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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

UNIVERSITY OF 

ILLINOr: LIBRARY 

AT U.-jAi>iA CtlAMPAIGN 

NAT. HIST. SURV. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 




Fit-Id Mustum 

oi Natural History 

Bulletin 



/•• - • ■■.ullcr 



IjcIU Mustuni ot Natural History 
Fv>undcU XS'ii 
'esideni and Director: E. Leiand Webber 



CONTENTS 

3 rielil Briifs 

4 hi'ld Musfum Tiiuf". 

c C jtl Aki-U\ as Stulpliir 

10 Cjrl AkfU-\ as Naturalist lavidirmisl, IriM-ntor 

13 Our I ns ironmcnl 

If South Sfas Islands: faradisi- and IVrdition 

NtH Learning Musfum i'roKram 
hy A'lihi-'iiv Ptciffi'r ;>ro;4Vf coordinator 

20 Ktiman Huttlr Caps 

by Donald Whitconib. oisistanl curator of Middle Eastern 
arrheology and ethnology 

2.1 Indix (or 1979 (Vol. 50» 

27 lanuary and Februar> at Field Miis<nim 

Cak'ndjr nl coming events 



Board of Trustees 

William C Swanchild. Ir 

Mm T Slanton Armour 
Ceorif R Bakrr 
Robert O Bm 
Cordon B«nt 
Harrv O B»rth»r 
Bowrn Blair 
Sljnton R Cook 



N 



K rvkinson. |r. 
-rllry II 

c 

h 



MuRo I Mrlvoin 
vv .- M Mitchell 

. F Murphy. )r. 
jjrrrs I O Connor 
luTHn H Rannom 
John S RunnrlN 
Will.am I Scrlr 
I muh 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
loscph N Field 
Cliltord C Crcufi 
Samuel Insull. Ir 
William v. Kahler 
lohn T Pine. Ir. 
Donald Richards 
John M Simpson 
I. Howard Wood 



COVER 

Human skull, with face fanned from ihrcdded fiber jfum coconut 
milk, and ^>ossihly breadfruit juice. From Southern Malekula. New 
Hebndes Cat 133149 Collected hy curator A.B Lewis during 
Joseph N. Field Ex^yedition of 1909-13. Photo by Ron Testa. 

The face is shai>ed to resemble that of the recently deceased man 
from whom the skull is taken The skull is then placed aloi' a life-size 
effigy of the man. also formed to resemble that of the deceased After 
being borne in funeral rites, the effigy or rambaramp. is allowed to 
decay, no special efforts being made to presence it. 

See pages 16-19 for discussion of South Seas Islands Paradise 
and Perdition, theme of forthcoming sequence in National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities Learning Museum Program at Field 
Museum. 



Edward R 

Mr^ TV— t- 
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lulun n i.imm* 
Blaine I Yamngton 



Swijt 
Telling 

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- 04S-94O> » puMnhfd monlhly 



'' r»aniy rrtwct ih* 

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'.tusnm of Natural 

II eObOS ISSN: 



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FIELD BRIEFS 



Staff Appointments 

Field Museum's new assistant develop- 
ment officer is Larry E. Clary, who most 
recently was with the Development Of- 
fice of the University of Chicago. A 
native of the Chicago area, Clary holds a 
B A. in English from the University of 
Chicago. He succeeds William J. Maurer, 
who resigned to become university rela- 
tions director for Purdue University, 
Calumet Division. 

Jacqueline M. Felicetti has been 
named membership secretary, suc- 
ceeding Dorothy Roder, who is now head 
of the Field Museum Tours Program. 
Ms. Felicetti comes from the American 
Bar Association, where she was acting 
director of membership. She is a native 
Chicagoan and holds a B A from Loyola 
University of Chicago. 

Philip Hanson, formerly head, Har- 
ris Extension Loan Program, has been 
promoted to head. Group Programs 
Division, succeeding Carol SchoU, who 
has resigned. Raymond F. Bernard has 
returned to Field Museum to serve as 
resource coordinator of Harris Exten- 
sion, a new post within the recently 
reorganized Harris Extension, a unit of 
the Department of Education. Bernard 
was formerly an assistant in the Divi- 
sion of Reptiles and Amphibians. 

Tanisse R. Bushman has been 
named managing editor of scientific 
publications. A native of LaGrange, 111., 
Miss Bushman was most recently an 
editorial assistant at Arthur Young & 
Co., Chicago. She succeeds Pat Williams, 
who had held the post since 1961. Mrs. 
Williams resigned to accept another 
position. 



Norman W. Nelson Retires 

Norman W. Nelson, assistant director, 
administration, retired in November, 
1979, after serving eight years in that 
position: prior to that he had been Field 
Museum's business manager, the post 
he occupied upon joining the staff in 
1965. As assistant director, administra- 
tion — a new position created in 1971 — 
Nelsons area of responsibility included 
business and financial matters, building 
operations, personnel, security, and 
other general services. 

Nelson's contribution to Field 
Museum's growth and development dur- 
ing his almost 15 years on the staff were 
enormous. His stewardship of the 
finances of the museum was exemplary. 
When plans for and the execution of the 
building renovation were required, the 
responsibility for its supervision and 
working with the architect, engineers. 



construction manager, staff space plan- 
ning committee, and the facilities plan- 
ning committee of the Board of IVustees 
were assigned to Nelson. The renovation 
project is now largely complete and — 
exceptional among present-day building 
renovation programs — it is within 
budget and without large cost overruns. 
His counsel on all phases of museum 
operations was always sound, and staff 
members often found in him a source of 
sound personal counsel as well. A deep 
debt of gratitude is due Norman Nelson 
and we are truly fortunate that he will 
continue to serve the museum as con- 
sultant and as a volunteer. 



Egypt Honors Museum President 

E. Leland Webber, president and direc- 
tor of Field Museum, was decorated 
recently by Egyptian President Anwar 
Sadat with Egypt's prestigious Order of 
the Republic. The official notification to 
Webber of his award read in part: "As 
the King Tbt exhibition is nearing the 
end of its tour ... it gives me great 
pleasure to inform you that President 
Sadat has decorated you with the Order 
of the Republic in appreciation of your 
contribution to the beautiful presenta- 




Norman W. Nelson 

tion of King Tut in this country. Your ef- 
forts have resulted in a warm and en- 
thusiastic reception for these treasures 
far greater than we had imagined. We 
feel that this has contributed immensely 
to a better understanding of ancient 
Egypt and a whetting of the appetite for 
modern Egypt. " 

Egypt's Order of the Repubhc was 
bestowed on Webber at a reception in 
the Egyptian Embassy, Washington, 
D.C., on October 25 last. Also awarded 
the decoration were the directors of the 
six other United States museums that 
hosted the exhibition. 



Field Museum President and Director E. Leland Webber (left); Ashraf Ghorbal (center), 
Egypt's ambassador to the United States: and William G. Swartchild. Jr.. chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of Field Museum, shown at recent ceremonies at the Egyptian Embassy in 
Washington, DC. Webber was presented with Egypt's Order of the Republic (which he is 
shown wearing) for his leadership role in Field Museum's outstanding presentation of the 
Treasures of Tutankhamun exhibition in 1977. 




FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

l^^SO lour Packages Exclusively for Members 

Tiv China, H>;\'pt, Grand Can\nn, l-.n^Iami t^ Wales 



/ 



»-:M ^ 







f^r^ 



Archaroloqif al Tour of F qvpt 
ullh Nllr HiviT C rills.- 

I  •.■mains to register for the popular Egypt tour with Nile 

K • Th« new and improved program offers an 1 1-day Nile 

cniiM oo our own chartered, modern Nile steamer In addition, we 
wiD vijit Cairo. Memphis. Sakkara. Aswan Abu Simbcl. Edfu. Esna. 
Kom Ombo. Luxor. Thebes. Valley of the Kings and Queens. 
Dendereh. Abydos. Amarna. Middle Kingdom Tombs at BenI 
Hasan. Pyramid at Medum, and more 

' '  led by Mrs Del Nord. a doc- 

ttmitt . ' . of the University of Chicago. 

Lyvpt Price of $.3,595 (based on 

^ r transportation, meals. Nile cruise, 

visa fees, admissions, baggage handling. 

,  ce also includes a $500 contribution to 

f -n A S50O per person deposit is required for reservation 

'■^.- ^,^.jp a limited to 30 persons Single supplement 

" ' ■'. Nile cruise and land 



People's Ki-pulillc of China 
May 10 31 

The singular experience o( a trip to the People's Republic of China 
can be yours' For its members. Field Museum again offers an oppor- 
luiiity to visit China's ma)or attractions in the company of a well 
qualified lecturer The group, limited to 25 persons, will leave 
Chicigi) May 10 and return May 31 

Alter overnight in Vancouver and a visit in Tokyo, you will 
continue to Peking. China's cenlurlesold capital Relics of the Im- 
perial past, now national monuments. Include the magnificent Im- 
perial palace, museums, temples and shrines, and the vast park-like 
Summer Palace on the shores of nearby Kunnriing Lake A trip will be 
made to the Great Wall The next destination, Nanking, situated on 
the Yangtse River, is a source of pride for the People's Republic as a 
I enter of mtxlern development as well as lor its scenic and historic at- 
tractions Of special interest is the visit to the charming city of 
Kweilin The awesome surrounding landscape of jutting peaks and 
rocky caves brings scenes of Chinese painting to life Kwangchow 
(Canton) is China's most Important southern city, reflecting events in 
the history of the republic as well as former times when it was China's 
only port open to foreign trade. 

For additional information on this exciting tour, contact the 
Tours Office and ask for the China brochure 





Geology Tour of England and Wales 
June 14 — July 3 

Highlights of this 20-day tour, under the leadership of Dr. Bertram 
Woodland, Field Museum's curator of petrology (and a native of 
Wales), will be visits to classical areas of British geology where many 
fundamental aspects of geology were first discovered. The geological 
history and scenic development of these areas will be emphasized. 
Included in the tour are visits to the South Coast. West Country 
Cotswolds, Welsh Borderlands, North Wales, Lake District, 
Yorkshire Dales, and the Peak District. The group is limited to 25 
persons. 

Cost of the tour — $2,640 (which includes a $300 donation 
to Field Museum)— is based upon double occupancy and includes 
round trip air fare between Chicago and London First class accom- 
modations will be used throughout. The package includes breakfast 
and dinner daily, chartered motorcoach, baggage handling, all 
transfers, taxes (except airport tax), and tips (except to tour guides), 
all sightseeing charges and admissions to special events. Advance 
deposit: $250 per person 



Exploration of the Grand Canyon 
October 3-13 

The traveler arriving in Grand Canyon may be given enough time to 
stand on the South Rim and to gaze in wonder into the depth and 
silence of the chasm before being hurried away in his charter bus to 
somewhere else If he is lucky and has more leisure he may be 
allowed to hike part of the way down to the Colorado River along a 
trail as busy as Fifth Avenue on Easter But there is another Grand 
Canyon that no man in a hurry sees The Grand Canyon of exquisite 
loveliness, grandeur, and solitude 

The trip will begin in the late afternoon of Friday, October 3, 
with the flight to Las Vegas The first two days will be spent In the 
South Rim as an introduction to wilderness hiking and camping and 
to the geology of the area. The main part of the trip will be a 14-day 



river trip. The trip will be concerned with all aspects of geology, but 
will stress the geological history of the area shown in the great 
sequence of rocks representing about a third of the earth's history, 
the understanding of the Colorado River, her power, and the tools 
she uses to carve this great canyon, and the sheer joy and excitement 
of the river adventure. 

it is on the river that we will experience, learn, and under- 
stand the canyon, the river, and the Great Southwest We will 
"shoot" an unending line of rapids, some but a ripple, others rocky 
cataracts dropping 15 feet At no time will we need to portage, but 
we will have to hold fast with both hands, and secure the luggage 
well We'll get wet and tired — but happy and pleased. 

We will camp out on sandy beaches, and since it will not rain, 
the stars and the walls of the canyon will be our companions at night. 
We will travel in four boats, we'll swim in the tributaries to the Col- 
orado, or dive, jump in, or just soak We will hike to places of 
unusual geologic and anthropologic interest, sometimes through the 
most pleasant and enchanting stream beds and valleys, at times 
along steep walls and waterfalls. 

But above everything else, we'll live a time of geology. We 
will think earth while we eat, swim, dream, walk, and relax. We will 
see and study more geology in this one brief period than can be seen 
anywhere else in comparable time. 

The trip will end in Lake Mead, from where by bus we'll travel 
to Las Vegas, to fly home— sad to leave the Great River and a grand 
fortnight of our lives, but happy and proud to have experienced it. 

Although the trip will not be rigorous, numerous innercanyon 
hikes are planned. Camping out on the river will be without tents. 
Meals will be excellent A pre-trip meeting at Field Museum is 
scheduled for Saturday, February 9, at 2:30 p.m. Dr. Nitccki will 
lead the trip. The cost of $1,500 covers all expenses (including air 
fare, boat fare, meals, camping, sleeping bags, etc.), and a donation 
of $250.00 to the Field Museum. The trip is limited to 19 persons. 

For additional information and reservations for all 
tours, call or write Dorothy Roder, Field Museum 
Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, 
III. 60605. Phone (312)922-9410. 





I'hrec Xandi lion hunters, cast in bronze in 1925 by Cart E. Aketey. This life-size 
group, together with the pair of lions shown opposite and the triumphant hunt- 
ers on p. 8. are now on view in Hall 22. 



THE SCULPTURE 

OF 

CARL AKELEY 



Visitors to the Hall of Mammals (Hall 22) are 
greeted these days by a special welcoming commit- 
tee: weapon-brandishing Nandi tribesmen and two 
crouching lions who seem ready to spring. But not 
to worry! This formidable assemblage— though 
nearly life-size and realistic in silhouette— is cast in 
bronze: their spears are forever immobile and the 
lions entirely stationary. 

The arresting group of three castings was 
created in 1925 by famed sculptor-artist-explorer- 
taxidermist Carl E. Akeley, Field Museum's staff 
taxidermist 1896-1909, and presented the following 
year to the Museum by trustee Richard T. Crane. (A 
duplicate set is in the American Museum of Natural 
History.) In recent years the group has been in Hall 
10, now closed for renovation. 

Just months before his untimely death in 
1926, Akeley wrote the following account of lion 
hunting by the Nandi tribesmen of Uganda: 

The story of lion spearing is the sort of thing 
that is worthy of being recorded in bronze. It is a 
story of red blood and courage, of the efficiency of 
primitive men using primitive weapons, weapons 
made by themselves as they have been made from 
time immemorial. The story in brief is this: a naked 
man, by twirling a stick between the palms of his 
hands, with the end of the stick pressed against 



another of softer wood, produces fire throuf^h fric- 
tion. Charcoal is then made, and in a crude retort of 
clav he smelts the iron ore. On a block of granite 
serving as an anvil, with a smaller stone as a ham- 
mer, he fashions crude hammers from the iron. With 
these as his only tools he shapes a spear which is to 
be sharpened finally on native stones. Thus he 
makes a beautifully balanced weapon, with which he 
goes forth to kill the lion that has raided his flocks 
and herds. He takes a great pride in the achieve- 
ment, for he will make a headdress from the mane 
which his exploit entitles him to wear. This badge of 
distinction will forever command the respect of his 
fellows. 

When lions are to be killed, as they must if 
civilization is to replace primitive life, the most 
humane method yet devised, as well as the most 
sporting, is that of spearing. The time elapsing be- 
tween the first spear thrust and the end may be 
counted in seconds. There is small chance of the 
lion's escaping to die a lingering death from his 
wound, as so often happens when he is hunted with 
guns. If there are two or three natives together, it is 
reasonably certain that they will come out of it 
without a scratch. Shooting is not nearly as safe for 
the hunter. Moreover, spearing involves a fair com- 
bat between man and beast. 

In the spring of 1910, after several strenuous 
months on elephant trails in Uganda, I went back to 
the Uashin Gishu Plateau for a lion hunt with Nandi 
spearmen. I had no difficulty in securing one hun- 
dred men, for they were to be paid and fed for play- 
ing the game they loved. In the twenty days devoted 
to the work there were many tense and thrilling 
moments. My band of sportsmen killed ten lions and 
five leopards. Only two men were injured. The first 
day out a leopard ivas surrounded in a patch of bush, 
and while I waited in the open for what was sup- 
posed to be a lion— as it should be driven out in front 
of the camera before being speared — there was a 
great commotion. A few minutes later the beaters 



brought out a leopard with sixty spear holes in his 
skin and one of the Nandi with his scalp hanging 
over his eyes. The leopard had refused to be driven 
and had given a good account of himself Prompt 
surgical attention to the wounded Nandi resulted in 
a speedy recovery. 

Two days later a single lion was brought to 
bay in a strip of forest and speared before the camera 
could be brought up within view of the direction he 
unexpectedly took. Then for several days we hunted 
for lions u'ithout success until one morning, as the 
white members of the party were riding along in 
front and were just entering the bush that fringed a 
donga, we met face to face a band of lions that 
promptly took to cover as the alarm was given. In 
whatever direction a lion tried to escape a spearman 
bobbed up in the grass in front of him. The lions 
were forced to fight it out. Pandemonium reigned as 
the Nandi. shouting, and lions, grunting and growl- 
ing, ran helter-skelter among the trees and high 
grass while I tried desperately to find a vantage for 
the motion picture camera. When it was all over, and 
we took stock, we found that we had the memory of 
a few glimpses of tawny skins but no pictures. There 
were, however, three lions to be skinned, and we had 
reason to believe that two had escaped. 

Again as we rode beside a wooded donga a boy 
in front of me held up his hand in warning. As I 
swung off my horse a lion grunted close by, and as I 
was adjusting the camera a lioness came straight 
toward me, within ten feet, swerved and passed, 
then turned and plunged into the donga— all before 
the camera could be adjusted. Then I responded to a 
call from the left flank and hurried the camera to a 
point overlooking the part of the donga where a lion 
had taken cover in the high grass at the bottom. I 
had begun cranking the camera when the first spear 
was thrown. The spear hit the target, other spears 
followed quickly, and the lion never left his tracks. 
It was all over in less time than it takes to tell it. The 
film shows not only the falling spears but also the 




movements of the lion in the grass. Immediately I 
was summoned to another group of spearmen who 
were holding another lion at bay until I could have 
my camera brought into position. Again a film 
record was made. 

As we were making camp near by and the two 
kills were being brought in to be skinned the Nandi 
brought in a third lion from down the donga. We 
learned that one of the spearmen, a youth who had 
been loitering behind when the lions were located. 
had been charged by a lioness as he was running 
past her. He had killed her, but she had bitten his leg 
before she died. The boy's wounds were not serious 
and he was hunting with the rest a few days later. 
He was now entitled to wear a lion's skin headdress 
since he had killed a lioness alone. 

It was perhaps a week later that we were 
riding along the slope of a hill overlooking a valley 
when I detected a moving object in the grass at the 
bottom of the vallev. We soon found that five lions 



were leisurely making their way up the opposite hill. 
Four of them succeeded in reaching the bush along 
the banks of a small stream on the other side of the 
hill before being brought to bay by the Nandi. One 
had turned back and was rounded up in a small 
patch of high grass near the crest of the hill. This 
was a splendid chance for a picture, for the men 
could have held him there almost indefinitely as 
thev awaited the camera. 

As I was breathlessly adjusting the awkward 
thing, one spearman, more excitable than the others, 
threw his spear. Of course, the rest followed and the 
job was finished before the camera was ready. Again 
three of the five lions had been taken, but no film. 
This was our last encounter. I was not pleased with 
the results, as the film seemed an inadequate record. 
Had I, however, at this time planned to make a 
sculptural record of lion spearing, I should not have 
regarded the film as unworthy, for the pictures and 
other data were highly valuable for that purpose. 12 





A special exhibit o 
materials on Car 
Akeley. primaril\ 
photos and publica 
tions, is now on view ir 
the F'ield Museun- 
Library, open 9:00 a.m 
to 4:00 p.m.. weekda\ s 



"Chrysalis." a W24 bronze hx Carl Akele\ 



CARL AKELEY 



as 



Naturalist, Taxidermist, Inventor 

Akeleys museum assistant explains how the flghting bull 
elephants in Stanley Field Hall were mounted more than 

70 years ago 



After Cari, Akeleys Death in 1926, C. L. Dewey, 
who had worked as his assistant from 1903 to 1908, 
wrote the following tribute, which appeared under 
the title "My Friend Ake," in the December, 1927, 
Nature Magazine: 

The number of boys, girls, men and women 
who have wanted to work for and with Akeley, is 
unbelievable. Love of Nature, love of the outdoors, 
and love of animals were the first things that Akeley 
inquired about of the applicant. Then he wanted to 
know what you knew about the job that you wanted, 
and this generally led to downfall. I came out of the 
tall sticks to ask Akeley for a job, and when I plead- 
ed ignorance of any knowledge whatsoever of the 
workings of taxidermy and kindred arts, he said he 
would give me the job if I was sure that I knew 
nothing about it. He had tried for some years, he 
said, to break in a young man for the particular job 



Akeley uitk trophy in 
1906 in Somo'lic 
during Briti.J- ;■. ~. 
AO African Expeii: 







that he thought I might fill, but they all knew so 
much about the work they couldn't learn anything 
from him. 

The first trip afield that I made with Akeley 
was into the lake region of northern Illinois to col- 
lect material for the projected Illinois Bird Room for 
the Field Museum of Natural History, then known 
as the Field Columbian Museum of Chicago. This 
plan of presenting the birds of Illinois in their 
natural surroundings, with photographically repro- 
duced colored transparent background and com- 
plete data pertaining to each species, though shelv- 
ed when partly finished, was the beginning of the 
plan which has consummated in the projected 
Roosevelt African Hall in the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York City, and for which 
Akeley gave his life. 

In the field Akeley was supreme. He knew 
every species and sub-species of birds, just when 
and where they nested, could tell from even a partly- 
constructed nest what species was building. He 
knew the habits, food, nest sites, songs and, it seem- 
ed to me, even the thoughts of the birds and ani- 
mals. We were collecting material from which to re- 
produce the natural surroundings of bird homes. 
This included making plaster casts of leaves and 
flowers, taking color notes, and other detailed work. 
Akeley knew just what colors of oil paint and what 
proportions to use to reproduce in colored wax the 
first light yellow green leaves of the early-leafing 
willow as a setting for the early-nesting yellow 
warbler, or the dark green oak leaf of the mid- 
summer nesting cedar waxwing. Nothing escaped 
him to the last detail, nothing was too difficult if it 
accomplished the desired results 

The papier-mache manikin method developed 
by Akeley through years of experimenting worked 
wonders with mammals such as deer and antelope 
groups, but was not practical for the immense size 
of a bull elephant. Many years ago Akeley had 
mounted, or stuffed, as it was termed. Jumbo, the 
circus elephant that tried to butt off the track a full 
sized locomotive and gave up his elephantine ghost 
in the attempt. Since then Akeley had developed in 
his mind a complete method of mounting one of 



these huge beasts and the two enormous skins and 
skulls which he brought back from Africa in 1906 
gave him ample opportunity to execute his plan. He 
first modeled in clay accurate replicas in miniature 
exactly one-twelfth size of the original animals, 
working to measurements and photos taken in 
Africa immediately after the elephants were shot. 
These were modeled as two fighting bulls, one 
single-tusker attacking the slightly larger bull, 
standing on three feet, one foot raised sUghtly off 
the ground, with tusks and trunk raised in the air 
nearly seventeen feet high. Working to this model 
we laid out with crayons full size on the studio floor, 
the outUne of one of pachyderms, and inside this 
outline a back bone, neck and legs of structural 
steel, much as if we had intended to build a steel 
bridge. The back bone and corresponding members 
in the elephant s "tummy" were made of two four- 
inch steel channels, back to back, separated by 
means of two inch by four inch lumber, about thirty 
inches long, spaced about two feet apart and stand- 
ing vertically like spines in some pre-historic 
dinosaur. Heavy bolts passing through both chan- 
nels between each pair of uprights clamped the 
uprights securely, and permitted adjustments for 
working out details in contour. The ribs were work- 
ed out with curved steel angles of suitable weight. 
Akeley modeled the head full size in clay over 
the immense skull with the huge tusks in position. A 
plaster cast in four sections was then made of the 
completed model. This cast, when hardened and 
removed, served as a mold or form into which was 
fabricated a Light steel frame-work following out in 
detail the plaster mold. This steel-head-skeleton was 
then added to the body structure and in this manner 
the complete steel skeleton was constructed. The 
body or shell was formed of one inch square wire 
loosely woven so that it was capable of warping 
without buckling. The ears were made of lighter 
wire mesh over a light steel frame, as was the trunk, 
two small steel pipes running the fuU length of the 
trunk, raised high in the air. Over this entire steel 





and mesh frame was plastered by hand a mixture of 
plaster of Paris and tow, this being like unwoven 
rope, to a thickness of about one inch. 

When this was completed, there stood an 
elephant minus his hide, twelve times the size of the 
working model and exactly his counterpart as he 
roamed the slopes of Kenya for probably more than 
a century. 

It is a problem successfully to bring out of 
Africa the skin of an elephant in condition fit to 
mount. These huge hides are from an inch to two 
inches in thickness when removed from the carcass. 
They are cut in five or six pieces and immediately 
work must be started in the dense wet bamboo 
forests to pare the skin down by hand to a thickness 
of about one half inch. These are then heavily salted 
and loosely rolled together, bound securely in native 
cloth, and made ready for transportation many 
miles to the nearest point where oxen could be 
secured. Each section would weigh several hundred 
pounds and be carried by eight or ten native porters 
for the magnificent sum of thirty cents per month 
— and grub. 

To mount "green" skins is not practical, so 
Akeley developed a special method of tanning never 
before used. As a result the elephant skins were 
turned into a high grade leather hide presenting the 
same exterior as worn by "Tembo" in his native 
haunts — sparse, stiff hairs, wrinkles, warts, tick- 
holes and all. The big sections of skin were first laid 
in their proper position on the finished manikin and 
by means of huge syringes somewhat like the pres- 
ent day auto grease gun, a mixture of hydrated plas- 
ter of Paris and glue was shot in under the skin 
through small slits easily closed, and then the skin 



Akeley's fighting 
bull elephants, 
secured in Africa in 
1906 and now on 
view in Stanley 
Field Hall. 



Lower left: Akeley 
relaxes at day's end. 



11 




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12 



wi'k-d into shafX' \*ilh numtTous wrinkk's as in ac- 
tual life, the plaster of Pari<i and glue hardening and 
holding the skin in exact position Akeley did prac- 
tically all of this modeling with his own hands. The 
edges of each section were then sewed together with 
hidden stitches and filled with colored beeswax so 
that when finished even the most critical eye could 
not detect the seams As a rural visitor once said. 
 That old bull looks just like he growed into his 
hide". 

There have been many stories told as to the 
origin of the cement-g^Ji- the invention for which 
Akeley -eceived the Scott Medal issued by the 
Franklin Institute of Philadelphia. The generally ac- 



i-pted story IS that .^keley developt>d this for use in 
constructing plustt-r manikins for huge mammals 
•.uch us flt'phunls and rhinos, but this is not true. At 
n«i tinif did .-Xkclfy st-riously consider this, but it 
made an acceptable story so he lei it go at that 

The Field Columbian Museum of Chicago in 
litOT iHCupicd the old .Art Building built in 1892 for 
ihf Chicago World s Fair, consirucit'd of brick with 
plastiTwl fXlerior, the planter of Paris or staff col- 
li inns and trim It present«Hl a sorry spectacle in 
1907 One day F. J. V. Skiff, the Director of the 
Mu.seum. was in .Akeley s studio where we were 
mounting the pair of .African elephants, now the 
ci-nter of all exhibits in the new Field .Museum. I 
was at the time using an enlarged handmade atom- 
izer operated by compressed air. to paint some 
imitation rocks for another group under construc- 
tion, using a combination of thin colored plaster of 
I'uns Mr Skiff, who generally brought all of his 
troubles to .Akeley. was Uulking about the complaint 
t hat he received from the South Park Board regard- 
ing the condition of the exterior of the Museum. He 
said that no painting or plastering contractor could 
lie found who would take the chance on the job. and 
while t.alking he suddenly said. "Ake. why can t you 
and Dewey make a big machine like that squirt-gun 
that Dewey is using, and paint this old shack with 
plaster of Pans?" It never look much of a hint to 
slarl .Akeley off on a new idea, so at once we started 
to develop a big "squirt-gun." These walls consisted 
of plaster, brick, concrete, wood, tin, iron, coppier, 
tar paper and about everything that could be 
assembled together on one building, and as this 
structure covered several acres there was ample 
■-pace for a generous assortment. 

The method of mixing plaster and water in a 
container under pressure and then spraying out in a 
hydrated stale, worked fairly well when only a few 
feet of hose was used, but when this was attempted 
with the machine on the ground and the nozzle oper- 
ator fifty or seventy-five feet up on a swinging scaf- 
fold, the plaster began to set in the hose after a few 
minutes' operation and soon the hose plugged tight. 
We then worked out a method of shooting hydrated 
plaster through the hose for a few minutes and then 
by means of a three-way valve we shot through 
water to clean out the hose, and then back to the 
hydrated plaster again. This, however, was a very 
messy operation and was abandoned. Then one 
morning .Ake came in and said. "We re on the wTong 
track What we want to do is build a machine to han- 
dle dry plaster Shoot it through a hose to a nozzle 
where it will mix with water coming to the nozzle 
through a separate hose, the volume of water to be 
controlled at the nozzle with water pressure greater 
than the air pressure carrying the plaster, and have 
them mix partly in the nozzle and finish up in the air 
and on the wall. I have an idea for a nozzle, and it's 
up to you to build a machine to feed plaster evenly." 
In less than two weeks or. to be exact, on June 24th, 
1907. the "cement-gun " was put in operation and 
worked about an hour before it broke down, but this 
was long enough to prove that the theory of 
hydrating plastic material in transit was practical, 
and resulting from this were basic patents which 
have never been successfully contested . . . 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Star Burst May Have 
Wiped out Dinosaurs 

A star exploding 65 million years ago 
may have sounded the death knell for 
dinosaurs, according to researchers at 
the University of California. Limestone 
samples from a thousand-foot-high road 
cut in Italy indicate that the extinction 
of the huge reptiles coincides with a 
twenty-fold increase in the amount of 
iridium. Iridium is an extremely rare 
metal on Earth, but is believed to be 
about three thousand times more com- 
mon in the rest of the solar system. The 
high concentrations discovered, there- 
fore, are thought to have come from an 
outside source such as an exploding star, 
which would also produce deadly 
amounts of cosmic radiation. Dinosaurs, 
with their slow reproductive rate, would 
have been especially harmed, making 
room for their more adaptable competi- 
tors, the early mammals, to evolve. 



Atlantis Revisited? 

Underwater photographers from the 
Soviet Union, reports Conservation 
News, think they may have discovered 
the lost, mysterious continent of Atlan- 
tis described by Plato more than 2.000 
years ago. Russian oceanographers, in- 
cluding a scientist specializing in unex- 
plained maritime phenomena, have been 
interpreting eight underwater photo- 
graphs taken from a diving bell near the 
island of Madeira, southwest of Por- 
tugal. They have found ruined, flattened 
remnants of stonewalls or bridges and 
stairways at the exact spot indicated by 
Plato in his writings. The scientists 
believe that a chain of flat-topped moun- 
tains now 100-200 meters below the sur- 
face are geological evidence that Atlan- 
tis may have been more than a myth — 
that it actually did sink into the sea due 
to upheavals along the ocean floor. 



Salmon Returned to Thames 

The first run of salmon into the Thames 
River for 140 years is the aim of a proj- 
ect currently under way in Britain. Late 
last month some 50.000 one-year-old sal- 
mon were released into the Thames, and 
fisheries authorities hope that after a so- 
journ at sea these fish will return to the 
river as adults to spawn. 

The Thames was once famous for its 
salmon fishing. But the Industrial revo- 
lution put an end to that. Now tests on 
the quality of the river's water indicate 
that the clean-up campaign of recent 
years has reduced pollution levels to a 
point where salmon may once again be 
able to live, and breed, in the Thames. 



Lasers and Computers Used in 
Bird-Power Line Collision Study 

Using a laser beam and a compact com- 
puter, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
IFWS) has begun a project that will at- 
tempt to simulate the effects a high- 
voltage power line might have on birds. 
Each year, it is estimated, thousands of 
birds die or are injured when they strike 
power lines. Until now, wildlife 
biologists could merely speculate about 
the magnitude of this problem, but by 
employing space-age technology new in- 
formation is close at hand. 

A power transmission line located in 
an area with a diversity of wildlife and 
across a major migratory route can 
prove to be a major obstacle. A variety 
of birds have been injured or killed from 
striking fixed objects such as power 
lines. Such occurrences have been 
documented at several locations and are 
not merely isolated situations. 

"Bird strikes with fixed objects 
such as power lines are quite common," 
according to Carl Korschgen. FW.s 
biologist and coordinator for the project. 



"No bird species seems immune to colli- 
sion with power lines. Songbirds, eagles, 
ducks, and geese; all sorts of birds have 
been known to strike power lines." 

Korschgen gave the grisly details 
about bird strikes: "The effects on birds 
can be davastating; what we are talking 
about is decapitation, broken wings, 
broken necks, and other violent after- 
effects. These birds are traveling 40 to 
70 miles per hour and any contact with a 
fixed object is going to kill or maim." 

The laser beam will project a two- 
inch diameter beam of light across a 
3/4-mile stretch of the Mississippi River 
where bird movement during migration 
can be quite heavy. The beam is coupled 
to a computer that will record the total 
elapsed time the beam is interrupted 
when a bird or other object passes. This 
will provide researchers evidence regard- 
ing the size and type of bird passing by. 
The computer will provide a readout 
every 10 minutes as well as a total 
readout since the project began. 

The interruption of the laser beam 
also triggers the shutter of a camera 
with a 1 200 mm lens focused to record on 
black and white film any object passing 
through the beam. The unit is quite sen- 
sitive and could be triggered by falling 
leaves and other objects, but the film 
record will help to clarify this possibility. 
The laser beam projection is positioned 
45 feet above the water surface. The unit 
is manned part-time, but is capable of 
remote operation for periods up to seven 
days. The laser beam poses no known 
threat to birds as they pass through the 
beam. It is a low-powered laser system 
similar to devices used in commercial 
telecommunications systems. 

Invisible to the human eye. the beam 
will simulate the effects of a power line 
under the "worst of conditions." such as 
dense fog. which makes birds highly 
vulnerable to striking fixed objects. 
"Weather does play an important part; 
under certain conditions and migration 



~"~^. 




13 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

patterns, birds will fly lower and collide 
more often," Korschgen said. Korschgen 
pointed out that birds can and will strike 
power lines under ideal weather condi- 
tions. 

Open water crossings in important 
flyways are of particular concern to 
biologists, but the data from the project 
will be applied to all flyway corridors 
and critical areas where power lines may 
be constructed. According to Fws of- 
ficials, the technology' and techniques 
learned from this project will allow 
biologists to get in on the ground floor of 
powerline project planning to alleviate 
possible problems before they occur. 
Biologists are hopeful that they can 
monitor bird activity before, during, and 
after construction and learn a great deal 
about the sensory perception of birds. 
The four-year study will be a joint effort 
by the FWs. the National Aeronautics 
and Space Administration (N.^S-M and 
Northern States Power Company. 



Chemical By-Product of PCBs Found 
in U.S. Fish for First Time 

Little-known contaminants called poly- 
chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFsl have 
been detected in fish from U.S. waters 
for the first time, an international team 
of scientists recently reported. 

PCDFs are chemical by-products of 
widespread, toxic industrial chemicals 
known as polychlorinated biphenyls 
(i'CBsl. They were detected by David 
Stalling of the U.S. Fish and" Wildlife 
Service's National Fisheries Research 
Laboratory in Columbia, Missouri, and 
Ralph Dougherty of Florida State 
University, Tallahassee. Christopher 
Rappe of Sweden and Douglas Kuehl of 
the Environmental Protection Agency 
iKF.At are also collaborating in the in- 
vestigation. 



Although the occurrence of PCDFs in 
the aquatic environment in the United 
States has been suspected previously, 
this is the first time it has been con- 
firmed. PCDFs were detected in carp, 
catfish, lake trout, and coho salmon col- 
lected in areas of the North Central and 
Northeastern United States where PCB 
pollution historically has been a problem. 
The detection was possible now only 
through the scientists' use of sophisti- 
cated new techniques of negative-ion 
high resolution mass spectrometry. 

Stalling and Rappe emphasized that 
they are not yet certain whether the con- 
taminants in their samples are hazardous 
to fish or other aquatic organisms. Some 
PCDF compounds are considered far 
more toxic than the parent PCI) — a few 
up to 500 times more toxic than the most 
potent PCBs. Studies at the National 
Institute of Environmental Health Sci- 
ences and several universities have 
shown certain PCDFs to be highly toxic 
to guinea pigs and rats. 

"There are 135 PCDF compounds, " 
Stalling said, "We have not yet identi- 
fied the individual chemical structures of 
the PCDFs in our samples, so we cannot 
be sure which of the 135 are present or 
whether they might have toxic effects." 
The extent of PCDFs presence in the 
environment is not known. It is known, 
however, that the parent PCB compounds 
have been used in a wide variety of in- 
dustrial equipment and products over 
the past 50 years. Use of PCBs is now 
tightly controlled by the EP.ii through 
the Toxic Substances Control Act of 
1976. PCDFs are known to be produced by 
oxidation of PCBs and thus can be formed 
when materials containing PCBs are 
burned, especially at low temperatures. 
"We know that very high tempera- 
ture burning, if done for long enough, 
will completely destroy PCBs," Stalling 
said. "However, Rappe has demonstrat- 
ed that low temperature combustion in 



14 




the 400°-to-600° C-range can convert 25 
percent of PCBs to PCDFs. 

Stalling and Rappe are currently 
working to identify the chemical struc- 
tures of the PCDFs in their samples. 
"Once specific PCDFs in fish are iden- 
tified," Stalling said, "laboratory scien- 
tists will have a better idea how they are 
formed and which structures should be 
tested for possible toxic effects in fish 
and other aquatic organisms." 



God's Dog Moves East 

The Navajo call him "God's Dog." 
echoed in his scientific name, Canis 
latrans ("barking dog"). However, his 
more romantic common name derives 
from Coyotl, sacred god of the Aztecs. 
He is the coyote, that indispensable part 
of a Western desert night. However, this 
adaptable creature has now made his 
home in the East. 

Since the turn of the century, the 
coyote has pushed eastward from the 
Great Lakes region to reach the Atlan- 
tic. Moving southeastward from On- 
tario, it has become firmly established in 
northern New England, and been 
sighted in every state northeast of 
Virginia. Filling in part the predatory 
role of the extinct eastern timber wolf, 
its expansion of range parallels the 
return of forests to more than 80 percent 
of Northern New England. 

Eastern coyotes were first taken in 
New York in 1925, New Hampshire in 
1944, Connecticut in 1956, and New 
Jersey in 1958. In northern New 
England, it is now a relatively common 
animal, with over 300 killed by hunters, 
trappers, and autos in Maine alone dur- 
ing 1977. Although more rare in 
southern New England and the mid- 
Atlantic states, it has become a breeding 
resident in forested, less populous areas. 

What exactly is this new creature 
prowling the Northeastern woods? In- 
formation on its ancestry has come from 
cranial studies and observations of 
growth and behaviorial development 
patterns. Notions of werewolves aside, it 
first was proposed that the eastern 
coyote was a "coy-dog, " a fertile hybrid 
resulting from the mating of a coyote 
and a domestic dog. However, not show- 
ing the extreme variability exhibited by 
coyote-dog hybrids, these wild canids 
breed true, their offspring uniform in 
looks resembling the parents. Eastern 
coyotes and coy-dogs also have distinct- 
ly different behaviors. Behavioral and 
physical differences between western 
coyotes and the eastern variety have 
also discounted the theory that eastern 
ones are simply oversized western ones. 

Eventually, its larger size and howl- 
ing pattern led biologists to suspect that 
this wild canid might have acquired wolf 
antecedents during its relatively slow 
eastward movement through marginal 



wolf range in northern Minnesota and 
southern Canada. In 1971, biologists at 
Harvard University verified the wolf's 
genetic influence through skull and 
tooth structure analysis. "This animal 
combines the crafty cunning, prolificacy, 
and adaptation of his western cousins 
with extra size and strength contributed 
by the wolf genes that course through 
his blood, " writes Jerome Robinson, 
Sports Afield editor. 

Behavioral and physical data from a 
1960s study by New Hampshire bio- 
logists Walter and Helenette Silver also 
favored acceptance of a predominantly 
western coyote ancestry for New Eng- 
land's wild canid, with acquisition of 
some dog or wolf genes. The Silvers' 
conclusion: "Despite evidence of 
hybridization at some distant time, it is 
now established as a true breeding 
form." They suggested it be considered 
a form of coyote, be designated Canis 
latrans van, and be called eastern 
coyote. 

The eastern coyote's size falls be- 
tween the western coyote and the wolf. 
Overall, it more closely resembles the 
coyote, but the wolf portion surfaces in 
its rounder, more ungainly paws, 
broader muzzle and nosepad, greater 
height and weight, and darker coat. 
Males average 31 pounds and females 28 
pounds — 50 and 70 percent larger 
respectively than their western rela- 
tives. 

The Silvers found that coyote-like 
behavior predominated, including such 
factors as early establishment of a 
dominance hierarchy, aggressiveness, 
spring whelping, and male care of 
young. Eastern coyotes shake, scratch, 
and groom less than dogs, wave instead 
of wag their tails, and are attracted to 
perfume (as are wolves, but not 
dogs!). They begin howling in unison at 
age two months, mainly after sunset and 
less often during the winter, in a voice 
pitched between that of wolves and 
coyotes. 

Eastern coyotes breed once a year, 
during February, with their 63-day 
gestation period ensuring that pups are 
born during warmer weather. Litter size 
ranges from four to ten, with six or 
seven average. Females make only rudi- 
mentary dens, often scraping a hole in 
the snow under a fallen log. Males share 
in raising the litter, which is weaned in 
July, with families breaking up in the 
fall. Coy-dog hybrids, meanwhile, show a 
three-month shift in their breeding 
cycle. Because hybrid males do not help 
raise young born in a hostile January 
environment, the pups have little chance 
of survival. 

In response to hunter concern that 
coyotes could adversely affect deer 
herds, studies have emphasized food 
habits. Stomach content analyses have 
shown the animals to be adaptable, op- 
portunistic feeders that eat whatever is 
seasonably abundant. Because they seek 



the most available food source, coyotes 
serve as both predators and scavengers. 

Many studies show bias because 
samples were collected in the fall when 
hunter-killed deer are readily available. 
"Stomach contents show only what an 
animal has eaten, not necessarily what it 
killed, " warns New Hampshire biologist 
Joseph Wiley. The presence of maggots 
and carrion beetles in much of the deer 
consumed indicates that it was in car- 
rion form. Here's what eastern coyotes 
have been found to eat: snowshoe hare, 
squirrel, raccoon, opposum, woodchuck, 
skunk, beaver, porcupine, mouse, mole, 
vole, birds, deer, cat, rabbit, insects, 
grass, hay, leaves, pine needles and 
cones, apples, raspberries, blueberries, 
grapes, corn, wood chips, garbage, plas- 
tic bags, paper, and sand! Approximate- 
ly one-fourth of the stomachs in each 
study were empty. 

Deer is a major staple after the 
hunting season, when carrion and 
hunters' cripples are easy pickings. 
"None of the information gathered from 
the Maine deer harvest shows that 
predation is the limiting factor control- 
ling deer numbers throughout any 
management unit in the state, " reports 
the Maine Department of Inland 
Fisheries and Wildlife. The New Hamp- 
shire Fish and Game Department con- 
curs, stating that this new predator is 
not a serious threat to state game popu- 
lations, with reported annual deer kill by 
coyotes less than one percent of the non- 
hunting kill (vs. 14 percent by domestic 
dogs and 67 percent by cars). 

In fact, it's actually the other way 
around: coyotes are themselves Umited 
by the amount of vulnerable prey. Ac- 
cording to Robinson, their expansion 
throughout the Northeast indicates an 
excess of prey not being taken by man or 
other predators exists for coyotes 
to exploit. 

This is not to say coyotes never kill 
deer. Packs can bring down deer on ice, 
downslopes, or on open ground. Accord- 
ing to Maine biologist Henry Hilton, 
main effects on deer occur between 
January and March, when deer are 
weakest and most vulnerable, and nutri- 
tional needs of pregnant coyotes 
greatest. Single coyotes often unsuc- 
cessfully chase deer, but during the 
breeding season when they form small 
packs, they are more successful. Winter- 
starved deer restricted to yarding areas 
by deep snow are often the most vul- 
nerable and available food in March. 

State game managers monitoring 
effects of coyotes on other wildlife are 
not too concerned. In fact, "Many 
knowledgeable people think the New 
England deer herd could only be 
benefited by the return of an effective 
wild predator... who would eliminate the 
weak, diseased, and genetically abnor- 
mal, " writes Hope Ryden in (Sod's Dog. 
"By weeding out the 'culls' of the animal 
world and leaving the best of their prey 




.;„^ 



,^^,E\*M-:-:^lJ 
/rVJ^ Mi w-^^^  ,< 









species to reproduce, coyotes help mam- 
tain healthy wildlife populations," 
writes Wiley, who continues: "Evidence 
is heavily against the coyote being a 
significant predator, especially on deer, 
and in favor of its being of considerable 
ecological value in controlling vermin 
and insects." 

Local response to this new resident 
has varied, reflected in the legal status 
accorded the eastern coyote. The animal 
is fully protected in Massachusetts and 
New Jersey, but in New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, and Maine, it's open season year- 
round — coyotes may be taken by any 
legal means at any time in any number. 

When the first specimen was shot in 
Maine in 1972, "People came from miles 
around to revile and spit on its 
remains, " reports Ryden. While a bill to 
introduce a bounty was defeated, "This 
victory merely prevented a money 
reward from becoming an added incen- 
tive for those who wished to destroy the 
animal." In 1961, the New Hampshire 
legislature, lacking a better definition of 
the species, passed a $10 bounty on 
"timber and prairie wolves." The law 
was amended four years later after 
"People began to shoot their neighbors' 
dogs and present the bodies for money," 
Ryden adds. Because its f.elage ranges 
from dark gray to red brown, the eastern 
coyote is not especially sought after 
as a fur. 

An old Indian legend states that the 
adaptable coyote will be the last animal 
on Earth. Hopefully, some living 
arrangement can be reached between 
Northeastern residents and the eastern 
coyote so this prediction will not be 
proved false. — Su.sa« M. O'Connell, 
National Wildlife Federation 15 




South Pacific Islands 

such as these, clearlv 

hostile to human 

habitation, are 

difficult to reconcile 

with the idea of 

paradise. 



National Endowment 

for the Humanities (NEH) 

Learning Museum Program Continues with 

SOUTH SEAS ISLANDS: PARADISE AND PERDITION 



by Anthon\; Pfeiffer 
project coordinator 



v^^^-V 



16 






The South Sea Islands, to many of us, are 
paradise on earth: romantic islands characterized 
by harmony, peace, innocence and situated in 
balmy tropical splendor. As James A. Michener 
wrote, ". Polynesia's influence on world thought 
is far greater than its size would warrant. Musical 
names like Tahiti, Rarotonga, Bora Bora carry an 
emotional freight to all cold countries of the 
world. ..." 

Beginning February 8 you have a chance to 
forget the snow. rain, and cold winds of Chicago's 
winter without having to journey to the South Seas. 
To establish the mood, "Paradise Explored: Films 
of the South Pacific." is offered in Field Museum's 
latest Learning Museum Program This festival of 
film begins with a Friday night screening of the 
1958 film adaptation of "South Pacific," Rodgers' 
and Hammerstein's Broadway musical. The songs 
and the events depicted call forth our popular 
stereotypes of the Pacific-as-Paradise- notions 
which are revealed as one-sided, as the film festival 
goes :nto its second day. Six subsequent hours of 
film the early exploration of the Pacific, 



island life as it once was. and the complex impact of 
the modern world on native lands. We see that, like 
anywhere else in the world, the best and the worst 
in human nature is to be found in the Pacific. Along 
with the pristine grandeur of palm-shaded beaches 
and seductively appealing life styles, there is also 
cannibalism, isolation, disease, and famine. We 
recognize perdition as much as paradise. 

Michener puts the paradise-and-perdition 
contrast with reference to a particular island group: 
If paradise consists soleli^ of beauty, then these 
islands were the fairest paradise that man ever 
invaded But if the concept of paradise in- 
cludes also the ability' to sustain life, then these 
islands were far from heavenly. .Of all the 
things that grew on their magnificent hillsides, 
nothing could be relied upon to sustain life 
adequatel[^. 
Elsewhere Michener comments. "You would have 
to call it paradise even though most of you may 
never want to see it again." 

The festival of film leads into a lecture 
course taught by Joyce Hammond, whose field 



work in Oceania has included French Polynesia, 
the Marshall Islands in Micronesia, and a ten-month 
stay among the Maori of New Zealand. Ms. 
Hammond begins the course by considering the 
European exploration of the South Sea Islands. 
The course examines who the explorers were, 
where they went, why they stopped at some places 
and not at others, as well as what discoveries and 
tales of adventure they brought to the world. 
Thousands of islands are almost lost in the incred- 
ible desolation of 65 million square miles of sea. 
The Pacific Ocean covers one-third of the earth's 
surface Its peaceful name is a glaring misnomer. 
Darwin depicted it as "all-powerful and never 
tiring" and as "a tedious waste, a desert of water." 

A rich cultural heritage of art and literature 
has nurtured our myths of paradise. The Bounti; 
Trilogy, The Swiss Famil\; Robinson, and Mobx; 
Dick, to mention a few classic books, lead us to 
associate the Pacific with high adventure, nobility, 
and romance. And yet Lord of the Flies. William 
Golding's novel of ever-so-civilized English 
schoolboys gone savage, is also set in the Pacific. 
The class probes contrasting views of the South 
Seas and follows Michener's suggestion that study- 
ing Gauguin's vivid imagery and use of color is an 
incomparable preparation for Polynesia. 

Guest lecturer John Terrell, associate 
curator of Oceanic archeology and ethnology at 
Field Museum, speaks about the true discoverers of 
the Pacific, the islanders. Thousands of years 
before Europeans explored the oceans, the 
forbears of these islanders pioneered the settlement 
of the Pacific. We learn the prehistory of paradise: 
what scholars know of its first founders and the 




Curator John Terrell has spent two years preparing the 
"Patterns of Paradise" exhibit, opening March 6. 

The Pacific islanders were a bold, seafaring people who 
depended on navigational skills for fishing and trade as 
well as for long, risky voyages to colonize unknown areas. 





The eyes and demeanor of this lovely maiden suggest in- 
nocence and perhaps even free sexuality— images consonant 
with conventional views of Pacific-as-Paradise and common- 
place in art and literature. 

The sordid side of the Pacific is brought to mind by this 
trophy head from New Zealand (cat. 2739441 with horridly 
bared teeth. But because it conflicts with dreams of romance 
and paradise it is a type of image that we tend to neglect. 



NEH Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a 
three-year sequence of learning opportunities 
focused on the Museum's outstanding ex- 
hibits and collections and designed to give 
participants an opportunity to explore a sub- 
ject in depth. Each unit of study consists of 
one or more special events, a lecture course, 
and a seminar of advanced work. Special 
events are lectures by renowned authorities or 
interpretive performances and demonstra- 
tions. Course members receive an annotated 
bibilography, a specially developed guide to 
pertinent museum exhibits, study notes for 
related special events, and access to select 
materials from Field Museum's excellent 
research library. In-depth, small group 
seminars allow more direct contact with facul- 
ty and Museum collections. 



kinds of hardships they faced. As science writer 
John Pfeiffer has described their journeys: "People 
moved from island to island as their landlubbing 
ancestors on the continents had moved from valley 
to valley in a process born of adventure, necessity, 
and, sometimes, desperation." 

In addition to his research. Dr. Terrell for the 
past two years has been planning and organizing a 
major exhibit, "Patterns of Paradise," which opens 
at Field Museum on March 6. The exhibit is about 
the peoples of paradise, told through the medium 
of their surviving handicrafts — most notably tapa. 
or bark cloth. Dr. Terrell and co-worker Anne 



18 




Leonard, Field Museum researcher in anthro- 
pology, have assisted in integrating portions of 
"Patterns of Paradise" with the course and in sug- 
gesting course resources. 

"South Sea Islands: Paradise and Perdition" 
goes on to look at the diversity of Pacific en- 
vironments and the correspondingly diverse human 
ways of living. Some islands are huge, others are 
small and exist in chains of coral-capped volcanic 
outcroppings. still others are tiny specks of land. 
Some islands hosted important chiefs whose wealth 
was flaunted in impressive mounds of yams and 
whose subjects were expected to prostrate 
themselves in the royal presence. Other islands 
were poor in crops and their inhabitants depended 
almost totally on trade to eat. 

Finally, the course deals with a 
phenomenon experienced world-wide in the six- 
teenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth cen- 
turies—the collision of European-style civilization 
with the "backwards," "out-of-the-way," and 
"backwater" places of the earth. Such "contact" 
was perhaps particularly dramatic in the Pacific. In 
many instances, especially on the smaller islands, 
native populations had nowhere to escape the 
intrusive European presence. Some were removed 
wholesale from their lands, others were decimated 
by disease, and all were profoundly — usually 
negatively — affected. Missionaries, explorers, 
opportunists, criminals, and. most recently, war- 
riors of the industrial age — all left their mark. 

Museum collections are all that remain of 
many Pacific cultures; no longer do the young 
desire to learn the ways of their ancestors. The lec- 



ture course includes a guide to Field Museum 
Pacific collections. Field Museum organized and 
funded the Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedi- 
tion of 1909-13. Field Museum curator A. B. Lewis 
led the expedition and, after five strenuous years, 
returned with nearly 300 cases containing about 
12,000 ethnological specimens — everything from 
shell beads to full-sized canoes. In 1958, the collec- 
tion of the late Capt A. W. F. Fuller was pur- 
chased Although Capt. Fuller never saw the 
Pacific, he had amassed over a period of 60 years a 
collection of more than 6,500 specimens represent- 
ing Pacific cultures. And, finally. Dr. Terrell arrived 
at Field Museum in the Fall of 1971 with seven tons 
of artifacts from Bougainville Island, in the South 
Pacific. Taken together. Field Museum collections 
of Pacific materials are among the very best in 
the world. 

Students in "South Sea Islands: Paradise 
and Perdition" have the opportunity to enroll in a 
March 29-30 seminar devoted to the "Patterns of 
Paradise" exhibit. The seminar will feature an 
immersion in the art, craft, and life of the Pacific. 
Activities include a workshop in tapa making, films 
showing tapa and the peoples of paradise, lectures 
covering the ritual, utilitarian, and economic 
significance of tapa and a tour guided by Dr. Terrell 
of the "Patterns of Paradise" exhibit. 

The Courses for Adults brochure features 
"South Sea Islands: Paradise and Perdition." 
February's Calendar of Events highlights the 
"Paradise Explored: Films of the South Pacific" 
festival. For further Learning Museum information, 
please phone 922-0733. 



Palms and simple 
frond-roofed huts 
exemplify tropical life 
in parts of the South 
Seas. 



^Irl./, 







}9 




Fig. 1. A portion of 

the excavations at 

Quseir al-Qadim. 

Egypt. Photo hy Don 

W'hitcomh. 



ROMAN BOTTLE CAPS 



by Donald Whitcomb 



20 



Our First Impression of Quseir al-Qadim was hot 
and desolate. The gentle sound of the Red Sea 
waves, combined with the bright reds and browns of 
the mountains and the empty crystalline blue of the 
sky gave the ruins a stark beauty. Add a strong, dry 
north wind and the place had a distinctly parching 
effect on the casual visitor. 

A similar response to this natural setting 
must have affected the Roman sailors and traders 
involved in the spice trade with India who settled 
here in the first and second centuries of the modern 
era. Leukos Limen, as this small port was then 
known, was just a short trip from the cities and 
towns of the Nile Valley (notably the gardens and 
temples of Luxor and Thebes). The most serious dis- 
advantage was the scarcity of drinking water (the 
little water available was somewhat salty)— a mixed 
curse since the circumstance offered an excuse to 
import and drink frequently the fine Egyptian wines 
of Upper Egypt. 

Thus, when we began excavating Quseir al- 
Qadim two years ago, we were hardly astonished by 
the great piles of sherds from Roman amphorae. 
Amphorae are 24-liter (6.3 gals.) jars used in ancient 
times to transport and store liquids and specially 
designed to fit together securely when stacked in a 
skip's hold. At first we assumed that these am- 
phorae were simply being used for the transship- 
ment of wine as part of the international trade of the 



Red Sea and Indian Ocean, but the numbers of 
"discarded bottles" in the trash heaps was too great 
—and then we began to find the "corks." 

The typical Roman "cork," or "bottle cap," 
was a plaster plug with strings which passed under 
the bottom and up the sides. The strings were used 
to pull the plug from the bottle, somewhat like the 
ring on a pop-top can. The top of the plug, impressed 
when wet with a circular seal, was covered with red 
paint. This stamp impression in the wet plaster clos- 
ing the amphora could have been used to indicate a 
number of things, such as ownership, vineyard of 
origin, or even vintage. The seal impression shown 
in figure 2 depicts in the center the uraeus. or 
Agathodaemon. an Egyptian symbol of good for- 
tune. Around the perimeter is a Greek inscription 
which has been read by Roger Bagnall of Columbia 
University as a name: "Kereonios. Freedman of the 
Emperor." It would appear that this man was in 
charge of a wine-producing establishment which 
shipped to our port of Leukos Limen. From other 
evidence, especially tax receipts, we know that 
large-scale wine production was an important indus- 
try in Egypt, including the Thebaid of Upper Egypt, 
during this period. 

Donald Whitcomb is assistant curator of Middle Eastern 
archeology and ethnology. He is currently in Egypt look- 
ing for additional "bottle caps" (and other artifacts) at 
Quseir al-Qadim. 



The bottle caps from Quseir always have 
Egyptian symbols in the center. Similar plaster or 
mud seals found in the excavations of Coptic monas- 
teries and towns invariably feature the cross or 
some other Christian symbol in the center. All such 
examples are later than the first- and second-century 
seals we have found, confirming our impression that 
the Quseir seals are some of the earliest ever found 
in Egypt. 

But where did the idea come from? The over- 



common type with a dog or wolf in the center and 
the legend: opiusi doliiare) ex fliglinis) Dumitdanus) 
Maioriibus) "pottery product from the workshops of 
Domitian major." The stamp is part of a collection 
of antiquities from Alexandria, described in a 1907 
study by Edgar J. Goodspeed, and dated to A.D. 
161-193. This stamp, however, has several curious 
features; The brick has been carefully trimmed, 
leaving only the stamped section on top, and the 
bottom and sides have been covered with plaster (as 




Fig. 2. Drauing of plaster amphor 
from Quseir al-Qadim. 



"bottle cap" (top and side view) 



all similarity of these seals to contemporary Roman 
coinage— bearing a center symbol and a legend 
around the perimeter— is readily apparent. More- 
over, it had been the common practice throughout 
the Mediterranean world in Greek times for potters 
to place a small stamp on amphorae and other 
vessels. The Roman potters continued this practice 
by stamping mass-produced products such as am- 
phorae, bricks, and tiles. 

Recently I found such a brick stamp (/i/f. 3) in 
a Field Museum storeroom. As a brick stamp it is a 



can be seen in the photograph). The plaster on the 
bottom is shaped as if once positioned within a con- 
stricting bottleneck, suggesting that this stamped 
brick fragment was secondarily used as a cap for an 
amphora. Since the stamp was not contemporary 
with the reuse of the brick as a "cork," it could not, 
presumably, give the same identification or guaran- 
tees as the Quseir-type bottle-cap. The latter could 
become a symbol of ownership, of origin, of pristine 
contents, and of quahty control associated with the 
authority of a responsible symbol; in short, the bot- 



21 




Fig. 3. Above: stamped Homnn brick in the Field Museum 
collection. Diam. 13 cm (5.1 in. I, thickness 4 cm 11.6 in.). 
Cat. 26768. 

Fig. 4. Right: cap from present-day Egyptian beer bottle 
Fig. 5. Below: archeological student at Quseir al-Qadim 
amid thousands of amphora fragments recovered from 
site. Photo by Don Whitcomb. 



tie cap could become a trademark. But the Field 
Museum piece would seem to imitate the form with- 
out understanding the full purpose of the true bottle 
cap. Rather, it was a misconception of this new 
Roman commercial tool for standardization and sys- 
temization in mass marketing. Thus, there are, in 
the amphorae and their stoppers found at Quseir, 
the roots for today's highly disposable, two-liter 
plastic cola bottles. 

The days of excavation at the ancient port of 
Quseir were hot and the task of recording the arti- 
facts lasted well into the night. These evenings 
often ended with a round of very good Egyptian 
beer— which came in bottles with very interesting 
bottle caps. CH 








r^MwK^^ 




72 




Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 50 (1979) 



Articles 

Adult Group Programs, by Linton Pitluga: March 10 
Archaeology at the Top of the World, by AUan L. Kolata: Oct. 16 
BordenField Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic Expedition. The, Part II, 

by Ted Karamanski: Jan. 4 
Butterflies, by Vladimir Nabokov: April 10 
Chance Encounter of a Good Kind, by Alan Solem: Jan. 10 
China. A Photographic Portfolio, photos by Stanton R. Cook: March 12 
Conflicts between Darwin and Paleontology, by David Raup: Jan. 22 
El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru, by Fred L. Nials, 

Eric E. Deeds, Michael E. Moseley, Shelia G. Pozorski, Thomas G. 

Pozorski, and Robert A. Feldman, Part 1: J/A 4: Part II: Sept. 4 
Feather Arts, by Phyllis Rabineau: Feb. 7 
Glimpse of the Porcupine Mountains. A. by John and Janet Kolar: 

Feb. 13 
Image and Life: 50.000 Years of Japanese Prehistory: Nov. 4 
Inro as Art, by Carolyn Moore, Bennet Bronson, Mary Barrett, and 

Diane Zorich: May 12 
Jungle Islands: The "Illvria" in the South Seas, by Sidney N. Shurcliff, 

Part I: J/A 16; Part II: Sept. 16 
Kimberley Snail Hunt— Round V. by Alan Solem: April 4 
Legacy of Malvina Hoffman. The: Oct. 12 

Metals and Man in the Prehistoric Midwest, by Thomas J. Riley: Feb. 4 
Meteor^wrongs. by Edward Olsen: April 18 
Natural History Museum, The: An Historical Sketch, by Cecile Mar- 

gulies: Nov. 8 
Observations on the Mutability of Time, by Alan E. Rubin: April 29 
Of Automobiles and Meteorites, by Edward Olsen: Oct. 10 
Of Land Bridges, Ice-Free Corridors, and Earlv Man in the Americas, 

by Glen Cole, Part I: Jan. 14; Part II: March 20 
Red Square and Beyond, by Rev. Maurice J. Meyers: April 9 
Remarkable Manatee, The, by Thor Janson: May 8 
Ross's Rosy Gull by Janette Neal: April 24 
Second Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film: Nov. 18 
Solar Eclipse of February 26, The. by Edward Olsen: Feb. 20 
Taylor Camp, Hawaii, by Thomas J. Riley: June 18 
Timeless Images: Museum Photography, by Patricia Williams: Oct. 6 
Tsavo Man-Eaters, The, by Lawrence Kolczak: June 14 
War and Peace— Pigeon Style, by Patricia Williams: March 6 
What Is a Curator^, by John Terrell: April 16 
What's in a (Rock) Namef. by Edward Olsen: May 20 
Who Were the Lusignans?. by Donald Whitcomb; June 4 



Authors 

Barrett, Mary (co-author): Inro as Art. May 12 

Bronson, Bennet (co-author): Inro as Art, May 12 

Cole, Glen: Of Land Bridges, Ice-Free Corridors, and Early Man in the 

Americas. Part I; Jan. 14; Part II: March 20 
Cook, Stanton R.: China: A Photographic Portfolio, March 12 
Deeds, Eric E. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru, Part I: J/A 4; Part II: Sept. 4 
Feldman, Robert A. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru. Part I: J/A 4; Part II: Sept. 4 
Janson, Thor: The Remarkable Manatee, May 8 
Karamanski, Ted: The Borden-Field Museum 1927 Alaska Arctic 

Expedition, Part II, Jan. 4 
Kolar, Janet (co-author): A Glimpse of the Porcupine Mountains, 

Feb. 13 
Kolar, John (co-author): A Glimpse of the Porcupine Mountains. 

Veh. 13 
Kolata, Alan L.: Archaeology at the Top of the World, Oct. 16 
Kolczak, Lawrence: The Tsavo Man-Eaters, June 14 
Margulies, Cecile: The Natural History Museum: An Historical Sketch, 

Nov. 8 
Meyers, Rev. Maurice J.: Red Square and Beyond. April 9 
Moore, Carolyn (co-author): Inro as Art. May 12 
Moseley, Michael E. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru. Part I: J/A 4; Part II, Sept. 4 
Nabokov, Vladimir: Butterflies, April 10 
Neal, Janette; Ross's Rosy Gull, April 24 



Nials, Fred L. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru, Part I: J/A 4; Part II, Sept. 4 
Olsen, Edward: Meteoi^wrongs, April 18 

: Of Automobiles and Meteorites, Oct. 10 

: The Solar Eclipse Of February 26. Feb. 20 

: What's in a (Rock) Name^, May 20 

Pitluga. Linton: Adult Group Programs, March 10 

Pozorski, Shelia G. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru, Part I: J/A 4; Part II, Sept. 4 
Pozorski, Michael G. (co-author): El Nino: The Catastrophic Flooding of 

Coastal Peru, Part 1: J/A 4; Part II, Sept. 4 
Rabineau, Phyllis: Feather Arts, Feb. 7 

Raup, Daivd: Conflicts between Darwin and Paleontology. Jan. 22 
Riley, Thomas J.: Metals and Man in the Prehistoric Midwest, Feb. 4 

: Taylor Camp, Hawaii, June 18 

Rubin, Alen E.: Observations on the Mutability of Time, April 29 
Shurcliff, Sidney N.: Jungle Islands: The "Illvria" in the South Seas, 

Part I: J/A 16; Part II: Sept. 16 
Solem, Alan: Chance Encounters of a Good Kind, Jan. 10 

: Kimberley Snail Hunt— Round V, April 4 

Terrell, John: What Is a Curator^, April 16 

Whitcomb, Donald: Who Were the Lusignans^, June 4 

Williams, Patricia: Timeless Images: Museum Photography, Oct. 6 

: War and Peace— Pigeon Style, March 6 

Zorich, Diane (co-author): Inro as Art, May 12 



Subjects 

Abendroth, Herman: Oct. 8 

Abrams, Clifford: Feb. 12, Sept. 3 

acid rain: Nov. 22 

Adams. Foster: April 3 

Adams. Mrs. Foster (Mrs. John Borden): Jan. 7, April 3 

Agricola, Georgius: Nov. 8 

Akapana mound (BoHvia): Oct. 16 

Alasia (Enkomi), Cyprus: June 10 

Aldan River: March 26 

American Museum of Natural History: Nov. 16 

American Quaternary Association (AMQUA): Jan. 15. March 20 

Ames, Frances (Mrs. Douglas Wolseley): Jan. 8 

Anangula Island: March 25 

Ancient Native Americans: Jan. 19, March 24 

Andersen, Kenneth K.: Nov. 24 

Andree, S.A.: April 26 

Andrews, Bruce: Jan. 4, April 3 

Andrews, Joan B.: March 4 

antitoxin for snakebite: March 32 

aphid, green peach: Jan. 10 

Aphrodite: June 7 

Archeological Survey of Canada: Jan. 19 

arctic haze: June 25 

arctic lupin: Oct. 5 

Ashmole, Elias: Nov. 11 

Ashmolean Museum: Nov. 11 

Athabasca Glacier: Jan. 14, 21 

atlatl: March 22 

Audubon, John J.: April 25 

azurite: May 24 

Bacoyanis, Sharon: April 6 

Baird, Gordon C: May 4 

Baker, Margaret: April 7 

Barber, C. M.: May 9 

Barnum. Phineas T: Nov. 16 

Barrett, Mary: May 12 

Barrett, O. W.: May 9 

Bayalis, John: Oct. 8 

beluga (white whale): June 25 

Benid, 111.: Oct. 10 

Berengaria: June 7 

Bering Land Bridge, the: March 27 

Beringia: Jan. 18, March 23 23 



•M 



«.-.. \i , 



* 



f 



Galapagos Islands: J 'A 21 

Gallon, F.: Jan. 27 

gamelan master class: March 4 

gamma radiation: June 24 

Garbage Project: June 18 

Gaston. Duke of Orleans: Nov. 10 

Gateway of the Sun: Oct. 17 

George "iV (Englandl: Feb. 12 

glaciers: Jan. 15 

"Gold of el Dorado": Dec. 3 

Goodspeed, Mrs. Charles B. (Mrs. Gilbert W. Chapman): Jan. 29 

graywacke: April 20 

"Great Bronze Age of China": Dec. 3 

Great Okeefenokee Swamp: April 19 

guano: J/A 6 

Gurewitz, Solomon: April 22 

gypsum crystals: May 21 

Hacienda Santo Domingo: Sept. 6 

Haight. Mrs. John M.: J A 3 

hair as deer repellent: Oct. 5 

Hales. Fleur: Oct. 6 

Hamilton. T. D.: Jan. 19 

Harris. John: May 4 

Haynes. Vance; March 21 

Herald Island: Jan. 4 

herbicide 2.4.,5-T: June 23 

Hermes (asteroid): Oct. 26 

Herre. Albert W.: J'A 17. Sept. 20 

Hershkovitz. Philip: Nov. 3 

HP:W: Nov. 3 

Hine. Ashley: Jan. 5 

Hines. Nathaneal: Oct. 11 

Hippie community: June 18 

Ho. Pingti: Sept." 27 

Hodges. Mrs. E. Huhtt: Oct. 26 

Hoffman. Malvina: Oct. 12 

Holton. Felicia A.: Sept. 29 

Hopewell Interaction Sphere: Feb. 5 

Hopewell Site: Feb. 5 

Hopkins. David M.: March 27 

Huaca de la Luna: J/A 7 

Huaca del Sol: J/A 7 

Huanchaco. Peru; J/A 7 

Huaqui. Bolivia: Oct. 23 

Huari, Bohvia: Oct. 18 

Huari-Tiahuanaco style: Oct. 2 

Hubbs. Carl L.: Sept. 3 

Huichol Indian art: May 4 

Humboldt (Peru) Current: J/A 4 

humpback whale; Sept. 34 

Hungyen. Hu; Sept. 28 

Ibsen-Riley. Karma; June 18 

Ilhnois Arts Council; Nov. 3 

"lUyria" (ship): J/A 16. Sept. 16 

"Image and Life." Japanese prehistory exhibit; Nov. 4 

Imperato. Ferrante: Nov. 11 

INAR; Oct. 18 

Indiana Dunes (cover photo); Jan. 2 

inro: May 12 

Instituto Nacional de Arqueologia: Oct. 18 

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas de Amazonia; Oct. 6 

Interagency Primate Steering Committee: May 34 

International Crane Foundation: Nov. 24 

International Harvester Co.; May 3 

intoxication in birds: Feb. 22 

Isle Royale, Mich.: Feb. 5 

isopod: Feb. 22 

I. U.C.N. Red Data Book: May 8 

Jackson. Wm. Henry; Oct. 6 
Janson, Thor: May 8 
"Jeanette" (ship): April 25 
Jennings. J.D.: Jan. 19 
Jomon art (Japan): Nov. 4 

Kalasasaya; Oct. 23 
Kamehameha. King; Feb. 12 
Kaplan. Carol SmaU: AprU 18. Oct. 8 



Karall, Dorothy: April 6 

Kerr. R. P.; April 31 

Kessel. Jan van; Nov. 8. 12 

Keweenaw Peninsula: Feb. 5 

Khirokitia. Cyprus; June 9 

Kimberley, Australia: April 4 

Klein. R.;" March 26 

Kofun period (Japan): Nov. 6 

Kolar. Janet: Feb. 13 

Kolar. John; Feb. 13 

Kolata. Alan; Oct. 17 

Kolczak. Lawrence S.: June 14 

komondor: Feb. 22 

Kono, T.; Jan. 12 

Koster: Americans in Search of Their Prehistoric Past: Sept. 29 

Koster Site; Sept. 12 

Kourion (Curium). Cyprus; June 8 

kudzu: May 32 

lacquerware. Japanese: May 8 

"Lady Kindersleys ' (ship): Jan. 7 

Lake Izabal (Guatemala); May 9 

Lake of the Clouds (Mich.); Feb. 17 

land snails; April 4 

Laufer. Berthold; Jan. 8. Sept, 25 

Learning Museum Program: Sept. 25 

Lechtman, Heather; Feb. 24 

lecturing by curators; April 17 

Leeper. Jeanette; March 4 

Leftridge. Jarmaine: April 7 

Legge, Christopher: March 3 

Legge. James; March 3 

Leonard, Anne; Dec. 3 

Leone. Mark: June 18 

Leslie. John W.; May 2. 12 

Levi-Setti. Riccardo; Jan. 24 

Lewis. Phillip H.; Nov. 3 

Liebman, Elizabeth: April 6 

Life in Ancient Egypt; March 11 

Limet, Jean: Oct. 13 

Lindsey. Kate: Nov. 24 

lions, man-eating; June 1£ 

Little Diomede Island; Jan. 5 

Llano Culture (Clovis Culture); Jan. 18 

Llano Estacado; Jan. 18. March 20 

Longo. Donna; Oct. 7 

Louisville. Ky.: Oct. 11 

Lower Presque Isle River (Mich.): Feb. 13 

lung cancer: June 24 

Lusignans; June 4 

Lyons. Walt; Sept. 32 

MacGiUivray. William; April 25 

malachite: May 24 

mallard populations; June 23 

Malthus. Thomas R.: Jan. 27 

manatees: May 8. Sept. 33 

manganese; April 21 

Manistee National Forest: Sept. 2 

MarguUes. Cecile: Nov. 8 

marijuana; June 20 

Mark Antony: June 7 

Marquesas Islands; J/A 24 

Marshall. Larry G.; Feb. 3 

mastodon: Feb. 22 

Mate, Bruce R.: Oct. 5 

Mathews. W. H.: Jan. 20 

Mazon Creek Fossils: May 4 

McAninch, Jay: Oct. 5 

McBride. J. Francis: Oct. 16 

McCain. Ed; Oct. 10 

McCain. Mrs. Ed; Oct. 10 

McCleUand. Kenneth; Jan. 4. April 3 

McDowell. Remick: Nov. 3 

McNeil, Karen: March 4 

Meadowcroft (Pa.) Rockshelter; Jan. 18, March 21 

Members' Nights: May 6 

membership, new plan: J/A 3 

Mente, Alexandra: Feb. 3 

metals; Feb. 4 

metalworking, prehistoric: Feb. 4 



r 



25 



meteorite; May 3. Oct. 10 

meteorites, false: April 18 

MiUspaugh, Charles F.: Oct. 8 

Moche River {Perul: J A 4, Sept. 4 

Monk's Mound: Sept. 15 

Montaigne: Nov. 8 

Moore. Carolyn: May 12 

Morito meteorite: Oct. 26 

Morlan. R.: Jan. 19 

Moseley. Michael E.: J/A 4, Sept. 4. Nov. 3 

Moss, William L.: J A 17, Sept. 20 

Mueller. Hedwig VV.: Oct. 9 

Mueller, LeMoyne: March 4 

Murdoch. John: April 26 

.Museo del Oro, Bogota: Dec. 3 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturale; Nov. 12 

museums, natural history: Nov. 8 

Mycenaean kingdom: June 7 

Nabokov, Vladimir: .■Xpril 10 

Naco, Ariz.: March 26 

Nansen. Fridtjof: April 25 

National Academy of Science: J A 3 

National Geographic Society: Feb. 3 

natural history museums: Nov. 8 

Nature Conservancy: Nov. 24 

Neal. Janette: April 24 

Necropolis of Ancon: Oct. 19 

NEH: Nov. 3 

netsuke May 12 

New Hebrides: J A 26 

New World monkeys: Nov. 3 

Newcomb, R. L.: April 25 

Nials. Fred. L.: J A 3, Sept. 4 

Nichols. Henry W.: Oct. 11 

Niezgoda. Christine: Jan. 3 

Ningbing Ranges (Australia): April 7 

Nitecki, Matthew R.: May 4 

Northeast Asia in Prehistory: March 27 

"Northern Light" (shipl: Jan. 4 

NSK awards: March 3. Nov. 3 

ojime: May 12 

Olsen, Edward: Feb. 20, April 18, May 4. 20, Sept. 29, Oct. 10 
"On the Probability of the Extinction of Families"; Jan. 27 
Origin of Species: Jan. 23 
owls for rodent control; Nov. 24 
Oxford University: Nov. 11 
pachiostosis: May 8 
Paling, John: Oct. 27 
Palmer. James L.: Nov. 3 
Paracelsus: Nov. 8 
Patterson, Bryan: June 16 
Patterson, Claire: Feb. 5 
Patterson. Col. J H.: June 14 
Payne, Roger: Sept. 34 
PCBs: March 34 

Peale, Charles V\illson: Nov. 8, 13 
Pearson, Richard: Nov. 4 
Peavy. Charles R.: J A 17, Sept. 20 
Peking Man: Jan. 18 
Peking opera; Sept. 28 
Peninsula brown bear: Jan. 29 
pest management; June 25 
pest repellent, electronic; June 23 
Peterson. Alex V.: May 3 
Peterson, Lorraine: March 4 
Peterson, Roger Tbry: April 24 
Pfeiffer, Anthony: April 2, Sept. 25 
Philadelphia Museum: Nov. 8 
Philipp II. Duke of Pomerania; Nov. 8 
Photography, Department of: Oct. 6 
Pickering. Robert: April 28 
Pigeon Corps (U.S. Army): March 7 
pigeons: March P 
piranha: Sept. 34, Nov. 24 
Pitluga. Linton: March 10 
Pliny the Elder: Nov. H 
Plowman. Timothy C: Feb. 3 
( poaching ring: March 33 



pollen morphology and evolution: Nov. 3 

pollution, waterway; March 33 

polychlorinated biphenyls: March 34 

Porcupine Mts.; Feb. 13 

Posnansky, Arthur; Oct. 22 

Powers, William: March 23 

Pozorski, Shelia G.: J/A 4. Sept. 4 

Pozorski, Thomas G.: J/A 4. Sept. 4 

prairie lily: J/A 2 

Preque Isle River: Feb. 18 

Price, Laurie; April 5 

primates, endangered; May 33 

Programa Riego Antiguo: J/A 4, Sept. 4 

Pt. Hope, Alaska; Ian. 5 

Pteranodon: Jan. 23 

pterosaur: Jan. 24 

Ptolemies: June 7 

Pumapunku, Bolivia: Oct. 21 

pupfish, Tecopa: March 33 

Purcell, Rev. Theodore: Jan. 4, April 3 

pyrite: April 18 

quartz: May 20 
Quarternary Period; Jan. 15 
Quetico canoe trips; April 27 

Rabineau, Phyllis: Feb. 7, Mar. 4, Sept. 3 

■■Races of Man ■; Oct. 13 

Rada, M.E.: March 21 

radiation, gamma: June 24 

radioactive waste: June 24 

radon: June 24 

Ram, Steve: Jan. 29 

Rand, Austin: March 9 

Raup, David: Jan. 22, May 4, J/A 3 

Recchia, Loran; Oct. 7 

research; April 16 

Resetar, Alan: J/A 24 

rhesus monkey: May 34 

Richard the Lion-Hearted: June 5 

Richardson, John: April 25 

Richardson, Eugene S.: May 4 

Riggs, Elmer S.: Feb. 3 

Riley. Thomas J.: Feb. 4, June 18 

Rincus, Mary Ellen; Jan. 10 

Rio Dulce: May 9 

Ritchie, J.C; Jan 20 

Robert Woods Bliss Collection of Pre-Columbian Art; Oct. 2 

Rochester, First Earl of; Jan. 28 

rock names: May 20 

Romans on Cyprus: June 7 

Roosevelt, Theodore; June 16 

Ross, Sir James Clark; April 25 

Ross's rosy gull: April 24 

Rubin, Alan E.; April 29 

Russian olive: Feb. 22 

Rutter, N.W.: Jan. 20 

Salamis, Cyprus: June 4 

Salwen, Bert: June 18 

San Juan Capistrano, Cal.; Oct. 10 

scanning electron microscope: Jan. 10, Nov. 3 

Scanning Electron Microscope Adult Education course: Jan. 3 

Schmidt, Karl P.: J A 3, 17 

Schuppert, Sylvia: March 4 

sea cow: May 28 

Sea Scouts; Jan. 4 

Second Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film; Nov. 18 

SEM: Jan. 10 

Sergius Paulus; June 7 

sex change in fish: June 25 

Shelton, Jay; March 32 

Schurcliff, Sidney N.: J/A 16. Sept. 16 

silicon, metallic: April 21 

Simmons, Mrs. John L.; J;A 3 

Simpson, Mrs. George L.; Jan. 5 

Sirenia: May 8 

shunk scent: Oct. 5. Nov. 24 

slag, steel mill; April 19 

Slaughter, Mrs. R.B.: Jan. 5 



January & February at Field Museum 



(January 15 through February 15) 



New Exhibit 

"Image and Life: 50,000 Years of Japanese Preliistory." More 
than 100 artifacts, including ceramics, stone tools, weapons, 
and ornaments represent the Paleolithic. Jomon. Yayoi, and 
Kofun periods of Japanese prehistory. Mever before shown out- 
side of Japan, these artifacts range in age from more than 
50.000 BC to the 6th century ad In Hall 27 until January 31. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Art Lacquer of Japan." The Museum's newest permanent ex- 
hibit features more than 400 objects of exquisite lacquer art 
from 18th- and 19th-century Japan. The objects on display in- 
clude finely carved and decorated inro (small sectional lacquer 
cases used to carry medicine), ojime beads, and nelsuke 



(miniature carved pendants hung from silk cords). These ob- 
jects were worn by Japanese men as symbols of wealth and 
status. Hall 32. second floor. 

American Indian Halls trace the anthropological history and 
cultural development of the original Americans, from the time 
of their arrival on the Morth American continent (before 20.000 
B C ) to the present. Hall 5 contains a traditionally made Pawnee 
earth lodge — the home and ceremonial center of Pawnee 
Indians as it existed in the mid-lSOOs. Halls 4 through 10. main 
floor east. 

The Hall of Chinese Jades contains beautiful jade art spanning 
over 6.000 years of Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of 
the hall illustrates ancient jade carving techniques. Hall 30. 
second floor. 

(Continued on back cover) 



Sloane. Hans: Nov. 10 

Smith. Farwell: J A 3 

Smith. Hermon Dunlap: J A 3 

Smithson. James: Nov. 16 

Smithsonian Institution: Nov. 8, 12, 16 

smog: June 2b. Sept. 32 

snails, land: April 4 

snake bite: March 32 

Snow. Dale: Oct. 5 

Snyder's point: Sept. 15 

Socorro isopod: Feb. 22 

Soiltest, Inc.: Oct. 23 

solar eclipse: Feb. 20 

Solem. .Alan: Jan. 3. .April 4 

specimen preservation: April 15 

Spence. Jonathan D.: Sept. 27 

sperm whale stranding: Oct. 4 

Spicehandler. A. MacS.: Jan. 21 

Stanford. Dennis: March 21 

Stefansson. H.: Jan. 6 

Steller's sea cow: May 8 

Stewart. Donald J.: Sept. 3 

Stewart. Mrs. David W.: Oct. 9 

stibnite: May 22 

Stob. Susan: April 13 

Streuver. Stuart: Sept. 29 

SwarlUng. Sven Olof: Sept. 29 

systematic collection of insects: Nov. 3 

systematics symposium: May 4 

tapa cloth: March 4. Dec. 3 

Taylor. Howard: June 19 

teaching at museum: April 17 

Tecopa pupfish: March 33 

Terrell. John: April 16, Dec. 3 

Testa. Ron: Feb. 3. 7. Oct. 6 

textile conservation: Nov. 3 

Thomas. Greg: Sept. 14 

Tiahuanaco. Bolivia: Oct. 16 

Tiahuanaco: Art and Empire in the Andes: Nov. 3 

Tirol. Archduke Ferdinand of: Nov. 8 

Titicaca, Lake: Oct. 16 

Tiwanaku. Bolivia: Oct. 17 

Toxic Substance Control Act of 1977: March 34 

Tradescant. John: Nov. 10 

Tradescant's Ark: Nov. 11 

Treasures of Cyprus exhibit: June 5 

trilobite vision: Jan. 24 

Trujillo (Peru): J/A 7. Sept. 5 



Feb. 12, Sept. 10 



Tsavo man-eating lions: June 14 
Turnbull. William D.: Feb. 3, Nov. 3 
Turner, Christy: March 24 

umiak: Jan. 4 
Umnak Island: March 25 
Union River: Feb. 17 
uranium residue: June 24 

■Valentini: Nov. 10 

Van Zelst. Mr. and Mrs. Theodore W. 
VandenBosch. Susan E.: Feb. 3 
volunteers honored: April 22 
'Vroman. Adam Clarke: Oct. 6 



Waering. Erik K.: Sept. 3 

Walters. Gordon: May 3 

waste recovery, grants for: June 23 

Waterfall Glen, 111.: April 2 

waterway pollution: March 33 

Watson. H.W.: Jan 27 

Weaver's Walk: March 1 1 

Weber. Walter A.: J/A 17. Sept. 20 

Wenzel. Rupert L.: Nov. 3 

West Chicago Prairie: Nov. 24 

Whitcomb. Donald S.: May 3. June 4 

White. John: Sept. 13 

white whale (beluga): June 25 

Widule. William: Sept. 29 

Williams, Patricia: March 6, Sept. 3. Oct. 6 

Wingendorp. G.: Nov. 10 

Wisconsin Age: Jan. 17 

Witek. John; May 3 

Wolf Road Prairie: J/A 2 

Wolseley. Mrs. Douglas (Frances Ames): Jan. 8 

Wonder, Frank C: J/A 17, Sept. 19 

wood as fuel: March 32 

Woodturner's Encyclopedia: March 32 

W'oodland, Bertram G.: May 4 

Woods. Loren: Jan. 3, J/A 3 

Worm, Olof: Nov. 10 

Wrangel Island: Jan. 4 

Yayoi period (Japanese prehistory): Nov. 6 
yellow cake (high grade uranium): June 24 

Zana. Peru: JA 4 
Zangerl. Rainer: May 4 
Zorich. Diane: May 12 



27 



ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY 
SURVEY LIfl RM 196 
NATURAL RESOURCES BUILDING 
URl3A^A ILL 61801 



January & February at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



Continuing Exhibits 

"The Place for Wonder." This gallery provides a place to feel, 
try on. handle, sort, and compare anthropological and natural 
history specimens. Items from the People's Republic of China, 
and "Earthquake Charlie. " the Museum's enormous polar bear, 
are some of the newest touchable items. Weekdays, 1 p.m. to 3 
p.m.; weekends. 10 a.m. to noon and 1 to 3 p.m. Ground floor, 
near central elevator. 

New Programs 

"Paradise Explored: Films of the South Pacific." Planned in 
conjunction with the second Learning Museum course, this film 
festival examines the cliches, myths, and realities of the South 
Sea island culture. Rodgers' and Hammersteins South Pacific is 
among the films screened at 7;00 p.m.. Friday. Feb. 8. in James 
Simpson Theatre. The festival continues all day Saturday. Feb. 
9. For further information, call 922-3136. 

The NEH Learning Museum Program is a three-year sequence of 
learning opportunities for which the Museum's outstanding 
exhibits and collections are focal points. Each course of study 
consists of special events, lectures, and seminars. The entire 
program is funded by the National Endowment for the 
Humanities. The next Learning Museum course, "South Sea 
Islands: Paradise and Perdition," described on pages 16-19, 
begins Feb. 14. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Free guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and films. Weekend sheet available at North Information 
Booth lists additional programs and locations: 

"Endangered Animals." Animals in danger of extinction 
are the focus of this 30-minute tour. Saturday, Jan. 19, noon. 

"The Great Whales." A revealing 55-minute film that 
studies the whale's anatomy, speech, and migration patterns. 
Saturday. Jan. 19. 1:00 p.m. 

"The Gods of Mexico. " This tour investigates the religion 
and cultures that ruled pre-Columbian Mexico. Sunday, Jan. 20 
1:00 p.m. 

'"Whales. Dolphins, and Men." This 51-minute documen- 
tary considers the remarkable intelligence of dolphins and 
whales and also examines the whaling industry. Saturday, Jan 
26. 1:00 p.m. 

"Indians of North America. " The daily life of six tribes, from 
the Iroquois in the north to the Hopi in the southwest, is the 
topic of this tour. Saturday. Jan. 26. 2:30 p.m. 

"Culture and History of Ancient Egypt."" This 45-minute 
tour and movie focuses on the Egyptian artifact collection and 
includes a description of the mummification process. Sunday 
Jan. 27. 12:30 p.m. 



"Birds' Paradise: the Waddensea." Waddensea, a natural 
bird refuge in the Netherlands for hundreds of thousands of 
shore birds, is the focus of this 25-minute film. Saturday. Feb. 2. 
1:00 p.m. 

"Indian Fishermen of the Northwest Coast." This 45-minute 
tour illustrates the importance of the fish in story and art tradi- 
tions, and examines Northwest Coast fishing techniques. Sun- 
day, Feb. 3, 2:00 p.m. 

"American Indian Dress."' This half-hour tour explores the 
construction, craft, style, and symbolism of Indian dress from 
six regions of North America, from the northern Woodlands to 
the Southwest. Saturday. Feb. 9, 1 1:30 a.m. 

"Museum Highlight Tour." Popular exhibits of the Museum 
are highlighted in this 30-minute tour. Saturday. Feb. 9, 12:30 
p.m. 

"Audubon. " This film traces the travels of John James 
Audubon, who painted birds of North America and Europe in 
their native habitats. Includes Audubons paintings from his 
most famous book. Birds of America. Saturday. Feb. 9. 1:00 
p.m. 

"Healers and Conjurers of the Northwest Coast." The ways 
that native healing men treat illness and disease are in- 
vestigated in this tour. Sunday, Feb. 10, 2:00 p.m. 

Continuing Programs 

"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Learn about age-old weaving 
techniques and textile development during these free 
demonstrations. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 10:00 
a.m. to noon. South Lounge, second floor. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is 
harmful and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire 
bat. a headhunter"s axe. a poisonous mineral, or a deadly 
mushroom from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing 
date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25C each at the en- 
trance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with scientific interests 
and backgrounds are needed to work in the various depart- 
ments. For more information call Volunteer Coordinator, 
922-9410, ext. 360. 

January and February Hours. The Museum is open 9 a.m. to 4 
p.m.. Monday through Thursday; 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., Saturday and 
Sunday; and 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.. Friday. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312)922-9410 



ary 



FIELD MGSEGiVl OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



MMURAIWSTBWSHWO 

f EB 1 5 ^980 
UBRftW 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

February 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 2 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Harr>' O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William H. Mitchell 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 
annually. S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions e.xpressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy oi Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: 
(3121 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. ISSN: 
0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, U. 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Field Museum Tours for Members 

to China, England and Wales, and the Grand Canyon 

6 Physiognomy in Chinese Figure Painting 

(n/ Alt Pontiiiicn 

10 The Mysterious Sarcophagus in Hall J 

12 Bryan Patterson, 1909-1979 

by William D. TurnbuU, curator of fossil mammals 

14 Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

March and April schedule 

16 American Indian Cradle Boards 

h\f Caroline /. Anderson 

22 Our Environment 

Concerning the whooping crane, the Siberian crane, 
public attitudes on wildlife, rabid bats in Texas, wild 
pets and rabies 

26 Honor Roll of Donors 

27 February and March at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Rhaedr Ogwen Waterfall, in Snowdonia National Park, North Wales, 
one of many sites of geologic and historic interest to be visited by Field 
Museum's England and Wales Tour, departing ]une 14. For additional 
information see pages 4-5. Photo by Bertram G. Woodland, curator of 
petrology, zvho zvill lead the tour. 



Gold of El Dorado 
Group Tours 

Special tours of the major forthcoming exhibit 
"Gold of El Dorado," opening April 25 and clos- 
ing July 6, may now be arranged for groups as 
small as 30 persons. During public hours, daily 
except Friday, special groups of 30 to 100 persons 
can be accommodated. On Tuesday and Thurs- 
day evenings (after the Museum is closed to the 
general public) groups of 50 or more can be 
accommodated. 

Supplemental lectures by Museum staff for 
such groups, as well as private dining 
arrangements, are also available. For rates and 
other information call 786-9570. 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Detective Work at Field Museum 

b\/ William C. Burner 
chairman. Department of Botany 

ecently the Botany Department received 
request from a local scientific laboratory 
) try to identify some tiny seedlike ob- 
!Cts. All the information the lab had on 
le objects (which turned out to be nearly 
licroscopic) was that they might have 
?me from Puerto Rico. Offering no as- 
urances, we did invite the lab to send 
lem in, but since more than 250,000 
pecies of seed plants are known to sci- 
nce we were not about to get their hopes 

P- 

Upon examining the mysterious 

pecimens we found they were cylindri- 

al, had rounded ends, and were about 

ne millimeter (1 25 inch) long. The sur- 

ice was smooth and slightly lustrous, 

ut there seemed to be no outer epider- 

lis, or skin. In cross-section they were 

lightly hexagonal, but there was no 

Ttemal structure of any kind. 

Some of us in the department sus- 
ected they were immature seeds, others 
uggested insect eggs. Stymied, we did 
/hat we always do under such circum- 
tances: we took them to Dr. Pat. 

Patricio Ponce de Leon (no need to 
xplain why everyone at the Museum 
alls him "Dr. Pat") is our mycologist — 
omeone who studies fungi. He has a 
lattery of chemical tests for distinguish- 
ng different kinds of fungi, and 
ften — on the basis of very little 
vidence — he can also tell us whether 
omething is animal, vegetable, or min- 
ral. 

After Dr. Pat's initial examination 
lis only conclusion was that our little 
seeds" might be insect droppings. This 
lossibility hadn't occurred to any of us 
vho looked at the "seeds" simply be- 
ause they were so precise in form, so 
ompact in structure, and had such a 
mooth surface. A subsequent chemical 
est — reinforcing Dr. Pat's suspicions — 
evealed that the objects were composed 
ilmost entirely of lignin, a component of 
vood that is very resistant to digestion. 

Taking them to the far side of the 
hird floor, where the entomologists 
vork, he showed them to Dr. Eric Smith, 
ustodian of the insect collection. To- 
;ether they consulted a volume on the 
dentification of termites. One of the 
riteria used by this book in identifying 
ermites is the type of excrement pro- 
luced. In short order the mycologist- 
mtomologist team was able to establish 
hat the nearly microscopic objects were, 
n fact, what Dr. Pat suspected: termite 
iroppings — specifically from termites of 



the genus Rcticulitcrmcs. This group, it so 
happens, does occur in Puerto Rico! 

This bit of detective work had a suc- 
cessful conclusion. I should add, how- 
ever, that sometimes we are stumped in 
trying to identify mysterious specimens 
that are sent to us, so it's a special plea- 
sure when we do succeed. 

Bronson and Lewis Appointed 
Anthropology Department Cochairmen 

Bennet Bronson, associate curator of 
Asian archeology and ethnology; and 
Philip Lewis, curator of primitive art and 
Melanesian ethnology, have been named 
cochairmen of the Department of An- 
thropology. The arrangement became 
effective January 1. Bronson, who joined 
the Anthropology staff in 1971, will serve 
as department head April through Sep- 
tember, 1980. Lewis, who came to Field 
Museum in 1955, will head the depart- 
ment January through March and Octo- 
ber through December. 



Volunteers Sought for 
"The Gold of El Dorado" 

Vicki Grigelaitis, Field Museum's vol- 
unteer coordinator, has announced that 
special volunteers will be needed in 
conjunction with the major exhibit "The 



Gold of El Dorado," on view April 25 
through July 5. The responsibility of 
these volunteers will be to assist visitors. 
Additicmal information may be obtained 
by calling Ms. Grigelaitis at 922-9410, ext. 
360. 



Robert R. McCormick Charitable 
Trust Grants 

Two large grants have recently been made 
to Field Museum by the Robert R. McCor- 
mick Charitable Trust. A $250,000 grant 
has been made in support of a new major 
permanent exhibit to be installed in Hall 10 
(formerly known as "Northwest Coast In- 
dians and Eskimos"): "Marine Hunters and 
Fishers." A $65,000 grant has been made in 
support of the temporary exhibit "The Gold 
of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia," 
opening at Field Museum on April 25. 

"Marine Hunters and Fishers," 
scheduled for completion in 1982, will be 
based upon some 2,500 artifacts from the 
Museum's collection of 18,000 materials — 
one of the world's most outstanding 
assemblages of Northwest Coast, northern 
California, and Eskimo materials. "The 
Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colom- 
bia, " which closes July 5, will feature hun- 
dreds of objects drawn primarily from the 
Museo del Oro, Bogota, Colombia. 



Brimham Rocks, a sandstone formation near Ripley, Yorkshire, one of the sites to be visited 
during Field Museum's tour of England and Wales, June 14-jul\/ 3. For tour description see 
page 4. 




Field Museum Tours 

1980 Tour Packages Exclusively for Members 

To China, England and Wales, and the Grand Canyon 



People's Republic of China 
May 10-31 

The singular experience of a trip to the People's Republic of China 
can be yours! For its members, Field Museum again offers an op- 
portunity to visit China's major attractions in the company of a well 
qualified lecturer. The group, limited to 25 persons, will leave 
Chicago May 1 and return May 3 1 . 

After overnight in Vancouver and a visit to Tokyo, you will 
continue to Peking, China's centuries-old capital. Relics of the im- 
perial past, now national monuments, include the magnificent im- 
perial palace, museums, temples and shrines, and the vast park-like 
Summer Palace on the shores of nearby Kunming Lake. A trip will be 
made to the Great Wall. The next destination, Nanking, situated on 
the Yangtse River, is a source of pride for the People's Republic as a 
center of modern development as well as for its scenic and historic 
attrac tions. Of special interest is the visit to the charming city of 
Kweilin. The awesome surrounding landscape of jutting peaks and 
rocky caves brings scenes of Chinese painting to life. Kwangchow 



(Canton) is China's most important southern city, reflecting events 
in the histor\ of the republic as well as former times when it was 
China's only port open to foreign trade. 

For additional information on this exciting tour, contact the 
Tours Office and ask for the China brochure. 



Geology Tour of England and Wales 
June 14-|uly 3 

Highlights of this 20-day tour, under the leadership of Dr. Bertram 
Woodland, Field Museum's curator of petrology (and a native of 
Wales), will be visits to classical areas of British geology where 
many fundamental aspects of geology were first discovered. The 
geological history and scenic development of these areas will be 
emphasized. Included in the tour are visits to the South Coast, West 
Country Cotswolds, Welsh Borderlands, North Wales, Lake District, 
Yorkshire Dales, and the Peak District. The group is limited to 25 
persons. 



Chinese mother and child 




>&mM ' 



H l p).M*iS*M 



n 











Grand Canyon 

Cost of the tour — $2,640 (which includes a $300 donation 
to Field Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes 
round trip air fare between Chicago and London. First class ac- 
commodations will be used throughout. The package includes 
breakfast and dinner daily, chartered motorcoach, baggage han- 
dling, all transfers, taxes (exceptairport tax), and tips (except to tour 
guides), all sightseeing charges and admissions to special events. 
Advance deposit; $250 per person. 



cataracts dropping 1 5 feet. At no time will we need to portage, but 
we will have to hold fast with both hands, and secure the luggage 
well. We'll get wet and tired — but happy and pleased. 

We will camp out on sandy beaches, and since it will not 
rain, the stars and the walls of the canyon will be our companions at 
night. We will travel in four boats, we'll swim in the tributaries to 
the Colorado, or dive, jump in, or just soak. We will hike to places 
of unusual geologic and anthropologic interest, sometimes through 
the most pleasant and enchanting stream beds and valleys, at times 
along steep walls and waterfalls. 

But above everything else, we'll live a time of geology. We 
will think earth while we eat, swim, dream, walk, and relax. We 
will see and study more geology in this one brief period than can be 
seen anywhere else in comparable time. 

The trip will end in Lake Mead. From there we'll go by bus to 
Las Vegas, then fly home — sad to leave the Great River and a grand 
fortnight of our lives, but happy and proud to have experienced it. 

Although the trip will not be rigorous, numerous in- 
nercanyon hikes are planned. Camping out on the river will be 
without tents. Meals will be excellent. A pre-trip meeting at Field 
Museum is scheduled for Saturday, February 9, at 2;30 p.m. Dr. 
Matthew Nitecki, curator of fossil invertebrates, will lead the trip. 
The cost of $1,500 covers all expenses (including air fare, boat fare, 
meals, camping, sleeping bags, etc.), and a donation of $250.00 to 
the Field Museum. The trip is limited to 19 persons. 

For additional information and reservations 
for all tours, call or write Dorothy Roder, 
Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, III. 60605. Phone (312) 
922-9410. 



England's Lake District, immortaltzed by Wordsworth, Coleridge, and 
Southey. 



Exploration of the Grand Canyon 
October 3-19 

The traveler arriving in Grand Canyon may be given enough time to 
stand on the South Rim and to gaze in wonder into the depth and 
silence of the chasms before being hurried away in his charter bus 
to somewhere else. If he is lucky and has more leisure he may be 
allowed to hike part of the way down to the Colorado River along a 
trail as busy as Fifth Avenue on Easter. But there is another Grand 
Canyon that is not accessible to anyone in a hurry: the Grand 
Canyon of exquisite loveliness, grandeur, and solitude. 

The trip will begin in the late afternoon of Friday, October i. 
with the flight to Las Vegas. The first two days will be spent in the 
South Rim as an introduction to wilderness hiking and camping and 
to the geology of the area. The main part of the trip will be a 14-day 
river trip. The trip will be concerned with all aspects of geology, but 
will stress the geological history of the area shown in the great 
sequence of rocks representing about a third of the earth's history, 
the understanding of the Colorado River, her power, and the tools 
she uses to carve this great canyon, and the sheer joy and excite- 
ment of the river adventure. 

It is on the river that we will experience, learn, and under- 
stand the canyon, the river, and the Great Southwest. We will 
"shoot" an unending line of rapids, some but a ripple, others rocky 




v.5»r . 



^jStr-*"*^' 



•«j* 



'^'i. i 



. •*-> 



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■•li-.^i) 




in 






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t 




A Ming di/nasty handscroU (Cat. 125947), attributed to Chou Ch'en. Now mounted fully extended in a frame, the 
scroll shows a series of 25 adult figures, 15 of whom are reproduced here and on the following pages. 



PHYSIOGNOMY IN CHINESE 
FIGURE PAINTING: 
A Case Study 



By Art Pontynen 

A Chinese Handscroll in the Field Museum 
collection is a rare example of Chinese figure 
painting in which persons of various social 
status are realistically presented. The painting 
was acquired by Berthold Laufer, then curator 
of anthropology, during his 1923 expedition to 
China. 

He purchased it from the collection of T. 
R. Abbott, Laufer's host in Peking, who pro- 
vided him with invaluable assistance in locat- 
ing and acquiring art works. The painting is 
similar in subject and treatment to pictures 
comprising an album painted by the sixteenth- 
century artist Chou Ch'en. Now entitled "Dis- 
placed Persons Pictures," Chou Ch'en's album 
exists in the form of two separate handscrolls, 
one in the Honolulu Academy of Art, the other 
in the Cleveland Museum of Art. 



The Field Museum handscroll (324cm x 
26cm, or 12'9" x IOV4") is rendered in tones of 
grey and black ink on silk. The figural portion, 
depicting 25 adults, three infants, and several 
animals, is followed by two hand-written 
notices, or colophons, now separated from the 
body of the painting. The first colophon is 
dated to the twenty-seventh year of the Tao- 
kuang reign period (1847), and written by a 
certain Ch'en Ch'uan at the request of the 
owner. The latter, a nineteenth-century collec- 
tor by the name of Chuang Chin-tu, had asked 
Ch'en Ch'uan to attribute the unsigned paint- 
ing to a known artist. Accordingly, Ch'en 



Art Pontynen is a doctoral candidate in Chinese and 
Japanese art history at the University of Iowa. 





Ch'uan attributed it to Chou Ch'en, artist of the 
Honolulu-Cleveland handscrolls. 

Chuang's seals, identifying him as the 
collector, are on the silk, figural portion of the 
Field Museum painting and on the paper of the 
colophon portion. There are also two im- 
pressions of an unidentified seal and three 
others that bear the name of Hsiang Yiian-pien, 
a distinguished collector who lived during the 
Ming dynasty (1368-1644). If genuine, these 
seals indicate that Field Museum's scroll also 
dates to the sixteenth century. 

In comparing the style of Field Museum's 
scroll with that of the Honolulu-Cfeveland 
album, it seems certain that Field Museum's is a 
copy of that original work. The practice of 
making copies of admired paintings is a long- 
standing tradition in China; and there are many 
famous Chinese artists whose work is known 
solely through such copies. For an aspiring 
Chinese artist, copying was a means of learning 
the techniques and styles of past masters as well 
as an act of reverence toward them. While in the 
West copies are often instruments of deception 
meant to be falsely represented as originals, in 
China they are traditionally intended to instruct 
the viewer in the achievements of great artists 
of the past. 

The first figures, from right to left, on 
Field Museum's scroll are a monk and a 
fortune-teller, followed by characters of varying 
social status and fortune. The figural section 



ends with a group of three women. 
Significantly, there are differences between 
Field Museum's scroll and the Chou Ch'en 
original. Although most of the figures in the 
original do appear in the Field Museum copy, 
some are omitted; and some to be seen in the 
copy do not appear in the original. 

The placement order of the figures in the 
Field Museum scroll might suggest that at the 
time this copy was made, the Honolulu- 
Cleveland album had not yet been mounted in 
handscroll format, or at least that the order of 
figures in the original did not prevail at the time 
of copying. 

The figures not to be seen in the original 
but present in the Field Museum scroll are: a 
group consisting of a man and woman, each 
holding an infant, a stooped-back man, a one- 
eyed man holding a chipped bowl, and three 
more women. These figures may well be copies 
of original figures by Chou Ch'en that are now 
lost. 

Chou Chen's decision to paint a series of 
figures ranging in status from the affluent to the 
destitute is in part explained by the colophon 
on the Cleveland portion of the original: 

In the autumn of the Ping-tzu year of 
Cheng-te (1516), in the seventh month, I was 
idling under the window, and suddenly there 
came to my mind all the appearances and 
manner of the beggars and other street 





^ 



characters whom I often saw in the streets and 
markets. With brush and ink ready on hand, I 
put them into pictures in an impromptu way. 
It may not be worthy of serious enjoyment but 
it certainly can be considered as a warning and 
admonition to the world. Recorded by Tung- 
ts'un, Chou Ch'en.* 

So the artist himself explains that the 
painting was intended to serve a didactic func- 
tion: to stimulate the viewer to contemplate the 
vagaries of life and fortune. 

Why did Chou Ch'en produce such an 
unusual work in the context of Ming figure 
painting? Figure painting in China often had a 
didactic function, and highly respected per- 
sons, both historic and (then) contemporary, 
were painted for adulation and emulation. Two 
commentators on art— Hsieh Ho in the sixth 
century and Chang Yen-yuan in the ninth- 
emphasize that painting perfects the civilizing 
teachings of the sages and helps to maintain 
social relationships. A twelfth-century writer, 
Han Cho, comments however that "whenever 
painting figures, one should not use coarse, 
vulgar types, but venerate those that are pure 
and elegant. . . ." 



•Lee, Sherman. "Literati and Professionals: Four Ming 
Painters," Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art, January 
1966, p. 10. 



Although Chou Ch'en had to have 
known of the didactic function of painting, he 
was obviously not in agreement with Han Cho. 
So we must look for an alternative explanation 
or tradition to understand his approach. One 
such alternative may be seen in an eleventh- 
century text on painting by Kuo Jo-hsii: 

Those who paint secular figure subjects must 
distinguish between the look of rich and poor, 
and the robes and head-gear of the [different] 
dynasties. In the case of Buddhist monks the 
faces [should tell of] good works and practical 
expedients .... Peasants will naturally pos- 
sess the very essence of unsophistication and 
country simplicity, plus such other [special 
characteristics] as respectfulness or obstinacy, 
joy, or sorrow. 

Although Kuo Jo-hsii was receptive to 
the idea of painting "vulgar types" and pro- 
vided a formula for doing so, his advice falls 
short of endorsing the harshly realistic subject 
matter we see in Chou Ch'en's work. Another 
possible sanction for Chou Ch'en's approach 
was enunciated by the great eleventh-century 
poet Su Tung-p'o: 

Portrait painting and physiognomy are the 
same art. . . . There is some part in every man 
where his particular disposition resides. Some 
have it in the eyebrows, some in the nose or 
the mouth. 



IPX 




ecu , 




v^ 




l^^^ 
^^^ J 




W^^'] 



It was widely believed that a person's 
character as well as his fate could be "read" in 
one's face or in some other physical feature. The 
prevalence of this theory can be judged by the 
opposition to it by Hsiin Tze (320-235 b.c), a 
prominent Confucianist. In his essay "Against 
Physiognomy" Hsun Tze cites numerous 
examples of famous persons whose physiog- 
nomy was far from promising. He notes that 
"To physiognomize a person's appearance is 
not as good as to consider his heart; consider- 
ing his heart is not as good as to select his prin- 
ciples." 

Although the harsh realism of the Field 
Museum scroll is exceedingly rare in Chinese 
figure painting, it is apparent that the ren- 
derings of the figures still follow certain specific 
traditions. The theory that a person's physiog- 
nomy reflects one's character and destiny — 
though dating from an assumedly pre-Buddhist 
period — nevertheless is congenial to the 
Buddhist concept of karmic retribution and re- 
birth. The belief that one can benefit from a 
visual contemplation of venerated figures of the 
past goes hand-in-hand with the concept that a 
person's appearance reflects his character. This 
attitude persisted through the centuries, and it 
was poet-artist Su Tung-p'o who stated that 
portrait painting and divining character by 
means of the "science" of physiognomy are 
essentially the same. 



There are two conclusions that might be 
drawn concerning the Field Museum scroll and 
its relationship to the Honolulu original: The 
figures found only in Field Museum's may rep- 
resent figures originally painted by Chou Ch'en 
but no longer extant or available; the Field 
Museum painting could thus be a more com- 
plete visual documentation of sixteenth-century 
Chinese life than the original. The sequence of 
figures in the Field Museum scroll may also 
reflect the intended order of the original album 
leaves painted by Chou Ch'en. 

We also see in the Field Museum paint- 
ing some of the primary motivations and prin- 
ciples of Chinese figure painting. Chou Ch'en 
depicted human flgures in accordance with 
three time-honored traditions: 

First, in his rendering of physical fea- 
tures, he sought to reflect the subject's character 
and/or destiny. Secondly, he differentiated 
between social and professional classes by con- 
trasting a Buddhist monk, a fortune teller, and 
refined ladies with the less fortunate. He thus 
ignored prevailing strictures against depicting 
the infirm or the otherwise disadvantaged. 
Chou Ch'en's penetrating yet seemingly sym- 
pathetic vision provides us with a rare candid 
account of life in sixteenth-century China. 

Finally, Chou Ch'en observed a primary 
rule of Chinese figure painting by providing 
the viewer with a lesson: physiognomy not- 
withstanding, the vagaries of life are many. 



The Mysterious 
Sarcophagus in Hall J 



"The marble Greco-Roman sarcophagus on 
display along the west wall of the Museum's 
Egyptian Hall," wrote Christopher Lcgge in the 
January, 1969, Bulletin, "probably draws only 
casual glances from most visitors, yet on the eve 
of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, 
this same artifact caused a brief minor furor." 

Today the sarcophagus occupies a central 
position in Hall j, and is the constant object of 
curious scrutiny, particularly by visitors who had 
heard — incorrectly — that it was the burial vault of 
Queen Cleopatra! 

Legge's article, reproduced here for the 
benefit of the great many readers who did not see it 
originally, dispels that myth and sheds additional 
light on the curious history of artifact #31842:* 

During the 1890s, popular interest in 
things Egyptian was rising in intensity. It was 
natural, then, that this interest would be re- 
flected in some of the Exposition exhibits. 
Among the attractions there were a "Temple of 
Luxor" and the "Streets of Cairo," where a 
dancer called "Little Egypt" caused both sensa- 
tion and scandal. The sarcophagus, too, was to 
have been a prominent part of this tum-of-the- 
century extravaganza and although this never 
came to pass, the artifact's checkered history is 
an interesting one. 

It was discovered in 1888 by workmen 
digging a well near Alexandria. Unfortunately, 



the discovery was unattended by any scientific 
investigation, a lack which has defeated later 
attempts to place it historically. In unearthing 
the sarcophagus, the funerary chamber was de- 
stroyed and the debris scattered. However, it 
was soon put on display with this astonishing 
notation: 

"Sarcophagus of Queen Cleopatra, dis- 
covered at Ramleh, near Alexandria. This sar- 
cophagus was found at a depth of 30 feet, but 
for the convenience of visitors, it has been lifted 
to its present position." 

A second label read, "For particulars 
apply to Mr. G. N. Frangouli, Tobacconist, 
Alexandria." 

Despite this shaky documentation, Halli- 
gan's Illustrated World's Fair, which described 
itself as a "Pictorial and Literary History of the 
World's Columbian Exposition," wrote in its 
issue of September, 1891, "the recent discovery 
... of Queen Cleopatra, is by far the most valu- 
able find yet made in curio-fraught Egypt. The 
proposition to bring this interesting historical 
relic to the World's Fair at Chicago makes a con- 
sideration of the discovery particularly oppor- 
tune. The principle bas-relief is the central one, 
which represents the head of a woman. This is a 
magnificent specimen of the sculptor's art: the 
woman has an asp on each temple and agony is 
depicted in the expression of the face, which is 



The sarcophagus 

being excavated in 

1888 at Ramleh, near 

Alexandria, Egypt. 

When first displayed 

in Egypt it was touted 

as being that of 

Cleopatra, a claim 

10 later discredited. 




"'yf 



::r'}.: y;: . .- ^ 

-fiu .^ :;^. ■•' -^T 







The sarcoplhi\;ii> as it may he seen today in Hall ] 



a remarkable one. The well-shaped nose, with 
its full nostrils, the determined jaw indicate the 
masterly spirit of a woman accustomed to 
command. The forehead is rather low but there 
is evidently a massive head behind that and 
when one compares this bust with that on one 
of the coins struck in Cleopatra's reign, the 
likeness is at once perceptible. Among the re- 
mains found in the sarcophagus was a skull of 
unusual size with a low forehead and a great 
development at the back of the head — 
undoubtedly that of the voluptuous queen." 

Col. Samuel Lawrence James, an ex- 
Confederate army veteran and prominent citi- 
zen of New Orleans, was travelling in Egypt 
about the time the article appeared and bought 
the sarcophagus from the Egyptian govern- 
ment, paying $4,000. 

A Chicago newspaper clipping of un- 
known date, but probably shortly before Col. 
James died in 1894, gives the information that 
owing to a number of complications, he de- 
cided not to exhibit it on the Fair grounds. It 
would, however, together with the remains of 
Cleopatra and a number of mummies, be soon 
exhibited at a store at 335 Wabash Avenue, 
which had been converted into an exact but 
smaller reproduction of the famous temple at 
Denderah. The article claimed that leading sci- 
entists had no doubts that the sarcophagus was 
that of Cleopatra. Details of this establishment 
have been lost in obscurity and its site, now 514 
S. Wabash, is occupied by George Diamond's 
Steak House. 

In 1904 and probably for several years 
before, the sarcophagus lay in Blakelee's 
warehouse on S. Western Avenue. In that year, 



S. L. James, Jr., as executor of his father's estate, 
gave it to Field Museum. In a letter to the 
Museum's director he said that although his 
father had bought it under the assumption that 
it was Cleopatra's, he could not vouch for its 
authenticity. 

The sarcophagus, without a reference to 
its possible connection with Cleopatra, is 
mentioned in the Museum's annual report as 
being part of the most important acquisitions 
through gift for the year. Several other Egyptian 
artifacts were included in the acquisition. Any 
association with "one of the most imperious, 
wilful and wicked of the world's women" 
("Halligan's Illustrated World's Fair") has be- 
come even more improbable since then. 
Present-day archeologists believe that the cen- 
tral bas-relief represents Medusa and that the 
sarcophagus is one of a group of Alexandria 
sarcophagi of Proconnesian white marble from 
quarries on the island of Marmara in the sea of 
that name and that in round figures they can be 
dated between 150-250 a.d., a period 180 to 
280 years after Cleopatra's death. 

The sarcophagus, largely unnoticed in its 
present dignified setting, has travelled from 
Ramleh to Wabash Avenue to Field Museum, 
missing its chance to become a part of the great 
World's Columbian Exposition along the way, 
but nonetheless a subject of astounding claims 
and, later, of academic inquiry — all without re- 
vealing its history. To that extent, its mysteri- 
ous aura remains. 

"Christopher Legge's article first appeared in the January, 
1%9, BulU-tm under the title "We Don't Know Whose It Was 
But It Wasn't Cleopatra's." Legge was custodian of the an- 
thropology collection from 1962 to 1974. 



II 



BRYAN PATTERSON, 1909-1979 



Bv William D. Tunibull 



Brvcin Patterson, a member of the Department of Geology 
staff from 1926 to 1955 and a distinguished member of the 
National Academy of Sciences, died December 1 in Boston. 
He was 70 years of age. Patterson's Field Museum career 
began at age 17 when he arrived from Malvern, En- 
gland. His father. Col. J. H. Patterson (who shot the 
famed Tsavo man-eating lions on view in Hall 22), asked 
Stanley Field, then president of Field Museum, if the 
Museum could find some way to use the lad. Months later 
young Patterson appeared on the Museum's doorstep. 
Thus a remarkable career was launched. 

For the next three years Patterson served as pre- 
parator for the Department of Geology, following this 
with five years as division assistant. For seven years 
he then served as assistant curator, and finally for 
fourteen years as curator, with time out during World War 
II for service in the U.S. Army. In 1955 Patterson left Field 
Museum to accept an Alexander Agassiz Professorship at 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard, a chair he 
held until 1970. He continued to serve Harvard for five 
more years as professor of comparative paleontology, and 
after that continued as professor emeritus. Throughout his 
Harvard tenure, Patterson retained affiliation with Field 
Museum as a research associate. 

At Harvard Patterson continued research in- 
vestigations that he had begun at Field Museum: 
Paleocene and Eocene faunas of the DeBeque Formation of 
Western Colorado; Early Creataceous and Eocene- 
Oligocene faunas of the Texas Trinity and Vieja Forma- 
tions; and Mid and Late Tertiary faunas of South America. 
New endeavors at Harvard included explorations in East 
Africa. In 1971 he made worldwide headlines as leader of 
an expedition to Kenya, where his crew unearthed the 
jawbone of man's five million-year-old ancestor, Au- 
stralopithecus. At the time it was the earliest such speci- 
men known. Four years earlier he had made another Au- 
stralopithecus discovery. The 1967 fragment pushed back 
the human evolutionary record to 2V2 million years from 
the prior record of PA million years set by Louis and Mary 
Leakey. Early in his Harvard tenure Patterson received his 
most coveted honor when he was elected a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences. 

Bryan, or Pat, as he was known to Field Museum 
colleagues, was a phenomenon. He had an insatiable 
curiosity, a compulsion to read— no, to devour — the writ- 
ten word, and ajoie de vivre that transformed almost every 
occasion into a once-in-a-lifetime experience. He com- 
manded a wealth of knowledge within and beyond his 
field that was indeed remarkable, all the more because he 
was largely self-taught. His only formal graduate training 
consisted of selected courses taken at the University of 
2 Chicago during his early years at the Museum. He had a 



photographic mind, and as soon as he perceived a need to 
know something — say an embryological detail — he would 
pursue the search tenaciously. 

The late James H. Quinn, former chief preparator of 
the Department of Geology, once pointed out to me that 
while Pat was a preparator his heart may have been with 
it, but his intellect went far and away beyond. In Quinn's 
words, "A few weeks after Pat's arrival, Elmer S. Riggs 
asked him to go to the Museum library to look up some 
obscure point or reference, and that was the end of the 
preparation. Pat discovered the library, put his nose in a 
book and never got it out again." (Riggs, then curator of 
fossil vertebrates, was Patterson's predecessor in that 
post.) I have always remembered that statement for, in 
addition to its revealing touch of envy, it shows that Pat's 
peers at the time recognized his great gift and accepted his 
scholarly ability long before the institution officially did 
so. 

During Pat's early years at the Museum he financed 
his own field work, there being no funds available for that 
purpose for so inexperienced a hand. One such trip, 
perhaps his first, was to the nearby, now world-famous 
Mazon Creek Pennsylvanian locality (an hour's drive 

Bryan Patterson 
as he appeared in 
cover photo of 
the April, 1968. 
Bulletin. A prac- 
tical joker who 
would carry out 
an elaborate 
scheme for the 
sheer fun of it. he 
is shown here 
holding an 
alleged "dancing 
worm" or "tully 
monster," which 
he supposedly 
had just bagged in 
the wilds of 
Kenya. The only 
known specimens 
of the creature 
(Tullimonstrum 
gregarium) are 
Coal Age fossils 
from Illinois. Not 
an attempt to 
hoodwink thi 
reader, the photo 
supplemented a 
humorous article 
on Patterson'i- 
elaborate prank. 




southwest of Chicago). Pat spent his first vacation there in 
1928, collecting plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate fossils. 
His collection — now dwarfed by the hundreds of 
thousands of specimens collected there since by curators 
George Langford, Eugene Richardson, Gordon Baird, and 
a host of amateurs — constituted the bulk of the Museum's 
early holdings from this locality. 

Several years later, still at his own expense, he 
began the first of his long-term serious research efforts. 
Accompanying Riggs to western Colorado, Pat began col- 
lecting from the latest Paleocene and Early Eocene deposits 
of the DeBeque Formation. The geology of the area was so 
poorly known that not until he began study of the mate- 
rials was he able to demonstrate the presence of a 
Paleocene section distinct from the Eocene. 

These positive results led to the Museum's support 
of six subsequent field seasons of work there. Considering 
the small number of personnel, the scarcity of specimens, 
and the difficulties of terrain during those field seasons, a 
remarkable collection was accumulated. It was well docu- 
mented with good stratigraphic and locality information, 
at a level quite acceptable today, but exceptional for the 
time. This effort resulted in nine publications on the 
Paleocene forms. And there are a number of manuscripts 
in various stages of completion, some of which must be 
published in order that the wealth of information they 
contain can become part of the record. 

There is no doubt that his years of work in Colorado 
shaped and molded Pat to a high degree. He became a 
master at this craft and was well started on the road to 
preeminence. In 1947 he and Quinn spent the summer 
field season in west Texas, in the Big Bend area of the Rio 
Grande country west of the Pecos, where they collected the 
first extensive series of specimens from the Latest 
Eocene-Earliest Oligocene sediments of largely volcanic 
origin. 

Simultaneous with the western Colorado work Pat 
began study of a large series of materials already at hand, 
collected by Riggs in South America in the 1920s from Mid 
and Late Tertiary deposits, mainly in Argentina and 
Bolivia. This aspect of Patterson's work has produced an 
outpouring of publications that continues even today, and 
which also opened the way for studies and publications on 
fauna as varied as the Phororhacoid birds, marsupials, 
edentates, typotheres, astrapotheres, toxodonts, 
pyrotheres, and rodents. The most recent of these is a 
co-authored (with Albert E. Wood) monograph on South 
American rodent evolution. Pat and Larry G. Marshall, a 
Field Museum vertebrate paleontologist, have cooperated 
to bring into final form several of Pat's South American 
faunal and stratigraphic studies. 

Patterson's major field work in Texas was recover- 
ing and studying the teeth of the Early Cretaceous mam- 
mals of the Trinity Formation of north Texas. En route to 
1949 professional meetings in El Paso, some of his Field 
Museum colleagues stopped to check a locality near 
Forestberg, Texas, reported to have fossils of special inter- 
est that were eroding out of the earth in great abundance. 
The reports proved to be more than valid, and Pat was 
called to investigate the site further. 




Bryan Patterson, about 1955 



He spent several months the following season alone 
there, digging out and wet-sieving uncounted tons of 
Trinity sand matrix. He recovered well over 100 of the 
small teeth, representing not just tricodonts, but a number 
of other fauna as well. His report on one of these — 
primitive therians — appeared in Fieldiana (Field 
Museum's monograph series) in 1956, and has become a 
classic. 

Patterson's Chicago years were a time not only in 
which he was molded into an acknowledged leader in his 
field, but also in which he most definitely helped to mold 
the Museum. In addition to the vast and important collec- 
tions he made, his gifts to the Museum were many and 
varied; but his greatest gift was the intellectually 
stimulating effect of his enthusiams and dedication. 

Although never trained to teach, Pat had a certain 
natural gift for it: he made his subject interesting by the 
manner of his presentation, and he enjoyed doing it. He 
gave of his time to serious students apparently un- 
grudgingly, whether or not they were formally enrolled. 

Pat served the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology as 
its president in 1948-49. He was a member of the Society 
for the Study of Evolution, the Geological Society of 
America, the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, and several other professional societies. The 
end of the Chicago years was marked by the honor of the 
Harvard appointment. Another honor bestowed upon him 
more recently resulted from his brief work in Central 
America, undertaken as a consequence of his interest in 
the faunal interrelationships and interchanges between 
North and South America. A museum in Estanzuela, 
Guatemala, is named in his honor, recognizing his work 
there. 

Pat is survived by his wife, Bernice Caine Patter- 
son, and a son, Alan. 



William D. Tiirnbiill is curator of fossil mammals. 



t3 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 



March and April 

lames Simpson Theatre 

Saturdays. 2:30 p.m. 



The entrance to Simpson Theatre is conveniently located inside the 
west entrance. This Is of special interest to the handicapped, for the 
entrance is at ground level, with all steps eliminated. The west en- 
trance also provides free admission to the theatre. Access to other 
Museum areas, however, requires the regular admission fee (except 
on Fridays) or membership identification. The film/lectures are ap- 
proximately 90 minutes long and recommended for adults. Reserved 
seating available, until 2:25, for members. Doors open at 1 :45 p.m. 

March 1 

"Holy Lands" by Charles Forbes Taylor 

This nonsectarian film takes us to Damascus; places of the Patriarchs, 
ludges. Kings, and Prophets; the route of Moses; Bethlehem 
Shepherds' cave; Herod's castle, Galilee, lacob's well, Mt. Zion, 
lerusalem, Pilate's palace. Calvary, and more. 



Pofd/Lij/ ' Mjrch . 





, Land and Sea .Adventure: Naples piazza (March 29) 

March 8 

"Exploring Darwin's Islands" by Quentin Keynes 

Keynes first shows us the volcanic scenery, giant tortoises, and other 
unique Galapagos life. Then we step ashore on Ascension, and carry 
on to St. Helena, where Napoleon was exiled. In the Falklands we 
travel by hovercraft and see the remarkable King penguins and 
elephant seals. 

March 15 

"Norway" by Ed Lark 

A country wedding, Laplanders, Europe's largest glacier, the in- 
comparable fjords, the midnight sun are highlights of this film. 

March 22 

"Portugal" by Frank Nichols 

Portugal today is a blend of old and new. The old can be seen in 
fishing villages where men dress in traditional plaids and women 
wear seven-petticoated dresses. The new is reflected in deluxe resorts 
of the Algarve. 




The ever-winding Rhine lApnl 2b) 
March 29 

"Land and Sea Adventure: by Freighter 
to the Adriatic" by William Sylvester 

Ports of call Sylvester takes us to (aboard a freighter) include New 
Orleans, Casablanca, Genoa, Portofino, Naples, Capri, and the 
Yugoslavian Riviera. Hjwaiisn v\ jlerfj// (April 19i 



>^.^ 




April 5 

'Central America" by Jonathan Hagar 

Guatemala, with ancient Mayan sites; El Salvador, with coconut har- 
vesting; Honduras, rich in mahogany forests; Panama, transected by 
the busy canal; Nicaragua, with views of earthquake-ravaged Man- 
agua; and Costa Rica, with its rich tablelands. 

April 12 

"Bavaria: Land nl the Mountain King" 
by Howard and Lucia Meyers 

We see the Passion Play at Oberammergau, visit the home of Prince 
Constantine, see the hamlet of Gergweis (with 500 persons and 5,000 
dachshunds), and we are dazzled by a 4,000-candle spectacle at the 
Castle of Herrenchiemsee. 




Bavaria: Neuschwanstein Castle (April 12) 
April 19 

"The hiawaiian Adventure" by Doug )ones 

Film highlights: erupting volcanoes, waterfalls, the art of lei-making, 
the old leper colony on Molokai, Queen Liliukolani's palace, the 
sugar industry, surfing. 

April 26 

"The Majestic Rhine" by )ohn Roberts 

From its source high in the Alps to its North Sea mouth, the Rhine is 
one of the world's busiest and most colorful waterways — a vital ar- 
tery of Switzerland, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. 



15 




Haida cradle board, back (left) and front 



AMERICAN INDIAN 
CRADLE BOARDS 



By Caroline J. Anderson 



16 



Like Traditional North American Indians, 
modem American parents have discovered the 
comfort and convenience of back carriers for 
baby. The present-day equivalent of the Indian 
cradle board is an aluminum frame and fabric 
carrier which is slung over the parent's shoul- 
ders. Having carried my own boys in these 
back frames, I was struck by comparisons when 
I happened upon an article published in 1887 
on "Cradles of the American Aborigines," by 
Otis Mason, then curator of ethnology at the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Here were sketches and descriptions of a 
wide variety of Indian cradle boards. I was 



amazed to see design features, including sun 
shades and play toys, that would have made 
useful additions to my own twentieth-century 
model. Other features seemed strange or cruel 
and aroused my interest in how the cradle 
boards had been used. 

Reading up on the subject, I found that 
cradle boards were used by most North Ameri- 
can Indian tribes, ranging between the arctic 
regions and Mexico, and in some areas they 
have been used for hundreds if not thousands 
of years. In the far north where extreme cold 
was a problem, infants were commonly carried 
in the hood of a mother's fur parka. In Mexico 



and other scnithern areas, babies were more 
often held or supported on a mother's hip. But 
between these extremes, the cradle board was 
common. It might be constructed of wood, 
skin, bark, or basketry. Each tribe seemed to 
have its own design and many cradles were 
elaborately or symbolically decorated. In some 
cases the cradle for male infants was much more 
elaborate than the one for females. In every case 
that I observed, the cradle was carried by a 
strap across the mother's forehead rather than 
by the shoulder strap which is common today. 
And it was always mothers — not fathers — that 
were carrying the cradles. 

Many, but not all, of the cradle boards 
were designed to be used both vertically and 
horizontally. This required that the child be 
tightly secured. A sleeping child could then be 



removed from his mother's back while still on 
the cradle board and laid on a bed or placed to 
swing gently from a tree branch or hook. The 
child would not have to be awakened. The con- 
venience of this system will be appreciated by 
any parent who has struggled to remove a 
sleeping child from a back frame and then tried 
to get the child back to sleep in a crib. However, 
many modern parents would object to the 
"tightly bound" aspect of most cradle boards. 
Arms and legs were likely to be immobilized, 
especially when the child was very young. One 
might expect this to be uncomfortable if not 
damaging to the child's development. 

One investigator who was interested in 
this issue was psychologist Wayne Dennis. He 
studied the southwest Indians during the 1930s 
and found no difference in age of walking be- 









"V 



t 






North American cra- 
dle boards (ctocku'ise 
from top left): Pueblo 
(Hall 7, case 25), 
Iroquois (Hall 5, case 
15), Sauk and Fox 
(Hall 5, case 4), 
Yuma-Mohave (Hall 
7, case 44), Apache 
(Hall 7, case 53), 
Chippewa (Hall, 5, 

case 16) yy 




1 



IK? ¥i^ 




i 






._-■' » 




Cradle boards of Crow, Cheyenne, and Arapmho. Hall 6, case 15. 
Apache (from photo) 



tween those babies who were raised on cradle 
boards and those that were not. His writings 
provide a good illustration of how the cradle 
board was used by the Hopi Indians at that 
time. (The cradle board, in this case, was de- 
scribed as a "heavy board about one foot wide 
and two and one-half feet long. At one end of 
the board is fastened a face- or head-guard of 
stiff wire.") 



In order to place the infant on the board, the 
child, naked or wearing a shirt or diaper, is 
put on a cotton blanket which lies on the 
board. The infant's arms are extended by his 
sides and the right side of the blanket is pulled 
tight over his right arm and is put between the 
left arm and the left side and tucked under the 
infant's body. The left side of the blanket is 
then pulled firmly over the left arm and tucked 



under the right side of the child. The part of 
the blanket which extends beyond the feet is 
folded back under the infant's legs and but- 
tocks. The infant, thus ivrapped, is tied to the 
board by strips of cloth which encircle the 
baby and the boards. The wrapping includes 
the legs which are thus fastened so that they 
can be flexed only to a slight degree. The in- 
fant is so firmly wrapped and tied that he can- 
not turn his body and cannot release his hands 
from the bindings. Only the head, which rests 
on a small pillow or pad of folded cloth, is 
relatively free to move.* 

Dennis explains that the infants placed 
on these particular cradle boards were bound to 



•Dennis, Wayne and Dennis, Marsena. "The Effect of 
Cradling Practices upon the Onset of Walking in Hopi 
Children," journal of Genetic Psychology  l'^40, .56, 77-86. 



19 



the board on the first day of Hfe and for the first 
three months spent nearly all hours in that po- 
sition. "Although he is taken off one or more 
times daily, either for bathing or for replacing 
soiled cloths, these operations do not consume 
manv minutes and he is returned to the board 
when they are completed. The infant nurses 
while tied to the board, the cradle with child 
attached being held to the mother's breast. He 
sleeps on the cradle at night as well as day." 
After the first three months, babies spent less 
time on the cradle boards although the cradles 
were still used for periods of sleep. The cradle 
was usually discarded between the sixth and 
twelfth months of age. 

The "face- or head-guard" described by 
the Dennises was a common feature of many 
cradles. They were constructed of different 

Kutenai and Paviotso cradle boards (Hall 6, case 35) 



materials, but they all provided protection and 
a convenient way to attach a sun shade or insect 
shields. The head guards also provided an ideal 
place from which to hang play toys. 1 had 
thought it was a twentieth-century idea to pro- 
vide mobiles for auditory and visual stimula- 
tion, but George Catlin describes similar fea- 
tures on Sioux cradles that he saw in the early 
1800s. 

For us, the strangest custom involving 
cradle boards is probably the custom of head 
shaping, which is reported among Indians of 
both the northwestern and southeastern United 
States. It is best known among the Flat Heads of 
the lower Columbia River region. The cradle 
boards of this tribe were designed with a board 
that would rest tightly upon the baby's 
forehead and could be drawn more tightly as 



20 





Pawnee and Wichita cradle boards. (Latter only on vieii' in Hall 5, case 49.) 



the weeks went by. This produced a head shape 
in which there was a flat surface from the tip of 
the nose to the crown of the head. The specific 
origin and purpose of this head flattening is not 
clear. In the Handbook of American Indianii, 
Hodge notes the custom with this explanation: 
"The motives of intentional deformation among 
Indians, so far as known, are the same as those 
that lead to similar practices elsewhere; the 
custom has become fixed through long practice, 
hence considered one of prosperity and duty, 
and the result is regarded as a mark of distinc- 
tion and superiority."* 

In 1887 Mason observed that: 

By this remarkable operation the brain is sin- 
gularh/ chan^^cd from its natural shape, but in 
all probability not in the least diminished or 



injured in its natural functions. This belief is 
drawn from the testimony of many credible 
witnesses who have closely scrutinized them 
and ascertained that those who have the head 
flattened are in no way inferior in intellectual 
poivers to those whose heads are in their natu- 
ral shape. * 

Recently when in Alaska I saw an 
Athapaskan cradle that had been used by a 
non-Indian family. This family knew of an In- 
dian lady that still makes the cradles, and they 
were asking to have one made for their daugh- 
ter who is now grown. In a moment of weak- 
ness I inquired about the price and was told it 
would cost $50 or $70 — an amount well beyond 
my budget; but I was delighted to know that 
Indian cradles are still being made and passed 
along to future generations. 



'Hodge, F. W. (ed.) Handbook of American Indiam, Wash- 
ington, Government Printing Office, 1907. 



"Mason, Otis. "Cradles of the American Aborigines," Re- 
port of the National Museum, 1887, 161-212. 



2) 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Endangered Whooping Crane 
Killed by Eagle 

A preliminary investigation by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service has indicated a 
six-month-old endangered whooping 
crane was attacked in flight and killed by 
an eagle near Rangely, Colorado. 

Initial examination of the bird and 
inter\'iews with observers indicated the 
whooping crane died as a result of talon 
wounds inflicted by a large raptor. 

According to a party of hunters, the 
white whooping crano rose from a small 
pond with two darker birds — apparently 
sandhill cranes. When the birds attained 
altitude, the whooper was struck by a 
large dark bird, presumed to be a golden 
eagle 

The hunting party recovered the 
whooping crane carcass, and upon not- 
ing that it was banded and had a radio 
transmitter attached, turned it over to the 
Colorado Division of Wildlife. 

A Fish and Wildlife Service spokes- 
man said that while eagles have been 
known on rare occasions to take geese 
and other birds in flight, to his knowl- 
edge it was the first observed taking of a 
whooping crane by an eagle. Less than 
100 of the species remain in the wild. 



Superpowers Unite 
to Save Siberian Crane 

On ]uly 2, 1977, a young American agent 
in Moscow waited anxiously for her Rus- 
sian contact. Upon his arrival, she sped 
to the airport, picked up a sealed 
plywood box, and hopped on the first 
flight to London. Unlike typical spy ca- 
pers, this cloak-and-dagger scenario was 
diligently planned by scientists and gov- 
ernment officials both in the U.S. and 
U.S.S.R. 

The box which was transferred from 
the Russian to the American contained 
four carefully-insulated eggs of the ex- 
tremely rare Siberian crane (Grus 
leucogeranus). Quick conveyance of these 
eggs was a vital step in this cooperative 
venture between the International Crane 
Foundation, the Soviet Union, and the 
U.S. Department of the Interior to save 
the Siberian crane from extinction. 

White plumage in cranes has come to 
forbode a shaky future status. Of the 
world's 15 crane species, only three — the 
Siberian, whooper, and Japanese crane 
(also known as the red-crowned 
crane) — are predominantly white. These 
three species each number less than 400 
individuals, being the rarest members of 
a diminishing family, whose other en- 
dangered species number in the 
22 thousands. 



Today, the Siberian crane over- 
winters in scattered areas of China and 
India. A population of about 300 birds 
from northeast Yakutsk flies across 
tundra and forest to winter in China 
along the Yangtze River Basin, and a 
smaller flock of about 50 migrates rnore 
than 3,000 miles from the Ob River of 
western Siberia across five countries to 
India's Keoladeo (Bharatpur) Ghana Bird 
Sanctuary. 

Once, the Siberian crane maintained 
a wide winter distribution over China 
and India. The major factor contributing 
its demise is considerd to be the wide- 
spread destruction of the shallow wet- 
lands on which the cranes depend for 
food. The birds feed on the tubers of 
sedges which grow in these swampy 
areas. During years with high water 
levels, the cranes disperse in small 
groups to numerous areas of available 



habitat. However, during winters of low 
water, they must congregate in larger 
flocks at the few remaining ponds. Over 
the last century, this type of habitat has 
rapidly disappeared from southern Asia, 
as humans drain them during develop- 
ment and for cattle grazing land. Any 
further loss could well mean extinction 
for the Siberian crane. 

Politics in that comer of the world 
also causes problems. For example, 
Chinese ornithologists have refused to 
tell their Soviet counterparts exactly 
where the Yakutsk cranes overwinter. 
Soviet conservationists believe that un- 
regulated hunting of the Ob River cranes 
in Afghanistan and Pakistan has further 
contributed to that population's decline. 

Since 1974, the International Crane 
Foundation (icf) of Baraboo, Wisconsin, 
has been studying the biology of Sibe- 
rian cranes. Together with the Russians, 



Whooping cranes (Grus americana) in diorama in Hall 20. Mottled bird is immature. 




ICF has initiated an ambitious program to 
propagate these cranes in captivity, so 
that they ultimately mav be restocked in 
the wild. Its plan; reintroduce the Sibe- 
rian crane as a winter migrant to Iran. 
Today, Iran has a comprehensive con- 
servation program with the ambitious 
goal of reestablishing all species of birds 
and mammals once native to the country. 
To accomplish this, the Iranians have 
established many refuges to protect re- 
maining wildlife. Thus, in 1975, Iran's 
Department of the Environment agreed 
to adopt the Foundation's plan. 

ICF believes that if the Siberian 
cranes can be "tricked" into migrating to 
Iran for the winter, the bird and its 
habitat will be adequately protected. The 
plan is to place eggs of the Siberian crane 
in the nests of the common crane, a 
species which also nests in Siberia. The 
common cranes would hatch these foster 
chicks and lead them to their wintering 
grounds in Iran. The Foundation's in- 
volvement is essential to the success of 
this operation, because common cranes 
already have hatched their chicks by the 
time Siberians are laying eggs. By artifi- 
cially altering the light (day-night), 
schedule of the Siberian cranes, icf can 
induce them to lay their eggs at the same 
time that wild common cranes are nest- 
ing. Then, these eggs would be flown to 
Siberia for substitution. 

Retrieving eggs from wild Siberian 
cranes brought its share of problems. The 
act was the culmination of over two years 
of international negotiations. Importing 
the eggs of this rare bird involved exten- 
sive application and permit approval 
under the Endangered Species Act. Dr. 
Vladimir Flint, a Soviet crane expert, was 
able to find only five unhatched Siberian 
eggs on the 1977 expedition. These were 
relayed to an icf agent in Moscow, and 
immediately sent to a special hatchery at 
the University of Wisconsin in Madison. 
Of the five eggs, two survived. Ron 
Sauey, a co-founder of icf, named one 
Vladimir after Flint and the other Kita, a 
Russian name for the crane. 

In 1978, the operation was repeated. 
Four out of seven eggs hatched success- 
fully. In 1979, the Russians hatched four 
chicks in Moscow which they named 
after icf members. 

With six young cranes and two adult 
ones obtained from zoos, the Foundation 
has a captive population of breeders 
which will be artificially inseminated to 
produce eggs. Within four years, the off- 
spring of these rare cranes could embark 
on a 10,000-mile journey back to 
Siberia — the most promising, and 
perhaps last chance for their continued 
existence. — Lynn Ciroux, National Wildlife 
Federation 

American Attitudes about Wildlife 

What do Americans really think about 
saving endangered species, hunting, and 
other issues that affect wildlife? The first 



report on a comprehensive study of 
American attitudes toward wildlife has 
revealed some interesting answers. 

The report analyzes initial findings 
of a three-year study by Stephen Kellert 
of the Yale School of Forestry and En- 
vironmental Studies. Kellert conducted 
the study under a research grant from the 
Interior Department's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. The study is based 
largely on a questionnaire administered 
nationally in interviews with 3,107 
people during the fall of 1978. The ques- 
tionnaire dealt with specific issues, such 
as the tuna/porpoise controversy, as well 
as with general issues such as attitudes 
toward hunting. 

Among the study's findings: Of 
eight selected wildlife issues, the public 
knew the most about "killing baby seals 
for fur" (43 percent knowledgeable) and 
"effects of pesticides such as ddt on 
birds" (42 percent knowledgeable). The 
least recognized issue was "use of steel 
shot versus lead shot by waterfowl hun- 
ters" (14 percent knowledgeable). Only 
34 percent indicated that they had some 
knowleoge about the Endangered 
Species Act, and only 17 percent were 
knowledgeable about the much pub- 
licized snail darter/Tellico Dam con- 
troversy. 

On a variety of questions, a majority 
favored protecting wildlife even at the 
expense of jobs, housing, and develop- 
ment projects. Fifty-five percent opposed 
the principle of building an industrial 
plant on a marsh needed by a rare bird 
species even if the plant would help solve 
an unemployment problem. Fifty-seven 
percent disapproved of building houses 
on marshes used by ducks and other 
nonendangered wildlife. Seventy-six 
percent thought cutting trees for lumber 
and paper should be done in ways that 
help wildlife even if it resulted in higher 
lumber prices. 

The public's support for endangered 
species protection when it would in- 
crease costs for an energy project de- 
pended on the animal involved and the 
nature of the project. Americans over- 
whelmingly supported protecting the 
bald eagle, eastern mountain lion, 
American crocodile, and an endangered 
butterfly. They opposed protecting an 
endangered plant, snake, or spider if it 
increased costs for an energy project. On 
a snail darter-type question, most people 
opposed blocking a hypothetical water 
project designed for essential uses such 
as drinking water, hydroelectric power, 
or irrigation to protect an unknown fish 
species. But nearly 60 percent opposed 
construction of a dam for "nonessential" 
purposes such as making a recreational 
lake if it would endanger a fish. In gen- 
eral, support for protecting endangered 
species depended on such factors as the 
animal's attractiveness, close biological 
relationship to humans, reason for en- 
dangerment, economic value, and im- 
portance in American history. 



In a surprising finding, 77 percent 
approved killing whales for a useful 
product if the species hunted was not 
endangered. But on another intelligent 
sea mammal, the porpoise, 69 percent 
said they would rather pay a higher price 
for tuna fish than see the tuna industry 
continue killing porpoises in their nets. 
The researchers said the apparently con- 
tradictory responses may be related to 
the tradition of whaling in the United 
States. 

On the controversial issue of animal 
damage control, the public was not 
altogether opposed to controlling coyotes 
that prey on livestock, but strongly pre- 
ferred nonlethal control methods or 
hunting only individual coyotes known 
to have killed livestock. Most were 
strongly opposed to poisoning, and were 
also opposed to shooting and trapping as 
many coyotes as possible. 

Attitudes toward hunting depended 
on the purpose of the hunt. The public 
overwhelmingly supported traditional 
native American subsistence hunting 
and also supported hunting exclusively 
for meat, regardless of who hunted. 
Sixty-four percent approved of hunting 
for recreation if the meat was used, but 
about 60 percent opposed hunting just 
for sport or recreation. Over 80 percent 
opposed hunting exclusively for a 
trophy. 

Although some observers have 
linked anti-hunting sentiment with an 
anti-wildlife management attitude, re- 
sults of the study did not support this. 
Sixty percent of members of humane or- 
ganizations and 61 percent of those op- 
posed to sport hunting supported gov- 
ernment management programs to "con- 
trol" populations of deer and ducks. 

When asked about possible sources 
of funding for wildlife management pro- 
grams, the public indicated stronger 
support for taxes on "consumptive" ac- 
tivities, such as buying fur, than on 
"nonconsumptive" uses such as 
birdwatching. Eighty-two' percent fa- 
vored a sales tax on fur clothing from 
wild animals; 75 percent favored en- 
trance fees to wildlife refuges and other 
public wildlife areas; and 71 percent fa- 
vored a sales tax on off-road vehicles. 
Fifty-seven percent favored increasing 
the amount of general tax revenues for 
wildlife management; the same number 
favored sales taxes on backpacking and 
camping equipment; and 54 percent fa- 
vored taxes on birdwatching supplies 
and equipment. 

Most Americans wanted to preserve 
wildlife values on public lands. Two 
thirds — including 77 percent of 
Alaskans — were opposed to hypothetical 
oil development in Yellowstone National 
Park if it would harm the park's wildlife. 
Fifty-six percent thought national forest 
land should be set aside to protect grizzly 
bears even if it resulted in some loss of 
jobs and building materials. 

Attitudes toward many issues varied 23 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



considerably according to the re- 
spondent's age, sex, educational level, 
place of residence, and other factors. For 
example, support for protecting en- 
dangered species was strongest among 
the highly educated, people under 35, 
residents of areas with more than one 
million population, people with higher 
incomes, professionals, and residents of 
the Pacific Coast and Alaska. Older per- 
sons, those with less than an eighth 
grade education, farmers, rural residents, 
and Southerners were more likely to op- 
pose protecting endangered species. On 
the animal damage control issue, resi- 
dents of the South — not the Rocky 
Mountain states, where predator damage 
is higher — expressed greatest support for 
shooting or trapping as many coyotes as 
possible. Residents of Pacific Coast states 
indicated the most protectionist senti- 
ment. 

Of all regions, Alaskans were the 
most knowledgeable about and suppor- 
tive of wildlife. Their support was based 
on understanding of wildlife and ecol- 
ogy, rather than on emotional or senti- 
mental notions about animals. As a 
group, Alaskans ranked third in level of 
knowledge, following only Ph.D.s and 
those with other graduate education. 
They also expressed greater willingness 
to forego personal benefits such as recre- 
ation and jobs in order to preserve 
wildlife habitat and endangered species. 



Rabid Bats in Texas Classrooms 

Bats were not found m the belfr}' during 
a recent fly-in at the University of Texas, 
but they were to be found in the com- 
munications building. The recent occu- 
pation by hundreds of the animals was 
not taken lightly, for roughly one-third of 
the 100-150 captured each week were 
found to be rabid. During the day the 
animals were customarily quiet; but just 
one solitary bat flying about a crowded 
classroom was enough to create a 
semblance of havoc. 

School administrators responded to 
the situation by calling in state park and 
wildlife experts on bats; posted in- 
structions on how to pick up a rabid bat 
without risking rabies infection; advised 
students and faculty to clear classrooms 
upon discovery of a bat; and to duck 
when bats swooped too close for comfort. 
There was no report of anyone contacting 
rabies or being bitten during the bats' 
takeover of the building. 



Wild Pets and Rabies 

In 1977 an Oklahoma shop foreman took 
home a baby skunk that two of his work- 
ers had caught in the woods. Since it was 
24 still small, the foreman's wife fed the 



skunk with an eyedropper and often put 
her fingers into its mouth to keep it from 
choking. In moments of play, the couple 
allowed the animal to crawl over their 
four-month-old son. When word got out 
that a skunk was in the neighborhood, 
six children came over to play with it. 
The skunk crawled over all of them and 
lightly bit one girl on the hand. 

Days later the skunk died. The shop 
foreman sensed something wrong and 
had it checked for rabies. The result was 
positive — the skunk had the disease. 

In an unrelated incident, a two- 
year-old, descented, vaccinated pet 
skunk bit a man and exposed two chil- 
dren before it was killed and taken to a 
lab. The animal was also positive for 
rabies. 

As a result of these exposures to 
skunks, the 15 persons involved had to 
undergo a total of 360 injections at a cost 
of $7,500, not to mention the time lost 
and discomfort involved. Happily all 
survived; but was the pleasure of owning 
a wild pet worth it? 

Wild animals are just that — wild. 
They are not domesticated and they do 
not make good pets in the same sense 
that dogs and cats do. Outwardly, the 
young are as cute and fetching as any 
baby animal. Inwardly, though, wild 
pets are still untamed, and have the same 
wild instincts, urges, and shortcomings 
as their free relatives in the field. 

They cause a profusion of problems 
depending on what kind you happen to 
have. Previously tame deer may attack 
without warning as they mature. Mon- 
keys will bite and have even killed small 
children. Skunks like to nip fingers. Rac- 
coons get into everything unless you 
chain them. Wild pets are unpredictable, 
sometimes biting and attacking for no 
apparent reason. Even if you can live 
with their uncertain personalities, the 
threat of rabies, especially with foxes, 
skunks, and raccoons, overshadows all 
other concerns. 

A skunk owner might argue in- 
dignantly, "If I take my pet to a veterina- 
rian for all the proper shots, why should 
rabies even be a consideration?" The an- 
swer to this question is as simple as it is 
surprising — There is no licensed rabies 
vaccine for midlife! What protects dogs 
and cats does not necessarily protect wild 
animals. Vaccines that immunize 
domestic animals may even prolong or 
mask existing rabies infections in wild 
animals. In fact, live virus rabies vac- 
cines, developed and proven to protect 
domestic animals for as long as three 
years, have actually caused rabies in wild 
pets — for this reason, such vaccines must 
never be used in wildlife. 

The progress of rabies and its clinical 
signs in domestic animals is fairly pre- 
dictable. Should a dog encounter a rabid 
fox, the virus in the fox's saliva will enter 
the dog's body at the location of any bite 
wound. The virus multiplies, penetrates 
a nerve cell, and slowly moves up the 



nerve at no more than 3mm per hour to 
the spinal cord and then to the brain. 
From the brain, the virus moves to the 
salivary glands. At this point the dog be- 
comes dangerous — if he bites now he can 
transmit the disease by his infected 
saliva. Normal time for the virus to move 
from the bite wound to the salivary 
glands is 15-25 days after exposure. In- 
dications of rabies in the dog include one 
or more of the following behavioral and 
physical changes: restlessness, aggres- 
siveness, lethargy, change in vocal qual- 
ity, persistent howling, paralyzed lower 
jaw, convulsions, profuse ropy saliva, 
and paralysis. Dogs usually die in ten 
days or less after the virus reaches the 
salivary glands. That is the reason for 
watching dogs closely after they bite 
someone. If the dog shows no symptoms 
and survives 10 days after the biting in- 
cident, it does not have the disease. The 
10-day waiting period is very reliable in 
dogs . . . but not in wildlife. 

Rabies in wild animals is consid- 
erably less predictable. An infected ani- 
mal can undergo a variable incubation 
period where the virus remains long 
dormant in the wound. Furthermore, 
when the animal does become infective, 
it may not show any symptoms of the 
disease while still releasing great 
amounts of virus. No 10-day waiting 
period here. By the time the animal be- 
comes ill, the person who has been bitten 
could be beyond help. 

Wildlife may show some or none of 
the signs of rabies until the final stages. 
In general, a wild animal which shows 
aggressiveness or an unusual lack of fear 
is suspect. Raccoons in particular are 
dangerous because they are less likely to 
display furious behavior — but this is not 
a consistent finding either. The only con- 
stant among the signs of rabies are the 
inconsistencies. As in domestic animals 
and man, death is the usual end result of 
the disease in all wildlife species. 

Rabies is a worldwide infection 
primarily affecting dogs, cats, and other 
carnivores, but man and all warm- 
blooded animals are susceptible. 
Canada's three main reservoirs of rabies 
are foxes, skunks, and bats. In Mexico, 
where pet vaccination requirements and 
leash laws are lax or nonexistent, most of 
the reported rabies cases occur in dogs, 
cattle, and cats. From Mexico through 
Uruguay, vampire bats comprise a huge 
reservoir of rabies. They infect and kill 
from 0.5-1 million cattle a year at a cost to 
ranchers of $250 million annually. 

Most cases of rabies in man and 
domestic animals in the United States 
today originate from contact with an in- 
fected wildlife host — mostly skunks, 
bats, raccoons, and foxes. Fox rabies was 
once a serious problem in this country, 
but fox hunting and trapping, as well as 
habitat reduction, have probably con- 
tributed to the appreciable reduction of 
fox rabies cases. Rabies seems to be more 
associated with particular species in cer- 




Hooded 
skunk 



tiiin parts of the country. 

Skunks are the most important 
ivildlife reservoir in north central and 
south central United States and in 
California. Surveys have indicated that 
up to 15 percent of all wild skunks are 
rabid. 

Raccoons are the most important 
rabies host in the southeast. Of the total 
U.S. reported raccoon cases in 1977, 87 
percent occurred in Georgia and Florida. 

Foxes are important rabies carriers in 
south central U.S. and the Appalachian 
region. Rabies is known in the majority 
of insectivorous bat species. In 1977, 
California reported 26 percent of the total 
U.S. cases of rabies in bats. 

Species susceptibility to rabies is 
variable, with foxes the most susceptible, 
skunks, cats, raccoons, and bats next in 
line, then cattle, man, horses, and dogs 
and finally oppossums, which are quite 
resistant. Because rodents such as rats, 
mice, squirrels, chipmunks, hamsters, 
gerbils, and guinea pigs only rarely ac- 
quire rabies under natural conditions, 
post-exposure treatment for their bites is 
seldom justified. Of the more than 13,000 
rodents and rabbits checked in 1977, only 
one North Dakota woodchuck was posi- 
tive. In addition, no human rabies case 
has ever been attributed to a rodent bite. 

Rabies virus is most often transmit- 
ted when the virus in the saliva enters a 
bite wound. The closer the bite, scratch, 
or abrasion is to the face, the quicker the 
virus will reach the brain. Infected foxes, 
dogs, and skunks pose a greater threat for 
bite transmssion because they generally 
have a greater concentration of virus in 
their saliva than other species. 

Another means of transmission is by 
inhaling the virus. The air in bat caves 
can be as infective and deadly as the 
rabies aerosals produced in laboratories; 
however, the risk of acquiring the infec- 
tion under these conditions is very much 
lower than that following a bite expo- 
sure. (Ed. Note: "cave air" transmission 
has been proven in only one place, Frio 
Caves, Texas.) 

Other unlikely, but possible, modes 
of transmission include an animal eating 
a dead or dying rabid animal, and a sick 
mother infecting her entire litter by her 
milk, or by licking them. 

To reduce the threat of rabies in man 
at least four control measures are possi- 



ble. The first and most important is the 
vaccination of domestic dogs and the 
control of stray dogs and cats. In- 
vestigators have estimated that a 70 per- 
cent vaccination rate of dogs is sufficient 
to control urban rabies. In Laredo, Texas, 
54 dogs were reported rabid from 
November 1977 to March 1978. Health 
officials halted the disease by initiating a 
massive vaccination program (13,000 
dogs, 1,000 cats) and by capturing over 
1,700 strays. Officials do not know what 
started the Laredo epidemic, but they do 
know that vaccination and roundup of 
strays stopped it before any human 
rabies cases occurred. 

A second control measure is to re- 
duce contact between infected wildlife 
hosts and man or his animals. This is 
difficult when recreational activities 
bring campers, hikers, hunters, and 
other outdoorsmen in to wild habitats, 
thereby increasing their chances for 
rabies exposure. Common sense, knowl- 
edge of the disease, and strictly enforced 
leash laws to prevent pets from running 
loose will all help to minimize wildlife 
contacts. 

Third, considering the different 
rabies hotspots in the country, reduction 
in movement of susceptible wild animals 
from those areas is in the best interest of 
public health. Also, because there is 
presently no safe, sure way to immunize 
wildlife, the states should enact and en- 
force laws to prohibit wild animal own- 
ership and to prevent their interstate 
trade. 

Fourth, as wild animals are the 
source of most cases of rabies in domestic 
animals and man in the U.S. today, it 
seems logical to attack the source of 
infection — logical but not yet practical. A 
number of states have tried, most with- 
out success, to reduce infected wild 
populations by shooting, poisoning, or 
gassing. In Mexico, a special anti-bat 
campaign using anticoagulants has 
greatly reduced the cases of rabies in cat- 
tle. Many times, though, an innocent 
species ends up the loser. The black- 
footed ferret, for example, was nearly 
exterminated in parts of the United States 
because of poison bait set out for other 
animals. 

Louis Pasteur developed the first 
antirabies vaccine in the 1880s. His re- 
gimen is the basis for our modern day 



treatment of the disease. Basically, a per- 
son bitten by a rabid animal takes two 
types of inoculations. First he receives 
Rabies Immune Globulin (rig) — half in- 
filtrated around the wound and half ad- 
ministered intramuscularly in the 
buttocks — in an attempt to destroy the 
virus directly. Ric is a passive immuniz- 
ing agent prepared from the blood of 
hyperimmunized donors. Then the per- 
son receives from 14 to 21 daily injections 
of Duck Embryo Vaccine (dev) plus two 
boosters to stimulate his own bodily 
production of antibodies against the dis- 
ease (active immunity). The physician 
gives the vaccine doses subcutaneously 
in the abdominal region, lower back, or 
side of the thighs. The reason for using 
those locations instead of the shoulder 
area is to lessen the impact of soreness, 
swelling, and itching, which often occur. 
Other possible side effects from dev are 
redness, headache, asthma, fever, and 
nausea. 

A recently developed vaccine, called 
Human Diploid Cell Strain (hdcs), 
promises to be a major advance in human 
rabies treatment, hdcs requires only six 
injections to stimulate a higher antibody 
response with less adverse side effect 
than DEV. The Food and Drug Adminis- 
tration will probably license the new vac- 
cine for use in the United States soon. 

Pasteur once figured that no more 
than 16 percent of the people exposed to a 
known rabid animal would get the dis- 
ease. Twenty-seven years ago in Iran, 
however, 15 of 32 persons (47 percent) 
bitten by a rabid wolf died. Either way, 
the odds are not good. Some 30.000 
people in the United States each year 
who do not wish to chance the odds 
undergo post-exposure rabies treatments 
at a cost of about $500 per person. In 
many of these cases, however, treatments 
follow exposures which could not have 
resulted in the disease. The Center for 
Disease Control (coc) in Atlanta has long 
suspected that as many as 25,000 vacci- 
nations each year may be unnecessary. 
As a result, years ago cdc set up a con- 
sultative service for private physicians 
and health departments regarding rec- 
ommended post-exposure treatment, cdc 
suggests that physicians consider the 
following criteria before prescribing 
specific antirabies treatments: species of 
biting animal, provoked or unprovoked 
bite, severity of exposure, vaccination 
status of the animal, and presence of 
rabies in the region. 

Persons in high-risk categories such 
as animal handlers, wildlife biologists, 
veterinarians, and their assistants often 
elect to be immunized for rabies as a pre- 
caution. Three weekly injections of dev 
in the shoulder, plus a booster later on, 
usually stimulate detectable antibodies. 
After a known rabies exposure, the vac- 
cinated person still receives at least five 
additional shots. — David E. John and 
Charles /. Issel, D.V.M., from Louisiana 
Conservationist. 25 



HONOR ROLL OF DONORS 



Major Contributions in Support of Field Museum's Programs 
of Research, Education, and Exhibition 



Since the November 1979 issue of the Bulletin, when 
126 donors on the Honor Roll (gifts of $1,000 or more) 
were listed as contributors to Field Museum during 
1979 (through August 31), an additional 158 have 
been added through December 31. 

The grand total of Honor Roll Donors for 1979 
stands at 284. This includes 147 individuals and 137 
corporations and philanthropic foundations. 

Field Museum depends in large measure upon 
the generous gifts of Members, corporations, and 
foundations. Because of unrelenting inflation, it has 



become an annual problem for all not-for-profit cul- 
tural institutions, that budgeted expenditures exceed 
known sources of revenue — creating the "income 
gap." A projected income gap in 1979 of $1.7 million 
was bridged — the 1979 budget was balanced — thanks 
to the generous donations of more than 450 corpora- 
tions and foundations and almost 5,000 individual 
Member-contributors. We thank all of these persons 
and companies, and recognize the following donors 
of $1,000 or more, September 1 through December 
31, 1979: 



CORPORATIONS and FOUNDA- 
TIONS 

$5,000 and over 

Abbott Laboratories 

Allen-Heath Memorial Foundation 

Amoco Foundation, Inc. 

Arthur Andersen & Co. 

The Chicago Community Trust 

Commonwealth Edison Company 

The DeSoto Foundation 

Field Enterprises Charitable Foun- 
dation 

First National Bank of Chicago 
Foundation 

International Harvester Foundation 

The Joyce Foundation 

John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur 
Foundation 

Robert R. McCormick Charitable 
Trust 

McMaster-Carr Supply Company 

The Nalco Foundation 

S & C Electric Company 

Dr. Scholl Foundation 

Sears, Roebuck & Company 

United Airlines Foundation 

Arthur Young & Company 



CORPORATIONS and FOUNDA- 
TIONS 

$l,000-$4,999 
Amsted Industries, Inc. 
Bank America Foundation 
Blum-Kovler Foundation 
Borg-Wamer Foundation, Inc. 
The Brunswick Foundation, Inc. 
26 C & NW Transportation Co. 



Central Telephone Company of Il- 
linois 

Chicago Bears Football Club, Inc. 

Chicago Title & Trust Company 

Chicago Tribune Foundation 

Combustion Engineering Co. 

The Dick Family Foundation (for 
A.B. Dick Company) 

R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company 

First Federal Savings & Loan Associ- 
ation of Chicago Foundation 

FRC Investment Corporation 

Geraldi-Norton Memorial Founda- 
tion 

Max Goldenberg Foundation 

Gould Foundation 

Great Lakes Dredge & Dock Com- 
pany 

Walter E. Heller & Company 

Household Finance Foundation 

IC Industries Inc. 

Illinois Tool Works Foundation 

Intermatic Incorporated 

Jewel Foundation 

Kirkland & Ellis 

McKinsey & Company 

Montgomery Ward Foundation 

Morton-Norwich Products, Inc. 

New York Life Insurance Company 

Northwest Industries, Inc. 

J. C. Penney Company, Inc. 

Peoples Gas Company 

George Pick & Company 

The Proctor & Gamble Fund 

The Prudential Foundation 

Rollins Burdick Hunter Company 

Santa Fe Railway Foundation, Inc. 

Security Pacific Charitable Founda- 
tion 



Shure Brothers Incorporated 

Signode Foundation 

Sunbeam Corporation 

John S. Swift Co., Inc. Charitable 
Trust 

Szabo Food Service 

Talman Federal Savings & Loan As- 
sociation 

Texaco, Inc. 

The Oakleigh L. Thome Foundation 

Trans Union Corporation 

United Conveyor Foundation 

Walgreen Benefit Fund 

Ben O. Warren Foundation 

INDIVIDUALS— $5,000 and over 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Bent 
Buchanan Family Foundation (Mr. 

DeWitt Buchanan) 
James J. Daly (Estate) 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph N. Field 
Mr. Paul J. Gerstley 
Dr. and Mrs. William A. Hark 
HBB Foundation (Mr. and Mrs. 

Theodore Tieken) 
Chauncey and Marion Deering 

McCormick Foundation (Mr. C. D. 

McCormick, Mr. and Mrs. Brooks 

McCormick) 
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Mitchell 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
The Pritzker Foundation (Mr. Robert 

A. Pritzker) 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 



Mrs. David W. Stewart 
Harold L. Stuart (Estate) 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Sullivan 
Chester D. Tripp Trust 
Women's Board of Field Museum 

INDIVIDUALS— $l,000-$4 ,999 

Anonymous 

A. C. P. Foundation (Mr. and Mrs. 

A. C. Buehler, Jr.) 

Laurence H. Armour, Jr. and Margot 

B. Armour Family Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Mr. Evan L. Ausman 

Mr. and Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Bass 
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Beach, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry O. Bercher 
The Bjorkman Foundation (Mr. Carl 

Bjorkman) 
Mr. and Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mr. William McCormick Blair 
Mr. and Mrs. Leigh B. Block 
Mr. and Mrs. A. P. Bowman 
Edwin J. Brach Foundation (Mrs. 

Bertram Z. Brodie) 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Darrow 
The Davee Foundation (Mr. Ken 

Davee) 
Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Davis 
O. Paul Decker Memorial Fund (Mrs. 

Edwin N. Asmann) 



Mr. and Mrs. William R. Dickinson, 

Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas H. Dittman 
Elliott and Ann Donnelley Founda- 
tion (Mrs. Elliott Donnelley) 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Ewing 
Mr. and Mrs. William M. Freeman 
Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Galitzine 
Mrs. Dorothy S. Gerson 
Mr. and Mrs. David Goldberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Goodrich 
Dr. and Mrs. Ralph C. Greene 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Gruetzmacher 
Mr. and Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mrs. D. Foster Harland 
Mrs. William A. Hewitt 
Dr. Helen Holt 
The loka Fund (In memory of Mr. 

Dexter Cummings) 
Mr. and Mrs. Harold James 
The Viola Laski Charitable Trust 
Mrs. Richard W. Leach 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin J. Lunding 
Dr. and Mrs. T. M. McCullough 
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mrs. Helen Mayer Medgysey 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter J. Meyer 
Lillian Molner Charitable Trust 
Dr. and Mrs. Evan Moore 
The Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 
(Mr. and Mrs. Eugene A. David- 
son) 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Olson 



Mr. and Mrs. John T. Pirie, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Newell Pottorf 

Mr. James H. Ransom 

Mr. and Mrs. John Shedd Reed 

Mrs. David Rhodes 

Mr. and Mrs. Philip F. Rider 

Mrs. Dorothy Curtis Rowley 

Mr. Arthur Rubloff 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick W. Sass 

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 

The Seabury Foundation (Mr. John 

Ward Seabury) 
The Sedoh Foundation (Mr. Scott 

Hodes) 
Bessie Shields Foundation (Dr. 

Thomas W. Shields) 
Edward Byron Smith Charitable 

Fund (Mr. and Mrs. Edward Byron 

Smith) 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Smith 
Mrs. David B. Stern, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Swartchild, 

Jr. 
Mrs. Frances Buck Taylor 
Mr. and Mrs. James L. Taylor 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Leland Webber 
Dr. and Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mr. and Mrs. Leo Witz 
Mrs. Claire B. Zeisler 



February and March at Field Museum 



(February 15 through March 15) 



New Exhibit 



"Patterns of Paradise." This major exhibit of dramatic and rare 
bark cloth, or tnpa, illustrates the people and history of exotic 
tropical islands. See how Pacific islanders took the ancient task of 
making cloth out of tree bark and elaborated it into an art form of 
distinctive and remarkable styles. Exhibition also includes wood 
carvings, masks, costume accessories, and tools. Conceived and 
created by Field Museum's own staff. Most of the 200 artifacts are 
from the Museum's magnificent Oceanic collections. Exhibit 
curator: John Terrell. Designer: Donald Skinner. Opens March 6, 
Hall 26, 2nd floor. 

Continuing Exhibits 



lifes, and mythic dragons are flawlessly carved into these lacquer 
ornaments, once worn by Japanese men as symbols of wealth and 
status. Hall 32, second floor. 

"Man in His Environment." Gain a worldwide perspective of en- 
vironmental problems through the multi-media presentation of 
this thought-provoking exhibit. The center of the hall contains, 
encased in glass, a re-created portion of a Georgia salt marsh, 
permitting a visual study of ecological principles, within a total 
marsh environment. Main floor. 



"Art Lacquer of Japan." The Museum's newest permanent exhibit 
features more than 400 objects of exquisite lacquer art from 18th- 
and 19th-century Japan. Miniature landscapes, dreamlike still 

(Continued on back couer) 



"The Place for Wonder." This gallery allows visitors to handle, 
sort, and compare natural history specimens without feeling 
guilty. "The People Center" now features touchable clothes, 
household goods, and school supplies from the People's Republic 
of China. Weekdays 1 to 3 p.m.; weekends 10 a.m. to noon and 1 
to 3 p.m. Ground floor, near cafeteria. 

27 



S1801 



U'^BflWa ILL 






February and March at Field Museum 



(Coniinued from inside back cover) 



New Programs 

"Patterns of Paradise: Special Lecture and Tour." Field Museum's 
associate curator John Terrell, originator of "Patterns of Paradise" 
exhibition, will give an illustrated lecture on the exhibit: how the 
exhibit evolved, who the peoples of paradise are, what their art of 
tapa says about them, and the impact of European civilization on 
their lives. A tour of the exhibit follows the lecture. Tickets (Mem- 
bers, S2.00; non-members, $3.50) are available at the West Door 
before the lecture. A special wine and cheese reception for Mem- 
bers follows the tour ($3.00). Friday, March 14, 8:00 p.m. in 
Simpson Theatre. 



"The Royal Dancers and Musicians from the Kingdom of Bhu- 
tan." Thirteen performers from the Himalayas, in ornate cos- 
tumes, will act out stories from Buddhist legend and ancient 
folklore. The program promises to be rich in lively music, skillful 
dancing, and superb comic pantomime. Sponsored by the Asia 
Society's Performing Arts Program, Tickets (Members, $5,00; 
non-members, $7.00) may be purchased at West Door before the 
program. Friday, Mar. 21, at 8:00 p.m. in the Simpson Theatre. A 
lecture demonstration of this art precedes the program at 4:00 in 
Lecture Hall I. For admission information, call 922-3136. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Free guided tours, demonstra- 
tions, and films. Check Weekend Sheet available at North In- 
formation Booth for additional programs and locations. 

"Ancient Egypt." Investigate the daily life, myths, and 
mummies of ancient Egypt in this 45-minute tour. Meet at North 
Information Booth. Saturday, Feb. 16, 11:30 a,m. 

"Clad in Feathes" Film Features: "A Bird of Prey: The Red- 
Tailed Hawk" examines this bird and its environment. "The Owl 
Who Married a Goose" depicts an Eskimo legend. Saturday, Feb. 
16,1:00 p.m. 

"Clay Dinosaurs." Make your own clay dinosaurs and learn 
about these creatures' habitats. Hall of Fossil Vertebrates (Hall 38), 
Sunday, Feb. 17, 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

"China Through the Ages." Examine the inventions, court 
life, and schools of thought of traditional China in this 30-minute 
tour. Saturday, Feb. 23, 1:30 p.m. 

"Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." Learn about the 
mummification process and other aspects of ancient Egypt in this 
45-minute tour. Sunday, Feb. 24, 1:00 p.m. 

"Traditional China" Film Features: "China: The Making of a 
Civilization" covers the basic political, social, and religious 
characteristics of the Western Zhou period through the 5th century 
B.C. "China: Hundred Schools to One" examines the warring be- 
tween the states and the technological and agricultural revolution 
between 475 b.c to 221 b.c Saturday, March 1, 1:00 p.m. 

"Prehistoric People in the Lower Illinois Valley." Learn how 
these people adapted to their environment through the use of tools 
in this half-hour tour. Sunday, March 2, 2:30 p.m. 

"Ancient Egypt." Saturday, March 8, 11:30 a.m. 



"Traditional China" Film Features: "China: The First Empire" 
details the advent and expansion of China's Imperial Age (221 b.c 
to A.D. 220). "China: The Great Cultural Mix" covers the dis- 
integration of the Han Empire, the formations of new dynasties, 
and developments in religion and art (a.d. 220-581). Saturday, 
March 8, 1:00 p.m. 

"Ancient Ocean Environments." This 45-minute tour focuses 
on the underwater world of ancient invertebrate animals. Satur- 
day, March 8, 1:30 p.m. 

"Healers and Conjurers of the Northwest Coast." Investigate 
the ways that native healing men treat illness and disease. Sun- 
day, March 9, 2:30 p.m. 

"'China Through the Ages." Saturday, March 15, 11:30 a.m. 

"Traditional China" Film Features: ""China: The Golden Age" 
covers the expansion of reunited China under the rulers of the Sui 
and Tang Dynasties (a.d. 581-907). "Chinese Jade Carving." A 
jade artisan demonstrates basic techniques of jade carving. 

Continuing Programs 

Winter Journey: ""Whales — Mammals of the Deep." Self-guided 
tour examines the world of whales. Although these marine giants 
live in all the oceans, many species are close to extinction. Free 
lourney pamphlets are available at the North Information Booth 
and Museum entrances. Watch for new Sprmg lourney beginning 
March 1. 

"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Learn about age-old weaving 
techniques and textile development during these free demonstra- 
tions. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from. 10:00 a.m. to noon. 
South Lounge, 2nd floor. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is 
harmful and which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire 
bat, a headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mush- 
room from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- 
and family oriented, are available for 25c each at the entrance to 
the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with scientific interests and 
backgrounds are needed to work in the various departments. For 
more information call Volunteer Coordinator, 922-9410, ext. 360. 

February and March Hours. During February the Museum is open 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Mondays through Thursdays. In March, Monday 
through Thursday hours are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Saturday and Sunday 
hours in both months are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. On Fridays the Museum 
is open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Closed Februar\' 18 (Presidents' Day). Obtain pass at reception 
desk, main floor. 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410 



FIELD MaSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BGLLETI 





Field iviuseum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 



March 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 3 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Museum Tours 

4 Patterns of Paradise 

by John Terrell, associnte curator of Oceanic archeology and 
ethnology, and Anne Leonard, researcher. Department of 
Anfhrop'ology 

12 Colombia: Context, Conquest, and Gold 

NEH Learning Museum Program 
by Tony Pfeiffer, pjroject coordinator 

15 Field Museum Tours 

16 The Thome-Graves Arctic Expedition of 1929 

Questions by Irene Schultz, response by Bruce Thome 

11 Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 

24 Volunteers Honored 

27 March and April at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairrt\an 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is publistied monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at l_ake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 
annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: 
(312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, 11, 60605 ISSN: 
0015-0703, Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 



COVER 

Sanioan tapa cloth { #111354), detail, acquired by Charles F. Gunther 
and given to Field Museum by Stanley Field, Henry j. Patten, and Charles 
B. Pike, Painted freehand, the broad bands with sawtooth edges create 
lighter zigzag lines of negative space: 280 x 184cm (110 x 72 in.). This 
specimen, together u'ith some 125 other tapa pieces and 75 artifacts of 
stone, pottery, wood, and other materials loill be on vieic in Hall 26 
beginning March 6, as part of the exhibit "Patterns of Paradise." Mem- 
bers' preview is March 5; closing date is June 8. See pages 4-11 . Photo by 
Ron Testa. 



Gold of El Dorado 
Group Tours 

Special tours of the major forthcortting exhibit "Gold of 
El Dorado," opening April 25 and closing July 6, may 
nozv be arranged for groups as small as 30 persons. 
During public hours, daily except Friday, special 
groups of 30 to 100 persons can be accommodated. On 
Tuesday and Thursday nhmings (after the Museum is 
closed to the general public) groups of 50 or more can be 
accommodated. 

Supplemental lectures by Museum staff for 
such groupis, as well as private dining arrangements, 
are also available. For rates and other information call 
Caryn Friedman, at 786-9570. 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

1980 Tour Packages Exclusively for Members 



Field Museum's 20-Dav Tour of Greece 

Including a Cruise to the Greek Islands 

Under the Leadership of Curator Donald Whitcomb 

September 7-26 

For details on this tour see the April issue of the Bulletin or contact the 
Tour Office for a brochure. 

Geology Tour of England and Wales 
June 14-July 3 

Highlights of this 20-day tour, under the leadership of Dr. Bertram 
Woodland, Field Museum's curator of petrology (and a native of Wales), 
will be visits to classical areas of British geology where many fundamen- 
tal aspects of geology were first discovered. The geological history and 
scenic development of these areas will be emphasized. Included in the 
tour are visits to the South Coast, West Country Cotswolds, Welsh 
Borderlands. North Wales, Lake District, Yorkshire Dales, and the Peak 
District. The group is limited to 25 persons. 

Cost of the tour — $2,640 (which includes a $300 donation to 
Field Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes round 
trip air fare between Chicago and London. First class accommodations 
will be used throughout. The package includes breakfast and dinner 
daily, chartered motorcoach, baggage handling, all transfers, taxes 
(except airport tax), and tips (except to tour guides), all sightseeing 
charges and admissions to special events. Advance deposit: $250 per 
person. 

People's Republic of China 
May 10-31 

The singular experience of a trip to the People's Republic of China can 
be yours! For its members. Field Museum again offers an opportunity to 
visit China's major attractions. The tour leader will be Susan Mann 
Jones, assistant professor of Chinese civilization, of the University of 
Chicago. The group, limited to 25 persons, will leave Chicago May 10 
and return May 3L 

After overnight in Vancouver and a visit in Tokyo, you will 
continue to Peking, China's centuries-old capital. Relics of the imperial 
past, now national monuments, include the magnificent imperial 

Looking across Kunming Lake to the site of the Summer Palace of the 
Chin d^riast\/. six miles from Peking^ Photo bi; Stanton R. Cook, 
courtesy Chicago Tribune. 



JP!j^ tt^^k *' ih*- ^^^H^l^^^^^^l 


F 


1 




W*x 


"-"' 




Stonehenge. site to be visited b\; Field Museum June 14-Juli^ 3 Tour of 
England and Wales. Photo courtes]; Bertram Woodland, curator of 
petrologi>. who will lead the tour 

palace, museums, temples and shrines, and the vast park-like Summer 
Palace on the shores of nearby Kunming Lake. A trip will be made to the 
Great Wall. The next destination, Nanking, situated on the Yangtse 
River, is a source of pride for the People's Republic as a center of 
modem development as well as for its scenic and historic attractions. Of 
special interest is the visit to the charming city of Kweilin. The awesome 
surrounding landscape of jutting peaks and rocky caves brings scenes of 
Chinese painting to life. Kwangchow (Canton) is China's most impor- 
tant southem City, reflecting events in the history of the republic as well 
as former times when it was China's only port open to foreign trade. 

For additional information on this exciting tour, contact the 
Tours Office and ask for the China brochure. 

Illinois Archeology Field Trip 
July 6-11 

For many of us, the word "archeology" conjures up visions of great 
architecture in distant places; Egypt's Pyramids and Sphinx, Cam- 
bodia's Angkor Wat, and Mexico's Pyramids of the Sun and Moon at 
Teotihuacan. These sites, with their relics, are limitlessly fascinating. 

But right here in Illinois we also have exciting archeological sites, 
including the largest aboriginal structure north of Mexico — Monk's 
Mound at Cahokia. One of the most broadly based archeological 
research centers in the country is the Foundation for Illinois Archeology, 
at Kampsville; and one of the largest covered excavations with the 
longest continuing research programs is at Dickson Mounds, near 
Lcwistown. 

For the second consecutive year Field Museum is offering an 
archeological field trip which will visit Dickson Mounds. Kampsville, and 
Cahokia Mounds. Limited to 30 participants, the trip includes site visits, 
lecture and slide presentations, workshops and discussions led by staff 
archeologists working at the respective sites. The field trip director is 
Robert Pickering, a doctoral candidate at Northwestern University. 



For additional information and reservations for all 
tours, call or write Dorothi; Roder, Field Museum 
Tours. Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr . Chicago, III. 
60605. Phone (312) 922-9410. 3 



Patterns of Paradise 

By JOHN TERRELL and ANNE LEONARD 

EXHIBIT OPENS MARCH 6 
Members' Preview March 5 



Tivo ranking leaders of 

Bellona Island, 

Solonwn Islands, 

dressed in garments 

and turbans of dyed 

tapa. Photograph by 

W. Templeton Crocker 

(1933). Similar turbans 

collected f'l/ Crocker are 

still fragrant with 

powdery turmeric dye. 



Lieutenant (later, Captain) James Cook, 39 years 
old, sailed on His Majesty's Bark Endeavour from 
Plymouth, England, on Augus.t 26, 1768, headed 
toward the South Seas. This was the first of his 
three great voyages of discovery to the Pacific. In 
the Secret Instructions issued him prior to his 
departure. Cook was ordered by the British 
Admiralty and the Royal Society to search for 
"a Continent or Land of great extent" then 
believed to lie somewhere in the southern 
waters. If he found this continent, he was 
to observe "the Genius, Temper, Disposition 
and Number of the Natives, if there be any, 
and endeavour by ail proper means to cultivate 
a Friendship and Alliance with them. ..." 



James Cook did not find Term australis in- 
cognita, the great Southern Continent which had 
for so long haunted the European imagination. 
On the contran,', he proved that it did not exist. 
But his three voyages to the Pacific between 1768 
and 1780 nonetheless captured European 
thought. They helped create the romantic vision 
of the Pacific Islands as Paradise-on-earth that 
survives even today in popular thought and 
literature. 

For three months this year at Field 
Museum of Natural History — starting March 
6 — you may yourself obser\'e the genius of the 
Pacific Islanders: including museum treasures 
actually brought back to Europe by Cook him- 




self. Most of the rare artistic and practical trea- 
sures in the new special exhibition "Patterns of 
Paradise" are from the world-famous collection 
at Field Museum. Most have never before been 
seen on public display. 

Although to Europeans in the latter half of 
the 18th century the islanders of the South Pacific 
appeared to live in Paradise, we today know 
that this tropical world has been the scene of 
man\' different, often challenging, and at times 
cruel patterns of human experience. Moreover, 
since their discovery, the islanders have also 
suffered different, at times tragic, fates as a 
result of expanding European trade and indus- 
trial civilization. 

"Patterns of Paradise" tells the story of the 
peoples of the Pacific using the medium of their 
surviving handicrafts. Most notable of these is a 
little known and largely unappreciated craft — 
which is also an outstanding art form; the ancient 
tradition of making masks, costumes, garments, 
and effigies out of tnpa, or bark cloth. 

This traveling exhibition — created by the 
staff at Field Museum and sponsored in part by 
grants from the National Endowment for the 
Arts in Washington D.C., a federal agency — 
displays roughly 125 dramatic tapa specimens 
and some 75 artifacts of stone, wood, pottery, 
and other materials from the Pacific and from 
other tropical regions. "Patterns of Paradise" is 
realh' three museum shows in one: 

• The exhibition introduces you to the discov- 
ery of the Pacific Islands by European explorers, 
and it introduces you as well to the islanders: 
their inventiveness, their artistic creativity, their 
traditions, and their disparate history. 

• "Patterns of Paradise" is the first major 
museum exhibition to feature a neglected 
medium of "primitive" art: tapa making around 
the world. Most of the artifacts and other items 
have never before been exhibited together for 
public showing. 

• "Patterns of Paradise" also reveals how an 
ingenious folk craft is done; this craft offers a 
number of exciting technical and design ideas 
that can be adapted by modern artists and 
craftspeople. 

When you enter Hall 26 on the second 
floor at Field Museum, where "Patterns of 
Paradise" is being shown, you will find that the 
items on display have been arranged according 
to four major themes: "Discovery," "Diversit}'," 
"Shared Traditions," and "Changing Artistry." 
Here is a brief introduction to what you will 
encounter as you tour the exhibition: 

DISCOVERY 

In 1513 the Spanish adventurer Balboa stood on a 
mountain-top in Central America and gazed 
down on a sight never before seen by European 




Masi Itiipa cloth). 
Pfctisc/v ftcnciled m 
traditional motifs and 
colors, this small piece 
of tapa tvas made for 
commercial sale 
through a marketini^ 
cooperative. Namuka 
Island, Fiji Islands, 
1976; 48 X 31 cm (19 X 
12 in.). Collection of 
Anne Leonard. 



eyes: a vast ocean he named "the Great South 
Sea." Seven years later the Portuguese explorer 
Ferdinand Magellan sailed across this sea that 
covers one-third of the earth's surface. Finding 
its waters calm and peaceful, Magellan called it 
Mare Pacifico, the Pacific Ocean. 

Long before Balboa and Magellan, how- 
ever, the Pacific had been discovered by those 



/()/;/( Terrell is associate curator of Oceanic archeology and 
ethnology; Anne Leonard is a researcher. Department of 
Anthropology. 



SthkiiujUi hiuniiilul Dctc Ixink on mini' 



PATTERNS OF PARADISE 

Anne Leonard 

and 

John Terrell 



76 pages 

53 4color illusiraiions 

75 blackanclw'hiU' phoki.s 

$9.95 ai Ihe Museum Shop 

(lO* tli.seouiii tor MenilxTS) 



Associate curator John 
Terrell and anthro- 
pology researcher Anne 
Leonard loith con- 
tcmporary tapa piece 
I rem Moce Island, Fii: 
Islands, where tapa- 
making is today a major 
industry. Terrell gaiv 
this loan specimen as a 
wedding gift to his 
sister and her husband. 




daring navigators we call the Pacific Islanders. 
Tapa making is one of the ingenious crafts de- 
veloped b\- the islanders and by people in other 
tropical regions of the world. Masks, figures, 
costumes, blankets, clothing, hats, and other ar- 
ticles made of tapa reflect the many customs and 
patterns of daily life of the peoples of "paradise." 

What is Tapa? Tapa is beaten cloth made 
from the inner bark of a number of species of 
trees. The origins of tapa making are lost in the 
prehistoric past. Suitable trees are found 
throughout tropical areas. The natural materials 
used dictate that tools and basic manufacturing 
techniques will be much the same regardless 
where the craft is practiced. At the time peoples 
outside the tropics were discovering and perfect- 
ing techniques of weaving cloth, tapa makers 
were also developing their skills into a human 
achievement of artistic and practical value. 

Captain James Cook. Spanish, Portuguese, 
and Dutch voyagers pioneered the explorahon of 
the Pacific Ocean in the 16th and 17th centuries. 
The great age of Pacific exploration, however, 
belonged to the English and the French in the 
18th century. The most famous, most successful 

Jivaro Indian (Peru) back ornament of bark cloth decorated 
with bird bones, monkey teeth, beetle wings, seeds, and 
shells ( #6159) . Such bird bones were said to come from birds 
that roost in caves inhabited by fearful spirits. Only a war- 
rior who was himself powerful in spirit dared wear them. 
Collected by William E. Safford in Peru, 1891; 60 x 20.5 cm 
(24x8 in.). 





A Man of the 
Sandwich Islands, in 
a Masic (Hawaiian 
Islamif, 1779). 
Engrai'iiig after a 
sketch by John Webber, 
official artift oti Cap- 
tain jamcs Cook's third 
voyage. The gourd 
hebnet is decorated 
ivith streamers of col- 
ored tapa and a crest of 
foliage. Rare Book 
Room, Field Museum 
Library. 



navigator of them all was Captain James Cook. 
He began his third and last voyage to the South 
Sea Islands a week after the Declaration of In- 
dependence was signed at Philadelphia in 
July 1776. It was on the third voyage that he dis- 
covered the Hawaiian Islands. And it was at 
Kealakekua Bay on the island of Hawaii itself tha t 
he met his death at the hands of the native inhab- 
itants on February 14, 1779. 



DIVERSITY 

First settlement by people on the small islands 
of the central and eastern Pacific dates back only 
to around AD. 300. Settlement on the islands 
of Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa, farther west in the 
Pacific, began sometime between 2,000 and 1,000 
B.C. Scholars think, however, that people were 
already living on New Guinea and neighboring 



An Off''., before 
Captain ' I'ok in the 
SanJ.N ich Islands 
(Hiiu-iiiiim Islands, 
1779). Engraving after 
a sketch hi/ John 
Webber. Cook is man- 
tled with a tapa befit- 
Hng a king or god. Rare 
Book Room, Field 
Museum Librar\/. 




islands near Asia 30 to 40 thousands years ago, if 
not earlier. Consequently, the farther back in 
time and the closer to Asia you look, the more 
diverse and confusing is the story of human set- 
tlement and later prehistory. The diversity of 
customs and ways of life among the islanders of 
the southwest Pacific can be seen in their re- 
markable creations made of bark cloth. Extraor- 
dinary diversity can also be found elsewhere in 
the tropics: in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. 

SHARED TRADITIONS 

People who live on islands are never entirely cut 
off from the outside world. There are many 
legends and reports in the Pacific about voyages 
between islands ihat are hundreds — even 
thousands — of miles apart. Sometimes these 
trips have been made on purpose. At other 
times, people have been driven from their in- 
tended course to some nearby island because of 
storms or shifting currents. 

The neighboring islanders of Fiji, Samoa, 



Tonga, and Futuna, all located in the area of the 
Pacific called western Polynesia, share customs 
and handicrafts that reveal their common history 
some 3,500 years ago and their continued voyag- 
ing between their island homes for trade, settle- 
ment, marriage, ceremony, and occasionally 
warfare. Tapa and other artifacts from western 
Polynesia reflect the differences that have grown 
up over time among these islanders, as well as 
the similarities that exist among them because of 
tradition and travel among the islands. 

Fiji Islands. Discovered by the Dutch 
navigator Tasman in 1643, the more than 300 
islands that form the famous "Cannibal Isles" of 
the Fijian archipelago are richly diverse in their 
natural resources and in the customs and ways 
of life of their inhabitants. Hillsmen, coast- 
dwellers, outer-islanders, and Tongan migrants 
are all linked together by social and economic 
ties, in spite of their cultural differences and the 
ocean waters that divide them from each other. 
Fijian masi, tapa cloth, is not as varied today as it 
once was. Yet there are stQl three different styles. 




Mn^i kcsa, decorated with traditional stenciled 
designs, is made for personal use and commer- 
cial sale. Giitu vnka to^a, long sheets of bark cloth 
in "Tongan style," is made largely for ceremonial 
exchange. Gatu vaka vili, "Fijian tapa," combines 
stenciled designs with "Tongan" decoration and 
is now made primarily for wedding ceremonies. 

Stviioaii hlmiiif. The Samoan Islanders, 
famous for their love of politics and social form, 
remain today irrepressibly Samoan in custom 
and tradition, in spite of decades of European 
influence and modern economic change. The leg- 
acy of tradition continues to shape the strong 
web of social ties that unites the Samoan people. 
Sinpo, Samoan tapa cloth, reflects their creativity 
and their sense of tradition. 

Toii\;a ami Fuiutia. Captain James Cook 
named the Tongan archipelago the "Friendly Is- 
lands." He found Tongan society to be politically 
complex and strictly ordered by rank and nobil- 
ity. Today these islands remain one of the few- 
constitutional monarchies in the world. While 
social rank is still an influential force, daily life in 
the Friendly Islands has a warm, exuberant style 
that can be readily seen in modern Tongan ngatu, 
or tapa cloth. The small and proud island of 
Futuna also keeps its old traditions strikingly 
alive. Sheltered from the outside world, the 
Futunans have preserved their intricate and dis- 
tinctive style of tapa painting in the face of 
modern social and economic change. 

CHANGING ARTISTRY 

Given time, we expect things to change to keep 
pace with historical events and changing condi- 
tions of daily life. Today most scholars believe 




Cubeo Indian men of 
the Brazil-Colombia 
border dressed in bark 
clotii maakf for an 
oyne (u'eepin^), a 
dramatie mourning 
ceremony for the recenl 
dead. Mafked dancers 
impersonating familiar 
creatures as iivll as 
mischiii'ous spirits 
come, as theantliro- 
I'ologist Iri'ing 
c '.oldman has describri^ 
tlwm. "to mourv 
mainly to tun 
people from ,^rief." 
Photo courtesy of 
Irving Goldman . 9 



'"!;> 










N 






.# 









iS 



Tapa cloth (#272722). 
A dqiarture from 
traditional Polynesian 
geometric patterns, 
this piece was probably 
intended for commer- 
cial sale. FijiorSamoan 
Islands; 220 x 166 cm 
(83x65 in.). 



10 



that all of the Pacific islanders are historically 
related to the islanders of southeast Asia. Over 
the thousands of years since the first Pacific is- 
landers left Asia, however, many changes oc- 
curred throughout Asia and the Pacific. As a 
consequence, tapa from Indonesia and the 
Philippines is now often strikingly different 
from that made on the islands farther out in the 
Pacific Ocean. 

Haivaiitm hlaiuif. After the death of Cook 
at Hawaii in 1779, the surviving officers and crew 
soon left the archipelago. They carried home to 
England the news of Cook's death and also many 
examples of the "curiosities" made by the 
Hawaiian islanders. Kapa, or Hawaiian tapa 
cloth, brought back to England in the 18th cen- 
tury, still can be found in museum collections. In 
appearance, it is thick and heavy, and painted in • 
a variety of somber but elegant designs. By the 
19th century, however, the art of kapa making 
had changed, partly because iron obtained from 
European sailors and traders made it possible for 
the Hawaiians to carve intricately designed 
finishing beaters (i'e kuku ) and printing stamps of 
bamboo. Kapa from the 19th century is sheer and 
delicately patterned. However, by the end of the 



last century, kapm making had died out. Instead, 
Hawaiian women spent part of the time once 
given to kapa production- in sewing wonderful 
quilts made out of imported woven textiles. 

hlaud Southeast Asia. The islanders of 
southeast Asia live in worlds that vary from 
"Stone Age" simplicity to modern urban com- 
plexity. Bark cloth is made (or was made until 
recently) in many areas throughout this part of 
the Pacific. The diversity of local custom and 
life is clearly reflected in the widely varying tech- 
nical and artistic sophistication shown by gar- 
ments and other articles made of bark cloth. 

The survival of tapa making in the future 
will depend on whether the people who still 
know this ancient craft are successful in keeping 
alive their own ethnic identity and how they 
themselves will continue to value an expression 
of their heritage that demands time, learned 
skills, and raw materials that must be careful- 
ly cultivated or somehow preserved in their 
wild state. 

In the few hundred years during which 
European civilizatton has exported its technol- 
ogy and its system of values to peoples in other 
lands, tapa making has died out among many 




people for whom it was formerly not only a valu- 
able but a valued craft. The fragile treasures of 
bark cloth held in museum collections bear mute 
testimony to the lost glories of an art that once 
flourished throughout the tropics. Such beauti- 
ful things, nonetheless, should be a source of 



pride and inspiration to the descendants of 
those, now dead, who made them. All of us can 
take delight in the artistry and skill of the tapa 
makers of the past and in the colorful ways in 
which tapa, one of the oldest creations of man- 
kind, is still enjoyed today. 



A j^roup ofbalak peop'le 
of the Philippines 
i('f()r/»i\; festive tapa 
dotlting. Theflmeci 
leaves, and colored 
grasses that complete 
their headdresses were 
chosen for fragrance 
as ivell as for color. 
Palawan Island, 
Philippine Islands, 
1907-08. Photo hy 
anthropologist Fay 
Cooper-Cole. 



II 



► 

ir _ 

r 



.-^•fe 



■it?i^\^... 





m 



^ 4 









12 




•^^^^H^P)-.^1 




Learning Museum Program 

Continues with: 






Colombia: 
Context, 
Conquest, 
and Gold 

By Anthony Pfeiffer. project coordinator 

Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment 
for the Humanities, a federal agency 



■'^ 




For Most of History, ninety-nine percent of 
Colombia's people were concentrated in 200,000 
square miles of the Andes. South of Colombia, the 
Andean mountain chain — the wodd's longest and 
second only to the Himalayas in height — • nurtured 
the wodd's highest cities with some of the greatest 
ceremonial centers ever discovered. Peruvian cities, 
for example, were so vast, their locations so magnifi- 
cent, and their construction so monumental and 
technologically advanced that it has been suggested 
they were the work of visitors from space. 

The great civilizations of South America, 
spread along a 4,500-mile chain of mountains, were 
human, not otherworldly. They were made possible 
by a diversity of habitats that are not only astounding 
in themselves but are made more so by being com- 
pressed into such a small area. Within the distance of 
a mile down a mountainside there might be three 
distinct ecological zones, each supporting a unique 
set of flora and fauna. The wealth of plants and 
animals translates into food for people. When 19th- 
century travellers went to market in certain parts of 
the Andes, they were amazed at the variety of foods 
that could be offered in one small geographic area. 

In contrast to tremendous predictability and 
abundance in some areas, making a living in other 
locales was a risky business. A localized storm might 
wipe out a laboriously tended garden. People had to 
grow many gardens at many levels and were some- 
times away from their villages for days at a time to 



Set amidst the r)oble grandeur of the Andes, these prehis- 
toric Inca ruins have a preturnatural quality that invites 
speculation by the space-age traveler But more realisti- 
cally, the ruins attest to the extraordinary engineering skills 
of that ancient civilization. 



13 



work in the lower levels. In these areas people lived 
above their farmlands in places so cold that early 
Spanish settlers remarked "even the plants have 
fur' ' 

Taken as a whole, there is nothing quite like 
the Andean way of life elsewhere in the worid. It is a 
way of life much more three dimensional than ours. 
Considered horizontally, each mountain range, each 
mountain within a range presented unique problems 
of adaptation as well as opportunities. Considered 
vertically, up and down a mountain was yet another 
set of threatening or promising possibilities. 

Many great civilizations flourished in the 
Andes over the millennia. The fabled Inca of Peru 
are the most renowned and certainly the most far- 
flung of these civilizations. At one time the Inca 
empire incorporated most of the Andean chain. No 
such vast empires originated in Colombia. Ar- 
cheological evidence suggests that the largest vil- 
lages had 3,000 to 5,000 inhabitants. These and 
smaller villages were perhaps loosely organized into 
kingdoms. In interesting contrast to Colombia's low 
population density was the wealth of gold to be 
found there. 

In recent times gold prices have fluctuated 
wildly seemingly reaching for all time highs. Lust for 
this precious metal is not new. Christopher Colum- 
bus wrote: 

Gold is the most exquisite of all things. Whoever 
possesses gold can acquire all that he desires in the 
world. Ta//y, for gold he can gain entrance for his 
soul into paradise. 




NEH Learning Museum 
at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a 
three-year sequence of learning opportunities 
focused on the Museum's outstanding exhibits 
and collections and designed to give partici- 
pants an opportunity to explore a subject in 
depth. 



14 



Pectoral or chest ornament, of prehistoric Colombia (col 
lection ofMuseo delOro, Bogota. Colombia): height: 7% 
in. (20 cm). The goldwork of Colombian artisans was the 
finest of all South America The prehistoric Colombians 
had independently devised every goldsmithing technique 
known to the Europeans, except electroplating. 



Because of gold, a nameless 10,000-foot 
peak in Colombia and a lonely lake at its summit 
shaped the course of world history. The lake is not 
more than half a mile across, and as round as a 
wheel. Because of it, Kathleen Romoli wrote in Co- 
lombia: Gateway to South America (1942): "states- 
men halfway round the world sat in conclave: fleets 
were armed in Cadiz and Plymouth and Lisbon; 
German bankers and English speculators made 
strange calculations and investments. Because of it, 
great captains led desperate adventures; kings 
gained new empires and simple people lost their 
gods. This is the lake of El Dorado." 

The legend of El Dorado began when a 
Spanish conquistador was told by an Indian of a 
mountain place rich in gold. Although no one knows 
what the Indian actually said, his comment was 
blown up to mammoth proportions. According to 
the conquistador, there was a lake in this mountain, 
where several times a year the chief made sacrifices 
and offerings, "being naked, but covered from his 
head to his feet and hands with a sticky resin, and 
over it much gold in fine powder, so that. . . it made a 
second skin." Hoards of gold were said to have been 
thrown into the lake. Such was the tale that launched 
a gold rush in Colombia in 1534. 

Finding the lake was easy and many attempts 
were made to drain it. One of the first tries was to 
carve the lip of the mountain cup containing the lake. 
Although some water drained from the lake through 
the wedge-shaped cut, the water level never fell off 
sufficiently to expose the lake's bottom. Years later, 
an ambitious team tunnelled beneath the lake and, 
although the water ran out, the remaining silt dried to 
the consistency of concrete. In these and other at- 
tempts, a few gold pieces were found, enough to 
tantalize but nothing like the billions of dollars worth 
expected. For centuries people flocked to Colombia, 
mesmerized by the dream of a kingdom of gold. If 
indeed untold golden treasures ever lay under the 
lake's still waters, they are there still. 

Despite the frustrated efforts to coax the lake 
to yield its purported wealth, the Spanish were suc- 
cessful in looting the rest of the Colombian country- 
side for its gold artifacts. Thousands of objects were 
shipped to European lands and the pieces of unex- 
celled craftsmanship were melted to mere bullion. 
There was also a human price. Direct battle, slavery, 
murder, and most insidious and effective killer of all. 




The Colombian village 
of San Miguel, the 
largest such settlement 
in its particular region. 
In former times, 
groups of such villages 
Diay have cooperated 
in the construction of 
stonework complexes 
of platforms, 
monumental figures, 
and buildings for 
communal religious 
ceremonies. 



introduced disease, took their to 

With "unbelievable daring, unforgivable 
cruelty, and a kind of superhuman luck," to use 
Kathleen Romoli's wodds, the Spanish swept Co- 
lombia. Gold mining centers were particularly hard 
hit. Some agricultural areas — the least prosperous — 
were virtually untouched. The Paez Indians, who 
had poor farms, were self-sufficient and lived where 
the land was steep and cold, as if stranded on a 
mountain island. They remained isolated for cen- 
turies. The Chibcha Indians, in contrast, lived in 
Colombia's most favorable agricultural lands. They 
became largely Hispanicized, gradually speaking 
only Spanish and worshipping as Roman Catholics. 

The Colombian survivors of El Dorado gold 
fever and European imperialism made adjustments 
in their lifestyles. The Indians adopted Catholic 
motifs into their traditional wood carvings. European 
musical structure was introduced and uniquely 
blended with indigenous rhythms. But in an incredi- 
ble testament to human resiliency, some aspects of 
art and music remained staunchly Andean. 

In the economic realm, there were dramatic 
exchanges between European conquerors and na- 
tive peoples. From South America, the Europeans 
took the common potato, which was to revolutionize 
the economies of Central Europe and, much later, 
of Ireland. Via European transmission from West 
Africa, South America inherited bananas and coffee, 
items considered almost stereotypically South 
American today. 

COLOMBIA; CONTEXT CONQUEST AND GOLD exam- 
ines the remarkable story of ancient mountain 
peoples, conquistador brutality, and the cultures and 
crafts of Colombia. The course of study begins on 
April 17 and 24 with two lectures by Field Museum 
staff, archeologists experienced in the Andes. It con- 
tinues on May 8 with a screening of the film, 
"Aguin-e. The Wrath of God." Aguin-e, leading a 
Spanish military detachment in search of the mythi- 



cal El Dorado, begins his quest on the Amazon River. 
Overcome by hostile Indians, fever, and starvation, 
the conquistadors succumb to an uncertain end in 
impenetrable jungle. The film serves as a vehicle for 
discussing the Spanish conquest, its motives, and 
ongoing legacy in South American life. Discussion is 
led by panelists from Field Museum and other 
institutions. 

As the focus shifts to Colombia, the course 
offers three lectures by Frank R. Safford, professor of 
history at Northwestern University. Safford is a 
specialist in 19th century-Spanish America, with a 
particular interest in the economic and political his- 
tory of Colombia. He supplements his lectures with 
slides of gold and pottery artifacts to illustrate aspects 
of social organization and to point out distinctive 
cultural expressions. The three lectures cover the 
ancient cultures of Colombia, Spanish rule and the 
mixture of Spanish and indigenous lifestyles, and 
culminate in a look at how Colombian Indian groups 
fare today. 

Tahuantinsuyo ("Tah-won-tin-soo-yo"), per- 
forming Saturday, May 3, is a musical group 
specializing in folk tunes of South America. Their 
performance at Field Museum will include dance 
from the highlands of Peru and Ecuador, supple- 
mented with background slides of life in the Andes. 

"Colombia Context Conquest and 
Gold" corresponds with "Gold of El Dorado: The 
Heritage of Colombia," an exhibit of more than 500 
gold objects that miraculously survived the Spanish 
scourge. This spectacular exhibit, opening at Field 
Museum on April 25, is the subject of a seminar 
available only to lecture course participants. The 
seminar explores the meaning of gold to the people 
of Colombia. Details on the lecture course and on 
Tahuantinsuyo's performance are available in the 
Spring Courses for Adults brochure and in April's 
Calendar of Events respectively. All Chicago-area 
members are on the mailing list for both 
publications. □ 



15 



TheThorne -Graves Arctic 
Expedition of 1929 




^ 



Questions by Irene Sehultz 
Response by BniceThorue 



M|>i»*lW> 



All photos courtesy Bruce Thorne, unless otherwise credited 



The group ofivnlruses on vieio hi Hall N is more than 
Ukeh/ to eateh the eye of any passerby, for the diorama 
baekground is dominated by the ruddy gloiv of the 
midnight sun, and in front of it are arranged seven 
walruses, the largest benig of near-record size. The 
specimens were obtained in 1929 by two young men, 
Bruce Thonie and George Coe Graves II. 

Graves died in 1934, but Bruce Thorne is today 
a resident of Lake Bluff , lUinois, a Chicago suburb. The 
folloiving account of the Thome-Graves Arctic 
Expedition of 1929 was taped by Irene Sehultz, a 
Museum Member who had learned only recently that 
her neighbor was one of those jointly responsible for 
the adxKiihirous undertaking. -Ed. 



16 



BruceThorne 
(1928) 




Sehultz: How did you happen togoon this expedition? 

Thorne: After graduation from Yale in 1928 I 
made up my mind that I would take one year off 
to travel. The first trip I took was to Alaska for 
big game hunting, and I went with a very close 
friend of mine, George Coe Graves II, whose 
nickname was "Toot." On my return in the fall of 
1928, through a mutual friend, I met Dr. Wilfred 
Osgood, who was then the curator of zoology at 
the Field Museum. He invited me to come to the 
Museum so that he could show me the Zoology 
Department including the many animal exhibits. 
At that time the marine room was quite new; 
they only had one completed exhibit, as I recall, 
but they had paintings of the backgrounds for 
several future exhibits for which they hoped 
some day to obtain the specimens. One of these 
was to be an exhibit of Pacific walrus, and there 
was a beautiful painting of the midnight sun 
shining over the arctic ice. Dr. Osgood said, "The 
only trouble is, this exhibit is a long way off and 
we don't know when we'll ever get to it." 

Well, several days later I thought to my- 
self, "Why wouldn't it be a good idea if my part- 
ner. Toot Graves, and 1 went back in the fall of the 
next year (since I had planned to take one year off 
before 1 went to work) and obtain the walrus so 
the exhibit could be completed?" And so I called 
him to see if he would have any interest, and he 
did. I later contacted Dr. Osgood and told him of 
our interest. To make a long story short, the 
Museum was interested if proper arrangements 
could be made. We had hoped the Museum 
would contribute some financial backing, but it 
was against their policy, and we agreed to fi- 
nance the expedifion entirely ourselves. 



So when we got back from Europe in 
about March or April of 1929, we started the task 
of organizing the expedition. Our first priority 
was to charter a ship. The expedition, of course, 
was subject to finding a ship that was suitable for 
the purpose of going up into the ice, and it had to 
have what is called "iron bark" on its hull to 
pre\'ent the ice from penetrating it. 

Hozc did i/ou kiioTc about llic kind of>liip i/oii needed? 

We read a lot, we talked to a lot of people. 1 went 
to Seattle and spent two or three weeks there 
investigating ship possibilities and checking 
with people like the Loman brothers, who knew 
arctic conditions, while Toot Graves remained in 
New York working through the Explorers' Club 
to contact people experienced in arctic explora- 
tion, like Bob Bartlett, for one. We got quite a few 
offers of different ships, but thorough investiga- 
tion concerning the reputation of the owner and 
suitability for ice conditions caused us to discard 
most opportunities until we finally found a ship 
that we considered suitable. We ended up with 
an old 105-foot halibut schooner equipped with a 
270 h.p. diesel engine with "iron bark" on its hull 
and very suitable for going up into the ice. It 
proved to be very satisfactory, but there were no 
comforts aboard. The expedition had no other 
purpose than to obtain a good representative 
group of Pacific walrus. 

Had either of you made such a rough trip even on a 
shorter term before? 

We had been up to Alaska a year before, and both 
of us always had been very much outdoor people 
all our lives, but neither of us had done anything 
like this before. 

But you were familiar with arms for hunting 
big game? 

Oh, yes. In Alaska, the year before, we spent six 
weeks mostly in the interior hunting sheep, 
goats, three kinds of bear, caribou, and moose. 

What did you do after locating the ship? 

The next priority was to arrange for an experi- 
enced taxidermist to prepare and preserve the 
specimens we obtained. The Museum could not 
spare one of their own taxidermists, whom we 
would have been delighted to have, so we hired 
John Jonas, one of the three Jonas brothers who 
were then very famous in taxidermy. On the 
expedition he took photographs, painted colors, 
and took plaster casts of the heads and hides, 
and he would split the skins so that they could be 
preserved and eventually molded to appear like 
the live animal itself. I think I can say that he did 




this very carefully and successfully. 

It's such a convincing group that the proof of the 
pudding is in the group itself. What other arrange- 
ments did you make? 

After chartering the ship in Seattle, we arranged 
with a food distributor to buy a fairly large sup- 
ply of food. The danger of going up into the ice 
floes north of Alaska and Siberia is that the cur- 
rent takes you north. If you get caught in the ice, 
it's possible that you would drift virtually across 
the North Pole and then come out on the Atlantic 
side — like the Nansen expedition deliberately 
did on the Fram to prove that point prior to 1900. 
We feared that we might get caught, so we 
bought a year's supply of food that would keep 
us alive should we get caught in the ice, as did 
happen to the schooner NahwA' shortly after we 



BruceThonie, shown 
recently with umtrus 
diorama in Hall N. 




George Coe Graves II 
(1928) 17 



Craves(cen> "and 
Thome (Slid from 

right) s;Liiiui icith 
plane that ftciv them 

from Anchorage to 
Nome. 




WILL HUNT WALRUS 

IN THE FAR NORTH 



New Yorker and Chicagoan Will 

Use Airplane in Expedition 

for Field Museum. 



Special to The New York Times. 

CHICAGO, May 18— Venturing into 
the Far North by water and air- 
plane, an expedition headed by 
George Coe Graves II of New York 
and Bruce Thorne, member of a 
well-known Chicago family, will 
spend the Summer on the trail of 
the walrus and the caribou for the 
benefit of the Field Museum. The 
expedition hopes to acquire for the 
museum the best groups of walrus 
ever exhibited. It will sail from 
Seattle on June 19. 

Announcing the undertaking today. 
Stephen C. Simms, director of the 
museum, explained that the venture 
would be difficult and exciting, as 
walrus have to be hunted far from 
land, in the ice-laden ocean. The 
schooner to be used, the Dorothy, 
will probably have to cruise as far 
north £13 Wrangel Island. 

Dr. Wilfred Osgood, Curator of 
Zoology, stated that the walrus is 
one of the hardest animals to pre- 
pare for preservation and that no 
specimen has ever been satisfactorily 
mounted. John Jonas, an expert 
taxidermist, will accompany the ex- 
pedition. It is planned to mount the 
group In lifelike attitudes at the 
museum in a setting showing the 
Midnight Sun and fields of floating 
Ice. 

For the second stage of the hunt 
the adventurers will make an over- 
land trip across Alaska from Nome 
to Fairbanks to reach the caribou 
hunting grounds, and for this the 
airplane vH\ be used. 

Thome and Graves, both of whom 
have had big game hunting experi- 
ence, are financing the expedition. 
They also hope to obtain pol«r bear;; 
for the museum. 



18 



met it off the coast of Siberia. It was a trading 
vessel headed for North Cape and beyond, but it 
got caught fast in the ice and spent the winter 
there. Its owner, Olaf Swenson, wirelessed us 
not to proceed to North Cape as we had planned, 
and we followed his advice. 

Wltat kindf of food did you stock? 

For that purpose we bought mostly canned 
goods. I don't remember exactly, but we got rec- 
ommendations from people who knew what was 
necessary to keep us alive. We also took with us 
certain equipment such as an outboard motor to 
fit onto an Eskimo umiak so that we could leave 
the boat in an emergency. 

Cain/ou remember some of the other things specifically 
tliat i/oii had to provide? 

Wireless equipment for one. We were able to 
borrow a wireless set and related equipment 
from the International Fisheries Commission 
stationed at the University of Washington. We, 
of course, needed this in case of an emergency 
and for communication in general. To reduce the 
cost of our provisions, equipment, and charter, 
the owner of the Dorothy, Captain Hvatum, 
helped us to arrange for a load of tea and other 
food to be delivered to North Cape, Siberia, and 
we had a Russian permit to deliver it. Fortunately 
we had a provision in the contract that if we 
could not get through the ice we could leave it in 
Nome and the Russians would pick it up there, 
and that is what actually happened because of 
the bad ice conditions I mentioned before. 

When and from where did you start this expedition? 



John Jonas, our taxidermist, went with the boat 
across the Pacific, leaving Seattle the middle of 
June. My partner. Toot Graves, and 1 took a 
steamship to Seward in earl\' June and went on a 
bear hunt on Kenai Peninsula before we met the 
ship. Then on June 28 we flew from Anchorage to 
Fairbanks, and on the next da\' from Fairbanks to 
Nome, where we met the ship which arrived 
from Seattle on about July 1. We left Nome on 
July 3, headed north toward the pack ice. 

In Seattle we had been very fortunate in 
employing the services of Carl Hansen as our ice 
pilot. He had hadagreatdealofexperiencein the 
arctic, having accompanied Roald Amundsen for 
two years on his trip through the Northeast Pas- 
sage on the Mtuui . Because of this and other arctic 
experiences he was very informed on ice condi- 
tions, which was extremely beneficial to us. This 
was most important, because the ice changes 
with the wind, tightening and loosening. We 
could cruise outside of the ice floes and not be in 
any danger, but when we went into the ice after a 
group of walrus we had to watch ice conditions 
constantly in order to get out. 

You mean going in with your ship? 

Yes. Going in with the schooner Ddrof/n/, break- 
ing through the pack ice to get as near as possible 
to a group of walrus which had been spotted 
from the crow's nest. We went in as close as we 
could, then used an umiak, and paddled with 
our two Eskimos close to but downwind from 
the walrus. We had hired the Eskimos at the 
Diomede Islands after leaving Nome. 




Expeditio)! taxidermist 
John /onus s/kr'cs 
dowti walrus hide 
aboard the Dorothy. 




BruceThorne (left) and 
George Graves (third 
from right) icith John 
]onns (right) and crew 
member^ atward the 
Dorothy. 19 



Ice pilot and navigator 

CarlHai: .11 {left) and 

Civ/yi'Grat'es in 

d:ring fuits they 

jcoic while repairing 

Dorothy's broken 

rudder stock. 



~ r 




^ 




20 



/ have to ask you about tlu' unnak. I thought that only 
one person could ;^o into an umiak. Are they the ones 
that fasten arou)id you? 

No. An umiak is a big skin boat — you're thinking 
of a kayak — an umiak is like a big rowboat, but 
it's made of skin. It's very light, and you can pull 
it over the ice, but it'll hold six or seven people. 

There were tioo Eskimos and i/ou ami your partner, 
and who else miglit ;^o in close to the walrus? 

Usually just the four of us. 

As a mother, I have to ask what your mother thought of 
the whole expedition, or didn't she kiurw the extent to 
which you 'd be involved? 

Well, that is an interesting question. At the same 
time that 1 was up there in the arctic, my brother 
was in Antarctica with Byrd's first expedition, 
and he was on Lawrence Gould's three-month 
dog sled trip south from Little America explor- 
ing, mapping, and studying the geology of the 
Queen Maud Mountains, and also establishing 
emergency food depots for Byrd in case of trou- 
ble on his flight to the South Pole. And while he 
was only about 300 miles from the Pole, and I was 
up in the ice north of the Siberian Coast, I sent 
a wireless to The Neio York Times via Nome, Se- 
ward, and Seattle. The Neio York Times relayed it 
to Little America and Little America then short- 
waved it down to my brother's base camp in the 
Queen Maud Mountains, and within a week I 



had a reply. So my mother had two sons at either 
end of the earth at the same time. I think she was 
very happy about it all though. We both com- 
municated with her by wireless and had some 
communication from her too. 

Did you have problems in speaking with the Eskimos 
who accompanied you? 

No. They spoke broken English. There are mis- 
sionaries on the Diomede Islands, where we ob- 
tained them, and in the winter they go over to 
Nome to trade. They had had a disease the year 
before and were very low on food and skins. I 
think that we helped them a great deal because 
all of the walrus carcasses and skins that we had 
and did not need for the Museum, we stored 
in the hold and gave to the Eskimos for their 
food and leather hides. They were very grateful 
for that. 

/ have been very ijnpresscd by the skill that the Eskimos 
have ui makhig clotlung appropriate for the weather. 

Yes. We purchased from them fur parkas and 
mukluks — soft sealskin boots that are quite 
waterproof. We were there in July when the 
temperatures were not low, usually being in the 
forties and sometimes in the thirties, but it was 
quite raw and we found this equipment to serve 
our purpose very well. 

Was tlie captaui of your sliip particularly uiterested in 
you r endeavor, or was he just going along as a conmier- 
cial interest? 

He was very much interested, but his sole func- 
tion was to be responsible for the crew and the 
ship's operation. He had had very little experi- 
ence in the ice, if any, and when we were there, 
our ice pilot, Carl Hansen, was in charge. 

/ read in your notes that your rudder broke, and 1 
zvoiuier what your reactions were. 

Since we spent quite a bit of time cruising in the 
pack ice, we were often bumping into or pushing 
ice cakes, and one time a large ice cake bumped 
our stern hard and broke our rudder stock. 
We were then right in the ice floes north of the 
Alaskan Coast and the only thing we could do 
was to go back to Nome and get it fixed. So the 
captain rigged what is called a jury rudder with 
two or three men on either side of the boat pul- 
ling on a rope attached to the rudder so that we 
could maintain our course by pulling on one side 
or the other. It became fairly rough on the way 
back to Nome and this procedure was not easy. 
Naturally we were disappointed about this mis- 
hap as it meant we would lose about a week 
making repairs. 




The Dorothy, the 105- 
foot halibut schooner 
that fenvd as 
expedition ship. 



Diiii/ou do the actual replacement? 

Yes. At Nome we obtained a new rudder stock, 
but it was too rough to install it, so we wirelessed 
the Coast Guard cuUct Northland and it arrived 
the next day and towed us to Teller, where a bay 
protected us from the weather. After using the 
Northland'f lathe to reduce the diameter of the 
new rudder stock. Toot Graves and Carl Hansen 
put on diver suits and fastened the new stock to 
the rudder, and then we went back up into the 
ice again. 

How many were in the creio? 

In addition to our taxidermist. Toot Graves, and 
myself, there were 8 crew members. But it was 
a short crew from the standpoint of watches, 
and we all shared in some of these. In addition 
we picked the two Eskimos up at the Diomede 
Islands, so that while we were cruising in or 
near the ice there were a total of 13 of us. 

Who would spot the walrus? 

We'd take turns up in the crow's nest. When we 
saw a walrus group in the distance, that looked 
like a little black spot, we would cruise toward it 
and then go into the ice with the ship and get 
close enough to see whether there were any po- 
tential specimens for the Museum group. We 
saw many groups of walrus that didn't have suit- 
able specimens. We were after a very large bull; 
the one in the Museum isn't a record, but it is 
counted among the record heads. And we 
wanted a typical big cow, and a typical middle- 
sized bull and cow as well as young ones so that 
we would end up with a typical family group. 



and at the same time have outstanding speci- 
mens. We looked over many walrus; we lost 
some; we were mistaken on some; and some- 
times we would shoot one and find that one tusk 
would be partially broken off, and we'd have to 
discard that one, but fortunately it was not really 
wasted, because the meat would go to the Es- 
kimos. We didn't shoot any just for the sake of 
shooting. We were always looking for a certain 
type. We searched for a big one until we got a big 
one; then we searched for a smaller one. 

It is not difficult to kill a walrus with a 
high-powered rifle. But you do have to be accu- 
rate in your shooting. They have a very small 
brain, and I'd say you have about a six- or seven- 
inch diameter circle that you have to hit them in; 
otherwise they waddle off the ice cake and sink, 

{Continued on p. 26) 




BruceThorne, ah^nui 
the Dorothy suitably 
attired :ii Lskimo parka 
and inukhiks. 2\ 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 



March and April 

James Simpson Theatre 

Saturdays, 2:30 p.m. 



The entrance to Simpson Theatre is conveniently located inside the 
west entrance. This is of special interest to the handicapped, for the 
entrance is at ground level, with all steps eliminated. The west en- 
trance also provides free admission to the theatre. Access to other 
Museum areas, however, requires the regular admission fee (except 
on Fridays) or membership identification. The film/lectures are ap- 
proximately 90 minutes long and recommended for adults. Reserved 
seating available, until 2:25, for members. Doors open at 1 :45 p.m. 

March 1 

"Holy Lands" by Charles Forbes Taylor 

This nonsectarian film takes us to Damascus; places of the Patriarchs 
judges, Kings, and Prophets; the route of Moses; Bethlehem 
Shepherds' cave; Herod's castle, Galilee, Jacob's well, Mt. Zion, 
Jerusalem, Pilate's palace, Calvary, and more. 




Land and Sea Adventure: Naples piazza (March 29) 
March 8 

"Exploring Darwin's. Islands" by Quentin Keynes 

Keynes first shows us the volcanic scenery, giant tortoises, and other 
unique Galapagos life. Then we step ashore on Ascension, and carry 
on to St. Helena, where Napoleon was exiled. In the Falklands we 
travel by hovercraft and see the remarkable King penguins and 
elephant seals. 

March 15 

"Norway" by Ed Lark 

A country wedding, Laplanders, Europe's largest glacier, the in- 
comparable fjords, the midnight sun are highlights of this film. 

March 22 

"Portugal" by Frank Nichols 

Portugal today is a blend of old and new. The old can be seen in 
fishing villages where men dress in traditional plaids and women 
wear seven-petticoated dresses. The new is reflected in deluxe resorts 
of the Algarve. 





March 29 



The ever-winding Rhine (April 2b) 



"Land and Sea Adventure: by Freighter 
to the Adriatic" by William Sylvester 

Ports of call Sylvester takes us to (aboard a freighter) include New 
Orleans, Casablanca, Genoa, Portofino, Naples, Capri, and the 
Yugoslavian Riviera. Hawaiian waterlall (April 19 1 




April 5 

"Central America" by Jonathan Hagar 

Guatemala, u'ith ancient Mayan sites; El Salvador, with coconut har- 
vesting; Honduras, rich in mahogany forests; Panama, transected by 
the busy canal; Nicaragua, with views of earthquake-ravaged Man- 
agua; and Costa Rica, with its rich tablelands. 

April 12 

"Bavaria: Land of the Mountain King" 
by l-Howard and Lucia Meyers 

We see the Passion Play at Oberammergau, visit the home of Prince 
Constantine, see the hamlet of Gergweis (with 500 persons and 5,000 
dachshunds), and we are dazzled by a 4,000-candle spectacle at the 
Castle of Hcrrenchiemsee. 




Bavaria: NeusLhwanbtein Cdil'f (A/jn/ 12) 
April 19 

"The Hawaiian Adventure" by Doug lones 

Film highlights: erupting volcanoes, waterfalls, the art of lei-making, 
the old leper colony on Molokai, Queen Liliukolani's palace, the 
sugar industry, surfing, 

April 26 

"The Majestic Rhine" by John Roberts 

From its source high in the Alps to its North Sea mouth, the Rhme is 
one of the world's busiest and most colorful waterways — a vital ar- 
tery of Switzerland, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. 23 



VOLUNTEERS HONORED 



We at Field Museum wish to express our gratitude to 260 
dedicated people who committed themselves as volunteers 
once a week during 1979. Their total contribution of 39,791 
hours represents the equivalency of 21 staff people working 
full time. All the departments in the Museum benefited 
from the volunteers' zeal and dedication. Their tasks have 
been varied and manv, some challenging, others routine, 
but all needed and appreciated more than we can say- 

Their responsibilities included cataloging and acces- 
sioning newly acquired specimens, photographing speci- 
mens, presenting programs to school groups and the gen- 



eral public, textile preparation, editing and typing, plant 
care, illustration, collection maintenance, exhibit research- 
ing, and other items too numerous to list. To honor and to 
thank the serious commitment of the 1979 volunteers a 
buffet dinner was given on February 20, 1980 in Stanley 
Field Hall. Field Museum president E. Leland Webber pre- 
sented gifts to the 16 volunteers with more than 500 accumu- 
lated hours. The remaining volunteers with 100 or more 
accumulated hours then received gifts from their staff 
super\'isors. The e\^ening ended with entertainment pro- 
vided b\' the staff. — Vicki Grigelaitis, coordinator of Volunteer 
Program. 



SPECIAL RECOGNITION 



Over 500 Hours 



Sol Centurv (810 hours): Anthropology; accessioning and catalog- 
ing, general departmental projects. 

Anne Leonard (713 hours): Anthropology; researching for "Pat- 
terns of Paradise" exhibit, coauthoring exhibit catalog. 

David Weiss (660 hours); Anthropology; administrative assistant, 
responsible for overseeing loans, handling miscellaneous corre- 
spondence, special projects. 

James Swartchild (653 hours): Anthropology; photographing new 
and previously acquired specimens for cataloging. 

Gary Ossewaarde (615 hours): Education, Weekend Discovery 
Program; researching, developing, and presenting tours in an- 
thropologv to the public. 

Carol Landow (610 hours): Education, Place for Wonder; orientat- 
ing and assisting school groups and the public in Place of Wonder 

Caroh'n Moore (596 hours): Anthropology; researching, catalog- 
ing, and writing labels for "Art Lacquer of Japan" exhibit, special 
projects. 

Peter Gayford (555 hours): Anthropologv; editing forthcoming 
book on Chinese rubbings, reconstructing "Y" cemeterv at Kish, 
Mesopotamia, helping with maintenance of the Chinese rubbings 
collection. 

Carol Kopeck (555 hours): Public Relations; developing and writ- 
ing press releases for traveling exhibits, answering public in- 
quiries, researching Quaker Oats project. 

Connie Crane (554 hours): Anthropology; researching for the 
Northwest Coast and Eskimo exhibit (opening 1982), editing and 
checking catalog information. 

Burke Smith, Jr (540 hours): Zoolog)'; curating walking sticks 
collection, processing specimen loan requests. 

Margaret Martling (533 hours): Botany; consolidating and reor- 
ganizing Botany's reprint collections, helping with photograph 
collection, filing negatives and filling print orders. 

Dorothea McGivney (529 hours): Education; orientating and assist- 
ing school groups and the public in the Place for Wonder. 

Sol Gurewitz (523 hours): Anthropology; photographing 
specimens. 

Patricia Talbot (522 hours): Geology; assisting with preparation of 
bibliographic and systematic text, and photographic illustrations 
for book on Coal Age fossil animals in northeastern Illinois. 

William Bentley (500 hours): Anthropology; photographing 
24 specimens. 



Over 400 Hours 

James Burd: Anthropology; accessioning and cataloging, general 
departmental projects. 

Louva Calhoun: Anthropology: illustrating and assisting with 
cataloging of 7,000 specimens of stone tools and other artifacts 
from Isimilia Prehistoric Site in Tanzania. 

Miva E. Diablo: Education; Compiling Adult Education's statistical 
information: zip code summaries, registration information; assist- 
ing in Building Operations' numbering system. 

Loma Gonzales: Education, Group Programs; presenting school 
programs on Anthropology and Geology, assisting Summer 
Workshops. 

Sylvia Schueppert: Anthropology; storage preparation of Navajo 
rugs, reorganizing small Chinese textiles. 



Over 300 Hours 

Dennis Bara: Membership; manning weekend membership booth. 

Audrey Faden: Botany; organizing and maintaining greenhouse 
collection of research plants, assisting with- illustration, proof- 
reading, and typing. 

Elizabeth-Louise Girardi: Zoology, Division of Invertebrates; 
Acting Head of Division, specimen processing, research on 
Melanesian land snails. 

Viola Laski: Anthropology; researching bibliographic material and 
references for articles, preparing preliminary work for exhibits. 

Withrow Meeker: Anthropology; accessioning and cataloging, tex- 
tile identification, special projects. 

John O'Brien: Education, Harris Extension; assisting in prepara- 
tion of school loan materials and resources. 

Elizabeth Rada: Botanv; editing and typing cryptogamic papers, 
cataloging and filing botanical periodicals. 

Helen Ruch: Building Operations; care of living plants in public 
areas of Museum, repotting and soil care. 

James Skorcz: Library; assisting in filling interlibrary loan re- 
quests, fiUng cards in card catalog, compiling annual statistics, 
retrie\ing books for Reading Room \'isitors. 

Llois Stein: Anthropology; researching and cataloging Oceanic 
and African collections. 



Julie Ahem 
Bruce Ahlborn 
Victor Algmin 
Mar\- Allan 
Carrie Anderson 
Cleo Anderson 
Dolores Arbanas 
Judv Armstrong 
Beverly Baker 
Dennis Bara 
Gwen Barnett 
Marv Barrett 
Sanda Bauer 
Dodie Baumgarten 
John Ba\alis 
Curtis Bean 
Virginia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
Frances Bentley 
Phoebe Bentley 
William Bentley 
Patricia Bercher 
Ruth Blazina 
Ri\a Blechman 
Sharon Boemmel 
Dons Bohl 
Marjorie Bohn 
Idessie Bowens 
Hermann Bowersox 
Susan Boynton 
Carol Briscoe 
Louise Brown 
Jcihn Clay Bruner 
Carol Brunk-Hamish 
Sophie Brunner 
John Brzuskiewich 
Rose Buchanan 
Gwen Buckun 
Teddv Buddington 
James Burd 
Ann Butterfield 
Louva Calhoun 
Jean Carton 
Cathe Casperson 
Gilda Castro 
Sol Century 
June Chomsky 
Jane Collins 
Mary Ann Cramer 
Connie Crane 
Velta Cukers 
Eleanor DeKoven 



Sara Delahant\- 
Carol Deutsch 
Anne DeVere 
Mi\a Esperanza Diablo 
Marianne Diekman 
Jennifer Dillon 
Delores Dobberstein 
Margaret Dreessen 
Alison Duff 
Stanle\' Dvorak 
Bettie Dwinell 
Milada Dvbas 
Alice Eckie\' 
Anne Ekman 
Nancy Evans 
Audrey Faden 
Martha Farwell 
Vaughn Fitzgerald 
Gerry Fogarty 
Gerda Frank 
Arden Frederick 
Nancy Frederick 
Peter Gayford 
Patricia Georgouses 
Nancy Gerson 
Jim Gibbons 
Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 
Lorna Gonzales 
Steven Gonzales 
Helen Gornstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Carol Graczyk 
Frank Green, Jr. 
Loretta Green 
Cecily Gregory 
Paul Gritis 
Kathy Gunnell 
Sol Gurevvitz 
Bernadette Guzzy 
Sylvia Haag 
Dorothy Haber 
Charles Hadala 
Michael Hall 
Elizabeth Hamilton 
Marjorie Hammerstrom 
John Harding 
Shirley Hattis 
Richard Heaps 
Carol Hill 
Audrey Hiller 
Vicki Hlavacek 
April Hohol 



Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Adrienne Hurwitz 
Diane Hutchinson 
Lucinda Hutchison 
Ellen Hyndman 
Penny Jacobs 
Judith Johnson 
Mabel Johnson 
Malcolm Jones 
Julia Jordan 
Carole Kamber 
Doroth\' Karall 
Dorothy Kathan 
Ruth Keller-Petitti 
Shirley Kennedy 
Marjorie King 
Judy Kirby 
Carol Kopeck 
Judy Kurtz 
John Kusmirek 
Anita Landess 
Carol Landow 
Viola Laski 
Katharine Lee 
June LeFor 
Marion Lehuta 
Steve LeMay 
Anne Leonard 
Virginia Leslie 
EUzabeth Linden 
Margaret Litten 
Elizabeth Lizzio 
Edna MacQuilkin 
Jean Malamud 
Kay-Karol Mapp 
Gabby Margo 
Gretchen Martin 
Margaret Martling 
Joyce Matuszewich 
Joan Maynard 
Melba Mayo 
Mark McCollam 
Patsy McCoy 
Dorothea McGivney 
Ann Meeker 
Withrow Meeker 
Sister Giles Mehren 
Beverly Meyer 
Laura Michalik 
Judi Minter 
Carolyn Moore 



Patricia Morin 
Dorothy Morrison 
Debra Moskovits 
LeMoyne Mueller 
Anne Murphy 
Charlita Nachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
Isobel Neal 
David Neisser 
John Ben Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Norman Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Suzanne Niven 
Bernice Nordenberg 
lla Nuccio 
Janis O'Boye 
John O'Brien 
Joan Opila 
Gary Ossevvaarde 
Anita Padnos 
Raymond Parker 
Peter Paterson 
Delores Patton 
Frank Paulo 
Christine Pavel 
Mary Ann Peruchini 
Barbara Preston 
Sue Prybylowski 
Elizabeth Rada 
Karlene Ramsdell 
Lori Recchia 
Sheila Reynolds 
Elly Ripp' 
Addie Roach 
William Roder 
Barbara Roob 
Robert Rosberg 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Marie Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 
Helen Ruch 
Lenore Ruehr 
Faye Ryan 
Mary Kay Sabino 
Linda Sandberg 
Theresa Schaefer 
Tim Schalk 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 



Marc Schlossman 
Alice Schneider 
Jackie Schneider 
Sylvia Schueppert 
Carole Schumacher 
Beverly Scott 
Cynthia Segal 
Jean Sellar 
Ann Shanower 
Albert Shatzel 
Louise Sherman 
Jessie Sherrod 
Judy Sherry 
Thomas Silvestri 
Abe Simon 
James Skorcz 
Eleanor Skydell 
Burke Smith, Jr. 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spenslcy 
Steve Sroka 
Monica Steckin rider 
Llois Stein 
Lorain Stephens 
Susan Streich 
Frances Stromc]uist 
Cheri Sukowski 
Marjorie Sutton 
Beatrice Swartchild 
James Swartchild 
Dean Swedlund 
Melvia Sykes 
Patricia Talbot 
JaneThain 
Gerda Thompson 
Clare Tomaschoff 
Dana Treister 
Nora Tweetie 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Barbara Vear 
Harold Voris 
Harold Waterman 
David Weiss 
Peyton Wells 
Penny Wheeler 
Ron Winslow 
Marilyn Wodka 
Reeva Wolfson 
Lynn Zeger 
Joseph Zeller 
Faith Zieske 



Elizabeth-Louise Girardi: 
Evolution of a Malacologist 

The dirt-encrusted vials and shells shown 
here are from a collection of moUusks that 
for many years had been stored in open 
trays next to a soft-coal-burning furnace in 
Lawrenceburg, Indiana. They presented 
a major curatorial problem to Field 
Museum, since nearly 6,000 such trays of 
specimens required cleaning and rehous- 
ing. For Members' Night, 1964, a tray, dis- 
played together with a scribbled sign, 
"shell- washer wanter," elicited numerous 
comments, plus one offer of volunteer 
help. In May, 1964, Mrs. Joseph B. Girardi 
spent 12 hours "rehousing specimens." 

From this simple beginning to 1979, 
when Dr. Elizabeth-Louise Girardi acted 




r 



i 



26 



as head, Di\ ision of Invertebrates, during 
my absence on field work in Australia and 
New Zealand, there were changing goals, 
graduate study at Northwestern Univer- 
sity, field trips to several parts of the 
Pacific Ocean, and an increasing commit- 
ment to both research and teaching. 

In Girardi's early years as a volunteer, 
many hours were spent in work on collec- 
tion routine and assisting with phases of 
research. In 1966, she asked if I would 
write a letter of recommendation for her 
entry into a master's program at North- 
western University. By this time, aware of 
her abilihes, I stated to the program head 
"Mrs. Girardi thinks she will get only a 
master's degree. She's wrong. She will go 
on for a Ph.D." Time proved the correct- 
ness of my forecast, and in August, 1973, 
her Ph.D. in biological sciences was 
awarded by Northwestern University. 
Her thesis reviewed a genus of land snails 
in the Museum's collection from Western 
Samoa. Subsequently, additional speci- 
mens were obtained from American 
Samoa. The study was thus expanded and 
revised to be published in January, 1978, 
as "The Samoan Land Snail CenusOstodcs 
(Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Poteriidae)," 



The Vcligcr. vol. 20(3): 191-250, 2 plates, 36 
text-figures. 

In recognition of her professional ac- 
complishments and many contributions to 
the Division of Invertebrates, in August, 
1977, Dr. Girardi was appointed research 
associate. Division of Invertebrates. 
Among her efforts have been untold 
hours of work on curation of specimens, 
functioning as acting head of division for a 
period in 1979, instigator and composer of 
several moUusk oriented lyrics to tra- 
ditional tunes, use of divisional resources 
in teaching at the "Center for Self- 
Directed Learning," New Trier Township 
High School East, numerous lectures to 
high school and college classes and atten- 
dance at a number of national and interna- 
tional meetings. 

Dr. Girardi's research on various snail 
groups continues, while her quiet advice 
and unobtrusive help remain an invalu- 
able resource to our activities. It is with 
more than great pleasure that we give pub- 
lic recognihon to one who has so quietly 
and effectively contributed to the activities 
of the Divison of Invertebrates for almost 
16 years. — Alan Solcm, curator of inverte- 
brates, Department of Zoology. 



26 



Con 't from p. 21 

and they're gone. We lost a few, but not too 
many. We were usually on a different ice cake 
than the one the group was on and if there was a 
little swell, our ice cake was going up and theirs 
was going down, so we had to be pretty careful in 
order to hit that small target. But it's not difficult 
shooting. It's just a question of selection. 

After the trip was over, did you find that liaviii^ gone 
on such an enormous trip, you fou)ui that it influenced 
you in ways thatyou hadn't expected, orplayedapmrt 
in your life aftenoard? 

It did influence me a great deal. 

In what way? 

It's hard to say, but the experience that I obtained 
in helping to organize and carry out the expedi- 
tion successfully gave me self-confidence and a 
feeling of gratification for having made a lasting 
contribution to the Field Museum. 

There's a saying that "nothing succeeds like success." 
And I think that particularly at a very formative age, 
when one is stepping over in to being completely grown 
up, to have successful experiences is very telling. 

I have always said that it's one of the best invest- 
ments I've ever made, not from the standpoint of 
monetary reward, but for the reward of doing 
something that I wanted to do and having it work 
out the way I planned it. D 




Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 



]"% 





Ice pilot and navigator Carl Hansen in Dorothy's pilot 
house 



March and April at Field Museum 

(March 15 through April 15) 



New Exhibit 

"Patterns of Paradise." This major exhibit of dramatic and rare bark 
cloth, or tapa, illustrates the people and history of exotic tropical 
islands. See how Pacific peoples took the ancient task of making cloth 
out of tree bark and elaborated it into an art form of distinctive and 
remarkable styles. The Exhibit also includes wood carvings, masks, 
costume accessories, and tools. Most of the 200 artifacts are from Field 
Museum's world-famous oceanic collections. Conceived and created 
by the Museum's own staff. Exhibit curator: John Terrell; designer: 
Donald Skinner. Through June 8, Hall 26, 2nd floor. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Birds. Examine the varied woHd of birds from the Antarctic emperor 
penguin to the common sparrows of America. Three scenes show 
Chicago-area birds. Specimens of recently extinct birds such as the 
passenger pigeon and the great auk are also on view. Halls 20 and 21, 
1st floor. 

"The Place for Wonder." Touch, handle, sort, and compare natural 
history specimens in this gallery. Carefully trained Museum volunteers 
help guide exploration. Open weekdays 1 to 3 p.m.; weekends 10 a.m. 
to noon and 1 to 3 p.m. Ground floor, near cafeteria. 

"Hall of Useful Plants." Survey the plants and plant products that have 
contributed to the well-being of people around the worid. The hand- 
made plant models are famous for their beauty and craftsmanship as 
well as their scientific accuracy Miniature dioramas depict a tea planta- 
tion in Sri Lanka and a coffee plantation in Brazil. Hall 28, 2nd floor. 

New Programs 

"The Royal Dancers and Musicians from the Kingdom of Bhutan." 
Experience the magic of this Himalayan troupe making their premiere 
tour of the United States. Thirteen ornately costumed performers — 
experts in lively music, dancing, and comic pantomime — act out 
stories from Buddhist legend and ancient folklore. Sponsored by the 
Asia Society's Performing Arts Program. Tickets (Members, S5.0O; 
nonmembers, 57.00) may be purchased at the West Door before the 
performance. Friday March 21, 8 p.m. in Simpson Theatre. A special 
lecture/demonstration on Bhutanese dance-drama is offered by the 
performers at 4 p.m. on the same day in Lecture Hall I. Tickets for this 
event are also available at the West Door (Members, $2.00; nonmem- 
bers S3.50). 

"Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures." These colorful programs are held 
each Saturday during March and April at 2:30 p.m. in SimpsonTheatre. 
Narrated by the filmmakers themselves, the programs are recom- 
mended for adults. Admission is free at the Museum's West Door. 
Reserved seating is available for Members until 2:25 p.m. For program 
details see pages 22-23. 

Spring Journey: "Pacific Isles: A Voyage to the South Seas." Learn 
about the cultures of Mcronesia, Polynesia, and Melanesia through this 
self-guided tour. Free Journey pamphlets available at Museum 
entrances. 



Weekend Discovery Programs. Free guided tours, demonstrations, 
and films. Check "Weekend Sheet" available at North Information 
Booth for additional programs and locations. 

• "Northwest Coast Indian Costume." Find out how native and im- 
ported materials were used in Northwest Coast clothing to display 
wealth and social status in this 45-minute slide presentation Sunday 
March 16, 2:30 p.m. 

• "Endangered Animals." Focus on animals in danger of extinction in 
this half-hour tour. Saturday March 22, 12 noon. 

• "The Vanishing People." This 30-minute slide presentation of E. S. 
Curtis's famous photographs reveals eariy 20th-century North Ameri- 
can Indian life. Sunday March 23, 1:30 p.m. 

• "in the Land of the War Canoes." E. S. Curtis's classic 1914 film 
drama recaptures the life and spirit of British Columbia's KwakiutI 
Indians. Sunday March 23, 2:30 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments." Explore the underwater world of 
ancient invertebrate animals in this 45-minute tour. Saturday March 
29,1:30 p.m. 

• ""Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." This 45-minute tour ex- 
amines the Museum's collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts and 
concludes with a movie. Sunday March 30, 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt. " Ancient traditions are examined in this 45-minute 
tour. Saturday April 5, 1 1:30 a.m. 

• "Death of a Legend." This 50-minute film looks at wolves and the 
mistreatment they have received from men. Saturday April 5, I p.m. 

• ""The Ancient Etruscans." Explore the everyday life and religion of 
the Etruscans in this 35-minute tour Sunday April 6, 1 p.m. 

• "American Indian Dress." Investigate the construction, craft style, 
and symbolism of Indian dress of North America. Saturday April 12, 
11:30 a.m. 

• "Endangered Animals. " Saturday April 12, 12 noon. 

• "Bighorn. " This 26-minute film studies an endangered species, the 
bighorn sheep. Saturday April 12, 1 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals" Bones and 
Teeth. " This 45-minute tour looks at some changes in teeth and bones 
that characterize the great variation in today's mammals. Saturday 
April 12, 1:30 p.m. 

• "Prehistoric People in the Lower Illinois Valley." This half-hour tour 
and demonstration shows how these people adapted to their environ- 
ment through the use of tools. Sunday April 13, 1 p.m. 

(Continued on back cover) 



T-^ 




27 



ILLINOIS NATURAL HISTORY 
SURVEY LIP RN 196 
NATURAL RESOURCES BUILDING 
URBANA ILL 61801 



^^1 



March & April at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 
Continuing Programs 



"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Learn about age-old weaving tech- 
niques and textile development during these free demonstrations. 
Monday. Wednesday, and Friday from 10:00 a.m. to noon. South 
Lounge, 2nd floor 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is 
harmful and which is not See if you can distinguish a vampire bat 
a headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mushroom from 
its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- and 
family oriented, are available for 25' each at the entrance to the 
Museum Shop, main floor north. 



Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with scientific interests and back- 
grounds are needed to work in the various departments. For more 
information call Volunteer Coordinator. 922-9410, ext 360. 

March and April Hours. The Museum is open every day, 9 a.m. to f 
p.m., except Fridays. On Fridays the Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m 
throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Closed Qooc 
Friday, April 4. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410 




^.jX.^'i'^K. 



^^^ 



A Young Woman of Otaheite, engraving after a sketch by John Webber 
The tapa cloth wrapped about her body was presented as a gift to 
CapL James Cook. Pacific explorer For more on tapa cloth exhibit. 
"Patterns of Paradise." see page 4. 



FIELD MGSEaM OF NATURAL HISTORY BOLLETIN 



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Gold of El Dorado 

The Heritage of Colombia 



AprU25^uly6 

Members ' Preview April 24 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

April 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 4 



Editor 'Designer: David M. Walsfen 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Presidetit and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley I! 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L, Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, 
except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Ljke Shore Drive. Chicago, 11 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 
annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: 
(3121 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605 ISSN: 
0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II 



CONTENTS 
3 Field Briefs 

Field Museum Tours for Members 



4 
6 

10 

14 
16 

27 



Gold of El Dorado: 

The Heritage of Colombia 

Exhibit opens April 25 

The Kente Cloth of Ghana 

/n/ Karen Chesna McNeil, technical assistant in 
anthropiologi/ 

Our Environment 

Fieldiana 1978 and 1979 Titles 

April and May at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

Tolinia pectoral, or chest ornament. Made of cast and hammered 
gold. Height 19.7cm (7-314 in .} . From Museo del Oro. Oneofmore 
than 500 pieces of ancient goldivork to he seen in the exhibit "Gold 
of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia," opening April 25 and 
closing July 6. See p. 7. Photo by Lee Boltin, courtesy American 
Museum of Natural Histon/. 

The national tour of "Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of 
Colombia" is spwnsored by Chemical Bank, with additional sup- 
port from the National Endowment for the Humanities and the 
National Endowment for the Arts, and has been organized by the 
American Museum of Natural History. 



Gold of El Dorado 
Group Tours 

Special tours of the major forthcoming exhibit "Gold of 
El Dorado," opening April 25 and closing July 6, may 
nozv be arranged for groups as small as 30 persons. 
During public hours, daily except Friday, special 
groups of 30 to 100 persons can be accommodated. On 
Tuesday and Thursday evenings (after the Museum is 
closed to the general public) groups of 50 or more can be 
accommodated. 

Supplemental lectures by Museum staff for 
such groups, as well as private dining arrangements, 
are also available. For rates and other information call 
Caryn Friedman, at 786-9570. 



FIELD BRIEFS 



NSF Grant for Mazon Creek Study 

The National Science Foundation has 
awarded a $50,000 grant to Field Museum 
to study the fossil-rich area around Mazon 
Creek and the abandoned Braidwood- 
Coal City strip mines about 60 miles 
southwest of Chicago. Gordon C. Baird, 
assistant curator of fossil invertebrates 
and Eugene Richardson, curator of fossil 
invertebrates, will direct the study- A team 
of scientists, volunteers, and amateur col- 
lectors will work together to take a fossil 
census, and to tr\' to reconstruct the an- 
cient ecology of this area which about 300 
million years ago included fresh and salt 
water habitats around a delta which bor- 
dered a large inland sea. 

"We'll tr\' to reconstruct the particular 
events which took place in this 'Coal Age 
Pompeii' that left so many well preserved 
and finely detailed plants and animals," 
said Baird. "It is one of the most important 
invertebrate fossil sites in the world be- 
cause man)' unusual soft-bodied animals 
are found here. These fossils are superbly 
preser\'ed because the animals and plants 
were buried rapidly during floods and be- 
cause hard nodules formed around the 
fossils immediately after burial. These 
nodules preserved such details as patterns 
of color and larval egg sacs. 

"Although the Mazon Creek area has 
been studied for over 100 years, there is an 
urgent need to complete the work before a 
nuclear power plant and residential proj- 
ects planned for some sites destroy their 
usefulness," Baird continued. "More than 
500 plants and animals, many bizarre and 
problematic, have been discovered in the 
area, and I believe many more are present 
in unexplored areas and in some extensive 
private collections. 

"The statistical census will be done by 
trained scientists, but we also want to ex- 
amine private collections of amateur col- 
lectors for the rarer forms of fossils, as well 
as for undiscovered species. For instance, 
an insect is found only once in every two 
to three thousand fossils, and an amphi- 
bian once ever\' 100,000 fossils. Therefore, 
these rare forms can be seen more often in 
large amateur collections than in random 
samples. We can also get a better idea of 
the relationships of the land and water 
plants and animals through examining 
nodules containing two or more species. 
These are much valued in private collec- 
tions." 

Mazon Creek fossil collecting is cur- 
rently centered at Pit 11 of the Peabody 
Coal Company strip mine west of Essex, 
Illinois. Amateur collectors as well as 
paleontologists are allowed to collect at 



this site through the joint cooperation of 
Field Museum and Commonwealth Edi- 
son UtilitN' Company, which now owns 
the property. However, half of this site is 
scheduled to be flooded because of the 
construction of a cooling pond for a nu- 
clear power plant. 

Most fossils are found inside round or 
oblong ironstone nodules along the banks 
of Mazon Creek or in the dump heaps of 
the strip mine areas southwest of Joliet on 
highway 1-55. The nodules can usually be 
opened by hammering; this pounding will 
often cause the nodule to break along the 
plane of the fossil. 



MEMBERS' PREVIEW 

of 

"Gold of El Dorado: 

The Heritage of Colombia" 

Thursday, April 24, 1:00 to 9:00 p.m. 
Hall 27 

Refreshments to be served 



NSF Summer Anthropology Course 

For the fifteenth consecutive year. Field 
Museum offers its six-week NSF Summer 
Anthropology Course for high-ability 
high school students. Objectives of the 
course, which is free, are to provide a 
sound foundation in the various funda- 
mentals of anthropology, to bring stu- 
dents into contact with scientists promi- 
nent in these fields, to enable students 
to gain experience in both group and in- 
dividual research, and to assist students 
in tesHng a career interest. 

The popular course, under the direc- 
torship of Harriet Smith, is scheduled 
June 23 through August 1, weekdays. The 
fifth week will be spent at an archeological 
dig. The course is made possible by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. 

Faculty members for the 1980 session 
include Phillip Lewis, cochairman of the 
Department of Anthropology, Field 
Museum; Rtmald Weber, visiting assistant 
curator for the Northwest Coast area, 
Department of Anthropology, Field 
Museum; Ronald Singer, physical an- 
thropologist. Department of Anatomy, 
University of Chicago; Stuart Struever, ar- 
cheologist. Department of Anthropology, 



Northwestern University; John Aubrey, 
Ayer Documentary Collection, Newberry 
Library; Peter Knauss, political scientist. 
University of Illinois at Chicago Circle; M. 
Kenneth Starr, director of the Milwaukee 
Public Museum; Joseph Berland, cultural 
anthropologist. Northwestern University; 
William Adelman, Labor Relations Pro- 
gram, University of Illinois at Chicago Cir- 
cle; David Keene, doctoral candidate. 
University of Wisconsin; and Edward 
Lace, naturalist-historian. Cook County 
Forest Preserves. 

Applications for the course — which 
must be submitted by April 14 — ma\- be 
obtained by writing or calling Field 
Museum's Department of Education 
(922-9410, ext. 246). Additional informa- 
tion may be obtained by writing Harriet 
Smith, Department of Education, Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., 
Chicago, 111. 60605. 



Trustees Elect New Officers 

At the annual meeting of the Field 
Museum Board of Trustees, held January 
21, the following officers were elected or 
reelected: 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., chairman 
of the board, and John W. Sullivan, vice 
chairman of the Facilities Planning Com- 
mittee, were reelected for two-year terms. 

Robert O. Bass, vice chairman of the 
Resource Planning and De\'elopment 
Committee; Blaine J. Yarrington, treasurer 
of the Board of Trustees; and George R. 
Baker, vice chairman of the Internal Af- 
fairs Committee, were elected for two- 
year terms. 

Reelected for five-year terms as trus- 
tees were Charles F. Murphy, Jr., James J. 
O'Connor, James H. Ransom, William L. 
Searle, John W. Sullivan, Mrs. Theodore 
D. Tieken, and Blaine J. Yarrington. 




.^.^- 



FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

1980 rourPackoges Exclusively for Members 

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(:ivi)cscsclifH^lc!Ml(tici)sii)ijii)l\'hin(is 1 icii AnMcnScntaic. Plyno ImStdnum R. (.:<n)k. courfcsiy Chicago Tribiint- 





People's Republic of China 
May lO 31 

The sinfiuiar experience of a trip to the People's Re- 
public of China can be \ours! For its members. Field 
Museum a^ain offers an opportunit\' to visit China's 
major attractions. The tour leader will be Susan Mann 
Jones, assistant professor of Chinese civilization, of 
the University of Chicago. The group, limited to 25 
persons, vsill leave Chicago May 10 and return Ma\' 31. 

After o\ernight in Vancouver and a visit in To- 
kyo, you will continue to Peking, China's centuries-old 
capital. Relics of the imperial past, now national 
monuments, include the magnificent imperial palace, 
museums, temples and shrines, and the vast park-like 
Summer Palace on the shores of nearbx' Kunming 
Lake. A trip will be made to the Great Wall. The next 
destination. Nanking, situated on the Yangtse River, is 
a source of pride for the People's Republic as a center 
of modern development as well as for its scenic and 
historic attractions. Of special interest is the visit to the 
charming city of Kweilin. The awesome surrounding 
landscape of jutting peaks and rocky caves brings 
scenes of Chinese painting to life. Kwangchow (Can- 
ton) is China's most important .southern city, reflecting 
e\ents in the histor\' of the republic as well as former 
times when it was Chinas only port open to foreign 
trade. 

Cost of the tour is 54.295 (which includes a $500 
donation to Field Museum). Advance deposit: $500 
per person. For additional information on this exciting 
tour, contact the Tours Office and ask for the China 
4 brochure. 



Illinois Archeology Field Trip 
July 6 11 

For man\' of us, the word "archeologv" conjures up 
\isions of great architecture in distant places: Egypt's 
Pyramids and Sphinx. Cambodia's Angkor Wat, 
and Mexico's Pyramids of the Sun and Moon at 
Teotihuacan. These sites, with their relics, are limit- 
lessly fascinating. 

But right here in Illinois we also have exciting ar- 
cheological sites, including the largest aboriginal 
structure north of Mexico — Monk's Mound at Cahokia. 
One of the most broadly based archeological re- 
search centers in the countrv' is the Foundation for 
Illinois ArcheologN", at Kampsville; and one of the 
largest covered excavations with the longest continu- 
ing research programs is at Dickson Mounds, near 
Lewistown. 

For the second consecutive xear Field Museum 
is offering an archeological field trip which will visit 
Dickson Mounds, Kamps\'ille, and Cahokia Mounds. 
Limited to 30 participants, the trip includes site visits, 
lecture and slide presentations, workshops and dis- 
cussions led by staff archeologists working at the re- 
spective sites. The field trip director is Roben Picker- 
ing, a doctoral candidate at Northwestern University. 



For additional information and rcsen^ations 
for all lours, call or write Dorotliij Rodcr Field 
Museum Tours. Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Dr. Chicago. III. 60605. Phone (312)922-9410. 



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Sanunini. nidkint in the Mediterranean sun. is one o/ many 
island sites to he I'isited hy mernl)ers of Field Museum's 
Septemher ti nir to Greeee. 

The Classical Lands: 

Greece and the Grecian Isles 

September 7 26 

Under the leadership of Dr. Donald Whitcomb, Field 
Museum assistant curator of Near Eastern archeology 
aiid ethnology, this tourwil visit Athens, the sites of 
ancient Corinth and Mycenae, Delphi. Olympia. Knos- 
sos, Santorini, ttie island of Rhodes, Miletus, Skiros. 
Piraeus, and numerous other sites of interest in the 
histor>' of western civilization and art. 

Following six days and five nights in Athens, the 
sleek luxur\' motor \acht Cavo D'Oro. with 30 
passenger cabins, will take tour members across the 
shimmering waters of the Aegean to some of the 
loveliest and most historically interesting of the Greek 
Isles. 

Cost of the tour— $3,725 (which includes a $300 
donation to Field Museum) — is based upon double 
occupancy and includes round trip air fare via TWA 
between Chicago and Greece. First class accommo- 
dations will be used throughout. The package in- 
cludes almost all meals (all meals while aboard the 
CAH'oiroro}. motorcoach fares, baggage handling, all 
I ransfers, taxes (except airpon tax), and tips (except to 
tour guides), all sightseeing charges and admissions 
i< ) spec iai e\ents. Advance deposit: $300 per person. 




GeologN' Tour ot Fngland and Wales 
Iunel4-July3 

Highlights of this fascinating tour— which includes 
sites of geologic, historic, and aesthetic interest — are 
Stonehenge, the 4,()00-year-old mar\el of prehistc^ric 
engineering: the Homan ruins at Bath: Ironbridge, on 
the Severn, the first iron bridge ever constructed 
(1777-79): the incomparably lovely Lake District; Win- 
chester Cathedral: and many other beautiful old cas- 
tles, cathedrals, and manor houses of Wales and Eng- 
land. Three nights will be spent in London. Leader of 
this tour (which is limited to 25) will be Dr Bertram 
Woodland, curator of petrology, and a nati\e of Wales. 
Cost of the tour— $2,640 (which includes a $300 
donation to Field Museum) — is based upon double 
occupancy and includes round trip air fare between 
Chicago and London. First class accommodations 
will be used throughout. The package includes break- 
fast and dinner ciaiK', chartered motorcoach, baggage 
handling, all transfers, taxes (except airpon tax), and 
tips (except to lour guides), all sightseeing charges 
and admissions to special events. Advance deposit: 
$250 per person. 




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Devils Luki 
Range 



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Wisconsins Buralxyo 



Clieddar Gurtje. Somerset, an interestiim (jeoliKiicui lonita- 
tion to lie L'isited hij EncjIandWales tour I'hoto hyBenrant G. 
Woodland. 

Wisconsin's Baraboo Range 
June 21-22 

Dr. Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogx'. will lead tour 
members through the Baraboo range and along the 
shores and hinterland of beautiful Devil's Lake. 
The Baraboo Range is of special interest as a 
/no/KKi/iock— what is left of an ancient mountain 
r.inge and which now stands out above the younger 
rocks and sediments. The range consists of 
( luanzite — more than one billion years old— which, 
.ilthough compressed in places into vertical folds, re- 
tains the original sedimentary structures. The moun- 
tains were further modified by glaciers, forming the 
lake antl the pic luresciuc glens, and changing the 
course of rivers. 

Hiking clothes are slrongl>' recommended tor the 
scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, 
but younger people interested in natural histor>' are 
welcome. The cost of the Barabocj trip is 595 per 
person. 5 



Gold of El Dorado 
The Heritage of Colombia 



April 25-July 6 



Plwtos by Lee Boltin 
Cou rtesy of the American M useu m of Natii ral History 



The Largest and Most Comprehensive display 
of Colombian archeology ever seen in the United 
States will be open to public view at Field 
Museum, in Hall 27, from April 25 to July 6. More 
than 500 artifacts, the great majority fashioned 
from gold, come to Chicago after an initial North 
American showing at the American Museum of 
Natural History. Prior to that, the exhibit was 



Opposite: Quimbaya pectoral. Made of cast tumbaga 
{gold- copper alloy). Heightl2.3cm (4Vsin.). FromMuseo 
del Oro. The tumbnga of ivhich this piece is made has a 
relatively high percentage ofcopjper, thus its greettish cast. 

Below: Alligator or lizard. Made of cast tumbaga. 
Length 13.6cm (5% in.). The creatures rendered in Colom- 
bian goldwork were chosen for their symbolic value rather 
than for their significance as sources of food. The lizard 
represented knowledge, power, and social correctness. 



hosted by the Royal Academy of Arts, in Lon- 
don. The size of the show, in number of pieces, is 
about eight times that of the never-to-be- 
forgotten "Tut" exhibit, which was also mostly 
gold. 

Included in the exhibit are a remarkable 
variety of pieces: jewelry to adorn virtually every 
part of the body, crowns and other regal wear, 
masks, pectorals (chest ornaments), bells, 
diadems, spear-throwers, effigies, figurines, 
helmets, musical instruments, bowls, flasks, 
jars, and other containers; also to be seen are 
gold coins of Spain's Charles V (1516-58) and the 
weaponry, body armor, and other accouterments 
of the 16th-century conquistador. 

Text continued on page 18. 



Atiiwinting and covering 

El Dorado with gold duft. 

Engraving In/ 

Thcodordc Bry. 

from Historia Americae, 

Frankfurt (1580). 





Courtesy The New York Public Library 



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THE KENTE CLOTH OF GHANA 



A Marvel of Weaver's Art 



BY KAREN CHESMA McNEIL 



Kente Cloth is a woven fabric composed of 
narrow strips of cotton, rayon, or silk sewn to- 
gether \'erticallv so as to produce a patchwork 
effect. It is made throughout West Africa, but the 
kente cloth produced by the Ashanti people, of 
Ghana, is particularly well known for its excep- 
tionally fine craftsmanship, complex abstract de- 
signs, fine weave, and bright colors. An excep- 
tionally beautiful example of Ashanti work is that 
shown opposite. 

This piece was hand-woven in the work- 
shop of Mrs. Mary Asare (a relative of the late 
master weaver A. E. Asare) and bears the label 
"A. E. Asare & Co., Dento Mills, Nsawam, 
Ghana." It was collected for Field Museum in 
1966 by Professor Roy Sieber, a specialist in Afri- 
can art at Indiana University, Bloomington. Al- 
though the date this cloth was woven is un- 
known, its excellent condition suggests that it 
may have been made not long before Sieber ac- 
quired it. 

Many qualities common to African art are 
to be seen in this piece. Its design is completely 
geometric, as opposed to naturalistic. To the 
touch it is cool and smooth, while to the eye it is 
exciting. The equilibrium and offbeat rhythm so 
often found in the art of West Africa can be 
sensed in this piece with its variety of colors, 
shapes, and textures. While there is nothing stat- 
ic about its design, all the elements seem to be in 
balance. 

The cloth is made of brilliantly hued 
rayon, machine spun and synthetically dyed. Its 
colors are bold: red, green, yellow, electric blue, 
and silvery white; a more subtle purple shade 
has been achieved by combining a red weft with 
the blue warp. A surface tension has been pro- 
duced by alternating dark with light bands. 
Further contrast is added by reversing the order 
of the yellow and green stripes of the block de- 
signs found at the ends and in the main body of 
the cloth. 

Large smooth warp-faced areas contrast 
texturally with the smaller rectangles of raised 
weft designs. With their offset arrangements 
they also create a rhythmic patchwork effect. 
Stripes, bars, rectangles, trapezoids, and check- 
ered patterns contribute further to this interplay 
of elements in elastic tension as vertical warp 
stripes contrast with horizontal weft elements, 
rectangular bars are juxtaposed with trapezoids, 
and barred and striped blocks form interpenet- 



rating zig-zags in the border areas. 

The quality of high visibility — notable in 
African art as a whole — appears in the traditional 
white outlining of the brocaded blocks. Rayon 
threads give the piece luminosity. Symmetry can 
be found in the sequence of colors and sizes used 
in the warp strips and the weft designs. Only the 
arrangement of the cloth strips appears asym- 
metrical. Elements on each are different so that 
the cloth does not mirror itself when folded in 
half vertically. This piece, however, is but a sam- 
ple of kente cloth. In a finished work perhaps 
more strips would be added, giving the piece the 
appearance of greater symmetry. 

Measuring 76V2 inches (including a 
V2-inch fringe on each end) by 20% inches, this 
piece is considerably smaller than the 96-by-60- 
inch dimensions of a traditional man's cloth. It is, 
nonetheless, surprisingly heavy, a feature 
largely attributable to the extra weft threads in- 
troduced in the tapestrylike areas. The piece con- 
sists of five strips approximately 4V2 inches wide 
joined by a sewing machine with a zigzag stitch. 
The rectangular areas that are completely cov- 
ered with a supplementary weft tend to be Vs to 
Vi inch narrower, for this inlay technique pulls 
the warp thread closer together. 

It is a common practice of the Ashanti to 
name a kente cloth for its particular warp pat- 
tern, a custom that may have originated long 
before supplementary weft patterning became 
an extensively used technique and covered the 
warp as it does now. Weft designs are also given 
names. In the case of warp as well as weft, the 
name can describe the pattern, be based on a 
proverb (to which the color provides the key), or 
refer to a personal experience of the weaver that 
occurred while the cloth was being made; the 
cloth is never named for the type of occasion on 
which it is to be worn or presented. 

According to tradition, new patterns, 
color combinations, cloth names, and — where 
applicable — proverbs symbolically represented 
are submitted to {htiasantclicnc, or tribal chief, for 
his approval. While the rights to all the Ashanti 
kente patterns are held by the asantehene he 
may on occasion award a pattern to someone he 
favors. A pattern can thus come to signify social 



Karen Chesna McNeil is a technical assistant in the 
Department of Anthropology. 



II 



Fiillk'n^thofkcntcchthof 

ii'hkh detail i^^liowii, m 

color, on pn^c 10. The full 

fizi- if 76-1:2x20-3:4 

inches (194.3cm X 

52.7 cm). 



T??^^^*^ ' Kllllllllll 11 ■^■^^^ll ■■■.If 

iiTi 




12 



iS'yTiMT^iBiniini 



position, clan membership, or sex, as well as 
symbolically represent a proverb or object. 

The cloth shown on page 10 is not repre- 
sentative of any particular family or clan; it may, 
however, relate to the proverb Obi nkyem tra ye tra 
na: "It is not easy to stay with someone." This 



saying is typical of the Ashanti, for whom money 
and the familv's economic welfare are of particu- 
lar importance. In large extended families, the 
wealthiest are obligated to support the poorest. 
Thus, proverbs concerned with family tensions, 
such as "family is war" or the one represented in 
this cloth, referring to marriage, are common. 

Traditionally, five brocaded blocks of three 
different patterns mark the beginning and end of 
each strip in a kente cloth. They appear in the 
order ABCBA in one strip, CBABC in the next, 
ABCBA in the next, and so on. In this cloth the 
designs are nsatia, or "fingers"; nnowbtoa, or 
"snail's bottom"; and bahadua, a tree common to 
the Ashanti region. Cloths which incorporate 
luiw'dtoa and babadua, the most commonly used 
border designs, are rather expensive because 
they completely cover the warp and thus require 
much time to weave. Nsatia, which requires less 
time to produce, is frequently used on the less 
expensive cloths. Generally, some of these end 
designs are also put into the main body of the 
weaving. 

Kente cloth made for sale is created solely 
by professional male weavers who have gone 
through an apprenticeship. Each weaver makes 
or buys his own loom and tools, lays out the 
warp, and completes the cloth. Women and girls 
are in charge of preparing the fibers. They plant, 
harvest, and spin the cotton. In former times, 
when silk could not be obtained by the spool or 
skein it was their task to obtain thread by un- 
ravelling it from silk trade cloth. 

Even until today the Ashanti have con- 
tinued to honor certain taboos against weaving 
by females. (The fact, however, that the cloth 
shown on page 10 was made in the workshop of a 
woman suggests that such prohibitions are not 
as strict today as in former times.) A woman's 
menstrual period, it is suspected, will either 
interfere with the actual production of a cloth or 
cause "undesirable forces" to form around the 
unfinished product. During her menstrual 
period a woman may neither touch a loom nor 
speak directly with her weaver husband; any 
communication with him must be done through 
someone else, preferably a child. Other taboos, 
such as that against beginning a weaving on a 
Friday, are also still observed today. 

Much conflicting information is to be 
found concerning the historical development of 
the kente cloth. According to one legend, weav- 
ing was taught about 1700 to two farmers of 
Bonwire, Ghana (now the principal weaving 
center), by a spider, Ananse. After studying 
Ananse's web the two men duplicated the tech- 
nique in black and white cotton and presented a 
finished cloth to their leader, Asantehene Nana 
Osei Tutu. This tradition of black and white 




■--.si 
-Eli 



-'»K^ 



■flMl 



Kaitccloth on pcrinauail display at United Natuvii headquarters. Photo courtcsi/ United ;\'(ifu))is, V. Na\;ata. 



weaving continued until around 1900 when, dur- 
ing the reign of Asantehene Nana Agyemen 
Prempeh, colored yards became available. The 
first colored cloth was supposedly called 
Oyokoman in tribute to Prempeh's clan, the 
Okoyo. 

Another authority suggests that the kente 
weaving tradition started much earlier, that cara- 
vans brought silk fabric and dyes into the 
Ashanti territory from the Near, Middle, and Far 
East some five centuries ago. These items in- 
spired Asantehene Oti Akenten, who had a flair 
for color and design, to make this type of cloth. It 
is for him, supposedly, that kente cloth is so 
named. Whatever its origins, most authorities 
agree that the cloth as we know it today de- 
veloped from a band-woven black and white or 
indigo and white cotton fabric, and that the 
bnght colors were introduced only after the arri- 
val of the Europeans. 

Traditionally the kente cloth was a pres- 
tige item worn only by Ashanti royalty. Thomas 
E. Bowdich describes in his Mission from Cape 
Castle to Ashantee (1817) seeing an asantehene 
with a heavy, brightly colored cloth worn like a 
toga over his shoulder. Today in Ghana the kente 
cloth is a national costume worn by wealthy men 
and women on special occasions. A man still 
wraps it — a single piece — around his body and 
over his left shoulder like a toga. The woman's 
costume consists of two identical cloths. One 



cloth is cut and fashioned into a long dress while 
the other is worn as a shawl or used to hold a 
baby on the back. 

But kente cloth has a number of other uses 
as well. Two-inch-wide pieces serve as sashes, 
hair bands, and decorative ornaments. Several 
four-inch weavings may be combined into 
shawls, place mats, bags, skirts, table runners, 
pillow covers, and so on. A 602cm-by-384cm 
(19'9" X 12'7') silk cloth (shown above) woven in 
green, yellow, and maroon on a blue background 
and designed by A. E. Asare, required for its 
production the labor of 10 men for three and a 
half months, and was presented in 1960 to the 
United Nations, in New York. It may be seen 
there today, on permanent display, in the Dele- 
gates' Lounge. D 



Supplementary Reading 

Hale, Sjarief. "Kente Cloth of Ghana," African Arts, 
Vol. 3, Spring. 1970. 

Kent, Kate P. "West African Decorative Weaving," 
African Arts, Vol. 6, Autumn, 1972. 

Sieber, Roy. African Textiles and Decorative Arts, New 
York: Museum of Modern Art, 1972. 

Smith, Shea Clark. "Kente Cloth Motifs," African Arts, 
Vol. 9, October, 1975. 

Thompson, Robert Farris. African Art in Motion, 
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974. 



13 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Red Wolf: Our Most 
Endangered Mammal 

The red wolf tCanis rufus) probably no 
longer roams free in the wild, according to 
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). 
Much smaller than its close relative, the 
timber wolf, this slender 40-to-80-pound, 
sometimes reddish wolf has the dubious 
distinction of being America's most en- 
dangered mammal. 

Red wolves once ranged throughout 
the southeast and parts of Illinois and In- 
diana. But today, at most only 40 survive, 
in a Tacoma, WA zoo and holding pens in 
nearby Graham. 

Ver.' early in this century, soon after the 
American West was "won" and the land 
was still in need of "taming," a federally- 
sponsored predator control program was 
initiated to assist stockmen in their fight 
to protect cattle and sheep from wolves 
and coyotes. Among the "varmints" to 
succumb to the federal trappers was the 
red wolf. 

Even before the predator control pro- 
gram, the wolf's range had shrunk from 
the entire southeast to a belt of southern 
states including eastern Texas and Ok- 
lahoma. Tragically, the red wolf's ever- 
shrinking population went unnoticed for 
decades. Only by the 1960's did anyone 
become concerned over the red wolf's 
plight. 

In 1962, Howard McCarley, a biologist 
with Austin College, suggested that the 
wolf was much less common than 
realized, and perhaps even threatened in 
Texas. FWS officials discounted his warn- 
ing. Its predator control agents had re- 
ported trapping over 2,700 red wolves in 
Texas in 1963, and they appeared as com- 
mon as ever. The agency was sure these 
were red wolves because it thought 
coyotes didn't occur in the same area. 
McCarley found instead that nearly all the 
"red wolves" killed by the federal agents 
were, in fact, coyotes. His study, and later 
studies by Canadian zoologist Doug Pim- 
lott, showed that the range of the red wolf 
had shrunk dramatically, and at most, 
only a few hundred survived in the wild, 
limited to a small range on the Texas- 
Louisiana border. 

Protection for the red wolf finally came 
in 1966, when the species was declared 
endangered, and a red wolf recovery 
team, composed of state and federal 
wildbfe experts, was formed. 

Even in a swampy habitat, inhospitable 

to man, the remaining wolves were not 

free from extinction pressures. Habitat 

change was a continued threat in the 

U Texas-Louisiana region, and external and 



internal parasites plagued the population. 
But the greatest threat to its continuation 
as a distinct species was and is the red 
wolf's close kinship with coyotes and 
domestic dogs. As man altered the wolf's 
habitat, the more adaptable coyote was 
able to expand its range into what had 
been red wolf territory. As their numbers 
dwindle, red wolves looking for mates are 
forced to accept coyotes or occasionally 
feral dogs when none of their own kind 
can be found. 

A red wolf-coyote or red wolf-dog mat- 
ing produces fertile hybrid offspring. The 
behavioral and physical characteristics 
that make a red wolf a red wolf, and not a 
coyote or dog, fade with successive in- 
breedings invoKing hybrids, coyotes, and 
dogs. The eventual result is extinction 
through the complete genetic absorption 
of the red wolf. 

As dismal as the red wolf's situation 
seems to be, one hope remains for its con- 
tinued existence. The hope is an ongoing 
captive breeding program begun around 
1974 by the FWS and the Tacoma Point 
Defiance Zoo. This zoo was selected for 
the captive breeding program because the 
staff had much experience with canids, 
and the region is free from the heartworm 
and hookworm parasites that plagued the 
wolves in Texas and Louisiana. The zoo 
hopes to breed pure red wolf strains 
through careful monitoring of the genetic 
purity of captured wolves, and pairing of 
pure red wolf adults. 

Distinguishing a hybrid wolf from the 
real thing isn't a simple matter, though. 
Curtis Carley, endangered species 
biologist and red wolf expert with the 
FWS, uses a set of 25 criteria to carefully 
evaluate a wolf's genetic heritage. 

Unhybridized wolves and coyotes differ 
visibly in size. For example, a large male 
wolf outweighs a large male coyote by al- 
most 50 pounds, and even the smallest 
possible male wolf has at least 15 pounds 
over a coyote Goliath. However, such eas- 
ily observable distinctions become 
hopelessly clouded upon hybridization. 
Carley likens the difficulty of distinguish- 




ing pure wolves from hybrids to the breed- 
ing of a poodle and a cocker spaniel, say- 
ing, "Some of the mixed-breed pups can 
look just like a poodle, and some other 
may look just like a cocker spaniel." 

Most important among the 25 charac- 
teristics Carley examines are: hind foot 
and ear length, shoulder height, and vari- 
ous x-rayed skull measurements includ- 
ing frontal bone slope, brain case position, 
and jawbone structure. For example, 
comments Carley, some hybrids may have 
the upper jaw of a wolf and the lower jaw 
of a dog, which causes the jaws to fit 
incorrectly. 

It's ironic that the skulls used as models 
for measurements come from the Smith- 
sonian Institution, w'here they had been 
sent by those same federal trappers who 
played a role in the wolf's decline! 

However carefully screened the wolves 
are, the real proof of genetic purity comes 
only through the birth of pure red wolf 
pups. No one had even seen a red wolf 
pup until the first ones were bom in cap- 
tivity at the Point Defiance Zoo in May, 
1977. However, as a final check, the pups 
still must pass the 25-point checklist when 
mature at 9 to 12 months to be certified as 
the "real thing." 

This year, the third that red wolf pups 
have been bom in captivitv', 15 pups out of 
six litters survived, with half of them be- 
lieved to be pure wolves. With four to six 
pups normal in a litter, the number surviv- 
ing this year implies significant pup 
mortality. Cannibalism of diseased or 
weak newborn pups by their parents is the 
suspected cause. Dave Peterson, head of 
the red wolf recovery team, says he is un- 
certain whether this behavior is normal or 
a phenomenon of captivity. 

Overall, the team is pleased with this 
year's success in captive breeding, as six of 
nine possible pairs bred. Wolves taken 
from the wild may take several years to 
breed in captivity. "The females are 
especially nervous, and may abort 
young," says Carley. 

Fed a commercial dog food and paired 
in pens with ample natural vegetation and 
freedom from human disturbance, the 
wolves seem content. Carley remarks 
that, "The captive wolves get into group 
singing, howling, and carrying on." These 
group antics may seem to stereotype the 
red wolf as a pack animal like the timber 
wolf, which hunts in packs in order to 
bring down large prey like moose. How- 
ever, the red wolf selects small prey 
species, and therefore hunts in pairs or 
small family groups. "It doesn't take ten 
wolves to bring down a marsh rabbit," 
jokes Carley. 



Breeding captive red wolves, no matter 
how successfuilv, is not the final st)lution 
to the red wolf's predicament. Mere pres- 
ervation of the red wolf in capti\it\', where 
natural selection pressures do not operate, 
may only prolong its decline. A geneticallv 
inferior weilf could result after a few gen- 
erations. Despite survi\al risks for trans- 
planted animals, translocation — the rees- 
tablishment of wolves in a suitable 
habitat — needs to be the goal of a breeding 
program. A suitable release site is one 
where humans, covotes, dogs, and live- 
stock do not present a problem, and that 
includes adequate food, water, anti cover. 
The number of sites meeting these criteria 
are limited, however, constraining the 
scope of translocation efforts. 

While the FWS continues its search for 
suitable southeastern translocation sites. 
Bulls Island, SC, a part of the Cape Re- 
main National VVilcilife Refuge, has al- 
ready been the site of translocation exper- 
iments involving mated pairs of red 
wolves. Such transplants allow biologists 
to study under controlled conditions the 
little-known behavior of the red wolf; es- 
tablishment of a viable population was not 
their objective. 

A mated pair offers the most chance for 
success in reestablishing a red wolf popu- 
lation, so for the Bulls Island trials, a pair 
named Buddy and Margie became the first 
experimental red wolf Adam and Eve. 
Initially the pair fared well, until Margie, 
spooked by something unknown, sud- 
denly left the island and swam .to the 
mainland. She later died of a uterine infec- 
tion, and Buddy was subsequently re- 
turned toTacoma. 

That translocation of red wolves is in- 
deed possible has been demonstrated by a 
second released pair named John and 
Judy, who stayed on the island for almost 
a year. The male, apparently enjoying the 
island's abundant marsh rabbits, gained 13 
pounds. The lengthy duration of John and 
Judy's stay has provided a wealth of in- 
formation on red wolf habits, increasing 
the probability of success in later translo- 
cation efforts. 

Finally, perhaps the most difficult im- 
pediment to reestablishing the red wolf in 
the wild remains: man's attitude toward 
wolves. A site for reintroduction can't be 
selected without consent of the area's re- 
sponsible political bodies, and, in turn, 
their constituents. Hopefully, the fear that 
made eradication a goal of predator con- 
trol will become extinct, instead of the red 
woU.— George /. Maurer, National Wiltilife 
Federation. 



New Federal Regulation Encourages 
Captive Breeding of Endangered Species 

A marked increase in capHve breeding of 
endangered species is the anhcipated re- 
sult of a new regulation issued by the De- 
partment of the Interior's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. The rule eases federal 



regulation of interstate transfer of certain 
captive species covered bv the En- 
dangered Species Act of 1973. 

The action was prompted bv evidence 
that stringent regulatory procedures have 
led to decreased breeding bv zoological 
parks, bird breeders, and others. Breeders 
have pointed out that tough federal re- 
strictions — while intended to protect and 
propagate such species — have sometimes 
had the opposite effect. In some cases, 
persons who would titherwise breed en- 
dangered species have ceased to do so or 
have limited the number of offspring pro- 
duced because they could not be readily 
transferred to other facilihes. 

Under the new regulation, a zoo, wild- 
life park, aquarium, and other organiza- 
tions or individuals can register with the 
Fish and Wildlife Service to become a 
licensed shipper and receiver of captive- 
born endangered species. After registra- 
tion, reports will be required annuallv. 

Wildlife affected by the regulation in- 
cludes non-native U.S. endangered 
species and native U.S. endangered 
species that are sufficiently protected from 
unauthorized taking or are in low de- 
mand. The rule provides that native 
species will be designated on a case-by- 
case basis. One species, the Laysan teal, 
was designated in the rulemaking. 

Formerly, breeders were required to ob- 
tain a federal permit before engaging in 
interstate commerce or exporting of 
captive-bred wildlife. This time- 
consuming process led to higher mainte- 
nance costs of animals awaiting shipment, 
increased difficulties in handling adult 
animals instead of young ones, and un- 
availability of breeding stock when 
needed. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service deter- 
mined that activities involving captive 
wildlife should be regulated as required by 
the Endangered Species Act, but only to 
the extent necessary to conserve the 
species. According to service biologists, 
the new regulation should help reduce in- 
breeding — which has been cited as a factor 
in juvenile mortality — by facilitating ex- 
change of animals. It is also hoped that the 
rule will reduce the demand for wildlife 
that might otherwise be taken from its 
natural habitat. 



Fallout Linked to Sheep Deaths 

Ranchers in Nevada are going back to 
court to fight a battle they lost in 1956 over 
government reparations for 4,200 sheep 
lost near an atomic testing site. A newly- 
released private report by a former 
member of the Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion's (AEC) Fallout Studies Branch has 
scientifically connected the deaths of the 
sheep, which were wintering 50 miles 
from the tesHng ground, with the radia- 
tion fallout. The earlier case had been lost 
because government scientists claimed 



there was no connection between the 
deaths and the fallout, stating that the 
sheep had died of natural causes. The re- 
port also noted that some of the sheep had 
been grazing in areas where the reported 
fallout was within safety levels set by 
the AEC. 



Throw Another Log on the Fire 

Wood now provides Americans with half 
as much energy as nuclear power does, 
according to the Department of Energy. 
Since the 1973-74 oil embargo, the use of 
wood as fuel has expanded nearly 15 per- 
cent a year. Between 1972 and 1977, the 
number of woodburning stoves in use has 
increased from 250,000 to 2,000,000. One- 
fifth of the homes in Northern New Eng- 
land rely on wood as their primary heat 
source, and 30 percent more use it as a 
supplemental source. 



Kenya Large Mammal Census 

A Canadian aid program, the Kenya 
Rangeland Ecological Monitoring Unit 
(KREMU), has recently completed its first 
aerial count of selected species of animals. 
It reports that there are 60,000 elephants in 
Kenya, compared with a count of 167,000 
made bv a game biologist in 1973. 

The loss of 100,000 elephants in five 
years correlates closely with World 
Wildlife Fund figures obtained from the 
sales of raw ivory recorded in customs and 
excise figures in various countries. In 1976, 
280 tons, or the tusks of 23,000 elephants, 
were sold as raw ivory from Kenva, ac- 
cording to the Fund in Kenya. 

The rhino, whose horn is regarded by 
many peoples in undeveloped countries 
as an aphrodisiac, is much nearer extinc- 
tion than the elephant. KREMU counted 
only 1,800 rhinos in Kenya, compared 
with 11,500 in 1963. Since then, 52,800 lbs. 
of rhino horn from 11,000 rhinos have been 
exported from Kenya, according to cus- 
toms records. 



How to Spruce up Those 

Hard-to-Reach Feathers? 

Try an Ant or Two 

Crows as well as blue jays and magpies, 
and probably other birds as well, practice a 
curious skill known as "anting." Anhng 
consists of picking up ants with the beak, 
squashing them and then rubbing them 
into the feathers that are not often reached 
by regular grooming practices. The ants 
are usually those which eject either acidic 
or pungent anal fluids when squashed. 

The purpose for all this? Apparently, 
say some experts, it's to kill or drive away 
many of the harmful parasites which in- 
fect birds. Crows in captivity sometimes 
also use smoldering cigarette butts to keep 
pesky parasites off their plumage. 15 



Fieldiana: 1978 and 1979 Titles 



Fieldiana is a continuing series of sci- 
entific papers and monographs in the 
disciplines of anthropology, botany, 
zoology, and geology; the series is 
intended primarily for exchange- 
distribution to museums, libraries, 
and universities, but all titles are also 
available for public purchase. 

The following titles, published 
during 1978 and 1979, may be ordered 
from the Division of Publications. 
Members are entitled to a 10 percent 
discount. Publication number should 
accompany order. A catalog of all 
available Fieldiana titles is available 
on request. (Please specify discipline: 
anthropology, botany, geology, or 
zoology.) 

Fieldiana: Anthropology 

1244. "The Bruce Collection oi Eskimo Material 
Culture from Port Clarence, Alaska," bv James 
VV. VanStone. Vol. 67. $6.00. 

1257. "Human Biogeographv in the Solomon 
Islands," by John TerreU. Vol'. 68, No. 1. $2.00. 

1268. "A. F. Kashevarov's Coastal Explorations 
in Northwest Alaska, 1838," bv James W. Van- 
Stone. Vol. 69. $4.00. 

1274. "A Seriation of the Late Prehistoric Santa 
Maria Culture of Northwestern Argentina," by 
Ronald L. Weber. Vol. 68, No. 2. $2.50. 

1281. "E. W. Nelson's Notes on the Indians of 
the Yukon and Innoko Rivers, Alaska," by James 
W. VanStone. Vol. 70. $3.75. 

1295. "Ingalik Contact Ecology: An Ethno- 
history of the Lower-Middle Yukon, 1790- 
1935," by James VV. VanStone. Vol. 71. $L2.00. 

1296. "Historic Ingalik Settlements along the 
Yukon, Innoko, and Anvik Rivers, Alaska," by 
James VV. VanStone. Vol. 72. $4.75. 



Fieldiana: Botany 

1246. "Ferns and Fern Allies of Guatemala," by 
Robert G. Stolze. Vol. 39 (Part 1). $4.75. 

1251. "Revision of Oparanthus (Compositae, 
Heliantheae, Coreopsidinae)," by Tod F 
Steussy. Vol. 38, No. 6. 75c. 

1260. "Comprehensive Index to the Flora of 
Guatemala," by Terua P. Williams. Vol. 24, Part 
XIII. $8.50. 

1267. "Austral Hepaticae IX Anastrophyllum 
Tristaruanum, a New Species from Tristan da 
16 Cunha," by John J. Engel. Vol. 38, No. 7. 75c. 



1270. "Flora Costaricensis," by William Burger. 
Vol. 40. $10.50. 

1286. "Revision of Lagascea (Compositae, 
Heliantheae)," bv Tod F Steussv. Vol. 38, No. 8. 

$2.25. 

1291. "A Taxonomic and Phytogeographic 
Studv of Brunswick Peninsula (Strait of Magel- 
lan) Hepaticae and Anthocerotae," bv John J. 
Engel. Vol. 41. $19.00. 

1300. "Donrichardsia, a New Genus of Amblys- 
tegiaceae (Musci)," by Howard Crum and 
Lewis E. Anderson. New Series No. 1. $1.00. 



Fieldiana: Geology 

1242. "Upper Devonian Receptaculites chardini 
n. sp. from Central Afghanistan," by Matthew 
H. Nitecki and Albert F. de Lapparent. Vol. 35, 
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1248. "Megapleuron zangerli, A New Dipnoan 
from the Pennsvlvanian, Illinois," bv Hans- 
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1249. "A Primitive Pyrothere (Mammalia, 
Notoungulata) from the Early Tertiary of 
Northwestern Venezuela," bv Brvan Patterson. 
Vol. 33, No. 22. $1.25. 

1252. "The Stature and Weight of Sterkfontein 
14,-a Gradle Australopithecine from Transvaal, 
as Determined from the Innominate Bone," by 
Charles A. Reed and Dean Falk. Vol. 33, No. 23. 
$1.00. 

1253. "Tooth Histology and Ultrastructure of a 
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Johnson. Vol. 33, No. 25. $1.00. 

1255. "New Information on the Holocystites 
Fauna of the Middle Silurian of Wisconsin, Il- 
linois, and Indiana," by Terrence J. Frest, 
Donald G . Milulic, and Christopher R. C. Paul 
Vol. 35, No. 6. $1.75. 

1256. "Cyathocrinites from the Silurian Strata 
of Southeastern Indiana," bv T. Frest. Vol. 35, 

No. 7. $1.75. 

1259. "Type Fossil Miscellanea (Worms, Prob- 
lematica, Conoidal Shells, Trace Fossils) in Field 
Museum," by Gerald Glenn Forney, Daniel 
Jenkins, and Matthew H. Nitecki. Vol.'37, No. 1 
$2.00. 

1261. "New Agathour Fishes from the Pennsyl- 
vanian of Illinois," by David Bardack and 
Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. Vol. 33, No. 26. $1.25. 

1262. "Sedimentary Processes in Rayonnoceras 
Burial," by James H. Quinn. Vol. 33, No. 
27. 75c. 

1263. "Paraparchites mazonensis n. sp. (Os- 
tracoda) from Middle Pennsvlvanian Ironstone 
Concretions of Illinois," by l'. G. Sohn. Vol 37 
No. 2. $1.25. 



1264. "Cecops (Amphibia; Labyrinthoiontia) 
from the Fort Sill Locality, Lower Permian of 
Oklahoma," by John R. Bolt. Vol. 37, No. 3. 75c. 

1265. "Type Fossil Coelenterata (Except Corals) 
in Field Museum of Natural History," by 
Gerald Glenn Forney, Matthew H. Nitecki, and 
Daniel F. Jenkins. Vol. 37, No. 4. $1.00. 

1266. "New Information on the Evolution of the 
Bradvondont Chondrichthyes," by Richard 
Lund. Vol. 33, No. 28. $1.00. 

1277. "OrdoWcian Receptaculites camocho n. 
sp. from Argentina," bv Matthew H. Nitecki 
and Gerald G. Forney. Vol. 37, No. 5. $1.25. 

1278. "Sedimentary Structures from the Car- 
bondale Formation (Middle Pennsylvanian of 
Northern Illinois)," bv Charles VV. Shablica, 
VoL33, No.29. $1.75. ' 

1279. "The Mammalian Faunas of the Washakie 
Formation, Eocene Age, of Southern Wvoming 
Part I, Introduction: The Geology, Historv and 
Setting," bv WiUiam D. TumbuU. Vol. 33, No. 
30. $2.25. 

1280. "Internal Structures of Cvclocrinites dac- 
tioloides, a Receptaculitid Alga from the Lower 
Silurian of Iowa," by Matthew H. Nitecki and 
MarkesE. Johnson. Vol. 39, No. 1. $1.25. 

1283. "Morphologv and Arrangement of 
Merones in Ischadites dixonensis, an Ordovi- 
dan Receptaculitid," by Daniel C. Fischer and 
Matthew H: Nitecki. Vol. 39, No. 2. $1.00. 

1284. "Investigation of the Classification of the 
Rodent Genus Eumys from the Middle 
Oligocene of the Big Badlands of South Dakota 
Using Multivariate Statistical Analvsis," bv Sue 
Vilhauser Rosser. Vol. 39, No. 3. $1.75. 

1287. "Arthropods: A Convergent Phenome- 
non," bv Frederick R. Schram. Vol. 39, No. 4. 
$2.25. 

1288. "The Morphology and Relationships of 
the Cretaceous Teleost Apsopelix," by Susan 
TeUer-MarshaU and David Bardack. Vol. 41, No. 
1. $1.75. 

1290. "The Mammalian Fauna of Madura Cave, 
Western Australia," bv Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr. 
and William D. TumbuU. Vol. 38. $5.75. 

1292. "The Deseadan, Early Oligocene, Mar- 
supialia of South America," by Bryan Patterson 
and Larry G. MarshaU. Vol. 41, No. 2. $3.25. 

1293. "British Carboniferous Malacostraca," by 
Frederick R. Schram. Vol. 40. $6.50. 

1293. "Type Graptolithina in Field Museum of 
Natural History," by Robert H. Hansman and 
Matthew H. Nitecki. New Series No. 1. $1.25. 

1299. "Organic Buildups in the Lower Ordovi- 
dan (Canadian) of Texas and Oklahoma," by 
Donald Francis Toomev and Matthew H. 
Nitecki. New Series No. 2. $11.75. 

1302. "Re\iew of the Prothvlacyninae, an Ex- 
tinct Subfamily of South American 'Dog-Like' 
Marsupials," bv Larry G. Marshall. New Series 
No. 3. $3.50. 



Fieldiana: Zoology 

1241. "Rhinodoras boehlkei, a New Catfish 
from Eastern Ecuador (Osteichthyes, 
Siluroidei, Doradidae)," by Garrett S. Glodek, 
Glen L. VVhitmire, and Gustavo Orces V. \'o\. 
70, No. 1.75c. 

1243. "Supplementary Catalogue of Type 
Specimens of Reptiles and Amphibians in Field 
Museum of Natural History," by Hvman Marx. 
Vol. 69, No. 2. $2.75. 

1245. "A New Chaenopsid Fish, Emblemana 
hvltoni, from Isla Roatan, Honduras," by R. K. 
Johnson and D. \V. Greenfield. Vol. 69, No. 
2.75C. 

1247. "The Larval Characters of Featherwing 
and Limukxlid Beetles and Their Family Rela- 
tionships in the Staphylinidea (Coleoptera: 
Ptiliidae and Limulodidae), " by Henry Dybas. 
Vol. 70, No. 3. $2.25. 

1258. "A Phvlogeny of the Sea Snakes (Hydro- 
phiidae)," by Harold K. Voris. Vol. 70, No. 4. 
$4.25. 

1269. "The Differentiation of Character State 
Relationships by Binary Coding and the Mono- 
thetic Subset Method," by Hvman Marx, 



George B. Rabb, and Harold K. Voris. Vol. 72, 
No. 1. $1.25. 

1271. "Amphisbaena medemi, an Interesting 
New Species from Colombia (Amphisbaenia, 
Reptilia) with a Key to the Amphisbaenians of 
the Americas," by Carl Gans and Sandra 
Mathers. Vol. 72, No. 2. $1.25. 

1272. "Trachelyichthysexilis, A New Species of 
Catfish (Pisces: Aushenipteridae) from Peru," 
by David VV. Greenfield and Garrett S. Glodek. 
Vol. 72, No. 3. 75C. 

1273. "The Status of HybalicusBerlese, 1913 and 
Oehsershestes Jacot, 1939 (Acari: Acariforms: 
Endeostigmata)," bv John B. Kethley. Vol. 72, 

No. 4.75C. 

1275. "A New Species of Allactaga (Rodenfia 
Dipodidae) from Iran," by Daniel R. VVomochel. 
Vol. 72, No. 5. 75(Z. 

1276. "A New Helogeneid Catfish from Eastern 
Ecuador (Pisces, Siluriformes, Helogeneidae)," 
by Garrett S. Glodek and H. Jacque Carter Vol. 
72, No. 6. 75C. 

1282. "A Generic and Tribal Revision of the 
North American Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: 
Staphylinidae)," by Charles H. Seevers. Vol. 71. 
$16.00. 



1285. "Differential Epibiont Pouling in RelaHon 
to Grooming Behavior in Palaemonetes 
Kadiakensis," by Bruce E. Felgenhauer and 
Fredrick R. Schram. Vol. 72, No. 7. $1.25. 

1289. "The Importance of Catfish Burrows in 
Maintaining Fish Populations of Tropical 
Freshwater Streams in Western Ecuador," b\ 
Garrett S. Glodek. Vol. 73, No. 1. 75C. 

1294. "A Review of the Western Atlantic Stark 
sia ocellata-Complex (Pisces: Clinidac) with the 
DescripHon of Two New Species and Proposal 
of Superspecies Status," by David VV. Green- 
field. Vol. 73, No. 2. $2.50. ' 

1297. "Chromis woodsi, a New Species of 

Damselfish (Pomacentrid^e) from the Western 
Indian Ocean with a Redescripfion of Chromis 
axillaris (Bennett) 1831," by John C. Bruner and 
Steven Arnam. Vol. 73, No. 3. $1.50. 

1301. "Some Mollusks from Afghanistan," by 
Alan Solem. New Series No. 1. $6.25. 

1303. "The Functional Morphology of the 
Grooming Appendages of Palaemonetes 
kadiakensis Rathbun, 1902," by B. E. 
Felgenhauer and F. R. Schram. New Series No. 

2. $2.00. 




Hnida ^rizzlx/ Iviii; or 
huaji. Silk screen print by 
Bill Rcid, distinguished 
Uaida Indian artist of 
Vancouver. B.C. The red 
and black print is a recent 
gift to Field Museum by 
Reid, who also works in 
wood, silver, gold, argillite 
(a rock intermediate 
between slate and shale), 
and other media. Reid 
recently visited the 
Museum as a consultant 
for the Northwest Coast 
and Eskimo exhibit, a 
permanent exhibit 
scheduled to open in Hall 
W in 1982. 



17 



■•^ 



-J^^t 





Lake Cuatavita, slioicmg the results of Antonio de Sepi'ilve- 
da's attempt to cut through the enclosing rock and thus drain 
the lake. Begun in the 1580s, the project employed some 
8,000 Indian laborers but was eventually abandoned. From 
an 1810 engraving. 



Indians pour molten gold down the throat of one Spanish 
captive zohile butchering another. From History of the 
Ww World, hi Girolnmo Benzorii CJ547-56). 



EL DORADOcontinued from p. 7 




-The Legend of El Dorado 

The story of this extraordinary assemblage is that 
of the New World before the coming of the 
Conquistador, and of the explorations, discov- 
eries, and cultural technological transmutations 
that were brought about by the coming of the 
Europeans. 

In 1539, more than three decades after 
coming to Colombia, the Spaniards began to 
hear stories of a certain "golden man," or El 
Dorado, and the extraordinary rituals which in- 
cluded his throwing vast quantities of gold offer- 
ings into Guatavita, a sacred lake located not 
many miles northeast of what is today Colom- 
bia's capital city of Bogota. 

The most authoritative earlv account of El 
Dorado is that of the chronicler Juan Rodriguez 
Freyle (1636): 

The first journey [the nezv Indian ruler] had to 
make was to. . . Guatavita, to make offerings and sac- 
rifices to the demon which they worshipped as their 
god and lord . . . The lake was large and deep, so that a 
ship with high sides could sail on it, all loaded with 

Text continued on page 24 



Tolima pectoral. Made of cast gold. Height U.7cm (7 in.). 
From Museo del Oro. ^»- 



^ ••«"■'< H> ••!• 










^Uju... 






Overleaf, p. 22: Lime 
fhsk decorated with female 
figures in relief. Made of 
cast tumhaga (copper-gold 
alloy). Height 28cm (h 
in.). Museo de America, 
Madrid. From theTrcasure 
of the Quimbayas, discov- 
ered in 1891 and given to 
the queen of Spain In/ the 
govern men t of Colombia. 

Page 23: Darien pec- 
toral, made of cast gold. 
Height n. 6cm (4-9116 
m.). From Museo del Oro. 
The Darien style is noio be- 
lieivd to have been a com- 
posite of many regional 
sti/les. Similar pectorals 
have also been found in 
Panama, Costa Rica, and 
Yucatan. 



21 



urtesy The New York Public Library 



;^=r-T::2I3I3!! 



:'3o£Ui" 



ij^^a 



TK-a 





'1 




1 



1 



EL DORADO co« (in i<ed from p. 18 



24 



. . . men and zvomen dressed in fine plumes, golden 
plaques, and crozcms . . . 

Thei/ stripped the heir to his skin, and an- 
nointed him with a sticky earth on which they placed 
gold dust so that he was completely covered with this 
metal. Thei/ placed him on the raft, on which he 
remained motionless, and at his feet they placed a great 
heap of gold and emeralds for him to offer to his god. 
On the raft with him wait four. . .chiefs, decked in 
pilumes, crowns, bracelets, pendants and ear ri)igs all 
of gold. . . The gilded Indian then made his offering, 
throwing out all the pile of gold into the middle of the 
lake, and the [four] chiefs... did the same... After 
this, . . . the shouting began again, with pipes, flutes, 
and large teams of singers and dancers. With this 
ceremony the neiv ruler zoas received, and was recog- 
nized as lord and king. From this ceremony came the 
celebrated name of El Dorado, which has cost so many 
lives. 

A few years before the publication of 
Freyle's account, officials reported from Bogota: 
there is definite information that the lake bed contains 
great riches in gold, and, that although many different 
persons have several times tried to drain the said lake, 
none has succeeded. We, at our own expense and risk, 
with our oion persons, industry, and effort, wish to 
drain it. 

Thus began a frustrating, disappointing 
series of efforts to harvest riches from the lake's 
bottom. "Having robbed the living Indians of 
most of their gold," wryly noted one historian, 
"it was time to attack the richest treasure of all." 

About 1545 Hernan Perez de Quesada 
employed a battalion of laborers to lower the 
lake's level by literally bailing it out. After three 
months of back-breaking effort the lake's level 
was down by three meters (about 10 feet) and 
Guatavita had grudgingly yielded a mere 3,000- 
4,000 pesos worth of gold. A generation later, 
Antonio de Sepiilveda attempted, with the help 
of 8,000 Indians, to dig through the lake's rocky 
rim. This brought about an additional drop of 20 
meters in the lake level before the steep walls of 
the cut collapsed, killing many workers and 
bringing an end to the project. Sepulveda's 
costly efforts resulted in the discovery of 12,000 
pesos worth of treasure — a far cry from the mil- 
lions alleged to lie beneath Guatavita's waters. 

Little more was done about draining 
Guatavita until the 1820s, when work was re- 
sumed in deepening the cut begun more than 
two centuries earlier by Sepulveda. But this, too, 
came to an end as landslides along the steep 
canal walls persisted. In 1899 interest was again 
revived in exposing the lake bottom. This time 
the scheme was to construct a tunnel under the 
lake and come up through its floor. The plan 
worked — for a time. The water quickly ran out. 



revealing a bottom of slime and mud, several feet 
thick. In a few days, under the equatorial sun, 
the mud baked to the consistency of brick. The 
dried mud also sealed up the sluices and the 
tunnel, and soon the lake again filled with water 
to its former level. 

In 1911 a group of investors calling them- 
selves Contractors Ltd. hoped to work a steam 
shovel to the lake's center. "There will be no 
doubt when it is reached," they assured prospec- 
tive shareholders, "for gold dust and nug- 
gets will certainly be found." But the firm's 
£15,000 capital was hardly enough to see the 
project through and the enterprise terminated in 
bankruptcy. 

Following Contractors Ltd.'s demise in 
1929, other expeditions tried their luck, using 
every mechanical means from drags to airlifts. 
With each, Guatavita continued to yield a tan- 
talizingly few objects of gold, but the lake's cen- 
ter remained essentially untouched. The final 
chapter in this 400-year quest was the establish- 
ment by the Colombian government in 1965 of 
legal protection for Guatavita as part of the na- 
tion's cultural and historical heritage. 

Will the full story of El Dorado and the 
Guatavita treasure ever be known or, like the 
treasure of Mexico's Sierra Madre, North Ameri- 
ca's Lost Dutchman Mine, and other troves, real 
and fanciful, around the world, will it merely 
persist as an ambiguous half-fact, half-legend to 
intrigue the imagination? 

Though the tale of El Dorado and 
Guatavita will stir the pulse of anyone adventur- 
ous, the substantive story of Colombia's golden 
treasures and the one of principal interest to his- 
torians and archeologists, is that of existing 
artworks, the greatest number of which (26,000) 
are today part of the collection of Bogota's Museo 
del Oro. It is this collection — gathered from 
every part of Colombia's gold-working regions 
— that provides the bulk of the 500 pieces coming 
to Field Museum. 

Though confined to a strip of the Cordill- 
era about the size of the state of California, Col- 
ombia's gold-producing tribes were separate and 
distinct groups, to the degree that their lan- 
guages were, in most cases, mutually unintellig- 
ible. Their customs, religious practices, and — as 
we may expect — art forms and styles were also 
highly individual. 

Notable among these styles were the 



Available at the Museum Shop is the striknigh/ beautiful 
Gold of El Dorado, jointly published by the American 
Museum of Natural Histoni and Harry N. Abrams. The 
J 1 Vi-by-tb-inch volume carries 28 four-color iUustrations of 
artifacts to be seen m theshoie. $9.95, leith 10% discount 
for Members. 



Tairona of the far northern coastal region; Sinu, 
midway betvyeen present-day Panama and Ven- 
ezuela; Quimbava and Muisca, of the central 
Cordillera; Calima, Tolima, Popayan, Tierraden- 
tro, and San Agustin, somewhat further south; 
and Tumaco and Narifio, whose regions extend 
into Ecuador. 

The visitor to "Gold of El Dorado: The 
Heritage of Colombia" will have the opportunity 
to study at close hand the intricate goldwork of 
the native Colombian tribes, to marvel at their 
sophisticated artistn,', and the technologically 
advanced methods that were employed to pro- 
duce them. 



The presentation of the exhibit at Field 
Museum is under the direction of Michael 
Moseley, associate curator of Middle and South 
American archeology and ethnology, assisted by 
Robert Feldman, research archeologist. The ex- 
hibit designer is David Edquist. The U.S. tour is 
sponsored by Chemical Bank, with additional 
support from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities and the National Endowment for the 
Arts, and has been organized by the American 
Museum of Natural History. Further support for 
presentation of the exhibit at Field Museum has 
been provided by a grant from the Robert R. 
McCormick Charitable Trust. D 



Jaguar of cast gold, 
in the Sinu stifle. 
From Museo del Oro. 
Length U. 1cm (4^/4 in.). 






Diadem. Made of cut and hammered gold; Early Calima 
style. Height 27cm (20% in.). From Museo del Oro. The 
Early Calima style, coinciding with the time of Christ, is 
typified by large hammered ornaments. 






.»l- 



26 



April and May at Field Museum 



(April 15 through May 15) 



New Exhibits 



"Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia." The legend of 
El Dorado has intrigued mankind for centuries. Find out the real 
story by viewing more than 500 of the priceless treasures that 
inspired the legend. Some believe these glittering artifacts are 
among the most beautiful objects ever created in gold. Jewelry, 
musical instruments, hunting and fishing gear, and cooking 
utensils — all crafted from the valuable metal — acquaint us with 
a lost civilization. This extraordinary exhibit is the largest display 
of Colombian archeology ever to leave Latin America. Exhibit 
curator: Michael Moseley: designer: David Edquist Opens April 
25, Hall 27, 2nd floor. 

"Patterns of Paradise." This major exhibit of dramatic and rare 
bark cloth, or tapa, illustrates the people and history of exotic 
tropical islands. See how Pacific peoples took the ancient task 
of making cloth out of tree bark and elaborated it into an art 
form of distinctive and remarkable styles. The Exhibit also in- 
cludes wood carvings, masks, costume accessories, and tools. 
Most of the 200 artifacts are from Field Museum's world- 
famous Oceanic collections. Conceived and created by the 
Museum's own staff. Exhibit curator: John Terrell; designer: 
Donald Skinner. Through June 8, Hall 26, 2nd floor. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Anniversary Exhibit." This exhibit shows visitors earth's di- 
verse, yet universal life forms. "A Sense of Wonder " introduces 
the four natural history disciplines: anthropology, botany, geol- 
ogy, and zoology. The story of Field Museum's early years is told 
through "A Sense of History." Finally, "A Sense of Discovery" 
displays some unique features of the natural world. Hall 3, 
1st floor. 



"The Hall of Chinese Jades." Superb examples of jade art span 
6,000 years of Chinese history. An exhibit in the center of the hall 
illustrates ancient jade carving techniques. Hall 30, 2nd floor. 

"The Place for Wonder." Touch, handle, sort, and compare 
natural history specimens in this gallery. Carefully trained 
Museum volunteers help guide exploration. Open weekdays 1 to 
3 p.m.; weekends 10 a.m. to noon and 1 to 3 p.m. Ground floor, 
near cafeteria. 

New Programs 

Members' Preview to "Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of 
Colombia." Field Museums breathtaking new exhibit is open 
exclusively for Members a day prior to public viewing. After 
touring the exhibit, join the Museum staff for refreshment and 
conversation. Free admission with Members' card or invitation. 
Thursday, April 24, 1 p.m.-9 p.m.. Hall 27. 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Film Lecture: "Colombia: From 
Spanish Main to the Amazon." Filmmaker George Lange nar- 
rates this journey to Colombia, a land of beautiful mountains, 
tropical rain forests, remote Indian villages, and modern cities. A 
naturalist and lepidopterist, Mr. Lange is a guest lecturer on 
wildlife and primitive tribes at New York University. Tickets 
(Members, $2.00; nonmembers, $3.50) may be purchased at 
the West Door before the program. Friday, April 25, 8 p.m., 
Simpson Theatre. 

"Members' Nights." How is a special exhibit put together? What 
topics are Museum scientists investigating? How does the staff 
handle fragile specimens? You"ll find the answers to these ques- 

(Continued on back cover) 



Members' Nights 

Mark your calendar now for Members ' Night, Field Museum 's 
annual open house for its Members, to be held this year on 
Thursday and Friday, May 1 and 2. 

As in the past, free round-trip charter bus service will 
be provided between the Loop and the Museum. For the first 
time this year, these CTA buses, marked FIELD MUSEUM, u;/// 
originate at Union Station with stops at Northwestern Sta- 
tion, Washington and State, Washington and Michigan, 
Adams and Michigan, and Balbo and Michigan. Two buses 
will be making continuous circuits, beginning at 5:45 and 
passing at about 15-minute intervals, until the Museum 
closes. 

Plenty of free parking is available in Soldier Field lots 
and the Plantarium parking area, with a shuttle bus continu- 
ously circling the areas and collecting and discharging 
passengers at the Museum 's south steps. 

From 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. the Museum's food service area 
will provide complete dinners or snacks. 

So plan your Members ' Night visit now, reacquaint 
yourself with your Museum. Entertainment and educational 
programs will be offered each evening from 6 until 10 p.m. 



27 



ILLINOIS NATURAL HIST3RY 
SURVEY LIB RM 19& 
MiSTURAL RESOURCES 3UIL0ING 
URBANA ILL 61801 



April and May at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back couer) 



tions, and many more, at the Museum's celebrated behind-the- 
scenes open house. The staff has planned a wide range of 
activities exclusively for Members — special displays, lectures, 
games, tours, and demonstrations. Research areas are open 
7:00-10:00 p.m. Thursday, May 1, and Friday, May 2. 

"Tahuantinsuyo: Music and Dance of the Andes." Come hear 
this group of performers play ancient music of the Andes. 
Costumed folkdancers and slides of the mountains enhance 
this program of music and folklore. Planned in conjunction with 
"Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia, " and funded in 
part by MEH, a federal agency. Tickets (Members, $2.00; non- 
members $3.50) are available at the West Door before the 
performance. Saturday, May 3, 2:30 p.m., Simpson Theatre. 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Field Trips. These one-day trips to 
local areas of ecological and biological interest resume in May. 
For a field trip brochure, call 922-3136. 

Spring Adult Education Classes. These noncredit, college-level 
courses in anthropology and the natural sciences begin April 15. 
Advance registration by mail is requested. For more informa- 
tion, call 922-0733. 



ture," with Doug Jones, April 19. "The Majestic Rhine," with John 
Roberts, April 26. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Each Saturday and Sunday 
between 1 1 a.m. and 2 p.m., the Museum offers a variety of free, 
exhibit-related tours, demonstrations, and films on current 
natural history topics. Check the "Weekend Sheet" available at 
Museum entrances for program times and locations. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is 
harmful and which is not See if you can distinguish a vampire 
bat, a headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mush- 
room from its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25' each at the 
entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with scientific interests 
and backgrounds are needed to work in the various depart- 
ments. For more information call Volunteer Coordinator, 922- 
9410, ext 360. 



Continuing Programs 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures. "Visit" a distant corner of the 
world by attending these free 90-minute programs, narrated by 
the filmmakers themselves. Held every Saturday in April at 2:30 
p.m. in the Simpson Theatre (enter through West Door), these 
programs are recommended for adults. "The Hawaiian Adven- 



April and May hours. In April, the Museum is open daily 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m., except Fridays. During May, the Museum is open every 
day 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., except Fridays. On Fridays, throughout the 
year, the Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a 
pass at the reception desk, main floor. 

Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Indians panning for gold. From Historia General y Natural de las lndias,i)y Gonzalo Fernandez de Ouiedo (1535-43). For more on exhibit 
"Cold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia "see page 7. 



JklJ^ 



dr. 





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Courtesy The American Museum ot Natural History 



rrr^ 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

May 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 5 



Editor Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 
3 Field Briefs 

Field Museum Tours 
Members' Nights: May 1 and 2 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Presidettt and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Lake Michigan Ravines 
on Chicago's North Shore 

By Rohbin C. Moraii 

12 Six Decades of Change 

in the Palos Woodlands 

By Phil Hanson, head, Group Programs Division, Department 
of Education 

14 Volunteers' Party 

16 Our Environment 

20 Field Museum from the Ground up 

A Pictorial Essay 

24 Why Not Eat Insects? 

By Vincent M. Holt 

27 May and June at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 

May fJowerf in Morton Arboretum, Lisle Illinois, about 35 miles southwest of 
do-amtoum Chicago. Pink-streaked lohite flowers arc spring beauty (Claytonia 
virginica); also shown are the blue violet (Viola papilionacea) and yellow violet 
fV. pensylvanica). Photo by John Kolar 



Field Museum of Natural History Bullelin (USPS 898-9401 is published monthly. 
except combined July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Histoty, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. II 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 
annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bullelin subscription. 
Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the 
policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone; 
(312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of t^latural 
History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. 11. 60605 ISSN: 
0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 








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FIELD BRIEFS 





Ambassador Chai Zemin at Field Museum: At left, Ed Bedno, chair- 
man of the Depmrtment of Exhibition, s/u'U's the ambassador a scale model of 
the coming exhibit of Chinese bronzes, opening August 20. Shoivn with 
them is William G. Swartchild, jr., chairman of the Field Museum Boardof 
Trustees. Above, Zemin poses with three other visitors whom he met in the 
"hands-on" gallery, the Place for Wonder. 



Chinese Ambassador Visits 

Chai Zemin, ambassador of the People's 
Republic of China to the United States, 
visited Field museum on March 11. High- 
lights of his tour of the Museum included 
"Ancient Chinese Culture" (Hall 24), 
"China in the Ch'ing Dynasty" (Hall 32), 
and a look at a scale model prepared by the 
Department of Exhibition for the exhibit 
"The Great Bronze Age of China: An Ex- 
hibition from the People's Republic of 
China," opening August 20. 

Ambassador Zemin has represented 
his country since January, 1979. This was 
his first visit to Chicago. 

Museum Hosts Third Annual 
Spring Systematics Symposium 

Saturday, May 10, is the meeting day at 
Field Museum for the third annual Spring 
Systematics Symposium. The theme this 
year will be "Biotic Crises in Ecological 
and Evolutionary Time." Symposium 
chairman is Matthew N. Nitecki, curator 
of fossil invertebrates. Among the eight 
symposium speakers this year are two 
Field Museum curators: Larry G. Mar- 
shall, assistant curator of fossil mammals, 
who will speak on "Biological Crises of 
Invasion," and Michael E. Moseley, as- 



ican archeology and ethnology, who will 
speak on "Living with Crises; Human Per- 
ception of Processes and Time." 

Other speakers include David N. 
Schramm, of the University of Chicago: 
"Astrophysical Framework for life," 
Hugh M. Raup, of Harvard University: 
"Physical Disturbance in the Life of 
Plants," Daniel S. Simberloff, of Florida 
State University: "Community Effects of 
Introduced Species," Stanley M. Aw- 
ramik, of the University of California, 
Santa Barbara: "The Pre-Phanerozoic 
Ecosphere — Three Billion Years of Crises 
and Opportunities," Alfred G. Fischer, of 
Princeton University: "Biotic Crises, Cli- 
mates, and Earth History," Lawrence 
B. Slobodkin, of the State University of 
New York at Stony Brook: "The Determi- 
nance and Effects of Ecological and Evolu- 
tionary Response Rates — a Summary and 
Prospectus." 



Recent Grants 

Grants from three federal agencies — the 
National Science Foundation (NSF), the 
National Endt)wment for the Humanities 
(NEH), and the National Aeronautics and 
Space Administration (NASA) — have re- 
cently been received in support of projects 



The NSF grants include the following: 
(1) $43,267 in support of the project "Care 
and Use of the Systematic Collection of 
Mammals," under the direction of Patricia 
W. Freeman, assistant curator and head. 
Division of Mammals. (2) $43,016 in sup- 
port of the project "Geochronologv of 
Mammal-Bearing Cenozoic of Argen- 
tina," to establish a radioisotope time scale 
for certain fossil beds in Argentina. Prin- 
cipal investigator for the project is Larry 
G. Marshall, assistant curator of fossil 
mammals. (3) A $12, 110 grant in support of 
the NSF Summer Anthropology Course 
for high-ability high school students, 
"Student Science Training," under the 
direction of Harriet M. Smith, instructor. 
Department of Education. (4) A $6,874 
award for equipment to improve the 
Botany Laboratory. Project director: 
William C. Burger, curator and chairman. 
Department of Botany. 

The NASA grant of $18,965 is in sup- 
port of research entitled "Refractory 
Inclusions in the Murchison Meteorite." 
Principal investigator is Edward J. Olsen, 
curator of mineralogy. The NEH grant, in 
the amount of $332,079, is in support of 
the project "Marine Hunters and 
Fishers," a major renovation and reinstal- 
lation of Hall 10. Edward Bedno, chairman 
of the Department of Exhibition, is pro- 

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FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

1980 TourPackoges Exclusively for Members 




Stonchcmif, lo he visited by Field Museum 's tour of England and Wales. 

The Classical Lands: 

Greece and the Grecian Isles 

September 7-26 

Under the leadership of Dr. Donald Whitcomb, Field 
Museum assistant curator of Near Eastern archeology and 
ethnology, this tour will visit Athens, the sites of ancient 
Corinth and Mycenae, Delphi, Olynipia, Knossos, Santorini, 
the island ot Rhodes, Miletus, Skiros, Piraeus, and numerous 
other sites of interest in the history of western civilization 
and art. 

Following six days and five nights in Athens, the sleek 
luxury motor yacht Cauo D'Oro, with 30 passenger cabins, 
will take tour members across the shimmering waters of 
the Aegean to some of the loveliest and most historically 
interesting of the Greek Isles. 

Cost of the tour — $3,425 (plus a $300 donation to 
Field Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and 
includes round trip air fare via American Airlines between 
Chicago and Greece. First class accommodations will be used 
throughout. The package includes almost all meals (all meals 
while aboard the Cavo D'Oro), motorcoach fares, baggage 
handling, all transfers, taxes (except airport tax), and tips 
(except to tour guides), all sightseeing charges and admissions 
to special events. Advance deposit: $300 per person. 




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Participants in Field Museum's September tour of Greece and the Crecun 
Isles will spend part of their time cruising the Aegean aboard the luxury 
4 cruise ship Cavo D'Oro. 



Tour of England and Wales 
June 14 -July J 

Highlights of this unique tour — which includes sites of 
geologic, historic, and aesthetic interest — are Stonehenge, the 
4,000-year-old marvel of prehistoric engineering; the Roman 
ruins at Bath; Weston-super-Mare, a popular seaside resort on 
the Bristol Channel; the incomparably lovely Lake District; 
Winchester Cathedral; and many other beautiful old castles, 
cathedrals, and manor houses of Wales and England. Three 
nights will be spent in London, to enjoy the cultural amenities 
of the city. Leader of this tour (which is limited to 25) will be 
Dr. Bertram Woodland, curator of petrology, and a native 
of Wales. 

Cost of the tour — $2,340 (plus a $300 donation toField 
Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and includes 
round trip air fare between Chicago and London. First class 
accommodations will be used throughout. The package 
includes breaktast and dinner daily, chartered motorcoach, 
baggage handling, all transfers, taxes (except airport tax), and 
tips (except to tour guides), all sightseeing charges and 
admissions to special events. Advance deposit: $250 
per person. 




Wisconsin's Baraboo Range 
June 21-22 






Dc-.-ih Lake 



Dr. Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, will lead tour 
members through the Baraboo Range and along the shores 
and hinterland of beautiful Devil's Lake. The Baraboo Range 
is of special interest as a moitadiiock — what is left of an ancient 
mountain range and which now stands out above the younger 
rocks and sediments. The range consists of quartzite — more 
than one billion years old — which, although compressed in 
places into vertical folds, retains the original sedimentary 
structures. The mountains were further modified by glaciers, 
forming the lake and the picturesque glens, and changing 
the course of rivers. 

Overnight accommodations and meals will be at the 
Dell View Motel, located in a lovely pine grove on Lake 
Delton, at Wisconsin Dells. Hiking clothes are strongly 
recommended for the scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable 
tor children, but younger people interested in natural history 
are welcome. The Cost of the Baraboo trip is $95 per person 
(double occupancy). 



Member^ N^ihts 

Field Museum's Open House for Members 

May I, 2 




Ever wanted to see how a museum exhibit is put together, to chat 
A/ith a curator about Museum research, to write your name in 
::gyptian hieroglyphics, or just to explore the Museum's 
aboratories, poke your nose into the preparation rooms and 
:ollection areas? Your chance for that experience is on May 1 
Jnd 2, from 6:00 to 10;00 p.m. —Field Museum's annual open 
louse for all its members. There will also be demonstrations, 
^ames, lectures, slide shows, and other activities to satisfy the 
nterests and tastes of every age group — from kindergarten on up. 

In addition, this year we will be fortunate to have two 
Tiajor temporary exhibits on view during Members' Nights: "Pat- 
:ems of Paradise," in Hall 26 and "Gold of El Dorado," in Hall 
?7. Special entertainment will be provided by the South Ameri- 
:an group "Tahuantinsuyo," which will perform traditional 
Tiusic and dance of the Andes. 

As in the past, free, round-trip charter bus service will be 
jrovided between the loop and the Museum. These CTA buses, 



marked FIELD MUSEUM, will originate at Union Station, and 
stop at Northwestern Station. Washington and State, Wash- 
ington and Michigan, Adams and Michigan, and Balbo and 
Michigan. Two buses will run circuits, beginning at 5:45 and 
continuing at 15-minute intervals until the Museum closes. 

To achieve an equitable distribution of visitors, it is 
suggested that those whose last name begins with a letter be- 
tween A and L come on Thursday, May 1, and those between M 
and Z come on Friday, May 2. 

Plenty of free parking is available in Soldier Field lots and 
the Planetarium parking area, with a shuttle bus continuously 
circling the areas and collecting and discharging passengers at 
the Museum's south steps. 

From 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. the Museum's food service area 
will provide complete dinners or snacks. 

All Field Museum Members and their families are urged 
to come, and to reacquaint themselves with their Museum. s 





MEMBERS' NIGHTS 
May 1,2 



Scenes and activities on Members' 
Nights of former years. (Specific ac- 
tivities shown may not necessarily be 
repeated this year.) 



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Lake Michigan Ravines 
On Chicago's North Shore 



By ROBBIN C. MORAN 



Just North of Chicago, between Waukegan 
and Evanston, is a series of ravines running into 
Lake Michigan. These ravines had their origins 
about 12,000 years ago while the last continental 
glacier was melting northward. The retreat of the 
glacier left tons of rock, gravel, sand, and espe- 
cially clay in a series of consecutive ridges, 
moraines, paralleling the present Lake Michigan 
shoreline. 

In the moraine adjacent to Lake Michigan, 
in some places 75 feet high, the scenic lake bluffs 
and ravines have formed. This moraine extends 
from Waukegan to Glencoe, some 20 miles 
south. North of Waukegan and south of Glencoe 
is the low, flat sandy plain of Glacial Lake 
Chicago, where no moraine was present and the 
ravines were thus unable to form. 



During the past 12,000 years the ravines 
have been eroding themselves deeper and deep- 
er into this morainic ridge, until some extend as 
much as a mile inland. Erosion has not been 
accomplished by a gradual downslope move- 
ment of soil throughout the year; rather, the ero- 
sion occurs primarily in the spring, when large 
chunks of earth fall all at once into the ravine 
bottom. Since spring in this area is customarily a 
very wet time of year, there is abundant moisture 
between the clay particles in the moraine, which 
facilitates slippage and the resultant movement 
of huge amounts of earth. The large chunks that 
break loose are then slowly eroded into the 
streams of the ravine bottoms, and the sediments 
are washed away into Lake michigan. 

The same kind of erosion occurs on the 



Aerial vieiv of fyp'ical north shore ravine as it meets Lake Michigan shoreline . White- trunked papier birch fBetula papyrifera), 
seen here on left slope, is typically found further north. Photo courtesy Illinois State Geological Survey. 




clay bluffs adjacent to the lake; huge amounts of 
earth slide downhill, often causing problems for 
lakeshore property owners. Geologists have 
known since the late 1800s that lake bluff erosion 
occurs in regular cycles. More recently, scientists 
from the Illinois Geok)gical Survey gathered old 
records together and determined erosion rates 
for various locations along the Lake Michigan 
shoreline. Survey results showed that at the vil- 
lage of Lake Bluff an average of 259 feet of clay 
bluff has eroded away since 1872'. Lakefront 
property owners, unfortunately, have no way to 
completely stop the erosion; it can only be 
slowed down by various means. 

For many, a main attraction of the ravines 
is their growth of dense green forest. The ravines 
are particularly interesting to local botanists be- 
cause of the presence of plants that are generally 
more apt to be found further north, such as paper 
birch (Betula pmpyrifera), white pine (Pinus 
ftrobus), arborvitae or white cedar {Thuja occidcn- 
talis), Canadian buffalo-berry (Shcphardia 
canadensis), star-flower (Trim talis borealis), and 
small horsetail {Equisctum scirpoides). Botanists 
consider these more northern plants as "relicts," 
in the sense that they were probably more wide- 
spread and abundant in the Chicago Area when 
the climate was cooler and the vegetation had a 
more northern aspect in early post-glacial times. 
Since the northward retreat of the glaciers, the 
climate has warmed and consequently the 
ranges of these plants in the Chicago Area have 
become restricted to the deep, shaded ravines 
and cooler habitats near Lake Michigan. 

Also of interest to local botanists are the 
only known colonies of beech {Fa\;iis ^^nvidifolia) 
in northern Illinois. Apparently beech does not 
survive on the drier oak woodlands and prairie 
uplands of the Chicago area. Rather, it prefers 
the cool, moist north-facing ravine slopes. 

The ravines also furnish habitats for 16 
native plant species that are considered to be 
threatened or endangered in Illinois, including 
the American dog-violet (Viola conspersa), a 
species of bluegrass (Pan lan^iiida), downy Sol- 
omon's seal (Poly^onatum pubcscens), a black- 
seeded rice grass (Oryzopsis racemosa), and pale 
vetchling (Latln/rus ochwleucus). The heart- 
leaved plantain (Phvitago cordata) is another en- 
dangered plant known to occur in the ravines. It 
was collected in 1880 at a ravine in Highland Park 
by the early Chicago botanist Rev. E.J. Hill, and 
has not been found since. The heart-leaved plan- 
tain grew in the shallow ravine bottom streams 
and required a constant supply of cold, unpol- 




Doivny ycUmv violet 
f Viola pubescens) 
ami the ivooley blue 
violet (V. sororiaj, 
^•howii on p. U, are the 
tuv commonest violets 
in therai'ines. Photo by 
Robbin C. Moran. 



luted groundwater throughout the growing sea- 
son. Presumably this plant has vanished from 
the ravines as the result of various man- caused 
disturbances to the ravine bottom streams, such 
as sewage and rain water runoff pipes, ditching, 
and so forth. 

Several different plant communities, or 
habitats, occur within the ravine ecosystem. To- 
pography largely determines their presence or 
absence in any particular locality. On the ravine 
slopes occur a rich and diverse plant community 
dominated by sugar maple (Acer sacchariim), 
basswt)od (Tilia amcricana), and red oak (Qucrcus 
rubra). Forest coveron the flat uplands surround- 



1. Berg, R.C. and C. Collinson. 1976. Bluff Erosion, 
Recession Rates, and Volumetric Losses on the Lake 
Michigan Shoreline in Illinois." Illinois Geological Sur- 
vey Environmental Notes, 7b. 



Robbin Moran is a graduate student in Ix^tany at Southern 
Illinois University at Carbondale. His study of the area 
under consideration iiere was largely funded by the Lake 
Forest Garden Club. 



Because of 

oivqjicking by 

zealous wildflower 

lovers, the i/ellow 

lady's slipper orchid 

(Cypridedium 

calceolus) (s now 

extremely rare in 

the rai^ities. Photo 

by Robbin C. 

Moran. 



ing the ravines consists primarily of shagbark 
hickory (Can/a ovata) and several species of oaks 
such as bur oak {Qucrcus macrocarpa) , Hill's oak 
(Q. cUipsoidalis) , red oak (Q. rubra), white oak (Q. 
alba), and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor). The clay 
bluffs facing Lake Michigan provide a different 
set of plant communities. 

Those who live near the ravines are famil- 
iar with the beautiful spring wildflowers dis- 
played there. The first spring blooming plants in 
mid-April are bloodroot {San;^uiiiaria catmdcnsis) 
and hepatica {Hcpatica acutiloba), followed by the 
great white triiiium (Trillium ^randiflorum), which 
often whitens entire ravine slopes. By mid-Mav 
other prominent blooming wildflowers are trout 
lily {Erythronium albidum), bellwort (Uvularia per- 
foliata), Jack- in- the pulpit [Arisaema triphyllum), 
wooley blue violet {Viola sororia), downy yellow 
violet (V. puhescens), wood anemone {Anemone 
quinqiicfolia), blue phlox {Phlox divaricata), 
pussey's-toes {Antcnnaria plantaginifolia), 




baneberry or doll's-eyes {Actaca alba), and many 
others. About 75 percent of the ravine wildflow- 
ers come into bloom and complete their life cycle 
before mid-June. This adaptation of early spring 
flowering allows the plants to manufacture food 
while sunlight is available on the forest floor 
before the overhead trees have produced a dense 
shade. Plants with this life strategy are called 
ephemerah. It is interesting to note that ravine 
wildflower populations come into flower approx- 
imately two weeks later than wildflower popula- 
tions a few miles inland. This is because tempera- 
tures nearer the lake are cooler in springtime. 

Since spring ephemerals manufacture 
food by photosynthesis for only a short time 
during spring, picking or gathering them greatly 
reduces their chance for survival, for not enough 
time remains for them to manufacture the food 
that is to be stored in roots, corms, or bulbs for 
the following year's growth. Several plants have 
been greatly reduced in the ravines by zealous 
over- picking. The showy lady's-slipper orchid 
{Cypnpcdium rc;>;iiuie) has apparently been extir- 
pated from the ravines for this reason. 

At the base of some ravine slopes occurs a 
special type of plant community known as a seep 
— where calcareous groundwater percolates, or 
"seeps," out of the ground. The soOs in these 
areas are saturated with water year-round and 
are a nuisance to hikers who may sink well above 
their ankles in mud. Special environmental con- 
ditions created by the abundance of calcareous 
groundwater allows many interesting plants to 
occur. Skunk cabbage {Symplocarpus feotidus), the 
ecological dominant of many seeps, can be used 
as an "indicator plant" because it typically out- 
lines the boundaries of the seep habitat. This 
hardy plant sends up its unusual flowers during 
the last cold days of March, when other spring 
wildflowers are still dormant. The skunk cab- 
bage flower is surrounded by a thick fleshy hood 
known to botanists as a spathc. This reddish- 
purple structure enables the plant to absorb the 
sun's rays and keep the developing flower within 
at a warmer temperature than the outside air. 

The witch-hazel {Hamamelis virginiana) is 
the most abundant shrub in the ravines and on 
the uplands. It is unique among ravine trees and 
shrubs in that it produces its small yellow flowers 
in late September and earlv October. All other 
ravine trees and shrubs flower in the spring. A 
good field identification character of witch hazel 
is its horizontal layered pattern of spreading 
branches. The shrub's layered branching pattern 
is a survival strategy which allows the leaves to 
intercept the small amount of sunlight that man- 
ages to filter down through the tall trees in mid- 
summer. Other shrubs frequently found in the 
ravines are maple- leaved viburnum {Viburnum 
accrifolium), downy arrowwood (V. rafiiiesquia- 




Wooley blue violet (Viola sororia) and the downy yellow violet C V. pubescens), shown on p. 9, are the two commonest violets 
in the ravines. (Photo by Robbin C. Moran.) 



mini), black haw (V. pniiiifolinni), prickly goose- 
berry {Ribes cynosbati), and shadbush or ser- 
viceberry {Amclanchicr laevis). 

The original vegetation of the lake bluffs 
was primarily forest; lake erosion, however, has 
now greatly reduced the extent of this forest. An 
open shrub community with numerous prairie 
forbs occurred interspersed among the forests on 
the lake bluffs. Common shrubs in these open 
lake bluff habitats included Canadian buffalo- 
berry {Shcplianiia canadensis), red osier dogwood 
(Comus stolonifcra), common juniper (Juiiipcnis 
communis), red cedar (/. vir^iniaiia), and New Jer- 
sey tea {Ceanotlnis americanus). Some of the 
prairie forbs that occurred on the clay bluffs were 
seneca snakeroot (Poly^ala scnc^^a), smooth aster 
(Aster laevis), golden Alexanders (Zizia aurea), 
toadflax {Comandra richardsiana), and stiff gentian 
{Gentiaiia quiiiquefolia). Today, because of severe 
erosion by Lake Michigan, many of the lake 
bluffs are bare morainic clay with only a few 
foreign weeds growing on their steep slopes. 
Nevertheless, as lake levels recede, the steep clay 
bluffs will erode to more gentle slopes, enabling 
plants to get a foothold and begin the process of 
succession to a mature forest. 

Constantly changing the ravine ecosys- 
tem are various disturbances caused by man: 
power lines, rainwater runnoff pipes, and hous- 



ing subdivisions; fragile ravine slopes are tram- 
pled and exotic plants are introduced. In the 
course of my botanical study of the ravines I was 
unable to find 17 plants that had been recorded 
there by earlier botanists.^ Presumably, many of 
these plants have been eliminated by various 
forms of human disturbance (the heart-leaved 
plantain for example). I did find in the ravines 36 
plants that are introduced aliens to the United 
States. One of these alien plants, goutweed {Ae- 
gopodiuni podagraria), poses a threat to native 
plants that li\'e in the ra\'ine bottoms, for it often 
forms dense colonies, excluding all the indige- 
nous species. Other exotic introduced plants are 
also establishing themselves in the ravines and 
taking the place of native ravine species. Several 
years from now, certainly, the ravine flora will be 
different in manv respects from that which pre- 
vails today. Despite these disturbances, the 
ravines with their many interesting plants and 
spectacular scenery will continue to be a unique 
feature t)f the Chicago area's natural landscape. 



2. Moran, R.C. 1978. "Vascular Flora of the Ravines 
along Lake Michigan in Lake County, Illinois." The 

Michi^;iw Rotcini^t. 17(4):123-140. 



II 



Six Decades of Change 
In the Palos Woodlands 



By PHIL HANSON 



Vintage Photographs, typically, have not only 
a nostalgic charm, they can also be of unique 
value to the historian or — in the case of the 
photos reproduced here — to the natural histo- 
rian and ecologist. 

Such photos of outdoor scenes may reveal 
features in the landscape that have been altered, 
dramatically or subtly, during the intervening 
years, or thev may reveal conditions that have 
vanished entirely or, on the other hand, which 
have remained essentially unchanged for 
perhaps a millennium. 

What can often cast an old photograph 
into special perspective is comparison of it with a 
contemporary,' one. By comparing two photo- 




graphs taken from the same vantage point many 
years apart, they become more than just a record 
of a place at two different times. It is possible, by 
comparing the photographs, to recognize not 
only what kinds of change have taken place, but 
to determine how fast these changes have oc- 
curred, and to what extent. 

The changes are frequently obvious: a 
housing development now covers what was 
once a farm, an expressway transects an old 
neighborhood. In other cases the changes may 
be more subtle. Areas that have escaped de- 
velopment change at a more leisurely pace: A 
forest edge may have crept a few more yards into 
an abandoned pasture, or the spring torrents of 
many years may have established a new course, 
with the former route outlined by abandoned 
oxbows. Such changes usually occur so slowly 
and so subtly that they escape our attention until 
we are confronted by the dramatic evidence of 
photos taken at great intervals of time. 

The vintage photographs shown here, 
taken from the Field Museum archives, date 
mostly from 1916 or before. All are of what is now 
known as the Palos area, in southwestern Cook 
County, some 20 miles from downtown Chicago. 
The highly scenic Palos area, with its pleasing 
vales and hills, differs markedly from the table- 



Palos Woodland stream . Old vieu' above, 
present vieic at right. Bridgein oldvie^c 
has disappeared. 



12 




Palos Park Hill. Left: As it appeared 
on October 21, 1914. Belozc: as it ap- 
pears some 66 years later. 



top flatness of most of the citv of Chicago. In 
Palos, the Des Plaines Ri\'er Valley and the Sag 
Valley have cut a hundred feet into the flat sur- 
face, and streams draining from the highlands to 
the valley floors ha\e created a whole range of 
rugged mini-landscapes. It was, and is today, an 
ideal setting for the landscape photographer. 

Because much of the land in these pictures 
was acquired by the Cook County Forest Pre- 
serve District manv vears ago, the Palos area 
remains open land today. The forest shown in 
the old photos still exists today; but we can see, 
by comparing the old with the contemporar)', 
how much change has actually occurred during 
the six and a half decades or more. 

The absence of identifying landmarks in 
landscape photographs can make it difficult or 
impossible to pinpoint the precise locations of 
the photos. Manv old photographs, then, must 
be appreciated solely for their aesthetic or nos- 
talgic appeal. The location of some of these 
photos was facilitated by notes on the original 
jackets of negatives and from information pro- 
vided by members of the Palos Historical 
Society. 



Phil Hanson is head. Group Programs Division, 
Department of Education. 





Road through Palos Woodlands. 
Above: about 65 i/ears ago, tracks of 
interurban railway icere in regular 
use. Left: the route is transformed, 
with disappearance of railroad tracks 
and construction of hardtop road- 
way. 



13 




Photos by 
Division of Photography 



Clockwise, from top left William G. 
Swartchild. Jr. , chairman of the Field Museum 
Beard of Trustees, cotij^ratutates Carol Kopeck, 
volunteer in Public Relations (555 hours in 
1979): Sue Carole DeVale, visiting assistant 
curator of ethnomusicology and a professional 
harpist, performs on the harp; Swartchitd-with 
Field Museum President E. Leland Webber in 
background-congratulates Sol Curaoitz, volun- 
teer in anthropology and photography (523 
hours): Swarthchild congratulates Roger Larson, 
volunteer in Accounting (500+ hours): Miss 
Piggy (Anthony Pfeiffer of Education) provider 
some Ught entertainment; Ron Holdman , ofPu r 
chasifig, relaxes between renditions on the 
drums; Field Museum Chorus, with Kathy 
Laughlin (Accounting), Gordon Baird (Geol- 
ogy), Sarah Derr (Mammals), Mari Mullen aiui 
Alice Lewis (Education), Roberta Becker 
(Botany), Sue Ann Harrison and Darlene Peder- 
son (Education); Invertebrates Curator Alan 
Solem congratulates Elizabeth-Louise Girardi, 
14 volunteer in Invertebrates (30V+ hours). 






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At 10:45 a.m. on Tuesday, 
November 27, Kenneth Doudt of Re- 
edsport was attacked and bitten while 
surfing. The attack came as Doudt lay on 
his surfboard facing seaward, about 100 
yards from the beach in 12 to 15 feet of 
water. The shark seized the board and 
Doudt in its jaws. 

After a bit of shaking, in which 
Doudt suffered massive wounds to chest, 
abdomen, and left side, the shark sank 
into the water and Doudt came free. He 
swam to his board and came to the beach 
on the next wave where friends helped 
him till emergency crews arrived. 

After surgery, Doudt made a re- 
markable recovery and was released from 
a Portland hospital several weeks later. It 
was reported he will suffer little perma- 
nent impairment from the ordeal. 

Following the attack, biologists took 
measurements of the bite on the 
surfboard which measured 12% inches 
across and 8-''4 inches in from the board's 
edge. Shark experts confirmed that the 
attack was made by a great white shark 
(the species oi jaws fame) and estimates 
of its size range from 12V2 to 16 feet. 

The attack was believed to be one of 
territorial defense rather than feeding. 
White sharks apparently establish tem- 
porary territories covering a several-mile 
area where they may stay for several days 
to a week and sometimes longer before 
moving on. They will drive all other large 
animals from one of these temporary 
homesites. 

Although not abundant, white 
sharks have been reported as far north as 
Alaska. Some may be in the Oregon 
coastal area off and on all the time but 
during the summer many travel north- 
ward in the warmer tuna waters offshore. 
The warm currents usually break up in 
the fall, and upwelling of deeper, colder 
water inshore breaks down, leaving 
warmer water along the beach from Sep- 
tember to December. This, combined 
with fall salmon runs entering coastal 
rivers and the seal population in the area, 
may lure white sharks to the coastal zone. 

Only one other confirmed shark at- 
tack is recorded off Oregon's shores. It 
occurred several years ago off the mouth 
of the Umpqua River. In that attack a 
large shark bit away the rear part of a 
surfboard, but its rider was un- 
harmed — Oregon Wildlife. 



Aspen as Cattle Feed 

The package of meat in the supermarket 
looks like any other, except for the label: 
U.S. prime aspen-fed beef. 

"Harrumph," the suspicious shop- 
per says. "Probably need a saw to cut it." 

Wrong. In fact, the beef cooks up 
juicier, more tender and flavorful than 
traditional corn-fed meat. 



You won't find the wood-fed beef in 
the markets just yet. But it may not be 
long. Following extensive tests, the U.S. 
Food and Drug Administration has re- 
cently approved the use of aspen as an 
animal feed. 

In Bigfork, Minnesota, farmer Chet 
Cook shovels pellets of aspen into feed 
troughs. His beef cattle see it's dinner 
time, mosey across the frozen barnyard, 
and begin gobbling up the wood. 

"They can't get enough of it," Cook 
says with a satisfied grin. 

The aspen has been pulverized into a 
sawdustlike consistency, dried and 
densified into chewable pellets. The 
aspen alone has only a small protein 
content — about 2 percent — not enough to 
maintain an animal. However, it can be 
combined with alfalfa or other grasses to 
produce a higher protein feed. 

Steaks from beef cattle fed the 
aspen-alfalfa blend in University of 
South Dakota tests several years ago were 
sampled by a panel, said the university's 
Les Kamstra, one of the leading re- 
searchers in the field. 

"Surprisingly enough, it had a 
higher rating than normal (corn-fed 
beef)," he said. "It was juicier, more 
tender and tasty than corn-fed. The test 
panel liked the wood steaks best." 

Livestocks like the wood so well that 
their daily intake had to be restricted 
during tests. This should come as no sur- 
prise, say Kamstra and others who have 
worked with the aspen. 

"We should have known this be- 
cause wild animals have eaten aspen 
since the beginning of time," said Cook, 
who is also a small-scale logger. He noted 
that deer and grouse both thrive on 
aspen bark and buds. 

Ted Niskanen of the Minnesota De- 
partment of Economic Security said 
farmers in Europe cut brush and trees for 
use as feed during droughts or other hard 
times when conventional feeds were un- 
available. 

But why would a farmer want to feed 
his cattle aspen instead of hay or other 
conventional feeds? 

Cost, the men say. Kamstra believes 
aspen pellets can be produced cheaper 
than hay from material that, until now, 
was wasted. Sawdust from sawmills and 
tree tops and branches left behind during 
logging operations — which are 30 per- 
cent of the tree — have simply not been 
utilized. Cook said. 

Niskanen and others admit the im- 
mediate future of wood pellets may be as 
a fuel rather than a feed. The same pellet 
that cows munch burns like coal in fur- 
naces. But if costs of other feeds increase, 
or their availability decreases, say, from a 
drought, aspen could be become a lucra- 
tive alternative, Niskanen says. 

This is one of the reasons the testing 
of wood fiber as a feed began in South 
Dakota, Kamstra noted. "There was a ter- 



rible shortage of hay in 1976," caused by 
a drought, he said. 

In addition, the South Dakota De- 
partment of Game, Fish and Parks began 
extensive cutting of mature aspen forests 
in the state to improve wild game 
habitat. A use had to be found for all 
wood. Thus, Kamstra's program began. 

Mature trees can be ground up in 
chippirvg machines, then pulverized, 
Kamstra said, utilizing the entire tree. 
However, tests have shown there is 
much more protein in immature trees 
and limbs. Niskanen believes farmers 
may someday plant and harvest forests of 
small, pole-like aspen trees. 

"Because juvenile growth has the 
highest level of nutrients, we will see 
plantations of forests for cattle feed," 
Niskanen predicts. 

"It's going to cause a new use of poor 
quality farmland. And there will be a 
more complete utilization of the biomass, 
rather than leaving the tree tops out 
there," he said. 

Mechanized harvesting equipment 
will lower costs and facilitate such oper- 
ations, he predicted. 

Meanwhile, Cook has been feeding 
his cattle blends of aspen off and on since 
1976, and has actively encouraged devel- 
opment of the budding industry, despite 
skepticism and criticism. 

"We were laughed at. People said we 
were out of our tree," Cook said, 
straightfaced. 

"It's no joke now." — Doug Smith, 
Duluth News-Tribune 



Congress Considers Future of 
Three Endangered Species 

Whether or not a butterfly species and 
two plant species will be allowed to sur- 
vive is a question now being considered 
by Congress. The three species, classified 
as endangered by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, receive protection 
under the Endangered Species Act ot 
1973. All are known only from Califor- 
nia's Antioch Dunes. The dunes repre- 
sent a unique, now-decimated habitat 
which borders the San Joaquin River in 
Contra Costa County, east of San Fran- 
cisco Bay. Formerly occupying an area of 
about 500 acres, only about 80 acres re- 
main, and much of this has been sub- 
stantially altered. 

The endangered Antioch Dunes 
buttertly, known as Lange's metalmark 
{Apodcmia mormo hitigei), is a small, 
multi-colored species, belonging to the 
Riodinidae family, which flies during the 
late summer months. As a caterpillar, it 
feeds on only one species of plant, a 
buckwheat {Eriogonum Intifolium var. ai4- 
riculatum). The total Lange's metalmark 
population has recently been estimated 
at about 400. Sand excavation and 
rototilling has reduced the butterfly 17 




k\: "i ^ 



Ph. 



ii-niM Hii"«ii' Uiiiiia). 



pt>pul.ilion diri'vlly .ind through destruc- 
tion o< the bucKwhcJt pl.int 

The two endangered Antioch Dunes 
plants are the Contra Costa wallflower 
(f r-, -iliilum var iiny"'''''''""' •'f' 

jh.- [lunr-i evening primrose 

1 Both were 
■pecies List in 
iv/S Approxim.itelv IMH) plants of the 
cream-colored primrose survive. The 
condition of the yellow-blossomed 
wallflower, with only about 250 individ- 
uals left. IS even more precarious. Both 
plants received publicity in l''7'J when 
they were portrayed on the "endangered 
flora  U.S. commemorative postage 
stamp series. 

These endangered organisms can 
survive only if the undeveloped dune 
remnants are preserved, say con- 
servationists. The Fish and Wildlife Ser- 
vice has secured options to purchase the 
two remaining parcels, which total 56 
acres. Purchase price is approximately 
$2.2 million The area is prime industrial 
land, accounting for the high purchase 
price Once obtained, the remnenls 
would become a national wildlife refuge. 
Conservationists point out that attempts 
could then be made to increase popula- 
tions of the three species so they could 
eventually be removed from the En- 
dangered Species List. 

Acquisition of the Antioch Dunes 
cannot proceed, however, without Con- 

•mI. Monies must be ap- 

le U.S. Land and Wafer 
t und. In view of the con- 
ine of both butterfly and 
nservationists 
.ir. '-•ill to .ippro- 

pnate lund> is v ress 

and IS passed pr: ^ n of 

the purchase options. It the purchase is 
not .ii^t^r,iv>-,1 .-l-iim conservationists, the 
du almost certainly be de- 

vfu ,,,, ,  'Itered, resulting in 

extinction t. inpcred species. 

The Langr ^ -'vvr^ark is only one of 
)l eight protected Unitecl States endangered 



gressior  
propn.r 
Co: 
tin 

w ' 



or threatened butterflies. Six of these in- 
habit California, a region of increasing 
human population and diverse habitat. 
All these butterflies generally inhabit 
unique and deminishing habitats which 
.111' homo for other very rare species. 

One such butterfly, the El Segundo 
blue {liipliilotfS' /'iiffciifi'.'i iiUyni), is a Los 
.•\ngelos resident, it survives at only two 
locations. One is a 2-acre parcel owned 
and protected by Standard Oil of Califor- 
nia. The species flies in greater abun- 
dance at the second site, part of the Los 
Angeles International Airport. 

Motors Banned in Grand Canyon 

\ttcr 10 years of public involvement and 
three of research, the National Park Ser- 
vice (NTS) has issued its management 
plan lor the Grand Canyon section of the 
Colorado River. The plan, which begins a 
five-year phase-out of motorized craft 
this year, has brought strong opposition 
from concessionaires and applause from 
conservation groups, nps Director Wil- 
liam Whalen stated that a trip down the 
Whitewater section through the Canyon 
should be "the epitome of a wilderness 
experience on a river in America." The 
plan hopes to protect the wilderness by 
spreading out use over a longer running 
season, instituting environmental 
safeguards (limiting boatload size, car- 
rying out waste), and increasing the 
number of private permits (as opposed to 
commercial). 

The Boating Industry Association, a 
trade association of marine manufactur- 
ers, charges that nps is "limiting the river 
whitewhater experience to those with the 
time, money, and endurance to take a 
float trip." adding that the running time 
will double and cost increase 60-70 per- 
cent on the 235-mile trip. However, the 
new plan will permit trips from one to 20 
days' duration. 



Ice Conditioners? 

Researchers at the University of Dela- 
ware are studying a new version of an old 
way to keep cool. Old way: put a block of 
ice in front of a fan to cool the air. New 
way: freeze a special salt water gel at 
night when energy rates and demand are 
lower, then use it during the day for 
cooling. Because the chemical involved 
freezes at approximately 55 degrees F., a 
home central air conditioning system can 
be used to freeze it, then to fan air across 
the frozen gel. Wide use of such 
"storage-assisted air conditioning sys- 
tems" could reduce utility companies' oil 
consumption and investment in 
generators to meet peak loads. The 
estimated initial cost of $680 could^save 
about $230 a year on electricity bills. 
Marketing is three years away, say re- 
searchers. 



Wildlife Imports Increase 

U.S. imports of wildlife items skyroc- 
keted more than 9,000 percent between 
1972 and 1977, reports traffic (Trade 
Records Analysis of Flora and Fauna in 
Commerce), the trade monitor for World 
Wildlife Fund-US. Game trophy imports 
rose 589 percent; skin and hides, 2b per- 
cent; live animals, 2 percent; and plants 
446 percent, to total 164.6 million items in 
1977. 

Although the U.S. was the first of 51 
countries to ratify the Convention of 
International Trade in Endangered 
Species (cites), the federal government is 
having a difficult time monitoring trade 
increases at the nation's 8 wildlife and 14 
plant ports of entry. For example, the 
Miami airport only has one U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service inspector at any one time 
to check hundreds of incoming ship- 
ments. TRAFFIC hopes to serve as a 
privately-operated data source to support 
and improve government efforts to re- 
gulate the boom. Initial efforts will focus 
on species, such as sea turtles, macaws, 
cacti, orchids, elephants (ivory), and 
crocodilians (leather), hardest hit by the 
international trade. 



Environmental Protection Agency 

Announces "Seek and Find" 

Hazardous Waste Hot Line 

The Midwest Regional Office of the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency (epa) 
recently announced a new program, 
"Seek and Find," to uncover improperly 
managed hazardous waste disposal sites 
throughout Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin. By 
calling the toll-free Hazardous Waste 
Hotline, citizens can report known or 
suspected sites where hazardous waste 
material has been improperly disposed of 
or stored. 

"Hazardous waste generation in the 
United States has increased dramatically 
since the end of World War II, " said )ohn 
McGuire, U.S. epa regional adminis- 
trator, "but the impacts of improperly 
managed hazardous wastes have only re- 
cently been recognized by the public as « 
critical issue. Until all such waste sites 
are located, potential threats to our health 
and the environment may sit unattended 
in fields and warehouses like ticking time 
bombs. The potential danger is too great 
to ignore." 

The "Seek and Find " program will 
enable citizens to report suspected dis- 
posal sites in their community via the 
Hazardous Waste Hotline, a toll-free 
number. Illinois residents may call 800 
972-3170, and residents outside Illinois 
may call 800 621-3191, Monday through 
Friday, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 



ijardous wastes may be found in 

Ids, abandoned buildings, along 

;s, or near wooded areas and 

ands. Warning signs include 

pes of 55-gallon drums, strong 

I odors, oil or sludge spills on 

waterways, and dead or dying 

on in fields and woodlands. 

igle sign or combination of signs 

be reported," said McGuire. 

zjis should not attempt to in- 

4' on their own, as toxic fumes, 

le chemicals, or explosive mate- 

i be present." 

ardous wastes are discarded 

i< substances, usually stored in 

rm in 55-gallon steel drums, and 

alimable, reactive, corrosive or 

I nature. Improper disposal of 

ngerous wastes can cause con- 

Dn of drinking water supplies, 

s^is, fires and air pollution, and 

a people and property through 

i indirect contact. 

h| EPA estimates that of the 30-40 

nions of hazardous wastes gener- 

iriually in the U.S., only 10 percent 

jj properly managed. Major 

airs include the primary metals, 

iiland inorganic chemicals, elec- 

itig, textiles, petroleum refining, 

.ilj'er and plastics industries. Ohio, 

1, Illinois and Indiana are among 

n's top ten states in the genera- 

azardous wastes. 

ee brochure on the "Seek and 

ogram is available in single or 

'ies through the Office of Public 
n'ion, U.S. epa. Region V, 230 

1 l>arbom St., Chicago, 111. 60604, 
cling (312) 353-2072. 



3f 



w ves, much like loners in society, 

ave little to howl about. Wolves 

io lot belong to a pack rarely re- 

i 

n 



ts Howl at Minnesota Wolves 



howling from other wolves, 
esting aspect of wolf behavior 

leleasons why wolves howl or re- 
■nt were investigated over a 
period by research biologists 
wolf howls in the Superior Na- 
est of northern Minnesota, 
d Mech, a research biologist 
I J. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 

re H. Harrington, a biologist with 
on of Biological Sciences, State 

rs <i of New York, conducted the 
t« determine what role howling 
he maintenance of wolf terri- 
biologists imitated wolf howls 
esponses from radio-collared 
at could be located, 
s office in St. Paul, Mech, re- 
intemationally as a wolf expert, 
al replies and behavior of 
solves — in response to human 
were analyzed from eight wolf 
ai. ten lone wolves. He said pre- 



,t 
ze 

V( 

?d 



vious work by other researchers showed 
that free-ranging wolves respond to 
human imitations of howling as well as 
or better than playbacks of recorded 
howling by real wolves. Wolves appar- 
ently have the ability to distinguish indi- 
vidual voices. Agonistic responses from 
Cams lupus indicates, in the opinion of 
Mech, that wolves regard the human im- 
itated call as howling from alien wolves. 

During the experimental howling 
sessions, the biologists noted that wolves 
remained near their original site after 
howling, or retreated if they remained 
silent. The difference apparently was re- 
lated to the problems of avoiding both 
accidental and eliberate encounters, and 
to "cost/benefit considerations" related to 
resources at the wolves' locations, ac- 
cording to Mech. 

He said howling enables packs to 
avoid one another. The major benefit of 
replying to howling of alien wolves is the 
avoidance of an "accidental" encounter. 
The biologist reports that accidental en- 
counters have been observed among wolf 
packs in Minnesota. Wolves are keenly 
defensive of and sensitive to territorial 
rights established by packs. Conflicts can 
arise when alien wolves enter a territory. 
"By howling," Mech said, "resident 
wolves advertise their position, allowing 
both resident and intruder to modify 
their movements to minimize the pro- 
bability of an accidental meeting." The 
potential cost of replying, on the other 
hand, may be much greater than the en- 
ergy required to howl because "adver- 
tisement announces the so-called adver- 
tisers' location and may subject them to 
attack, even by intruding wolves," he 
said. 

Observations have been made in 
which intruding wolves located and at- 
tacked other wolves by following their 
adversaries' tracks in snow. Howling also 
could be used this way by wolves. Thus 
an important potential cost of replying to 
howling is the possibility of attack. 

During the Minnesota study, the 
howling rate varied significantly 
throughout the year. A midwinter in- 
crease was correlated with the breeding 
season, especially for groups containing 
breeding animals. A second, larger in- 
crease in reply rate started in midsum- 
mer, peaked about August, and declined 
to a low in early winter. The decline in 
autumn howling response occurred 
sooner in a pack whose pups developed 
faster, Mech reports. 

Study findings indicate the howling 
reply rate was significantly higher among 
all packs and lone wolves attending prey 
kills. The more food remaining at a kill, 
the higher the reply rate was. 

Kills are valuable resources to 
wolves — resources not easily replaced, 
according to the biologists. Capturing 
and killing prey is a difficult and danger- 
ous task. Most encounters between wolf 



packs and prey are unsuccessful. In other 
words, wolves generally must work hard 
when hunting for their dinners. A de- 
cline in the deer population in the area 
where the study was conducted reduced 
the number of available prey, so most 
kills were fully utilized by wolves. (De- 
fense of a kill would be expected, Mech 
said, for even subordinate captive wolves 
can successfully defend their food from 
other more dominant wolves.) 

During the study, larger wolf packs 
replied more often than did smaller 
packs. Howling enables a strung-out 
pack to reassemble, the biologists said. 
For wolves separated from their pack, the 
howling rate was dependent on the age 
and social role of pack members. Specific 
behaviors noted during howling 
sessions — including movements away 
from the howler — indicated that howling 
was related to interpack agonism, Mech 
said. Moreover, three of the major factors 
influencing the reply rate also sig- 
nificantly affect the level of agonism to- 
ward strangers, namely: pack size, social 
role, and breeding season. 

Two other factors, kills and pups, are 
both important pack resources neces- 
sitating exclusive occupancy of a site, 
Mech said. The high reply rates at sites 
containing kills — or pups — constitute 
strong circumstantial evidence that 
howling is important in the maintenance 
of a territory. 

Howling was considered most effec- 
tive in mediating avoidance in two situ- 
ations: (1) when two packs approached a 
common area of overlap; (2) when a pack 
returned to an area that was little used for 
weeks in which scent posts (spoor) 
would have lost effectiveness in deter- 
ring strangers (alien wolves). 

Both scent marking and howling ap- 
parently are important in spacing. How- 
ever, scent marking and howling differ in 
their roles and are complementary; scent 
marking being long term and site- 
specific; howling being immediate and 
long range, in the words of Mech. 

Lone wolves which do not possess 
territories rarely replied to human 
howling during the study, Mech said. 
Lone wolves shared the "low profile" be- 
havior of surplus animals in a territorial 
population. Interpack howling sessions 
may continue for hours, he said. In Min- 
nesota, three adjacent packs were heard 
howling, apparently to each other, each 
from within its own territory. After such 
sessions packs moved apart, suggesting 
their interpack howling occurs in an 
agonistic context, and thus may be in- 
volved in territorial maintenance. 

The study answered questions about 
the role and importance of howling in 
territory maintenance. Radioed wolves 
replied to 494 of 1,783 trials during which 
biologists imitated wolf howls. Of the 
replies, 390 were recorded and 349 were 
of adequate quality for analysis. 19 



FIELD MUSEUM /ram the ground up 




V/£fV FROM THE M!CHIGAH AVEHUE APPROACH 




Architect's drawings, rendered in 1908, of the Grant Park quarters proposed for the 
Museum. Note that the frorU of the building here faces west. The ctt\/ subsequently 
rejected a proposal to construct the building at the north end of Grant Park. When it urns 
finally built, at the park's south end, the building was turned 90 degrees, to face north. 




On August 27, 1915, construction of the 
building is ivell underway. (It had 
begun a month earlier, July 26.) Plainly 
visible are buildmgs still to be seen 65 
years later along Michigan Avenue, 
notably the Blackstone Hotel (opened 
1910),'at the right. The lllmois Central 
Station, 'with the peaked tozver, left, ivas 
demolished in 1974. 



May 4, 1917. Twenty months have elapsed since the 

above photo was taken. The foundation now appears 

20 complete. 




FiFTV-NiNE Years Ago, on May 2, 1921, Field 
Museum celebrated a kind of housewarming — 
the opening of its superb new quarters in Grant 
Park, it had been just 27 years — less a month — 
since the Museum's original building had 
opened itf doors in Jackson Park, just four miles 
south of the new Grant Park location. 
But the original building, c]uickly con- 
structed for use during the World's Columbian 
Expcisition, was doomed to self-destruct in a 
very short space of time. In little more than a 
decade, for example, the building's exterior was 
sloughing off, creating an eyesore that was im- 
practical and too costly to correct. The floor space 
in the Jackson Park building also soon proved to 
be inadequate for the rapidh' expanding collec- 
tions. The only sensible solution, the trustees 
decided, was to find new quarters. The result 
was the construction of the present building, 
begun on July 26, 1915. The photos reproduced 
here tell part of the story of its construction and 
of the relocation of the collections. 





June 5, 1919. The main structure of the 
Museum huildinsy (behind the camera) is nmc 
essentialh/ complete. Shown here is the 
uniier^rounii raihcay, subsequently covered by 
landfill, used to convex/ coal to, and ashes from, 
the Museum's original furnaces. The railway 
connected with a much larger system, many 
miles in length, that still underlies much of 
downtozon Chicago. 



August 21, 1917. Two years since ground loas 
broken: the building is taking shapv. 



About 1920. What must have been a sea 

of mud surrounds the completed Museum. 

The undergrou)id railway (shown above) 

has been covered. Landfill extending into 

Lake Michigan is still to be added on 

three sides of tin' building. 




' "^ ; ^" i\s A """ 

clcphantf, s/iof by Carl 
Akclc}/ in 1906 and put 
on display in 1909, ride 
i^nominioush/ on 
railroad flatcar from the 
lackson Park buildins; 
to the neiv quarters in 
Grant Park, four miles 
north. The taller of the 
tzvo elephants has been 
temporarily decapitated 
for the journe\/. 




Specimens and cases not carried by 

rail ivere transported /n/ truck. 

Shown leaving the Jackson 

Park building. 




hiiililiii^-though scarcely 25 yearn old-h clcmly 
visible behind the locomotive. Alxmt 1920. 




Cornerstone ceremonies at the neiv Museum 
building, September 28, 1917. Those present 
included (1) paleontology curator Elmer S. 
Riggs, (2) anthropology curator A. B. Lewis, 

(3) anthropolog}/ curator Bertlwld Laufer, 

(4) botany curator Charles L. Millspaugh, (5) 
geology curator Henry W. Nuiiols, (6) insects 
curator William j. Gerhardt, (7) director 
Frederick I. V. Skiff, (8) director David C. 
Davies, (9) zoology curator Wilfred H. Osgood, 
(W) accountant Benjamin Bridge, (11) director 
S. C. Siinms, (12) anthropology curator 

Fay Cooper Cole, (13) botany curator B. E. 
Dahlgren, (14) security chief Charles L. Owen. 




Op>ening day of the new Grant Park quarters of 
Field Museum, May 2, 1921. 




•^^^■V: 




Why Not 
Eat Insects?* 

By Vincent M. Holt 



In entering upon this work I am fully 
conscious of the difficulty of battling 
against a long-existing and deep-rooted 
public prejudice, lonly askof my readers a 
fair hearing, an impartial consideration of 
mv arguments, and an unbiassed judg- 
ment. If these be granted, I feel sure that 
many will be persuaded to make practical 
proof of the expediency of using insects as 
food. There are insects and insects. Mi/ 
insects are all vegetable feeders, clean, 
palatable, wholesome, and decidedly 
more particular in their feeding than our- 
selves. While 1 am confident that thev will 
never condescend to eat iif, I am equally 
confident that, on finding out ho\s' good 
they are, we shall some day right gladly 
cook and eat them. 



Insects That Are Good to Eat; and Some- 
thing about Their Cooking. 

We have seen that, from the time of Moses 
down to the present day, various mem- 
bers of the insect family oiOrthoptera, 
which includes the locusts, crickets, and 
grasshoppers, have been and are eaten 
and appreciated in many parts of the 
world. Now let us look at home, and con- 
sider whv we should not do likewise, add- 
ing to our tables that clean meat, "the 
grasshopper after his kind." We are not 
without precedent. The example of the 
Church has backed up the written permis- 
sion of the Bible. The Rev. R. Sheppard, 
many years ago, had some of our common 
large grasshoppers served up at his table, 
according to the recipe used by the inhabi- 
tants of Morocco in the cooking of their 
favourite locusts. Here it is. "Having 
plucked off their heads, legs, and wings, 
sprinkle them with pepper and salt and 
chopped parsley, fry in butter, and add 
some vinegar." He found them excellent. 
From personal experiment I can fully en- 
dorse his opinion; and there are few who 
would not, if they would but try this dish. 
I have eaten them raw, and I have eaten 
them cooked. Raw, they are pleasant to 
the taste; cooked, they are delicious. The 
above recipe is simple; but any one with a 
knowledge of cookery would know how 
to improve upon it, producing from this 
source such dishes, say, as "Grasshoppers 
au gratin," or "Acridae sautes a la Maitre 
d'Hotel." 

Among the ColeopHera, or Beetles, we 
find many which might well serve as food; 
some in their larval, some in their com- 
plete state, and some in both. Here, again, 
there is no need to recruit from among the 
ranks of the carnivorous or foul feeders. 
There are, without those, plenty of strict 
24 vegetarians. 



The grub of the Stag Beetle (Lucninis 
ccnnis) is said by many, as before men- 
tioned, to be identical with the Cossus, 
which the Romans used to fatten for the 
table upon tlour and wine. As this destruc- 
tive grub, before turning to its beetle stage 
of life, spends some years gnawing at the 
hearts of our oak treas, it would be a boon 
to timber growers if this taste of the Ro- 
mans were revived. There are many varie- 
ties of these timber-borers which might 
well be used for food, as are the Grugru 
and the Moutac grub in the East and West 
Indies. I have especially noticed a plump 
white grub which infests our young sallow 
trees in great numbers, boring upwards 
from the foot of the stem. When the plan- 
tations are cut down, why should this del- 
icacy be wasted? If foolishly rejected at the 
tables of the rich, these larvae should be a 
joy to the woodman's family, and a reward 
for the toil of the breadwinner. If this were 
so, it would be the means of keeping down 
the number of these destructive pests, 
which are not now considered worth col- 
lecting. 

What valid objection can there be to 
eating these insects, when the larvae of 
similar beetles are eaten all o\'er the world, 
both by natives and by whites and when 
such larvae are unanimously pronounced 
to be wholesome and palatable? 

The Meal-worm, the larva of a small 
beetle (Tenebrio), is generally looked upon 
with disgust, as only fit food for tame 
birds. Even the strong-stomached and 
hungry sailor will rap his sea-biscuit on 
the table to shake out the worms before 
eating it. Let him shake out the worms, by 
all means; but let him collect them, fry in 
lard, and spread the dainty upon his dry 
biscuit. He will not again throw Meal- 
worms away. 

In the common Cockchafer 
{Melolontha vulgaris) we find an inveterate 
enemy, which, after spending three years 
in gnawing the roots of our clover and 
grasses as a huge white grub, turns to its 
beetle state, only to continue its ravages 
upon the foliage of our fruit or forest trees. 
Literally tooth and nail we ought to battle 
with this enemy, for in both its stages it is a 
most dainty morsel for the table. The birds 
are more sensible than we. They know 
well the value of the fat chafer as food. 
With what joy the jaunty rooks, following 
the plough with long strides over the up- 
turned clover lea, pounce upon the lus- 
cious grubs! What a feast the birds have 
among the swarms of chafers in the tall 
tree-tops! 

Erasmus Darwin, in his 
"Phytologia," says: "I have observed the 
house sparrow destroy the Maychafer, 
eating out the central part of it, and am 
told that turkeys and rooks do the same; 
which I thence conclude might be grateful 
food, if properly cooked, as the locusts or 
termites of the East. And probably the 
large grub, or larva of it, which the rooks 
pick up in following the plough, is as de- 



licious as the grub called Grugru, and a 
large caterpillar which feeds on the palm, 
both of which are roasted and eaten in the 
West Indies." Here is the openly ex- 
pressed opinion of one of our greatest 
philosophers and deepest thinkers; and 
there is not the slightest doubt that it is 
correct. 

Again I endorse from personal ex- 
perience. Try them, as I have; they are 
delicious. Cockchafers are not only com- 
mon, but of a most serviceable size and 
plumpness, while their grubs are, when 
full grown, at least two inches in length, 
and fat in proportion. 

What a godsend to housekeepers to 
discover a new cntr'cc to vary the 
monotony of the present round! Why 
should invention, which makes such 
gigantic strides in other directions, stand 
still in cookery? Here then, mistresses, 
who thirst to place new and dainty dishes 
before your guests, what better could you 
have than "Curried Maychafers" — or, if 
you want a more mysterious title, "Larvae 
Melolonthae a la Grugru"? Landowning 
guests ought to welcome the opportunity 
of retaliating, at your table, under the "lex 
talionis," upon this, one of the worst of 
their insect tormentors. Another dish, 
which should take with the farmer, would 
be "Fried Chafers with Wireworm sauce." 
Perhaps, however, the little word "worm" 
might be objected to. So let us pander to 
the refined senses of the delicately fastidi- 
ous by writing it upon our menu as "Fried 
Melolontha with Elater sauce." I know 
that wireworms are an excellent substitute 
for shrimps. There are, also, thousands of 
members of the same family as the shrimp 
(Crustaceans) in every garden, namely, the 
common Wood-lice [Oniscus munarius) . I 
have eaten these, and found that, when 
chewed, a flavour is developed remark- 
ably akin to that so much appreciated in 
their sea cousins. Wood-louse sauce is 
equal, if not distinctly superior to, shrimp. 

The following is the recipe: Collect a 
quantity of the finest wood-lice to be 
found (no difficult task, as they swarm 
under the bark of every rotten tree), and 
drop them into boiling water, which will 
kill them instantly, but not turn them red, 
as might be expected. At the same time 
put into a saucepan a quarter of a pound of 
fresh butter, a teaspoonful of flour, a small 
glass of water, a little milk, some pepper 
and salt, and place it on the stove. As soon 
as the sauce is thick, take it off and put in 
the wood-lice. This is an excellent sauce 
for fish. Try it. 

Passing on to the order Hymenoptera, 
the Sawfly at once strikes us as a very 
familiar insect, which in its larval stage 
plays sad havoc among the gooseberry 
bushes, often stripping them bare of 



*OriginaIly published in England in 1885. The 
material reproduced here is an excerpt from the 
paperback edition of the book now in print. 



leaves, and thus spoiling all chance of 
fruit. We all know in what myriads the 
grub swarms upon the trees, and how 
hard it is to induce our gardener, or anv 
one else, to take timely steps for its de- 
struction. If it were known to be nice to 
eat, there would be little fear of this vo- 
racious feeder carrving on its destruction 
uninterrupted. It would be a race between 
the cook and the gardener's wife, who 
should first arrive at the poor gooseberrv 
bush. There is also the Turnip Sawfly, bet- 
ter known to farmers as "the Black," 
which sometimes devours whole fields of 
roots, leaving not a leaf to be seen. In this 
order are included Bees and Wasps. From 
the former we alread\' derive a delicious 
s\seet in the t\>rm of golden honey. From 
the latter we might, if we chose, derive an 
equalh' delicious savourv. What disciple 
of old Izaak Walton, when he has been all 
the morning enticing the wily trout with 
luscious wasp grubs baked to a turn, has 
not suspected a new and appetizing taste 
imparted to his middav meal of bread and 
cheese or sandwich? Perhaps his own 
meal has travelled to the scene of action in 
the same basket as the rich cakes of grubs; 
or it mav be that the fish are biting too well 
to allow time for a thorough hand- 
washing, and rapid bits are taken from the 
lunch in the intervals between the bob- 
bing of the float and the replacing of the 
nibbled grubs. At any rate, it will, some- 
times, so happen to every fisherman to get 
the taste and smell of cooked wasp grubs 
with his meal, and 1 have never noticed 
that it in any way spoilt his appetite. At- 
tracted by the said taste and smell, and 
having no prejudices against insect food, I 
have myself spread the baked grubs upon 
my bread, and found their excellent 
flavour quite sufficient to account for the 
fondness of the trout for this particular 
bait. I will admit that wasps are occasion- 
ally carnivorous, but it is the exception 
and not the rule. Moreover, the saccharine 
fluid with which they feed their infant 
grubs is, 1 believe, entirely composed of 
vegetable juices, drawn from ripe fruits 
and flowers. Their babes, like our own, are 
fed only upon what are called "spoon 
victuals." Let us, then, welcome among 
our new insect dishes "Wasp grubs baked 
in the comb." The number of wasps' nests 
taken and destroyed, in a prolific season, 
is something extraordinary. I have known 
as many as sixteen or twenty nests to be 
taken by a gardener within a very short 
radius round his house. What a waste of 
good wholesome food takes place then, 
when cake after cake, loaded with fat 
grubs, is stamped under foot! The next 
order, the Lepidoptcra (butterflies and 
moths), is rich in material for practical ex- 
periment and demonstration of my theory 
of insect food for omnivorous man. The 
usual stock terms for insects, "hideous," 
"loathsome," etc., cannot be applied with 
any justice to this class, which, in its per- 
fect state is renowned for its elegant 



beauty, and in its lar\al or caterpillar state 
is almost in\'ariably pleasingly coloured 
and by no means repulsive to the eye. 
Their diet, too, is of the most purely veg- 
etarian description, consisting, as it does, 
in the first stage of leaves, and the sweet 
nectar of flowers in the second. The tiny 
ant knows and appreciates the sweetness 
of insects which feed upon the juices of 
plants or flowers, for it keeps and tends 
with care numerous milch herds of 
aphides or green flies, to coax from their 
plump bodies the pearly drops of the 
honey dew it loves so well. We have al- 
ways been taught that in many points the 
ant is to be imitated. In its just apprecia- 
tion of insects as a sweet source of food it is 
to be imitated too. 1 think it is in "Swiss 
FamiK' Robinson" that there is a clever 
account of some travellers, wandering at 
night through a forest by torchlight, being 
greatly annoyed by huge moths, which 
repeatedly extinguished the torches by 
their suicidal love of light. However, an- 
noyance was turned to joy when, tempted 
by the appetizing smell of the toasted 
moths, the hungry travellers ventured to 
satisfy in part their hunger with the 
suicides, which thev found as excellent in 
flavour as in smell. From what I recollect of 
the tale, 1 believe this was quite a fancy 
description, probably founded on the real 
habits of the natives which had been ob- 
served by the travelled author of the book. 
1 well remember that, on reading that ac- 
count, my youthful imagination repro- 
duced without effort the appetizing smell 
of a plump baked moth; but it did not 
occur to me then to try such a tid-bit. 
Lately, however, I have done so, to find 
the dream of my childhood fully realized 
as to the delights, both in taste and smell, 
of a fat moth nicely baked. Try them, ye 
epicures! What possible argument can be 
advanced against eating a creature beauti- 
ful without and sweet within; a creature 
nourished on nectar, the fabled food of 
the gods? 

In attempting to reconcile the popular 
taste to the consumption of this same 
order in its larval stage as "caterpillars," a 
more difficult task perhaps awaits me. But 
why? I never could thoroughly under- 
stand the intense disgust with which the 
appearance at the dinner-table of a well- 
boiled caterpillar, accidentally served with 
cabbage, is always greeted. The feeling is 
purely one of habit, and the outcome of 
unjust prejudice. These delicate, shudder- 
ing people, who now, with appetites 
gone, push away their plates upon the 
appearance of a well-cooked vegetable- 
fed caterpillar, have probably just swal- 
lowed a dozen live oysters; or they may 
have partaken of the foul-feeding lobster, 
and are perh^ips pleasantly anticipating 
the arrival of a dish of ungutted wood- 
cock! I have pointed out before that we 
have Dr. Darwin's authority that the 
caterpillars of the sphinx moths, as eaten 
by the Chinese, are very palatable; and 



another traveller has told us that he found 
the caterpillars eaten by the Hottentots 
tasted like almond paste. Of course, in 
choosing caterpillars for eating, it is neces- 
sary to discriminate between those feed- 
ing on poisonous and non-poisonous 
plants; but there is no more difficulty in 
this than in distinguishing between the 
edible and poisonous in berries or fungi. 

The caterpillar pests swarming in our 
kitchen gardens, which might with advan- 
tage be collected for food, are really too 
numerous to be fully described here, but I 
will point out a few of the best; at the same 
time calling attention to the fact that they 
all feed upon the wholesome vegetables 
which we cultivate for t)ur own eating. To 
begin, the large white cabbage butterfly 
{Poutiii brnssiaie) is one of our most familiar 
butterflies. Its caterpillar, when full- 
grown, is one and a half inches in length, 
and, owning to its unpleasant habit of liv- 
ing upon his cabbages, of which it usually 
leaves nothing but skeleton leaves, is too 
well known to every gardener. It is of a 
greenish colour upon the back, yellow 
underneath, striped with vellow along the 
back and sides, spotted all o\er with 
black, and covered more or less with tiny 
hairs. Miss Eleanor Ormerod says, with 
reference to these pests, "Hand-picking 
the caterpillars is a tedious remedy, but 
where thereisnogreatextent of ground, it 
is advisable as a certain cure." 

This effectual remedy would no 
longer be looked upon as tedious if the 
fruits of the picking were to form a dish for 
the gardener's dinner, or appear in the 
niciiti of his mistress as "Larvae Pontiae a 
THottentot." Again she says, "When the 
first brood of caterpillars are full-grown, 
and have disappeared from the cabbages 
in early summer, they have left them to 
turn to chrysalids in any sheltered nook 
near, and may be collected in large num- 
bers by children for a trifle per hundred. 
They may be chiefly found in outhouses, 
potting-sheds, and the like places, in 
every neglected corner, under rough 
stairs, step-ladders, cir beams or shelves, 
or fastened against rough stone walls or 
mt)rtar." Why should we not imitate the 
Chinese, who, as I have stated, eat the 
chrysalids of silkworms? 

Silkworms feed on the mulberry, let- 
tuce, etc.; these caterpillars upon the 
homely cabbage. Let us, then, cast aside 
our foolish prejudice, and delight in 
chrysalids fried in butter, with vt>lkofeggs 
and seasoning, or "Chrysalids a la 
Chinoise." 

The foregoing remarks apply equally 
to the small white cabbage butterfly {Poii- 
tia rapac), whose caterpillars are smaller, of 
a green colour, and velvety, having a 
stripe of yellow along the back, and spots 
of the same colour along the sides. 

Sticking still to cabbage, we next have 
the cabbage moth {Mnmcftni brmsicae), 
whose caterpillar is perhaps more gener- 
allv known as a forward intruder at table 25 



than (iny other. The larva is alxuit an inch 
and a half in length, varies a great deal in 
colour, from dirty flesh to green, and is 
smooth and naked-looking. Its constant 
habitof gnawing right down into the heart 
of any cabbage or cauliflower attacked 
renders it a great nuisance in the garden, 
and also accounts for its frequent, and at 
present uninvited, appearance in a boiled 
state at the dinner-table. . . . 

Continuing the list, I will next men- 
tion the large yellow underwing moth, 
whose caterpillar feeds upon turnip and 
cabbage leaves. The moth itself is a very 
familiar sight, its size and yellow under- 
wings rendering it a conspicuous object 
when, disturbed from its day retreat, it 
rises with sluggish flight before us. In sea- 
sons when this moth is numerous great 
numbers might be caught, both in the day- 
time and at night, with the net and by 
sugaring trees as practised by moth- 
collectors. When nicely fried in butter, 
their plump bodies rival the torch-cooked 
delicacies of the traveller's tale. Again, 
there is the common Buff-tip, a handsome 
moth, with forewings of a beautiful grey 
colour, marked with ruddy and black 
patches, and tipped, as its name imports, 
with light buff. It is handsome. What is 
more, let me whisper the ogreish sugges- 
tion that its body, an inch in length, is 
plump, round, and sweet. Its caterpillars 
are well known to every one, whether 
Londoner or countryman, for they swarm, 
at the end of June, in town and country 
alike upon their favourite lime trees. Their 
yellow forms, striped and ringed with 
black, are often to be seen crawling across 
the arid desert of the London pavements 
in search of some congenial sdil wherein 
they bury themselves for the term of insect 
purgatory. Looking up then at the tree 
from which these wanderers have de- 
scended, one may see branches, perhaps 
many, perhaps few, stripped of their 
foliage and down the stem other caterpil- 
lars hurriedly crawling, knowing that 
their time has come; that nature calls them 
to throw off their gay garments and hum- 
ble themselves beneath the soil, before 
bursting out into rollicking Buff-tips. It 
never strikes the Londoner, as he hurries 
along beneath the shady trees, that these 
caterpillars are good to eat. He either 
stamps upon or carefully avoids them, ac- 
cording to his nature. The street boy picks 
up, plays with, and finally squashes them; 
but the extraordinary part of it is that it 
never strikes him to taste them. Boys taste 
almost everything. But this prejudice 
against insects seems rooted in them from 
the earliest age, for I have never seen a 
child experiment upon the unknown 
sweets of insect food. These Buff-tip 
caterpillars swarm upon the trees in such 
numbers, in favourable seasons, that 
many a dish can be obtained with a little 
trouble, which is amply repaid not only by 
their favour, but also by the saving of the 
26 tender foliage of the limes. Most of the 



commoner moths which flit in thousands 
by night, around our fields and gardens, 
have nice fat carcases, and ought certainly 
to be used as food. Why, they are the very 
incarnescence of sweetness, beauty, and 
deliciousness; living storehouses of nectar 
gathered from the most fragrant flowers! 
They, too, voluntarily and suggestively 
sacrifice themselves upon the altar of our 
lamps, as we sit, with open windows, in 
the balmy summer nights. They fry and 
grill themselves before our eyes, saying, 
"Does not the sweet scent of our cooked 
bodies tempt you? Fry us with butter; we 
are delicious. Boil us, grill us, stew us; we 
are good all ways!". . . 

We do not find many instances of 
slugs being generally eaten, unless as a 
remedy for lung diseases; but 1 fail to see 
why, seeing how nearly they are allied to 
snails, they should be so generally ne- 
glected. 

The great grey slug (Umax maxlmus), 
the red slug (Liinnx rufus), the black slug 
(Umax ater), and the small grey slug are all 
to be found in great numbers in most parts 
of England, and when properly cooked 
are all equally good .... 

Why should not these be gathered in 
hundreds and thciusands by the poor for 
food? The larger varieties might be treated 
like the Chinese delicacies, the sea-slugs, 
cut open and dried for keeping .... 

Let not the labourer say, "We starve. 
Meat is too dear; bread is almost as dear 
because the wire-worm, the leather- 
jacket, and the May-bug worm have thin- 
ned the crop; our little stock of flour is 
rendered useless by meal-worms. The 
caterpillars swarm upon our cabbages; the 
sawfly has spoilt all chance of the 
gooseberries we hoped to sell: hosts of 
great slugs and snails have devoured what 
the others left. Upon our fruit trees the 
cockchafers are gnawing the leaves to 
bareness." 

Yes, meat is dear; but the wheat crop 
would have been twice as thick if the 
wireworms, the leather-jackets, and the 
luscious white chafer grubs had been dili- 
gently collected by you for food. Meal- 
worms are fattening. You should have 
hand-picked your cabbages and goose- 
berry trees, so that you might enjoy and 
profit by their would-be destroyers. The 
snails and slugs ought to be welcome, and 
sought for, to be placed in your little 
snail-preserve. As for cockchafers, you 
ought to get sixpence a score for them 
from the squire's housekeeper. They are, 
like mushrooms, to be gathered and sold 
as delicacies; or you could fry them for 
your own suppers, before they have a 
chance of baring your poor fruit trees. 
Thus you would not only save all the pro- 
duce of the little garden, but also pleas- 
antly vary your monotonous meal with 
vvholesome and savoury dishes. 

Nature, if undisturbed, balances all 
her creatures against each other so that no 
one individual kind shall, increase and 



multiph- to an undue extent. . . . 

When not interfered with. Nature's 
whole machinery works with perfect regu- 
larity, and her balance is exactly poised. If, 
however, we presume to intermeddle, the 
whole system soon becomes deranged. By 
importing or cultivating fancy fruits un- 
natural to the soil, we have interfered with 
the machinery; by killing the birds to pro- 
tect these fancy fruits, we destroy Nature's 
balance of her creatures — for birds are the 
natural counterpoise to insects. In conse- 
quence we have, to the great detriment of 
our crops, an overweight and undue in- 
crease of insects. To save them from their 
devourers, we must throw some extra 
weight into the opposite scale to compen- 
sate for the loss of the birds we kill. I have 
done my best to show how this weight 
may be added, and how the balance may 
be restored. . . . 



Suggested menus 

I 

French 

Potage aux Limaces a la Chinoise. 
Morue bouillie a I'Anglaise, Sauce 

aux Limafons. 

Larves de Guepes frites au Rayon. 

Phalenesa I'Hottentot. 

Boeuf aux Chenilles. 

Petites Carottes, Sauce blanche aux 

Rougets. 

Creme de Groseilles aux Nemates. 

Larves de Hanneton Grillees. 

Cerfs Volants a la Gru Gru. 

En^lhh 

Slug Soup. 

Boiled Cod with Snail Sauce. 

Wasp Grubs fried in the Comb. 

Moths sautes in Butter. 

Braized Beef with Caterpillars. 

New Carrots with Wireworm Sauce. 

Gooseberry Cream with Sawflies. 

Devilled Chafer Grubs. 

Stag Beetle Larvae on Toast. 

II 

French 

Potage aux Limafons a la Franfaise. 

Soles frites. Sauce aux Cloportes. 
Hannetons a la Sauterelle des Index. 
Fricassee de Poulets aux Chrysa- 
lides. 
Carre de Mouton, Sauce aux Rou- 
gets. 
Canetons aux Petits Pois. 
Choufleurs garnies de Chenilles. 
Phalenes au Parmesan. 
Enfi^iish 

Snail Soup. 
Fried soles, with Woodlouse Sauce. 

Curried Cockchafers. 
Fricassee of Chicken with Chr\'salids. 
Boiled Neck of Mutton with Wire- 
worm Sauce. 
Ducklings, with Green Peas. 
Cauliflowers garnished with Cater- 
pillars. 
Moths on Toast. 



May and June at Field Museum 



(May 15 through June 15) 



New Exhibits 

"Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia." This is your 
chance to view hundreds of the glittering gold treasures that 
inspired the legend of El Dorado. Jewelry, musical instruments, 
hunting and fishing gear, and cooking utensils — ail crafted 
from the valuable metal — acquaint us with a lost civilization. 
This exhibit is the largest display of Colombian archeology ever 
seen in the United States. Exhibit curator; Michael Moseley; 
designer: David Edquist. Through July 6: Hall 27, 2nd Floor. 

"Patterns of Paradise" explores the history and cultures of the 
South Sea islanders through one of their most important surviv- 
ing handicrafts — the art of creating tapa, or decorated bark 
cloth. More than 200 objects, nearly all of them from Field 
Museum's own magnificent collections, are on display — dance 
masks, fine mats, wood carvings, costume accessories, and 
tools. Exhibit curator: John Terrell; research specialist: Anne 
Leonard; designer: Donald Skinner. Through June 8; Hall 26, 
2nd floor. 



Continuing Exhibits 

"Cash, Cannon and Cowrie Shells: The Nonmodem Moneys of 
the World" contains over 80 varieties of money used by ancient 
cultures. The exhibit explores the origins, values, and meaning 
of nonmodem money in terms of buying power for 50 Old 
World civilizations. Ground floor, between Halls K and L. 

"Pawnee Earth Lodge." Hall 5 contains a full-scale replica of a 
Pawnee earth lodge, the home and ceremonial center of Paw- 
nee Indians in the mid-1800s. Daily public programs provide 
opportunities to learn about Pawnee culture: Monday-Friday 
12:30 p.m.; Saturdays 11 a.m., 12:15 p,m,, and 1:15 p.m. Open 
House on Sunday from 1 1 a.m. to 3 p.m. 

"The Place for Wonder." This gallery provides a "hands-on" 
approach to natural history. Feel the skin of a rattlesnake, try on 
a bamboo backpack from China, examine a dinosaur bone, and 
more — this room is full of touchable exhibits. Trained volun- 
teers help guide exploration and answer questions. Open week- 
days 1 to 3 p.m.; weekends 10 a.m. to noon and 1 to 3 p.m. 
Ground Floor, near cafeteria. 



New Programs 

Gold of El Dorado Film Series: "The People of Colombia." Free 
films of the heritage and civilizations of Colombia are offered in 
Lecture Hall 1 each Friday, Saturday, and Sunday at 1 1 a.m. and 2 
p.m. These films will be shown for the duration of the "Gold of El 
Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia" exhibit. Film notes are 
available in braille, as well as in regular and large print. The 
series is made possible by a grant from the National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities, a federal agency. 

Gold of El Dorado Lecture Series. Planned in conjunction with 
the "Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia" exhibition, 
this series features experts on Colombian art, technology, and 



archeology. Two lectures remain in the series, held on Fridays, 8 
p.m. in the Simpson Theatre. Tickets for each lecture (Members 
$2.00, nonmembers $3.50) are available at the West Door 
before the program. The lectures are accompanied by a signer 
for the deaf; program notes are in braille as well as in regular and 
large print. The series is made possible by a grant from the 
National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal agency. May 
16: "Technology of Goldworking in Pre-Columbian South 
America," with Dr. Heather Lechtman of the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. May 23: "Gold in Pre-Columbian Cul- 
tures, " with Dr. Donald Thompson of the University of 
Wisconsin. 

Gamelan Mini-Concerts. Hear Field Museum's magnificent 
gamelan, a 24-piece Sudanese (West Javanese) ensemble of 
wood and bronze instruments. The music, with its clear sweet 
tones, has been compared to the sound of a cascading wa- 
terfall. These free concerts are presented by the Museum's 
gamelan classes, under the direction of Sue Carole DeVale. 
Sunday, June 8, 2 p,m.; Sunday, June 15, 2 p.m. Hall K, ground 
floor. 

Indian Classical Dance Demonstration. Indian classical dance 
is a combination of art, religion, and philosophy. The leading 
exponent of the Odissi style of classical dance, Priyambada 
Mohanty, will give a lecture/demonstration of this graceful and 
lyrical art. Together with her 14-year-old daughter, Mohanty will 
explain and perform the movements, postures, and emotions of 
the dance. Saturday, June 14, 2:30 p.m. For ticket information, 
call 922-3136. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Each Saturday and Sunday, the 
Museum offers a variety of free tours, demonstrations, and 
films. Check the "Weekend Sheet" available at Museum en- 
trances for additional programs and locations. 

• "The Tribal Eye " Film Features: "The Crooked Beak of 
Heaven. " A Northwest Coast Indian chief bestows gifts on his 
tribesmen and then smashes his own valuable possessions 
during the potlatch ceremony. Saturday, May 17, 1 p.m. 

• "Indians of North America. " Half-hour tour focuses on the 
daily life of six tribes. Saturday, May 17, 2:30 p.m. 

• "Napoleon in Egypt — III. " This slide presentation examines 
how early expeditions laid the foundations for modern Egyptol- 
ogy. Sunday, May 18, 1:30 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt." Learn aboutthe traditions of ancient Egypt 
in this 45-minute tour. Saturday, May 24, 1 1 :30 a.m. 

• "The Tribal Eye" Film Features: "Man Blong Custom. " This 
BBC documentary explores virtually unknown villages in the 
jungles of New Hebrides. Saturday, May 24, 1 p.m. 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt. " This 45-minute tour 
focuses on the ancient Egyptian artifacts in the Museum. Sun- 
day May 25, 1 p.m. 

• "The Tribal Eye" Film Features: "Across the Frontiers. " This 
film offers a summary of tribal ways, and contrasts them with 
the ever-changing modem world. Saturday, May 31, 1 p.m. 

• "Animal Adaptations" Film Features: "Adaptations to 
Ocean Environments" features animals living in the oceans of 
the world. "Saga of the Sea Otter" focuses on this animal 

(Continued on back couer) 27 



SURV:.Y LI-i RM 196 
NATURAL RlSOURClS 
URBANA ILL 61801 



BUILDING 



May and June at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cooer) 



population off the coast of California. Sunday, June 1, 1 p.m. 

• "The World of Gold." This 30-minute tour surveys gold's 
physical properties, and gold-mining procedures. Saturday, 
June 7, 12:30 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt" Saturday, June 14, 1 p.m. 

• "Animal Adaptations" Film Features: "Adaptations of In- 
sects" reveals four methods by which insects adapt to unfavor- 
able conditions. "The Mayfly: The Ecology of an Aquatic Insect" 
shows the life history of mayflies. Sunday, June 15, 1 p.m. 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Field Trips. Spaces are still avail- 
able for selected one-day field trips in May and June. Call 
922-3136 for more information. 



Continuing Programs 

Spring Journey: "Pacific Isles: A Voyage to the South Seas." 
Learn about the cultures of Micronesia, Polynesia, and 
Melanesia through this self-guided tour. Free Joumey pam- 
phlets available at Museum entrances. 

Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object here is to 
determine which one of a pair of apparently similar specimens is 
harmful and which is not See if you can distinguish a vampire 



bat a headhunter's axe, a poisonous mineral, or a deadly mush- 
room for its benign look-alike. Ground floor, no closing date. 

On Your Own at Field Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, 
adult- and family-oriented, are available for 25'' each at the 
entrance to the Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with scientific interests 
and backgrounds are needed to work in the various depart- 
ments. For more information call Volunteer Coordinator, 922- 
9410, ext 360. 

"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Leam about age-old weaving 
techniques and textile development during these free demon- 
strations. Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 10:00 a.m. to 
noon. South Lounge, 2nd floor. 

May and June hours. The Museum is open daily 9 a.m. to 6 
p.m., except Fridays. On Fridays the Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 
p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a 
pass at the reception desk, main floor. Closed Memorial Day, 
Monday, May 26. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 

Museum telephone: (312)922-9410 



Patterns of Paradise exhibit, featuring tapa cloth, will be on uiew in Hall 26 through June 8. Exhibit design by Don Skinner 




RonlisU 



June 
11980 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 




Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

June 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 6 



Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mar>' Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President and Director: E. Leland Webber 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
loseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clittord C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr. 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Museum Tours for Members 

4 Project Antarctica: 1980 

B\f Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy 

10 Our Environment 

11 The Jeanetta and Karl Menninger 
Collection of Indian Rugs 

By David M. Walsten 

Color photography by Ron Testa 

20 Through Chinese Eyes 

NEH Learning Museum Program 

Bi/ Anthony Pfeiffer, project coordinator 

24 Quseir al-Qadim, 1980 

By Donald Wliitcomb, assistant curator of Middle East- 
ern archeology and ethnology, and ]a\iet Johnson 

T7 June and July at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

The camera of David Muench, of Santa Barbara, CA, captures 
the surreal effect of sand wavelets in Mofuiment Valley, Arizona- 
the heart of Navajo country. Featured in this issue (see pp. 11-18) 
is the remarkable Navajo rug collection of Dr Karl A. Menninger 
and Mrs. Menninger 



Field Museum of Natural Hislori/ Bullclin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined (uly'.-Xugusl issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 11. 6060.S. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually, S3.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed bv authors are 
their o^vn and do not necessarilv reflect the poiicv of Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scnpt.-. are welcome. Museum phone (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 
60605 ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II 




FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

1980 Touii\ickciges Exclusively for Members 



The Classical Lands: 

Greece and the Grecian Isles 

September 7-26 

Jndcr the leadership of Dr. Donald Whitcomb, Field 
Vluseum assistant curator ot Near Eastern archeology and 
rthnology, this tour will visit Athens, the sites of ancient 
L2orinth and Mycenae, Delphi, Olynipia, Knossos, Santorini, 
he island ot Rhodes, Miletus, Skiros, Piraeus, and numerous 
jther sites of interest in the history of western civilization 
ind art. 

Following six days and five nights in Athens, the sleek 
uxury motor yacht Cava D'Oro, with 30 passenger cabins, 
.vill take tour members across the shimmering waters of 
he Aegean to some of the loveliest and most historically 
nteresting of the Greek Isles. 

Cost of the tour — $3,425 (plus a $300 donation to 
-ield Museum) — is based upon double occupancy and 
ncludes round trip air fare via American Airlines between 
Chicago and Greece. First class accommodations will be used 
hroughout. The package includes almost all meals (all meals 
\hile aboard the Cai'o D'Oro), motorcoach fares, baggage 
landling, all transfers, taxes (except airport tax), and tips 
except to tour guides), all sightseeing charges and admissions 
:o special events. Advance deposit: $300 per person. 



Wisconsin's Baraboo Range 
June 21-22 

Dr. Edward Olsen, curator ot mineralogy, will lead tour 
members through the Baraboo Range and along the shores 
and hinterland of beautiful Devil's Lake. The Baraboo Range 
is of special interest as a nwtiadtwck — what is left of an ancient 
mountain range and which now stands out above the younger 
rocks and sediments. The range consists of quartzite — more 
than one billion years old — which, although compressed in 
places into vertical folds, retains the original sedimentary 
structures. The mountains were further modified by glaciers, 
forming the lake and the picturesque glens, and changing 
the course ot rivers. 

Overnight accommodations and meals will be at the 
Dell View Motel, located in a lovely pine grove on Lake 
Delton, at Wisconsin Dells. Hiking clothes are strongly 
recommended tor the scheduled hikes. The trip is not suitable 
tor children, but younger people interested in natural history 
are welcome. The cost of the Baraboo trip is $95 per person 
(double occupancy). 

Below: Site ojaneient M\/eeiiae will be visited by members of September 
tour to Greece and Grecian isles. 




X.;*' 









% 









■'■*■ 








Harbor of Argentine 

rc'iearch itaiion, 

Almirante Brown, on 

Antarctic Peninsula, 

slioii'ing the cruiw 

ship, M.S. World , . • n • i 

Discoverer, at left. Field Museums January Tour for Members to the Antarctic Peninsula 



Project Antarctica: 1980 



TEXT AND PHOTOS BY EDWARD OLSEN 



There was a time, not long ago, that the Antarctic 
continent was seen only by a select few. Transport 
there was first a matter of ships — ships with sails, 
then steam, finally diesel. Airplanes have, in the 
past 25 years only, opened the continent to explora- 
tion and relatively easy access. Nevertheless, it 
remains the largest unexplored land area on this 
planet. It is SVi million square miles, the size of 
the whole United States plus all of Mexico; but 
only a few thousands of square miles have been 
seen, first hand, on the ground, by anyone. 

The list of early explorers who entered 
this southernmost region — some of them never 
seeing the actual Antarctic continent itself, some 
making sightings and landings, some trekking 



into the bitter, hostile interior — is long: Cook, 
Bellingshausen, Palmer, Amundsen, Scott, Wil- 
son, Mawson, Shackleton, Ross, Ronne, Byrd. . . 
Most of these men came, made their observa- 
tions, and left. Some, like Shackleton, suffered 
overwhelming hardships and retreated. Some, 
like Scott, succumbed to the bitterly harsh con- 
ditions and perished there. 

The Antarctic conHnent today remains 
largely in the hands of individuals of the same 
cut. Each Antarctic summer, November through 
February, teams of geologists, biologists, and 



Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy. 



physicists from a dozen different nations enter 
the continent by plane and ship to examine, map, 
and collect. Some of these scientists remain during 
the fierce winter months to continue gathering 
data. The Antarctic Treats', signed by seventeen 
nations and ratified in 1961, has set aside the con- 
tinent, and the islands that surround it, for scien- 
tific study until the year 1991. In the meantime, 
no one may exploit the region for commercial, 
political, or military advantage. Like the open 
ocean, it is trul\' international. 

Tourism to Antarctica is a relatively 
recent phenomenon. From time to time, over 
the past 40 years, individuals with a strong desire 
for adventure ha\'e endured journeys there in 
small sailing yachts, touched the continent, and 
then returned. Over the past decade, however, 
tours aboard modest-sized passenger ships have 
come into being. The first of these vessels was 
the motorship Lindblad Explorer, which has made 
many annual voyages from the tip of South 
America to the Antarctic Peninsula — that long 
mountainous projection of the Antarctic conti- 
nent which points northward towards Cape 
Horn. And, on at least one occasion, the Lindblad 
Explorer has skirted the coast of the Antarctic con- 
tinent, making landings at points immediately 
south of New Zealand. 

About three or four years ago a somewhat 
different form of tourism came into being: Com- 
mercial airlines from New Zealand and Australia 
began to offer overflights of the continent that do 
not land, but view the South Pole, the Transant- 
arctic Mountains, and several of the scientific re- 
search stations from the air (One of these flights 
ended in a disastrous crash late last year, and this 
form of tourism, it is hoped, will end. ) 

For the past two Antarctic summers a 
second motorship has entered the scene, the 
World Discoverer. Capable of carrying some 200 
passengers and crew, in great comfort, it is out- 
fitted to travel into Antarctic seas, anchor, and per- 
form landings at points of interest. Along with 
the Lindblad Explorer, it has opened the coastal 
regions of this remote continent to the eyes of 
those with a special taste for adventure. This 
seemed to be the kind of voyage that would fit 
into the Field Museum's tour program for its 
members. It offered a real adventure as well as 
an opportunity to see natural history in a part 
of the world that is virtually unspoiled. 

Tra\'elling with the ship are a group of 
lecturers, expert in various areas of natural his- 
tory. Dr George Llano was chief scientist for the 
Office of Polar Programs of the National Science 
Foundation for 25 years. During that time he 
visited Antarctica and the Antarctic Islands on 
numerous occasions and was involved adminis- 
tratively with most of the scientific research pro- 
grams that continue there today. Commander 





■f. 



Angus Erskine (Royal Navy, retired) spent years 
in Antarctic regions as well as the arctic. He was 
attached to the British Antarctic Survey and did 
some of the first accurate mapping in the Antarc- 
tic Peninsula. Erskine is an expert on the history 
and techniques of Antarctic exploration. Mr 
Frank Todd is an authority on penguins and 
other birds of Antarctica, and has a good deal of 
general expertise on seals, whales, and the other 
wildlife forms found there. Mr John Green, for 
over twenty years with the British Antarctic Sur- 
vey, knows the waters, harbors, weather, and 
sea signs of the region; he is in charge of logistics. 
Finally, for the January tour this year, 1 covered 
the geology of Antarctica, how it evolved, and 
how it is related to adjacent continents. 

On board the World Discoverer is a lecture 
room that can accommodate all the passengers. 



In Stanley, capital 
of Falkla)hl hlamh, 
Irmvlerf. may rest and 
ictrcsh Ihenisehvs at 
the Upland Goose 
llotctaiid Pnh. Bris;ht 
lupins enibellisli 
ei'en/ yard. 



On Neiv Island, 
Falkland Islands, 
Mack-browed alba- 
tross poses u'ith chick 
ui neatly sculptured 
nest of hardeiu'd 
6 mud. 



and there we five lecturers offered illustrated 
talks that provided the passengers with back- 
grounds for better understanding the features 
they were seeing, day by day, first hand. 

A group of 15 Field Museum members, 
in addition to myself, departed from Chicago on 
January 6, flying to Santiago, Chile, where we 
joined groups from other parts of the world — 139 
travelers in all. Then on January 9 we all flew 
south to the Straits of Magellan region to the 
small Chilean city of Punta Arenas. There we met 
the World Discoverer, which was taking on fuel, 
water, and supplies. The next morning we de- 
parted eastward down the Magellan Straits — the 
seas calm, the day overcast. Every now and then 
we saw an oil-drilling platform in the distance. 
The land on either side of the Straits was low, 
broken only by occasional smooth hills. 

The next morning we were out at sea, 
and by late afternoon New Island, one of the wes- 
ternmost of the Falkland Islands, came into view. 
The ship anchored and we made the first of 16 
landings that occurred during the whole voyage. 
The ship carried a group of rubber rafts, called 
zodiacs, driven by outboard motors and capable of 
carrying up to a dozen passengers each. 

Ashore we hiked about a mile to a rookery 
of rockhopper penguins — handsome little birds 
with jaunty yellow markings over their eyes. They 
go from rock to rock, hopping like kangaroos. 
There was a large group of young birds in the 
rookery, and the adults were in constant move- 
ment — down to the shore, where they would go 
into the sea to eat fish, and back again to the 
rookery, each parent seeking out its own young 
and feeding them by regurgitation. Altogether 











Gravestone of mtrcpul Ajitarctic explorer Sir Ernest Shackle- 
Ion, who died here on South Georgia Island at a;^^e 47. 



there were about a thousand birds in the rookery, 
and mixed among these sober little rockhoppers 
were a few macaroni penguins as well as nesting 
black-browed albatrosses with young in their 
nests. All these birds are so unused to people 
that one could almost touch them. 

The next day another landing was made 
on West Point Island (West Falklands), also pop- 
ulated by rockhoppers. The Falklands are islands 
of moderate hills that are grass-covered and 
completely treeless. They are treeless not because 
of overcutting by man, as in Scotland, Norway, 
and Iceland; the Falklands never did have trees. 
The small population of the islands (about 2,000) 
raises sheep; they heat their houses with peat. 
Another day of sailing and we were on the far 
eastern side of the Falklands, visiting the capital 
city of Stanley. 



iJiJiiiai' 



Geologically, the Falklands are a part of 
the South American continent — above-water 
projections at the eastern edge of the South 
American continental shelf. Politically, however, 
the Falklands are a little bit of England, and about 
97 percent of the inhabitants are of British extrac- 
tion. Every house in Stanlev has a little garden of 
lupins and rose bushes, all carefully tended like 
those fine gardens you see in Britain. The people 
have accents rather like New Zealanders, are 
ruddy-faced, drive on the "wrong side" of the 
street, and one frequently sees small posters in 
the windows of homes that say "Keep the 
Falklands British." 

For decades Argentina has claimed these 
islands, and Britain has resisted those claims. At 
present it's a standoff; however, if the stakes get 
higher— oil drilling and fishing rights on the con- 
tinental shelf — the controversy could get hotter. 

Stanley is a delightful town. The inhabit- 
ants were sincerely friendly, and a number of the 
World Discoverer passengers were invited to step 
into private homes to "have a nice cup of tea." The 
woolens cooperative store opened just for us, in 
spite of it being Sunday. The woolens are well 
made and inexpensive — a rarity in these times. 

The following two days were spent at 
sea, part of the time in fog. The ship was to trace 
down to the Antarctic Peninsula part of the Scotia 
Arc, a series of islands and island groups that are 
projections of the Andes Mountains above sea 
level. At the tip of South America the mountains 
don't stop. Instead, they swing eastward to the 
far south Atlantic, then curve back westward to 
meet the mountainous Antarctic Peninsula, itself 
a further continuation of them into the heart of 
the Antarctic continent. The islands (peaks) of 
the Scotia Arc are, principally. South Georgia, 
the South Sandwich Islands, the South Orkneys, 
and the South Shetlands. We visited all but the 
South Sandwich Islands, which lie far east of our 
route and have no harbors. 

On Wednesday, January 16, we entered 
Cumberland Bay on South Georgia Island. It was 
a sunny day, with small, bright, white cumulus 
clouds. The scenery was unbelievable. Picture 
the Alps sitting in the sea! From sea level, snow- 
covered, jagged alpine peaks rose almost 10,000 
feet straight up! Icebergs floated in the bay, and 
broad glaciers streamed down to the shores. It 
was overwhelming. 

We landed at Grytviken, an abandoned 
whaling stahon that is now in semi-ruins. When 
Captain Cook made his voyages of exploration in 
the 18th century he wrote, in his journals, of the 
wealth of seals and whales he saw in Antarctic 
waters. That was a mistake. In the 200 years that 
followed, British, American, and Argentine com- 
panies set up stations on many of the Antarctic 
island groups, using them as bases for uncon- 




trolled slaughter. The southern fur seals were 
almost wiped out. Most all of the great whales 
were reduced to a point where they are now near 
extinction. Although these island stations have 
ceased to be commercially viable, the slaughter 
continues. Today the Russians and Japanese 
maintain large whaling fleets in these regions, 
though, for the want of whales, they too may 
prove to be uneconomic. 

We landed at this place, explored the 
ghost town, rambled over the foothills among 
the idyllic scenery, and dodged huge elephant 
seals on the beaches — wallowing in mud and 
bellowing at us as we passed. At one end of the 
ghost town is the graveyard. Here the grave- 
stones are mostly Norwegian, for, in the past 
centuries, no matter what the nationality of a 
whaling company — British, American, or 
Argentine — the world's cadre of experienced 
whalers came from Norway. Among the graves 
of Johanssens, Erikssens, Olssens, andjenssens 
are occasional English names — and one that 
reads Ernest Shackleton, Antarctic explorer, 
who, making one more voyage of polar explora- 
tion, died at this place in 1922. 

For the rest of the day we coasted South 
Georgia, passing sparkling peaks, streamlined 
glaciers, black precipitous cliffs, and deep fjords. 
The next morning we went ashore at another 
harbor, the Bay of Isles. Amidst the rugged scen- 
ery was another sight that was difficult to believe. 
In one view we could take in a hillside covered 
with half a million king penguins! These are the 
second largest penguin species, up to three feet 
tall, with a beautiful yellow wedge of color at the 
side of the head. The beach, just below the rook- 
ery, was occupied by elephant seals as well as by 
a few fur seals. 

Along one side of the rookery an enormous 
glaciercamedown tothesea, and from it poured 
a deep roaring river of numbing cold meltvvater, 
milky white in color from all the finely pulverized 
rock dust it carried — a characteristic of glacial 



Author Und tour 
leader Edxmrd Olseii 
alop cinder cone on 
the voiciviic cahiern, 
Deception Island, 
part of South Shet- 
land hiands. 




melts all over the world. 

Across from the penguin rookery we 
visited an island that was the nesting place of 
wandering albatrosses. These are the giant wan- 
derers of the southern oceans, with wingspreads 
up to twelve feet. Like the penguins, these nest- 
ing birds showed no fear and seemed to take 
little notice of us. 

After departing South Georgia we 
headed southwestward towards the South Orkney 
Islands. At sea we had marvelous luck to see one 
of the remaining southern right whales that has 
survived the slaughter — so far. He was a big one. 
He repeatedly dove and surfaced, one time al- 
most clearing the water in a leap. It was a fantas- 
tic way to leave the vicinity of South Georgia — 
one of the most beautiful places in the world. 
Had the weather been stormy and overcast we 
would probably have thought it a grim place, 
never seeing the mountains, glaciers, or fjords. 
The South Orkneys were seen under just 
such weather — gray, with periods of fog — much 
more the way high-latitude regions usually look. 
The mountains could not be seen to full advantage, 
and glaciers appeared gray and mysterious rather 
than brilliantly white and sparkling. We made 
only one landing, at Coronation Island, to see a 



Sw^artopj rises moic 

than 9,000 feet oil 

South Georgia Island. 

Snowfields and small 

glaciers lie beloir 

The strata are 

sedimentary rocks. 



Group of king 

penguins ciijou 

the morning sun 

at Grytvikcn. 

abandoned whaluig 

station on South 

Georgia Island. 

M.S. World 

Discoverer 

in background 




':^:.->«- 



small rookery of Adelie penguins, then sailed 
westward to the South Shetlands, passing into 
seas more and more filled with icebergs. They 
were generally flat, but occasionally bizarre 
shapes were seen, riddled with caves that were 
a scintillating, almost electric blue. Now and 
then a cluster of penguins could be seen taking 
a ride nprthward by iceberg. 

On January 22 we made a landing on 
King George Island, one of the South Shetlands. 
On this island the Polish government maintains a 
modern, well equipped research station, making 
studies in marine biology and geophysics. We vi- 
sited a rookery that was populated by three pen- 
guin species: Adelie, chinstrap, and gentoo. We 
then plowed on to the Antarctic Peninsula to take 
full advantage of a high pressure weather system 
that promised clear weather. 

Two of our staff lecturers, Cmdn Erskine 
and John Green, had, during their professional 
careers, worked for many years in this region. 
They both agreed they had never seen such 
remarkably calm, clear weather for such a long 
period of time in this part of the world. For three 
days, under brilliant skies and gentle breezes, we 
explored the Antarctic Peninsula, its islands, and 
channels amid the most glorious scenery yet seen: 
mountains that ranged up to 11,000 feet, glaciers 
with streamlined, smooth, sinuous curves that 
swung between the peaks down the valleys to 
the sea, towering vertical cliffs, deep fjords, and 
icebergs in bright whites, electric blues, and pale 
greens, packed in so close that the ship had to 
edge slowly through them, cautiously pushing 
them aside. Some bergs carried groups of pen- 
guins; some carried single crabeater seals, with 
lustrous silvery coats and enormous brown, soul- 
ful eyes. They would stare at us and roll over or, 
in fright, lunge into the water. 

We made a series of stops at rookeries and 
at research stations of the United States (Palmer 
Station), and Argentina (Almirante Brown). We 
visited Deception Island, an enormous volcanic 
caldera that last erupted in 1976. It was utterly 
barren, with steaming waters in several places. 
Cmdr. Erskine declared he had never seen the 
sun shine on Deception Island — but that day it 
shone brilliantly. 

This part of the trip was the most memor- 
able, and yet we were still to enjoy a "dessert": 
After two days crossing the Drake Strait north- 
ward—under unusually gentle seas for that 
part of the world — we saw Cape Horn and, next 
day, entered still more superb scenery — we 
cruised the Beagle Channel, again in beautiful 
weather. This is the channel that Charles Darwin 
traversed when he made his famous voyage on 
the Beagle. We sailed northwestward along the 
channel, passing a series of spectacular views — 
a succession of glaciers and high mountains. 



F' 




whose lower flanks were covered with a kind 
of low false-beech forest. Sweet smells of vege- 
tation, so long absent from the air, came to us 
on breezes from the shores. Now and then a 
streaming waterfall was passed and, in one 
place, we could see nine falls in a single view. 

Finally we turned northeastward to Punta 
Arenas, and the nervous clutter of civilization again. 

Although we visited penguin and albatross 
rookeries during this voyage, and saw many seals 
ashore, this was not all the wildlife. At sea we saw 
a constant stream of birds. Some of these, like the 
giant petrels and snowy petrels, would follow us 
for days at a time — swooping over the stern of 
the ship. Most others stayed for awhile, usually 
near land, and passed on: wandering albatrosses, 
skuas, terns, shearwaters, fulmars, cormorants, 
ducks, geese, herons. Besides sighting the 
southern right whale, we also sighted Minke 
whales, and dolphins at sea. It was a constant 
stream of wildlife of this part of the world. 

Though most of our participants were 
experienced world travellers, this successful jour- 
ney was counted unique by everyone. Some will 
return in a future year to repeat the experience. 
There are few places left on this planet where one 
can feel a real sense of primitive earth. Standing 
on a hilltop on the Antarctic Peninsula, viewing 
an expanse of jagged mountains, glaciers, and 
sparkling sea below, in utter silence — broken 
now and then by the low rumble of a distant 
avalanche — is an experience that is profound. It 
will not be forgotten by any of us. 



Vk'ZL'cd from deck 
of M.S. World 
Discoverer, moun- 
tniii peak juts dramat- 
ically from the placid 
Antarctic waters. 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Poison Ivy Rash Control? 

The effect of poisonous plants on man may 
be brought under control if compounds 
developed bv scientists at the Universits' of 
Mississippi prove as effective on human 
beings as thev have on guinea pigs. 

Researchers have developed deriva- 
tives of urushiol — those compounds 
found in poison ivy, poison oak, and 
poison sumac — that cause allergic skin 
reactions. 

In one strategem, urushiol is hooked 
onto the membranes of red blood cells to 
form a molecule large enough to trigger the 
bodv's immune system to react against the 
intruder, (n another, simple com- 
pounds are injected into the body, where 
they spontaneously form internal urushiol 
derivatives; these, in turn, produce pro- 
found tolerance to the urushiols of the 
poisonous plants. 

Acid Dust 

You've heard of acid rain — how about acid 
dust? That is how sulfur oxides and nitro- 
gen oxides come down in Los Angeles, 
where rain is irregular. Two scientists at the 
California Institute of Technology collected 
dust on flat plates covered with a stickv 
substance and exposed to Los Angeles air 
Thev found that twenty times more aciditv' 
reached the ground as solid particles than 
as rain. They also discovered that the con- 
centrated aciditTt' of smog particles could 
burn holes in a leaf's surface. And, unlike 
rain, acid dust tlows into buildings, where 
it can damage plastic and rubber 



New Protection for Pandas 

The People's Republic of China has dis- 
closed a plan to save pandas from extinc- 
tion bv making protected zones of their 
habitats and planting more food for them. 

The Communist Party newspaper 
People's Daily said authorities in northern 
Sichaun Province, where pandas live, have 
designated 13 protective zones. 

No hunting will be allowed in such 
areas and no trees can be cut in an effort to 
preserve bamboo, the panda's principal 
food. 

Carbon Dioxide Absorption by 
Temperate Zone Forests 

The world's temperate zone forests are 
doing a better job of absorbing carbon 
wastes from fossil fuel burning than some 
scientists give them credit for That's the 
conclusion of studies done by a Duke 
10 University researcher and a colleague in 



Indiana. 

Over the last 30 years, says Charles 
Ralston, professor of forest soils at Duke, 
there are indications the temperate forests 
may have been accumulating up to 1.2 bil- 
lion tons of carbon a year "This is about 20 
percent of the annual carbon release from 
combustion of fossil fuels over the period," 
savs Ralston. This is strong evidence, he 
believes, that the temperate zone forests 
"have been partially dampening the in- 
crease in atmospheric carbon dioxide" from 
fossil fuels, as well as tropical forest clear- 
ance and burning. 

Ralston and Thomas V. Armentano, of 
the Institute of Ecologv, in Indianapolis, 
noted in a recent paper that the role of 
temperate zone forests in carbon recycling 
hasn't been fullv explored. Thev say that 
analysis, however, points to underestima- 
tion of the growth rates and size changes of 
the forests. Thus, they say, the temperate 
zone forests are accumulating more waste 
carbon than some scientists had thought. 
Ralston says some ecologists have claimed 
that clearing of forests, mainly in the 
tropics, is responsible for carbon dioxide 
release of "great magnitude." 

He and Armentano decided to look 
into such assertions because carbon re- 
leases claimed for tropical forests haven't 
raised atmospheric carbon dioxide above 
levels expected from burning of fossil fuels. 
Ralston says net forest growth is actually 
occurring throughout the temperate zone. 
The principal carbon "sinks" formed bv 
temperate zone forests are in North 
America and Siberia. Limited data show 
that Siberia has a large stock of slowlv 
growing conifers that are underexploited 
— forming a sink equivalent to that of 
North America. 

Western Europe's forests, he says, 
have expanded by 7 percent since World 
War II, and similar recovery may be occur- 
ring in temperate Asia. 

Trees and other plants absorb carbon 
dioxide during photosynthesis. Research- 
ers in the United States and other industri- 
alized nations are becoming worried that 
too much carbon dioxide from fossil fuel 
combustion will affect global weather 
through a "greenhouse effect" that traps 
solar heat. This could result in a rise of the 
global temperature and cause partial melt- 
ing of the polar ice caps, some scientists 
think. 

Other researchers, mainly botanists, 
fear higher carbon dioxide levels will ad- 
versely affect the growth characteristics of 
commercially valuable plants such as cot- 
ton. The worldwide carbon dioxide level is 
about 330 parts per million. It has been ris- 
ing since the onset of the industrial revolu- 
tion in the 18th century. If the rise continues 



at the present rate, some studies suggest 
that atmospheric carbon dioxide will dou- 
ble in about 30 years. 

Ralston says current forest manage- 
ment trends indicate net forest growth wiU 
continue through the rest of this century. 
Many of the trees in the temperate forests 
were cut over the last 200 years in North 
America. 

Improved management, says Ralston, 
has turned the situation around, and there 
has been a net growth in the United States 
for the past 25 years. Even so, he adds, 
forest growth in this country is only half 
what it could be with more widespread 
forest management techniques. Not only 
would there be more wood available, but 
the expanded forests would serve to ac- 
cumulate even more waste carbon from 
power plants and other sources. 



The Demise of Bald Eagle PR-1727 

The file on bald eagle number PR-1727 is 
trim by government report standards. 
Three uncrowded pages of numbers and a 
few words summarize the death of eagle 
number PR-1727 The dead eagle was found 
by citizen Wendell Adams on May 12, 1979, 
near Togo, Minnesota. Citizen Adams 
turned the carcass over to Ken Schlueter, a 
Minnesota state conservahen officer. The 
routine that follows is methodical, precise. 

Officer Schlueter confers with David 
Duncan, special agent with the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (Fws) in Duluth. Agent 
Duncan initiates action to determine the 
cause of death. It will take time but there 
will be an answer from technical people in 
the FWS laboratories. 

He sends the carcass to the National 
Wildlife Health Laboratory in Madison, 
Wisconsin, for necropsy to determine if the 
eagle died of disease or injur\'. Louis Locke 
files a necropsy report and leaves the 
diagnosis open. Tissues from bald eagle 
PR-1727 are sent to the Patuxent WildUfe 
Research Center in Laurel, Map,'land, for 
chemical analysis. The one-page report 
from Patuxent shows a list of chemical 
compounds with decimals in parts per mil- 
lion listed alongside each compound. 
These are the small amounts of each chemi- 
cal found in the dead eagle. 

The complete report is sent to Agent 
Duncan. A copy goes to the Service's 
Regional Office in Minneapolis, where 
James Elder, a specialist who deals with. 
environmental contaminants attaches a 
note to the tidy file. His comments are 



brief, but disturbing: 



Continued on p. 19 



The Jeanetta and Karl Menninger 
Collection of Indian Rugs 



By David M. Walsten 
Color Photography by Ron Testa 



Though Unmarked by Ceremony, Dec- 
ember 21, 1979, was a very special date at 
Field Museum. For it was then that 15 
superb specimens of Navajo textile art 
were accessioned by the Department of 
Anthropology. The 15 rugs and blankets 
represented the first gift of a total of 
some 75 in the collection built by Dr. Karl 
A. Menninger and Mrs. Menninger, of 
Topeka, Kansas. 

The Menninger Collection is the 
result of several decades of discrimi- 
nating selection by the world famed psy- 
chiatrist and his wife, who have had a 
life-long interest in the art and culture of 
the Native Americans of our Southwest. 

Most of the specimens already to 
be found in the Museum's collection of 
Navajo textile art (about 100 in all) were 
acquired shortly after the Museum's 
founding; these materials, then, are 
largely of the nineteenth century. 

The Menninger Collection, on the 
other hand, is particularly strong in 
twentieth-century weavings, effectively 
documenting transitions in style, de- 
sign, weaving technique, and color from 
the turn of the century up to the present. 
Thus, in a most significant way, the 
Menninger specimens complement the 
earlier holdings. 

The Field Museum is permanent- 
ly indebted to Dr. and Mrs. Menninger 



for their gracious and generous gift. It 
further reinforces the Field Museum's 
position as one of the world's great re- 
positories of Native American Art. In 
due course, the Jeanetta and Karl Men- 
ninger Collection of Indian Rugs will be 
placed on exhibit at the Museum for its 
Members as well as the general public 
to enjoy. 

Several of the specimens already 
received are shown on the following 
pages. 



Dr. and Mrs. Karl Menninger examine one of the 
Navajo blankets in their collection. 






12 



Wide Ruins: 64"x87" (16ix22lcm). This large rug is representative of the 
"Rei'ii'al" style, apparently started bxi the National Association on Indian Affairs 
in Boston in 1920. Association members undertook to rei'ive the high standards of 
the old Indian blankets, and sent photos and drawings of fine old Indian rugs to 
traders and schools. They also sok'cd problems in dye use and dnnonstrated these to 
the Indians. But the neic-old style put fresh life into the rug business, and today 
these muted, striped, natural-color rugs are in popular demand. 



Ji 






Above: Canado; 44"x69" (112.xl75cm). A rccfiil rug, with gooii lii/fi niui excellent 
diamond design with serrated cutlmes. Siicli outlining requires great weaving skill. 



Below: Navajo Pictorial, Yeihechei; 58Vi"x9V' (H9x231cm). Yeibechei rugs depict 
Savajo divinities as seen in the masked dancers of the sacred dances. They are rather 
similar to the Hopi kachmas. It loas taboo to depict them excei't in the sacred sand 
paintings, lohich were made for healing ceremonies and ahoai/s destroyed after- 



ward. When this taboo was broken by a 'weaver depicting such divinities on a rug, 
the weaver was believed to be cursed forever. The taboo and the fear have now greatly 
subsided, and many Yeibechei rugs are today woven to sell. 

The spvcinien shown here is exceptional for its great size and the number of yei 
(W) -elongated, stylized figures. The rainbow god, on the right, extends around 
three sides of the rug. Each figure wears the traditional square, U'oman's mask (the 
men's are oval), and their legs are shown, indicating that the figures are dancing. 
They carry long sprays of spruce. 



['"'^TMj'^TWj^/i^mMF^^aMy'^i 



IfrWl 





Above: Tum-of-the-century photo of 
Navajo weaver outside her hogan. 

Left: Navajo loom with partially 
completed blanket in Field Museum 
collection . 




Teec Nos Pos; 74"x84" (ISSxltScm). "Eye-Dazzler. " So-named for the desif;n and 
vivid colors. Teec Nos I'os is Navajo for "circle of cottonwoods. " The design of 
these pieces often includes zigzags, lightning and rhythmic movement that may 
hai'e a rather eerie effect. A Navajo legend tells of a Teec Nos Pos weaivr who urns so 
frightened by his own rug ivhen the sun shone on it, that he took it to the trader and 
asked him to hide it. 



ii 




Above: Two Gnn/ Hills: 35"x70" (S9xl78cm). Tim Crai/ Hills is a community 
about 50 miles from Shii^wck, in the Ntic Mexico side of the Navajo reservation. It 
has long had a repndalion for the finest modern Navajo weaving, althougli at 
present matiy other weavers and regions compete luith them successfully. The 
reputation is traced to the influence ofj.B. Moore, who had a store at Crystal, Nezo 
Mexico, until 1912. He supervised the cleaning of the zoool and chose the best 
weai'ers to make rugs after his own patterns. This type originally had no dyed 
colors, only lohite, black, and a combination of the two in gray, which was an 



innoz'ation. The above example is a finely woven modern rug showing an unusual 
departure from the conventional style. In this optical illusion design the elements 
shift back and forth, depending on hoic it is viewed. 

Below: Tiro Gray Hills: 54"x77" (137xl96an). Some mild tan color is used in this 
example, but the involved, rather solemn pattern and elaborate border, and the 
perfection of the weaving are characteristic. This rug has the so-called spirit line, 
an aristocratic touch. Note hcnv skillfully the weaver carries the border around 
the corners. 




16 



!.aV.\V%v.v;,Vv\'.'.'//.vaI'* ' i;a«.^ ' I ni v,,,^ 



/a & • k ^ w  • ^»W»»»^ " 



.V\Jk^M 




Giinado; 4S"x78" (122x198cm). Gaimdo is nil liuiian anninuiiil}/ blown for lis 
liidinii school and for its hospilal cslablishcd In/ the Presbyterian Church hut now 
Mon^m^ to tlie Navajo tribe. Gaiiado is also known for its relation to Lorenzo 
Hiibbell who, as an early trader living anton^^ the Indians, worked to maintain and 
dei'elop hi;,;h standards anion;^ the weavers and to );et orders and \;ood iirices for 
their work. He and the Fred Harvey Company were strong; and constriictizv iiijlu- 
eiices upon the weavers. The Navajo weavers had been exploited and without market 
guidance, and were carried away with the neze aniline dyes which reached the tribe 



about ISSO. Harvey contracted with Hubbell to take Ins entire intake oj ffood qualily 
rugs at premium prices for high standards of weave, wool, colors, and designs. The 
rugs were often made to order in very large sizes for wealthy customers. They 
required many months to complete on the Indian looms zrhich had been intended for 
weaving blankets, not large, heavy rugs. Navajo women have always woven in 
one piece, nei'cr in separate strips sewn together as loas done in Mexico and many 
other countries. 




18 



Above: Canada: 5V'xS5" (130x216cm). A later rug with good dyes and an excellent 
design of diamonds with serrated outlines, which were, and remain today, quite 
popular. The outlining technique requires great weaving skill . 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

Continued from p. It) 



"Dieldrin has been outlawed tor from 
five to eight years, depending on location, 
but it's still showing up in the environment 
and clobbering eagles." 

The Patuxent analysis disclosed a 
concentration of 5.1 parts per million of 
dieldrin in the brain of the dead eagle. 
Former laboratory studies revealed that the 
lower end of the curve for death due to 
poisoning is at about five parts per million 
in the brain. Bald eagle PR-1727 may have 
died from the concentration of dieldrin, 
Patuxent researchers say. 

Dieldren is a highly toxic organo- 
chlorine insecticide in the class v\ith DDT, 
heptachlor epoxide, chlordane isomers, 
mirex, toxaphene and hexachlorobenzene. 
Elder explained. 

Even though dieldrin has been banned 
from most use, evidence indicates the in- 
secticide is apparently present in the envi- 
ronment of the Great Lakes. Fish-eaHng 
birds are especially vulnerable to dieldrin 
because it accumulates in the aquatic food 
chain. Thus, eagles that feed on fish can be 
affected. The demise of bald eagle PR-1727 
is a reminder of earlier mistakes made 
with toxic insecticides. When asked how 
long dieldrin might hang on in the en- 
vironment. Elder answered, "No one 
really knows." 



The Beleaguered Desert Bighorn 

Lanny Wilson has a philosophy he thinks 
may help save the beleaguered desert 
bighorn sheep. "Think like a sheep," he 
advises. "You've got to put yourself in the 
old sheep's place." 

Wilson, a sheep biologist with the U.S. 
Bureau of Land Management in Idaho, 
makes this recommendation after years of 
experience with bighorn research and 
transplant efforts. Because transplant ef- 
forts are so new, no one can say whether 
any have really been successful. Wilson is 
"scared to death" for the future of the 
sheep. "I think we could damn near lose 
them in the next 100 years." 

In 1974, the total U.S. desert bighorn 
population numbered 13,000-14,000. Some 
states have since reported updated figures 
that indicate more sheep than originally 
thought, mainly from improved survey 
techniques and wet years that allowed 
good vegetation growth for foraging sheep. 
Despite these ophmistic indicators, Wilson 
and others see the road to salvation for 
these high-strung, handsome animals 
strung with complexiHes, aggravated by 
the same factors facing biologists and 
sportspeople during their frustrating, often 
futile attempts to save a small corner of the 
countr\' for wildlife. 

On a western map, the desert big- 



horn's distribution is spotty. This unique 
aspect, which Wilson terms the "island 
concept," arises from a drastic reduction in 
Ovis ca)iadensis iwhcmi'i historic range. 
Roads, dams, off-road-vehicles, sub- 
divisions, mining, fences, wild horses and 
burros, and livestock, plus overhunting 
and disease, have edged the bighorn to this 
discouraging point, where the only hope 
may be the success of delicate transplant 
activities and curtailment of the human en- 
croachment contributing to their demise. 

In Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, 
Utah, and California, the story is the same. 
Early explorers, mainly Spaniards search- 
ing for the Seven Cities of Cibola, wrote in 
their journals of great numbers of bighorn 
sheep living in the rugged canyon country, 
providing juicy meat for hungry travelers. 
In Texas, where introductions are under- 
way to restore extirpated populations, 
bighorn meat fed railroad workers and 
miners, and was also shipped East. Settlers 
and more "progess" ate into their habitat. 
Now, remnant herds cling to tenuous exis- 
tence on the isolated, precipitous terrain 
they must have to survive. 

Bighorn need space. Although the 
other three essential habitat requirements 
— food, water, cover — must be present, 
space can't be forgotten, Wilson warns. 
Sheep thrive on grass, cactus pulp, and 
paloverde beans. They also need escape 
terrain within easy leap where, using their 
keen eyesight, they are afforded un- 
obstructed views of their surroundings, as 
well as adjoining flat land for lambing. 
While they have adapted to withstand long 
dry periods, at some point water becomes a 
limiting factor. But space, says Wilson, 
is probably the "most important and 
least understood habitat requirement" of 
wild sheep. 

With few exceptions, bighorn simply 
do not tolerate competition. They will 
abandon otherwise suitable areas after cat- 
tle, goats, feral horses or burros, or other 
ungulates enter. National Park Service offi- 
cials in the Grand Canyon and Death Val- 
ley are currently struggling to decide how 
to eliminate the threat wild horses and bur- 
ros pose for bighorn. Wilson reports that 
during his research in Utah, a sheep herd 
reoccupied an area as soon as domestic cat- 
tle were removed. While other animals are 
of serious concern, say biologists, human 
intruders unquestionably exert the strong- 
est negative pressure on bighorn. 

As Bill Montoya of the New Mexico 
Department of Game and Fish puts it: "You 
can't grow sheep in a housing develop- 
ment." To give sheep the isolation they 
need, a sizable buffer must be provided. 
Introduce a road into sheep range and "you 
might as well write off that herd," Montoya 
says. Off-road-vehicles, roaring through 
prime bighorn territory, may also force the 
wary animals to forsake their homes. If 20 
sheep are crowded onto an area with a car- 
rying capacity of only 10, the population 
will certainly drop, Montoya points out. 



Even less active recreational pursuits 
must be regulated. Campers and hikerscan 
disturb the bighorn, unused as it i *o 
human activities. All these disturbai 
create barriers to migration the lead to 
further isolation of the bighorn. Altiioueh 
he lacks documentation (and cons 
quently, the support of other biologists), 
Wilson has a hunch that this isolation 
precipitates inbreeding and possibly less 
healthy populations. Rams move great 
distances to reach ewes, and if their 
movements are hindered by a highway or a 
new lake, the gene pools of separate herds 
cannot mix, suggesting to Wilson that in- 
breeding "might have been an impor- 
tant factor in the extinction of some 
historically-isolated populations." Other 
genetic factors he thinks deserve more re- 
search are reproduction, harvesting of less 
cautious animals, and susceptibility to dis- 
ease and parasites. 

Bighorn research needs are many. In 
Arizona, utility-funded research is being 
done on effects of a local electrical trans- 
mission line on bighorn. Five-hundred- 
kilovolt lines under construction from 
a nuclear power plant near Phoenix will 
dissect some of the best range for the state's 
estimated 3,000 bighorn. Robert Weaver of 
the Arizona Game and Fish Department 
explains that the study is giving good in- 
formation on "things we only had an inkl- 
ing of before." The transmission line itself is 
not of as much concern as the increased 
vehicular access it will permit. He believes 
the sheep probably could adapt to the lines, 
but increased human presence at certain 
times of the year, particularly during 
lambing and rutting seasons, is beyond 
their powers of adjustment. 

Weaver hopes two relocation efforts 
on the drawing board will take. This fall, 
young sheep captured from the Black 
Mountains west of Kingman will be en- 
closed on public land in northwestern 
Arizona's Virgin Mountains. Similar re- 
leases are underway or planned in Utah, 
Nevada, and New Mexico. 

Bighorn reintroductions generall) 
follow a standard procedure. Once habitat 
is located and rated for suitability, an area is 
enclosed to hold new sheep. In this pad- 
dock, young sheep can acclimate to un- 
familiar surroundings. They have just been 
loaded off a dark truck after being "shot" 
with "cocktails" to immobilize and tran- 
quiliz.e them, relieving stress from contact 
and commotion. 

Two- or three-year-old sheep from the 
same herd are ideal transplant candidates, 
because they can better adjust to new sur- 
roundings, says Wilson. This is the time to 
remember his adage "Think like a sheep." 
They are looking for someone to talk to," 
he says, and are going to stay together if 
they know each other. These younger 
animals have not yet had a home range 
thoroughU' imprinted on them through the 
learning process passed from older to 
younger animals. '' 



LEARMING MUSEUM CONTINUES WITH: 

THROUGH 

CHINESE 

EYES 

By ANTHONY PFEIFFER 
Project Coordinator 



Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment 
for the htumanities, a federal agency. 



Represeiitntioii of Cliiiiese re/i\'/oi/s drama, s/;c>i('n;\; Toi 
Civirt-i of Purs;aton/. On i'l'crr in Hall i2 



Jesuit missionaries were shocked cind the faitlis 
ot sttme were severeh' shaken b\' what thev 
encountered in sixteenth-century China. The 
news thev sent back to the West caused a furor 
amoni; the educated public. Highh' complex and 
sophisticated s\'stems ot philosophy and religion 
were not supposed to exist outside the western 
world. Today, although the news is four centuries 
old, a fascination for unique!}' Chinese perspec- 
tives remains. 

The aphorisms of Confucius, the 1-Ch'ing, 
the practice of holistic medicine and acupuncture, 
and the concept of enlightenment are a few as- 
pects of Chinese world view that command atten- 
tion today. These belief systems express a blend of 
mysticism and practicality. They combine sen- 
sitivity, vision, discipline, and strength in a way 
that many Americans find either strange or curi- 
ously compelling. Images of inscrutable Orien- 
tals, virtually superhuman martial artists, or wise 
old men with stringy beards who say much with 
few words are all manifestations of western in- 
trigue with the mind and style of China. 

Through Chinese Eyes, the fourth in Field 
Museum's NEH Learning Museum Courses of 




Study series, offers the opportunit\- to explore 
Chinese concepts of belief and behax'ion It fea- 
tures ways of perceiving and reacting to life's ups 
and downs that are ver\' different from our own. 

We naturally impose our own categories of 
experience on something unusual. Confucianism, 
for example, is generalh' listed as a religion in 
most texts. For more than 2,000 years, however, 
Confucian teaching was not a religion, but a set of 
uni\'ersall\' accepted rules regulating society. 
Many of us merely associate Confucius with 
short, punchy savings such as, "Real knowledge 
is to know the extent of one's ignorance." 
(Analects, II, 17.) Confucianism was a moral and 
ethical system shaped in the fifth and fourth cen- 
turies B.C., formalized in the first two centuries 
A.D., reworked by twelfth-century philoso- 
phers, and still vigorous in the late eighteenth 
century — an astonishing record. 

According to Confucius, the center of 
human existence is the family — by which he 
meant a number of generations living together. 
Confucius asked, "Are not filial devotion and re- 
spect for the elders in the family the very founda- 
tion of human-heartedness?" Veneration for the 
family pervaded daily life in traditional China and 
even extended to the spirits of dead ancestors who 
were invited to all family occasions. So strong was 
the sense of family that an unruly child could be 
legally put to death. One nineteenth-century 
Chinese picture, for example, shows members of 
a family drowning an "unfilial" son in a well. 

This seeming harshness and the dedication 
to family virtues made sense in an agricultural 
society. It took much manpower to work the 
fields. The collapse of a family not only violated 
tradition and belief; it could mean the loss of a 
labor force and starvation. A sense of family, then, 
was not only a spiritual matter; it was a way of 
survival. 

In different ways, Taoists and Buddhists 
denied the importance of the Confucian concept 

NEH Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a three-year 
sequence of learning opportunities focused on the 
Museum's outstanding exhibits and coUections and 
designed to give participants an opportunity to ex- 
plore a subject in depth. Each unit of study consists 
of one or more special events, a lecture course, and 
a seminar for advanced work. Spcaal ei'ents are lec- 
tures by renoumed authorities or interpretive perfor- 
mances and deryionstrations. Course members receive 
an annotated bibliography, a speaally developed guide 
to pertmerit museum exhibits, study notes for related 
special ei'ents, and access to select materials from 
Field Museum's excellent research library. In-depth, 
small group seminars allow more direct contact with 
faculty and Museum collections. 




of family. Taoism spoke of a god within the per- 
son, of looking within to find this god, and of 
cherishing the body because it contains the god. 
Buddhism teaches that the body ties one down to 
this world and that one should transcend the 
body for a higher plane of existence. Both reli- 
gions were individual or otherwordly rather than 
social. Conflicts between the various schools of 
thought were often more theoretical than real. 
Priests might do battle and enlist others to the fray, 
but, at the village level, Confucian family life went 
on as it had for thousands of years. 

Through Chinese Eyes is not simply a matter 
of looking at conflicting "isms" — whether Con- 
fucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, or others not yet 
mentioned such as Legalism, Neo-Confucianism, 
or Maoism. Concepts representative of each of 
these schools of thought were graphically ex- 
pressed in arts and crafts. Buddhists were con- 
cerned with nirvana, or enlightenment — a mysti- 
cal state of consciousness in which one achieves 
unity with the universe. Artists reflected this con- 



Portrait of Confucius, 

ca. 1734, from Confu- 
cian temple of Hsi-ivi, 
Shensi provijice. 






Stnliie of Goddeff of 
Mem, ca. 1736-95 



cern by portraying essences rather than strict ap- 
pearances. Attention to detail was subservient to 
a sparse depiction of reality. Graceful lines might 
suggest the majesty of a mountain but the features 
of the mountain — its slopes, ridges, etc. — were 
just not shown. The Buddhists also drew with as 
few lines as possible, believing that to show some- 
thing with rigorous aesthetic economy was part of 




understanding its essence. A drawing was meant 
to capture the true spirit or meaning of what was 
drawn and nothing more. 

To Buddhist philosophers daily experience 
was not parcelled out in discrete packages. Con- 
sider, for example, the experience of a student in 
the martial arts: 

A young boy named Ming wanted to study martial 
arts with the master Ch'i. For many iveeks Ch'i 
refused to have anything to do with Ming. But 
Ming persisted and , finally, Ch'i told him, "You 
may study with me but first go to work in my 
kitchen." Ming dutifully prepared the master's 
meals and kept the kitchen clean for eight months. 
He came to Ch'i and in frustration complained, 
"Master, I have worked in your home and still I 
know nothing about fighting. " Ch'i responded by 
hitting Ming with a stick. From that day on, sev- 
eral times a day, Ch'i surprised Ming with power- 
ful blows of his stick. Even while asleep Ming was 
not safe from his master's attacks. His body became 
a mass ofiuelts ami bntises. Months passed. Early 
one morning as Ming stirred soup in the kitchen, 
he sensed Ch'i moving toivard him. Just as the 
blou' ivas delivered to his head and without turn- 
ing around, Ming raised the soup spoon and 
blocked the stick at the last second. Ming turned to 
face the master. Ch'i bowed curtly to him and said, 
"You are nozv a martial artist, leave my home." 

— paraphrase of a Ch'an Buddhist tale 

This form of apprenticeship, indeed the 
very process of teaching and learning, is foreign to 
us. Ch'i did not grade Ming and there was no clear 
cut moment when instruction began. Ming's 
graduation, such as it was, was abrupt and infor- 
mal. Most Americans learning the martial arts 
have to pass tests of proficiency. Their ranks are 
signified by varied colored belts, with the black 
belt standing for highest accomplishment. All be- 
ginners wear white belts. In traditional China the 
white belt was also worn and, as the student pro- 
gressed, working harder and harder, the belt got 
dirtier and dirtier, eventually turning black. The 
emphasis was not on distinct steps each leading 
closer to mastery, but rather on a learning process 
culminating in mastery. Chinese martial art was 
not taught, as it usually is in this country, as a way 
to fight. It was part of philosophical training and a 
way of life. The same kind of training was typical 
of learning to paint, to write, and to worship. It 
was essential to higher learning. 

Traditional Chinese thinking can be bewil- 



Details on THROUGH CHINESE EYES are available 
in the Summer Courses for Adults brochure and the 
July/August Calendar of Events. All Chicago area 
members are on the mailing list for both publications. 



I • >.■.■&• 



deringlv holistic. Participants in Thnni^^li Chinese 
Ei/es encounter this philosophy again and again. 
The T'ang emperors {.\.D. 618-907) were simulta- 
neously sons of men, with ancient and superb 
pedigrees, and sons of heaven, descendants of the 
highest levels of the spirit world. Our religions 
distinguish sharply between this world and 
others. Another manifestation of Chinese concern 
with wholeness is seen in the contrast between 
Puritan expressions of guilt and sin and tradi- 
tional ways of handling the same feelings in 
China. In Chinese philosophy there was no di- 
vided self. The sinner did not hear the accusing 
voice of God or have a conscience that was some- 
how separate from the rest of the psyche. 

Through Chinese Eyes begins at Field Mu- 
seum on June 19 with a six-week lecture course 
on Thursday evenings. Perspectives of philoso- 









phy, sociology, art history, and theology are inter- 
woven by some of Chicago's finest scholars to give 
a rich view of Chinese traditions of behavior and 
belief. Explore some of the major aspects of 
Chinese thought and perception through a 
stimulating series of lecture, discussion, and film. 
An all day CHINA FESTIVAL is sched- 
uled on July 20. While learning about Chinese 
philosophy and religion, you can see and experi- 
ence them as expressed in cultural activites. 
CHINA FESTIVAL presents a lively celebration of 
Chinese culture through the performing arts, 
films, calligraphy, workshops, demonstrations of 
martial art and fine art, traditional games for the 
whole family, and authentic cuisine. Admission to 
the entire day's activities is free with Museum 
admission. An in-depth seminar, open only to 
class participants, completes the Course of Study. 




Ei^litli-caitiiry 
Tnolst poet Li Po. 
hiscriplioji reads, 
"A thousand days of 
intoxication won 
him ^lori/ for lO.OOV 
years." 



23 




University ofCliicngo 
graduate student 
Carol Meifer, excava- 
tion site supervisor, 
vieivs parthi excavated 
storage vessels in the 
Romau I'illa. Photo In/ 
Do)i Whitcomb. 



The Port of 
Quseir al-Qadim 

1980 



BY DONALD WHITCOMB 
AND JANET JOHNSON 



Tl ho coast of the Red Sea was the setting 
for exciting changes and new discoveries 
during our second seasonof exca\'ations this 
winter. Our first impression was not the hot and 
desolate ruins which we described in "Roman 
Bottle Caps" in the January, 1980, Bulletin. Last 
October, Egypt's Eastern Desert received very 
heav\' rains and flooding occurred in many places, 
including the remains of the ancient Roman 
harbor at Quseir al-Qadim (our excavation site), 
which were covered with a fresh layer of silt. A 
more pleasant result of the rains was literally the 
blooming of the desert; On the site as well as in 
the mountains, the normal reds and browns of 
the desert were now relieved b\' spots of green in 
depressions and drainages. 

Besides being an unexpected and almost 
miraculous pleasure to the eye, the sprouting of 
these desert plants was especially exciting for the 
palaeoethncibotanist on our expedition, whose 
collections of this natural, although rare, vege- 
tation include wild flowers and even some little 
wild melons. These are especially useful for 
comparison with the seeds and plant remains 
recovered from the excavations, although the 
edible seeds most frequently found in both the 
Roman and Islamic occupations are standard 
foods and fodder such as wheat, barley, and 
even alfalfa. Other common Egyptian foods are 
present, such as dates, lentils, and chickpeas, 
along with more exotic plants, such as almonds, 
walnuts, grapes, and peppercorns. Normally 
such remains are only rarely preserved when 
accidentally burned; at Quseir al-Qadim most 
of the excavated areas have produced, with 
careful sieving, botanical remains that are not 
only abundant but almost modern in degree of 
preservation. 

In a sense about half of our excavations 
are "modern" by archeological standards, for one 
of the two aspects we are studying is the Islamic 
port. These Islamic remains are located on low 
bluffs where it is difficult not to be distracted by 
the blue and turquoise of the sea, just beyond the 
trenches. "Trenches" is perhaps a misnomer for 
the large shallow excavations with wall founda- 
tions delimiting rooms and courtvards. As 
was true of the Islamic houses excavated during 
the 1978 season, these Islamic houses were easily 
and quickly uncovered. Some court\'ards had 
almost a meter of organic debris, matting, bas- 
ketry, and rope. Mixed with this material were 
ceramics which indicated a 15th- or 16th-century 



24 



Donald Whitcomb is assistant curator of Middle Eastern ar- 
cheology and ethnology. Janet Johnson (Mrs. Donald Whit- 
comb) is associate professor of Egyptology at the Oriental In- 
stitute, University of Chicago. 




Above: Seclioi of the cxravnlioii ■-i/c ol the hliiiiiic town til 
Qu^cir al-Qadim. Plioto by Don Wliitcoiub. 

Right; Textile fni;^iiient with batik desi\^u from the Qusen 
iil-Qndiw excaviitioii^i. Photo by Steve Sidebotluwi, expedituvi 
pltoto;,;riiplier. 

date, including Chinese celadons and porcelains 
(with Near Eastern blue and white imitations) 
and even some Italian majolica sherds. 

Beneath one wall we found a large 
painted wooden box with its lid still in place. 
With some excitement we opened the box to find 
a woman's personal treasure — a comb, lumps of 
henna (for her hair), a cloth bag of leaves (tea?), 
little parcels of other herbs, jewelry including 
cowry shells and a tiny metal talisman intended 
to protect the whole collection. We have found 
great numbers of glass beads and bangles, as 
well as jewelry. Whereas in 1978 we found a great 
variety of textiles, this season we uncovered arti- 
cles of clothing from shoes, to tunics and caps. 
The textiles also included beautiful examples of 
batik decoration. 

The rubbish left by this medieval popula- 
tion also included masses of bones (as well as 
seeds), especially fish bones and, more rarely, 
bones of goats and sea turtles, indicating a 
heavy dietary reliance on the sea. Our zoologist 
has encountered unexpected problems of 
preservation — there is occasionally too much 
meat left on the bones for easy identification! 
Problems of indentification of fish are partially 
remedied by the discovery of fish heads, tails. 




.■\rcheoU\^ifts po<L' 
with Egi/pt'im H'''"' 
assisted in excava- 
tion. Wbitcowh ;- 
fifth from left, fr 
row: johusoii !> to iii> 
left. Phr'o by Cathy 
Va leu tour. 




j^wrr\ 








26 



fins, and scales. Eventually a whole parrot fish 
and half a shark (nicknamed "Jaws") were ex- 
cavated. The latter, naturally, was labelled on 
the site plan as a "creature feature." 

As rich in architecture and artifacts as 
the Islamic remains at Quseir al-Qadim may be, 
they are only half of the excavations — the half 
east of the coastal road through the site. On the 
western side we have been investigating the 
Roman occupation, at which time the port was 
named Leukos Limen. We began where our ex- 
cavations in 1978 uncovered a room with an 
iron-working furnace. 

Across a narrov\- street, we excavated 
a large Roman house which we called the villa. 
Whatever the status of its Roman occupants, 
they (or, their house) are now definitely "below 
the salt." Nearly two thousand years of even 
infrequent rainfalls have turned the decayed 
mudbrick walls into solid caliche, or rock salt, 
from 20 cm. (8 in.) to over a meter (39.4 in.) thick. 
After breaking several pick handles and a steel 
pick, we borrowed a pneumatic drill from the 
phosphate company nearby. This experiment in 
mechanized excavation failed and we settled 
on sledge hammers and chisels. We often felt 
more like miners than archeologists. 

Once the salt crust had been removed, 
however, the contents of the villa were a pleas- 
ant surprise. In 1978 we found many artifacts but 
only a few complete vessels. Suddenly this sea- 
son we have a series of rooms filled with whole 
pots. For example, a corner room next to the nar- 
row street held about 15 small round jars with 
tiny spouts, which probably contained a semi- 
precious liquid such as olive oil. These jars had 
rolled around the floor like so many marbles 
among other stored objects such as a small mill 
for grinding flour (complete with wooden han- 
dle), a large wooden bowl not unlike a modern 
salad bowl, and an assortment of wooden pul- 
leys and mechanical parts. The most puzzling 
feature was below these objects — a complete in- 
tact roof with beams, wooden stringers, matting, 
and mud. This paradox of fallen objects heavy 
and fragile, mostly unbroken, was solved when 



we found a trap door leading to a cellar or crypt. 
With mounting excitement we slowly excavated 
into the cellar only to find it empty; when the 
Romans decided to leave Quseir they incon- 
siderately took all their hidden valuables; only 
a few coins were left behind. 

Adjoining this small room was a larger 
storeroom filled with large amphorae and stor- 
age jars, all smashed but reconstructable. Also in 
this room were several large baskets and a large 
grinding stone from a Theban mill. This Roman 
villa was probably one of several residences of 
merchants grouped along the main street of the 
town. In the center of Quseir was a large public 
building which we also partially excavated. 
This structure consisted of large rooms grouped 
around a central courtyard. To our surprise we 
discovered the corner of an extremely well-built 
structure next to the central building during the 
last days of digging. Terra cotta figurines in the 
vicinitA' made us immediately think of temples, 
but the solution must wait for our next season 
of excavations. 

As part of our research into the history 
and functioning of ancient Quseir, we intended 
to study the ruins at Bir Kareim. The wells at Bir 
Kareim, some 25 km (15.5 miles) southwest of 
Quseir, are the nearest reliable source of fresh 
water; also near these wells were gold mines 
which the Romans worked. Unfortunately the 
same rains which made the desert so beautiful 
also completely destroyed the roads into these 
mountains. Nevertheless, we visited Bir Kareim 
and briefly investigated the Roman mining 
encampment. In the center of the numerous bar- 
rackslike buildings was a temple, of which we 
made a careful plan. Our very hasty excavation 
into the central room revealed fragments of stone 
relief, part of the uraeus (sacred cobra) and sun 
disk which would have surmounted the shrine 
niche. It is, of course, a hallowed tradition in 
archeology for the most exciting find to be made 
on the last day; the temple at Bir Kareim, as well 
as the Roman and Islamic discoveries at Quseir, 
will only increase our impatience to return •for 
future work on this coast of the Red Sea. D 



June and July at Field Museum 



(June 15 through Julij 15) 



New Exhibit 

"Gold of El Dorado: The Heritage of Colombia." Don't miss this ex- 
traordinary exhibition of gold artifacts and ceramic pieces from Col- 
ombia, South America. Jewelry, musical instruments, hunting and 
fishing gear, and cool<ing utensils — all crafted from the valuable 
metal — acquaint us with a lost civilization. Exhibit curator: Michael 
Moseley; designer: David Edquist. Through July 6, Hall 27, 2nd floor. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"American Indian Halls." The history and cultural development of the 
original Americans is shown from their arrival on the North American 
continent before 20,000 B.C. to the present. A visit to Hall 9's collec- 
tions from the ancient cultures of South America will enhance your 
appreciation of the "Gold of El Dorado " exhibit. Halls 4 through 9, 
main floor 

"Ancient Chinese Culture." The important exhibit, "The Great Bronze 
Age of China," coming to Field Museum in August, intensifies interest 
in the Museums own collections. Artifacts are arranged chronologi- 



cally in the hall to show development of Chinese culture from 10,000 
B.C. to A.D. 1644. A simple iron stove in one of the cases is 
thought to be the earliest known example of complex iron casting. 
Hall 24, 2nd floor. 

"Gems." The central cases display raw and cut gemstones. while the 
cases along the walls display ancient and modem jewelry from many 
parts of the world. The Agusan Gold Image, opposite the entrance, is 
the most famous of the ancient Indian-influenced artifacts known from 
the Philippine Islands. Notice also the excellent Romano-Egyptian and 
Etruscan goldwork. Hall 31, 2nd floor 

New Programs 

Gamelan Mini-Concert. Hear Field Museum's magnificent gamelan, a 
24-piece Sudanese (West Javanese) ensemble of hand-carved drums, 
gongs, and xylophones. The Museum's gamelan classes, under the 



(Continued on back couer) 



Six Beautiful Books on Recent, Current, and Coming Exhibits 

Available at Your Field Museum Shops 



Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents, 

b\ F^h\llis Rtilaineau, published b\ Field Museum; $9.yS; 
88 pp., 8V2"xl1", 24 color plates. The catalog of the 1979 
exhibit, now on national tour. Rabineau is custodian of the 
anthropology collections. 

Treasures from the Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from 
the People's Republic of China, by Robert W. Baglev, Jenny F. 
So, and Maxwell K. Hearn; published by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art and Ballantine Books; $9,95; 192 pp,,8y2"xH", 
125 color plates, 13 halftones. 

The Great Bronze Age of China, An Exhibition from the 
People's Republic (jt China, edited by Wen Fong, published by 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Alfred A. Knopf; $40.00; 
38fi pp., 9"x12", 121 color plates. Contains essays by leading 



authorities on Chinese art and recent excavations of artifacts on 
view at Field Museum from August 20 to October 29. 

Gold of El Dorado, text by Warwick Bray, a striking 'coffee- 
table' edition published bv The American Museum of Natural 
History and Harry N. Abrams; $9.95; 72 pp., 30 full-bleed 
color plates, 11V2"xl6". "The Gold of El Dorado" exhibit will 
remain on view until July 5. 

Patterns of Paradise, by John Terrell and Anne Leonard, 
published by Field Museum; $9.95; 76 pp., 10V2"x10y2", 
53 color plates, Thecatalogof the exhibit of the same name, 
concerning (apa, or bark cloth, which opened al Field Museum 
March, 1980, and closes in June. Terrell is associate curator 
of anthropology, Leonard is research specialist, Department 
of Anthropology. 



1 percent discount for Members on all Field Museum Shop purchases 

Mail Orders: For orders shipped toar) Illinois address, please add 6 9c sales tax Itax 
Is not applied to orders going out of state). For all orders, please add 75« per book 
tor shipping and handling. Check or money order should be payable to Field 
Museum. Address orders to: Field Museum Shops, Field Museum ot Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



27 



ILLTN'iIS NATURAL HISTORY 
SURVtV LIB Ry 156 
NftTURAL RESOURCES BUILDING 
('-Bi^" ILL 618C1 



June and July at rieia i^iu^cum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



direction of ethnomusicologist Sue DeVale. present tiiese free 
concerts. June 15. 2 p.m. and 3 p.m.. Hall K. ground floor. 

Courses for Adults. Register now for noncredit courses in anthro- 
pology and the natural sciences. Courses begin June 17; advance 
registration by mail is requested. Call 922-0733 for details. 

"Pawnee Indians and Their Way of Life," a lecture by Dr Gene Weltfish. 
In 1928. Dr Weltfish began the first complete study of Pawnee lan- 
guage, life, and culture. Her bookThe Lost CJniuerse details Pawnee life 
as it would have been in 1867. Weltfish, professor emeritus of an- 
thropology at Fairleigh Dickinson University, will discuss the ethnology 
of the Pawnee based upon her study, and relate this perspective to 
contemporary Pawnee life. Tickets (Members. ^2.00; nonmembers. 
53.50) are available at the West Door before the lecture. Friday June 
20. 8 p.m.. Lecture Hall 1. 

"Summer Fun 1980" Field Museum Workshops. July 8 through 
August 1. Young people from ages 5 to 12 can explore Field Museum 
halls through films, tours, science workshops, and craft projects. En- 
rollment is limited and advance registration is required by June 30. 
Fees vary from 53.50 (54.50 for nonmembers) for a single session, 
to 516.00 (518.00 for nonmembers) for double session classes. 

Highlights include learning about animals through stories, 
exploring the Dinosaur Halls, casting fossils, and going on a bug hunt. 
Craft projects include weaving, printing leaves, pinching pots, design- 
ing African-style textiles or masks, and creating musical instruments. 
Children may also study Egyptian hieroglyphs or rocks and minerals. 
Handicapped participants are welcome, and special arrangements for 
the hearing-impaired have been made for selected workshops. For 
more details about 'Summer Fun 1980 " call or write Field Museum's 
Department of Education. 922-3136. 

Summer Journey: "A Time to Play." Children's toys from around the 
world are located in the Museum's exhibit halls. Find the favorite toys of 
the Cheyenne. Shoshone. Melanesian children and many other cul- 
tures in this self-guiding tour Free Journey pamphlets available at 
Museum entrances. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Each Saturday and Sunday free tours, 
films, and slide programs invite you to explore Museum collections. 
Check the "Weekend Sheet" available at Museum entrances for pro- 
grams and locations. 

• "Animal Adaptations " Film Features: "Adaptations of Insects " 
reveals four methods by which insects adapt to unfavorable conditions. 
"The Mayfly" shows one life-cycle of this aquatic insect. Sunday June 
15, 1 p.m. 

• "Indian Fishermen of the Northwest Coast." This 45-minute tour 
looks at the importance of fish in art and drama traditions as well as 
Northwest Coast fishing techniques. Sunday June 15. 2 p.m. 

• "American Indian Dress. " Explore the construction, craft style, 
and symbolism of Indian dress from six regions of North America in 
this half-hour tour Saturday June 21, 12:30 p.m. 

• "Hopi Life." Examine the rich heritage of Hopi religion, symbols, 
and traditions in this 20-minute tour Saturday June 21, 1 p.m. 

• "The Story Fossils Tell." This 45-minute tour focuses on the 
underwater world of ancient invertebrate animals. Saturday June 21, 
1:30 p.m. 

• "Imagesof Ancient Egypt." This 45-minute slide program com- 
pares Egyptian collections found in major museums across the United 
States. Sunday June 22. 1 p.m. 



• ""China Through the Ages."' Study traditional China's inventions, 
court life, and schools of thought in this 30-minute tour Rare Chinese 
lantern slides, collected by Berthold Laufer — Field Museums curator 
of Asian Anthropology from 1907-1934 — will be featured after the tour. 
Saturday June 28. 1:30 p.m. 

• "Indians of North America."" This tour explores the daily life of six 
tribes. Saturday June 28. 2:30 p.m. 

• "A Curtis Portfolio of North American Indians. " Half-hour slide 
presentation of Edward Curtis's photographs depicts early 20th- 
century Indian life in North America. Sunday. June 29. 1:30 p.m. 

• "In the Land of War Canoes. " Edward Curtis's classic 1914 film 
drama recaptures the life and spirit of British Columbia's Kwakiutl 
Indians. Sunday June 29. 2:30 p.m. 

• "Digging for Dinosaurs " Film Feature: ""The Dinosaur Hunters" 
shows scientists at work in the Badlands of Utah. Saturday, July 5. 

1 p.m. 

• "Northwest Coast Indian Costume."" This 45-minute slide 
program explores the making and use of dress, with an emphasis 
on woven materials. Sunday. July 6. 2 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt. " Elxplore the traditions of ancient Egyptian life in 
this 45-minute tour Saturday July 12. 11:30 a.m. 

• "Digging for Dinosaurs" Film Feature: "Hot-Blooded Dino- 
saurs" examines the latest theory on dinosaurs, which proposes that 
these creatures did not disappear, but are alive today as birds. Saturday 
July 12. 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments." Half-hour tour focuses on the 
underwater world of ancient invertebrate animals. Saturday. July 12. 
1:30 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals" Bones and 
Teeth." Look at some changes in teeth and bones that characterize the 
great variation in todays mammals in this 45-minute tour Saturday 
July 12, 2 p.m. 

• "The Ancient Etruscans." This 35-minute tour examines the 
culture of the Etruscans. Sunday July 13, 12:30 p.m. 

• "A Curtis Portfolio of North American Indians. " Sunday July 13, 

2 p.m. 

Continuing Programs 

On Your Own at Held Museum. Self-guided tour booklets, adult- and 
family-oriented, are available for 25' each at the entrance to the 
Museum Shop, main floor north. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with an interest in Chinese culture 
are needed to assist with visitor services for the duration of "The Great 
Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from the Peoples Republic of 
China" (August 20 — October 29). Please call or write the Volunteer 
Coordinator. 922-94 1 0. ext. 360. for details. 

"The Ancient Art of Weaving." Learn about age-old weaving tech- 
niques and textile development during these free demonstrations. 
Monday Wednesday and Friday from 10:00 a.m. to noon. South 
Lounge. 2nd floor. 

June and July Hours. The Museum is open daily 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., 
except Fridays. On Fridays the Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 



The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a pass 
at the reception desk, main floor. Closed Friday July 4. 



Museum telephone: (312)922-9410 



I 



July/August 
1980 

1 



FIELD MCSEG/vi OF NATGRAL HISTORY BGLLETIN 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



July/ August 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 7 



EditoriDefigiwr: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photo;^raphcr: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Prc^idoit: E. Leland Webber 



Bo.ARD OF Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chainium 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, ]r 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Snnith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pine, Jr 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Tifaifai of Eastern Polynesia 

(n/ Joucc Hammoud 

10 Field Museum Tours for Members 

11 The Great Bronze Age of China: 

An Exhibition from the People's Republic of China 

August 20 to October 29 

18 From Dust to Dignity 

Collection News from Anthropology 
by Phyllis Rnbinenu, custodian of the anthropology collections 
and Donald Collier, curator aneritus of Middle and South 
American archeology and ethnology 

20 Exploring a New Nation's Ancient Past: 

Archeology in the Marshall Islands 

by Thomas /. Riley 

24 Letters from Brazil 

by Timothy Ploioman, assistant curator of botany 

26 Book Shop News: Six Beautiful Books on Recent, 
Current, and Coming Exhibits 

27 July, August, and September at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 




Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined July'August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually $3.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Bu//fiin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 
60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 



COVER 

Gilt-bronze lamp (detail) from the Western Han period, second 
cetitury B.C., i$ one of the rarest and most beautiful objects 
presented in "The Great Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition 
from the People's Republic of China." Height: 18 % inches 
(48cm). Photo by Wang Yugui. See pp. 11-17. 



FIELD BRIElFS 




Thomas R. Sanders 

Thomas R. Sanders Appointed 
Vice President for Development 

Thomas R. Sanders has recently been ap- 
pointed to the newlv created post of vice 
president for development at Field 
Museum. As vice president, he will con- 
tinue essentially the responsibilities that 
were his as Field Museum's planning and 
development officer over the past ten-vear 
period: jurisdiction over the divisions of 
fund-raising, development, public rela- 
tions, and membership, with the addifion 
of two new divisions: tours and markefing. 
Over a three-vear period, from 1972 to 1974, 
Sanders conducted an eminently success- 
ful Capital Campaign, which raised over 
$25 million dollars for Museum renovation 
and improvements. This was the first capi- 
tal campaign in the Museum's history. 
During his ten years with Field Museum, 
the total amount of unrestricted and re- 
stricted contribufions rose from $503,567 in 
1969 to $2,438,020 in 1979. 



Members' Preview for Chinese Treasures 

Members will have the opportunity to pre- 
view "The Great Bronze Age of China: An 
Exhibition from the People's Republic of 
China" on Monday, August 18, and on 
Tuesday, August 19,' from 1:00 p.m. to 9:00 
p.m. in Halls 26 and 27. Presentation of a 
membership card or invitation will be 
requested at the entrance to Hall 26 for ad- 
mittance to the preview. 



"The Great Bronze Age of China: An 
Exhibition from the People's Republic of 
China," features more than 100 rare 
bronzes, jades, and terra-cotta artifacts and 
is the first showing in the West of these 
ancient works of art. Included in the exhibit 
are eight splendid, individually crafted fig- 
ures from the imperial "buried army" of the 
First Emperor of China, the ruler who built 
the Great Wall. (For further details see 
pages 11-17.) 

Because of the unusual appeal of this 
exhibition and our anticipafion of high at- 
tendance, we request Members to attend, it 
possible, by this schedule: A through L on 
Monday, August 18, M through Z on Tues- 
day, August 19. 

Refreshments will be served and the 
cafeteria will be open both evenings unfil 
7:30 p.m. for the convenience of Members. 



Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. Named Director 

Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., who has held the post 
of assistant director, science and educafion, 
since Jan. 1, 1978, has recently been ap- 
pointed director of Field Museum. Nev- 
ling's appointment divides the posifions of 
president and director, which have been 
held in recent years bv E. Leland Webber 
Webber continues as the Museum's presi- 
dent and chief executive officer 

As director, Nevling will be Field 
Museum's chief operafing officer, respon- 
sible for managing the day-to-day affairs of 
the Museum, its staff, and its programs. 

Nevling came to the Museum in 1973 
to serve as chairman of the Department of 



Group Visits for China Treasures 

Group Visits for the exhibit "Tlie Great 
Bro)izcAs^e of China: An Exhibition from 
the People's Republic of China," opening 
August 20 and closing October 29, may 
nozo be arranged for groups as small as .30 
persons. During public hours, daily ex- 
cept Friday, special groups of 30 to 120 
persons can be nccommodated. On Tues- 
day and Thursday evenings (after the 
Museum is closed to the gmeral public) 
groups of 50 or more can be accommo- 
dated. Supplemental lectures for such 
groups, as well as private di)iing ar- 
rangements, are also available. For rates 
and other information call Can/n Fried- 
man at 786-9570. 




Lorui I. Nei'liug, jr. 

Botany, and he held that post until his ap- 
ptiintment to the assistant directorship. 

From 1959 to 1973, Nevling served on 
the staff of several of the botanical institu- 
Hons of Harvard University, including the 
.Arnold Arboretum, Gra\- Herbarium, and 
Farlow Herbarium. During this period he 
was active in research and administrarton, 
serving as curator and coordinator of sys- 
tematic botanical collechons. 

In addition to his duties at Field 
Museum, Director Nevling holds several 
adjunct appointments at Northwestern 
University, Northern Illinois University, 
and the Universit\' of Chicago. 

New Women's Board Officers 

The new president of Field Museum's Wo- 
men's Board is Mrs. Robert Wells Carton, 
elected at the board's annual meeting on 
May 15. Mrs. Carton succeeds Mrs. Ed- 
ward F. Swift, who was elected in 1978. 
Other new officers elected at the meeting 
were Mrs. Charles S. Potter, vice president; 
Mrs. William H. Hartz, Jr, lecording sec- 
retary; and Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage, corre- 
sponding secretary. 

Continuing in their respecfive offices 
are Mrs. Roger O. Brown, vice president; 
Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz, vice presi- 
dent; Mrs. Charles F. Nadler, treasurer; and 
Mrs. Philip C. Williams, assistant treasurer 

Newly elected members-at-large are 
Mrs. Philip D. Block 111, Mrs. James R. 
Coulter, and Mrs. Ben W. Heineman. Mrs. 
Jt)hn H. Leslie and Mrs. John W. Sullivan 
are confinuing as members-at-large. 3 



Tifaifai of Eastern Polynesia 



By JOYCE HAMMOND 



At the same time that the early missionaries 
to the South Seas were destroying the 
"heathens' pagan idols" and other tradi- 
tional arts, missionary wives were introducing a 
new art form, the Western quilt. Introduced as a 
utilitarian item, quilts were soon modified to the 
islanders' tastes and adapted to Polynesian pur- 
poses. Today, after nearly 150 years, the unique 
Polynesian art form of tifaifai continues to play an 
important role in many ceremonial contexts of 
eastern Polynesia. 

In many respects, tifaifai, the generic term 
used here for eastern Polynesian "bedcovers," 
parallels the uses of western Polynesian bark cloth, 
or tapa, the indigenous material made from the 
inner bark of certain trees. Indeed, although the 
tifaifai traditions originated with the Western quilt 
in the early nineteenth century, the motivation be- 
hind the ready acceptance of the new art form 
arose from its value as a replacement for particular 
uses of bark cloth. 

Tifaifai are common to the Hawaiian Is- 
lands, the Society Islands, the Austral Islands, and 
the Cook Islands. While the tifaifai traditions of 
different island groups share some basic char- 
acteristics, such as the use of cotton fabric and 



symmetrical designs, tifaifai of eastern Polynesia 
are distinctive for their regional variations. Even 
the name for the "bedcovers" varies from one place 
to another. 

In the Society Islands, where tifaifai are 
known by that name, the applique style is most 
popular. A double bed-size piece of fabric is folded 
into eighths and cut "snowflake fashion," resulting 
in a symmetrical four-part design. The design is 
then sewn to a background fabric of a contrasting 
color to form the finished tifaifai. Although tifaifai 
are sometimes sewn by machine, handsewn 
tifaifai are generally considered more beautiful 
and valuable. 

The Hawaiian quilt, or kapa, begins with the 
same design principles as the Society Islands 
tifaifai, but once the design has been appliqued to 
the background fabric, the ensemble becomes the 
top layer of a quilt. A filler layer of synthetic batting 
(traditionally wool or moss) is placed between the 
design layer and a backing layer of fabric. The three 
layers are sewn together with quilting stitches in a 
distinctive Hawaiian style known as humii laii, or 
contour quilting. The quilting stitches follow the 
outlines of the design in consecutive patterns, 
moving from the center of the quilt outwards. A 



Tiare Tahiti, or "Tahi- 
tian Flower," Society 
Islands applique tifaifai 
design. Photo by Joyce 
4 Hammond '(1977). 





W'luih'ri ofRiinitii, in 
\u--tinl /s/iimis, prepare 
to wriip icfi/i/ii/y couple 
(left) ill iripiti, or 
lifiiifiii^ Photo hy loi/ce 
Hammond (1978). ' 



>killful Hcivvdiiiin quilter will arrange hvv i.]uilting 
lines painstakingly to line up the "peaks of the 
waves," as the points of the quilting lines are 
called. The ocean metaphor is sustained in the 
name of the quilt's border, ho'opacpac, which means 
"going ashore." 

On the island of Rurutu, in the Austral Is- 
lands, iripiiti are created by sewing many small 
pieces of fabric together in a fashion comparable to 
the piecework or patchwork quilt of the Western 
world. Although some iripiti incorporate various 
geometrical shapes of fabric sewn together by 
machine, the most characteristic iripiti style is that 
made from hundreds of one-inch-square pieces of 
fabric carefully stitched together by hand. A back- 
ing layer of fabric is placed behind the mosaiclike 
design layer. 

Tivaevac in applique and piecework styles 
are equally popular in the Cook Islands. Applique 
tivaevae are made from different pieces of vari- 
ously colored fabric arranged on a background 
cloth. Although the design is not continuous, as in 
the Hawaiian and Society Islands applique styles, 
the symmetrical four-part arrangement is indica- 
tive of an historical evolution from the same design 
principle. Cook Islands applique tivaevae are dis- 
tinctive in their use of elaborate handsewn em- 
broidery. The embellishment of design motifs, with 
various sewing stitches in multicolored embroid- 
ery floss is particularly well suited to the use of 



/I'l/cf Hnmmond, a doctoral candidate in anthropology at Ihr 
Umversity of Illinois, Urbana, has been a lecturer for the Learn 
ing Museum Program at Field Museum and is currently teach- 
ing "Women's Folk Arts: Reflections on Women's Lives," an 
Adult Education Course at the Museum. 



separate design elements. Cook Islands piecework 
tivaevae are similar to Austral Islands iripiti, al- 
though a greater variety of geometrical shapes are 
popular. Piecework tivaevae, like applique 
tivaevae, are invariably handsewn. 

Motifs for Polynesian tifaifai are many and 
varied. The Protestant missionary influence in 
eastern Polynesia is evident in some tifaifai motifs 
and names. In Hawaii, for example, historical quilt 
names include "Forbidden Fruit," "King Sol- 
oman's Porch," and "The Garden of Religious 
Light." A popular contemporary Society Islands 
tifaifai motif is "Joseph's Dream," a design which 
incorporates symbols of the biblical dream such as 
the moon, stars, and wheat. The majority of tifaifai 
designs, however, seem to originate from a Polyne- 
sian interest in natural phenomena. The most 
popular motifs used as design elements include 
flowers and other plants, winds, waterfalls, 
oceans, and scenes of natural beauty. The "Tahitian 
Flower" and "Apetahi Flower" nn)tifs of Society 
Islands tifaifai celebrate the national flower of the 
Society Islands and the unique Apetahi flower, 
which grows only on the summit of Mount 
Temehani on Raiatea. "The Breadfruit/' "The 
Pineapple," and "Plumeria" are Hawaiian quilts 
easily identified by their designs. Other Hawaiian 
quilts incorporate designs which must be inter- 
preted on the basis of the quilt names. Poetic 
names such as "Rippling Sea of Kahului," "The 
Mists of Eleile," and "The Wind that Wafts Love 
from One to Another" are as distinctively Polyne- 
sian in their rendering of natural phenomena as the 
quilt designs they describe. 

Even the abstract designs of piecework 
style tifaifai suggest naturalistic motifs to the 



The late high com- 
missioner of French 
Polynesia, Charles 
Schmitt, is wrapped i)i 
tifaifai on the island of 
Rangiroa, in the 
Tuamotus, east of the 
Societi/ Islands. In 
centuries past, captauis 
Cook and Bligh had 
been similarly honored. 
Photo In/ Claude 
Clavenea977). 




Polynesians. "The Turtle," "The Octopus," "The 
Butterfly," "Stars," and "Hibiscus" are names of 
abstract piecework tifaifai designs. In some 
piecework tifaifai, particularly those created 
from small squares, mosaiclike pictures of birds, 
plants, flowers, and other objects are created by 
juxtaposing the colors of the fabric pieces. 

A number of motifs in both piecework and 
applique tifaifai styles are drawn from objects of 
interest to the Polynesians. Leis, or garlands of 
flowers, are an important part of Polynesian 
culture and provide the inspiration for many 
tifaifai motifs. Other objects include anchors, 
fans, and lamps. 

History has also figured in the choice 
of tifaifai motifs, particularly among the 
Hawaiians. The appearance of Hallev's Comet, 
the discovery of pearls at Eua, Oahu, and the use 
of the first carrier pigeons in the mail service of 
Kauai have all been commemorated in Hawaiian 
quilt designs. When the Hawaiian monarchy 
was overthrown in 1898, and the Hawaiian flag 
officially banned, a quilt design entitled "My 
Beloved Flag" evolved to commemorate the 
Hawaiian monarchy's flag and coat of arms. 
Such quilts were covertly created and sometimes 
hung secretively on the under side of four-poster 
canopies. 

Other symbols of royal power, both 
Polynesian and European, have figured in tifaifai 
traditions. In Hawaii, a popular quilt motif, 
"Crowns and Kahilis," incorporates the histori- 



cal Hawaiian royal symbols of the crown and the 
kahili, a feather standard. Traditionally, this quilt 
motif is executed in red and yellow, the official 
colors of Hawaiian royalty. A crown motif is also 
popular in the Cook Islands, which have been 
under English rule for many years. In 1967, when 
the Duke and Duchess of Kent visited Rarotonga 
on an official visit, they were presented with a 
beautiful piecework tifaifai with crown motifs. 
When the Queen of England visited at another 
time, she was presented a tifaifai with a coat of 
arms design adapted from a picture on a Grey's 
tobacco package. 

Some tifaifai designs hold symbolic 
meanings for those who create them and those to 
whom they are given. Love, sorrow, and yearn- 
ing may motivate the motif selection and naming 
of a Polynesian tifaifai. For example, a woman 
from the Society Islands told me that she selected 
"A Head Garland of the Fruit of the Pandanus" 
design for her son's wedding present because 
her son was like a crown for her. A Hawaiian 
woman recounted that her grandmother had 
made a quilt for her with a breadfruit design be- 
cause as a small child the granddaughter had 
been fed a great amount of breadfruit. 

Tifaifai are made almost exclusively by 
middle-aged and older women working individ- 
ually or in groups. Young women and girls are 
often too busy with school, jobs, or young chil- 
dren to devote time to creating tifaifai. General 
sewing skills are often taught in the schools, but 
many women learn to make tifaifai from friends, 
relatives, or by observing others' work. 

Piecework tifaifai, the oldest tifaifai style 
throughout eastern Polynesia, was first introduced 
as a group art form based on the Western quilting 
bee. Since Polynesian women were accustomed to 
working in groups on bark cloth, they easily trans- 
ferred their communal work patterns to hfaifai. In 
many instances, women shared their fabric scraps 
and labor in order to acquire tifaifai on a rotating 
basis. In the Austral Islands and the Cook Islands, 
where piecework tifaifai are still very popular, 
women conhnue to work together in groups based 
on kinship, friendship, and common interest. In 
the Society Islands and the Hawaiian Islands, 
where the applique-style tifaifai is more prevalent, 
women often prefer to work individually. Many 
women feel that a tifaifai will be more beautiful if it 
is created in a consistent fashion by one person 
alone. Machine-sewn tifaifai are gaining 
acceptance in the Society Islands and are often 
created individually by women who seek economic 
profits by selling tifaifai to other Polynesians. Indi- 
vidual work is also encouraged by a highly 
westernized Polynesian life style and tifaifai com- 
petitions which honor one person's achievement. 

Tifaifai patterns are the property of those 




Tivaevcie manu (applique) on the floor and tivaevae taorei 
(pieceivork) on the umlh and ceiling create a special arena for a 
Rarotongan haircutting ceremony. The individual braids on 
the boy's head are cut /'v relatives and friends invited to the 
ritual. Photo courtesy Johnson's Photographic Studios (1973). 

who create them, but patterns may be kept within 
the family from one generation to the next or ex- 
changed between friends. Some tifaifai motifs are 
unique; patterns may be destroyed immediately- 
after use. Other tifaifai designs are very common, 
with individual interpretations providing varia- 
tions on the theme. Tifaifai rules of ethics ensure 
creativity, since it is considered improper to copy 
another's design directly. In Hawaii, women who 
stole quilt patterns were sometimes ridiculed pub- 
licly in the derisive words of a hula. 

just as the esthetic principles of tifaifai tradi- 
tions have drawn from both Western and Polyne- 
sian sources, the uses of eastern Polynesian tifaifai 
reflect traditional roles of bark cloth as well as 
innovative uses arising from cultural change. In 
contemporary eastern Polynesian societies, tifaifai 
play important roles in life-crisis ceremonies, cyclic 
ceremonies; and ceremonies honoring high-status 
individuals. 

In life-crisis ceremonies, those rituals 
enacted to emphasize and support individuals' 
physical and social changes, tifaifai have replaced 
the use of bark cloth as a highly esteemed gift pre- 
sented to the individual or individuals undergoing 
transition. Sometimes they are also used as decora- 
tion for the area in which the rites are celebrated. In 
the past, bark cloth was used throughout eastern 
Polynesia as a socially valuable gift to confirm a 
change in social status and to establish bonds be- 



tween participating parties; today, tifaifai figure 
importantly as gifts for birthdays, coming of age 
ceremonies, weddings, and funerals. 

Tifaifai are especially important in wedding 
ceremonies throughout eastern Polynesia. In the 
Society Islands and the Cook Islands, tifaifai are 
often used to decorate the walls and sometimes the 
ceilings of buildings used for the wedding feast. 
In the Society Islands, a canopy and backdrop 
of tifaifai are sometimes erected as a special 
area where the wedding couple stand to receive 
congratulations. 

On the island of Rurutu, in the Austral 
Islands, gift tifaifai are ceremoniously wrapped 
about a couple during the wedding festivities. 
The symbolic act of binding the man and woman 
together in a bedcover serves to sanction and 
legitimize their social and sexual bond. 

In the Cook Islands, the boy's coming of age 
ceremony is celebrated with a hair-cutting ritual. 
Families who plan to celebrate the ritual allow a 
boy's hair to grow long from infancv; most boys 
undergo the rite by the time they enter adolescence. 
During the ceremony, relatives and friends take 
turns cutting the boy's hair, which is plaited in 
braids. The number of braids one is entitled to cut is 
based on the amount of money and presents he or 
she gives. Along with clothes and some personal 
items, household articles, including tifaifai, are 
often given to be used by the boy when 




Hawaiian quilt (grayed 
green on white) made 
by Mrs. Montgomery 
in mo, intheeoUec- 
lion of the Honolulu 
.■\eademy of Arts. The 
design is Niumalu, 
or "Nmcili Beauti/." 
Courtesy Honolulu 
Academy of Arts, gift 
of Dora'isenherg, 1940. : 




Piecework tivaevae, 
made by women mem- 
bers of church congre- 
gation on island of 
Rarotonga, being pre- 
sented to xoidou' of their 
late pastor Photo by 
]oyce Hammond 
(1978). 



he matures and marries. However, the most im- 
pressive and important use of tifaifai in the hair- 
cutting ritual is in decorating the area in which the 
bov is seated for the hair-cutting. Very often the 
ceremonv is conducted in a tentlike structure in 
which tifaifai form the walls, ceiling, and some- 
times even the floor. The chair upon which the boy 
is seated may also be draped with a tifaifai. It is 
generally acknowledged that the use of many val- 
ued tifaifai in the hair-cutting ceremonv is a vvav of 
honoring the boy. 

Tifaifai are buried v\ith the deceased in the 
Cook Islands, the Austral Islands, and to a lesser 
extent in some of the Societv Islands. There is 
ample evidence that the practice of burying tifaifai 
with deceased persons, today less common than 
formerly, was predated by the practice of wrapping 
the dead in bark cloth. The principle role of tifaifai 
in funerals is as a symbol expressive of the love and 
personal loss felt for a person. For this reason, 
some people sacrifice their most precious tifaifai for 
use in the grave. Among the Cook Islanders, the 
number of tifaifai placed in a grave seems to have 
special importance as an indication of social status 



and the esteem of the deceased's relatives. It is 
not uncommon for a Cook Islander to be buried 
with ten tifaifai. The body may be placed on one, 
wrapped in another, and covered with a third. A 
folded tifaifai may serve as a pillow. Additional 
tifaifai are often placed over the closed casket or 
inside the grave vault itself. The symbolic message 
con\eyed in the act of wrapping an individual in 
tifaifai for burial is, like the message traditionally 
conveyed by the wrapping of bark cloth around 
someone, expressive of feelings of love, esteem, 
and honor. As an object associated with the 
utilitarian function of providing warmth and pro- 
tection, the tifaifai seems an especially apt symbol 
for expressing the emotions of the bereaved. 

Various cyclic ceremonies of eastern Poly- 
nesia illustrate another way in which tifaifai have 
replaced some of the functions of bark cloth and, at 
the same time, have been adapted to cultural 
change. In parts of eastern Polynesia, the contem- 
porary celebration of the New Year still retains 
practices dating to pre-contact Polynesian society. 
Throughciut the Society and Austral Islands, tifaifai 
are used to decorate the walls and the many beds of 
Polynesians' homes for the New Year. In a spirit 
reminiscent of the way in which bark cloth was 
once spread out upon lines at the disposal of 
spiritual guests, tifaifai are now used to decorate 
homes to honor neighbors and relatives who visit 
on New Year's Day. 

The Me, a post-contact event which origi- 
nated from the introduction of the Protestant 
church's annual tithe collection in May, is impor- 
tant in the Society and Austral Islands as another 
cyclic ceremony in which tifaifai figure promi- 
nently. In the Austral Islands, where the Me is 
especially important, part of the ceremonv in- 
cludes the visitation of one another's homes. 
Tifaifai used as bed and wall decoration are impor- 
tant in this context as a symbolic expression of the 
renewal and reaffirmation of each individual's ties 
to the church and to other church members. 

During the annual Tiitrai festivities of 
French Polynesia, which center around the French 
independence day in July, tifaifai are used in con- 
texts which underline their adaptive importance. 
Fair stalls and parade floats are sometimes deco- 
rated with tifaifai to give the festivities a decidedly 
Polynesian flavor. 

The presentation of tifaifai to high-status 
individuals in order to honor them is the third 
major way in which tifaifai are used throughout 
eastern Polynesia. A traditional method of presen- 
tation is c^ften used. The practice of wrapping a 
tifaifai around a government or church official has 
direct historical antecedents in the practice of 
draping bark cloth around honored individuals' 
shoulders. In a manner similar to that in which 
Captain Bligh and Captain Cook were honored 




Rarotoiigaii womcit 
work oil picccu'ork 
tivnn'iu'. Photo /'i/ 
loi/cc Hammoiiti 
(1978). 



with bark cloth, the late high commissioner of 
French Polynesia was wrapped in a tifaifai on an 
island in the Tuamotus, east of the Society Islands, 
during an official government trip. In the Cook 
Islands, church officials and their families are 
sometimes honored with presents of tifaifai which 
are draped about their shoulders or ceremoniously 
placed across their laps. 

Derived from Western quilts and heavily 



influenced by Polynesian bark cloth uses, eastern 
Polynesian tifaifai have evolved into a unique 
Polynesian art form remarkable for its adaptation 
to the changing circumstances of the Polynesian 
people. Just as tifaifai continue to play important, 
viable roles in contemporary Polynesian cultures, 
tifaifai will undoubtedly continue to adapt to the 
needs and values of Polynesian people in the 
future. D 



Rawtotii^an applique tivanHw, 
showing pansy rffsix'", made 
N Maii^^aitikai Roa Women' f 
Group. Photo by Joyce Ham- 
mond (1978). 




Field Museum Tours for Members 



l he C/tissrcii/ luu/i/s: 

Greece ami the G red an hies 

September 7-26 




Siintorini - <in (.iiccuin Isles iliiicniry 



Under the leadership of Dr. Donald VChiteomb, Field 
Museum assistant curator of Near Kastern archeology and 
ethnolog). this tour w ill visit Athens, the sites of ancient 
( orinth and .\l\cenae. Delphi. Ohnipia, ICnossos, Santo- 
rini. .Miletus. Skiros. Piraeus, and numerous other sites of 
interest in the history of western civilization and art. 

hollowing five days and four nights in Athens, the 
sleek luxury motor yacht duo D'Uro, with 30 passenger 
cabins, will take tour members across the shimmering 
waters of the Aegean to some of the loveliest and most his- 
torically interesting of the Greek isles. 

Gost of the tour — S3,425(plusa S300 donation to 
Field .Museum ) — is based upon double occupancy and in- 
cludes round trip air fare via American Airlines between 
Chicago and New York, and Olympic Airways bervseen 
New York and .Athens. First class accommodations will be 
used throughout. ITic package includes almost all meals 
( all meals while aboard the Caro D'Oro ), motorcoach fares, 
baggage handling, all transfers, taxes (except airport tax), 
and tips (except to tour guides), all sightseeing charges 
and admissions to special events. Advance deposit: S3OO 
per person. 



Death Valley, California 
10-Day, Christmas Vacation, 1980 

Dr. .Matthew H. Nitecki, Field .Mu.seum curator of invertebrate fossils, and Prof Stanley M. Awramik. of 
the Department of Geological Sciences, L niversity of California, Santa Barbara, will lead this field trip. 
ITie all-inclusive price will be approximately SI, 500. For additional information call the Tours Office 
todav: 922-9410. 



Coming up for 1981 

Seven Exciting Field Museum Tours 

To the Far Corners of the Earth 



10 



i^ India in January 

J^ Egypt in February 

»^ Baja California (whale watching! ) in February 

v^ The Peoples Republic of China in April 



*^ Papua New Guinea in May 
»^ Kenya in September 
p^ Peru in October 



Vi'ritc (or call ) the fours Otficc now . indicate which of these tours are of special interest to you. and your name 
will be placed on a special mailing list. As soon as itineraries, travel dates, and rates have been established, this 
information will he sent to you. A SSO advance deposit on any tour will reserve space for you and may be 
refunded, without penalty, up to 90 days before the departure date. 



THE GREiVr BRONZE AGE 

of 

CfflNA 

An Exhibition from the Peoples Republic of China 

August 20 to October 29 



• rchaeologv in China today promises to disclose the sec- by the People's Republic of China, carefully selected for their 

/m rets of ancient China in much the same way that aesthetic and historical importance, summarize the most brij- 

r^^ nineteenth-century archaeology revealed the ancient liant achievements in recent Chinese Bronze Age archaeology. 

^^ Greek world, both by refuting cherished notions of The advent of bronze metallurgy in any ancient civiii- 

the later historians and by restoring myths and vanished king- zahon assured the creation of better tools for increased 

doms to history. The 105 exhibits in the present exhibition sent productivity, and more effective weapons for making war. 

]adt' pendant (huang). Enfteiii Zhou (Intc bth-Sth century P c ). Length 20.2cm (8 in.); nuixiinuni witith 4.7cm CI ^'s in.): wei\;ht 76g C2 Vj oz.). 



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SETH JOEL COURTESY TMfc MfclHoPOUiAh MOafcuM ^i- ART 



In ancient China, however, bronze technology was 
put to a third important use, the one with which 
this exhibition is primarily concerned, namely, 
the casting of imposing drinking vessels and food 
containers. These objects were created for rituals 
in ancestral temples by kings and nobles whose 
rank and order were measured by the size and the 
number of their bronzes. Such bronzes display the 
incredible range of inventive genius of the ancient 
Chinese, who successfully combined art and in- 
dustry to form some of the most accomplished and 
enduring works of art the world knows. Splendid 
works in bronze and jade, these objects stand as 
eloquent and tangible testimon\' to the great early 
ci\'ilizations of China. The ultimate importance 
of such works of art lies not only in their revealing 



the e\traordinar\' skill and genius of the earliest 
Chinese artisans, but also in their role as keystones 
in the reconstruction of ancient Chinese history. 

Legend has it that after King Yu of the Xia 
dynasty controlled the flood, about 2200 B.C., he 
divided his land into nine provinces, and had nine 
ding (cauldrons) cast to represent them. Thus, the 
"nine dmg," also called the "HeavT Vessels of the 
State," or the "Auspicious Bronzes of the State," 
became symbols of power and prestige. When 
the Xia dynasty fell, it is recorded, the "nine ding" 
passed to the Shang dynasty, and, in turn, to the 
Zhou when they conquered the Shang. 

Whether weapons or ritual vessels, bronze 
objects meant power for those who possessed 
them. In times of war, the bronze from ritual 



Three terracotta war- 
riors from the eternal 
bodiiguard of China s 
First Emp^eroK Qin 
Shihaungdi (221-2W 
R.C.) stand partly un- 
earthed from their 
trench position in the 
mausoleum. The 
terracotta cavalrymen 
and their horses are 
representative of 7,500 
life-size military figures 
found in China's 
Shaanxi Province in 
1974. On the ground 
above the figures 
(where workers are 
shown studying the 
site) arc rutted 
mounds -the remains of 
a tightlx/ laid roof of 
thick planks, supported 
by massive wooden pil- 
lars and crossbeams 
that long ago collapsed. 
Eight of these terra- 
cotta figures are among 
the 105 pneces featured 
in "The Great Bronze 
Age of China: An 
Exhibition from 
The People's Republic 
12 of China." 




vessels could be used to make weapons; in rimes 
of peace weapons might be transformed into 
ceremonial objects. After the First Emperor of Qin 
unified China in 221 B.C., he ordered that all the 
bronze vessels and weapons captured from his 
vanquished enemies be melted down and made 
into twelve colossal bronze statues to adorn his 
palaces. The real purpose of this grandiose act was 
to keep weapons out of the hands of his subjects, 
but, eventually, the giant bronze statues were 
melted down and recast into weapons by enemy 
invaders. 

The Great Bronze Age of China, the exhibition 
that the People's Republic of China has lent to 
[the Field Museum and four other] United States 
museums*, makes a unique contriburion to West- 
ern understanding of the greatness of ancient 
Chinese civilLzarions. It opens with the earliest 
known Chinese bronze vessel and concludes with 
the extraordinary terracotta soldiers and horses 
that were recently excavated from the burial 
complex of the First Emperor of Qin. Unlike the 
first Chinese exhibirion of archaeological finds 
that toured the United States in 1974-75, which 
consisted of a general sampling of objects daring 
from the Neolithic through Yuan periods, the pre- 
sent show has a unified theme: it presents us with a 
thorough review of the most brilliant latest 
achievements in Chinese Bronze Age archaeology 
with discoveries that have fundamentally changed 
our knowledge of ancient Chinese history and 
art — -Philippe de Montehello, director. The Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. From The Great Bronze Age of 
China, copyright ©1980 by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art; published in the United States by 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Alfred A. 
Knopf, Inc., New York. 



The Great Bronze Age of China, published In/ The Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art and Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., may he 
purchased at the Field Museum Shops. See ad, p. 26. 



'The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Neu' York: Kimbell Art 
Museum, Fort Worth; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; 
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 



The narional tour of "The Great Bronze Age of 
China: An Exhibirion from the People's Republic of 
China" is made possible by grants from The 
Coca-Cola Company; the Narional Endowment for 
the Humanities, Washington, D.C., a federal 
agency; and the Robert Wood Johnson Jr Charita- 
ble Trust; it has been organized by the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. Under the Arts and Arrifacts 
Indemnity Act, indemnity was granted by the 
Federal Council on the Arts and Humaniries. 




Archeology students unearth terracotta soldiers from their 
positions in Qin Shihaungdi's underground army. Once the 
excavation work is complete, the figures wilUw preserved as a 
national treasure. 



13 




Hu, a type of wine vessel. Western Han (second half 2nd century 
B.C.). Height 44.2cm (17% in.); diameter 15.6cm (6 Vs in.); weight 
6.55kg (14 lb. 7 oz.). Gold and silver inlays form ornamental 



"bird-script" inscriptions, reading, in part: "Let delicacies fill the 
gates and increase our girth, and give us long life without illness for 
ten thousand years and more." 



14 




Hu, a type of wine vessel. Anyang period ica. 1300-ca. 1030 B.C.). slender, round-bodied shape are rare, quite lIi^Iiiu t foni those with 
Height 31.4cm (12 ^k in.), weight 2.7kg (6 W.). Wine vessels of this S-curve profile and oval cross section, such as that on facing page. 



15 




Hu, a type of wine vessel. Eastern Zhou (early 5tb century B.C.). 
Heigh 1 44 . 2cm (1 7 % in . ); greatest diameter 25cm (9 % in . ); weigh t 
5.77kg (12 lb. 11 02.). 



16 




Gu, ();• drum. FifUriitli-foui Urntli iCiiliiiu n l ,' Height 75. ban 
{19^k in.); weight 42.4kg (93 V2 lb.). The second bronze drum 
known from the Shang period. 



17 



From Dust to Dignity: 

Collection News from Anthropology 



by Phyllis Rablneau and Donald Collier 



The Department of Anthropology has re- 
cently completed the first stage of a major 
project upgrading the care of its storage 
collection, and has begun work on the next 
phase. The completed portion is housed in the 
former southeast lightwell, in a new facility 
called Central Anthropology Storage (CAS). 
During the recent modernizing of Field 
Museum's building, this space was filled in to 
provide four storeys of steel shelving set aside for 
anthropology collections. The facility includes 
adequate fire protection, sensitive security de- 
vices, and a climate-controlled atmosphere. 

In August 1977 we began our reorganiza- 
tion project. Some 250,000 artifacts were moved 
from older, antiquated storerooms, arranged in 
CAS, and inventoried by means of computer 
printouts. The new storage location of each ar- 
tifact was recorded as that of the nearest 18 x 



Collections on the 

move! Joyce Hammond 

transports African 

artifacts from an old 

storeroom to the newly 

1 8 modernized area. 




36-inch shelf, numerically identified, a proce- 
dure which now greatly simplifies access to the 
collection by researchers. The inventory was de- 
signed to remove the many discrepancies, er- 
rors, and lacunae which had accumulated in the 
original catalog since it was initiated in 1894. 
Because of the dramatic improvements in the 
care of the collection, our moving staff began 
to call the project "From Dust to Dignity," a hu- 
morous yet apt description of what has been 
accomplished. 

Approximately three-fifths of our an- 
thropology collection is now housed in CAS, and 
we have begun work on modernizing the care of 
artifacts in the remaining older storerooms. Once 
again, we will clean, reorganize, and inventory 
with computer printouts the remaining 175,000 
objects. The first year of this project, called "New 
Dimensions in Old Spaces," is funded by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation, and will 
focus upon North and South American artifacts 
of organic composition — feathers, fur, woolen 
textiles, leathers, wood, foodstuffs. These ob- 
jects are among the most perishable items in our 
collection; they are sensitive to insect attack, fluc- 
tuations in climate, and most likely to suffer from 
physical crowding. The inventory project will 
enable us to carefulh' inspect every item in the 
storeroom, isolate and treat those with insect 
damage, reorganize the storage arrangement, 
and alleviate the overcrowding that makes it 
hard to locate and inspect objects needed for re- 
search and exhibition. 

We believe the achievements of the stor- 
age reorganization project to be unique among 
major museums in terms of magnitude, com- 
plexity, and efficiency. Field Museum moved 
other large collections into new facilities in the 
1950s and 1960s, and in the past three years, but 
none of these other moves has involved this kind 
of inventory. The Museum of the American In- 
dian has recently made an inventory of its large 
collection but without rehousing the specimens. 



Phyllis Rahineau is custodian of the anthropology collections; 
Donald Collier is curator emeritus of Middle and South 
American archeology and ethnology. 



I 




Tens of llwufivids of 
pol>herd^ lunv been 
clcivieil, pnckii'^ed, or- 
f^iiiiizi'd, (iiui iiiiHti- 
loried. Here, Paul Fiiii 
niui Ethel Tuniip^eed 
prepare ceramics from 
the southwestern 
United States. 



The U.S. National Museum's project to rehouse 
and inventory its anthropology collection, and 
the projects at the University Museum in Phila- 
delphia and the Peabodv Museum at Harvard 
University will not be finished for several years. 
Field Museum is recognized nationally for hav- 
ing taken an energetic, innovadve lead in the new 
wave of collection management development. 
It is accurate to say that the CAS project 
took twelve \'ears. It began in 1968 with serious 
departmental and Museum-wide planning for 
modernization, which led to policy decisions, 
fund raising, architectural and engineering 
planning, and construction. Our new storage 
space was completed and cleaned in July 1977; 
detailed planning for the move and creating the 
computer catalog file had begun early in 1977, 
and was completed in six months. The actual 
mt)ving and inventory was carried out by two 
teams of three persons each, plus a project as- 
sistant and an engineering-logistics specialist. 
These teams performed with extraordinary skill, 
stamina, and devotion. We would like to recog- 
nize their ct)ntribution to the success of this pro- 



ject by listing their names: 

Edward Applebaum 
Robert Bailey 
Donald Bockenfeld 
Kathleen Christon 
Diane Gluts 
George Davis 
Patricia Figel 
Paul Fini 

Theresa Gross-Diaz 
Joyce Hammond 
Elizabeth Koenen 
Barbara Larson 
John Listen 
Timothy Listen 



Roberto Maisonave 
Alan Majak 
Roberta Martin 
Anita Raba 
M.E. Rada 
John J. Rider 
Marianne Schoch 
Maija Sedzielarz 
Ernest Sheldon 
Sue Ann Stott 
Christine Taterka 
Ethel Turnipseed 
Adam Wasserman 
Charles Williams, Jr. 



Over the three-vear span of the CAS pro- 
ject, some eight)' people in all, within and out- 
side the Museum, contributed to its success. The 
work has been made possible by four generous 
grants from the National Endowment for the 
Arts, and by substantial support from Field 
Museum's Capital Fund for modernization. The 
project was directed in its first year by Donald 
Collier and thereafter by Ph\llis Rabineau. D 



19 



Exploring A New Nation's 

Ancient Past: Archeology 

In The Marshall Islands 



By THOMAS J. RILEY 

Photos bi/ the Author 



Marshallesc field- 
workers prepare for the 
day's survey shortli/ 
after daum. The islets 
to he sun^ei/ed dot the 
horizon. 



As one of the most recent members of the 
Community of Nations, the Marshall Islands is 
interested not only in future development, but 
also in developing an understanding of its past. 
Located in the western Pacific some 2,300 miles 
southwest of Hawaii, the new nation has been 
under United States trusteeship from the 
United Nations since 1946. Now the trusteeship 
is ending and the Marshalls, like other island 
groups in Micronesia, are in a period of transi- 
tion to independence. The new government is 
parliamentary with a Council of Iroij (chiefs) 
and an elected assembly called the Nitijela. The 
council oversees matters of custom and the pre- 
sident and cabinet members are chosen from 
the assembly. 

The first president of the Marshalls, 
Amata Kabua, took office in 1979. Since that 
time the new nation has taken over most of the 
functions formerly overseen by the U.S., such 



as education, immigration, and economic de- 
velopment. The fleet of fieldtrip ships necessary 
for communications between islands are a new 
addition to the new government, and negotia- 
tions with the U.S. have been completed for the 
maintenance of the top secret U.S. missile test 
range at Kwajalein atoll in the northern part of 
the country. 

The task of governing a nation like the 
Marshall Islands is unique and difficult. The 
new nation spans an ocean area estimated at 
over 375,000 square miles, but its land mass is 
confined to about 75 square miles over 34 is- 
lands. Thirty of these islands are atolls, low- 
lying series of sand and coral islets surrounding 
massive saltwater lagoons. The remaining is- 
lands are what geographers call "high 
islands" — volcanic masses rising out of the 
depths of the sea. The northern islands are 
often racked by typhoons and sometimes suffer 





from devastating droughts. This island 
paradise — for it is a paradise — presents a for- 
midable set of problems in economic develop- 
ment for its new leaders. 

Even in the midst of these problems the 
new Marshall Islands government has not for- 
gotten the importance of preserving traditions 
and the remaining vestiges of its prehistoric 
past. In the mid-1970s the Trust Territory of the 
Pacific Islands developed an Historic Preserva- 
tion Program for Micronesia. The program was 
designed along the same lines as those cur- 
rently operating in states on the U.S. mainland, 
and was coordinated through Trust Territory 
headquarters on Saipan in the Marianas Is- 
lands. 

In the Marshall Islands two committees 
were constituted. One of these, the Historical 
Preservation Committee, was charged with 
locating and identifying historic and pre- 
historic sites of significance to Marshallese 
culture and history. The second was a museum 
committee which planned the development of a 
museum in the capital city. As a part of the 
Historic Preservation Committee program, a 
number of projects relevant to the history and 
archeology of the Marshall islands were 
planned and are currently being executed. 

One of these programs was the restora- 
tion of a nineteenth-century plantation house 
on Likiep, a southern atoll of the chain. The 
plantation house had belonged to Anton De- 
Brum, one of the early traders in the Marshalls. 
The restoration, which included cataloging De- 



Thotnns j. Riley in a staff archcolo^isl with the Bcrnia' P. 
Bishop Museum, Honolulu, and currently on leave from the 
University of Illinois -Urbana, Department of Anthropology. 



Brum's extensive collection of papers, books, 
and early photographs of the Marshall islands, 
was conducted by Edward Jelks of Illinois State 
University, Bloomington. 

A second project funded through the 
Trust Territory has been my own fieldwork, an 
intensive archeological survey with test exca- 
vations on Majuro, the atoll on which Rita, the 
capital city of the Marshall islands, is located. 
This latter fieldwork was conducted through the 
B. P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, perhaps the 
foremost museum in the Pacific at the present 
time. 

Archeological survey on a Pacific atoll is 
quite different from research in most parts of 
the mainland U.S. My own work took me to 
over 54 islets around the atoll, the majority of 
which had to be reached by boat. Test excava- 
tions, each one meter square, were excavated 
across the islets of the atoll at different points in 
order to determine whether sites lay buried be- 
neath storm-borne sands or had been eroded 
away. Some of our excavations were carried 
down two meters or more to the limits of the 
freshwater table to see whether there were 
waterlogged deposits that had existed at times 
when there were lower stands of sea around the 
atoll. 

In all, a total of 134 archeological sites 
were noted on Majuro. These represent differ- 
ent types of human settlement and activity on 
the atoll over the course of its history and 
document a settlement that goes back to the 
time of the dark ages in Europe and perhaps as 
far back as before the time of Christ. 

The earliest permanent settlement on the 
atoll appears to have been at Laura village on 
the western end, opposite the present capital 



The new government 
house for the Nitijela and 
llic Council of Iroij. 



21 



city of Rita. Here the most concentrated human 
settlement was near the lagoon side of the atoll, 
and the garbage noted at sites consisted mostly 
of strombus shell, suggesting intensive col- 
lecting of marine resources around the lagoon 
reef. In contrast to the concentrated settlement 
at Laura, the rest of the atoll showed signs of 
scattered homesteads with little depth to de- 
posits and not much strombus shell in the gar- 
bage. On some islets no settlement was found 
at all, and the little archeological debris re- 
covered probably represented specialized use 
in fishing or turtle-hunting expeditions. 

At first my Marshallese survey crew and I 
had a difficult time identifying many of the 
house sites scattered around the atoll. The only 



surface remains left were a scattering of small 
white coral pebbles. These pebbles are the 
remnants of paved houseyards. Even today one 
often sees Marshallese women and children 
gathering the small pebbles on the beaches. 
They spread these pebbles, often tens of cubic 
yards of them, around the houseyards to keep 
them dry in the torrential rains. 

In a few places, mostly away from 
houses, small coral-faced enclosures represent 
the places of traditional Marshallese burials. 
Some of these burials were on small un- 
inhabited islets on the north side of the atoll. 
Ethnohistoric documentation by early explorers 
relate that the dead had to be removed from the 
vicinity of houses so that their spirits would not 



170' E 



Taongi A, 



Eniwetok A. 



- -10° N 



22 



C* BikarA. 
Bikini A. 

'""•"J. RongelapA 

■— '■ /«i'"N., RongerikA 

^''' ^ TakaA. i* ^"^'^^ 

Ailmginae A 

AilukA, 

:^ WothoA. LikiepA V.I ?> Me|il A 

♦»- '-'■ 

Vv JemoA 

Kwaialem A Xi _, ,., ., . 

_ .-. ^ ; ••• WotieA. 

Uiae A '>. ^A . y^ ^c9/ sr-i 

- *LaeA V. Q. - 

^'^ <^y- »_. -.NMaloeiapA 



10°N - 



^^ 



LibA 



^'3///c 



%:^ NamuA. 



Aur A. 



PACIFIC 
OCEAN 



Oi 



V, Jabwot A 



'^// 



Ailinglapalap A 



Majuro A. 



Arno A. 



Namorik A- 



Kill A. 



MiliA. 



JaluitA 



-<^j^ Keats Bank 
Knox A. 



Ebon A /-:■ 



MARSHALL ISLANDS 



bother the li\'ing. 

The portable artifacts recovered by us in 
our survey and excavations included adzes of 
tridacna clam and other shell as well as peelers 
for breadfruit and the great swamp taro, some 
small amounts of fishing gear, fowling weights, 
a fragment of a large helmet shell trumpet for 
communicating across the lagoon, drill bits, 
and a large variety of ornaments including shell 
arm rings and what we believe to be ear exten- 
ders. These last were used to extend the size of 
the pierced earlobes that were considered a 
mark of beauty among Marshallese at the time 
of European contact. 

The breadfruit and taro peelers recovered 
in the excavations at Laura related to two of the 
staple crops of the Marshallese before contact 
with European culture. A zone of irregular pits, 
at least some of which were excavated at the 
time of the earliest settlement of Majuro, was 
noted in the center of the islet behind the major 
prehistoric settlement at Laura village. These 
pits had been excavated to pierce the so-called 
Ghyben-Herzberg lens, the lens of freshwater 
that floats on the saltwater beneath the mass of 
larger islands. Here the giant swamp taro, 
Ciytospenna chamissonis, was grown. It was one 
of the crops usable all year round on Majuro 
during prehistoric times. 

In the same area extensive groves of 
breadfruit, Artocarpus incisus, provided 
nourishment from June through September and 
the fruit was often preserved in a fermented 
paste. A third staple crop not represented in- 
directly by artifacts recovered in our excava- 
tions was pandanus. This was eaten raw, 
steamed, or preserved like breadfruit in a fer- 
mented paste. In our survey we recovered few 
small items directly related to fishing, even 
though we know it was important in prehistoric 
and traditional Marshallese economy. The por- 
table artifacts that we did recover included 
one-piece fishhooks and tridacna shell lures 
that were used for trolling in the waters of the 
lagoon and the ocean outside the reef. 

We did, however, record a larger number 
of fishtraps, and it is obvious that these devices 
played a major part in the fishing activity of the 
Marshallese before European contact. They are 
still important on Majuro today. The fishtraps 
are essentially stone wiers about 2 feet high and 
shaped like a V with a circle near its apex. They 
are located in passes between islets, with their 
openings facing against the current. Large 
schools of mackerel-like fish are periodically 
caught in these traps, sometimes tons at a time. 
The nearly 50 traps noted in the survey suggest 
that this form of fishing was perhaps more im- 
portant than line fishing in terms of providing 
periodic surpluses of marine protein for Maj- 



uro's prehistoric inhabitants. 

One of the interesting features of the 
survey that we did on the atoll was the dis- 
tribution of archeological sites. Only one 
housesite was noted on the eastern end of the 
atoll, and it appeared that it might have been 
abandoned only after World War 11, when the 
U.S. government constructed an airstrip in the 
immediate vicinity. 

No signs of taro pits or fishtraps were 
noted on this end of the atoll either. It is possi- 
ble that this area of the atoll was not favored for 
human settlement in prehistoric times even 
though it is today the location of the largest city 
in the Marshall islands, a community with sev- 
eral thousand residents. It is equally possible 
that storms devastated the area. We know from 
historic accounts that in 1905 and 1918 typ- 
hoons scoured parts of the atoll. A severe storm 
at sea in late 1979 generated waves that did such 
damage to the capital city that the atoll was de- 
clared a disaster area by president Carter. I am 
planning to return to Majuro later this year to 
asses the damage to archeological sites on the 
atoll. If there are patterns to the destruction 
then we might have the beginnings of an ex- 
planation of the apparent lack of settlement on 
the eastern end of Majuro. 

The beginnings of human settlement on 
Majuro are obscure right now, but several 
radiocarbon dates have been submitted from 
the sites where we did our initial excavations, 
and an earlier trench excavated by Paul Rosen- 
dahl in 1977 yielded a date of 703 ± 80 B.C., and 
we fully expect that Majuro itself had a much 
longer history than that date implies. 

Our expectations are based on linguistic 
evidence. The language of the Marshall Islands 
is closely related to other languages in eastern 
Oceania and apparently split off from them 
somewhere in the area of the Banks-Northern 
New Hebrides islands of Melanesia to the 
south. One scholar suggests that this linguistic 
split occurred about 3,000 years ago. If this is 
the case then we might reasonably expect 
people to have settled Majuro at or before the 
time of Christ. We might also expect the early 
assemblages in the Marshall Islands to look like 
those of the newly independent Kiribati (for- 
merly the British-controlled Gilbert Islands) to 
the south. 

These are some of the questions that 
govern the prehistoric research in the Marshall 
Islands. They remain to be answered in detail 
in archeological investigations. What is impor- 
tant, though, is that the newly independent 
Marshall Islands government, heavily involved 
in the determination of its future, recognizes 
the importance of learning about, and from, its 
long and relatively little known past. 



23 



24 



Letters from Brazil 

Timothy Plowman, assistant curator 
of botany, reports on his field work in 
northern Brazil 



Feb. 13, 1980, Redengao 
Dear friends, 

I'm fittiii;^ ill tlic middle of a rice field amid charred logs, 
cornstalks, and sc]uash vines. The sun is going down 
over the ne\t'ha\/stack hill in this range of endless 
mountains which have no name. No one here civr heard 
of the inline on the inap-'Serra dos Gradaus" -where 
we suppose ourselves to he. We just finished a good meal 
of paca (a large rodent) killed last iiiglit In/ our woods- 
man Mario (he has also supplied us with turtle, caiman, 
and various chickens), along with rice, beans, spaghetti, 
faivia, and guarand to drink. 

This is the nicest place we've been so far -good 
forest to camp and collect in, but with a varied terrain to 
tramp around, including many exposed granitic 
outcrops-both wet and dri/-all with very interesting 
plants. Not much in flower now though since we're at 
the middle of the rainij season (5-6 months) and most 
trees and shrubs are in fruit. We are finding many 
things nezc (at least to us) including Rafflesiacese, Bur- 
manniaceae, Quiinacese, Vellozias, and sei'eral endemic 
tree genera and species. There are 4 erythroxylums here, 
3 of which are new Also many orchids and unusual ter- 
restrial aroids. The collecting and hiking are great, but 
making, pressing, and dri/ing 11 duplicates of each plant 
are tedious and time-consuming. 

We are trying to send all dried plants back to 
Belem as we travel or we'd be inundated loith specimens; 
even with 2 vehicles, it's cramped traveling with 5 -and 
soon we'll be joined by another Brazilian. We have a 
pretty good working team now and everyone 
does his job-one of the climbers does all the cooking 
and dishwashing, which is good for the morale of the 
rest of us. 

The Portuguese spmken here is a far cry from 
what I studied in summer school, but Ym slowly re- 
learning the names of everything in the Amazonian 
dialect. (Tlie dictionary is no help, being based on the 
language of Portugal.) Tlie evening is beautiful ivith 
many crickets and tree frogs, 3 or 4 seretiading birds, 
screeching parrots and occasional monkey hoivls. A 
jaguar stole 2 pigs on the next farm last month but we 
haven't seen any signs of the big cat. But the area is 
rugged enough to support wildcats and still little pene- 
trated by colonists. Tlie land is very hilly and the soil 
nothing but coarse quartzitic gravel. This rice field 
might he good for a second hanvst but even that won't 
be a great one. It will then be abandoned or burned off 
again in the dry season to plant forage grasses. Most of 
the good level land is already occupied by big 



fazendas -Texas st\/lc -with private airports and inten- 
sive modem ranching -the leftozvrs go to the poor far- 
mers moving in mostly from the northeast and populous 
Golds State. 

We are all in good health thanks to countiy liv- 
ing, fresh air and unpolluted water Except for ant bites 
and wasp stings, no major encounters with the creatures 
and we haven't seen a single snake of any sort. Well, the 
no-see-ums and mosquitoes are on the rise so Til retire to 
my hammock and mosquiteiro -tomorrow we leave early 
for Redengao to dispatch 6 crates of plants -about 3 ,500 
specimens -and to head off to our next localiti/. 
With warm regards fivm Balmy Brazil, 
Tim 



March 5, 1980, Belem 
Dear Bill, 

It was good to hear from you and news of the north. I 
zorote and posted a letter to you from Redengao but 
you might not get it for months. The road situation 
became impossible with the continuing heavy rains 
plaguing all of north Brazil -ivorst in recorded his- 
tory. Of the 3 roads out of Redengao, two zvere com- 
pletely closed zvhile we were there due to zvashed-out 
bridges. The third-partly asphalted -zvas ok till zve 
reached the Rio Arraia (pronounced more or less like 
Ohio) -the rickety wooden bridge and 3 km of road 
zvere 1 meter under zvater. We zvaited 3 days and fi- 
nally a makeshift ferry appeared-a platform mounted 
on 2 dugouts -but it carried our 2 overloaded vehicles 
across (for arz exorbitant price). Then it zvas 300 km of 
mudholes, mostly zvith huge overloaded lumber 
trucks stuck in them -counted at least 20-usually on 
the upgrades and jackknifed across the road. 

It became ridiculous after a zvhile and zve kept 
good spirits -and miraculously detoured, pick and 
shoveled, pushed and tozved until zve got our VW van 
and Brazilian Ford Jeep through. Got in some good 
collections along the ivay-somehozv. So finally to the 
Belem-Brasilia highioay and asphalt (beloved asphalt 
at this point). We started north tozvard our next des- 
tination: Marabd and Tucuruion the Rio Tocantins. 
When zve reached the river zi'e found lines and lines of 
trucks stacked up - the only bridge was flooded at both 
ends and the supports zi^ere cracking. The asphalt had 
worn off the surface and the zvater had carried off 
much of the roadbed. Nao pasa/ 

We took a rapidly deterioratuig road parallel 
the river and dozvnstream to the city Tocantindpolis 
(Marabd was already out of the question -no road and 
% of the city undcrzvater) , zvhere rumor had a ferry 
crossing. We arrived to find one of tzvo ferries still 
functioning hut you had to make a run through thick 
mud on the river edge, line up on tzvo pilanks and then 
onto the boat. We got across on the last day before the 
police prohibited the ferry altogether Now there are 
4,000 zvhicles stranded on either side of the riz>er and 
Brazil's main north artery cut. Tons of fresh fruit and 



produce bi'iii^ iiitniped ui the river, etc. Iff a disaster 
You can only reach Beleiu noiv by road via a l,OU()-kiu 
detour throu\;h the Northeast. Luckihj we were able 
to avoid that route or -weeks of waiting for a new 
bridge or fern/. 

We stopfH'd to collect along the Belem-Brasilia 
his^hway on our wai/ back. There are still a few pnitches 
of primary forest near the road where xve found a nundh-r 
of very interesting plants. Gerrit* began getting 
feverish here ami with diarrhea. When we reached 
Belem, he was really in bad shape with an assend^lage 
of dire symptoms -his temperature hit 106° this PM 
so we rushed him to the hospital. They did a blood 
test on the spot. Diagiuisis: Plasmodium 
falciparum -/f)rt/rtr/(7. So we'i'e got him in good 
hands. He didn't really let us know he ivas feeling so 
bad till it was serious. Very fortunately, we were on 
our way back to Belem and not stuck in some Godfor- 
saken village. I think he'll be OK-the treatment takes 
about a week. One of the tree-climbers was also feel- 
ing bad (symptoms similar to Gerrit's), but zoe don't 
knoivyet hozv he is. iVm fine-perhaps for taking 
Chloroquine weekly . ) 

Our plan now is to travel by plane if possible 
to Tucurui and make some collections at the site of the 
new hydroelectric datn-TII probably go alone while 
Gerrit recuperates in Belem -it's up in the air now 
but we're really stuck as far as road travel. There are 
many areas accessible by river from Belem and we can 
always work around here. I hope Gerrit will stay put 
long enough to get over this -he really was over- working 
even after he started with the fevers and headache 
symptoms -choppnng down big trees for instance. 

We have a great deal of plant material now to 
sort through -about 1,400 numbers with many fruit 
and wood collections, bryophytes, fungi and materials 
for chemical a)uilysis. I'll work on that in the ne.xt few 
days. We figured we needed at least 7 duplicates for 
Field Museum and Missouri Botanical Garden to get 
a specimen so extra work always goes to finding 
enough of the same species. Still, there are many uni- 
cates especially of our cerrado [dry scrub-savan)iali of 
central Brazil] collections. 

Well so much for the tales of woe and hard 
work-we've all boiefitted a lot from the trip so far, zve'vc 
learned a lot about the vegetatwn here which is really 
so rich and complex, especially in the cerrado and 
Amazo)iian forest transition zone where we were 
mainly working. I hope my slides come out so I ca)t 
share some of it with you in pictures. 
Still raining in Belem, Chaozinho, 
Tim 




Mario, our woodsman, with paca that provided our eiviiing 
meal. We also dined on turtle and caiman. 



*Dr. Gerrit Davidse, Missouri Botanical Garden grass 
specialist 



25 



> 




Six Beautiful Books on Recent, Current, and Coming Exhibits 

Available at Your Field Museum Shops 



Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents, by Phyllis Rabineau, 
published by Field Museum; S9.95: 88 pp.. 8-l/2"xll", 24 color plates. The catalog of the 
1979 exhibit, now on national tour. Rabineau is custodian of the anthropology collections. 

Patterns of Paradise, by John Terrell and Anne Leonard, published by Field Museum; 
89.95; 76 pp., 10-l/2"xl0-l/2", 53 color plates. Thecatalogof the exhibit of the same name, 
concerning tapa, or bark cloth, which opened at Field Museum March, 1980, and closed in 
June. Terrell is associate curator of anthropology, Leonard is research specialist. Depart- 
ment of Anthropology. 

Gold of El Dorado, text by Warwick Bray, a striking 'coffee-table' edition published by The 
American Museum of Natural History and Harry N. Abrams; $9.95; 72 pp., 30 full-bleed 
color plates, ll-l/2"xl6". "The Gold of El Dorado" exhibit will remain on view until July 5. 

The Gold of El Dorado, by Warwick Bray, published by Times Newspapers; $6.95; 240 pp., 
7-l/2"xl0", 38 color plates, over 400 halftones. The catalog of the exhibit. 

Treasures from the Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from the People's Republic of 
China, written and edited by Katherine Stoddert Gilbert, based on texts by Robert W. 
Bagley, Jenny F. So, and Maxwell K. Heam; published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art 
and Ballantine Books; $9.95; 192 pp., 8-l/2"xll", 125 color plates, 13 halftones. 

The Great Bronze Age of China, An Exhibition from the People's Republic of China, edited 
by Wen Fong, published by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and Alfred A. Knopf; $25.00; 
404 pp., 9"xl2", 121 color plates. Contains essays by leading authorities on Chinese art 
and recent excavations of artifacts on view at Field Museum from August 20 to October 29. 

10 percent discount/or Members on all Field Museum Shop purchases 

Mall Orders: For orders shipped to an Illinois address, please add 6% sales 
lax (tax Is not applied to orders going out of state). For all orders, please add 75* 
per book for shipping and handling. Check or money order should be payable 
to Field Museum. Address orders to: Field Museum Shops, Field Museum of 
26 Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



July, August, and September at Field Museum 



(Juli) 15 through September 15) 



Mew Exhibit 

"The Great Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from the 
People's Republic of China." This exhibit features recent 
discoveries that have fundamentally changed our knowl- 
edge of ancient Chinese history and art. The 105 master- 
pieces, dating from about 1.500 BC. include 86 bronze 
ritual wine cups and vessels. 1 1 jade sculptures, and eight 
lifelike terra-cotta figures from the spectacular "buried 
army" of China's first emperor. Don't miss the most im- 
portant archeological exhibition ever to come out of 
China! Exhibit curator: Bennet Bronson; designer: Clifford 
Abrams. Opens August 20. Halls 26 and 27. Members' 
preview: August 18(A-L). 1 9 (M-Z). For further information 
see below, under "Mew Programs." 



Continuing Exhibits 

"Place for Wonder" encourages a hands-on approach to 
learning. You can touch a rattlesnake skin, examine a di- 
nosaur bone, or try on a mask from the People's Republic 
of China. Open weekdays 1 p.m. -3 p.m.; weekends 10 
a.m. -noon, and 1 p.m. -3 p.m. 

"Primitive Art." Compare the art of primitive societies of 
Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The relationship of 
primitive art to modern art is also considered. Hall 2, 
main floor. 

"Tibetan Culture" can be explored through rare film foot- 
age, shot in 1 927, that documents nomadic life and religi- 
ous pageantry The exhibit is divided into two sections. 
One hall displays common possessions of the past such 
as weapons, yak-herding equipment, and textiles. 
Lamaism. the Tibetan form of Buddhism, is the theme of 
the second hall. Hall 32, 2nd floor 



New Programs 

"Weekday Highlight Tours" focus on the Museum's most 
popular exhibits. Learn about American Indian rituals, the 
culture of ancient Egypt, or animal life around an African 
watering hole. These one-hour guided tours meet at the 
Morth Information Booth, 1 p.m., Monday-Thursday, July 
7 through August 28. 

"China Festival." Enjoy this day-long celebration of 
Chinese culture. Festivities begin with the Chinese Lion 
Dance on the north steps of the Museum. Other special 
events include Chinese painting, calligraphy music, mar- 
tial arts, table tennis, Chinese cooking, special tours, and 
more. Events will be held in Stanley Field Hall and 
throughout the Museum. This free festival is supported by 



a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, 
a federal agency Sunday, July 20. 11 a.m.- 5 p.m. 

Members' Preview to "The Great Bronze Age of China: An 
Exhibition from the People's Republic of China. " The 
Museum's new exhibit will be open exclusively for Mem- 
bers on two evenings. After touring the exhibit, join 
Museum staff for refreshment and conversation. The 
cafeteria will remain open until 7:30 p.m. The following 
alphabetical schedule is suggested: A-L, Monday, August 
18; M-Z. Tuesday. August 19. 1 p.m.-9 p.m.. both days. 
Halls 26 and 27. 

Films on Ancient China. These free films are offered for 
the duration of "The Great Bronze Age of China " exhibit, 
which opens August 20, 1980. Featured films include 
"China: The Beginnings," "China: Hundred Schools to 
One," and "China: The First Empires." Films are screened 
Friday Saturday and Sunday at 1 1 a.m.. 12:30 p.m.. and 
2 p.m. in Lecture Hall I. 

"The Great Bronze Age of China" Lecture Series. China 
scholars lecture on the significance of Chinas recent ar- 
cheological discoveries — how these finds have rewritten 
the Chinese past, and how they have changed Western 
views of Chinese history and art. Fridays, 8 p.m.. Sept. 5. 
12. 26. and Oct. 3. Call 922-3136 for ticket information. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Each Saturday and Sun- 
day between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m., the Museum offers a 
variety of free, exfiibit-related tours, demonstrations, and 
films on current natural history topics. Check the 
"Weekend Sheet" available at Museum entrances for 
locations and additional programs. 

• "American Indian Dress." Learn about the construc- 
tion, craft, style, and symbolism of Indian dress from six 
regions of North America in this 30-minute tour. Saturday 
July 19, 11:30 a.m. 

• "Digging for Dinosaurs' Film Features: Dinosaurs: 
The Terrible Lizards examines the different kinds of di- 
nosaurs that dominated the earth. The Dinosaur Who 
Wondered Who He Was uses animation to tell its story 
Saturday July 19. 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments," a half-hour tour, fo- 
cuses on the underwater worid of ancient invertebrates. 
Saturday July 19, 1:30 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals" 
Bones and Teeth." This 45-minute tour looks at changes 
in teeth and bones that characterize the great variation in 
todays mammals. Saturday July 19. 2 p.m. 

• "Digging for Dinosaurs'" Film Features: Dinosaurs 
traces these creatures from development to extinction. 
Dinosaurs in the Wall visits Dinosaur National Monu- 
ment in Utah and Colorado. Saturday July 26, 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments." Saturday, July 26, 
1:30 p.m. 

(Continued on back couer) 



27 



ILLP/aiS ^JATURAL 
^URV:y LI- RM 



HISTORY 






July, August, and September at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals' 
Bones and Teeth." Saturday. July 26, 2 p.m. 

• "Ancient Etruscans.' a 35-minute tour, looks at the 
everyday life, religion, and funerary practices of these 
people. Sunday July 27. 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt." This 45-minute tour explores the 
traditions of this culture from daily life to myths and 
mummies. Saturday August 2, 11:30 a.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments.'" Saturday. August 2. 
1:30 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals" 
Bones and Teeth." Saturday August 2. 2 p.m. 

• "Ancient Etruscans." Sunday August 3. 12:30 p.m. 

• "Africa, the Changing Continent" Film Features: Nawi 
and Malaivi. Saturday August 9. 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments." Saturday August 9. 
1:30 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals' 
Bones and Teeth." Saturday August 9, 2 p.m. 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." This 45- 
minute tour concentrates on Field Museums collections 
of ancient Egyptian artifacts, and concludes with a de- 
scription of the mummification process. Sunday. August 
10. 12 noon. 

• "American Indian Dress." Saturday August 16. 11:30 
a.m. 

• "Africa. The Changing Continent " Film Features: Arts 
and Crafts of West Africa" and East African Wood Carver. 
Saturday. August 16. 1 p.m. 

• "The Inside Story: Some Adaptations of Mammals" 
Bones and Teeth." Saturday August 16. 1:30 p.m. 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." Sunday. 
August 17. 12 noon. 

• "The Ancient Etruscans." Sunday August 17, 1 p.m. 

• "Africa, the Changing Continent" Film Features: 
Africa Dances. Saturday August 23, 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments." Saturday, August 23. 
1:30 p.m. 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt." Sunday, 
August 24, 12 noon. 



• "Ancient Etruscans." Sunday August 24. 1 p.m. 

• "Africa, the Changing Continent" Film Features: 
Women Up in Aurns. Saturday August 30, 1 p.m. 

• "Subsistence Societies" Film Features: Slash and 
Burn Agriculture and Turtle People. Saturday Sept. 6, 

1 p.m. 

• "Prehistoric Life in the Illinois Valley." This half-hour 
tour discusses how these people adapted to their en- 
vironment through the use of tools. Sunday Sept. 7, 1 p.m. 

• "Ancient Egypt." Saturday Sept. 13. 11:30 a.m. 

• "Subsistence Societies" Film Features: B/fterMe/ons. 
Saturday Sept. 13. 1 p.m. 

• "Clay Dinosaurs." Children look at dinosaur skeletons 
and then make their own clay dinosaur to take home. Meet 
in Hall 38. 2nd floor Sunday, Sept. 14. 11 a.m.-l p.m. 



Continuing Programs 

Summer Journey: "A Time to Play." This self-guided tour 

takes families to many Museum halls, where toys from 
around the world may be found. Watch for a new Fall 
Journey in September. Free Journey pamphlets are 
available at Museum entrances. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers with an interest in 
Chinese culture are needed to assist with visitor services 
for the duration of "The Great Bronze Age of China " ex- 
hibit (Aug. 20-Oct. 29). Please call or write the Volunteer 
Coordinator. 922-9410. ext. 360, for details. 

July. August, and September Hours. The Museum opens 
daily at 9 a.m. and closes (through Sept. 1 ) at 6 p.m. every 
day except Friday Beginning Sept. 2. the Museum will 
close at 5 p.m. On Fridays the Museum remains open until 
9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Ubrary is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Obtain a pass at reception desk, main floor Closed Sept. 1 
(Labor Day). 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410 



eptember 
980 



FIELD /v\aSEU/vi OF NATURAL HISTORY BGLLHTIN 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

September 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 8. 



Eiiitor!Defi\^ncr: David M. VValsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Marv Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: E. Leland Webber 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 



Board of Trustees 

William G.Swartchild, Jr., 

cbmrtnan 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Da\is 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphv Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarringtor\ 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blaii 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Mufi-um of Natural His/ory Bullflin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined july'.-Xugust issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shun Drive. Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually. S3.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Btilletm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy ot Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of N'atural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, D. 
60605. ISSX: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Totems of the Gitksan 

('V Roil Tt's/ii, Field Mufeum p'hotographer 

10 Field Museum Tours 

12 Our Environment 

13 Third Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film 

17 Coca 

/'V Timothy Plowman, assistant curator of botany 

22 Animals in Human Perspective 

NEH Learnini^ Museum Program 

by Anthony Pfeiffer, project coordinator 

26 Honor Roll of Donors 

27 September and October at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 

Detail of totem pole of the Gitksan Indians in the village of Kitumnkul, 
British Columbia. Carved about 1900. Photo /n/ Ron Testa, who shot 
British Columbia totem pwles with his Hasselblad SOOc^i camera during 
1977 tour of the region. See pages 4-9. 



Group Visits for China Treasures 

Group Visits for the exhibit "The Great 
Bronze A^e of Chijin: An Exhibition fi'om 
the Peop^le's Repubhc of China," opening 
August 20 and closing October 29, may 
now be arranged for group^s as small as 30 
piersons. Durvig public Jwurs, daily ex- 
cept Triday, special groups of 30 to 120 
piersons can be accommodated. On Tues- 
day ami Thursday ezmiings (after the 
Museum is closed to the general public) 
groups of 50' or more can be accommo- 
dated. Supplemental lectures for such 
groups, as well as private dining ar- 
rangements, are also available. Tor rates 
ami other information call Caryn Fried- 
man at 786-9570. 



FIELD BRIEFS 




President Webber Honored 

E. Leland Webber (right), Field Museum 
president, receives congratulations of De- 
Paul University president Rev. John R. 
Cortelyou, CM., after accepting honorary 
Doctor of Humane Letters degree at 
DePaul's 82nd annual commencement on 
June 15. Webber was one of four to receive 
an honorary degree at the ceremony. 

Webber's citation noted, "As presi- 
dent and director of one of the few great 
museums in the world..., you have 
helped form and implement its philoso- 
phy. You envision a museum as a won- 
derland that can stimulate young and old 
at their own pace and on their own initia- 
tive, and your leadership has ensured that 
the Field Museum does this superla- 
tivelv well." 



Marianne F. Powers Joins Staff 

Marianne Fugiel Powers has joined the 
Department of Education as the new geol- 
ogy instructor. Her responsibilities in- 
clude giving programs to visiting school 
groups, preparing educational materials, 
and working with Department of Educa- 
tion volunteers. 

Mrs. Powers taught intermediate and 
junior high science for 12 years as well as 
introductory geology courses at the col- 
lege level. She holds degrees from De 
Lourdes College, Des Plaines, IL, and 
from Notre Dame University. 



Admission Fee Increase 

Admission fees to Field Museum for 
non-members have been increased, as of 
July 1. The new admission rate for in- 
dividual adults is $2.00, for individual 
children (ages 6-17) and students with ID 
$1.00, for families $4.00, for senior citizens 
50'. Admission is free for children under 
6, teachers, U.S. military personnel, and 
Field Museum Members. On Fridays 
admission is free to all. 

Annual membership rates continue at 
$25.00 for families and $20.00 for 
individuals. 



Volunteer Landow Honored 

Carol Landow, a volunteer in the "Place 
for Wonder," has been named by the Vol- 
untary Action Center of the Comprehen- 
sive Community Services of Metropolitan 
Chicago, Inc. as one of seven Outstanding 
Volunteers in the Chicago metropolitan 
area for 1980. The selection was made from 
more than 150 individuals and groups 
nominated by Chicago area organizations 
and human care agencies. 

Carol Landow has spent hundreds of 
hours during the past three years helping 
to develop and innovate special educa- 
tion programs at Field Museum in the 
hands-on exhibit, "The Place for Wonder." 



Impressive First Season for Hitters 

Field Museum's new Softball team, the 
Field Museum Hitters, winds up its initial 
season with an impressive record. By 
July's end, the team had garnered nine 
wins against a single loss. Team members 
represent the Department of Security 
and Visitor Services, Housekeeping, and 
Engineering. Team manager is Gwen 
Anderson. 

Shown here with Field Museum 
President E. Leland Webber (top, left) are 
(seated) R. Crawford, F. Bluntson, and N. 
Glover; (kneeling) E. Holmes, A. Holmes, 
L. Mister (plaver'coach), and G. Stlaske; 
(standing) Webber, D. Raabe, R. Leigh 
(coach), J. Suffredin, T. Williams, 
D. Sadowski, P. Poindexter, A. Bluntson, 
G. Anderson, and W. Grey. Not shown 
are L. McGraw and E. Jones. Team ex- 
penses, including uniforms and equip- 
ment, are borne by the players. 





TOTEMS 

of the 
GITKSAN 

Photos by RON TESTA 



Field Museum photographer 



In August and September of 1977, 
Field Museum photographer Ron Testa 
toured the Northwest Coast of Canada 
to photograph scenes of contemporary 
Indian life in that region. His material was 
to be used in the design and development 
of Hall 10 ("Marine Hunters and Fishers"), 
scheduled for completion in 1982. 

Along the way, Testa also photo- 
graphed a large number of totem poles, 
particularly of the Gitksan, a subgroup of 
theTsimshian people living along British 
Columbia's Skeena River. Traveling north- 
eastward from the city of Prince Rupert on 
Highway 16, known as "Totem Highway," 
he passed through the Gitksan villages of 
Gitsegyulka, 'Ksan, Hazelton, Kispiox, 
Kitwanga, and Kitwankul, where the 
totems shown on these pages are located. 
The most widely known art form of 
the Northwest Coast Indians, totem poles 
serve a variety of purposes: as memorials, 
as grave poles, and as house poles, both 
interior and exterior. The oldest of those 
shown here were carved about 1870, the 
most recent about 1915. 

Testa's tour of the Northwest 
Coast was funded in part by the National 
Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and the 
National Endowment for the Humanities 
(NEH). 

CAPTIONS 

Left: Detail of memorial pole, Kitwankul. 
Pfl^e 5: Stand of totem poles at Kispiox. 
Pnge 6: House frontal pole with elongated 
entranceway, in village of 'Ksan. Animals 
represented appear to be a wolf and bears; 
lips originally painted red, eyes painted black. 





Page 7, left: Humanoid house post in 'Ksan. 
Page 7, right: Detail of totem in Hazelton. 
Page 8, left: Detail of totem in Kitwankul. Portion 
shown here has twelve small humanoid figures 
encircling the unusual hole. Carved about 
1870-90. 

Page S, center: "Pole of the Cormorant," Kitwan- 
kul. Topped by a cormorant, the pole also has 
a bear cub lower down, out of view. Carved 
1910-15 and originally painted black and white. 
Page 8, right: The name of this Kitwankul pole is 
"Drifted Aside," or "Drifted to One Side," after 
the traditional name of an ancestor, represented 
by the humanoid figure. On his head perches a 
raven and in his hands he carries a bow. 
Page 9: Humanoid house post in 'Ksan. 



Above caption material was adapted from 
descriptive material inTotem Po/fs of the Citksan, 

Upper Skeena River, British Columbia, by Marius 
Barbeau (1929), published by the National 
Museum of Canada, Ottawa. 



11 






i 





^ 1 





sWH 



Field Museum 
Tours For 
Members 



Egypt 

February 421, 1981 

Our Egypt tour offers a rare opportunity for in-depth visits to 
the treasures along the Nile under the leadership of Mrs. Del 
Nord, doctoral candidate in Egyptology at the University of 
Chicago, and Dr David P. Silverman, assistant professor of 
Egyptology at the University of Pennsylvania and assistant 
curator of the Egyptian Section at the University Museum. 
(Dr Silverman was project director for the "Tut" exhibit at 
Field Museum in 1977.) This is the second time the Nord- 
Silverman team has led an Egyptian tour for the Museum. 

Our 1981 tour is being cosponsored with the University 
of Pennsylvania Museum and will be available exclusively to 
members of the two museums. 

The itinerary will include Cairo, Memphis, Sakkara, 
Aswan / Abu Simbel, Edfu, Esna, Luxor, Thebes, the Valley 
of the Kings and Queens, Dendereh, Abydos, Amarna, Mid- 
dle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan, the pyramid at Medum, 
and much more. The tour also includes an 11-day Nile cruise 
on a chartered, modern Nile steamer, the Rev Vacances. The 
tour price is $3,395 per person based upon double occu- 
pancy plus a $500 donation to Field Museum. The price 
includes all air transportation, meals, Nile cruise, hotels, tips, 
taxes, transfers, visa fees, admissions, baggage handling, es- 
corts, and more. Single supplement is available upon request, 
Nile cruise and land. 

Since this tour has already elicited unusual interest and is 
limited to 30 persons. Members are urged to make reserva- 
tions as soon as possible. Reservations will be honored in the 
order received. 




10 Interior of the Great Temple at Abu Simbel 



Baja California 
January 30-Fcbruary 14, 1981 

Just 50 miles from our Southwest border begins the richest 
sea in the world — the Sea of Cortez. It's a body of water 600 
miles long and rarely more than 90 miles wide. To the west is 
the Baja peninsula; an area known to only a few people. Field 
Museum is pleased to offer its Members an opportunity to 
explore this area which is rich in marine life, many species of 
birds, desert vegetation, beautiful beaches and truly magnifi- 
cent scenery. There will be daily outings in "zodiac" boats for 
landings and whale watching or birding. Weinvite you to join 
us for a 14-day circumnavigation cruise aboard the Lindblad 
Pacific Northwest Explorer, built in the U.S.A. and launched 
just this year Our exploration cruise will begin in Puerto 
Penasco. Of course, one of the most exciting aspects of this 
journey will be the opportunity to observe the huge gray 
whales as well as a half dozen other species. The Field 
Museum lecturer will be Dr Robert K. Johnson, Head of the 
Department of Fishes; we will also have along other profes- 
sional and amateur leaders who will help make the trip more 
meaningful. 

This is the perfect escape from Chicago's winter; and just 
think, two weeks with no packing and unpacking and no 
airports to negotiate! We hope the idea excites you as much 
as it does us. Please write or call for information. 



Papua New Guinea 
April 30-May 16, 1981 

The island of New Guinea, the third largest island in the 
world, is the major part of the newly independent nation of 
Papua New Guinea. Although known to Europeans since the 
1500s, intensive contact with the industrial Western world 
began a scant 100 years ago. Some highland areas with large 
native populations were unknown until the 1930s, when 
'discovered' by Australian patrols. 

New Guinea abounds in extremes of climate, geog- 
raphy animal and plant life. There are also fascinating dif- 
ferences amongst the peoples and their cultures. Many still 
live according to their old ways, while others have modern- 
ized; developing cities, universities, hospitals, and industries. 
Exotic birds and animals still abound everywhere; native 
peoples still present colorful ceremonies and dances. The 
variations in language, culture, and art forms which de- 
veloped over thousands of years of geographical and social 
isolation are still to be seen. Each province has its own charm 
and style, whether in the green valleys of the highlands, the 
coastal lowlands, or along the mighty Sepik River, a monster 
waterway draining a vast area of grassland and jungle in a 
serpentine path from the mountains to the sea. 

Field Museum can now offer its members a 16-day 
expedition to New Guinea, including visits with peoples of 
the highland and coastal regions and a four-day cruise aboard 
the newly refurbished Melar^esiar^ Explorer, during which 
secluded villages of the Sepik River and its tributaries will 
be visited. Dr Phillip Lewis, curator of primitive art and 



For additional information and reservations 
for all tours, call or write Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum Tours, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore 
Dr.. Chicago. III. 60605. Phone (312) 922-9410. 



Melanesian ethnology, our Field Museum lecturer, and Jeff 
Leversidge, a well known authority on the Sepik River, 
will share with you their knowledge of traditional life and 
customs of New Guinea peoples. 

"Sing Sings" (dances and celebrations) performed by 
villagers adorned with vivid feather headdresses and with 
bodies painted in bright colors, will be attended by tour 
members; there will also be opportunities to buy Sepik art. 

Participation in this unique expedition is limited to 
the capacity of the Melanesian Explorer — a maximum of 39 
persons. 



India 
January 21-February 11, 1981 

Now is the time to take that long-awaited tour of India — a 
country that must be experienced to be believed. The Hindu 
and Buddhist respect for life has, over the centuries, permit- 
ted great populations of humans and animals to coexist in 
often crowded proximity: painted storks calmly fish in a road- 
side ditch within yards of a man and bullock ploughing; mon- 
keys scamper on a highway jammed with cars, camels, water 
buffaloes, and bicycles: dozens of iridescent blue-green 
parakeets shriek defiance from a schoolyard tree; animals 
vulnerable for their immense size — elephants, rhinoceros, 
and tigers — still roam the forests. 

India also affords breathtaking landscapes: The sheerly 
rising, snow-peaked Himalayas form a backdrop, unreal in its 
wall-like abruptness, to the valley of Kathmandu. Ancient 
temples freeze still living theologies into stone; The eloquent 
marble geometry of the Taj Mahal, the many-armed dieties of 
Hinduism, and the serene face of the teaching Buddha form a 
living link with the past. 

And this is a country where travel is still very affordable. 
Please call or write for further details. 



People's Republic of China 
April 1-21. 1981 

A specially tailored 3-week travel/study tour of China is 
offered under the leadership of Mr. Phillip Woodruff, an 
authority on Chinese histoiy and culture. Limited to 25 
members, the group will explore the marvels of ancient 
China and see how cities as well as rural communities 
have been modernized. 

Among the cities to be visited is Peking, which retains 
its 15th-century layout amidst the Imperial Palace buildings. 
A side trip is planned to the Great Wall. In Sian, tucked into 
a small section of what was China's capital during the T'ang 
dynasty, we will marvel at the 8th-century calligraphy and 
carved decor of the famous Memorial Forest of Tables, 
where Chinese classics are inscribed in stone. The nearby 
neolithic site of Pan Po will be seen, as well as the spectacu- 
lar tomb of Emperor Shih Huang-Ti. of the Ch'in (Qin) 
dynasty. Partial excavation of the tomb has revealed a clay 
army of 6.000 life-size soldiers, horses, and chariots (some 
of which are to be seen in "The Great Bronze Age of China" 
exhibit on view at Field Museum through October 29). Wall 
paintings in the Li Hsien and Yung T'ai tombs are also 
scheduled to be seen. A side trip is planned to the Yunkang 
Caves, dating from 460 to 490 A.D., and occupied by 
Buddha statues of all sizes. 





'j» 1 1 






Monument to the People's Heroes in Peking 



Nanking, dating back to the Chou dynasty (8th to 3rd 
centuries, B.C.), served seven times as capital of regional 
empires, twice as seat of revolutionary government, and 
twice as capital of united China. Nature has endowed the 
city with an abundance of scenic delights, such as the Lake 
of No Sorrow and the Mystic Martial Lake. 

In Shanghai, one of China's major ports, is the 
noteworthy Museum of Art, which houses a large collection 
of Chinese bronze vessels and exquisite paintings. On the 
south end of the Grand Canal, Hangchow is one of China's 
most beautiful southeastern cities, steeped in 2,500 years of 
history. The West Lake mirrors the landscape to form a 
panorama of beauty. Local handicrafts of silk, embroidery, 
and glassware will delight the most discriminating shopper 

Kweilin is also well known for its spectacular scenic 
beauty. The riverbank rises sharply into the hills and crags, 
forming unusual landscapes which have inspired centuries 
of traditional painters. Many of the peaks contain exotic 
limestone caves. Canton, southernmost point in our tour 
itinerary, with a history of over 2,000 years, was China's first 
city to trade with foreign countries. We will visit memorials of 
the revolution, such as the former site of the National Insti- 
tute of the Peasant Movement, the Memorial Hall to Sun 
Yat-sen, and the Mausoleum of the Seventy-Two Martyrs at 
Huanghuagang. 

Air travel is scheduled via the Pacific route. Although 
details of the exceptional itinerary are still under negotiation 
with Peking, Museum members interested in joining the tour 
should call or write the Tours Office now. As additional in- 
formation on the tour is available, you will be notified. 

Watch for details on the trip to Death Valle}^ 
(December 1980), to Ken\^a (Sept-Oct 1981). and 
to Peru (October 1981). Or let us know of \^our 
interest and we will send ]^ou full information on 
these trips as it becomes available. 



n 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Decomposition Rates for Litter 

The New Hampshire Campground Oiimers 
Neu'sletter reports the following rates of 
decomposition for various types of road- 
side litter. (The identity and qualifications 
of the estimator were not given.) 

• Orange peel: 2 weeks to 5 months 

• Plastic-coated paper; 1-5 years 

• Plastic bags: 10-20 vears 

• Plastic film: 20-30 years 

• Nylon fabrics: 30-40 years 

• Hiking boot soles: 50-80 years 

• Aluminum tabs, cans: 80-100 years 



Lucrative Skullhunting Reduces 
Mountain Gorilla Population 

Twent\' vears ago there were 500 moun- 
tain gorillas on the Zaire-Rwanda border 
Today, primarilv because of habitat de- 
struction, numbers are down to about 250. 
Trade in gorilla skulls has become a lucra- 
tive business as they are sought as 
souvenirs bv European tourists, con- 
sequentlv poaching has become a serious 
problem. 

At least 16 gorillas have been killed for 
their heads since 1976. In 1978 the domi- 
nant male of a troop was killed; this may 
result in the whole troop of animals dying 
out as younger animals probably have not 
attained the maturity' necessarv to hold 
the group together. 



Geese as Guards 

Geese, the sentinels that reportedly 
warned the Romans of encroaching 
Gauls, are still used as watchdogs. In 
Dunbarton, Scotland, six dozen white 
geese guard about 30 million gallons of 
whiskey, valued at over $900 million dol- 
lars. Any intruder is greeted with a fanfare 
of hissing and honking. The unique 
security force has been found to be more 
effective than dogs, people, or mechanical 
devices. 



Norwegian Scheme for Car Recycling 

After one year of operation, Norway's 
"deposit legislatton" on privately owned 
cars seems to be a success. The program 
requires a $100 deposit on new cars at time 
of purchase. The money is returned when 
the auto is scrapped. Based on the "pol- 
luters pay" principle, the system has re- 
12 suited in the recycling of 41,000 autos and 



vans. A 20 to 25 percent reduction in steel 
imports by Norway has been one of sev- 
eral benefits. 



Kirlland's Warbler Increases in Michigan 

The Michigan Department of Natural Re- 
sources announced that its 1980 census of 
the Kirtland's warbler population in 
Michigan was up 30 pairs from last year's 
census. The inventory revealed 242 pairs 
of Kirtland's warblers in the six-county 
survey. 

The Kirtland's warbler, a federally 
endangered species, is dependent on 
Michigan's jackpine habitat for nesting. 
The tinv bird winters in the Bahamas and 
returns to Michigan each year to nest. 

Thomas Sheldrake, an endangered 
species biologist with the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service (FWS) in Minneapolis, said 
that although the 1980 census was good 
news, the warbler population is still pre- 
cariously scant in total numbers. "Our 
cooperative goal for the Kirtland's warbler 
is 1,000 pairs," he said. "This target popu- 
lation level can only be achieved by in- 
creases in the nesting habitat." 

Sheldrake said biologists conclude 
that it will take roughly 36,000 acres of 
prime nesting habitat to achieve a popula- 
tion of 1,000 pairs. Currentlv the warbler 
population in Michigan has around 17,000 
acres of nesting habitat. The FWS said the 
recent Mack Lake fire did not affect the 
warbler population. The birds simply left 
the area for other sites when a large scale 
fire swept through the Mack Lake area. 



Hydrocarbons as Air Pollutants 

Gasoline prices at the pump are at an 
all-time high, vet millions of gallons of 
gasoline literally go up in the air in the 
Midwest ever\' vear 

The loss occurs at gasoline storage and 
loading terminals, during the loading pro- 
cess. Here's how it happens. 

A tank truck pulls into a gasoline dis- 
tribution terminal and parks next to a 
gasoline loading rack, which is a platform 
full of pipes and pumps that transfer 
gasoline from the storage tank to the truck. 
A loading arm from the platform is coupled 
to the truck, and gasoline is then pumped 
into the truck. 

The truck's tank appears to be empt\', 
but actually it's full of hydrocarbon 
(gasoline) vapors left over from previous 
loads. The liquid gasoline pumped into the 



truck displaces those vapors, which escape 
through the hatch into the air. 

Once in the air, h\'drocarbons react 
with nitrogen oxides and sunlight to form 
ozone, commonly knov\Ti as smog. Ozone 
is one of the five major air pollutants for 
which EP.A has established a national 
health-related standard. If ozone exceeds 
that standard, it means your health can be 
adversely affected. Studies show that 
ozone can impair normal lung functions 
and cause symptoms such as eye irritation, 
coughing, choking, headache, and severe 
fatigue. Besides helping to form ozone, es- 
caping hydrocarbons represent gasoline 
that is lost forever 

There are three basic loading methods 
used at gasoline terminals; splash loading 
(from the top of the truck), submerged 
top-fill loading (with load pipe extended to 
18 inches of truck bottom), and submerged 
bottom-fill loading. Submerged loading 
(top- and bottom-fill) reduces gasoline 
\'apor loss by 58 percent when compared 
to splash loading, but neither method is 
approved bv ep.a as the answer to hydro- 
carbon pollution control The installation 
of vapor recovers' and control equipment 
is the onh' sure method, era emphasizes. 

If vapor recovery systems were in- 
stalled and operating properly at all gaso- 
line loading facilities cited for violations 
to date, EP.A estimates that oil companies 
in Illinois could recapture 4.2 million gal- 
lons of gasoline per year. 

(Continued on page 25) 




Third A nnual Festival 
Of Anthropology on Film 

FiKi.i) Ml ^1,1 \i(ii .\\ii lui lli>i()in 

west eiilr;ince 



SMiurdMv. S'|ilt'iiiUT 2"". 10:1.111. l()r)|i.iii. 
>iiii(la\. ,N'|ilriiilHM 'l^K Iniiii 10 ii.iii. to ."> |i.fii. 



I in I) \ll -Kl \l IwriKs ^()l 1(1 join 111 llir Tluril \iiiiii(il Fe.iliviil iif 
\nllinii)til(iif\- on tiliii. a fiiMiiiMiiiif; ii|i|miiIiimi1\ to fxpliire llic ciilliirfs 
iif ilii- wiirld nil film We :iir fs|)<-iuilK [iIim>i-(I Iu Iuim- Jimii Kducli. llif 
lllll'•l^llll^ Kri'iicli (lociiiiu'iiuirv riliiiiiiiikci. ;i~ iiur ki'\ iiolr ^|ii':ikri I li' 
liniii;> iiiaiu filiii~ Inmi I'ari^ lliai ilociiiiiriil nliial ami |iiis^r^siiiii aiuun;; 
ilie |)e<i[ile> cif Atriia. 

riie Kf>li\al coiisisls of 50 films grouped b\ eight subject areas: 
1) Rituals: I II I ^Xork: Survival and Self- E.xpression; (III) Cultures and 
Change: (IV ) .\rcheologv and l.ithic Technologv ; ( V) World Music anil 
naiicr. \'l\l.-ii and \lii. Mini: \ll) Possession an. I Ilealiiii;; and Mil 
I liiiiiiii. Iiiin\. and PaniiK 

In adiliiuin to ■.elecli-d work^ of Koiich. Keslival highlight include 
HiiUri Cariliier's new work /Ar/j Hearl.s. I)a\id and .liidilli MacDoiigall s 
Ihe Ueililiim Camels and Loriiiifis lUiy. Mava Dereii ^Diriiie llurxmu'ii: 
riif l.irinic (iuds uf Haiti — a rareh seen filiii on the \ oudoiin religion ol 
I laiii. and .Some Uomen of Marrakesh by .Melissa L. Davies. 

The films are show n In subject area in James Simpson Theatre. 
I ecnire I lall I A Monlgonierv Vi ard Hall), and Classroom A Selected 
film- will fie -.(■reened a second time according to culture ill Lecture Hall II. 
I he Ke-iival Schedule is subject to change. Please use the attached coupon 
111 order \our tickets \ film schedule w ill accompain the tickets mailed to 
vou. Complele "Kiliii Notes" are available at the Festival, (^all ('M'l) 
.■«2-88r)4f(.r details 



Salurday. Sei)t. 27 

1(1 OOa 111 — .")()() p.m. 

James .Simpson Theatre 

Intniduciion by Ptitil 1 lockings, .\ssociate Professor of 

\iitlini|H)logv. I niversitv of Illinois. Chicago Circle (Jampus. 

(I) RH U.\LS 

The t'.lereii Powers I'l-S) 48 mill. 

I.VKm I.VKII-.N-rKIN 

Once III lot) years in Bali, a sacred frslival re-lores llir lialiiiicr U-lwreii ;;onil iui<l 
evil Oron Welles iiiirrale- ihis clrainalic filiii. 

Sainlx and Spirits {W79) 4.'i nun 

Ki IzvntltllKHNF.v 

1 Ills film .^.eks U) explore the personal dimension of Isliini dunn;: ihree e\eiiis in 

Nlonicco. all seen ihmiifjh ihe e\[>en)'nre of one woman 

Hii Dolorosa i W^R i 111 mm 

t.KlHl.l-sPvMuslHt WDfl U DINK \ HI ION 

Dimiifi ihe "Pfission of Chnsl" eeremoiiv in .Xnli^iia. taialenuilii. llie [wople 

(lecoralelhe sireels and lake inm- rarr\ iiii; llif cnirifix alon;; ' Tlir I'ainfnl \Xa\ 

>ii!ui Hiint'ii VH>'I . Sipii UiKiiii ITII) 

Jl VN Hoi ( II 

Diieeeverv Ol) \ears. llie l)of;on of Mali celeliriile llie rereinonies of Sigiii. whirli lake 

plai-e over u [leriod of 7 years. Jean Roiich made 7 films lo docnmeni llii- festival: Iwi 

«llll»s|,..«„ 



Funerailles ,1 ItuiiL'ii- tri'll l>"l" lUS ITU l<r2 Oil oiin 

JKVN Hill ( M 

filmed over a jieriod of \ears. I Ins film dwiimenls ilie mnals In-fore. diinn<i iiiid afler 

tile dealli of a religions leader of llie Btinjio Inlie in \Sesl Africa, a well kived man wlio 

was over 120 \ears old 

Aniharti ihiinit l^~'4i *H) mill. 
JK.VN Kol I II 

rile socieiv of mask- of Saiiga ;.\lalii organizes a "Daiiia" in which llie old masks are 
replaced by new ones, Ihe dance of the ma.sks is vividly portrayed. 



1:00 p. Ill "Kitiiiil and Possession Among the Dogon 
Keynote address by Jean Rottch. director of re.searcii. Ontre 
National de la Recherche Scientifiqtie. and instrticlor Miisee de 
I Homme. Paris. 

\ world renowiied leader in visual antlirii|H)l(igv. Roucb U'gan making 
films 111 Vtesl .\fnca in I'Hb. I le has made more than "."> film~. maiiv 
documenting rituals and ceremonies in African \ illages. 1 lis films of 
possession rituals have pioneered a [leisonal. intenictive style of film- 
making w Inch uses portable syiic-Mniiid eciiiipmenl to its greatest |x)- 
tential. \ captivating speaker, he is a master at coiiiiiiiiiiicaliiii; 
infectious enthusiasm for bis subject. \ou have a rare (ip|Mirliinilv 
to hear one of the most important figures in riliiiiiiaking bi-tory. 



10:00 a.m. — 1:00 p.m. 

Lecture Mall 1 A. .Montgomery Viard Hull) 

(II) WORK: SURVIVAI \M) SKI.F-KM'RKSSION 

rhe Aeic Opium Route (1973) 54 iniii 
CvmiiRINF. \M)M\RIVNNI:. I.VMOI II 

\ slorv of the Pashtus who have lived for ceiilnnes ai ihi' kli\ Int Pass hm-iises < 
lives of the fanners who jiniw ami harvesi ihe |Kippies ioMows ilir opium mine 
Kiiro()eaii prmessors and in llie Amenean markel 

Alicf Elliot 10 mill 

Shows the handiwork of Pomo liuskeimaker Alice tllioii. a jiified ariisi wlios<' hi 

preserve the dying iradilbn of her ixtiple. 

At the lime of U hiilirif: il'»74) .'IB mill 
I. KIN MID kwimi iNi: vndSmhii Ki I)I-:ii 

\ film fn.iii die \laska Native lleritiip- S'ries alKinl ihe Iradilional aiidcontemp 
ciillim-of Kskiiiio|n-ople Pnidiieed liy the commiimty in iheir liHallail(.'uiige K 
subtitles. 



daily 



iskc-l- 



«iriirv 
iiL'lish 



13 




14 



Fiirm Snnii l')"'8i .^"111111 
John \\IM\N for Mii«iiii Kiliicniiiiiiiil IcIrM^tun 

\n f\lriuinliininl\ iH-aiinrul jiim) inliiiiiiti* flltn Hmir ^rniTiilifiii" tif a njnil Jii|>Hnes<> 
rmnilv "iM'jik fniiikU jiInmii llinr fuK-klin'iikiii-: «urk. llicir n'liilhin^hip^ « illi one 
anolluT. antl llir ^MixMial rrlcl train m- lliar riili\fn ihnr wmHiI 

t'nitfitKftiiit Himtlirntffs I'» nun 
Join- l\K\- 

\ ^llorl. I\ nral film alMinl lin' nivlli' ami crafl- of llic ( liiiii--^- jM-o|>lr. llinr uorkinan- 
"-llip. and lio» iIicm- tradition^ ha\i- Ut-ri [ta^s<'<l ilnwn lliron^h generations. 

Ihr<i,sl i,f I 1,11(111 .til nun 

\ )Nl^M■rflll <tiH-nnientar\ on I la- rffi-ii^ of ila- inlrnianona) 1 in nam I for roiion on a ilr- 
M-loIMiii.' mil Ion h.xalinnr- tllr effi-rl of (N-^ncliir" on llic nu ironini-iil ami IhmIiIi of iln- 
(,>nii-)ir lialiaiix. ( .liiilt'inala- roinmuorkrr-. 

tink.w 1'l«l) J-Jniin 
\Mllo^^ MiiNt 

\ -i-n-in\r iNirlrail of a [ia>kelinakt-r. fni'lliT. ami liaqi [ilavcr from ( o«an ( Tcrk. 
K('iilni'k\ 

I'hr /'<iintril Irurk 28 niin. 

Jlllllll VMl'-UMH Ihl I KT \M) SUnsTIW C SllF«lKt)HI 

llierr an* lull l»o nirllio4l> of lnin-|)orlalioii in Vft'liani-lan — caineU ami inirk- — 
and I In- lag mi<-k> are ink iiifi over 1 Hlh inu-k dn\cr irll- wfiat 11 in like l« live ami uiiri 
in Vf::l)anisian and reveals much about the social >inicinn-. iruditioiis. aiid culture 
of Ills couiilrv. 



1 .;i)|i,ill, — .', (Ill |. Ill 

I ,.,(iiir I I. ill I \ \l(.n|o(.iiu'iy WanI I hill 

Jll)(;ll riRKS \M)( IIWGE 

/'/(f I'lirtlf Petiplf 2li mm 

I he- roaMal Mi-kiio Indian- of i-asieni Nicaragua have depended on the preen -ea turtle 
lor over ^t.")() veai> 1 lie \liskilo have entered die market economy and now piir-ne the 
nirlle- iiol for food, lull forca-li 

Listen ('<irtinis I*' nun 
(Mil II- \/.l'l 111 \ 

\ forceful -laleinenl from the Indians of the Amazon region on die while man - coii- 
nniiini: attack- on ilieir culture 

ln,li„ns mid Chiefs (1972) 41) mm 

li iiiiii wiiDwil) \1\(D(ii I. Ml 

\ film aUiiil Ainencan Indian- trying to mainlain their Indian idenlilv while learning to 

ma-ler ihe w hue man- world, on his tenils. 

J'lrna Mft.sjli/ Strffl Jrninidl 1M~'0 20 mill 
\llKV \\IK 

\ |>er-iaiai record of -ireel life in the Mo-lcni coinmiiniu that centers it-^lf around the 
.lama \la-)id. or die (ireat Mosque, in the old city of Delhi. 



1(1 (Ilia. III. — l;()()|i.m. 

(ila— itMini A 

(IV) .\R(:hk()LO(.^ am)I miK; ikciinoioc^ 

■i tlulle- 1 : A Lesson in irchueolu^ 141)8, 33 nun 
l)t)NM dMiI I.EK. TON^ (.ORSI.INE. J ^ME^i H. SvCKEIT 

Meiiildirrmfl HiKksheller: A (,)ueslinn of Questions 3(1 min. 
J MH'HKNl Mill Mil I) Jx\IK-\lXl\ V-ltl \M)J I) (;i \\ 

ArrhaeolofT) in Mesoimtiiiniti 141)4 l"o4 In miii 

Kxciwitlions (It l.a tenia >. 19().3) 24 nun 
HOHKHI K \ ItlZER 

EiirlySlone TooU (1%'') 211 nun 
FkxncoisBordks 

Cum Preparation, Stone flaking: Dju^anKini Lecuv.^ Hadjas 14 nun. 

Spear Making: Bo\s ' Spear f'ighl 1 min 

Sinew-backed Bow and lu Arrows [ViiA) 24 min. 
SVMI Fl \ HMtRFri 



l:.U)|Mll.— 5:0(1 |. in 
Cla^Moom A 

(V) wom.i) Ml sk; vnd dwck, 

l^etirtMiiii tt> Diiticf III Hull 20 miii 

(.HKt-Om IJ\lhM)N 

1 Mano is shown leaching l)a-if arm aiiil tiilicr (liincf rnoxmie'iir- in ilir- mIIh^c i»t 

Itivanan. A stud\ of visual ami kinc^llit'iic If-armti^, 

TnH/erl.efiumhnii I^^H _M) ,,nti 

Ml (.11 /.Mil' 

The niakirii: of [tan flute-, ainoiii.' iIh' Xn- \\v |H-n[ilr uf ilu- Silommi Khiml- 

liehind the Scftifs af (hv l*ekiriis (in'us Iti nun 
Juris IvENs 

\ hacksia^e view of the nilenialionalK acclamieii IVkin-: (;ircii> as performer-- reliearx- 
awu!e\anel\ oftalenl- 

Ao \fiips on My Hips \ \^'!^ : 58 min. 
(;K0U(.K i. NlKKKMlKRC 
\ unique iii>ight into ja// lap (iaiieirii: as a ne«:lerletl lilark \meruan arr form 

Hiilteries i)uiion 10 nnn 

Jkw IUikh 

Music luid (.ianee amouf: llie l)oL!on [jeople ol Nlali 



Sunday, Sept. 28 

10:00 a. m.— 5:00 f).m. 
James Simpson Fliealre 

(VI) MEN AM) WOMEN 

Some Homen of \tarrakesh \ 19"'8) 52 niin. 

MKI 1SS\ 1.1 KUEl \N Owits 

Kilnied in ihe home-- hi lite old oit\ of Marrakesh. Morocco, the film tells the -■tor\ of 
Aisha bill! Muhanuned and her fnencK 1 he crew accom[>anieH (hem in tlieir wnrshi[). 
at parties, and at a Muslim fteddmj.' 

Riimi 18 mm 

Hm ( h Mdiu \M) l)t nn^ Kim. -I wu 

A moving' and insightful portrait of a Muslim L'lrl hviiiti iii Old Delhi 

Loranii's Hav 1 1*^78) T^O min. 

Dwii) \M).li Dllli M\(;Doi (.\i.L 

Ihe second film in ihe new "Turkana Conversations trilofj\. A fascinating porlrait of 

Loran^'. heat! of a lar^e hoii>eht)ld in Kenya. It is a study of a man who has come to see 

hi> societv as \uliierable — and explore his personalitv through his conversaiioiis with 

the filmmakers, the tesimioiu of fnends. and ol)servation of his J>ehavior w ilh his wives, 

children, and men of his ow n age and status. 

Ihe Heddut'^ Camels flP^i'S) 108 min 
Dwii) \\i)Ji mm \I\( Doi cm i 

\ narralive documentarx almui the lurkana. seminomadic herders who li\e a tradi- 
tional life in an isolated region in norlhwe->teni Keiua A young girl -• wedding to an old 
fnend of her fatlier should go smoothK. Iiut under the pressures of Uiih families de- 
mands things almost fall apart. From the "lurkana Conversations"" inlog\. 

Deep Henrls 1480' 5.^ mm 
Moitmi ( .\un\KH 

\ lieautiful film aUmt the liororu lulain [H'uple of the Niger Republic of Afnca These 
nomadic [)e<.iple of ihe Sahe! gather dunng the raiiu season lo celei»rate their indejten- 
deiice and l>eaut\ ihrough ntual dance. \t die galhenng. thev hold a senes of <iances 
known as "Berewol in which the \ounger men coin[)ele in ihe context of l:)eautv. 
"Deep hearts is their descnf)lHMi of how lhe\ must live. Kor them, it is necessary to 
hide the feelings of envv w hich the\ all expenence. and they do this by cultivating a deep 
and s^-crel heart 



10:00 a.m.— 1:00 p.m. 

I,eclure I lall I A. .\lon<:omerv ^ard I lall i 

(II!) CL l/n KKS AM) CHANGE 

Qeros: The Shape of Survival 1978) 53 min. 
John Comkn 

\ document of Peruvian Indians in the region of (^eros at 14.000 feet in the ,\ndes The 
film examines their complex pattern of survival in this harsh environment 



Communists for l.fHft/ )fiirs •^.\ nun 
(iOHDIWN ThOKI I KH \M)MMUt Cl \l I) DK i \H(.V. 

\n investigation into the U'liefs and cushims nf the ancient Carmaihian seel in Siuth 
^emen In the midst of ihe Islamic wudd. ilie\ have practiced (^ommunisni f(»r l.(M)0 
\ears and U'lieve in I lie etpialiu nj wuiiu-ii and atheism 

/hr (hid People: Life tuni Death in I'lerra del tue^o 19()8,' 55 min. 

\N\K Cli\l'M\N \M) \\\ MoMKsDK (U)N/\I.K/ 

The story of the Ona I'enple N-lk fiam — i heir culture and kui. and Imw Ik till were 

destroyed 




1:00 p.m.— 5:00 |i. Ill 

Lecture Hall I A. .Vhtntgdiiiery Viiinl Hall 

(VII) POSSESSION AM) IIKAIIN(, 

Les I'amffnurs tJ' Ai'aiit: 'luumu e( Hitti l*'""! 10 nun 

Jew Mou m 

In one contmuou"' take. Houch captured the climax of a possession dance at Siniiri in 

Niger. One of the best examples of Rouch's provocative film technique 

A Balinese Trance and Dance Seance il978i -tO nun 

Tl\IOT>n Ast.H- lJM)\(;ONVtH \MJP\I'-^ \s( \\ 

Documents the work of Jem iapakan. a woman of Central Bali w ho is esteemed for her 

ability (o contact the main deities and spints through seances Petitioners come fnmi far 

awa\ to seek answers from the spmis ttirough the medium 

Divine Horsemen: I he Lii'inii ( !(nls of Haiti 1**4T'-1^51 54 min 
M\^ \ Dkiu.n 

Maya Deren. w ho had Iwen iniliatecl as a jmestess of the \oudoun religion of Haiti. 
documented in inlimate detail some niuals of ific Mada. Pelro. and Congo cults of Haiti 
\fter her death this film w as edited l>\ Cherel and leiji Ito, 

Hich Man 's Medicine. Poor Man 's Medicine (197()) 43 min 

( A.)\Wi\ \\\ Tmoki I .KK \M) M \1UK ( W \l I) Dkkk \H( ;K 

(Contrasts the modem medical practices in the cities of Vkcst Afnca with the iradiiioiial 

approach to healing iii the hinterlaiuls 

\oel \utels 30 nun 

.\l\l« I s \l II1KR<. 

Tells the stor\ of a (German ph\ sicuin w Im sjK-nt his life working iii ihe Rra/ilian jungles. 

parlicularU with the native Indians In addition the film docimienis ihr [iroblenis 

created b\ the encroacfimenl of while ciNilization. 

Eduardo Curandero 19"'8 i 55 mm. 

RkiixrdCo* \n 

Kduarilo is a self-si\ led healer in Peru who uses hallucinogenic drugs to practice his 

healing art " \ moving and memorable documenlarv [Mirlniit of a man of exceptional 

character '* 




chicken^ in tflp rnnntrvHiile of 



l():()()a.in. — f)!)!) |i.iu. 
( ilassroom A 

Mil) IILMOK. IlidNV. \M) l'\l{(»l)^ 

/, I /. 1. \l,if.in!iil in I.. I. l>^r'»i :>« Tiiirr 

CMKll INK \M)Fm\K \l(ll III> 

A ciociiineiilary pssa\ f<)cu>irm <>ti itie search ftir shdft huMries-- fariir ami l<irlune m 

the \a>- \ii;;clespiilprlairlilieiit iiiilii'.try. Keaturcs flfly-fivp as[)iniif; a<-I(ir>. nuislcians. 

and comedians wllo sjjeak alxnit llipir lives, dreams, an(i (lisappoiiumpnls 

Munla Carles (iy79) 28 min. 

liMlin lillWKKMW 

\ nin-down liic\clp shop on Scacpn Island is owned hy Nhirray Bravennan. an abrasive 
|>liilosii|>her junk collector l)ike repairman I'he film is In his son This candid portrait 
uses humor and sensitivit\ in an attem[il li\ a son to understand his father 

(ijciinni.' Monsieur Poulet [WA I '»tl mm 
Dwuil UK, \.\\\ Houill 

I ictional tale of the ad\entures of three fnends w ho 
Niizer with the help of an oiil car 

Hush Hiiiipes Hush: Tom Jahnson's Pniyinii Pi^s m"'4 ! 4 miti 

Bll I l-KKKIs Wll.ll \A HkIsKK 

lor .iS out of the last 37 years. Tom Johnson of Bptonia. Mississippi, has Iraiiipd litters 

of pips to "pray lieforp thpv pat from thpir ironph As thp film documents this process. 

Johnson comments. "Most ever\lind\ 1 know is amazed to see this- 

I'elil a Petit '>0 nun 
\\ w Hint II 

\ fictional (ale winch (miiiiIs out w ith ihariii and liiimor the [missiIjIc c( inflicts of ^Xesteni 
and traditional wa\s as Vfrica lie-iins industnaltzation An imjMirt-exfXirt firm called 
I'etit a Petit, set up In the three fnpiids who starred in Rouch's famous film Jiiguor. 
firows into a hiifie cotifjlomeratp as the founders' greed and accumulation of Kuropean 
ways gets more and more out of hanil and out of touch with their own heritage. Includes 
a marvelous paroiK of aiitliro|M>logical studies as the fneiiiis travel to France to leant 
aUmt sk\scraj>ers, 

t lino's Ptzzd 18 mm 

% arreii Bass 

\ cinema verite documentary, a comedy, a character study, and a social comment on the 

wa\ |iiiiple look at themselves and thpir successes It is both hilarious and touching. 

1 Miihl in ihe \ri Ciillen IK nun 

\ cliarming animation from the Peo|ilp s Rppnblic of China satirizes the Cultural 

He\i>lutioll 

CREDITS: Our sjierial thanks to the following film distnlnitors for their 
genetosilv in extending courtesy film loans to llie I liird Annual Festival on 
Anthro[iolog\ on Film: .\udio Brandon Films. Brookfield. IF: Direct Cinema. 
I.ld.. Los .Aiifjeles, C\\ Documentarv Educational Resources. \Xatertown. 
NFA; Film Australia, .New York. .NA ; Icarus Films. .New York. .NA ; Institute 
for Study of F liinian Issues. Philadelphia. P \; Japan Society F ilnis. New 
\ork. NA ; Nev^ ^ork I iiiversitv Film Library. New \ork. NA : The Pennsyl- 
vania State Audio-visual Senice. I niversitv Park. PA; Phoenix Films. Inc.. 
New \brk. NA: Serious Business Com[)any. Oakland. CA: I iiifilm. New 
York. .NY; Liiiversitv of California Extension Media Outer. Berkeley. C.\; 
I'niversitv of Illinois. Chicago (arcle Campus. Chicago. 11. 



Third .Vnniial Fesrival of Anthropol<»f!:> on Film 

September 27 and 2 S I9S0 



l.ast Name 




First Name 




Street 


ClH 


Stale 




Zip 



Phone: Da\time 



D Member . 



Evening 



, Q .\i»ninenil)er 



Mrnilicrs: niicday: ST'. 00; Series: $12. (K) 
NiinmcmlHTs: one day: $8.00; Series: $15.00 

F^ntire Scries 



Saturday only 
Sutidav onl\_ 



Amount enclosed 

Please use Vest Knlrance for free admis.sion lu the .Museum, (ionfirmalioii w ill U- 
mailed" iipfm ret^ipl of check- Please include self- addressed stamped enveliifH' Mail 



FILM FKSin AI.. FIKLU MISEUM 

^lel^l Mu-^iirn of NjUural (lis(iir\ 
RcKtj^xell Rciarl al Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. 1L6(X>(I5 

*lf CMii[Min iinil chet-k are nfeived one week or les> before ihe program, reservations 
will be belli in vour name at the % est tntrance. 



16 



COCA 



High in nutritional value as well as alkaloids — notably 
cocaine — the coca leaf is the focus of an international debate 
by anthropologists, health officials, and lawmakers 



By TIMOTHY PLOWMAN 



COCA is one of the most important plants in 
the history, religion, medicine, and daily 
lite of South American Indians. It is also 
one of the oldest New World cultivated plants, 
the origin and domestication of which is only now 
coming to light. (Coca is not to be confused with 
the cocoa, or cacao, plant, the seeds of which are 
the source of chocolate.) The leaves are the part of 
special interest to man, and these are derived from 
two species of shrubs of the genus Erythwxylum . 
Bolivian, or Huanuco, coca (£. coca), is nahve to the 
moist forests of the eastern slopes of the Andes. An 
important variety of £. coca (var. ipadii) is cultivated 
in the lowlands of the Amazon basin. The second 
species, known as Colombian coca (E. novo;^raiia- 
tetife), is grown in drier areas of Colombia and 
along the Caribbean coast of Venezuela. £. 
novo^ranateiife also has a major variety, which is 
known as Trujillo coca (var. truxilloise). This variety 
is cultivated on the desert coast of northern Peru 
near the city of Trujillo and is much sought after for 
its rich flavor 

The chewing of coca leaves is an integral 
characteristic of most Andean cultures, where even 
today the use of coca pervades all aspects of Indian 
life. The sole source of the alkaloid cocaine, which 
in recent years has become a major recreational 
drug in Western societies, coca is the focus of in- 
creasing international debate by government offi- 
cials and law enforcement agencies preoccupied 
with controlling illegal drug traffic. 

The history of coca, long and complex, is 
still not well understood. Archeological finds along 
the coast of Ecuador date the use of coca to as early 
as 3000 B.C., and its early domestication certainly 
goes back much further Numerous ceramic and 
metal artifacts associated with coca chewing have 



Timothy Plowman is assistant curator of botany. 



turned up in sites from Costa Rica south to Chile, 
indicating the widespread diffusion of coca chew- 
ing in pre-Columbian times. Intact, preserved coca 
leaves dating back to 1300 H C have been recovered 
from preceramic sites on the desert coast of Peru. 
There is every reason to assume that coca was used 
in most if not all of the highly developed civiliza- 
tions of the Andean region. 

On the basis of archeological evidence, it 
appears that in early Andean cultures coca was fre- 




Floweriu)^ branch 
of Trujillo coca 
(Erythroxylum 
novogranatense 
var. truxillense) 
cultivated near 
Trujillo, Peru. 17 



18 



quently used by priests and shamans for religious 
and healing purposes. Many figurines and painted 
ceramics suggest that some coca chewers were 
members of high-ranking noble or priestly castes. 
In Colombia, archeologists have found elaborate 
gold vessels used to hold the powdered lime taken 
with coca; these containers were worn as orna- 
ments by priests and noblemen. Coca was certainly 
one of the most important elements in the native 
materia medica, used not only as a stimulant but 
also to treat a broad range of illnesses. It has been 
suggested that coca was used in ancient Peru as a 
local anesthetic for trephination (cutting a hole 
through the skull) and other surgical operations. 
The Andean Indian today employs coca as a com- 
mon household remedy in continuation of an an- 
cient medical tradition. 

When the first Europeans arrived in Central 
and South America, they encountered coca in ex- 
tensive use among completely unrelated indigen- 
ous groups. After the Conquest, the Spaniards 
condemned the use of coca and attempted to re- 
press its cultivation. Ecclesiastical authorities were 
especially vehement in attempHng to eradicate coca 
chewing, which they considered a form of idolatry. 
Later, when the conquerors realized how impor- 
tant coca was for the highland Indians, especially 
for working in the gold and silver mines, they 
ceased their persecutions and eventually took con- 
trol of coca production and distribution. In the 17th 
and 18th centuries, both the viceroyalty of Peru and 
the Church collected enormous revenues from 
taxes levied on the coca trade. Indian laborers were 
often paid in coca leaves, which today remain 
an important means of exchange in highland 
communities. It was mainly after the Spanish Con- 
quest that coca became secularized and made 
widely available to the general populace as a daily 
stimulant. 



Ethnopharmacology 

The use of coca leaves as a general stimulant and 
tonic has changed little since pre-Columbian times. 
The dried leaves are placed in the mouth, mois- 
tened with saliva, and formed into a quid with the 
tongue, to which is applied an alkaline substance in 
the form of Ume, powdered seashells, or plant 
ashes. The quid is not actually chewed but allowed 
to remain in the mouth and sucked, as the alkaloids 
and other constituents are slowly assimilated. The 
quid is spat out after about an hour. The only major 
variation in coca chewing is found in the western 
Amazon basin, where the leaves are toasted, finely 
pulverized, and mixed with ashes. This powder is 
similarly kept as a quid in the mouth; after gradu- 
ally dissolving, it is swallowed completely. 

Coca chewing produces a broad spectrum 


















Top photo: Colombian coca (Erythroxylum novo- 
granatense), planted on a farm near Mocoa, Colombia. 
Plioto ('V the autlior. 

Bottom: Picking Atnazonian coca (Erythroxylum coca 
var. ipadu). Photo by R. E. Schultes. 

of physiological effects. Owing to the cocaine con- 
tent, there is a mild stimulation of the central nerv- 
ous system and a slight anesthesia in the mouth. 
Coca suppresses sensations of hunger, thirst, cold, 
and fatigue, enabling coca-chewing Indians to 
walk long distances through the mountains and 
jungles with only coca for sustenance. Coca also 
produces a state of euphoria, which is said to 



ameliorate the arduous lite m the Andean high- 
lands. In the words ot the Incan chronicler Gar- 
cilaso de la Vega (15L)9), "coca satisfies the hungry, 
gives new strength to the weary and exhausted, 
and makes the unhapp\' forget their sorrows." 

In native medicine, coca is often taken as a 
tea or chewed as a quid for stomachaches and intes- 
tinal disorders. It is considered the remedy par ex- 
cellence for soroche, or altitude sickness. The leaves 
are also widely used in poultices for wounds and 
skin infections. Their anesthetic properties provide 
the most readily available remedy for toothaches 
and muscular pains. 

The chemical constituents of the coca leaf 
have never been fulK' elucidated, a surprising fact 
in view of its longstanding role in folk medicine and 
the importance of cocaine in Western medicine. 
However, some fifteen alkaloids have been iden- 
tified in the coca leaf, of which the most important 
is cocaine. Dried coca leaves contain between 0.2 
and 1.0 percent cocaine, with an average content of 
about 0.5 percent. Although cocaine represents 
about 80 percent of the total alkaloid content of the 
leaf, it should not be considered the only active 
constituent. EarJier workers attempted to point out 
the differences in pharmacological effects between 
coca leaf and pure cocaine and emphasized the role 
of the minor alkaloids in the body's total response 
to coca chewing. This difference has recently been 
reiterated bv modern researchers in the chemistry 
and ethnology of coca chewing, but still virtually 
no research has been done on the minor alkaloids 
or other constituents of coca leaf. 

Recent studies have shown that coca con- 
tains substantial amounts of certain vitamins and 
minerals.* For example, ingestion of 100 grams of 
Bolivian coca leaves would more than satisfy the 
daily R.D.A. (Recommended Dietary Allowance) 
for calcium, iron, phosphorus, vitamin A, vitamin 
B2, and vitamin E. Since coca chewers may con- 
sume up to 60 grams of coca per day, there can be 
no doubt that coca contributes substantially to the 
impoverished diet of the Andean coca user. 

Coca leaves also contain complex mixtures 
of flavoring compounds, such as methyl salicylate 
(wintergreen oil). It is for these constituents that 
coca leaves have long been used in the beverage 
industry. At the turn of the century, a number of 
medicinal coca wines became extremely popular as 
patent medicines. Decocainized extracts of Trujillo 
coca leaves are used today in the manufacture of 
the ubiquitous Coca-Cola . 



'See also "Nutritional Value of Coca," by jamcs A. Duke, 
David Aulik, and Timothy Ploiotnan, Botanical Museum 
Leaflets, Vol. 24, No. 6, Harvard University (1975). A copy 
of this 7-page booklet may he obtaitwd, ivithout charge, by 
writing the editor of the Bulletin. 



Modern investigations of the pharmacologi- 
cal and psychological effects of coca chewing are 
scant. Studies by two Peruvian physicians, 
Gutierrez-Noriega and Zapata-Ortiz, made during 
the 1940s, were extensive but largely inconclusive 
and unsubstantiated, dedicated as they were to the 
abolition of coca chewing. The body develops no 
tolerance to the effects of coca chewing, even with 
regular, daily use. Nor is there the appearance of 
any withdrawal symptoms when coca use is dis- 
continued. In this respect, the effects of coca differ 
markedly from those produced by the unrelated 
opium derivatives. In Peru, coca chewers easily 
drop their habit when inducted into the army or 
when they move to large cities where coca chewing 
is considered socially unacceptable. There is, in 
fact, no conclusive evidence that the daily use of 
coca leaf in moderate amounts produces any de- 
leterious acute or chronic effects. 



The Coca Controversy 

The specter of coca as a debilitating vice and source 
of social degradation has not been corroborated by 



Dr. Timothy Plow- 
man, whose interest 
in the coca plant 
has involved several 
years' research and 
field work, is shown 
here with dried coca 
specimens from 
the Museum's 
herbarium. 




objective studies. The fact that many coca chewers 
are illiterate and poverty-stricken is attributable to a 
number of complex social, racial, and economic 
problems widespread in rural areas of Peru and 
Bolivia. The abuse of alcohol bv native Andeans is a 
far more serious drug problem, and alcohol, unlike 
coca, directly contributes to poor health conditions, 
crime, and the c\cle of poverty. 

Repeated attempts since the 16th century to 
eradicate coca, usually on moral or religious 



ers. Heavy pressure continues to be exerted on the 
governments of Peru and Bolivia, the major pro- 
ducers of coca, to limit or reduce their annual crops. 
The Peruvian government now officially requires 
the registration of all coca growers and vendors and 
has prohibited the establishment of any new coca 
plantations. These regulations have had little ef- 
fect, however, except in the most accessible areas of 
production, particularly on the Pacific coast. In re- 
mote jungle areas of the )iiontafia on the eastern 






Poster adver- 
tising the 
French timic 
unne Coca des 
Incas, which 
was based on 
an extract of coca 
leaves (1896). 
Collection of the 
author. 







20 



grounds, have consistently failed in Colombia, 
Peru, and Bolivia. Anthropologists, nutritionists, 
and cultural ecologists, as well as other scientists 
who have had direct contact with living conditions 
in the high Andes, are becoming increasingly 
aware of the integral part which coca has played 
and continues to play in man's adapting to life in 
the Andean environment. 

Coca today offers major problems as well as 
possibilities for Western society. As the sole source 
of cocaine, Ulegal coca production has become the 
focus of much controversy and attention by inter- 
national drug enforcement agencies and lawmak- 



slopes of the Andes, where most of the coca is 
grown, there has been little if any effective control. 
On the contrary, in response to the rising demand 
and higher prices, coca production has steadily in- 
creased in the last ten years. 

In Peru and Bolivia, attempts have been 
made to find an alternative cash crop for coca 
farmers. This effort has also met with failure, since 
no crop has yet been found that can command a 
guaranteed high price, yet has the superlative 
adaptation of coca to the unique, mountainous en- 
vironment of the eastern Andes. In terms of local 
economies, there simply is no other crop which can 



redlisticMlK' provide the small-scale farmer with 
such a profitable cash return for his product as can 
coca. Furthermore, an appreciable and legal inter- 
nal market for coca leaf continues to thrive in Peru 
and Bolivia, both for chewing by the native popula- 
tion and for the legal production of pharmaceutical 
cocaine. 

The recent significant increase in cocaine 
consumption in the United States and western 
Europe has caused great alarm among government 
officials. The abuse potential of cocaine is very 
much greater than that of coca, and cocaine abuse 
has been demonstrated to cause problems of 
psvchological dependence and other disorders. 
There is no doubt that attempts to control the abuse 
of such a potentiallv harmful drug must be made, 
but it is impractical to impose the burden of drug 
control on the Andean peasants, who have had no 
historv of cocaine abuse. 

The Role of Coca in Modem Medicine 

The medicinal use of cocaine is now limited to topi- 
cal anesthesia in certain surgical operations. On the 
other hand, the usefulness of coca leaf in modern 
therapeutics has scarcely been explored. In the lat- 
ter part of the 19th century, many physicians in 
Europe anci the United States were prescribing 
coca leaf preparations for a variety of complaints. 
But after the pure alkaloid cocaine was isolated and 
became available to physicians, the natural prepa- 
rations of the leaf were soon neglecteci in favor of 
the more potent, and more easily ingested pure 
drug. Adverse reactions to excessive use of cocaine 
were soon recognized bv the medical community 
and the press, which led to the demise of cocaine 
and its ultimate ban under the Harrison Act of 1914 
as a nonprescription, recreational drug. Unfortu- 
nately, coca leaves were also included in this ban, 
which rendered them completely unavailable to 
ph\'sicians and researchers alike for the next 
half century. 

Today there is widespread renewed interest 
in natural therapeutic agents, including the natural 
extracts of coca leaf. Coca has been recommended 
by some medical researchers for a variety of disor- 
ders, especially in cases where stronger, synthetic 
drugs are contraindicated. Coca, according to in- 
vestigators, may prove to be of value in treating 
chronic indigestion and spasm in the gastrointesti- 
nal tract, as an antidepressant in cases where a 
mild, nonaddicting stimulant is indicated, for alti- 
tude and motion sickness, and as a safe stimulant 
for persons dependent on stronger, more harmful 
stimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine. In 
short, say these investigators, coca offers therapeu- 
tic potential as a safe, effective remedy, providing a 
combination of desirable effects not found in our 
panorama of synthetic pharmaceuticals. D 




Turn-of-the-centiiry Coca des Iiicas poster. Collection of the 
author. 



SUGGESTED READINGS 

Andrews, George and David Solomon, eds. 1975. The 
Coca Leaf and Cocaine Papers. Harcourt Brace 
Jovanovich. New York. 

Ashley, Richard. 1975. Cocaine: Its Histori/, Uses and 
Effects. St. Martin's Press. New York. 

Grinspoon, Lester and James B. Bakalar. 1976. Cocaine: 
A Drug and its Social Evolution. Basic Books. New 
York. 

Mortimer, W. Golden. 1974. History of Coca. Reprint 
Edition. And/Or Press. San Francisco. 

Plowman, Timothy. 1979. "Botanical Perspectives on 
Coca." loiirnal of Psychedelic Drugs 11: 103-117. 

Weil, Andrew T, 1975. "The Green and the White." 
journal of Psychedelic Drugs 7: 401-13. 

Weil, Andrew T., 1978. "Coca Leaf as a Therapeutic 
Agent." American journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 
5: 75-86. 

Antt>nil, 1978. MamaCoca. Hassle Free Press. London. 



21 



Learning Museum continges With: 



Animals in Human Perspective 



by AMTHONY PFEIFFER 
Project Coordinator 

Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment 
for the Humanities, a federal agency 



An African huntci 
combines bird 
mimicry and ftealth 
to approach within 
range of his prey. 
Such abilities illus- 
trate the human 
facility at man- 
ipulating animal> 
ez'en with relatively 
simple technology 



HKP!" mm. 




22 



Every child imagines meeting Jaws at the 
beach, as do manv adults. Who thinks of 
dogs without Lassie or Rin-Tin-Tin coming to 
mind? And who imagines jungles without Tar- 
zan, mice without Mickey, rats without Willard, 
cats without Morris, whales without Moby Dick, 
and monsters without the Creature from the 
Black Lagoon, Godzilla, and the bar scene from 
"Star Wars"? Films represent our favorite ideas 
about the animal kingdom. 

Animals in Human Perspective 
examines segments from some of the most 
popular animal films and TV shows of all time. 
All the animals portrayed in the films and TV 
shows have one thing in common — none of 
them actually exist. In one way or another they 
are distorted, exaggerated, or just plain made 
up. We like to think of animals as dangerous or 
devoted, adorably cute, or horridly brutal. And 
we transform them into images of ourselves or 
into alien creatures. Collectively these images, 
whether of Lassie or of Jaws, speak of a human 
animal that is out of touch with the rest of the 
animal kingdom. 

Imagine a male chimpanzee as he is. He 



is not at all like King Kong, Tarzan's ape friend 
Cheetah, or the juveniles you see cavorhng on 
TV. Nor is he a profound mind trapped in a hairy 
body. He weighs about 100 pounds, is intent on 
making a living, and we have only teasing glimp- 



NEH Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a three-year 
sequence of learning opportunities focused on the 
Museum's outstanding exhibits and collections and 
designed to give participants an opportunity to explore 
a subject in depth. Each unit of study consists of one or 
more special events, a lecture course, and a seminar for 
advanced work. Special events are lectures by re- 
nowned authorities or interpretive performances and 
demonstrations. Course members receive an annotated 
bibliography, a specially developed guide to pertinent 
museum exhibits, study notes for related special 
events, and access to select materials from Field 
Museum's excellent research library. In-depth, small 
group seminars allow more direct contact with faculty 
and Museum collections. 



I  • ■.■.■!• 




Aiiimoh were a pre- 
liomiiuDit theme in 
iheemlieM human 
art. From about 
^0,U00to:2,000 
\fears ago, people 
expreiised their fas- 
cination for animals 
on cave walh through- 
out Southern France 
iitui Mortliern Spain. 
Fhe art may haz'e 
been part of ritual 
hunting magic or 
initiation ceremonies. 
Shown here /s a 
portion of one of the 
liioramas in Hall C, 
Hall of the Stone A^e 
of the Old World. 



ses of how he sees the world. These glimpses are 
enough to tell us that he is not at all as we usually 
see him. 

The way we see animals mirrors our daily 
experience of them. We know them as food, but 
typically the animals are cut up to look nothing 
like themselves. We know them as domesticates, 
the products of thousands of years of selective 
breeding. As for other animals — the vast major- 
ity of the animal kingdom — our day-to-day lives 
do not include them. We see them as things to kill 
or as things that kill us. We see them as ludicrous 
caricature's of ourselves. We see them in thou- 
sands of far-fetched and colorful ways. In short, 
wc make them into myths. 

Myths about animals are powerful and 
seductive. They inspire us to go to Africa in 
search of danger and adventure or, more philo- 
sophically, in search of our primal selves. We go 
to zoos and to sea world shows by the millions. 
And we pack the theaters or sit glued to our TV 
sets to be terrified, amused, or sentimental about 
animals. The way we see animals says a lot about 
ourselves, and the origins of our 
perceptions go back a long way. 

The Bible and evolutionary theory both 
presume a time when humans were more in tune 



with the animal kingdom. Adam and Eve are 
always shown among other innocent beasts in 
the Garden of Eden before thev fell from Grace. 
Evolutionary theory tells us that the great divide 
between people and other creatures was a cereb- 
ral Rubicon; a time, perhaps two million years 
ago, when human brains totally outclassed the 
others. The latest evolution hypothesis goes on 
to suggest that these early human ancestors were 
not the intrepid hunters they are often alleged to 
be. Rather, through long-distance travel and 
unparalleled wit, they managed to thrive by 
collecting plants arid by scavenging from the kills 
of the great predators. Large brains nonetheless 
ultimately became the vehicle by which the 
human-to-animal relationship was totally 
altered and continues to change. 

Braininess endowed humans with the 
unprecedented capacity for abstract thought. 
This capacity, in turn, allowed people to manip- 
ulate other animals, to confront them indirectly 
as opposed to head-on. A lion kills with fang and 
claw but humans lack these body parts so they 
make spears. Spears and clubs were innovations 
early in the game. Thousands of years later 
people used fire, built traps, and drove animals 
off cliffs to become more effective killers with 






I 
=1' 



!| 



Bushman women of 

the Kalahari Desert 

u>e ostrich eggs to 

store water People 

have long depended 

on animal parts 

and products for 

survival. Some of the 

earliest iveapions. for 

example, are thought 

to have been animal 

hones. This theory 

is reflected in the 

opening scene of the 

film 2001: A Space 

Odvssev. 



less risk to themselves. Still later, they tamed 
animals — quite literally changing the natures of 
the beasts to serve human needs. Most recently, 
genetic engineering has raised the distinct possi- 
bility of creating animals from scratch. Human 
mastery and domination of the animal kingdom 
has become so complete that the prospect of 
fashioning our own kingdom, instead of pro- 
tecting the remnants of the one from which we 
emerged, is no longer science fiction. 

Such power suggests responsibility. Is it 
possible to preserve other animals? — and, once 
preserved, what have these animals become? Is 
Jaws still a shark, Willard still a rat, Mickey still a 
mouse, or Elsa still a lion? Is an African wildlife 
preserve simply a San Diego Zoo several times 
over? When we protect an animal species — 
ostensibly to preser\'e a natural heritage — what 
has been saveei and what has been irrevocably 
lost? The endangered whooping crane, for 
example, lives as such in its wildlife refuge but 
breeds, matures, and dies in artificial circum- 
stances. As an organism, it survives. As a repre- 
sentative of a way of life, it is virtually extinct. 

Animals in Human Perspective explores 
popular mvths of animals as reflected in films 
and TV shows. It is as much an exploration of 
human nature as it is an investigation of animals. 
The journev begins Thursday evening, October 
16, and runs six consecutive Thursdays through 
November 20. Each class meeting consists of ap- 
proximately one hour of film viewing and one 
hour for lecture and discussion. "Planet of the 
Apes" is screened in its entirety and analyzed by 
an expert panel of discussants during the last 
class session. Registration details appear in the 
Fall, 1980, Courses for Adults brochure. 



A related special event is "Human 
Uniqueness and Animal Nature" on Friday, Oc- 
ttiberiy, at 8:00 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 
This lecture is presented by Stephen Jay Gould. 
One of the world's most versatile scientists, 
Professor Gould holds appointments in geology, 
comparative zoology, biology, and the history of 
science at Harvard University. Equally respected 
as a commentator on science and scientific con- 
troversy, he is perhaps most widely known for 
his Natural Histori/ magazine essays on evolu- 
tion. These appear there under the general 
heading "This View of Life," and many were 
published as a collection. Ever Since Darwin: Ref- 
lections in Natural History, in 1977. Dr Gould's lec- 
ture challenges the accepted barriers between 
humankind and nature and explores why the 
Western world has yet to make its peace with 
Darwin and evolutionary theory. Registration 
details for this distinguished lecture appear in 
the October Calendar of Events. 

Participants in the ANIMALS IN HUMAN 
Perspective course have the opportunity to en- 
roll in an intensive seminar which explores 
human control over other animals. Using the 
same film and lecture format as the course, the 
seminar focuses on the roles and future of zoos, 
controversy surrounding the use of animals in 
experiments, animals as pets, animals as used for 
human entertainment, so-called "wild" animals, 
and the future of animals in a world dominated 
by humans. Each of these issues is explored with 
the help of expert commentators. In the first 
seminar session, for example, the Nova film 
"Memories from Eden" is discussed with the di- 
rectors of the Lincoln Park and Brookfield zoos. 
The seminar is open to course participants 
only. D 



^-^♦'- 




I 



24 



rr^n^^™- 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 

Continued from ^:. 12 



Midwinter Bald Eagle Survey 
On Upper Mississippi 

I'he wintering population of bdld eagles 
ailing the Upper Mississippi River appears 
to be stable, according to recently tabu- 
lated results of the Midwinter Bald EagI 
Survey conducted by Eagle Vallev En 
vironmentalists (eve) on February 2 and 3 
1980. eve's survey is a continuation of th 
midwinter counts run for nearlv two dec 
ades by Elton Fawks, of East Moline, 11 
linois. . 

E\ E's two-day count tallied 875 bald 
eagles along the Mississippi River be- 
tween Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Cairo, 
Illinois. 649 of the birds were adults, 198 
were immatures, and 28 were not clas- 
sified. These figures compare to 922 bald 
eagles counted in the 19-day survey spon- 
sored by the National Wildlife Federation 
in January. The January count included 
668 adults, 208 immatures, and 46 unclas- 
sified. 

"We believe the eve figures present a 
more accurate picture of the wintering 
population along the Mississippi River," 
stated Terry Ingram, eve's executive direc- 
tor. "A count made over nearly three 
weeks will have inaccuracies because of 
the tremendous mobility of these birds. 
Many might be counted more than once, 
and some are bound to be missed. Also, 
there was a heavy southward migration in 
January, whereas in early February the 
population was more settled. A two-day 
count also provides stronger data on con- 
centrations in feeding areas." 

Regarding the mobility of bald eagles, 
Ingram noted the difference between 
counts taken two days apart at Cassvilie, 
Wisconsin. "On January 3, an aerial sur- 
vey made by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service showed 19 adults and three imma- 
tures in the Cassvilie area. On January 5, I 
counted 56 adults and four immatures in 
the same area while leading a bus tour." 

Two concentrations of bald eagles 
sht)wn in both counts merit special atten- 
tit>n. There were large numbers of eagles 
in the vicinity of Cordova, Illinois — 194 in 
E\'E's February count, and 119 in the NWF 
January count. Both surveys revealed that 
most of the birds (160 in February) were 
upstream from the nuclear power plant 
near Cordova and thus not feeding in the 
open water downstream from the plant. 

"We don't know why so many birds 
are concentrating above Cordova," said 
Ingram. "Obviously there's a major food 
source. But we've seen only small patches 
of open water upstream from the power 
plant. It might be that these large numbers 
are the result of an increased number of 




observers in the area. There may be an 
increase in the fish population attracting 
the eagles. Or there may be fish kills tak- 
ing place — that stretch of river is heavily 
industrialized. If fish kills are occurring 
because of pollution, we need to find the 
source of the problem, because the eagles 
may be picking up toxic substances in their 
food." 

The second major concentration of 
wintering bald eagles was along the Il- 
linois River, where 460 eagles were 
counted in January. The February count 
along the Illinois River had to be cancelled 
at the last minute. 

Ingram noted that the same reasons 
for the concentrations at Cordova — more 
observers, a larger food supply, or fish 
kills — may explain the large number of 
eagles along the Illinois River "It may also 
be part of the Mississippi River population 
temporarily shifted over to the Illinois 
River" 

Though the wintering population ap- 
pears to be stable, Ingram cautioned that 
large numbers don't necessarily mean 
dangers to the eagles' survival have 
ceased to exist. "We need to know more 
about historic wintering sites so we can 
continue to identify and set aside land 
these birds need to help them survive the 
stresses of winter," he said. "And we need 
to know more about what and where they 
are eating, in order to find out whether or 
not they're picking up poisons that might 
affect reproductivity." 



The Living Tree: Nature's 
Own Air Conditioner 

It mav be more energy-wise to plant trees 
than to add a few inches of insulation, says 
a director of the American Society of 
Home Inspectors. Research in New En- 



gland determined shade trees on the 
south-southwestern side of a home could 
save as much as $50 a year in cooling costs. 
A large-leaved deciduous tree's shade 
equals a half ton of air-conditioning ca- 
pacity. 

Every day, 2,000 acres of land in the 
United States are taken from rural uses 
and converted into urban areas. With 
populations increasing, a good question to 
ask is: how much landscape and trees do 
we need per person? Recommendations 
b\' the University of Utah's Environmental 
Impact Office are 200 square feet of live 
plant area per person, including one tree 
for every two people, plus one tree for 
every car in use. Everv fifth tree should be 
an evergreen. 



Algae for Food and Fuel 

Algae, among the humblest and most 
abundant of earth's organisms, may hold 
a solution to two of the world's most pres- 
sing scarcity problems: food and fuel. Ac- 
cording to Environment magazine, Israeli 
scientists who have been culti\ating the 
plant in salty desert ponds say it could be 
the "soybean of the future," thanks to its 
high protein content and ability to thrive 
in environments that are hostile to other 
forms of life. And an Australian report 
predicts that algae refined to produce 
methane gas or ketones could shortlv 
supply 60 percent of that nation's motor 
fuel needs. 



Cobra Venom May Yield 
Effective Snake Antivenin 

Researchers at the Universit\' of Idaho say 
their studies of cobra venom may lead to 
vaccines capable of protecting humans 
and animals against all forms of snakebite. 

Zoologists Ken Laurence and Darwin 
Vest say they have succeeded in protect- 
ing animals against the lethal effects of 
cobra venom with a single vaccination 
prior to injecting the \enom. 

A by-product of their research they 
say, is a faster method of producing an- 
tivenin to counteract effects of snakebites 
on victims. The new antivenin appears to 
be more effective and less dangerous than 
the variety now on the market, they 
report. 




HONOR ROLL OF DONORS 

Major Contributions in Support of Field Museum's Programs 
of Research, Education, and Exhibition 



Field Museum of Natural History is deeply grateful 
to its many donors — individuals, corporations, 
and foundations — who annually support the 
work of the Museum. Their gifts help ensure that 
programs of exhibition and education remain at 
the levels of excellence that the public has come to 
expect. Donor support also underlies the work of 
the Museum's 35 curator-scientists who make 
original contributions in basic research in the fields 



of anthropology, botany, geology, and zoology. 

We wish to recognize those generous 
donors who have helped so far in 1980 to meet the 
current budget. By way of recognition, we place on 
the Honor Roll of Donors the following who have 
contributed $1,000 or more during the period 
January 1 through June 30, 1980, and extend to each 
our heartfelt thanks. 



Individuals — $5,000 and over 

Anonymous 
D and R Fund 

(Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Rosenthal) 
Estate of John W. Leslie 
The Martin Fund, Inc. 

(Mrs. Jennifer Martin) 
The Oscar G. and Elsa S. Mayer 

Charitable Fund 

(Mr. Oscar G. Mayer) 
Mr. David Sensibar 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 
Ruth and Vernon Taylor Foundation 

(Mr. and Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift) 
Mr. and Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 

Individuals— $l,000-$4, 999 

Anonymous 

Abra Prentice Anderson Charitable 

Trust 

(Mrs. Abra Prentice Anderson) 
Mrs. Lester Armour 
Blum-Kovler Foundation 

(Mr. Jonathon Kovler) 
Mr. and Mrs. Cameron Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mr and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Mr. and Mrs. Nicholas Galitzine 
Mr and Mrs. Lawrence L. German 
Grainger Foundation 

(Mr and Mrs. David Grainger) 
Mr John W. B. Hadley 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales 
26 Mr and Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 



Dr Helen Holt 

The H. Earl Hoover Foundation 

(Mr and Mrs. H. Earl Hoover) 
Mr and Mrs. Riley Jadwin 
Mr and Mrs. Moses Malkwin 
Mr and Mrs. Richard Moser 
Mrs. Arthur T Moulding 
Dorothy Wrigley Offield Charity 

Fund 

(Mr Wrigley Offield) 
Mr and Mrs. Kenneth O'Meara 
Ms. Vera Putnik 
Mr and Mrs. Samuel Rome 
The Arthur Rubloff Fund 

(Mr Arthur RublofO 
Mr and Mrs. Samuel Semerad 
Ruth and Vernon Taylor Foundation 

(Mr William T Bartholomay) 
Ruth and Vernon Taylor Foundation 

(Mr and Mrs. Theodore Tieken, Jr) 
Edmund B. Thorton Family 
Foundation 

(Mr Edward B. Thorton) 
Chester D. Tripp Trust 
Mrs. Chester D. Tripp 
Mr and Mrs. Herbert Ullmann 
Mr and Mrs. Lee F. Wendell 
Howard L. Willett Foundation, Inc. 

(Mrs. Howard L. Willett, Jr) 
Louise M. Williams Charitable Trust 

(Mr and Mrs. Albert D. Williams) 
Mr and Mrs. E. W. Worcester 



Corporations and Foundations 
$5,000 and over 

AT&T Long Lines 
The Allstate Foundation 



Borg-Warner Foundation, Inc. 
Chicago Community Trust 
Commonwealth Edison Company 
Consolidated Foods Corporation 
Esmark, Incorporated Foundation 
Ford Motor Company Fund 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 
Inland Steel-Ryerson Foundation, 

Inc. 
International Minerals and Chemical 

Corporation 
Kraft, Inc. 
John D. and Catherine T MacArthur 

Foundation 
The Northern Trust Company 
Peoples Energy Corporation 
Frederick Henry Prince Testamentary 

Trust 
Sahara Coal Company, Inc. 
The A. Montgomery Ward 

Foundation 
Western Electric Fund 
Whirlpool Foundation 

Corporations and Foundations 
$l,000-$4,999 

Alcoa Foundation 

American National Bank & Trust 

Company of Chicago 
Bliss & Laughlin Industries 
Leo Burnett Company, Inc. 
Carson Pirie Scott Foundation 
Chicago Bridge & Iron Foundation 
Clark Equipment Company 
Continental Bank Foundation 
Crane Packing Company 
Crum and Forster Foundation 



HONOR ROLL OF DONORS 



Corporations and Foundations 
$l,000-$4,999 

Dana Corpciratinn Foundation 
Fisher Bodv Division 

(General Motors Corporation) 
General American Transportation 

Corporation 
General Binding Corporation 
The General Tire Foundation, hic. 



Alexander Grant & Company 

Interlake Foundation 

Kemper Educational & Charitable 

Fund 
Llovds Bank International 
Maremont Corporation Foundation 
Marsteller Foundation 
John Mohr & Sons 
The L. E. Myers Company 



Gust E. Newberg Construction 

Company 
Power Systems, Inc. 
Pullman, Inc. Foundation 
Quaker C^ats Foundation 
Rockwell International 
Shell Companies Foundation 
Uarco, Incorporated 
United States Steel Foundation, Inc. 



September & October at Field Museum 

(September 15 through October 15 



New Exhibit 

"The Great Bronze Age of China: An Exhibition from the 
People's Republic of China." The most important archeologi- 
cal exhibit ever to come out of China makes its only Midwest 
showing at Field Museum. The exhibit features recent dis- 
coveries that have fundamentally changed our knowledge of 
ancient Chinese history and art. The 105 treasures, dating 
from about 1800 B.C.. include bronze vessels, jade sculptures, 
and eight life-size clay figures from the spectacular "buried 
army" of China's first emperor Exhibit curator: Bennet Bron- 
son; designer; Clifford Abrams. Through October 29. Halls 26 
and 27. 2nd floor 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Fossil Vertebrates." There's something new in the Museum's 
famous "Dinosaur Hall" — the 72-foot-long apatosaurus di- 
nosaur has a new head! When it was recently discovered that 
all apatosaurus (formerly called brontosaurus) specimens 
were mounted with incorrect heads. Museum staff replaced 
the old head with a cast of the correct skull. You can also see 
skeletons of other prehistoric animals, the renowned Charles 
R. Knight murals, and a life-size diorama of a Coal Period 
forest. Hall 38, 2nd floor. 

"Hall of Useful Plants." Is It a poison or a medicine? In large 
doses, curare, a plant product, can be fatal to man; but in low 
doses. It Induces muscle relaxation, a condition especially de- 
sirable In certain surgical procedures. Other medicinal plant 
products displayed here are antibiotics, digitalis, and quinine. 
You can also find out about the origins of hallucinogens, 
mind-altering drugs, and pacifiers in this hall. Hall 28, 2nd 
floor 



"Portraits of Man." This excellent collection of lifelike bronze 
statues depicting mankind around the world is the work 
of Malvina Hoffman (1885-1966), who did some of her 
earlier work under Auguste Rodin. 2nd floor balcony and 
ground floor 

New Programs 

Free Films on Ancient China are offered for the duration of 
"The Great Bronze Age of China" exhibit. China: The Begin- 
nings discusses the search for the origin of Chinese civiliza- 
tion. Ch(na./-/undredSc/ioo/s to One documents the warring 
between the states and the formation of the Qin empire. X/an 
traces the history of the ancient imperial city of that name. 
Films are screened each Friday Saturday and Sunday In Lec- 
ture Hall I at 1 1 a.m.. 12;30 p.m.. and 2 p.m., respectively Made 
possible by a grant from the Mational Endowment for the 
Humanities. 

The Great Bronze Age of China Lecture Series. Don't miss the 
last two programs in this series of outstanding lectures by 
noted speakers. Fridays, 8 p,m., Simpson Theatre, Tickets 
(Members $2, nonmembers 53.50) are available from the 
Education Department (322-8854), or at the lecture door. 
Sept. 26; From Warring States to Empire: China During the 
Zhou and Qin Dynasties with Dr Derk Bodde, University of 
Pennsylvania. Oct, 3; Recent Discoveries in Chinese Bronze 
Age Art: New Answers and Questions with Dr Virginia C. 
Kane, University of Michigan, 

Third Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film. Come experi- 
ence the cultures of the world in one weekend! Fifty fascinating 
films will examine ritual and possession, men and women, 
music and dance, and other subjects. A world leader in visual 

(Continued on back couer) 27 



ILLI'iOIS -NATURAL HrSTORV 

SUR\(EY LIB RF 196 

NATLRAL RESCLRCES BUILDING 

URHA"^'i ILL €1301 



September & October at Field Museum 



(Continued from inside back cover) 



anthropology, Jean Rouch of the Musee de IHomme in Paris, 
will give the keynote lecture and lead a workshop on filmmak- 
ing techniques. Order your tickets in advance from the Educa- 
tion Department (322-8854), or purchase them at the West 
Door on the days of the festival. Saturday and Sunday, Sep- 
tember 27 and 28, 10 a.m. -5 p.m. (both days). Tickets: one 
day: Members $7. nonmembers 58; both days: Members $12, 
nonmembers 5 15. For film schedules see pp. 13-16. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. Explore distant corners 
of the world every Saturday during October and November at 
2:30 p.m. in the Simpson Theatre. Narrated by the filmmakers 
themselves, these 90-minute film/lectures are recommended 
for adults. Admission is free at the West Door; Members re- 
ceive priority seating. Oct. 4: England with Howard and Lucia 
Meyers. October 11: The Great Smoky Mountains with 
Richard Kern. 

Fall Journey: "Fossils in the Roor." Did you know that you can 
find fossils in Museum floors? Discover where they are and 
what they are in this self-guided tour. You'll also visit the fossil 
collections. Free Journey pamphlets are available at Museum 
entrances. 

Courses for Adults begin October 14. Enroll now for Animals 
in Human Perspective. This special Learning Museum course 
probes our favorite ideas about the animal kingdom from 



Su-Lin the panda, and the Tsavo man-eating lions, Saturday 
Sept. 20, noon. 

• "Subsistence Societies " Film Feature: Qeros: The Shape of 
Suruiual examines the Peruvian Indians located high in the 
Andes. Saturday, Sept, 20, 1 p.m. 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt" concentrates on the 
Museum's collection of Egyptian artifacts, and concludes with 
a description of the mummification process; 45-minute tour. 
Sunday Sept. 21, 2:30 p.m. 

• "Ancient Ocean Environments" focuses on the underwater 
world of ancient invertebrate animals. Half-hour tour. Saturday, 
Sept, 27, 1:30 p,m, 

• "Culture and History of Ancient Egypt," Sunday, Sept, 28, 
2:30 p,m, 

• "China Through the Ages " looks at the inventions, court life, 
and schools of thought in traditional China. 30-minute tour. 
Saturday Oct. 4, 1:30 p.m. 

• "Rocks of All Ages" Film Feature: This Land traces the de- 
velopment of the North American continent from a lifeless 
expansion of rockto the coming of man. Sunday, Oct. 5, 1 p.m. 

• "Stories of the Field Museum.'" Saturday, Oct. 11, noon, 

• "Clay Dinosaurs," Sunday Oct. 12, 11 a,m,-l p.m, 

• "Rocks of All Ages" Film Feature: Evidence from Ancient 
Life examines the relation between plant and animal evolution 
and the history of the earth's more prominent changes, Sun- 
day Oct. 12, 1 p,m. 



3rd Annual FestiviU 
€rf Anthropology on Film 



^o 



■^\V 



^^ 



September 27, 28 

Jean Rouch Keynote Speaker 

seepages 13-16 



Jaws to Lassie. Other courses explore current topics in 
anthropology botany geology and zoology All courses are 
noncredit. and require advance registration by mail. Call 
322-8855. For further details see pp. 22-25. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Each Saturday and Sunday 
between 1 1 a.m. and 3 p.m., you can participate in a variety of 
free tours, demonstrations, and films on natural history topics. 
Check the Weekend Sheet available at Museum entrances for 
locations and additional programs. 

• "Stories of the Field Museum " gives the fascinating stories 
behind some of the best-known exhibits, including Bushman, 



Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Individuals with an interest in work- 
ing with school groups, presenting tours, and participating in 
other educational programs are asked to contact the Volunteer 
Coordinator at 922-9410, ext, 360. 

September and October Hours. The Museum opens daily at 9 
a.m. and closes at 5 p.m. every day except Friday On Fridays 
the Museum remains open until 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main floor 



Museum telephone: (312) 922-9410. 



I  • i>'i.'i« 



October 
1980 



FIELD MaSEGM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 




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Ill 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



October 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 9 



EditorlDesigncr: David M. Walsten 
Pwdiictioii: Martha Poulter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: E. Leland Webber 
Direetor: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 



Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

cfuiinium 
Mrs. T. Stiinton .Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bcnven Blair 

.Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pine, Jr 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



FieU Museum of Natural History Bulli-lm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Historv, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions; S6.00 annually, 53.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster; Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 
60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 



CONTENTS 

3 Field Briefs 

4 Ray A. Kroc Environmental Film Lecture 

5 Endangered and Threatened Species 

10 "Splitters" and "Lumpers" 

/n/ /■ W. Holland 

11 Travels in an Antique Land 

text by Mrs. Anthony L. Perrin 
photos by Riley and Corinne Jadzvin 

16 Field Museum Tours for Members 

18 Iroquois Sash Inspires Weaver 

20 Dear Field Museum 

Letters from Young Dinosaur Fans 

22 Ayer Film Lecture Series 
24 Our Environment 

26 October and November at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 

Wisconsin lake shoreline in autumn. Photo by Robert Brudd, of 
Tinley Park, Illinois. 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing date: Sept. 15, 1980. Title: Field .Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin. Publication no. 898940. Frequency of 
publication: Monthly except for combined lulv August 
issue. Number of issues published annually: 11. An- 
nual subscription price: $6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History. Editor: 
David M. Walsten. Known bondholders, mortgages, 
and other security holders: none. Nonprofit status has 
not changed during the preceding 12 months. 



Av. no. 

copies 

each issue 

preceding 

12 mos. 

Total copies printed 51,106 

Paid Circulation (sales 

through dealers, 

vendors, carriers) None 

Paid circulation (mail 

subscriptions) 43,501 

Total paid circulation 43,501 

Free distribution 268 

Total distribution 43,769 

Office use, left over 7,337 

Total 51,106 



Actual no. 

copies 
single issue 
nearest to 
filing date 

49,565 



None 



42,189 
42,189 
655 
42,844 
6,721 
49,565 



I certify that the statements made by me above are 
correct and complete. Lorin I. Nei'ling, ]r., director. 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Fredrick A. Schmi^k 
(right), regional pub- 
lic reltitioiif manager 
for Foster and Kleixr, 
a Metromedia Com- 
pany, f'rt'St'M/s Field 
Museum'f Public 
Relation^ Manager 
Mary Cassai and 
Field Museum Vice 
President of Develop- 
ment Thomas R. 
Sanders with a com- 
plimentary bill- 
board from his 
company. Nearly 
50 feet long and 
20 feet high, this 
"Great Bronze Age of 
China" display has 
been installed just 
off Chicago's Outer 
Drive on Broadway, 
west side ot the street, 
south of Hollyu'ood 
Boulevard. It will 
remain on display 
throughout the ex- 
hibit, which closes 
October 29. Custom- 
made and hand- 
painted, thisbillboard 
xoas donated through 
the courtesy of Bert 
K. Dart, vice presi- 
dent, regional man- 
ager, Foster and 
Kleiser. 




The camera of Field 
Museum photog- 
rapher Ron Testa 
captures the silent 
splendor of life-size 
terracotta figures on 
vieu< in "The Great 
Bronze Age of China" 
exhibit. 



The Great 
Bronze Age of China 



Field Museum Aug. 20 - Oct.2j 

AiNEXHIBIII0NFR0MTHEPFnPLE'<;RFPUPllCOFCI^ 





'The Philippine (Monkey-eating) Eagle Expedition" 

Ray A. Kroc Environmental Film Lecture 

Friday, November 14, 8:00 p.m. 

James Simpson Theatre 



Field Museum's Fall Ray A. Kroc Environmental Film Lecture 
focuses on the rare and endangered Philippine (Monkey-eating) 
Eagle. "The Philippine (Monkey-eating) Eagle Expedition" film 
makes its Chicago premiere at Field Museum. Narrated by 
filmmaker Alan Degen of F.R.E.E., Ltd. (Films and Research for 
an Endangered Environment. Ltd.), this intense documentary 
film depicts the drama of adult eagles raising their young amidst 
one of the most threatened environments on earth. These 
magnificent predators are fighting for survival in the tropical rain 
forests of the Philippines. The film captures the intimacies 
eagles share, and the hazards these birds face in the wild. The 
ravages of forest destruction and human encroachment are 
pushing this second largest of the eagle family to the brink of 
extinction. 

Endemic to the Philippines, this eagle once ranged over 



most of the larger Philippine islands, Luzon, Mindanao, Leyte, 
and Samar. Today, its population is reduced to less than 500 
individual birds It lays only one egg every two years, and the 
offspring depends on its parents for more than a year after 
learning to fly 

Alan Degen, a filmmaker and naturalist with F.R.E.E., 
Ltd.. studied wildlife biology at Arizona State University and the 
University of Montana. He has participated in three expeditions 
to South America to study the breeding of the Harpy Eagle and 
is currently involved in studying the Philippine (Monkey-eating) 
Eagle. 

This film lecture is guaranteed to fascinate audiences of 
all ages. For more informafion, see the November Calendar of 
Events, or call 322-8854. 



Immature Philippine (monkey-eating) eagle 




Courtesy F.R.EE.. Ltd. 



Endangered Species and Threatened Species Lists Updated 



The official U.S. list of endangered and threatened wildlife 
and plants worldwide now carries 773 species, 27b of \\ hich 
are native to the United States. 

"That's up 77 from last year," Paul Opler of the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service's Endangered Species Office said, 
referring to the previous list published in January of 1979. 
"But that increase," he was quick to add, "has more to do 
with impro\ed research than the continuing, general deterio- 
ration of the world's wildlife environment. We're simpl\' 
finding more plants and animals that need to be classified." 

An "endangered" species is one that is in danger of 
extinction throughout all cir a significant part of its range. 
A "threatened" species is one that is likeh* to become 
"endangered." 

The additions made to the list of endangered and 
threatened species in the last year and a half come from 
e\erv part of the earth. Two of them — Guatemalan fir and 
the Chilean false larch — are the first foreign plants ever to 
be listed. Other species include the Caribbean monk seal. 
West African manatee. North China Sika deer, and the Kern 
(California) primrose sphinx moth. During the last 16 
months, 36 plants (mostly cacti), 29 mammals, 9 reptiles, 4 
fish, 1 bird, and 2 insects were added to the revised list. 

The basic cause for endangerment of either animals 
or plants is loss of habitat. Man\' of these species are impor- 
tant for economic, commercial, and historic reasons. Some, 
such as a number of cacti native to the southwestern U.S., 
recently have become extremely popular house and garden 
plants. Others have suffered exploitation and destruction of 
their habitats for a much longer time. 

Since at least the time of the ancient Mayan Empire, 
Indians ha\e burned the highland forest habitat of the 
Guatemalan fir to plant corn. The practice is still followed, 
and reproductit)n of the rare trees is further limited by the 



grazing of sheep and goats. 

The decline of the Chilean false larch, a tree that may 
live for 3,000 years and grow to be 150 feet tall, began almost 
400 years ago when the Spanish Conquistadores learned 
of the amazing durabilit\' of its wood. Wideh' exported 
since that time, it has bi'cn nearh eliminated from all 
accessible sites. 

Seamen of those times replenished their ships' stores 
with fresh meat from the Caribbean monk seals that inha- 
bited the waters of the West Indies. Later, the seals were 
taken for thi' oil and pelt trade. But it was modern-day 
commercial fishermen, who saw the seals as fish predators, 
that may have delivered the final blow to the animal. Mo 
monk seals have been officialh' recorded since the early 
1960s. The totoaba, a huge sea trout that grows to 223 
pounds and lives only in the Gulf of California, is another 
\'aluable animal that has suffered from commercial exploita- 
tion. In 190.S, according to an old biological survey report, 
"totoaba thronged the east shore of Lower California and 
choked the mouth of the Colorado River." Since then, 
however, it has been fished almost to the point of extinction. 

Once a plant or animal is listed as threatened or en- 
dangered under the Endangered Species Act, a variet\' of 
activities invoh'ing the species are strictly regulated. For 
United States species, laws provide for protection ot its 
habitat and limit the conditions under \shich it ma\- or may 
not be taken, or used in interstate commerce, or exported to 
other countries. The laws also cover all listed foreign 
species, controlling how an\' ot tht'm ma\' or ma\' not be 
imported into the United States. In addition, the U.S. 
government offers technical assistance to state and foreign 
governments for the conservation of endangered species. 
Since the Endangered Species Act of 1973 was enacted, 
the U.S. list has almost tripled from 106 to 276. 



U.S. World List of Endangered and Threatened Animals and Plants as of 

May 1,1980 



Category 

US. 

Mammals 35 

Birds 67 

Reptiles 12 

Amphibians 5 

Fishes 31 

Snails 2 

Clams 23 

Crustaceans 1 

Insects 6 

Plants 49 

Total 231 



Number 
Endangered J 

Foreign 

251 


of 
species 


Total 

... 286 

. . . 212 


U.S. 

3 ... 

3 ... 


Number of 
Threatened Species 

Foreign 
21 


145 





55 




... 67 

. . . 14 


... 10 . . . 





9 


2 ... 





11 


... 42 

... 3 

... 25 

1 


12 ... 





1 


5 ... 

... 

.. . 





2 














... 6 

... 49 

705 


3 ... 

7 ... 

45 








2 


474 


23 



Total 

. 24 
3 

. 10 
2 

. 12 
5 


3 
9 
68 



Endangered Species 

Vertebrates of Mexico, Canada, the United States and its possessions, and the Caribbean 

Vertebrate population 
Common name Scientific name Historic range where endangered 

MAMMALS 

Bat, gray Myotis gnsescens Central and SE USA Entire 

Bat, Hawaiian hoary Lasiurus cinereus USA, (Hawaii) Entire 

Bat, Indiana Myotissodalis E, and Midwest U.S.A Entire 

Bat, Ozark big-eared Plecotus townsendii ingens US A. (MO, OK, AR) Entire 

Bat, Virginia big-eared Plecotus townsendii virginianus U,SA.(KY,WV Entire 

VA, IN, IL, OH) 

Bear Mexican grizzly Ursus arctos nelsoni Mexico Entire 

Bison, wood Bison b athabascae Canada, NW USA Canada 

Bobcat Felis rulus escuinape central Mexico Entire 

Cougar, eastern Felis concolor cougar East, No Atner Entire 

Deer, Cedros Island mule Odocoileus hemionus cedrosensis Mexico (Cedros Island) Entire 

Deer. Columbian white-tailed Odocoileus virginianus leucuws U S.A. (WA, OR) Entire 

Deer, key Odocoileus virginianus clavium USA(So. FL) Entire 

Dugong Dugong dugong E, Afnca to so Japan, inci Entire 

USA, (Trust Territories) 

Ferret, black-footed Mustela nignpes West. U.S.A. . West. Canada Entire 

Fox, Northern swift Vulpesvelox hebes USA (No plains), Canada Canada 

Fox, San Joaquin kit V. macrotis mutica U.S.A. (California) Entire 

Jaguar Pantheraonca U.S.A. (TX, NM, AZ), Cent Mexico 

and So. America southward 

Jaguarundi Felis yagouaroundi cacomitii USA (TX). Mexico Entire 

Jaguarundi F yagouaroundi fossata Mexico, Nicaragua Entire 

Jaguarundi F yagouaroundi tolteca USA. (AZ), Mexico Entire 

Manatee, West Indian (Florida) Trichechus manatus USA. (S E). Caribbean Entire 

Sea. South America 
Margay Felis wiedii U.S.A. (NM, AZ), Central Mexico 

and South America southward 

Monkey howler Alouatta villosa Mexico to So. America Entire 

Mouse, salt marsh harvest Reithrodontomys raviventris U S A (CA) Entire 

Ocelot Felis pardalis SW USA, Central and Mexico 

So America southward 

Panther Florida Felis concolor coryi USA (UXand AR eastto Entire 

SC and FL) 

Prairie dog. Mexican Cynomys mexicanus Mexico Entire 

Praine dog, Utah C- parvidens U.S.A. (Utah) Entire 

Pronghorn, peninsular Antilocapra americana peninsularis Mexico (Baja California) Entire 

Pronghorn. Sonoran A. americana sononensis USA, (AZ), Mexico Entire 

Rabbit, volcano Romerolagus diazi Mexico Entire 

Rat, Morro Bay kangaroo Dipodomys heermanni U.S.A. (CA) Entire 

Seal. Caribbean monk Monactius tropicalus Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico Entire 

Seal, Hawaiian monk M schauinslandi Hawaiian archipelago Entire 

Solenodon, Cuban Atopogale cubana Cuba Entire 

Solenodon, Haitian Solenodon paradoxus Dominican Republic, Haiti Entire 

Squirrel. Delmarva Peninsula fox Sciurus niger cinereus USA, (DelMarVa Peninsula Entire 

toS.E PA) 
Tapir, Central American Tapirus bairdii So, Mexico to Colombia and Entire 

Ecuador 

Whale, blue Balaenoptera musculus Oceanic Entire 

Whale, bowhead Balaena mysticetus Oceanic (No, latitudes only) Entire 

Whale, finback Balaenoptera physalus Oceanic Entire 

Whale, gray Eschrichtius robustus No. Pacific: coastal and Entire 

Bering Sea 

Whale, humpback Megaptera novaeangliae Oceanic Entire 

Whale, right Balaena glacialis Oceanic Entire 

Whale, Sei Balaenoptera borealis Oceanic Entire 

Whale, sperm Physeter catodon Oceanic Entire 

Wolf, gray Cams lupus Holarctic U.S.A. (lower 

48 states except 
MN), Mexico 

Wolf, red C rufus U.S.A. (SE. west to cent. TX) Entire 

BIRDS 

Akepa. Hawaii (honeycreeper) Loxops coccinea coccinea U.S.A, (Hawaii) Entire 

Akepa. Maui (honeycreeper) L coccinea ochracea Hawaii Entire 

Akialoa, Kuai (honeycreeper) Hemignathus procerus Hawaii Entire 

Akipolaau (honeycreeper) H. wilsoni Hawaii Entire 

Albatross, short-tailed Diomedea albatrus No Pacific, Japan, U,S.S.R,, Entire except 

U.S.A. (AK, CA, HA, OR, WA) U.S.A. 

Blackbird, yellow-shouldered Agelaius xanthomus Puerto Rico Entire 

Bobwhite, masked (quail) Colinus virginianus ridgwayi U.S.A. (AZ), Mexico (Sonora) Entire 

Cahow (Bermuda petrel) Pterodroma cahow N. Atlantic, Bermuda Entire 

Condor California Gymnogyps californianus USA. (OR, CA), Mexico Entire 

(Baia California) 
Coot. Hawaiian Fulica americana alai Hawaii Entire 



Common name 



Scientific name 



Crane. Cuba sandhill Grus canadensis nesiotes 

Crane. Mississippi sandhill Grus canadensis pulla 

Crane, whooping Grus amencana 



Creeper Hawaiian 
Creeper. Molokai (Kakawahie) 
Creeper. Oahu (Alauwahio) 
Crow. Hawaiian (Alala) 
Curassow. Tnnidad. white-headed 

Curlew. Eskimo 

Dove. Grenada 

Dove. Palau ground 

Duck. Hawaiian (Koloa) 

Duck, Laysan 

Eagle, Harpy 

Eagle, bald 



Loxops maculata mans 
Loxops maculata flammea 
Loxops maculata maculata 

Corvus tropicus 

Pipile pipile pipile 

Numenius borealis 

Leptotila welisi 

Gallicolumba canifrons 
Anas wyvilliana 
Anas laysanensis 
Harpia harpyja . 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 



Historic range 

West Indies. Cuba 

Mississippi 

Canada, USA (Rockies to 

Carolinas). Mexico 
Hawaii 

Hawaii 

Hawaii 

Hawaii 

West Indies. Trinidad 

Alaska. No. Canada to Argentina 

West Indies. Grenada 

West Pacific, Palau Islands 

Hawaii 

Hawaii 



Vertebrate population 
where endangered 

Entire 
Entire 
Entire 



Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 



Mexico south to Argentina Entire 



N. America south to No. Mexico 



Falcon. American peregrine 
Falcon, Arctic peregrine 



Lower 48 slates 
except WA, OR, Ml. 
WI.MI 



Hawaii 

West Indies. Grenada 

West Pacific, Palau Islands 

West Pacific, Marianas Islands , 

Hawaii 

U.S. A (AK, CA. OR. WA), Japan 

Hawaii 

Mexico 



Faico peregrinus anatum Canada, USA, Mexico 

FaIco peregnnus tundnus Alaska to Greenland, so. to 

Argentina 

Finch, Laysan (Honeycreeper) Telespyza (-Psittirostra) Hawaii 

cantans 

Finch. Nihoa (honeycreeper) Telespyza (-Psittirostra) ultima 

Flycatcher. Euler s Empidonax euleri johnstonei 

Flycatcher. Palau fantail Rhipidura lepida 

Flycatcher. Tinian monarch Monarcha takatsukasae 

Gallinule. Hawaiian Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis 

Goose. Aleutian Canada Branta canadensis leucopareia 

Goose. Hawaiian ( Nene) Branta sandvicensis 

Crackle, slender-billed Cassidix palustris 

Guan. horned Oreophasis derbianus 

Hawk. Hawaiian (Lo) Buteo solitanus 

Honeycreeper, crested Palmeria dolei 

(Akohekohe) 

Kite. Cuba hook-billed Chondrohierax uncinatus wilsonii 

Kite. Grenada hook-billed Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus 

Kite. Everglade (snail kite) Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus 

Mallard. Marianas Anas oustaleti 

Megapode. La Perouse's Megapodius laperouse 

Millerbird. Nihoa (willow warbler) Acrocephalus tamiliahs kingi 

Nukupuu (honeycreeper) Hemignathus lucidus Hawaii 

Oo. Kauai (Oo Aa) (honeyeater) Moho braccatus Hawaii Entire 

Ou (honeycreeper) Psittirostra psittacea Hawaii Entire 

Owl. Palau Otus podargina Palau Islands Entire 

Pallia (Honeycreeper) Psittirostra bailleui Hawaii Entire 

Parrot. Bahaman or Cuban Amazona leucocephala Cuba. Bahamas, Caymans Entire 



Entire 
Entire 

Entire 

Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
. . Entire 
. . Entire 

Guatemala, Mexico Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

West Indies: Cuba Entire 

West Indies: Grenada Entire 



Florida 

Guam, Mananas Island 
Palau Island, Mananas Island 
Hawaii 



Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 



Parrot, imperial Amazona impenalis 

Parrot, Puerto Rican Amazona vittata 

Parrot, red-necked Amazona arausiaca 

Parrot. St. Lucia Amazona versicolor 

Parrot. St Vincent Amazona guildingii 

Parrot, thick-billed Rhynchopsitta pachyryncha Mexico. AZ 

Parrotbill. Maui (honeycreeper) Pseudonestor xanthophrys Hawaii 



Pelican, brown 



Pelecanus accidentalis 



Dominica Entire 

Puerto Rico Entire 

Dominica Entire 

St. Lucia Entire 

St. Vincent Entire 

NM Mexico 

Entire 

Entire 



Carolinas to TX. CA: West Indies. 
Cent Amenca, coastal So. America 

Hawaii Entire 

Puerto Rico Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Texas Entire 



Petrel. Hawaiian dark-rumped Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis 

Pigeon. Puerto Rican plain Colomba inornata welmorei 

Poo-uli Melamprosops phaeosoma 

Prairie chicken, Attwater's Tympanuchus cupido attwrateri 

greater 

Quail, Merriams Montezuma Cyrtonyx montezumae merriami Mexico (Vera Cruz) Entire 

Ouetzel, resplendent Pharomachrus mocinno Mexico to Panama Entire 

Rail. California clapper Rallus longirostnsi obseletus California Entire 

Rail. !ight-footed clapper Rallus longirostnsi levipes California. Ba|a California Entire 

Rail. Yuma clapper Rallus longirostnsi yumanensis Mexico, U.S.A. (AZ, CA) Entire 



Shrike, San Clemente loggerhead Lanius Iddovicianus mearnsi 

Sparrow. Cape Sable seaside Ammospiza maritima mirabilis 

Sparrow, dusky seaside Ammospiza manlima nigrescens . . 

Sparrow. Santa Barara song Melospiza melodia graminea 

Starling. Ponape mountain Aplonis pelzelni 

Stilt. Hawaiian Himantopus himantopus knudseni . 

Tern. California least Sterna albilrons browni 

Thrasher white-breasted Rhamphocincius brachyurus 

Thrush, large Kauai Phaeornis obscurus myadestina ... 

Thrush. Molokai (Olomau) Phaeornis obscurus rutha 

Thrush, small Kauai (Pauiohi) Phaeornis palmeri 

Trembler Martinique brown Cinclocerthia ruficauda gutturalis . . 

(Thrasher) 



California Entire 

Florida Entire 

Florida Entire 

California Entire 

Caroline Island Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Mexico, California Entire 

St Lucia. Martinique Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Hawaii Entire 

Martinique Entire 



Vertebrate population 
Common name Scientific name Historic range where endangered 

Warbler (wood). Bachman's Vermivora bachmanii Cuba, S,E. U.S.A Entire 

Warbler (wood), Barbados yellow Dendroica petechia petechia Barbados Entire 

Warbler (wood), Kirtland's Denroica kirtlandii U.S.A. (principally Ml), Entire 

Canada. Bahamas 

Warbler (wood). Semper's Leucopeza sempeh St. Lucia Entire 

Whip-poor-will, Puerto Rican Capnmulgus noctitherus Puerto Rico Entire 

White-eye, Ponape great Rukia. longirostra (sanfordi) Caroline Islands Entire 

Woodpecker imperial Campephilus imperialis Mexico Entire 

Woodpecker ivory-billed Campephilus principalis U S.A. (southcentral and Entire 

southeastern), Cuba 

Woodpecker red-cockaded Picoides (-Dendrocopus) borealis USA (southcentral and Entire 

southeastern) 

Wren. Guadeloupe house Troglodytes aedon guadelupensis Guadeloupe Entire 

Wren. St. Lucia house Troglodytes aedon mesoleucus St. Lucia Entire 

REPTILES 

Alligator. American Alligator mississippiensis Southeastern U.S.A. Wherever found in 

wild except where 
listed as threa- 
tened 

Alligator Amencan Alligator mississippiensis Southeastern USA In captivity 

wherever found 

Anole, Culebra giant Anolis rooseveiti Puerto Rico (Culebra Island) Entire 

Boa, Jamaican Epicrates subflavus Jamaica Entire 

Boa, Puerto Rico Epicrates inornatus Puerto Rico Entire 

Boa, Virgin Islands tree Epicrates monensis granti U.S. and British Virgin Islands Entire 

Chuckwalla. San Esteban Island Sauromalus varius Mexico Entire 

Crocodile. Amencan Crocodylus acutus Flonda, Mexico. So. Amenca, Entire 

Cent. America, Caribbean 

Crocodile, Cuban Crocodylus rhombifer Cuba Entire 

Crocodile, Morelefs Crocodylus moreleti Mexico. Belize, Guatemala Entire 

Iguana, Anegada ground Cyclura pinguis Anegada Island (British Virgin Entire 

Islands) 

Lizard, blunt-nosed leopard Crotaphytus silus California Entire 

Lizard, St Croix ground Ameiva polops Green Cay Protestant Cay Entire 

(US. Virgin Islands) 

Snake. San Francisco garter Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia California Entire 

Tortoise. Bolson Gopherus flavomarginatus Mexico Entire 

Turtle, aquatic box Terrapene coahuila Mexico Entire 

Turtle. Cuatro cienegas softshell Trionyxater Mexico . Entire 

Turtle, green sea Chelonia mydas circumglobal in tropical and Breeding colony 

temperate seas and oceans populations in 

Flonda and on 
Pacific coast 
of Mexico 

Turtle, hawksbill sea (-carey) Eretmochelys imbricata Tropical seas Entire 

Turtle. Kemp s (-Atlantic) Lepidochelys kempii Tropical and moderate seas Entire 

Ridley sea 

Turtle, leatherback sea Dermochelys coriacea Tropical, temperate, and Entire 

subpolar seas 

Turtle, Olive (Pacific) Lepidochelys otivacea Circumglobal in tropical and Breeding colony 

Ridley sea temperate seas and oceans populations on 

Pacific coast 
Mexico 

Turtle. Plymouth red-bellied Chrysomys (-Pseudemys) rubriventris Massachusetts Entire 

bangs! 
AMPHIBIANS 

Salamander, desert slender Batrachoseps aridus California Entire 

Salamander, Santa Cruz long-toed Ambystoma macrodaclylum croceum California Entire 

Salamander. Texas blind Typhylomolge rathbuni Texas Entire 

Toad, Houston Bufo houstonensis Texas Entire 

Treefrog, pine barrens Hyla andersonii FL, AL, NC, SC, NJ Entire 

FISHES 

Blindcat. Mexican Prietella phreatophila Mexico Entire 

Bonytail, Pahranagat Gila robusta jordani Nevada Entire 

Chub, bonytail Gilaelegans AZ. CA, CO. NV, UT, WY Entire 

Chub, humpback Gila cypha CA Entire 

Cisco, longjaw Coregonus alpenae Lakes Michigan. Huron. Ene Entire 

Cui-ul Chasmistes cujus Nevada Entire 

Dace, Kendall Warm Springs Rhinichthys osculus thermalis Wyoming Entire 

Dace, Moapa Moapa coriaces Nevada Entire 

Darter, fountain Ethiostoma fonticola Texas Entire 

Darter. Maryland Ethiostoma sellare Maryland Entire 

Darter. Okaloosa Etheostoma okaloosae Florida Entire 

Darter.snail Percina tanasi Tennessee Entire 

Darter, watercress Etheostoma nuchale Alabama Entire 

Gambusia, Big Bend Gambusia gaigei Texas Entire 

Gambusia, Clear Creek Gambusia heterochir Texas Entire 



Common name Scientific name Historic range 

Gambusia, Goodenough Gambusia amistadensis Texas 

Gambusia, Pecos Gambusia nobilis New Mexico, Texas 

Killifish, Pahrump Empetnchthys latos Nevada 

Madtom. Scioto Noturus trautmani Ohio 

Pil<e, blue Stizosledion vitreum glaucum Lakes Erie and Ontario . 

Pupflsh, Comanche Springs Cyprinodon elegans Texas 



Pupfish. Devil's Hole 

Pupfish, Owens River 

Pupfish, Tecopa 

Pupfish. Warm Springs 

Squawfish. Colorado River 
Stickleback, unarmed Ihreespine 



Cyrpinodon diabolis Nevada , 

Cyprinodon radiosus Calif, .,, 

Cypnnodon nevadensis calidae Calif. ,. 

Cyprinodon nevadensis pectoralis Nevada 

Ptychocheilus lucius 

Gasterosterus aculeatus williamsoni 



Sturgeon, shortnose Acipenser brevirostrum 



AZ, CA, CO, MN, NV, UT, WY 

Calif. 

USA. and Canada (Atlaniic 

coast) 
AZ, NM, f^exico 



Topminnow, Gila Poecilliopsis occidentalis 

Totoaba (seatrout or weakflsh) Cynoscion macodonaldi IVIexico (Gulf of California) 

Trout, Gila Salmo gilae New Mexico 

Woundfln Plagopterus argentissimus AZ, NV, UT 



Vertebrate population 
where endangered 

Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 

Entire 
Entire 
Entire 
Entire 



Threatened Species 

Vertebrates of Mexico, Canada, the United States and its possessions, and the Caribbean 



Common name 



Scientific name 



Historic range 



Vertebrate population 
where threatened 



Canada, western US A Lower 48 states 

Mexico, Belize, Guatemala Entire 



MAMMALS 

Bear brown or grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis 

Monkey, black howler Alouatta pigra 

Otter southern sea Enhydra lutris nereis West Coast U.S. A ( WA) south Entire 

to Mexico (Ba)a Calif.) 

Wolf, gray Canis lupus 

BIRDS 

Eagle, bald Haliaeetus leucocephalus 



Holarctic 



No. America south to 

northern Mexico 

Sheanwater, Newell's Manx Puffinus puffinus newelli Hawaii ' 

Sparrow, San Clemente sage Amphispiza belli clementeae Calif 

REPTILES 

Alligator Amencan Alligator mississippiensis S.E USA 



USA (MN) 



USA (WA. 
OR.MN, WI,MI) 
Entire 
Entire 

USA (FL, SC, TX, and 
certain areas of 
GA, LA) 



Boa, Mona Epicrates monensis monensis Puerto Rico Entire 

Iguana, Mona ground Cyclura steinegen Mona Island (Puerto Rico) Entire 

Lizard, island night Klaubenna riversiana Calif Entire 

Rattlesnake, New Mexico Crolalus willardi obscurus New Mexico, Mexico Entire 

ridge-nosed 

Snake, Atlantic salt marsh Nerodia fasciata taeniata Flonda Entire 

Snake, eastern indigo Drymarchon corals couperi AL, FL, GA, MS, SC Entire 

Turtle, green sea Chelonia mydas Circumglobal intropi- Wherever found except 



cal and temperate seas 
and oceans 
Turtle, loggerhead sea Caretta caretta Circumglobal in tropi- 
cal and temperate seas 



Turtle, Olive (Pacific) Lepidochelys olivacea 

Ridley sea 



AMPHIBIANS 

Coqui . golden Eleutherodactylus jaspen 

Salamander Red Hills Phaeognathus hubrichti 

FISHES 

Cavefish, Alabama Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni 

Chub, slender Hybopsis cahni 



and oceans 
Circumglobal in tropical 
and temperate seas 
and oceans 

Puerto Rico 
Alabama 



where listed as 

endangered 

Entire 



Wherever found except 
where listed as 
endangered 

Entire 
Entire 



Alabama Entire 

TN,VA Entire 



Chub,spotfin Hybopsis monacha AL GA, NC, TN, VA Entire 

Darter bayou Etheosloma rubrum 

Darter, leopard Percina pantherina 

Darter slackwaler Etheosloma boschungi 



MS, Entire 

AR OK Entire 

AL, TN Entire 



Madtom, yellowfin Noturus llavipinnis GA, TN, VA Entire 



Trout, Arizona Salmo apache 

Trout, greenback cutthroat Salmo clarki stomias .... 

Trout, Lahontan cutthroat Salmo clarki henshawi . . . 

Trout, Little Kern golden Salmo aguabonila white! 

Trout, Paiute cutthroat Salmo clarki seleniris 



AZ Entire 

CO Entire 

CA, NV Entire 

CA Entire 

CA Entire 



Splitters" and 
''Lumpers" 



byW.J. HOLLAMD 

^~» \ fiv true naturalist is called upon to exercise 
f \ the tacuitv of discrimination and the faculty 
of generalization. His work trains him to 
detect dissimilarities on the one hand and like- 
nesses on the other. His judgments as to likeness 
are expressed in the genera, the families, the 
orders, which he proposes. His judgment as to 
dissimilarities is most frequently expressed in 
his views as to species. 

When the two faculties of discrimination 
and generalization are well balanced and accom- 
panied by the habit of patient obser\'ation, ideal 
conditions are reached, and the work of the 
naturalist in classification may be expected to 
stand the test of time. But where, as is often the 
case, one of these faculties is exalted at the ex- 
pense of the other, there are certain to result per- 
versions, which will inevitably cause trouble to 
other students. 

When a man cultivates the habit of dis- 
crimination to excess, he is apt to become, so far 
as his labors as a systematist are concerned, "a 
splitter." A "splitter" magnifies the importance 
of trivial details; he regards minute differences 
with interest; he searches with more than 
microscopic zeal after the little things and leaves 
out of sight the lines of general resemblance. 

Huber, the celebrated naturalist, said that 
by patient observation he had come to be able to 
recognize the different ants in a hill, and, as one 
by one they emerged from their subterranean 
galleries, he knew them, as a man living upon a 
certain thoroughfare in a great city comes at last 
to know by sight the men and women who are in 
the habit of daily passing his windows. No doubt 
the critical eye can detect as great individual dif- 
ferences in the lower animal world as are to be 
detected among men. A student comes to apply 
himself with great zeal to searching out and de- 
scribing these differences, and when he under- 
takes to say that because of them one form 
should be separated specifically from another he 
becomes "a splitter." 



10 




I recall an entomologist whose chief 
weapon of research was a big microscope. He 
would take a minute insect and study it until he 
was able to nimiber the hairs upon its head. Then 
he would describe it, giving it a specific name. 
The next specimen he would subject to the same 
critical process, and if the number of hairs was 
not just the same, or a small wart was detected 
here or there, or a bristle grew in a place where a 
bristle did not grow in the specimen previously 
examined, it too, was described and a specific 
name was given it. It was as if a man, sitting 
and looking out on the throng upon Broadway, 
should resolve to give every individual a specific 
name and should declare he had seen as many 
species of men as he had seen men passing his 
window. The labors of such naturalists may be 
highly entertaining to themselves, but they are, 
to say the least, provocative of unpleasant 
feelings in the minds of others who come after 
them and are compelled to deal with and review 
their labors. 




7 he "lumper," on the other hand, is a man 
who detects no differences. "All cocoons 
look alike to me!" he says. Any two moths 
which are of approximately the same size and 
the same color, are, by him, declared to belong to 
the same species. Questions of structure do 
not trouble him. General resemblances are the 
only things with which he deals. No matter if 
eggs, larvae, legs, veins, and antennae are differ- 
ent it is "all one thing" to him. His genera are 
"magazines," into which he stuffs species 
promiscuously. 

The "lumper" is the horror of the "split- 
ter," the "splitter" is anathema to the "lumper"; 
both are the source of genuine grief and much 
hardship to conscientious men, who are the pos- 
sessors of normally constituted minds and truly 
scientific habits. Nevertheless, we are certain to 
have both "splitters" and "lumpers" in the 
camps of science until time is no more. "This 
kind goeth not forth" even for "fasting and 
prayer." 



From The Moth Biiok il903), Doubkday. Pa^c mid Co.. 
rcisMied (1968) by Dover Publkiitionf, New York. William 
Jacob Holland (1848-1932) was director of the Canie\;ie 
Mufeum 1898-1922 and aho author of The Butterfly Book 
(1898). This and The Moth Book were for many years the 
chief field guides for North American lepidopterists. 



Travels in an Antique Land 

A Participant in Field Museum's 1980 E^^yptTbur 
Recounts Her Adventures 




by MRS. ANTHONY L PERRIN 

photos by RileyandCorimme jADwirn 
Egypt Tour Participants 



February 1. As though heading for the Missis- 
sippi, the captain of our DC-10 announces on the 
intercom: "We are going down to Cairo." But 
his blase tone fails to put a damper on our 
excitement. 

Egypt at last! "Welcome!" say smiling 
Egyptians, "Welcome to Egypt!" The long flight 
is forgotten. Aboard the bus to Hotel Mena 
House we pass goats, carts, donkeys, cars; some 
cars are wrapped in white bedspreads — our first 
mummies. The hotel balcony looks out on 
pyramids rising behind palm trees; but they can't 
be real: I must be dreaming! 

February 2. Off to Cairo Museum. Two essentials: 
a heavy sweater and a guide —lucky to have 
both! Amazed at variety of Egyptian art: 
strength, tenderness, vitality. Lunch at Filfila 
Restaurant. . . . Unidentified object'^ in smoky 
cauldron, turns out to be delicious. Medieval 
Cairo in afternoon. Stop in bazaar: crowded. 



oriental. I order a gold cartouche; my name 

in hieroglyphs starts with a snake! 

Februarys. BustoMedum, with its early pyramid 
standing alone in the desert. I climb up ladder 
into a black hole. It's a long way down, then up 
inside the pyramid. Clad to have a flashlight, but 
regret my touch of claustrophobia. Braver souls 
crawl backwards into the burial chamber of the 
newly discovered tomb. I admire, but do not 
follow. I see now what the brochure meant by 
"strenuous trip." We drive through green 
Faiyum, a region farmed since predvnastic 
times. Admire oxen for their stolid patience as 
they plod in monotonous circles, drawing water. 
We board the Rei' Vacance^, the Nile Ri\'er ship 
which is to be our home base for the next several 
days and nights. On the river bank we see egrets, 
camels, sugarcane. 



February 4, A line of donkeys and boys wait 



for 



11 




'>- 




Mrs. DelNord, tour leader, and Mrs. Rilcy ladwin heforc the Crcut bphinx. 



us at Bani Hasan. Black-clothed women carry 
glazed jugs of water on their heads. I ride to 
rock-cut tombs on a lively donkey. A boy joins 
me on the donkey's back, asking for candy. 
1 teach him "Yankee Doodle." He belts it out 
immediately — very bright. Painted scenes in 
tombs are hard to see. Sail to Tuna el Gebel 
("Rocky Sand"). In 300 B.C. tomb of Petosiris — 
rare mix of Hellenistic and Egyptian style. Walk 
across shard-strewn desert to baboon graveyard. 
Catacombs for ibises as well — Egypt is full of 
surprises. As the sun goes down, we reach Akh- 
naton border stela, edge of capital founded by 
the pharaoh whom Breasted called "the first 
individual in history." Nefertiti stands beside 
him on the lonely sand. 

February 5. Nothing is left of Tell el Anarna, Akh- 
naton's city. After his death, palaces, gardens, 
and zoo were abandoned, then destroyed. The 
old Amon religion was reinstated and the ex- 
periment with monotheism eventually forgot- 
ten. High up in the rocks, we visit four tombs. 
Interesting question about Nefertiti arises: Did 
she ever reign as pharaoh? Hard to imagine a 
false beard dangling from her beautiful chin. 

February 6. Awoke to see from the ship window a 
man standing so still in his skiff, he looked like a 
reed growing in the river. Behind him, mist rose 
from giant cliffs. All day we move up the Nile, 
our slow pace matching the timeless calm of life 
along the banks. Gaff-rigged feluccas slip into 
the current, women bend over their wash, chil- 
dren's galabeahs float in the morning breeze. 
There is no hurry — it has been like this since 
long before Greece began. The continuity run- 
ning through Egyptian art is reflected in rural 
life. Though the river depth changes constantly, 
the Nile has no channel markers. Our ship makes 
its own meander within the river's larger one. 



Snake charmer with cobra 




February'. Awakened at 5:30, in busby 6:00 and 
off for what many consider one of the greatest 
sites in Egypt: Abydos, center of the cult of 
Osiris, god of the dead. Everyone wanted to be 
buried there. If this was inconvenient, one's 
mummv could \'isit briefly. We had a picnic 
breakfast outside, by the temple. Three things to 
see: Osirion, being excavated; the temple of 
Ramses II, with splendid wall reliefs; and the 
best of all: the temple of Seti, Ramses's father. Bas 
reliefs look as though carved in butter, and the 
paint! It is shiny (no one knows why) — brilliant 
blues, greens, and rich terracotta — colors as 
bright as the land outside. Hypostyle hall strange 
to our Mies van der Rohe-trained eyes: 24 
papyrus columns clustered like plants in a field 
(which they represent). Decorative as well as 
supportive. How wonderfully wasteful Egyptian 
architects were! 



February 8. Up and out .it 7:00 tor the temple 
of Hathor, at Dendera. Hatlioi has cow's ears, 
sometimes horns, otherwise nice-looking — the 
Egyptian Aphrodite. Dendera is 1st century H.c, 
cluttered, horror vaciii. 1 adies have late Kenoir 
figures, everyone sports dimpled knees. Up- 
stairs is spicy representation of Isis bringing 
Osiris back to life. Other tours do not always visit 
this X-rated roomi 

Back to ship, lie in sun and ponder some 
Egyptian mysteries: Why do only prisoners, the 
lower classes, and prepositions face forward? 
Why did ancient Egyptian ladies think it was nice 
to wear cones of fat on their heads when going to 
a party? These dripped in the heat, gluing their 
dresses to them. But no one wore much in B.C. 
Was it warmer? We need sweaters. 

In the e\ening, a lecture bv Don Whit- 
comb, assistant curator of Middle Eastern ar- 
cheology at Field Museum. He had just travelled 
from the Red Sea coast and gave us an in- 
progress report on his excavations at Quseir 
al-Qadim, a Roman and Islamic port. 

February 9. First day at Luxor, the site of ancient 
Thebes, with its magically fresh colors of kings' 
tombs, variety of styles. Temple of Queen Hat- 
shepsut the best, wonderful painting of expedi- 
tion to Punt. Thanks to our guide, Del Nord* we 
\isit a private excavation, talk to archeologists. 
Tomb visits involve long descents into dusty 
rooms. Often we must cross a narrow bridge 
o\er an interior pit, meant to foil robbers, but 
didn't. Some of us climb a high ridge above the 
temple. Great view, looks like southwestern 
U.S. At noon, I bargain for two tangerines. 
Accosted by little girl carrying basket, in which, 
for a fee, I must put my rinds. More Egyptian 
ingenuity! I comply. 

Next, the mortuary temple of ubiquitous 
Ramses, alias Ozymandias. Shelley's "shattered 
\isage" is here. Goose-bumps rise with the 
familiar "1 met a traveller in an antique land," 
which I read aloud in this place I never in my 
wildest dreams thought to see. 

Shadows lengthen, we droop, but there 
is much more! Over the river and into horse- 
drawn, two-wheeled caleches — the Luxor taxis- 
and head for Chicago House. Its great library 
and lovely grounds are maintained by the Uni- 



versity of Chicago's Oriental Institute. Director 
l.anny Bell shows us how what seem like hope- 
lessly damaged hieroglyphs are finally read by 
painstaking plotting of photos and drawings. 
Admire the patience of Egyptologists — they 
rarely expect to finish projects within their 
own lifetime. Generous, this passing on of 
research — Egyptian continuity. 

On to Karnak for "sound and light" per- 
formance. Huge crowd. As night falls,, Richard 
Burton reads ancient hymn to sun god. Didn't 
expect to like Karnak's superhuman scale, but 
find it wonderful. After dinner, we crawl to anti- 
que shop to buy shawabti figurine (servant for 
tomb). Neither dealer or shawabti very nice; de- 
cide instead to buy chocolate shawabti from Bos- 
ton Museum. Thebes is like going to the Met- 
ropolitan, Louvre, and the National Gallerv all in 
one day. Fall into bed in catatonic condition. 
Sleep surrounded by pharaohs, mostly Ramses. 

February 10. Up at 6:00, ready for ferry to 

west bank, where dead — called "westerners" — 



View from guest 
room of Mena 
House Hotel, Cairo. 



•Mrs. Del Nord, Ph.D. candidate in Egyptology, Depart- 
ment of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, tlie 
Oriental Institute, The University of Chicago. Mrs. Nord 
will also be co-leader of the Museum's February, 1981, Egypt 
tour, her fifth since the tours program was initiated. 








Abu Simbel 



14 



were always buried. Moneychangers, hawkers 
of necklaces and 20th-century scarabs come 
aboard. A walking emporium parades huge 
pillar of tennis hats on top of his turban. 

Quick stop at Colossi of Memnon — bad 
shape, looks better from back. Three boys race 
camels past us as we drive to tombs of nobles. 
These tombs are better than those of the kings — 
full of genre scenes: gardens, harvest, sailing, 
lively insight into daily life. The best tomb has 
undulating rock ceilings painted with grape 
vines; it's like being in an arbor. See five tombs, 
like them all. But to get there we pass through an 
impoverished village. Children run barefoot 
over litter; on almost every small back a baby 
is strapped. More than time separates ancient 
and modern Egypt. 

After lunch we trot off in a caleche for 
Karnak. Shiny brass hands of Fatima hang from 
the harness. Lanny Bell takes us into French 
archeological dig: a lovely Middle Kingdom 
temple, with reliefs that look as though cut 
from ivory. Karnak was under construction for 
2,000 years — Must try and be more patient 
with home projects! I feel dwarfed. Champol- 
lion wrote in the early 1800s that the ancient 
Egyptians "conceived like men a hundred 
feet high." True. 

February 11. The galabeahs ordered 24 hours ago 



(we were measured in the middle of the street) 
have been delivered by Mr. Moharib. "Shukron, 
thank you!" They look wonderful! Sorry to leave 
Luxor. It has a gentle English holiday atmos- 
phere. The ghosts of all the visitors who brought 
their ill health or their curiosity to be cured by the 
magic of Thebes float around the old winter 
palace. Their footsteps echo on the sidewalk, 
while the loveliest sunsets in Egypt redden the 
river and the necropolis. 

We're off for Esna, the main camel market 
of Egypt, to look at a Ptolemaic temple. Walk 
through the streets lined with open shops; in one 
a man irons clothes with his feetl The temple has 
the greatest variety of capitals anywhere. A little 
frog perches on one. By 100 B.C. the artists were 
out of touch with the old ways, the iconography 
was confused — very hard on the tourist who has 
just gotten the hang of it. 

In the afternoon we reach Edfu, temple 
of Horus. Except for granite statue of god (very 
snobby face), don't like temple, which is heavy, 
cold. Horus and Hathor had sacred marriage. 
Saw each other same time each year at Dendera. I 
drive caleche back to ship, but on the way get 
stuck in a sand pile while avoiding a truck. Our 
ship's chef has created an Egyptian feast. Egyp- 
tian folk music after dinner, with a Nubian 
singer: the fantastic beat pulls us onto the 
dance floor. 



Februnry 12. We kind .it Kom Ombo, temple of the 
crocodile god. Miimmitied crocs in chapel (no 
comment!). Site too good tor occupants. Our last 
day on ship, and we enjoy the sunonour way to 
Aswan. Very pretty; river split by islands. We 
board feluccas for ride to museum. There is no 
wind, so we are rowed with long, bladeless, im- 
practical oars. Are sails made of old pajamas? 
The air of Aswan has a special quality, just as old 
guidebooks say; feel marvelous. Steep climb to 
tombs. Full of huge pits, no railings, and, ugh!, 
some human bones in Nubian baskets. But never 
mind! Wall paintings of dancing girls and a relief 
of a dog — fine as a Degas — compensate. Out- 
side, we gaze down at Aswan, across a Nile dot- 
ted with feluccas that float like feathers between 
the islands. We \isit a bazaar, always fun. E\en 
late at night bazaars are safe; nothing more sinis- 
ter than a long-haired goat will follow you. 

February/ 13. We bid goodbye to the ship. Swal- 
lows fill the morning air as a bus takes us to fam- 
ous dam and granite quarry, source of all stone 
for obelisks (a long way to Cleopatra's Needle in 
Central Park!). Arrive at airport for flight to Abu 
Simbel. Push, shove, we are surrounded by at 
least five languages. Abu Simbel is very hot; 
Lake Nasser is glassy, weird, floating over 
desert. Will anything ever grow here? Dam not 
100% success, but redeemed temples are. 

February 14. Having flown back to Cairo, we are 
off to Saqqara, favorite of Egyptologists. Here is 
Zoser's pyramid, the earliest large stone building 
in the world. Here are reliefs and paintings of 
such high quality they make everything else look 
clumsv and cluttered bv comparison. Everywhere, 
repeated shapes create such a strong sense 
of rhythm, you feel yourself bending with the 
frieze of dancers, walking behind the solemn 
cattle, or climbing the riggings with an ancient 
sailor. You can almost hear the fish plop beneath 
the bows of little boats just like the ones we have 
been passing all week. A real Sahara sandstorm 
comes up; our driver turns into a weatherman: 
"Before rainy, must be windy. After rainy, no 
more windy." He was right. 

February 15. Pyramids don't look right sur- 
rounded by crowds; they are architecture meant 
for isolation. Best to visit them early in the 
morning, or late at night; but never, never on 
Friday — the Muslim holy day. Half of Cairo 
comes then to the pyramids with picnics. Do not 
think this is what old Cheops had in mind. 

Our great treat is a private view of the 
•'unerary boat uncovered in 1954. Hassan Nassif, 
director of antiquities at Giza, shows us the 
enormous, double-ended craft. Built entirely of 




Mrs. jadu'in Mf.- out ixW'' > ■yi"'' modeof trmtiportiitioii. 



cedar from Lebanon, lashed together with hemp 
(no nails), it has been painstakingly rebuilt. 
Now, under its protective sky of glass, it seems to 
float once more, ready to take a pharaoh proudly 
up the Nile. A fantastic sight, strangely moving. 

February 16. "Cairo itself cannot properly 
be called a health resort." Mr. Baedeker, you 
should see it now, with a density of over 250,000 
people per square mile in some sections. Every 
20 seconds a baby is born. The Nile's green 
strip seems far away as we elbow our way 
through Tahrir Square and back to the museum. 
A good place to begin and to end a trip to Egypt. 
Now the halls are filled with old friends: 
Tuthmose, Amenhotep, strange, flabby Akhna- 
ton, and nice Hatshepsut. For the last time we 
admire their elongated toes and the delicate feet 
that walk with such confidence and grace. A 
single stone hand rests on a shoulder and says all 
there is to know of tenderness. 

Now there is packing to do, and a shift of 
gears to ready ourselves for the long trip home. 

February 17. Thousands of feet below us, Egypt 
slips away. Three weeks ago it was sand and a 
river, a list of gods and pharaohs, an itinerary 
through unknown territory. Now we see it, 
"appearing and shining, far off yet close at 
hand."— Akhnaton's words. This trip and Del 
Nord have opened up a whole country for us. 
Like Howard Carter, King Tuts discoverer, we 
have seen "wonderful things." 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TDUF3* 

Field Museum Tours 1981 program offers 
Members a choice selection of interesting 
and fascinating destinations under tfie 
leadersfiip of Museum scientists. Eachi is 
designed with the aim of expanding your 
knowledge and understanding of the region 
visited, as well as to enhance your pleasures 
of travel. Tour groups are small (about 25) 
and your travel companions are people with 
similar interests. A tour escort accompanies 
each group to care for your every need and to 
oversee the operational aspect of the trip. 
Orientation sessions before departure give 
you a chance to clear up any questions about 
the itinerary, and to meet the lecturer and 
your co-travelers. 

Papua Mew Guinea 

May 1-17 

A land untouched by time ... of rain forests 
and coral-encrusted coasts... of butterflies 
and bamboo bands, birds of paradise, and 
orchids. It is a land of a thousand tribes, 
each different and distinct, each following 
age-old traditions... a brand new land, yet 
inhabited by man for over 50.000 years! 

ITINERARY: 

May 1: Early morning departure for non- 
stop flight to Honolulu. Transfer to 
llikai Hotel. Balance of day and evening at 
leisure. 2: Early morning departure by Air 
Niugini. A day is lost as we cross the Inter- 
national Date Line. 3: Morning arrival at 
Port Moresby to connect with flight for 
Madang. Transfer to charming Madang Re- 
sort Hotel. Remainder of day at leisure. 4: 
Morning transfer to cruise boat for tour of 
Madang harbor. On Siar Island we enjoy a 
bountiful barbeque lunch while entertained 
by a tuneful bamboo band. An afternoon 
drive takes us along the boulevards of 
Madang township. 5: An idyllic drive this 
morning, up north coast road past planta- 
tions and coastal villages, with frequent 
stops. Lunch at Bogia Hotel, then a Ramu 
River canoe trip. Late afternoon we board 
our trim, newly refitted cruise ship, Melane- 
sian Explorer. 6-9: Cruising the Sepik River. 
The Sepik forms a natural highway for vil- 
lages along the banks and for the immense 
water-oriented wildlife populations that re- 
side here: we glimpse the stirring activity as 
we glide along. 10: Morning departure by 
charter flight from Ambunti on the Sepik to 
Mt. Hagen. Western Highlands commercial 
center. Overnight at Minj Hotel. 11: We visit 
the spectacular Nondugl Sanctuary, Papua 
New Guinea's highest bird sanctuary, in 
16 Baiyer River Valley. 12: Morning visit to 




India: Taj Mahal 



Paree Gap and village for closer look at 
unique gardening technique on steep 
mountain slopes and for views of spec- 
tacular Chimbu Gorge. Afternoon visit to 
Chimbu Province villages. Overnight at 
Minj Hotel. 13: More motoring adventures. 
We pass the villages of Sina Sina. Chuave 
(limestone caves at the foot of Mount Elim- 
bari are traditional burial grounds), and 
Watabung on our way to the summit of the 
Daulo Pass; there we take in panoramic 
view of Goroka Valley coffee plantations. 
Overnight at Bird of Paradise Hotel. 14: 
Morning tour of Goroka and of McCarthy 
Museum. Depart Goroka in afternoon by Air 
Miugini for Port Moresby with transfer to 
Travelodge. 15: Port Moresby high points 
featured on our morning tour are the Na- 
tional Museum, the University of Papua 
New Guinea, and the National Capital Dis- 
trict. Free afternoon to pack or purchase 
last minute souvenirs. Late evening depar- 
ture. We regain the day we lost en route 
when we cross the I.D.L. Noon arrival in 
Honolulu and transfer to llikai Hotel. Bal- 
ance of day at leisure. 16: Afternoon de- 
parture from Honolulu for overnight flight 
to Chicago. 17: Early morning arrival 
O'Hare Airport. The cost of this tour is 
$4,461. including a $300 contribution to 
Field Museum. Possibly the most stimulat- 
ing single travel experience the present 
world has to offer. Dr Phillip Lewis, curator 




Baja California: surfacing whale 



of primitive art and Melanesian ethnology, 
our Field Museum lecturer, and Jeff Lever- 
sidge, a well known authority on the Sepik 
River will be your guides. Early registration 
is suggested. A more detailed itinerary is 
available on request. 

Baja California 

January 31-February 14, 1981 

Less thafh 50 Miles South of the G.S.- 
Mexico border begins a peaceful world 
of subtropical beauty — the Sea of Cortez 
(Gulf of California). Some 600 miles long, 
but generally less than 95 miles wide, this 
gulf is a paradise for marine vertebrate and 
invertebrate life — and for those of us who 
enjoy its study Field Museum members will 
have the opportunity to know this sea of 
wonders in a 15-day voyage that will all but 
complete the circumnavigation of the 
peninsula of Baja California. 

Beginning in the north end of the gulf 
at Puerto Penasco. we will spend 7 days 
exploring the natural history of the Sea of 
Cortez. examining consequences of terres- 
trial aridity and aquatic richness, observing 
changes as one moves from the warm- 
temperate north end to the subtropical sur- 
roundings of La Paz and Cabo San Lucas. 
In the Canal de Ballenas — the Channel of 
Whales — we may catch sight of the second 
largest of the great whales, the finback. We 
will also see countless sea lions, pelicans, 
cormorants, boobies, and frigate birds. 
Walking tours on several islands will afford 
first-hand experience with the flora and 
fauna. Lovers of marine life will have ample 
opportunities for snorkeling. fish watching, 
or just beach walking. After a morning in La 
Paz. the fabled 150-year-old capital of the 
territory of Baja California Sur. our last full 
day in the gulf will be divided between ex- 
ploration of Isia Espiritu Santo — "the most 
beautiful island in the gulf, " and a search 
at Gorda Banks for the giant plankton- 
eating whale shark, which may reach 
60 feet in length. 



A moment of high excitement will be 
the rounding of the spectacular lands end 
at Cabo San Lucas, marking our entry into 
the open Pacific and offering the chance 
to contrast the Sea of Cortez witfi the outer 
coast of Baja. bathed in the cooler waters 
of the California Current. 

A main objective for the outer coast 
segment of the tour is to visit the breeding 
and calving grounds of the California gray 
whale. This species may travel more thian 
] 1.000 miles annually between winter calv- 
ing grounds in Baja California and summer 
feeding grounds as far north as the Chuk- 
chi Sea — the longest migration of any 
mammal. Once hunted nearly to extinction, 
with protection the species has rebounded.- 
and the current population is estimated 
at 15.000. We will first see gray whales in 
Magdalena Bay astride the boundary 
between the subtropical waters through 
which we have sailed and the cooler warm- 
temperate waters to the north. In Laguna 
San Ignacio the main attraction will be 
the gray whales, which we should be able 
to observe at very close (but safe) range. 
Equally attractive will be the diverse bird 
life of the fringing mangrove lagoons and 
marshes. At the island group of San Be- 
nitos we will meet among the largest (3 
tons) of all pinnipeds, the northern elephant 
seal. After a visit to the rookeries of Isia San 
Martin and a final chance to see the spouts 
of migrating whales, we end our 1.400-mile 
voyage in San Diego. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert Karl 
Johnson, associate curator and head of 
the Division of Fishes at Field Museum. A 
graduate of Scripps Institution of Oceanog- 
raphy Johnson has had considerable field 
experience in the Gulf of California and 
along the outer coast of Baja California. 
Special Expeditions, a division of Lindblad 
Travel, operators of the ship to be used, will 
provide several additional naturalists whose 
expertise will further enrich our experience. 
Our home for the voyage is the one-class, 
fully air-conditioned 143.5-foot MVPacf/Jc 
Northwest Explorer built in 1980, regis- 
tered in the U.S.. and fully certified by the 
Coast Guard. All 39 cabins are on the 
outside, and all have private facilities. 

Cost of the Baja tour varies with 
the type of stateroom accommodations, 
according to the following schedule: lower 
deck, double cabin: ^2,100; upper deck, 
double cabin: ^2,380; main deck, double 
cabin: $2,520; upper deck cabins Car- 
men," "Catalina," "Cedros," and "Mag- 
dalena": $2,800; bridge deck cabins: 
52.800. Single accommodations are also 
available upon request. The above prices 
include surface transportation from Los 
Angeles to Puerto Penasco, Mexico, and 
San Diego to Los Angeles and transfers. 
Transportation between Los Angeles and 
Chicago (or other point of origin) is not in- 
cluded. Upon receipt of reservations, round 
trip air tickets (between Chicago and Los 
Angeles) will be purchased at the lowest 
available rate. Early reservations are advisa- 
ble for lowest air fares. Tour participants 
may elect to make separate air arrange- 
ments. Deadline for reservations is 
October 31. 




Egypt Karnak 

India 

January 21-February 12 

Now Is THF Time to take that long-awaited 
tour of India — a country that must be ex- 
perienced to be believed. The sheerly rising, 
snow-peaked Himalayas form a backdrop, 
unreal in its wall-like abruptness, to the 
valley of Kathmandu. Ancient temples 
freeze still living theologies into stone; the 
eloquent marble geometry of the Taj Mahal, 
the many-armed deities of Hinduism, and 
the serene face of the teaching Buddha 
form a living link with the past. 

iTirSERARY; 

Jan. 21: Depart Chicago. OHare Airport via 
United Airlines. Gateway city is New York. 
22: Arrive London. Overnight at Hotel 
Sheraton Heathrow. Day at leisure. 23: Air 
India flight to Delhi. Overnight at Maurya 
Sheraton Hotel. 24: Day at leisure. Late 
afternoon visit to Delhi Zoo. Evening cock- 
tail reception. 25: Morning excursion to 
Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary. Afternoon sight- 



seeing of Old and New Delhi. 26: Republic 
Day spectacular celebrations — India's 
greatest national festival. Special seats re- 
served for our group. Remainder of day at 
leisure. 27: Early morning flight. Accom- 
modations at Kanha National Park Forest 
Rest House. 28: Full day at Kanha Park. 
29: Morning exploration of Kanha Park on 
elephant back. Evening flight from Nagpur 
to Calcutta. Overnight at Airport Hotel. 30: 
Early morning flight to Jorhat. Ejccursion to 
Kaziranga Park. Overnight at Forest Lodge. 
31: Full day to view at close range wildlife 
of Kaziranga Park on elephant back. 
Feb. I: Flight from Calcutta to 
Kathmandu. Overnight at Hotel Oberoi 
Soaltee. 2: Morning flight over Mount 
Everest and Himalayan region. Afternoon 
tour to Godaveri Botanical Gardens. 3: 
Flight from Kathmandu to Pokra. Accom- 
modations at Fishtail Lodge on shores of 
Phewa Tal; beautiful view of mountains 
from the lake. 4: Flight from Pokra to Kath- 
mandu. Hotel Oberoi Soaltee. Afternoon 
sightseeing tour of the city. 5: Mid-after- 

For more exciting tours see page 26. 




Hew Guinea: masked dancer 



Right; Life-size 
mannequin in case 
12, Hall 5, repre- 
senting Iroquois 
man, wears sash (cat. 
no. 155666) described 
hy Mae Louise Rins: 
as "the finest exam 
pie of fingerweaving I 
have ei'er encoun 
tered."The sash was 
acquired by the 
Museum in 1926. 

Left; Detail of 

Ring's reproduction 

of Field Museum > 

Iroquois sash 

#155666 shown on 

the mannequin at 

right. The sash wa> 

fashioned from 28b 

single-ply wool 

18 strands. 



Iroquois Sash 
Inspires Weaver 

Museum Visitor 
Duplicates Exhibit Specimen 



It Is Both Commonplace and natural for 
museum visitors to express admiration for the 
native works of art that they see in the halls 
featuring ethnological materials. But seldom is 
a visitor so intrigued that he or she comes back 
to study the same article time and time again, 
takes notes on it, perhaps makes sketches, or 
even photographs the piece with the intentions 
of attempting to faithfully duplicate it with one's 
own hands. 

This was the case, however, with Miss 
Mae Louise Ring, of Dutton, Michigan, who has 
had a longstanding interest in textile crafts of 
Native North Americans. 

Several years ago. Miss Ring took special 
notice of a colorful sash worn about the body 
of a mannequin representing an Iroquois man 
in case 12, Hall 5, the hall of Indians of Eastern 
North America. Acquired by the Museum 
from an upstate New York locality in 1926, the 
Iroquois sash (cat. no. 155666) is woven of wool 
strands variously colored red, blue, green, and 
yellow. The sash, says Miss Ring, was the finest 
example of fingerweaving she had ever encoun- 
tered. As an experienced weaver, her decision to 
duplicate the piece was perhaps not remarkable, 
but the time, patience, and care which her pro- 
ject ultimately entailed is cause for admiration. 

In duplicating the piece. Miss Ring 
used 286 fragile, single-ply wool strands. These 
had to be spliced, and the constant handling of 






Mm Loiii^i' l\in\i with her liand-innde Srts/i. Rin-^ /s 
accomplished m a variety of Native American textile crafts 
and IS a potter as well. She has designed and made clothing; 
for diorama exhibits of Natii^e American culture in the 
Grand Rapids Public Museum, Michi^;an. 

the strands, she remarks, caused a problem in 
maintaining tension for pattern shape — a diffi- 
culty that any fingerweaver is familiar with. Her 
finished sash is 41 inches long (plus extremely 
long fringes) and 8 inches wide; nearly 70 
hours were required to complete the weaving. 
The only tools used, of course, were her 
own fingers. 

Such sashes may ha\e made their 
first appearance about A.D. 1500, Ring's 
research reveals. "The first use of this type of 
sash," she notes, "was functional, as for secur- 
ing clothing, carrying burdens, for wrapping 
bundles, and as trade items. Later thev were 
created for decorati\e purposes; the position 
on the body where the sash was worn and the 
manner in which it was secured often had a spe- 
cial symbolic significance. Now such sashes are 
used as part of traditional dress and in costumes 
for dances and other ceremonial functions, the 
colors and the pattern \arying accorciing to the 
dancer's place of origin." D 








^/*V> 





Ahom Hall5 
are the examples 
of fm^eiweavin^ 
shown on these 
fi\'i( rt's. Top: 
Winneba^^o, ii'itit 
wool midnff sash 
( #155667) in blue, 
yellow, and laven- 
der on red back- 
ground. Bottom: 
Sauk and Fox with 
red, blue, and pur- 
ple midriff sasli 
( #155628) also of 
wool. Both pieces 
were acquired by 
Field Museum 
in 1926. 



19 



Dear 
FItio 



Several Months Ago. the shelves of grocery stores across 
the nation began to carry dinosaurs — pictures of them, at 
any rate — on boxes of Life Cereal, manufactured by tiie 
Quaker Oats Company. 

The re\erse side of the boxes carried brief descrip- 
tions of these ancient behemoths, as well as portraits of 
them, and readers were invited to write for further informa- 
tion to Field Museum, where dinosaur reconstructions are 
some of the most popular exhibits. From among the many 
hundreds of letters recei\ed (nearh' all from children), the 
following were selected ioi Bulletin readers to share with us: 



Dear Field Miifeum: 1 am W \/ears old and in the 5th ^rade. 1 
want to knoiv hoic yon put dinosaur bonef to^^ether ami, also how 
do you make your dinosaur bones stand zcithout falling? 1 live 
in Twin Falls, Idaho. Some day I loant to come and see your 
Museum. 1 love studing dinosaurs, lu school 1 have studied it 
4 times We also made a notebook on dinosaurs. Truly yours, 
T.]., P.S. Thankyou. Twin Falls, ID 

Dear Field Museum Please send me a example of a Prehistoric 
.■\namals. N.J., Peru, IN 

Dear Sirs: I would like to know why the dinosaurs died. I would 
also like to know what the weather was like back then. 1 ivould 
also like to know which dinosaur was the biggest and how big. I 
would also like to know which dinosaur zvas the smallest and how 
small. How much the biggest dinosaur weighed and the smallest. 
How many different kinds of dinosaurs there was back then. Yours 
Truly, T.VV., Cincinnati, OH 

Dear to zvhoever it may concern, I'm writing to you because 1 
wa)it to be smart and to know about dinosaurs. 1 am 10 years old 
and in 4 grade. And I saw your thing on the Life cereal box. p'lease 
send me information. Sign, S.C., San , Antonio, TX 

Dear Field Museum, 1 get Life sometimes and saic the dinosaurs. 
In my class we've been studying about them. So I'm righting to 
you so I can have some information. I have to go now! bye!! L.G., 
'Pittsfield, ME 

Dear Sir, I would like all the information you can send me on di- 
nosaurs, and fossils. And if you have any great cowboys. Please 
send to: P.M., Bridgeport, OH 




Dear Field Mu:^eiii)i, I am fafinated about Diiio^niiri; so 
please send me as miicli information ns you can aspically the 
Tri/onasaurus Rex. I like him tlie most. Thank you. Your Di- 
nosaur Lover, \i.B., Oklahoma City, OK 

Ml/ name is li.j. and I'm 16 years old. I ivould like to kiuno nune 
information on your tnuseum. So can you please send me lots of 
infornuition on the Reptile called the Pteranodon 1 would love that 
very much. I like aninuils from 225 to 65 million years a^;o. So 
can you Please send me tons of information on the Pteranodon 
Please, and can yon also send me information on Man eatins^ Di- 
nosaurs. Thank you. R.J. Jr., Nortli Providence, Rl 

Dear Field Museum I need some information about DI- 
NOSAURS. I'd be really happy if you could deliver some infor- 
mation on dinosaurs in five weeks please. From M.I''., 
.\le\aiu1ria, VA 

Dear Field Museum, 1 -would like to hair the liole-ivorks of infor- 
nuition that you luwe on dinosaurs! I think they are neat! Thank 
you, sincerely, M.M., St. Cloud, MN 

Gentlemen. I'm sort of a dinosaur freak who would like to knoiv 
a little more about them. What I loould like to know is what they 
were because I order a magazine called Ranger Rick and it . . . told 
some ideas that dinosaurs could be warm-blooded, active animals. 
I -would also like to know about what they ate and where most of 
them lived. If there were any people ofe.xistance at that time. I 
sa-w your add on Life Cereal boxes. If this is any trouble here is my 
name and address: J.S., Council Bluffs, lA, a^e 9. Please write 
infornuition back soon! 

Dear: Field Museum I ^^ot the letter I can't \'a to see you because 
i'ts to far But -when I ^^et bi;f 1 -want to work at your Museum. I'm 
sendin;^ you a picture of triceratops and the bones of him. I ;^ot the 
pictures of dinosaur on the back of the Life cereal box of Meat- 
Eating Dinosaurs and Plant-eating Dinosaurs. I love Dinosaurs. 
I'm 7 years old. Do you luwe fossils of tyrannosaurus Rex? and 
triceratops? If you did I would like to see them. Could you send 
me pictures of Dinosaurs M.S., Thank you! New Rin^^s^old, PA. 

Dear Field Museum I'-ve ;^otten your dinosaurs on the pakage of 
Life. I've always liked dinosaurs when I was real young. 1 still do, 
they're my hobby. When I grow up I'm going to be a palentologist. 
Well, I would like some information pictures, and offers through 
the mail, if it is ok. I have dinosaur books, puzzels, pictures games, 
tlashcard, and even lots of rubber dinosaurs. Please give me offers, 
pictures and adult info. (I know already the names of all the Dino- 
saurs and groups) M.N., 11 years. Thank you. Ramona, CA. 

Dear Sir, 1 have studied dinosaurs for 3 years now 1 know many 
things about them My friend Tracy gai'e me your address if you 
have any free information about dinosaurs that I might not know 
please send It tome. Your friend, T.R., Iltndsville, AR. 

Dear Sirs: My name is D.Z. I'm in the 7th grade and entering the 
Science Fair at school. I'm writing to receive information on Di- 
nosaurs. Which theory have you discovered to be true about how 
the dinosaurs became extinct? Is it true that the flying reptiles of 
that time are the ancestors of our modern day birds? Was the 
plant life in that time of the dinosaurs similar to plant life of 
today? If not what do you think it ivas like? I would appreciate 
it if you would send to me, as soon as possible, any literature or 
pamphlets etc. that you lurveon this subject. Thank you, D.7., 
Cross Plains, WI ' 




Please send me papers or pictures on dinosaurs I am 4. I like to 
hear stories about them. B.R., Idaho Falls, ID 

Dear Friend, Flow are things? I'm okay. 1 zvas eating breakfast 
and I was looking on a Life cereal box and seen some Dinosuros 
(Very interesting.) Could yah send me some pictures or informa- 
tion about this place. I'm a type of person that likes artifacts and 
the past. Well I must close. See you soon. Write back when luwe 
time. Good luck and God bless you. Your very best friend, 
R. V. L., 15 years old. Candor, NC 

Dear Field Museum, My name is D.O. I zoould like to have more 
information on meat eaters and plant eating Dinosaurs, and Fos- 
sils. I am -very interesting on Dinosaurs. 'When you -write to me 
my address is: D.O., Vinton, LA 

Dear Sirs, I would like as much information as poss'ble on the 
prehistoric birds, meat-eating dinosaurs, the prehistoric am- 
phibians, and the plant-eating dinosaurs. It is I'cry important 
because I'm a science loi<er and am hoping I'll be a scientist. 
Sincerely yours, T.E., P.S. Try and rush them! Biloxi, MS 

Field Museum. I want to knou' more about dinosaurs and other 
prehistoric animals of long ago. Because I ivant to be a scientist 
when I grozo up. So that I knozo a lot about them. I like to read 
books about them too. And I like to rend n lot of books. And I want 
to knozo zvliy they died. Mammals are another prehistoric animals 
and zoliy did they die? Signed K.S., Memphis, TN 21 



Edward E. AyerFiltn Lecture Series 



October and November 

James Simpson Theatre 
Saturda\;s, 2:30 p.m. 

The Entrance to Simpson Theatre is conveniently located inside the west entrance. This is of special interest to the handicapped, 
for the entrance is at ground level, with all steps eliminated. The west entrance also provides free admission to the theatre. Access to 
other Museum areas, however, requires the regular admission fee (except on Fridays) or membership identification. The film/ 
lectures are approximately 90 minutes long and recommended for adults. Members must bring their membership cards for priority 
seating privileges. Doors open at 1;45 p.m. When the theatre has reached full seating capacity, the doors will be closed by Security 
personnel in compliance with fire regulations. 

Browsing deer on 
spacious lawns of 
Warwick Castle, in 
"England." Oc- 
tober 4. 




October 4 

"England" by Howard and Lucia Meyers 

This film takes you inside the incredibly lavish treasure houses 
of England — reminders of an adventurous past: Warwick 
Castle. Windsor, Barnard Castle, Wilton. The rich, romantic 
palaces of old England bid you a royal welcome. 

October 11 

"The Great Smok]^ Mountains ' by Richard Kern 

The rugged old mountains of Southern Appalachia are home 
to a diverse flora and fauna. Join Richard Kern as he explores 
the beautiful wilderness. 

October 18 

"Charming Vienna" by Andre de La Varre, Jr, 

Take a journey back to the city of his boyhood with Andre de 
La Varre. Visit the exquisite Habsburg Palace of Schonbrunn, 
watch the training of the worid famous Lipizzan stallions and 
22 experience the excitement of Vienna at night. 



October 25 

'Swiss on White" by John Jay 

John Jay's entertaining and humorous presentation visits 
the most popular and challenging ski runs in the Alps. Go 
to Murren and witness the roped race, San Moritz and the 
famous Cresta run, Kolstens with its cross country skiing 
and finally, summer skiing at Zermatt. 

November 1 

'Sweden ' by Dick Reddy 

Discover the warmth of Sweden with a visit to Stockholm 
followed by midsummer celebrations at Mariefred, glorious 
Gota Canal trip to Gothenburg and a trip to the Island of 
Gotland, north of the Arctic Circle. 

November 8 

"Greece" by Sherilyn and Matthew Mentes 

An intimate look at a land as ancient as the temples at Delphi 
and as modern as the skyscrapers of Athens. The Mentes take 
us from the islands, punctuafing Homer's "wine-dark sea," to 
the cloud-covered peak of Mount Olympus. 




Racing 70 miles per hour dowr) the 
famous Inferno Race Course. Murren. 
Switzerland, from "Swiss on White." 
October 25 



November 15 

"Paris" by Kathy Dusek 

A journey down the Seine — the river of Paris. Highlights 
include Paris life centering around the Seine, the beautiful 
Cathedrals of Notre Dame and Saint-Chapelle, and the sharp 
contrast of the modern worid with the remains of the past. 

November 22 

"Peoples of Romantic Europe" by William Sylvester 

Learn about the peoples of Germany, Switzerland, Austria, 
and Yugoslavia. Their character and traditions are explored and 
enrich our visit to their countries. 

Novemiber 29 

"Ireland" by Robert Davis 

A peek into the Irish past, a walk through bustling Dublin and a 
visit to the rural countryside highlight this film trip to Ireland. 





Black bear pauses to pose in "The 
Great Smok^/ Mountains," October 11. 



Touring horse caravan in Ireland, from 
' Ireland'. ' November 29 23 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Illinois Mud Turtle 
Still off Endangered List 

The Illinois mud turtle will not be listed as 
an endangered species at this time, the 
Department of the Interior's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service has decided. The agency's 
decision was based on new data received 
from the public in response to a proposal 
which would have afforded the dark 
brown turtle areas of critical habitat in 
Iowa and Illinois and other protection 
under provisions of the Endangered 
Species Act. 

Information compiled during the 
public comment period and from meet- 
ings held in the two states by the agencv 
following publication of the proposal in- 
creased the service's knowledge of the tur- 
tle's range and population. The additional 
data made available to the agenc\ indi- 
cated the turtle is more numerous than 
had been assumed but confirmed that its 
habitat has been reduced. The service will 
continue to study the status of the Illinois 
mud turtle, officials said. 

The Iowa area proposed as critical 
habitat for the turtle and known as Big 
Sand Mound is owned b\' Monsanto and 
Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company. 
Monsanto's expanding Muscatine her- 
bicide factory is located there, and the 
utilities company is constructing a 
generating station nearby. 

The two companies have fenced off a 
400-acre tract of land in Big Sand Mound 
and proposed it be managed as an ecologi- 
cal preserve by an advisory group of scien- 
tists and conservationists interested in 
preserving the area's unique plants and 
animals, including the Illinois mud turtle. 



Fish Employed to Monitor 
Water Purity 

A West German city has enlisted' six Nile 
elephant fish to check out whether it's safe 
to drink the water. Each Gnathonemus 
fish (actually, a two-inch, black-striped 
goldfish) works unstintingly around the 
clock, two weeks straight, to provide a 
continuous check on Goppingen's water 
purity. Its unique job qualifications; a ta- 
lent for detecting small amounts of metal 
contaminants and the ability to emit elec- 
tric impulses. 

City engineers simply plop one into 
an aquarium rigged with electrodes con- 
nected to a monitoring panel at utility 
headquarters and relax until the fish 
sounds a pollution warning by dropping 
its impulses under 200 a second. (An 
elephant fish in unpolluted water nor- 
24 mally gives off over 1,000 impulses.) 



Endangered Eaglet Survives Storms 

On the morning of July 17, biological tech- 
nician George Stapleton, of the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, observed an imma- 
ture bald eagle soaring around Little Creek 
Reservoir on Crab Orchard National 
Wildlife Refuge, Carterville, Illinois. 
Similar events are occurring elsewhere in 
the upper Midwest at this time of year, so 
what makes this eagle so special? The bird 
is special because it's the first eagle ever to 
be hatched and reared on the refuge; 
moreover, the nest is only the second suc- 
cessful nest in Illinois in the past 37 years. 
Efforts to produce the eagle began in 
early 1973 when a pair of eagles selected a 
snag in the reservoir and constructed a 
nest. Work on the nest ended abrupth- 
when the tree fell during a storm in W74. 
The eagles selected another snag nearby 
and again began building a nest. The 
eagles appeared to be interested in the 
nest throughout the winter months but 
usualh' joined the spring flights to north- 
ern states. 

However, in the spring of 1979, things 
were different. Seemingly, the eagles were 
about to carry the nesting activities to 
completion. From a vantage point a quar- 
ter of a mile from the nest, technician 
Stapleton checked the nest through his 
scope almost daily. He was convinced the 
eagles were incubating during the entire 
month of April. For some unexplained 
reason, though, the eagles abandoned the 
nest and left the refuge on May 2. Observ- 
ers were disappointed when they failed to 
see any sign of an egg or eaglet remains in 
an aerial survey over the nest a week later. 
The eagles returned to the area in 
November 1979, and again began de- 
fending territory around the nest. 
Biologists were excited by the obvious 
seriousness of the nesting activity when 
on March 8, 1980, the pair was observed 
mating near the nest. By late March, 
Stapleton thought the eagles were in- 
cubating an egg. On April 25, he noticed a 
change in the behavior of the eagle sitting 
on the nest and suggested it might be 
caring for a young bird. .Suspicions were 
confirmed on May 8 when an eaglet was 
observed moving about on the edge of 
the nest. Both proud parents were in 
attendance. 

With the parents providing an ample 
supply of fish, the eaglet continued to 
grow at a rapid rate. The voung bird had 
feathers and was close to the flight stage. 
On the evening of June 28, a severe thun- 
derstorm with 100 mile-per-hour winds 
passed through the area. The tree was 
blown down and the nest sank beneath 
wMter. The young eagle apparently sur- 
\'ived the storm and falling trees and was 
spotted sitting on a log near the stump that 



had once supported the nest tree. 

Biologists thought the young eagle 
had the best chance for survival — 
perhaps 50-50 — if left alone under the 
care of its parents. A check of the area on 
July 1 indicated the parents w ere still car- 
ing for the young bird and it appeared to 
be in good condition. 

On the afternoon of July 2, another 
severe storm moved through the area, 
creating severe damage to nearby com- 
munities and hundreds of trees on the 
refuge. The young bird, apparently con- 
ditioned to such abrasive powers of 
Mother Nature by now, survived the 
storm without harm. Technician Stapleton 
and the refuge staff were elated when the 
eagle finally took to flight on July 17. 

Several questions remain to be an- 
swered: Will the eagles return to the area 
again next year? Will they select another 
tree and continue their nesting attempts? 
Can they be encouraged to select a live tree 
on land or perhaps a man-made nesting 
structure over the water? The refuge staff 
will make the area as attractive as possible 
to eagles. Optimistically, eagles may adopt 
Crab Orchard Refuge as a permanent 
nesting site and produce young in south- 
ern Illinois regularh. 



Illinois Air Quality: 
A Mixed Report for 1979 

Air qualitv o\'er Illinois was a mixture of 
good news and bad news during 1979, ac- 
cordmg to the Annual Air Quality Report 
recently completed by the Illinois En- 
vironmental Agency. The report was com- 
piled by the lEPA's Division of Air Pollution 
Control Ambient Air Monitoring Section. It 
is based on data compiled from the Divi- 
sion's air monitoring network consisting of 
316 samplers throughout the state. 

On the good news side, le\els of ozone 
(O,) and carbon monoxide (CO) were defi- 
niteh' lower during the year. However, on 
the bad news side of the ledger, levels of 
sulfur dioxide (SO,), particulates (soot, 
dust, etc.) and nitrogen dioxide (NO,) were 
higher, the report shows. 

Dave Kolaz, manager of the section, 
said, "Air pollution is a highly variable 
phenomenon reiving on the interplay of a 
variety of conditions. Foremost among 
these are the weather, geography, and eco- 
nomics. Weather conditions involve at- 
mospheric stability, wind speed and direc- 
tion, precipitation, solar radiation, and 
temperature. It's important to know the 
geography — whether the area is urban, 
rural, valley or plain. Economics considers 
such things as the concentrations of in- 
dustries, boom or recession times, and 
whether it's a weekday or the weekend. All 
of these things are contributing factors to 



the quality of the air we breathe in this 
state. These \ariations often can be seen as 
a pattern of daily, seasonal or longer range 
basis." 

The report shows that trends estab- 
lished over the years for four of the se\en 
major air pollutants o\er the past years 
were reversed during 1979. Ozone and car- 
bon monoxide, which had been increasing, 
decreased, while particulates and sulfur 
dioxide, which were decreasing, increased. 

In general, ozone levels were much 
lower in 1979 than in the previous three 
years. For the first time since monitoring 
began in 1974, none of the 43 staHons in the 
network registered levels abo\e .20 parts 
per million (ppm). The highest hourlv 
average for the year was .186 ppm at Wau- 
kegan. That monitor also recorded the 
greatest number of davs above the federal 
standard of .120 ppm, with nine days. Ed- 
wardsville had the greatest number of 
hours exceeding the state standard of .080 
ppm, with 176. 

On 60 of the 153 days in the ozone sea- 
son at least one city or area was placed 
under an ozone advisory when levels 
exceeded 70 parts per billion (ppb) for a 
two-hour a\'erage and weather conditions 
were such that the levels were expected to 
reccur the following day. This compares 
to 88 days in 1978 and represents a decrease 
of 18 percent. Edwardsxille led with 37 
days under advisorv conditions. This is 23 
percent lower than in 1978, when Marion 
was under ad\isorv conditions for 72 days. 
In 1979 Marion had only 23 advisory days. 

There was only one Yellow Alert is- 
sued in 1979, compared to eight in 1978, 
when levels of 170 ppb were exceeded. The 
single Yellow Alert was declared on July 21 
for Waukegan. The Yellow Alert is issued 
when ozone levels reach 170 ppb for a 
one-hour average and conditions are such 
that reccurrence is expected the follow- 
ing day. 

Of the nine sites monitoring carbon 
monoxide only three registered violations 
of the eight-hour standard of 9 ppm. These 
occurred in Chicago, Calumet City, and 
Moline. The greatest number of excursions 
were recorded at the State Office Building 
in downtown Chicago with 59. This is a 
decrease of 30 percent over 1978, when 84 
excursions occurred. This site also had the 
highest eight-hour excursion of 16 ppm and 
the highest one-hour average of 24.3 ppm. 

The statewide average for particulates 
re\ersed a downward trend in 1979 when 
the statewide average was 74 micrograms 
per cubic liter (ug/m^) as compared to 70 
ug'm^ in 1978. Once again Granite City 
topped the list with an annual average of 
215 ugml This is the highest annual aver- 
age since 1969 and the first year since 1976 
that a site recorded an annual average 
above 200 ugim^ Of the highest nine sites 
in the state during the year, seven were lo- 
cated in Granite City. The lowest annual 
mean was 44 ug/m^ recorded in Lake Bluff. 
Granite City also had the two highest 



24-hour averages for the year. 

Sulfur dioxide also showed increases 
reversing the long-term downward trend, 
with the annual statewide average stand- 
ing at .012 ppm as compared to .010 in 1978. 
The increase was most noticeable in the 
Chicago/Cook County area from January 
through March, a period of severe winter 
weather which may have been a con- 
tributing factor 

E\en with this increase the state re- 
mained well below the primary annual 
standard of .030 ppm. The highest annual 
average was .022 ppm, registered at GSA 
Building in Chicago and the State Office 
Building in East St. Louis. The lowest 
annual average was .006 ppm measured 
in LaSalle. 

The longest continuous excursion ever 
recorded in Illinois occurred in Wood River 
and coxered an 80-hour period with the 
highest 24-hour average of .248 ppm. Two 
other sites recorded violations of the 24- 
hour primary standard of .14 ppm. These 
were Springfield with .216 ppm and East 
St. Louis with .162 ppm. 

Nitrogen dioxide levels continued a 
three-year trend of increasing levels. In 
1979 there were 19 sites above the annual 
primary standard of .050 ppm. This com- 
pares to none in 1977 and 11 in 1978 with a 
high of .060 ppm. In 1979 the highest aver- 
age was .078 ppm, recorded in Cicero while 
the lowest was .014, recorded in Ed- 
wardsville. 

Non-methane hydrocarbons were 
monitored at two sites in 1979. The stan- 
dard for this pollutant is a 6-9 a.m. average 
of .24 ppm not to be exceeded more than 
once per year Both sites had 98 percent of 
the 6-9 a.m. averages higher than the stan- 
dard. 



Pollutants Suspected 
In Striped Bass Decline 

Traces of arsenic, pcbs, and other chemi- 
cals are the latest clues in a biological de- 
tective story — the mysterious decline of 
Atlantic Coast striped bass. U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service biologists found the 
chemical residues in striped bass fry and 
fingerlings collected last summer from 
three East Coast rivers. Tests showed that 
Ihe fish had weakened backbones, a con- 
dition the scientists believe is caused by 
toxic chemicals. 

"A weakened backbone would cer- 
tainly reduce the ability of striped bass to 
compete for food, avoid predators, or en- 
dure the stresses of migration and reprod- 
uction," according to Paul Mehrle, an ivvs 
biochemist. "But we have a lot more work 
to do before we can say to what extent 
contiiminanls may be contributing to the 
decrease in the striped bass population." 

The number of striped bass, a valu- 
able sport and commercial fish, began 
dropping in the early 1970s and by 1978 
had reached a 21-vear low. Two federal 



fishery agencies — FWS and the National 
Marine Fisheries Service — are conducting 
an emergency three-year program to de- 
termine the size and distribution of striped 
bass populations and to find out whether 
the decline is natural or due to some 
man-made phenomenon, such as pollu- 
tion or over- fishing. 

Contaminants are a prime suspect in 
the mystery because striped bass spawn in 
heavily polluted rivers where the delicate 
young fish stay for up to three or four 
months after hatching. Then the young 
must survive for two years or more in 
estuaries, where they are often exposed to 
more pollution. Later, some stocks of 
striped bass migrate out to sea where the\' 
spend most of their adult lives in coastal 
waters. 

FV\S scientists have found that \oung 
striped bass from the Hudson River con- 
tained relatively high levels of pcbs (poly- 
chlorinated biphenyls, an industrial 
chemical), lead, and cadmium. Fish from 
the Potomac River contained lead, zinc, 
arsenic, and selenium; and fish from the 
Nanticoke River (Mar\'land) contained 
significant levels of arsenic and selenium. 
In contrast, striped bass raised at the 
Edenton National Fish Hatchery in North 
Carolina contained no significant chemical 
residues. Tests also revealed that the 
backbones of Hudson River fish were 42 
percent weaker than the uncontaminated 
hatchery fish, while backbones of fish 
from the Potomac and Nanticoke showed 
about a 20 percent reduction in strength. 

Mehrle says the studies show that 
contaminants begin affecting striped bass 
during very early life stages — within the 
first three months. 

The researchers have already begun 
additional studies to learn more about the 
effects of contaminants on striped bass. 
Adult female bass have been collected 
from the Hudson River, the Elk and Chtip- 
tank rivers in Maryland, and the Cooper 
River in South Carolina, and their fer- 
tilized eggs sent to a laboratory. There, 
studies will be made of hatching success, 
and of survival, growth and development 
of the young for 90 days after hatch. 
Chemical residues in eggs and young will 
be measured throughout the study 
period, l-us scientists will then see if the 
presence of chemical residues can be cor- 
related with reproductive success or sur- 
vival and growth of \'oung. 

At this time there is no consensus as 
to what is causing the drop in the number 
of striped bass. Some scientists think a 
combination of factors is resptinsible, 
while others believe the decrease is part of 
a natural c\cle that will eventually reverse 
itsi'lf without human help. Ihe tests being 
conducted should help provide the evi- 
dence needed to determine whether pol- 
lution is contributing to the decline of 
the popular fish. In the meantime, the 
jury is still out on the case of the declining 
striped bass. 25 



TOURS 

Continued from p. 17 
noon flight from Kathmandu to Varanasi. 
Clarks Hotel. City tour of Varanasi, tfie 
oldest city in tfie world. " Opportunity for 
shopping. 6: Early morning boat ride on 
Ganges to see the Ghats, another highlight 
of trip. Afternoon flight to Agra. Overnight 
at Hotel Mughal, 7: Visit the famous TAJ 
MAHAL in the morning. Afternoon at lei- 
sure. 8: Travel to Bharatpur will be by de- 
luxe motor coach, stops at Fatehpur Sikri, 
Akbar the Great's old capital, and a visit 
to the tomb of Saint Salim Chisti or the 
Bulland Durwaza, Overnight at the Forest 
Lodge. 9: Morning viewing of nesting water 
birds via boat. Afternoon departure by 
motor coach for Jaipur. Afternoon tour of 
Jaipur City. Also visit Jai Singh's Astrolo- 
gical Observatory. Overnight at Rambagh 
Hotel. 10: Morning excursion to Amber 
Fort. Afternoon departure by motor coach 
for Delhi. Overnight at Maurya Sheraton 
Hotel. 11: Early morning departure for Lon- 
don. Overnight at the now familiar Hotel 
Sheraton Heathrow. 12: Depart London in 
early afternoon for New York Chicago. 

The price of this unusual tour is 
53.200. based on double occupancy plus 
a S300 tax-deductible contribution to Field 
Museum. Single supplement is 5347 addi- 
tional. Tour leader will be Mr Jerie S. Ser- 
rao. of the Bombay Matural History Society. 



Egypt (with Nile cruise) 

Co-sponsored by Field Museum 

and The University Museum, 

Gniversity of Pennsylvania 



February 4-21. 1981 



ITINERARY: 

Feb. 4: Departure Chicago O'Hare Airport. 
Mew York is gateway city. 5: Afternoon arri- 
val in Cairo. Hotel Mena House Oberoi. 6: 



Morning tour of the Giza Pyramids: after- 
noon tour of the Egyptian Museum of An- 
tiquities. 7: Full day excursion to Memphis 
and Saqqara, Attend Sound and Light per- 
formance in the evening, 8: Depart Cairo 
by deluxe motor coach to Abusir Continue 
to Minia; board MS Reu Vacances for Mile 
cruise, 9: Beni Hassan/Mallawi, Morning 
visit to rock-cut tombs. Afternoon visit 
to the tomb of Petosiris at Tuna el Gebel 
and to El Ashmunein, 10: Tell-el Amarna, 
Morning visit to Akhetaton, Afternoon, 
cruising on the Mile. 11: Full day at leisure 
cruising on the Mile. 12: Morning visit to the 
beautiful Mew Kingdom temples at Abydos. 
13: Morning visit to the Rolemaic temple of 
Dendera. Arrive at Luxor after lonch. After- 
noon visit to the temple of Amenhotep III. 
14: Full day visit to the Valley of the Kings 
(Luxor). In the evening. Sound and Light 
performance at the temples of Karnak. 15: 
Morning visit to the tombs of the Mobles 
and the workmen's village. Afternoon visit 
to the temples at Karnak. 16: Morning visit 
to the temple of the god Khnum at Esna, 
In the afternoon, visit the temple of Horus 
at Edfu, 17: Sail to Kom Ombo, visit the 
temple dedicated to the falcon god Horus, 
Afternoon arrival in Aswan, Excursion by 
felucca to Elephantine Island, Visit Kitch- 
ener's Gardens, 18: Disembark at Aswan, 
Visit the High Dam, Granite Quarries, un- 
finished Obelisk and the temple of Philae, 
Afternoon visit to rock-cut tombs of the 
Mobles, Overnight at Hotel Oberoi, 19: 
Early morning flight to Abu Simbel, After- 
noon flight from Abu Simbel to Cairo, 
Return to the Hotel Mena House Oberoi. 
20: After breakfast, transfer to Egyptian 
Museum of Antiquities for a second visit. 
Afternoon tour of Old Cairo. Farewell di- 
nner at the Meridian Hotel. 21: Morning de- 
parture from Cairo for Mew York/Chicago. 

The lecturers for this tour are Del Mord, 
Ph.D. candidate in Egyptology. Department 
of Near Eastern Languages and Civiliza- 



tions, The Oriental Institute, The University 
of Chicago and David P Silverman. Ph.D,, 
assistant professor of Egyptology at the 
University of Pennsylvania and assistant 
curator of the Egyptian Section at the 
University Museum, 

The cost of the tour from Chicago is 
$3,495,00, plus a $500,00 tax-deductible 
contribution to Field Museum, Participation 
is limited to 30 people. 



People's Republic of China 

April 5-24. 1981 

A Specially Tailored 3-week travel/study 
tour of China is offered under the leader- 
ship of Mr Phillip H, Woodruff, Ph,D. can- 
didate in Chinese history at the University 
of Chicago, This is Mr Woodruffs second 
time as a Field Museum China tour leader 
and his third visit to that country in 1 1 
months. Cost of the tour is $4,021, plus 
a $300 tax-deductible contribution to 
Field Museum. 

ITINERARY: 

April 5: Depart O'Hare Airport by overnight 
flight (day is lost as we cross International 
Date Line). 6: Arrive in Tokyo and transfer 
to the New Otani Hotel. 7: Flight from 
Tokyo to Peking, 8-10: In Peking, 11: Travel 
from Peking to Sian, 12, 13: In Sian, 14: 
Travel from Sian to Suzhow, 15: Travel from 
Suzhow to Shanghai, 16: In Shanghai. 17: 
Travel from Shanghai to Hangchow. 18: In 
Hangchow. 19: Travel from Hangchow to 
Kweilin. 20, 21: In Kweilin. 22: Travel from 
Kweilin to Hong Kong. Register at Mandarin 
Hotel. 23: In Hong Kong, farewell cocktail 
party and dinner 24: Depart Hong Kong 
by homebound flight. Arrive on same date 
in Chicago (having gained day while cross- 
ing I.D.L.), 



October & November at Field Museum 

(October 15 through November 15) 



New Exhibit 

"The Great Bromze Age of Chima: An Exhibition from the 
People's Republic of China," Bronze vessels, jade sculptures, 
and magnificent terracotta soldiers and horses attest to the 
range of inventive genius of the ancient Chinese. Highlights 
include a gilded lamp in the form of a lovely young girl: a large 
bronze bowl with an inscription that gives an eyewitness account 
of the overthrow of the Shang Dynasty by the invading Zhou: 
and a deadly axe blade found in a tomb with three human 
sacrifices. Exhibit curator: Bennet Bronson; designer: Clifford 
Abrams. Through October 29. Halls 26 and 27. 2nd floor. 



Continuing Exhibit 

"Place for Wonder." Everything in this gallery is meant to be 

touched, handled, and examined. Feel volcanic ash from Mount 

26 St. Helens: discover the minerals which give us soap and tooth- 



paste: or write your name with a piece of graphite, which is used 
for making pencils. Open weekdays 1 p.m. -3 p.m.: weekends 10 
a.m. -noon, and 1 p.m. -3 p.m. Ground floor, near cafeteria. 

New Programs 

"Human Uniqueness and Animal Nature." with Stephen Jay 
Gould, professor. Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard 
University. Come hear one of the world's most versatile scientists 
give the keynote address of the Fall Learning Museum course. 
"Animals in Human Perspective." Dr. Gould challenges the ac- 
cepted barriers between humankind and the rest of the animal 
kingdom, and explores why the Western world has yet to make 
its peace with Darwin and the implications of evolutionary 
theory Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment 
for the Humanities, a federal agency Friday. Oct, 17. 8 p.m., 
Simpson Theatre. Call 322-8855 during business hours to 
order tickets now, or purchase them at the lecture door. Mem- 
bers $3. nonmembers $5. 



Ray a. Kroc Environmental Film Lectore: "The Philippine 
(Monkey-Eating) Eagle Expedition." with Alan Degen. This film 
depicts the drama of adult eagles raising their young in one of 
the most endangered environments on earth, where the rav- 
ages of forest destruction are pushing the second largest of 
eagles to the brink of extinction. Degen. one of the film's princi- 
pal photographers, narrates this intense documentary Friday 
Mov 14. 8 p.m.. Simpson Theatre. For ticket information, call 
322-8854 during business hours. 

YUEH Lung Shadow Theatre. Don't miss this rare opportunity 
to see the 2.000-year-old art of Chinese Shadow Theatre ani- 
mated by colorful, translucent rod puppets. Behind a back-lit 
screen, the puppets will pantomime two classical Chinese folk 
tales. "The Two Friends" and "The Crane and the Tortoise." A 
play about the famous Monkey King. "The Mountain of the Fiery 
Tongues."' will also be performed. Saturday Oct. 18 at 11 a.m. 
and 12:30 p.m. Tickets should be ordered in advance due to 
limited seating capacity: call 322-8854 during business hours. 
Members $3. nonmembers $5. 




Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre performs on Saturday, October 18. 



Free Films on Ancient China continue every Friday Saturday 
and Sunday for the duration of "The Great Bronze Age of China '" 
exhibit. At 1 1 a.m.: China: The Beginnings discusses the search 
for the origin of Chinese civilization. At 12:30 p.m.: China: 
Hundred Schools to One documents the warring between the 
states and the formation of the Qin empire. At 2 p.m.: Xian 
traces the history of China's ancient imperial city Made possible 
by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a 
federal agency 




Stephen Jay Could, noted Harvard CIniuersity professor and es- 
sayist, will lecture in James Simpson Theatre on Friday, October 1 7, 
at 8:00 p.m. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. Explore the world with- 
out leaving Chicago, every Saturday in October and Movember, 
2:30 p.m.. in Simpson Theatre. Colorful 90-minute films, nar- 
rated by the filmmakers themselves, focus on such diverse 
lands as Switzerland, Sweden, and Greece. Admission is free at 
the West Door; Members receive priority seating. See pp. 22-23 
for program details. 

Fall Joorney: "Fossils in the Floor." Learn about fossils in this 
self-guided tour. Free Journey pamphlets are available at 
Museum entrances. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Participate in a variety of free 
tours, demonstrations, and films on natural history every Sat- 
urday and Sunday between 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. Check the 
Weekend Sheet available at Museum entrances for locations 
and additional programs. 

D Saturday Oct. 18: "Ancient Egypt." tour, 11:30 a.m. 

n Sunday Oct. 19: 'Rocks of All Ages" Film Feature: Fossil 
Story. 1 p.m. 

D Saturday Oct, 25: "Many Mexicos," tour, 1 p,m. 

D Sunday Oct, 26: "Indian Life on the Prairies," tour, 1 p,m. 

n Saturday Mov 1: "Ancient Egypt," tour, 11:30 a,m. 

D Sunday Mov 2: "Ethnographic Reality, Cultural Studies on 

Film " Film Feature: The Barefoot Doctors of Rural China, 

1 p.m. 

n Saturday Mov. 8: "Welcome to the Field," tour, ] p.m. 

D Sunday Mov. 9: "Ethnographic Reality Cultural Studies on 
Film" Film Feature/^ f^an Called Bee, 1 p.m. 

D Saturday Mov. 15: "Welcome to the Field." tour, 1 p.m. 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Individuals interested in working 
with school groups, presenting tours, and participating in other 
educational programs are asked to contact the volunteer coor- 
dinator at 922-9410. ext. 360. 

October and November Hours. The Museum opens daily at 9 
a.m. and closes at 5 p.m. (4 p.m. beginning Movember I ) every 
day except Friday On Fridays the Museum remains open until 9 
p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



27 



.i__.:vIS SlftTURAL HISTORY 
SURVEY LIB RW 196 
NATURAL RESOURCES BUILDI■^l:^ 
ij^nHH^ ILL ol^^Ol 





J 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



CONTENTS 
3 



November 1980 
Vol. 51, No, 10 



EditonDt'si^iier: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poiilter 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

Preiiideiit: E. Leland Webber 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, jr. 

Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Roberto. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Da\is 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy ]r. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
CUfford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T Pirie, Jr 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum ot Batumi Hi^h^ru Bi(.iL-.*iri (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605, Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $.1.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 
60605. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, II. 



10 

11 



North American Indian Heritage Day Program 

Sunday, November 23 

Lowly Asphalt Comes into Its Own 

by Robert F. Mari^cliiu'r, research afsocmte, Department of Geology 

Dove-Catching with Salt and Other Adventtires 

('1/ William Heiir\/ Hudson 

Endangered and Threatened Invertebrate Species 
Endangered and Threatened Plant Species 



12 The Technology of the Northwest Coast 
Halibut Fisherman 

by Ronald L. Weber, visiting assistant curator. Department 
of Anthropologi/ 

1 6 Behind the S cenes 

1 8 Field Museum Tours 

21 A Christmas Afternoon at Field Museum 

Thursday, December 11, program 

22 Field Briefs 

23 Bo(*s 

24 Our Environment 

26 November and December at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 

"Animal, vegetable, and mineral" might be described as the theme of this 
whatnot box. The editor wishes to thank Mike Gotto, Stanley Konopka, 
and George Petrik, all of Budding Opvrations, for preparation of the box 
frame; Dave Willard, custodian of the bird collection, for the loan of 
robin and plover eggs: Eric Smith, custodian of the insect collection, for 
the loan of insects: Betty Deis, instructor. Department of Education, for 
the loan of miscellaneous specimens; and Emily Brandle, of the Museum 
Gift Shop, for the loan of mineral sp>ecimens. The Lepidoptera are from 
the editor's private collection. Photo by Ron Testa. 








North American Indian 
Heritage Day 



Sunday. November 23 

11:00 a.m.— 4:00 p.m. 




A D/^-LONC Celebravon of North American Indian culture 
will be hosted by Field Museum on November 23. Traditional 
folklore, ritual, and crafts practiced by Native Americans will 
be areas of special focus. Under the Joint auspices of the 
f^useum and the American Indian Center, of Chicago, the 
American Indian Dance Croup will perform dances of the 
Oneida. Sioux. Seneca. Omaha, and Winnebago tribes, 
among others. Commentary on dance symbolism and 
the significance of costume design will supplement the 
performances. 

Throughout the day. local Indian artisans will demon- 
strate silversmithing, weaving, flutemaking. beadworking. 
quillworking. and other crafts. 

Also scheduled are a selection of tours of Field 
Museum's extensive Indian collections: a look at Hopi life in 
the Southwest and symbolism and craft of American Indian 
dress, prehistoric life in the Illinois Valley, and the daily life of 
major norihern tribes. 

The Pawnee earth lodge in Hall 5. a life-size replica of 
a 19th-century Pawnee dwelling, is open all day. and guides 
are on hand to answer questions about Pawnee life. Supple- 



mental slide presentations provide information on the history 
and culture of the Pawnee. 

There will also be an opportunity during North 
American Indian Heritage Day to view selections from Field 
Museum 's film archives. Films include the story of Ishi. the 
last aboriginal Indian of North America discovered in Califor- 
nia in 191 1: Maria Martinez, the world-renowned Pueblo pot- 
ter from New Mexico who died earlier this yean and scenes 
from Edward S. Curiis's legendary 1913 film. "In the Land of 
War Ccinoes." which is concerned with rituals of the North- 
west Coast KwakiutI Indians. 

November 23 promises to be a fascinating day for the 
entire family. See dances performed as they once were exe- 
cuted in yeais past ti/A" to Indian artisans who reminisce 
about their tribal ways and crafts, and experience the rich 
heritage of the fust Americans. 

All activities are free with Museum admission. Com- 
plete listing of events available on Sunday, November 23, 
at Museum entrances. Tickets are not necessary. For more 
information, see the November Calendar of Events or call 
312-322-8854. 3 



Lowly Asphalt Comes into Its Own 

The Significance of Asphalt in the technology of 
early civilizations is coming to light 

by Robert F AViRSChmer 



A 



Randw La Brea Tar Pit, 
near Los Angeles. 
Workmen are excavat- 
ing pelvises of giant 
ground sloths. Note 
liquid asphalt seeping 
from excavation ivall. 
1915 photo: courtesy 
George C. Page 
Museum, La Brea Dis- 
coveries (a branch of the 
Los Angeles County 
Museum of Natural 
4 Histori/). 



rcheologists sometimes encounter in their 
excavations a viscous mixture of liquid bitu- 
men with solid mineral matter — the substance 
commonly called asphalt. In the early days 
of archeological investigation it was usually 
overlooked or ignored, and its importance to 
early man as an adhesive, sealant, and protectant 
was hardly recognized. Only in recent years has 
asphalt gained enough attention as an archeolo- 
gical material to be the subject of independent 
study and analysis. 

An exception to this generalization is a 
collaboration between a university archeologist 
and a petroleum-industr\' chemist that occurred 
nearly fift\' years ago. The archeologist was Henri 
Frankfort, visiting professor at the Oriental Insti- 



tute of the Universitv of Chicago, who had un- 
earthed several large structures at Tell Asmar, in 
what is today central Iraq. The chemist was R. J. 
Forbes, of the Roval Dutch Shell Laboratories in 
Amsterdam; he was interested in the early history 
of petroleum. Nine samples of asphalt mortars 
and floorings excavated by Frankfort were 
analyzed bv Forbes in the early 1930s. Until now, 
what little was known about the composition of 
asphalts used bv the ancients was based almost 
enrirely on these nine samples. In the past decade, 
however, collaboration like that of Frankfort and 
Forbes has multiplied. 

Asphalt as found in archeological sites is 
rather nondescript. Its color tends toward choco- 
late brown, the shade depending upon the local 





Thcuuthor. ri^lil, it'itli 
Donnld Wliitu'ifih, 
iiisistniit cuiiitor of 
Middle En f tern iirche- 
ologi/ mid etliiwlo^^y, (?s 
tiny exivnine ancient 
iirtifiKti: made ot or 
med for bitumen. The 
larger piece (Cat. no. 
156986), a cup con- 
structed largely of an 
ostrich shell, has a base 
and top portion made of 
lutu)nen with mother- 
of-pearl inlay: from 
Egypt, early third 
dynasty. The small jar 
(#157450), fromKish, 
Iraq, contained a great 
deal of bitumen. The 
dark streaks are not de- 
sign but bitumen spd- 
led on the jar surface. 



Jirt or dust blow n or washi-d in. Its shape varies 
with its fiinctitin in man's ti.'chnolog\-: mortars 
sometimes carr\' impressions of inscriptions on 
bricks, and sealants may transfer patterns of 
woven baskets or mats. Especially common are 
small flattened discs containing parallel streaks of 
mineral, the purpose of these discs, however, is 
still a mvsterv. 

Separating the components of asphalt is 
deceptively simple: an organic solvent such as 
chloroform or toluene is used to dissolve the 
bitumen, which can then be recovered bv distill- 
ing off the soK'ent, leaving the mineral matter un- 
affected. But there are two difficulties: several 
time-consuming extractions are sometimes 
needed to completely remove the bitumen; and 



Robert F. Marschner is a research associate in the Depart- 
ment of Geology. 



some mineral fines (fine-grained fractions) either 
pass through coarse filter paper or clog the pores 
of fine filter p->aper The result is that usually some 
bitumen remains in the mineral and some mineral 
remains in the bitumen. But the use of adequate 
solvent, as well as decantation and centrifuging, 
together with patience, experience, and arithme- 
tic corrections, usualK' can result in an acceptable 
analysis. 

After the bitumen has been mostly re- 
moved, the mineral can be examined. A drop of 
acid on a pinch of it will ordinariK' identify it as 
either sand (silica), which is unaffected b\' the 
acid, or as limestone (carbonate), which froths 
\isibl\' itT reaction to the acid. Usually, both sand 
and limestone are present; their relative propor- 
tions can be demonstrated b\' weighing a sample 
before and after iunilion in a bunsen burner 

Asphalt was also used bv aborigines of 
several other parts of the New Wiirld. The Ol- 



The Stnndard of Ur 

(detail, 40%nat. :^te), 

in the British Min^euni, 

whs made partly of 

bitumen. 




mecs of Yucatan lined ducts and sewers of the 
so-called "Acropolis" at La Venta with asphalt. 
Old asphalt diggings were found by the first 
Spaniards in Peru at Punta Parinas, the wes- 
ternmost point of South America. A dozen other 
instances of use in the Americas have been iden- 
tified, but there has been no confirmation of the 
legend that the Incas paved their roads with as- 
phalt. Those rocky mountain trails would have 
benefitted little from such treatment. 

Native asphalts could occasionally be em- 
ploved for some purposes in its natural, unal- 
tered form. But in cold regions the natural mix 
would be too thin for most purposes and in warm 
regions it might be too thick. Eventually, man 
discovered how to adjust the asphalt composi- 
tion to the particular purpose he had in mind; 
adding dust when the mix was too soft; adding 
raw seepage when the mix was too hard. Still 
later he learned that heating the mix facilitated 
incorporation. Several samples found in Middle 
East sites were twice too rich in bitumen for gen- 
eral use, suggesting that storage of asphalt of 
intermediate consistency was common practice. 

An early use of asphalt was as a cement or 
glue, and perhaps the earliest use of all was for 
hafting: the joining of wooden handles to stone 
points for use as weapons or tools. Tiny blades 
arranged like a row of teeth in a crude sickle 
show traces of the asphalt with which they were 
presumably sealed into the wood or bone han- 
dles. Points larger than such microliths often still 
carry bits of asphalt that once affixed them to 
shafts to form spears. Similar uses were the at- 
tachment of fishhooks to leaders and sinkers; 
handles to knives, scrapers and paddles; and 
cloth and matting to stone, wood, or other 



woven articles. Asphalt was also used for 
mending broken objects such as grinciing stones, 
pottery vases, and toys. 

Since it is impervious to water, asphalt 
was frequently used as a coating or sealant. Reed 
coracles that have plied the Euphrates River for 
centuries, and wooden canoes in which the 
Chumash Indians island-hopped along the 
California coast were coated thickl)' outside with 
asphalt to keep water out. At Nineveh in Iraq and 
at Talara in Peru earthenware jars coated inside 
with asphalt protected the food and drink con- 
tents bv keeping water out. Use of asphalt as 
a water barrier extended from the baths at 
Pakistan's Mohenjo Daro to a canteen found in 
Santa Barbara. 

The most extensive use of asphalt was as a 
structural material for articles of every size. In 
addition to coating bricks, it was also used to 
cover roofs, stairways, and drains, and as paving 
for streets and roadwavs, much as it is today. A 
myriad of smaller articles were made from bulk 
asphalt: beads, models, toys, dice, plugs, as well 
as objects of unknown purpose made from flat- 
tened or rolled-out spheres of asphalt. 

X-rav diffraction has also been used re- 
cently to determine the sand and limestone con- 
tent, though this technique is still being refined. 
One problem may be unresolvable: distinguishing 
native mineral matter originally present, mineral 
fines added by man to adjust the consistency 
of the asphalt, and mineral- contamination in- 
troduced by chance over the interim of a few 
thousand years. 

Once it is free of solids, the bitumen can be 
examined for its specific gravity, softening point, 
and sulfur content. Recently, the technique of gas 



chromiihigrdphy has been used in "fingerprint- 
ing" bitumens from archeological sources in much 
the same way that it has been used to identif\' 
petroleums in oil spills. 

In our collaborati\o stud\ ' of the earh' use 
of asphalt in the ancient Middle East, Henr\' T. 
Wright, of the Museum of Anthropology of the 
University of Michigan, and I examined in the 
laboratories of the Standard Oil Compan\- (In- 
diana) W) samples from a dozen sites ranging in 
age from 3,000 to 5,000 years. 

The older samples came from upland sites 
among streams in the Zagros Mountains of Iran 
and Iraq. Farukhabad, a town near an asphalt 
seepage kn(.n\ n as Ain Gir, ma\' ha\e been a cen- 
ter for the preparation of asphalt for shipment; 
asphalts excavated there at le\'els as chronologi- 
cally far apart as 4300 B.C. and 3000 B.C. hardly 
tliffered from one another. In such large cities of 
ancient Mesopotamia as Nineveh, Bab\'lon, and 
L'r of the Chaldees, asphalt was used literalh' b\' 
the ton. Most of it went into mortar for large brick 
structures. 

Greater Mesopotamia was almost the onh- 
region in the East where bitumen had k)ng been 
useci. At Mohenjo Daro, a site on the Indus River 
in Pakistan, a one-inch layer of bitumen served 
as backing for the exposed tiles of an elaborate 



bathing pool. The source of the bitumen found 
there is uncertain; that it was imported from as far 
away as Mesopotamia seems unlikely. Bitumen 
\sas used little if at all in ancient Egypt, although 
potential sources of the substance existed in 
the Dead Sea and along the Great Kift in the 
Gulf of Suez. 

In their study- of the later use of asphalt in 
the West, Theodore E. Gutman, of the Institute of 
Archaeology of the Universit\' of California at Los 
.'\ngeles, and L. W. Slentz, of the Chevron Oil 
Field Research Laboratory, La Habra, California, 
collaborated on a study of asphalts used by the 
Chumash Indians. These people once inhabited 
the Santa Barbara coast and offshore islands west 
of Los Angeles. Gutman and Slentz worked with 
eight archeological samples ranging in age from 
200 to 2,000 years, and with several local seep- 
ages, including that of the nearb\' Rancho l.a Brea 
Tar Pits. Uses to \\ hich the older samples had been 
put were uncertain, but one of the more recent 
samples had clearly been used as an adhesive. 
Although analyses varied considerably, bitumens 
from some of the samples resembled those from 
local seepages. 

Another widespread use of asphalt was as 
a matrix and adhesive for decorative bits of bright 
material such as shell, bone, and colored stone. 

Continued on p. 9 



1. Robert ¥. Marschiiei; Hoin/ T. Wii\;lil. "AspluUts fiviii 
Middle Eastern Sites," Advances in Chemistry Series, 
Vo. m 0978). 



2. Tlicodor'c E. Gutiinvi, "Lhc of Asplmlluiii Sourciiig 
ill Archaeolog\/," Journal of New World Archaeology, 3 
(2), 0979). 




Author Robert F. 
Minsi Inter uses gas 
ehroiiuttograph iii the 
Department of Geol- 
og\i's geochemical lab- 
oratory to rtdrt/yrc 
bitiiweii samples and 
other volatile sub- 
stances. 7 



Daw Wjlstt-n 



Dooe-Catching with Salt 
And Other Adventures 

by William Henry Hudson 



One spring da\- an immense number of doves 
appeared and settled in the plantation. It 
was a species common in the country and bred in 
our trees, and in fact in every grove or orchard in 
the land — a pretty dove-coloured bird with a 
pretty sorrowful song, about a third less in size 
than the domestic pigeon, and belongs to the 
American genus Zenaida. This dove was a resi- 
dent with us all the year round, but occasionally 
in spring and autumn they were to be seen 
travelling in immense flocks, and these were 
evidently strangers in the land and came from 
some sub-tropical country in the north where 
they had no fear of the human form. At all 
events, on going out into the plantation 1 found 
them all about on the ground, diligently search- 
ing for seeds, and so tame and heedless of my 
presence that I actually attempted to capture 
them with my hands. But they wouldn't be 
caught: the bird when I stooped and put out my 
hands slipped away, and tlying a yard or two 
would settle down in front of me and go on 
looking for and picking up invisible seeds. 

My attempts failing I rushed back to the 
house, wildlv excited, to look for an old gentle- 
man who lived with us and took an interest in me 
and my passion for birds, and finding him I told 
him the whole place was swarming with doves 
and thev were perfectly tame but wouldn't let me 
catch them — could he tell me how to catch them? 
He laughed and said 1 must be a little fool not to 
know how to catch a bird. The only way was to 
put salt on their tails. There would be no diffi- 
culty in doing that, I thought, and how delighted 
I was to know that birds could be caught so eas- 
ily! Off I ran to the salt-barrel and filled my pock- 
ets and hands with coarse salt used to make brine 
in which to dip the hides; for I wanted to catch a 
great many doves — armfuls of doves. 

In a few minutes I was out again in the 
plantation, with doves in hundreds moving over 
the ground all about me and taking no notice of 
me. It was a joyful and exciting moment when I 
started operations, but I soon found that when I 
tossed a handful of salt at the bird's tail it never 
fell on its tail — it fell on the ground two or three 
or four inches short of the tail. If, I thought, the 
bird would only keep still a moment longer! But 
then it wouldn't, and I think I spent cquite two 
hours in these vain attempts to make the salt fall 
on the right place. At last I went back to my men- 
tor to confess that I had failed and to ask for fresh 
instructions, but all he would say was that I was 
on the right track, that the plan I had adopted 
was the proper one, and all that was wanted was 



a little practice to enable me to drop the salt on 
the right spot. Thus encouraged I filled my pock- 
ets again and started afresh, and then finding 
that by following the proper plan I made no 
progress I adopted a new one, which was to take 
a handful of salt and hurl it at the bird's tail. Still I 
couldn't touch the tail; my violent action only 
frightened the bird and caused it to fly away, a 
dozen yards or so, before dropping down again 
to resume its seedsearching business. 

By-and-by I was told bv somebody that 
birds could not be caught by putting salt on their 
tails; that I was being made a fool of, and this was 
a great shock to me, since I had been taught to 
believe that it was wicked to tell a lie. Now for the 
first time I discovered that there were lies and 
lies, or untruths that were not lies, which one 
could tell innocently although they were in- 
vented and deliberately told to deceive. This 
angered me at first, and I wanted to know how I 
was to distinguish between real lies and lies that 
were not lies, and the only answer I got was that I 
could distinguish them by not being a fool! . . . 



rhese rough plains were also the haunt of the 
rhea, our ostrich, and it was here that I first 
had a close sight of this greatest and most 
unbird-like bird of our continent. I was eight 
years old then, when one afternoon in late sum- 
mer I was just setting off for a ride on my pony, 
when I was told to go out on the east side till 1 
came to the cardoon-covered land about a mile 
beyond the shepherd's ranch. The shepherd was 
wanted in the plantation and could not go to the 
flock just yet, and I was told to look for the tlock 
and turn it towards home. 

I found the flock just where I had been 
told to look for it, the sheep very widely scat- 
tered, and some groups of a dozen or two to a 
hundred were just visible at a distance among 
the rough bushes. Just where these furthest 
sheep were grazing there was a scattered troop of 
seventy or eighty horses grazing too, and when I 
rode to that spot I all at once found myself among 
a lot of rheas, feeding too among the sheep and 
horses. Their grey plumage being so much like 
the cardoon bushes in colour had prevented me 
from seeing them before I was right among them. 



*Frotn Far Away and Long Ago: A History of My Early 
Life (1918). h/ William Henry HiuUon (1841-1922), con- 
cerned until Hudson's hn/hood in Argentina. Hudson ishest 
known for his romance, Green Mansions. 



k 



The strange thing was that they paid not 
the slightest attention to me, and pulling up m\' 
pony I sat staring in astonishment at them, par- 
ticularly at one, a very big one and nearest ti> me, 
engaged in leisurely pecking at the cUner plants 
growing among the big prickly thistle leaves, and 
as it seemed carefully selecting the best sprays. 

What a great noble-looking bird it was and 
how beautiful in its loose gre\-and-white plum- 
age, hanging like a picturesqiiel\-\\orn mantle 
about its bod\! Whv were thev so tame? I w on- 
dered. The sight of a mounted gaucho, e\en at a 
great distance, will invariabK' set them off at their 
topmost speed; yet here I was within a do/en 
\ards of one of them, with se\eral others about 
me, all occupied in examining the herbage and 
selecting the nicest-looking leaves to pluck, just 
as if 1 was not there at all! I suppose it was be- 
cause I was onl\- a small bo\- on a sniall horsi' and 
was not associated in the ostrich brain with the 
w ild-looking gaucho on his big animal charging 
upon him with a deadiv purpose. Presenth' I 
went straight at the one near me, and he then 
raised his head and neck and mo\'ed carelessh- 
awa\- to a distance of a few yards, then began 
cropping the clover once more. 1 rode at him 
again, putting mv pony to a trot, and when 
within two \ards of him he all at once swung 
his bod\' round in a quaint \\a\' towards me, and 
breaking into a sort of dancing trot brushed 
past me. 



Pulling up again and looking back I found 
he was ten or twelve yards behind me, once more 
quietK' engaged in cropping ckner leaves! 

.\gain and again this bird, and one of the 
others 1 rode at, practised the same prett)' trick, 
first appearing perfectly unconcerned at my 
presence and then, when 1 made a charge at 
them, with just one little careless movement 
placing themsehes a do/en \ards behind me. 

but this same trick of the rhea is wonder- 
ful to see \s hen the hunted bird is spent with 
running and is finallv cnertaken bv one of the 
hunters who has perhaps lost the bolas with 
which he captures his qiiarr\', and who en- 
deavours to place himself side by side with it so 
as to reach it with his knife. It seems an easy 
thing to do: the bird is plainly exhausted, pant- 
ing, his wings hanging, as he lopes on, vet no 
sooner is the man within striking distance than 
the sudden motion comes into play, and the bird 
as bv a miracle is now behind instead of at the 
side of the horse. And before the horse going at 
tiip speed can be reined in the turned round, the 
rhea has had time to recover his wind and get a 
hundred yards away or more. It is on account of 
this tricky instinct of the rhea that the gauchos 
say, "El avestruz es el mas s^aucho de los 
animales," which means that the ostrich, in its 
resourcefulness and the tricks it practises to save 
itself when hard pressed, is as clever as the 
gaucho knows himself to be. D 



Continued from p. 7 

\ famous example of an artwork using asphalt in 
this w av is the "Standard of L'r," a mosaic of shell 
set in bitumen that depicts a procession of 
human figures. Man\' objects found in both the 
eastern and western hemispheres — figurines, 
ornaments, pipes, bowls, and so on — were dec- 
orated in a similar way. Bitumen was also used in 
medicine: externally as a salve for sprains and 
skin abrasions, and internalK- with fruit juice for 
unknt)wn ailments. 

Such a \ersatile substance as asphalt 
would certainly have created a demand among 
neighbors and visitors. Its value might have been 
great enough to justify transporting it over long 
distances, especially if it were rich in bitumen, 
for the mineral component of asphalt could be 
obtained almost anywhere. But the primitive 
bags, pots, and baskets used for containers were 
subject to leakage, breakage, and losses. Hnough 
solid mineral to simplify handling might have 
been added to the bitumen at the seepage site 
where it was found. Ihus, bitumen and asphalt 
became earlv articles of commerce in certain 
parts of the world. 

Trade in bitumen was probably limited to 
intermediate distances .Xmong the early upland 
tow ns of the Zagros Mountains, w here asphalt 
was first used, the bitumen contained, on the 
average, 3.S percent sulfur; but thai found in the 
later Mesopotamian cities averaged 7.4 percent 



sulfur. E\'identl\' different sources of bitumen 
were used in the uplands than among the ri\'ers, 
although better analyses of more seepages are 
needed to further refine this information. Most 
likeU' the bitumen came from man\' sources, and 
the growing demand for asphalt for construction 
in the big cities was met from newer, closer 
sources than from the mountain seepages. Bitu- 
men seepages available to Western peoples in 
antiquit\- have been analyzed even less than 
those of the Middle East, but wf bi'lie\e that use 
in the West was more local. 

Getting samples of the bitumen that was 
available to ancient man is most difficult. The 
investigator must first assume that seepages flow 
toda\' as the\' did in antiquitv, and that thev have 
neither started nor stopped tlownig because of 
earth movements. (A chancy assumption in 
either California or the Middle East.) Aboriginal 
discoverers of a seepage would have removed 
what dirt and rocks lhe\' could in order to enlarge 
Ihi' flow When tools became .uailable, pits were 
dug, and for the past centurv wells have been 
drilled near most of the world's known seepages. 
Some seepages in vallevs have been covered by 
w aliT behind dams; others have been covered bv 
till from buiKlmg, land-levelling, or irrigation 
pro|i'Cts. Some seepages made into asphalts 
by millennia of ancient technologists will never 
be analyzed. D 



Endangered and Threatened Invertebrate Species 

of rSorth America. Central America, and the Caribbean 

The //'sf/Hys ofcudaii;,^ciVii aiiii tlin-atciu'd inirrtcbratc^ tvui phvit^^ on tlu'>c two /'(J^^'S iverc extracted from a compilete 
Iht, iucliidin\^ nil countries of the icorhi, ichich appeared in the Federal Register of Mrti/ 20, 19S0. A listing of the 
endangered and threatened vertebrates of North and Central America, the Caribbean, and Pacific possessions of the 
United States appeared in the October, 1980, Bulletin. 



Common Name 



Scientific Name 



SNAILS 

Snail. Chittenango ovate amber Succinea chittenangoensis 

Snail, flat-spired three-toottied Triodopsis platysayoides 

Snail. Iowa Pleistocene Discus macclintocki 

Snail, noonday Mesodon clarki nantattala 

Snail, painted snake coiled forest Anguispira picta 

Snail. Stock Island Orthalicus reses 



Historic Range 



NY 

wv 

lA 

NC 

TN 

FL.. 



Snail. Virginia fringed mountain Polygyriscus virginianus VA 

CLAMS 

Pearly mussel. Alabama lamp Lampsilis virescens AL. TN 

Pearly mussel. Appalachian Quadrula sparsa TN. VA 

monkeyface 

Pearly mussel, birdwing Conradilla caelata TN. VA 

Pearly mussel. Cumberland bean Villosa Irabalis KY 

Pearly mussel. Cumberland Quadrula intermedia AL. TN. VA 

monkeyface 

Pearly mussel. Curtis' Epioblasma florentina curtisi MO 

Pearly mussel, dromedary Dromusdromus TN, VA 

Pearly mussel, green-blossom Epioblasma torulosa gubenaculum TN. VA 

Pearly mussel. Higgins eye Lampsilis higginsi IL. lA, MN. MO, NE, Wl .... 

Pearly mussel. Nicklins Megalonaias nicklineana Mexico 

Pearly mussel, orange-fooled Plethobasis cooperianus AL, IN, lA, KY, OH. PA. TN 



Status 



T 
T 
E 
T 
T 
T 
E 



Pearly mussel, pale lilliput Toxolasma cylindrella 

Pearly mussel, pink mucket Lampsilis orbiculata 

Pearly mussel. Sampsons Epioblasma sampsoni 

Pearly mussel. Tampico Cyrtonaias tampicoensis .... 

Pearly mussel, tubercled-blossom Epioblasma torulosa torulosa 

Pearly mussel, turgid-blossom Epioblasma turgidula 

Pearly mussel, white cats eye Epioblasma sulcata delicata 

Pearly mussel, white wartyback Plethobasis circatncosus 

Pearly mussel, yellow-blossom Epioblasma florentina florentina AL, TN 

Pigtoe, fine-rayed Fusconaia cuneolus AL, TN, 

Pigtoe. rough Pleurobema plenum KY. TN 

Pigtoe, shiny Fusconaia edgariana AL. TN. 

Pocketbook. fat Potamilus capax AR. IN, 



AL, MO, TN, WV 

AL, IL, IN, KY. MO, OH, 

IL. IN 

Mexico 

IL. KY. TN. WV 

AL. AR, MO, TN 

IN, Ml. OH 

AL.TN 



PA, TN, WV 



VA. 
VA 
VA 
MO, 



OH 



Riffle shell clam, tan 
CRUSTACEANS 
Isopod, Socorro 

INSECTS 

Butterfly, Bahama swallowtail 
Butterfly, El Segundo blue 
Butterfly, Lange s metalmark 



Epioblasma walkeri KY. TN. VA 

Exosphaeroma thermoptiilus N M 



Papilio andraemon bonhotei FL. Bahamas 

Euphilotes battoides allyni CA 

Apodemia mormo langei CA 

Butterfly, Lotis blue Lycaeides argyrognomon lotis CA 

Butterfly, mission blue Icaricia icarioides missionensis CA 

Butterfly. San Bruno elfin Callophrys mossii bayensis CA 

Butterfly. Schaus swallowtail Papilio anstodemus ponceanus FL 

Butterfly, Smith s blue Euphilotes enoptes smithi FL 

Moth, Kern primrose sphinx Euproserpinus euterpe CA 



E 
E 

E 
E 
E 

E 
E 
E 
E 

E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 



T 
E 
E 
E 
E 
E 
T 
E 
T 



10 




Endangered and Threatened Plants 

(Note that ail but two species occur in the United States) 

Scientific name Common name Historic range Status 

Sagittana fasciculata Bunched arrowhead NC, SC E 

Echinacea tennesseensis Tennessee purple coneflower TN .-.. E 

Lipochaeta venosa None HI E 

Berbens sonnei Truckee barberry CA E 

Betula uber Virginia round-leaf birch VA E 

Arabis mcdonaldiana McDonald's rock-cress CA E 

Erysimum vapitatum var. angustatum Contra Costa wallflower CA E 

Ancistrocaclus tobuschli' Tobusch fishhook cactus TX E 

Coryphantha minima Nellie cory cactus TX E 

Coryphantha ramillosa Bunched cory cactus TX T 

Coryphantha sneedii war. leei Lee pincushion cactus NM T 

Coryphantha sneedii war. sneedii Sneed pincushion cactus TX, NM E 

Echinocactus horizonthalonius Nichols Turks head cactus AZ E 

var. nicholii 

Echinocereus engelmannii Purple-spined hedgehog cactus UT E 

var. purpureas 

Echinocereus kuenzieri Kuenzler hedgehog cactus NM E 

Echinocereus lloydii Lloyds hedgehog cactus TX T 

Echinocereus reichenbachii Black lace cactus TX E 

var- albertii 

Echinocereus tnglochidiatus Arizona hedgehog cactus AZ E 

var, arizonicus 

Echinocereus triglochiaijtus Spineless hedgehog cactus CO, UT E 

var. inermis 

Echinocereus viridillorus var. davisii Davis' green pitaya TX E 

Neolloydia manposensis Lloyd's Mariposa cactus TX E 

Pediocactus bradyi Brady pincushion cactus AZ , , E 

Pediocactus knowltonii Knowlton cactus NM E 

Pediocactus peeblesianus Peebles Nava|0 cactus AZ E 

var. peeblesianus 

Pediocactus sileri Silver pincushion cactus AZ, UT E 

Sclerocactus glaucus Uinta Basin hookless cactus CO, UT T 

Sclerocactus mesae-verdae Mesa Verde cactus CO, MN T 

Sclerocactus wrightiae Wright fishhook cactus UT E 

Dudleys traskiae Santa Barbara Island liveforever CA E 

Fitzroya cupressoides Chilean false larch Chile, Argentina T 

Arctostaphylos hookeri ssp. ravenii Raven's manzanita CA E 

Rhododendron chapmanii Chapman rhododendron FL E 

Astragalus penanus Rydberg milk-vetch UT : T 

Baptisia arachnifera Hairy rattleweed GA E 

Lotus scoparius ssp. traskiae San Clemente broom CA E 

Vicia menziesii Hawaiian wild broad-bean HI E 

Phacelia argillacea None UT E 

Haplostachys haplostachya var, . None HI E 

angustifotia 

Pogogyne abramsii San Diego mesa mint CA E 

Stenogyne angustifolia var None HI E 

angustifolia 

Harperocallis flava Harper's beauty FL E 

Trillium persistens Persistent trillium GA, SC E 

Kokia cookei Cooke's kokio HI E 

Malacothamnus clementinus San Clemente Island bush mallow CA E 

Mirabilis macfarlanei MacFarlane's four-o'clock ID, OR E 

Oenothera avita ssp. eurekensis Eureka evening primrose CA E 

Oenothera deltoides ssp. howelii Antioch Dunes evening primrose CA E 

Arctomecon humilis Dwarf bear-poppy UT E 

Abies guatemalensis Guatemalan tir Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, 

El Salvador T 

Orcuttia mucronata Solano grass CA E 

Swallenia alexandrae Eureka dune grass CA E 

Zizania texana Texas wild-rice TX E 

Aconitum noveboracense Northern wild monkshood lA, NY, OH, Wl T 

Delphinium kinkiense San Clemente Island Larkspur CA E 

Sarracenia oreophila Green pitcher plant AL, GA E 

Castilteia grisea San Clemente Island Indian paintbrush CA E 

Cordylanthus maritimus ssp Salt marsh birds beak CA, Baja California E 

maritimus 

Pedicularis furbishiae Furbish lousewort ME, New Brunswick E 



'Many plant species in this list have alternate scientific names, not included here lor lack ol space 



11 



Fig. 1. Southern Id- 
shaped halibut hooks, I. 
to r.: zvith Ixmebarb. 
( #18720): -with iron 
barb, (#18881): iron 
hook luith iron barb 
12 (#18872). 



The Technology of 

The northwest Coast 

Halibut Fisherman 



by Ronald L. Weber 



On the Northwest Coast of North America 
lived a people distinguished among Ameri- 
can Indians b\' their large plank houses, monu- 
mental vvtiod sculpture commonly known as 
totem poles, and seaworthy dugout canoes. A 
great variety of food from the sea and rivers sup- 
ported large villages, and fishing equipment was 
adapted to the needs of this large population. 
The first Europeans to come to the coast 
were impressed by Northwest Coast fishing 
technology. In 1787 Captain George Dixon was 
perplexed to discover that the skill of his fisher- 
men was inferior to that of the Indians. His 
supercargo, William Beresford, noted that "On 
one occasion the whaleboat was sent with seven 
hands to fish for halibut. .. where the natives 
were then fishing." The Englishmen found that 
"their success was greatly inferior to that of two 
Indians who were fishing at the same time, 
which is rather extraordinary, if we consider the 
apparent inferiority of their tackle to ours." 



Ronald L. Weber is visiting assistant curator of 
anthropology. 



Beresford discusses the Tlingit halibut hook 
and method of fishing, concluding, "Thus were 
we fairly beaten at our own weapons, and 
the natives constantly bringing us plenty of 
fish, our boat was never sent on this business 
afterwards."' 

Knowledge of the habits of the fish, the 
best areas for fishing and the proper ritual treat- 
ment was important, but it was the tackle of the 
Indians that most fully accounted for their suc- 
cess. This tackle was well adapted to the specific 
habits of the halibut, whereas the European gen- 
eralized iron hooks were relatively primitive 
pieces of equipment. 

Two varieties of halibut hooks were used 
on the Northwest Coast. A U-shaped variety, 
most common among the Kwakiutl and Nootka, 
was made by steaming and bending a small 
branch of fir wood and then affixing a bone barb 
(fig. 1). U-shaped hooks were not decorated. 
After European contact the bone barbs were 
replaced with metal ones and, still later, some 
U-hooks were made entirely of iron. 

Another kind of halibut hook used by the 
Northern tribes, especially by the Tlingit and 
Haida, was a V-shaped hook consisting of an 
uncarved arm of yellow cedar or some other 
buoyant wood, and a heavier carved piece of 
alder or yew (fig. 2). The carving magically lured 
the fish to allow itself to be caught. In use, the 
carved arm faced downward toward the halibut 
at the ocean's bottom and the uncarved arm, 
floating upward, held the barb and bait. V- 
shaped hooks were commonly set singly, while 
U-shaped hooks were often set in pairs. Occa- 
sionally, setlines of many hooks were used. 

The halibut hook was attached to the line 
by means of a single hole in the carved arm, and 
held near the ocean bottom by a loosely secured 
stone sinker (fig. 4a). The hook floated up above 





I ig. l.Nortlurn V- 
>/i()/it'i/ halibut lii\>k 
ciinvd /() ivprcM'iil 
aiiu'f 111 tonii of tuv- 
hciidcil sirpnil, 
079661. 



the bottom and rested in a horizontal position, 
which made the barb more accessible to the flat, 
horizontally swimming fish. A float attached to 
the upper end of the line prevented it from sink- 
ing below the surface, and sometimes a larger 
float was also used to mark the position of the 
line. The hook was most frequently baited with 
squid or octopus. When a fish took the bait, its 
movement caused the line looped around the 
sinker to come free, and the float on the surface 
to signal that a catch had been made (fi^. 4b). 
Pulling upon the line caused the lower arm 
of the hook, to which the line was attached, to 
press against the underside of the halibut and to 
flip the fish onto its back (figs. 4c, 4d). This 
made it easier for the fisherman to control the 



catch, which might range from 40 to nearly 
470 pounds.- Before being lifted into the canoe, 
the halibut was speared through the gills and 
clubbed (fig. 5). 

It was believed that a fish allowed itself to 
be caught. Provided that the proper ritual was 
observed and no offense given, the fish's spirit 
returned to the sea to take on another body. This 
ensured the fisherman's continued success. Be- 
fore lowering the hook the fisherman spoke a 
magical phrase such as "Go dou n ft) halibut land 
and tight."' When landing a fish he might say, 
"Now hold this my younger brother; dcm't let go 
this, my younger brother."'' These words were 
believed to reenforce magicallv the effectiveness 
of the hook. Men were not activelv involved 




Fig. 3. Dorsal (top) 
surface of Field 

of Pacific Imlihut . 13 




Fig. 4a: V-shaped halibut hooks were held near the bottom u'ith 

loosely secured stone sinker; 4b; When the fish strikes tlie sinker 

comes free: 4c: The fisherman has pulled the tine taut: 4d: The can'ed 

arm of the hook presses against the underside of the halibut and flips 

the fish onto its back. (Drawings by David Dann.) 



14 



Fig. 5. Canvd nnn of 

northern Imtibut hook 

showing man with 

lialibiit. A V-shaped hook 

(s in tlicfisli's mouth and 

the man holds a club m his 

ri^^ht hand i #17947). 





Fig. 6. Hook 
showing halibut- 
man with tu'o land 
otters (#179860). 




Fig. 7. Ht\)k s/i(i!i'ii(\; 
comivsitc animal icitli 
Ivdy of halibut ami 
Iwad of imvii 
( *77S9S). 



Fig. 8. Hook fhowing 
.sfrt/ and octopus 
(#18157). 



in the catching of the fish; rather the hook 
functioned supernaturally. Carvings on the 
hook represented \arious animals — octopus, 
land otter, and mythical composite creatures — 
similar to ones depicted on shaman's charms 
(figs. 6.7,8). These creatures were belie\'ed to 
provide supernatural power to the hooks.*^ 

Unlike with the hooks, men actively 
directed the killing clubs with which fish were 
killed. Thus, where supernatural power was of 
little importance, the halibut clubs were deco- 
rated in a profane art style closely associated with 
the society of a village. This style was used to 
ornament storage boxes, chests, and house 
fronts as well as other items that reflected the 
wealth and prestige of the owners. 

The success of Northwest Coast fisher- 
men was the result of millenia of technological 
de\elopment, during which their culture became 
highly adapted to the special conditions of the 



coast. Different tools were made with regard to 
the habits of the type of fish sought. The halibut 
hook, with its deceivingly clumsy appearance, 
was actually a highly efficient device for catching 
a special variety of fish. Q 



1. Carl, George C. 1975. Soiiii' Ccwimnii .Miir/iic Fi^hc^. British 
Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook 23, Victoria, pp. 
41-42. 

2. deLaguna, Frederica. 1972. "Under Mount Samt l-Jias: The 
History and Culture of the Yakutat Tlingil," Smithsonian 
Contributions to Antlirofwlofy, vol. 7, Washington, D.C., 
pp. 126, 390-391. 

3. Jonaitis, Aldona. 197K. "Land Otters and Shamans: Some 
Interpretations of Tlingit Charms." Ameriian Indian Art 
Magaznie, Vol. 4(1), pp. 62-66. 

4. 19K0. "The Devilfish in Tlingit Sacred Art." 

American Indian Art Majfazinc, vol. 6(3), pp. 42-47. 

5 Stewart, Hilary 1977, Indian Falling;: Early Methods on the 
Northwest Coast. University of Washington Press, Seattle, 
p. 48. 



15 



BEHIND THE SCENES 




Same femur, different preparators, 54 years apart: Left, John B. Abbott, geology preparator from 1901 to 1932. assembles 
cm Antarctosaurus/wn/i. This fossil icas in four fragments zchen found in Argentina in 1924. They were then glued together 
with plaster of Paris. Date of photo: 1926. Right, Willtam F. Simpson, current preparator of fossil vertebrates, reassembles in 
1980 the same femur, using epoxi/, stronger than the 740-lb. bone itself. Simpson has been -with the Museum since 1979, work- 
ing on an N.S.F. grant to refurbish the fossil z'ertebrate collection. 

Antarctosaurus urns an exceedingly large sauropod dinosaur that lived some 70 
/nillion years ago. The sketch below is of the somrwimt smaller Titanosaurus, 
which it closely resembled. 



16 





William Simp>o>i with 
lo>sil >kiillot M.islodon 
iiIhhi 1 10,000 ycai!. old. 
ti'inid III 1960 near Mcdar 
villf. IN. The ny/i/ fi/s/t 
';wi/ Iwii broken off in life 
 i kiioic thi< haaiiiic Ik 
•■!' i> >niootti.) r/ns 
^i'( the balance of thf 
■i. id and pioivked an ar- 
thritic condition where 
the skull and neck met. A 
hole, from an abscess, car, 
be seen alwe the tusk 
socket. The molars tvere 
badly decayed. All in all, 
one mean, ro\^ue elephant 



Davf W.ilsten 




John Harris, Department 
of Geology preparator who 
joined the staft in 1969, 
works on foieUyofan 
uintathere. a 45 million- 
year- old mammal col- 
lected in 1979 in Wyo- 
ming's Wasliakie Basin. 
The field trip was ted by 
William D. Tiirnbiill, curat 
ot fossil mammals, and 
the specimen discovered by 
.\4urray Daniels, of Raw- 
lins. WY, a field party 
member. When Harris has 
tinished his restoration, 
the specimen Tcill go into 
the Museum's study 
collection. 



17 



iSli FIELD 

MLSEl'M 

TIXT\S' 



INDIA 



Looking for the past? ..it lives on. along- 
side the present, in India. There is no archaic 
past in this ancient land, only a gentle con- 
tinuity. The past soars triumphantly in the 
sculptured temple towers; in the citadels 
and minarets, as at Akbar's capital of 
Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. India lives also in 
the modernity of its cities. ..cosmopolitan 
Bombay and Delhi, the capital. This merg- 
ing of past and present is perhaps the 
strength and the attraction of India and the 
basis of its universal appeal. Our tour will 
give you a good overview of both. 

Our first introduction to India will be in 
Delhi and we'll spend time sightseeing 
in Old and New Delhi. Well visit the Red 
Fort, one of the world's most magnificent 
palaces — a city within a city, and contain- 
ing the Pearl Mosque. We'll stop at Raj 
Ghat, the hallowed spot where Mahatma 
Gandhi was cremated. We'll enjoy India's 
most spectacular national festival. Republic 
Day, January 26; observed in New Delhi. 
Special seats have been reserved for our 
group, in contrast to the ancient monu- 
ments, we'll experience a 20th-century city 
where sarees mingle with pantsuits. Delhi is 
a great melting pot of ideas, of fashions, of 
lifestyles, where a past vital and alive, enli- 
vens a dynamic present. India's museums 
and art galleries display and classic and 
contemporary. Visitors will find objets d'art 
that speak of a vital and living tradifion. 

You could spend all your fime in India in 
remote, unspoiled areas enjoying its wealth 
of wildlife. We'll visit Kanha Park which is 
18 one of the richest faunal areas in India and 




January 21 -February 12 
Tour Price: $3,500 



part of the Banjar Valley Reserve, so well 
known to hunters unfil recent years. This 
sanctuary was set up to save the magnifi- 
cent hard-ground barasingha deer which 
was dwindling rapidly and had reached the 
verge of extinction. Today there are about a 
hundred of these left and they are practi- 
cally limited to the Kanha area. The tiger 
chital. leopard, hyena, gaur and the wild pig 
will be seen here among the vultures, black 
ibises and the crested serpent-eagle. Kanha 
is now a tiger reserve under Project Tiger 

Experience Bombay, and a visit to 
Aurangabad and the famous caves of 
Ajanta and Ellora (celebrated as one of the 
true wonders of the ancient world). One 
would be hard put to match the grandeur. 
the exuberance and spiritual inspiration 
of this art that hangs like tapestry from 
sacred rocks. 

The famed Keoladeo Ghana sanctuary 

at Bharatpur is a bird watcher's paradise. 
Almost 300 different species of waterbirds 



For a brochure on this tour or reserua- 
tion information please write or call the 
Tours Office at Field Museum. 322-8862. 



winter in its swampy marshes, including 
ducks, teals, geese, and Siberian cranes. 
The boat will take you past little and large 
cormorant nests where the grey heron lives 
together with the painted stork. We will see 
egret, dazzling white, that breed in small 
colonies. We'll tour one of the oldest cities 
in the world, Varanasi, which has a wealth 
of temples. It is also the home of Benares 
Hindu University We'll have a chance to 
visit the shops with a fabulous storehouse 
of silks and brocades. 

At Kaziranga Park you will have an oppor- 
tunity to view the wildlife while riding on an 
elephant. The most striking feature of this 
sanctuary is that it is possible to see a lot 
of animals in a comparatively short time 
at close range. It is here that we expect 
to see the rare one-horned rhinoceros. 

And there's much more: a fiight over 
Mt. Everest and the Himalayan Region 
(weather permitting), a visit to the Godaveri 
Botanical Gardens, the Pink Palace in Jaipur 
and, of course, the fabulous Taj. The warm 
welcome of the Indian people and the com- 
fortable hotels will make you feel at home 
as you experiment with a new cuisine; 
Indian food is not all curry' — it is a rich 
and varied fare of more than a score of 
traditional culinary styles. 

Whether your interest lies with plant life or 
animal parks, ancient temples, or modern 
cities, natural beauty or manmade monu- 
ments, shopping or sightseeing, you will 
find it on this magical tour We hope you 
will consider joining us in INDIA. 



I'ifejFiELn 

ML'SEl'M 



Papua New Guinea 



Papua New Guinea is unique on the face 
of planet Earth. For centuries a diversity of 
contrasting cultures have flourished here 
within small areas because the tribes were 
isolated by towering mountains that laced 
the island, criss-crossing back and forth 
through impenetrable jungle vegetation. 
And so, unknown to each other and to the 
outside world, they co-existed, each in an 
individual communal environment suffi- 
cient unto itself. Only now has a surface 
veneer of civilization begun to permeate 
this mysterious island so that visitors may 
explore and exclaim over the natural won- 
ders of this Edenlike paradise. 

It is one of the most remarkable — and 
last — reservoirs of animal, reptile, insect, 
and bird life to be found anywhere. Flight- 
less black-and-brown plumed cassowaries, 
puk-puks (crocodiles), tree kangaroos and 
phalangers, wild ducks, and cuscus (pos- 
sums)... birds the likes of which would 
startle even Audobon — brightly feathered 
parrots, colorful kingfishers, gourie pigeons, 
aristocratic egrets, and stately herons all vie 
for attention with that most matchless of all 
exotic creatures, the bird of paradise. 

But most of all Papua New Guinea rep- 
resents a repository of primitive cultures 
and art of such freshness and color it holds 
a fascination beyond all else. Each province 
has its own charm, whether it be the all- 
green, all-high Eastern Highlands or the 
seldom-seen Sepik watershed. To travel 
through the continuing contrasts of this 
ever-changing land, to feel the centuries 




May 1 — 17 
Tour Price: $4,461 



slip away, is to experience a travel adventure 
that broadens the mind as it enriches the 
soul. To go from the Space Age to the 
Stone Age in the course of a couple of days 
cannot fail to be an adventure of mind- 
bending proportions. 

The Sepik River is a monster waterway 
draining a vast area of grassland, swamp, 
and jungle in its serpentine circuit, marked 
by lagoons, dead ends, lakelike expansions 
and, in the lower reaches, huge floating 
islands that have been torn away from the 
banks. For five memorable days we will 
cruise the Sepik river, reaching into the past 
in the remote inland regions where the vil- 
lages remain undisturbed by contact with 
the modern world. Here the villagers still 
travel in their traditional dugout canoes. 
They still erect and reside in enormous tree 
houses though not for the long ago pur- 
pose of escaping head-hunting raiding par- 
ties. They still make and use fanciful owl- 
head pots and carve copious crocodiles 
and hornbills. symbols of fertility and life. 
They continue to keep their most treasured 
possessions hidden away or buried, only 
bringing them out on special occasions. 



For c3 brochure on this tour or reserva- 
tion information please write or call the 
Tours Office at Field Museum. 322-8862. 



And they still create the country's most ar- 
tistic artifacts, combining a natural gift 
for bold expression with imaginative use 
of locally found pigments. 

Our lecturer. Dr Phil Lewis, curator primi- 
tive art and Melanesian ethnology, will es- 
cort the tour from Chicago and will share 
his knowledge of the primitive customs and 
traditions that play such an important part 
in the village life — the superstitions that 
govern behavior the ancestral worship so 
much a facet of the spirit houses. In addi- 
tion, our Sepik director Jeff Leversidge, a 
well-known personality on the Sepik and 
Ramu Rivers, and perhaps the world's best 
authority on the diverse culture, art, and 
customs of the Sepik regions, will lecture 
the group during the cruise and shore ex- 
cursions, Jeff is also a keen naturalist and 
an excellent host. 

Accommodations on board the newly re- 
furbished Melanesian Explorer are modern 
and comfortable. Passengers are housed in 
air-conditioned twin-bunked cabins, each 
have its own compact private bathroom 
facilities. The deck above the cabins has a 
lovely dining and lounge area, while the aft 
area on the top deck is completely covered 
and fitted with lounges and chairs so that 
passengers may watch the Sepik water 
world go by in pleasurable ease. 

We hope you will join us on our very special 
expedition to Papua New Guinea. Early 
registration will ensure your reservations. 
Space Is limited. 19 



Kenya and the Seychelles 







There is now, as there has always been, an 
aura of mystery surrounding Africa. Tropi- 
cal islands and the coast, endless palm- 
fringed beaches, snow-capped mountains 
on the equator, jungle primeval, savannah 
sun-baked plains. They are all a part of 
East Africa, the home of one of our planets 
last great natural dramas. The wildlife... the 
stately processions of giraffe — dark cen- 
turies silhouetted on the African horizon. 
Prides of lion — stalking the plains and still 
lauded as the king of beasts. The beautiful 
and rare leopard, the elegant cheetah and 
surely one of the wonders of the world, the 
magnificent migration of wildebeeste and 
zebra. Sadly time and civilization move in- 
exorably onwards so we hope to welcome 
you to Kenya and the Seychelles with Field 
Museum Tours in 1981. 

ITINERARY: Sept. 12: Evening departure 
from Chicago s O'Hare Airport via British 
Airways to London. 13: Morning arrival in 
London with time to rest before evening 
departure for Nairobi. 14: Morning arrival in 
Nairobi and transfer to Nairobi Hilton Hotel. 
Evening welcome party and lecture by 
member of the East Africa Wildlife Society 
15: Drive through Kikuyu country for over- 
night stay at Mt Lodge Tree Hotel, the 
newest of the well-known Tree Hotels, de- 
20 signed for optimum game viewing from the 



September 12 -October 3 
Tour Price: $3,750 

comfort of your balcony 16: Drive north 
and cross the equator to the Samburu 
Game Reserve. Overnight at Samburu 
Game Lodge. 17: Full day game viewing at 
Samburu Game Reserve. 18: Drive south to 
spend the day at the foot of Mt. Kenya at 
the luxurious Mt. Kenya Safari Club. 19: 
Journey to Lake Naivasha. a bird-watchers 
paradise. Overnight at the Lake Hotel. 20: 



NEW FOR 1981 

A "Journey to the Holy Land and Red 
Sea" is scheduled for March 12-26, 
1981. aboard the privately chartered 
M.S. Stella Maris cruising yacht. This 
tour will include stops in Cairo and 
Luxor, Egypt; a visit to Quseir, a small 
port town on the Red Sea where 
Field Museum is conducting an ex- 
cavation: a visit to Petra and St. 
Catherine's Monastery. In Israel, the 
tour visits the Mount of Olives, Mas- 
sada, Jericho, and sites in and around 
Jerusalem, including Bethlehem. 
Please write or call for further informa- 
tion. Tours direct line: 322-8862. 



For a brochure on this tour or reserva- 
tion information please write or call the 
Tours Office at Field Museum. 322-8862. 

Drive through the Masai Mara Game Re- 
serve for two days of game viewing by 
minibus in the Great Rift Valley Overnight 
at the Governor's Camp. 21: Full day at 
Masai Mara Game Reserve, including a 
game walk. 22: Return to Nairobi and the 
Nairobi Hilton Hotel. 23: Journey to Am- 
boseli National Park, dominated by the 
spectacular Mt. Kilimanjaro. 24: Morning 
lecture by research naturalist discussing 
studies of wildlife behavior. Afternoon trip to 
Tsavo West. Overnight at Ngulia Lodge. 25: 
The safari continues through the plains of 
Tsavo to Taita Hills Lodge for lunch. Con- 
tinue to the port city of Mombasa on the 
Indian Ocean. Overnight at the Leopard 
Beach Hotel. 26: Morning visit to Shimba 
Hills Reserve. Afternoon free. 27: Morning 
departure for Mahe in the Seychelles Is- 
lands. Afternoon arrival at Reef Hotel. 
28-30: Three days in the Seychelles in- 
cludes a full day excursion by air to Praslin 
Island to visit Vallee de Mai and by boat to 
Cousin Island to visit the internationally re- 
nowned bird sanctuary Optional full day 
excursion by air to Bird Island. Oct 1: Free 
day in Mahe. Evening flight to Nairobi, late 
night flight to London. 2: Morning arrival in 
London. Free day to relax and explore on 
your own. Overnight at London Embassy 
Hotel. 3: Late morning flight to Chicago 
via British Airways. 



*^' 



A 0inst}}U(i^^ \fteni()on 

at" 




A SPECIAL INVITATION FOR MUSEUM MEMBERS! 
Dancing and Entertainment 

Thursday, December 11 
4:30 — 7:30 p.m. 



Please send me . 



. adult tickets ($7 ea.) and . 



.children's tickets (14 and under, $4 ea.). 



Total amount enclosed $ . 

Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. Reservations are limited and will be filled in order 
received. For additional information please call Women's Board: 922-9410. 

Please send this form (or facsimile) to "A Christmas Afternoon," Field Museum of Natural 
History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 

Name 

Street 

City State Zip 

Phone 



21 



FIELD BRIEFS 




Chinese Delegation Views Chinese 
Bronze Exhibit 

The Museum was host recently to a group 
of five soil scientists from the People's Re- 
public of China, who stopped in primarily 
to view the current exhibit, "The Great 
Bronze Age of China." The men were in 
the United States as participants in a 
government-to-government technical ex- 
change program. Ail are with the Ministry 
of Agriculture, Beijing. 

Shown above are, left to right 
(standing): Li Zhen Yu, Wang Rui Lin, Qiu 
Zhen Bang (deputy chief of the Office for 
Preparing Overseas Exhibitions, Cultural 
Relics Bureau, Beijing, who is tra\elmg 
with the "Great Bronze Age of China" ex- 
hibit), Chen Bing Cong, Zeng De Chao, 
and Ma Cheng Yuan (chief of research and 
installation, Shanghai Museum, and head 
of the Chinese delegation traveling with 
the Chinese Bronze exhibit). Seated: 
Robert C. Liu (United States Department 
of Agriculture escort for the five-man del- 
egation), Herbert Sullivan (staff assistant 
to the vice president of engineering for 
agricultural equipment, Hinsdale En- 
gineering Center, International Harvester 
Company, which hosted the delegation 
while in the Chicago area), and Hua 
Guo Zhu. 



NEA, Illinois Arts Council Grants 

Grants from the National Endowment for 
the Arts and the Illinois Arts Council have 
recently been awarded Field Museum; 
both grants are for 520,000. 

The NEA grant, covering the period 
October, 1980, through September, 1981, 
supports a student-teacher training in- 
ternship program with local colleges and 
22 universities and the teaching community. 



The I.AC grant, covering the period Sep- 
tember, 1980, through August, 1981, is in 
support of arts-related public programs. 



A. A. Dahlberg, Research Associate, 
Honored 

The degree of doctor of odontology honoris 
cnufa was awarded earlier this year by the 
University of Turku, Finland, to Albert A. 
Dahlberg, research associate in the De- 
partment of Geology since 1942. At the 
University of Chicago, Dahlberg is re- 
search associate emeritus of the Zoller 
Dental Clinic and the Department of 
Anthropology and professor emeritus of 



the Committee on Evolutionary Biology. 
Much of his research has concerned dental 
anthropology among Eskimo and Indian 
populations. 



Philip G. Dibble Named 
Manager, Public Merchandising 

The newly created position of manager of 
public merchandising is the title of Philip 
G. Dibble, who joined the Museum staff 
October 6. The responsibilities of the new- 
post include the management of the 
Museum Shops, reproduction of Museum 
artifacts, contracts for the use of Museum 
designs, and mail order business. Dibble 
comes from Marshall Field & Company, 
where he served 26 years, most recently as 
\ice president. Merchandising Division. 



World Book Features Field Museum 

Field Museum is the subject of a special 
report in the 1981 edition oi Science Year, the 
science and technology annual of World 
Book encyclopedia. The 16-page feature, 
entitled "Keeping Nature's Diary" and 
written by Mark Perlberg, focuses on how 
a museum functions, how collections are 
acquired and specimens preserved, and 
the nature of the work of curators, exhibit 
preparators, and other specialists on the 
Museum staff. 



Curatorial staff, Division of Insects (I. to r.): Rupert L. Wenzel (retired Nov. I), Henry S. Dybas 
(retired Aug. 1), Larry E. Watrous, and joivi B. Kethley. 




Division of Insects Staff Changes 

Three mnjor stiift changes hii\e occurred 
in the Division ot Insects: Curator Henry 
S. Dybas retired August 1, Curator Rupert 
L. VVenzel retired November 1, and Larry 
E. Watrous joined the division in Sep- 
tember as assistant curator. 

Dybas, a lifelong resident of the 
Chicago area, joined the Museum staff in 
1941 as assistant in /oologv; in 1947 he was 
promoted to assistant curator of insects, in 

1950 was named associate curator, and in 
1972 became curator. He ser\ed as head of 
the dixision from 1970 until 1974. 

Dybas recei\ed his B.S. degree from 
Central Y.M.C.A. College and this month 
will be awarded an honorary D.Sc. from 
Tri-State University, Angola, IN. His main 
research interests have included the ecol- 
ogy and evolution of periodical cicadas 
("17-year locusts") and classification of the 
Ptilidae, or featherwing beetles, which in- 
clude the smallest species of the order 
Coleoptera. As curator emeritus, Dybas 
continues his research work at Field 
Museum. 

VVenzel, a natixe of Owen, VVl, but a 
longtime resident of Oak Park, IL, joined 
the Museum staff as assistant curator of 
insects in 1940. (He had served as a Divi- 
sion of Insects volunteer in 1934-35.) In 

1951 he was named curator. He was head 
of the Division of Insects from 1951 to 
1970 and from 1978 to 1979, when he was 
succeeded by associate curator John B. 
Kethley. From 1970 to 1977 VVenzel served 
as chairman of the Department of 
Zoology. 

Wenzel holds a B.A. from Central 
Y.M.C.A. College and a Ph.D from 
the University of Chicago. His special re- 
search interest has concerned the tax- 
onomy, biology, evolution and zoogeog- 
raphy of beetles of the family Histeridae; 
battlies of the family Streblidae; and host- 
parasite relationships of ectoparasites, 
especially of bats. As curator emeritus, 
he will continue his research work at 
the Museum. 

VVenzel, accompanied by his v\ ife, re- 
cently returned from a visit to Japan and to 
the People's Republic of China, in Kyoto, 
Japan, he spoke at a symposium of the 
16th International Congress of Entomol- 
ogy. In China, as a member of a delegation 
from the Entomological Society of 
America, he visited \arious entomological 
research institutes and university de- 
partments in Kwangchow, Hangchow, 
Shanghai, and Beijing. In Shanghai 
Wenzel was a speaker at the Shanghai 
Institute of Entomological Research. 

Larry E. Watrous joined the Division 
of Insects as assistant curator following 
completion of his doctoral studies at Ohio 
State University, from which he also holds 
an M.S. degree. His B.S. degree is from 
the University of Connecticut. Watrous's 
doctoral dissertation was on the genus 



Coloptcnis (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae). His 
field work has included expeditions to the 
Philippines and Malaysia and to Mexico. 
.Associate Curator John B. Kethley, 
\\ ho joined the Di\ision of Insects in 1970, 
continues as head of the division. He had 
also served as division head from 1974 
to 1978. 



Quaker Oats Promotes Field Museum 

Several months ago Life cereal, a product 
of Quaker Oats Company, featured on the 
reverse side of the cereal package a picture 
essay on dinosaurs, and readers were in- 
vited to write Field Museum for additional 
information about dinosaurs. As a conse- 
quence, manv hundreds of letters have 
come to the Museum from youngsters 
(and parents) requesting this material. 
(Some of these letters were featured in an 
article in the October, 1980, Bulletin.) 

Now the dinosaur packages have 
been followed by an Indian "edition." Six- 
teen million boxes of Life, with Field 
Museum's North American Indian life and 
culture exhibits featured on the reverse 
side, are moving onto the shelves of gro- 
cery stores in the United States and 
Canada. Some of the packages offer a free 
pen-and- poster set, which includes four 
14xl7-inch color posters of different as- 
pects of Indian life. 



• It 



IKS 



Edward S. Curtis in the Land of the War 
Canoes: A Pioneer Cinematographer in the 
Pacific Northzvest, by Bill Holm and George 
Irving Quimby. University of Washington 
Press, Seattle, 1980, 132 pp. 58 illus. $19.95. 

This well illustrated book records the his- 
tory of the making, rediscovery, and 
reediting of In the Land of the Head Hunters, 
the first full-length ethnographic film of 
native North Americans. The film was 
made on the Northwest Coast by Edward 
S. Curtis in 1913, and depicts the Kwakiutl 
prior to European contact. 

The book w ill be of particular interest 
to acquaintances of the Field Museum of 
Natural History, since the only renviining 
copy of the original movie was donated to 
Field Museum by a collector of old films, 
Hugo Zeiter, in 1947 George Quimby, 
then Field Museum's curator of exhibits, 
recognized that it was the work of the 
famous photographer of American In- 
dians and writer of the twenty-volume re- 
ference. The North American Indians. Bill 
Holm, of the Thomas Burke Memorial 
Washington State Museum, first heard 



about the Curtis film from Kuakiull who 
participated in its original making. This 
started his search for the film uhich he 
found at the Field Museum in 1962. 

In 1965 Quimby also joined the staff of 
the Thomas Burke Museum, bringing 
with him a copy of the film. Together, 
Quimby and Holm edited the film, which 
they retitled In the Land of the War Canoes. 
The book details how the original film was 
modified: Sound was added, the speed 
adjusted, and lightness and darkness 
w ere balanced. In some scenes the motion 
was smoothed out by adding frames, 
while other scenes were shortened. Out- 
of-sequence segments were put in proper 
order. A portion of one scene that had 
been lost was reenacted, and another 
scene, in which the evil shaman emerges 
from the mouth of a whale, was deleted. 

The new version of the Curtis film is a 
\aluable teaching tool used widely in 
Northwest Coast studies. The film in- 
cludes the only existing shots of tradi- 
tional Northwest canoes in use. It also 
shows better than any footage ever taken 
since, the movement of Kwakiutl dancers 
and the use of ceremonial equipment; and 
much of what was filmed is no longer 
practiced. Because of the excellence of the 
film and the special relationship that the 
film has with the Field Museum, segments 
from the original film will be used in the 
museum's new Northwest Cciast exhibit, 
scheduled to open in Hall 10 in 1982. 

Photographs taken during the origi- 
nal filming appear here for the first time. 
Edmund August Schwinke, a cameraman 
and assistant to Curtis, took candid 
photographs of the participants and 
props. These photographs made it possi- 
ble for Holm and Quimbv to reconstruct 
the filming process. The Schwinke stills 
also reveal attitudes of the participants: 
Curtis swinging from a railing, "the fierce 
warriors" relaxing between scenes; 
another" Schwinke photograph shows 
George Hunt, the famous Kwakiutl au- 
thor and ethnographer who provided 
much ot the substance tor the Franz Boas, 
Edward Curtis, and Samuel Barrett works 
on the Kwakiutl, with a megaphone 
standing beside Curtis. 

The photographs present a favorable 
impression of Curtis and allow for a better 
understanding of the Kwakiutl's attitude 
toward the film. The book also contains 
data collected by Bill Holm from the actual 
people who were filmed. 

The book is readable and worthwhile 
for anyone with an interest in the history 
of anthropologv, photographv, or cine- 
matography, the ethnography of the 
Kwakiutl, or the biographv of Curtis or 
Hunt. It should be on the top of the read- 
ing list for anyone who has seen either In 
the Land of the Head Hunters or In the Land of 
the War Canoes. 

-Ronald L. Weher 
Visiting Assistant Curator 
for the Northwest Coast Area 23 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Condor Chick De.ith 
Under Investigation 

The Fish anii Wildlito ^erMce has an- 
noiinLed the results ot .in autopsv on the 
Calitorni.i cimdor chick that died during 
examination bv a biologist on lime 30, in- 
dicating the cause ot death as "shock and 
acute heart failure." According to service 
otticials, the heart failure resulted in ex- 
cess fluid in the lungs, depriving the bird 
of adequate owgen. 

The San Diego Zoo's autopsv report 
said that moderate obesitv — apparently 
common in wild babv chicks while thev 
are --tiil in the nest — could have contrib- 
uted to the chick's death. Separate 
analvses were also conduced bv the serv- 
ices Tatuxent Wildlife Research Center, 
indicating onlv trace amounts of environ- 
mental contaminants in the bird. 

The service is conducting a review of 
the circumstances surrounding the con- 
dor's death, and will await these findings 
(along with the results of experiments 
with Andean condors and other \ ultures 
in South Africa and Teru) before reapply- 
ing for permits necessary to continue 
work as part of the California condor 
recovery program. 



I lorid.i ke\ Oeer Recovor\ I'lan 

■A recover\- plan which has as itsobiecli\e 
the stabilization of the Florida Key deer 
(Otiocoilcii^ i'irs;iiiiivni^ cliwiinii) popula- 
tion, as opposed to an effort to boost its 
numbers, has been appro\ed b\' the Fish 
and W'iidiite Ser\ice. .Xllliough the popu- 
lation has apparentU- stabilized at aroimd 
350-400 deer, high mortality from road 
kills and a limited range keep this species 
in jeopardy. 

A distinct geographical race of the 
X'irginia white-tailed deer lO(1ociiiU'Uf vir- 
■,;;;; irt(j IIS), the ke\' deer is the smallest race 
foimd in the United States. The average 
weight of tin adult male is SO poimds and 
an adult female weighs about f>3 poimds. 
rile a\erage shoulder height ranges from 
24 to 2b inches. 

The center of the Key deer population 
is Big Pine Key, Florida, with an estimated 
200-250 deer Road kills bv automobiles 
are the most serious threat to the deer on 
Big Pine Ke\', accounting for 76 percent of 
known mortalities of kev deer from 1%S to 
1973. (Other mortalities were caused b\ 
drowning, combat between males, cap- 
ture for tagging, and unknown factors.) 

Key deer are strongh- attracted to 



Rare Ciilitoriiiii condor chick that died while undergoing extimiruition. 




newly burned areas, and will feed exten- 
sively on new woody and herbaceous 
growth for up to 6-9 months. Availability 
ot drinking water seems to influence the 
distribution of Kev deer throughout their 
range. Periods of drought find the deer 
utilizing the larger ke\s, with water, in 
fa\or of the •smaller keys without drink- 
ing water 

R) preserve the Key deer, the plan not 
oni\' emphasizes the importance of mam- 
taining the population level and available 
habitat, but also the integrity of the sub- 
species. According to the plan, because 
the Key deer are the product of a unique 
system of selective forces (a restrictive, in- 
sular en\ironment with no natural pre- 
dators), management should involve the 
retention of those natural selection factors 
that influenced their evolution. Under no 
circumstances, according to the plan, 
should a captive zoo-bred herd be consid- 
ered for restocking purposes. 

What the plan does call for, among 
other things, is the acquisition of more 
land for the Key Deer National Wildlife 
Keluge, established in 1957. Key deer 
habitat is being de\eloped rapidU-. and 
their range is already extremely limited. 
The only way to ensure adequate protec- 
tion of this habitat is to incorporate it into 
the National Wildlife Refuge System. 

Efforts to protect the herd and the in- 
tegrity of the subspecies would include 
prohibition of hunting, restricting dogs 
from refuge lands, reducing speed limits, 
posting deer warning signs, and fencing 
highways except at trail crossing points. 

Other items covered in the plan are 
public awareness, monitoring the deer 
population, experimenting with habitat 
manipulation, and conducting studies on 
the natural history and population 
dynamics of the Key deer herd. 



.Algae as Fertilizer 

Using algae in place of nitrogen fertilizer 
has the potential of helping the agriculture 
industry cut energy costs bv almost 30 
percent, according to researchers at Bat- 
telle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories. Re- 
searchers in Battelle's Food and Agricul- 
ture Section are testing se\eral species of 
algae as substitutes for nitrogen fertilizer. 
Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant 
growth and production of plant proteins. 
The production of nitrogen fertilizers 
accounts for 30 percent of the energy used 
by the agriculture industry, observes a 
Battelle research scientist, adding that as a 
solar energy product, algae's onl\- major 
requirement for growth is sunlight, and 
that's free.  



"We're looking ,it severnl species of 
bkie-green, soil cilgiie thiit can Like nitro- 
gen troni the nir and incorporate it into its 
cell mass where it is later used as lertili/er 
b\' plants," he savs. The algea could be 
grown in large amounts and applied to the 
soil to provide nitrogen. Or, he sa\s, a 
''mail amount could be put in the soil 
where it would grow to provide the neces- 
sary nitrogen 

Batelle researchers ha\e recenllv 
completed a project to compare tomato 
plants grown using nitrogen-priiducing 
algae and plants grown using a commer- 
cial tertili/er In their tests, algae supplied 
the proper amoiuit of nitrogen for the to- 
mato plants and also induced 45 percent 
more growth than w hat was obser\'ed in 
those treated with the same amount of 
commercial fertilizer. The 45 percent 
weight gain was observeti when the 
plants were measured both wet and dry. 
The researchers measured weight gain 
only and did not let the tomato plants 
bear fruit. The researchers attribtited the 
weight gain to the secretion of a plant 
growth hormone bv the algae. 

Blue-green algae bloom are used in 
Asia to provide nitrogen for rice produc- 
tion, note the Battelle researchers. This 
could also be done in the United States, 
they say, through appropriate engineering 
and agricultural practices. 



Bird Problems Aren't Funny 

A shax'ing cream manufacturer once us^d 
terse jingles printed on signs tacked to 
tenceposts along highways for advertis- 
ing. "Listen bircis," one sequence read, 
" These signs cost money . . . Roost awhile, 
but don't get funny!" 

"If birds could read signs," notes a 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service spokes- 
man, "it would solve some horrendous 
problems we have throughout our coun- 
try. How fine it would be if a NO TRES- 
PASSING sign would protect a farmer's 
cornfield from blackbirds; or a DETOUR 
sign would shunt birds around airport 
runways; or an OFF LIMITS TO GULLS 
sign w'ould save the remaining tern nest- 
ing colonies on an East Coast barrier 
island." 

As it is. Fish and Wildlife Service sci- 
entists have spent years studying bird 
habits and populations in an effort to find 
effective, environmentally safe methods 
of reducing bird damage. Most of the 
techniques developed are designed to 
frighten birds away, but the service has 
alst) conducted research on humane, 
selective methods of killing birds when it 
is necessary to reduce their numbers in 
local areas. 

During the early spring when their 
numbrs are at a low ebb, there are about 
430 million blackbirds in the United 
Elates. After nesting, their numbers more 
than double to 900 million. A typical flock 



contains about 40 percent red-winged 
blackbirds, 22 percent grackles, 20 percent 
starlings, 15 percent cowbirds, with the 
balance distributed among other species 
of blackbirds. 

Large concentrations roost together 
in trees to share one another's body heat 
during the night. Sometimes their roosts 
are in towns where the incessant yammer 
of as many as one million birds in a small 
grove can create a serious disturbance. 
The accumulated guano left on the ground 
not only creates a stench, but eventually 
kills the trees and — insidiously — forms 
a breeding place tor the human disease, 
histoplasmosis. 

Blackbirds also cause an estimated 
$50 million in damage to corn, wheat, rice, 
cherries, grapes, sunflowers, and other 
crops throughout the country each year 
Starlings flock into feedlots, polluting 
with their droppings the grain intended 
for fattening li\estock. 

These birds also cause problems for 
other wildlife. Starlings, which were in- 
troduced to the United States in the late 
19th century, have multiplied rapidly and 
have taken over many nesting cavities, 
displacing native birds such as wood 
ducks, bluebirds, tree swallows, and 
woodpeckers. Grackles feed on the eggs 
and young of other birds and have caused 
considerable losses among white- winged 
doves in Texas. The female cowbird is a 
nest parasite, laying her eggs in the nests 
of other birds and letting the foster parents 
raise her large, robust young — usually at 
the expense of the rightful siblings. Cow- 
bird parasitism has been especially hard 
on the Kirtland's warbler, an endangered 
species that nests only in one area in 
Michigan. 

Blackbirds often can be driven from 
crops or roosting trees bv persistent use of 
scare devices such as shotguns, propane 
cannons, firecrackers, or recorded bird- 
distress calls. Sometimes, however, these 
tactics merely transfer the problem 
elsewhere. Then the only alternative, says 
the Fish and Wildlife Service, is to reduce 
the local blackbird population. One non- 
poisonous and very selective method is to 
spray the blackbirds on cold nights when 
they are concentrated in roosting trees. 
The spray, PA-14, breaks down the oil in 
feathers, removing the birds' natural 
waterproofing and insulation, thus caus- 
ing them to die of exposure. Spraying and 
other damage control methods are care- 
fully carried out to ensure that other 
species are not harmeci. 

Like blackbirds, gull populations 
have also rocketed to unprecedented 
numbers. And, similarly, their population 
explosion is related to human activities. 
Uncovered garbage dumps, the offal from 
fish-processing plants, and lifter have 
given gulls seemingly unlimited food 
supplies — and they have flourished as 
never before. 

Gulls have become a hazard at several 



airports and also ha\'e — like some of the 
blackbirds — encroached upon the tradi- 
tional nesting grounds of other birds. 
Their most apparent inroads have been 
upon the terns on the barrier island off the 
New England coast. About 1960, gulls in- 
vaded Monomoy National Wildlife Re- 
fuge, an eight-mile-long island .just below 
Cape Cod. Since then they have spread 
their own nesting colonies over almost the 
entire island, destroying the tern nesting 
colonies until only a few tern colonies 
remain. Among the five species of terns 
represented is the roseate, a tern that is 
being considered for the endangered 
species list. 




To protect Mononn)v's terns, the Fish 
and Wildlife Service recently began a pro- 
gram to kill a limited number of gulls with 
DRC 1339, a poison that attacks the kid- 
neys of birds, causing them to die pain- 
lessly in their sleep within 72 hours. Mixed 
with margarine and spread on pieces of 
bread, the poison bait is being placed in 
the nests of gulls that are encroaching on 
tern areas. Inasmuch as the gulls are gar- 
bage eaters, and terns are not, the poison 
is selective and has been very successful 
so far The service is careful to reduce the 
numbers of only the offending birds. 

Though birds cause serious problems 
at times, they often are of incalculable 
value to farmers. Gulls kill locusts. 
Blackbirds kill weevils, earworms, and 
rootworm beetles. Grackles eat cutworms 
and mice in newly plowed fields. Cow- 
birds feed on insects that harass grazing 
livestock. Starlings feed on the notorious 
Japanese beetle. 

"The trouble is," says a Fish and 
Wildlife spokesman, "they all come back 
to help harvest the crop. Our objectives 
are not primarily to kill gulls, blackbirds, 
or other animals, but to save the wild di- 
versity of wildlife we enjov so much, and 
at the same time save crops and livestock 
from needless waste." 25 



November & December at Field Museum 



November 15 through December 15 



f>^ 




North American Indian Heritage Day 
Sunday, Nov. 23, 11 a.m. — 4 p.m. 

Continuing Exhibits 

The Insect World. View butterflies from many parts of 
the world, of turquoise, purple, orange, and red hues. The 
iridescent Less butterfly of Madagascar displays eight 
dazzling colors itself. Moths range in size from the Hercules 
of New Guinea, with a 10-inch wing span, to the tiny 
Blackberry Borer. Rivaling the Hercules is the huge African 
Rhinoceros beetle— 8 inches long, including 2-inch-long 
pincers. Main floor, outside Hall 21. 

Gamelan. This 24-piece Javanese orchestra consists of 
brightly painted gongs, drums, and brass xylophones. 
Javanese legend says that a spirit lives in the great gong of 
every gamelan: his duty is to make sure the gamelan is 
played. Most of the instruments in the Museum's gamelan 
were played at the 1893 Columbian Exposition. Hall K. 
ground floor. 




Friend or Foe? The Natural History Game. The object of 
this game is to determine which specimen is harmful and 
which is not. See if you can distinguish a vampire bat, a 
head-hunter's axe, or a poisonous snake from its benign 
look-alike. Ground floor. 

New Programs 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures. Explore some countries 
and cities of Europe through these lively travel films. Nar- 
rated by the filmmakers themselves, the 90-minute pro- 
grams continue through November Admission is free 
through the West Door; bring membership card for prior- 
ity seating. Recommended for adults. Saturdays, 2:30 
p.m., James Simpson Theatre. 
n Nov 15: "Paris" with Kathy Dusek. 
n Nov 22: 'Peoples of Romantic Europe" with William 

Sylvester 
n Nov 29: "Ireland" with Robert Davis. 

North American Indian Heritage Day. Experience the rich 
and diverse culture of native North Americans by par- 
ticipating in this free, day-long celebration. See traditional 
intertribal dances as well as art and craft demonstrations; 




go on a guided tour of the permanent Indian collections; 
enjoy a fashion show of native American dress; view spe- 
cial films; play Indian games, and much more. Events will 
be held in Stanley Field Hall and throughout the Museum; 
a complete schedule will be available at the program. 
Planned in conjunction with Chicago's American Indian 
Center, and partially funded by the Illinois Arts Council. 
Ticketsarenotrequired. Sunday Nov. 23. II a.m. -4 p.m. 

Nature Odyssey. Enjoy a day of free natural history films 
for families. Short subjects, animated folk tales, and fea- 



*•-) 




ture films will give you a fascinating film experience. 
Included are such Museum favorites as "The Owl Who 
Married a Goose," "The Living Legend." and "Sea Otters 
at Play." Tickets are not required. Sunday. Dec. 14. 
11 a.m.- 4 p.m.. James Simpson Theatre. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Participate in a variety of 
free tours, demonstrations, and films on natural history 
topics every Saturday and Sunday between 11 a.m. and 




3 p.m. Check the Weekend Sheet available at Museum 
entrances for locations and additional programs. 
D "The World of Gold" surveys gold: its uses, physical 
properties, and mining procedures. Saturday Mov 15. 
noon. 

D "Welcome to the Field" provides visitors with a micro- 
cosm view of the "behind-the scenes" activities at a 
natural history museum. Saturday. Mov 15, 1 p.m. 
D "Ethnographic Reality: Cultural Studies on Film" Film 
Feature: Imaginero presents the story of an Indian folk 
artist living in the barren country of northwest Argentina. 
Sunday Mov 16, 1 p.m. 

D "Welcome to the Field." Saturday Nov 22. 1 p.m. 
D "Welcome to the Field." Saturday Mov 29. 1 p.m. 
n "American Indian Dress" examines the construction, 
craft, style, and symbolism of Indian dress from the 
northern woodlands to the Southwest, Saturday Dec. 
6. 11:30 a.m. 



D "The World of Gold." Sunday, Dec. 7, 1 p.m. 
n "American Indian Medicine" looks at various Indian be- 
liefs regarding disease and illness, methods of healing, 
and Indian contributions to modern medicine. Saturday 
Dec. 13, 11 a,m. 

n "Archeology of the Illinois Valley" explores what ar- 
cheologists are discovering about 10,000 years of Indian 
adaptations. Sunday Dec. 13, 1 p.m. 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportonities. Individuals with scientific 
interests and backgrounds are needed to work in various 
departments of the Museum. Contact the Volunteer 
Coordinator, 922-9410, ext. 360. 




Movember and December Hours. The Museum is open 
from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m., Monday through Thursday: 9 a.m. to 
5 p.m.. Saturday and Sunday; and 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.. Friday 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 
p.m. Closed Thanksgiving, Mov 27. Obtain a pass at the 
reception desk, main floor 

Museum TELEPHONE: (312) 922-9410 




^LLIfyois 



!ir,r,...." ^'^■SJUf>C^<i Put. r.. 



U='BA/\;4 iLf 



6 1 d 1 



8"ii.or\r. 





For Christmas 
Give Field Museum 



■m w rhether you are trying to decide on a Christmas gift for 
\n/ the smalt child or for "the man who has euerything." 
' ' a gift of Membership in Field Museum is always 
appropriate. 

For the adult, a Membership can provide a wealth of 
opportunities to further explore the realm of natural history: 
for the child it can open the doors to a lifetime of scientiflc 
interest or professional endeavor Infinitely more than a 
storehouse of fascinating specimens and exhibits. Field 
Museum offers to its Members at every age level a varied 
selection of exciting learning experiences via the classroom, 
workshop, laboratory, film lecture, or field trip. 

Perhaps equally important: with a Field Museum 
Membership you are giving a shared relationship, for Field 
Museum is indeed its Members. 



clip and mail this coupon or facsimile 



to; Membership Department 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. II 60605 

I wish to send gift memberships to the following: 




Gift recipient's name 



Street 



City State Zip 

□ Individual membership 520 
G Family membership 525 
D Life membership S500 



Gift recipient's name 



My name 



Street 



Street 



City State 

D Individual membership 520 
D Family membership 525 
D Life membership 5500 



Zip 



City 



State 



Zip 



n Check enclosed payable to Field Museum 
D Please bill me 

D Charge to Master Charge acc't # 

D Charge to Visa acc't # _ 



n Send gift card announcement in my name 



I 



^/ EELD Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



Uc-cembor 1980 




L IbJDRY SUI^m 

DEC 1 1980 

uBsm 



CALENDAR for 1981 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

December 1980 
Vol. 51, No. 11 

EditorlDei>is^iwr: David M. Walsten 
Production: Martha Poulter 
Caloidiir: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: E. Leland Webber 
Director: Lorin I. \e\ling, Jr. 



Bo.\RD OF Trustees 

William G. Svvartchild, Jr., 

chtiirtfutn 
Mrs. T. Stanton .Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Cordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Nicholas Galitzine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphv Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Bvron Smith 



Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 

William McCormick Blair 
Joseph \'. Field 
Paul W. Goodnch 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John T. Pirie, Jr 
Donald Richards 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 
3 



back 
cover 

COVER 



1981— A Year of Minerals 

by Edward Ohen, curator of mineralogy 

Appointment Calendar for 1981 

Features photos of outstanding minerals at Field 

Museum 

December and January at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



Photomicrograph of amphiboUte specimen from Peppier Lake, 
Ontario. Field ofzneze 4mm. TJus is a vieiv of grains of amphibole, 
pn/ro.xene, and magnetite as thexj occur in a t\/pe of metamorphic 
rock. The approximate alignmettt of the grains is due to nonuniform 
pressure during cr\/stallizatio>i. Photographed through a petro- 
graphic microscope ivith partially crossed pwlars. Photo In/ Edward 
Olsen. Other p'liotomicrographs, also In/ Olseti, appear in the 
calendar section for the month of May. 



FIclil Museum I'f N.Kiira/ Hislory Bullclm (USPS 898-940) is published monlhly, except 
combined July .August issue, bv Field Museum of Witural History. Roosevelt Road at 
Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. 11. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually, S3.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes B»//t-hi; subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy ot Field Museum. Unsolicited manu- 
scripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 
to Field Museum ot Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 
60605. ISSX: 0013-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, 11. 



lil^l FIELD INDIA 

ML bEL V| January 21-Februan/ 12 

70LT\S T'-'"'' f "«■■ $3,500 

Looking for the past? ... it lives on, alongside the present, in 
India. There is no archaic past in this ancient land, onlv a gentle 
continuity. The past soars triumphantly in the sculptured temple 
towers; in the citadels and minarets. India lives also in the 
modernity of its cities . . . cosmopolitan Bombav and Delhi, the 
capital. This merging of past and present is perhaps the strength 
and the attraction of India and the basis of its universal appeal. 
Our tour will give you a good overview of both. 

Holy Land & The Red Sea 

March 12-26 
Tour Price: $3,625-$3,995 
(depending on cabin class) 

This tour, aboard the privately chartered M.S. Stella Maris cruis- 
ing yacht, will include stops in Cairo and Luxor, Egvpt; a visit to 
Quseir, a small port town on the Red Sea where Field Museum is 
conducting an excavation; a visit to Petra and St. Catherine's 
Monastery. In Israel, the tour visits the Mount of Olives, Mas- 
sada, Jericho, and sites in and around Jerusalem, including 
Bethlehem. 



Papua New Guinea 

May 1-17 
Tour Price: $4,461 



'f^l FIELD 

MUSEL'M 

TOLXS' 

Papua New Guinea is unique. For centuries a diversity of con- 
trasting cultures have flourished here within small areas because 
the tribes were isolated by towering mountains that laced the 
island. And so, unknown to each other and to the outside world, 
thev co-existed, each in an individual communal environment 
sufficient unto itself. Only now has a surface veneer of civilizahon 
begun to permeate this mysterious island so that visitors may 
explore and exclaim over the natural wonders of this Edenlike 
paradise. 

Kenya & The Seychelles 

September 12-October 3 
Tour Price: $3,750 

There is now, as there has always been, an aura of myster\' sur- 
rounding Africa. Tropical islands and the coast, endless palm- 
fringed beaches, snow-capped mountains on the equator, jungle 
primeval, savannah sun-baked plains. They are all a part of East 
Africa, the home of one of our planet's last great natural dramas. 
We hope to welcome vou to Kenya and the Seychelles with Field 
Museum Tours in 1981. 



Please write or call for further information. Tours direct line: 322-8862. 



1 



1981— A YEAR OF 

Minerals 



by Edward OusEN 
Ctinilor of Miiifidluiji' 



All i^cnis ;ire minerals, hul nol all minerals are gems. Tliis 
does not mean thai only gem minerals are attractive. If 
.in\ mineral eiyslallizes in a geological setting where it is not 
missha{x»n and crammed between other minerals, there is a 
chance it will lorm excjiiisite cr\stals with pleasing geomeiiical 
sha[)es. Well lormeii cnstals are bounded bv milunil smooth 
surfaces, called cri-stal faces. Although they apj^ear to be simi- 
lar to the facets we .see on gemslones, they must not be con- 
fu.seil with them. Gem facets are put there bv design, the gem- 
cutter's art. In this 1981 calendar are some of Nature's "gems." 
The.se are attractive minerals that ha\'c crystallized in their 
own natural forms — some delicate, some meiiculoush' 
geometrical, some bizarre. 

A few of the photographs, howe\'er, are of the opposite 
kind of growth — where each mineral is crammed against 
other mineral grains, each distt)rted, war])ed, and limited in 
the size to which it could grow. These arc photomicrographs of 
rock — thin sections — sections cut so thin that light can pass 
through the mineral grains forming the lock, revealing the 
internal structures. (See cover photo and the two photos for 
May in calendar.) These photomicrographs rival some works 
of modern art in their flamboyant displays of colors, shapes, 
and patterns. 



(Collections ol minerals, such as Field Mu.seum's, can 
grow, over the decades, in several ways: field collecting, pur- 
ch.ises, exchanges, and donations of s[H»cimcns and talents bv 
tiiends of the Mu.seum. In the right photo, below. Public Rela- 
tions assistant K.ilhnn .Slociim admires a group ol gemstones 
recently donated to the Mu.'^eum. The largest is a faceted kun- 
zite of 506.24 carats, from Brazil. The round stone, center, is a 
303.73 carat moonstone cabochon from India. Both stones 
were the gift of Ragnar W. Nordlof, Park Ridge, IL. The third 
largest is a 24.46 carat star garnet from Kellog, Idaho, and a 
gift of Roy Barnes, St. Maries, ID. The smallest is a .^.1)26 carat 
.synthetic emerald created by Union Carbide Corp., and the gif\ 
of Glenn Commons, Aurora, IL. 

At the left is the late Waller F. Kean of Riverside. IL, an 
electronics engineer by profession but, b\' ax'ocation, a gemcut- 
ter of extraordinary talent. In Field Museum's mineral collec- 
tion ilurc liad been many gem minerals of e.xcelleni cjualitv 
that had ne\er been faceted. Over a f)eriod of almost a decade 
KiMii, who died in 1975, gave his superb skill to cutting and 
faceting a grou]) of gemslones from this stock of minerals. All 
of the stones on which he xvorked are on exhibit ioda\' in the 
Museum's Higinbotham Hall of Gems. 




53 



Waller F. Krtin 



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GU^ViY LIB -M I76 

NAT'j^AL pes:)URCe:s eUILDIN'"^ 

URRANfi ILL nl^'l 



December aiid Januar\ at Field Museum 



tUeii'iiilHT 15 tliruu^ilijctiiuiin' 1.3,1 



Continuing lOvhibits 

AMERit AN M \\i\i \i > 111 tlii.s liall \(Hi am see four groups ot 
white-tailed cii>er that CaH .\kele\ pivpan'd anuiiul the turn ol 
the (-eiitui-\. rhese lanious e\hil)its show tiie seasonal ciil- 
ferenees in the apjx-iu-diic-e ot deei; mid iire tlie first lai^e 
dioramas depiitini; anini.\ls in ivalistie envir-oniiients This 
method, pioiuHMtHi h\ \kele\ at I iekl Museum has since 
lx>en adopted i)\' modem museums e\rr-\A\liere Hall 16. 
m.iin tlcxir. 

l'i.\( t I OH WoNDKR Touch the t(K)th ot a uoolK mammoth 
examine a chwolate rhi[i stailish or pla\ musir;il instiii- 
ments tnim China in this gallei^ full of tourhahle exhibits. 
\oluntt^i-s help guide e.vploration Ojkmi \\^ekda\-s 1-3 p.m.; 
weekends 10 a.m -noon and 1-3 p.m Clround floor 



New Programs 

Winter Joi r\e\ Heading South: Achentiires of a Ciuiada 
Goose" Follow the migratory adx^ntutips of this bird as it 
ti-a\vls soutli to find fcxni and a wanner climate. On its wav, 
the g(X)se encountei-s mam animal neighlxirs Self-guided 
tour: tree Joi/r7i('\ pamphlets a\ailahle at Museum entrances. 

\\'F.F,KF.M) Disc t)\>.R\ Pro(;r.\ms Participate in a \ariet\' of free 
tours, demonstrations, and films e\et> Saturda\ and Sunda\ 
l)etween 11 am and 3 p.m. Check the Wipekrnd Shpct a\ ailahle 
at Museum entrances for locations ;uid additional programs. 

D'The Culture of Ancient Eg\pt, tour Saturday. Dec. 20, 
1 p.m 

n "Chinese C^eramicThaditions. tour Saturdas. Dec. 20, 2 p.m. 
D'Many .\Ie.\icos. tour Sunday. Dec 21. 1 pjn. 
D "Highlight Tour" Saturday, Jan 3 1 p.m 
D'VXfelcome to the Field," tour Sunda\; Jan. 4, 1 p.m. 
D "China Through the Ages." tour and slide pre.sentation 
SaKirdax'. Jan. 10, 2 p.m. 

D "Animal Babies," tour. Sunday. Jan. 11, 1130 a.m. 

D "Chinese Ceramic Thaditions." Sunday, Jan 11, 130 p.m 

\\I\TKR I I N Children ages 5 to 9 c;in t;ike part in workshops 
on natural hLstor\- tofiics on Saturday, Januarv 10, 17, 24, and 31. 
Most vvtjrkshops meet once for either 60 or 90 minutes. For 
times and registration information, call or write Field 
Museums Public Programs, Department of Education: 
322-8854 (Mon.-Fri.l. 



D "Animals in tiieir Wiriter Homes." Children learn how 
animals adapt and prx)tect themsekes in the winter In 
Kngiish and Spanish tor- ages 0-6. Members S3, nonmem- 
bers S4. Jan. 10 or 24. 

D "Pinch Pots" lages 5-6i and "Potterv Workshop" lages 
7-9). ChiidiT'ii hand-build their own pots in the.se three- 
session workshops. Members S12, nonmembers S15. Jan. 10. 
24, and 31 

□ "Nature Uib." S'oung people examine a \ariety of speci- 
mens uiuler a microscope — human and animal hair. 
lea\es. insects, and more. Ages 8-9, .Members S5, nonmem- 
bers S6. Jan. 10 or 24. 

D 'Our Feathered Friends. ' Children learn what birds lhe\' 
can see in the Chicago area during the winter and con- 
struct a birdfeeder to bring home. Ages 8-9. Members S5, 
nonmembei>i S6. Jan. 10 or 24. 

□ "Animal .Ai't. Children tour the mammal halls, learn 
animal behavior, and draw their fa\'orite animals. Morning 
sessions for ages 5-6: afternoon workshop for ages 7-9. 
.Membei's S4, nonmembei-s S5. Jan. 10 or 24. 

□ "Eg\-]3tian Hieroghiihs." Children see a film on ancient 
Egv^it and learn to write their names in picture script. Ages 
7-9. Membei's S5, nonmembers S6. Jan. 17 or 24. 

□ "Indian Games." Girls and boys lecirn Indian games, hear 
native .American stories and music, and make Indian play- 
things. Morning sessions for ages 5-6 (Members S4, non- 
memhei's §5': afternoon workshops for ages 7-9 iMemliers 
S5, nonmembers S61. Jan 10, 17, 24, or 31. 

□ "Days of the Dinosaurs. Children tour Hall 38 and make 
dinosaurs out of cla\' or draw these ancient reptiles. Ses- 
sions for ages 5-6 and ages 7-9. .Members S4. nonmeml>ers 
S5. Jan. 17 or 31. 

Continuing Programs 

\'oi.i'\TEER Oi'PORTUMTiES Individuals with scientific inter- 
ests and t)ackgit3unds ;ire needed to work in various .Mu.seum 
departments. C'ontact the \blunteer Coordinator, 922-9410, 
e.xt. 360. 

December .anu J v\i arv Holrs The Museum is open 9 am -4 
p.m Mondav-Thursdav: 9 a.m.-5 p.m Saturdav and Sundav: 
and 9 a.m.-9 p.m., Friday. Closed Cliristmas and New Near's. 

Tilt. Ml SKIM I IBRARV is ojien weekda\-s 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, m;un floor Closed Christmas and 
New Vear's. 



iMl SEUM PHONE: 3121 922-9410 



i UT M l*a".MIJHM