the 
retina and lens of the eyes. While the deer is 
still alive the potassium level in the blood 
and eye remains equal. At the time of 
death, the vitreous humor begins to absorb 
potassium at a constant rate. It goes from 
130 parts per million at death to 1,000 ppm 
after the deer has been dead tor 108 hours. 
Similar techniques have been used to 
pinpoint time ot death in humans to within 
a halt hour. 



Hunting Doesn't Affect Mallard Numbers 

Research has shown that as long as hunter 
harvest of mallard ducks is below an 
unspecified critical level the same number 
of birds will die each winter regardless of 
whether they were hunted or not. 

Utah State University researchers and 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently 
concluded a study which found that 
mallard survival did not increase during 
years ot hunting restrictions. Hunting at the 
rate of past years apparently did not alter 
survival rates for the ducks. Death from 
natural causes cuts into surplus birds. 



China Tops Billion 

The 1978 report of the Environmental 
Fund, a Washington-based private group 
with a high reputation for accuracy, puts 
China's population at 1,003,900,000. 

Then come India with 656 million, the 
USSR with 261 million, the US with 230 
million, Indonesia with 149 million, Brazil 
with 122 million and Japan with 115 
million. 

The fastest growing country is the 
United Arab Emirates at 8.9 percent, 
followed by Kuwait at 5.9 percent and 
Libya at 4.1 percent. One surprise is that 
China is reckoned to be growing faster than 
India: 2.3 percent as against 2.1 percent. 
Not far behind (another surprise) comes the 
US with 1.7 percent. But almost half this 
figure is accounted for by illegal immi- 
grants, mainly from Mexico. 

World population is estimated at 
4,365,300,000 — an increase of 59 million 
on last year. (Other estimates put the 
increase at 70 million to 80 million.) In 
other words the global population, despite 
a slight easing off in the rate ot climb, is 
continuing to grow every year by more 
than the population of the United 
Kingdom, one of the planets more 
overcrowded countries. 



EPA Suspends Use of Herbicide 2,4,5-T 

In a very unusual action, tiPA has declared 
an immediate halt to most uses of the 
herbicide 2,4,5-T and its closely related 
counterpart, silvex. 

The decision to suspend use of the 
herbicide was based on animal test results 
and the high level of miscarriages among 
women in the Alsea Basin area of Oregon, 
shortly after the chemical was sprayed 
there. 

While the major use of 2,4,5-T in the 
Midwest is along power line rights ot way, 
consumers and homeowners may have 
silvex products around the house for lawn 
care use. The hI'A warns that existing stocks 
should be secured safely out ot reach and in 
accordance with storage instructions on the 
products' labeling until the agency issues a 
final order after expedited suspension 
proceedings conclude. The distribution, 
sale, or use of a suspended pesticide is 
illegal, and could result in stiff penalties. 

The emergency suspension was 
necessary because the spring spraying 
season was scheduled to begin soon, and an 
estimated four million people nationwide 
could have been exposed to the herbicides. 
The suspension applies to use of 2,4,5-T in 
forests and pastures, and along power lines 
and highways. It also applies to silvex, a 
weed killer used on lawns. Use of these 
herbicides is permitted on rice fields and on 
sparsely populated rangeland, where there 
is less human exposure. 



Federal Grants for Waste Recovery 

Eleven midwestern cities are now eligible 
for grants to develop resource recovery 
projects. The grants program, part of 
President Carter's Urban Policy, will 
provide funds for feasibility planning, 
financial arrangements, and market studies 
for projects such as recycling of paper, 
glass, and aluminum, or recovery of energy 
from solid waste. 

The eleven cities selected are: Chicago, 
Rocktord, Indianapois, Detroit, Flint, St. 
Paul, Cuyahoga County (Cleveland), 
Montgomery County (Dayton), Toledo, 
and Wausau /Stevens Point. These 



communities will share the Sl5 million 
program with 57 other areas across the 
country. 



"Mouse Magnets" Called Useless 

The February Bulletin (p. 22) reported that 
a California firm was marketing a device 
"capable of making sound so shrill that it 
drives rodents wild, kills cockroaches, and 
sends fleas flying." Since publication of that 
information, however, the editor has been 
apprised of tests demonstrating that such 
devices are less than effective. The follow- 
ing study was reported in Biosciencc (Feb. 
1979, Vol. 29, No. 2): 

"The legendary better mouse trap' still 
hasn't been built, say two biologists at the 
University of California at Davis. Under an 
EPA grant to study manufacturers' claims 
that electromagnetic devices successfully 
control rodent populations, vertebrate ecol- 
ogist Rex Marsh and wildlife biologist 
Walter Howard found the devices worth- 
less. 'Rodent-proofing traps, and roden- 
ticides still are the best,' they say. 

"Manufacturers of the devices claim 
that the influence of modified low-level 
electromagnet fields can so disturb a 
rodent's nervous system that the animal 
cannot eat, drink, or reproduce. Eventu- 
ally, it starves to death. But Marsh and 
Howard found otherwise. Their tests 
showed no difference in food and water 
consumption between wild house mice and 
common Norway rats exposed to the de- 
vices, and those that served as controls. 

'"Howard and Marsh tested 80 rodents. 
Their results confirmed earlier field tests on 
pocket gophers in San Bernardino County 
and mice in egg ranch housing structures, as 
conducted by the U.S. Cooperative Exten- 
sion Service. "There is little scientific evi- 
dence that low level electromagnetic fields, 
as used in these devices, could in any way 
be used effectively for rodent control,' they 
conclude. But there is evidence that high 
levels could be dangerous to animals in- 
cluding man.' " 

The editor has received no additional 
information concerning the effectiveness of 
ultrasonic devices on insect pests. 




2#' 






23 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

Uranium-Mining Residues: 
A 100,000- Year Headache 

What do Edgemont, South Dakota; Ship- 
rock, New Mexico; and Durango, Col- 
orado have in common? Located in these 
western towns are sites that contain the 
only remaining vestiges of now defunct and 
dismantled uranium mills: millions of tons 
of radioactive residue, piled high on 
acreage that is often bordered by residential 
communities. 

Uranium mill tailings sites remain at 
the more than 20 locations where uranium 
was once milled and used to produce high- 
grade uranium, or yellow-cake, for U.S. 
defense programs and the Atomic Energy 
Commission (AEC). Many of the companies 
that once mined the uranium in the 1950s 
and 1960s have since folded, but their 
operations left more than 27 million tons of 
radioactive residue at numerous sites, most 
of which are located in the western part of 
the country. For many years, no one paid 
attention to the mill tailings piles, nor their 
possible effects on the surrounding com- 
munity and environment. The former AEC 
was responsible for the tailings, but 
management was virtually nonexistent; not 
until the late 1960s did the commission 
acknowledge that the tailings might pose a 
significant health hazard. Indeed, in 1959 
the AEC authorized several mining com- 
panies to sell mill tailings to construction 
companies for use as fill material, but in 
1966, some astonishing and disconcerting 
evidence turned up: more than 700 build- 
ings in Durango and Grand Junction, CO, 
and numerous other places were con- 




taminated with radiation from the use of 
tailings as fill. 

Subsequent studies and roused public 
concern over the health effects of the 
radioactive residue have led to the deter- 
mination that the tailings problem merits 
immediate resolution and is indeed more 
complicated and hazardous than previously 
thought. Last year, a Salt Lake City con- 
sulting firm, under contract to the Nuclear 
Regulatory Commission, published the re- 
sults of extensive studies on the 22 inactive 
tailings piles in the country. The study 
listed five ways in which the population can 
be exposed to radiation from the tailings 
sites. 

The major exposure, and greatest 
hazard, is associated with the inhalation of 
radon gas and radon "daughters," which 
are decay products of the radium contained 
in the waste. Since the tailings are usually 
exposed in huge, uncovered piles, they may 
exude radon gas at up to 500 times the 
natural background rate. These products 
are alpha emitters and are known to be 
associated with lung cancer. Moreoever, 
radon "daughters ' are heavier than air and 
so can accumulate and remain in buildings 
for long periods of time. The study con- 
cluded that the cancer risk was double for 
persons living within about a half-mile of 
piles such as a 1.9 million ton, 128-acre pile 
in downtown Salt Lake City. 

The second kind of exposure from the 
tailings is gamma radiation. Gamma rates 
drop off sharply beyond several tenths of a 
mile from the tailings, but remain at least 
twice background rates where windblown 
tailings have drifted. These windblown 
piles are the cause of a third type of ex- 
posure: inhalation and even ingestion of 
radium and thorium, both alpha emitters. 
In towns such as Edgemont, SD, all the 
2,000 inhabitants are continually exposed 
to tailings which blow into homes, schools, 
and businesses from the pile just west of the 
town. Part of the pile has even invaded the 
backyard of an adjacent home. 

The study outlined a fourth possible 
type of exposure: water contamination. 
Radium-laced water leaching from the pile 
into the groundwater can end up in a town's 
drinking water and cause further harm to 
the population. Finally, the study notes that 
uptake of radioactive elements by plants 
and animals and subsequently consumed by 
humans, can be another source of internal 
radiation. A tomato plant grown near the 
pile in Edgemont showed a radium concen- 
tration, and an area east of the old mill is 
cattle-grazing land. 

Slowly but surely, the grim data about 
the health effects of the radioactive piles are 
coming in. A South Dakota state health 
department report shows a higher rate of 
cancer in Fall River County — where Edge- 
mont is located — than in any other county 
in the state. Most of the increased deaths 
were caused by respiratory cancer, exactly 
what would be expected from radon inhala- 
tion. In the sleeping quarters of Salt Lake 
City's Fire Station No. 1, which was built 
on radioactive mill tailings over 20 years 



ago, it was found that the exposure to 
radon daughters is fully seven times greater 
than that allowed for uranium miners. 
Other disconcerting stories will undoubted- 
ly arise in the near future, as roughly 15-20 
years pass before the appearance of cancers 
associated with radiation exposure show 
up. 

Clearly, the radioactive waste problem 
is a large one, and one that is here to stay. 
In addition to the 27 million tons of wastes 
at the abandoned sites, over 113 million 
tons have accumulated at active sites. 
Estimates show that a billion tons of tailings 
could be produced by the year 2000 if uran- 
ium is milled at the current rapid pace. Fur- 
ther, a finding in a report issued by the 
American Physical Society in 1977 grimly 
states: 'For long-term waste management, 
the hazard associated with radium is more 
significant than that for plutonium [found 
in spent fuel rods from nuclear power 
plants and in high-level waste from fuel 
reprocessing). In addition, for regional 
population exposure, radionuclides in 
uranium mill tailings are potentially at least 
as important as the actinide elements in 
high-level waste; the relative accessibility of 
mill tailings contrasts with the isolation 
proposed for other actinide-containing 
wastes. " 

Last fall, the uranium mill tailings pro- 
blem reached the halls of the U.S. Con- 
gress, where a debate raged over who 
should pay for the tailings cleanup. The 
states involved — among them Colorado, 
Utah, New Mexico, and Wyoming — argued 
that the tailings were created by processing 
uranium for the federal government's nu- 
clear weapons program, thus they should 
not have to pay for the cost of cleanup. The 
Carter administration backed a measure 
that would require the federal government 
to pay 75 percent of cleanup costs and the 
state governments 25 percent. The bill that 
was finally enacted in the closing hours of 
the 95th Congress provides for the federal 
government to pay 90 percent of the conser- 
vative cleanup estimate of Sl40 million, 
with the states footing the other 10 percent 
of the bill. The legislation also strengthens 
the licensing and management authority of 
the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 
to ensure proper tailings management by 
current uranium milling operations. 

A generic environmental impact state- 
ment (GEIS) on tailings disposal is scheduled 
to be released by the NRC sometime this 
spring, with recommendations for the 
future management of uranium mills and 
ways to reduce the current radiation levels 
at the inactive sites. The NRC is currently re- 
quiring active uranium mills to regrade the 
waste piles — in order to resist erosion — and 
then cover them with about 8 to 12 feet of 
clay and other soil to meet the objective of 
reducing radon levels to twice background 
levels. Long-term plans for disposal of the 
tailings — which will release radon for more 
than 100,000 years— will be the topic of 
much discussion and debate this year when 
the CEIS is released. — Patricia Weil, Na- 
tional Wildlife Federation. 



Arctic Haze Studied 

Climate specialists at an international con- 
ference in Geneva, Switzerland, have 
reported that smog and dust from Europe 
and China may explain a puzzling haze that 
visits the atmosphere of Alaska, Greenland, 
and the Arctic Ocean each spring. Climate 
experts and meteorologists from 40 nations, 
discussing the arctic haze at the recent 
meeting, said it contains sulfate particles, 
produced from burning high-sulfur fossil 
fuels, traces of vanadium and silicates. 
Some of the particles were probably blown 
north from the industrial regions in Europe, 
while others may have originated in the 
Gobi Deserts of China and Mongolia. A 
similar haze also has been reported at the 
South Pole; scientists are still seeking fur- 
ther explanation of the phenomenon. 



Winners in Dirty Air Contest 

Most environmentalists can guess which 
US. city has the worst air quality. Los 
Angeles, famous for its smog, was the easy 
"winner" in a study published by the Coun- 
cil on Environmental Quality. On 318 days 
in 1975 — the year on which the study was 
based — its air was "unhealthful," "very 
unhealthful," or hazardous." 

But the list of a representative group of 
cities contained a few surprises, according 
to the National Wildlife Federation, which 
monitors the nation's air pollution in its an- 
nual Environmental Quality Index report. 
The cities, and the number of days on 
which their air was "unhealthful" or worse 
were: Denver, 177; Albuquerque, 150; Phil- 
adelphia, 150; New York-New Jersey 
Metropolitan Area, 149; Boston, 147; 
Houston, 141; St. Louis, 140; San Francis- 
co, 127; Spokane, Wash., 126; Phoenix, 
118; Fairbanks, Alaska, and District of Col- 
umbia, 90; Sacramento, Cal., 88; Louis- 
ville, Ky., 72; Steubenville, Ohio, 60; Cin- 
cinnati, 51; Omaha, 40; Memphis, 38; and 
Wichita, Kan., 25. 



Fighting Pests with Pests 

Insect pests cause considerable trouble, 
destroying crops and carrying disease. But 
the chemical poisons used to kill them can 
be just as harmful to the air, water, and 
people. 

There is a safer, more natural way to 
control insects according to "Fighting Pests 
with Pests," just published by the National 
Wildlife Federation, located in Washington, 
D.C. The pamphlet is designed to show 
children why more and more farmers in the 
United States are using the natural enemies 
of pests instead of harmful chemicals to 
protect their crops. 

This new method is called "pest 
management" and relies on the "three Ps" 
— insect predators, parasites, and patho- 
gens. "Someday pest management may 
make most poisons unnecessary," the eight- 
page illustrated pamphlet suggests. 

Included in the publication is a chart 



that lists 34 common insect pests and 
natural ways to control them. For example, 
chinch bugs can be kept away from corn by 
planting soybeans nearby as a "trap plant." 



Sex Change in Fish 

Many fish species are capable of making a 
complete sex change while adults. One of 
the speediest examples is the Pacific wrasse. 
After a two-year study on the Australian 
Great Barrier Reef, researchers have docu- 
mented such changes which take only two 
weeks. Male wrasses guard territories with 




harems of from three to six smaller females. 
If the guardian male dies, neighboring 
males try to take over. If the dominant 
female is able to rebuff the males she will 
begin to change her sex from female to male 
within less than one hour of the death of the 
original male. Within two weeks the change 
is complete and the new male is capable of 
producing viable sperm. 

Such a sex reversal seems to be con- 
trolled socially. Each male controlling a 
harem supresses the subordinate females' 
tendency to change sex by actively domin- 
ating them. Males are produced only when 
a fish can successfully establish itself as a 
harem owner. 



The White Whales of Manitoba 

The story of twentieth-century whaling in 
Hudson Bay is one of use combined with 
scientific study; both ongoing with inter- 
related goals. The changing role of man and 
his impact on the arctic is reflected in 



changing attitudes towards the beluga, or 
white whale. No longer extensively hunted, 
beluga populations today appear both 
stable and healthy. 

In 1931 the Hudson's Bay Company 
whaling operatings were closed down and 
from 1931 to 1949 hunting was confined to 
local residents and missions. Whale meat 
was used mainly as dog food. The beluga 
fishery came under the control of the 
Federal Department of Fisheries in 1949. 
Shortly after, the Adanac Whale and Fish 
Products Company moved into Churchill. 
Inuit, Cree, White, and Metis residents pur- 
chased licences for $1.00 to hunt beluga and 
were paid by the foot for each whale 
caught. 

The whaling season was relatively 
short, lasting from mid-June to late 
September. Two men in outboard canoes 
formed hunting teams. The bowsman-har- 
pooner located the whales and signalled the 
helmsman during the chase. The oil was 
sold to commercial companies for use in 
margarine, lubricating fluid, soap or 
cosmetics. The liver was made into animal 
food and the steaks were sold in Winnipeg 
stores for human consumption. The carcass 
and bones were ground into 50-pound 
packages for dog food and fur farms, while 
the hides were made into leather. 

This fishery flourished throughout the 
1950s with an average annual catch of 450 
whales. It was revived in 1964 after a short 
period of decline and in 1965 Churchill 
Whale Products Limited took over opera- 
tions. By now industry was using the oil ex- 
tracted from the top frontal portion of the 
beluga's head to lubricate fine watches and 
scientific equipment. This oil sold for $15 a 
gallon. Other oil was used in margarine 
which sold at 90' a gallon. 

In 1965 a local Whalers' Association 
was formed, but the processing plant was 
already in serious financial trouble. Cons- 
tant equipment breakdowns and the closure 
of mink farms in Manitoba were contri- 
buting factors. Then, with the assistance of 
the Federal Department of Cooperative Ser- 
vices, a local co-op was formed. The plant 
operated successfully for two seasons 
before mercury contamination and a de- 
cline in commercial sales finally resulted in 
its closure in 1968. 

The Beluga Protection Regulations ad- 
ministered by the Federal Department of 
Fisheries also became law in 1965. Under 
this law, sport whale hunting was en- 
couraged, but hunters were required to hire 
local Indian or Inuit guides. A quota was 
placed on the number of whales harvested 
and the amount of meat hunters were 
allowed to take home. Today beluga hunt- 
ing is limited to local residents of the Cana- 
dian Arctic. 

A tagging program which lasted two 
years was started in July, 1967, by D.E. 
Sargeant of the Arctic Biological Station of 
the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 
This was organized to learn more about the 
movement of beluga in the bay and whe- 
ther different groups, or pods, intermingle 
or remain separate. 

Tagging operations undertaken at the 

25 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

mouth of the Seal River involved the hiring 
of experienced Indian whalers from 
Churchill. The canoes were formed into an 
arc and then the whales were eased slowly 
into the shallows. The men shouted, threw 
stones into the water or banged their pad- 
dles on the gunwales of the canoes in order 
to keep the animals from turning back. The 
whales were then jumped upon and lassoed 
at the head and tail with ropes. Tags were 
placed on the whale's back with a special 
pair of pliers. Other whales tagged in 
deeper waters were harpooned with a spe- 
cial harpoon having a head which could be 
easily withdrawn after each hit, leaving be- 
hind a tag sunk into the hide of the animal, 
with an attached plastic sleeve on which 
was stamped the Federal Department of 
Fisheries address. 

Live whale capture techniques were 
developed in Churchill. In 1966, "Marine- 
land of the Pacific," hired boats and motors 
from the Churchill Whalers' Co-op to cap- 
ture white whales for their aquarium. The 
Seal River was selected for the capture, due 
to its abundance of whales and the clarity 
of the water. Attempts to capture beluga 
with cable hoops and nets proved unsuc- 
cessful. In addition, the prospect of 
transferring captured whales to a holding 
tank for a lengthy 14- to 16-hour trip from 
the Seal River to Churchill posed an unac- 
ceptable risk for the animals. The group 
returned to the Churchill River and tried 
again with nets, this time they were suc- 
cessful. 

Techniques were learned by trial and 
error. The tried and true method used to 
capture beluga is similar to the cowboy's 
method of rounding up cattle from horse- 
back. The capture team, riding in twenty- 
foot freighter canoes, locate a pod of 
whales. One beluga is selected for capture 
on the basis of its size and weight. This 
whale is then cut from the pod and driven 
into shallow water at the river's edge by 
"chaser" canoes. 

Once the whale is surrounded by the 
canoes in the shallow water, a designated 
"jumper" dives near the front of the whale 
and secures the animal's head with a lasso. 
To prevent escape, a back-up jumper dives 
into the water behind the whale and im- 
mobilizes the beluga's powerful tail fluke 
which propels the animal. The captive be- 
luga is then transported to a holding tank, 
cradled in a canvas stretcher which is at- 
tached to the gunwales alongside the boat. 
To offset the weight of the whale and pre- 
vent the boat from capsizing, several people 
must be seated on the opposite side of the 
canoe. 

For the capture team, the most difficult 
part of the trip is the physical effort in- 
volved in restraining and carrying the half- 
ton whales while they're working in the icy 
waters of the Churchill River. 

In transit, the safety of the whale is of 
primary importance. The canvas stretcher 
is slung beside the boat in a way which per- 
mits most of the animal's body to remain 

26 



^ "^«^.., 




Summer 

distribution and 

abundance of 

beluga in the 

Canadian 

eastern arctic. 

i 



under water. To avoid the danger of 
drowning, care is taken to keep the whale's 
blowhole from submerging. To prevent 
sunburn and to protect the delicate skin 
from drying out, the beluga's back is 
covered with sheets of foam which are con- 
stantly moistened with water. The beluga 
are given a thorough medical examination 
by the veterinarians who are present at the 
capture. 

A large holding tank located on the 
banks of the Churchill River becomes a 
temporary home for the captured beluga. 
The tank contains continuously circulating 
salt water from the river estuary, a natural 
medium for the beluga. The holding tank is 
lined with styrofoam and plastic to provide 
a comfortable temporary dwelling. Here 
the whales are allowed to rest and become 
relatively used to two new and frightening 
experiences — confinement and handling 
by man. 

As soon as possible, the beluga are 
transferred to their new aquarium homes. 
Rapid air charters are arranged to transport 
the whales over international boundaries. 
Specially designed carrying crates have 
been devised to hold the whales on-board 
aircraft. Each of the beluga is moved in- 
dividually in its own crate. Inside the crate, 
the animal is slung onto a mattress in a 
stretcher-like hammock. The hammock is 
supported by foam rubber and water. 
These foam-lined containers surround the 
whale, conforming to the natural shape of 
its body and providing a neutral buoyancy. 
These elaborate precautions are necessary 
to protect the whale because the skeleton of 
this marine mammal lacks the strength to 
support its own weight out of water. 
Without proper support the beluga's lungs 
will collapse. Ice packs and water inside the 
crate maintain normal body temperature 



NUMBERS 
Large 

Small 



and special sprayers keep the skin moist 
during the flight. 

The Beluga Whale Live Capture Pro- 
gram is now run by Nanuk Enterprises in 
Churchill. Since 1972, beluga from the 
Churchill River have been captured for 
Canadian and international zoos and 
aquariums where they afford visitors an op- 
portunity to study and observe these mam- 
mals as never before. Whales have been 
successfully transported to aquariums in 
Dusseldorf, West Germany; Coney Island, 
New York; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and 
Kamazowa, Japan. 

Beluga often do not resume feeding for 
two weeks after they arrive at the new 
aquarium, and the fasting period has been 
observed to be as long as two months. An 
appetite-stimulating drug is administered 
by some receiving aquariums. However, 
aquariums report that the beluga adjust 
quickly to their new surroundings, becom- 
ing friendly and apparently enjoying con- 
tact with their human trainers and keepers. 

But there is still much that we do not 
know about this gentle white whale. Not 
only is there much that needs to be 
understood, but there is much that beluga 
can teach us about environmental adapta- 
tion — especially in the arctic. Such lessons 
may have profound meaning as man exerts 
greater influence upon the arctic region 
with each passing year. — Manitoba 
Department of Mines, Natural Resources 
and Environment. 

Publication of this report in the Bulletin on 
the hunting and capture of the white uyhale 
constitutes neither an endorsement nor dis- 
approval of the activity. Its appearance 
here is for informational purposes only. 
- Ed. 



June and July at Field Museum 



(June 15 through Julii 15) 



New Exhibits 

"Treasures of Cyprus." Opened June 14. These 150 objects 
reflect nearly 8,000 years of Cypriot art and culture. Situated at 
the crossroads of three continents — Europe, Asia, and Afri- 
ca — the Cypriot people have kept their individuality while still 
assimilating other cultures, The bowls, jugs, vases, religious 
idols, and jewelry show the influence of many peoples while re- 
maining typically Cypriot. This is the show's last stop before 
returning to Cyprus. Because of the extreme age and fragility of 
the objects, this exhibition will not travel to the United States 
again. Through September 16. Hall K. "Treasures of Cyprus," 
developed by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition 
Service (sites), is sponsored by the government of Cyprus and 
organized by Vassos Karageorghis, director of the Department of 
Antiquities, and Patroclos Stavrou, undersecretary to the presi- 
dent of Cyprus. See story on page 4. 




Cypriot kylix, or drinking cup. of Cypro-Geometric III period (850-725 B.C.). Height 
20 cm (7.9 in.). Photo courtesy Smithsonian Institution. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Art Lacquer of Japan." Opened May 9. Features inro (intricately 
carved and decorated sectional medicine cases), nelsuke (tiny 
carved pendants), and ojime beads, which hung from the waists of 
18th- and 19th-century Japanese men as symbols of wealth and 
status. Planned in conjunction with "Japan Today" festivities, this 
is the first Japanese exhibit installed at Field Museum in 50 years. 
Miniature landscapes, dreamlike still lifes, and mythic dragons 
are flawlessly carved into lacquer ornaments no larger than a 
matchbox. Examples of Chinese lacquer art will be exhibited for 
comparison. Hall 32. 

"The Art of Being Huichol." Opened May 5. A major traveling 
exhibition of more than 1 50 objects of Huichol Indian art. The ex- 
hibit was organized by the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 
and is sponsored by a grant from the National Endowment for the 
Arts and by the Museum Society of the Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco. The exhibit includes costumes, votive objects, weav- 
ings, embroidery, beadwork, and yarn "paintings." The "art of be- 
ing Huichol" is the act of living a devout life, and spiritual themes 
dominate their art. The Huichol also value visionary experiences 
produced by the hallucinogenic peyote and these images are 
reflected in their dramatic yarn paintings. The Huichol live in an 
isolated area of Western Mexico, and they remain one of the few 
traditional Indian groups whose ancient beliefs and practices re- 
main unchanged even today. Through September 3. Hall 27. 



"Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Con- 
tinents." Closes July 31. Last months to see acclaimed exhibit of 
260 rare feather objects assembled almost entirely from Field 
Museum's own collections. Compare an intricate feather mosaic 
cloak from New Zealand with sophisticated Chinese jewelry inlaid 
with brilliant blue kingfisher feathers or with colorful feather 
adornments from South America's Indian tribes. Learn about the 
amazing structure of feathers and how they are used to express 
man's ideas about beauty, wealth, and spirit. After its closing 
here, "Feather Arts" will travel to three other museums across the 
country. Hall 26. 

"A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History." A one-case 
exhibit that combines 63 natural history specimens with samples 
of philatelic or stamp art. Planned on a rotating basis to cover the 
four disciplines of natural history, the first phase is devoted to 
zoological specimens and their images on stamps. Exquisite sea- 
shells and butterflies are among the specimens mounted with a 
leaping jaguar and fox in the second floor lounge. "A Stamp 
Sampler" was conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, exhibit guest cura- 
tor, and was designed by Peter Ho, a CJniversity of Illinois 
graduate student. 

"Cash, Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: The Nonmodern Moneys of 
the World." A fascinating collection that contains over 80 
varieties of money used by ancient cultures. It explores the 
origins, values, and meaning of nonmodern money in terms of 
buying power for these past civilizations. The accompanying text 
gives the value of each form of money in terms of how much food 
it could then buy. Four general categories of moneys are on 
display: metal coinage, uncoined metal, shell money, and 
"miscellaneous," which includes food, fur, fiber, glass, teeth, and 
stone currencies. No closing date. Between Halls K and L, ground 
floor. 

Field Museum Gamelan. Field Museum's 19th-century Javanese 
gamelan, an ensemble of 24 fine bronze and wood musical in- 
struments, has been completely restored for exhibition. It is 
perhaps the finest gamelan outside Indonesia. Hall K, ground 
floor. 

The Hall of Chinese Jades contains beautiful jade art spanning 
over 6,000 years of Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of 
the hall illustrates ancient jade carving techniques. Hall 30, 
second floor. 

American Indian Halls trace the anthropological history and 
cultural development of the original Americans, from the time of 
their arrival on the North American continent (before 20,000 
B.C.) to the present. Hall 5 contains a traditionally made Pawnee 
earth lodge — the home and ceremonial center of Pawnee Indians 
as it existed in the mid- 1800s. Halls 4 through 10, main floor east. 

Tibetan Culture can be explored in Hall 32, on the Museum's 
second floor. Rare film footage, shot in 1927, documents 
nomadic life and religious pageantry in Tibet. The Tibetan ex- 
hibits are divided into two sections. One hall displays common 
possessions from the past such as weapons, yak-herding equip- 
ment, and textiles. Lamaism, the Tibetan form of the Buddhist 
religion, is the theme of the second hall. ^t 

(Continued on back couer) 



June and July at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back couer) 



The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to handle, 
sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. Weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 
p.m.; weekends, 10 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Ground 
floor, near central elevator. 



New Programs 

"Chinese Folk Tales." Sunday, June 17, at 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. 
Sunday, June 24 at 11 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2 p.m. The Laboratory 
Company of Body Politic Theatre uses mime and improvisation 
to bring alive traditional Chinese folk tales. The program is 
suitable for young people and families. Members: $1.50; non- 
members: $3.00. Lecture Hall II. 



"The Huichol Indians: An Historical Perspective." Friday, June 
22, at 8 p.m. James Simpson Theatre. With Basil C. Hedrick, 
assistant museum director of the Illinois State Museum at Spring- 
field. In discussing the history of the Huichol Indians from the 
time of the Spanish intrusion until the 20th century. Dr. Hedrick 
describes the Huichol in relationship to other tribes. Topics in- 
clude physical differences, geographical location, politics, 
religion, and customs. He also explores the tribe's interaction 
with the surrounding Spanish people. Members, $2.00; non- 
members, $3.50. 

"Huichol Contemporary Social and Economic Structure." Fri- 
day, June 29, at 8 p.m. James Simpson Theatre. With Phil C. 
Weigand, associate professor of anthropology at State University 
of New York. Dr. Weigand, who has been doing field work among 
the Huichol since 1960, explains how this composite society of 
native Indian groups is reacting to the pressures of acculturation. 
The final program in a series planned in conjunction with "The 
Art of Being Huichol" exhibit. Members, $2.00; nonmembers, 
$3.50. An optional Members' dinner (for $7.50) precedes the lec- 
ture at 6:30 p.m. 

"Summer Fun: Field Museum Workshops." A series of 
workshops for young people ages 6 through 12 will highlight 
many of the interesting museum exhibits and give young people 
an opportunity to become involved in diverse subject areas. 
Watch for the announcement of the July workshop series. 



Continuing Programs 

"Armchair Expeditions." Geared for adult groups, these in- 
house "expeditions" include slide lectures and tours of selected 
exhibits. Dining arrangements available. Reservations are re- 
quired. Call 922-0733 for more information. 

Summer Journey: "A to Z at Field Museum." Self-guided tour 
leads families and children through a cross section of exhibits in- 
troducing them to the Museum's four main areas: anthropology, 
botany, geology, and zoology. Free Journey pamphlets available 
at the Morth Information Booth, and the South and West doors. 



Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. Field Museum's 
popular "Anthropology Game" has been expanded to include 
botany, geology, and zoology. The object here is to determine 
which one of apparently similar specimens is harmful and which 
is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a headhunter's 
axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom from its benign 
look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 




Medieval Cypriot glazed bowl. A griffin is depicted on tfie inside. IStti cent. A.D. 
Diam. 16.5 cm (6.5 in.). On view in new exhibit "Treasures of Cyprus," opening June 
14 in Hall K. Photo courtesy Smithsonian Institution. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- 
and family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the entrance to 
the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 a.m. 
to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an in- 
terest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410, X 360. 

June and July Hours. The Museum is open daily from 9 a.m. to 6 
p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays, the Museum is open from 9 a.m. 
to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a 
pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 





FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

July /August, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 7 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Reld Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



y 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, ]r., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Mel vein 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru 

By Fred L. Nials, Eric E. Deeds, Michael E. Moseley, 
Shelia C. Pozorski, Thomas G. Pozorski, and 
Robert A. Feldman 

Copyright © 1979 Field Museum of Natural History 

Center insert (following p. 14): A Brief Report 1977/78 

15 Field Museum Tours to China, Antarctica, and Peru 

16 Jungle Islands: The Illyria in the South Seas 

By Sidney N. ShurcUff 

27 July, August, and September at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Prairie Uly (Lilium philadelphicum var. andinumj, growing 
in Wolf Road Prairie, an 80-acre tract 15 miles west of the 
Chicago Loop. In northern Illinois the increasingly rare plant 
blooms from about June 11 to July 16. 
Photo by John Kolar. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a 
year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
I^ke Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Loren P. Woods 1913-1979 

Loren P. Woods, curator emeritus of fishes, 
died suddenly on May 13. He had been on 
the Museum staff from 1938 until last 
September, when he retired. Since then, he 
had continued his research activities at the 
Museum. 

Woods' first Museum appointment was 
on the staff of the Raymond Foundation, 
which administers the Museum's public 
school programs. In 1941 he was made 
assistant curator of fishes and in 1947 was 
appointed curator, the position he held un- 
til his retirement. From 1947 to 1948 he was 
on leave with the United States National 
Museum, Washington, to study fishes col- 
lected in the region of the Bikini Atoll atom 
bomb tests. 

Born and raised near Poseyville, Indi- 
ana, Woods did his undergraduate work at 
Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. (B.A. 
1936) and graduate work at Northwestern 
University, the University of Washington, 
and the University of Chicago. He pro- 
duced dozens of technical papers on marine 
and freshwater fishes during his career. His 
field work included numerous expeditions 
into Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean 
waters as well as to freshwater localities 
throughout North America. 



Loren P. Woods 




New Membership Plan 

Beginning July 1, 1979, a new annual 
membership plan becomes available to new 
and renewing members alike. Instead of be- 
ing limited to a single class of annual 
membership, one will have the option of 
selecting an individual member- 
ship — whereby one person enjoys the bene- 
fits and privileges of the membership — or a 
family membership — whereby husband and 
wife and all their children living in the same 
household are beneficiaries of the member- 
ship. 

The annual rate for the individual 
membership is $20.00 and that for a family 
membership is $25.00. Except for the new 
rate, the family membership is identical 
in all respects to the single annual member- 
ship plan that has been available in the 
past. 

Current memberships are affected by 
the new arrangement only as they come up 
for renewal, at which time the renewing 
member may choose either the individual 
or the family plan. 

Life memberships continue to be 
available at $500.00 (payable over a 
12-month period). The privileges of this 
category, like those of the family member- 
ship, extend to husband and wife and all 
children living in the same household. 

The new membership plan reflects only 
the second increase in membership rates 
since the Museum was founded in 1893,- the 
first increase occurred in 1971. Since then, 
the costs of museum operation have risen 
markedly, necessitating the present in- 
crease. 

Raup Elected to National Academy 
of Sciences 

David M. Raup, chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Geology, was elected a member of 
the National Academy of Sciences at its 
116th annual meeting in April. He was 
among 60 new members chosen. 

Membership in the prestigious acad- 
emy is generally regarded as the highest 
recognition attainable for an American 
scientist. The election of Raup was based 
largely on his distinguished research in 
quantitative paleontology and evolutionary 
theory. He is the second staff member in the 
history of Field Museum to be so honored. 
(The first was herpetologist Karl P. 
Schmidt, 1890-1957, former chief curator of 
zoology.) 



Weekend Members' Tour to Galena 
October 12, 13, 14 

Spaces are still open on Field Museum's fall 
weekend tour to historic Galena, Illinois, in 
the northwestern corner of the state. A cen- 
tury ago the small city was a bustling lead- 



mining center and many of the fine homes 
of that era are still preserved. Geologic 
features of the region continue to be of par- 
ticular interest. Dr. Bertram G. Woodland, 
curator of petrology, who will serve as tour 
leader, will also provide commentary on 
the unusual geologic features of the area. 

Accommodations for two nights will 
be at Chestnut Mountain Lodge. Price of 
the tour is $150.00 per person, double oc- 
cupancy (singles on request). Included are 
all expenses of transportation on charter 
buses to and from Chicago; all meals and 
gratuities, except personal extras such as 
special food service. Advance deposit: 
$15.00 per person. For further information 
call or write Michael J. Flynn, Field 
Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone 
922-9410, ext. 251. 



Ellen Thorne Smith Bird and Mammal 
Study Center Dedicated 

The memory of Ellen Thorne Smith, 
founder and first president of the Field 
Museum Women's Board, has been hon- 
ored by the establishment of a bird and 
mammal study center at the Museum. Mrs. 
Smith, who died on March 16, 1977, was 
Women's Board president from 1966 to 
1969. 

The center, dedicated following the 
May 16 annual meeting of the Women's 
Board, has provided additional office and 
laboratory space for the bird and mammal 
divisions, consolidated the major part of 
the bird and mammal collections, and 
greatly increased the utility and security of 
the specimens. The center was made possi- 
ble by a gift from Mrs. Smith's husband, 
Hermon Dunlap Smith, while Mrs. Smith 
was still living. 

Also dedicated to Mrs. Smith at the 
May 16 meeting were two new bird habitat 
groups in Hall 20, the Greater Bird of 
Paradise and the Mallee Fowl groups. 
Establishment of the groups was made 
possible by donations from Mrs. Smith's 
children: Mrs. Walther H. Buchen, Mrs. 
John M. Haight, Mrs. John L. Simmons, 
and Mr. Farwell Smith. 

In addition to Mrs. Smith's service as 
Women's Board president, she served for 
many years as a volunteer in the Division of 
Birds. From 1943 to 1945 she was, in fact, 
the Bird Division's sole staff, as the curators 
were on leave for wartime military service. 

Besides her activities in the Bird Divi- 
sion, Mrs. Smith carried through several 
projects on her own. She wrote Chicago- 
land Birds, When and Where to Find Them 
(1958, 1972) and planned and supervised 
the preparation of the exhibit "Resident 
Birds of Chicago," selecting with equal care 
the birds and the plants that accompany 
them. 



El Nino: The 

Catastrophic 

Flooding of 

Coastal Peru 



A complex of oceanographic 

and meteorologic factors 

combine in one of Earth's most 

devastating, recurrent disasters 



eVFRED L. MIALS, ERIC E. DEEDS, MICHAEL 
E. MOSELEY, SHELIA G. POZORSKI, 
THOMAS G. POZORSKI, AND ROBERT 
FELDMAN 



Copyright : 1979 by Field Museum of [Satural History. All rights 
reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without prior written per- 
mission is strictly prohibited. 



Along the western flanks of the Andes Mountains, 
from Peru into Chile, nature has juxtaposed a 
bleak and barren desert with a remarkably boun- 
tiful sea. As part of the Humboldt (Peru) Current, 
a narrow band of cold waters sweeps northward 
along the arid coastline, creating the richest 
marine habitat in the Western Hemisphere, if not 
the entire world. By 1970 this remarkable resource 
had enabled Peru to become the world's leading 
fishing nation, supplying more than one-fifth of 
the global marine harvest. 

In stark contrast to the copious sea, the 
bordering desert is one of the driest places on 
earth, with a total rainfall for a quarter century of 
less than 45 mm. The landscape's austerity is 
broken by occasional streams and rivers fed by 
annual rains that occur high in the distant moun- 
tains. Long ago man began creating lush oases in 
the desert valleys by channeling these water- 
courses into large irrigation systems; these, in 
turn, were able to support productive farming the 



Fred L. Nials is a geologist at Eastern New Mexico Uni- 
versity who specializes in archaeological applications of 
geology. Eric E. Deeds is a Harvard senior who, as a PRA 
consultant, first identified the effects of the Chimu 
flood. Michael E. Moseley, codirector of the PRA, is 
associate curator of Middle and South American archae- 
ology and ethnology at Field Museum. Shelia and 
Thomas G. Pozorski, codirectors of the PRA, are on the 
staff of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pitts- 
burgh. Robert A. Feldman is a research archaeologist 
4 with the Field Museum's PRA. 




year round. The bounty of the sea, the bleakness 
of the desert, and the productivity of irrigation are 
all interrelated expressions of complex 
meteorological and marine currents that nature 
holds in a delicate balance. 

Occasionally this balance loses equilibrium 
and the ensuing cataclysms can be staggering. The 
largest such disaster known is reported in this arti- 
cle. That event transpired about eight centuries 
ago; our story, however, begins more recently. As 
members of Field Museum's Programa Riego An- 
tigua, we are studying the rise and fall of irriga- 
tion systems in the Moche Valley on the north 
coast of Peru.* While we were exploring desert 
ruins in 1972, it suddenly began to rain— nature 
had lost equilibrium! For days erratic showers 
soaked, then saturated the normally parched land- 
scape. With no vegetation to hold it back, runoff 
transformed dry washes and quebrada (normally 
dry ravine) channels into torrential streams. Flash 
floods cut all the northern highways, stranding 
not only the region we were in but the rest of the 
nation as well. Settlements were flooded, adobe 



'See also "Archaeology in the Electronics Age," by 
Robert A. Feldman and Alan L. Kolata, Field Museum 
Bulletin, July/ August, 1978. 




houses collapsed, and mud choked down the life- 
sustaining canal systems. Accounts of the dis- 
aster, with its attendant death toll, appeared in 
newspapers around the world, but few readers 
realized that, as a consequence of the flooding, 
they would soon be paying higher food prices. 
Most of Peru's great marine harvest is rendered in- 
to fishmeal and oil used to feed people as well as 
livestock around the globe. With the rains came 
warm sea currents that scattered the vast schools 
of fish and inhibited their reproduction. The 
fishing industry came to a standstill. Thus, as the 
desert lay awash, the world lost access to one of its 
major protein sources. Nature had lost her balance 
and the cataclysm marked the return of El Nino! 
Calamitous phenomena similar to those of 
1972 had been recorded in recent historic times, 
such as in 1925 and 1891. The change from normal 
to abnormal conditions often began around 
Christmastime and, accordingly, came to be 
known by the Spanish term for the Christ Child, 
El Nino. Our study of the rise and fall of ancient 
irrigation systems recently led to the discovery of 
an El Nino catastrophe of a magnitude far greater 
and more devastating than all other such natural 
disasters striking the coast since the conquistadors 
first arrived in 1532. Transpiring about 1,100 A.D., 
this prehistoric nino was of unprecedented magni- 



tude, and the devastation it wrought taxes the 
imagination of geologists and archaeologists alike. 
In order to fully appreciate the archaeological and 
geological evidence of this great cataclysm, it is 
first necessary to understand something of the 
nature of nifios, characteristics of the Moche 
Valley, and of its prehistoric occupation: 



El Nino Conditions 

"El Nifio" lacks a precise scientific definition and 
its causal factors are still a matter of controversy. 
All significant coastal rains are products of nino 
conditions, yet not all nifios produce rains. All 
ninos, however, are associated with marine distur- 
bances. NiRos are said to occur when the trade 
winds diminish or stop, when upwelling of cool 
currents ceases, and when the sea and air warm to 
unusual temperatures. The ultimate cause of these 
abnormalities may be meteorological and relate to 
changes in the high pressure cell located over the 
southeast Pacific, which could influence the north- 
ward flow of the Humboldt Current. 

Whatever their cause, nif\os are variable in 
intensity, and recurrent if not cyclical. 
Oceanographic records indicate marine distur- 
bances in 1925, 1930, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1951, 



Fig. 1. In the early 
morning hours of 
March 15, 1720, 
the Zona River, in 
northern Peru, 
flooded as a result 
of nino rains, 
destroying the 
village of Zana in 
less than four 
hours. The only 
reminder of the 
flood today is the 
massive erosion of 
the lower walls of 
this convent, now 
abandoned. 




Fig. 2. Map of lower 
Moche Valley, with 
major artcient canals, 
settlements referred to 
in the text, and area 
of severe erosion 
caused by Chimu 
flood of ca. 1100 
A.D. 



LEGEND 

A Prehistoric Ruin 
Canal 

Flood Erosion Area 
Modern City 



Contour lines every 
10 and 50 meters 



1957, 1965, 1969, and 1972. They can be 
categorized as "weak" or "strong," with the 
former having a statistical periodicity of about 6 
years and the latter about 15 to 16.5 years. Weak 
occurrences have little effect on rainfall or river 
discharge in the Moche drainage. The strong nifios 
of 1925, 1941, 1957, and 1972 all correlate with in- 
creased river discharge, but they have not always 
produced significant rainfall within the lower 
valley. 

Ninos occurred before the turn of the century, 
but these are not always well documented. Note- 
worthy rains took place in 1701, 1720, 1728, and 
1747, as well as in 1891, which had floods second 
only in severity to those of 1925. 

The great nifio of 1925 was the most devas- 
tating since the coming of the Spaniards. In mid- 
Measure Equivalents 

1 millimeter (mm): 0.04 incti 

1 meter (m): 1.094 yards 

1 kilometer (km): 0.62 mile 

To convert Centigrade to Fatirentieit, multiply by 
6 9/5 and add 32. 



January of that year warming waters were first 
noted near Peru's northern border at the port of 
Talara (Lat 5°45'S). Within 10 days the water 
temperature increase amounted to 6.6 °C and kept 
rising. The warming waters progressed south, and 
by mid-March temperatures off the Moche Valley 
were as high as 28°C. Off Lima (Lat 12°S), 
January began with a normal sea surface tempera- 
ture of 15 °C, but within three months, highs of 
26 °C were reached before the temperatures settled 
to a nearly constant 22 °C. Warmer than normal 
conditions were noted still further south, below 
the Paracas Peninsula (Lat 14 °S), and the total 
coastline length of waters affected by the distur- 
bance exceeded 1,200 km. A return to normal cool 
temperatures began in mid-April, but a second, 
less severe temperature rise occurred late in 1925, 
with warmer than usual waters persisting into 
1930, when el Nifio finally departed. 

During the disturbance the trade winds 
diminished and then reversed themselves. Ap- 
parently there was a reversal of surface currents, 
and warm waters pushing south from Ecuador 
swept crocodiles and other tropical life into the sea 
coves of the northernmost desert. The effects of 



el nino upon indigenous marine life were catas- 
trophic. High temperatures and cessation of up- 
welling currents cut off the supply of chemical 
nutrients and phytoplankton underlying the vast 
food chain that normally makes these waters the 
oceans' richest. 

The death among various fish populations 
is difficult to calculate. However, it was 
dramatically evident one step up the food chain. 
The Humboldt Current supports what is probably 



lapped at the base of Huaca del Sol, the great ar- 
chaeological monument of the Moche Phase {Figs. 
4,7). To the north the normally dry wash of 
the Quebrada Rfo Seco carried flows as high as 
300 cubic meters per second, inundating the 
fringes of the Huanchaco fishing village (Fig. 2). 
The immediate impact of the catastrophe 
was death and destruction; but the long term 
effects were famine and great suffering. With 
many kilometers of roads and railroads washed 




Fig. 3. Rains and 
floods of 1925 caused 
extensive flooding 
near Trujillo, carrying 
out this railroad 
bridge across the Rio 
Moche. In normal 
times the stream 
could be forded by 
foot. 



the world's largest population of oceanic birds, 
whose droppings over the millennia accumulated 
in island deposits more than 40 m thick, forming 
one of the finest natural fertilizers known. Prior to 
the 1925 cataclysm the population of these guano 
birds was estimated at about 30 million, and judg- 
ing from the impact of later nifios, it plummeted to 
a quarter of this figure. Indeed, strong nifios, such 
as that of 1925, litter the ocean floor with such 
massive numbers of dead organisms that the foul- 
smelling hydrogen sulfide produced by the ensu- 
ing decomposition is sufficient to blacken ships' 
hulls and the sides of houses along the shore. As 
testimony to nature's loss of life, the gruesome 
phenomenon is a harbinger of death appropriately 
known as el pintor (the painter)! 

The warming of the sea was accompanied 
by rising air temperatures over land and by rains 
that resulted in abnormal precipitation at least as 
far south as the Paracas Peninsula. Threatening 
black clouds accompanied by thunder and light- 
ning accumulated in front of the Moche Valley 
and then advanced inland early in March, 
unloading 226 mm of rain within three days. By 
the end of the month the city of Trujillo was 
awash under 395 mm of rainwater. There are no 
accurate records of what the cloudbursts unleash- 
ed in the surrounding foothills, but observers 
reported walls of water sweeping down normally 
dry quebradas. The Rio Moche rose to its highest 
point in memory, spilling over vast tracts of farm 
land, destroying the irrigation system, and taking 
out the river bridge connecting Trujillo with the 
rest of the world (fig. 3). At its height the flood 



away, supplying outside aid on the massive scope 
required was difficult or impossible. 
Reestablishing the food supply from farming 
depended upon the time-consuming process of 
reconstructing the damaged canal networks. The 
fishing industry came to a standstill, and the 
guano fertilizer industry would take years to 
recover. All this transpired over half a century 
ago, when the landscape was a rural one. Today 
many people reside along the desert coast, Trujillo 
is a sprawling urban center, more than four 
million people reside in Lima, and the world 
economy is tied to the fertilizer and fishing in- 
dustry. A repeat of the 1925 events would be truly 
disastrous. 



The Moche Valley 

The Rio Moche drains into the Pacific Ocean at a 
point approximately 500 km north of the Peru- 
vian Capitol of Lima. Rainfall is extremely rare: at 
the fishing village of Huanchaco, on the north side 
of the Moche Valley, the total precipitation bet- 
ween 1943 and 1970 was only 46 mm, an astoun- 
ding annual average of 1.7 mm. In contrast to 
that of many deserts, the relative humidity is high, 
averaging about 84 percent; but temperatures are 
mild, with a yearly average of about 19 °C. Sum- 
mer days are relatively clear, but during the 
winter there can be almost constant low-level 
clouds. At night and in the early morning the 
cloud layer produces a cool air inversion resulting 
in a misty drizzle, called garua, that can moisten 



Fig. 4. Vi>u> of Huaca 
del Sol (right back- 
ground) and Huaca 
de la Luna (center 
foreground). A 
Moche cemetery 
about midway be- 
tween the two huacas 
provides e-cidence 
that the plain be- 
tween them had been 
inundated by flood 
waters. The present- 
day course of the 
Moche Riz'er is 
through lighter area 
near top of photo. 
(Courtesy American 
Museum of Natural 
History) 



the ground surface, but seldom results in 
measurable precipitation. Thus, the normal 
climatic conditions are very favorable for human 
settlement wherever there is a source of potable 
water. 

Emerging from steep mountain foothills, 
the lower Moche Valley widens as it crosses the 
less rugged terrain that comprises the coastal 
"plain." In this region, bedrock exposures consist 
of Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary and 
metamorphic rocks. Intrusive igneous rocks of 
Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age form most 
of the higher hills. Unconsolidated alluvial 
(stream sediment), marine, and aeolian (wind- 
blown) deposits underlie most of the coastal 
plain. Topographic features of the lower valley 
are mainly products of running water, wind ero- 
sion, and tectonic activity (shifting of the earth's 
surface). 

The Andean Cordillera is a very young 
mountain belt. Although initial development 
began some 200 million years ago during the 



Jurassic Period, the mountains and coastline re- 
main tectonically active. Historical accounts in- 
dicate that the Spanish colonial city of Trujillo, on 
the north side of the valley, was completely 
destroyed by an earthquake in 1619, and severely 
damaged by others in 1687, 1725, 1739, and most 
recently in 1970. There is geologic evidence for 
pre-Columbian tectonic activity, such as uplifted 
beachlines along the mouth of the valley which 
mark the former positions of shorelines. Some of 
these features can be archaeologically dated and 
correlated with the phases of prehistoric occupa- 
tion summarized in Table 1. There is evidence of a 
major uplift during the Salinaror Gallinazo Phase, 
and subsequent periodic uplifts of smaller scale 
during the Chimu Phase. The total uplift since 
about 500 B.C. has been at least 6 to 8 m and must 
have affected the native population as well as their 
irrigation system. 

A variety of active and stabilized sand 
dunes occur in the valley; and aeolian sand (that 
deposited by wind action) is found mixed with 




'*"^ " - 





PERUVIAN 

RELATIVE 

CHRONOLOGY 


LOCAL 
PHASES 


MAJOR SITES 



1500— 


LATE HORIZON 


CHIMU-INCA 










[late brick 








LATE 


MIDDLE BRICK 








INTERMEDIATE 


r CHIMU 




CHAN CHAN 




PERIOD 








1000- 




EARLY BRICK 










L EARLY CHIMU 






MIDDLE 








HORIZON 


V 


GALINDO 


500- 




IV 






- 




III 

MOCHE 








EARLY 


II 




MOCHE HUACAS 


AD- 


INTERMEDIATE 
PERIOD 


1 

GALLINAZO 












Chronology of the Moche 
Valley, showing cultural 








phases and nnajor archaeo- 
logical sites mentioned in 






SALINAR 


the text 



TABLE I 



Early Quaternery alluvial deposits, indicating a 
long history of aeolian activity. Blowing off the 
sea in a nearly constant direction, the wind moves 
sand inland in the form of both longitudinal dunes 
and transverse dune fields that originate from an 
old, uplifted Chimu beachline. As the wind moves 
sand across the coastal plain, small amounts are 
trapped in and around occasional plants, thereby 
forming small accumulations called coppice 
dunes. Because these little coppice dunes are easily 
washed away, their presence or absence in 
drainage channels are useful indicators of past 
flood activity. 

Although the coast is extremely arid, most 
geomorphic features are products of running 
water. There are two types of fluvial features, 
those produced by the Rio Moche and those pro- 
duced by runoff of local origin. Dry washes 
(quebradas), quebrada deposits, alluvial fans, and 
deposits at the foot of mountain slopes (piedmont 
slopes) are geomorphic features produced by 
coastal rains and local runoff. In the foothills. 



quebradas are characterized by narrow valleys 
and steep gradients. In areas that are less steep, 
large sediment loads have been dropped, forming 
extensive alluvial fans (fig. 8) and piedmont 
slopes. Most fan deposits were eroded subsequent 
to deposition and a succession of three erosional 
surfaces can be recognized, the oldest being of 
presumed Early or Mid-Pleistocene origin. On the 
coastal plain, quebradas tend to be wide and 
shallow. The largest dry wash is the Quebrada Rio 
Seco (north of and parallel to the Rio Moche), 
which drains about 300 square km. Like other 
coastal washes, it is braided, or anastomosing, 
drainage with multiple interwoven channels form- 
ing the flood plain. Because the drainage basin is 
small and the sporadic desert showers are intense, 
there is a high rainfall-runoff ratio in the form of 
short-term flash floods charged with sediment, 
which ranges from clay to boulders. Gravels and 
larger rocks are commonly deposited in the braid- 
ed channels and on intervening bars, whereas sand 
and finer sediments are dropped along the margins 



CERRO LA VIRGEN 




LEGEND 

1^ ANCIENT ROAD 

7 ANCIENT CANAL 

: STRUCTURES 

lMk\ CEMETERY 

AREA SHOWN 
IN FIGURE 6 



Journal of Field Archaelogy 



Fig. 5. Map of Chimu village of Cerro la Virgen, showing area flooded by Chimu nino. The sector of photo view shown opposite (p. 
11) is indicated by dotted lines radiating from Cerro la Virgen. 



10 



of the flow and in slack waters witfi low velocity. 
The Rio Seco carried some water in its upper basin 
during the 1972 rains; however, the last time a 
significant flow reached the Pacific was in 1925. 

In direct contrast to the dry quebradas, the 
Rfo Moche is a permanent stream with a drainage 
basin covering approximately 2,708 square 
kilometers, 52 percent of which is located at eleva- 
tions above 1,500 m. Rainfall varies from less than 
2 mm at the river mouth to 1,400 mm per year at 
its highland headwaters. The river flow is marked- 
ly seasonal with 71 percent of the annual discharge 
between February and April, and only 1.8 percent 
between July and September. The average annual 
discharge is approximately 300 million cubic 
meters, but variations from one-sixth to twice this 
figure have occurred during the period 1930 to 
1970, for which river flow records exist. The 
largest volume of water ever carried in the last 



hundred years was during the 1925 nino, when 
vast tracts of farm land were inundated. However, 
there are no precise records on the magnitude of 
this devastating flow. There were strong nino 
disturbances in 1941, 1957, and 1972 that cor- 
related with larger than normal discharge. 
However, the largest river floods between 1930 
and 1970 were products of excessive highland 
rains, not coastal disturbances. 

Within the lower valley the main river 
channel is 50-150 m wide, and is incised to a depth 
of about 3.5 m below the adjacent floodplain, 
which is inundated only during unusually large 
floods. The river is located near the southern 
margin of the valley, and is actively eroding 
laterally, especially to the south. The valley is 
asymmetrical in cross section, with the north side 
sloping gradually down to the channel, whereas 
the southern river bank forms an escarpment 10 to 



12 m high. Although agricuUure has modified the 
landscape, at least two geologic terraces can be 
recognized along the north side of the valley. At 
the present time, the river is downcutting its 
course, a process that was well underway during 
the middle phase of the Chimu occupation. This 
downcutting is presumably a response to tectonic 
events, such as coastal uplift, and subsequent 
readjustments of the river gradients. 



The Prehistoric Occupation 

Man first entered the Moche Valley as a hunter- 
gatherer some 12,000 years ago. With passing 
millennia he placed progressively greater reliance 
upon plant foods, and by 1,000 B.C. farming had 
come to support most of the population. Initially, 
plant tending must have gone on in the river flood 
plain where seasonal inundations moistened the 
soil. The desert could not be farmed until people 



built canals to divert river water onto the parched 
landscape, a process that required great effort and 
time. 

Archaeologists divide Moche Valley 
prehistory into temporal phases, the more recent 
of which are named after local pottery styles 
(Table 1). During Salinar and Gallinazo times 
many people resided along the valley margins, 
which would have been habitable only if there 
were nearby canals, none of which exists today. 
The following Moche occupation is divided into 
five subphases on the basis of successive changes 
in fancy pottery found in graves. During the third 
and fourth subphase the valley assumed regional 
political importance. On the south side of the river 
the great platform mounds of Huaca del Sol and 
Huaca de la Luna were the principal monuments 
of a thriving capital city. On the north side of the 
valley, Moche people extended their canal net- 
work up to the edge of the Ri'o Seco, well beyond 
the confines of modern farming. These are the 



Fig. 6. This photo of Virgen Village (A), taken shortly after the 1925 rains, provides valuable information on the size of the worst 
floods in the area in recorded history. The 1925 channel (B) is dwarfed by that of the Chimu flood of ca. 1200 A.D. (C). Small 
coppice sand dunes, visible here as "freckle-like" spots (D), make it possible to calculate the depth of the 1925 flood waters. 
(Courtesy Peabody Museum. Harvard University) 




-gd... 







Fig. 7. Partially 
receded waters of 
1925 flood, viewed 
soon after, has under- 
cut base (A) of Huaca 
del Sol. Broad plain 
between Huaca del 
Sol and Huaca de la 
Luna has built up to 
about level of B. In 
contrast to 1925 
flood, which reached 
to about 3 m above 
present river level, 
Chimu flood waters 
were some 10-15 m 
higher (C). 



12 



earliest ancient canals surviving tor scientitic 
study. By the beginning of the fifth pottery sub- 
phase the capital at Huaca del Sol was abandoned 
and a new urban center was founded near the 
valley neck, only to be abandoned at the end of 
the Moche era. 

At the time that Chimu pottery came into 
use, the local population began to cluster around 
the site of Chan Chan on the north side of the 
valley. With time the local rulers united the valley 
population and then began a series of foreign con- 
quests. Eventually the city became the splendid 
capitol of the largest empire to contest the Inca, 
who finally subdued Chan Chan about 1465 A.D. 
The Chimu phase can be subdivided on the basis 
of its pottery and upon architectural grounds, 



based upon changes in the mud bricks used to 
build Chan Chan. During the early brick phase the 
rulers of Chan Chan launched a series of massive 
reclamation projects. On the north side of the 
valley the Moche canal system was extended com- 
pletely across the Rfo Seco and onto the plains 
north of the quebrada, bringing far more land 
under cultivation that is farmed today. This pro- 
ject was a highly centralized, coordinated un- 
dertaking that integrated the canals with new 
field walls and road systems, and which planned 
towns for rural populations that had to be 
relocated. Indeed, the potentates of Chan Chan 
were concerned not simply with expanding 
agriculture, but with completely transforming the 
landscape. 



The Irrigation System 







•# 



*-iti. 







With careful study we were able to cross- 
date this great transformation process to the early 
architectural subphase of the capitol. Yet, it 
became apparent that all the canals showed signs 
of massive erosion and had dropped from use. The 
irrigation system was then reconstructed and 
although it saw little significant use it also showed 
much less evidence of erosion. By the middle brick 
phase, Chan Chan had expanded into formerly 
farmed areas, great walls incompatable with farm- 
ing were built across the Rio Seco irrigation 
system, and much of the valley had reverted to 
desert. Something truly disastrous had happened, 
and to this day irrigation agriculture has never 
regained the territory it lost. We have choosen to 
call the ancient cataclysm the "Chimu flood." 



Many ninos struck the desert coast during the 
millennia of man's residency in the Moche Valley. 
Dealing with their specific impact and conse- 
quences requires the capability of recognizing a 
particular nino and consistently distinguishing it 
from all others. If this difficult task can be ac- 
complished for two or more nifios, then their 
relative magnitude and impact can be compared. 
This is an entirely new line of investigation that 
we came upon quite by accident in the course of 
studying ancient agriculture. 

The most suitable archaeological remains 
for dealing with past nifios are long linear 
structures— such as canals, roads, and walls 
—that cross a number of gullies and quebradas, To 
serve their intended purpose these structures must 
be intact along their total course. A canal cannot 
be washed out in one or two places and still ir- 
rigate fields at its terminus. Therefore, erosional 
destruction is something that takes place when a 
canal ceases to function. It may be the cause of 
canal abandonment or it may occur sometime 
after the structure ceased to be used for other 
reasons. These alternatives can generally be 
discerned in the more than 400 excavations we 
have opened in irrigation structures. Aeolian sand 
deposits are found in canals that fell into disuse 
prior to experiencing erosion. Alternately, opera- 
tional canals destroyed by an erosional event are 
often clogged or buried by alluvial sediments. 
It is evident from our excavations that the early 
Chimu irrigation system was operational when it 
was washed out and destroyed. Because the course 
extended well beyond the Rfo Moche, we can 
determine that the destruction was due to runoff 
from local rainfall. 

When the Chimu rebuilt the irrigation 
system, they often placed the reconstruction 
canals slightly higher, enabling them to parallel 
but bypass sections of the destroyed system. 
Therefore, many drainages are crossed by both an 
old and a new canal. The cases are particularly im- 
portant because the parallel canals provide means 
of comparing erosional destruction. Having 
surveyed and mapped hundreds of kilometers of 
ancient waterways crossing all magnitudes of 
quebradas, we can say the erosional destruction of 
the original canal is significantly and measurably 
greater than that of the rebuilt course. Where a 
reconstruction phase canal stretches across a 
drainage it either remains intact to this day or, if it 
is washed out, the break is measurably smaller 
than the break in the original canal. 

It might be tempting to say that the com- 
bined erosional effects of all nino-induced floods 
descending after reconstruction never equalled the 
destructive effects of the flood that took out the 
early Chimu system. However, this pushes the 
evidence a bit far, because the reconstructed 
canals are often stone lined and more massive, and 13 




T-Ni^-<^/;.^WT 




^. 




Fig. 8. Early rains 
washed out many sec- 
tions of a canal (A) 
near this Moche 
Valley ruin 
(foreground). A later 
canal (B) is not as 
extensively destroyed, 
indicating that the 
earlier rain was 
heavier than subse- 
quent ones. Other 
linear features, such 
as the prehistoric 
roads (C,D), show a 
similar pattern. 
(Courtesy American 
Museum of Natural 
History) 



14 



thus more erosion-resident than the original 
canals. We have considered the possibility that the 
relatively greater erosion of the earlier canals is a 
product of their greater age and often simpler con- 
struction. However, for extensive erosion to have 
occurred along the entire length of the early canal 
network, a long period of abandonment and nor- 
mal weathering would have been required prior to 
the reconstruction phase. Our excavations have 
not indicated such a lapse in canal use. 

Attention has also been given to the 
possibility that braided quebrada channels might 
have produced differential erosion of parallel 
canals. In braided drainages water normally shifts 
from one channel or set of channels to another, 
and one flash flood can flow in a different area 
with different velocities and greater lateral erosion 
than another flood. Therefore, in a channel 
crossed by an early washed-out canal and by a 
later, less eroded, canal the lack of destruction of 
the latter could have been due to natural shifts of 
later flood waters to alternative channels. 

Figure 8 illustrates a wide drainage and an 
incised braided stream that are crossed by parallel 






canals, the earlier of which snakes along below its 
straighter reconstruction course. The earlier canal 
is consistently more eroded than its later counter- 
part. Because the canals cross all the channels of 
the drainage and because the reconstruction canal 
is well preserved, it is possible to check for poten- 
tial shifts in water flow from one braided channel 
to another. No significant shifts are evident. In the 
case of the incised stream we have found no rem- 
nants of the earlier canal, and only faint tracery of 
the reconstruction course. Here there is simply in- 
sufficient preservation of the canals to control for 
every channel in the stream bottom. Both situa- 
tions in figure 8 are common along the many 
kilometers of the ancient irrigation system. In 
quebradas with poorly preserved canal remnants 
evidence of the Chimu flood can be equivocal. 
However, for the many drainages where there is 
good archaeological preservation, significant 
channel shifting can be checked and evidence of 
the Chimu flood is unequivocal. 

The story of the Peru floods will be concluded in the 
September Bulletin. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 & 













In the Past Two Years . . . 



Field Museum of Natural History 

1977-1978 

A BRIEF REPORT 

President and Director: 
E. Leland Webber 

Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
JuHan B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
CHfford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum has never before pub- 
lished a report like this. It's new and 
it's for you — our more than 45,000 
members and supporters. By creating a 
brief report and including it in the 
Bulletin, we know that we will achieve 
one goal: cost reduction. We hope to 
achieve greater readership as well. We 
want you to know and understand 
what we are doing. A full report in our 
traditional format also has been 
produced in a limited edition. If you 
would like to receive a copy of the full 
report, call or write the Membership 
Department. We'll be happy to send 
one to you. 

IN THE PAST TWO YEARS . . . 

Two of the largest undertakings in 
the history of Field Museum proceeded 
simultaneously in 1977. Even as record- 
setting crowds attending the "Treasures 
of Tutankhamun" exhibition surged 
through the Museum, our eight-year- 
long building renovation and improve- 
ment program continued apace. That 
we were able to bring this $26-million 
project to virtual completion during 
this active period is evidence of the co- 
operation of many segments of the 
Museum's community and is a tribute 
to the special strengths and resources 
of our institution. 

To begin, the collective generosity of 
the Museum's friends — children, 
adults, corporations, and foundations 
— combined to raise a total of 
$12,623,925 for the Capital Campaign 
completed in 1974. This sum enabled 
the Museum to qualify for a matching 
$12.5 million from the Chicago Park 
District bonding authority. We thus 
owe thanks to our donors, the tax- 
payers of Chicago, and also to our 
Trustees and many volunteers from the 
Women's Board and the corporate 
community for their dedicated efforts 
on our behalf. 



Next, architects, construction mana- 
gers, contractors. Museum Trustees, 
and staff worked together to plan and 
execute this massive program. Many of 
the improvements have been detailed 
in earlier reports and still others are 
cited in this report. The Museum has 
been changed. It has improved. And 
we are proud of it. 

Our new "front door" — a floor-to- 
ceiling window wall enclosing a 
spacious reception area in the north 
portico — was completed in time to 
greet the crowds queuing up for the 
enormously popular "Treasures of 
Tutankhamun" exhibition in mid-April, 
1977. With the aid of grants from the 
National Endowment for the Humani- 
ties, Exxon Corporation, and the 
Robert Wood Johnson, Jr. Charitable 
Trust, the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
in co-operation with the Organization 
of Antiquities of the Arab Republic of 
Egypt arranged this loan exhibition. 
The United States tour of 55 objects 
from the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh 
Tutankhamun included six American 
cities; Field Museum and the Oriental 
Institute of the University of Chicago 
were co-sponsors in Chicago. Admis- 
sion to the exhibition was free; the 
regular Museum general admission fees 
remained in effect. 



Upper left: Visitors lined up to view 
"Treasures of Tutankhamun." Lower left: 
Dr. Saleh A. Saleh, conservator of Cairo 
Museum, and Dr. Ahmed El-Sawy, 
Egyptian government official, examine 
statue of Selket in preparation for 
'Treasures of Tutankhamun" exhibition. 
Right: Workmen installing huge glass 
panels in north portico. (Dave Walsten 
photo) 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 







^^H^^^^^^B ^^^I^^Bf^^^K^H^^^^^^B^^^^^L. li'^l 






In the Past Two Years . . . 



From April 15 through August 15, 
1,348,000 people visited this spectacu- 
lar exhibition. This is, to our know- 
ledge, the greatest attendance for a 
temporary exhibition in the United 
States. According to the Chicago 
Tourism and Convention Bureau, the 
city's hotel and restaurant trade 
garnered a hefty $30-million boost 
from traffic related to the exhibition. It 
was estimated that about 300,000 out- 
of-town visitors were drawn to it. Day 
after day, long lines of Tut enthusiasts 
stretched down the Museum stairs and 
around the building. People slept on 
the stairs to be certain of gaining 
admission the following morning; 
others rested and chatted in lawn 
chairs brought from home. 

For four months the media focused 
on the crowds attending the exhibition. 
Radio stations set up "hot lines" to 
provide up-to-the-minute information 
on waiting time; newspapers offered 
almost daily features on the event; 
television stations provided interviews 
with both visitors and staff. It was 
clearly a unique phenomenon in the 
Museum's history. 



A second, major temporary exhibit 
attracted considerable public and 
critical attention during this two-year 
period. From February 15 through May 
21, 1978, "Peru's Golden Treasures," 
the largest collection of Peruvian gold 
artifacts ever shown in the United 
States, was on display at the Museum. 
Like the Egyptian exhibition, this too 
was the result of a co-operative effort 
between funding agencies, museums, 
and government. "Peru's Golden 
Treasures" came to the United States 
under the auspices of The National 
Institute of Culture of the Peruvian 
government. It was organized by the 
American Museum of Natural History 
and was supported by a federal indem- 
nity from the Federal Council on the 
Arts and Humanities, United States. 
Again, like "Treasures of Tutankha- 
mun," no special admission fee was 
levied for this exhibition. 

Field Museum's installation of this 
exhibition combined pieces from our 
collection with those from the Museo 
Oro del Peru to establish a context for 
understanding the five major periods in 
Peru's prehistory. A 75-page catalog 
with 32 color plates was published by 
Field Museum to complement the 
exhibition. 

Although high attendance figures are 
important, the success of exhibitions 
must be measured in long-term gains as 
well. As a result of these and other 
outstanding exhibitions, many people 
were made aware of Field Museum for 
the first time; others returned to renew 
old ties. Impressively, at the close of 
1978 the Museum's membership num- 
bered 43,457 as compared to 26,125 at 
the close of 1976. We were gratified as 



new members who joined the Museum 
during the Tutankhamun exhibition 
indicated their approval and 
involvement with Field Museum by 
renewing membership in 1978. 

We believe that our members and 
the Museum enjoy a mutally rewarding 
association. During 1977-1978, the 
Museum offered members a number of 
special opportunities, including exhibit 
previews, dinner lectures, environ- 
mental field trips, tours to Egypt and 
Peru, and adult evening study courses. 
Our members have repaid our efforts 
with enthusiasm, interest, and support 
beyond the annual membership fee. 



Upper left: "Peru's Golden Treasures" 
catalog. Upper right: "Peru's Golden 
Treasures" exhibition in Hall 26. Lower 
left: Dr. Ahmed El-Sawy at ceremonial 
opening of Tut mask. Lower right- 
Ceremonial Chimu knife or tunti from 
"Peru's Golden Treasures." (Royal 
Ontario Museum photo) 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 



11'/^" 







In the Past Two Years . . . 



Members and non-members alike 
have enjoyed the many programs 
offered by the Public Programs 
division of the Department of Educa- 
tion. For example, the number of Ray 
A. Kroc Environmental Field Trips 
nearly doubled, from 47 in 1977 to 85 
in 1978, with 4,442 adults and families 
participating in two years. These one- 
day trips were led by one or more 
specialists in the biology, geology, or 
ecology of such locales as the Indiana 
Dunes, Volo Bog, Moraine Hills State 
Park, Illinois Beach State Park, and the 
Ryerson Conservation Area. Courses 
for adults also increased and 73 courses 
were held in 1977-1978 with a total 
enrollment of 2,161. 

A new dimension in programming 
began wdth the completed restoration 
of the Museum's Sundanese (West 
Javanese) gamelan. This gamelan, an 
ensemble of 24 musical instruments 
consisting of bronze and wood 
sounding parts supported by sculptured 
frames, appears to be about 130 years 
old and is one of the great ensembles 
of non-Western musical instruments in 
existence. Unplayed since 1893 at the 
World's Columbian Exposition, the 



gamelan was restored by a team of 
conservation volunteers who worked 
under the direction of Louis 
Pomerantz, art conservator; Ernst 
Heins, ethomusicologist and gamelan 
expert; and program director Sue 
Carter-DeVale. Grants from the 
National Endowment for the Arts and 
from the Walter E. Heller Foundation 
supported the long restoration project. 

The gamelan was enjoyed in concert 
January 14, 1978. This concert was the 
beginning of a series of events based 
on ethnomusicology, including Java- 
nese shadow plays, gamelan courses, a 
festival of music and dance, and 
children's music workshops. 

Highlights of other public programs 
included the distinguished lecture series 
on Tutankhamun and another on 
"Peru's Golden Treasures"; the 
Anthropology Film Festival; the Noh, 
Inuk and the Sun dramas; lectures by 
Gerald Durrell and Richard Leakey; 
and the consistently popular Ayer 
lectures. 

The Group Programs division of the 
Department of Education provides 
school-curriculum oriented tours, 
workshops, and loan materials free of 
charge to the Chicago metropolitan 
community and beyond. Although 
Chicago school enrollment is declining 
and this decline is reflected in Museum 
attendance by school groups, program 
services to schools increased 12 per 
cent in 1978. During this biennium 
465,388 students and teachers in 9,570 
groups came to Field Museum for 
programs and to use the exhibits as 
classroom supplements. 



The Museum's Harris Extension pro- 
vides materials for in-school use. 
Newly designed "Discovery Units" 
feature "Experience Boxes" which 
contain replicas or real artifacts and 
specimens for students to handle, 
examine, and study, as well as slide 
packets, teacher guides, and sugges- 
tions for classroom use. New topics 
focus on prehistoric life, pottery, birds, 
woodland Indians, Africa, Illinois 
prairies, and Chicago geology. 
Thirteen centers in the Chicago metro- 
politan area distribute "Discovery 
Units" in conjunction with other 
materials that go to 385 Chicago 
schools on a regular rotation schedule. 



Upper left: Gamelan conservation 
volimteer Helen Urban. Upper right: 
Javanese dancers perform Topeng 
Babakan, a village mask dance, 
accompanied by Museum's gamelan. 
Lower left: Volunteer Judith Spicehandler 
at work on gamelan restoration project. 
(Louis Pomerantz photo) Lower center: 
Aimouncement of Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Education Program. Lower 
right: Bi-monthly Calendar of Events. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 









In the Past Two Years . . . 



Both school groups and the general 
public have responded enthusiastically 
to the new participatory exhibit, "The 
Pawnee Earth Lodge," since it opened 
on October 15, 1977. A replica of a 
nineteenth-century Pawnee Indian 
dwelling, the lodge is 38 feet in 
diameter and 18 feet high at the central 
fire hole. A grant from the National 
Endowment for the Arts funded the 
construction of the lodge; the National 
Endowment for the Humanities funded 
research and design for this project. 

Members of the Pawnee (Oklahoma) 
tribe served as consultants during the 
design and construction of the dwel- 
ling, made objects for it, and partici- 
pated in taping four programs of 
seasonal Pawnee activities and cere- 
monies. Visitors — young and old 
alike — enjoy the authenticity of the 
lodge as staff and trained volunteers 
invite them to sit on buffalo skin 
robes, hear about Pawnee daily life and 
legends, and to examine artifacts 
representative of Pawnee activities. 
The lodge has hosted 39,144 visitors 
for special programs since it opened. 



Volunteers are mentioned throughout 
this report and that is most appro- 
priate. They work throughout the 
Museum on a regular basis and are a 
source of major support to staff and 
programs. Many services and research 
projects simply would not exist with- 
out capable volunteers to implement 
them. 

At the close of 1978 the Museum 
was benefitting from the services of 
280 volunteers. During 1977-1978 
volunteers contributed 116,140 hours 
— the equivalent of 66 man years. In 
1978, 13 individuals each gave more 
than 500 hours of volunteer service. 

Volunteer work was performed in all 
four scientific departments, as well as 
in photography, education, exhibition, 
the library, membership, public rela- 
tions, and publications. During the 
Tutankhamun exhibition, 350 trained 
volunteers gave a stunning total of 
23,854 hours to that project alone. 
Many of those who were recruited for 
this exhibition stayed on to work in 
the scientific, exhibition, and education 
departments; 150 Tut volunteers 
returned to contribute 5,764 hours of 
assistance to "Peru's Golden Treasures." 
Further, 26 weekend volunteers share 
their specially developed tours, partici- 
patory activities, and workshops with 
Museum visitors of all ages. Based on 
permanent and temporary exhibits, 694 
programs were presented to 21,659 



weekend visitors in this two-year 
period. Most of the weekend volun- 
teers are employed during the week. 
We believe that giving their weekend 
time to volunteer service is evidence of 
a special commitment. 

The statistics are impressive and 
significant, but they don't give the 
whole picture. Volunteers are dedica- 
ted, but it is also the willingness to 
learn, the exjjertise and competency 
they bring to the Museum that is so 
much appreciated. The volunteer pro- 
gram is a fine example, not only of 
service, but of continuing education. 



Upper left: Beverly Baker, education 
volunteer, demonstrates artifacts to 
children in Pawnee Earth Lodge. (Vicki 
Grigelaitis photo) Right: Sacred buffalo 
skull placed on altar mound in Pawnee 
Earth Lodge. Lower left: Virginia Beatty, 
volunteer in Department of Botany, 
prepares specimens for storage. (Vicki 
Grigelaitis photo) Upper center: Women's 
Board member and volunteer Mrs. Robert 
W. Carton with Mrs. Joseph W. Gibson, a 
member of Chicago Service Club, in Place 
for Wonder. Lower center: Young visitor 
examines specimen in "hands on" 
exhibit, the Place for Wonder. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 









Our Collections: Our Treasures 



OUR COLLECTIONS: 
OUR TREASURES 

Field Museum's scientific research 
programs encompass man and his total 
environment — past and present. Our 
collections of over 13.5 million speci- 
mens comprise a vast storehouse of 
data on man, plants, animals, and the 
earth. New specimens are constantly 
being added to this body of material 
through purchase, transfer, bequests, 
gifts, exchanges with other institutions, 
and staff field work. 

The Museum's staff bases its research 
on these collections; however, that is 
not the extent of their use. Today 
institutions share exhibits, books, and 
computerized data; they have been 
sharing collection materials for many 
years. In 1977-1978 the scientific 
departments made loans of more than 
125,000 specimens to scientists and 
students for research and to other 
museums for exhibition. Additionally, 
more than 2,500 researchers and uni- 
versity students visited the Museum to 
consult with our staff or to examine 
specimens. 



Although the size of our collections 
is one of the major strengths of Field 
Museum and has done much to en- 
hance our stature worldwide, we do 
not acquire new material simply for 
the sake of growth. Several years ago, 
the staff and Trustees collaborated to 
develop an accession policy which, 
among other things, sets conditions 
and priorities for the acquisition of 
new materials in terms of our tradi- 
tional and current areas of interest. 
This policy has been described by one 
writer as ". . . more complete, more 
specific and more detailed than any we 
have seen ... a polished, detailed and 
sophisticated document, very evidently 
compiled by a group of responsible 
persons after a lengthy and serious 
study of a set of very complex 
problems involving the museum and its 
relations with the world." 

The acquisition of collections is one 
of the major responsibilities of a 
museum; the preservation of those 
collections for generations yet to come 
is another. As a means of fulfilling this 
trust and, simultaneously, providing 
for expansion space which will be 
required even for the limited collection 
increase that will result from the new 
accession policy, significant new 
storage areas and much-needed labora- 
tory and office spaces were added in 
the departments of anthropology, 
botany, and zoology. This was yet 
another facet of the building 
renovation program. 



Field Museum now has what we 
believe to be one of the finest 
anthropology study facilities in the 
museum world. Protected by a rate-of- 
rise heat indicator and sprinkler 
system, as well as a security system, 
the four-level, climatically controlled 
area houses about 300,000 specimens 
or 75 per cent of the Department of 
Anthropology's collections. 

In conjunction with this central 
storage facility, an Anthropology 
Information Management System is 
being developed. Assisted by grants 
from the National Endowment for the 
Arts and an equipment gift from the 
Digital Equipment Corporation, this 
computerized system will assist in the 
management of the collection, includ- 
ing maintaining the inventory and 
recording the location of all objects 
within the facility. 



10 



Upper left: Chinese scientists visit 
Museum zoology laboratory. Upper right: 
A portion of the Division of Insects 
collection storage area. (Fleur Hales 
photo) Lower left: Video screen of 
computer terminal from Anthropology 
Information Management System. Lower 
center: Division of Invertebrates 
laboratory. Lower right: Entomologist 
John Kethley examines moimted insects. 
(Dave Walsten photo) 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 



ll^Pkli 







Our Collections: Our Treasures 



On the other side of the building, 
the new Ellen Thorne Smith Bird and 
Mammal Study Center provides a 
modern, secure, and functional facility 
for the housing of one of the world's 
great collections, as well as work and 
study space for staff, visiting scientists, 
and students. The center was made 
possible by a generous gift in honor of 
Mrs. Smith by her husband, Hermon 
Dunlap Smith. 

Also in the Department of Zoology, 
the space of the Division of Insects was 
almost doubled and most offices and 
collections were relocated for greater 
efficiency as a result of the renovation. 
Further, the Division of Fishes was 
enlarged by one-third through the 
addition of new shelving. The Biologi- 
cal Research Resources Program of the 
National Science Foundation continued 
to provide support for several of the 
biological collections. 



The Department of Botany, too, 
benefitted from the renovation 
program as it was both expanded and 
improved. 

Entirely new quarters were provided 
the Division of Photography, aided by 
generous gifts from Mrs. David W. 
Stewart of Rochester, N. Y. in memory 
of her aunt, Hedwig H. Mueller. Our 
collection of more than 300,000 
negatives dates back to the 1890's and 
includes many photos of historic 
significance. 

Even as new space was being alloca- 
ted, collection growth went on — as it 
must. Collections of breadth and high 
quality are essential to a great museum 
for both scholarly and exhibition 
purposes. Therefore, the selective 
building of our collections continues to 
be a priority of the Museum. Although 
all departmental collections grew 
during this biennium, a number of 
particularly noteworthy gifts have been 
made recently to the Department of 
Anthropology. 

A collection of more than 100 
Japanese lacquer objects, boxes, inro, 
and miniature shrines, collected with 
great care and discrimination by John 
Woodworth Leslie over a period of 
decades, was presented by Mr. Leslie. 
Many of these pieces of extraordinary 
quality will be exhibited in 1979. 

Mr. and Mrs. Theodore VanZelst 
continued to make generous gifts, 
including a collection of American 
Indian trade silver and three fine 
groups of Alaskan, Pacific Northwest, 
and Canadian Arctic ethnological 
specimens. 



Mr. and Mrs. John Mayo Mitchell 
presented a fine collection of American 
Indian trade silver that complements 
nicely both the Museum's original 
collection and the collection given by 
Mr. and Mrs. VanZelst. 

Mrs. Helen L. Kellogg, who died in 
1978, bequeathed a pair of fine T'ang 
pottery horses, as well as a generous 
sum of money, to the Museum. 



12 



Upper left: Curator Emeritus Emmet Blake 
studying specimens from bird collection. 
Upper right: Inro from collection of 
lacquerware given to Museum by Mr. 
John Woodworth Leslie. Lower left: 
Headdress of parrot and macaw feathers; 
a gift from Mr. and Mrs. Theodore W. 
VanZelst. Lower right: Chinese ceramic 
horses, T'ang dynasty; gifts of the Helen 
L. Kellogg Trust. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 








Our Collections: Our Treasures 



An outstanding collection of 
Japanese art, especially strong in 
ceramics and book illustrations, was 
given to the Museum by G. E. Boone 
in 1978. This collection will provide 
the nucleus for a systematic and 
comprehensive collection of Japanese 
arts and crafts. 

All of these gifts came from private 
individuals. We believe that our 
evident concern and care for our vast 
collections and our efforts to maintain 
their high quality offer assurance to 
these collectors that their collections 
will be treated with equal respect. 

Collections — as well as scientific 
knowledge — are also enlarged by field 
work. Some field trips take our 
scientific personnel only a few miles 
from the Museum, others require 
journeys of thousands of miles. In 
1977-1978, 35 staff members from the 
scientific departments conducted field 



work. They went to several locations 
in the United States, to Mexico, Belize, 
Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, 
Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, 
Antarctica, England, Australia, New 
Zealand, the Philippines, Malaysia, 
Indonesia, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, 
Kenya, and Southern Sudan. 

Finally, publication is the end result 
of most scientific research and field 
work. In 1977 two especially note- 
worthy books bv Museum curators 
were published: Manual of Neotropical 
Birds, Volume 1 bv Emmet R. Blake 
(704 pp.) and Living New World Mon- 
keys (Platyrrhini) Volume 1 by Phillip 
Hershkovitz (1,137 pp.). Both volumes 
were published by the University of 
Chicago Press. These works, which 
have each received laudatory praise, 
are the culmination of years of 
meticulous preparation. 

Forty-five titles, amounting to a total 
of 2,650 pages, were published in 
Tieldiana, the Museum's four scientific 
series, in 1977-1978. Including those 
appearing in Fieldiana, Museum staff 
published 153 scientific papers and 
books in this period. 

Of course, we buy books as well as 
produce them. However, our Library is 
struggling to cope with a major 
budgetary problem caused by the sharp 
rise in the cost of books and periodi- 
cals due to inflation and the decline of 
the value of the dollar with respect to 
other currencies. The loss in the 
purchasing power of the dollar in 
many countries is a particularly thorny 



problem as much of our buying is done 
overseas. For these reasons, the cost of 
subscriptions to on-going periodicals 
accounts for a greater share of the 
budget every year. 

We were able, nevertheless, to in- 
crease the number of books purchased 
in 1977-1978 by a significant 30 per 
cent. This was largely due to generous 
gifts made to the Museum for this 
purpose by Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
Cherry in memory of their son, Samuel 
M. (Cherry Library Fund); Mrs. 
Chester D. Tripp (Jane B. Tripp Library 
Fund); and Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. 
Wagner (Louis A. Wagner and Francis 
B. Wagner Library Fund). 



14 



Upper left: Researcher using auger along 
Wiscansao Canal as part of Programa 
Riego Antiguo (Ancient Irrigation Project) 
in Peru. (Robert Feldman photo) Upper 
center: Paleontologist Larry Marshall with 
emu while on field trip to Argentina. 
Upper right: One of 45 issues of Fieldiana 
published in 1977-1978. Loiver left: 
Curators Emeritus Hershkovitz (left) and 
Blake at reception in honor of their books 
published by University of Chicago 
Press. Lower right: Plate depicting 
Shoveller Duck from Jofm James 
Audubon's The Birds of America, a fine 
and rare work in the Library's collection. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 




\ 








; .MjK!) .r.\ i:i> M ,\SKA 





Commitment to Distinction 



COMMITMENT TO DISTINCTION 

In 1975 we launched the Commit- 
ment to Distinction program to 
provide funds for operations and 
necessary capital improvements over a 
five-year period. We began well with 
gifts to this program totalling more 
than $1.7 million by the end of 1976 
and our initial success has continued. 
Most significantly during this period, 
we received three-year challenge grant 
awards from the National Endowment 
for the Humanities and the National 
Endowment for the Arts. These grants 
total Si. 5 million. This sum is the 
largest granted to any museum in the 
country by the two endowments' com- 
bined grants — an amount awarded to 
a very limited number of the nation's 
major museums. At the end of 1978, 
the Museum had successfully met the 
matching requirements for the first and 
second years of the grants. Commit- 
ment to Distinction funds have already 



been used to close the income gaps for 
1976-1978. In 1978 this program was 
re-evaluated by the Board of Trustees 
— as it will be every two years — and 
was updated to 1982 with a goal of 
S13.3 million. 

During 1977-1978 contributions to 
the program and for other Museum 
purposes totalled S2, 905, 868 from 
individuals and 52,034,448 from 
corporations and foundations for a 
total of S4,940,316. This remarkable 
sum came from the more than 4,500 
individuals and 500 corporations and 
foundations who are currently contri- 
buting to the Museum over and above 
membership dues. It is these donors 
who, together with government and 
the users of the Museum, keep Field 
Museum the strong and dynamic insti- 
tution that it is. Particularly generous 
donors during the biennium were: 

Benefactors: Helen L. Kellogg 
(bequest), Mr. and Mrs. Ray A. Kroc, 
Ellen Thome Smith (bequest), Harold 
E. Stuart Trust, Amoco Foundation, 
Field Enterprises Charitable Corpora- 
tion, The Joyce Foundation, Robert R. 
McCormick Charitable Trust, and the 
Woods Charitable Trust. 



Major Donors: Mr. and Mrs. Walter 
L. Cherry, Mr. and Mrs. Eugene A. 
Davidson (Sterling Morton Charitable 
Trust), Mr. and Mrs. Joseph N. Field, 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Leslie, Mr. and 
Mrs. William H. Mitchell, Mr. and 
Mrs. John S. Runnells, Commonwealth 
Edison Company, Continental Bank 
Foundation, The Chicago Community 
Trust, International Harvester, The 
Walter E. Heller Foundation, The 
Nalco Foundation, The Dr. SchoU 
Foundation, Sears, Roebuck & Com- 
pany, The Frederick Henry Prince 
Trust, and Arthur Young & Company. 



16 



Upper left: Plaiming and Development 
Officer Thomas Sanders (right) reviews 
Commitment to Distinction progress 
with associate Clifford Buzard. (Flexir 
Hales photo) Upper right: Museum 
President-Director E.L. Webber (left) 
accepts the Xerox Corporation's contri- 
bution to the Conunitment to Distinction 
from Marc T. Eisner. Lower left: 
Commitment to Distinction proposal. 
Lower center and right: Graphs depicting 
Museimi income and expenditures for 
1978-1982. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 






m 

m 



Field Museum of Nature History 



Field Museum of Natural History 



Sources of INCOME, 1978-1982 



Itostrfcted Contributions 
$1,800,000 



INCOME GAP 
(Contributions neecM 
to oporat*) 
$13,354,000 
25,8% 



Membership $3,050,000 
~^---. 5.9% 



Admissions, 
Sales, Cafeteria, 
Miscellaneous 

$10,020,000 

19.4% 




Chicago Park District Tax Levy 

$9,515,000 

18.4% 



Reld Museum of Natural History 

EXPENDITURES— 1978-1982 — $51,684,000 




Administration $4 221 000 

Membership $2,317,000 

Development & Public 

/delations SI 672,000 

3.2% 

||iCapltal Profecle 

p S3 200 000 

6 2% 



BuldlrtgarKl 
Exh bit 
Maintenance 
S6 961 000 
17 3% 



Bookshops, Cafeteria 
$5,175,000 10.0% 



We Work Together 



WE WORK TOGETHER 

It is clear to all those close to Field 
Museum that a special synergism has 
developed here over the last decade. 
Five parts comprise the whole. We 
have already referred to our generous 
donors. Our staff is talented, hard- 
working, and dedicated to the institu- 
tion. The Trustees carry their responsi- 
bility for the current stewardship and 
long-term strength of the Museum 
earnestly and energetically. The 
Women's Board is central to the 
Museum's well being and vigor. At the 
close of 1978 three Women's Board 
members were serving as Museum 
Trustees, eight were on Museum Board 
committees, and many more served as 
valued volunteers. The entire volunteer 
corps, mentioned earlier, completes 
this diverse yet united group. 

Altogether, almost 1,000 men and 
women — staff. Trustees, Women's 
Board, and volunteers — combine 
talent, energy, and mutual confidence 
and respect with the financial support 
provided by donors to keep Field 
Museum strong in service to Chicago 
and the nation. 



Of special note during 1977-1978 
was the election of William G. 
Swartchild, Jr., retired, Swartchild & 
Company, as Chairman, succeeding 
Blaine J. Yarrington, executive vice 
president. Standard Oil Company 
(Indiana). Mrs. T. Stanton Armour, 
Robert O. Bass, vice chairman and 
chief operating officer, Borg-Warner 
Corporation, Mrs. Edward F. Swift, 
and Edward R. Telling, chairman. 
Sears, Roebuck & Company, were 
elected to the Board. Mrs. Swift was 
elected President of the Women's 
Board, succeeding Mrs. Joseph E. Rich. 
Donald Richards, a longtime Research 
Associate in the Department of Botany 
and a generous supporter of the 
Museum, and Remick McDowell, 
former chairman. Peoples Gas Co. and 
former President, Field Museum, were 
elected Life Trustees in 1977. Dr. Lorin 
I. Nevling, Jr. was appointed Assistant 
Director, Science and Education, 
succeeding Dr. Robert F. Inger, who 
returned to the Department of Zoology 
at his request after seven years in 
administrative posts. 

We have made many gains during 
the past two years, but Field Museum 
has also suffered great loss. On March 
16, 1977, Ellen Thome Smith, one of 
Field Museum's warmest friends and 
most dedicated supporters, died. Mrs. 
Smith shared her knowledge, exper- 
ience, and friendship with the Museum 
for 40 years. She formed the Women's 
Board in 1966, became the Museum's 
first woman Trustee in 1969, and 
maintained an active connection with 



the Division of Birds over a span of 
four decades. John G. Searle, a long- 
time Trustee and exceedingly generous 
donor, also died in 1977. In 
recognition of Mr. Searle's strong 
interest in our research program, the 
Museum's collection of preserved 
plants was named the John G. Searle 
Herbarium in 1972. Both Mrs. Smith 
and Mr. Searle were among the great 
builders of the Museum. We also 
keenly felt the losses of Life Trustees 
Hughston McBain, J. Roscoe Miller, 
and Louis Ware. 



18 



Upper left: WUliam G. SwartchUd, Jr., 
Chairman of the Board. (James 
Swartchild photo) Upper right: Women's 
Board Presidents, past and present (left to 
right): Mrs. Edward F. Swift (current 
President), Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
(1976-1978), Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
(1974-1976), Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
(1972-1974), and Mrs. Edward Byron 
Smith (1970-1972). Mrs. Hermon Duidap 
Smith (1966-1970), founding President, 
died in 1977. (James Swartchild photo) 
Lower left: John G. Searle. Lower right: 
Ellen Thome Smith. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 




i>»J5R^K»?yi«»Jp.;,i] 



«'!«n-";ftp'-;;.,v'r|';,; ■r-.'^i. .,, 







Planning Ahead 



PLANNING AHEAD 

The successes of these two years 
have come about as a direct result of 
personal effort and long-range 
planning. We have presented 
enormously successful exhibits, offered 
a full spectrum of public programs, 
maintained a complexity of scientific 
research projects — all while executing 
one of the largest building renovations 
in United States museum history. Now 
we look ahead. 

There is much to be done: work to 
be continued, new work to begin. For 
example, drawing on the richness of 
our collections and the creativity of 
our staff, we plan the renovation of 
our permanent exhibition halls — some 
have been substantially unchanged for 
decades. We must devote time and 
resources to the conservation of our 
irreplaceable anthropology collections. 
It is unthinkable that this world- 
resource would be allowed to succumb 
to the ravages of decay. 



The prospects are exciting and 
stimulating — yet, we are seriously 
concerned. Ever-spiralling inflation 
faces Field Museum just as it does 
every family, company, and institution 
in the nation. If inflation continues at 
its present rate — with no increase. 
Field Museum will have to double its 
income in less than 10 years to keep 
pace. How can that be done? Finding 
the answer to that question is our 
single greatest challenge. New methods 
of support must be found and tested; 
new configurations of public and 
private collaboration must be found. 

One important step was accomp- 
lished in this biennium when the 
Illinois General Assembly passed a bill, 
introduced by Representative Michael 
Madigan, appropriating 53,000,000 in 
support of Illinois museums on public 
lands. Governor Thompson, mindful 
of the legitimate responsibility of the 
state for partial support of museums 
that serve all of the people of Illinois, 
yet painfully aware, also, of the 
financial problems of the state, signed 
the bill into law at the level of 
$500,000, using his amendatory veto 
power. Field Museum received 595,000 
from this appropriation. We wish to 
express appreciation to Representative 
Madigan, the General Assembly, and to 
Governor Thompson for this 
precedent-setting action which holds 
promise of a new partnership of local, 
state, and federal funding of major 
museums. 

The newly formed federal Institute 
of Museum Services granted Field 
Museum 525,000, joining in a modest 
way the National Science Foundation, 
the National Endowment for the Arts, 
and the National Endowment for the 
Humanities, which for years have 
granted generous and pivotal federal 
fund support to Field Museum's 
programs. 



It is these new and old programs of 
governmental support that, when 
melded with steadily increasing and 
generous contributions from 
individuals, corporations, and 
foundations, lend encouragement as we 
look ahead. But, after all, we return to 
the inescapable premise that inflation 
must be brought under control if Field 
Museum and, in fact, all private 
cultural, educational, and social service 
institutions are to survive in their 
historic forms. 



20 



Upper left: Governor Thompson and 
Museum President-Director Webber at 
signing of bill granting support to Illinois 
museums. (Riccardo Levi-Setti photo) 
Upper right: Museiun painter Michael 
Gotto at work. Lower left: University of 
Heidelberg student Michael 
Miiller-Karpe with 5,000-year-old 
Simierian copper stag. (Fleur Hales 
photo) Loiver center: Howard Bezin (left) 
and Salvador Castro, Jr. caring for 
Gorgosaurus. Lower right: Tools of 
zoological research trade. 



Field Museum of Natural History 1977-1978 



A Brief Report 









-""^^^ 





Financial Statement 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
STATEMENT OF REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES 
Years ended December 31, 1978 and 1977 



CURRENT FUNDS 



1978 



Source of revenue: 
Public funds — 

Chicago Park District tax collections 
Government grants 

Total public funds 

Private funds — 

Investment revenue availed of for operations: 
Pooled security investments 
Securities of individual funds 

Total investment revenue 

Unrestricted contributions 
Contributions designated by Board 

for future years 
Memberships 
Private restricted funds availed of 

for operations 

Total contributed revenue 

Earned: 
Admissions 

Museum shops and cafeteria 
Visitors' services and other 

Total earned revenues 

Total private funds 

Total revenue 

Operating expenditures: 
Scientific 

Education and exhibition 
Publication and photography 
Library 

Building operations and security 
Administration and development 
Museum shops and cafeteria 

Total operating expenditures 

Revenues in excess of (less than) expenditures 
before cumulative effect of a change in 
accounting principle for membership revenue 

Cumulative effect on prior years (to December 31, 
1976) of changing the method of accounting 
for membership revenue 

Revenues in excess of (less than) expenditures 



Operating 
fund 


Commitment 

to Distinction 

fund 


Restricted 
funds 


Total 


Percent 
of total 


$1,503,705 
652,598 


345,460 


597,920 


1,503,705 
1,595,978 


17% 
18 


2,156,303 

1,424,707 
174,304 


345,460 


597,920 

225,235 
114,309 


3,099,683 

1,649,942 
288,613 


35 

18 

3 


1,599,011 
1,158,135 

671,172 




339,544 
85,510 


1,938,555 
1,158,135 

671,172 
85,510 


21 

13 

7 

1 


1,829,307 

601,694 

1,185,265 

317,184 




85,510 


1,914,817 

601,694 

1,185,265 

317,184 


21 

7 

13 

3 


2,104,143 






2,104,143 


23 


5,532,461 




425,054 


5,957,515 


65 


7,688,764 

1,335,687 

762,372 

459,961 

196,882 

2,405,745 

1,558,874 

1,112,755 


345,460 


1,022,974 

458,849 

374,535 

25,761 

14,332 

479 

149,018 


9,057,198 

1,794,536 
1,136,907 
485,722 
211,214 
2,406,224 
1,707,892 
1,112,755 


100 

20 
13 
6 
2 
27 
19 
13 


7,832,276 




1,022,974 


8,855,250 


100 


( 143,512) 


345,460 




201,948 




$( 143,512) 


345,460 




201,948 





22 



Field Museum of Natural History 1978-1977 



A Brief Report 




1977 



Operating 
fund 


Commitment 

to Distinction 

fund 


Restricted 
funds 


Total 


Percent 
of total 


$1,514,760 
327,917 


375,000 


592,793 


1,514,760 
1,295,710 


11% 
10 


1,842,677 

1,246,783 
54,569 


375,000 


592,793 

212,648 
111,166 


2,810,470 

1,459,431 
165,735 


21 

11 

1 


1,301,352 
948,598 

674,239 


187,500 


323,814 


1,625,166 
948,598 

187,500 
674,239 


12 

7 

1 

5 


1,622,837 

1,596,647 

5,446,353 

188,279 


187,500 




1,810,337 

1,596,647 

5,446,353 

188,279 


13 

12 

40 

2 


7,231,279 






7,231,279 


54 


10,155,468 


187,500 


323,814 


10,666,782 


79 


11,998,145 

1,280,492 

860,961 

363,934 

181,453 

2,613,232 

1,558,956 

4,854,143 


562,500 


916,607 

445,869 

408,823 

5,549 

12,991 
( 6,317) 

49,692 


13,477,252 

1,726,361 
1,269,784 
369,483 
194,444 
2,606,915 
1,608,648 
4,854,143 


100 

14 

10 

3 

1 

21 
13 
38 


11,713,171 




916,607 


12,629,778 


100 



284,974 



562,500 



847,474 



( 101,596) 



( 101,596) 



$ 183,378 



562,500 



745,878 



A Brief Report 1977-1978 




Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. 
Chicago, IL 60605 
312-922-9410 



Field Museum Tours 



Peru, Oct. 27-Nov. 15 

A 20-day tour will visit the ruins of Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, 
Pachacamac, Purgatario. and others. The Plains of Nazca (viewed 
from low-flying aircraft), the Guano Islands, and the Pisac Indian Fair 
will also be visited. The group, limited to 20, will be led by Dr. Michael 
Moseley, associate curator of middle and South American 
archaeology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in 
archaeology. A tour escort will also accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 donation to Field 
Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes round trip 
air fare between Chicago and Peru and local flights in Peru. Delta 
Airlines will be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. Deluxe accommodations will be used throughout. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals; all sightseeing; all 
admissions to events and sites; all baggage handling; all necessary 
transfers; all applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit; $250.00 per person. 



China, Nov. 5-25 

Peking's Forbidden City, the Summer Palace of the Dowager Em- 
press, the bustling activity of Canton, the ancient pagodas of Kun- 
ming. These are just a sampling of the sights that lie in store for the 23 
persons (Field Museum members and their families) who visit China 
on Field Museum's exclusive tour this November. 

In addition to fourteen days in China, three days and two nights 
will be spent in London. The tour escort will be Mrs. Katharine Lee, a 
Field Museum volunteer in the Department of Anthropology who is 
fluent in five Chinese dialects. Additional guides in China will be pro- 
vided by the China International Travel Service. The tour 
cost— $4,400 (which includes a $500 donation to Field Museum) — is 
based upon double occupancy and includes round trip air fare from 
Chicago to China. Advance deposit required: $500.00 per person. 



Antarctica, Jan. 6-30, 1980 

Until recently, only explorers were able to view antarctica's wondrous 
beauty. There is no destination more remote, more unspoiled by the 
encroachments of civilization. Our itinerary includes the Falkland 
Islands, a visit to the Patagonian coast, the South Georgia Islands, the 
South Orkney Islands, and of course, antarctica. Dr. Edward Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy, will be tour lecturer. 

The cruise vessel will be the 3,200-ton tourist ship M.S. World 
Discoverer, registered in Hong Kong, which will take us from Punta 
Arenas, Argentina, onwards. Built in 1974, the one-class vessel has all 
outside cabins with private lavatories and showers. The ship's staff in- 
cludes a fully qualified physician. The tour leaves Chicago Jan. 6, 
1980 and returns Jan. 30. Prices per person: C deck twin: $3,230; C 
deck single: $4,870; B deck twin; $3,570; B deck single: $5,390; A 
deck, twin; $3,930. Air fare, in addition, is $1,225 (round trip be- 
tween Chicago and Punta Arenas, Argentina). Included in the tour 
price is a tax-deductible donation of $500.00 to Field Museum. 
Deposit required at time of registration; $1,000.00 per person. 




The Great Wall of China 



For additional information and reservations for all tours, call or 
write Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, ill. 60605. Phone: (312) 922-9410. X-251. 



15 




JUNGLE ISLANDS 

The "Illyria" in the South Seas 

An account of the Crane Pacific Expedition of Field Museum, 1928-29. Abridged from 
Jungle Islands, by Sidney Nichols Shurcliff, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York (1930). 
Reproduced here, as abridged, by permission of the author. 



16 



Above: painting of 

the brigantine 

Illyria, Richard T. 

Crane s graduation 

gift to his son, 

Cornelius. 



Ilyria has sailed for New York." 
Thus ran the cable which we received on 
September 14, 1928, from the shipyards at 
Lussinpiccolo, Italy, where Cornelius Crane's 
brigantine yacht Illyria had been under 
construction for over a year. The fact that she was 
at last in commission seemed incredible. For six 
successive months the launching had been 
postponed. During that length of time the 
members of the projected Crane South Sea 
Scientific Expedition had led a life composed of 



alternate periods of frantic preparation and idle 
impatience .... 

However, nothing discouraged Corneliusr 
From the time I had known him as a school-boy, 
he had been determined some day to go through 
the South Seas, even if he had to swim. 
Fortunately Mr. Crane, Senior, had provided a 

'Cornelius Crane (1905-62). He was the son of Richard T. 
Crane, Jr. (1873-1931), a Field Museum trustee 1908-12 and 
1921-31. Cornelius was also the grandson of Harlow N. Higin- 
botham, who had been president of the World's Columbian Ex- 
position and of Field Museum (1899-1909). 



better method of transportation. The yacht lUyria 
was built as a gift to Cornelius .... 

The lUyria's length overall was to be 
147' 6"; her height of foremast 116', mainmast 
128'; her gross tonnage 356. She would carry 
10,000 square feet of sail and auxiliary power 
would be supplied by a 300 H. P. Diesel 
engine .... 

... At first Cornelius had intended to take 
a group of friends on purely a yachting cruise. But 
as the lUyria was designed with ample 
accommodations, and as her owner was notably 
fond of hunting and fishing, it was decided that 
various experts in zoology, natural history and the 
like should be included in the party. 

The trip therefore developed into a mixture 
of pleasure jaunt and scientific expedition. The 
latter phase fell logically under the wing of Field 
Museum of Chicago, as Cornelius is a native of 
that city. 

The scientists of the expedition were: Karl 
P. Schmidt, herpetologist and director of scientific 
work, Walter A. Weber, artist and ornithologist, 
Frank C. Wonder, taxidermist, all of Field 
Museum; Dr. William L. Moss, of the Harvard 
Medical School, physician and anthropologist; 
Dr. Albert W. Herre, of Stanford University, 
ichthyologist. 

Cornelius' fellow travellers were three 
Harvard men; Murry N. Fairbank, Charles R. 
Peavy and myself. I was semi-seriously appointed 
motion-picture photographer. 

We had boasted that ours was to be the 
most completely equipped scientific expedition 
ever to sail the Pacific. We had laid our plans to 
bring an aeroplane with folding wings, two 
motorcycles and a side car, twelve trunks of 
medicines, several cases of dynamite, three 
motion picture cameras, 50,000 feet of motion 
picture film, two diving outfits, a moving picture 
projector, 25 rifles and shotguns with 
ammunition, complete apparatus for the capture, 
preservation and mounting of specimens — and a 
dog mascot. All very fine, but where to put them? 

Much to the disappointment of Murry 
Fairbank, we first had to give up the aeroplane. 
Then we gave away the dog. We lashed the 
motorcycles and side car on the quarter deck in 
spite of dire warnings from the captain .... 

At ten o'clock on the sixteenth |of 
November, 1928] we all gathered at the dock, with 
out friends and relations who came to see us 
off .... There was no sign of Murry Fairbank. 
At eleven forty-five the newspaper photographers 
posed us all for group photographs. At twelve 
o'clock the newsreel photographers who were 
there to film our departure gave it up as a bad job 
and went away. Then Murry Fairbank drifted in. 
He had read in the paper that we were to sail and 
had come down to find out if it were true. 

At twelve-fifteen we did sail — not far, you 




understand, just to the mouth of the harbor where 
we spent the whole afternoon adjusting the 
compasses — but still we sailed. [Without 
Cornelius Crane, however. Taken ill at the last 
minute, he planned to join the others in Bermuda, 
after recovering.) 

Five days later [we sailed] into the beautiful 
harbor of Hamilton, Bermuda. We had spent 
those five days to good advantage in accustoming 
ourselves to the sea, the ship and each other .... 

At Hamilton we found Cornelius, now 
well, and his father, waiting at the pier to take us 
to dinner .... We . , . came to several conclus- 
ions — that the motorcycles would have to be sent 
home — that the owner's launch, too delicately 



Cornelius Crane 
aboard the Illyria, 
while she lay in 
Boston harbor 
before the expedi- 
tion. 



17 



Launching of the 

Illyria at Lussin- 

piccolo, Italy, in 

September, 1928. 



built for use among coral reefs, should be left in 
Bermuda .... 

Murry and I pleaded that one motorcycle 
should be retained, even if we had to put it in our 
stateroom. 

"All right',' said Cornelius laughing, "if you 
can get it in your stateroom you can keep it — 
otherwise it goes home." 

So the next day Murry and I . . . took the 
motorcycle apart. We put the frame and wheels 
under his bunk and the motor into our trunk. 
Then ushering in Cornelius, we asked him if the 
room was in good enough order to suit him. 

"Why, yes',' he said, "but what is that 
curious smell of rubber? " 

"Oh just the motorcycle tires under 
Murry's bed',' we answered. He let us keep it ... . 

We had been in high spirits during our stay 



in Bermuda, but our mood changed as soon as we 
left protected waters, because the Illyria began to 
roll badly and everyone but Frank Wonder 
became seasick .... 

Supper turned out to be a hilarious meal. 
Just as we sat down to the table the yacht gave a 
tremendous lurch and all the books fell out of the 
bookcase with a dull roar and cascadeci in an 
avalanche over the floor. The two electric lamps 
on the table tipped into the soup and several 
dishes fell onto the floor, . . . 

(Several days later] we reached Port 
au Prince, Haiti. 

On the afternoon of our first day [there] we 
went to see some live snakes at . . . the new Ecole 
dAgriculture. With surprising unconcern 
Schmidty reached into the cage and pulled out the 
largest one. The snake, an ugly green reptile with 



.*:V' 












white spots, twisted about and quickly bit our 
[lerpetologist twice on the wrist. Schmidty's calm 
was undistrubed. With a pleasant smile he 
returned the offender to the cage and remarked, 
"Yes, I thought that was a biting snake'.' 

[That evening] we all listened with interest 
to (an account] of Dr. (William] Beebe's recent 
visit to Haiti and of his descent in a diving helmet 
to a depth of nearly twelve fathoms. We knew that 
we should be attempting similar feats before long. 

. . . We arose early the next morning 
... to start on our trip of 230 miles overland to 
San Domingo City .... 

Our hotel (in San Domingo] was said to be 
the best in the city but we discovered on the first 
evening that the food was either too highly 
seasoned or had attained too great an age to be 
edible. So we had to fall back on bread and boiled 
eggs. While waiting for the eggs to boil we noticed 
several mice who playfully scurried about the 
dining room floor and later our attention was 
attracted to some small bats which swooped about 
amongst the diners narrowly missing their heads. 

In the bedrooms the fauna was even more 
varied than in the dining room. Although each 
bed was provided with an elaborate mosquito net, 
no provision had been made against those insects 
politely known as "beetles'.' Murry discovered 
several under his pillow and I found an army of 
them in my closet. The advance guard entered my 
suitcase. For several days I had to shake 
cockroaches out of my clothes before putting them 
on. 

After Haiti, the lUyria's next stop was 
Panama. 



. . . One of the animal boxes which had 
escaped a wetting on (Gatun Lake( contained 
about two dozen basilisks, a type of lizard about 
eighteen inches in length which is remarkable for 
its ability to run on the surface of smooth water. 
Schmidty had been at great pains to secure this 
collection in the hope of making a moving picture 
of their marathons ... we took the basilisks 
down to the water and let one go. 

Running along the float with surprising 
speed, the creature took a mighty jump into the 
water, but then instead of skimming along on the 
surface he dove below and at once disappeared. A 
second one did the same thing, first biting 
Schmidty severely on the end of the forefinger. 

Since the remaining lizards seemed to be 
much weakened by their captivity we decided to 
release them all at once, in the hope that at least 
one would stay on the surface. We did so with the 
movie camera in full operation but not a single 
basilisk complied with our desires. This was all the 
more maddening in view of the fact that the 
lizards remained in the cove for several days and 
amused themselves each morning by scampering 
about on the water as we had wanted them to. 
However, the instant we approached they dove 
out of sight .... 

(That night] Schmidty and Dunn (an old 
friend of K. Schmidt's] bundled up in heavy boots 
and shooting jackets. They . . . stumbled away in- 
to the dark, slimy maze of twisted vines, gnarled 
roots and buttressed tree trunks which make a 
tropical forest almost impenetrable at night. Hard- 
ly had the flicker of their lights disappeared in the 
gloom than a tropical rainstorm began to beat 



Sidney ShiirrHf;'. 
the expedition's ;^f- 
ficial photographer , 
focuses on Field 
Museum herpetol- 
ogist Karl Schmidt 
and iguana. 



19 




Murry Fairbank 
poses with Mabel, 
the sea lion whose 
pleasure was loung- 
ing in an armchair 
and listening to the 
victrola. 



20 



down on us so fiercely that we half expected to see 
them return at once, but for over two hours there 
was no sign of them. 

Finally toward midnight, they stumbled, 
all bedraggled and wet, into the camp, looking 
like a couple of fugitives from justice .... From 
their little- collecting bags they first dragged an 
alligator about four feet long, which Schmidty 
had shot just after he had unwittingly stepped on a 
much larger one. Then out came a live turtle 
which tried desperately to bite everyone within 
reach. The next exhibit was an enormous 
tarantula, alive, four inches in diameter, from 
whose deadly fangs we all shrank until he was 
popped into a cage. The greatest find of the 
evening had been reserved for the last. Dunn, 
proudly reaching into his bag brought out a most 
amazing frog, about three inches long. Its 
triangular body and limbs were a luminous shiny 
dark green above and very bright orange below; 
while its enormous round eyes shone like jewels. 
Schmidty jealously admitted that it was an 
unknown and new species. Dunn explained that as 
this frog nestles against some green leaf he covers 



up all his orange colored parts, and is almost 
invisible. But if he is disturbed he takes an 
immense leap, flashing all his orange underparts at 
the observer who, seeing nothing but that color, 
hardly thinks of looking for a green frog where the 
orange one alights. Here is a case where the 
brightest of contrasts is the best possible camou- 
flage .... 

After lunch we brought out cHir prize 
specimen, a full grown anteater. He had evidently 
been considerably irked by his captivity for when 
Schmidty hauled him out by the tip of his long tail 
he quickly reversed himself, climbed up that 
appendage and made a pass with heavy claws at 
his captor. 

After this we treated Mr. Anteater with 
more circumspection. We wired him by the hind 
leg to a tree and left him to cool down. Whenever 
we approached he reared onto his hind legs and 
tail and extended his muscular forearms in the 
position favored by boxers. In this defensive 
attitude, darting his long round tongue in and out, 
grunting, puffing and blinking his beady eyes he 
was one of the drollest animals 1 have ever seen. 
Later we brought him a termite nest, over- 
flowing with light brown insects and stuck it 
under his long nose. The sight or smell of the 
termites made his mouth water copiously but he 
obstinately refused to eat. It was only after two 
hours of patient waiting beside the movie camera 
that 1 was able to film him in the act of darting out 
his sticky tongue to a length of five or six inches 
and quickly sucking it in again, with several 
unlucky white ants attached. So quickly did he 
manipulate his tongue that it was only a blur to 
my eye. Consequently his small prey had not the 
slightest chance of getting away. He finished his 
meal speedily and curling up into a hairy ball with 
his forepaws crossed over his head he went off to 
sleep, . . . 

It was the end of my stay [at Barro 
Colorado Island in Gatun Lake). Packing the 
equipment and some two thousand feet of exposed 
film I descended to the flimsy outboard boat. It 
ferried me safely to Frijoles where the afternoon 
train picked me up and bore me with great speed 
to Panama. I arrived at a late hour, hot and tired, 
but at the Hotel I found that Cornelius was 
counting on me for dinner, . . . after which we 
were to go to the opera. I climbed into evening 
clothes and a boiled shirt and was rushed to the 
Club where we descended on the dinner party in 
the middle of the second course. From there we 
made a mad dash to the theatre at the other end of 
the city and I who had been for a week in khaki 
pants on a tropical island floundering about in 
mosquito-infested swamps, found myself dazedly 
sitting between two pretty girls in evening gowns 
listening to an amateur version of La 
Boheme .... 

There followed a week of the utmost 




confusion. Our motion pictures had to be 
developed, printed and spliced for a test showing. 
The last letters for three months had to be written. 
Clothes, ammunition and other important articles 
had to be bought. The many animal and bird 
specimens . . . had to be prepared and shipped. 
And last but not least, everything on board the 
lUi/ria had to be taken out and aired to prevent 
moulding .... 

... on the 29th of December we found 
ourselves ready to continue westward [toward 
Cocos Island). On the third day out the first 
excitement occurred. We were sailing along under 
a light breeze when of a sudden the sailor on the 
masthead shouted "Submarine to starboard off the 
stern quarter!" 

We reached for our glasses and observed on 
the horizon a dark spot, round of outline, except 
for a small projection on the top. The Captain 
rejected the submarine theory and declared it to be 
an overturned lifeboat with a man sitting on it. 
With much flapping of canvas and bracing of 
yards we headed into the wind and put about in its 
direction .... I loaded up all my cameras in 
expectation of great events. 

Closer approach proved that not one of us 
had guessed right. The floating object was a dead 
whale, . . . now distended by the gases of decay 
to an enormous size. Its flank floated fully five feet 



out of the water and one fin stuck up almost 
straight into the air. Around the carcass the water 
was literally alive with enormous sharks and other 
carnivorous fish .... 

After a brief stay at Cocos Island, the 
Illyria continued southwestward, toward the 
Galapagos. 

. . . The weather is cool, although we are 
about to cross the equator. Schmidty says that the 
cold Humboldt current which flows from the 
Antarctic regions northward along the coast of 
South America to the Galapagos is the reason for 
the low temperature. The Galapagos are right on 
the equator and yet only semi-tropical in climate. 

I am ashamed to say that Murry and I 
overslept this morning until we were wakened by 
the anchor chain rattling down in Tagus cove [on 
South Seymour Island, in the Galapagos). The 
others had to wait for us before going ashore. 

No vegetation or animal life of any kind is 
visible from our anchorage — no beaches — no 
queer animals— nothing but steep volcanic cliffs 
and reddish brown hills and mountains. Across 
the strait the rounded dome of Narborough, 
which sweeps with one majestic curve from sea to 
clouds, is also gray and barren. Yet the landscape 
is on such a grand scale, so fundamental in line 
and texture, that instead of being monotonous it is 
strangely stirring. 



21 



About nine-thirty we all got into the launch 
and, towing a small boat, went about half a mile 
to the head of the cove ... As we were clamber- 
ing from the boat onto the steep shore Chuck gave 
a shout of alarm. 

"Look out!" he yelled, "a big piece of lava 
is rolling down on us" 

We looked up the little valley and saw at 
the top a big sea lion, which did indeed resemble a 
piece of lava at that distance. He snorted loudly as 
he saw us and, turning around, flounced back up 
the gully. We pursued and soon surrounded him 
and three other sea-lions who apparently had been 
sunning themselves on the lava. They retreated to 
a position under an overhanging ledge, but did not 
seem very much afraid and allowed us to 
approach within two or three feet without trying 
to escape. Their gray brown color is almost the 



lot of spiders and beetles fell in. These he picked 
up with tweezers and put one by one into a jar of 
alcohol, solemnly watching their dying convul- 
sions .... 

[Later] we came upon at least 200 iguanas 
sitting on the rocks and sunning themselves. These 
strange antediluvian creatures fit into the 
extraordinary landscape as if created solely for it. 
They have the same splotched black and gray 
coloration as the lava on which they bask and 
their shape is much like that of some of the ripples 
left in the lava when it cooled. They are well 
adapted to life along the shore, for their long 
powerful toes are equipped with recurved claws 
which allow them to maintain such a strong grip 
on the lava that even a heavy wave cannot pry 
them loose. 

They vary in length from three to four feet 



The "submarine" 

that turned out to 

be a dead whale. 




22 



same as that of the lava. We took several pictures 
and then stampeded them down the gully into the 
water for the movie camera, but as usual I ran out 
of film in the middle of the scene. 

Further up the ravine a large bright-colored 
grasshopper flew into Murry's face and nearly put 
out his eye. But he risked himself again about five 
minutes later by picking up a dangerous stinging 
scorpion, which he thought was a spider, to give 
to Schmidty. 

In spite of our jeers Schmidty had brought 
along a big black umbrella which he had carried 
defiantly under his arm though there was not the 
remotest chance of rain. We soon found his reason 
for bringing it. He placed it upside down under a 
bush and then wacked the bush with a stick until a 



when full grown ana tneir outer skin consists of 
hard scales which are dull red and green after the 
skin has been freshly changed but lose their color 
after a short time. The crest of spines down the 
middle of the back and the sharp conical scales on 
the upper surface of the short head contribute to 
their queer appearance .... 

We found them to be very tame indeed, 
perhaps because they have no natural enemies on 
land .... When we did not disturb them too 
violently they contented themselves with nodding 
their heads at us very vigorously and blowing 
little bubbles from between their sharp teeth and 
goat-like lips .... 

After I finished writing last night Dr. Herre 
tried a fishing experiment. He lowered to the 



surface of the water a bright light which attracted 
a great number of mackerel. They were so 
numerous that the water appeared to be alive and 
squirming. We managed to catch forty or fifty 
with harpoons, nets, baited hooks and we even 
got one on a bare hook. Then a shark came near 
and ail the fish disappeared as if by magic. 

(The next day] the rest of the party un- 
rolled a tremendous seine about 250 feet long and 
hauled it around in a semi-circle near the beach. It 
took them about half an hour of good hard work 
to get the seine around the semi-circle and to haul 
it up onto the shore, but all they caught were three 
small puffers which, no matter how much they in- 
flated themselves, could not seem a very large 
catch to Dr. Herre. 

Afterward I walked southward along the 
beach . . . until suddenly I saw what looked like a 
dead sea-lion, being battered about in the surf. 
However, when I approached it came to life and 
swam away. 

A little further along I came upon another 
large male rolling in the surf in the same way. He 
would allow each inrushing wave to carry him up 
the beach in a swirl of foam and then when the 
water receded he would roll down into the next 
oncoming breaker like a sack of cement. This sea- 
lion must have been asleep, for his eyes were 
closed and although I approached within ten feet 
to take pictures he took no notice of me for over a 
minute. Then he seemed to awake with a sudden 
start, snorted loudly, glared at me and dashed 
away. 

[Later I caught a young female sea-lion] by 
one hind flipper. It seemed pretty tame, so we 
christened it Mabel and brought it back to the 
lUyria with us ... . 

We have just been trying some experiments 
with Mabel. She likes to listen to the victrola and 
to sit in a plush armchair. We put her into the sink 
in the laboratory and turned on the water. When 
she was only partially submerged she tried to dive, 
but of course couldn't, so she became very angry 
and splashed water all over us. 

As I write we can see lights flashing six 
miles away on Narborough, where we left the 
scientists. The radio operator says the flashes are 
not in code, but they well might be, for we have 
found that the campers left all their blankets and 
cooking utensils on board the Illyria — true absent- 
minded scientists! 

On another of the islands, the group met a 
Norwegian settler, a Mr. Horneman, who with his 
wife was trying to start a banana plantation. The 
couple had an eight-month-old child. 

[Mrs. Horneman] had managed to convey 
to me with fragments of English words the idea 
that her baby was very pale as a result of living in 
such a rainy district. Wishing to be polite I said 
"Nevertheless, he looks like a very intelligent 
baby'.' 



Of course she could not understand so I 
tapped my forhead, pointed at the baby and said, 
"Bright! very bright!" 

Mrs. Horneman gave a great gasp and 
turned frightfully pale. She directed a startled 
glance at the baby and said "Not blight! Not 
blight! Oh, No!" 

Plainly her greatest fear was that the baby 
might be taken sick so far from any doctor. I tried 
to calm her by saying — "Oh, no! I meant brains! 
The baby has brains!" 

Unfortunately she thought brains was 
another disease and it took the combined efforts of 
both Schmidty and Dr. Herre, each speaking eight 
different languages at once, to reassure her. 

We presented Horneman with a whole 
carton of cigarettes and went outside to eat our 
lunch. He was too short on food to invite us to eat 
with him but he and his wife started to make some 
coffee for us. 

Cornelius hauled out a bottle of cognac 
which had been brought along and was about to 
pour it into our tin army cups when there came a 
great cry of "Hola!" and Horneman dashed out 
with some wine glasses which he must have been 
treasuring for just some such occasion. 

We all drank to the health of his wife and 
child and then presented him with the rest of the 
bottle, still half full. He was delighted and again 
ran into the house and brought out two stools and 
a board, out of which he made a table. He covered 

the table with a nearly clean, white linen table- .,, ^ ... „ 

•  , I 11 1 • • Albert W. Herre, 
cloth with blue embroidered tnmmmgs. Stanford University- 
Then he produced a tray on which were a ichthyologist, 
lot of demitasse coffee cups, white with gold rims measures shark. 





Alan Resetar, pre- 
sent custodian of 
the reptile and am- 
phibian collection, 
examines shell of 
extinct Charles 
Island tortoise, col- 
lected by Karl P. 
Schmidt more than 
half a century ago. 



24 



and a sugar bowl with some home-refined sugar. 
His wife brought out the kettle of coffee and he 
poured us each a cup with the gravest of ceremony 
and politeness. 

"Well!" said I to myself, "here we are at the 
very end of the world, where no one ever comes 
and where the only inhabitants are barefoot and 
dressed in ragged overalls, and have beards down 
to their waists. One would hardly expect the 
formality of a blue and white table-cloth and 
demitasse in gold cups!" 

It struck all of us as being so delightful that 
we gave the Hornemans all the rest of our 
supplies. 

I went to sleep as soon as we got back to 
the boat but Schmidty woke me up about five- 
thirty. He had "found" ... a big cave with extinct 
turtle shells in it, and wanted me to go down into 
it with him to take flashlight photographs. 

. . . we discovered several dozen shells of 
the extinct Charles Island tortoise, three in perfect 
condition. Schmidty is delighted to secure these 
shells for the museum, for this type of tortoise has 
been extinct for more than a hundred years. . . . 

The Illyria headed urestward for the 
Marquesas, some 3,000 miles further on. 



The Marquesas were sighted early in the 
morning of February fifth .... All nine of us 
climbed into the skiff and attempted to make a 
landing but a native policeman dressed in little 
save a red straw hat motioned us away .... 
Then a white man in white clothes and a pith 
helmet appeared and told us in French that we 
could not land until we had been O.K'.d by the 
doctor. We had to wait nearly two hours for this 
medical man who finally arrived in an outrigger 
canoe and gave his official consent. 

We learned from the governor that disease 
has been prevalent in the Marquesas since the 
advent of the white man and nearly all of the true 
natives have died off. At present there are only 
300 inhabitants on this large and beautiful island 
and many of them came from Tahiti and other 
outside places. There are only 3,000 inhabitants in 
all the Marquesas, and the population is still 
decreasing. 

Most of the natives we did see were either 
sick or very old and feeble — not just what one 
might expect after reading some of the popular 
South Sea novels. There was something very 
depressing and decayed about the whole 
atmosphere. 

Nor is the island a good collecting ground 
for scientists. There are no mammals or interesting 
reptiles, and what few birds can be found are well 
known. There are some ruins of moderate 
anthropological value but the governor told us 
that the most interesting remains of the former 
high civilization could be reached only by a ten 
hour ride on horse-back .... 

Since there was very little of scientific 
interest at Hiva Oa, we sailed away the following 
day, and reached the Island of Nuka-Hiva the next 
morning .... The scientists, in the meantime, 
had had a far more exciting time. Dr. Herre had 
persuaded some of the natives at Taiohae bay to 
help him cast his big seine. The very first haul 
resulted in the capture of no less than 10,000 fish. 
Most . . . were a type of mackerel . . . and the 
weight was so great that it took nearly half the 
population of the village to pull the seine ashore. 
The beach was alive with gleaming silvery shapes, 
and when the net was emptied the natives ran to 
their houses for receptacles to put them in. No such 
catch had ever been made in the bay before and 
everyone rejoiced at this addition to the food 
supply. When we returned in the evening we saw 
long lines of fish drying on ropes stretched 
between the trees .... 

After the Marquesas, the Illyria sailed 
nearly due south for the Tuamotu, or Low, 
Archipelago. From there the expedition proceeded 
to Tahiti. 

. . . The scientists had been impatient at 
the length of our stay in Tahiti. They had made 
some casts and paintings of fish, but in general the 
collecting had not been good. Nature has been 
more lavish with geographical and vegetable 



forms than with animals and insects in all the 
Polynesian islands. Each morning the scientists 
had gone hopefully ashore with guns and col- 
lecting bags, but in the evening they returned in 
dejection seldom with more than a few small birds 
and two or three bottles of insects. The specimens 
they did get were not unusual. Schmidty felt we 
were wasting time and should push on. 

It is a long way from Tahiti to Fiji — over 
two thousand miles — and it took us twelve days to 
make the trip. We allowed ourselves only one stop 
— a very short one at Borabora and there we 
found anchored in the harbor the small sailing 
yacht Cha)ice. On board were three bronzed 
young athletes from Yale, Dodd, Brown and 
Marshall by name. They had started from New 
London on a South Sea cruise nearly nine months 
before and had sailed all this way with the help of 
only one navigator and a cook. There had been 
two more Yale boys on board at the start, who, by 
the time we met the party had gone on side 
expeditions of their own. The three remaining 
boys came aboard the Illyria for supper. 

Their point of view was quite different 
from ours. They sailed on no fixed schedule and 
lingered wherever it pleased them. Sometimes 
they would go ashore and live with the natives for 
a week or more. A lazy life appealed to them, but 
they assured us that they were learning a lot more 
about the South Seas than were we, with all our 
scientists and sailors. Who knows? Perhaps they 
were. 

At Ovalau, about seventy miles from 
Suva, we anchored the lUyria in a large bay . . . 





Richard T. Crane, 
father of Cornelius, 
was a Field 
Museum trustee 
1908-12, 1921-31. 



Taxidermist Frank 
C. Wonder (left) 
and artist Walter 
A. Weber work on 
specimens in the 
laboratory aboard 
the Illyria. 



25 



just between twilight and dusk. Schmidty 
suddenly pointed toward the mastheads. Looking 
up, we saw a host of dim gray flying forms softly 
silhouetted against the last faint pink of the sunset. 
"Flying-foxes!" exulted Schmidty. "Fruit 
bats! A whole horde of them. I had been hoping 
we might see some. They are not rare in this part 
of the world, but they are different on every island 
—and we must get some for the museum'.' He told 
us that these creatures hang upside down on trees 
during the daytime and sometimes there will be so 
many on one tree that the branches are broken. At 
night they make a flight all together, just at dusk, 
from the roost to their feeding grounds. 

"Look! " he cried. "There are thousands of 
them — big ones!" 

They were flying across the bay to the 
cocoanut plantations where they would spend the 
night destroying and eating the unripe fruits .... 
Schmidty decided that they would probab- 
ly return just before sunrise, following the same 
line of flight. 

. . . The ones we got were remarkable 
creatures. They were nearly five feet from wing tip 
to wing tip ... . They had long snouts, sharp 
teeth and pointed ears, like foxes, and their bodies 
were covered with reddish brown fur. Having 
tongues and palates, they could scream and make 
barking noises. "Flying-fox" is a good name, for 
these mammals really look like small foxes 
equipped with wings. 

We spent two more days at Ovalau, during 
which Dr. Herre collected a number of unusual 
fish and the scientists collected several more 
species of land birds and insects. Except for bats, 
no mammals of any sort were found. Then we 
sailed back to Suva to pick up Dr. Moss, who had 
stayed behind to make anthropological measure- 
ments. We had also to put aboard supplies in 
preparation for our trip to the New Hebrides. 

... it was a relief to reach Vila, the largest 
port in the New Hebrides, on March 27th. The 
town itself was a great disappointment to those of 
us who had not prepared by reading about it in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. I had a mental picture, 
gleaned from popular books of a tiny place set on 
the edge of the jungle and environed by cannibal 
villages. Instead I saw a full-sized town composed 
of docks, streets and red-roofed houses with auto- 
mobiles parked in front of them. There was not a 
single cannibal to be seen and even friendly 
natives were absent for they have been displaced 
by the Indonese laborers imported by the French. 
Dignified Englishmen strolled about, canes in 
hand or sipped cooling drinks on spacious veran- 
dahs. Nothing could have been further from the 
popular idea of a cannibal isle than Vila. 

We soon abandoned our hope of finding 

romance on shore. However, on the floor of the 

harbor we met with better success. Descending in 

26 about six fathoms of water with our diving helmet 



we found the visibility to be very good and spent 
the whole afternoon taking turns at exploring the 
corals on the bottom or photographing them with 
our underwater camera. . . . 

There is infinite variety in the corals. Some 
rise in thick coarse branches from the sandy bot- 
tom like ghostly bushes which, decapitated and 
bleached, have long been dead. Some formations 
are rounded and soft like giant foot-stools while 
others are angular, brittle and cruelly pointed. 
Still other fronds are intricate and delicate in their 
branchings and infinitely varied in their pastel col- 
orings. The ocean floor might be compared to a 
flower garden in full bloom though the latter 
would suffer by the comparison since, seen 
through the green-blue medium of sea water, the 
colors of the undersea world although bright, are 
never glaring nor unharmonious. Both color and 
form are more complex, more erotically luxuriant 
and more vaguely mysterious than in the world 
above. 

The gentle winds which sway the flowers of 
the upper world have also their marine counter- 
parts for the ceaseless surging of the ocean swell 
imparts a sweeping motion to the seaweed and 
other flexible growths on the bottom and to the 
minute animal and vegetable particles suspended 
in the water. The motion is slow, dignified and 
almost monotonously regular. Everything sways 
at the same instant and moves the same distance. 
Yet there is something awe-inspiring in this inces- 
sant surge of the depths — this pulse of the sea. It 
began when the earth was young and it will con- 
tinue just as slowly, just as irresistibly until the sea 
is no more. 

A man with a diving helmet could spend 
days, even weeks on a fifty foot square of coral 
reef and yet find something new and interesting 
every hour. Nevertheless most of the white in- 
habitants of the tropics are satisfied to peer 
through a water-glass once in a great while and 
would not dream of diving even in places where 
there are no sharks. They excuse themselves with 
talk of poisonous corals, of deadly jellyfish, of 
spined sea-urchins and of molluscs which might 
snap shut on their ankles. As a matter of fact these 
dangers are mostly mere superstitions and with a 
little care diving is as safe as playing golf. 

Acting on advice from the officials at Vila 
we sailed that same evening for Bushman's Bay on 
Malekula Island to seek information regarding 
bird-collecting and native life from Mr. Adam, the 
District Officer. Arriving at the Bay the next 
morning we were again discouraged by the civil- 
ized aspect of the landscape. Several neat white 
houses and sheds stood under orderly rows of 
cocoanut palms and a Ford truck loaded with 
cocoanuts chugged in the foreground. . . . 

The adventure of the lUyria will be concluded in the 
September Bulletin. 



July, August, and September at Field Museum 



(July 15 through September 15) 



New Exhibit 

"Treasures of Cyprus." Opened June 14. These 150 objects 
reflect nearly 8,000 years of Cypriot art and culture. Situated at 
the crossroads of three continents — Europe, Asia, and Africa — 
the Cypriot people have kept their individuality while still 
assimilating other cultures. The bowls, jugs, vases, religious 
idols, and jewelry show the influence of many peoples while re- 
maining typically Cypriot. Assembled under the direction of 
Donald Whitcomb, assistant curator of Middle Eastern ar- 
chaeology and ethnology. Exhibit designer was Clifford 
Abrams. This is the show's last stop before returning to Cyprus. 
Because of the extreme age and fragility of the objects, this ex- 
hibition will not travel to the United States again. "Treasures of 
Cyprus, " developed by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibition Service (SITES), is sponsored by the government of 
Cyprus and organized by Vassos Karageorghis, director of the 
Department of Antiquities, and Patroclos Stavrou, 
undersecretary to the president of Cyprus. Through Sept. 16. 
Hall K. 



Continuing Exhibits 

"Art Lacquer of Japan." Our newest permanent exhibit. Fea- 
tures inro (intricately carved and decorated sectional medicine 
cases), netsuke (tiny carved pendants), and ojime beads, which 
hung from the waists of 18th- and 19th-century Japanese men 
as symbols of wealth and status. Miniature landscapes, dream- 
like still lifes, and mythic dragons are flawlessly carved into lac- 
quer ornaments no larger than a matchbox. Examples of 
Chinese lacquer art are exhibited for comparison. Hall 32. 
Designed by David Edquist under the direction of Bennet Bron- 
son, associate curator of Asian archaeology and ethnology. 



"Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Con- 
tinents." Closes July 3 1 . Last weeks to see acclaimed exhibit of 
260 rare feather objects assembled almost entirely from Field 
Museum's own collections. Compare an intricate feather mosaic 
cloak from New Zealand with sophisticated Chinese jewelry in- 
laid with brilliant blue kingfisher feathers or with colorful 
feather adornments from South America's Indian tribes. Learn 
about the amazing structure of feathers and how they are used 
to express man's ideas about beauty, wealth, and spirit. 
Assembled under the direction of Phyllis Rabineau, custodian 
of the anthropology collections. Exhibit designer: Clifford 
Abrams. After its closing here, "Feather Arts" will travel to three 
other museums across the country. Hall 26. 

"The Art of Being Huichol." A major traveling exhibition of 
more than 150 objects of Huichol Indian art. The exhibit was 
organized by the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco and is 
sponsored by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts 
and by the Museum Society of the Fine Arts Museums of San 
Francisco. Designed by Don Skinner, the exhibit includes 
costumes, votive objects, weavings, embroidery, beadwork, and 
yarn "paintings." The "art of being Huichol" is the act of living a 
devout life, and spiritual themes dominate their art. The Huichol 
also value visionary experiences produced by the hallucino- 
genic peyote and these images are reflected in their dramatic 
yarn paintings. The Huichol live in an isolated area of Western 
Mexico, and they remain one of the few traditional Indian 
groups whose ancient beliefs and practices remain unchanged 
even today. Through Sept. 3. Hall 27. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to handle, 
sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. Earthquake Charlie, 
the Museum's new one-ton polar bear, is the room's most 
recently installed "wonder." Weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m.; 
weekends, 10 a.m. to noon and 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. Ground floor, 
near central elevator. 



(Continued on back cover) 




Prepare for the new exhibit on view 

June 14 through September 16 by purchasing 

the handsome exhibit catalog: 

TREASURES OF 



CYPRJ^ 



8,000 years of Cypriot culture in 78 pages! 

A limited number of catalogs are available in the 
Museum Shop at $5.50 (10% discount for members). 

Copies may be ordered by mail from: 
Division of Publications 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Shipping and handling is 75c per copy. 



27 



July, August, and September at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



Continuing Exhibits 

"Cash, Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: The Nonmodern Moneys of 
the World." A fascinating collection that contains over 80 varie- 
ties of money used by ancient cultures. It explores the origins, 
values, and meaning of nonmodern money in terms of buying 
power for these past civilizations. The accompanying text gives 
the value of each form of money in terms of how much food it 
could then buy. Four general categories of moneys are on dis- 
play: metal coinage, uncoined metal, shell money, and "miscel- 
laneous," which includes food, fur, fiber, glass, teeth, and stone 
currencies. No closing date. Between Halls K and L, ground 
floor. 

"A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History." A one- 
case exhibit that combines 63 natural history specimens with 
samples of philatelic, or stamp, art. Planned on a rotating basis 
to cover the four disciplines of natural history, the exhibit in its 
first phase is devoted to zoological specimens and their images 
on stamps. Exquisite seashells, butterflies, a leaping jaguar, and 
fox are among the specimens mounted in the second floor 
lounge. "A Stamp Sampler" was conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, 
exhibit guest curator, and designed by Peter Ho, a University of 
Illinois graduate student. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

The Hall of Chinese Jades contains beautiful jade art spanning 
over 6,000 years of Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of 
the hall illustrates ancient jade carving techniques. Hall 30, 
second floor. 



quired. The fee is $3.00 for Members; $4.50 for nonmembers. 
Workshop supplies are provided. All workshops begin at 10:30 
a.m. and are two hours long. Handicapped participants are 
welcome and special arrangements for the hearing-impaired 
have been made for selected workshops. For more information 
and registration forms, call 922-9410, ext. 364. 

"Drawing Dinosaurs." Learn about drawing and dinosaurs by 
sketching these prehistoric creatures from the Museum's skele- 
tons and dioramas. Open to ages 7 to 13. Sessions meet on 
Tuesday. July 17 and on Wednesday. July 18. 

"Ojos de Dios (God's Eyes)." After visiting the Huichol exhibit, 
young people learn how to make their own version of this 
ancient Mexican good luck charm. Open to ages 9 to 14. Ses- 
sion meets on Tuesday, July 17. 

"Egyptian Hieroglyphs." Learn to write your name in this 
ancient symbolic script. Open to ages 9 to 14. Sessions are 
Thursday, July 19, and Tuesday, July 24. 

"Fiber to Fabric: Spinning, Weaving and Dyeing." After exam- 
ining the Museum's displays of textiles from different societies, 
the class learns how to spin fiber into thread, to weave thread 
into fabric, and to dye fabric in various colors. Open to ages 9 to 
14. Session meets on Thursday, July 19. 

Continuing Programs 

Summer Journey: "A to Z at Field Museum." Self-guided tour 
leads families and children through a cross section of exhibits 
introducing them to the Museum's four main areas: anthropol- 
ogy, botany, geology, and zoology. Free Journey pamphlets 
available at the North Information Booth, and the South and 
West doors. 



American Indian Halls trace the anthropological history and 
cultural development of the original Americans, from the time 
of their arrival on the North American continent (before 20,000 
B.C.) to the present. Hall 5 contains a traditionally made Pawnee 
earth lodge— the home and ceremonial center of Pawnee Indi- 
ans as it existed in the mid-1800s. Halls 4 through 10, main 
floor east. 

Tibetan Culture can be explored in Hall 32, on the Museum's 
second floor. Rare film footage, shot in 1927, documents 
nomadic life and religious pageantry in Tibet. The Tibetan ex- 
hibits are divided into two sections. One hall displays common 
possessions from the past such as weapons, yak-herding equip- 
ment, and textiles. Lamaism, the Tibetan form of the Buddhist 
religion, is the theme of the second hall. 

New Programs 

"Summer Fun: Field Museum Workshops." A series of work- 
shops for young people ages 7 through 14, which highlight 
museum exhibits of special interest and provide a fun, workshop 
experience. Enrollment is limited and advance registration is re- 



On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25<: each at the 
entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Guided tours, demonstrations, 
and participatory activities. Every Saturday and Sunday, 10 
a.m. to 3 p.m. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an 
interest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410, X 360. 

July, August, and September Hours. In July and August, the 
Museum is open daily 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. except Fridays. In 
September, the hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. On Fridays, 
throughout the year, the Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. Closed Labor Day. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 




'*f\ 



tAji 



*55 




Held Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

September, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 8 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Oscar Anderson 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Held Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



r 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 El NiRo: The Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru, 
Part II 

By Fred L. Nials, Eric E. Deeds, Michael E. Moseley, 
Shelia G. Pozorski, Thomas G. Pozorski, and 
Robert A. Feldman 

Copyright © 1979 Field Museum o( Natural History 

11 Field Museum Tours 

12 Illinois Archaeology Tour 

An account of the June 1-5 tour 
By Robert Pickering, tour leader 

16 Jungle Islands: The "Illyria" in the South Seas, Part II 

By Sidney N. Shurcliff 

25 Learning Museum Fall Program: "China: A Deeper 

Look" 

By Anthony Pfeiffer, project coordinator 

29 Book Reviews 

30 Weekend Discovery Programs 
32 Our Environment 

35 September and October at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Late summer scene in Manistee National Forest, Michigan. 
Photo by Robert Brudd, Tinley Park, Illinois. On Ekta- 
chrome, using Cambo 4x5 view camera. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/Atigust issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a 
year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, II. 





Environmental Field Trips 

Thirteen field trips to take place in 
September and October will offer non- 
members as well as members new oppor- 
tunities to learn about the local flora, 
fauna, and geology. Under sponsorship 
of the Ray A. Kroc Environmental 
Education Program, the trips will be led 
by Field Museum staff and guest 
scientists. 

Sites to be visited include Goose 
Lake Prairie, Braidwood Dunes and 
Savannah, McGraw Wildlife Founda- 
tion, Morton Arboretum, Kane County 
Farms, and Starved Rock State Park. 
Both adult trips and family trips are 
being scheduled; early registration by 
mail is strongly recommended. 

Field Museum members auto- 
matically receive the field trip brochure 
with trip dates and registration form. 
Nonmembers may receive a brochure by 
calling 922-9410, ext. 362, or writing: 
Department of Education— Field Trips, 
Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



Donald J. Stewart Appointed 

Donald J. Stewart has been named assis- 
tant curator of fishes. A native of Omer, 
Michigan, he holds a Ph.D. from the 
University of Wisconsin. He did his 
undergraduate work at the University of 
Michigan, where he also received his 
M.A. Stewart most recently served as 
research assistant for the University of 
Wisconsin Marine Studies Center, at 
Madison. 

He has done extensive field work 
in both eastern and western Africa. His 
technical papers include a number of 
pubUcations on fresh water fishes of 
these areas, notably on cichlids and 
cyprinids. 



Erik K. Waering, Carl L. Hubbs 

Erik K. Waering, a Field Museum 
research associate in geology since 1958, 
died July 16 in Naples, Florida. He was 
67. Formerly a geologist for Amoco In- 
ternational Oil Co., Waering was also 
one of the leading authorities on fossil 
scorpions, an interest which led to his 
association with the Museum. He wrote 
prolifically and had recently completed a 
definitive monograph on the subject. 

Carl L. Hubbs, who served as 
Field Museum's assistant curator of 
fishes 1916-20, died in La JoUa, CaUfor- 
nia, on June 30. He was 85. After leav- 
ing Field Museum, Hubbs went on to 
become one of the world's leading 



ichthyologists. He was professor 
emeritus of biology at Scripps Institute 
of Oceanography and founding director 
of Sea World, at San Diego. During his 
long and productive career, Hubbs 
wrote more than 700 books and 
technical papers on fishes. 



"Feather Arts" Catalog Cited 

The "Feather Arts" catalog, published 
in conjunction with the recent exhibit 
Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and 
Spirit from Five Continents, has re- 
ceived the 1979 award for excellence 
from Chicago Women in Publishing. The 
catalog was written by Phyllis 
Rabineau, custodian of the an- 
thropology collection and organizer of 
the exhibit, and designed by Clifford 
Abrams, of the Department of Exhibi- 
tion. Patricia Williams, managing editor 
of scientific publications, was the editor. 

The 88-page catalog, with many 
four-color plates, was judged on the 
basis of purpose and subject, writing 
and editing, design and graphics, and 
manufacturing. A member of the judg- 
ing committee observed that the catalog 
was "a piece of art— as anything from 
the Field Museum should be." 

Catalog designer Clifford Abrams 
also received an award from Print 
magazine for his design of the exhibit, 
which closed July 31. His design will be 
featured in Print Casebook No. 4, 
published by Print. 



The "Feather Arts" catalog is 
available at the Museum Shop for S7.95 
(10% discount for Members). Mail 
orders should be directed to the Museum 
Shop and include 50 C additional for 
postage and handUng. 



Weekend Members' Tour to Galena 
October 12, 13, 14 

Spaces are still open on Field Museum's 
weekend tour to historic Galena, Illinois, 
in the northwestern corner of the state. 
A century ago the small city was a bustl- 
ing lead-mining center and many of the 
fine homes of that era are still preserved. 
Geologic features of the region continue 
to be of particular interest. Dr. Bertram 
G. Woodland, curator of petrology, who 
will serve as tour leader, will also pro- 
vide commentary on the unusual 
geologic features of the area. 

Accommodations for two nights 
will be at Chestnut Mountain Lodge. 
Price of the tour is $150.00 per person, 
double occupancy (singles on request). 
Included are all expenses of transporta- 
tion on charter buses to and from 
Chicago; all meals and gratuities, except 
personal extras such as special food ser- 
vice. Advance deposit: $15.00 per per- 
son. For further information call or write 
Michael J. Flynn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., 
Chicago, 111. 60605. Phone 922-9410, ext. 
251. 



Illustration from 
"Feather Arts" 
catalog 




El Nino: The 

Catastrophic 

Flooding of 

Coastal Peru 

A complex of oceanographic 
and meteorologic factors i 
combine in one of Earth's most 
devastating, recurrent disasters 

Part II 



Copyright £ 1979 by Field Museum of rHatural History. All rights 
reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without prior written per- 
mission is strictly prohibited. 

By FRED L. FHIALS, ERIC E. DEEDS, MICHAEL 
E. MOSELEY, SHELIA G. POZORSKl, 
THOMAS G. POZORSKl, AHD ROBERT 
FELDMAN. 



Part I (July/August Bulletin) summarized the com- 
plex conditions that periodically combine to create 
el nifio, described the nature of human occupation of 
the Moche Valley (beginning some 12,000 years 
ago), and sketched the ingenious irrigation system 
devised by the valley's early inhabitants. The rise 
and fall of irrigation systems in the valley are cur- 
rently the subject of intensive study by Field 
Museum's Michael E. Moseley and Robert A. 
Feldman and other members of the Programa Riego 
Antigua, or PRA (Ancient Irrigation Program). 



The Quebrada Rio Seco 

During 1978, staff scientists combined forces in a 
concentrated effort to move beyond the archaeo- 
logical findings and use geological evidence to 
evaluate the existence of a large pre-Columbian 
flood. The Quebrada Rio Seco and the Rio Moche 
were chosen for intensive study because they would 
register different sources of runoff, and because 



fred L. Nials is a geologist at Eastern New Mexico Uni- 
versity who specializes in archaeological applications of 
geology. Eric E. Deeds is a Harvard senior who, as a PRA 
consultant, first identified the effects of the Chimu 
flood. Michael E. Moseley. codirector of the PRA, is 
associate curator of Middle and South American archae- 
ology and ethnology at Field Museum. Shelia and 
Thomas G. Pozorski, codirectors of the PRA, are on the 
staff of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pitts- 
burgh. Robert A. Feldman is a research archaeologist 
with the Field Museum's PRA. 




they contained prehistoric remains that could be 
dated and cross-correlated with erosional features. 
The challenge of the undertaking was the lack of 
any known geologic methods for distinguishing one 
nino flood from another, to say nothing of compar- 
ing magnitudes of different inundations. 

Survey in the Rio Seco revealed silts and fine- 
grained flood deposits typical of channel margins in 
many localities and at varying heights above chan- 
nel bottoms. The excellent preservation and lack of 
differential weathering of these deposits proved to 
be a problem because all the deposits looked iden- 
tical and sediments resulting from the 1925 niiio 
could not be distinguished from those of earUer or 
later floods. Recognition of the extent of the 1925 
flood was critical because it was the largest known 
water flow since Spanish colonization. Unless the 
margins of this flodd could be distinguished, no 
basis existed for comparison with earlier floods. 

Careful examination of ground and aerial pho- 
tographs taken in 1926, 1942, and 1969 revealed 




that the boundaries of the 1925 flood could be 
precisely identified in most areas by comparing ero- 
sional features and aeolian deposits inside and 
outside the channels. Small coppice dunes were par- 
ticularly important because many of the individual 
dunes appearing in photographs made as early as 
1926 could still be recognized and identified 52 
years later! Dunes that may have been present in 
channels during the 1925 inundation were either 
completely washed away or were truncated by ero- 
sion along the channel margins. The sequence 
photos also revealed that by 1942 no new coppice 
dunes had formed in the channel bottoms flooded 
during 1925. Thus, by examining the distribution of 
these little sand dunes it proved possible, in most 
areas, to delineate the exact margins of the largest 
flood to have come down the Rio Seco since the 
Spanish arrived. 

Continuing survey showed that throughout 
the quebrada, fine-grained flood deposits were con- 
sistently present at levels higher than the 1925 



sediments. These high-level deposits were often 
capped by coppice dunes. To demonstrate that the 
sediments belonged to the Chimu cataclysm 
depended upon accurately dating them, and upon 
making sure there had been no significant changes 
in the braided drainage of the quebrada. 

The Rio Seco was extensively farmed by the 
Chimu, who constructed numerous canals, roads, 
and walls across the wash. Within the flood plain 
they also built the town of Cerro La Virgen. The set- 
tlement straddled a large road that ran up the north 
bank of the quebrada, and then crossed over 
culverts of a large canal. Survey and excavation 
demonstrated that the canal had been destroyed by 
the Chimii flood. The interconnecting road indicated 
that the canal and the town had once been in con- 
temporary use; therefore, the settlement should also 
have been impacted by the deluge. Survey of the 
ruins showed many areas buried by flood sediments 
deposited at higher levels than the margins of the 
1925 inundation. Excavations revealed that the 



Figs. 1, 2. Photo at left 
is aerial view 11942) of 
the coastal village of 
Huanchaco, located at 
mouth of Rio Seco. 
Lighter area in left 
view is that eroded by 
1925 nine's flood. 
Photo at right, taken in 
1970. shows occupation 
of 1925 flood area by 
new buildings— summer 
homes of Trujillo and 
Lima residents. If 
flooding feccurred here 
—as it certainly will— 
the destruction would 
be enormous. 



flood sediments immediately overlay room floors 
and occupational remains; this indicated that the 
town was inhabited at the time of inundation and 
then abandoned. By using evidence of ancient 
canals, roads, walls, and coppice dunes in other 
regions of the Rio Seco, it was possible to date addi- 
tional high-level flood deposits to Chimu times and 
cross-tie them to the ancient disaster that befell the 
inhabitants of Cerro La Virgen. 

The next problem confronting the geological 
staff was possible alterations in the quebrada 
drainage pattern. The coastline has undergone some 
6 to 8 meters of uplift during the past several thou- 
sand years, and when vertical displacement occurs, 
the gradient of a stream, such as the Rio Seco, is 
locally steepened adjacent to the coastline. This 
causes water to flow faster in the steepened portion, 
with a resultant downcutting and entrenchment of 
the stream. The steepened portion will erode 
upstream until the entire stream system becomes 
entrenched and adjusted to the new level. If 
downcutting had occurred in the Quebrada Rio Seco 
during or since the Chimu flood, it would make all 
floods following downcutting appear to be smaller in 
volume, because the channels would be deeper and 
consequently hold more water. 

Gravel-quarrying operations have almost 
completely obliterated the lowermost 1 Vi 
kilometers of the Rio Seco. so that traditional 
geologic methods of comparing terrace gradients as 
a means of checking for downcutting could not be 
applied. Fortunately, archaeological evidence pro- 
vided clues. In numerous instances remnants of 
canals, walls, and other manmade features were 
found in the bottoms of channels, which indicated 
that virtually no downcutting had occurred except 
in the lowermost reaches of the quebrada. Also, 
some of the canals crossing the quebrada were grad- 
ed to the level of existing channel bottoms, so that 
gravel bars between channels were trenched to the 
same level as the channels on either side. Examina- 
tion of the canals and channels showed that all were 
still at essentially the same level. Downcutting 
could therefore be ehminated as a complicating fac- 
tor in the comparison of floods. 

A knottier problem was caused by the type of 
drainage pattern. Since the normal flow in these 
streams is in the form of multiple, shallow, relative- 
ly impermanent channels, it was possible that the 
stream had merely shifted course slightly and 
diverted more water down one channel than another 
for some period of time. Deposits and erosional 
features in the channel receiving the diverted water 
would thus indicate higher volumes of flow. If water 
were repeatedly diverted to other channels, most of 
the channels would then seem to have been affected 
by a Ifirge flood, although this was actually not the 
case. Once more, a close comparison of floods seemed 
highly problematical. Archaeological evidence again 
provided a resolution of the problem. Closely spaced 
parallel walls and canals crossing the Rio Seco 
allowed comparison of each channel in relation to an 
archaeological feature of known age. By using this 
method of examination the possibility of diversion 
from one channel to another was eliminated in most 
cases. Indeed, the bulk of evidence suggests that lit- 
tle shifting of channels has occurred during or since 
the Chimu flood. This method also effectively 



counters the arguments of lateral erosion and dam- 
ming as factors in erosion of early archaeological 
features. 

Unfortunately, the nature of the evidence 
allows comparison only between the 1925 flood and 
the largest flood prior to that time. Deposits of 
intervening floods have either been eroded away or 
buried by younger deposits. The 1891 flood, also 
reportedly of large magnitude, could not be 
recognized on the basis of geological evidence. The 
nature and number of channels, and the destruction 
of the lower reaches of the quebrada make calcula- 
tion of peak flow during the Chimu flood difficult. 
Very conservative initial estimates of the Chimu 
flood indicate a peak flow at least two to four times 
the size of the 1925 inundation. No means of esti- 
mating the duration of flow of either flood exists. 

Geological and archaeological evidence from 
the Quebrada Rio Seco clearly demonstrates the 
occurrence of a large-magnitude Chimu flood which 
affected drainages receiving locally derived runoff. 



The Rio Moche 

The lands along the north side of the Rio Moche are 
intensively farmed, and this has obscured evidence 
of past flooding. However, south of the river where 
there is less agricultural development, we find good 
preservation of geological and archaeological 
features relating to the Chimu flood. Two localities 
are particularly important, the Hacienda Santo 
Domingo area near the valley neck, and the Moche 
capital at Huaca del Sol. 

Early in the 1600s Spanish looters looking for 
ancient treasure diverted the Rio Moche against the 
west side of Huaca del Sol, undercutting and 
washing away more than half the mud brick mound. 
This destruction left a large architectural profile 
that by chance was photographed in 1925 as the 
niflo flood waters began to recede. This photograph 
{Fig. 7, in Part I, p. 12), {)rovides reference points for 
the height of the inundation, the base of the mound, 
emd the plain upon which it was built. The plain that 
passes beneath Sol and stretches east to the foot of 
Huaca de la Luna was once covered with buUdings. 
In 1972 we opened a series of excavations there. 
Moche Phase archaeological deposits reached a 
depth of 7 m on the east side of the Sol platform, 
while their depth near the foot of Huaca de la Luna 
was about 2.5 m. Midway between the two mounds 
we found a wide, low platform. Sand and refuse had 
accumulated around the sides of this adobe struc- 
ture, and its flat top was at about the same level as 
the surrounding surface. While the platform was in 
use, Moche burials with subphase III and IV pot- 
tery were built into it. Long after abandonment, the 
mound was reused as a cemetery by Chimu people 
who made pottery dating no later than the middle 
brick phase at Chan Chan. However, prior to Chimu 
reuse the adobe structure had been completely 
saturated with water to the point that the bricks 
reverted to a muddy consistency and upon drying 
encased the Moche burials in a soUd adobe matrix. 
The Chimu graves were cut into resoUdified struc- 
ture and the fill of broken adobe and sand around 
these burials was loose and had not been water con- 
solidated. 



The differences in soil matrices around the 
two sets of burials clearly indicated that massive 
wetting had occurred after Moche subphase IV 
times, but before the end of middle Chimu times. In 
1972 we had great difficulty in accounting for the 
obvious soaking of the site. Even heavy rainfall 
from a strong niflo would not have produced suffi- 
cient local runoff to have saturated the centred plat- 
form between Huacas Sol and Luna. 

During the geological studies of 1978 the 
situation was reassessed. Survey upstream from Sol 
located laminated silt flood deposits, datable to 
early Chimu times, more than 8 m above the modern 
river level. Similar deposits were then identified in 
front of Huaca de la Luna, where they overlay 
Moche phase archaeological deposits. The site had 
been saturated by extremely high river waters. The 
flood deposits in front of Luna were more than 15m 
above the present river level, and more than 8 m 
above the height of the 1925 inundation. Because 
the river floodplain is very broad in the region of 
Huaca del Sol, the Chimu inundation was of stagger- 
ing proportions. In the central valley the swollen 
river probably attained a maximum flood width of 
nearly 4 km and a depth exceeding 15 m. These cal- 



culations of magnitude are supported by other lines 
of evidence from the Hacienda Santo Domingo area. 

The Hacienda Santo Domingo area is located 
on the southern margin of the Rio Moche approx- 
imately 8 km upstream from Huaca del Sol (Fig. 3) . 
The most vivid evidence yet seen of the magnitude 
and erosive capability of the Chimu flood is present 
in this area. 

A broad, relatively flat bench varying from .5 
to 1 km in width and approximately 1.5 km in length 
parallels the Rio Moche between Quebrada Ancados 
and Hacienda Santo Domingo. The bench surface 
averages 12-15 m in height above the present river 
level and is separated from the river by a steep 
escarpment of similar height. A narrow belt of sand 
dunes containing Early Chimu archaeological ma- 
terials caps the escarpment along the upstream half 
of the bench (Fig-. 5) , and other dunes are present on 
the downstream end of the bench. The central por- 
tion of the bench is devoid of aeolian sand and ar- 
chaeological materials except for several sandy 
hummocks up to 6 m high which contain Early 
Chimu artifacts. These sandy hummocks are tear- 
drop-shaped, with the blunt end facing upstream. 

Stratigraphic investigations near the down- 




Fig. 3. Map of 

lower Moche 

Valley, with major 

ancient canals, 

settlements 

referred to in text, 

and area of severe 

erosion caused by 

Chimu flood of ca. 

1100 A.D. 



A 
I 



LEGEND 

Prehistoric Ruin 
!'' Canal 
Wi Flood Erosion Area 

Modern City 

Contour lines every 
10 and 50 meters 




Wash 
Laminae 



Natural 
Sand 



40cm 



vx 




1^4KI(^%:.^K^' 



Fig. 5. Above and right: Left and right portions, 
respectively, of composite photo showing river bank 
near the Santo Domingo area (see map, p. 7). The 
uppermost alluvial sediments (A) east (right) of the 
sand dunes (B) were eroded away by waters of the 
Chimu flood. The entire bluff face was created by the 
same flood, whose waters were about 15 m (49 feet) 
above the present river level. 




stream end of the bench revealed that the upper- 
most strata were missing from the bench and that 
the stratigraphy of the sandy hummocks was 
identical with stratigraphy upstream and 
downstream from the bench. Clearly, massive 
erosion stripped the uppermost 4-6 m from the 
surface of the bench. 

Examination of aerial photographs revealed 
the mechanism of erosion. The Rio Moche had risen 
to a height sufficient to overtop the bench and to 
breach the dunes bordering the river. The central 
portion of the bench was stripped by these flood 
waters, and the sandy hummocks were left as 
islands during the flood. 

Calculation of peak flow is difficult because it 
is impossible to determine the exact level of the 
river prior to flood. The area had been uplifted 6-8 m 
prior to flooding, and downcutting of similar 



magnitude should have occurred prior to or during 
the flood. An extremely conservative estimate, 
allowing for no prior downcutting and a riverbottom 
level 10 m above the present one, requires flood 
waters to have been at least 18 m deep in the central 
portion of the valley. Width of the river during max- 
imum flood stage at this location would have been 
approximately 3.5 km. These figures become even 
more impressive when it is realized that the annual 
rainful for this location averages less than 12 mm. 
Was the flood recognized at Huaca del Sol and 
Hacienda Santo Domingo the same Chimu flood 
described at Quebrada Rio Seco? Evidence at Huaca 
del Sol places the flood during Chimu time. Early 
Chimu sites on the Santo Domingo bench have been 
eroded and removed. A middle brick phase Chimu 
site constructed on the sand dunes at the edge of the 
bench extends across areas stripped by the flood, 



CANAL 2 




Fig. 4. Excavations across the canals clearly show 
the Chimu nino's destruction. The pre-flood Canal 1 
was partially washed away, then buried under near- 
ly 50 cm (20 in.) of flood wash. The reconstruction 
phase waterway, Canal 2, was built at the level of 
the present surface and stone lined for added 
strength. 



but shows no sign of erosion or melting of adobes. 
The pieces of evidence place the flood between early 
and middle Chimu brick phases, the same period as 
the flood on the Quebrada Rio Seco. Even though 
large floods can occur on the Rio Moche in non-nifto 
years, events of 1925 indicate that the largest 
known floods are the result of ninos. While it is not 
possible to definitely say that the Rio Moche 
flooding described was the result of the same niiio 
responsible for Quebrada Rio Seco flooding, it is ex- 
tremely unlikely that two different floods of such 
unusual magnitude should occur within such a 
limited period of time. 



Summary Implications 



'3ai*»ti f 




There is conclusive evidence that a flood of unusual- 
ly large magnitude occurred early in the Chimu 
dynasty, within a century of the year 1100 AD. Its 
effects were particularly devastating. Because the 
volume of discharge was extremely high and 
because tectonic uplift had occurred prior to the 
flood, the large volumes of water triggered river 
downcutting and eroded away significant portions 
of the central valley, destroying the irrigation 
system and modifying patterns of soil drainage, 
thus eliminating much of the agricultural resource 
area. 

The peak discharge of the river and quebradas 
is difficult to determine. However, a very conser- 
vative estimate would be flood waters at least 2 to 4 




Fig. 6. Topographic profile across the Santo Dom- 
ingo area (A to B in Fig. 3, p. 7) showing present 
ground level, the postulated pre-flood level, and 
estimated level of the Chimu flood waters. (The ver- 
tical scale is lOX the horizontal scale.) 



Present Ground Surface 



Pre-Flood Surface 

^^.^ Maximum Flood Level 



HORIZONTAL SCALE 



RIO MOCHE 



B 




-100 

METERS ABOVE 

SEA LEVEL 

9 



times the size of the 1925 floods, the worst in the 
last 400 years. The Chimu flood was undoubtedly 
the result of a particularly intense niflo, because 
niftos are the only known mechanism for producing 
significant rainfall along the coastal desert. Ninos 
£U"e known to be recurrent phenomena, and the 
Chimu flood indicated that the 1925 niiio was not 
some unusually severe quirk of nature. Indeed, it ap- 
pears "mild" in comparison to the catastrophe that 
struck eight centuries earlier. 

Was the Chimu flood simply a fluke of nature? 
Or were there even earlier nifios of similar 
magnitude that might imply a long term pattern of 
recurrence? These are truly pressing questions of 
general concern. Documenting the Chimu inunda- 
tion was a demanding task made possible by 
unusually good preservaton of geological and ar- 
chaeological features afforded by the normally dry 
desert. Field Museum scientists are currently 
evaluating new methods for determining the 
presence and frequency of strong niiios in the past. 
This is imperative because there appears to be 
evidence in the Moche Valley of another large flood 
that occurred about 500 B.C. If this flood is verified, 
it would strengthen the probability that the Chimu 
flood was not unique, and therefore call for some 
serious concern for what the future may bring. 

Planning for such an eventuaUty is perplex- 
ing. At a global level, destruction of the fishing in- 
dustry would require attention to alternate sources 
of protein. At a national level, Peru would face even 
greater complexities. It would be financially infeasi- 
ble to construct roads, canals, and dams capable of 
withstanding floods of the Chimu magnitude. Yet, 
there would have to be some civil defense strategy 
to minimize devastation and loss of life. Because the 



coastal population has grown so rapidly, little 
thought has been given to the location of new or ex- 
panding settlements, many of which are built 
squarely across large quebradas. Centuries ago 
floods in the Rio Seco destroyed the Chimu town of 
Cerro La Virgen. At the mouth of the quebrada the 
1925 floods lapped the fishing village of Huanchaco. 
Today, Huanchaco is a summer resort that has 
grown across the mouth of the Rio Seco {Figs. 1, 2). 
Even a flood of the 1925 magnitude would be 
disastrous, but an inundation of Chimu scope would 
bring near total destruction. 

Long ago the Spanish recorded a "legend" of 
more northerly Chimu people who were once early 
rivals of Chan Chan. They were a powerful nation 
until their king incurred the gods' wrath, and as 
punishment it rained for 30 days and nights. 
Devastating flooding ceased only when the populace 
rose up, bound the king hand and foot, and threw 
him into the ocean. There followed great famine and 
pestilence, lasting for countless years, and then 
Chan Chan's armies swept across the land, conquer- 
ing all. A modern repeat of the Chimu flood could 
well bring a repeat of this "legendary" scenario en- 
tailing revolution, starvation, and eventual foreign 
domination! 



The research program reported above has received 
major financial support from the National Science 
Foundation, with additional funding from the 
Frederick Henry Prince Trust and from Mrs. 
Gatzert Spiegel. Logistic support in the form of 
equipment and personnel was provided by Soiltest, 
Inc., of Evanston, Illinois, through Mr. Theodore W. 
Van Zelst. 




iiffli¥iJM£^?^'iaxil?1IMt'.lt ^^^^^^J^ w^» *» 



Portion oj the Temple oj Heaven. Peking, builtin 1420. one of manv sites awaiting members of Field Museum's November tour to China. (See tour description on 
facing page.) 



Field Museum Tours 



Peru, Oct. 27 -Nov. 15. 

A 20-day tour will visit the ruins of Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, 
Pachacamac, Purgatario, and others. The Plains of Nazca (viewed 
from low-flying aircraft), the Guano Islands, and the Pisac Indian Fair 
will also be visited. The group, limited to 20, will be led by Dr. Michael 
Moseley, associate curator of middle and South American archae- 
ology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in archae- 
ology. A tour escort will also accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 donation to 
Field Museum)— is based upon double occupancy and includes round 
trip air fare between Chicago and Peru and local flights in Peru. Delta 
Airlines will be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. Deluxe accommodations will be used throughout. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals; all sightseeing: all 
admissions to events and sites; all baggage handling; all necessary 
transfers; all applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit: $250.00 per person. 



China, Nov. 5-25 

Peking's Forbidden City, the Summer Palace of the Dowager Em- 
press, the bustling activity of Canton, the ancient pagodas of Kunm- 
ing. These are just a sampling of the sights that lie in store for the 23 
persons (Field Museum members and their families) who visit China 
on Field Museum's exclusive tour this November. 

In addition to fourteen days in China, three days and two 
nights will be spent in London. The tour escort will be Mrs. Katharine 
Lee, a Field Museum volunteer in the Department of Anthropology 
who is fluent in five Chinese dialects. Additional guides in China will be 
provided by the China International Travel Service. The tour cost— 
$4,400 (which includes a $500 donation to Field Museum)— is based 
upon double occupancy and includes round trip air fare from Chicago 
to China. Advance deposit required: $500.00 per person. 



Antarctica, Jan. 6-30, 1980 

Until recently, only explorers were able to view antarctica's wondrous 
beauty. There is no destination more remote, more unspoiled by the 
encroachments of civilization. Our itinerary includes the Falkland 
Islands, a visit to the Patagonian coast, the South Georgia Islands, the 
South Orkney Islands, and of course, antarctica. Dr. Edward Olscn, 
curator of mineralogy, will be tour lecturer. 

The cruise vessel will be the 3,200-ton ship M.S. World 
Discoverer, registered in Hong Kong, which will take us from Punta 
Arenas, Argentina, onwards. Built in 1974, the one-class vessel has all 
outside cabins with private lavatories and showers. The ship's staff in- 
cludes a fully qualified physician. The tour leaves Chicago Jan. 6, 
1980 and returns Jan. 30. Prices per person: C deck twin: $3,230; C 
deck single: $4,870: B deck twin: $3,570; B deck single: $5,390; A 
deck twin: $3,930. Air fare, in addition is $1,225 (round trip between 
Chicago and Punta Arenas, Argentina). Included in the tour price is a 
tax-deductible donation of $500.00 to Field Museum. Deposit re- 
quired at time of registration: $1,000.00 per person. 



Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
with Nile River Cruise 
Jan. 31 -Feb. 17, 1980 

Field Museum once again presents its popular Egypt tour with a Nile 
River cruise. This is the fourteenth such tour offered to Members dur- 
ing the last four years. The new and improved program offers an 
11-day Nile cruise on our own chartered, private, modern Nile 
steamer. In addition, we will be visiting Cairo, Memphis, Sakkara, 
Aswan/Abu Simbel, Edfu, Esna, Kom Ombo, Luxor, Thebes, Valley 
of the Kings and Queens, Dendereh, Abydos, Amarna, Middle 
Kingdom Tombs at Beni Hasan, Pyramid at Medum, and much more. 
Eighteen days exploring Egypt with our Egyptologist, Mrs. Del 
Nord, a doctoral candidate at the Oriental Institute of the University of 
Chicago, who has traveled extensively in Egypt. Leave Chicago on 
January 31, 1980, and return on February 17. Price includes all air 
transportation, meals, Nile cruise, hotels, tips, taxes, transfers, visa 
fees, admissions, baggage handling, escorts, and more. $3,595.00 
per person based upon double occupancy. The tour price includes a 
$500.00 contribution to the Field Museum. A $500.00 per person 
deposit is required for reservation confirmation. The group is limited to 
30 persons. Single supplement is available upon request, Nile Cruise 
and land. 



Kenya Safari 
Feb. 13-March 5, 1980 

The wildlife of Kenya, both plant and animal, will be the focal point of 
this exciting 22-day tour of Kenya. An added bonus will be one of 
nature's most spectacular phenomena, a total eclipse of the sun which 
will occur on Feb. 16, 1980, and which you will view from the perfect 
vantage point, the Taita Hills. On the tour you will visit Nairobi, Am- 
boseli beneath Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tsavo West, Tsavo East, Mombasa on 
the Indian Ocean, the Ark, Samburu, Mt. Kenya Safari Club, Lake 
Naivasha, Masai Mara adjoining the Serengeti, and more. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert Faden, assistant curator of 
botany, and his wife, Audrey Joy Faden. Dr. Faden lived in Kenya for 
more than seven years and is very well versed in the flora. Audrey 
Faden, a wildlife artist, was born and raised in Kenya and has a first- 
hand knowledge of the fauna. 

The tour leaves Chicago on Feb. 13, 1980, and returns March 
5. Price includes all air transportation, meals, transportation within 
Kenya, hotels, tips, taxes, visas, transfers, baggage handling, admis- 
sions, escorts, and more. The tour cost is $4,575.00 per person based 
upon double occupancy from Chicago; this includes a $500.00 con- 
tribution to Field Museum. A $750.00 deposit per person is required 
for reservation confirmation. The group is limited to 25 persons. 
Single supplement is available upon request. 



For additional information and reservations for all tours, 
call or write Michael J. Fl[;nn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605. 
Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. „ 



Illinois Archaeology Tour 

A Brief Report 



By Robert B. Pickering 
Tour Leader 

Photos by the author 



Excavation at the 

Koster site will be 

filled in during 

1979. 



The Familiar Term •Archaeology," for most, 
probably brings to mind expeditions to exotic 
places: the jungles of Yucatan, mysterious Angkor 
Wat, or Egyptian wonders such as Abu Simbel. But 
right here in Illinois we also have some highly 
significant and interesting archaeological sites, as 
25 participants in a recent Field Museum field trip 
will readily attest. 

The main purpose of the five-day field trip, 
which took place during the first week of June, was 
to give the participants some first-hand knowledge 
of Illinois' own prehistoric wonders; but the trip was 
also an opportunity to examine contemporary ar- 
chaeological theory and methodology and to ob- 



serve the dangers being posed to prehistoric sites by 
expanding urbanization and the attendant tech- 
nologies. 

Dickson Mounds, near Lewistown, in west 
central Illinois, was the first stop on the trip. The 
Dickson Mounds Museum, built in 1972, is the 
newest major structure in the Illinois State 
Museum system; yet it represents one of the oldest 
continuous archaeology projects in the Midwest and 
perhaps the country. In 1927, Dr. Don F. Dickson, a 



Robert B. Pickering is a doctoral candidate in 
anthropology at Northwestern University. 




chiropractor, began uncovering on his bluff-top pro- 
perty the physical remains and artifacts of what are 
now known as Late Woodland and Mississippian 
peoples. Using his own private funds and those of 
family and friends, Dickson uncovered a con- 
siderable portion of the ancient cemetery there. A 
remarkable feature of Dickson's work is his ap- 
proach: he preserved the excavation without remov- 
ing any of the artifacts, bones, or other material of 
historic value. Everything was left in situ so that 
visitors could see these materials in their natural 
condition. Very early in his excavations, Dickson 
persuaded some eminent anthropologists to visit his 
discovery. Fay-Cooper Cole, Thome Deuel, George 
Neumann, and other distinguished scientists thus 

John White 
makes fishline 

cord jrom ^^Hl^^ ^L 
sapling bark. ^r^Jj^g: W^ 



The second leg of the archaeological tour was 
to the Kampsville area, not far from the confluence 
of the lUinois and Mississippi rivers. Kampsville is 
the center of activity for the Foundation for Illinois 
Archaeology, which is involved in archaeological re- 
search throughout the Lower lUinois River Valley. 
Most famous of the sites in this region is 
Koster— the subject of a recent best-seller by Stuart 
Streuver and Felicia A. Hoi ton (reviewed elsewhere 
in this issue). Much more than mere excavating goes 
on in this portion of The Valley. (Capitalization is de 
rigueur among those initiated early in their careers 
to the archaeological rites of passage in Kampsville.) 
Perhaps the most distinctive part of the FIA pro- 
gram is the abundance of laboratories whose staffs 




became actively involved in research there. 

Today, at Dickson Mounds Museum, we see a 
combination of traditional and untraditional exhibi- 
tion. In the traditional vein, there are a number of 
excellent displays and life-size dioramas which de- 
pict aspects of Ufe during the tiine when Dickson 
Mounds were being used (ca. 1100-1250 A.D.) as well 
as during earUer periods. The covered cemetery 
itself is the most fascinating and distinctive portion 
of the museum faciUty. One can view the actual 
excavation then learn more about it by means of a 
sUde presentation and taped program. 

Just a few hundred yards south of the main 
museum building is a cluster of aboriginal dwell- 
ings over which structures have been erected in or- 
der to better preserve them and facilitate their view- 
ing. Although construction materials used by the 
Eastern Woodland Indians (frameworks of wooden 
poles and daub-covered branches, roofs of grass or 
bark thatching) do not preserve well, it is possible to 
see the burned remains of 900-year-old buildings 
and to learn something of their construction 
and use. 



not only anedyze local archaeological materials but 
make comparative collections, do experimental 
work, and train others. The zoology, botany, and 
palynology laboratories attempt to identify the spe- 
cies of animal remains, plant remains, and poUen, re- 
spectively, from soil samples that are recovered ar- 
chaeologically. What is known of these species as 
they exist today is then appUed to understand how 
they were useful centuries ago to the Indians. 

Experimental archaeology, another Kamps- 
ville program, provides information which can be 
used in interpreting finds and in reconstructing past 
cultures. Within this sphere are the activities of 
John White (former Field Museum staff member 
who was instrumental in development of the Mu- 
seum's highly acclaimed Pawnee earth lodge ex- 
hibit). With his own hands. White creates all variety 
of utiUtarian objects of the sort once used by In- 
dians, from dwelUngs to fishhooks. The raw materi- 
als he uses are gathered from the natural environ- 
ment and in a manner that has been recorded by 
ethno-historians. 

White and his helpers— often Chicago-area 



13 




n 



Tour members 

examine replica of 

Woodland sty/e 

home constructed by 

John White and 

student groups. 

Plastic covering is for 

protection against 



14 



school children— have built a number of Woodland 
houses or lodges out of poles, daub, and thatch- 
structures that are similar to lodges seen and de- 
scribed by European explorers in the 1700s. We 
know from the archaeological record that similar 
types of dwellings were in use by the Indians for 
many centuries prior to the coming of Europieans. 
Does this construction work do more than keep a lot 
of school kids busy? The answer is yes. By building 
a number of structures. White and his fellow 
workers have been able to estimate the amount of 
time which would have been necessary for cutting 
poles, erecting the frame, the sequence of construc- 
tion steps, and perhaps even the size of the building 
team. White also makes items that are much 
smaller. Tour members watched him deftly cut 
down a sapling, peel its bark, and fashion the bark 
into strong cord. By fastening to the cord a thorn 
from a honey locust tree, he created a useful 
fishhook similar to those used today on so-called 
trotUnes. The entire procedure required about 30 
minutes; White used only tools and materials that 
would have been available centuries ago in the 
natural environment, including a stone hand axe. 

Another member of the experimental archae- 
ology project is Greg Thomas, a flint-knapper; that 
is, he fashions articles from chert or flint with tools 



identical to those used over a thousand years ago. 
Thomas held the group spellbound as he trans- 
formed a large piece of local chert into a beautiful 
Snyder's point (a local type of projectile point which 
dates to between 200 B.C. and A.D. 400). His only 
tools were cobbles from a stream bed, pieces of deer 
and elk antlers, and cold-beaten copper. (Though 
copper is not native to the area, the Indians who 
made the Snyder's point had access to the metal by 
trading with residents of northern Michigan.) 

Using traditional tools, Thomas is able to re- 
produce not just the shape of artifacts but even the 
flaking patterns characteristic of a particular style. 
His work has enabled archaeologists who speciaUze 
in the study of stone tools to better understand how 
they were orginally made and used. 

The final stop of the field trip was at Cahokia 
Mounds State Park, a few miles east of St. Louis. 
The Cahokia Mounds, of which there were originally 
more than 100, have long been objects of wonder- 
ment to travellers. Today, unfortunately, most of 
the mounds are gone— victims of looting, bulldoz- 
ing, and dynamiting by artifact-hunters and subur- 
ban land-developers; many of the remaining mounds 
have been defaced. All this has been done to what 
was possibly the largest "city" north of Mexico at 
A.D. 1000. Today, Cahokia's central portion, in- 




eluding Monk's Mound— the largest of these struc- 
tures, is owned by the state; much of the remednder 
of the site, however, is on private land and has no 
protection from vandalism or the encroachment of 
land-developers . 

From the eu-chaeolog^cal standpoint, the site 
is so extensive that it has taken many years for the 
complexity and importance of Cahokia to be fuUy 
recognized. Archaeological teams from the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, University of Chicago, Washington 
University, Beloit College, and University of Wis- 
consin at Milwaukee have been active in coordi- 
nated research in the area. Rather recently, archae- 
ologists discovered what is being called the Ameri- 
can Woodhenge: a large circle defined by poles 
spaced at regular intervals. It has been suggested 
that this structure may have been used to chart the 
path of the sun in its annual cycle from north to 
south. It also appears that some of the mounds were 
precisely positioned and that they served as 




*■' 



One of the larger 
round-top mounds at 
Cahokia Mounds 
State Park. Flat area 
in foreground is part 
of the plaza that 
extends south from 
Monk's Mound. 



markers of periodic celestial events. In any case, 
some general pattern is evident in the Cahokia 
mound group, suggesting an advanced level of 
organization and planning. A tour of Monk's 
Mound, the plaza area in front, the reconstructed 
stockade, and the Woodhenge impressed tour mem- 
bers with the size, organization, and the amount of 
labor and energy needed to create the complex. 

The lUinois archaeological field trip was an 
ambitious undertaking. Through site visits, nature 
hikes, native American craft demonstrations, slide 
lectures, and group discussions, nearly 10,000 years 
of prehistory and techniques of research from vari- 
ous field were compressed into five short days. This 
kind of crash course did not make an instant expert 
of anyone, but it is hoped that each participant 
came away with a deepened appreciation for ar- 
chaeological research, and for the effort that is 
being made here in Illinois to preserve and under- 
stand part of the past. 



A Snyder's point 
made b^i Greg 
Thomas together with 
tools used to fashion it. 



15 



JUNGLE ISLANDS 

The "Illyria" in the South Seas 

An account of the Crane Pacific Expedition of Field Museum, 1928-29 



Part II 



Abridged from Jungle Islands, by Sidney N. Shurcliff. G. 
abridged, by permission of the author. 



P. Putnam's Sons. New York (1930). Reproduced here, as 



Part I of Jungle Islands, appearing in the July/ 
August Bulletia covered the first several months of 
the expedition. During this time the Illyria sailed 
from Boston to Bermuda. Haiti. Panama, Cocos 
Island, the Galapagos, and several other stops 
before reaching the New Hebrides, at which point 
we continue the account: 

^™"iarly the next morning the Illyria anchored in 
^^ protected water off the small island of Wala 
•^■^ and we arose to begin a day which turned out 
to be one of the most eventful of the whole trip. A 
glance at the shore was most encouraging, for 
instead of palm trees and tin roofs we saw a dense 
jungle almost crowding the white beach into the sea. 
Only a few low, thatched huts were hidden in the 
undergrowth. Better still, the beach was lined with 
outrigger canoes which had been drawn up above 
the high-tide level and already dark-skinned figures 
could be seen dragging some of them to the water. 
Soon the Illyria was surrounded by friendly 
natives who paddled around and around her 







Sketches by Walt Weber 



apparently very curious about this strange ship and 
its occupants. We were as much interested in their 
boats as they were in ours, for each canoe had a 
carved figure-head. Most of the figures were 
grotesque birds but a few other animals were 
represented. We also noticed the ingenious way in 
which the outriggers were joined. 

Some of the natives could speak a little 
"beche-la-mar, " the South Sea equivalent for pidgin 
English, and of this we were soon given a sample. A 
man of more intelligent appearance than the rest 
looked up at me and asked, "Sip (ship) belong Vila? " 

Having studied a treatise on pidgin English I 
was able to answer, "Sip he no belong Vila. Belong 
America!" 

"Melica he stop long way?" 

"Long, long way too much," I explained, 
"more long way Vila." 

The native frowned thoughtfully for some 
time, apparently at the novel idea that anything 
could be further away than Vila. Then he smiled. 
"Vila more better." he said and paddled away in 
triumph. 

Shortly afterward we went ashore in our small 
boat and scores of natives who came running at the 
unusual sound of our outboard motor helped us get 
our equipment ashore. But this feat once accom- 
plished they became shy and constrained in their 
manner. A few women who had been lurking at the 
outskirts of the gathering took to their canoes and 
throwing some old rags over their heads and 
shoulders paddled away as fast as they could. Some 
small boys retreated to the jungle and three old 
men, naked, unless white hair and beards can be 
called clothing, glanced at us in hostile fashion and 
each produced from one of the beached canoes an old 
Snyder rifle loaded with antiquated but still 
dangerous cartridges. 

The young men, however, continued to be 
friendly and invited us to visit the "place belong 
dance." As we were considering this offer a Cathohc 
priest came walking along the beach. We were 
surprised to find him there, but he explained in 
French that he had been visiting a neighboring 
island and having seen our ship had paddled over to 
make a call. He said that the natives were very 
friendly except those of the generation of the three 
old men with the rifles. Their generation has never 
recovered from the bloody customs of cannibal days 
and such fierce feuds are still maintained between 
the different groups that they seldom dare to 



venture abroad without their weapons. 

The natives of Wala once Hved across the 
strait on the mainland of Malekula but the hostihty 
of the bushmen from the interior forced them to 
take to their canoes and seek safety on the island. 
Since no bushman dares to enter a canoe the 
inhabitants of Wala are safe from attack at home. 
However, the women must go across the strait into 
the danger zone every day in order to work in the 
gardens which are still maintained in the ancient 
clearings on the mainland. An armed escort always 
accompanies the women and thus a desultory 
guerilla warfare is carried on from year to year. 

The Catholic Father explained that we need 
not be apprehensive as no white man has been 
molested on Wala for years. . . . He offered to show 
us the dance grounds himself. . . . 

Imagine yourself tramping along an ancient 
trail through a dense tropical foliage so thick that 
there is only a half light. The quiet of the forest is 
unbroken by any sound from your barefooted guides 
but occasionally you hear a few sweet, liquid notes 
from the throat of an unseen bird that might well be 
a woodland spirit. On rounding a bend in the trail 
you look past the buttressed, creeper shrouded tree 
trunks in the foreground, into an immense natural 
cathedral. Its sides consist of the trunks of trees 
and its arched roof is symmetrically formed more 
than a hundred feet above you by their lower 
branches. At the further end is a gigantic cylinder of 
twisted roots and snarled vines— the trunk of a 
banyan tree. The many strands join into a single 
great bole some sixty feet above the ground and at a 
still greater height the branches spread out into an 
enormous canopy. From each branch hang vines and 
tendrils, like stalactites from the roof of a cave. The 
sheer beauty, the weird luxuriance, the sense of 
mysticism in the "devil-devil" glades of Wala 
exceeded anything we found in all the Pacific 
islands. 

This meirvelous setting occupies at first only 
the margin of your attention for something even 
more striking has caught your eye. Under the 
banyan tree are a multitude of grotesque tubular 
wooden forms with carved caricatures of faces, 
hollow eyes and long gray bodies— the devil-devils. 
They rise from the ground like toadstools, leaning at 
the crazy angles of futuristic skyscrapers. Of 
different heights and diameters they possess 
boundless individuality. 

Some of these leering wooden giants are 
drums. They are made from a section of tree trunk 
partially hollowed out through a long slit in the 
front. When one is beaten with the fist it gives off a 
low note which echoes and reverberates through the 
aisles of the forest. If beaten harder with a stick the 
sound can be heard for miles, so the natives make 
use of the drums for signaUing as well as for dance 
music. Many of the faces which have been so 
carefully carved have queer, human expressions, 
some of them positively humorous. They might be a 
gathering of hoary mountaineers. . . . 

That evening we tried an experiment to which 
we had long looked forward. We gave the natives 
their first motion picture show. A screen was 
fastened on the boat-boom at right angles to the side 
of the ship and the electrically operated projector 
was placed on the gangway. By this arrangement 




we could see the screen from the deck, while our 
audience also had a good view from their canoes in 
the water. They had promised "to come along sip 
when sun he go finish," but for half an hour after 
dark we saw not a sign of one. Finally the Captain 
gave a few blasts on his whistle and within five 
minutes our audience arrived. There were about 
thirty-five canoes from different islands, each 
loaded with men, women and children, and as the 
title of the picture flashed onto the screen they 
gasped with amazement. 

The first scene, which showed an African 
native beating a drum, met with great approval: 
Then an audible murmur went over the audience as 
a group of natives was shown and when these began 
a war dance the excitement was terrific; our 
spectators gave vent to excited war whoops and 
made stabbing motions with their paddles. The 
excitement changed to disapprobation when a white 
man was seen in charge of the Africans. An 
aeroplane was viewed with complete indifference, 
but an automobile was considered highly amusing. 

... Of course they could not understand the 
story at all but they were not surprised at the 
closeups and they seemed to grasp any representa- 
tion of objects with which they were familiar. This 
was especially interesting because the reactions of 
the natives of New Guinea were in exact contrast 
when later they saw the same picture. They showed 
no interest in the automobile but were very excited 
by the aeroplane (perhaps because one had flown 
over them at some time). They were bored with the 



Author-photo- 
grapher Sidney 
Shurcliff with his 
cumbersome 35mm 
movie camera. His 
exciting 90-minute, 
six-reel film of the 
Crane Expedition 
will be shown at 
Field Museum on 
Saturday, Septem- 
ber 29. (See coupon, 
p. 24). 



IT 



African natives but burst into roars of laughter at a 
close-up of the heroine. 

At one point the audience was nearly stam- 
peded. Schmidty took a flashlight picture of them 
from the bridge, just above the screen, and by a 
queer coincidence he exploded the powder at exactly 
the same instant a man on the screen aimed a rifle at 
the audience. The brilliant flash momentarily 
blinded everyone and no doubt our audience 
thought they had been shot and killed for they were 
paralyzed with fright and did not utter a sound. 
Then, finding that everything was continuing as 
before, they concluded it was "something belong 
white man" and roared with laughter. 



truly terrifying, and I had to remind myself that 
everything was all right. . . . 

The climax of the evening had been reached 
for afterward there was only a repetition of the same 
drumming, singing and war whoops until finally it 
became very monotonous. When we turned on our 
Ughts to find who had been responsible for such a 
remarkable vocal output we saw a queer assortment 
of boys, young men and old men, about thirty in all. 
Although they sang in unison, their movements 
were anything but rhythmic. Apparently the 
population of Rano has become so depleted of late 
years that it is necessary to impress the entire male 
population for the chorus and, unlike small children, 
they are better heard than seen. 




18 



They watched five reels with close attention 
and at the close of the performance thanked us with 
an assortment of bloodcurdling war whoops. 

After the picture show we went to the island 
of Rano about two miles away to see a dance for 
which Cornelius had arranged earlier in the day. We 
were met on the beach by a handful of natives who 
led us burdened with our heavy motion picture 
camera, flares, lights and other equipment for half a 
mile into the woods. Presently we came to a "devil- 
devil" glade and with our flashlights spotted the 
customary banyan tree and ten devil-devils. . . . We 
retired to a corner of the glade and waited in 
darkness complete except for the light of an old 
kerosene lantern. . . . 

As if to fulfill my expectations a low rhythmi- 
cal drumming reached our ears— apparently from 
the direction of the devil-devils— soft at first but 
increasing in volume. Then a faint weird sound of 
many human voices could be heard repeating in 
unison a few eerie notes. Cornelius said it sounded 
like the ancient Gregorian chant of the Roman 
Catholic Church. The sound, plainly at a great dis- 
tance—almost as if in another world— grew louder 
and louder and then died away. After a short silence 
the drumming began again and as before the 
singing followed— but this time the singers had 
evidently come nearer. Again and again this perfor- 
mance was repeated and each time the singers 
closed in. When they had reached a point we judged 
not far away there came a sudden change in the 
technique. The gentle drumming and eerie singing 
was given as before but when we expected it to die 
away there came instead a series of hair-raising 
screams, not a hundred feet distant. The din was 



When the dance was over we attempted to 
reward our hosts by presenting them with bead 
necklaces which we had selected long before at the 
ten-cent store at home. One more of our illusions of 
the South Seas was disrupted when the natives 
disdainfully refused the beads. 

"He no good," growled the chief. "Me no like. 
Me want him feller whickey (whiskey). White master 
gammon along me too much altogether." 

The dancers were so angry when they found 
we had brought none of their favorite beverage that 
if we had been a smaller party or if the event had 
occurred a score of years ago, I believe they would 
have attempted a reprisal. As it was such hostile 
looks were directed at us that we made a quick 
return to the beach and pushed off at once in our 
boats. 

We reached the Illyria about midnight and 
went quickly to bed after a long day. . . . Walt had 
made several sketches and Schmidty had found four 
or five unusual lizards. For my part I had exposed in 
one day 830 feet of film and sixty still pictures as 
well as projecting the five-reel "thriller." 

The following day we anchored off the island 
of Malo in the strait between that island and 
Espiritu Santo. On the shore was a large cocoanut 
plantation belonging to Mr. Wells, a hospitable and 
well educated Australian planter. Luckily for us, 
Mr. Adam, the District Officer for whom we were 
looking, was visiting Wells. . . . Wells said he could 
take us into the bush behind his plantation to see 
some of the more friendly bush natives. 

Adam was less encouraging. "So you want to 
visit the Big Nambas tribe?" he said. "They're still 
cannibeds and we can't trust them to behave. 



Perhaps you are willing to take the chance. I 'm not. 
So I can't give you permission." 

His reason was that if we should get killed by 
the Big Nambashe would have to send to Australia 
for a battleship to punish the culprits. This very 
thing has happened several times and each time the 
blame for the heavy expenses incurred by the 
battleship has fallen upon the head of the local 
District Office. We tried to convince Adam that we 
were not anxious to commit suicide. He promised to 
think the matter over. . . . 

Wells hit upon the happy plan of inviting all 
the bushmen and their wives to come down to his 
plantation the next morning so that we could 
photograph them with our heavy, more efficient 
cameras. At first the chief did not seem very 
enthusiastic about this plan, but by good luck 1 
happened to have a cheap bracelet in my pocket and 
when this was presented to him and an offer made of 
a similar gift to every one who could come to the 
plantation he smiled and gave in. In fact he prom- 
ised to bring not only several "big feller masters all 
same along me," but also "marys belong masters." 

When we asked him what time he would come 



Field Museum taxidermist Frank C. Wonder with 
young orangutan friend in Borneo, the final island to 
be visited by the Crane Expedition. Wonder 
(1903-1963) was on the Field Museum staff from 1926 
to 1954. 




he pointed into the air at an angle of about forty 
degrees with the horizon and said, "Sun he stop." 

"Good." said Wells, "that means eight 
o'clock. I expect there will be more bushmen at the 
plantation tomorrow than I have ever seen there at 
one time. " 

On the way back to the plantation one of our 
party inadvertently touched a stinging nettle. 
Within half an hour his hand began to swell and 
became very painful. As soon as we reached his 
house Wells treated the hand with ammonia. The 
pain at once decreased and the swelling soon 
disappeared. This incident reminded Wells of an 
event which occurred twenty years before, when he 
had first come from Australia and was the only 
white man on the island. 

"1 was just a kid then," he said. "I had never 
heard of these rotten nettles. One day, when 1 was 
helping the natives clear the land, I unwittingly 
chopped down a nettle bush. 

"There was hell to pay. Within an hour my 
hands, face and whole body became terribly swollen. 
My skin formed into such tremendous blisters that 1 
could neither see nor open my mouth. Yet 1 didn't 
know what had made me sick. 

"1 hung between life and death for three 
weeks, and was delirious most of the time. Several of 
the 'boys' were faithful— they gave me water and a 
little food. Then a trading schooner came to my 
harbor, and by purest chance a young medical 
student happened to be aboard. He brought me out 
of my terrible plight by bathing me with ordinary 
ammonia. " . . . 

Recruiting is one of the big problems of the 
British planters in the New Hebrides. The French 
are allowed to import Indonese laborers, but the 
English are required by their laws to find plantation 
hands within their own islands. 

The difficulty lies in the fact that the natives 
are able to live perfectly happy lives without 
working at all. Hence, the plantation owners must 
offer them very attractive bait to make them "sign 
on" for work. The only alternative is to kidnap 
laborers. 

Kidnapping has been so prevalent in the past 
that the wilder natives have become wary of 
recruiters and often fire upon boats which approach 
their harbors. At other, times they ambush white 
men who dare to land on the beaches. 

Certain planters who have built up reputa- 
tions for honesty and square dealing with the 
natives have come to be trusted and respected. 
When they go recruiting they give away valuable 
presents to the chiefs. They pay well the "boys" 
who work for them and they return the boys to their 
homes when the working period (1 to 3 years) is 
over. 

These honorable planters are usually success- 
ful in the long run. Nevertheless, even they take a 
certain risk when recruiting, for if some dishonest 
planter has recently kidnapped a native, his friends 
are apt to fire upon the next white man who 
approaches, whether he has a good reputation or 
not. Hence landings on strange islands are always 
made with two boats. One stays off shore with a 
crew of riflemen and covers the landing of the other. 
The landing party does not leave the beach for fear 
of ambush in the jungle. All business is transacted 
at the water's edge. 



19 



"But, accidents do happen," said Adam. 
"Two planters were killed and eaten last year. They 
had been careless. That's why I don't want you 
fellows to take any chances." 

"Still, there is one place I might take you," he 
continued slowly. "It's an inland village of the Big 
Nambas tribe on Malekula Island. The natives there 
have recently shown signs of friendliness. They 
have aUowed one missionary, Nicholson, to visit 
their village. He went only once, and was undoub- 
tedly the first white man who has ever been there, 
but if we can get him to go with us I think we shall 
be safe. So if you are willing to fool around for two or 
three days while I get Nicholson, I will not only give 
you permission to go, but I will go along with you. 

... It was decided that Cornehus, Dr. Moss, 
Murry and Chuck should be the lucky ones to go 
inland. Schmidty, Walt and Frank elected to be left 



Karl P. Schmidt 
(1890-1957), herpetol- 
ogist of international 
renown, served on 
the Field Museum 
staff from 1922 until 
1955. He was chief 
curator of zoology at 
the time of his retire- 
ment. During the 
Crane Expedition he 
collected more than 
2,000 reptile and 
amphibian 
specimens. 



The bushmen were supposed to come at eight in the 
morning, but it was not until eleven that the first 
one appeared. 

After "plenty long time too much" seven 
more men straggled out of the underbrush. They 
were dressed in shells, bead money and ferns, and 
their faces were elaborately painted. 

They understood nothing about the camera, 
but they regarded being photographed as a great 
honor. When we posed one man alone the others 
were so jealous that we could hardly keep them from 
crowding into the picture. 

With the motion picture camera the difficul- 
ties were even greater. It seems that because they 
were chiefs four of the men felt entitled to stand 
directly in front of the other four at all times. We 
managed to get them to dance around in a circle, but 
the instant I began to grind the camera the four 




20 



at Hog Harbor, fifty miles away, to collect speci- 
mens while the Big Nambas expedition was under 
way.* We still had our date to keep with the bush- 
men, so we stayed at WeUs's plantation overnight. 
I had been very much impressed by the way in 
which Wells had told what time the natives would 
come by the angle at which the chief pointed into 
the sky. Now I began to lose faith in the method. 



*Expedition members mentioned here were expedi- 
tion leader Cornelius Crane; Dr. William L. Moss of 
the Harvard Medical School; Murry N. Fairbank 
and Charles R. Peavy ("Chuck"}, both Harvard 
classmates of Cornelius; Field Museum herpetolo- 
gist Karl P. Schmidt; Walter Alois Weber, Field 
Museum illustrator; and Frank C Wonder, Field 
Museum taxidermist. 



chiefs would stop and stand in a line in front of the 
others who, although they kept on dancing, could no 
longer be seen. Once one of the chiefs tried to stand 
in front of the other three, but they roughly pulled 
him back into line. Matters of etiquette are not 
taken lightly in the New Hebrides. 

We were about to give up in despair when six 
"Marys" came doWn the trail from the jungle. They 
were very elaborately dressed for the great occasion 
in many strands of colored bead-money wound 
around their waists and hips. Their short curly hair 
was powdered with white lime dust and they were 
adorned with ear and nose ornaments. Aside from 
these decorations clothes were entirely absent. They 
were much more tractable about being photo- 
graphed than the men, and we were able to get some 
interesting pictures. 



When the time came to give out the jewelry 
and trinkets we had promised as a reward, great 
confusion arose among the bushmen. The men 
insisted that they should all receive exactly the 
same kind of presents. But each woman wanted one 
more trinket than any of her rivals. There seemed to 
be no way to satisfy everyone until Wells, having 
the advantage of previous experience told us to 
close the jewelry box and to give each woman one 
piece whether she liked it or not. 

Then he waved his hand and said, "Master he 
mad more! You feller Marys sing out too much, 
altogether! You feller Marys gammon along white 
feller marsters. Go! Altogether you go! Walk about! 
By'n bye you stop along house belong master. 
Master he catch 'em plarnty tobacco. Maybe you 
feller kill him talk-talk, master givem you piecee 
tobacco." 

Upon hearing the word tobacco mentioned the 
bushmen and their wives smiled happily and soon 
departed in peace. We, also, bade goodbye to Adam 
and Wells and made a late start for Hog Harbor. 
But as the Illyria had to contend with a head wind 
and a strong adverse current we did not reach our 
destination until the next morning. 

At Hog Harbor, on the island of Espiritu 
Santo, we found the largest cocoanut plantation and 
the most jovial planter in the New Hebrides. The 
plantation occupies a broad plain between the base 
of a long high cliff and the ocean. Nearly two 
hundred natives are constantly at work collecting 
the fallen cocoanuts and bringing them in Ford 
trucks to the drying sheds. From the nuts four tons 
of the juicy meat are extracted daily and this 
amount when dried makes two tons of copra. The 
latter sells at a price varying from $70 to $100 a ton, 
so it can readily be seen that the annual income from 
a plantation may be surprisingly large— especially if 
the manager, like Robertson, is clever enough to get 
his labor nearly free of charge. 

To understand my last statement it is first 
necessary to know something about Robertson. He 
is a husky, hearty, deep-voiced Scotchman who has 
been through more adventures in each year of his 
life than has Nick Carter in several volumes. He ran 
away from Scotland at a very early age (though not 
so early as to interfere with the acquisition of an "A 
No. 1" Scotch accent) and fought all through the 
Boer War. Then he was for many years with the 
British army in India— stationed near the Khyber 
Pass. He went with Younghusband on his famous 
expedition to Lhasa— which in itself would have 
been enough of an adventure to last most people a 
lifetime. Robertson, however, fought all through the 
World War, first in the Gallipoli campaign and then 
in France. 

Now he has "retired"; he merely handles two 
hundred unruly native "boys" and goes on 
recruiting expeditions for three months each year! 
He has grown so fond of his present life that he 
hates to leave his own domain. " I'm a bit of a despot 
here, you know," he said. "I'm 'Master Robie' and 
when I clap my hands things begin to happen! But 
when I go to Sydney I'm no better than any other 
man in the street and man! I'm scared to death of 
the traffic!" 

But to get back to the cheap labor which 
"Master Robie" secures so plentifully and keeps so 



^^ 




cleverly. There is a trick in how he does it. The first 
part of his procedure is much like that of any other 
recruiter. Since the bushmen on his own island have 
plenty of food, pigs and wives, and since it is a 
serious crime to sell to them the rifles and 
ammunition which are the only things they desire, it 
is necessary for Robertson and his assistant to 
board their little yawl and search for recruits on 
other islands where the necessities of life are not so 
plentiful. 

"I have to compete with all the other British 
planters," explained Robertson, "but I attack the 
problem in a different way. As an inducement to 
work they offer the Kanakas money— twenty 
pounds a year. But the Kanakas know from bitter 
experience that the money they receive at the end of 
their term of work will do them no good. They can't 
eat it. They can't buy wives with it. All they can use 
it for is to buy a cheap "bokkis," a chest filled with 
jewelry, mirrors and trinkets. Their three years of 
work are wasted. 

"Now I use a little better psychology. Pigs are 
what the natives want— not money. A good pig can 
be swapped for a wife. On that point hinges my 
whole scheme. 

"When I found that the boys prefer pigs to 
money I devised a scheme which leaves everyone 
satisfied. When I'm recruiting I go ashore, the same 
as the rest, with a second boat full of boys with rifles 
which stays just off shore, you know, to deal with 
any possible disturbance. I give a present to the 
chief and his young men and I say to him, "Maybe 
you feller Kanakas wantem Marys stop along house 
belong you." Usually at least one of them will say, 
"Yes, marster, me wantem Mary. Me no gotten 
pig." So then I say, "Maybe boy come stop along 
place belong me three years, me givem boy bokkis, 
me givem boy money and me givem boy pig!" 

"Well, I have a fair reputation, y'know. and 
the boys believe me and they come and work for 
their three years. At the end of their time they go 
happy with the pigs and their 'bokkises,' and 
although I keep most of their wages they often come 
back to work for me again." 

"Yes! Yes!" we said, "but where do you get 
the pigs? We were told that no planter could keep 
pigs because the bushmen steal them." 

This was just the question "Master Robie" 
had been waiting for. He grinned broadly. "Well, 
man, you see it's like this— I've bought a little 



21 



island— nobody else knows just where it is— and I 
have three men there who do nothing but raise pigs. 
It's wonderful what you can do with pigs, my 
boy— it's mar-r-velous!" 

While we were having a glass or two of beer 
with Robertson in his little unscreened summer- 
house we noticed several tall, pot-bellied natives 
wandering around the plantation with guns. Robert- 
son explained that they were some of the friendly 
bush-natives from the interior of the island. The 
bushmen fight continually among themselves and 
prize their ancient rifles above every other 
possession. They are not allowed to buy more rifles 
or rifle ammunition, but each man owns one or two 
old brass cartridge cases and a bullet mold. In case 
of battle each native can fire only one or two shots 
and then has to run for home. There he unloads a 
shotgun shell or "Kartige belong pigeon," melts the 
shot to mold a rifle bullet, recaps his old cartridge 
case and reloads it with the powder from the 
shotgun shell. 

"A bushmen never lets go of his rifle," said 
Robertson. "If there is a war dance he dances with 
his gun in one hand and when he sleeps he uses it for 
a pillow. Some of the younger generation who have 
no rifles must use a bow and arrows for their 
protection. An arrow is just about as dangerous as 
those old guns, for these fellows are not good 
marksmen, but a rifle is necessary to the prestige of 
an older man. Many a bushman has been murdered 
for his gun. In fact a man died only last night from 
poison put in his food because of a dispute over an 
old Snyder rifle. ..." 

Schmidty, Walt and Frank found Hog Harbor 
an ideal place for collecting. Robertson gave them 
each a bed in his house and a room in which to work. 
He also detailed three of his best plantation boys to 
guide them along the jungle trails and to help with 
the collecting and the skinning of specimens. 

Working conditions were ideal and bird and 
insect life was plentiful. Frank succeeded in getting 
some very unusual bats from a cave on the 
mountain side. Schmidty found a new variety of 
scorpion under the bark of a teak tree. Walt made a 
large collection of brilliantly colored little birds, and 
also shot some parrots, the first we had seen. He 
continued work on his paintings and made several 
pen and ink sketches. 

By the time we were to return to Wells's 
plantation to start the Big Nambas expedition they 
had transformed Robertson's whole house into a 
scientific camp. Thus we felt no hesitation in leaving 



22 




them for several days because there seemed to be 
plenty of interesting work for them to do. We found 
Adam and Nicholson [the missionary] waiting for 
us. . . . 

"I have asked Wells to come with us, too," he 
said. "I think it will be an advantage to have three 
experienced men on this trip. " 

At dawn we left Wells's plantation for the 
Northwest coast of Malekula island— the heart of 
the Big Nambas territory. . . . The coast was steep, 
mountainous and thickly wooded. We could find no 
anchorage except in a small open bight at the foot of 
the trail to the Big Nambas villages. The captain 
thought it a very poor anchorage, for the ocean swell 
swept in upon us, making the yacht roll badly. 
However, there was no alternative. He had to make 
the best of it. 

"Now to tell the natives that we are here!" 
said Wells. "Give me two sticks of dynamite to 
explode in the water. That is the regular recruiter's 
signal for a 'talk talk.'" 

He lashed each stick of dynamite to a small 
piece of wood and inserted fuses. Then he wet his 
finger and carefully tested the direction of the wind. 

"Always throw the dynamite to leeward," he 
explained. "A few years ago a careless friend of mine 
tossed a stick overboard without looking which way 
he threw it. The wind and current brought it back to 
his ship, where it exploded. The whole stern was 
blown away; two natives were killed and my friend 
was seriously injured." 

Lighting the fuses. Wells threw the two pack- 
ets overboard. A few seconds later they exploded 
with a tremendous roar, which reverberated like 
thunder along the shores and against the cliff. 

We waited for half an hour, but no answering 
shouts or any signs of response could be detected. 

"I guess there is no one near the shore," said 
Nicholson at last. "We shall have to send our two 
plantation boys up to the village to confer with the 
chief. They can speak the Big Nambas dialect, and 
perhaps they can persuade the chief to come to the 
shore." . . . 

They returned to the shore a little after 
midnight and signalled with a flashlight for the 
launch. Once on board they deUvered a message 
from the chief. 

"Big feller marster he say he come along 
beach along zip (ship) same time sun he commence. 
Byme by white marster maybe go along place 
belong big feller marster." 

We all got up before daylight the next 
morning and at the first gleam of dawn we saw five 
black figures dimly outlined against the gray beach. 
Nicholson was very excited. 

"They have come," he said. "I will go ashore 
alone to talk to them. A ship was fired upon here 
recently and if too many of us go ashore at once they 
will think we are a punitive expedition. Don't worry, 
I shall be perfectly safe." 

Savages have no sense of the value of time. 
Hours are often required to make a single decision. 
In this case Nicholson had to talk to the chief for 
nearly an hour to persuade him to come out to the 
ship. The chief and one of his counsellors finally got 
up courage to come on board, but the other three 
were afraid they might be kidnapped. The chief's 
reputation for bravery was probably increased a 



hundred fold by his short visit to the Illyria. 

Maloon was the name Nicholson gave the 
chief. He was about 5 feet 8 inches tall and fairly 
well formed. His broad face was set with intelligent 
eyes and a thick nose. He wore several bamboo 
combs in his frizzly reddish hair and a thick wooden 
belt around his waist. 

Maloon's counsellor was older, more pot- 
bellied and less intelligent in appreance. Nearly all 
the time he was on board the Illyria he wore an 
expression of dazed bewilderment which amounted 
almost to a stupor. He took no interest in what was 
going on. 

Maloon, by the way of contrast, seemed eager 
to understand what was around him. He had 
brought a gift of yams rolled in tobacco leaves for 
"man belong zip" and one of his first acts was to 
present it to Cornelius. We gave him a ham sand- 
wich in return. He gobbled it up at a tremendous 
rate. 

Maloon was overcome by the height of the 
masts. Every few minutes he would lean back to 
gaze up at them. His piercing glance seemed to take 
in everything above decks and within a few minutes 
he lost all signs of fear. He attempted to touch 
everything that interested him. Apparently he was 
accustomed to use his sense of touch almost as 
much as his sense of sight in comprehending a 
strange object. 

After a short while we took Maloon into the 
engine room. He was so amazed by the tangle of 
pipes and machinery that for a few moments he was 
quite as bewildered as his counsellor. This change 
from the simple things to which he was generally 
accustomed seemed to terrify him. 

Cornelius gave him a small flashlight and 
showed him how to operate it. This was one thing 
the chief could understand. He switched it on and 
off with exclamations of delight and took it up on 
deck to show his counsellor. On the way up he 
passed in front of an electric fan which happened to 
be running full blast. As the cool air touched his 
bare skin he jumped back as if he had been shot. 
Then he turned and looked very closely at the fan. I 
thought he was going to thrust his hand into the 
blades, but instead he merely pointed at it and 
laughed very loudly. 

Nicholson talked to Maloon for a long time 
and finally secured his consent to an inland trip by 
the white men. 

"All right," said Nicholson, turning to Corne- 
lius, "seven of us can go up to the village. The chief 
will lead the way, and he promises to protect us." 

"However," he added, "no one can take any 
firearms because the Big Nambas are short of 
weapons and if they saw guns within their grasp 
they might not be able to resist killing us to get 
them." 

Dr. Moss, Cornelius, Chuck and Murry were 
chosen to go with Adam, Wells, and Nicholson. 
They were taken ashore in the small boat with the 
chief and his aide. There the three other natives who 
had been waiting joined them. Burdens of food and 
cameras were apportioned to everyone but the chief. 
From the ship we saw them all string out into a long 
procession headed by Maloon. He led them along 
the beach a little way and then, parting the bushes, 
disclosed the mouth of a tunnel-like trail in to the 



underbrush. One by one our friends entered the 
tunnel and were lost to our sight. The jungle seemed 
to have swallowed them up. 

I now quote from Cornelius an account of the 
journey to the village— 

"Hardly had we left the beach than a steep 
wooded cliff 200 feet high rose before us. This was 
the beginning of a terrible eight mile climb through 
the tropical forest. 

"The country is composed of steep knife-edge 
ridges three or four hundred feet high, rising one 
behind the other to mountains in the center of the 
island. The trails are built along the ridges wherever 
possible so that enemies can be seen approaching at 
a distance. However, the natives do not hesitate to 
make their paths branch into ravines whenever it 
seems convenient. We followed the dry bed of a 
stream for a while and then crossed more heights. 
As we rose in altitude the ground became wetter and 
the district more thickly wooded. 

"The tall grass was an ideal place for an 
ambush, as men standing within an arm's length of 
the trail would have been completely hidden. \Ae 
were not at all reassured by V\'ells' story of how a 
punitive expedition of French and British Marines 
had been forced back almost dead with exhaustion 
and with many men wounded, having narrowly 
escaped being entirely cut to pieces. 

"The chief, however, had been trying to make 
up for the bad reputation of his tribe by being as 
helpful and as agreeable as possible. He cut staffs 
for us to use in climbing the steep trail and several 
times helped us over exceptionally bad spots. 
Nicholson also pointed out that these bushmen were 
carrying no firearms, which was very unusual. 

"Finally, after struggling along until nearly 
mid-day. we reached the village. At the first sign of 
our approach all the women and girls had fled, 
uttering screams, perhaps more coquettish than 
frightened. A few small boys remained in sight and 
we saw some bearded men peering out of the woods. 

"Maloon called to his people to return. Soon a 
few men straggled into the clearing, but the women 
would not come back. The village consisted of a 
number of thatched houses, such as we had seen at 
Wala, but they were higher and of better construc- 
tion. One was a club-house, but try as we would 
Maloon would not allow us to enter. Through the 
doorway we could see human skulls hanging inside. 

"The natives were so excited and ran about so 
fast that we could not take pictures of them. 
Perhaps this was just as well, for they were afraid of 
the cameras and might have become angry had we 
insisted on using them. 

"More and more men straggled into the 
village until we were surrounded by at least thirty of 
them. Some squatted down on their haunches and 
gazed at us steadily for minutes at a time. Others 
were more inquisitive. They had never seen white 
men at close range before and were not satisfied 
merely to see us, but insisted on feeling of us. They 
squeezed our arms and legs and rubbed our 
stomachs. It was not a pleasant sensation, for they 
were ugly and greasy and we knew they were 
cannibals. However, Nicholson and Adam had 
warned us we might be handled and had told us that 
if we took it amiably the Big Nambas would 
consider it a sign of friendship. . . . 



23 



Sidney N. Shurcliff, 
author of the 
account reproduced 
here and the expe- 
dition 's official 
photographer, is 
today a landscape 
architect. Inquiries 
about the expedi- 
tion may be 
directed to him at 2 
Central Square, 
Cambridge, MA 
02139. 




"Presently the savage throng began to hem 
us in entirely too much for our satisfaction. They 
bumped against us and uttered unfriendly grunts, 
to relieve the situation Nicholson asked Maloon to 
lead us to the devil-devils. When he did so the 
cannibals followed, but we kept moving about so 
that they could not surround us. The devil-devils 
were about the same as those we had seen at Wala. 

"V\'hen the savages tried to hem us in again 
we went back to the village and sitting down with 
our backs to the wall of a hut. opened our lunch bags 
and began to eat. We motioned the natives to keep 
away to give us room to .spread out our supplies. 

"Suddenly a great savage-looking fellow came 
up to one of our lunch baskets and ripping it open, 
began taking things out. Without any hesitation 
Adam jumped up. pushed the man roughly away 
and reprimanded him sharply. We were frightened, 
for we feared the Big Nambas would resent such 
rough treatment of one of their warriors. However, 
Adam assured us he had done the right thing. 

"'That fellow was deliberately trying to steal 
our lunch and he knew he shouldn't,' he explained. 
'If I had let him get away with it he would have 
immediately . done something worse and soon the 
whole pack would have been on us. You must use 
child psychology with these natives— nip any 



mischievous act in the bud or you will get into 
serious trouble. 

"Adam seemed to have the right idea. The 
natives backed away slowly and squatted down on 
the ground all around us without showing any signs 
of anger. They were ugly looking fellows, but we 
seemed to be masters of the situation. 

"While we were eating Nicholson had a long 
talk with Maloon. 

"I asked the chief whether we could go any 
further inland,' said the missionary, 'but he refuses. 
He says that this village is now at war with the next 
one. which is only a few miles further up the 
mountain side. Although there is a lull in the 
fighting today, several men have been killed during 
the last week. The chief expects an attack on this 
village this afternoon or evening, for his scouts have 
reported that the enemy are gathering. Conse- 
quently he advises us to return to the shore as 
quickly as possible so as to avoid any chance of 
danger. 1 think we have seen nearly everything of 
interest here. We may as well follow his advice while 
we are able to do so.' 

"Well," concluded Cornelius, "That is about 
all there is to tell. We distributed the presents of 
tobacco which we had brought and gave the chief 
one or two special gifts. The natives did not attempt 
to impede our progress on the return trip, though 
they could easily have done so, and so after walking 
the eight miles again we arrived safely back at the 
beach. Our trip to visit the cannibals had been as 
successful as we had hoped, though not as exciting 
or dangerous as we had anticipated. " 

That evening we weighed anchor and sailed 
away toward Hog Harbor to pick up the scientists 
and deposit our guests before heading for the 
Solomon Islands. 

After the Solomons, the Illyria's itinerary in- 
cluded New Britain, New Guinea, and Borneo. At 
this point, the expedition members left the ship and 
returned to the United States by other means, arriv- 
ing home nearly 11 months after the outset of the 
expedition. The Illyria continued westward with its 
crew and arrived in Boston harbor on Oct. 16, 1929. 

Specimens collected during the expedition in- 
cluded 12,000 fishes, more than 2,000 reptiles and 
amphibians, 1,200 birds, 881 mammals, and more 
than 2,000 invertebrates. The film shot by Sidney 
Shurcliff^a 90-minute account of the adventure — 
will be publicly shown for the first time in many 
years at Field Museum on Saturday, Sept. 29, in 
James Simpson Theatre. Tickets for this showing 
may be ordered by sending in the coupon below (or 
facsimile). 



24 



"JUNGLE ISLANDS" 

1928-29 Crane Expedition Film 

Saturday, Sept. 29, 2;30 p.m. 

James Simpson Ttieatre 

Introduction and commentary by 

Dr. Robert F. Inger, curator of 

amphibians and reptiles 



For tickets please send coupon (or facsimile) to: 



Please send me . 



PROGRAMS: Education Dept. 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Stiore Dr. 
Ctiicago, III. 60605 



Members' tickets for film 



number stiowing ($2.00 ea.) 

Nonmembers' tickets for film 



last name 


first name 




street 


city 


state 


zip 



number showing ($3.50 ea.) 

Members' tickets for 12:30 



daytime phone 



evening phone 



number buffet luncheon preceding film 
show/ing ($3.00 ea.) 

Amount of check enclosed $ 

Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 

Please include self-addressed, stamped envelope for the 
return of your tickets. 




Three- Year Learning Museum 

Program Begins with China Study: 

'*China: A Deeper Look'' 






By Anthony Pfeiffer, 
project coordinator 











1^ 
The expeditions to China and Tibet of Berthold 
Laufer, curator of Asian ethnology/ 1908-34. 
secured for the Museum many of its finest art pieces 
as well as a great varieti/ of utilitarian items reflecting 
the nature of dail\/ life. 



China: what images does the name evoke? Initially you 
may think of an immense, forbidding land or simply of 
chopsticks and exquisite food. But when you dwell on it a 
bit more, wildly contrasting views come to mind. On one 
hand, you may imagine a Manchu warrior, schooled in 
the martial arts, sinister and hard. On the other hand, you 
may envision a mystically haunting painting, drawn with 
few elegant lines, soft and delicate. 

For centuries the West has alternately admired, 
denigrated, or ignored China. For decades the United 
States, the world's richest nation, has not formally recog- 
nized the People's Republic of China, the world's most 
populous nation. Now, as we enter a new era of govern- 
mental, cultural, and economic relations with the People's 
Republic, we need to know more about its land and 
culture. 

Field Museum announces "CHINA: A DEEPER 
Look," the first in a series of courses of study made possi- 
ble by a grant from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities (NEH), a federal agency. The Field Museum 
of Natural History has been designated an NEH Learning 
Museum. CHINA: A DEEPER LOOK offers the opportunity 
to explore China's enduring culture, delving into its ori- 
gins and tracing its development through time. 

Field Museum's first Learning Museum course of 
study is an historical examination of the multifaceted 
Chinese culture. Some of its elements, such as the writing 
system, date back five thousand years. It is virtually im- 
possible to understand today's China without an undef- 
standing of China past. 



25 




Ron Testa 



Bennet Bronson, 

associate curator of 

Asian archaeology and 

ethnology, served as 

consultant and resource 

facilitator for "China: A 

Deeper Look. " 



Before China was "lost" to the United States, two 
Field Museum collecting expeditions were successfully 
launched. The Mrs. T. B. Blackstone Expedition. 1908- 
10, was led by Berthoid Laufer. then assistant curator of 
Asian ethnology at Field Museum by special appointment. 
Laufer's time in China and Tibet was fraught with physical 
hardships, the intransigence of local officials, thievery, 
and even dog bite. As leader of the Captain Marshall Field 
Expedition in 1923, Laufer was kept out of the interior of 
China by warfare and banditry. Despite all difficulties, he 
collected many representative pieces, as opposed to art 
for art's sake. 

Field Museum's Chinese artifacts reflect the full 
range of historical periods and can show a great deal 
about how people lived in each cultural era. For these 
purposes, they are among the best in the country. CHINA: 
A Deeper Look unites the China collections at Field 
Museum with an accomplished faculty. Films, annotated 
references, access to a library of select materials, written 
guides to collections, and a cultural performance are fur- 
ther combined to give a colorful and substantive view of 
what Laufer called "the most marvelous civilization on 
earth." 

China: A Deeper Look has been planned in con- 
junction with two subject matter specialists. One of these, 
Bennet Bronson, is associate curator of Asian archaeol- 
ogy and ethnology at Field Museum, the position that 
began with Berthoid Laufer. A large portion of Field 
Museum's China holdings is not on display. That portion 
is inaccessible without Dr. Bronson, not only in the sense 
that he has the keys to the special storage areas, but 
because he knows what's there and how it can be used. 
Through Bronson, both exhibit and "behind the scenes" 
artifacts are utilized as material glimpses of the roots of 
Chinese culture. 



The Great Wall of China 

effectiueln s\/mboUzes the 

agelessness of Chinese 

2^ culture. 




NEH Learning Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a three-i;ear 
sequence of learning opportunities centered around 
the Museum's outstanding exhibits and collections and 
designed to give participants an opportunit\j to explore 
a subject in depth. Each unit ofstudi; consists of one or 
more special euents, a lecture course, and a seminar 
for advanced work. Special euents are lectures by re- 
nowned authorities or interpretive performances and 
demonstrations. Course members receive an anno- 
tated bibliography:, a guide to pertinent museum ex- 
hibits, studv notes for related special events, and ac- 
cess to select materials from Field Museum's excellent 
research library;. In-depth, small-group seminars allow 
more direct contact with facuiti/ and Museum collec- 
tions. 



Professor Ping-ti Ho, also consultant to our China 
project, is a distinguished historian and sinologist who has 
been based at the University of Chicago for sixteen years. 
Studies in the Population of China. 1368-1953 was his 
first major work. The Ladder of Success in Imperial 
China, 1368-1911 and The Cradle of the East: An In- 
quiry into the Indigenous Origins of Techniques and Ideas 
of Neolithic and Early Historic China, 5,000-1.000 B.C. 
are also among his many published works. Professor Ho 
has been a leader in the movement to broaden the scope 
of modern research in Chinese history. He never lost 
touch with his native land, having been to 16 of 18 
provinces of China proper, Chinese Turkestan, and Man- 
churia. On October 10 he shares this geographic knowl- 
edge with us and introduces his students who teach the 
China: A Deeper Look lecture course. 

China: A Deeper Look begins October 5 with a 
keynote address by Jonathan D. Spence, noted historian 
of China and professor of history at Yale University. 
Although Marco Polo may have "discovered" China in 
1275, it wasn't until after 1600, when Jesuit missionaries 
settled in Peking, that the West began to get detailed 
reports on Chinese life. Dr. Spence takes us through four 
centuries of tangled Western feelings toward China, its 
history and literature, its governmental structure, and its 
demographic problems. This overview pinpoints areas of 
Western understanding and misunderstanding of China. 
Some of the misconceptions are unfortunately as preva- 
lent today as when they originated centuries ago. 

After Dr. Spence's broad perspective on studying 
China, you are invited to join a lecture course which 
begins by looking at the diversity of China's land, plunges 
back into prehistory, and traces the development of 
Chinese civilization. Seven thousand years ago the agri- 
cultural base for Chinese civilization was established in the 
North China Plain. While prolific crop growths supported 
some of the world's first villages, the Yellow River periodi- 
cally flooded and, over the millenia, took literally millions 
of lives. A remarkable pageant of peasants and emperors 
unfolds as major historical periods are reviewed, all illus- 
trated with artifacts from Field Museum collections. 

The course leads up to the Ch'ing dynasty in the 
eady nineteenth century. Themes followed throughout 
the course lend coherence to what might otherwise be a 
bewildering succession of people, places, things, and 
bygone times. The whole of China's history is seen as a 
dynamic procession of dynasties, each having to deal 
with population pressures, changing routes to social 
mobility, and the tendency to split apart into warring 





Jonathan D. Spence, 
famed authority on 
Chinese history and 
culture, gives "China: A 
Deeper Look" keynote 
address on Friday, 
October 5. 



Anthony Pfeiffer, project 
coordinator of the NEH 
Learning Museum 
Program, shown while 
researching chimpanzee 
behavior for his recently 
completed doctoral work 
in anthropology at 
Rutgers University. 27 




segments; and each one inheriting a tradition of philoso- 
phy and cultural accomplishment rivaled only by its own 
achievements. 

A sampling of the cultural life of China is skillfully 
presented in "Aspects of Peking Opera" on Friday. Octo- 
ber 19. Derived from historical events and classical novels 
and originating between the eighth and tenth centuries, 
traditional opera selections are performed by Hu Hung- 
yen, accompanied by two musicians. Her repertoire 
includes "Picking up the Jade Bracelet," depicting a flirta- 
tion between a coy maiden and a young nobleman, and 
"The Spear Dance," showing a woman using acrobatic 
skills to defeat her male enemy. 

To bring looking at China up-to-date, course par- 
ticipants are given the chance to follow the legacy of 
China past into the development of China today. Some 
historical highlights include the turmoil and fall of the 
Ch'ing Dynasty, the exploitation of China by Western and 
Japanese powers, and ■the emergence of the People's 
Republic of China. When the Ch'ing Dynasty fell in 1912. 
a sentimentalist commented: "The glory of Spring has 
gone and does not return." But has the glory gone? Com- 
pared to Imperial China, has the peasant's lot in life 
improved in the last half century? How has village and 
family life changed? What about folk culture and religion? 
And what kind of new elite has emerged and how did 
they get to the top? How do they dispense justice and 
exert social control? The seminar deals with questions 
such as these. 

In short. Field Museum is mobilizing its consider- 
able resources and those of an excellent faculty for a fresh 
and timely look at China. CHINA: A Deeper Look should 
be of interest to the traveller, the business person, and to 
anyone wanting the background to an historic new era. 
Chicago-area members will receive a special mailing of 
program details and registration materials. For further 
information please write NEH Learning Museum Pro- 
gram, Department of Education, Field Museum. Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II., 60605 or 
phone 922-9410, ext. 395. 



Hu Hung-[;en. the only 

professional actress of 

Peking opera now 

resident in the United 

States, will perform in 

James Simpson Theatre 

on Friday/. October 19. 



Vintage scene of 

Chinese shopworkers. 

ca. 1910. 
2S 




BOOKS 



CLIMBER'S GUIDE TO DEVIL'S 
LAKE, hy William Widule and Sven 
Olof Swarding. University of Wisconsin 
Press; 198 pp., 44 illus., $8.95. 

To be a mountain-climbing enthusiast in 
the Chicago region would seem as 
frustrating as being an avid yacht racer 
in Afghanistan. There is, nevertheless, a 
very active and energetic Chicago 
Mountaineering Club, whose meetings 
are held regularly at Field Museum. 
Although it's thousands of miles to a 
legitimate mountain, climbers in this 
region keep up their skills, and learn new 
techniques, by scaling the many faces of 
the steep quartzite cliffs that rise over 
400 feet (122 meters) above Devil's 
Lake, Wisconsin. 

This guide book is the result of 
many years of climbing in the Devil's 
Lake State Park by two members of this 
club. In it they give details of hundreds 
of climbs, how to find the starting 
places, any particularly tricky points, 
hazards, alternate ways, and ultimately 
routes to the top. It is the most com- 
prehensive guide available to this ex- 
cellent climbing £a-ea, designed to serve 
novices and pros alike. The guide is amp- 
ly illustrated with 44 diagrams, draw- 
ings, and photographs. There is an ex- 
cellent introduction to the geology, 
natural history, and hiking trails of the 
area by Pat Armstrong (a staff member 
of the Morton Arboretum). 

The guide is highly recommended 
both for climbers who are newcomers to 
the midwest as well as old hands to 
Devil's Lake. Even if you're not a 
climber, it is a good hiking guide to the 
trails of the area. Measuring 10.1 cm X 
15.2 cm X 1.3 cm, and weighing a mere 
235 grams, the book is just the right size 
to tuck into your breast pocket. When 
you're hanging on a line, the piton is 
slowly pulling out, the rope fraying 
before your eyes, and there are jagged 
"teeth" of quartzite pointing up at you, 
far below, it's nice to know you can pop 
this guide out of your shirt pocket and 
quickly look up an alternate route! —Ed- 
ward Olsen, curator of mineralogy. 



KOSTER: AMERICANS IN SEARCH 
OF THEIR PREHISTORIC PAST, by 
Stuart Struever and F'elicia A. Holton. 
Anchor Press/Doubleday; 281 pp., 

$12.95. 

This book is about the archaeologists 
and the archaeology of one of the most 
comprehensive and innovative research 
programs in this discipline in the United 
States. Archaeologists generally write 
for their peers, using the technical 
jargon and format which either fails to 



discuss methods used to recover infor- 
mation or does so in language familiar 
only to specialists. Because of the corre- 
sponding absence of general literature 
on North American archaeology, many 
Americans are unaware that sites con- 
taining remains of prehistoric cultures 
abound within each of the 50 states. 
Struever and Holton make it a point to 
apprise the reader of the wealth of sites 
in America, though their discussion con- 
centrates on the Lower Illinois Valley, 
where over 1,000 sites have been located 
and recorded. 

Theirs is not a book about a single 
site in the Lower Illinois Valley nor is it 
simply about a single man's (Stuart 
Struever's) research. It is a fascinating 
account of a major research project, one 
which integrates the individuals and 
personal experiences with the actual 
fieldwork, analyses, and interpretations. 
The authors explain what archaeologists 
do and how they reconstruct now extinct 
human cultures. Therefore, while some 
of Struever's trips into nostalgia may 
seem distracting to another archaeolo- 
gist, he successfully conveys how an ar- 
chaeologist feels about his work, what 
he sees and thinks— what it is like to be 
an archaeologist. His feelings and per- 
sonal insights convey experiences that 
are common to many archaeologists, 
though seldom expressed. 

Although Raster is mainly an ac- 
count of Struever's research in the 
Lower Illinois Valley, it also integrates 
the findings at Koster into a broader 
framework— that of the cultural develop- 
ment of prehistoric man in the New 
World. Koster is fitted into this general 
framework when, for example, informa- 
tion from Koster is used to demonstrate 
that Amerindians began living in settled, 
year-round communities by 3000 B.C.. 
while still subsisting by hunting and by 
the gathering of wild plants. Later occu- 



pations at Koster demonstrate increas- 
ing stability, growth, and social com- 
plexity which accompanied the adoption 
of agriculture. 

Struever and Holton are most suc- 
cessful when describing techniques for 
recording the archaeological finds and 
for deriving cultural and environmental 
reconstructions from what a layman 
would view as no more than a jumble of 
artifacts. Some of these techniques were 
pioneered at Koster; for example, the 
separation of minute plant and bone 
materials from the encompassing soil by 
"floating" them out in water. The Lower 
Illinois Valley archaeologists also 
adopted existing analytical techniques 
and applied them to problems at Koster. 
For example, by examining lithic debris 
and the wear and breakage patterns on 
stone tools, researcher Thomas Cook has 
been able to distinguish areas where 
animals were butchered from localities 
where animals were cooked. 

While definitely not a "how to do 
archaeology" book, Koster does convey 
how a great deal of information can be 
deduced by trained individuals from an 
archaeological site. Struever also demon- 
strates the valuable contributions non- 
professionals have made to the Lower 
Illinois Valley program. They have done 
this by cooperating with and providing 
information on site locations to archae- 
ologists; the latter are then better 
equipped to build models of prehistoric 
activities and long-term development. 
While emphasizing the importance of 
the layman's role in archaeology, it is 
apparent that only through the efforts 
of many trained individuals has it been 
possible to reconstruct the activities and 
long-term events participated in by the 
prehistoric inhabitants of Koster. 
—Patricia S. Essenpreis, Department of 
Anthropology, Loyola University of 
Chicago. 



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29 



Weekend Discovery Programs 



On Saturdays and Sundays, discover Field 
Museum's wealth of natural history resources 
via films, gallery tours, demonstrations, and 
slide presentations. The activities listed below 
are highlights only, of Weekend Discovery Pro- 
grams. A complete listing of activities for the 
day is available at Museum entrances. 




Sunday, Sept. 9; 1:30 p.m.: Indian Fishermen of the North- 
west Coast is a 45-minute tour illustrating fishing 
methods as well as the importance of the fish in 
story and song. These coastal people rely upon 
the fish harvest as a primary food source and for 
personal wealth and prestige. 

Saturday, Sept. 15; 11:30 a.m. Earl^/ Man is a half-hour tour 
that traces major trends in the physical and 
cultural evolution of man. 

1:30 p.m.: Film Features — African Wilderness 
as depicted in the film "Mzima: Portrait of a 
Spring." The hippopotamus is the central 
character in this examination of African wildlife. 




September Discovery Highlights 

Saturday, Sept. 8; 11:30 a.m. Ancient Egypt is a 45-minute 
tour that explores the traditions of ancient Egypt, 
from everyday life to myths and mummies. 

1:30 p.m.: Fi7m Features— African Wilderness 
as depicted in film "Baobab." The giant African 
tree, the baobab, is portrayed in this film as the 
home and sustainer of innumerable insects, rep- 
tiles, birds, and mammals. It provides a minia- 
ture world where many species mutually support 
each other and where protection and survival 
are provided. 




Its survival ensures the existence of other species 
at the spring, such as crocodiles, elephants, 
impalas, zebras, baboons, monkeys, kingfishers, 
spiders, fish, and frogs. 



Sunday, Sept. 16; 12 noon: Life in Peru is a half-hour slide 
presentation of life in ancient Peru and its ties 
with modern Peru, as interpreted through its 
pre-Inca pottery. 

Saturday, Sept, 22; 11:30 a.m. Introduction to Hopi Culture is 
a half-hour tour that focuses on the rich heritage 



of Hopi religion, its iconography and traditions. 

12:30-2:00 p.m. Ancient Art of Spinning is a 
demonstration of spinning along with informa- 
tion on its history and development in several 
cultures. 

1:30 p.m. Film Features— African Wilderness as 
depicted in the film"Kenya-Uganda Safari." The 
camera ranges over the varied landscape of the 
Kenya-Uganda area of East Africa, filming its 
great variety of wildlife. 

Sunday, Sept. 23; 1:00 p.m. Endangered Animals is a half- 
hour tour focusing on animals that are in danger 
of extinction. 

Saturday, Sept. 29; 1:30 p.m. China through the Ages is a 
look at traditional China: its inventions, court 
life, and schools of thought. Rare slides taken 
from turn-of-the-century lantern slides collected 
by Berthold Laufer, curator of Asian an- 
tfiropology from 1907 to 1934 will be featured. 

Sunday, Sept. 30; 2:00 p.m. Indians of North America is a 
tour that explores the life of six tribes, from the 
Iroquois in the North to the Hopi in the 
Southwest. 



October Discovery Highlights 

Saturday, Oct. 6; 12 noon. "In the Land of War Canoes," 
Edward Curtis's classic 1914 film drama captures 
the life and spirit of British Columbia's Kwakiutl 
Indians; 45-minute program also includes slides 
of Curtis's still photos of Northwest Coast 
Indians. 

1:00 p.m. Endangered Animals is half-hour pro- 
gram focusing on animals that are in danger of 
extinction. 





Sunday, Oct. 7; 1:30 p.m. Indian Fishermen of the North- 
west Coast is a 45-minute tour illustrating fishing 
methods as well as the importance of the fish in 
story and song. These coastal people rely upon 
the fish harvest as a primary food source and for 
personal wealth and prestige. 

Saturday, Oct. 13; 11:00 a.m. American Indian Dress is half- 
hour tour that explores the construction, craft, 
style, and symbolism of Indian dress from six 
regions of North America, from the northern 
woodlands to the Southwest. 

1:00 p.m. Film Features — Arts in Native 
America as depicted in 50-minute film "The 
Crooked Beak of Heaven," which views the 
Kwakiutl and other tribes of the Northwest 
Coast. Focuses on their long winter dramas, 
totem poles, and potlatch ceremonies. 

Sunday, Oct. 14; 12:30 p.m. Culture and History) of Ancient 
Egi;pt. An orientation film precedes this 
45-minute tour of the Museum's collection of an- 
cient Egyptian artifacts; tour concludes with ex- 
planation of mummification process. 31 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Midwest "in the Soup": 
Hazy Blobs Abound 

Let's take a little cross-country trip, via 
satellite. 

Our guide is Walt Lyons, a 
Chicago TV weatherman, who also hap- 
pens to be a leading expert on air pollu- 
tion transport. 

"Have you ever noticed that the 
summertime skies aren't as blue as they 
used to be?" he asks. 

"Studies done at Washington 
University over the last few years have 
looked at national weather service 
visibility reports for the past 50 years. 
What's been discovered is that visibility 
in rural areas has progressively wor- 
sened, with visibility running only three 
or four miles in the middle of the after- 
noon, with brown hazy skies, rather than 
blue skies. 

"From May to October, we have 
these high pressure systems that come 
down from Canada with 25 to 30 miles of 
visibility. They move into midwestern 
U.S. and sit there. They might just hang 
around for two or three weeks. The air in 
this system just makes big lazy 
clockwise circles hundreds of miles 
wide," he goes on. 

"Emissions from large coal- fired 
power plants in the Ohio River valley, 
for example, drift lazily along with this 
flow, with the sun beginning to 'bake' 
these emissions. What was initially col- 
orless gas is now being converted by the 
sun into minute particles, including 
small specks of sulfuric acid. 

"So, if you consider the dozens of 
power plants, especially in the Ohio 
River valley, pumping tons of pollutants 
into this essentially nonmoving air mass 
over the midwestern United States for 
weeks at a time, that's where the haze is 
coming from." 

This soup is not just made up of 
sulfate particles, but also of emissions 
from automobiles— ozone. 

Lyons' theory, based on a study of 
thousands of satellite photos, posits 
that the hazy blob formed in the Ohio 
valley turns in a clockwise direction to 
the north bringing hazy days to Illinois, 
Iowa, and Minnesota— then turns 
towards the Great Lakes and up 
through Canada, then down through 
New England and out into the ocean. 

"We've seen this plume 1,500 
miles out into the Atlantic Ocean, and 
who knows, it may end up in Europe," 
he speculates further. 

Lyons is convinced that the best 

way to see this process at work is not by 

running ground studies, but by looking 

at real-time satellite pictures that have 

32 been "processed" through a sophis- 



ticated computer system and can clearly 
show pollutant transport. 

These high pollution readings— up 
to 160 parts per billion— are not 
necessarily from the local area," he says. 
"We're talking about a pollution mass 
covering the entire mid-section of the 
country— an area from Louisiana to Min- 
nesota and Kentucky to New England." 

Lyons' theory, presented this past 
June to the Fourth Annual EPA Re- 
search and Development Conference on 
Energy and Environment in Washing- 
ton, DC, is based on the interpretation of 
thousands of satellite photographs that 
have been computer analyzed over the 
past few years. 

Lyons characterizes this observed 
"soup" as having elevated pollution 
levels running generally around 80 parts 
per billion. 

Lyons describes a particular 
episode that took place on June 30, 
1975: "On this day a high pressure 
system was stagnant. It drifted out 
from New York, out over Cleveland, 
picked up a bit more pollution in Pitts- 
burgh, went through the Ohio River 
valley picking up some more pollution 
there." 

The trajectory of the event, he 
says, suggests that after it passed 
through the Ohio River valley, where it 
picked up most of its sulfur dioxide, it 
went about as far west as Kansas City. 
It then made a strong turn north to Min- 
nesota. 




"I was a weather forecaster up 
there at the time," he notes, "and when 
we would get southerly breezes like 
these, I could automatically lop a few 
degrees from the high temperature, and 
drop the visibility to five miles." 

The event that Lyons described 
lasted about four days with the entire 
states of Iowa, Wisconsin, and Min- 
nesota covered with very polluted air 
that began out in the Ohio River valley. 

"It usually takes a strong Pacific 
cold front from the west to blow that 
stuff out to sea," he adds. 

Lyons remembers one particular 
"blob," as he calls these episodes, that, 
after having made a path similar to the 
one described above, headed 600 miles 
out over the ocean, turned south, then 
southwest, and three days later hit the 
Florida peninsula full blast. 

Lyons has also been keeping his 
eye on how the blobs may be impacting 
agriculture. He is especially interested 
in the work being done by the Universi- 
ty of Minnesota on the impact of ozone 
on the Nation's $8 billion annual soy- 
bean crop. 

"We could be losing as much as 25 
percent of that crop each year, because 
of the impact of ozone from these blobs 
on the plants at key times in the grow- 
ing process," Lyons says. 

At the University of Minnesota, 
32 computer-controlled test chambers 
are located out in the middle of a soy- 
bean field where several varieties of the 
crop are being exposed to controlled con- 
centrations of the pollutant. 

"They're finding that when the 
smog blob passes over and you get 120 
ppb for several afternoons in a row, 
about a 25 percent loss could be taking 
place," he says. 

"We're seeing these blobs 1,500 
miles off the east coast, just as thick as 
the day they left the area where the 
pollution came from." he warns. 

Lyons says there is no doubt that 
the Ohio River valley, with its large con- 
centration of power plants, is the major 
contributor to the nation's summer haze 
problem and to acid rain damage that 
comes when the blobs are sucked into 
clouds to make rain. 

"One of the strangest things 
we've seen on these satellite pictures is 
these large masses of clouds with lots of 
little holes punched in them. For a long 
time, we couldn't figure out why there 
were these holes, but then we realized 
that what had happened was rain— the 
smog had been absorbed into the rain- 
drops, and fallen out of the blob," Lyons 
said. "We've verified this by comparing 
precipitation data taken from the 
ground with the satellite pictures of 



these holes. What we're seeing is acid 
rain actually being made." 

"We can definitely see now that 
pollution from any given area is not just 
a local problem. Due to shifting weather 
fronts, it can be a problem on a regional, 
national— or even a global scale. 
—Frank Corrado, director of EPA's 
Region V Public Affairs Office, from En- 
vironment Midwest. 

Florida Establishes Manatee Refuge 

Help is on the way to save the manatee, 
the endangered sea mammal thought to 
be a marine relative of the elephant. 



The West Indian manatee {Tri- 
chechus manatus) is a retiring gentle 
vegeteu-ian which can reach a length of 
12 feet and weigh almost a ton. Adult 
manatees eat as much as 100 pounds of 
underwater vegetation daily. Despite its 
unflattering popular name "sea cow," 
the myth of a half woman, half fish sea 
creature— the mermaid— is thought to 
have stemmed from the first human 
sighting of this sea mammal with the ex- 
pressive face. 

Manatees were once fairly com- 
mon along the coast of Florida and 
Georgia, but were exploited for meat, 
hides, and oil during the 17th and 18th 



boats, barges, or fishing ve.sseis. 
Research now underway indicates that 
propeller size may be a more important 
factor than boat speed in manatee 
deaths. 

Flood control structures with 
automatically-operated water level 
gates are another big contributor to the 
manatee's demise. Five such structures 
in Dade Country, under the jurisdiction 
of flood control districts, are the major 
culprits. Adjustments to prevent 
manatees from being caught or crushed 
by the gates, such as reducing their 
operating speed or adding structures to 
prevent entrance, require the coopera- 





Manatee diorama, HallN 

The Game and Fresh Water Fish 
Commission of Florida, the state with 
nearly aU the nation's manatees, is work- 
ing with the U.S. Fish and WildUfe Ser- 
vice to create the equivalent of wildhfe 
refuges for the manatee. Swimming, 
boating, snorkehng, scuba diving, and 
surfing have been restricted or banned 
in 13 of the state's manatee wintering 
areas, and another 12 may be posted 
before fall. 

During the cooler months, man- 
atees are attracted to the warm water 
outflows of power plants. When large 
numbers are gathered into these 
relatively small areas, the animals are 
more vulnerable to disturbances than 
during the summer months, when 
populations are more dispersed. How- 
ever, this gathering into a more well- 
defined area also makes possible the 
creation of refuges to protect manatees 
during the winter. 



centuries. Today, only about 800 to 
1,000 West Indian manatees remain in 
Florida, plus another 100 in Puerto Rico. 

Human activities such as recrea- 
tional pursuits and environmental con- 
trols are the major cause of the 
manatee's disastrous decline. The U.S. 
Marine Mammal Commission concluded 
its 1978 Annual Report with the state- 
ment: "The species may well become ex- 
tinct in the foreseeable future through- 
out its range in this country unless 
decisive, meaningful actions are taken to 
cope with the basic problem, which has 
been and remains one of controlling 
human activities." 

Manatees, with a cruising speed of 
four to ten km an hour, typically float 
near the surface, within easy reach of 
boat propellers. These collisions are the 
main known cause of death among 
manatees— most bear deep ridges on 
their backs from encounters with motor- 



tion of these units of government. 

Monofilament nylon fishing Une 
discarded by fishermen causes problems 
for curious manatees, who may first play 
with it, but then become hopelessly 
tangled. Fishing nets or crab pot lines 
are another hazard. 

The increasing pollution of inland 
streams destroys the manatee's food 
source. And sudden cutoffs of warm 
water discharges from generating plants 
(or extremely cold weather) may bring 
on thermal shock. 

To compound the problem, the 
animals suffer from the curiosity or even 
the maUciousness of humans. Some are 
hounded to death by overeager photo- 
graphers; others bludgeoned by gour- 
mands of manatee venison. All told, 
nearly 100 die yearly from the above 
mentioned human influences. 

Add to this the manatee's slow 
reproductive rate— one calf every five 33 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



years— and it's easy to see why its ex- 
istence is threatened. Despite more than 
70 years of protection, the decline con- 
tinues. In 1907, Florida outlawed the 
killing or molesting of the huge beast, 
punishable by a $500 fine, or six months 
in jail, or both. In addition, it is pro- 
tected by the federal Marine Mammal 
Protection Act of 1972 and the En- 
dangered Species Act of 1973, violation 
of which carries a maximum $20,000 fine 
and one year prison sentence. Rewards 
of up to $2,500 are available for persons 
providing information leading to a con- 
viction under the protection laws. 

But these well-intentioned laws 
are only now being utilized. So, in 1976, 
under the provisions of the Endangered 
Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service appointed a "manatee recovery 
team" with the authority to write pro- 
tective regulations and outline recovery 
efforts, including needed research. The 
team never acted or even met. A new 
team appointed in 1978 adopted some 
state-written regulations establishing 
ten basic protection areas. To enforce 
this protection, Florida has spent 
$81,000 posting these areas, and assign- 
ed half of its 240 marine patrol officers 
to police them in winter. 

These new manatee protection ac- 
tivities are a step in the right direction, 
but whether they're long enough strides 
to span the yawning gap called "extinc- 
tion" remains to be seen.— Mike Lee- 
cese, National Wildlife Federation. 

(See also "The Remarkable Man- 
atee, by Thor Janson, in the May, 1979, 
Bulletin. ) 

A Whale of a Singer 

Humpback whales, it turns out, are true 
composers of the animal world — their 
songs are continuously evolving. 

Analysis of songs collected over a 
20-year period reveals that the songs 
change progressively from year to year. 
According to Roger Payne, of the New 
York Zoological Society, the only other 
animal to exhibit such complicated be- 
havior is man. Payne even compares it 
to the evolution of language. 

The songs have a definite struc- 
ture, even though humpback whales in, 
say, Hawaii will sing a different song 
than those in Bermuda. For example, 
each song contains about six themes 
that follow in the same order, and each 
phrase contains two to five sounds. If a 
theme is deleted, the others stay in 
order. Since the laws of composition are 
the same between two isolated herds, 
Payne feels that whales inherit, geneti- 
cally or through learning, a set of song 
rules. 

Since whales only sing in winter, 

researchers first thought song changes 

were the result of a flawed memory; the 

34 whales, they thought, forgot part of the 



song over the summer and improvised 
each fall upon returning to their winter 
grounds. But new recordings show that 
when whales return they sing last sea- 
son's song flawlessly. Improvisations 
then occur as winter progresses. For in- 
stance, an old phrase may decrease in 
frequency as the weeks pass, only to be 
replaced by a new phrase. 

So far, researchers are unable to 
define the purpose of these elaborate 
songs. They speculate that they may be 
love songs since they occur during what 
is believed to be the breeding season and 
they are only sung by adults. While all 
singers that have been closely studied 
are male, researchers are unable to deter- 
mine the sex of most whales they ob- 
serve. They also find it difficult to tell 
which whale is singing. 

Humpback whales are the only 
known species to have a song, although 
other whales repeat a low monotonous 
loud tone that can be heard for hundreds, 
perhaps thousands of miles. 



Piranha Range Increasing 

Piranhas are apparently extending their 
range in South America. Officials in the 
southern Brazilian state of Santa Cata- 
rina, beyond the previous range of the 
fish, reportedly have warned people 
against swimming in rivers. 

This follows the disappearance of 
farm animals, attributed to piranhas, 
and a recent attack on two fishermen 
near the town of Florianopolis. 

Press reports from Rio de Janeiro 
said the rivers of Santa Catarina were 
more than 2,500 km from the Amazon, 
normal habitat of the piranha. However 
officials said ducks migrating from the 
region often unwittingly carried piranha 
eggs stuck to their feathers, which 
would explain how the fish had appeared 
so far to the south. 



Man Sentenced for Violating 
Federal Wolf and Gun Acts 

A Burton, Mich., man has been sen- 
tenced to three years in federal prison 
and fined $1,000 after pleading guilty to 
transporting two wolves into Michigan 
in violation of the Federal Lacey Act, 
and for being in possession of a firearm 
as a convicted felon. 

He was sentenced to one year in 
prison and fined $1,000 on the wolf 
charge and sentenced to an additional 
two years on the firearms charge. The 
sentences are to be served concurrently. 
The man is believed to be the first per- 
son in the U.S. to be sentenced to federal 
prison for violating federal and state 
laws pertaining to the protection of 
wolves. The lengthy investigation, in- 
itiated in Minnesota, April, 1977, re- 
vealed that the man purchased two 
wolves from a fur farm and transported 
them into Michigan on May 30, 1979. 



25 Animal Species Added to 
Endangered List 

Several gazelles and deer, some from the 
Peoples Republic of China, and the red- 
necked Amazon parrot are among the 25 
foreign species that have been classified 
as endangered by the Interior Depart- 
ment's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
The rule, listing the species from numer- 
ous countries in Asia, Africa, and South 
America, was published in the June 25, 
1979, Federal Register 

Habitat destruction and subsist- 
ence or uncontrolled killing are the pri- 
meiry causes for most of the species' de- 
cline. All are considered endangered by 
the International Union for the Conser- 
vation of Nature and Natural Resources. 

Listing the wildlife under the En- 
dangered Species Act will aid in their 
conservation by prohibiting all inter- 
state or foreign commerce of these spe- 
cies without a permit and by requiring 
federal agencies to refrain from funding, 
authorizing, or carrying out any activi- 
ties in the affected foreign countries that 
would jeopardize the species' continued 
existence. Federal agencies must also 
utilize their authorities to promote the 
conservation of these species. As a re- 
sult of the listings, foreign currencies 
and U.S. personnel also become avail- 
able to assist the countries in developing 
management and conservation pro- 
grams. 

The newly classified endangered 
species and their countries of origin are: 
Iriomote cat— Iriomote Island, Ryuk- 
yus; Malabar large spotted civet— India; 
Bactrian deer— USSR, Afghanistan; Bar- 
bary deer— Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco; 
Corsican deer— Corsica, Sardinia; Yar- 
kand deer— Chinese Turkestan; Jen- 
tink's duiker— Liberia, Sierra Leone, 
Ivory Coast; western eland— Senegal to 
Ivory Coast; simian fox— Ethiopia; Ara- 
bian gazelle— Arabian peninsula, in- 
cluding Israel; Pelzeln's gazelle— So- 
malia; sand gazelle— Arabian peninsula, 
Jordan; Saudi gazelle— Israel, Iraq, Jor- 
dan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait. 

Swayne's hartebeest— Somalia, 
Ethiopia; Tora hartebeest— Ethiopia, 
Sudan, Egypt; Fea's muntjac— Burma, 
Thailand; Ryukyu rabbit— Ryukyu 
Islands; Formosan sika— Taiwan; North 
China sika— Shansi Province, China; 
South China sika— Yangtze valley, 
China; Zanzibar suni— Zanzibar Island, 
Tanzania; Arabian tahr— Oman; red- 
necked Amazon parrot— Dominica. 




September & October at Field Museum 



(September 15 through October 15 



Continuing Exiiibits 

"Treasures of Cyprus." A final opportunity to view 8,000 years 
of Cypriot art and culture. . .this is the last showing before the 
exhibit's permanent return to Cyprus. Ancient bowls, jugs, 
vases, jewelry, and religious idols show the influence of many 
peoples while remaining typically Cypriot. Assembled under the 
direction of Donald Whitcomb, assistant curator of Middle 
Eastern archaeology and ethnology. Exhibit designer is Clifford 
Abrams. Sponsored by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling 
Exhibit Service and the government of Cyprus. Hall K, ground 
floor. Through Sept. 16. 

"Art Lacquer of Japan." Our newest permanent exhibit features 
inro (intricately carved and decorated sectional medicine cases), 
netsuke (tiny carved pendants), and ojime beads, which hung 
from the waists of 18th- and 19th-century Japanese men as sym- 
bols of wealth and status. Miniature landscapes, dreamlike still 
lifes, and mythic dragons are flawlessly carved into lacquer or- 
naments no larger than a matchbox. Examples of Chinese lac- 
quer art are exhibited for comparison. Designed by David Ed- 
quist under the direction of Bennet Bronson, associate curator 
of Asian archaeology and ethnology. Hall 32. 

"A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History." A one- 
case exhibit that combines 63 natural history specimens with 
samples of philatelic or stamp art. Planned on a rotating basis to 
cover the four disciplines of natural history, the first phase is 
devoted to zoological specimens and their images on stamps. 



Among the mounted specimens are exquisite seashells, but- 
terflies, a leaping jaguar, and a fox. "A Stamp Sampler" was 
conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, exhibit guest curator, and design- 
ed by Peter Ho, a University of Illinois graduate student. Second 
floor lounge. 

"Cash, Cannon, and Cowrie Shells: The Nonmodern Moneys of 
the World." A fascinating collection that contains over 80 
varieties of money used by ancient cultures. It explores the 
origins, values, and meaning of nonmodern money in terms of 
buying power for these past civilizations. The accompanying 
text gives the value of each form of money in terms of how 
much food it could then buy. Four general categories of 
moneys are on display: metal coinage, uncoined metal, shell 
money, and "miscellaneous," which includes food, fur, fiber, 
glass, teeth, and stone currencies. No closing date. Between 
Halls K and L, ground floor. 

The Place for Wonder. This gallery provides a place to handle, 
sort, and compare artifacts and specimens. Weekdays, 
1 :00-3:00 p.m.; weekends, 10 a.m. to noon and 1 :00-3:00 p.m. 
Ground floor, near central elevator. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 
(Continued on back cover) 



Field Museum's newest permanent exhibit, "Art Lacquer of Japan, " in Hall 32 




MISS LOITH FLEMING 
946 PLEASANT STRE'lT 
OAK PARK ILL 60302 



September & October at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



New Programs 

"Jungle Islands." Film of the 1928-29 Crane Pacific Expedi- 
tion. Scientific staff from Field Museum, JHarvard and Stanford 
universities joined young Cornelius Crane and three college 
friends aboard the lUyria, a 150-foot sailing ship built by Field 
Museum trustee Richard T. Crane as a gift for his son. This 
90-minute account of their adventures documents the acquisi- 
tion of exotic animals and provides a rare ethnological record of 
the native peoples of New Guinea, Marquesas, New Hebrides, 
and Solomon Islands. Introduction and commentary during the 
silent, black-and-white film is provided by Dr. Robert F. Inger, 
Field Museum curator of reptiles and amphibians. Saturday, 
Sept. 29 at 2:30 p.m. James Simpson Theatre, West Entrance. 
Members $2.00; nonmembers, $3.50. An optional Members' 
buffet luncheon ($3.00) at 12:30 precedes the film. For coupon 
see p. 24. 

Coming In October. Learning Museum Program, a 3-year se- 
quence of learning opportunities centered around Field 
Museum's exhibits and collections and funded by the National 
Endowment for the Humanities, begins with a keynote address 
by Dr. Jonathan D. Spence. The noted China historian and Yale 
University professor will speak on "Looking at China: When, 
How Deeply, and Why?" Friday, Oct. 5 at 8 p.m. For further in- 
formation see p. 25. 




Continuing Programs 

"Weekend Discovery Programs." Free guided tours, 
demonstrations, and participatory events. Check weekend sheet 
available at North Information Booth for additional programs 
and locations. 

"Ancient Egypt." 45-minute tour explores traditions of 
everyday life, Egyptian myths, and the importance of mum- 
mies. Saturday, Sept. 8 at 11:30 a.m. 

"Baobab." This African wilderness film portrays the giant 
baobab tree as a miniature world where various species of in- 
sects, reptiles, birds, and mammals find protection and make 
their home. Saturday, Sept. 8, at 1:30 p.m. 

"Indian Fishermen of the Northwest Coast." The survival, 
wealth, prestige, daily and ceremonial life of these people are 
centered on the fish harvest. Sunday, Sept. 9 at 1:30 p.m. 



"Early Man." Half-hour tour traces major trends in the 
physical and cultural evolution of man. Saturday, Sept. 15 at 
11:30 a.m. 

"Mzima: Portrait of a Spring." This African wilderness film 
focuses on the hippopotamus and shows how its springtime sur- 
vival ensures the continuing existence of other species. Satur- 
day, Sept. 15 at 1 1:30 p.m. 

"Life in Peru." A 30-minute slide presentation of life in an- 
cient Peru and its ties with modern Peru as interpreted through 
pre-lnca pottery. Sunday, Sept. 16 at 12 noon. 

"Introduction to Hopi Culture." 30-minute film explains the 
rich heritage of the Hopi religion. Saturday, Sept. 22 at 11:30 
a.m. 

"Ancient Art of Spinning." Demonstration and talk on spin- 
ning's development in several cultures. Saturday, Sept. 22 from 
12:30 to 2 p.m. 

"Kenya-Uganda Safari." An African wilderness film show- 
ing the varied landscape and wildlife of East Africa. Saturday, 
Sept. 22 at 1:30 p.m. 

"Endangered Animals." Half-hour introduction to animals 
in danger of extinction. Sunday, Sept. 23 at 1 p.m. 

"China Through the Ages." Rare turn-of-the-century lantern 
slides featured in this look at traditional China. Saturday, Sept. 

29 at 1:30 p.m. 

"Indians of North America." A film tour of six tribes, from 
Iroquois in the north to the Hopi in the southwest. Sunday, Sept. 

30 at 2 p.m. 

Kroc Environmental Field Trips. One-day trips are held each 
weekend with Museum staff and guest scientists leading the ex- 
plorations. Adults and family groups can learn about local flora, 
fauna, and geology by collecting fossils, hiking through nature 
areas, or visiting working farms. Advanced registration by mail 
is highly recommended. For more information or a field trip 
brochure, call 922-9410, ext. 362, or write Department of 
Education — Field Trips, Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, 60605. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult-and-family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the en- 
trance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities are available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an in- 
terest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410, X 360. 

September and October Hours. The Museum is open daily 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays, the Museum is 
open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 





o 

• • 1 —  ' 




FJt-;. 





Held Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

October, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 9 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



x 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O. C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galifzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
Remick McDowell 
James L. Palmer 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6 a 
year; S3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Museum Tours 

4 Our Environment 

6 Timeless Images: Museum Photography 

b\/ Pat Williams 

10 Of Automobiles and Meteorites 

by Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

12 The Legacy of Malvina Hoffman 

16 Archaeology at the Top of the World 

by Alan L. Kolata 

25 Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

27 October and November at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 

COVER 

Mosaic mirror of turquoise, mother of pearl, and shell 
cemented with resin to a wooden base. The reflecting surface 
on the opposite side is made of inlaid, highly polished pyrites. 
This mirror is one of the finest known examples of portable 
art in the Huari-Tiahuanaco style. 23.9 x 12 cm. From the 
Robert Woods Bliss Collection of Pre-Columbian Art, Dum- 
barton Oaks, Washington, D.C. Photo courtesy Dumbarton 
Oaks. See 'Archaeology at the Top of the World, " p. 16, by 
Alan L. Kolata. 




Field Museum Tours 



Peru, Oct. 27 -Nov. 15. 

A 20-day tour will visit the ruins of Machu Picchu, Chan Chan, 
Pachacamac, Purgatario, and others. The Plains of Nazca (viewed 
from low-flying aircraft), the Guano Islands, and the Pisac Indian Fair 
will also be visited. The group, limited to 20, will be led by Dr. Michael 
Moseley, associate curator of middle and South American archae- 
ology and ethnology, and by Robert Feldman, assistant in archae- 
ology. A tour escort will also accompany the group. 

The tour cost— $2,998 (which includes a $500 donation to 
Field Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes round 
trip air fare between Chicago and Peru and local flights in Peru. Delta 
Airlines will be used between Miami and Chicago, connecting with 
Aeroperu. Deluxe accommodations will be used throughout. The 
package includes all meals, including inflight meals: all sightseeing; all 
admissions to events and sites; all baggage handling; all necessary 
transfers; all applicable taxes and tips; all applicable visa fees. Advance 
deposit; $250.00 per person. 



China, Nov. 5-25 

Peking's Forbidden City, the Summer Palace of the Dowager Em- 
press, the bustling activity of Canton, the ancient pagodas of Kunm- 
ing. These are just a sampling of the sights that lie in store for the 23 
persons (Field Museum members and their families) who visit China 
on Field Museum's exclusive tour this November. 

In addition to fourteen days in China, three days and two 
nights will be spent in London. The tour escort will be Mrs. Katharine 
Lee, a Field Museum volunteer in the Department of Anthropology 
who is fluent in five Chinese dialects. Additional guides in China will be 
provided by the China International Travel Service. The tour cost— 
$4,400 (which includes a $500 donation to Field Museum)— is based 
upon double occupancy and includes round trip air fare from Chicago 
to China. Advance deposit required: $500.00 per person. 



Antarctica, Jan. 6-30. 1980 

Until recently, only explorers were able to view antarctica's wondrous 
beauty. There is no destination more remote, more unspoiled by the 
encroachments of civilization. Our itinerary includes the Falkland 
Islands, a visit to the Patagonian coast, the South Georgia Islands, the 
South Orkney Islands, and of course, antarctica. Dr. Edward Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy, will be tour lecturer. 

The cruise vessel will be the 3,200-ton ship M.S. World 
Discouerer. registered in Hong Kong, which will take us from Punta 
Arenas, Argentina, onwards. Built in 1974, the one-class vessel has all 
outside cabins with private lavatories and showers. The ship's staff in- 
cludes a fully qualified physician. The tour leaves Chicago Jan. 6, 
1980 and returns Jan. 30. Prices per person: C deck twin: $3,230; C 
deck single: $4,870; B deck twin: $3,570; B deck single: $5,390; A 
deck twin: $3,930. Air fare, in addition is $1,225 (round trip between 
Chicago and Punta Arenas, Argentina) . Included in the tour price is a 
tax-deductible donation of $500.00 to Field Museum. Deposit re- 
quired at time of registration: $1,000.00 per person. 



Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
with Nile River Cruise 
Jan. 31 -Feb. 17, 1980 

Field Museum once again presents its popular Egypt tour with a Nile 
River cruise. This is the fourteenth such tour offered to Members dur- 
ing the last four years. The new and improved program offers an 
11 -day Nile cruise on our own chartered, private, modern Nile 
steamer. In addition, we will be visiting Cairo, Memphis, Sakkara, 
Aswan/Abu Simbel, Edfu, Esna, Kom Ombo, Luxor, Thebes, Valley 
of the Kings and Queens, Dendereh, Abydos, Amarna, Middle 
Kingdom Tombs at Beni Hasan, Pyramid at Medum, and much more. 
Eighteen days exploring Egypt with our Egyptologist, Mrs. Del 
Nord, a doctoral candidate at the Oriental Institute of the University of 
Chicago, who has traveled extensively in Egypt. Leave Chicago on 
January 31. 1980, and return on February 17. Price includes ail air 
transportation, meals, Nile cruise, hotels, tips, taxes, transfers, visa 
fees, admissions, baggage handling, escorts, and more. $3,595.00 
per person based upon double occupancy. The tour price includes a 
$500.00 contribution to the Field Museum. A $500.00 per person 
deposit is required for reservation confirmation. The group is limited to 
30 persons. Single supplement is available upon request, Nile Cruise 
and land. 



Kenya Safari 
Feb. 13 -March 5, 1980 

The wildlife of Kenya, both plant and animal, will be the focal point of 
this exciting 22-day tour of Kenya. An added bonus will be one of 
nature's most spectacular phenomena, a total eclipse of the sun which 
will occur on Feb. 16, 1980, and which you will view from the perfect 
vantage point, the Taita Hills. On the tour you will visit Nairobi, Am- 
boscli beneath Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tsavo West, Tsavo East, Mombasa on 
the Indian Ocean, the Ark, Samburu, Mt. Kenya Safari Club, Lake 
Naivasha, Masai Mara adjoining the Serengeti, and more. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert Faden, assistant curator of 
botany, and his wife, Audrey Joy Faden. Dr. Faden lived in Kenya for 
more than seven years and is very well versed in the flora. Audrey 
Faden, a wildlife artist, was born and raised in Kenya and has a first- 
hand knowledge of the fauna. 

The tour leaves Chicago on Feb. 13, 1980, and returns March 
5. Price includes all air transportation, meals, transportation within 
Kenya, hotels, tips, taxes, visas, transfers, baggage handling, admis- 
sions, escorts, and more. The tour cost is $4,575.00 per person based 
upon double occupancy from Chicago; this includes a $500.00 con- 
tribution to Field Museum. A $7,50.00 deposit per person is required 
for reservation confirmation. The group is limited to 25 persons. 
Single supplement is available upon request. 



For additional information and reservations for all tours, 
call or write Michael J. Fl\;nn, Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605. 
Phone: (312) 922-9410, X-251. , 



OUR ENVIRONMEHT 



Sperm Whale Stranding— Why? 

Why? Why did 41 sperm whales 
(Physeter macrocephalus) beach them- 
selves about one mile south of the Sius- 
law River [on the Oregon coast] during 
the early evening hours of June 16, 
1979? The answer to that question as of 
this writing is not known and may never 
be known. However, when aU of the data 
collected from this stranding is ana- 
lyzed, scientists may be a Uttle closer to 
fmswering this question. 

The sperm whale is the largest of 
the toothed whales and is found in the 
Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. 
Male sperm whales may grow to 60 feet 
in length; however, few are found that 
exceed 50 feet in length. They feed most- 
ly on squid and octupus although occa- 
sionally they are known to feed on fish. 



The sperm whale breeding season 
off California and presumably in Oregon 
is from May through October. After a 
15-month gestation period the female 
gives birth to a single calf about 12 to 15 
feet in length. To nurse her calf the 
mother lies on her side at the surface; 
the calf, lying parallel to its mother, 
takes her teat sideways in the angle of 
its jaw. The milk is pumped into the 
calf's mouth by means of a muscle layer 
covering the mammary glands. The calf 
nurses for one to two yeeu"s and may 
take some solid food months before be- 
ing weaned. The female does not come 
into estrus again for several months to 
over a year after weaning, thus she can 
be£u- only one calf every three to five 
years. 

Sperm whedes dive to great depths 
to feed on squid, octopus, and bottom 



fish. Sperm whale carcasses have been 
found entangled in submarine cables 
at depths exceeding 3,000 feet. Re- 
searchers, tracking sperm whales with 
sonar, report the usual dive depth is 
around 1,600 feet; however, they have 
been located on sonar at over 8,000 feet. 
Two animals killed off Africa after an 
80-minute dive had fresh bottom fish in 
their stomachs. The water in that area 
was over 10,000 feet deep. 

Researchers say that most sperm 
whale populations are still at or above 
the level that provides the maximum 
substainable yield. They estimate the 
present world population at about 
800,000 adults (roughly 1.5 million total, 
including young animals) of which 
380,000 (or about 740,000 totel) are in 
the North Pacific. 

This was the fourth largest re- 



Skeleton of 50-foot black right whale on view in Hall 19. This species is about the same size as the sperm whale, discussed above. Photo taken in 
1920s; skeleton is now suspended from ceiling. 




ported mass stranding of sperm whales 
in the world. The most recent larger 
stranding occurred New Year's evening 
(1979) in the northern Gulf of California. 
Why these strandings occur is not 
known; however, there are some theories 
as to the cause. Sperm whales detect 
food and navigate with echolocation 
(sonar). Three theories on the causes of 
stremdings are related to echolocation: 
(11 parasites may invade that part of the 
inner ear responsible for "balance," 
making it hard to keep the blowhole at 
the surface; this may also disrupt the 
animal's ability to interpret reflected 
sound; (2) long-sloping, shallow beaches 
may "capture" the echolocation signals 
as they reflect off the bottom so the ani- 
mals do not detect this danger until it is 
too late; and, (3) one or more animals in 
the pod may be ill or disoriented and 
swim to the beach with the remainder of 
the pod following. Captain C. M. Scam- 
mon, in his book "Marine Mammals of 
the Northwestern Coast of North Ameri- 
ca," noted that sperm whales, par- 
ticularly the females, would remain with 
an injured (harpooned) animal, thus 
allowing several in a pod to be killed 
before they tried to escape. 

There is also the question of why 
these smimals, normally found offshore 
in deeper water, were so close to the 
beach. One possibiUty is that this is the 
time of year when squid are found near 
shore depositing their egg capsules on 
hard objects such as rocks and crab 
traps. Squid were reportedly spawning 
near the stranding site. Sperm whales 
were observed just offshore in this area 
prior to and following the stranding. 
It is not known whether these whales 
were from the same pod as those that 
stranded or if they showed any signs of 
illness. 

The stranding and death of 41 
sperm whales was a tragic occurrence. 
The stranding fortunately coincided 
with the annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Society of Mammalogists at Cor- 
vallis and as a result some of the leading 
mammalogists of the United States and 
Mexico were nearby and gave valuable 
assistance in collecting data. All animals 
were measured, sexed, and will soon be 
aged by observing annular laminations 
of their teeth. In addition, over a dozen 
animals were dissected. Tissue samples 
of aU major organs were taken for 
disease, parasite, and pollutant deter- 
minations. Three fetuses close to birth 
were examined and will contribute to our 
understanding of sperm whale develop- 
ment. 

Many people wonder why the ani- 
mals were only examined for biological 
purposes and no utilization was made of 
the carcasses. While it would have been 
very difficult, if not impossible, to cut 
the animals up and get them to render- 
ing plants before decomposition began, 
the greatest problem was concern for 
pubUc health. Health authorities did not 
think it wise to "drip" whales (possibly 



diseased) to rendering plants because of 
potential risk to humans, livestock, and 
terrestrial wildlife. There were also legal 
questions. The sperm whale is on the 
U.S. endangered species list. The En- 
dangered Species Act and the Marine 
Mammal Protection Act specifically 
prohibit the sale, use, or possession of 
any marine mammal parts without spe- 
cial permits. Exception to the law for 
salvage rendering could have been made 
if the possibiUty of disease could have 
been ruled out.— Dale Snow, assistant ma- 
rine region supervisor, state of Oregon, and 
Bruce R. Mate, Oregon State University, 
from Oregon Wildlife. 



A Scent's Worth Suffices 

A skunk discharges only about a twen- 
tieth of a teaspoontul of fluid when it uti- 
Uzes its well-known, smeUy defense me- 
chanism. This fluid is under pressure 
and it is released in a very fine spray 
that can carry up to 20 feet. 




i^m^m 



Asleep in the Deep Freeze 

A handful of arctic lupine seeds holds 
the world's record for hving in an inert 
state, according to the National Wildlife 
Federation. The seeds began to sprout in 
a dish of warm water after lying frozen 
deep in the tundra for 10,000 years. 



Hair as Repellent 

Wildlife biologists at the New York 
Botanical Garden's Gary Arboretum 
have been letting their hair hang down 
in an experiment to determine if the hair 
repels deer. 

Jay McAninch, staff biologist at 
the arboretum in MiUbrook near Pough- 
keepsie, NY, explained that bunches of 
human hair wrapped in nylon nets have 
been suspended from about 200 trees on 
the 2,000-acre arboretum. In measuring 
a hair ball's "sphere of influence" deer 
consistently would come within only one 
meter of the hair ball. This year the pro- 
gram, funded by grants from a beauty 
salon firm, has been expanded to test 
what types of hair repel deer, how long 
the hair balls are effective and packag- 
ing techniques for different tree species. 
Tresses from beauty salons and the 
great unwashed mass of hair from bar- 
bershops is being used. 

The rationale behind the search 
for a repellent is that deer browsing in 
orchards, nurseries, woodlots, farms, 
and gardens is a big problem— not only 
in New York but anywhere that agricul- 
turalists and deer share the same terri- 
tory. The hair ball idea is not exactly 
new. McAninch said he heard about it 
from two gardeners who had read about 
the idea in an organic gardening publica- 
tion. Results, however, varied from one 
orchard to the next; McAninch wanted 
to set up an experiment that would eli- 
minate many of those variables so that 
more conclusive results could be un- 
covered. He was also attracted to the 
method because it is inexpensive, readi- 
ly available, nontoxic and fully bio- 
degradable. 

McAninch theorizes that the hair 
may be repugnant to the deer because of 
some human scent associated with it, 
possibly from hair follicle secretions. 
Follow-up chemical analyses of the dif- 
ferent types of hair are planned to sub- 
stantiate this theory. 

What will the deer eat if the hair 
balls are too effective, one might ask? 
Good question, but McAninch has an an- 
swer. The number of hair balls is 
"minuscule" compared to the amount of 
browse on the arboretum grounds. On 
the smooth sumac, for example, one of 
the five preferred browse species, the 
balls adorn only about one-tenth of one 
percent of the available twigs and bran- 
ches. "We wouldn't try to extensively 
modify the deer food habits," he noted. 
—Rose Houk, 
National Wildlife Federation. 5 



Timeless Images: 
Museum^ Photography 



By Patricia Williams 



F< ield Museum's Department of Photography 
was established in 1895 and has been snap- 
ping away ever since. In those 84 years a lot of 
film has gone past the shutter — enough to produce 
a unique and irreplaceable collection of some 
300,000 negatives, 1,500 color transparencies, 
10,000 lantern slides, and 60,000 glass plates. Ac- 
cording to Ron Testa, Museum photographer, one 
of the greatest satisfactions of his job is being 
"caretaker of that gigantic file of negatives which 
we find is becoming more and more important to the 
history of photography and to the history of Indians 
especially. This collection will stay around for 
posterity and people will have access to it hundreds 
of years after I'm gone." 

The department was originally set up be- 
cause, according to the Museum's first annual 
report, it was found that the two-year-old museum 
needed photographs to illustrate pubUcations and 
lectures, "as well as preserving numerous condi- 
tions and objects that could in no other way be il- 
lustrated in the collections of the museum." 

Fulfilling that broad and rather vaguely de- 
fined need has resulted in a collection of great diver- 
sity. There are photographs taken on expeditions to 
exotic places and to America's then barely settled 
West; of people from many races and cultures; of an- 
thropological, botanical, geological, and zoological 
specimens; and scores of shots of exhibits. Lantern 
slides and photographs by the noted photographer 
of the American West, William Henry Jackson, are 
in the collection, as are negatives from Adam Clarke 
Vroman, the famous photographer of the South- 
west. The history of the Museum itself— from its 
original site in Jackson Park through the massive 
move to the present building and, most recently, 
through the just-completed renovation— is also 
preserved on film. 

Who uses all these pictures? Lots of people. 
Publishers request photos for use in encyclopedias, 
books, magazines, and newspapers. Students, scien- 
tists, historians, and researchers from all over the 
world draw on Field Museum's photography collec- 
tion for use in their studies. For example, the In- 
stituto Nacional de Pesquisas de Amazonia in 
Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, recently placed an order 
for one of each of the 55,000 negatives in the 
Museum's Botanical Type Photograph Collection. 
Fleur Hales, photo technician, is expected to spend 



at least four years filling that order in addition to 
performing her other duties. 

A botanical type specimen is the original 
specimen on which the description of the plant and 
the Latin name is based. In systematic botanical 
work, which primarily concerns the naming and 
classification of plants, it is essential that 
specimens be correctly identified. This can be done 
only by comparison of the plant in question with the 
type specimen. Photos greatly facilitate botanists in 
their determinations and are almost as good for 
study purposes as the original specimen— especially 
if only fragments of plant material are available for 
corroborative study. 

The Museum's Botanical Type Photograph 
Collection did not "just happen," but was the result 
of a timely plan conceived in 1929 by B. E. 
Dahlgren, then acting curator of the Department of 
Botany, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, and 
put into effect by botanist J. Francis McBride. The 
basic idea was to photograph the type material in 
European herbaria that was generally unavailable 
to botanists who were unable, for one reason or 
another, to visit those institutions. 

For four-and-a-half years McBride travelled 
across Europe, finally producing about 30,000 
negatives of type specimens. Since that time the col- 
lection has been supplemented until it now numbers. 
some 55,000 negatives. Its value to science has also 
grown, especially since many of the types photo- 
graphed by McBride were destroyed during World 
War II and Field Museum's photos are the only 
remaining record of them. 

Another unique record was compiled when 
George A. Dorsey, curator of anthropology, travel- 
led to the West and Northwest Coast to enUst In- 
dians of various tribes and physical types to come to 
the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis. Charles 
Carpenter, the Museum's first fulltime photo- 
grapher, photographed all of these Indians in their 
native costumes against a painted background. Five 
thousand negatives resulted— negatives that are 
still in steady demand today. 

Ron Testa explains, "Carpenter's negatives 



Patricia Williams was formerly managing editor of 
scientific publications. 



are more authentic than those of many photo- 
graphers who travelled around the Southwest bring- 
ing their own costumes along." These vagabond 
photographers often carried their own props and 
would happily outfit an Indian subject with 
whatever regaha was handy. In this way a Sioux 
might be ornamented with bits and pieces from 
various tribes— a headband from the Ute and a 
Pawnee pipe, for example. Although the results of 
such strategy might have been attractive, they were 
not culturally accurate and are not useful to an- 
thropologists and historians today. 

Much of the Museum's early anthropological 
field work was done in the Southwest and anthro- 
pologists either took the Museum photographer 
along or hired freelance photographers on the scene. 
Donna Longo, on an Illinois Arts Council grant, 
recently completed a several months' "treasure 
hunt" through the Museum's photographs of the 
Southwest Indians. Her purpose was to discover 
what photographers between 1890 and 1920 were 
doing among the Hopi; what their influence was on 
Hopi life; what kinds of images of the Hopi they cap- 
tured. Most of what Americans knew at that time 
about these Indians they learned from photographs; 
Longo's objective was to determine just how 
accurate these representations were. 

This was no easy task, and her conclusions are 
now being prepared for a formal report. As she 
observed, "You can never presume anything from 
any photograph." Documentation is vital to the 
value of photographs as sources of information and, 
unfortunately, many of the early photographs in the 
Museum's anthropology collection are poorly 
documented. Some were taken to be used as "ac- 
cessories" to monographs and were not seen as im- 
portant in themselves; others came from photo- 
graphers who made only brief notations, such as 
"Sioux man, 1898." Information such as date, 
specific place, name of the subject, and the name of 
the photographer was simply not recorded. 

Longo also drew information from published 
sources, notes in Museum archives, and cor- 
respondence from photographers and ethno- 




Botanist J. Francis 
McBride (1891-1976} 
spent mort- than four 
years photographing 
30,000 type specimesf. 
in European botamcol 
collections. Since 
many of these plant 
specimens were 
destroyed during 
World War II, 
McBride' s negatives, 
now in Field 
Museum's photo col- 
lection, are in them- 
selves an invaluable 
scientific resource. 



graphers, building a body of information and 
documentation about individual photographs that 
will make them useful tools in anthropological 
research. 

Loran Recchia, the Museum's photo resear- 
cher, is doing similar work on the many other 
materials in the Museum's collection of photo- 
graphs. Unfortunately, over the years clerical help 
was lacking in the Department of Photography and 
only a chronological card file was maintained of the 
huge collection. Also, in many instances 
photographs were misidentified or shelved in 
various departments without any documentation at 
aU. 




Charles Carpenter 
(1859-1949), Field 
Museum's first 
fulltime photographer, 
"shoots" Hopi while 
Museum anthro- 
pologist George A. 
Dorsey (1868-1931) 
takes notes. Ca. 
1900-01. 



Botanist B. E. 
Dahlgren 
(1877-1961) was 
the originator of 
Field Museum 's 
Botanical Types 
Photograph Col- 
lection. 




Pointing out the fact that the most important 
part of the file is retrieval, Testa and Recchia plan to 
completely recategorize the photographs in the col- 
lection, gathering information and entering it on file 
cards in a format suitable for transfer to a com- 
puterized system. The photographer also looks 
toward conservation of the negatives and glass 
plates themselves. Carol Small Kaplan, Museum 
photo technician who divides her responsibilities 
between the scanning electron microscope labora- 
tory and the Department of Photography, is 
presently working on the preservation of early 
negatives. Some of these negatives weren't washed 
and processed properly and, warns Testa, "They 
could be deteriorating and we've got to try to pre- 



vent that." He continues, "To me it's a sin that 
we're even making prints off of some of our glass 
plates because they could be broken and lost 
forever. ' ' 

It is Testa's goal to recategorize and document 
the collection and to preserve the old negatives and 
plates. The importance of this ambitious project is 
generally well established today and other museums 
with similar problems are also at work conserving 
their photographic collections. Testa hopes to ob- 
tain funding from a foundation or granting agency 
to finance this necessary project. 

This is all a long way from the Museum's first 
foray into photography in 1895. Then, Charles F. 
Millspaugh, curator of botany, added photography 
to his other duties and took charge of a three-camera 
set-up housed in "one of the rooms in the North 
Balcony." When work picked up, as it soon did, 
Millspaugh was given an assistant from the 
librarian's staff. 

The pace continued to accelerate and in Oc- 
tober of 1899 Charles Carpenter joined the Museum 
staff as full-time photographer. Obviously not a job- 
hopper, Carpenter manned the shutter at the 
Museum for 48 years, until his retirement in 1947. 
In 1921 Herman Abendroth came to the Museum to 
work as Carpenter's assistant and, following 
Carpenter's retirement, served as head of 
Photography until his own retirement in 1950. John 
Bayaliss, who joined the Museum staff in 1925, 
became Abendroth's assistant in 1948 and head of 
Photography in 1950, serving in that capacity until 
his retirement in 1975. Today he continues to serve 
the Museum as a once-a-week volunteer, dividing 
his time between Photography and the Department 
of Botany. Following tradition, Ron Testa, who 
joined the staff in 1975, should be on hand to docu- 
ment the next turn of the century at Field Museum. 

Before he came to Field Museum, Testa noted 
that among museum photographers nationally there 
was a tendency to- pick a spot and stay in it. He ex- 
plains: "Someone has to die or retire before you get 



John Bayaliss, 

head of 

Photography from 

1950 until his 

retirement in 

1975, came to the 

Museum in 1925. 

He is still active 

as a Museum 

volunteer. 





one of these jobs." Why? "Because people stay in it. 
It's very stable. They like what they're doing. John 
Bayaliss certainly liked what he was doing. I cer- 
tainly like what I'm doing. Carpenter probably had a 
good time. I like museums and the museum atmos- 
phere is very comfortable. It's sort of like a family." 

Variety is certainly an outstanding character- 
istic of the job. One morning might find Testa snap- 
ping away at a group of school children touring a 
new exhibit and that afternoon he could be back in 
the studio adjusting the lighting for shooting 
fossils. He has taken the glamourous photographs 
for the "Feather Arts" catalog and late in 1978 he 
accompanied a geological field trip to Argentina. 
The fact that every Museum department —actually, 
every curator— has a different need for photography 
is Testa's greatest challenge. 

Having taken 5,000 negatives and 500 trans- 
parencies since he joined the Museum, Testa has 
seen a steady increase in the demand for photo- 
graphs. Because most of the Museum's collection is 
in black-and-white, many photographs are now 
taken in color to satisfy the current requests from 
publishers. 

As part of the Museum's recent renovation 
program and aided by generous gifts from Mrs. 
David W. Stewart of Rochester, N. Y., in memory of 
her aunt, Hedwig H. Mueller, the Department of 
Photography recently moved into new quarters. 
Black-and-white develeping is done in the 
Museum's new darkroom, but color photographs are 
developed for the department by commercial 
laboratories. Testa explains that it doesn't work out 
economically to develop color in-house yet. "The 
color chemicals die quickly. You have to use them 
almost every day or you're losing money. We have it 
done outside and in the long run it's cheaper." 

The department's equipment includes an 
11x14 Deardorff vertical; an 8x10 roll-around 
Deardorff; a 4 x 5 Sinar with a 90 mm single-angle 
lens; a 500 CM Hasselblad with an 80 mm lens; and 
a Nikon FM with a 55 mm lens. 



r^ 




^^m 


^^^^^^^^^H 

^^B 

^^/ 


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W9K^ 


2 



Field Museum 's 
Department of 
Photography (left to 
right): photo techni- 
cians Fleur Hales and 
Carol Small Kaplaii, 
photographer Ron 
Testa, and photo 
researcher Loran 
Recchia. 



It's all— again— a long way from a little 
balcony room in 1895, but, as well-known photo- 
graphy authority Aaron Sussman has written, 
photography can be perfectly described by "that 
sage French proverb: The more things change, the 
more they are the same. True, techniques have im- 
proved; materials and equipment are better, faster, 
or easier to use. But the eye and heart of the 
photographer are still the same, and the simplest 
camera with ordinary film can still make great pic- 
tures if the artist sees clearly and presses the button 
at the decisive moment." Field Museum has been 
fortunate in having a series of photographers who 
consistently saw clearly and carefully timed their 
button pressing. D 



Charles F. Millspaugh 
(185&1923), Field 
Museum's first cura- 
tor of botany, also 
established in 1895, 
the photography 
department. 



Of Automobiles 
And Meteorites 



By Edward Olsen 



Down in southern Illinois, 40 miles northeast of St. 
Louis, is a little town with an odd name, Benld — 
named after the late Ben L. Dorsey, who owned land 
in the area. On September 29, 1938, Benld became 
the site of a dubious first in the history of the 
automobile: A fine old 1928 Pontiac coupe, sitting in 
the garage of Mr. Ed McCain, had the honor of 
being the first automobile ever hit by a falling 
meteorite! 

It was just after 9 o'clock in the morning, and 
Mrs. McCain was out back of her house pumping 
water from the well. Over the clanking sound of the 
pump she heard a loud noise and glanced up, think- 
ing it was a passing airplane. She'd become quite 
used to the comings and goings of planes at the 
nearby St. Louis airport. But seeing nothing, she 
shrugged it off and continued pumping. 

Meanwhile, across the alley, Mrs. Carl Crum 
was doing some yard work. Suddenly, she too, heard 
a sound which seemed to her like an airplane in a 
dive, followed by a sharp, cracking noise. She ran 
into the aUey, thinking a small plane had smashed 
into the other side of her bam. Nothing appeared 
wrong, so she too dismissed it as some sort of fluke 
of nature — and indeed it was. 

The rest of the day went along in normal 
fashion until Ed McCain arrived home from the 
local mine where he was employed. It was about 
three in the afternoon and he decided to drive into 
town to do some errands. Going out to the garage — 
an old, unpainted squarish building — he opened the 
doors and started to cUmb into the car. Then, to his 
astonishment, he discovered in the seat cushion a 
large ragged hole. McCain's first thought was that 
rats during the night had foraged in the cushion for 
nesting material. The old seat was made of mohair 
and stuffed with the conventional seat-stuffing 
materials of the day: cotton, wool, and burlap. 

McCain's neighbor, Carl Crum, was just 
across the alley and McCain called him over to com- 
miserate with him over the depredations of the rats. 
But peering at the hole, Crum expressed the opinion 
that rats could not have done such damage. Then, 
glancing upward, Crum noticed a hole torn through 
the new roof of the car. In cars of this vintage 
(before the advent of full metal roofs) the top was 
covered with a weatherproof fabric. A new roof had 
only been recently put on the ten-year-old car. Next, 
the perplexed men could see daylight through a 
spUntered hole in the garage roof. The tarpaper roof- 
ing was torn and a 4" by 5" hole punched through 
10 one-inch-thick pine planks! Instantly they refdized 



that whatever had ripped the hole in the garage roof, 
the car roof and the seat must still be there. Wheel- 
ing the car out of the garage and puUing out the 
seat, they found that beneath the seat the car's 
thick wooden floor bo£u-ds were also smashed, and 
beneath these they could see a large dent in the top 
of the muffler, positioned directly beneath the hole 
in the floor. 

Digging into the seat they found a blocky- 
shaped rock about the size of a Softball. But the rock 
was so entangled in the coil springs of the seat they 
had to get a wirecutter to free it. Somehow they 
knew it just had to be a meteorite. The rock was 
taken to town and shown off in various business 
establishments; it was measured and weighed out at 
just about four pounds. 

Apparently this stone meteorite had smashed 
first through the roof of the garage, then the roof of 
the car, then through the entire thickness of the 
upholstered seat where it became entangled in the 
coU springs. It then went on to punch a hole through 
the wooden floor boards and smash into the muffler 
beneath. The springs at this state, still tangled 
around the meteorite, jerked it back upward into the 
body of the seat, where it finally came to rest. It 
must have really been moving! Ed McCain was 
sobered by the thought of what would have hap- 
pened had he been sitting in the car warming up the 
engine when it hit. He would never have known 
what hit him! 

This was indeed a first in automotive history. 
Earlier, in the mid-1930s, there was a story of a car 
being similarly struck, somewhere in northern In- 
diana, but this turned out to be a false report. 

As a matter of fact, incoming meteorites seem 
to favor targets that have to do with automobiles. 
In San Juan Capistrano, California (better known 
for the regular return of its swallows), on March 15, 
1973, sometime between midnight and four a.m., a 
small stone meteorite smashed through the 
aluminum roof of a carport attached to a mobile 
home. This time there was no car parked inside, and 
the event went unnoticed until many hours later 
when the hole was seen in the carport roof and a 
walnut-size meteorite was found on the ground. 
About a month later a smaller piece of the same 
meteorite was found in a raingutter along the side of 
the carp>ort roof. 

On October 27 of the same year, another stone 
meteorite broke through the roof of a newly built 
garage in a residential neighborhood in Canon City, 
Colorado. No one knew exactly when it fell, though 
it had to have been between 5:45 and 11:30 p.m. 
Again, no car was parked inside. This meteorite was 
especially interesting to scientists because the 
garage, being new, and the floor, with newly poured 
concrete, was free of oil spots, dirt, and other con- 
taminants. This meant that studies of trace 
chemicals, found in the meteorite in minute 
amounts, could be analyzed without concern for con- 
tamination — a problem that does prevail with most 
meteorites that fall into soil. 

On January 31, 1977, at 3:30 in the afternoon. 



Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy. 



four stone meteorites crashed into Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. Three of the pieces hit buildings, and one 
struck a parked automobile. The four pieces pro- 
bably entered the upper atmosphere of the earth as 
a single object. When slowed down by the earth's 
atmosphere it often happens that stone meteorites 
are fractured into pieces that then fall together. In 
some spectacular cases a large stone meteorite can 
end up in hundreds of pieces of all sizes that rain 
down like buckshot. 

Every year hundreds of millions of 
meteorites, most of them small bean-sized objects, 
enter Earth's upper atmosphere travelling at speeds 
up to 100,000 miles an hour. The vast majority of 
them burn away to fine dust. Only about 500 of 
tangible size survive to make it through to the sur- 
face. Seventy percent of these, of course, fall into 
the ocean, because that much of the earth is covered 
with oceans. This leaves only about 150 that could 
ever be recovered on land. Most of these fall in 
uninhabited places, forests, prairies, jungles, and 
mountains, and are never recovered. Those that fall 
on farmland have a chance of being recovered if 
farmers notice them during planting or harvesting 
operations. Indeed, most of the new meteorites that 
are reported each year are found by farmers and 
ranchers. 



It's rather amazing that so few meteorites 
have landed in populated places and have done so 
little damage. From 1790 to 1954 only twenty-seven 
cases can be documented of meteorites striking 
buildings, and major cities have only rarely been 
struck. In more recent times, besides the one that 
landed in Louisville, in 1967 a small stone meteorite 
went through the roof of a warehouse in the north- 
eastern outskirts of Denver. The exact time of its 
fall is not known because the first clue that 
anything was wrong came when it rained and some - 
one saw that water was dripping through a hole 
in the warehouse roof. 

Animals, as well as people, are smaller targets 
than buildings, so it isn't quite as odd that injuries 
and deaths, or even near misses, are rare. Only two 
cases of animals being hit are known. 

At 12:45 in the afternoon of May, 1860, over 
south-central Ohio, the sky shook with explosive 
blasts. A very large meteorite was roaring in over 
the state in a northerly direction and was also heard 
over several adjacent states. It had broken into 
about 30 pieces that fell over an area of some 30 
square miles, near the town of New Concord. 

Nathaneal Hines was plowing his field at the 
time, when a piece, weighing 40-50 pounds, skim- 

(Continued on p. 26) 



The late 
Henry W. 
Nichols, 
former 
curator of 
geology, 
views the 
Ben Id 

meteorite ex- 
hibit with 
visitor short- 
ly after its 
installation in 
Hall 34 in 
1939 




The Legacy of 
Malvina Hoffman 



Malvina Hoff- 
man with 
Stanley Field 
in the garden 
of Hoffman 's 
Paris studio, 
ca. 1932. Field 
(1875-1964) 
was president 
of Field 
Museum from 
1908 to 1964. 



On February 21, 1930, a handwritten note came to 
the registrar of Field Museum from the president of 
the Museum: "Please open a new a/c [account] on 
the books 'Hall of Physical Anthropology' & put 
Mr. Marshall Field's check to the credit. of that a/c 
[signed] S. Field." That same month, a telegram to 
Malvina Hoffman, the New York sculptor, "Have 
proposition to make, do you care to consider it? 
Racial types to be modelled while traveling around 
the world," brought Miss Hoffman to Chicago and a 
meeting with Stanley Field and Field Museum's 
Board of Trustees. 

The relationship established at this meeting 
lasted for many years and produced "The Races of 
Man," one of Field Museum's most famous exhibits, 
and Hoffman's most monumental work, 104 
bronzes, revealing, as Hoffman wrote, "man to his 
brother." 

The original plan of the project was worked 
out at the Museum. Hoffman wrote of the Board of 
the Museum, "a very alert and courageous group of 
men. To keep abreast of the times, they decided, 
after investigating the reasons why the anthropol- 
ogy halls in all countries were generally empty and 
the snake and monkey houses always crowded, to 
step out of the tradition and take a long chance. 
They felt that 'The Races of Man' should look alive, 
and be actual figures that anyone could recognize 



and feel to be authentic ... so they decided to try 
sculpture. ..." 

Though the conception of the plan belonged to 
the Museum, the work was Hoffman's, and the final 
product bore the stamp not only of her artistic skill, 
but of her strong beliefs. The Museum had planned 
to hire four or five artists to go to various parts of 
the world. Hoffman pointed out that such an ar- 
rangement could not produce a consistent, balanced 
hall. She also pointed out the potential battles in- 
volved in four or five artistic temperaments. She 
won her point. She was commissioned alone to do 
the job. 

Again, the original plan called for plaster 
figures. Hoffman felt strongly about this point: "I 
signed up for painted plaster, real hair and glass 
eyes, knowing absolutely that within six months 
this part of the contract would be changed without a 
struggle." She had two of the figures cast in bronze 
at her own expense in Paris and when Stanley Field 
saw them at her studio, that part of the contract 
was changed. 

She spent the next several years traveling the 
world for the Museum, sketching and sculpting, and 
slowly assembling the exhibit. Hoffman had con- 
siderable skill in persuading normally shy people to 
pose for her. She was undaunted by primitive condi- 
tions, and overcame inevitable difficulties with 





great courage. 

Only 80 percent completed, the Hall of Man 
opened on June 6, 1933, at the time of the opening of 
the International World's Fair in Chicago called the 
Century of Progress. More than 2,000,000 people 
visited the Hall in its first year, and countless 
millions more until 1967, when it was superseded, in 
Hall 3, by the Anniversary Exhibit, still to be 
seen there. 

Many of the sculptures in the "Races of Man" 
series have continued in the ensuing years to be on 
view on the Museum's three exhibit floors; and now, 
six more full figures, a half-figure, and ten busts 
have been withdrawn from storage and added to 



those already on view. All splendid pieces are to be 
seen on the ground floor. The busts, in two groups, 
flank the west entrance; five of the full figures: 
Hawaiian Surfer, Kashmiri Man, Caucasoid Man, 
Spear-thrower— Aborigine, Solomon Islander— Tree- 
climber, and the half-figure, Afghan Man, may be 
seen in the hallways peripheral to James Simpson 
Theatre; the sixth full figure. Jinrickshaw Man, is 
located just north of the entrance to the central 
passenger elevator. 

The "Races of Man" series, unique in the 
annals of both sculpture and anthropology, are a 
remarkable testament to the genius of Malvina 
Hoffman, who died in 1966 at the age of 81. 



Hoffman 's 
Paris studio, 
with assist- 
ants Jean 
Limet (left) 
and his 
father. Ca. 
1932. 



13 



The Art of Malvina Hoffman 



Additional Pieces Now on View on Ground Roor 




Caucasoid Man 



Kashmiri Man 



^^ 




Hawaiian Surfer 











Near Bolivia's 
Lake Titicaca lie 
the ruins of the 
prehistoric city 
of Tiahuanaco. 
Dominating it is 
this massive, 
stone-faced plat- 
form mound, 
Akapana, 656 
feet on a side 
and nearly 50 
]( feet high. 





Archaeology 
At the Top 
Of the World 




By Alan L. Kolata 



In the year 1549, while travelling around the shores 
of Lake Titicaca in the high Andes of present-day 
Bolivia, the Spanish soldier and chronicler Pedro 
Cieza de Le6n came upon the remnants of a great 
city whose stones even then were worn with age and 
tumbled into ruins. In recording his impressions of 
this encounter, Cieza provided the first written 
account of the ancient archaeological site of 
Tiahuanaco (or Tiwanaku as it is now called in 
Bolivia). He noted that Tiahuanaco was "famous for 
its great buildings which, without question, are a 
remarkable thing to behold," and described one of 
them as a man-made hill built upon massive stone 
foundations. Cieza was even more impressed by the 
enormous stone idols carved in human form which 
were set within the monumental structures of this 
mysterious ruined city. He wrote that these 
sculptures of stone were so large, "they seem small 
giants," and so beautifully carved, "they seem the 
work of great artists or masters." 

Ever since Cieza's initial account, Tiahuanaco 
has exercised an extraordinary hold over the im- 
agination of scholars and the general public alike. 
The city and its monuments have been the subject 
of numerous descriptive studies, as well as 
speculative interpretations that purport to decipher 
the meanings encoded in its stone sculptures. For in- 
stance, the famous "Gateway of the Sun," a stun- 
ning ceremonial portal carved from a single andesite 
block, has inspired a host of ingenious, but incredi- 
ble, interpretations. Common to fanciful reconstruc- 
tions of the gateway's symbolic content is the belief 
that this monument records events from a profound- 
ly distant past. One such interpretation makes the 
astonishing claim that the Gateway of the Sun is an 
astronomical document in stone that records the 
ecUpses, equinoxes, solstices, and peculiar cosmic 
geometry of a "pre-lunar" world of unfathomable 
antiquity, perhaps hundreds of thousands of years 
old. Another not only ascribes to Tiahuanaco (and 
the gateway) a similarly fantastic "geological date," 
but also attributes the city's immense cut-stone ar- 
chitecture and sculpture to some creative, laser- 
wielding extraterrestrials! 

Carved stone head tenoned into the west wall of the 
semisubterranean temple at Tiahuanaco. 

Alan L. Kolata is a Field Museum research 
associate. 






*??>^'*^' 




Map of part of 
the ruins of 
Tiahuanaco 
published by the 
great late 19th- 
century explorer 
of the Andes, 
Ephraim George 
Squier. After 
18 Squier, 1877. 



Perhaps more than any other archaeological 
site in native America, Tiahuanaco has suffered 
from this kind of latter-day mythologizing and 
flights of speculative fancy. Part of the reason for 
this can be attributed to the unique environmental 
location of the city. The ruins of Tiahuanaco are 
situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in 
an overpowering landscape of high steppe (or 
altiplano) and rugged, snow-shrouded mountains. 
The long, relatively narrow valley in which this an- 
cient urban center evolved is set at an altitude of 
3,850 meters, or some 12,600 feet. This extreme 
elevation gives Tiahuanaco the distinction of being 
the highest urban settlement of the ancient world 
and, together with the surrounding mountain peaks 
— some of the tallest in the Andean chain — imparts 
to the city an exceptional aura. The panoramic wind- 
swept vistas opening out from the site towards the 
lake and the mountains make it clear that the 
dramatic setting of the city has contributed greatly 
to the myths, legends, and fantasies that have been 
built up around Tiahuanaco through the centuries. 

However, the single most important factor 
that has encouraged speculation grounded in fancy 
instead of fact is the relatively small amount of 
scientific research that has been conducted at- the 
site. Apart from some sporadic instances of con- 
trolled archaeological excavation carried out in the 
first half of this century, it was not until the late 
1950s that a continuing program of systematic 
research was initiated by Bolivia's Instituto 
Nacional de Arqueologia (inar). This research has 
established that Tiahuanaco was the focus of a long 



and complex history of human occupation between 
about 1500 B.C. and a.d. 1200, and has outlived five 
major phases of habitation spanning the period be- 
tween 250 B.C. and A.D. 1000. inar archaeologists 
are continuing to probe Tiahuanaco's complicated 
past, gradually isolating the city's many architec- 
tural and cultural components. 

Although inar investigators have unearthed 
cultural remains such as ceramics at Tiahuanaco 
that date back as far as 1500 B.C., the city was most 
densely occupied and exerted its greatest influence 
in the Andean world during the period of about A.D. 
500-1000. Because of a widespread supplanting of 
other regional art styles by the distinctive style of 
Tiahuanaco during this time, most archaeologists 
believe that this "influence" took the form of a pan- 
Andean empire. If this is correct, Tiahuanaco at one 
time was the capital of an imperial realm that incor- 
porated into its domain the vast mountain ter- 
ritories of Peru, Bohvia, and Argentina, as well as 
the arid lands strung along the Pacific coasts of 
Chile and Peru. 

More recently, Andeanists have recognized 
that the inhabitants of a second archaeological site, 
the urban settlement of Huari near the modern town 
of Ayacucho in the highlands of southern Peru, 
adopted many of the symbols and stylistic conven- 
tions of Tiahuanaco art in the sixth century. From 
the sixth to the ninth century, Huari was instrumen- 
tal in spreading its interpretation of the Tiahuanaco 
style, and presumably the religious doctrines and 
social beliefs embodied in this style, throughout the 
highland and coast of Peru. 





m? 



lir.rKUKNOKS. — A. Hollow pquave, level 
with surface of the plain.— B, Terrace, S 
I'eet hii^her than A.— C, Koctangle, part- 
ly defined hy roiijjh npri^'ht stones. — D. 

Aj)ron of preat mound E. Great mound, 

called theFortres.* — vi. Great monolithic 

ijate-way e, <*, e. Excavations.—//, h, h. 

TTeapa of earth from excavations.—/, /. 
^fassive stones partly worked. 




-.- Si '"f 'Sri 




Remarkably well preserved textile 
fragment unearthed at the Necropolis 
of Ancon, an ancient archaeological 
site near Lima, on Peru's central 
coast The figures in the design are 
virtually identical to ones carved in 
stone on the Gateway of the Sun at 
Tiahuanaco. This textile is a splendid 
example of provincial Tiahuanaco art. 
After Stubel and Uhle, 1892. 

Portal to Catholic Church in village of 
Tiwanaku, shown in 1876. Many 
stones in the church's structure were 
taken from the nearby archaeological 
site. The two statues flanking the por- 
tal continue to guard it today. After 
Stubel and Uhle, 1892. 



If 





Above: The Gateway of the Sun, restored and placed on 
foundations in 1908. After Posnansky, 1945. 

Left: Detail of the central figure carved on the Gateway 
of the Sun. Figure may have been an emblem of Tiu- 
huanaco's ruling elite. After Stiibel and Uhle, 1892. 

Below: Detail from the Gateway of the Sun. One of the 
elaborately attired, winged attendants that face the 
central figure shown in left photo. After Stiibel and 
Uhle, 1892. 











The precise nature of the relationship between 
Huari and Tiahuanaco remains obscure. But it is 
likely that neither city held hegemony over the 
other, and that Huari and Tiahuanaco functioned as 
autonomous "dual capitals" of the imperial realm, 
controlling the northern and southern regions of the 
empire respectively. This type of political arrange- 
ment is not without precedent in the history of 
empires: the east-west division of the late Roman 
Empire with capitals at Constantinople and Rome is 
a classic example. 

We do know that the empire of Tiahuanaco 
had a lasting cultural impact in the ancient Andean 
world. Spanish chronicles relate that the Inca, some 
500 years after the disintegration of the empire, 
looked to imperial Tiahuanaco as their cultural pro- 
genitor. Several chroniclers note that the Inca 
believed their origins to lie in the region of Lake 
Titicaca, and that the Inca kings, in particular, 
claimed descent from a "great creator" who hved at 
Tiahuanaco. By tracing royal descent from the 
ancient inhabitants of Tiahuanaco, the Inca mon- 
archs were claiming their inalienable right to forge 
and rule their own imperial realm. 

The monumental scale and considerable 
elaboration of the architecture at Tiahuanaco befits 
its status as an imperial capital. The city is 
dominated by two massive, stone-faced platform 
mounds: Akapana, the largest structure at 
Tiahuanaco, measuring some 200 m (656 feet) on a 
side and over 15 m (49 feet) high, and Pumapunku, a 
smaller terraced mound (150 m, or 492 feet, on a side 
and about 5 m, or 16 feet, high) built of the finest 
andesite and sandstone block masonry to be found 
in the city. Recently INAR opened a 20-meter 




These huge 
megalithic andesite 
and sandstone 
blocks once formed 
the entrance to 
Pumapunku. Over 
the centuries, 
looters in search of 
treasure have 
mined underneath 
the blocks, causing 
their collapse. 
Some, weighing 
over 100 tons, were 
quarried more than 
six miles away. 



Michael Moseley. copyright National Geographic Society 



Detail of the 
"Ponce Monolith. " 
This colossal 
carved stone statue 
was discovered by 
archaeologists with 
Bolivia's Instituto 
Nacional de 
Arqueologia just in- 
side the entrance to 
Kalasasaya, the 
principal temple at 
Tiahuanaco. 21 



22 



Arthur 
Posnansky, 
engineer turned 
archaeologist, 
shown in 1903 
while exploring 
the ruins of 
Tiahuanaco. He 
poses with El 
Fraile ("The 
Friar"), one of 
the great mono- 
lithic effigies ifft^ 
found in the "^~ 
Kalasasaya. 
After Posnan- 
sky, 1945. 




(66-foot) wide excavation on the east side of 
Akapana revealing that the exterior of the mound is 
terraced, consisting of three mammoth stone-faced 
retaining walls set above and behind each other in 
step-wise fashion. Cieza's description of a man-made 
hill built upon massive stone foundations is surely a 
reference to this imposing feature of the Akapana. 

Other important structures at Tiahuanaco 
include the semisubterranean temple and 
Kalasasaya, a large rectangular precinct whose 
walls were built of towering rough-cut sandstone 
pillars alternating with sections of smaller, rec- 
tangular blocks of high quality masonry. Both of 
these structures are adjacent to the north face of 
Akapana. 

Cieza's view of the architecture at Tiahuanaco 
430 years ago was without doubt more complete 
than ours today. Since the Spanish conquest, 
innumerable stones of the city have been torn from 
their original context and reused in the construction 
of churches, private houses, and the roadbed of the 
railroad that runs through the site to the village of 
Huaqui on Lake Titicaca. Yet, despite the devasta- 
tion wrought by looters over the centuries, enough 
architecture remains intact to enable us to identify 
structures that fulfilled various religious, admini- 
strative, and residential functions. For example, 
abutting Kalasasaya is a building complex con- 
structed of superbly cut hardstone ashlars (square 
building stones) that has been interpreted as a 
palace compound— a residence of the elite who ruled 
from Tiahuanaco. 

Set within the ritual and administrative struc- 
tures of the city— the palaces, temples, and pyra- 
midal mounds— were some of the finest stone sculp- 
tures of ancient America. Perhaps the most famous 
of these are the megalithic ceremonial gateways 
that provided access to the sacred precincts of the 
city. Pumapunku, Akapana, and Kalasasaya were 
all furnished with impressive stone portals embel- 
Ushed with friezes carved in low relief. The largest 
and iconographically most complex portal, the 
Gateway of the Sun, was erected in the northwest 
corner of Kalasasaya. The frieze on this gateway 
depicts a central figure dressed in an elaborate tunic 
standing on a triple-terraced platform mound and 
holding two scepters that end in condor heads. 
Flanking this figure and facing him are arrayed six 
rows of elegantly sculptured winged attendants who 
each carry the condor-scepter. 

The central figure of the frieze may portray 
the paramount deity of Tiahuanaco 's pantheon. An 
important, elaborately costumed deity holding two 
scepters or staffs first appeared in Peru during the 
Chavin horizon (ca. 1200-300 B.C.). During 
Tiahuanaco's imperium, this "staff g9d," as it 
appears carved on the Gateway of the Sun, was in- 
troduced throughout the Andean world, clearly 
reflecting the expansion of the empire's political 
power and ideological prestige. In this regard, it is 
possible that the central figure of the gateway was 
intended to be an emblem of Tiahuanaco's ruling 
elite, or perhaps even the portrait of a god-king. The 
specific identity and meaning of the gateway figure 
remains lost in antiquity. 

Other sculptures, carved in the form of free- 
standing monoliths ranging from 1.5 to 7.6 m (5 to 
25 feet) in height, were erected at Tiahuanaco. Some 



of these monoliths remain in situ in Kalasasaya and 
the semisubterranean temple. These colossal monu- 
ments, portraying human figures wearing costumes 
like that of the gateway figure and holding scepters, 
goblets, and other ritual equipment, were the 
primary cult effigies of Tiahuanaco and an impor- 
tant focus of its active religious and civic life. 

Stone stelae and plaques incorporated in the 
walls of royal residences and religious structures 
were employed as ornaments and as objects of ritual 
display. Some of these wall plaques were heraldic 
devices featuring powerful opposed animal figures 
such as stylized pumas, condors, or mythical com- 
posite beasts. Stone tenon heads depicting 
naturalistic human faces, skulls, and gargoyles were 
another form of architectural ornament. 

The entire range of figurative representations 
in the monumental art of the imperial capital 
appears in smaller-scale, portable objects that were 
produced and exchanged throughout Tiahuanaco's 
imperial realm. Human figures holding scepters and 
other ritual paraphernalia, winged attendants, 
highly stylized pumas, condors, and griffins were all 
directly transposed into a variety of media: precious 
metals fashioned into royal crowns, jewelry, pec- 
torals, and emblematic plaques; vivid textiles used 
as tapestries, mantles, and costumes; fine-grained 
wood and stone carved into portrait heads, bowls, 
beakers, and weapons; exquisitely modeled, 
polished and finely painted ceramics executed in a 
bewildering array of forms and sizes. These portable 
masterpieces of Tiahuanaco art, in reproducing with 
perfect fidelity the fundamental iconographic 
themes carved in the monumental sculptures of the 
capital, visually communicated the unifying power 
of this Andean empire. 

During the summer of 1978, Field Museum, 
with the financial support of the Tiwanaku Archae- 
ological Foundation (a private organization 
established for the purpose of furthering research 
and development of BoUvia's cultural resources, 
particularly in the archaeological zone of 
Tiahuanaco), initiated a preliminary research pro- 
gram designed to complement the ongoing efforts of 
INAR at Tiahuanaco and its environs. Our research 
was intended to aid Bolivian investigators in 
locating areas of the city that would be likely to 
yield important cultural remains upon excavation. 

Large and exceptionally complex ancient 
settlements such as Tiahuanaco cannot be complete- 
ly excavated. They are explored by means of sample 
excavations that uncover only a small percentage of 
the prehistoric remains. By employing sophisti- 
cated techniques of geophysical prospecting, we 
have been able to increase the efficiency of excava- 
tion strategies at Tiahuanaco through foreknow- 
ledge of what is likely to be encountered in specific 
areas of the settlement. (For another archaeological 
application of these techniques by Field Museum 
investigators see "Archaeology in the Electronics 
Age," July/August 1978 Bulletin.) 

At Tiahuanaco we used two prospecting 
devices provided by Soiltest, Inc. of Evanston, 111.: a 
portable seismograph and a proton magnetometer. 
The seismograph measures the velocity at which a 
shock wave travels through the earth; the 
magnetometer measures the local magnetic field of 
the earth. Both seismic velocity and intensity of the 23 




Ridged or 
drained fields 
near Lake 
Titicaca 's 
southern shore. 
These agricul- 
tural fields may 
have been a ma- 
jor component in 
Tiahuanaco's 
sustaining 
economic 
system. They 
will be one focus 
of future at- 
tempts to 
reconstruct the 
city's economic 
life. 



24 



local magnetic field are dependent upon the types of 
subsurface materials that are present in the area 
being explored. For instance, the characteristic 
seismic velocity and magnetic field of loose soil are 
generally very different from that of hard, dense 
stone. Since much of the monumental architecture 
and sculpture at Tiahuanaco was made of stone, 
these instruments used in tandem made it possible 
for us to readily detect, map, and calculate the depth 
to subsurface "anomalies" that represent signifi- 
cant archaeological features. 

For example, a 10-square-meter section of the 
southeast corner of Akapana's summit registered 
some intense magnetic anomaly readings. A seismic 
transect of this section indicated that the anomaly 
had a high velocity characteristic of hard stone, and 
was located at a depth of approximately one meter. 
A subsequent test pit in the area uncovered the rem- 
nants of a subterranean, stone-lined drainage 
system. We recorded a number of other intense 
anomaly readings in the area between the Akapana 
and Kalasasaya, and on the summit of Pumapunku. 
When INAR opens excavations in these areas, it is 
likely that some previously undetected, major 
archaeological features such as large architectural 
blocks or perhaps even new stone sculptures will be 
brought to light. 

In the future, we intend to expand our 
research program at Tiahuanaco to include an 



analysis of the city's sustaining economic system. 
Archaeologists have often interpreted Tiahuanaco 
simply as a ceremonial center: the focus of periodic 
pilgrimages from throughout the southern Andes, 
but lacking a substantial resident population. This 
interpretation of Tiahuanaco resulted from con- 
sidering only the impressive monumental architec- 
ture: Akapana, Pumapunku, and Kalasasaya. How- 
ever, recent work has shown that the total occupa- 
tion area of the settlement, including both public 
and residential architecture, exceeds four square 
kilometers, implying a much larger permanent 
population than had been suspected. 

To feed this population, Tiahuanaco must 
have maintained an extensive agricultural system. 
Immense tratts of now abandoned agricultural 
fields survive around Lake Titicaca's southern 
shore. These fields consist of artificially constructed 
platforms or ridges that were designed to drain 
planting surfaces in order to permit cultivation. It is 
possible that these "drained fields" were con- 
structed very early in the history of Tiahuanaco 
and, as the state expanded its imperial realm, 
became vast agricultural estates, chiefly responsible 
for supporting its growing urban population. We 
will be testing this and similar propositions, as we 
try to reconstruct the economic foundations of this 
spectacular city that evolved high in the mountains 
of BoHvia, at the top of the Andean world. 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 



Mid-October through Mid-November 

James Simpson Theatre 
Saturdays, 2:30 p.m. 



The entrance to Simpson Theatre is conveniently located just inside 
the Museum's west entrance. This is of special interest to the handi- 
capped, for the west entrance is at ground level and all steps between 
curbside and theatre have been eliminated. The west entrance also 
provides free admission to the theatre. Access to other Museum areas, 
however, requires the regular admission fee (except on Fridays) or 




Venice canal, from Phil Walker's "Northern /fa/y and Rome, "showing Oct. 27. 

OCTOBER 20 

"Sri Lanka" Presented by Ralph Gerstle 

Gerstle's camera captures the variety of Sri Lanka— lush 
scenery, exotic wildlife, and tea plantations in airy mountain 
settings. The ancient capital cities boast towering Buddhas 
carved into vertical granite cliffs. Giant reservoirs built by the 
ancient Ceylonese are engineering marvels still in use today. 
Work elephants haul massive loads with great skill— the bull- 
dozers of contemporary Sri Lanka. A film that transports the 
viewer to a land as beautiful as the precious gems found there. 

OCTOBER 27 

"Northern Ital\; and Rome" Presented by Phil Walker 

Lecturer Philip Walker has subtitled his film "The Italy of 
Leonardo da Vinci." A pictorial essay on the life and work of 
this incomparable, genius, the film show da Vinci's birthplace, 
his masterpieces in oil and marble, and models of his futuristic 
inventions. Cross references are made to the works of Michel- 
angelo, Botticelli, and Raphael. Views of the Roman Forum, 
the Coliseum, the Grand Canal, and the Bridge of Sighs are 
woven together with scenes of flea markets and vineyards to 
create a living tapestry of Leonardo's homeland. 



membership identification . Plan to have dinner in the Museum's din- 
ing area before attending the lectures. 

The illustrated lectures are approximately 90 minutes long and 
recommended for adults. Reserved seating is available, until 2:25, for 
members and their families. Door open at 1:45 p.m. 



NOVEMBER 3 

"Denmark and Greenland" Presented by Arthur Wilson 

Wilson takes us first to Denmark, where we visit Copenhagen, 
the beauty of Tivoli Gardens, and the charm of South Jutland. 
From there we journey to the vast expanses of Greenland. We 
view the contrasts of mountains of ice crashing into the sea and 
the delicacy of arctic flowers and spectacular scenery. Scenes 
include wild caribou, grazing sheep, and shrimp factories. 

NOVEMBER 10 

"Mark Twain in Switzerland" Presented by Dick Reddy 

In 1878 Mark Twain set sail for Switzerland to experience first- 
hand its frozen beauty and magnificent mountains. Filmmaker 
Dick Reddy retraces Twain's route — over the Brunig Pass, up 
the jutting Matterhorn, and to the dungeons of the Castle of 
Chillon. 

Danish chimneysweep, from Arthur Wilson's "Denmark and Greenland," 
showing Nov. 3. 




25 



Con't from p. 11 

med past him, missed his plowhorse's head by a few 
feet, and plopped to earth only 500 feet away. Not 
much further off it was reported that a colt was 
actually struck and killed. 

And, on June 28, 1911, near the village of 
Nakhla, Egypt (about 24 miles east of Alexandria), 
the morning sky was similarly shaken as 40 pieces 
of stone meteorite pelted the ground, one kilUng a 
dog. 

When human habitations have been struck 
there is of course a possibihty of injury or death to a 
person if the meteorite is large enough. In Hamlet, 
Indiana, in 1959, a stone meteorite narrowly missed 
going through the roof of the house of the Hall 
family. Instead, it merely clipped off the raingutter. 
In Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1971, a small stone 
meteorite actually went through the roof of the Paul 
Cassarino home. The meteorite must not have been 
going very fast because it only went through the 
roof and didn't have enough force left to pierce the 
ceiling below. It was discovered in the attic. 

The most famous case in meteorite lore of a 
narrow escape by a person occurred at 1 p.m. on 
November 30, 1954, just northwest of the small 
town of Sylacauga, Alabama. Mrs. E. Hulitt 
Hodges had just finished lunch and settled herself 
down to take a short nap. She was soon jolted 
awake, however, and leaped out of bed as she heard 
a violent crash. Thinking the gas heater in the room 
had exploded she looked around and saw a "rock" 
lying on the floor. Then she felt a deep pain in her 
left arm and hip. The rock was a 12-pound stone 
meteorite that had smashed through the 3/4 "thick 
wooden roof, grazed the rafter, punched through the 
3/4" ceiling boards, hit a radio in the room below. 



glanced off and ended its flight by smacking Mrs. 
Hodges along her left side through the thickness of 
two quilts! She was hospitalized briefly, mostly to 
recover from the shock. Mrs. Hodges was lucky to 
come off with only bruises. 

At the present time, with the known influx of 
meteorites, and the world population at its current 
level, the chances are that one person could be hit by 
an incoming meteorite about ever 4,500 years! Of 
course, as the population increases, and larger por- 
tions of the land become covered by towns and 
cities, the chance becomes greater and greater. Even 
at that, death or injury by a falUng meteorite will 
probably never be considered a major hazard to life. 

Some large objects, asteroids with dimensions 
measured in thousands of feet, up to a mile or more, 
pass the earth very closely. For example, in 1937 the 
asteroid Hermes passed the earth at a distance of a 
mere 465,000 miles. In terms of space, this was a 
close call. Hermes and related bodies are in orbits 
that cross the earth's orbit. In time, there is a 
chance such a body could actually hit the earth. We 
know that large meteorites have stuck earth before 
because we can still see some of the craters, of huge 
sizes, that they created. One such impact, centering 
on a major metropolitan area, could constitute the 
greatest natural disaster on record, rivaling the 
largest earthquake catastrophes of history. 

As time goes on, more automobiles will pro- 
bably be struck by incoming meteorites, but that 
soUd old 1928 Pontiac will hold the honor — such as 
it is — of surviving the first such blow. It could still 
be driven away under its own power. They really 
built cars in those days! We can wonder what would 
happen if a present-day model were ever hit. D 



The "Morito" meteorite, shown in Chihuahua School of Mines, Mexico, about 1900. 



26 




October & November at Field Museum 



(October 15 through November 15) 



New Exhibit 

"The Place for Wonder." Find out about the new feature in "The 
People Center": "touchable" items from the People's Republic 
of China. You can try on a bamboo backpack, ceremonial 
costumes, or contemporary jewelry. Other touchable items in- 
clude musical instruments, incense burners, and puppets used 
in religious festivities. All of this and more is available in the 
Place for Wonder, the ground floor gallery where children and 
adults alike may handle what they see. The exhibits include ex- 
amples from the Museum's four disciplines: geology, botany, 
zoology, and anthropology. The exhibit is also equipped with 
text in braille. Weekdays 1:00-3:00 p.m.; weekends 10:00 a.m. 
to'noon and 1:00-3:00 p.m. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Art Lacquer of Japan." The Museum's newest permanent ex- 
hibit features more than 400 objects of exquisite lacquer art 
from 18th- and 19th-century Japan. The objects on display in- 
clude finely carved and decorated inro (small sectional lacquer 
cases used to carry medicine), ojime beads, and netsuke 
(miniature carved pendants hung from silk cords). These ob- 
jects were worn by Japanese men as symbols of wealth and sta- 
tus. Hall 32, second floor. 

"A Stamp Sampler: Postage from Natural History." A one- 
case exhibit that combines 63 natural history specimens with 
samples of philatelic, or stamp, art. Planned on a rotating basis 
to cover the four disciplines of natural history, the exhibit in its 
first phase is devoted to zoological specimens and their images 
on stamps. Exquisite seashells, butterflies, a leaping jaguar, and 
fox are among the specimens mounted in the second floor 
lounge. "A Stamp Sampler" was conceived by Col. M. E. Rada, 
exhibit guest curator, and designed by Peter Ho, a University of 
Illinois graduate student. 

"Hall of Chinese Jades." The Hall of Chinese Jades contains 
examples of beautiful jade art spanning over 6,000 years of 
Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of the hall illustrates 
ancient jade-carving techniques. Hall 30, second floor. 

New Programs 

Learning Museum Program. During October, Field Museum is 
inaugurating a three-year sequence of learning opportunities 
centered around the Museum's outstanding exhibits and collec- 
tions. All the units of study will consist of special events, lec- 
tures, and seminars. The entire Learning Museum Program is 
being funded by the Mational Endowment for the Humanities. 
The first course, "China: A Deeper Look," is an in-depth ex- 
amination of this multi-faceted culture. Explore the historic 
origins of Chinese civilization and its development through the 
ages. Phone 922-9410, ext. 395, for more information. 

"Aspects of Peking Opera." Performed by Hu Hung-yen, the 
only professional actress of Peking Opera living in the United 
States. Accompanied by two musicians wearing elaborate 
costumes, she performs traditional opera selections. This pro- 
gram is one of the special events of the Learning Museum Pro- 
gram. Friday, Oct. 19, at 8:00 p.m. James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance. Members $3.00; nonmembers, $5.00. 



Kroc Environmental Lecture. "A New Look at Nature." Filmed 
by Oxford Scientific Films and presented in person by Dr. John 
Paling. New sequences show how nature and man can affect the 
ways of birds, bees, mice, and the freshwater creatures of 
Australia. Paling will give a behind-the-scenes account of how 
he and his award-winning colleagues made this 90-minute film. 
Friday, Nov. 9, at 8:00 p.m. A Members' dinner will precede the 
film at 6:30 p.m. 



9« 



f 




Dr. John Paling, shown with orphaned squirrel, presents Kroc Environ- 
mental Lecture Nouember 9. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. (Fall 1979 series) Free guided 
tours, demonstrations, and participatory events. Check week- 
end sheet available at North Information Booth for additional 
programs and locations. 

"Kalvak. " Half-hour film about a Canadian Eskimo who has 
painted and sketched since the late 1950s. The film explores 
what happens when a majority culture with its own ideas and 
economics of art impinges on a minority of a very different 
tradition. Saturday, Oct. 20, at 1:00 p.m. 

"Ancient Art of Spinning." Demonstrations and talk on 
history and development of spinning in several cultures. Sun- 
day, Oct. 21, 12:30 p.m. to 2 p.m. 

(Continued on back cover) 27 



October & November at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



Weekend Discovery Programs 

"Ancient Egypt." 45-minute tour explores the traditions of 
ancient Egypt, from everyday life to myths and mummies. Meet 
at North Information Booth. Saturday, Oct. 27, at 11:30 a.m. 

"The Hands of Maria." A film showing how Maria Martinez 
and her husband began to revive and extend the pueblo pottery 
traditions of San lldefonso. New Mexico. Watch Maria shape a 
dish, her son paint it, and Maria fire it in an old-fashioned open 
kiln. Saturday, Oct. 27, at 1:00 p.m. 

"The Legend of the Magic Knives." A twenty-minute film. 
The KwakiutI Indians of British Columbia extolled family 
prestige and tradition. Watch as artist Tony Hunt enshrines a 
carver's story in a cedar log while the legend is dramatized by 
masks made by Hunt and his predecessors. Saturday, Oct. 27, 
at 1:10 p.m. 

"China Through the Ages." Rare turn-of-the-century lantern 
slides are featured in this look at traditional China. Saturday, 
Oct. 27, at 1:30 p.m. 

"Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." Orientation film 
precedes 45-minute tour of ancient Egyptian artifacts; tour con- 
cludes with description of mummification process. Sunday, 
Oct. 28, at 12:30 p.m. 

"The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of the Bones and 
Teeth of Mammals." Looks at changes in teeth and bones that 
characterize the variation in today's mammals from runners to 
swimmers to flyers: and from grass-eaters to meat-eaters. Sun- 
day, Oct. 28, at 1:30 p.m. 

"Early Man." Half-hour tour traces major trends in the 
physical and cultural evolution of man. Saturday, Nov. 3, 1 1:30 
a.m. 

"Yesterday's Pots Today. " One-hour demonstration of basic 
pottery-making techniques from many cultures. Saturday, Nov. 
3, 1 1:00 a.m. to 12 noon. 

"Clay Dinosaurs." Make a clay dinosaur to take home while 
learning about dinosaurs and their habitats. Sunday, Nov. 4, 
11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. 

"What Ecologists Do." (15-minute film) Ecologists are sci- 
entists who study problems related to how living things act or 
depend upon one another. Saturday, Nov. 10, 1:00 p.m. 

"Ecological Systems .... Antarctica." (13-minute film) 
Basic features of our coldest continent show an ecologically un- 
disturbed setting. Saturday, Nov. 10, 1:00 p.m. 

"Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." 45-minute tour on 
Field Museum collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts; tour con- 
cludes with description of mummification process. Meet at 
North Information Booth at 1:00 p.m. Sunday, Nov. 11, 1:00 
p.m. 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures are scheduled every Saturday 
afternoon in October and November at 2:30 p.m. James Simp- 



son Theatre. Reserved seating is available for Members and 
their families. Doors open at 1:45. For further information see 
page 25. 

Oct. 20 "Sri Lanka — Resplendent Ceylon" 

By Ralph Gerstle 

Oct. 27 "North Italy and Rome — The Italy of Leonardo 

da Vinci" 
By Philip Walker 

Nov. 3 "Denmark and Greenland" 

By Arthur Wilson 

Nov. 10 "Mark Twain in Switzerland" 

By Dick Reddy 



Fall Journey: "Creatures of the Night." Self-guiding tour takes 
you to another world — a world of darkness. Many forms of 
North American wildlife are nocturnal. Although numerous, 
they are hidden by the darkness of night. Learn how these "in- 
visible" animals live and thrive— as creatures of the night. Free 
Journey pamphlets available at the North Information Booth 
and at the South and West Doors. 



Continuing Programs 

"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Learn about age-old weaving 
techniques and textile development during these free 
demonstrations. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 10:00 
a.m. to noon. South Lounge, second floor. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of apparently similar specimens is harmful 
and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom 
from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult-and-family-oriented, are available for 25<: each at the en- 
trance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Limited opportunities available in 
botany, geology, and zoology. Weekend volunteers with an in- 
terest in natural history are needed to develop and present 
weekend programs. For more information call 922-9410, ext. 
360. 

October and November Hours. The Museum is open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. through October; to 4 p.m. beginning 
November 1, every day except Friday. On Fridays the Museum 
remains open throughout the year until 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312)922-9410 



FIELD MGSECJM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



;^\v^' 



■«~-r 



^••Siif 




-.Ji^A- 






^* 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 



November, 1979 
Vol. 50, No. 10 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



CONTENTS 
3 Field Briefs 

4 



18 

22 
25 
26 



Image and Life: 50,000 Years of Japanese Prehistory 

Exhibit opens December 1 in Hall 27 

Commitment to Distinction 

The Natural History Museum: An Historical Sketch 

B\/ Cecile Margulies 

Second Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film 

November 30, December 1, 2 

Our Environment 

Field Museum Tours 

November and December at Field Museum 
Calendar of coming events 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



COVER 

Large figurine, Japanese: from Latest Jomon Period (1,000-300 B.C.). 
Aomori Prefecture, northernmost Honshu. Photo courtesy the 
University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology. This 
figurine, together with more than 100 other artifacts of prehistoric 
Japan will be on view in Hall 27 from December 1 through January 
31. See page 4. 



field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6 a 
year; $3 a year for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Postmaster: 
Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 11. 60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. 





National Science Foundation 
Awards $344,933 in Grants 

The National Science Foundation (NSF) 
has awarded grants in support of five 
research and collection areas: (1) 
$182,676 in support of the fossil 
vertebrate collection; co-principal in- 
vestigators are WiUiam D. Turnbull, 
curator of fossil mammals, and John R. 
Bolt, associate curator of fossil reptiles 
and amphibians. (2) $52,080 in support 
of the project, "The Care and Use of 
Systematic Collections of Insects"; pro- 
ject director is Rupert L. Wenzel, 
curator and head, Division of Insects. (3) 
$5,875 for acquisition of equipment to 
improve the scanning electron micro- 
scope facility of the Museum's Ad- 
vanced Technology Laboratory; project 
director is John R. Bolt. (4) $38,579 for 
continued support of the project, "Pre- 
ventive and Technical Conservation of 
Textiles"; Phillip H. Lewis, chairman of 
the Department of Anthropology, is 
principal investigator and project direc- 
tor. (5) $65,723 for support of research in 
"Pollen Morphology and Evolution in 
the Santalales, an Order of Parasitic 
Flowering Plants"; Sylvia M. Feuer, 
research associate, is principal in- 
vestigator. 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing date: Sept. 14, 1979. Title: Field Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin. Publication no. 898940. 
Frequency of publication: Monthly except for com- 
bined July/August issue. Number of issues pub- 
lished annually: 11. Annual subscription price: 
$6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 111. 60605. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History. 
Editor: David M. Walsten. Known bondholders, 
mortgages, and other security holders: none. Non- 
profit status has not changed during the preceding 
12 months. 





Av. no. 


Actual no. 




copies 


copies 




each issue 


single issue 




preceding 


nearest to 




12 mos. 


filing date 


Total copies printed 


59,727 . 


49,793 


Paid Circulation (sales 






through dealers. 






vendors, carriers 


None . 


None 


Paid circulation (mail sub- 






scriptions! 


50,647 . 


45,506 


Total paid circulation 


50,647 . 


45,506 


Free distribution 


850 . 
51,497 . 


722 




46,228 


Office use, left over 


8,230 . 


3,565 


Tbtal 


59,727 . 


49,793 



NEH, HEW, IlUnois Arts Council 
Grants 

The National Endowment for the 
Humanities has awarded a $29,059 
grant for support of planning the project 
"Tiahuanaco: Art and Empire in the 
Andes," a major travelling exhibition in- 
terpreting the art and culture of this an- 
cient empire of South America (1500 
B.C.-A.D. 1500). Project director is 
Michael E. Moseley, associate curator of 
Middle and South American archaeol- 
ogy and ethnology. 

The Department of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare has awarded $57,920 
for support of the project "Living New 
World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) Volume 
2." Project director is Philip Hersh- 
kovitz, curator emeritus of mammals. 
This is the first increment of a projected 
three-year grant that will total $171,810. 

The Illinois Arts Council has 
awarded Field Museum $20,000 for sup- 
port of the Museum's arts-related pro- 
grams for 1979-80. Program director is 
Carolyn Blackmon, chairman of the 
Department of Education. 

James L. Palmer, Remick McDowell 

Field Museum suffered a grievous loss 
through the deaths, within one month, 
of two Life Trustees and former presi- 
dents, James L. Palmer and Remick Mc- 
Dowell. 

James L. Palmer, president of Field 
Museum 1964 to 1969. died September 
17; he was 80 years of age. Palmer had 
been elected a member of the Board of 
Trustees in 1963 and was Life Trustee at 
the time of his death. 

During Mr. Palmer's term as presi- 
dent the Museum began its first corpo- 
rate and individual annual contributors' 
campaign; the Women's Board was 
founded, and a number of very successful 



I certify that the statements made by me above are 
correct and complete. — Norman W. Nelson, asst. 
dir., admin. 




temporary exhibitions were mounted. It 
was during James Palmer's tenure that 
the Museum began its 75th anniversary 
celebration by returning to the name by 
which it had so long been known — Field 
Museum of Natural History. 

A native of Waterbo