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Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



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^^4983.= 



1 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

'^ 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Calendar: Man' Cassai 
Staff Photograpiher: Ron Testa 




Board of Trustees 

William G. Swartchild, Jr., 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Doimelley n 
Marshall Field 
Hugo]. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
CUfford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

January 1982 
Volume 53, Number 1 



\ew light on Peru's Past 

By Michael E. Moseley, Robert A. Feldman, 
and Irene Pritzker 



Ancient Air Breathers 

By W.D.Ian Rolf e 



12 



Latin American Neighbors Day 



17 



Egyptian Hall Rejuvenated 



18 



Field Museum Tours 



20 



Tribes, Traditions, and Totem Poles: 
The Northwest Coast Achievement 

Learning Museum Program 
By Anthony Pfeiffer 



22 



Index to Volume 52 (1981) 



25 



Letters from the Arctic — / 

By Edward Olsen 



27 



Our Environment 



35 



January and February at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 



back 
cover 



COVER 

The high grasslands of southern Peru (here over 4300 meters 
above sea level) are the home of llamas and alpacas, the domesti- 
cated New World camelids. These animals are important today, 
as they were 1,000 years ago, for the wool and meat they 
provide. Photo by Robert A. Feldman. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n, 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 60605. ISSN:aO15-0703. Second class posUge 
paid at Chicago, 11. 




New Ligfit on Peru!s Past 

Recent discoveries on the site of a large copper mine in southern Peru have led to 
the formation of a new archeological program in which Field Museum will play 
a major role 



By Michael E. Moseley, Robert A. Feldman, and Irene Pritzker 



Photos by Robert A. Feldman 



On the eve of Columbus's New World land- 
fall, the largest empire in the world was 
probably Tahuantinsuyu, or the "Land of the 
Four Quarters," as the Inca called their sprawling 
realm. The empire stretched along the moun- 
tainous Andean backbone of South America for 
more than 4,300 kilometers, an expanse rivaling 
the Roman Empire. There is today no Andean 
nation of comparable magnitude; nor in the past 
did larger states arise, neither in the New World, 
nor south of the equator in the Old World. 
The four- fold division of the realm was 
made for administrative purposes, and reflects 
salient geographical differences within the far- 



flung empire. Contisuyu was the southwestern 
quarter of Tahuantinsuyu and comprised much 
of what is today southern Peru. The Inca con- 
quest of the southern Andes and their domina- 
tion of earlier civilizations is not well known or 
understood. Smallpox and other diseases of 
European origin decimated the empire as the 
Conquistadors were plundering it, and the ear- 

Michael E. Moseley is associate curator of Middle and 
South American archeology and ethnology; Robert A. 
Feldman is visiting assistant curator of South American 
archeology; and Irene Pritzker is in the Post-Graduate En- 
glish Program at the University of Chicago and is a coor- 
dinator of the Contisuyu Program. 



Field Museum ar- 
cheologist Robert 
Feldman examines 
ventilator opening in 
wall of recently iden- 
tified Inca storehouse 
upriverfrom Cerro 
Baul. 



liest written accounts of Contisuyu begin after 
Andean civilization was in a state of collapse. 

To learn more about the ancient civilizations 
of Contisuyu, we scaled the lone precipitous 
path winding up the cliff-face of a towering 
mesa, called Cerro Baul. This great rock pinnacle 
juts out of the center of the little explored 
Moquegua Valley, and like a stone battleship, 
guards passage between the high mountains and 
desert coastlands of southern Peru. Our quest 
was the ruined city that sprawled over the sum- 
mit of this sheer-sided natural fortress. Like the 
mesa of Masada, which confronted the Romans 
in ancient Israel, we believe Cerro Baul was the 
invincible stronghold where Inca legions were 
held at bay by the defenders of Moquegua and 
Contisuyu. The one path to the summit is steep, 
narrow, and runs a tortuous course between an- 
cient defensive walls and rock cliffs where as- 
saulting troops could easily be thrown back. 

The heroic resistance by the people of 
Moquegua is recorded in an account written 
hundreds of years ago by Garcilaso de la Vega, 
the son of a Conquistador and an Inca noble- 
woman. He reports that after learning of the Inca 



Villages of later prehistoric periods were often built on defen- 
sible hilltops overlooking the river valleys. Elaborate systems 
of canals and terraces allowed crops to he raised on steep 
slopes. 



emperor Mayta Capac's setting forth with his 
armies to conquer Contisuyu, the populace 
armed and provisioned themselves. They then 
withdrew to the towering mesa overlooking 
their homeland, which could only be Cerro Baul. 
The Inca legions could not scale the cliff-faces or 
take the great natural bastion by storm, nor could 
the conquest of Contisuyu proceed beyond this 
defiant fortress; so Mayta Capa encamped his 
forces around the great hill and set siege so that 
the defenders could obtain neither food nor 
water from the valley below. The isolation of the 
great mesa proved to be a liability: its defenders 
became its prisoners. 

Garcilaso tells of the fall of Cerro Baul. After 
fifty days without food or water, the elders sent 
the children down in hopes that the Inca would 
show mercy and that the young would not die 
for the resistance of their fathers. But Mayta 
Capac did not wish to harm any of the people, so 
he sent the children back up the mountain with 
food and water for all. Seeing the Inca's compas- 
sion, the defenders surrendered and submitted 
to Inca rule. 

Upon reaching the summit of Cerro Baul, 





L'V 





l^?^: 



m 



Fortress-like mesa of 
Cerro Baul (center 
background) provided 
refuge to inhabitants of 
Moquegua when the 
Inca came to conquer 
the valley. It fell after a 
50-day siege. Store- 
houses (foreground) 
built by the victo- 
rious incas today 
lie in ruins. 




the weary hiker is today greeted by an amazing 
view of grandeur that reaches from the snow- 
covered peaks of the Andes down toward the 
Pacific coastlands. Far below the mesa the Rio 
Moquegua ghmmers like a distant ribbon. The 
river is only 125 kilometers long, and its waters 
cascade down the western face of the Andes, 
descending more than 4,500 meters before emp- 
tying into the ocean. This exceptional change in 
altitude creates an ideal ecological research situa- 
tion, because over a very short horizontal dis- 
tance the Rio Moquegua transects a great range 
of environments. 

This ecological diversity is not random, but 
stratified by altitude into distinct environmental 
belts stacked one atop another. In this situation, 
archeologists can follow human development 
back in time through a series of very different 
physical settings. These settings range from the 
"altiplano," or high plain, where llamas and al- 
pacas pasture, to the rocky seacoast, where fish- 
ing is the way of life. The basic ecological divi- 
sions of the watershed are defined by rainfall, 
which is seasonal above 2,000 meters and com- 
pletely absent at lower elevations. Indeed, the 
lower valley cuts through the world's driest des- 
ert, where decades can pass without even a 
shower. 

From the top of the towering mesa, it 
is possible to catch a glimpse of the distant 
Cuajone open pit copper mine in the remote 
mountains from which the Rio Moquegua de- 
scends. The mine began operations in 1976, and 
while it was under construction the local com- 
munity and mine officials became concerned as 



they realized that they were discovering one 
archeological monument after another. At this 
point. Southern Peru Copper Corporation, the 
mine operators, approached Field Museum for 
advice, and it was this contact that brought us to 
Moquegua for reconnaissance purposes and to 
the summit of Cerro Baul, where we hoped to 
begin unraveling Inca from pre-Inca civilization 
in the valley. 

Because the Moquegua drainage is un- 
explored archeologically, our initial reconnais- 
sance has been concerned with discovering the 
numbers and types of sites and monuments in 
the region. Here, the use of a small airplane 
owned by the mine has proved invaluable in 
providing a rapid overview of the many ruins 
tucked away in desert canyons and mountain 
corridors. This reconnaissance has shown that 
the valley contains more than 500 archeological 
sites spanning some 10,000 years of human en- 
deavor. Discoveries range from painted caves 
through cities older and larger than Machu 
Picchu to the citadel-city of Cerro Baul. Apart 
from imposing architecture, many ruins contain 
a myriad of artifacts, ornate textiles, and mum- 
mified human remains. Broad expanses of aban- 
doned agricultural terraces cover the mountain- 
sides, and ancient canals built with sophisticated 
engineering methods reach across the desert 
plains. 

Today Cerro Baul is covered by a ruined 
city some 8 hectares (20 acres) in size. A series of 
plazas and large buildings — some that were once 
two stories tall — claim the central area. Next to 
them are large, deep pits, probably granaries and 



cisterns for storing water. The houses of the an- 
cient city are jumbled and closely packed. Here 
and there are large grindstones (weighing over 
45 kg, or 100 pounds), which have been labori- 
ously hauled up from below; broken pottery lit- 
ters the ground. 

Discovering ancient monuments is both 
exciting and easy when done by airplane. How- 
ever, dating such discoveries is difficult and tedi- 
ous in an unexplored region where the sequence 
of past civilizations is not known. The Inca con- 
quest and assimilation of Moquegua left a dis- 
tinctive archeological stamp on many of the later 
prehistoric sites. However, among the 
thousands of sherds of pottery among the ruins 
of the mesa-top city we did not encounter Inca 
materials. It may be that the Emperor Mayta 
Capac forced the citadel to be abandoned in 
order to forestall any possible rebellion once his 
legions moved on to conquests further afield — 
this remains for future research to establish. 

The ruins do contain pottery in a pure 
Tiwanaku style, and effectively date at least part 
of the ancient city to A.D. 500-700. Tiwanaku 
was a great pre-Inca empire, and its capital city 
was near the edge of Lake Titicaca on the alti- 
plano, high above Cerro Baul. We have encoun- 
tered pottery of this imperial style at scattered 
sites all the way down to the port city of Ilo, at 
the mouth of the Moquegua Valley. Because the 
desert around Ilo is even drier than that of an- 
cient Egypt, archeological preservation is excep- 
tional, and ancient cemeteries yield fine textiles, 
feather headdresses, and other delicate objects, 
including elaborate tapestry tunics of Tiwanaku 
style. As yet, we do not know if these magnifi- 
cent Tiwanaku tapestries — or the pottery at 
Cerro Baul — reflect a military conquest like that 
of the Inca, or if more peaceful colonization was 
involved. We know that the Aymara kingdoms, 
which arose around Lake Titicaca after the fall of 
Tiwanaku, maintained peaceful colonies of 
farmers in the Moquegua Valley, and this pat- 
tern might extend back to the earlier empire. 

Looking out from the summit of Cerro Baul, 
great tracts of abandoned terraces can be seen 
flanking the valley and extending back into 
the mountains. Agricultural terraces such as 
these were so characteristic of the highlands of 
Tahuantinsuyu that the Spanish Conquistadors 
gave the native name for the terraces, andenes, 
to the whole cordillera — the Andes. Farming on 
any scale within the Andean highlands must be 
based on terraces, as the valleys are steep-sided, 
with very little flat land even near the rivers. 
The engineering problems presented by the 
steep hillsides and rapidly flowing rivers were 
enormous, though successfully overcome. A far 
greater area was farmed in the past than today. 



Where modern irrigation farming ends, the 
canals often do not: they continue for kilometers 
through remnants of abandoned terraced fields. 

The terraces are not the only evidence of 
long-term agricultural changes. Long canals and 
irrigation systems now make the desert area on 
the floor of the valley productive, but hundreds 
of hectares of now-barren land on either side of 
Moquegua reveal a webwork of small feeder 
canals, showing that this area too was once 
farmed. A strong wind, occurring daily, has 
blown away most of the soil from the fields, but 
the canals are preserved because of their stone 
lining or by thick layers of hard silt deposited in 
them during their use. 




Coastal Chirihaya-style pottery (ca. a.d. 1200) features mul- 
ticolored geometric designs, probably derived by simplifying 
and stylizing the more naturalistic Tiwanaku designs from 
the Bolivian altiplano. 

Nowhere in the world do people simply 
abandon arable land; but nowhere in the world 
has as much land been abandoned as in the 
Andes. Survey has shown that many of the 
Moquegua terraces are associated with pre-Inca 
settlements as well as with Inca sites, but ques- 
tions such as how they were watered — from 
canals or by rainfall — and why they are not now 
in use remain unanswered. Study of the ter- 
races can provide important information on past 
climatic conditions, and whether there have 
been changes in rainfall, evaporation, or river 
flow — changes that could have important 
implications for the future of the region. 

When and why these fields were aban- 
doned are also important questions. The Inca 
chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega relates that 
when the Inca Mayta Capac conquered the 
Moquegua area it was underpopulated, so he 













Much of the lower part ofContisuyu is dry and barren, with 
farming now limited to narrow river valleys (center). In the 

brought in settlers. The abandoned fields ap- 
pear to be more closely related to the earlier 
Tiwanaku villages than to the later, scantier Inca 
remains. It appears that the Moquegua Valley 
saw several peaks and declines in population. 



past, canals carried water out of valleys to fields on some of 
these wastelands. 

The causes for the abandonment of the agricul- 
tural lands need to be understood, especially 
the question of whether these causes could 
recur and affect the area's modern inhabitants. 
After the Inca's armies took Cerro Baul, they 



moved its defenders out of their villages and 
resettled them — along with the colonists that 
were brought in to pacify and repopulate the 
region— in two new villages. Garcilaso named 
only one of them — Moquegua — so there has 
been some speculation about the second. We 
think we have found the evidence needed to 
answer this question. 

We discovered spectacular terrace systems 
and a major complex of monumental architecture 
in the mountains above the sierra town of Torata, 
within the sight of Cerro Baul. The complex is 
tied to an Inca highway that descends the crest of 
a long mountain ridge covered with abandoned 
terraces. Walking down the road, the visitor is 
first greeted by a scatter oichulpas, circular 
masonry burial towers. Chulpas are an altiplano 
attribute that we have not found in the lower 
coastal valley. Below the ruined towers, the an- 
cient road is straddled by an impressive group of 
stone-walled Inca storehouses. The walls of 
these four ranks of rooms still stand high, after 
almost 500 years of abandonment. Small open- 
ings in the sides at ground level — below the 
raised floors inside — served as ventilators and 
show that these storerooms held agricultural 
produce, undoubtedly gathered from the stone- 
faced terraces that blanket the hUls on all sides. 

A short distance away is a fortified village, 
its jumbled walls presenting a very different 
aspect from the regimented storerooms. Pottery 
found on the site shows a mixture of local and 
Inca styles, a pattern often repeated in the Inca 
provinces. When they conquered an area the 
Incas Would not replace the local culture, but 
rather would superimpose their own. Physical 
evidence of the Incas, such as architecture and 
pottery, is often restricted to sites they actually 
occupied. Thus, we find the mixture of pottery 
styles at the village adjacent to the storerooms, 
while in an architecturally identical village only a 
kilometer away, Inca pottery is extremely rare. 

An even greater contrast is seen down in the 
valley by Torata, where there is an Inca adminis- 
trative center adjacent to a local village. The Inca 
center is severely regimented, with identical 
rooms grouped inside walled rectangular blocks 
lining a grid of streets. To build their city, the 
Incas chose (and possibly partially leveled) a flat 
saddle on a ridge. The rocky promontory at the 
end of the ridge is occupied by the local village. 
Its rooms are built on terraces following the 
curve of the hill and lack the order and regularity 
of the Incas' rigid blocks. Very little Inca pottery 
was found at the local village, showing that even 
though they existed side-by-side, the culture of 
the conquerers made few inroads on the local 
pattern. 

The Inca administrative center identifies the 




10,000-year-old paintings found on the walls of two caves 
near Toquepala show ancient hunters stalking wild game of 
Andes. Unfortunately, vandalism threatens to destroy 
these priceless artifacts. One of the aims of the new Con- 
tisuyu Program is to prevent similar destruction of 
Moquegua's cultural heritage. 

Heavy grindstones found on Cerro Baul shew that people 
once lived in ruined buildings on its summit. Pottery shows 
that this occupation dates back some 1,500 years. 





Lights of Villa Cuajone 

(lower left) signal new 

future for Cerro Baul 

and other prehistoric 

sites in Moquegua. 

Money provided by 

owners of Cuajone 

copper mine wil help 

contribute to 

protection and study of 

these valuable 

monuments of 

Contisuyu'spasf. 



10 



adjacent village as the second of the two founded 
after the fall of Cerro Baul. It is possible that we 
are too literal in our reading of Garcilaso's chron- 
icle, and that this village was not a single concen- 
trated settlement such as we are accustomed to. 
The storehouse site and its village are about 5 
kilometers from the Torata center, but they might 
have been part of the same "village" or commu- 
nity. More work remains to be done, but we 
know where to look. 

Below the Inca center, in the middle and 
lower Moquegua basin, the severity of the desert 
conditions greatly restricts where people can 
live: the occupation was densely packed along 
the river banks and shoreline, but almost absent 
in the intervening desert regions. Canal systems 
and irrigation agriculture make the valley zone 
productive, and the modern city of Moquegua is 
located there. Today, large areas of the river val- 
ley are given over to grapes, which are used to 
make Moquegua's renowned Pisco brandy. In 
the past, maize, beans, cotton, and fruit trees 
such as avocado were the principal crops; abun- 
dant food remains found in the village middens 
will provide important information on past crops 
and diet. 

Only a few parched olive groves can 
be found on the Pacific coast, where water is 
extremely scarce. The copper company must 
desalinate seawater at great expense in order to 
supply the needs of the workers at its smelter 
north of the city of Ilo. In the past, limited farm- 



ing was possible with the use of short canals 
from springs at the base of the Andes. However, 
fishing and marine collecting was the most im- 
portant way of life on the coast. Extensive shell 
middens blanket the coast on either side of Ho — 
some are 5,000 or more years old. 

In sharp contrast to the coast is the altiplano, 
a relatively flat tableland situated more than 
4,000 meters above sea level. It is cold and out- 
wardly forbidding. Numerous snow-capped 
peaks, many volcanic, tower above the plains, 
reaching heights over 5,400 meters (17,700 feet). 

Human occupation of the altiplano is sparse 
and scattered, restricted to areas with favorable 
combinations of water, temperature, and wind. 
While life is definitely not easy, an extremely 
successful adaptation hasbeen developed, based 
on herding the llama and alpaca and on cultivat- 
ing a suite of high-altitude, frost-tolerant plants, 
potatoes in particular. The prehistoric record on 
the altiplano goes back many millennia. Survey 
of a recently abandoned farmstead there turned 
up not only the expected glass and tin cans, but 
also stone flakes and projectile points that show 
the site to have been occupied over a span of up 
to 5,000 years. 

The range of archeological monuments 
shown to us by officials of the Cuajone mine and 
by interested and concerned local residents, as 
well as the additional sites we found, confirm the 
importance of Moquegua. The discovery of this 
cultural wealth created a great deal of excitement 



at Field Museum as well as in Peruvian institu- 
tions. Luckily, Southern Peru Copper Corpora- 
tion was interested in helping, and offered 
matching funds to develop a program for the 
preservation and study of the valuable sites. As 
a result, the Contisuyu Program has recently 
been created. 

The Contisuyu Program is a cooperative 
Peruvian-U.S. agreement involving Field 
Museum, the Peruvian Museum of Health Sci- 
ences, and the Peruvian National Cultural Insti- 
tute. These three institutions have agreed to 
combine forces to organize a multinational proj- 
ect of investigation, conservation, and regional 
development of the cultural heritage of Moque- 
gua's portion of Contisuyu. The ultimate goal of 
all involved with the program is that the ar- 
cheological sites be protected, studied, and 
shared with interested visitors from all parts of 
the world. 

From a Peruvian standpoint, the involve- 
ment of Field Museum is very important. From 
its beginnings. Field Museum has had a great 
interest in Andean research, and is expert in 
conceptualizing and implementing broadly 
based programs such as the Moquegua sites re- 
quire. The transfer of technical and scientific 
knowledge to Peru for purposes of taking inven- 
tory and protecting the sites is vital to the success 
of the Contisuyu Program, and it is in this area 
particularly that the Field Museum is uniquely 
qualified to contribute. In addition, an area as 
large as the Moquegua Valley requires not just 
the ability to investigate a particular site, but the 
ability to manage a large scale, self-perpetuating 
business enterprise. Few museums in the world 
know how to do this. Field Museum does, and it 
is wilhng to share its expertise with Peru. 

The impact of modern civilization on the 
region, and the urgent need for the Contisuyu 
Program, can be seen at the oldest known mon- 
ument in Contisuyu: the Toquepala Caves. Some 
10,000 years ago hunter-gatherers lived in the 
Toquepala Caves near the Quebrada Cimarron, a 
now-dry stream running from the sierra to the 
desert. The midden garbage of these ancient res- 
idents accumulated in thick deposits covering 
the floors of two small caves, and on the cave 
walls the people painted a graphic record of their 
presence. 

Designs in red, black, yellow, and green 
show ancient hunters amid herds of guanaco, a 
wild relative of the domesticated llamas and al- 
pacas. Other animals, including armadillos and 
condors, are also shown, along with enigmatic 
geometric designs. These hunting scenes are an 
irreplaceable window back into the distant past, 
long before farming assumed importance. 

Unfortunately, vandalism has destroyed 




many of the caves' paintings. The caves were 
discovered more than twenty years ago by sur- 
vey teams planning Southern Peru Copper Cor- 
poration's first mine at Toquepala. The mine 
funded a study of the paintings, and archeolo- 
gists were also sent from Lima. A fence was 
erected to protect the paintings, but people dug 
under it and tried to chip off the designs, proba- 
bly to sell them; they only succeeded in shatter- 
ing and destroying many precious paintings. Re- 
cently, the corporation erected a new and much 
stronger barrier, so further destruction, it is 
hoped, will be prevented. 

A major goal of the Contisuyu Program will 
be to increase public awareness and appreciation 
of the importance of archeological remains. By 
building local pride, we seek to prevent the de- 
struction of more of Moquegua's patrimony. 

A major step forward in unravelling the 
mysteries of Moquegua has been the formation 
of the Contisuyu Program. Not only does the 
program provide necessary finance, it also cre- 
ates official Peruvian enthusiasm by virtue of the 
fact that it owes its existence to the concern 
shown by a responsibly minded large American 
corporation. It is with great anticipation that 
Field Museum, together with our Peruvian col- 
leagues, looks forward to the enormous task of 
preserving, studying, and developing the cul- 
tural patrimony of the Valley of Moquegua, 
and to bringing into focus the civilizations of 
Contisuyu. D 



Extremely dry 
conditions in 
Moquegua desert have 
preserved a wide range 
of perishable remains, 
including this wooden 
spoon handle. Design 
is carved in Tiwanaku 
style (ca. A.D. 500) and 
depicts two condor 
heads (at top), cactus 
flower (top center), and 
unidentified plant 
form. 



11 



ANCIENT AIR BREATHERS 



b;^ w. D. Ian Rolfe 



Burgess shale fossil 
Opabinia may be an 
early descendant of the 
segmented animals 
from which annelid 
worms (such as the 
earthworm) and ar- 
thropods were derived. 
This reconstruction 
provoked laughter 
when first shown at a 
normally sober, scien- 
tific meeting — a trib- 
ute to the animal's 
unique combination of 
characters. (After 
Whittington) 



Most paleontologists would still agree with 
Darwin that "the whole science of geology 
loses glory from the extreme imperfection of the 
record." Yet, now and again a new find of fossils 
is made which reminds us of what we are miss- 
ing — another window onto the past is opened. 

The most famous of these finds is the 
Burgess Shale (530 million years old) of British 
Columbia, with its multitude of soft-bodied 
forms. An international research team led by H. 
B. Whittington, of Cambridge University, has 
shown that there is still much that can be learned 
from these fossils, discovered in 1908. Or the 
more local, but scarcely less famous, Mazon 
Creek Pennsylvanian biota (300 million years 
old) of Illinois, with its 800 or so different animal 
and plant fossils, mostly still unique to Illinois. 
These are chance occurrences of a spectacular 
kind. 

No less remarkable, however, may be finds 
made by workers patiently processing rock in 
their laboratories. One thinks of the beautiful 
Permian silicified brachiopods recovered by G. 
Arthur Cooper and his co-workers at the Smith- 
sonian Institution, by acid digestion of blocks 
of the Glass Mountains, Texas. Or the minute, 
crystal-clear copepod crustaceans and spiders 
dissolved from concretions in the Mojave Desert 
by Alison Palmer. We take for granted the rou- 
tine recovery of large masses of often exquisitely 
preserved spores with their resistant sporopol- 
lenin coats. 

Yet, few geologists are prepared to take the 
risk of expending vast effort in processing large 
volumes of rocks on the off-chance that they 
might contain some new fossils. The German 



geologist Erich Malzahn was willing to take 
such a chance: by washing many tons of Permian 
marl, he recovered a few, minute, exquisitely 
pyritized crustaceans of groups previously un- 
known as fossils. Klaus Miiller, of Bonn Univer- 
sity, has suggested that such occurrences are not 
as few and far between as we tend to think; we 
just do not bother to look for them adequately. 
Miiller should know, since in the course of dis- 
solving phosphatized water fleas from Swedish 
Cambrian limestones, 510 million years old, he 
noticed that a few had soft parts attached to 
them. By carefully dissolving less than nine 
pounds of the rock he was able to recover 
thousands of shells, 400 of them with their soft 
parts and multisegmented limbs preserved in- 
tact. 

Knowledge of life on ancient land surfaces is 
much harder to come by. This is partly for the 
obvious reason that land animals have to end up 
in a water-laid sediment before they can be found 
as fossils — a rather unlikely event. Yet one of 
these remarkable chance finds has just been 
made by paleobotanists Pat M. Bonamo and 
Doug Grierson of the State University of New 
York at Binghamton. 

Whilst etching out fossil plants from the 



W. D. Ian Rolfe was recently at Field Museum under the 
Department of Geology's Visiting Scientist Program, inves- 
tigating pod-shrimps of Mazon Creek, Illinois, and Mecca 
shale, of Indiana; he also initiated the work on Devonian 
microarthropods of New York, discussed in this article. Rolfe 
has returned to his position as deputy director of the Hunte- 
rian Museum, University of Glasgow. 





middle Devonian (380 million years old) 
mudstones of Gilboa, New York, to use their 
own words, "We made an extremely exciting and 
fortuitous discovery. While we were examining a 
preparation with the dissecting microscope we 
found an almost complete small arthropod, 
swaying gently in the water filling a depression 
left by the acid removal of the rock matrix, the 
tips of its legs being still embedded in the un- 
etched rock. We were able to remove it with 
cephalothorax and abdomen still intact." Since 
then, they have found more specimens, most of 
them fragmentary. 

That first animal Bonamo and Grierson 
found is a trigonotarbid arachnid — a group of 
daddy longlegs-like animals, extinct since the 
Pennsylvanian. The finest details seen on any 
fossil arthropod can be seen on this species — 
including the first slit sense organs — the "strain 
gauges" which detect minute deformations in 
arachnid exoskeletons. These structures, only a 
few thousandths of a millimeter in length, were 
spotted by Field Museum's John Kethley, associ- 
ate curator of entomology. In an equally striking 
specimen were the poison fangs of what was 
obviously a centipede. Ralph Crabill, the senior 
U. S. worker on centipedes, was excited to find 
that this most closely resembles a living form on 
which he had worked for many years — Cratero- 
stigmuS) known today only from New Zealand's 
South Island and Tasmania. He could state with 



New trigonotarbid arachnid, 2 mm long (1/12 inch), from the 
Middle Devonian (380 million years old) of Gilboa, New 
York. It closely resembles animals of similar age from Rhynie, 
Scotland, and Aiken, West Germany. (Photo courtesy Pat 
M. Bonamo and D. Grierson) 



Phosphatized ostracode (water flea), 0.2 mm long, acid- 
etched from Upper Cambrian (510 million years old) lime- 
stone in Sweden. (Photo courtesy ofK.J. Miiller) 




13 



^^^^H 


1 








5 




*»^- 






^■■H^^M 





Le^ tip ofGilhoa, N.Y. 
trigonotarbid, show- 
ing well preserved 
spurs , and hairs still 
set in sockets. (Photo 
courtesy Pat M. 
Bonamoand 
D. Grierson) 




14 



Poison fimgs of the oldest known centipede, from 380 
million-vear-old rocks ofGilboa, N.Y. They most closely 
resemble Craterostigmus — known today only from New 
Zealand and Thsmania. (Photo courtesy Pat M. Bonamo 
and D. Grierson) 



authority that this could not belong to any cen- 
tipede living in North America today. An impor- 
tant point, since other authorities had begun to 
question whether these acid residues were not 
simply contaminants — minute scraps of arthro- 
pod that had, perhaps, fallen out of a crack in 
the ceiling. 

This sort of thing had happened before — 
supposed outer-space spores found in the 
Orgeuil meteorite proved to be only ragwort pol- 
len contaminants that had survived superficial 
cleaning of the meteorite. The possibility of such 
contamination was ruled out here by the pres- 
ence of trigonotarbid, and also by the extreme 
flatness of the materials — only a few thou- 
sandths of a millimeter thick: it was difficult to 



imagine how such Recent contaminants had got 
so squashed, unless they really had been en- 
tombed in a column of rock, originally miles 
thick. As more groups were recognized, it be- 
came clear that the fossils belonged to groups 
that had long been thought to be primitive. That 
was true oi Craterostigmus, and of the single mite 
specimen recovered. Identification of mites is 
very much a matter for specialists, and John 
Kethley recognized that this was one of the 
oribatid mites in which Roy Norton, of the S. U. 
N. Y. College of Environmental Science and For- 
estry, was expert. Norton was able to compare it 
with living ctenacarids, a family of Palaeosomata 
which, as the name suggests, had long been con- 
sidered among the most ancient of mites. 

Other animals are represented by the small- 
est of fragments, and one needs to enlist the help 
of many specialists in order to run them down. 
Two such experts. Otto Kraus in Hamburg and 
Bill Shear of Hampden-Sydney College, Vir- 
ginia, independently identified one scrap as the 
tip of the leg of a tarantulalike arachnid. These 
animals have a very patchy distribution at the 
present day, suggesting a former much wider, 
tropical- subtropical distribution. Fossils had 
been known from the Carboniferous of Mazon 
Creek, as well as from Europe, but once again 
this find was much older than any hitherto. 

The work of identifying the fragments — 
most of them less than a millimeter across — 
continues. E. Laidlaw Smith, of the California 
Academy of Sciences, has identified one perfo- 
rated plate as a possible machilid — a silverfish, 
long thought to be primitive, which would make 
them the earliest true insects. It will take a long 
while, and probably much more etching out of 
material, before a complete picture of the ancient 
air-breathers of Gilboa can be built up. 

Land fossils of this age are very rare, and 
known from only two other localities in the 
world: Scotland and Germany. The first of these 
finds was made only in the 1920s, when the 
tough, splintery Rhynie Chert of Aberdeenshire, 
Scotland, was found to contain not only some of 
the earliest land plants, but also a whole fauna of 
minute arthropods. This fauna comprises sev- 
eral minute mites, a shrimp resembling the living 
fairy shrimp, a possible spider, a springtail insect 
(of which the spring organ has just been discov- 
ered) and some trigonotarbid arachnids very like 
the Gilboa beast. These animals are exquisitely 
preserved in the clear silica of the chert, since 
they were killed and petrified in situ when an 
ancient peat bog was inundated with hot-spring 

waters. 

Paleobotarust A. G. Lyon, then of Cardiff 
University, was sectioning some of the chert to 
study the plants in detail when he was startled to 



see some finely laminated structures inside the 
abdomen of one of the arachnids. He recognized 
these as lung-books — the structures by which 
many land arthropods breathe today. These are 
the oldest, and remain the only fossil, lung- 
books known, and really confirm that these ani- 
mals were air-breathers, as had been deduced 
from their general resemblance to living spiders 
and their kin. 

A second find of these Devonian land forms 
was made only in the 1960s at Aiken, on the River 
Mosel, in Germany. The fossils are not so spec- 
tacularly preserved as at Rhynie and Gilboa, but 
a similar trigonotarbid was recognized and de- 
scribed by the late Leif St0rmer of Oslo Univer- 
sity, a leading and inspiring worker on early 
fossil arthropods since the 1930s. This deposit 
probably formed in a lagoon, and the presence of 
many sea scorpions, some of them possibly am- 
phibious, at this locality suggests the land fossils 
were washed in from a nearby shore. Also pres- 
ent is Eoarthropleura — the dawn Arthropleura — 
a possible ancestor of those giant, six-foot-long 
millipedelike animals known from Mazon Creek. 

The similarity of the undoubtedly terrestrial 
trigonotarbid arachnids of Gilboa to those of 
Rhynie and Aiken raises several interesting 
points about these early air-breathers. First of all, 
they were even then so well developed and spe- 
cialized that biologists think they must have 
evolved onto land long before the Devonian. 
When the original ancestor, or ancestors, of mil- 
hpedes, centipedes, and insects left the sea to hit 
land, it (or they) probably diversified rapidly 



into the many different types of land arthropods. 

Maps of the ancient geographies of those 
times, recently compiled by workers at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, show a chain of continental 
fragments, scattered around the globe in low 
tropical latitudes. Our ancestral trigonotarbid 
must therefore have emerged onto either one of 
these land masses — Laurentia or Baltica (see 
maps) — and then spread to the other after these 
continental plates collided in the late Silurian/ 
early Devonian, 400 million years ago, to form 
the larger continent of Laurussia. The present- 
day distribution of close relatives of the Gilboa 
air-breathers shows that further major expan- 
sion of their range must have occurred — and the 
recent discovery by Mario Hiinicken, of Cordoba 
University, of a giant fossil spider with a body 
thirteen inches long and a leg span of almost two 
feet, in the Carboniferous of Argentina, tells us 
that at least some of these territorial gains had 
been made by the Pennsylvanian, 280 million 
years ago. The maps also show that Laurussia, 
bearing its cargo of Gilboa arachnids, had im- 





Above: Fossil tamn- 
tulid claw (OS mm 
long) from Gilboa, 
N.Y. (Photo courtesy 
PatM.BonamoandD. 
Grierson.) Below: The 
living tarantulid 
Charinus, of Africa. 
(AfterMillot) 15 





Maps of ancient geographies, showing that the three known sites of the oldest terrestrial faunas are confined to the on. 
Laurussian plate, in Devonian times (380 million years ago). (After Scotese et al, © 1979, The University of Chicago) 



U 



pacted with the southern hemisphere plate 
known as Gondwana just before this time, allow- 
ing the arachnids to spread far and wide, ulti- 
mately to reach the places that their descendants 
inhabit, often as relict faunas. 

If this is a true account of events, it enables 
us to make an intriguing prediction, testable by 
future, worldwide collecting: terrestrial arachnids 



older than the Carboniferous should not be found out- 
side the Laurussian plate. In other words, none 
should occur in Gondwana rocks — or in Kazakh- 
starua, China, or Siberia, for that matter, since 
such land animals could not cross the sea barriers 
that separated those former continental plates. It 
will be interesting to see how long this prediction 
can survive. D 



Latin American 
Neighbors Day 

Dia de los Vecinos 
Latinoamericanos 



Sunday, January 31 
12 noon-4:00 pm 



Come celebrate Latin American Neighbors Day, 
Sundayjanuary 31, from 12 noon to 4:00 pm at Field 
Museum. Enjoy tours, lectures, touchable exhibits, craft 
projects, games, and dance performances that highlight 
the cultures of Mexico, Central and South America. 

"Nuevo Ideal" offers two half-hour dance perform- 
ances at 1:30 pm and 3:30 pm in Stanley Field Hall. Sixteen 
dancers (ages 7-17) perform lively folk dances from the 
many states of Mexico: Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Tamaulipas, 
and Jalisco. The featured dances include shotis (polkas), 
the bamba, the zapateado, la tortuga, pinotpa nacional 
and uapango (the cowgirl dance). "Nuevo Ideal" per- 
forms under the direction of Ophelia Solano. Tours of the 
Latin American halls are offered in English and Spanish. 
Explore "The World of the Aztecs" ("£/ Mundo de los 
Aztecas"'), "Mesoamerican Civilization," and "Textiles of 
Ancient Mexico." Watch a pottery demonstration that rep- 
licates traditional Indian handbuilding techniques. 

Children can enjoy tours scheduledjust for them 
— "Exploring the New World" and "Animals of South 
America" (in English and Spanish) . After the "Animals" 
tour, children can make an animal baby out of clay to take 
home. Young people can play pinata, learn to grind corn 
using the mano and metate, make Ojos de Dios ("God's 
Eyes") — a symbol of peace and happiness — and spin 
wool into yarn using a drop spindle. A special Discovery 
Room full of touchable exhibits relating to life in Mexico 
will provide fun for the whole family. Children can try on 
clothes from Mexico, create a mola design out of colored 
paper, make paper flowers and listen to Mexican folktales 
in English and Spanish. 

There is a special performance by the Clemente 
Steel Band of Roberto Clemente High School at 2:45 
p.m. in Stanley Field Hall. Fifteen musicians will per- 
form this delightful music on 24 steel drums. 




Dr. Alan Kolata, visiting assistant curator of Andean 
archeology, presents an illustrated lecture on "The Lords 
of Tiwanaku" at 2:00 pm in James Simpson Theatre on 
the ground floor (at the Museum's West Entrance). He 
explores the evolution of Tiwanaku, one of the greatest 
native states of the ancient Americas, located near Lake 
Titicaca in what is now Bolivia. He details the economic, 
political, and religious universe of the metropolis of 
Tiwanaku and the Andean empire it controlled from 
A.D.200toA.D.1000. 

An illustrated lecture on "Fossil Mammals of South 
America" is offered at 1:00 pm in Lecture Hall I on the 
Ground Floor (at the Museum's West Entrance) by Dr. 
Larry Marshall, visiting assistant curator of fossil mam- 
mals. South America was an isolated island continent for 
most of the last 65 million years. The animals 
evolved there in a world all their ow^n. Meet Megatherium , 
the giant ground sloth, and the armored glyptodont, ex- 
tinct cousin of today's armadillo. After the lecture, you 
can see the skeletons of these prehistoric animals on dis- 
play in Hall 38. 

All events are free with admission to the Museum. 
A detailed schedule (in English and Spanish) is available 
after January 15. Please send a self-addressed, stamped 
envelope to receive the advance schedule. Schedules are 
available at Museum entrances on the day of the event. 

This program is partially funded by the Illinois Arts 
Council. 17 



Egypi 

Reju 



Hall J, the Museum's world-faf 
lije with the installation of tifi 
culture, the opening of the tomb 
exhibit, and the 'renovation' o 
viewers may now appreciate thi 
arrival of a magnificent, modi 
Thebes [on long-term loan from 
out the rejuvenation of Hall J 
Museum's visitors. 




18 I 



G 

ho 



Case 12: Egyptian p 
pottery-mahng. 



The tomb chapel o 
showing the fake di 



Field Museum Tours for Members 



The Ancient Capitals of China 

June 6-28 

This unique itinerary, rarely granted by the Chinese au- 
thorities, includes the most significant sites of early Imperial 
China and will give an opportunity to explore in depth the 
civilization which characterized one of the oldest and longest- 
lived societies on earth. We will have the opportunity to 
observe the emergence of this remarkable culture and its de- 
velopment to a level which surpassed its contemporaries in the 
Western World. 

June 6: Departure from Chicago to San Francisco in time for 
evening briefing. 

June 7: Departure via Japan Airlines for flight to Tokyo. 
June 8: Afternoon arrival in Tokyo; overnight at Nikko Narita 
Hotel. 

June 9: Flight to Peking, where we will spend 4 days, visiting 
Imperial Palace, Temple of Heaven, Tien-an Square, and the 
antique shop district; Ming emperor tombs, the Great Wall, 
the Summer Palace, and the National Museum. 
June 13: Overnight train ride to Zhengzhou, capital of Henan 
Province, where we'll spend 3 days; in addition to sight-seeing, 
we can rise early to participate in tai chi exercise groups in the 
People's Park. 

June 16: A short, train ride takes us east to Kaifeng, where we'll 
spend 2 days. The city is rarely visited by tourists; it's just at the 
beginning of modernization, and we'll get a wonderful feeling 
of Old China. 

June 18: Two days in Luoyang, one of the oldest centers of 
Chinese culture. 

June 20: A westward train ride takes us to Xian, our home for 4 
days. This is where the fabulous clay horses and warriors of 
the "Great Bronze Age of China" exhibit were discovered. 
June 24: We'll travel by air to Shanghai, where we will spend 
four days, including a one-day side trip to Souchou, silk- 
manufacturing center. 

June 27: To Tokyo again, for a one-night stay before flying back 
to the States. 




At a small additional cost, you may stay longer in Japan or 
in Hawaii, at completion of the China tour. 

Our tour leader is Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, Ph.D. candi- 
date in Chinese history at the University of Chicago. This is Mr. 
Woodruffs third time as a Field Museum China tour leader 
and his fourth visit to that country in two years. Cost of the 
tour is $3,850 (per person, double occupancy). 



Alaska Native Culture Tour 

June 19-July 1 

This 13-day tour begins with a flight from Seattle to Sitka, 
Alaska, where we wall spend two days and nights viewing old 
Russian settlement buildings, Sheldon Jackson Museum, and 
National Park Service exhibits. Our third, fourth, and fifth 
nights will be aboard two yachts, which will take us to Admi- 
ralty Island. We will see Tenakee Hot Springs, the native vil- 
lages of Angoon and Hoonah, and make a tour of Glacier Bay. 

Sightseeing in Juneau and its environs will be our activity 
during the next two days, followed by a day and night in 
Anchorage and a visit by motorcoach to Denali National Park 
(formerly McKinley National Park), where we will enjoy the 
spectacular scenery and view wildlife, spending two nights 
there. A day and a night in Kotzebue, a day in Nome, and a 
final day in Anchorage will round out the tour. 

All hotel accommodations will be first class; the two 
yachts will accommodate 16 and 10 persons, respectively. Tour 
rates to be announced. 

Coral Reef Biology and Natural History 
Explorations in the Western Caribbean 

June 22-Jufy 11 

The richness of marine life and the beauty of the offshore reefs 
and islands of Belize and Honduras are unsurpassed in the 
Atlantic tropics. Field Museum's 20-day tour of this region 
offers a unique opportunity to explore and study tropical 
marine and terrestrial ecosystems and, if desired, to earn uni- 
versity credit for doing so. Leading the tour will be three 
professional marine biologists, each with considerable field 
work in the Gulf of Honduras and well acquainted with the 
local flora and fauna. 

Included in the tour is a six-day stay at Glovers Reef, 28 
miles offshore from Belize. Reef formations at Glovers are 
among the Caribbean's most richly developed. Lectures and 
field-trips, including snorkeling, will familiarize participants 
with the mammals, invertebrates, fishes, sea birds, and in- 

Last Can for Baja! 

If you are looking for a place in the sun, but want something 
more than a pretty beach, then come with us for a real 
adventure. We have just two spaces left for our whale-watching 
erpedition to Baja California scheduled to depart injustafew 
weeks . . . February 6. 



Chinese scholar learns his "A-B-Cs." 



If you wish additional details for any tour or 
would like to he placed on a special mailing list, 
please call Dorothy Roder, Tours manager, at 
3ZZ-886Z, or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



g^ '^' . .I'Algfg-. j..'j>.;i». ' ALi - 



teresting algae of this isolated, untouched coral-reef. Daily 
scuba diving is available. The 50-foot motor sloop Christmas 
Bird will take us to and from the reef, where we will stay at 
Lomont's Glovers Reef Village resort. 

Our stay at Glovers will be followed by a four-day in- 
depth exploration of the central Belize mainland, including 
rain forests, the famed Blue Hole on the Hummingbird High- 
way, a stay at the Blancanaeux Lodge atop Mountain Pine 
Ridge, a visit to Rio Frio Cave and the Thousand Foot Falls, and 
exploration of Mayan ruins at Xunantunich. Aiding us for the 
four days will be Belize resident Dora Weyer, internationally 
known naturalist and expert on bird identification. 

We will then stay five days at Roatan, one of the Bay 
Islands, where steep cliffs, rocky shores, and sandy beaches 
and associated wildlife provide a sharp contrast to the Glovers 
atoll environment. At Anthony's Key Resort, our Roatan home, 
first class accommodations, scuba facilities, fantastic sport 
fishing, tennis, etc., and superlative surroundings will add to 
our enjoyment. The tour will end with a day at San Pedro Sula, 
on the mainland, with sight-seeing and shopping or a tour to 
Mayan ruins at Copan. 

Leading the tour will be Dr. Robert Karl Johnson, curator 
of fishes and chairman of Field Museum's Department of Zool- 
ogy; Dr. David W. Greenfield, research associate in the 
Museum's Division of Fishes and professor of biological sci- 
ences at Northern Illinois University (NIU), and Dr. Norman A. 
Engstrom, associate professor of biological sciences at North- 
ern Illinois University. Three semester hours of undergraduate 
or graduate credit in biological sciences are available from NIU 
to tour participants. The tour will be limited to 14 partici- 
pants. Rate to be announced. 




Motor sloop Christmas Bird at Glovers Reef 

Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 22-30 

An exciting 280-mile cruise down the Colorado River by 
motorized rubber raft, camping outdoors under the stars. Dr. 
Bertram Woodland, curator of petrology, will lead the tour. 
Group limited to 25. Details to be announced. 




Galapagos tour cruise ship, M.V. Buccaneer, in background; shorebird 
hobnobs with iguanas. 

Ecuador and the Galapagos 

March 11-25 

The Galapagos Islands affect our imagination like no other 
place on earth. Field Museum is pleased to offer its members 
an opportunity to visit this remote archijjelago under the ex- 
pert guidance of Dr. John W. Fitzpa trick, associate curator and 
head, Division of Birds. If you are a "birder" or a "photog- 
rapher" this tour is a Utopia. 

We'll see 500-pound tortoises, ferocious-looking land 
iguanas that eat cactus flowers, marine iguanas which are 
superb divers, penguins, flightless cormorants, colonies of sea 
lions and fur seals, and many other exotic and unique birds, 
mammals, and reptiles. The plant life, with 40-foot cacti in 
coastal deserts and dense rain forests in the mountains, is 
equally interesting. 

In addition to the unique sightseeing and learning oppor- 
tunities on the cruise, we will spend four nights in Quito, 
Ecuador, where we'll enjoy old world ambience, along with the 
color of the centuries-old Indian market and villages of 
Latacunga and Ambato — we'll overnight in Ambato. Our 
transfer from Quito to Guayaquil will give us a chance to see 
the country's remarkable scenery. Special attention will be paid 
to the unique bird life. 

Our cruise ship, the 2,200-ton M.V. Buccaneer, meets the 
highest safety requirements. Originally designed to carry 250 
passengers, it was refurbished in the United States in 1976 to 
carry only 90, and has recently been again refurbished. All 
cabins are outside and are equipped with complete private 
bath. The Buccaneer offers a comfortable, informal cruising 
environment. Although we'll be in the tropics, it will never be 
unpleasantly hot because of the cooling effect of the Humboldt 
Current. 

The price is $3,550 (per person, double occupancy). We 
hope you will join us in one of the greatest adventures in travel. 



Coming up. 



Australia Ibur 

August 23-September 12 



Kenya Tour 

(with optional extension to Seychelles) 
September 11-October 1 



21 



Learning Museum continues with 



Tribes; Traditions; and Totem Poles: 
The Northwest Coast Achievement 



fav Anthony Pfeiffer ,^>to. 
Project Coordinator %^ 



Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities , a federal agency 



Cmlization has its Seven Wonders, all created by 
people who practiced agriculture, and all 
created in the last 10,000 years — less thanl percent 
of the time that humanlike creatures have existed. 
What are the wonders of 99 percent of human evolu- 
tion? What are the hunting and gathering accom- 
plishments which shaped human-kind? Among the 
most wondrous of these were the achievements of 
natives of the Northwest Coast of North America. 
Northwest Coast cultures were the greatest ever 
nurtured by hunting and gathering systems — as 
opposed to agriculture. 

It is hard to imagine life without agriculture 
and domesticated animals. In almost all regions, 
hunters and gatherers roamed large territories in 
small bands, taking advantage of the seasonal 
availability of plants and animals. They knew their 
lands. Knowledge of what, where, and when 
foodstuffs could be found was passed on, generation 
to generation. It was a good life, requiring pjerhaps 
eight hours' labor a week to satisfy basic needs, 
though people had to keep moving in a perpetual 
restless following of food. They couldn't own more 
than they could carry. But this pattern of hunt- 
ing and gathering did not prevail in the 
Northwest Coast. It was an unusually 
generous environment. 






V 




22 



Top of wooden wand carved to represent a witch spirit. Used 
by Alaskan Tlingit shaman in ceremony. 




Above: Aleut children pose uncertainly for Field Museum 
photographer Charles Carpenter at St. Louis, Missouri, 
Exposition, in 1904. 

Right: Decaying totem pole at Gitksan, British Columbia, 
photographed in 1977 by Ron Testa, Field Museum photog- 
rapher. Does the disintegrating pole symbolize the fate of 
Native Northwest Coast traditions? 

Below: Map shoivs ranges of many of the Northwest Coast 
tribes discussed in the Learning Museum Program. Artistic 
heritage of Alaska will be represented by Ronald and Joseph 
Senungetuk in April 18 Contemporary Arts Symposium; 
Bill Reid and Robert Davidson will represent the Haidan 
tradition; Joe David will represent the Nootkan, or West 
Coast People. 






BRITISH COLUMBIA '''*?S>^yi.2^i.:-' ■"""' A. _'- 



ETMNOt-OGICAL MAP OF 

SOWHEASTERN ALASIWV 



^^^, 



■^^ 



,1.. ,-\^^j^ 



^7 



^4?*^, 



^i^ 






23 



In 1899, Field Museum 

zoobgist Daniel G. 

Elliott photographed 

this deserted Tlingit 

village of Cash, Cape 

Fox, Alaska, notable 

here for its many 

totem poles. 




Temperate rain forests contained an abun- 
dance of plant and animal life, rivers teemed with 
fish, and the adjacent sea hid virtually infinite num- 
bers of shellfish and other edibles. Everywhere one 
turned there was food, much of it available 
throughout the year. It was as close to an agricul- 
tural lifestyle as one could get by living off the land. 
Many aspects of social and cultural advancement 
normally associated with agriculture were de- 
veloped. Full-time artists, religious practitioners, 
craftsjjeople, and other specialists were supported 
by the wealth of food. Complex systems of tribal 
government regulated relatively large numbers of 
people. War was waged. 

Lavish resources were not the whole story be- 
hind the remarkably advanced Northwest Coast 



NEH Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a 
three-year sequence of learning opportunities 
Jbcused on the Museum 's outstanding exhibits 
and collections and designed to give partici- 
pants an opportunity to explore a subject in 
depth. Each unit of study consists of one or 
more special events, a lecture course, and a 
seminar for advance work. Special events are 
lectures by renowned authorities or interpre- 
tive performances and demonstrations. 
Course members receive an annotated bibliog- 
raphy, a specially developed guide to pertinent 
Museum exhibits, and study notes for related 
special events. In-depth, small group semi- 
nars allow more direct contact with faculty 
and with Museum collections. 



24 



societies. A sophisticated material culture fashioned 
in a tradition of Stone Age technology was developed 
to get food and for general living comfort. Wood- 
working produced everything from totem poles, to 
homes, to many kinds of canoe. Harpoons were 
armed with special-purpwse tips made of bone or 
flint, and their shape depjended on the kind of 
quarry being sought. Fish and other meat was 
smoke-dried for future use. 

One would not think that inhabitants of this 
richly endowed environment had to worry about the 
future. The coastline stretched 1,000 miles — from 
southeastern Alaska to the state of Washington, as 
the crow flies. If one followed the coast as it in- 
dented inland or jutted into the sea, it could be 
considered 12,000 miles long. Stretched along this 
coast and sandw^iched between the sea and a tower- 
ing mountain range were a bewilderingly diverse 
group of unique native cultures. Any particular cul- 
ture might suddenly be struck destitute in spite of 
nature's normal endowment of plenty. Local rains 
could fail. The sea could rise up to inundate the 
villages or recede to turn life-giving beds of shellfish 
into barren rock. Any number of environmental 
perturbations could and did periodically transform 
a hunting-and-gathering paradise into hell-on- 
earth. 

Periodic disasters may have been harder on the 
Northwest Coast peoples than on other hunters and 
gatherers. Typical hunters and gatherers simply 
pack up and leave the scene of trouble. Northwest 
Coast peoples could not easily move. They had 
elaborate and permanent homes. They lived in large 
villages. They were surrounded by other settled 
neighbors, people who would resist territorial in- 
cursions. In short, although they lived by a 
hunting-and-gathering economy they were tied to 



an area for better or for worse. Some scientists think 
that religious gatherings as well as extensive trade 
networks up and down the coast protected against 
local disasters. Such ceremonies served to distribute 
food and wealth from the haves to the have-nots. 
Whether or not the dramatic rituals can be ex- 
plained so functionally, it is clear that science is just 
beginning to understand the dynamics of a system 
that has radically changed. 

Much of the material grandeur of the Native 
Northwest Coast has endured to this day. Field 
Museum garnered many spectacular artifacts in the 
late 1800s and the early 1900s. Since these times the 
Museum has been renowned for the quality of its 
Northwest Coast collections. This spring, after 
do5sens of people have worked for nearly five years 
at a cost of millions of dollars, Field Museum's 
newest permanent exhibition, "Maritime Peoples of 
the Arctic and Northwest Coast," opens. The Learn- 
ing Museum course — Tribes, Traditions, and Totem 
Poles — is offered as a prelude to this historic open- 
ing. 

Tribes, Traditions, and Totem Poles explores 
the origins and flourishing of Northwest Coast cul- 
tures. Archeological evidence and native traditions 
are juxtaposed to shed light on where the peoples 
came from and when. Varied coastal habitats are 
discussed and the seemingly lush uniformity is 
broken into distinct ecological zones, each posing 



different challenges for human settlers. The tech- 
nologies of survival and art are shown. Trading, 
raiding, and huge feasts are seen as adaptations to a 
changing environment. Family life, day-to-day soci- 
ety, and activities involving the whole tribe are dis- 
cussed. Finally, shamans, secret societies, super- 
natural presences, and the spiritual side of coastal 
life are explored. Details of the course are available 
in the Winter, 1982 Courses for Adults brochure. 

In conjunction with studying Northwest Coast 
peoples. Members and nonmembers alike are in- 
vited to attend a Symposium on Contemporary Arts, 
April 18, 1982. "Echoes of the Past, Tides of Change" 
presents four artists who have rescued their respec- 
tive heritage and are taking them forward. Their 
work is guided by the past but not determined by it. 
Robert Davidson, for example, has expanded the 
boundaries of Haida style by using circular, as op- 
posed to boxlike, forms, and through other innova- 
tions. The artists discuss not only their unique con- 
tributions but the future of the arts as well. As Bill 
Reid, moderator, puts the issue, "just because a few 
people are doing second-rate silkscreens doesn't 
mean the old traditions are alive." Is the resurgence 
of Northwest Coast art a renaissance or is it a fleet- 
ing moment based on the work of just a few? Are we 
seeing a rebirth or slow death? Details of the sym- 
posium are featured in the April Calendar of 
Events. D 



Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin , Volume 53 (1981) 



Articles 

Ancient Egypt: Mummies, Magic, and Love: Learning 

Museum Program, by Anthony Pfeiffer: Mar 12 
Argentine Connection, The, by Larry Marshall: May 16 
Baja Circumnavigated, by Robert K. Johnson: Oct 18 
Canoes of the Maritime Peoples of the Northwest Coast, by 

Ronald L. Weber: Oct. 12 
Curatorial Legacy, A: Six Zoologists Dedicate 226 Years' 

Service to the Field Museum of Natural History, by Alan 

Solem: Jan 6 
Edward E. Ayer and W. M. Flinders Petrie: 'Founding 

Fathers' of the Egyptian Collection, by Judith Cottle: 
Nov 33 
Egypt in 1903: Travel Notes of Henry Isaac Hart, by Gerda 

Frank: J/A 20 
Eskimo and Indian Settlements in Southwestern Alaska, 1902: 

A Photographic Record, by James W. VanStone: June 4 
Farrington's Folly?, by Edward Olsen: June 3 
Field Musuem, The: Spotlight on the Collections, by 

Matthew H. Nitecki: Part I (introduction and 

Anthropology): Feb 18, // (Geology): March 6, /// 

(Zoology); April 6, IV (Botany): May 10 
Frasnian-Famennian Extinctions, The: A Search for 

Extraterrestrial Causes, by George H. McGhee, Jr. ; J/A 3 
Giovanni Belzoni: King of the Tomb Robbers, by Peter 

Gayford: Sept 28 
Hopi as they Were, The, by Alice Schlegel: June 16 
Hummingbirds, by Alex Hiam: Sept 12 
In the Shadow of the Pyramid: An Introduction to the Exhibit, 

by Donald Whitcomb: Nov 3 
Kimberley Snail Hunt Again!, by Alan Solem: Mar 18 
Kohlman Amber Collection, The: A Stained Glass Window to 

the Past, by Gene Kritsky: J/A 14 
Lungfishes — Alive and Extinct, by K. S. W. Campbell: 

Sept 3 
North American Challengers of the Southwest, by Anthony 
Pfeiffer and Donald McVicker; May 4 



Paintings from the Tomb of Nakht at Thebes, by William J. 

Murnane: Nov 13 
Planned Giving: A Program to Augment Field Musuem's 

Endowment Fund, by Clifford Buzard: Sept 8 
Predynastic Egypt, by Peter Lacovara: Nov 7 
Receptaculitids: Ancient Organisms Studied by Visiting 

Scientist, by Matthew H. Nitecki; April 21 
Rugs of the Orient: Threads of Time, by Anthony Pfeiffer: 

Oct 4 
Searching for Meteorites: The Press Release Strategy, by Paul 

Sipiera: Oct 8 
Through A Missionary's Eyes: Photo-Documentation of 

Ingalik Indian Life, 1893-1925, by James VanStone; Feb 4 
Tipi, The: A Cultural Interpretation of Its Design, by Terry 

Strauss: April 14 
Tobacco and Pipe Use Among the Indians of the Northwest 

Coast, by Daniel J. Joyce; Oct 14 
Tomb Chapels of Netjer-user and Unis-ankh, The, by Bruce 

Williams: Nov 26 
Venetians and Minoans: A Voyage of Discovery, by Dorwld 

Whitcomb; Jan 15 
West African Art: Power and Spirit, by Anthony Pfeiffer; 

Jan 26 
Whale of a Tale, A, by Larry G. Marshall; June 12 
William Henry Jackson: Historian with a Third Eye, by 

Audrey Hitler; J/A 6 

Authors 

Buzard, Clifford; Planned Giving, Sept 8 

Campbell, K.S. W.: Lungfishes — Alive and Extinct, Sept 3 

Cottle, Judith: Edward E. Ayer and W.M.F. Petrie, Nov 30 

Frank, Gerda: Egypt in 1903, J/A 20 

Gayford, Peter: Giovanni Belzoni, Sept 28 

Hiam, Alex; Hummingbirds, Sept 12 

Hiller, Audrey: William Henry Jackson, J/A 6 

Johnson, Robert K. : Baja Circumtmvigated, Oct 18 



Joyce, Daniel J. ; Tobacco and Pipe Use Among the Indians of 

the Northwest Coast, Oct 14 
Kritsky, Gene: The Kohlman Amber Collection, J/A 14 
Lacovara, Peter: Predyrmstic Egypt, Nov 7 
Marshall, Larry G.: The Argentine Connection , May 16 

_, : A Whale of A Tale: June 12 

McGhee, George H.: The Frasnian-Famennian 

Extinctions, J/A 3 
McVicker, Donald: North American Challengers of the 

Southwest (with A. Pfeiffer), May 4 
Murnane, William J. ; Paintings from the Tomb of Nakht at 

Thebes, Nov 13 
Nitecki, Matthew H.: The Field Musuem: Spotlight on the 

Collections, Part I, Feb 18; Parf //, Mar 6; Part III, April 6; 

Parf IV, May 10 

: Receptaculitids, April 21 

Olsen, Edward; Farrington's Folly? , June 3 
Pfeiffer, Anthony: West African Art: Power and Spirit, 
Jan 26 

: Ancient Egypt, March 12 

North American Challengers of the Southwest, 



May 4 



: Rugs of the Orient, Oct 4 



Schlegel, Alice: The Hopi as They Were, June 16 
Sipiera, Paul; Searching for Meteorites, Oct 8 
Solem, Alan; A Curatorial Legacy, Jan 6 

: Kimberly Snail Hunt Again!, Mar 18 

Strauss, Terry: The Tipi, April 14 

VanStone, James: Through a Missionary's Eyes, Feb 4 

: Eskimo and Indian Settlements in Soulhvxstem 

Alaska, 1902, June 4 
Weber, Ronald L.; Canoes of the Maritime Peoples of the 

Northwest Coast, Oct 12 
Whitcomb, Donald: Venetians and Minoans: A Voyage of 

Discovery, ]anl5 

: In the Shadow of the Pyramid, Nov3 

Williams, Bruce: The Tomb Chapels of Netjer-user and 25 

Unis-ankh, Nov 26 > 



INDEX 

Continued from p. 25 



Subjects 

Abendroth, H.: Ap4 
Acheulian stone-working: Ap 

12 
Adelman, W.: Mr 4 
Afro-Blue; Jan 29, F 3 
alligator meat sale: June 10 
amber, Baltic: J/A 15 
Anazazi Pueblo culture: May 5 
Anthropology, Dep't of: F 20 
anthropology course: Mr 3 
anthropology films: S 17 
Anvik, AK: F 4 
armadillo: May 2 
asbestos: Mr 27 
AsUn, F.:Mrl9 
Aslin,J.:Mrl9 
Aubrey, J: Mr4 
Auffenberg, W.: Mr 3 
awlbill, fiery-tailed: A 21 
Ayer, E.E.:S8, N33 
babirusa exhibit: Mr 17 
Bacubirito meteorite: June 27 
Baja California: 18 
Baker: G.R.:F 16 
Bald Eagle Days: Jan 31 
Baltic amber: J/A 15 
Barnes, Judge R. M. : AP 6 
Bayalis, J.: Ap4 
Beagle: June 12 
bearberry: O 2 
beard-tongue: S 14 
bee-balm: S 24 
Bering, v.: 14 
Belka, M.:Jan6 
BeLzoni, G. B.:S28 
Berliner, P: F 3 
Bernhardt, U.:Jan4 
biotelemetrv: Mr 11 
bird feed: F'17 
bird pests: Jan 32 
Blake, E. R.:Ap7 
Blaschke, F.:F20 
blenny, oyster: F 14 
Bolivar Trough: May 18 
booby, blue-footed: O 21 
Botany, Dep't of: May 10 
Boyd, W. L.:Myl4, S6, 3 
Brown, B: Jan6 
Bruce, R.E.: Jan 10 
Brudd, R.;02 
buckeye tree: S 14 
buckwheat, wild: June 18 
Burger, W.: May 11 
Bushman: Mr 17 
Calhoun, L.: Apl3 
Callahan, G.:0 21 
Camacho, H: June 12 
camaenid snails: Mr 18 
Campbell, K.S.W.:S 7 
canoes of NW Coast: 12 
Canty, V: Jan6 
Canyon Diablo meteorite; O 9 
Cape Sounian: Jan 19 
capybara; May 21 
carpets: O 4 
Caskey, N.:08 
Cassai, M: S6 
Chapman, Rev. J. W: F 4 
Cherrie, G. K: Ap6 
Chicago SheU Club: Mr 18 
chondrules (in meteorites); 

OlO 
clay balls: Jan 2 
Coachella lizard; Jan 31 
Cole, G.;Apl2 
colobus: May 2 
columbine; S 16 
condor, Andean: May 15 
condor, Calif.: May 15 
Conover, B.: Ap7 
Continental Bank: F 16 
Curfu; Janl6 
Cory, C. B.:Ap6 
cotinga; S 22 

crane, whooping: JunelO, 026 
cricetid; Mav 19 
26 cui-ui: S 27 ' 



Curtis, G.:Mr5 
Dahlgren, B.E.:Mayll 
Danziger, C.:F20 
Darwin, C: June 12 
Daskal, K.:Apl2 
Davis, D.: Jan 10, Ap 7 
de la Torre, L. : Jan 6 
Dearborn, N.: Ap 6 
Delphi; Jan 16 
Delta green ground beetle: 

Jan 31 
Denison, R. H.;Janl3 
Derda, D.:Jan6 
Despots, Palace of the: Jan 17 
Devonian shales (Walnut 

Creek): J/A 3 
Diaz, A: O 20 
Dillon, M.: May 11 
Dinosaur Day: 11 
dinosaur eggs: Jan 32 
Dixon, G.:0 14 
Djoser pyramid: N 3 
donor honor roll: Mr 26, S 24 
Drake, R: Mr 5, June 12 
Drouet, F.: May 11 
Drovetti, B.;S31 
Dubrovnilc Jan 16 
Duckworth, B.; Mr 20 
Dunkirk Black Shale: J/A 5 
Dybas, H. S.: Jan 3, Ap 10, N 2 
eagle, bald; Mr 25 
Egegik, AK: June 4 
Egypt, ancient; Mr 12, 

Nov issue 
Egypt, predynastic; N 7 
Elliot, D.G.:Ap 6 
EUis, Mrs. G. C.;Jan5 
endowment fund: S 8 
Engel, J.: May 11 
Eskimo culture: June 4 
Evers, C; Jan6 
evolution: May 17 
evolution, convergent; S 23 
false door (Egypt): N 28 
Farrington, O.: Mr 4, June 3 
faunal interchange: May 18 
Feuer-Forster, S.: May 11 
Field, M. ra:S9 
Field, M.I; Jan 4, S 8 
film festival; S 17 
First Mesa (AZ): June 19 
Fischer, D.: Ap 5 
Fitzpatrick, J. W.: Jan 3, 14 
Flaherty, R.:S 17 
flower-pecker S 23 
flower-piercer; S 23 
flute dance (Hopi); June 24 
flycatcher: S 22 
Fooden, J.: Ap6 
forest, Illinois: O 26 
Famenian epoch: J/A 3 
Frasnian epoch: J/A 3 
Frassetto, M.F.:S17 
Friesser, J.: Mr 16 
Ganapathy, R.; J/A 5 
geese, weeder S 27 
Geology, Dep't of: Mr 6 
Gerhard, W. J.: Jan 8, 10, Ap6 
Gilpin, O: Mr 9 
Gladiolus: S 24 
glyptodont; May 17 
Gotfo San Jose: June 15 
Great Bronze Age of China 

attendance: Jan 3 
Greenewalt, C. H.: S 22 
Greenfield, D.W.:Ap 10 
Greenman, J. H.: May 10 
Gueret, N.: Ap6 
Gulick, B.:Junel2 
Haake, N. M.:S6 
Haas, F.: Ap7 
Haida canoes; 12 
Haida pipemaking: 15 
Hanover Gray Shale; J/A 5 
Harris, N.W.:S 9 
Hart, H. I.: J/A 21 
Hatshepsut: Mr 13, J/A 23 
Hay, OP: Ap 6 
Hayes, H: Jan5 
Hayden, F. V.:J/A7 
hegetothere: May 16 
HeUer, E.;Ap6 
Hellmayr, C. E.: Ap7 
Hero (ship); June 12 
Herrin, W.;J/A14 



Hershkovitz, P.: Jan 6 
Hollingsworth, W. E; 09 
honey eater: S 23 
honeycreeper: S 23 
Hopi culture: May 4, June 17 
Hopi Gift Shop: S 7 
housefly; Jan 32 
HoweU, F. C: Ap 13 
Hubbs, C.:Ap6 
hummingbirds: S 2, 12ff 
Indian paint brush; S 14 
Ingalik Indians; F 4 
Inger, R. F.: Ap7 
insecticide: S 33 
Irving, M.;0 12 
Jackson, W.H.: J/A 6 
Jastrzebski, Z.; Jan 25, F 14 
John G. Searle Herbarium: 

May 10, S 10 
Johnson, L.; Ap 11 
Johnson, P.: Jan 6 
Johnson, R.K.; Jan 3, 14, Ap 10 
juniper O 2 
Just, T: May 11 
kachina doU; May 5, June 17 
kangaroo ban: S 33 
Kathakali; Ap 26, May 26 
Keller, M: J/A 21 
KeUogg Hall of Jade; SIC 
Kemp, A.: S3 
Kethley,J.:Jan6, 14 
Kijik, AK; June 4 
Kiva: June 19 
Klein, R.:Ap 13 
Kleindienst, M. R.: Apl3 
Kohlman, A. F.:J/A14 
Kokwok, AK; June 4 
Kolata, A. L. Jan 22 
Komodo dragon: Mr 3 
Kozlowski, N.: Jan 6 
Knossos; Jan 16 
Kroc, R. A.; S 10 
Kukalova-Peck,J.:F16 
LaMum, L.;Mr21, Ap7 
Lake Clark, AK: June 4 
Lasisi, D.;F22 
Laubach, R.: Jan6 
Laughlin, K.:F17 
Learning Museum Program: 

Jan 26, Mr 12, O 4 
Lewis, P: Jan 21, F 22 
Liem, K. F.:Jan6,]3 
lily, spear: S 16 
Lloyd, M.; Jan 10 
lobeUa: S 14 
lungfish: S 2 
MacBride,J. F.:MaylO 
MacRae, J.:S6 
macraucheniid: May 16 
manatee: Mr 25, June 10 
Martin, R:F 22 
Marx, H: Jan 6,10, Ap 7 
Masau (Hopi god): June 23 
masks of NW Coast: Dec issue 
Matheson, M.;08 
Maurer, D.: Ap9 
McLaren, D.J. : J/A 4 
McMahon, F.;F16 
Meek, S.E.:Ap6 
Meevers, H.: June 27 
Members' Nights: May 3 
Menke, H.W.;Mr7 
Merrick, M.: Ap9 
MerriU, G. K.;S7 
mesothere: May 16 
meteorites: O 8 
Meza, M.; Jan2 
"Middle Stone Age": Ap 12 
Millspaugh, C. F.; May 10 
Minoan Palace: Jan 16 
Mistra: Jan 17 
MogoUon Rim: May 4 
Molnar, A.: S 3 
monkey, guereza: May 2 
Moseley, M. E.; Jan 22 
Moulding, Mrs. A. T.: Mr 18 
Mudhead (Hopi): June 23 
Murphy, J. C: Jan5 
Nagel, C.;O20 
Nakht, tombof;NB 
Naupactos; Jan 18 
Naxos: Jan 18 
NEA grant (Educ.):F 16 
Neanderthal figure: F 20 
Nee, M: May 11 



NEH grant (Anthro.): Ap 5 

Netjer-user; N 26 

Nevling, L. I., Jn Jan 4, My 11, 
03 

Nichols, H.W.: Mr 6 

Niman kachina: June 20 

Nitecki, M. H.;Ap5 

Nootka canoe-builders: 12 

Northwest Coast pipemakers; 
015 

NSF grants (Anthro.); May 14, 
(Birds); Jan 3, (Botany); S 6, 
(Herbarium): My 14, (GeoL): 
S 6, (Manunals): F 16, (sys- 
tematica symposium): F 16 

Nsongezi Prehistoric Site: 
Apl3 

Nushagak, AK: June 6 

Office of Polar Programs: 
June 12 

Old Iliamna, AK: June 4 

Olsen, E.J.;J/A5 

opossum: May 21 

Oraibi Pueblo: May 4 

Osgood, W. H.; Ap 6, June 4 

osprey; O 20 

Palace of Fine Arts: F 18 

Palmer, H.: Jan 6 

Palmer, N.: June 12 

Panamanian land bridge: Mr 5 

parrot, brush-tongued: S 23 

Pascual, R.:Mr5 

Patagonia; June 12 

Petrie, W. M. F.;N33 

petunia: S 14 

Phobos (Mars moon): J/A 4 

phororhacoid ground bird; 
May 22 

Planned Giving Program: S 10 

Plowman, T.: May 11 

Ponce de Leon, P.; May 11 

porcupine: May 21 

porpoise quota: Mr 25 

Powamuya ceremony (Hopi): 
June 21 

Price, L.; Mr 19 

Prince Trust: S 6 

procyonid: May 19 

Prokop, M.: Jan6 

protothere: May 16 

Pueblo Bonito; May 5 

Rabb, G.: Ap 7 

Radtke, N. P.: S 7 

Rameses H: S 30 

rattlesnake, rattleless: 19 

Raup, D. M.:Jan3, 4 

Raymond, Mrs. A. L.: S 10 

Reaves, V.: Jan6 

receptaculitids: Ap 21 

Resetar, A.: Ap8 

Rhino, black: Jan 32 

Rietschel, S.: Ap21 

Riggs, E. S.;Mr6, 7 

Roberts, H.W.: Mr 18 

Robertson, M.: Apl2 

Rock Creek (TX) meteorite: O 9 

Roggenthene, W.: June ^ 

Roife, W. D. I.;S7 

roof recovered: S 7 

Rosetta Stone: Mr 15, S 30 

Roy, S. K.:Mr6 

Rueckert, A. G.:June7 

rugs; O 4 

Runnells, Mrs. C.;S2 

Ryerson, M. A.:S8 

sabertooths: May 25 

saguaro; Mr 11 

Salonika; Jan 19 

Salt, H.:S30 

salvia; S 24 

San Francisco Peaks (AZ): 
June 2, 17 

Sanders, T. : Ap 5 

Santa Fe Industries Fndtn.; 
May 14 

Schmidt, K. R:Jan7, Ap6 

Schoknecht, R.: Jan 6 

sea lion: 19 

SeaofCortez:018 

seal, northern elephant: O 22 

Searle,J. G.:S10 

SegaU, W.:Ap4 

Senmut: Mr 13 

Shedd Aquarium; S 3 

Shipaulovi: June 20 



Simpson, G. G.: May 17 

Singer, R.: May 11 

Singer, R.:Mr4 

sloth: May 18, 22 

Smith, H.:Mr4 

Solem, G. A.: Apll 

Soyal (Hopi ceremony): 
June 24 

sphinx: J'A 24 

Standley, R C: May 10 

Stewart, D. J.; Jan 3, Ap 10 

Steyermark, J. A.; May 11 

Stoize, R.:Mayll 

Streuver, S.:Mr4 

Swartchild, W. G. Jn Ap 4 

Systematics Symposium; Ap 5 

Tanaina Indians; Jime 5 

Tchen, H: Jan5 

teepee {see tipi) 

Tecopa pupfish: Jan 32 

Terrell, J.; Ap4 

Tesser, N.;F3 

Testa, R.:F 17 

Thera (Akroteri): Jan 18 

Timm, R.: Jan 14, Ap 11 

tipi: Ap 14 

Tlingit Indians: 14 

tobacco use (NW Coast); 14 

Townsend, J.; June 6 

toxodont: May 16 

Traylor, M. A.: Jan 3, Ap 9 

Tri-StateUniv.:Jan3 

Trinklein, F. E.:J/A14 

Tripp,C. D.:S9 

trumpet-creeper S 14 

tuna fishermen: Mr 25 

turtle, loggerhead: S 33 

turtle, sea: Mr 11 

Unis-ankh:Jan24, N26 

U. S. Antarctic Research Pro- 
gram: June 12 

valley elderberry longhom 
beetle; Jan 31 

Valley of the Kings: S 31 

Venice; Jan 15 

Vermillion, D.; S 7 

Visiting Scientist Program; 
F 16, Ap 21, S 6 

volunteers: Ap 23 

Voris, H.: Ap 7, 8 

vulture; May 15 

Walpi Village (Hopi); June 19 

Walters, L; Mr 17 

warbler, Kirtland's: S 10 

Watrous, L.: Jan 14 

Webber, E. L.:Jan5,F16, 
May 14, S 6, O 3 

Weed, A. C.:Ap6 

WeUs, F. E.:Mr20 

Wenzel, R. S.:Jan6, AplO 

WestoU,TS.:S4 

whale: June 15, 19, 21 

Whitcomb, D. A.:Jan24 

white-eye: S 23 

Whitt, N.:Jan6 

Wilkie, L.;012 

Willamette meteorite: June 3 

Williams, L: May 11 

Williams, L. O.: May 11 

Winter, B; Jan 6 

Woodland, B.G.; Jan 3 

Woods, L. R:Jan6, Ap9 

Woodward, S.; Jan 25 

Woolman, A. J; Ap9 

women, role of in Hopi cul- 
ture; June 21 

Wonder, F.C.; Mr 16 

Wuwucim (Hopi ceremony): 
June 24 

Young, K.; Mr 20 

Young, S: Ap5 

Zangerl, R.:Mr6 

Zawacki, R.;MrlO 

Zimmer, J. T.: Ap 6 

Zinsmeister, W.; June 12 

Zoology, Dep't of: Ap 6 




LdtMA f/toin; tte iA/tctuo -- 1 



By Edward Olsen 
Cu ra to r of Mi ne ralogy 

Photos courtesy of the author 



Hindsight is a marvelous teacher. Once we 
know something is possible it becomes 
easy to say why it is so and to go on to make 
predictions. Such is the state of things for those 
of us who search this planet for meteorites. 

Over the past twelve years something like 
6,000 meteorite fragments have been recovered 
from the ice cap of east Antarctica. Once the 
phenomenon of Antarctic meteorite concen- 
trations was discovered accidentally by the 
Japanese, hindsight came into action and it 
was obvious why meteorites were there in such 
quantities in the first place. 

When a meteorite lands in a place like an 
Illinois prairie, for example, it finds itself in a 
(chemically) hostile environment. The ambient 
air contains two deadly chemicals — oxygen and 
water. The meteorite came from deep space, 
where both of these are utterly absent. The 



minerals that make up the meteorite begin to 
oxidize, or rust, from reaction with oxygen. 
This reaction proceeds more rapidly in warm 
weather than in cold. Then during the warm 
months, moisture slowly creeps into the minute 
ppre spaces along mineral grain boundaries that 
permeate the meteorite. Rains soak in. Winter 
comes and, as we all know, when water freezes 
it expands. A bottle of water sitting outside in 
freezing weather cracks into pieces. The same 
thing happens to the meteorite — small cracks 
are opened and chips flake off due to the crack- 
ing action of ice. Each year the cracks get larger, 
until the meteorite falls to pieces. In addition, 
soils in which fallen meteorites find themselves 
are full of bacteria and decaying vegetation, 
both of which release complex acids. These cor- 
rode minerals in the meteorite, aiding the pro- 
cess of weathering. In a few years, the meteorite 




Edward Olsen (right) 
with party members 
on Devon Island ice- 
cap. From left: 
Blyth Robertson, 
Les Coleman, Steve 
Kissin, and Olsen. 
In the search heli- 
copter is pilot 
Lin Hoe, 27 



is not easily recognized as anything different 
from other crumbly rocks. In ten years it's 
totally reduced to rubble. 

We've known for a long time that meteor- 
ites endure longer in desert climates like Ari- 
zona, west Texas, and eastern Colorado. This is 
because moisture levels are low and the soils 
have low levels of organic compounds. Know- 
ing this, it should have occurred to someone 
that a place like Antarctica, which is bitter cold, 
sterile, has practically zero humidity, and no 
soils, would be a place where meteorites could 
last longer than in temperate climates. But no 
one thought of this. 

With the Antarctic meteorite discoveries 
now well documented, the next step is obvi- 
ous. If one ice cap is a good place to look for the 
preservation of meteorites then we ought to 
look at the world's other ice caps. The next 
largest cap is on Greenland. Ever since the 
Antarctic discoveries, there has been interest 
in going there for a search. In 1978, two years 
after I returned from the Antarctic, a joint 
Danish- American expedition to Greenland was 
planned. But because of a combination of prob- 
lems over transportation and financing, the 
search never took place; the idea lingers on, 
of course. 

There are other, smaller ice caps in the Arc- 
tic Islands of Canada's Northwest Territories. 
The largest of these covers the eastern half of 
Devon Island. In the spring of last year I was 
asked to join a Canadian expedition to make 
a reconnaissance search for meteorites on the 
Devon Island ice cap as well as a shorter search 
on part of the smaller ice cap on EUesmere Is- 
land, just north of Devon Island. The group 
consisted of Dr. Blyth Robertson of the Depart- 
ment of Mines, Energy and Resources Canada, 
Dr. Les Coleman of the University of Saskat- 
chewan, Dr. Steve Kissin of Lakehead Univer- 
sity (Thunder Bay, Ontario), and me. Although 
the ice caps appeared to have surface conditions  
that are poor for meteorite recovery, it looked 
like a worthwhile project. 

On July 20 I flew from Chicago to Montreal. 
The next morning I met Robertson and we took 
off to the north on Nordair, a local airline. We 
flew northward over Quebec and Labrador. The 
air was clear and I could see the thousands of 







^is^^= 



28 





w^-^^-^^^i 



v^}.,.i^. -^'^ 



c-.;ir. 



lakes that dot the interior of Labrador. I thought 
of the five years I had worked down there, 
years and years ago, doing geological mapping 
around those lakes. Soon the treeline was 
passed and we were flying over barren lands. 
Over Hudson's Straits we could see our first 
icebergs. We made a forty-minute stopover at 
Frobisher Bay, on Baffin Island, to drop off some 
of the passengers, then flew on to an airfield at 
Resolute Bay, on Comwallis Island, one of the 
Arctic islands just to the west of Devon Island. 

At Resolute we stayed in barracks that are 
M^^ed by the Canadian government for arctic 
reseSfeli parties. The barracks are trim wooden 
buildir^ with sleeping rooms, toilet and laun- 
dry facffities, and a dining room operated by a 
smiiin^skimo woman and her pretty teenage 
daughKv The next day we were joined by the 
other party members who flew in by way of 
Edmonton, Alberta. 

The first day was sunny and fairly warm; 
however, for two days the weather was dark 
and windy with snow squalls. While waiting for 
transportation to Devon Island we hiked to one 
coast of Comwallis Island to visit a cluster of 
ancient Eskimo ruins — a Thule culture site. 
Long ago a small group of these people built 
houses (igloos) of flagstone walls. Whale ribs 
over the top held skins and sod blocks for roofs. 
Now only stone rings and a tumble of whale 
bones remain next to a shoreline of stranded ice- 
bergs and floating sea ice. 

On July 24 the weather improved and we 
took off from Resolute Bay aboard a Twin Otter 
aircraft. We flew to Truelove Inlet, named after a 
whaling ship, the Truelove, that overwintered 
there a long time ago. At Truelove there is a 
camp consisting of five quonset-type huts. Here 
was a party of five biologists making a siu-vey 
of arctic birds. Over fifty bird species visit this 
area, many of them nesting here. The most 
common are snow buntings, old-squaw ducks, 
and Baird's sandpipers, but there are abundant 
species too, like red-throated loons, golden 
plovers, knots and even the occasional raven. 

It is interesting that in these polar islands 
birds from Europe and North America con- 
verge. They intermingle in the siunmer months, 



Edward Olsen standing by meltwater stream in ice 
cave, Devon Island. 



ELLESMEFE ISLO.ND 




CANADA 



Nodding, or bulblet, saxifra^ 
Truelove lowland, Devon Islam 



>e (Saxifraga cornua) on 




nest, raise young, then depart in late August 
southward down their separate migration 
paths, ending up in Spain, North Africa, etc., or 
the United States and the Gulf of Mexico. The 
birdwatching was excellent at Truelove, as was 
the display of a wide variety of flowering plants 
— all small alpine types — in yellow, red, purple, 
and blue. 1 didn't realize it at the time, but the 
Truelove lowland is a kind of environment 
that is not too widespread on Devon Island. 
Most of the island is an elevated plateau with 
almost no vegetation, no soil, and no birds. 

The party of five biologists doing the survey 
consisted of two graduate students: Jody Butler 
of the University of British Columbia and Galen 
Pittman from the University of Kansas; a Cana- 
dian government biologist, Al Smith from Ot- 
tawa; and two faculty members from the North- 
ern Alberta Institute of Technology, Rod Moore 
and Don Pattie. Don is the man principally re- 
sponsible for the presence of the facilities at 
Truelove. Through his affiliation with the Arctic 
Institute of North America he has, over a period 
of eleven years, built up the station to what it is 
today. Among the buildings are three sleeping 
quarters, a repair shop, a cook house, and an 
airstrip. Don has surveyed the bird populations 
on the Truelove lowland for a decade, measuring 
increases and decreases in species. His total 
count of all species for a summer ranges from 
about 1,100 to 1,700 individuals. With such low 
populations it is undesirable to collect birds. Don 
noted that the first surveys of arctic birds were 
made by ornithologists with guns, who shot and 
collected specimens. This resulted in the near 
elimination of some species; but now with a de- 
cade of no shooting, these species have in- 
creased their nesting numbers 
in this region. 

To reach the ice cap for our meteorite search 
we would need a helicopter. The cap lay only 18 
miles away; however, a river and two large 
scarps, or cliffs, together almost 2,000 feet high, 
lay between us and the ice. Although the 
weather at Truelove was good, at Resolute it was 
terrible and a helicopter couldn't be sent. On top 
of it all, a burst of sunspot activity ruined radio 
communication for a day and some aircraft 
flights were restricted. Resolute is only a short 
distance from the north magnetic pole. Sunspot 
activity is more disturbing to communications in 
this area because of that. 

We had some time on our hands while wait- 
ing for the helicopter. We spent a little time get- 
ting used to our rifles and shotguns. The arctic's 
first citizen is the polar bear and in some years 
they can be numerous. In 1980 nine were seen 
near Truelove. Guns are required for peace of 
mind more than anything else. Few bears are 




ever actually shot, and none of us had any desire 
to do so. 

We took some long hikes over the tundra 
and into the adjoining hills. The Truelove low- 
land is in front of a series of mesa-like ridges of 
flat-lying Cambrian sedimentary rocks. A giant 
fault scarp runs east-west a few miles south of 
camp, exposing pre-Cambrian granites along the 
base of a 1,000-foot cliff. The scenery is stark, 
barren, and impressive. Hiking the lowland, we 
encountered herds of grazing shaggy muskoxen. 
At one place a small herd, consisting of a bull, 
two calves, and five cows, stood their ground 
before us in true muskox fashion, forming a 
line in front of their young with heads lowered 
and horns aimed at us . I walked within 35 feet of 
them, and although they shuffled about they 
stood fast, the bull snorting at me, honing one of 
his horns against his foreleg. If the bull were 
alone he would have made short charges at me, 
but with calves present he stayed with them. 
Standing close by you can easily feel a real affec- 
tion for them; they are great mounds of fur that 
hang to the ground and blow in the wind. They 
are basically gentle creatures that seem to want 



only to be left alone. This group finally broke and 
thundered off over the tundra towards a nearby 
low ridge. 

Across the tundra you can find places where 
muskoxen have shed mats of hair. A small ball of 
it, loosely cupped in the hand, will cause your 
palm to become very warm. Its insulating qual- 
ities are so good that the heat from your hand 
builds up and little is lost. 

We continued our hike to a broad, rocky 
valley with a roaring glacial stream criss-crossing 
its floor. At one point a magnificent waterfall was 
seen pouring over a notch in the scarp, in a series 
of cascades. As we climbed over a high ridge we 
could see the icecap in the distance, high above 
the valley wall, gleaming white in the sunlight. 
The weather was improving. 

The next day the helicopter arrived with a 
pilot and a mechanic. We flew to the ice cap as 
the weather began to go bad again. Part of our 
group was set down to traverse a moraine of rock 
that lay strewn on the ice. Steve and I flew 
northward along the cap to do the same at any 
other rock showings. We set down at another 
moraine and then hiked about four miles to some 



Moraine area of valley 
glaciers on Ellesmere 
Island; Blyth 
Robertson at right. 



31 




,Mi^^ 





w^ 







Above: Surface of 
icecav, Ellesmere Is- 
land. Meltwater river 
meanders across fore- 
ground. Far right: 
Muskoxen arrange 
themselves in charac- 
teristic defensive pose. 
Truelove lowland, 
Devon Island. 



32 



isolated rocks that we could see through binocu- 
lars high up on the top of the ice slopes. All the 
rocks in this area were granites of several kinds. I 
got a special, personal thrill out of this trek, for I 
had now hiked on all three of the world's largest 
continental ice caps — Antarctica, Devon Island, 
and (exactly 30 years earlier) Greenland. 

The weather was getting terrible. Low 
clouds rolled past at surface levels, obscuring the 
view in several directions. Snow squalls swirled 
by. The ice surface was cut by melt-water rivu- 
lets, and walking required constant probing with 
an ice axe handle to see if we were going to break 
through small crevasses. We finally found our 
way back to the helicopter and took off. Finding 



the other part of our party wasn't easy in the 
snowstorm. I began to get worried that we'd 
have to return to Truelove without them until the 
weather improved. A small break in the clouds, 
at the right time, revealed a tiny figure plodding 
through the snow below us. We set down and 
picked them up. We flew back to Truelove to wait 
out the weather. 

The next day the weather continued to be 
bad. The ice cap had black clouds rolling over its 
surface; however, by about 8 p.m. it cleared and 
was bright and sunny over the cap. With 24 
hours of daylight, work can go on when the 
weather is good rather than by the clock. So we 
packed our gear and took off in the helicopter. 




■q^:^ 




%.. '*<, 



We cruised the ice cap at 1-3 mph, setting down 
near any rocks showing on the surface. By about 
3 a.m. we had covered the entire portion of the 
ice cap that we had planned to search. No 
meteorites! 

We sailed down a huge valley glacier, the 
Sverdrup Glacier, between vertical walls of gra- 
nite, and emerged out over the Arctic Ocean — a 
magnificent flight experience. We followed the 
coastline back to Truelove Inlet, counting 105 
muskoxen, in herds up to 14 individuals, along 
our course. The scenery was spectacular in the 
light of the low-hanging sun. When we landed 
back in camp we flushed a group of arctic foxes. 

Although our expectations for meteorite re- 




coveries on Devon Island were never high, we 
were all disappointed at not finding at least one. 
Theoretical calculations indicated between 1,500 
and 3,000 meteorite fragments would be there, 
potentially. We knew ahead of time, from aerial 
photographs, that the ice cap had a heavy snow 
cover at any given time, and was very different 
from the Antarctic ice cap, which has bare blue 
ice, little snow cover, roaring winds, and no melt- 
ing. The main hope of finding any meteorites on 
Devon Island was the chance some portion of the 
ice cap would be windswept and clear of snow, 
exposing the old ice beneath it. We found no 
such areas. 

The next day a Twin Otter aircraft arrived 
from Resolute and took our party north, across 
the sea, to an Eskimo village at Grise Fjord on 
Ellesmere Island. Shortly afterward our helicop- 
ter arrived, and while it was refueling, we had a 
chance to go into the Eskimo Cooperative trad- 
ing post, where I bought a soapstone carving . 

We took off and headed eastward across the 
ocean to a large headland, where we turned 
north and flew up a glacier- filled valley, over a 
height of jagged mountains and into a valley of 
spectacular arctic beauty. It was a place on the 
Ellesmere ice cap where eight valley glaciers 
flowed into a depression with no outlet. When 
the expedition to Devon Island was originally 
planned, a Canadian glacier expert had sug- 
gested we might also look at this place on 
Ellesmere. 

It is an extraordinary situation, glaciologi- 
cally, to have so many valley glaciers pushing 
into a central depression. It was thought that 
perhaps, among the accumulated rock debris of 
all these glaciers carried into this spot from sur- 
rounding areas of several thousand square miles, 
there might be some concentration of meteorites. 
Our hopes were never high for this area because 
we knew that there would be vast amounts of 
rocks from the surrounding mountains that 
would make it almost impossible to notice any 
meteorites among them. That is exactly how it 
worked out. The depression was a jumble of 



33 




The stark, lonely 
beauty of the arctic ts 
captured in Olsen's 
shot of stranded ice- 
bergs on Comwallis 
Island coast, near 
Resolute Bay. 



34 



granites and other terrestrial rocks. We climbed 
onto one of the largest glaciers and walked across 
it for miles on the chance some meteorite might 
be on the surface. We found no rocks at all. 
Across the surface of the ice ran a huge meltwa- 
ter river — icy water cutting into pure ice. The 
channel was deep blue in color and utterly clear 
and clean. The water coursed swiftly, swinging 
along deeply cut meanders, almost completely 
silent. 

We flew back to Grise Fjord, refuelled, then 
flew across the sea to Devon Island and Truelove 
Inlet. While cruising over the sea ice we saw 
our first polar bear — a huge white fellow, who 
was obviously upset by the sound and whoosh of 
air from the helicopter. He dove into a pond of 
meltwater on the ice surface, then raced off 
across the ice as we followed him. We circled him 
at low elevation and he finally sat down and 
looked up at us in confusion. We left him in 
peace. 

The next day a Twin Otter flew us to Reso- 
lute Bay, and Les and Steve departed for home. I 
was to spend more time back on Devon Island 



collecting samples from an ancient meteorite im- 
pact crater on the western, unglaciated end of 
the island. 

The meteorite search on the Devon Island 
ice cap did have a yield of information, if not of 
meteorites. Ice caps in arctic regions are too snow 
covered to be good search areas for meteorites. 
The Antarctic ice cap is much colder; virtually no 
melting takes place there at any time of the year, 
and most of the ice accumulates on the surface by 
direct condensation of small amounts of mois- 
ture in the air, rather than by snowing, as it does 
in the arctic. These differences are due to several 
factors. The Antarctic continent sits alone over 
the south pole and is surrounded by open oceans 
that have no effect on altering the circumpolar 
weather pattern. The ice caps in the arctic, 
Devon and Greenland, are in subpolar positions 
and have many land masses nearby to break up 
the circumpolar weather pattern. The arctic is 
warmer as a result, and the ice surfaces are dif- 
ferent. From the Devon Island search we learned 
that a search of Greenland, too, may not yield 
new meteorite finds. D 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Radio Beacon Leads Investigators 
to Bald Eagle Burial Site 

"He that has patience may compass any- 
thing," the 16th-century French satirist 
Rabelais wrote. "Patience," in both the 
literal and figurative sense, coupled with 
some sophisticated 20th-century technol- 
ogy, led U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
investigators recently to the conclusion of 
an unusual case involving the death of an 
endangered bald eagle. 

A matchbox- sized radio transmitter 
emitting a prolonged rapid-pulse "dis- 
tress" signal off the taU of a bald eagle 
nicknamed "Patience" led airborne biolo- 
gists to a 50-acre island in Oregon's Snake 
River, where they uncovered the eagle's 
burial site. 

Their discovery, after three months of 
charting the research bird's elusive migra- 
tion path through the intermountain 
west, led to an inquiry by Fish and Wildlife 
Service law enforcement agents. Charged 
with the shooting of the endangered bald 
eagle was an Oregon rancher, who had 
tossed its carcass into the island's garbage 
dump last January. There, its miniature 
radio device continued to emit a staccato 
pulse that led its trackers ever closer to the 
scene of the bird's abrupt end. 

In July, after a lengthy investigation 
during which the Oregon man confessed 
to the shooting, the Federal Court in Port- 
land, Oregon, ordered the rancher to pay 
a $2,500 fine under a settlement with the 
U.S. Attorney's office. One-halfof the fine 
will be turned over to Glacier National 
Park's Bald Eagle Research Project to fund 
further research. The rancher received the 
fine and a 30-day suspended jail sentence 
for violating the Bald Eagle Protection Act. 

"Patience," a three-year-old female 
that had not yet acquired the "bald" head 
of white feathers distinctive for mature 
five-year-old birds, became a research 
subject in the McDonald Creek section of 
Glacier Park. There, researchers captured 
the bird, attached the tiny radio transmit- 
ter and identification markers, and re- 
leased it. In a program cosponsored by the 
National Park Service and the University 
of Montana and supported by the Na- 
tional Audubon Society and the Wildlife 
Management Institute, the scientists are 
studying the migration patterns of the 
birds, which are officially listed as "en- 
dangered" in 43 states and "threatened" 
in five others. (In Alaska, the species is not 
in such danger, however.) 

An estimated 10 percent of the bald 
eagles known to winter in the United 
States pass through Glacier each fall. At 
times, their concentration in McDonald 



Creek can range as high as 600 birds. In 
1980, researchers began equipping the 
birds with radio transmitters in an effort to 
reveal the eagles' winter migration routes 
farther south and their return routes to 
summer nesting grounds in Canada, with 
an eye towards developing a management 
plan for crucial roosting and feeding sites 
along their path. 

"Patience" remained in the vicinity of 
Glacier Park and nearby Rathead Lake 
until December, 1980, when it departed on 
a migration of more than 500 miles along 
Idaho's Bitterroot Mountains and the 
middle fork of the Salmon River. This was 
the first time that researchers were able to 
fully track a research bird's westerly mi- 
gration, in contrast to the more southerly 
migration route taken by most of Glacier's 
eagles. 

Harriet Allen, a Bald Eagle Research 
Project biologist, tracked the bird for most 
of its journey, driving more than 6,000 
miles on mountain roads as she followed 
the flight path. Somewhere along the 
Snake River near Ontario, Oregon, "Pa- 
tience's" radio signals were lost. Allen 
reestablished contact during two flights 
over the river, but an unchanging series of 
"fast pulse" radio signals told her the bird 
was possibly in trouble. 

Allen pinpointed Old Crow Island, 
about two miles south of Ontario, where 
she had sighted the bird on one instance 
the week before, as the site of the distress 
signals. The island, in the middle of the 
Snake River, is owned by the state of Ore- 
gon and leased for farming and grazing. 
There, under a foot of rubbish covered 
with a sheet of metal, Allen and state 
biologists found "Patience," its orange 
wing markers torn off but its radio trans- 
mitter still attached and operating. X-rays 
revealed that the bird had been struck in 
the head by a shotgun pellet. 

"I felt a tremendous sense of loss, as 
did everyone on the project," Allen said. 
"There was much more we could have 
learned from this bird. But it was one of 
the few instances when we could fully 
piece together the details of one of the 
many eagle shootings in the West." 

The Fish and Wildlife Service esti- 
mates that up to 200 bald and golden 
eagles may be killed in the Pacific North- 
west each year by gunners who illegally 
shoot raptors, by suppliers of the illicit 
trade in eagle feathers and related items, 
and by people who set baited traps for 
other wildlife and accidentally snare eagles. 

The service began an investigation 
into the eagle's death by interviewing a 
nearby landowner who raises livestock 
and poultry on Old Crow Island. He con- 



fessed to the shooting, claiming that he 
thought the bird was a hawk that posed a 
threat to his livestock. 

Under the Bald Eagle Protection Act, 
bald and golden eagles are protected and, 
except under limited circumstances, their 
killing, possession, and trade is illegal, 
with penalties of up to one year in jail and 
a fine of $5,000 for first offenses. (The bald 
eagle is also protected under the En- 
dangered Species Act and, in addition to 
hawks and other birds, is protected by the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act.) 




^If^-ft- 



Painting Town Red Passe? 

Incredible though it may sound, a French 
artist, Jean Verame, is currently spray- 
painting the mountains in the previously 
untouched valley of Bir Nafach, an area 
close to the historically sacred Mount 
Sinai, with 13 tons of black and blue paint. 
Boulders, peaks, and rock walls are now 
literally black and blue in polka-dots, 
triangles, and squares. 

The artist calls it "adding a human 
dimension to nature"; conservationists 
call it "vandalism." The natural desert 
sandstone hues of the mountains of 
southern Sinai will bear Verame's imprint 
for many years. 

Killer Deer 

You think that cuddly fawn you picked up 
and raised by hand would never harm a 
soul? Think again. 

Kim Heller, a photographer with 
Ohio Department of Natural Resources, 
died from wounds suffered when he was 
gored by a deer. Heller was on assignment 
for the department at a private wildlife 
preserve when a semidomesticated 
white-tailed deer charged and gored him 
in the chest and abdomen. 

Cut and bruised. Heller managed to 
crawl into a nearby pond and escape the 
deer. Later, he was able to make his way to 
his vehicle and drive to the home of the 
preserve manager for help. But he died 
five days later in a hospital. 

The attack on Heller is not a rare type 
of incident. There are many reports of 
"tame" deer kicking, goring, or otherwise 
inflicting injury on their "owners" or 
others. 35 



f EDITH FLEMING 
' 946 PLEASANT 
fcOAK PARK ILL 60302 



'U 

*■'. 



January & February at Field Museum 



January 16 through February 15 



Continuing Exhibits 



"In the Shadow of the Pyramid." A newly designed section of 
the Egyptian Collection, Hall J, presents prehistoric and early 
historic exhibits in proper context. Visitors can walk through the 
tomb chapel of an Egyptian nobleman, Unis-ankh, and view 
afterlife offerings in another tomb through a glass wall. Outside 
the south entrance to the Egyptian Room a replica of the Tomb 
Chapel of Nakht, on loan from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
has been installed. The chapel walls are covered with reproduc- 
tions of some of the finest known Egyptian tomb paintings. 

Indians of Middle America. Aztec stone sculptures are a high- 
light of this exhibit, focusing on Middle American cultures, 1500 
B.C. to the present. In addition to costumes, pottery, and farm 
tools, you'll see dioramas of an Aztec marketplace and of a Maya 
ceremony, as well as a canoe of modern-day Cuna Indians. Hall 
8, main floor. 

New Programs 

Winter Fun. Children in various age groups are invited to join a 
natural history workshop during January. Each project will be 
for one or two Saturday sessions. Call 322-8854 for a brochure 
with more information and prices. 

D January 16: 10 a.m. -12 noon. 

"Arctic Journey." A craft project, making a mini-igloo, weather 

permitting; ages 4 and 5. 

"Costumes for the Sorcerer's Dance." Continuation of Jan. 9 

workshop. 

"Metal Casting." Craft project and tour; ages 9-12. 

n January 16: 1 p.m. -3 p.m. 

"Different Faces from Faraway Places." Continuation of Jan. 9 

workshop. 

"Indian Drums." Craft project and tour of Pawnee Earth Lodge; 

ages 6-8. 

"Metal Casting." Craft project and tour; ages 9-12. 

D January 23: 10 a.m. -12 noon. 

"Arctic Whales." Stories, songs, and slide program; ages 4 and 5. 

"Reptile Tales." Demonstration and tour; ages 6-8. 

"Our Feathered Friends." Craft project and tour; ages 9-12. 

n January 23: 1 p.m. -3 p.m. 

"People of Clay." Craft project and tour; ages 6-8. Continued 
Jan. 30. 

"The Secret Life of Salamanders." Craft project and tour; ages 
6-8. 

"The Invisible World." Microscopic demonstration and experi- 
ment; ages 6-8. 

D January 30: 10 a.m. -12 noon. 

"The Corn Maiden's Feast." Craft project and tour; ages 4-5. 

"The Chinese Shadow Play." Craft project culminates in a 

shadow play; ages 6-8. 

"Marine Fossils." Demonstration and tour; ages 9-12. 



D January 30: 1 p.m. -3 p.m. 

"Crickets, Kites and Kids: Village Life in China." Craft project 

and tour; ages 4 and 5. 

"The Primates: Our First Cousins." Tour and demonstration; 

ages 6-8. 

"People of Clay." Continuation of Jan. 23 workshop. 

Latin American Neighbors Day. A fiesta of events will acquaint 
Chicagoans with Spanish-speaking Americans. Dances, tours, 
lectures, touchable exhibits, craft projects, and games from the 
cultures of Mexico, Central and South America will be featured. 
Special programs for children, in Spanish and English. All events 
free with Museum admission. Sunday, Jan. 31, 12 noon to 4 p.m. 
Highlights include: 

D "Nuevo Ideal." Mexican folk dances will be performed in 
Stanley Field Hall at 1:30 and 3:30 p.m. 

n "Lords of Tiwanaku." Dr. Alan Kolata, visiting assistant 
curator of Andean Archeology, will present an illustrated lecture 
on the history and evolution of Tiwanaku, one of the great 
civilizations of the ancient Americas; 2 p.m. in Simpson 
Theatre. 

D "Fossil Mammals of South America." Dr. Larry Marshall, as- 
sistant curator of fossil mammals, will introduce some of the 
strange mammals that evolved in South America during the 
millions of years that it was an isolated island continent; 1 p.m. 
in Lecture Hall I. 

n The Clemente Steel Band of Roberto Clemente High School 
will perform at 2:45 p.m. in Stanley Field Hall. 

Winter Journey "The Adventures of Marco Polo." In this self- 
guided tour, visitors observe animals that Marco Polo saw on his 
travels and read his own descriptions of them. Free Journey 
pamphlets available at Museum entrances. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Tours, craft projects, slide pre- 
sentations, and films which use exhibits as a springboard for 
new insights into natural history topics. The January "Film Fea- 
tures," focusing on ancient China, will be shown every Saturday 
at 1:30 p.m. in Lecture Hall I; free with Museum admission. 
Check Weekend Sheet at Museum entrances for other programs. 
Coming February 21. "Hidden Valleys of Tibetan Myth and 
Legend." Lecture by Edwin Bernbaum, author of The Way to 
Shambhala. 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Persons with scientific interests and 
backgrounds are needed to work in various departments. Call 
the Volunteer Coordinator, 922-9410, ext. 360. 

January and February Hours. The Museum is open from 9 
a.m.— 4 p.m., Monday-Thursday; 9 a.m. -9 p.m., Friday; and 9 
a.m. -5 p.m., Saturday and Sunday. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays, 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Obtain a 
pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



<se>. 



February 1982 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotr 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
WiUiam V. Kahler 
William H. MitcheU 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 
February 1982 
Volume 53, Number 2 



Field Briefs 



Letters from the Arctic — // 

by Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 



The Plains Indian Bull-Boat 

By James W. VanStone 
Curator of North American 
Archeology and Ethnology 



Dermestids 

By Robert M. Timm 

Assistant Curator and Head, Division of Mammals 14 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 



19 



Gone Fishing in the Gulf of Honduras 

By Robert K.Johnson, chairman of the 

Department of Zoology and David W. Greenfield, 

Research Associate 20 



Field Museum Tours 



25 



February and March at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



back 
cover 



COVER 

Winter Afternoon at Lake Michigan Dunes. Photo by 
John Kolar. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is publistied monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Stiore Drive, 
Ctiicago, n. 60605. Subscriptions; $6,00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin sut)Scription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, II. 



FIELD BRIEFS 




Field Museum's new Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room, viewed Rare Book Room and of the renovated Library Reading Room was eel- 
through display window. Funding for the new facility, opened December ebrated with a luncheon and tour of the facilities, sponsored by the 
2, was provided by Mr and Mrs. John S. Runnells. The opening of the Women's Board of Field Museum. 



The Planned Giving Program 

All their working lives, the married couple 
had wanted to make a substantial gift to 
Field Museum. Soon after his wife's 
death, the husband realized that now, 
having no heirs, was the time to make that 
gift, and that his wife would want it this 
way. Therefore, he transferred a substan- 
tial securities portfolio into the Field 
Museum Pooled Income Fund. 

In making the gift in this manner, this 
individual will receive a lifetime income 
through the Fund; morever, he has freed 
himself from financial concerns, with his 
funds now receiving professional man- 
agement. His income, incidentally, will re- 
flect a higher yield than his original 
portfolio, because he had been "locked 
in" to low-yielding, but highly ap- 
preciated, securities. By making the trans- 



fer, he avoided recognizing the capital 
gains, and, therefore, avoided any capital 
gains tax; yet, he was able to get an im- 
mediate charitable tax deduction on a por- 
tion of those funds. 

Another person, anxious to help a 
friend, this past Christmas transferred 
funds into the Pooled Income Fund suffi- 
cient to give the friend a generous 
monthly income, for life. This donor also 
received a charitable income tax deduction 
and was freed from any capital gains tax. 

These are two examples of types of 
gifts that have been made to Field 
Museum's Pooled Income Fund since in- 
auguration of the Museum's Planned Giv- 
ing Program this past September (see the 
September Bulletin). 

The Pooled Income Fund is a conve- 
nient way to assure having a life income 
and to make a significant gift to the 



Museum at the same time. It is the excep- 
tion to the adage, "you can't have it both 
ways!" Gifts to the Pooled Income Fund 
pass to the Museum's Endowment Fund 
at the conclusion of the final life interest. 

Since announcement of the 
Museum's Planned Giving Program, the 
Museum has been informed by many 
Museum friends that they have remem- 
bered Field Museum in their wills. This 
past fall, a survey of the Membership was 
taken, to find those persons, and to inter- 
est others. The survey had gratifying re- 
sults, and any Member who has not yet 
responded is urged to do so. 

Purpose of the Planned Giving Pro- 
gram is to increase the Museum's en- 
dowment. Bequests by will and gifts 
through life income trust agreements go 
into the Endowment Fund, perpetuating 
Continued on page 27 3 



The first segment of 
Edward Olsen's 1981 
visit to the Canadian 
Arctic was recounted 
in "Letters from the 
Arctic — I," in the 
January, 1982, Bulle- 
tin. 



Lette/(A f/t/mi tim Aidkj -U 



By Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 

Photos courtesy of the author 



Sedimentary rock 

outcrops, tipped 

vertical by asteroid 

impact 15 million yean 

ago, are still coated 

with pale rock dust 

created by the impact. 




 -\>*-. -^i- ;_<ris<f »,l:-5;i'-^^.S.'1-_;:*t5^j3>^af!& 






/n 1955, or thereabouts, the first detailed 
geological maps were made of many of 

the arctic islands of northern Canada. On 
Devon Island the geological features were pretty 
straightforward: granitic rocks of the deeper 
crust are exposed on the eastern half of the is- 
land, and these are overlain with sedimentary 
rocks (of Paleozoic age) on the western half. 

In the western half, however, a peculiar 
geological structure was observed. This was a 20 
km (12 mile) circular structure consisting of dis- 
continuous rings of rock layers tipped upward, 
very much broken up by fractures and faults, 
and coated with pale gray pulverized rock 
that contains chips and fragments of all the 
kinds of rock types represented in the area. 

The geologists who first mapped this odd 
structure were perplexed. It is somewhat similar 
to a structure known as a salt dome — so, having 
to call it something, that is how they designated 
it on the map. It remained that way for sixteen 
years, when another geologist. Dr. Mike Dence 
of the Department of Energy, Mines and Re- 
sources Canada, looking over the geological 
maps of the arctic islands, noticed that it was all 
by itself on Devon Island; the nearest other 
known salt dome was over 500 km (about 300 



miles) away on another arctic island. Since salt 
domes are sedimentary rock structures that al- 
most always occur in clusters, not as singles, 
Dence thought the solitary nature of the Devon 
Island "salt dome" really odd. Besides, he com- 
pared the position of the structure with the 
height contours of a topographic map that 
existed for the region and found that it consisted 
of a slight depression. It occurred to him then 
that the structure might really be an ancient 
scar from a huge meteorite impact explosion. 

In 1975 Dr. Blyth Robertson, also of the 
Department of Mines, Energy and Resources 
Canada, met a mining company geologist who 
was going up to the area. Robertson asked him 
to collect some sample rocks, especially any- 
thing that looked unusual. In due course he re- 
ceived from him a group of samples that were 
clearly recognizable as evidence of an impact 
explosion — shatter cones. 

Shatter cones are just what their name im- 
plies, cones formed by the shattering of the rock 
from which they are made. Many of us have had 
the experience of having our car windshield 
struck by a pebble flying up from the wheel of a 
passing car. The common form of damage is a 
tiny hole on the outside surface, with a small 



cone-shaped chip popped out of the inside sur- 
face. The pointed end of the cone aims at the 
source of the impacting pebble. 

For about 25 years it has been recognized 
that very large meteorite impact craters have 
shatter cones developed in the rocks that sur- 
round their centers. These take the form of typi- 
cal cones with unique, characteristic flutings on 
their surfaces. It has been found that if the direc- 
tion of the pointed ends — as seen in outcrops of 
the blasted, contorted rocks — are mapped, and 
if the original position of horizontal layers is 
taken into account, the points all aim radially 
toward a single, central point — the point of 
impact: "ground zero." 

In 1977 Robertson spent part of the arctic 
summer at the site, collecting shatter cones, 
mapping their positions, and doing a survey of 
the gravity field over the structure. When a por- 
tion of the earth's surface has suffered a crush- 
ing blast, the shattered rock has more pore space 
than the original rock, due to the fractures that 
form between and through the mineral grains 
that comprise it. As a result, crushed rock under 
an area will cause the pull of gravity to be very 
slightly less than in surrounding areas where 
the bedrock is uncrushed. The result of this sur- 
vey showed just such a gravity feature: a circle 
of 20 km that coincided with the geological 
structure and with the slight topographic de- 
pression. All this, combined with the shatter 
cones and the discovery of a form of quartz in 
the rock that is known to crystallize only at very 
high shock pressures, made the story conclu- 
sive. The structure is definitely an impact crater. 

Subsequent study has shown that the im- 
pact occurred 15 million years ago, and the orig- 
inal crater has been largely filled by sediments 
of a lake that once occupied it — which is why 
the depression is only slight today. The impact- 
ing object was about 1 km in diameter (more 
than 3,000 feet). It vaporized completely on 
impact. 

When a small meteorite, less than about 100 
tons, hits the earth, it merely punches a hole 
into the soil and usually breaks into fragments 
itself. When a meteorite of 100 tons or more hits, 
the energy is too high for the meteorite to hold 
itself together. The energy is literally greater 
than the energy that binds atom to atom in the 
minerals that comprise the meteorite. It vapor- 
izes as an explosive cloud, excavating millions 
of tons of the rock at ground zero, uplifting lay- 
ered rocks next to the explosion, and sending a 
shock wave through the surrounding area, 
causing shatter cones to form. If the blast is 
below a certain magnitude a simple, hollowed- 
out crater is developed. An example of that kind 
of crater is Meteor Crater near Flagstaff, 




Arizona. If the explosion is above a certain mag- 
nitude a complex crater develops: the central 
part is excavated in the blast and immediately 
afterward the earth under the center rebounds, 
forming a small peak. Such craters are common 
on the lunar surface. The central peak is analo- 
gous to the blip of water that spurts upward 
when a pebble is dropped into standing water. 
The crater on Devon Island is one of these. The 
central portion has been uplifted into a small 
peak just after the impact explosion. In the 15 



Limestone shatter cone 
formed by severe shock 
waves from asteroid 
impact. 





Ground willoic (Salix 

sp.), the single wood]/ 

plant species in the 

high arctic, in 

characteristic 

ground-clinging 

posture. 



million years since the impact, however, most of 
the peak has been eroded away. The impact 
structure has been named Haughton Crater 
after a name given by the original geologist to 
the "salt dome" he found. 

During part of July and August of last year 
I had a chance to be a member of a Canadian 
expedition to search for meteorites on the ice 
cap of eastern Devon Island. When that part 
of the expedition was over, I remained with 
Robertson and a field assistant, Chris Pitre, to 
fly to the Haughton area, set up camp, and run 
a different kind of survey — this time a mag- 
netometer survey, over the structure. 

We flew out of Resolute Bay, on Cornwallis 
Island — just west of Devon Island, in a Twin 
Otter aircraft with all our equipment on July 30. 
We landed on a flat gravel surface next to a river, 
not too far from the center of the impact struc- 
ture, and put up three tents. A small portable 
transmitter radio was hooked up so we could 
communicate with the Resolute Bay station. The 
place we camped was starkly beautiful. The area 
looked just like the desert of central Arizona — 
but without the trees and cacti. The valley of the 
nameless river, beside which we were camped, 
was enclosed between two rows of beautiful 
mountain ridges — one of them blanketed with 
the pale gray, almost white, coating of pul- 
verized rock that had been blown out of the 
impact crater so long ago and settled over the 
hills surrounding the crater. 

The river was shallow, ice cold, crystal 
clear, and made a pleasant sound as it splashed 
over the rapids in front of the two tents set up 
for sleeping. It meandered back and forth across 
the valley floor, fed by tributaries that entered 



it from melting snowfields on the mountain 
sides. The valley floor was made up of a series 
of gravel terraces, each quite flat, that were de- 
posited during the retreat of the ice cap from 
this half of Devon Island. 

Our field work began as soon as the camp 
was set up. Robertson and Pitre were going to 
do the magnetometer survey; my main interest 
was in collecting specimens of shatter cones and 
impact-shocked bedrocks for study and for use 
in future exhibits in the Museum, as well as for 
possible exchanges with other museums. Up to 
this time only a small collection of specimens 
had been made of the Haughton area by the few 
government geologists working on it. The Field 
Museum was to have the first chance to collect 
for broader uses. In fact, I was the first outside 
{i.e., nongovernment) geologist to visit the area 
since it was recognized as a crater. 

In doing work here, field parties have come 
to use small all-terrain vehicles — ATVs. I have 
always opposed these machines, which allow 
men to smash their way into remote places. In- 
excusable damage has been done to areas of the 
southwestern deserts in Arizona, New Mexico, 
and California. In those cases, use of ATVs has 
caused compaction of soils, resulting in the de- 
struction of the flora and subsequent negative 
effects on the fauna. The compacted soils are 
also crushed into smaller grain sizes, which are 
more easily blown and washed away. 

So it was with great concern that I found 
our party supplied with three ATVs, one for 
each of us. As I walked over the desertlike ter- 
rain near the camp I realized that no damage 
could be done to the soils, flora, and fauna — 
there weren't any! This was a desert of com- 
pacted gravel, boulders, and rock outcrop — a 
high arctic desert. The only flora consists of 
small, widely scattered patches of mosses, a 
few algal mats along streams, a wildflower here 
and there, and an occasional small, sprawling 
willow clinging to the ground. No soil is devel- 
oped. The field parties use ATVs because these 
vehicles make it possible to cover large distances 
and visit more outcrops than would be possible 
on foot. In the arctic, field seasons are short and 
every effort is made to do the maximum amount 
as quickly as possible. The availability of ATVs 
and the ability to work around the clock with 24 
hours of daylight make it possible to get a lot of 
work done each season. In general, Canadian 
activities in the arctic are becoming more and 
more responsible. Field parties are now re- 
quired to bring out all their garbage and to leave 
campsites as they found them. 

In spite of the justification, I approached my 
little, balloon-tired puddle-jumper with a lack 
of enthusiasm. As it turned out, the vehicle was 




actually of little use to me. Driving along at the 
vehicle's lowest possible speed, I was still mov- 
ing too fast to examine loose specimens and 
outcrops. When walking, I saw far more, and 
got'better samples. Besides, I came to hate the 
exhaust fumes and the engine noise. Walking 
across that vast, empty, unexplored land in 
complete silence, with only a whisper of wind 
or the subtle rumble of a distant stream or wa- 
terfall is too extraordinary an experience to be 
spoiled by motor fumes and noise. I used the 
vehicle on only two occasions, and on one of 
these it rolled over on me when going up a slope 
so steep that I shouldn't have tried to climb it in 
the first place. The vehicle rolled over a dozen 
times as it tumbled down the slope, but after- 
ward it still ran just fine. 

The day after my accident, Chris went over 
a cliff with his ATV. He escaped serious injury, 
but his vehicle was smashed beyond immediate 
repair. From then on he rode my vehicle and I 



did my traverses happily on foot, and alone. 

On one of these traverses, a beautiful 
sunny day, I was walking through a valley many 
miles from camp when I came across fairly fresh 
polar bear tracks. I didn't have anything along 
for defense because I had mistakenly assumed 
the bears wouldn't get that far away from the 
sea — about 20 miles. There are few incidents of 
serious bear attacks; however, those few are 
enough to keep up your respect for them. Sub- 
sequently, I carried a loaded rifle on all my treks. 
This gave me a feeling of security, although I 
had to admit to myself I would find it just about 
impossible to shoot one of these animals. I 
hoped that shooting at it might be enough to 
scare it away. I also carried an old beer can con- 
taining small pebbles, for it is said that polar 
bears will run away from loud, clanging sounds. 
Happily I never had a chance to test out this 
theory — or fire the rifle. 

One day a helicopter came in to spend the 



Canadian govern- 
ment geologist Blyth 
Robertson (left) and 
assistant Chris Pitre 
atop a mass of gyp- 
sum crystals formed 
In/ ground water 
deposition. 



Pitre, Robertson, and 

Olsen (I. to r.) pose by 

cook tent witn 

all-terrain vehicles. 




day with us putting in magnetometer reference 
stations. Because of rapid fluctuations in the 
magnetic field in this region, so close to the 
north magnetic pole, it was necessary to place 
all the reference stations as quickly as possible 
— hence the helicopter. This process involved 
landing at a chosen site, taking a magnetometer 
reading, marking the spot with a rock cairn, 
hopping into the helicopter again, taking off to a 
new spot, miles away, and repeating the pro- 
cess. We made sixteen stations that day. It 
would have taken several days to do the same 
thing by surface travel, even by ATV. 

Like most polar field work, north or south, 
there is a pattern of intense activity followed by 
periods of boring inactivity when the weather 
is too rotten to work, or while waiting for air- 
craft. On this trip we had long stretches of fog, 
drizzle, rain, a few snow flurries, and heavy 
overcast skies. After a period of several days of 
drizzle we noticed that the little babbling stream 
in front of our tents was rising. Our pretty, blue 
creek had turned green, was cloudy with fine 
sediment, and had grown into a deep, formida- 
ble roaring river. By putting reference-marker 
stones along the gravel bank that contained it, 
we figured the creek was rising at about three 
inches an hour. In a few hours our tents would 
be flooded. So we moved the two sleeping tents 
to a higher gravel terrace, but left the cook tent 
where it was, on slightly higher ground away 
from the river. In the arctic it is always wise to 
put the cook tent a long walk from the sleeping 
tents. If a polar bear shows up it will probably 
go for the cook tent, with its food odors, first. 
The clattering of pots becomes your warning to 



get up and eitlier run or shoot it out. If you're 
far enough away you have a chance. 

After a few hours the river was a raging 
torrent, cutting away at the gravel banks. By 11 
p.m. the drizzle stopped and we determined 
the river had ceased to rise — to only an inch 
below the first terrace level. We left the sleeping 
tents where they were in case of future rain. 

In spite of the off-and-on bad weather, our 
work was soon completed. It was an unusual 
period. Every few hours a swell of fog would 
pour through the mountain passes from the di- 
rection of the sea and settle in the impact basin. 
The wind would finally dispel the fog, giving us 
an hour of clearer weather — still dull gray — 
before the next fog layer, sitting over the sea- 
coast, would become deep enough to pour over 
the passes onto us again. 

The Twin Otter from Resolute was sup- 
posed to come in on one particular evening 
and take out our camp, but this fog-clear-fog 
weather situation meant that landing was im- 
possible. With 24 hours of daylight the plane 
might arrive at any hour of the "night." By mid- 
night our weather had improved marginally and 
the sun made the northern sky dull red. This 
was one of those boring waiting periods that are 
part of arctic field work. As I wandered along 
the bank of the swollen river I saw a flight of 
nine eider ducks land on a gravel bank. They 
consisted of adults and a couple of birds that 
appeared somewhat small — like the young of 
this season. They were the only living animals 
I saw during this time at that camp, and were 
grouping for the migration south — August 7. 
It was time to leave the high arctic. D 



The Plains Indian Bull-Boat 

Specialized Transportation on 
the Upper Missouri River 



Bv James w. VanStone 

Curatorof North American Archeology and Ethnology 




In 1891 Frederic Ward Putnam, curator of the 
Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology at Harvard, was appointed 
chief of the Department of Ethnology and Ar- 
chaeology for the World's Columbian Exposition 
in Chicago. His task was to assemble a large 
anthropological collection for the world's fair in 
1893, and for this purpose field parties to various 
parts of the world were directed to collect 
ethnographic specimens and other materials 
representing many different cultures. 

Early in 1892 Putnam wrote to A. W. Fair- 
banks of Fort Berthold, North Dakota, request- 
ing that Fairbanks collect ethnographic speci- 
mens from among the Plains Indian tribes of the 
upper Missouri River region. This material was 
apparently collected and shipped, but when it 
was accessioned on October 31, 1893, by Field 
Columbian Museum, established to house col- 
lections gathered for the world's fair, the only 
specimen that could be located was a bull-boat,* 
an example of one of the most primitive skin- 

* Catalog number 15568 



covered canoes built by the Indians of North 
America. 

Bull-boats were not actually canoes, but 
rather coracles similar to those used in Ireland 
and by the ancient Britons. They were bowl- 
shaped and suitable only for use on streams 
where ferrying would be the primary require- 
ment. Although all Plains Indians living near 
streams probably once constructed bull-boats, 
this form of vessel is associated most frequently 
with the Mandan, Arikara, and Gros Ventre, 
who used it to cross the Missouri River and its 
tributaries. 

Many boats from various parts of the world 
were collected for the World's Columbian Expo- 
sition and subsequently accessioned by Field 
Columbian Museum (in 1906 renamed Field 
Museurri of Natural History). In 1929 the 
Museum donated a collection of 75 boats — one of 
the finest assemblages of aboriginal water craft in 
the world — to Chicago's Museum of Science and 
Industry, apparently hoping to solve a storage 
problem. Because that institution also had no 
facilities for storing such a large collection, ar- 



rangements were made to place the vessels in 
temporary storage under the seats in Soldier 
Field, across the street from Field Museum. 
When new construction was undertaken at Sol- 
dier Field in 1937, virtually the entire collection 
was destroyed by the Chicago Park District "in 
the belief that they had been used in the past for 
pageants, festivals and parades and because of 
their age were no longer usable."' 

Field Museum's bull-boat was slated for in- 
clusion in this collection of deaccessioned boats, 
and in the catalog of the Department of An- 
thropology is the notation that the specimen was 
"sent to Rosenwald Industrial Museum 
[Museum of Science and Industry] 12/13/28." For 
reasons that are unclear but extremely fortunate, 
the bull-boat was not included in the collection 
stored in Soldier Field. It disappeared, however, 



from Field Museum's collections and was redis- 
covered only in 1968 when extensive renovations 
were made to the building's fourth floor for the 
newly created Department of Exhibition. When 
found, the bull-boat was in a crate, perhaps in 
anticipation of removal from the Museum. In 
any event, it has been preserved and is one of the 
few water craft remaining in the Museum's 
North American Indian collections. 

Wherever they occur, bull-boats are always 
described as temporary craft constructed for spe- 
cial purposes. Unlike the Eskimo kayak, from 
which the skin cover can be removed because the 
parts of the frame are rigidly lashed and pegged 
together, bull-boats were usually built according 
to bark canoe methods, whereby the covering 
was part of the structure holding the framework 
together.^ 



10 





Field Museum's specimen has shallow, flar- 
ing sides and is covered with cowhide (with the 
hair side on the exterior) rather than with the 
buffalo hide ordinarily associated with tra- 
ditional craft. The vessel has a diameter of ap- 
proximately 51 inches and is about 20 inches deep 
in the center. The rim is made of overlapping 
willow branches, lashed together at intervals 
with strips of willow root; the cowhide is also 
lashed to the rim with root strips. Below the rim 
on two sides and running in the same direction 
are more strips. The framework is made of bent 
willow branches placed at right angles to one 
another in more or less haphazard positions. 
Where they cross, these branches are lashed to- 
gether with strips of cloth (fig. 2). It seems 
clear that the craft was built up on the skin. 

Over the years, as the cowhide has dried, 
the supporting framework has twisted and 
slipped; some branches have punctured the 
hide. When it was new, the boat was probably 
somewhat deeper than now; the sides were less 
flaring, and the shape more regular. Neverthe- 
less, it is obvious that the vessel is not well made; 
Fairbanks, in fact, cautioned Putnam in a letter of 
September 20, 1892, that "this boat is really not a 
very good specimen of a bull-boat but it was the 
best I could obtain at the time."^ 

Early travellers on the Missouri River and its 



tributaries admired the versatility of the bull- 
boat and described it in considerable detail. One 
of the earliest of these descriptions, written by a 
member of the Lewis and Clark expedition, is of 
vessels made by the Arikara and Mandan. 
These are made in the following manner: two 
sticks of an inch and a quarter in diameter are 
tied together so as to form a round hoop, which 
serves for the brim, while a second hoop, for the 
bottom of the boat, is made in the same way; both 
are secured by sticks of the same size from the 
sides of the hoops, fastened by thongs at the 
edges of the hoops and at the interstices of the 
sticks; over this frame the skin is drawn closely 
and tied with thongs, so as to form a perfect 
basin, 7 feet 3 inches in diameter, 16 inches deep, 
with 16 ribs of cross- sticks, and capable of carry- 
ing six or eight men with their loads.* 
Although this account appears to suggest 
that the vessels described had rigid frames, it is 
probable that once constructed, their covers 
could not be removed without collapsing the 
framework. These boats were also considerably 
larger than most craft of this type. On August 8, 
1806, three members of the Lewis and Clark ex- 
pedition constructed such a boat in order to de- 
scend the Yellowstone River: "In these frail ves- 
sels they embarked, and were surprised at the 
perfect security in which they passed through 



11 



the most difficult shoals and rapids of the river, 
without ever taking in water, even during the 
highest winds. "^ 

Another, somewhat later, description is 
provided by E. T. Denig, a trader on the upper 
Missouri from 1833 to 1856. Noting that Arikara 
bull-boats were used for crossing the Missouri, 
he went on to say that 

The body of the boat is made of willows, bent 
round in the form of a basket and tied to a hoop of 
the same at the top, which hoop is about three or 
four feet in diameter. The hide of a buffalo, either 
fresh off the animal's back, or if dry, well soaked 
in water, is stretched over the frame, the hair 
inside. It is then turned upside down, dried, and 
sometimes smeared over with tallow. * 




12 



Other early observers also noted that the hair 
often faced in rather than out, as it does on Field 
Museum's boat. 

Interesting and instructive drawings of 
bull-boats were made by Charles Bodmer, the 
artist who accompanied Prince Maximilian of 
Wied on his travels through the Plains region in 
1832-1834 (fig.l). and by Rudolph Friederich 
Kurz, whose drawings of women carrying bull- 
boats were made in 1851 (fig. 3). These illus- 
trations, together with the descriptions just 
given, suggest a more precise method of con- 
struction than is to be found in Field 
Museum's specimen. 

As might be imagined, the propelling of a 
bowl-shaped vessel required a specialized tech- 
nique. Denig's description is especially graphic: 
Usually these boats are propelled by the women, 
one in each boat, which also contains the meat of 
the same [buffalo] cow whose hide made the 
canoe. She uses a paddle in front making a paw- 
ing motion directly under the boat which turns 
half round to alternate sides at each stroke of the 
paddle. '' 
In his letter to Putnam quoted earlier, Fair- 



banks described the paddling of a bull-boat as 
follows: 

// used by a single person, he takes his place in 
the boat to one side, usually balanced by a stone 
on the other side but I have seen them without. 
Then [he] uses the paddle to pull himself forward 
[and] at the same time as the paddle leaves the 
water he gives it a tivist which offsets thecurrent 
and keep[s] the boat directly across the river. The 
first part of the stroke also is made upward to- 
wards the current as well as forward. 
Famed photographer Edward S. Curtis, 
who visited the Mandan about 1907, provides an 
obviously posed but informative view of a 
woman paddling a bull-boat (fig. 4). 

Denig emphasized that although the bull- 
boat was usually associated with women, both 
sexes were expert at this type of navigation. 
Parties of both [sexes] go for some distance up 
the Missouri in the summer when the hair of the 
animal is not seasonable, kill buffalo, make 
canoes of the hide, put meat in and each one 
paddles his boat to the village. Fifty, sixty, or a 
hundred canots can be seen, all loaded, manned 
or womaned by a single paddler, plying their 
way even in high wind down the rapid and 
dangerous current of the Missouri. ' 
In his letter to Putnam, Fairbanks reported 
that he had seen vessels similar to the one he 
collected cross the Missouri loaded with three 
women, a child, and many bags of flour without 
seeming to be affected by a rapid current. In 1847 
Charles Larpenteur, a fur trader on the upper 
Missouri, observed a party of 22 Arikaras going 
to war against the Sioux in 11 bull-boats.' 

There were, however, some drawbacks to 
these versatile water craft. Alexander Henry and 
David Thompson, fur traders writing at the be- 
ginning of the nineteenth century, observed that 
although these boats were capable of carrying 
great loads, it was necessary to unload them once 
each day and dry them in the sun or over a fire; 
otherwise they would become waterlogged and 
sink.'" 

Temporary or emergency water craft, com- 
mon among North American Indians, varied 
from relatively simple vessels like the bull-boat 
to sizeable boats with crudely constructed but 
rigid or semi-rigid frames. One of the more com- 
plex forms was used by Eskimos living along the 
Kuskokwim River in southwestern Alaska; in the 
fall they moved up tributaries by canoe to hunt 
large game animals. After hunting for a month or 
more, they cached their small canoes to be 
picked up during the winter and the hunters 
assembled their catch near a stream where a boat 
was built for the return trip. The frame of the 
new boat was constructed of spruce or alder and 
covered with the skins of freshly killed caribou or 




bear. Its size depended on the success of the 
hunters. Although these vessels were undoubt- 
edly clumsy, they were also very flexible and 
thus able to safely negotiate swift streams, 
bouncing off the projecting rocks that were an 
ever-present hazard." 

One vessel of this type, seen at the village of 
Kwethluk on the lower Kuskokwim River in the 
spring of 1956, was of modified-traditional form 
but appeared to resemble closely the type of craft 
used in aboriginal times (fig. 5). This boat was 
large, approximately 30 feet long but less than 
two feet deep, and similar to the traditional Es- 
kimo umiak, being pointed at both ends. The 
frame, made of roughly worked strips of alder 
wood, was nailed together and covered with 
bear skins, one of which is shown in the photo. 

NOTES 

1. Letter of April 19, 1938, from E.I. Kelly, director of Spe- 
cial Services, Chicago Park District, to J.W. Block, regis- 
trar. Museum of Science and Industry. 

2. Adney and Chapelle, 1964, p. 219. 

3. Department of Anthropology files, accession 55. 

4. Coues, 1893, vol. 3, p. 1,172. 

5. Ibid. 

6. Denig, 1961, pp. 51-52. 

7. Ibid. 

8. Ibid. 

9. Larpenteur, 1933, p. 213. 

10. Henry and Thompson, 1897, p. 181. 

11. Oswalt, 1963, pp. 126-27. 



REFERENCES 

Adney, Edwin T. and Howard I. Chapelle 
1964 The Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America. 
Museum of History and Technology, Smithsonian 
Institution. Washington, D.C. 



The use of nails in constructing the frame doubt- 
less made it more rigid than would have been the 
case with the skin or root lashing used in aborig- 
inal times. The vessel's shallow depth was 
characteristic of its type. 

The Plains Indian bull-boat was obviously a 
less ambitious craft. Some were even too small to 
carry a person, but were intended to be loaded 
with cargo and towed by a swimmer. Although 
the previously described vessels encountered by 
the Lewis and Clark expedition were apparently 
very large, specimens preserved in museum col- 
lections indicate that a craft more than five feet in 
diameter and made of more than one skin was 
extremely rare. Most examples are built on a 
single skin and are approximately the size of 
Field Museum's boat. D 

Coues, Elliott, ed. 
1893 History of the Expedition under the Command of Lewis 
and Clark. 4 vols. N.Y. 
Curtis, Edward S. 
1907-30 The North American Indians. 20 vols. Norwood, 
Mass. 
Denig, Edwin T. 
1961 Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri. Univ. of Okla- 
homa Press. 
Henry, Alexander and David Thompson 
1897 New Light on the Early History of the Greater Northivest. 
Ed. by Elliott Coues. 3 vols. N.Y. 
Larpenteur, Charles 

1933 Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri. The 
Personal Narrative of Charles Larpenteur 1833-1872. 
Chicago. 
Oswalt, Wendell H. 
1963 Mission of Change in Alaska. Eskimos and Moravians on 
the Kuskokwim. The Huntington Library, San 
Marino, California. 
Thwaites, Reuben G., ed. 
1904-07 Early Western Travels, 1784-1897. 32 vols. Cleve- 
land. 



13 



Author Robert Timm 

with mounted skeleton 

of kangaroo rat that 

had been cleaned by 

feeding dermestid 

beetles. 



DERMESTIDS 

The remarkable ability of 
these tiny beetles to strip 
bones clean of flesh has been 
turned to the advantage of 



By Robert M. Timm 
Assistant Curator and Head, 
Division of Mammals 




14 



Curiously, the busiest room at Field 
Museum is one of the least known. It 
houses thousands of workers who go un- 
complainingly about their task 24 hours a day, 
seven days a week, 52 weeks out of the year. 
The name of this room, tucked away on the 
third floor, is "the Bug Room" — a matter of 
irony, since it's located in the Division of 
Mammals, not in Insects. 

The solution to this seeming conundrum is 
simplicity itself: In the Bug Room are cages of 
various sizes, each containing hundreds or 
thousands of matchhead-size beetles of the 
species Dermestes maculatus, all gnawing happily 
away at the carcasses of dead animals. In return 
for the free meal, these carrion eaters are per- 
forming an invaluable service to the Museum 
and to science: they are able to clean an animal 
skeleton of its flesh more efficiently than any 
other way — chemical or biological — known to 
science. Given the time and the right condi- 
tions, such as humidity and temperature, an 
army of dermestids can reduce the body of a 
shrew, a dog, or a horse (even, theoretically, a 
whale!) to a gleaming skeleton, still articulated 



{i.e., with its bones still properly intercon- 
nected). Muscles and fat are all grist for the 
dermestids' gastronomic mill — leaving the 
bone, eschewed as it were, rather than chewed. 

Since science first recognized the animal 
skeleton as something to be preserved and 
studied in a systematic fashion, scientists have 
looked for ways of cleaning from the bones the 
extraneous tissues that surround them in life. In 
former times, the carcass was simply soaked in 
water until the bacterial action broke down the 
soft tissues; then began the tedious manual pro- 
cess of picking and scraping off the remaining 
bits of tissue. Not only was this tiring and 
time-consuming, the results were never satis- 
factory. If the bacterial decomposition went on 
too long, the bones became disarticulated and 
teeth fell out. Too little soaking meant that extra 
time was needed for the hand-cleaning stage, 
and tendons and ligaments usually required 
more attention. The end result was poorly 
cleaned, piecemeal material. 

So zoologists were constantly on the look- 
out for a better method, and they experimented 
with ants, clothes moth larvae, mealworms. 





Dermestes 
maculatus (larva left, 
adult right), some- 
times called the leather 
beetle, is the dermestid 
species used for clean- 
ing skeletons at Field 
Museum. Larvae grow 
to slightly more than 
Vz inch long, adults 
are somewhat smaller. 
Drawings by Rosanne 
Miezio. 



crawfish, marine isopods and other biological 
methods — to say nothing of corrosive chemi- 
cals. All had serious drawbacks. Then, in the 
1870s, in France, dermestid beetles were tried, 
and they came through with winning colors. 
About sixty years ago dermestids came into use 
in American museums, and today colonies of 
these beetles are standard equipment wherever 
larger collections of vertebrate skeletons are 
maintained. 

Dermestid beetles, which constitute the 



family Dermestidae, are worldwide in distribu- 
tion, with about 700 known species — 125 in the 
United States and 25 in Illinois. About 50 have 
reputations as pests of stored animal and plant 
products, consuming everything from Jello to 
rugs to wool sweaters to butterfly collections. 
Of these dermestids, a few have proven useful 
to scientists as bone cleaners; some don't adapt 
well to colonization, however (whole skeletons 
are cleaned efficiently only with self-perpetuat- 
ing "colonies" of hundreds or thousands of in- 




U.S. dime shows rela- 
tive size of 
beetle grub and tiny, 
partially disarticulated 
shrew skeleton, cleaned 
by the 
beetles. 15 




Scanning electron 

microscope photos of D . 

macula tus: (above, 

left) head of first instar, 

or growth phase, of 

larva magnified 125 

times; (above, right) 

head of first larval 

instar X520; (opposite 

page, top left) 

urticating, or irritant, 

hairs that cover the 

grub'sbodyX690;(this 

page, below) head of 

adult X33. Photos by 

Robert Timm. 



dividuals); others are not efficient enough in 
cleaning up soft tissues or are too rough with 
the bony parts. 

Dermestes maculatus, the dermestid species 
we use at Field Museum, is commonly known 
as the leather beetle, because of its special fond- 
ness for leather and fur. (Before effective insec- 
ticides were developed it was a serious pest in 
industries that dealt in these products. ) When 



properly cared for, D. maculatus is highly pro- 
lific; a female may lay 500 or more eggs; these 
eggs hatch two to ten days later into grubs, 
which grow to adulthood in six to nine weeks. 
The larval period may be protracted for years if 
the temperature and humidity are not optimal 
and food is scant. 

The newly hatched larvae, 1mm long (1/25 
inch), are voracious eaters, and an army of 



16 





Timm brushes beetles 
from cleaned kangaroo 
head. Surgical mask 
prevents inhalation of 
dust-size particles of 
dried beetle exoskele- 
ton, larva setae (hairs), 
and excreta that per- 
vade air of Bug Room . 
Prolonged exposure 
may result in allergic 
reaction. 



grubs can reduce a shrew, or mole, or bat to a 
skeleton overnight; a horse may take a few 
weeks. The larvae molt six or seven times, and 
when fully grown at 15mm are ready to pupate. 
When this time comes, they bore into whatever 







Dermestid adults and 
larvae at work on squir- 
rel head. 17 




Timm in Bug Room 

with largest of several 

dermestiacolony cages. 

The cage lids as well as 

the double doors to the 

Bug Room are precision 

sealed. 



18 



material is at hand, finding a snug, isolated spot 
to lie dormant for 7 to 14 days. One of the ex- 
traordinary facts about the dermestid is the 
ability of this pupating grub to bore through the 
hardest material — even through the mortar and 
stonework of walls; lead pipes, cables, and elec- 
trical fuses have proven notably vulnerable to 
them. Hakluyt's Travels records that in 1593 a 
ship carrying a cargo of dead penguins was 
made unseaworthy by the hundreds of thou- 
sands of tunnels bored into the wooden hull by 
pupating dermestid larvae (after feeding on the 
penguins). 

Cleaning the bones with dermestids is both 
good husbandry and an art; it is not simply a 
matter of throwing the bones to the bugs. Be- 
fore being placed in a beetle colony, the animal's 
body is skinned, eviscerated, and the larger 
muscle masses removed. The beetles prefer to 
feed on tissue that is well dried — but not too 



dry. Temperature and humidity control are also 
critical, and the beetles are extremely sensitive 
to mold and mites; either can wipe out a colony 
overnight. At the Field Museum we use dermes- 
tids not only for cleaning the skeletons of mam- 
mals, but also those of birds, reptiles, amphibians, 
and fish — dried fish seems to be their favorite. 

But we must pay the price for this wonder- 
ful talent: since dermestids will nibble on just 
about anything that is dead (including Egyptian 
mummies), natural history museums must take 
special care that their dermestid guests are 
housed in carefully sealed quarters. The Bug 
Room has a double set of tightly fitting doors 
and each colony container (commonly a tropical 
fish aquarium a few cubic feet in volume) has a 
dermestid-proof lid. 

The beetles also pose a unique health prob- 
lem for technicians who must work with them. 
Persons exposed to the room's air over a period 
of time may develop a host of disagreeable 
symptoms that are an allergic reaction to sub- 
stances in the beetle's system: itching of the 
skin, hives, irritation of the eyes and respiratory 
passages, cold sweat, weakness, fever, head- 
ache, and nausea are all part of the syndrome. 
An allergic person who is overexposed to the 
room's atmosphere may even go into serious 
anaphylactic shock of the sort that can befall a 
bee-sting victim. 

The allergic reaction is the result of breath- 
ing microscopic particles of dead beetle exo- 
skeletons, molted grub skins with their fuzz of 
irritant hairs, and excreta — all floating in the air 
as a fine, impalpable dust. The only protection 
against this insidious hazard is to wear a surgi- 
cal mask. 

What good are all these old bones? Does 
anyone ever look at them? The answer is a re- 
sounding YES. In the past year, the mammal col- 
lection received some 800 visitor-days of use by 
professionals (in addition to that by our own 
staff), and we sent out almost 100 loans of 
specimens to scientists at other institutions. The 
loan and visitor use of the Field Museum collec- 
tion is one of the busiest such arrangements in 
the scientific world. During this 12-month 
period, scientists in 28 states and 11 foreign 
countries made use of it — including mam- 
malogists, anatomists, archaeologists, paleon- 
tologists, anthropologists, and veterinarians. In 
recent years, an annual average of more than 40 
published technical papers and scholarly books 
have involved research based on the study of 
our specimens — many of which had been beau- 
tifully "prepared" by the remarkable dermes- 
tids. Once looked upon as just a pest, Dermestes 
maculatus has risen to become a valued tool in 
the pursuit of scientific knowledge. D 



Ayer Film Lectures 



March and April 
James Simpson Theatre 
Saturdays, 1:30 pm 



The Spring Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures are offered each 
Saturday in March and April. Please take special notice of the 
new, earlier starting time — 1:30 pm. These 90-minute travel 
films are narrated by the filmmakers themselves, and are rec- 
ommended for adults. Admission is free at the Museum's 
barrier- free West Entrance, located on the ground floor. Handi- 

March6 

"Footloose in Newfoundland," 
by Tom Sterling 

A visit to Newfoundland brings you the 
wonders of nature — the great fiords, 
bird colonies of gannets and kittywak.es, 
whales, moose, and tundra plant life. 
Sterling also introduces you to the people 
of Newfoundland — their families, "out- 
ports," and daily life. 



March 13 

"Switzerland," by Ric Dougherty 
Visit Chateau-D'Oex, a tiny hamlet 
of Swiss chalets, ride up Mount Rigi, 
and trek to the Matterhorn. Watch the 
Reynaud family making Gruyere 
cheese, and stay to welcome the cele- 
brants from Vivey of The Feast of the 
Wine Growers, Europe's greatest folk 
festival. 



March 20 

"In the Footsteps of Richard Hallibur- 
ton," by William Stockdale 
From London to Spain, to India and 
Khyber Pass, we follow in the footsteps 
of adventurer Halliburton (1900-1939). 
He climbed the Matterhorn, swam the 
Hellespont, and sailed a junk out of 
Hong Kong, never to be heard from 
again. Join Stockdale as he retraces 
Halliburton's travels. 



March 27 

"China After Mao," by Jens Bjerre 
This fascinating film invites you to sail 
down the beautiful Likian River, explore 
giant caverns, tour Peking, and take a 
train ride through China to Kwangchow 
(Canton). Bjerre also explores the many 
changes in China since the death of Mao 
— changes which have deeply affected 
each individual with new freedom. 






capped persons have access to the theatre via this entrance. 
Doors open at 12:45 pm for Museum members. When the 
theatre has reached full seating capacity, the doors will be 
closed by Security personnel in compliance with fire 
regulations. 



April 3 

"The Galapagos," by John Wilson 
A devoted naturalist and cinema- 
tographer, Wilson exploreSithe 
Archipelago of Columbus — better 
known as the Galapagos. Because these 
islands are isolated, they are home to 
some of the world's most remarkably 
adapted wildlife. Scenes include the 
courting of the albatross, a climb to the 
top of Volcan Fernandina, and a trip to 
Alcedo Crater — home of the Galapagos 
Tortoise. 

April 10 

"Paris and the Seine," 
by Kathy Dusek 

The film begins in the hills of Burgundy, 
then on to the medieval city of Troyes. 
See Paris at sunrise, the flower market, 
and the Louvre. Visit Rouen and hear 
the story of Joan of Arc. Finally we 
arrive at Normandy and Le Havre — 
totally rebuilt since World War II. 



April 17 

"South and East Africa," 
by Ted Bumiller 

An exciting film safari to the great con- 
tinent of Africa. Game preserves abound 
with wildlife — elephants, leopards, and 
crocodiles. Watch fishermen catch the 
200-pound Nile perch; climb Kiliman- 
jaro, visit Nairobi, and meet Africa's 
many peoples. 



April 24 

"Himalayan Odyssey," 
by Frank Klicar 

The Himalayas are the meeting place 
for Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. 
Pilgrims seek spiritual enlightenment 
at Bhaktipur in Nepal, Rishikesh on 
the Ganges, and at the Tibetan monas- 
leryof Leh. Village activities center on 
grain planting and harvesting, process- 
ing tea, making rugs, raising livestock, 
and paper-making. 





«?«',' 




119 



Gone Fishing 

In the Gtdf of Honduras 

By Robert Karl Johnson and David W. Greenheld 
Photos courtesy of the authors 




Cabins overlooking reef 

crest at Long Cay, 

Glovers Reef. 



20 



rystal clear water, multihued coral ram- 
parts, the continuous line of surf on the 
windward reef, palm-covered cays seem- 
ingly suspended between the blue of sky and 
sea — these are what come to mind when think- 
ing of the coral reefs of the Gulf of Honduras. 
But for those of us who are studjdng the fishes 
of the western Caribbean, there are additional 
images and rewards: the discovery of species 
new to science, captures of rare species known 
from few individuals, and the chance to learn 
about the life histories, ecology, and distribution 
of these and other coral reef fishes not previously 
studied. It is the lure of these opportunities that 
has caused us to return to the western Carib- 
bean each of the past 11 years. 

Our association with the nation of Belize 
and the western Caribbean began in 1970, 
when one of the authors (Greenfield) moved to 
Northern Illinois University from California. 
There existed at NIU the opportunity to help 
establish a program in tropical biology to be 



Robert Karl Johnson is curator of fishes and chairman of the 
Department of Zoology at the Field Museum; he is also 
adjunct associate professor of biological sciences at Northern 
Illinois University. David W. Greenfield is professor of 
biological sciences at Northern Illinois University and is a 
research associate, in zoology, of the Field Museum. 



taught in Belize. Glovers Reef, an atoll 28 miles 
off Belize, has been since 1970 the site of a tropi- 
cal marine biology course, which has drawn 
students from across the United States and 
Canada. Sampling of the Belize marine fish 
fauna also began in 1970. 

Our collaboration on western Caribbean 
fishes began in 1975, with an expedition to the 
Miskito Coast of Honduras, a venture jointly 
sponsored by Field Museum, NIU, and the 
Museum of Zoology of the University of Michi- 
gan. We have since returned to Belize on numer- 
ous occasions, to teach the course in coral reef 
biology and to continue our investigations of 
the shorefishes of the Gulf of Honduras. Our 
collections to date number 382 stations, an 
estimated 10,000 lots,* and more than 100,000 
specimens. These collections, all deposited 
at Field Museum, are without peer for the 
western Caribbean. 

Belize, with an area of some 8,866 square 
miles, has a population of about 122,000. To the 
east lies the Caribbean, to the north the Yucatan 
peninsula of Mexico, to the west and south, 
Guatemala. Geographically diverse despite its 
small size, Belize has elevations ranging from 



*A lot is all specimens of a single species collected at the same 
station. Fifty or more species are often taken at a single 
station on the coral reefs of Belize. 



sea level to about 3,680 feet inland and a mean 
annual rainfall ranging from 50 inches in the 
north to 220 inches further south. The flatter 
inland areas are covered with broad expanses of 
savannah. Hardwood forests are widespread, 
although much of the hardwood has been cut 
for timber or removed (by burning) to create 
farmland; in many places the tangled secondary 
undergrowth has formed dense jungle. The 
Maya Mountains running along the southwest- 
ern edge of Belize are blessed with many beauti- 
ful clear swift streams, waterfalls, caves, and 
tropical pine forest. 

The entire coastal area is bordered by 
mangrove swamps, many of which connect 
to inland lagoons, providing a gradient from 
brackish to fresh water. Eight to twenty-five 
miles offshore lies the second longest barrier 
reef in the world, extending southward from 
the Yucatan peninsula some 168 miles into the 
Gulf of Honduras. 

Offshore, between the mainland and the 
barrier reef, the waters tend to be clearer and 
saltier than along the coast; however, during the 
rainy season this zone receives vast volumes of 
freshwater runoff from the large tropical rivers, 
and its waters are more turbid and less saline 
than those of locations further offshore. Innu- 
merable mangrove-covered cays are to be found 
here, often with shores of coral rubble covered 
with extensive algal mats and surrounded by 
vast beds of turtle grass. 

There are three atolls in Belize (of 10 atolls 
or atoll-like formations in the entire Atlantic): 
Turneffe Islands, Lighthouse Reef, and Glovers 
Reef. Turneffe, which is closest to the barrier 
reef, has the most extensive land area, including 
a vast lagoon occupied almost throughout by 
mangrove swamp. Lighthouse Reef and Glov- 
ers Reef are farther offshore, more oceanic in 
character {e.g., more saline, less turbid waters, 
etc.) and have the most extensive coral de- 
velopment. Their lagoons contain numerous 
coral-patch reefs, and precipitous dropoffs 
occur on the outside of the encircling reef struc- 
ture. Neither has large islands, though there are 
a number of small cays at each, many thickly 
beset with coconut palms. 

To the southeast of Glovers Reef, some 
90 miles across the Gulf of Honduras, lies the 
island of Roatan, one of the Bay Islands. Unlike 
anything found in Belize, Roatan is a high is- 
land, with rocky shores meeting the sea as cliffs, 
rocky reefs, beaches of cobble, and with inter- 
spersed sandy beaches. Offshore lies a well 
developed coral reef system with precipitous 
dropoffs. 

Thus, within a relatively small geographic 
area are found a great variety of habitat types. 



This summer, the authors will con- 
tinue their studies in Belize and 
Honduras. For the first time. Field 
Museum is joining with Northern 
Illinois University in offering 
Museum members a unique oppor- 
tunity to join in the study and explo- 
ration of the reef systems of the Gulf 
of Honduras. For further informa- 
tion on this exciting program see 
"Field Museum Tours," page 25. 



The variety of habitats in Belize and 
This variety contributes substantially to the 
richness of the Belizean shorefish fauna, which 
we estimate as nearly 500 species. Despite this 
richness, the fishes of the western Caribbean 
were very poorly sampled until the beginning of 
our efforts. New knowledge of the blennioid 
fishes, based on our sampling efforts, is illus- 
trative of the gains we have made. In the past 11 
years we have taken 60 species of "blennies" 
(four distinct families) in Belize and Honduras; 
40 of these were previously unknown from 
Honduras, 27 unknown from Belize, 20 un- 
known from the Caribbean coast of Central 
America, and 4 were new species. A sixty-first 
species, also unknown to science, is being given 
formal scientific description by a colleague. 




21 



Honduras also offers the opportunity for the 
biologist to ask ecological questions relating to 
habitat restriction, distribution of diversity, and 
the coherence and organization of species as- 
semblages. Over the years we have attempted 
to sample repeatedly from the full range of 
habitat types present and in stratified fashion 
over the depth range (to about 100 feet) practical 
with conventional scuba. 

Because of the course offered each summer 



swarms of coral reef fishes* surrounding and 
inhabiting patch reefs, among the more con- 
spicuous because of their behavior are the ter- 
ritorial species of damselfishes. Only several 
inches long, these fishes are so pugnacious they 
will take on virtually any invader of their terri- 
tory, even nipping at a snorkeler's hand. Some 
damselfish species establish and maintain algal 
gardens from which they derive their food. 
The typical day mode on a coral reef is a 




Hogfish in nighttime shelter at base of patch reef in lagoon at Glovers Reef. 



22 



at Glovers Reef, our greatest concentration of 
effort at a single location (noting that Glovers 
Reef is a "location" 20 miles long by 6 miles 
broad) has been at this atoll. Rising some 6,000 
feet from the off-reef sea floor. Glovers Reef is 
truly one of the finest reef structures in the trop- 
ical Atlantic. In 1971 the Smithsonian Institution 
sent a team of marine biologists throughout the 
Caribbean in an effort to identify the "best" 
coral reef site for possible study during the 
International Decade of Ocean Exploration; 
Glovers Reef was the team's choice. 

The hundreds of patch reefs within the la- 
goon at Glovers Reef provide excellent oppor- 
tunities for one to view numerous fish species in 
shallow water using only snorkeling gear. In the 



picture of color and movement — grazing parrot- 
fishes and surgeonfishes, nibbling and brows- 
ing angelfishes and wrasses, actively territorial 
or midwater damselfishes, butterfly fishes, mill- 
ing schools of grunts and snappers, and many 
others. The nocturnal picture is quite different, 
for at night the day-active species are mostly 
nestled into crevices. Conversely, the fishes ac- 
tive at night are for the most part not readily 
visible during the day, for they spend the day- 
light hours hiding in coral caves and crevices. 
Night-active species include the squirrel and 



*"Fish," used in the plural sense, refers to more than one 
individual of the same species; "fishes" refers to more than 
one species. 



soldierfishes, the cardinal fishes and sweepers. 
This changing of the guard is just one of the 
ways that make it possible for so many fish 
species to coexist on a coral reef. 

For both the snorkeler and the scuba diver, 
the deeper reefs beyond the atoll rim offer ex- 
ceptional beauty and excitement. The reef 
slopes gently from the rim to the edge of the 
dropoff with a system of ridges (spurs) and 
channels (grooves) providing topographic relief. 
At the edge of the dropoff the bottom seems to 
curl over as it plunges downward to a depth of 
several thousand feet in a jagged and terraced 
wall. To swim off the edge is to experience the 
dream of flight. Great concentrations of fishes 
and other sea life seem to occur at and just off 
the edge. Looking over it and into the "blue" 
one may see schools of larger, predatory fishes 
such as jacks, clouds of plankton-feeding 
species such as the Creole wrasses, lumbering 
porgies, chubs that seem always in a hurry, and 
perhaps, with real luck, a sea turtle as it passes 
gracefully by. 

Until the advent of scuba and diving scien- 
tists, the cryptic species inhabiting the deep- 
reef and dropoff zones — species which spend 















Emblemaria hyltoni 
Johnson and Greenfield 
1976, the filament 
blenny, a species col- 
lecteaby the authors in 
1975 and still known 
only from Isla Roatan, 
Honduras. Drawing by 
Zbigniew Jastrzebstci. 



their lives hidden in concavities, crevices, caves, 
and tubes — were all but unknowable. It is for 
this reason that our greatest gains in knowledge 
have included new light on "indwelling" spe- 
cies of this zone, including the discovery of 
species new to science. 

In addition to our studies at Glovers Reef 
we have been fortunate in being able to mount 
collecting trips along the length of the Barrier 
Reef, either cruising along the reef, stopping 
at a different area each day, or concentrating 
our studies on a particular site for periods of 
a week or more. Other collecting trips have 
taken us to numerous mainland sites, many 
of the cays inside the barrier reef, and to 
Turneffe and Lighthouse Reef. 



The motorlsailer Christmas Birdarriving at Long Cay. 




23 




Grunts seek shelter in the reef by day and wander jar jroin the reef at night in search of food. 



24 



Our goals are both faunistic and ecological. 
Eventually we hope to produce a book on the 
fishes of the Gulf of Honduras, a work that will, 
we believe, adequately characterize the western 
Caribbean shorefish fauna. We are also inter- 
ested in distribution of species and assemblages 
of species on local and regional scales. 

One result of our work thus far is the 
recognition of marked habitat preference and 
restriction in many of the small-bodied and 
cryptic species; the restriction applies not just 
to individual species but to groups of species. 
Using a variety of grouping and statistical tech- 
niques, we have been able to recognize and de- 
fine groups of fishes that commonly co-occur. 
This accomplished, we were able to correlate 
the occurrence of these fish species groups with 
the occurrence of specific habitat types, depths 
of occurrence, and other phenomena. For the 
"blennies," we now know what kinds of habitat 
they occupy. Our data base seems sufficiently 
large, our techniques sufficiently robust, so that 
we can predict which species and group(s) of 
species will be present in particular habitat 
types. Except for extremely rare species, we 
have been able to corroborate prediction with 
subsequent observation and collecting. We are 
now applying these techniques to several other 



large groups of species. 

The shorefishes of the tropical western At- 
lantic are perhaps better known than those of 
any tropical marine area comparable in size. 
This knowledge notwithstanding, our studies 
have shown that even at the most basic descrip- 
tive levels in taxonomy and zoogeography we 
have much to learn in the case of many groups. 
This is particularly true of cryptic, "indwelling" 
small-bodied fishes (those living in caves, cre- 
vices, tubes, etc.) such as many of the blennies 
and gobies. Species in just these two groups 
may account for up to one-third of the esti- 
mated 500 shorefish species in the Gulf of 
Honduras and, for most, we know next to 
nothing of their habitat requirements and life 
history. Yet it is bottom-associated, habitat- 
restrictive groups such as these that may have 
the most to tell us about zoogeographic pattern 
and history — for tropical Atlantic shorefishes. 

Vital to this will be studies looking at dis- 
tributions in terms of habitat specificity and 
broad-scale habitat patchiness over a suitably 
broad and diverse area. Because of the diversity 
of habitats represented within relatively re- 
stricted inshore to offshore distances, we be- 
lieve that the Gulf of Honduras is an ideal area 
in which to make such an attempt. D 



Field Museum Tours for Members 



Coral Reef Biology and Natural History 
Explorations in the Western Caribbean 

June 22-July 11 

The richness of marine life and the beauty of the offshore reefs 
and islands of Belize and Honduras are unsurpassed in the 
Atlantic tropics. Field Museum's 20-day tour of this region 
offers a unique opportunity to explore and study tropical 
marine and terrestrial ecosystems and, if desired, to earn uni- 
versity credit for doing so. Leading the tour will be three 
professional marine biologists, each with considerable field 
work in the Gulf of Honduras and well acquainted with the 
local flora and fauna. 

Included in the tour is a six-day stay at Glovers Reef, 28 
miles offshore from Belize. Reef formations at Glovers are 
among the Caribbean's most richly developed. Lectures and 
field-trips, including snorkeling, will familiarize participants 
with the mammals, invertebrates, fishes, sea birds, and algae 
of this isolated, untouched coral-reef. Daily scuba diving is 
available. The 50-foot motor sloop Christmas Bird wall take 
us to and from the reef, where we will stay at Lomont's Glov- 
ers Reef Village resort. 

Our stay at Glovers will be followed by a four-day in- 
depth exploration of the central Belize mainland, including 
rain forests, the famed Blue Hole on the Hummingbird High- 
way, a stay at the Blancanaeux Lodge atop Mountain Pine 
Ridge, a visit to Rio Frio Cave and the Thousand Foot Falls, and 
exploration of Mayan ruins at Xunantunich. Aiding us for the 
four days will be Belize resident DoraWeyer, internationally 
known naturalist and expert on bird identification. 

We will then stay five days at Roatan, one of the Bay 
Islands, where steep cliffs, rocky shores, and sandy beaches 
and associated wildlife provide a sharp contrast to the Glovers 
atoll environment. At Anthony's Key Resort, our Roatan home, 
first class accommodations, scuba facilities, fantastic sport 
fishing, tennis, etc., and superlative surroundings will add to 
our enjoyment. The tour will end with a day at San Pedro Sula, 
on the mainland, with sight-seeing and shopping or a tour to 
Mayan ruins at Copan. 

Leading the tour will be Dr. Robert Karl Johnson, curator 
of fishes and chairman of Field Museum's Department of Zool- 
ogy; Dr. David W. Greenfield, research associate in the 









;^|^:r i^ 





Museum's Division of Fishes and professor of biological sci- 
ences at Northern Illinois University (NIU), and Dr. Norman A. 
Engstrom, associate professor of biological sciences at North- 
ern Illinois University. Three semester hours of undergraduate 
or graduate credit in biological sciences are available from NIU 
to tour participants. The tour will be limited to 10 partici- 
pants. The price is $2,385, from New Orleans (per person, 
double occupancy) . 



If you wish additional details for any tour or 
would like to be placed on a special mailing list, 
please call Dorothy Roder, Tours manager, at 
3Z2-8862, or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



Ecuador and the Galapagos 

March 11-25 

The Galapagos Islands affect our imagination like no other 
place on earth. Field Museum is pleased to offer its members 
an opportunity to visit this remote archipelago under the ex- 
pert guidance of Dr. John W. Fitzpa trick, associate curator and 
head. Division of Birds. If you are a "birder" or a "photog- 
rapher" this tour is a Utopia. 

We'll see 500-pound tortoises, ferocious-looking land 
iguanas that eat cactus flowers, marine iguanas which are 
superb divers, penguins, flightless cormorants, colonies of sea 
lions and fur seals, and many other exotic and unique birds, 
mammals, and reptiles. The plant life, with 40-foot cacti in 
coastal deserts and dense rain forests in the mountains, is 
equally interesting. 

In addition to the unique sightseeing and learning oppor- 
tunities on the cruise, we will spend four nights in Quito, 
Ecuador, where we'll enjoy old world ambience, along with the 
color of the centuries-old Indian market and villages of 
Latacunga and Ambato — we'll overnight in Ambato. Our 
transfer from Quito to Guayaquil will give us a chance to see 
the country's remarkable scenery. Special attention will be paid 
to the unique bird life. 

Our cruise ship, the 2,200-ton M.V. Buccaneer, meets the 
highest safety requirements. Originally designed to carry 250 
passengers, it was refurbished in the United States in 1976 to 
carry only 90, and has recently been again refurbished. All 
cabins are outside and are equipped with complete private 
bath. The Buccaneer offers a comfortable, informal cruising 
environment. Although we'll be in the tropics, it will never be 
unpleasantly hot because of the cooling effect of the Humboldt 
Current. 

The price is $3,550 (per person, double occupancy). We 
hope you will join us in one of the greatest adventures in travel. 



Coming up... 



Harbor of Belize City 



David W. Greenfield 



Australia Tour 

August 23-September 12 



Kenya Tour 

September 11-October 1 25 



for additional tours, please turn page 



Field Museum Tours for Members 



Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 22-30 

An exciting 280-mile cruise down the Colorado River by 
motorized rubber raft, camping outdoors under the stars. Dr. 
Bertram Woodland, curator of petrology, will lead the tour. 
Group limited to 25. Details to be announced. 



The Ancient Capitals of China 

June 6-28 

This unique itinerary, rarely granted by the Chinese au- 
thorities, includes the most significant sites of early Imperial 
China and will give an opportunity to explore in depth the 
civilization which characterized one of the oldest and longest- 
lived societies on earth. We will have the opportunity to 
observe the emergence of this remarkable culture and its de- 
velopment to a level which surpassed its contemporaries in the 
Western World. 

June 6: Departure from Chicago to San Francisco in time for 
evening briefing. 

June 7: Departure via Japan Airlines for flight to Tokyo. 
June 8: Afternoon arrival in Tokyo; overnight at Nikko Narita 
Hotel. 

June 9: Flight to Peking, where we will spend 4 days, visiting 
Imperial Palace, Temple of Heaven, Tien-an Square, and the 




antique shop district; Ming emperor tombs, the Great Wall, 
the Summer Palace, and the National Museum. 
June 13: Overnight train ride to Zhengzhou, capital of Henan 
Province, where we'll spend 3 days; in addition to sight-seeing, 
we can rise early to participate in tai chi exercise groups in the 
People's Park. 

June 16: A short train ride takes us east to Kaifeng, where we'll 
spend 2 days. The city is rarely visited by tourists; it's just at the 
beginning of modernization, and we'll get a wonderful feeling 
of Old China. 

June 18: Two days in Luoyang, one of the oldest centers of 
Chinese culture. 

June 20: A westward train ride takes us to Xian, our home for 4 
days. This is where the fabulous clay horses and warriors of 
the "Great Bronze Age of China" exhibit were discovered. 
June 24: We'll travel by air to Shanghai, where we will spend 
four days, including a one-day side trip to Souchou, silk- 
manufacturing center. 

June 27: To Tokyo again, for a one-night stay before flying back 
to the States. 

At a small additional cost, you may stay longer injapan or 
in Hawaii, at completion of the China tour. 

Our tour leader is Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, Ph.D. candi- 
date in Chinese history at the University of Chicago. This is Mr. 
Woodruffs third time as a Field Museum China tour leader 
and his fourth visit to that country in two years. Cost of the 
tour is $3,850 (per person, double occupancy). 



Alaska Native Culture Tour 

June 19-July 1 

This 13-day tour begins with a flight from Seattle to Sitka, 
Alaska, where we will spend two days and nights viewing old 
Russian settlement buildings, Sheldon Jackson Museum, and 
National Park Service exhibits. Our third, fourth, and fifth 
nights will be aboard two yachts, which will take us to Admi- 
ralty Island. We will see Tenakee Hot Springs, the native vil- 
lages of Angoon and Hoonah, and make a tour of Glacier Bay. 

Sightseeing in Juneau and its environs will be our activity 
during the next two days, followed by a day and night in 
Anchorage and a visit by motorcoach to Denali National Park 
(formerly McKinley National Park), where we will enjoy the 
spectacular scenery and view wildlife, spending two nights 
there. A day and a night in Kotzebue, a day in Nome, and a 
final day in Anchorage will round out the tour. 

All hotel accommodations will be first class; the two 
yachts will accommodate 16 and 10 persons, respectively. Tour 
rates to be announced. 



Stanton R Cook, courtesy C/i/cago Tribune 



If you wish additional details for any tour or 
would like to be placed on a special mailing list, 
please call Dorothy Roder, Tours manager, at 
322-8862, or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



Field Briefs 

Continued from p. 3 



the donor's name and the donor's giving, 
as well. 

Two brochures, "How To Remember 
Field Museum in My Will" and "How I 
Can Receive a Lifetime Income From My 
Gift to Field Museum," are available free 
upon request. Please write the Planned 
Giving Office, or telephone, (312) 922-9410 
ext. 858. 

Prairie Workshop 

The Fifth Northern Illinois Prairie Work- 
shop will be held on March 13 at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois Chicago Circle Campus. 
Session titles will include Basic Concepts 
in Prairie Ecology, Prairie as a Constructed 
Landscape, Propogation of Prairie Flora, 
Presettlement Natural History, Prairie 
Management: Fire Ecology and Tech- 
niques, Prairie Preservation, Prairie 
Wildlife, Identification of Prairie Grasses 
and Sedges, Prairie Wetlands, Methods of 
Prairie Restoration, Linear Prairies, Esthe- 
tics, Prairie Protection, Cemetery Prairie 
Preservation, Prairie Interpretation, and 
Prairie Management: Alternatives to 
Burning. There will also be technical ses- 
sions. Further information may be ob- 
tained from Albert Rouffa, Department of 
Biological Sciences, University of Illinois 
Chicago Circle Campus, Box 4348, 
Chicago, II 60680. 

Solomon Gurewilz 
(1899-1981) 

Solomon Gurewitz, a volunteer in the 
Department of Anthropology for some 
twenty years, died in September at the 
age of 82. Following his retirement in 
1961 from a successful business career, 
Gurewitz came to Field Museum as a 
nearly full-time curatorial assistant — 
without pay. 

Within a month Gurewitz had taken 
over responsibility for reorganizing one 
of the former Chinese storerooms. He 
cataloged, studied, found things for 
visiting scholars, packed, cleaned, 
selected things for loans, rearranged 
other storerooms, and helped set up ex- 
hibitions. He became expert in a number 
of branches of Far Eastern art and cul- 
ture. He often gave lectures and advice 
to other students of those subjects. 

About fifteen years ago, Gurewitz 
managed to convince the Museum that a 
very high priority should be given to 
making a photographic record of its col- 
lections. (Like most museums founded 
before film and cameras became cheap, 
we had never photographed or made 
drawings of more than a small percent- 
age of our holdings.) He organized a de- 
partmental photographic studio with the 



help of the Museum photographer, re- 
learned the needed skills (he had once 
run a small photo finishing business), 
and set out single-handedly on a task 
that had daunted several generations of 
Museum employees. He and several 
other volunteers have by now produced 
many tens of thousands of excellent pic- 
tures which have been duly filed and 
mounted on the backs of the catalog 
cards for those particular objects'. 

Gurewitz was the first of his kind. 



proof that a volunteer with the right at- 
titude and skills could do the work of a 
museum professional. Field Musuem has 
established in his name a special fund for 
the purchase of Oriental and other an- 
thropological objects. Contributions may 
be sent to the Vice President for De- 
velopment. Checks should be made out 
to Field Museum with a note specifying 
that the gift is to be added to the Sol- 
omon Gurewitz Memorial Fund. 



Tibet Lecture by Edwin Bembaum 

James Simpson Theatre 

(West Entrance) 

Sunday, February 21, 2:00 p.m. 

To many, Tibet is a land of enchantment, a 
land of holy men, towering peaks and 
mystical legends. In this fascinating 
illustrated lecture, "Hidden Valleys of 
Tibetan Myth and Legend," author Edwin 
Bembaum recounts the legend of 
Shambhala — the source of James Hilton's 
concept of "Shangri-La" in his novel Lost 
Horizon. Bembaum explores Tibetan 
myths and legends relating to the 
mythical kingdom of Shambhala through 
slides and tape recordings he made in 
Nepal, India, and Sikkim. 

Bernbaum has done extensive 
research in comparative religion and 
mythology. The Shambhala prophecies 
originate in a set of more than 300 volumes 
of ancient sacred texts called the Kangyur 
and Tengyur, which are for Tibetans what 
the Bible is for many Westerners. He has 
returned to Nepal four times to gather 
information and photograph ancient texts 
and artworks. On one of his early trips. 



Bernbaum met the Incarnate Lama of 
Tengboche monastery, who knew of 
Shambhala — a place where, legend 
states, the best of Western and Eastern 
culture — science, literature, music, 
art — is preserved for the future. 

On a later visit, Bernbaum learned of 
a secret valley in the Himalayas not far 
from Mount Everest. It was said to have 
everything a person would need to live as 
well as spiritual treasures which would 
lead to enlightenment. He led a climbing 
expedition over snowy mountains, steep 
passes, and glaciers to find it. It was the 
Khembalung Valley. Carpeted with 
rhododendrons, it had a beautiful river 
which flowed through meadows and pine 
forests. 

Author of "The Way to Shambhala," 
Bernbaum is a graduate of Harvard 
University where he was president of the 
Mountaineering Club. He is currently 
pursuing his doctorate in Asian Studies at 
the University of California at Berkeley. 

Admission to the lecture is $3.00 for 
Members and $5.00 for nonmembers. 
Additional information is available by 
calling 322-8854. 




Tengboche Monastery, where Edwin Bernbaum first learned of Shambhala. 
Photo by Edivin Bernbaum. 



.'27 



\ ELIZABETH BEST DEIS 

721 SIMPSON 
1^ EVANSTON ILL 60201 






February & March at Field Museum 

February 16 through March 15 



New Exhibits 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast." 
Opening April 24 in Hall 10. Plan now for the opening of this 
spectacular new permanent exhibit, the biggest project of its 
kind ever undertaken by Field Museum. The 15,000-square- 
foot exhibit wll compare and contrast the life and culture of 
the Northwest Coast Indians and the Eskimos. Many of the 
2,500 articles to be displayed came from the original Colum- 
bian Exposition of 1893, but the design concepts used by 
Field Museum's Exhibition Department incorporate all the 
newest techniques. The Learning Museum course beginning 
in February and the Lecture Series in March have been 
planned to deepen the visitor's appreciation of the exhibit. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"In the Shadow of the Pyramid." Stand inside the walls of 
history in this new permanent exhibit area of the "Hall of 
Ancient Egyptians." You may now enter tomb chapel rooms 
built more than 4,000 years ago and a replica of the chapel of 
Nakht on loan from the Metropolitan Museum of Art. You 
may also view exhibits detailing life in prehistoric and early 
historic eras of Egypt and photomurals explaining how the 
tomb chapels came to Field Museum. Hall J, Ground Floor. 

New Programs 

"Hidden Valleys of Tibetan Myth and Legend." Edwin 
Bembaum tells of his search for the legendary Tibetan king- 
dom of Shambhala in a lecture illustrated with authentic 
slides and tapes on Sunday, Feb. 21, at 2 p.m. in James 
Simpson Theatre. This kingdom is the mystical basis of 
Tibetan religion and the inspiration for James Hilton's novel, 
Losf Horizon. Bembaum, author of The Way to Shambhala, 
takes us to a hidden valley high in the Himalayas that he 
discovered through studying ancient texts and personal con- 
tact with a Tibetan Lama. This perilous journey symbolizes 
the search for the mythical kingdom of Shambhala as well as 
a psychological search for the inner self. Members: $3.00. 
Nonmembers: $5.00. For more information, call 322-8854. 

NORTinvEST Coast Lecture Series. "A Culture Develops." 
Four Friday evening lectures by authorities on native cultures 
of the Northwest. Beginning at 8 p.m., these individually 
complete lectures are designed to deepen the viewer's ap- 
preciation of the new permanent exhibit, "Maritime Peoples 
of the Arctic and Northwest Coast." Entrance for the 8 p.m. 
lectures will be through the West Entrance. Members: 
$3.00. Nonmembers: $4.00. 

March 5: "First Peoples of the North Pacific," K.R. Flad- 
mark, Simon Fraser University. 



March 12: "Pre-historic Peoples: Conquest of the Region," 
Don E. Dumond, University of Oregon. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. These popular travel 
films narrated by the filmmakers are shown every Saturday 
at 1:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre during March and 
April. The first film of the spring series will be Tom Sterling's 
"Newfoundland," on March 6. The second feature will be 
"Switzerland" by Ric Dougherty, on March 13. For other films 
in this series see p. 19. The 90-minute films are free. Admis- 
sion is through the West Door. Members receive priority 
seating. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Tours, craft projects, slide 
presentations, and films which use Field Museum exhibits as 
a springboard for new insights into natural history topics. 
Check Weekend Sheet available Saturday and Sunday at 
Museum entrances for programs and their locations. Feb- 
ruary's programs highlight the cultures of the Himalayan 
area in conjunction with the lecture "Hidden Valleys of Ti- 
betan Myth and Legend." March's "Film Features" are about 
mammals from around the world. 

Feb. 20 1:00 p.m. Himalaya: Life on the Roof of the 

World. A "Film Feature." 
1:30 p.m. Tibetan Life and Religion. Slide lec- 
ture and tour. 
Feb. 27 1:00 p.m. Tibet and The Royal Dancers and 

Musicians of the Kingdom of Bhutan . Two 
"Film Features" shown consecutively. 
2:00 p.m. Costumes for the Sorcerer's Dance. 
Tour. 
March 6 1:30 p.m. Mzima: Portrait of a Spring. "Film 

Feature" about animal life around a spring in 
Kenya. 
March 13 1:30 p.m. IVo/ves a«d IVoZ^n. A "Film Fea- 
ture." 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Persons with scientific interests 
and backgrounds are needed to work in various Museum 
departments. Contact the Volunteer Coordinator, 922-9410, 
ext. 360. 

February and March Hours. The Museum is open 9 a.m.- 
4 p.m., Monday -Thursday (until 5 p.m., beginning March 1); 
9 a.m. -9 p.m., Friday; and 9 a.m. -5 p.m. Saturday and 
Sunday. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. -4 p.m. Obtain 
a pass at the reception desk, main floor. Closed February 15 
and March 15. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



March 1982 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Laughlin 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James J, O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
WiUard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
James H, Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward ByrOn Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
WiHiam V. Kahler 
William H. MitcheD 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

March 1982 

Volume 53, Number 3 



Field Museum as Architecture 

By William Burger 

Chairman, Department of Botany 



Tours for Members 



3 

6 



Northwest Coast Indian Housing 

By Daniel J. Joyce, staff member of the Maritime 

Peoples of the Northwest Coast Project 8 

Altiska Native Culture Tour for Members IS 

Arts of Tide and Tundra: 

An Arctic and Northwest Cotist Perspective 

By Robert S. Grumet, Northwest Coast specialist. 

Department of Education; and Anthony Pfeiffer, 

Project Coordinator 16 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series for 

March and April 20 

Nihoa Island 

An Archaeological Mysteiy in the Hawaiian Chain 

By Thomas J. Riley 21 



Volunteers Honored 


28 


Honor Roll of Donors 


30 


Our Environment 


32 


March and April at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 


35 



COVER 

The Muse of Geology, in all her 8 1/2 foot splendor, is framed 
by arches at the south end of the second floor's west balcony. 
The regal figure is one of four, at each corner of Stanley Field 
Hall, and is the work of Henry Hering (1874-1949), a New York 
sculptor who studied under the famed Augustus Saint- 
Gaudens. Neg. 79869. For more on the architectural delights of 
Field Museum see "Field Museum as Architecture," by William 
Burger, p. 3. 



Field Museum of Nalunl History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: f^ease send from 3579 to Field Museimi of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605, ISSN:C015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Ctiicago, U. 




FIELD MUSEUM AS ARCHITECTURE 



By William Burger 
Chairman, Department of Botany 



/have always felt a special fascination for 
large or unusual buildings. The fact that I 
grew up in New York City accounts for 
some of this interest; but it was an introductory 
college course in the history of architecture, fol- 
lowed by a year and a half in Europe that really 
got me hooked on the form and structure of 
buUdings. So you can understand my delight in 
working within the superb edifice that houses 
the Field Museum of Natural History. 



Ours is one of the world's largest museum 
buildings, structurally completed in 1920 and 
covering an area of some 700 by 440 feet; it is 
also unusual in that it has not grown by the 
accretion of new wings or additions — ours is a 
single, unified structure. The colonnaded ex- 
terior and well proportioned symmetry help to 
unify the building's huge dimensions. The ele- 
vated base, framed within a terrace, adds to the 
building's stature in its parklike setting. While 



Southward view along 
east balcony, second 
floor 3 



Stanley Field Hall 

through fish eye lens. 

Photo by William 

Burger 




the exterior is impressive, the most dramatic as- 
pect, for me, is within. Passing through the 
large Ionic columns and bronze doors into Stan- 
ley Field Hall is an awesome experience. The 
great size of the central hall, its carefully propor- 
tioned arcades and columns, the rich decoration 
in low relief, and the multifaceted skylight 
create a magnificent interior space. 

There is something else 1 have found un- 
usual about our building: a great many books on 
the architecture of Chicago and the Midwest 
make no mention of the building or its central 
hall. Even a recently published encyclopedia- 
like volume on architecture in the Midwest and 
the South includes McCormick Place, the 
Museum of Science and Industry, the Water 
Filtration Plant, and other Chicago buildings, 
but it fails to include Field Museum. Why is it 
that Field Museum and Stanley Field Hall have 
been so ignored? 



The answer may be that our building has 
the "wrong religion." It is a neoclassical struc- 
ture in a city where new and indigenous archi- 
tectural directions were forged. Chicago's new 
buildings were part of an effort to break away 
from the neoclassical style and to blaze new 
trails. For most of this century, architects and 
those writing about architecture have been so 
deeply immersed in the esthetics of Chicago's 
bold new architecture that our neoclassical 
buildings have been all but ignored. 

Our building is eminently functional. 
Grand symmetrical stairways serve traffic flow 
between the two major exhibit floors; eight 
smaller stairwells (four in the corners and four 
near the center) interconnect all four main 
floors. The general exhibit halls conform to the 
rectangular shape of the building in an easily 
understood and symmetrical pattern, with the 
largest halls at the east and west ends. The halls 



range from 14 to 22 feet high, and the smaller 
halls, of which there are 26, average 8,000 
square feet in area. Skylights and lightwells 
were part of the building's original design, but 
since even indirect sunlight is damaging to 
many materials, this light source is no longer 
used for exhibits. This has permitted "filling" 
the lightwells with as many as four floors for 
additional specimen-storage and research 
space. The great strength of the piers, in what is 
essentially a masonry building, permitted the 
additional load and in the past decade about 
100,000 square feet of floor space were added to 
the building's original 775,000. Thus, both our 
public areas and the research/specimen-storage 
areas can be measured in acres. So it is emi- 
nently clear that our building is unusually large 
as well as very functional; but do we have one 
that merits more serious consideration as a 
major architectural structure? 

The exhibit halls on the first and second 
floors are separated from the central hall by 
broad walkways, delimited by Ionic columns on 
the first floor and with arcades on the second. 
These walkways prevent the exhibits from in- 
truding into the central hall and, I believe, it is 
this central space in particular that makes our 
building something to brag about. The large 
volume of the hall (70 feet wide, 75 feet high, 
and 300 feet long), the white interior, and ample 
skylights produce an almost luminous quality. 

Much of the ornamentation in the hall is 
quite subtle, providing a variety of textures 
without intruding into the space. With the 
elephants, totem poles, and dinosaur skeletons 
set off to the side, the hall retains its open 
spaciousness. (In older photographs of Stanley 
Field Hall with the elephants placed centrally 
and with a clutter of small exhibits the hall ap- 
pears more confining.) The fountains add a 
steady pleasant sound, masking minor noises 
and helping visitors in adjacent exhibit halls to 
orient themselves. These aesthetic features and 
the grand scale are not the whole story; this is 
functional architecture. Stanley Field Hall is the 
geographic center of the main exhibit floors; it is 
both the starting point and terminus for most 
museum visits. 

Occasionally, I like to look down from the 
second floor balcony and watch the reactions of 
apparent first-time visitors. Many of them stop 
dead in their tracks shortly after entering our 
central hall. Then their heads begin to turn 
around like radar antennas, taking it all in. The 
impact of a great room, like any work of art, can 
be a deeply moving experience. One has a simi- 
lar reaction in the Pantheon of Rome, the 
Gothic cathedrals of France, and richly deco- 
rated rococo churches of southern Germany. 



When you enter a building with an exceptional 
interior space, you know it. The size, luminos- 
ity, and strong symmetry of Stanley Field Hall 
together create the kind of impact that can be 
experienced in few other buildings. 

Some of the world's most famous architec- 
tural landmarks have very little enclosed space 
— the great mausoleums in particular, such as 
the Taj Mahal and the Pyramids of Egypt. But 
many famous buildings are noted primarily for 
their internal spaces. If the creation of interior 
space is one of the measures of a great building 
— then we do indeed have a great building. 
Now that there is greater interest in architec- 
tural styles that have been long out of favor, 
perhaps we can expect greater appreciation of 
our building. The latest edition oi Chicago's Fa- 
mous Buildings (edited by Ira J. Bach, 1980) not 
only includes Field Museum for the first time 
but also refers to Stanley Field Hall as "one of 
the most impressive monumental interior 
spaces in Chicago." I see no reason to be so 
provincial. Why not call it what it is: one of the 
finest large interior spaces in the world? D 



Stately Ionic columns 
at south end of Stanley 
Field Hall 




Field Museum Tours for Members 




Young China welcomes you 

The Ancient Capitals of China 

June 6-28 

The Unique Itinerary, rarely granted by 
the Chinese authorities, includes the 
most significant sites of early Imperial 
China and will give an opportunity to 
explore in depth the civilization which 
characterized one of the oldest and 
longest-lived societies on earth. We will 
have the opportunity to observe the 
emergence of this remarkable culture 
and its development to a level which sur- 
passed its contemporaries in the Western 
World. 

June 6: Departure from Chicago to San 
Francisco in time for evening briefing. 
June 7: Departure via Japan Airlines for 
flight to Tokyo. 

June 8: Afternoon arrival in Tokyo; over- 
night at Nikko Narita Hotel. 
June 9: Flight to Peking, where we will 
spend 4 days, visiting Imperial Palace, 
Temple of Heaven, Tien-an Square, and 
the antique shop district; Ming emperor 
tombs, the Great Wall, the Summer 
Palace, and the National Museum. 
June 13: Overnight train ride to 
Zhengzhou, capital of Henan Province, 
where we'll spend 3 days; in addition to 
sight-seeing, we can rise early to partici- 
pate in tai chi exercise groups in the 
6 People's Park. 



Stafilon Cook, courtesy of Ch/cago Ttibune 



June 16: A short train ride takes us east 

to Kaifeng, where we'll spend 2 days. The 

city is rarely visited by tourists; it's just 

at the beginning of modernization, and 

we'll get a wonderful feeling of Old 

China. 

June 18: Two days in Luoyang, one of the 

oldest centers of Chinese culture. 

June 20: A westward train ride takes us 

to Xian, our home for 4 days. This is 

where the fabulous clay horses and war- 




riors of the "Great Bronze Age of China" 
exhibit were discovered. 
June 24: We'll travel by air to Shanghai 
where we will spend four days, including 
a one-day side trip to Souchou, silk- 
manufacturing center 
June 27: To Tokyo again, for a one-night 
stay before flying back to the States. 

At a small additional cost, you may 
stay longer in Japan or in Hawaii, at 
completion of the China tour. 

Our tour leader is Mr. Phillip H. Wood- 
ruff, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese history 
at the University of Chicago. This is Mr. 
Woodruff's third time as a Field Museum 
China tour leader and his fourth visit to 
that country in two years. Cost of the tour 
is $3,850 (per person, double occupancy). 

Coming Up... 

Australia Tour 

August 23-September 12 
(details to be announced) 



Coral Reef Biology and 

Natural History Explorations 

in the Western Caribbean 

June22-Julyll 

The Richness of Marine Life and the 
beauty of the offshore reefs and islands of 
Belize and Honduras are unsurpassed in 
the Atlantic tropics. Field Museum's 
20-day tour of this region offers a unique 
opportunity to explore and study tropical 
marine and terrestrial ecosystems and, if 
desired, to earn university credit for 
doing so. Leading the tour will be three 
professional marine biologists, each with 
considerable field work in the Gulf of 
Honduras and well acquainted with the 
local flora and fauna. 

Included in the tour is a six-day stay 
at Glovers Reef, 28 miles offshore from 
Belize. Reef formations at Glovers are 
among the Caribbean's most richly de- 
veloped. Lectures and field-trips, includ- 
ing snorkeling, will familiarize partici- 
pants with the mammals, invertebrates. 

Coming Up... 
Kenya Tour 

September 11-October 1 

(details to be announced) 

Left: Kenya lion captured by camera lens 

of Audrey Faden, Kenya tour leaderl 

lecturer 



fishes, sea birds, and algae of this iso- 
lated, untouched coral-reef. Daily scuba 
diving is available. The 50-foot motor 
sloop Christmas Bird will take us to and 
from the reef, where we will stay at Lom- 
ont's Glovers Reef Village resort 

Our stay at Glovers will be followed 
by a four-day indepth exploration of the 
central Belize mainland, including rain 
forests, the famed Blue Hole on the 
Hummingbird Highway, a stay at the 
Blancanaeux Lodge atop Mountain 
Pine Ridge, a visit to Rio Frio Cave 
and the Thousand Foot Falls, and explo- 
ration of Mayan ruins at Xunantunich. 
Aiding us for the four days will be Belize 
resident Dora Weyer, internationally 
known naturalist and expert on bird 
identification. 

We will then stay five days at Roatan, 
one of the Bay Islands, where steep cliffs, 
rocky shores, and sandy beaches and as- 
sociated wildlife provide a sharp contrast 
to the Glovers atoll environment. At An- 
thony's Key Resort, our Roatan home, 
first class accommodations, scuba fa- 
cilities, fantastic sport fishing, tennis, 
etc., and superlative surroundings will 
add to our enjoyment. The tour will end 
with a day at San Pedro Sula, on the 
mainland, with sight-seeing and shop- 
ping or a tour to Mayan ruins at Copan. 

Leading the tour will be Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, curator of fishes and 
chairman of Field Museum's Department 
of Zoology; Dr. David W. Greenfield, re- 
search associate in the Museum's Divi- 
sion of Fishes and professor of biological 
sciences at Northern Illinois University 
(NIU), and Dr. Norman A. Engstrom, as- 
sociate professor of biological sciences at 
Northern Illinois University. Three 
semester hours of undergraduate or 
graduate credit in biological sciences are 
available from NIU to tour participants. 
The tour will be limited to 10 partici- 
pants. The price is $2,385, from New Or- 
leans (per person, double occupancy). 




Belize highlands 

Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 21-30 

Many of us have beheld the Grand Can- 
yon from the rim or while flying over- 
head, and some of us have hiked partway 
down to the Colorado River. But there is 
another Grand Canyon that relatively 
few have experienced: Field Museum is 
offering you the opportunity to see and 
experience the canyon from the river. 

The 280-mile trip will be by two 
motorized rubber rafts. We'll sleep on 
sandy beaches under the stars and our 
meals will be excellent. Along the way, 
we'll hike to places of unusual geologic 
and anthropologic interest, sometimes 
through the most pleasant and enchant- 
ing stream beds and valleys, at times 
along waterfalls. We'll see and study 
more geology in this one brief period than 
can be seen anywhere else in comparable 



^^ 




time. Dr. Bertram Woodland, curator of 
petrology, will be our tour leader. 

The trip will begin on Friday, May 21, 
with a flight to Las Vegas, where we will 
remain overnight. The evening of our ar- 
rival, we'll have a briefing about the river 
trip and will receive our river equipment. 
Saturday morning we'll leave by deluxe 
bus for Lees Ferry, where we'll board the 
rafts. The trip will end 9 days later, at 
Pierce Ferry, near the head of Lake Mead. 
We'll return to Chicago, via Las Vegas, 
Sunday, May 30. 

You needn't be a "rough rider" to join 
this expedition — you needn't even know 
how to swim. Persons of any age can enjoy 
the river with equanimity, and come out 
proud and happy to have experienced this 
extraordinary adventure. 

The cost of $1,500 per person covers all 
expenses (including air fare, boat fees, 
waterproof bags for gear, sleeping bags, 
etc.), and all meals. The trip is limited to 
25 participants. 



If you wish additional de- 
tails for any tour or would 
like to be placed on a special 
mailing list, please call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours 
manager, at 322-8862, or 
write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



Shooting rapids of Grand Canyon's Colorado 



<* ^.i. 



^^■:m. 



-- V 



Kwakiutl village of 

Xumtaspi-Nalm'itti, 

Hope Island, B.C., 1884. 

77if village location — 

hehceen a beach and a 

thick forest — reus typical. 

Signs above the doors 

read: 'CHEAP. The home 

of the head chief of al 

tribes in this country. 

White man can get 

information," and 

■'BOStOX.Heishcad 

chief of Saiceety 

[SahiHtti]. He is true and 

lionest. He don t give no 

trouble to no white man." 

Lone U.S. (?) saitor 

stands in front of center 

8 structure. 






r 





~r-- 



1 









.#"= 



-^^Sff^*^ 




COURTESY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL USTO 



HOUSES 

Of The Maritime Peoples 
Of The Northwest Coast 

by Daniel J. Joyce 

Staff Member of the Maritime Peoples 
of the Arctic and Northwest Coast Project 

New permanent exhibit "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast" opens to public in Hall 10 on April 24 



When plans were made a few years ago for 
a new permanent exhibit at Field 
Museum on the Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast, it was clear that the 
magnitude and comprehensiveness of the proj- 
ected exhibit required the inclusion of a North- 
west Coast house. (Such houses had been on view 



nearly 90 years earlier at the World's Columbian 
Exposition, but were now no longer available.) 

Tonv Hunt, a well known Kwakiutl artist and 
a resident of British Columbia, was commissioned 
to build in Hall 10 the rear portions, in cutaway 
fashion, of two Kwakiutl houses. They were to be 
replicas of the type built by the Kwakiutls in the 




Early view ofKwakiutI 
house frame through 
camera lens of Edward 
S. Curtis. Side beams 
are exceptionally large. 



latter 1800s, and represent the same house as ar- 
ranged during the secular and sacred seasons. 
Calvin Hunt, Tony's cousin, and colleague John 
Livingston, assisted Tony. 

The two impressive structures (15 feet high, 
22 feet wide, 11 V2 feet deep) are set against the east 
wall of the hall. That on the left, representing the 
interior during the secular season, is furnished 
with conventional household articles of the 
nineteenth-century Kwakiutl and is fronted with 
glass somewhat in the fashion of a diorama. The 
house to the right, designed as a walk-in exhibit, 
shows an interior arranged and partially fur- 
nished for ceremonial activities during the sacred 
season. Here volunteers will talk with groups 
about the culture of the Northwest Coast Indian. 

Each house' features two house posts^ carved 
with ravens, the principal crest of Tony Hunt's 
family, and mythological sea grizzly bears holding 
human figures. The ceremonial house has a 
three-section wooden dance screen^ decorated 
with a stylized sea monster and ravens. 

The typical Northwest Coast dwelling, made 
of cedar planks, housed a large extended family 
and its possessions. In villages situated on 
beaches, the houses were commonly arranged in 
a single row, facing the water: canoes were 



1. Cat. 264017, 264018 

2. Cat. 264017A, B; 264018A, B 

3. Cat. 264019A, B, C 




Location of 

major Northwest 

Coast tribes 



HAIDA 




Alaska / 

Niska 
Gitksan 
TSIMSHIAN 
Coast Tsimshian 
Haisia 



British Columbia 



BELLA COOLA / 

/ 
/ 

CANADA 



So Kwakiull 

i, 

>COASTSALISH 



chemakum 

^ klatskanie-kwalhiokwa" 

TILLAMOOK .. i . 

/ CHINOOK U.S.A. 



/ 



Washington 



COURTESY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 




beached literally at the doorstep. The houses of 
larger villages (populations ranged from 50 to 
1,000) were often in two or three rows, the front 
row for families of highest social ranking and the 
back row for the lowest ranking. Sweat houses, 
smoke houses, grave houses, and huts for women 
during menses were also in the back row. 

On the northern portion of the Northwest 
Coast, houses averaged about 30 by 45 feet in 
size; those further south were generally larger, 
often measuring more than 60 by 90 feet. 
Throughout the area, elaborately carved totem, 
mortuary, and memorial poles were commonly 
installed in front of the larger houses, with 
carved house posts inside as well. Horizontal 
beams within the house were adzed in decora- 
tive linear designs. 

The exterior front of the house was some- 
times painted with the figure of that animal 
(commonly a raven, bear, beaver, or whale) as- 
sociated with its most prestigious member; in 

Left and below, Northwest Coast Indian houses at 1893 
exposition in Jackson Park, Chicago. Left: Dugout cedar 
canoes beached on shore of what is today Jackson Park La- 
goon. Below: House at left shoivs northern style ofHaida. 
House at right, from village of Nahwitti, B.C., shows 
Kwakiutl southern style, with both vertical and horizontal 
planking. Totem pole third from left (noiv on view in Stanley 
Field Hall) has opening that served as doorway when set 
against house. Remaining totem poles ivill be seen in Hall 10, 
opening in April. 




COURTESY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



■•^^ 




some cases the animal's mouth was an actual 
opening that served as the house entrance. The 
mouth of the lowest figure on a totem pole, 
sometimes set flush to the house, was carved 
through to the other side for the same purpose. 
Since permanent paints were unknown to the 
Indians before the arrival of the Europeans, it has 
been suggested that painted house facades were 
removable, and set up only for ceremonies; this 
changed after more durable paints became 
available. 

Two basic types of house were constructed 
throughout the coastal area, one type by the 
TUngit, Haida, Tsimshian, and Haisla-speaking 
Kwakiutl on the northern section of the coast, 
and a second type in the southern portion by the 
remaining Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, and Nootka. 
The northern type was rectangular and gable- 
roofed, with vertical planks for walls. These 
northern houses often had mortised joints, form- 
ing a highly stable, durable structure. 



The vertical wall planks were set into slotted 
horizontal planks at both the top and bottom. 
The horizontal members were fastened to house 
posts. A roof opening let light in and served as a 
smoke hole. The floor was dug out, leaving a 
wide bench to run along the inside walls. Cedar 
plank rooms on top of the bench were like minia- 
ture houses. The room of a less affluent family 
was made of cedar bark matting on a pole frame 
rather than of solid wood. The most prestigious 
member's room was at the rear center of the 
house, near the two house posts. Next to his, at 
the rear and around the sides toward the door, 
were those of members whose status was pro- 
gressively lower; the quarters of slaves (captives 
from other tribes) were at the front near the 
entrance. 

For ceremonial occasions, the interior was 
greatly altered. Family partitions were taken 
down, and a central hearth was made available 
to all, instead of one hearth for each family. An 



COURTESY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 
OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Kwakiutl village on 
Salmon River, B.C., 
1881. The incomplete 
house second from 
the left shows main 
beam structure with 
latticework partially 
installed. Two houses 
to right show both the 
older horizontal and 
the newer vertical 
wall planking. 



11 



12 








elaborately painted, wooden dance screen was 
placed between the posts at the rear of the house. 
The area behind the screen, where only the ini- 
tiated could enter, was held as sacred. The danc- 
ers entered and left through a round hole in the 
screen. The entire setting was conducive to and 
appropriate for elaborate ceremonies. 

Houses on the northern and southern sec- 
tions of the coast were similar to one another in 
appearance, but differed in structure. In the 
south, three or four heavy upright posts sup- 
ported low-pitched gable roofs. Large posts 
supported a heavy single or double ridgepole, 
around which a latticework of smaller poles was 
constructed. Wall and roof planks of cedar were 
attached to these poles to form the outer sheath- 
ing, but in such a manner that they could be 
taken down when the time came for the family's 
seasonal move. 

The wall planks were lashed to upright pairs 
of poles near the house corners. In the south, 
northern-style vertical planking construction 
eventually came to replace the horizontal style. 
The vertical poles were then no longer necessary, 
and often the top of the vertical planking was 
nailed in place to a horizontal pole running along 
the top. 

With the waterways as their main avenues 
of transport, many villages were located on inlets 
or on rivers. Here they had protection from 
ocean winds and better access to fresh water and 
resources of the forest. Some coastal tribes had 
summer villages on the coast and winter villages 
farther up the rivers and inlets. When traveling 
to exploit seasonal goods, they moved their 
houses or built temporary shelters of mats. 

When it was time for the seasonal move, the 
house sheathing was often attached to two 
canoes that were tied side by side, for transport 
to the new homesite; the main post structure 
remained in place to be used again in the future. 

Still further south, the coastal Salish and 
other groups in northwest Washington built 
houses similar both in construction and appear- 
ance to those of their neighbors immediately to 
the north, but with a shed-style, or single-pitch, 
roof. The outer sheathing was separate from the 
heavy posts, and the entrance was on the long 
side rather than at the narrow end of the house. 
Benches were again built around the inside, but 
the floor was not excavated; facades remained 
unpainted. Light was admitted and smoke let 
out through a hole that could be adjusted by 
pushing roof boards back or forth with a pole. 

Ceremonial house (cutaway) designed and built by KwakiutI 
nrtisi Tony Hunt, with dance screen. Designed as a -walk-in 
exhibit, the structure is nearly full-sized replica of 4-post, 
vertical-planked dwelling of late 1890s. Next to it has been 
built a similar cutaivay, fronted with glass, showing artifacts 
of daily life. 



13 



Either end of the house could be extended by 
simple, incremental additions. The remarkable 
house of Chief Seattle (17867-1866), of the 
Suquamish, was extended to a total length of 900 
feet. 

As Europeans settled on the Northwest 



Coast, their influence was reflected in the style of 
native houses. Windows, hinged doors, and 
European-style furniture came into vogue. In 
time, the traditional dwelling of the Northwest 
Coast peoples gave way to the conventional 
frame house of the White settler. D 







i — 1 
















(p) (p) 


n 




A A A A 

n n n n 




A 

n 


F 

r 


















F 


(& 








CD} s 1 


F 


1 1 








II 

8 


F 


T- 




= 




S 



South Coastal House: framework details. 

Left, above: Top view of house, showing 
4-post (P), main beam structure, with lat- 
ticework (below) partly rendered. Left 
below: Side view. Below: End view. In this 
vart of the coast a latticework of small poles was 
Duilt around the main beam framework to lend 
added support to the walls and roof The lat- 
ticework and the outer sheathinv of cedar 
planks were removable. Drawings try the au- 
thor. 



A 




A A 


A A 




B * 




1 


1 1 




' i- . 1 


= III 




^ill n II II II 


HbII 




c|rH L^^J— H : H H— 


_i^ H-^ 


c 


c 

f 
I 




E 



E E 






F 


I 




.J i 


J I 


 !^ 







^^ 


P 




\ 







D 

E 


T 

F 


c 

F 


(^ 


F 


- 


"r 


L 

















14 




North coastal house 
frame, showing 
mortiseivork. North 
coastal frameioork was 
more technically 
advanced and detailed 
than that of south 
coastal tribes. Drazcing 
by the author. 



Alaskan 

NATIVE CULTURE TOUR FOR MEMBERS 




June 18 -July 2 

June 18: Fly from Chicago to Anchorage, 
transfer to Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
City tour, including Fine Arts Museum, 
then dinner at historic Club 25. Over- 
night Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 19: Flight to Kotzebue, with day 
tour and overnight first class hotel. 
June 20: Depart for Nome; day tour of 
Nome. Depart for Anchorage; overnight 
Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 21: Depart early morning by motor- 
coach to Denali National Park (formerly 
McKinley). Afternoon and evening free 
for National Park Service slide shows 
and demonstrations, overnight first class 
hotel in park. 

June 22: Early morning wildlife tour in 
park; early afternoon motorcoach to 
Fairbanks. Overnight Captain Bartlett 
Hotel. 

June 23: Special tour and lecture for Field 
Museum by University of Alaska, on 
ivory and totem carving, agriculture, 
permafrost construction, oil develop- 
ment, economic situation, etc. Overnight 
Captain Bartlett Hotel. 
June 24: Fly Fairbanks to Whitehorse. 
Yukon River raft trip and outdoor BBQ 
dinner. Overnight at Travelodge. 
June 25: Day-long trip on narrow-guage 



railway to Skagway. Free time to sight- 
see, then to Klondike Hotel for overnight. 
June 26: 5-hour boat curise to Juneau; to 
Baranof Hotel for overnight, with stop at 
Mendenhall Glacier enroute. Late after- 
noon walking and van tour, including 
historic district, gold mine, government 
buildings; outdoor salmon bake dinner. 
Overnight Baranof Hotel. 
June 27: Morning tour of Alaska State 
Museum. Afternoon program on Alaska 
Native Land Claims Settlement Act and 
current native economic conditions. 
Board cruise shipM.V. Statendam in late 
afternoon. Meals on board begin with 
dinner Cruise ship departs 11:00 p.m. 
(Statendam is 25,000-ton luxury liner.) 
June 28: Day of cruising on Glacier Bay; 
lecture room provided to the group. 
June 29: Port of call: Sitka. Special tour of 
Sheldon Jackson Museum, National 
Park Service exhibits, totem collection, 
Russian Orthodox church, Baranof Cas- 
tle site. 

June 30: Cruising off British Columbia 
coast. 

July 1: Arrive in Vancouver by Staten- 
dam in morning. Special tour of Van- 
couver, highlighting Northwest Coast 
Indian art; overnight Bayshore Inn. 
July 2: Fly from Vancouver to Chicago. 
This tour is limited to 30 persons (dou- 



ble occupancy), and includes for the tour 
price of $3,700 (single supplement: $400) 
a lecturer and escort; all lodging, sight- 
seeing, and transportation; best hotels 
available in each city; class D, E, and F 
outside cabins on the cruise ship; meals 
in the itinerary plus all breakfasts and 
all meals on the Statendam; all ground 
tours and transfers in exclusive vehicles 
and specially done for the Field Museum 
group with 30 participants. With 15-29 
participants, tours will be done exclu- 
sively, but transfers may be combined 
with other travelers. 

Our tour leader will be Dr. Margaret 
B. Blackman, associate professor of 
anthropology at SUNY-College at 
Brockport, New York, an authority on 
native cultures of the Northwest Coast 
and Alaska. 



If you wish additional de- 
tails for any tour or would 
like to be placed on a special 
mailing list, please call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours 
manager, at 322-8862, or 
write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



15 



LEARNING MUSEUM CONTINUES WITH 



An Alaskan Eskimo 
wooden mask from 
Point Clarence, 
Alaska. This carving 
exemplifies the free- 
dom of farm that 
characterizes Eskimo 
art. The Alaskan Es- 
kimo frequently em- 
ploy masks in 
dances and other 
ceremonies. Regarded 
as repositories of spirit 
power, masks were 
often destroyed after 
being used. Cat. 12938. 



ARTS OF Tide and Tundra 

An Arctic and Northu^est Coast Perspective 




By Robert Steven Grumet 

Northwest Coast Specialist 

and 

Anthony Pfeiffer 

Project Coordinator 
Made possible by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal agency 



16 



The land and the people of the far northern 
shores of North America have moved as 
one to the beat of wind and wave for 
countless generations. Long summer days, even 
longer winter nights, the ebb and flow of tide and 
pack ice, snow and rain, the annual migrations of 
caribou, salmon, seal and whale, have all set the 
tempo of Eskimo* and Northwest Coast Indian 
life. The people of these regions have always 



swayed in harmony with the varied rhvthms of 
their lands. Nowhere is the essence of this rela- 
tionship between people and their environment 



* The word "Eskimo" comes from the Algonkian "eaters 
of raw flesh." The Canadian Arctic people prefer to call 
themselves Innuit, which means "people" in their lan- 
guage. Most Alaskan Arctic people continue to call them- 
selves Eskimos . 



more apparent than in the artistic traditions of 
the people of the Arctic and North Pacific Coast. 

Wide expanses of sheet ice, open water, 
and barrenlands; dark arctic nights, and the pale 
luminosity of the polar sun find expression in the 
free flow of light and form in Eskimo art. Brightly 
colored, highly abstract, and simply drawn images 
stand out starkly against solid color backgrounds. 
White is a highly favored background color, rem- 
iniscent of snow. Scenes of everyday life, super- 
natural visions, images of animals and physical 
features are drawn with a sharpness that mirrors 
the Eskimo experience of their land. 

While we require a plane or horizon line, 
linear perspective, and a vantage point from 
which to measure distance, the Eskimo view the 
world as a dynamic, highly changeable place. 
Bright days suddenly plunge into darkness; clear 
weather transforms into blizzards in an instant. 
People sleeping beside an open water bay awaken 
to an ice sheet. Sometimes blinded by fog and 
snow, Eskimo people use other senses to navigate. 
Wind blowing from over salt water smells differ- 
ent from that blowing from over fresh water. The 
direction of the wind at a particular season or 
under particular conditions also reveals its source. 
Touches of wind and the smells of ice or land 
forms are Eskimo navigational aids. 

The Eskimo spend much of their time on the 
heaving surfaces of pack ice and open water and, 
thus, do not orient themselves upon flat, stable 
surfaces. Their art mirrors this perspective. Carv- 
ings, for example, are not restrained by pedestals, 
and drawings do not have fixed vantage points. 
The objects seem to float in space. Most Eskimo 
sculpture is not free standing and falls over when 
placed upon a level surface. Thus, the meaning 
and the aesthetic aspects of an object are defined 
by its own physical form instead of by its relation- 
ship to other objects. 

The lush forests, snow-capped peaks, mild 
climate, and teeming rivers of the Northwest 
Coast contrast sharply with the Eskimo environ- 
ment. The North Pacific coast is a complex and 
abundant land. Mountains and forests fill the sky; 
aquatic life fills the waters; and fog, rain, and 
clouds fill the air. In former days, densely popu- 
lated Indian villages and camps filled the shel- 
tered beaches and river banks. A world rich in 
resources and people is reflected in a lavish and 
active art. Decorations cover all significant ob- 
jects. Blankets, harpoons, houses, hooks, bowls, 
and baskets are carved, painted, or embroi- 
dered all over their surfaces. All space is 
formally organized. 

The art is full of power and tension, reflect- 
ing the enormous energy of the environment and 
its people. Wide-eyed, open-mouthed, and out- 
stretched figures seem poised to leap from totem 




The famous "Hole in the Sky" totem pole from the Gitksan 
village ofKitwankool, in British Columbia. Presently free- 
standing, this totem pole once adorned the front of a large 
house. Visitors entered the house by climbing a ladder up to 
the hole, whieh served as the house entrance. Remote Kit- 
wankool is one of the few villages where totem poles and 
other aspects of traditional Northwest Coast life survive in 
their original locations. 



17 



Richly carved and dec- 
orated frontlets are 
worn by powerfid 
Northwest Coast 
chiefs. This J^imshian 
example collectedjrom 
the Skeena River is 
richly inlaid with 
abalone shell, sur- 
rounded by 40 rows of 
ermine skins, and 
adorned on the top by 
sea lion whiskers and 
red and bUtckfeathers. 
The carving of the 
beaver is identified by 
the conventional buck 
teeth, hand-held 
sticks, and cross- 
hatched tail motifs. 



poles and from paintings on the front of houses. 
Figures intertwine with and transform into one 
another. The salmon eye, a very popular motif, is 
actually a representation of a salmon head with 
its own smaller eye. This motif is often inserted 
into the pupil of the eye of another larger figure, 
which in turn may be a component of yet another 
figure. This constant transformation of figures 
within figures generates a dynamic sense charac- 
teristic of Northwest Coast art. 

The fruits of an abundant environment sup- 
port a dense population requiring complex politi- 
cal and social organization. Political and social 
power are reflected in the art of Northwest Coast 
peoples. All life is ranked from the greatest to the 
least. Every aspect of the creation is assigned its 
place and knows or keeps it. Great chiefs of noble 
lineages lead the people. They serve as the patrons 
of an art that validates their power. Much of 
Northwest Coast art illustrates the heraldic crests 
of important families. Most of the masks and cos- 
tumes produced by Northwest Coast artists are 
made for dances and ceremonials sponsored and 
owned by powerful clans and leaders. 

Spiritual power also plays an important part 



18 




in Northwest Coast art. An abundant land fosters, 
many mysteries. Deep shadows are everywhere — 
in the depths of clear waters, in the thick forests, 
in dense banks of fog and rain, between boulders 
and in cliffsides, and on the towering mountain 
sides. The noises made by animals, rushing water, 
and the wind sometimes evoke the howls and 
screams of mythological creatures such as the 
hairy female cannibal tsonoqua or the wdldman 
bookwus. Spirituality suffuses all asjjects of life 
and land. Stone, stem, and flesh are animated by 
spirit power. Rules governing the depiction of 
spirit beings are strict. For example. Crooked Beak 
of Heaven, an important Kwakiutl spirit being, 
can be represented only by a limited number of 
forms and colors organized in a specific way. 

Westerners have not always regarded the 
work of Eskimo and Northwest Coast artists as 
art. First collected as curios by the earliest Euro- 
pean visitors to their shores, the arts of the Arctic 
and North Pacific Coast soon achieved the status 
of ethnographic artifacts and as such were avidly 
collected by museums and private collectors. The 
intensity of these efforts increased during the first 
half of the twentieth century. Eskimo and North- 
west Coast culture was thought to be in serious 
and irreversible decline. Museum expeditions 
combed Eskimo and Indian villages for artifacts to 
rescue from the missionaries' torch, from the rot 
and decay of age and abandonment, and from 
other museums. Interestingly enough, the art of 
the Eskimo and Northwest Coast Indian took its 
place among the world's great art traditions dur- 
ing the 1940s, just at the time it was felt that the 
art and culture of this region had all but died out. 

Reports of the demise of Eskimo and North- 
west Coast art were premature. Eskimo and In- 
dian artists and ceremonialists quietly carried 
on their traditions despite missionary and gov- 
ernmental suppression. Suppression changed to 
support following World War II as a. large and 
growing market for Eskimo and Indian art sprang 
into existence. New art forms appeared. Eskimo 
soapstone carvings and wooden sculpture from 
the Northwest Coast were widely collected. The 
limited edition silkscreen prints of Indian and 
Eskimo artists have been in great demand. 
The Canadian Eskimo have established several 
cooperatives to produce and market their art. 
Today we are witnessing an unprecedented 
renaissance of traditional Eskimo and North- 
west Coast culture. This renaissance is more than 
the mere mimicry. It is rather an encouraging 
example of the dvnamism and resilience of hu- 
manity, another instance of people taking from 
the past to create a lifestyle at once new and 
within an ancient tradition. 

Arts of Tide and Tundra: An Arctic and 
Northwest Coast Perspective invites vou to sur- 




Blankets were an im- 
portant item of 
wealth. This type, 
known as a Chilkat 
blanket, after the 
Tlingit-speaking Chil- 
kat Indians, is made of 
mountain goat wool 
dyed black, white, yel- 
low, blue, and red. 
Earlier blankets were 
made of tanned skins. 



vey both modern and historic masterworks. 
Explore the intimate relationship between art and 
its environment. Learn how objects, form, design, 
and style mirror the dynamic interactions of rulers 
and the ruled, of hunters and the hunted, and of 
the material and spiritual realms. All lectures fea- 



NEH Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The NEH Learning Museum program is a three- 
year sequence of learning opportunities focused on 
the Museum's outstanding exhibits and collections 
and designed to give participants an opportunity to 
explore a subject in depth. Each unit of study con- 
sists of one or more special events, a lecture course, 
and a seminar for advanced work. Special events 
are lectures by renowned authorities or interpretive 
performances and demonstrations. Course mem- 
bers receive an annotated bibliography, a specially 
developed guide to pertinent Museum exhibits, and 
study notes for related special events. In-depth, 
small group seminars allow more direct contact 
with faculty and with Museum collections. 



ture the art and artifacts of the Museum's new 
permanent exhibition — Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast. From imposing In- 
dian totem poles to delicately carved Eskimo ivory, 
North America's greatest artistic heritage is 
explored. The course of study begins April 13, and 
details are available in the Spring, 1982, Courses 
for Adults brochure. 

You are also invited to attend Tales from the 
Smokehouse, a related special event. Presented 
by the Theatre Sans Fils (the no-strings puppet 
theatre), giant puppets act out two Canadian 
Indian legends. A love story and a tale of tribal 
power are combined with drama and spectacular 
puppetry to make Ojibwa and Tsimshian lore 
come alive for non-Indian audiences. Through the 
stories, you are introduced to social mores, daily 
routines, and sacred rites quite unfamiliar if not 
totally unknown to most people. It is a remarkable 
performance interweaving traditional symbolism 
and contemporary theatre. Tales From the Smoke- 
house is presented on Saturday and Sunday, June 
26 and 27, at 2:00 p.m. Details of the perform- 
ances are featured in the June Calendar of Events, 
sent to members. D 



19 



Ayer Film Lectures 



March and April 

James Simpson Theatre 
Saturdays, 1:30 pm 



The Spring Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures are offered each 
Saturday in March and April. Please take special notice of the 
new, earlier starting time — 1:30 pm. These 90-minute travel 
films are narrated by the filmmakers themselves, and are rec- 
ommended for adults. Admission is free at the Museum's 
barrier-free West Entrance, located on the ground floor. Handi- 

Marche 

"Footloose in Newfoundland," 
bv Tom Sterling 

A visit to Newfoundland brings you the 
wonders of nature — the great fiords, 
bird colonies of gannets and kittywakes, 
whales, moose, and tundra plant life. 
Sterling also introduces you to the people 
of Newfoundland — their families, "out- 
ports," and daily life. 



March 13 

"Switzerland," by Ric Dougherty 
Visit Chateau- D'Oex, a tiny hamlet 
of Swiss chalets, ride up Mount Rigi, 
and trek to the Malterhorn. Watch the 
Reynaud family making Gruyere 
cheese, and stay to welcome the cele- 
brants from Vivev of The Feast of the 
Wine Growers, Europe's greatest folk 
festival. 



March 20 

"In the Footsteps of Richard Hallibur- 
ton," bv William Stockdale 
From London to Spain, to India and 
Khvber Pass, we follow in the footsteps 
of adventurer Halliburton (1900-1939). 
He climbed the Matterhorn, swam the 
Hellespont, and sailed a junk out of 
Hong Kong, never to be heard from 
again. Join Stockdale as he retraces 
Halliburton's travels. 



March 27 

"China After Mao," by Jens Bjerre 
This fascinating film invites you to sail 
down the beautiful Likian River, explore 
giant caverns, lour Peking, and take a 
train ride through China to Kwangchow 
(Canton). Bjerre also explores the many 
changes in China since the death of Mao 
— changes which have deeply affected 
each individual with new freedom. 






capped persons have access to the theatre via this entrance. 
Doors open at 12:45 pm for Museum members. When the 
theatre has reached full seating capacity, the doors will be 
closed by Security personnel in compliance with fire 
regulations. 



Aprils 

"The Galapagos," by John Wilson 
A devoted naturalist and cinema- 
tographer, Wilson explore&the 
Archipelago of Columbus — better 
known as the Galapagos. Because these 
islands are isolated, they are home to 
some of the world's most remarkably 
adapted wildlife. Scenes include the 
courting of the albatross, a climb to the 
top of Volcan Fernandina, and a trip to 
Alcedo Crater — home of the Galapagos 
Tortoise. 

April 10 

"Paris and the Seine," 
by Kathy Dusek 

The film begins in the hills of Burgundy, 
then on to the medieval city of Troyes. 
See Paris at sunrise, the flower market, 
and the Louvre. Visit Rouen and hear 
the storv ofjoan of Arc. Finally we 
arrive at Normandv and Le Havre — 
totallv rebuilt since World War II. 



April 17 

"South and East Africa," 
bv Ted Bumiller 

An exciting film safari to the great con- 
tinent of Africa. Game preserves abound 
with v\'ildlife — elephants, leopards, and 
crocodiles. Watch fishermen catch the 
200-pound Nile perch; climb Kiliman- 
jaro, visit Nairobi, and meet Africa's 
many peoples. 



April 24 

"Himalayan Odyssey," 
bv Frank Klicar 

The Himala\'as are the meeting place 
for Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. 
Pilgriins seek spiritual enlightenment 
at Bhaktipur in Nepal, Rishikesh on 
the Ganges, and at the Tibetan monas- 
teryof Leh. Village activities center on 
grain planting and harvesting, process- 
ing tea, making rugs, raising livestock, 
and paper-inaking. 





^- 




NIHOA ISLAND 

An Archaeological Mystery 
In the Hawaiian Chain 



By Thomas J. Riley 

PHOTOS COURTESY OF THE AUTHOR 



Fluffy cirrocumulus clouds were being 
herded west by gentle trade winds to be- 
come part of another magnificent Hon- 
olulu sunset as the 40-foDt sloop Ho 'o Holo 
cleared the Alawai channel. Outside the last 
channel buoy, our skipper headed her into the 
wind as we set the main and genoa sails and 
joined the clouds in their migration into the 
reddening west. This was the first leg of a small 
scientific expedition to the island of Nihoa in 
the northwest part of the Hawaiian chain. If you 
have never heard of Nihoa, you are not alone. 
This little island and its neighbor, Necker, some 
150 miles north of it, were unknown even to 
Hawaiians at the time that Captain Cook landed 
there in 1778. Few of the present-day inhabi- 



tants of the state of Hawaii have ever seen either 
of them. 

Two of us aboard the Ho'o Holo were scien- 
tists. Carl Christensen, a malacologist from the 
Bernice P. Bishop museum in Honolulu, was 
interested in collecting land snails from Nihoa, 



Thomas ]. Riley is associate professor of anthropology at the 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He wishes "to 
thank John Carroll, a man for all seasons, who made the trip 
to Nihoa possible; Sheila Conant, a dedicated scientist who 
welcomed a group of intruders to her research area in most 
gracious fashion; Carl Christensen, malacologist; and the 
crew of Ho'o Holo, Dan, Bill and John, without whom we 
wouldn't have gotten there and back. A special thanks to 
Barking Sands Missile Range radiomen and to the U.S. 
Navy. " 




In the first day's trek 
we found only one ar- 
tifact, a donut-shaped 
ooject of pumice — 
probably a net float. 21 




A rectangular stone 

platform in East Palm 

Valley, possibly as- 

soaated with the 

marae (temple) just 

helow it. 



and I was interested in the numerous archaeo- 
logical remains that had been noted there ear- 
lier in the century. The expedition was purely 
one of reconnaissance for me. No archaeo- 
logical excavations would be undertaken in 
the scant two days that we planned to spend 
on the island and all the surface artifacts that I 
found would have to remain in place, with only 
maps to tell where they had been found. The 
major goals of my visit were to describe the 
condition of the archaeological sites there and to 
collect some curious material known as volcanic 
glass that ancient Polynesians living in the 
Hawaiian Islands had used for making small 
tools. 

The archaeological sites in Nihoa island had 
been studied once before, by Kenneth Emory of 

I62« 



24' 



21' 



22 



the Bishop Museum, who had spent a short 
time in 1924 completing a survey and excava- 
tions at various sites on the island. A couple of 
short visits in the 1970s, one by ethnobotanist 
Douglas Yen, and another brief visit by a 
National Park Service archaeologist, provide 
us with the only other information that the 
archaeological profession has of the sites that 
are located on Nihoa. My own reconnaissance 
was geared towards finding out how much de- 
struction had occurred on the various sites on 
the island so that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service could use the information in preparing 
nominations for the National Register of His- 
toric Places. 

A second reason for my visit was to collect 
fragments of volcanic glass that might be on the 
surface of some of the sites on the island. Vol- 
canic glass is similar to obsidian in that it is pro- 
duced by vulcanism, but it differs in the amount 
of silicon dioxide contained. Like obsidian, 
though, the flakes produced from this glass 
provide sharp cutting edges and the ancient 
Polynesians of Hawaii used them extensively 
for fine cutting tools. Both obsidian and volcanic 
glass can be dated by hydration: the depth that 
water has penetrated and altered the surface 
from the time that the glass was chipped as a 
tool. This weathering is fairly regular and can be 
measured under a microscope. It was my hope 
that on Nihoa would be some remains of this 
material that had either been found there or 
brought from the main Hawaiian group by the 
inhabitants of the island. In this way it might be 

I56» 



Necker 



Nihoa 




Oahu 



MOLOKAI 



Lanai 'Ci ^P^ 
Kahoolawe 



Maui 



100 miles 



Hawaii 




24* 



21* 



162* 



156° 



NiHOA Island 



Miller's 
Plateau 



Tanaser Peak (8S2') 



Tunnel 
Cave 



Pinnacle- 
Peak (626')i 




Dog's Head 
Peak oss') 



1,000 Feet 

I— I t-i i-i I— 



100 Feet elevation 
interval 



possible to date the length of time that Nihoa 
was visited by Polynesians and perhaps tie this 
tiny island into the chronology that archae- 
ologists are now developing for the main 
Hawaiian Islands. 

The expedition was organized with the 
help of John Carroll, then a Hawaii state senator 
and member of several committees concerned 
with Hawaii's fisheries and natural resources. 
There were plans to open fishing areas in the 
northern islands and Senator Carroll was in- 
terested in discovering the potential impacts of 
such a political decision. 

The sloop (owned by Carroll) made its way 
slowly down the south coast of Oahu and across 
the treacherous Kauai channel, so rough that it 
protected Kauai from conquest by the chiefs 
of the other Hawaiian Islands during ancient 
times. Even the great chief Kamehameha I, who 
conquered all the other islands during the late 
eighteenth century, was prevented from making 
war on Kamualii, chief of Kauai, by the mon- 
strous seas here. Our passage was calm and 
peaceful, however, and we put into Nawiliwili 
harbor on Kauai to pick up Senator Carroll and 
our navigator. 

At about midnight we departed Kauai, 
skirting its eastern shore and sailing north and 
west around Hanalei and Ha'ena. Sailing west, 
we eventually lost site of Kauai, the last main 
island of the windward group, and with a fol- 
lowing wind made the tiny islet of Nihoa just 
before dawn the next day. 



At the best of times Nihoa presents an eerie 
prospect to the visitor. It is a small craggy vol- 
canic remnant of some 156 acres (equal to about 
36 average city blocks) surrounded by the deep 
Pacific. Its inhabitants are chiefly the many 
species of seabirds that abound in the northern 
Pacific. The quiet of the island, with no signs of 
human life on it, is interrupted only by their 
varied calls and the crashing of the waves 
against its cliffs. There are no protected beaches 
here and the small size of the island prevents 
the development of either a calm lee side or a 
fringing coral reef. The little coral that manages 
to survive around the island is deep below the 
surface of the water where it is safe from the 
massive ocean swells. 

We arrived at night, shortly before dawn, 
and heard the seas breaking along Nihoa's cliffs 
before we saw the island itself. The only other 
sounds were the screams of shearwaters night- 
fishing in Ho 'o Holo's wake and the occasional 
slapping of canvas as the swell caused a slight 
luff in the jib. In the dark we could make out no 
geographic features and we circled the island for 
the next hour until a gradual reddening in the 
east silhouetted the peaks at either end of it. 

The two peaks. Miller's on the west and 
Tanager to the east, bracket six small valleys, 
hardly more than large gullies really, that make 
up the bulk of the island. Between the valleys 
are short ridges of land that are covered with 
low green growth of native chenopods (the 
spinach and beet family) and other plants. In 



23 



The author standing by 
prehistoric stone tem- 
ple terrace with stand- 
ing slivers of basalt. 
Trees in background are 
Pritchardia remota, a 
species found only on 
this island. 



^^''^^m 




24 



two of the valleys, West Palm and East Palm, are 
stands of a rare tree, Pritchardia remota. This 
genus of palm is noted elsewhere in the 
Hawaiian chain, but the species is endemic to 
Nihoa. It is endangered and even from the sloop 
we could count every individual tree of that 
species in the world. 

After first light we found an anchorage of 
sorts on what appeared to be the lee of the is- 
land between Miller's Peak and a small crag 
called Dog's Head. None of us were pleased 
with the direction of the swell or the possibility 
that if the sloop dragged anchor she would be 
pounded against the 800-foot-high cliff that lay 
less than 70 yards off her stern. The day seemed 
calm enough, however, and we launched our 
inflatable raft, fOled it with equipment and crew 
and a crate of oranges, and took it along with 
the boat's dinghy around to our landing place 
on Adam's Bay on the south side of the island. 
The oranges were a special treat for a young 
ornithologist. Sheila Conant from the Univer- 
sity of Hawaii, who was taking a bird census of 
the island during its major breeding season. 

Sheila had been on Nihoa for a month be- 
fore we arrived, and was instructed by the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service to make certain that 
we abided by our research permit. The condi- 
tions of the permit included several important 
caveats. First, no smoking or vegetable materi- 
als that could possibly grow on the island could 
be landed there. To guarantee this, each crew 
member had to provide new clothes and 
equipment for the expedition. What if a new 
plant were introduced to the island? The results 
could possibly be devastating to the fragile 
ecological balance that exists on this little rock. 
A fire started from a careless match could be just 
as disastrous, and possibly destroy the habitat 
of two of the endangered species there, the 
Nihoa Finch and the Millerbird, both of them 
endemic to this little plot of land, and found 
nowhere in the world outside the leeward 
Hawaiian Islands. 

Another condition of our work was that we 
stay well clear of the Hawaiian monk seal if any 



happened to be around. It was unlikely that this 
particular endangered species would be there. 
We did, however run into three of these large 
animals sunning themselves on the small sand 
beach just below Middle Valley. These animals, 
too, are an endangered species, and exist only 
in the Hawaiian Islands. Their numbers are so 
few that biologists fear that they won't last out 
the century. 

Our plans were to spend only two days on 
the island, returning to our boat each night so 
that we might not interfere either with Sheila's 
research or with the animal and plant popula- 
tions that Nihoa rightfully belongs to. 

I am an anthropologist first and an archae- 
ologist second, and I thought that I had a fair 
idea of what intrusion on native populations 
might imply. In situations where I am dealing 
with a human community that hosts my work, 
I attempt to be as circumspect as possible, keep- 
ing within the strictures of local custom and 
mores. I try to determine which parts of the 
scientific enterprise are possible within the con- 
fines of the society with which I am working, 
and sometimes have to abandon particular areas 
of research if they conflict with local political 
problems or with other exigencies of a situation. 
I have always managed tolerably in human situ- 
ations, but on Nihoa I felt as if I were treading 
on eggshells — which in fact I was during my 
short stay. 

Sheila pointed out to us all that the breed- 
ing season of Bulwer's petrel was well under- 
way at the time of our visit. This small bird nests 
in burrows or on the ground. At each step 
through the low scrub we had to take care not to 
crush the nests of these animals and condemn 
birds to a death by suffocation or starvation. 
Every now and then we would destroy one of 
their burrows and would have to stop to dig the 
poor bird out and restore the burrow. Several 
species of shearwater are ground breeders. In 
these cases, we had to be certain not to stay for 
any more than a few minutes in the vicinity of 
the abandoned eggs after the frightened birds 
had fled our presence. Any more than a few 
minutes in the sun and the eggs would have 
overheated and the chicks died. 

If the numbers of birds had been less on 
Nihoa, the problems that they presented for 
our progress across the island would have 
been negligible. We were' however, faced with 
the prospect of several hundred thousand of the 
creatures on a small rock of less than a quarter 
mile in area. However careful we were, all of us 
had the feeling that we were making an impact 
on the bird populations purely by our presence 
there. 

Staying close to the trails that Sheila used. 



we set out with her assistance to explore the 
archaeological sites on the east side of the is- 
land. It was our intention to relocate each of the 
sites that had been reported in earlier work 
there and then to assess as completely as possi- 
ble the conditions of the sites as compared to 
the time when they were originally reported by 
Emory in the 1920s. Crossing from Middle Val- 
ley to East Palm Valley we noted long irregular 
lines of stone walls, clearly field boundaries, 
that roughly contoured the talus slopes. It was 
these field boundaries that served to convince 
Emory that some of the early Polynesian people 
who settled Nihoa were permanently living 
there rather than visiting yearly from the island 
of Kauai, 150 miles to the southwest. An occa- 



single file of the type used in finishing fish 
hooks. This last was made of coral. 

The structures in East Palm Valley included 
a number that, from the presence of basalt dike 
slivers that had been placed upright in them, 
could only be interpreted as temples. Emory 
recognized that they were quite different from 
most temples on the main islands of Hawaii, 
and so designated themmarae, the Tahitian 
word for temple, rather than the Hawaiian 
name heiau. 

In addition to the standing structures in 
East Palm Valley, a small cave high in the side 
of the valley, fronted by a terrace, was either a 
shrine or dwelling place. A standing stone still 
guards the entrance to this cave and within it 




^_. il^iMK* -*>.^Bf» **■',. •«• 




Rockshelter with con- 
structed platform and 
walls, at east end of 
Nihoa. Sites such as 
these served as dwell- 
ing places for pre- 
historic Polynesians 
during their settlement 
of the island. 



sional rectangular stone-faced terrace jutting 
from the slopes marked the foundation of a 
domestic structure that had been constructed 
centuries ago. These foundations are all that 
remain of the works of man on Nihoa at the 
present time. 

In East Palm Valley, however, the num- 
ber and complexity of stone remains is greater 
than on the high areas between valleys. Nestled 
in the center of the valley are a series of high 
stone-faced terrace structures, exceedingly well 
built and well preserved. Some were excavated 
by Emory and his colleagues in the 1920s and 
yielded stone bowls, adzes of hard basalt, 
needles of bone, fragments of gourds used as 
containers, a decayed wooden shuttle used in 
the manufacture of fish and bird nets, and a 



are several grinding stones. The place remains 
today just as its residents left it hundreds of 
years ago. 

In East valley near the coast are a series of 
rockshelters with wide terraces in front of them. 
Some of these shelters have well made stone 
walls partitioning them. The insides of many 
shelters have been disturbed, not by man, but 
by the burrowing activities of some of the birds 
in nesting. They appear to be favorite places for 
petrels as well as the red-tailed tropic bird. The 
activities of these animals have done some 
damage to the integrity of the archaeological 
deposits within the rockshelters, and it is possi- 
ble that stratigraphy in these sites has been 
upset by bird burrows. 

Emory recorded 66 archaeological sites on 



25 



the island in his survey in the 1920s. These ap- 
peared to him to represent the entire range of 
Polynesian sites, from domestic structures to 
agricultural terracing to sacred shrines, and 
suggested permanent settlement. In a series of 
deductions he concluded that the 12 acres of ag- 
ricultural terracing on the island could have 
produced 48 tons of sweet potatoes, a crop 
which Emory felt would have been best suited 
to the area. He suggested that the 25 to 35 foun- 
dations for domestic structures and the 15 rock- 
shelters on the island could have supported a 
population of about 170 to 220 persons, with 5 
per house and 3 in each rockshelter. However, 
the agricultural yield in sweet potatoes would 
have been far too little (between about 400 and 
600 lbs. per person per year) to support such a 
population. Even if all the house foundations 
and bluff shelters were not occupied at the 
same time, the yields would have been a scant 
diet supplement. 

A population of 50 could have had only 
1,900 lbs. of sweet potatoes per person during 
the year, or a little over 5 lbs. per day. While this 
is an adequate dietary supplement for Polyne- 
sian populations, it could hardly have been the 
staple. For this, we would have to look to the 
bird population, and potentially a heavy re- 
liance on marine resources as well. There is no 
doubt that the hundreds of thousands of birds 
on Nihoa would have been one of the prime 
resources of the population there, and Polyne- 
sians were avid bird hunters and egg gatherers. 

There is one serious problem, however, for 
sustaining a permanent settlement on the is- 
land. This is the fact that it has little or no fresh 
water. Three seep springs were known on the 
island at the time that Emory completed his 
survey, and no more have been found since 
then. These springs are heavily contaminated 
by bird guano, and the bitter ammonia-water 
that drips from them appears to be almost un- 
palatable. It is possible that there are under- 
water springs issuing directly into the ocean 
from a submerged dikeline, but so far none have 
been noted on the island. The inhabitants must 
have depended on rainfall for their fresh water 
needs, and prolonged drought may account for 
the abandonment of the Polynisian occupation 
there. 

All this assumes that the settlement at 
Nihoa was a permanent one. At the present 
time we have little evidence that it was either 
permanent or that there was only one settle- 
ment of the island. Emory suggested on the 
basis of adze types and what appeared to him to 
be two different types of marae on Nihoa, that 
the island was actually inhabited twice. The first 
time by a set of people from its neighbor island. 



Necker, and later by seasonal bird hunters from 
the main Hawaiian group, most notably Kauai, 
the nearest of the large islands of the windward 
Hawaiian chain. His evidence consisted for the 
most part of the adzes found at most of the 
sites. Adzes are extremely diagnostic in 
Polynesia. The shapes that Polynesians gave to 
these woodworking tools vary considerably 
from one island group to another and over time 
as well. The adzes on Nihoa were almost all 
similar in form to the styles of adze that de- 
veloped in the Hawaiian Islands fairly late in 
time. The few that were different looked very 
much like the enigmatic adzes from Necker is- 
land some 180 miles to the northwest of Nihoa, 
and fit with Emory's idea of an early stratum of 
settlement from this small, bleak rock even 
further removed from the main Hawaiian chain. 

The later settlement, however, from the 
main Hawaiian group, was quite different in 
character. The lack of water on Nihoa and the 
proliferation of temple sites all suggested to him 
that the people who came here stayed only dur- 
ing the birding season, probably during the 
summer when the petrels, shearwaters, and the 
other species of bird were most numerous on 
the island. At the moment, the particulars of 
the history of the island's settlement are still 
shrouded in mystery. 

I was hoping that an intensive search of the 
surface of archaeological sites on Nihoa would 
yield some evidence of volcanic glass. The ex- 
tensive disturbance of the sites by birds had led 
me to expect that some of this material, so im- 
portant in dating many archaeological sites in 
the Hawaiian Islands, might be gathered from 
the dirt turned up by these animals' burrowing. 
If some could be retrieved, then we would have 
at least the minimal kinds of materials to put 
this island into the chronological framework 
that archaeologists have been developing for 
the main Hawaiian islands. 

At the present time the initial settlement of 
the main Hawaiian islands is thought to have 
been from the central Pacific, specifically the 
area that includes the Samoan and Marquesan 
groups. Radiocarbon dates and volcanic glass 
agree on a settlement in the A.D. 400 range, with 
subsequent population growth occurring in 
Hawaii because the early human populations 
there had no competition from other predators. 

The earliest dates in the main chain are 
from sites surrounding a coastal swamp on the 
north side of the island of Oahu and from a little 
valley called Halawa on the east end of the is- 
land of Molokai. There is little doubt that the 
whole Hawaiian chain, however, was populated 
by the ninth century A.D. and some of my own 
work at Ha'ena on Kauai has shown a well de- 



veloped population there by the twelfth century 
A.D. If we could recover some of the volcanic 
glass from the sites of Nihoa it would not only 
be possible to date the settlement, but it might 
also be possible to identify the source of the 
volcanic glass on the island of Kauai. Unfortu- 
nately, in the first day's trek, when my assistant 
and myself were recording the damage to ar- 
chaeological sites and carefully searching their 
surfaces, we found no signs of volcanic glass, 
and only one artifact. 

The artifact was a single donut-shaped ob- 
ject of pumice, a porous volcanic substance that 
floats. It was located in the rubble from a fallen 
corner of the most complete Marae of East Palm 
Valley, the site that Emory had called number 
50. The artifact was probably a net float. 

As we made our way back to the landing 
place in the late afternoon, we travelled the high 
trail of the island close to the cliff edges. It was a 
sheer drop of 600 to 800 feet to the sea below, 
and up there the moaning sounds of the shear- 
waters drowned out the sounds of the crashing 
waves. Both of us were disappointed, but we 
were certain that we would have better luck as 
we recorded the sites on the west end of the 
island the next day. 

We left Sheila on the island, and I left my 
equipment and rucksack as well, though I took 
my hastily sketched notes and camera with me 
back to Ho'o Holo. That night we shared experi- 
ences, since Christensen, along with John Car- 
roll, had collected terrestrial snails on the west 
end of the island as my assistant and myself 
trekked the east valleys. Christensen was ex- 
cited to have collected several species of which 
very few examples existed, and I was excited by 
the fact that comparatively little disturbance had 
occurred to the archaeological sites. The preser- 
vation was still comparatively good. Certain 
that the next day would bring better fortune in 
terms of recovering datable material, we all 
turned in. 

The "certainty" was an illusion. During the 
night we felt Ho'o Holo shift at her anchorage as 
the wind veered to the southeast, and then at 
about four in the morning we heard a loud 
crashing sound towards the stern and the boat 
shuddered from sternsheets right through to 
stem. We all turned to and immediately pre- 
pared to make way. A check of the bilge showed 
that Ho'o Holo had not been holed, but the stif- 
fening southeasterly wind and the rising swell 
made it necessary to leave our anchorage and 
run ofs the island. At dawn we could see the 
massive breakers battering themselves to spume 
on the cliffs that were the only landing place on 
the island. It was obvious that our second day of 
reconnaissance on the island would have to be 



abandoned. After radioing Sheila, we set sail for 
Kauai in what became a heavy sea and wind. 
Two days later, with a heavy sea still running 
and the winds still blowing out of the southeast, 
we made Port Allen on the south end of Kauai. 

The weather around Nihoa is traditionally 
fickle, and our problem of having to abandon 
our second day on the island was only repeating 
what other parties had experienced before. In 
the 1820s the commander of the U.S.S. Dolphin , 
Captain "Mad Jack" Percival, had landed on the 
island only to be trapped there with his boat's 
crew for two and a half days. His boat was 
smashed by waves on the island, and finally he 
was dragged from the shore by a line brought in 
to him by a sailor who braved the massive seas. 

The recommendations that I made to the 
Fish and Wildlife Service included the fact that 
preservation of archaeological sites on the is- 
land was quite good. The little destruction that 
had occurred since Emory's visit consisted 
mostly of natural erosion and the nesting efforts 
of the birds. I remain disappointed that no ma- 
terial suitable for dating was recovered from 
Nihoa, but any archaeological research that 
takes place on this island will have to be sched- 
uled during a time of the year when there will 
be minimal damage to the wildlife that inhabit 
the place. This would mean the winter months, 
when the seas are notoriously bad. It was in 
January that "Mad Jack" and his boat crew were 
stranded there. The risk of landing at this time 
of year and of not being able to get off the island 
when the work was finished, make the archaeo- 
logical endeavor here a dangerous one. 

Despite our own attempts, and those of ear- 
lier researchers in Pacific archaeology, Nihoa 
still holds to the secrets of its past. Where did 
the residents of Nihoa come from? Were they 
pilgrims from Kauai who built temples during 
the birding season each year? Was there an ear- 
lier settlement connected with the little rock 
called Necker that is even more remote in the 
Hawaiian chain? How long ago did Polynesian 
settlement begin and when in prehistory did it 
disappear? The answers are still locked up on 
the silent stone remains of Nihoa, guarded over 
by myriads of Pacific seabirds, and as yet un- 
solved by modern archaeology. 

As a final note, we discovered that the 
crash that awoke us that night at anchor was not 
due to the boat striking either rock or coral. 
Senator Carroll informed me that when Ho'o 
Holo was brought up on the ways for cleaning in 
the winter of 1981 he discovered tooth marks 
from a large shark on the rudder post. This 
marine predator had apparently attacked the 
boat that night, inadvertently alerting us to the 
changing wind and water conditions. D 



27 



For Our Volunteers: A Special Valentine 



1981 was yet another year of outstanding, dedicated per- 
formance by Field Museum's battalion of Volunteers — 280 
strong. Collectively, they contributed 42,756 hours of self- 
less commitment — in virtually every facet of Museum 
activity: collection maintenance, specimen preparation, 
library work, photography, typing and other clerical tasks, 
phone answering, editing, even assisting in scientific re- 
search and conducting educational programs; and the list 
goes on. Their contributions of time, talent, energy, and 
enthusiasm have become essential to the functioning of 
the Museum. 

To honor these volunteers a reception was held on the 
evening of February 17 in Stanley Field Hall. The 
Museum's president, Willard L. Boyd, offered a special 
welcome and words of appreciation to the evening's guests, 
and Museum Director Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. pre- 
sented awards to those two Volunteers with fifteen years of 
continuous service to the Museum: Dorothy Karall, who 
works in Zoology, Division of Invertebrates; and Ellen 
Hyndman, volunteer instructor in the Museum's Depart- 
ment of Education. 

Dorothy Karall was recommended to Dr. Alan Solem 
in 1966 by his illustrator, the late Margaret Anne Moran 
McKibben. Having been told that Dorothy was an ex- 
Marine, Solem was hardly prepared to meet the diminu- 
tive lady with a beguiling South Carolina accent. With her 
innate sense of order and art training, Dorothy has, in the 
intervening years, mounted and labelled plates and fig- 
ures for more than 50 of Dr. Solem's scientific papers. Week 

Special Recognition 

Over 500 Hours 

Lorna Gonzales (1,003 hours); Zoology, Insects Division: recorded 
locality data for taxonomic and biogeographic study; checked 
localities on maps; entered computer data. Education: conducted 
English and Spanish programs on geology and anthropology for 
school groups. 

Llois Stein (875 hours); Anthropology: researched and cata- 
logued Pacific and Asian collections; assisted in Pacific store- 
room reorganization. 

Robbie Webber (720 hours); Anthropology: bibliographic 
searches and research on recent geology, geomorphology and 
tectonics of Peru; catalogued Amazonian artifacts. 

James Swartchild (697 hours); Anthropology: photographed 
specimens. 

Frank Greene, Jr. (661 hours); Geology: collected Mazon Creek 
specimens, recorded field distributions; cleaned specimens. 

Connie Crane (648 hours); Anthropology: did research, editing, 
filing and record keeping for Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast exhibit. 

David Weiss (645 hours); Anthropology: Adminstrative assistant 
in the Asian Division; responsible for overseeing loans; miscel- 
laneous correspondence, special projects. 

Rosanne Miezio (637 hours); Zoology, Mammals Division: scien- 
tific illustration; assisted with maps and graphs; aided in design 
28 and implementation of public exhibit on scientific illustration. 



after week she walks into the Invertebrate office with her 
cup of coffee and settles down to the task of trimming and 
mounting scanning electron microscope photographs or 
taking highly complex anatomical drawings and putting 
the explanatory lettering on them, later mounting these 
for publication in technical articles. In 1977 Dorothy was 
appointed associate in Invertebrates. 

Ellen Hyndman also joined the Museum as a volun- 
teer in 1966, welcoming this opportunity to "do something 
for herself" At that time the Tibetan exhibit was in its 
preparation stage and Christine Danziger, the preparator, 
found Ellen's assistance invaluable. Ellen researched and 
labelled, sewed and mounted specimens. After the exhibit 
opened, Ellen turned her talents to the Education De- 
partment, becoming one of the first volunteers to serve as 
instructor for school programs. Ellen has given, and con- 
tinues to give, programs on animals, prehistoric life, 
American Indians, cultures of Africa, China, and ancient 
Egypt. She has worked on many of the special exhibits and 
currently serves as liaison between the Women's Board 
and the Museum's volunteer program. 

Dr. Nevling also gave special recognition to the 14 
volunteers who contributed 500 hours or more in 1981 and 
personally presented them with gifts in appreciation for 
their commitment. Volunteer Coordinator Joyce Matus- 
zewich concluded the evening's program with remarks on 
the impact volunteer work has had on the Museum's re- 
search, education, and exhibition programs. The remain- 
ing volunteers then received their gifts. 

Sol Century (593 hours); Anthropology: accessioned and cata- 
logued in general projects in Asian Division. 

Gary Ossewaarde (590 hours); Education: conducted, researched 
Weekend Discovery tours in anthropology and geology; assisted 
in special events and children's workshops. 

Jim Currey (564 hours); Zoology, Mammals Division: skinned, 
fleshed and prepared skeletal specimens; regasketed cases; 
record keeping. 

James Burd (560 hours); Anthropology: accessioned and 
catalogued in general departmental projects in Asian Division. 

Margaret Martling (543 hours); Botany: processed picture lists, 
organized Botany library, proofread papers, record keeping. 

Carol Landow (525 hours); Education: instructed school groups 
and Museum visitors in Place for Wonder 

Over 400 hours 

William Bentley (484 hours); Anthropology: photographed ar- 
tifacts in Asian collections. 

Anne Leonard (455 hours); Anthropology: worked on records and 
photography file for tapa collections and for Patterns of Paradise 
travelling exhibit. 

Carolyn Moore (441 hours); Anthropology: special projects re- 
searcher in Asian Division. 

Louva Calhoun (439 hours); Anthropology: catalogued Acheu- 
lian artifacts from prehistoric site in Tanzania; numbered, 
measured, and made drawings of the specimens. 



Over 300 Hours 

Peter Gayford (385 hours); Anthropology: curatorial assistant for 

Egyptian tomb project; researched in preparation for cataloguing 

McCormick collection. 

Dorothy Oliver (361 hours); Library: indexed Museum's annual 

reports; assisted with interlibrary loan requests, filed new book 

cards; special projects. 

Lorain Stephens (358 hours); Zoology, Birds Division: prepared a 

gazeteer of bird-collecting localities in Peru; started preparation 

of a gazeteer of bird-collecting localities in the Guianas. 

Robert Rosberg (353 hours); Anthropology: catalogued collec- 
tions; pottery restorations; special projects. 

Nathalie Alberts (349 hours); Anthropology: moved artifacts 
into and out of storage for Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast exhibit. 

Alice Wei (325 hours); Anthropology: research in Asian collec- 
tions. 

Julie Braun (320 hours); Anthropology: cleaned artifacts for 
Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast exhibit. 



Sophie Ann Brunner (317 hours); Zoology, Reptiles Division: or- 
ganized and maintained skeleton preparation program. 

Louise Neuert (314 hours); Anthropology: constructed special 
mannequins; cleaned and sewed textiles to mounts; dressed 
mannequins for Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest 
Coast exhibit. 

Ernest Newton (314 hours); Anthropology: research in Chinese 
coin collection. 

James Skorcz (307 hours); Library; worked in Reading Room; 
filled interlibrary loan requests, filed cards in card catalog, re- 
trieved books for visitors; compiled statistics; special projects. 

Cheryl Williams (306 hours); Geology: catalogued and reor- 
ganized Quaternary collections of fossil invertebrates. 
Dennis Bara (303 hours); Membership: weekend membership 
representive. 

Eric Frazer (303 hours); Anthropology: worked on preventive 
conservation and storage of textile collections. 

Halina Goldsmith (302 hours); Education: conducted programs 
for school groups and visitors in Place for Wonder. 



1981 VOLUNTEERS 



Glenda Kowalski 



Ila Nuccio 



Neal Abarbanell 
Nathalie Alberts 
Carrie F. Anderson 
Cleo M. Anderson 
Dolores Arbanas 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Beverly Baker 
Gwen Barnett 
Dennis M. Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Carol A. Basolo 
Winifred Batson 
John Bauer 
Sanda Bauer 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Virginia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
William C. Bentley 
Patricia Bercher 
Elaine K. Bernstein 
Joan Biba 
Riva Blechman 
Cecilia Bodman 
Sharon Boemmel 
Marjorie Bohn 
Sandra Boots 
Idessie Bowens 
Hermann Bowersox 
Kristine Bradof 
Steven Brady 
Charles Braner 
Kathryn Briggs 
Carol Briscoe 
Julie Braun 
Karen Brock 
Cassandra Brown 
Louise Brown 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Teddy Buddington 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
James E. Burd 
Audrey Burns 
Mary E. Burt 
Joseph Cablk 
Louva Calhoun 



Sandra J. Cameron 

Robert Cantu 

Sol Century 

Dan Chlipala 

June Chomsky 

Margaret Chung 

Roger Cohn 

Judith Cottle 

Connie Crane 

Howard L. Crystal 

Jim Currey 

Kathryn Daskal 

Eleanor DeKoven 

Jeannette DeLaney 

Carol Deutsch 

Steven Diamond 

Marianne Diekman 

Phyllis Dix 

Benny Daniel Dombek April Hohol 



Halina Goldsmith 
Lorna Gonzales 
Judy Gordon 
Helen Gornstein 
Evelyn (Jottlieb 
Loretta Green 
Frank A. Greene, Jr. 
Henry Greenwald 
Robert Gregor 
Cecily Gregory 
Ann B. Grimes 
Dolores T. Gross 
Karen Grupp 
Sol Gurewitz* 
Geraldine Guttenberg 
Michael J. Hall 
Shirley Hattis 
Audrey Hiller 
Vicki Hlavacek 



Gerald Kuechner 
Anita Landess 
Carol Landow 
Ellen Lark 
Joan Lauf 
Sui Min Lee 
Marion Lehuta 
Stephen LeMay 
Anne Leonard 
Virginia Leslie 
Janet Leszcznski 
Joseph F. Levin 
Michelle Levin-Parker 
Inese Liepins 
Elizabeth Lizzio 



Dorothy Oliver 
Forman Onderdonk 
Charles Oneyzia 
Joan Opila 
Gary M. Ossewaarde 
China Oughton 
Anita Padnos 
Therese Palmer 
Raymond Parker 
Delores Patton 
Frank M. Paulo 
Tracy D. Pederson 
Renee Peron 



Jim Sipiora 
James Skorcz 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spensley 
Steven Sroka 
Charles Stanish 
Eric Stein 
Llois Stein 
Lorain Stephens 
Robyn Strauss 
Deanna Stucky 
Bea Swartchild 
James Swartchild 
Patricia Talbot 



Lisa Dorn 
John E. Dunn 
Margaret Durbin 
Stanley Dvorak 
Milada Dybas 
Lynn Dyer 
Kathleen Early 
Alice Eckley 
Linda Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Agatha Elmes 
Nancy Evans 
Martha Farwell 
Dolores Fetes 
Marie Fischl 
Vaughn Fitzgerald 
Gerda Frank 
Patricia Franks 
Eric Frazer 
Arden Frederick 
Martha Frey 
Janine Fuerst 
Peter Gayford 
Helen Gayner 
Donald Gemmel 
Nancy Gerson 



Harold L. Honor 
Zelda Honor 
Cathy Hosman 
Scott Houtteman 
Claxton Howard 
Betty M. Hubbard 
Nancy Hubbard 
Adrienne Hurwitz 
Ellen Hyndman 
Darryl Isaacson 
Judith M. Johnson 
Karolyn Johnson 
Mabel S. Johnson 
Malcolm Jones 
Daniel Joyce 
Carol Kacin 
Carole Kamber 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Dorothy Karall 
Dorothy Kathan 
Barbara Keune 
Shirley Kennedy 
Joyce Kieffer 
Marjorie King 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 



Elizabeth Louise Girardi 



Ralph Lowell 
James Lowers 
David Lynam 
Edna MacQuilkin 
Margaret Madel 
Elizabeth Malott 
Gabby Margo 
Margaret Martling 
Robert Mastey 
Melba Mayo 
Mark McCollam 
Dorothea McGivney 
Withrow Meeker 
Beth Metz 
Beverly Meyer 
Rosanne Miezio 
Alice S. Mills 
Carolyn Moore 
George Morse 
Anne Murphy 
Marlene Mussell 
Charlita Nachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
Lee Neary 
John Ben Nelson 
Mary S. Nelson 
Norman Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Doris Nitecki 
Gretchen Norton 



Mary Anne Peruchini Benjamin Taylor 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz Jane Thain 



Steffi Postol 
Elizabeth Rada 
Sri Raj 
Brad Randall 
Lee Rapp 
Ernest Reed 
Sheila Reynolds 
Elly Ripp 
Mary Robertson 
William Roder 
William Rom 
Barbara Roob 
Robert Rosberg 
Kathy Rose 
Susan Rosenberg 
Sarah Rosenbloom 



Lorraine Thauland 
Dana Treister 
Mary Trybul 
Rebecca Tuttle 
Joan Ulrich 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Paula-Ann Vasquez- 

Wasserman 
Barbara Vear 
Britta Veth 
Charles A. Vischulis 
David Walker 
Mary Ann Walkosz 
Bertram C. Walton 
Joyce Wash 



Marie Louise Rosenthal Harold Waterman 



Anne Ross 
Susan Rowley 
Ann Rubeck 
Helen Ruch 
Lenore Ruehr 
Linda Sandberg 
Marian Saska 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Sylvia Schueppert 
Florence Seiko 
Sheila Seybolt 
Jessie Sherrod 
Judith Sherry 
Barbara Siekowski 



Robbie Webber 
Alice Wei 
David Weiss 
Penny Wheeler 
Bessie Whitley 
Cheryl A. Williams 
Francis A. Willsey 
Gerda Wohl 
Reeva Wolfson 
Katherine Wright 
Zinette Yacker 
Rashona Zimring 
Theodore Zwier 

'Deceased Sept. 26, 1981 29 



Honor Roll of Donors for 1981 

Major ConMbutore of Field Museum's Progi^ims 
of Research, Education, £ind Exhibition 

We wish to recognize those generous donors to sands of other donors. By way of recognition, 

Field Museum who in 1981 helped to maintain a we place on the Honor Roll of Donors the follow- 

balanced budget. The year ended with no debt ing who contributed $1,000 or more during the 

or deficit financing, thanks to these and thou- period January 1 through December 31, 1981. 



Individuals— $5,000 and over 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Bent 
Mr. and Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Buchanan Family Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt Buchanan, Jr.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mr. and N^rs. Charles S. DeLong 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph N. Field 
Mr. and Mrs. William Freeman 
Grainger Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. David W. Grainger) 
Mr. Raymond H. Greer 
Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mr. Joseph B. Hawkes 
Mr. and Mrs. Michael R. Hodous 
Mr. Frederick K. Leisch 
Leslie Fund, Inc. 

(Mr. and Mrs. John H. Leslie) 
The Oscar G. and Elsa S. Mayer 

Charitable Trust 
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Mitchell 
Mr. Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Mile Oliphant 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Potter 
Pritzker Foundation 

(Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Pritzker) 
Rice Foundation 

(Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Nolan, Jr.) 
Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman 
Mr. and Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Arthur J. Schmitt Fdn. 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Searle 
John M. Simpson Fund 
Mr. and Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 
Mrs. Gretchen M. Stewart 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Sullivan 
Ruth and Vernon Taylor Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Svk'ift) 

(Mr. William T. Bartholomay) 

(Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Tieken, Jr.) 
Estate of Chester D. Tripp 

(Mrs. Chester Dudley Tripp) 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Mr. and Mrs. Blaine Yarrington 



30 



Individuals— $1,000 to $4,999 

Abra Prentice Anderson Charitable Trust 
Alsdorf Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. James W. Alsdorf) 
Anonymous (2) 
Laurance H. Armour and 

Margot B. Armour Family Fdn. 

(Mrs. Lester Armour) 
Mrs. Pamela K. Armour 
Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 
Estate of Abby B. Babcock 
Mr. and Mrs. Gary Bahr 
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Bass 
Mr. and Mrs. Harry O. Bercher 
The Bjorkman Fdn. 

(Mr. Carl G. Bjorkman) 
Mr. and Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mr. William McCormick Blair 
Mr. Leigh B. Block 
Mr. and Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Svend and Elizabeth Bramsen Fdn. 

(Mrs. Elizabeth K. Bramsen) 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry A. Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mr. and Mrs. A. C. Buehler, Jr. 
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mrs. Leonore C. Clow 
Collier-Swartchild Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. James Swartchild) 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Corbett 
A. G. Cox Charity Trust 
Mr. and Mrs. Mark Crane 
Crawford Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. William Crawford) 
D and R Fund 

(Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Rosenthal) 
Mr. and Mrs. O. C. Davis 
Davee Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. Ken Davee) 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr. Edward J. DeWitt 
Elliott and Ann Donnelley Fdn. 

(Mrs. Charles Hardy) 
Mr. and Mrs. George H. Dovenmuehle 
Mrs. Lyman M. Drake 
Ms. Katherine Dunbaugh 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Field 
Forest Fund 

(Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd) 



Mr. Clifford C. Gregg 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Goodrich 

Mrs. Rose P. Grosse 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 

Mrs. Burton W. Hales 

Mrs. Mary E. Harland 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen E. Harris 

Mr. and Mrs. David J. Harris 

Mrs. Betty R. Hartman 

Mrs. William H. Hartz 

Mrs. Patricia R. Healy 

Mr. and Mrs. Ben Heineman 

Mr. John J. Hoellen 

Dr. Helen Holt 

H. Earl Hoover Fdn. 

Mr. and Mrs. Reinhardt Jahn 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold B. James 

Dr. Margaret Katzin 

Mrs. Miriam H. Keare 

Mr. George P. Kendall 

Mr. Oscar Kottman, Jr. 

Mrs. Louis B. Kuppenheimer 

Mrs. Viola Laski 

Mrs. Richard W. Leach 

Otto W. Lehmann Fdn. 

(Mr. Robert Lehmann) 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin J. Lunding 
Mrs. Lucy S. Lyon 
Mrs. Marie Mahoney 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Maynard 
Foster G. McGaw Fdn. 
Mrs. Mary U. Meader 
Mrs. Helen Mayer Medgysey 
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Mojonnier 
Molner Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. Morton J. Barnard and 

George H. Barnard) 
Mr. Richard M. Morrow 
Mrs. Mary Baker Moulding 
Col. John B. Naser 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 
Offield Family Fdn. 

(Mr. Wrigley Offield) 
Peterborough Fdn. 

(Mr. and Mrs. Marshall Field) 
Peroke Fdn. 

(Mrs. Peter B. Foreman) 
Mr. James H. Ransom 
Mr. and Mrs. John Shedd Reed 
Mrs. Helen M. Reeder 



Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Dr. and Mrs. Henry Rosett 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry N. Rowley 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Rubloff 
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Sahlins 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 
Seabury Fdn. 

(Mr. John W. Seabury) 
Sedoh Fdn. 

(Mr. Scott Hodes) 
Arch W. Shaw Fdn. 

(Mr. John I. Shaw) 
Bessie Shields Fdn. 

(Dr. Thomas W. Shields) 
Siragusa Fdn. 

(Mr. Ross D. Siragusa) 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Solomon 
Mr. and Mrs. George T Spensley 
Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt Fdn. 
Mrs. David B. Stern, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Stuart, Jr. 
Bolton Sullivart Fund 

(Mr. Bolton Sullivan) 
Sulzer Family Fdn. 

(Mr John Hoellen) 
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. John W. Taylor 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward R. Telling 
Daniel J. Terra Fdn. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Edmund B. Thornton Family Fdn. 

(Mrs. George A. Thornton) 
The Thorson Fdn. 

(Mr. Reuben Thorson) 
Mr. and Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Mr. Roger Van Bolt 
Mr. Glen Verber 
Dr. and Mrs. Harold C. Voris 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Leland Webber 
Mrs. John Paul Welling 
Howard J. Willett Foundation, Inc. 

(Mr. Howard Willett, Jr.) 
Dr. and Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mrs. Lorraine E. White 
W. R and H. E. White Fdn. 
Woodruff and Edwards Fdn. 

(Mr and Mrs. Robert C. Edwards) 
Mrs. Claire B. Zeisler 
Mr. Kenneth V. Zwiener 

Corporations and Foundations 
$5,000 and over 

Abbott Laboratories 

Allied Fdn. 

Allstate Fdn. 

Amoco Fdn. 

Arthur Andersen & Co. 

Barker Welfare Fdn. 

Beatrice Foods Co. 

Borg-Warner Foundation, Inc. 

The Chicago Community Trust 

Coleman Fdn. 

Commonwealth Edison Co. 

Consolidated Foods Corp. 

Continental Illinois National Bank Fdn. 

Dart & Kraft Inc. 

DeSoto Fdn. 

R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 

Esmark, Incorporated Fdn. 

FMC Fdn. 



Marshall Field & Company Fdn. 

Field Enterprises Charitable Corp. 

First National Bank of Chicago Fdn. 

Ford Motor Company Fund 

General Mills Fdn. 

Harris Bank Fdn. 

Allen-Heath Memorial Corp. 

Walter E. Heller Fdn. 

Household International Corp. 

IC Industries 

Illinois Belt Telephone Co. 

Inland Steel — Ryerson Fdn. 

International Business Machines Corp. 

International Minerals & Chemical Corp. 

The Joyce Fdn. 

John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Fdn. 

Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust 

McGraw Fdn. 

McMaster-Carr Supply Co. 

Nalco Fdn. 

Northern Illinois Gas 

Northern Trust Co. 

Peat, Marwick Mitchell & Co. 

Peoples Energy Corp. 

The Albert Pick, Jr., Fund 

Frederick Henry Prince Trusts 

S & C Electric Co, 

Sahara Coal Co. 

Santa Fe Industries 

Sears, Roebuck and Co. 

Dr. Scholl Fdn. 

Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 

John S. Swift Company, Inc. 

United Airlines Fdn. 

United States Gypsum Foundation, Inc. 

Walgreen Benefit Fund 

A. Montgomery Ward Fdn. 

Western Electric Fund 

Arthur Young & Co. 

Corporations and Foundahons 
$1,000 to $4,999 

A.G. Becker — Warburg Paribas 

Becker Fdn. 
AT&T Long Lines 
Aetna Life and Casualty Insurance 

Companies 
Alcoa Fdn. 

American Hospital Supply Corp. 
American National Bank & Trust Company 

of Chicago Fdn. 
Amsted Industries Fdn. 
BankAmerica Fdn. 
Bliss & Laughlin Industries 
Brunswick Foundation Inc. 
Bunker-Ramo Foundation, Inc. 
Leo Burnett Company Inc. 
C-E Power Systems 
CR Industries 
Carson Pirie Scott Fdn. 
Central Telephone & Utilities Corp. 
ChemicalBank — Midwestern Region 
Chicago & Northwestern 

Transportation Co. 
Chicago Bears Football Club 
Chicago Bridge & Iron Fdn. 
Chicago Title & Trust Co. 
Chicago Tribune Fdn. 
Clark Fdn. 
Crane Packing Co. 
Crum & Forster Fdn. 
Helene Curtis Industries Inc. 



Dana Corporation Fdn. 

R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 

Ehlco Fdn. (Hines Lumber) 

Ernst & Whinney 

FRC Investment Corp. 

GATX Corp. 

General Motors Corp. 

General Tire Foundation Inc. 

Geraldi-Norton Memorial Corp. 

Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co. 

Gould Fdn. 

Guarantee Trust Life Insurance Co. 

HBBFdn. 

Hart, Schaffner & Marx Charitable Fund 

Walter E. Heller & Co. 

Illinois Tool Works Fdn. 

Interlake Fdn. 

Intermatic Inc. 

The James Companies 

Jewel Fdn. 

Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, Inc. 

Kelso-Burnett Electric Co. 

Kemper Educational & Charitable Fund 

Kirkland & Ellis 

Bertha Le Bus Charitable Trust Fdn. 

Maremont Fdn. 

Masonite Corp. 

Oscar Mayer Fdn. 

McGraw Edison Co. 

McKinsey & Co. 

William M. Mercer Inc. 

John Mohr & Sons 

Morton Norwich Products 

Motorola Fdn. 

L. E. Myers Co. 

National Boulevard Bank Assoc. 

National Can 

New York Life Fdn. 

Gust K. Newberg Construction Co. 

North American Car Corp. 

Northwest Industries Foundation, Inc. 

Ogilvy & Mather Inc. 

J. C. Penney Company, Inc. 

George Pick & Co. 

Power Systems Inc. 

Price Waterhouse & Co. 

Procter & Gamble Fund 

Prudential Fdn. 

Quaker Oats Fdn. 

Reliable Electric Co. 

Rockwell International 

Rollins Burdick Hunter Co. 

Sargent & Lundy 

Schwarten Corp. 

Scott, Foresman & Co. 

Security Pacific Charitable Fdn. 

Shell Companies Fdn. 

Signode Fdn. 

Sunbeam Corp. 

Szabo Food Service 

Talman Home Federal Savings & 

Loan Assoc. 
Texaco Inc. 

Oakleigh L. Thome Fdn. 
Touche Ross & Co. 
UOP Fdn. 

Union Oil Company of California 
United Conveyor Fdn. 
United States Steel Foundation Inc. 
Urban Investment & Development Co. 
Montgomery Ward Fdn. 
Wheelabrator-Frye Incorporated Fdn. 
E. W. Zimmerman, Inc. S"! 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Rare Black-Footed Ferret 
Found in Wyoming 

A rare black-footed ferret, the only posi- 
tively known living member of its species, 
was captured aUve in Wyoming last fall 
and outfitted with a tiny radio transmitter 
so that federal wildlife biologists can learn 
more about the habits of these secretive, 
nocturnal animals. 

The ferret, captured October 29 by 
wildlife biologists of the Interior Depart- 
ment's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is 
the first live black-footed ferret to be taken 
in the wild since 1973, in spite of extensive 
searches by federal and state biologists in a 
number of western states. 

"We are quite excited about finding 
this extremely rare, endangered mammal 
and having the opportunity to monitor its 
movements," said Eugene Hester, deputy 
director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser- 
vice. "By studying this animal, we hope to 
obtain information that will help wildlife 
biologists bring this species back to 
healthy numbers." 

The ferret, a male judged to be no 
more than two years old and weighing 
about two and one-quarter pounds, was 
spotted in a prairie dog colony by wildlife 
biologists who were looking for ferrets. 
They followed it to a hole where they suc- 
ceeded in capturing it in a live-trap when 
it emerged several hours later. The 
biologists attached a small radio- 
transmitter to a collar placed around the 
ferret's neck, observed the animal over- 
night, and released it unharmed in the 
morning. The transmitter is expected to 
operate for four to six months, enabling 
biologists to gather information about 
such factors as the ferret's daily and sea- 
sonal activity patterns, the amount of time 
it spends in burrows, its feeding activity, 
and whether it is nomadic. It is also hoped 
that the radio-tagged ferret may lead the 
biologists to other ferrets. 

The exact location of the ferret's cap- 
ture is being withheld to avoid distur- 
bance to the landowners and to the scien- 
tific work. All of the work involving the 
ferret is being conducted under a federal 
permit, which is required because the fer- 
ret is protected under the Endangered 
Species Act. 

Considered by many wildlife 
biologists to be the most severely en- 
dangered mammal in the United States, 
the black-footed ferret is a weasel-like 
animal about 24 inches long with a black 
mask over its eyes, black feet, and a black- 
tipped tail. 

In an attempt to increase the ferret's 
32 numbers, several ferrets were taken out of 




the wild between 1971 and 1973 for breed- 
ing in captivity at the service's Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Mary- 
land. Although young ferrets were bom, 
none survived, and the adults were found 
to have serious disease problems such as 
cancerous tumors and diabetes. The last 
captive ferret died in 1978. 

In the meantime, efforts by federal 
and state wildlife biologists using scent- 
trained dogs and other methods had failed 
to positively locate any additional live 
black- footed ferrets in the wUd. The first 
real break in the ferret search came Sep- 
tember 25, when a dead black-footed fer- 
ret was discovered in Wyoming. 



Whooping Crane Update 

Four whooping crane chicks were raised 
in wild and captive flocks in 1981, a year 
which may have suffered a slight popula- 
tion decline despite intensive research to 
propagate the endangered species. 

The highlight of 1981 research was a 
first-time effort by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service and the Canadian 
Wildlife Service to radio track the main 
flock on their 2,600-mile fall migration 
from Canada's Wood Buffalo National 
Park to the Texas Gulf Coast. On October 
12, trackers reported one of the chicks hit a 
power line in northern Saskatchewan and 
died several days later of apparent spinal 
injuries. 

While researchers expressed regret 
over the loss of the young crane, they 
emphasized that had the flock not been 
tracked, the fate of the bird would proba- 
bly have remained a mystery. Service sci- 
entists stress that the more they learn 
about mortalities, the better prepared 



they are to prevent them. Previous colli- 
sions with power lines have been 
documented in the Grays Lake National 
Wildlife Refuge flock. Power companies in 
problem areas have cooperated with re- 
searchers to solve the problem, sometimes 
by attaching brightly colored markers to 
the lines. 

The Wood Buffalo flock produced 
three chicks in 1981 during an exception- 
ally dry nesting season that saw increased 
egg losses to predatory animals. In 
August, brush fires swept through the 
forests and marshes, eventually destroy- 
ing some 70 percent of the cranes' nesting 
habitat. However, the chicks escaped the 
ravaged area with their parents and the 
rest of the flock. 

All three chicks in the Wood Buffalo 
flock were captured and fitted with radio 
transmitters by U.S. -Canadian research- 
ers several weeks before fire ignited the 
habitat. Trackers followed the first two 
chicks to leave Wood Buffalo; the first was 
being tracked by a team of U.S. and Cana- 
dian government biologists in a Canadian 
airplane when it hit the px)wer line. In 
southern Saskatchewan an American 
plane carrying a Canadian biologist — the 
only tracker to follow the entire route — 
was standing by to pick up the trail, with a 
ground research team also following the 
flock. The same tracking procedures now 
are being used to track the second chick, 
last reported to be near Texas. Earlier, 
trackers found that the tagged chick had 
covered 470 miles in one day at altitudes of 
up to 9,000 feet, leaving Montana, overfly- 
ing North and South Dakota, and landing 
in Nebraska. 

As the international team began 
monitoring the main flock, other re- 
searchers recaptured a captive-reared 
female whooper set free last spring at 
Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge in 
Idaho. The female had been transported 
to Idaho from the Patuxent Wildlife Re- 
search Center near Washington, D.C., asa 
possible mate for a lone male raised by 
sandhill crane surrogate parents. How- 
ever, scientists felt the two whoopers did 
not establish a strong enough bond to 
guarantee that the male would lead the 
female on the 870-mile migration route to 
Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Ref- 
uge in New Mexico. 

The Grays Lake foster flock was 
started in 1975 to establish a second wild 
flock of whooping cranes, to build the 
birds' population, and to eventually en- 
sure separate migratory flocks. This 
would diminish the chance of a natural 
disaster eradicating the sf>ecies in the 
wild. The sandhill cranes in Idaho hatch 



"spare" eggs taken from nests at Wood 
Buffalo and from a captive breeding flock 
at Patuxent. A recent shortage of suitable 
female whoopers prompted scientists to 
introduce the female raised at Patuxent 
into the foster flock. Since the recaptured 
Patuxent female made a good adjustment 
to the wild, researchers will repeat the 
experiment next year. 

Despite the two surviving chicks 
raised at Wood Buffalo Park and one 
raised in captivity at Patuxent, scientists 
say the whooping crane pwpulation has 
not increased, as several mortalities are 
known. But the bird that has become a 
symbol of all endangered species has ac- 
tually been making a gradual comeback: 
In 1980, whoopers numbered nearly 100 
in the wild and 24 in captivity, in contrast 
to a dismal low of 15 in 1941, when many 
considered the cranes' extinction to be 
inevitable. 



Tecopa Pupfish Declared Extinct 
— Off Endangered List 

The Tecopa pupfish has become the first 
species to be removed from the en- 
dangered list because it is extinct. The 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service made the 
announcement after no Tecopa pupfish 
were found in spite of extensive searches 
by federal, state and university biologists 
in more than 40 localities near Tecopa, 
California, where the fish could possibly 
have existed. 

The unique desert fish, native to 
California's Death Valley system, was 
known to have lived in only two outflow 
springs of the Amaragosa River system. It 
is thought to have disappeared because of 
alteration of its habitat and possibly also as 
a result of the introduction of competing, 
non-native fish. One of 12 kinds of pup- 
fishes in the U.S., the iVz-inch Tecopa 
could tolerate highly saline waters and 
temperatures up to 110°. In 1965, the two 
hot spring outflows were rechanneled and 
combined during construction of bath- 
houses, resulting in a swifter channel 
which carried even hotter water farther 
downstream, a situation for which the 
pupfish was not adapted. 

Virtually eliminated by 1969, the 
Tecopa pupfish was added to the en- 
dangered species list in 1970. By 1972, it 
was known to be gone from this local- 
ity, although survival of the related 
Amaragosa River pupfish in nearby pools 
and springs indicated that the Tecopa 
might continue to exist elsewhere in the 
river system. 

In 1978, the Fish and Wildlife Service 
proposed the Tecopa pupfish for removal 
from the list because it was believed to be 
extinct; removal has been delayed until 
additional surveys could be completed. 

"It is always sad when a species be- 
comes extinct because of human activi- 
ties," noted Robert A. Jantzen, director of 



the Fish and Wildlife Service. "But the 
Tecopa pupfish was pxjssibly already ex- 
tinct when the first recovery efforts were 
made under the endangered species 
laws. In this instance, the fact that this fish 
has become extinct should not be taken 
to mean that endangered species conser- 
vation measures have failed. On the 
contrary, recovery actions have bene- 
fited a great number of endangered spe- 
cies, such as the American alligator, 
peregrine falcon, whooping crane, and 
brown pelican." 



Hazardous Waste Disposal 
and the "Small" Producers 

In its 1980 Resource Conservation and Re- 
covery Act regulations, the Environmen- 
tal Protection Agency announced that 
generators of less than 1,000 kilograms 
(kg) a month of hazardous wastes, includ- 
ing certain discarded commercial chemical 
products, who do not accumulate more 
than 1,000 kg on site at one time, could be 
excluded from rules that apply to larger 
generators of these wastes. Among the 
discarded chemical products listed are 
formaldehyde, wood alcohol, benzene, 
and several other components of plastics. 

The exclusion of these smaller 
generators created controversy. At issue 
are wastes considered hazardous, 
excluded from rules that strictly regulate 
generation, transport, storage, and dispo- 
sal of such materials. Critics have pointed 
out that hazardous wastes are no less 
hazardous because they exist in smaller 
quantities. 

EPA's decision to exclude small man- 
ufacturers or processors from initial regu- 
latory framework was based on its belief 
that the overall level of environmental 
protection would be greater if it concen- 
trated its resources on larger generators. 
The agency also considered resources of 
the states, which are to play an increasing 
role in implementing RCRA. 

To regulate all generators of hazard- 
ous waste would bring 760,000 people into 
the regulatory system. By setting the ex- 
clusion limit for most hazardous wastes at 
1,000 kg a month, 99 percent of the total 
wastes would still be covered — and 
695,000 people could be kept out of the 
system. 

Generators of even small amounts of 
hazardous waste still must ensure that 
their wastes go to state-approved facilities 
and that wastes be disposed of properly. 

In addition, RCRA provides that cer- 
tain commercial chemicals, considered to 
be acutely hazardous, are subject to much 
lower exclusion limits if they are to be dis- 
carded. That is, certain substances includ- 
ing a large number of pesticides, must be 
fully regulated if a generator produces and 
processes as little as 1 kilogram a month of 
the waste. 



Fiberglass Carapace for Mud Turtle 

A 13-inch-long mud turtle, its shell col- 
lapsed in eight pieces after being hit twice 
by cars, was rushed to a Florida animal 
hospital to be put out of its misery. 

Instead, the veterinarian built a new 
shell with the help of an auto body shop, 
and the turtle recovered. 

"There was so much damage I didn't 
know if we could fix it. But I figured we'd 
try," veterinarian Mary Leisnersaid. "Bas- 
ically, he was a very healthy turtle. What 
looked bad was the shell. The whole top 
was caved in like a crater. But the body 
wasn't damaged. 

"The turtle was good through all of 
this," she said. "We stabilized him and 
medically treated him, and he didn't seem 
to mind. The only thing he didn't like was 
when we vacuumed him to get the slivers 
and chips out. He put his feet out and tried 
to run away." 

The unorthodox treatment was at- 
tempted after Jean Nygren, a director of 
Tampa's Animal Protection League, ar- 
rived at the Lutz Animal Hospital with the 
turtle. She had seen another car hit it, and 
then struck it with her own car. 

'It was bleeding so badly and the 
shell was a mess. I thought it didn't have a 
chance and wanted to see it put to sleep 
humanely," she recalled. 

Leisner examined the turtle with a 
household drill and delicate bone instru- 
ments, lifting depressed pieces of the 
rock-hard shell. She found nearly half of it 
had been destroyed. 

The veterinarian filed and fit the 
edges and, with some fiberglass and direc- 
tions from an auto body shop operator 
whose wife works at the animal clinic, 
built a new shell. A dangling three-inch 
tail section was reattached with super- 
strength glue. 

After a trip to the body shop, where 
the rough fiberglass was sanded smooth, 
the reptile, estimated to be about 12 years 
old, was cared for at the animal hospital 
for five days. It was then given a clean bill 
of health and released into a swampy 
preserve. ^»- 




i fl 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Homes Needed for Excess 
Wild Horses and Burros 

The Bureau of Land Management (blm), 
an agency of the U.S. Department of the 
Interior, is looking for people who would 
like to give a wild horse or burro a good 
home. Qualified applicants can adopt a 
wild horse or burro for less than it costs to 
buy one commercially. The horses can be 
trained to work, ride or to be pets. 

These are no ordinary horses and 
burros. These are living symbols of the 
history and the pioneer spirit of Ameri- 
ca's West. Some are descendants of ani- 
mals that escaped Indian attacks on 
wagon trains, cavalry attacks on Indians, 
or Indian-cavalry battles. Others are de- 
scendants of stock released by the cavalry 
when U.S. Army outposts were closed, of 
animals abandoned or lost by early pros- 
pectors, and of horses and burros turned 
loose by farmers during the Dust Bowl 
conditions of the 1930s. Some are possibly 
descended from mustangs introduced by 
Spanish conquistadors in the 16th cen- 
tury. 

"The wild horse and burro adoption 
program," says blm Director Robert L. 
Burford, "is a partial solution to the prob- 
lem of overpopulation among wild horse 
and burro herds on western public range- 
lands. These herds have expanded in 
most areas since approval of the Wild 
Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act in 
1971. They compete for very limited for- 
age and water with both native wildlife 
and domestic livestock that graze the 
public rangelands. In order to maintain a 
proper ecological balance BLM rounds up 
excess wild horses and burros and makes 
them available for adoption." 

Burford adds that approximately 

32,000 wild horses and burros have been 

34 adopted since the national Adopt-A- 



TfymWr f W 



— I 

i 
E 
3 



Horse Program began in 1976. Adopted 
horses and burros are now found in every 
state except Hawaii and Delaware. 

What sort of people adopt wild 
horses and burros? Just about anyone 
with an interest and affection for the ani- 
mals, Burford says. "Most of our adop- 
ters want to see wild horses and burros 
protected, not just as a reminder of our 
nation's western heritage, but as animals 
worth owning and enjoying." 

BLM screens potential adopters for 
proper facilities and experience to care for 
the animals, which are unbroken when 
adopters pick them up. For the first 12 
months following adoption, wild horses 
and burros remain the property of the 
U.S. government. Adopters may apply 
for title after providing proper care and 
treatment for that period. 

Since 1979, blm has operated a wild 
horse and burro distribution center in 
Cross Plains, Tennessee — about 30 miles 
north of Nashville. "The Tennessee cen- 
ter has been a huge success," Burford 
says, "primarily by making it easier than 
ever before for people in the states east of 
the Mississippi River to pick up adopted 
animals." 

"Based on that success — nearly 3,000 
adoptions in two years — BLM opened a 
midwestem distribution center last sum- 
mer near Omaha, Nebraska, and plans to 
open another eastern distribution center 
next April. We've chosen the Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, area for the next center 
primarily for its proximity to so many po- 
tential adopters in the Northeast and its 
accessibility via the interstate highway 
system." 

Members of the public who would 
like more information about the adoption 
program should write to Adopt- A-Horse, 
Dept. 618-K, Consumer Information Cen- 
ter, Pueblo, Colorado 81009. Along with a 
brochure on the adoption program, the 
writer receives an application form to be 
completed and returned to the Bureau of 
Land Management. The applicant is 



**-■ 



asked to specify on the form the age and 
sex of the horse or burro desired, and to 
describe the kind of facilities available for 
the animal's care. An individual can 
apply for up to four animals a year. 

Once BLM approves an application, 
the name of the potential adopter is 
placed on a register. As horses and burros 
become available, the approved applicant 
is notified where and when to select and 
pick up the animal. How long an appli- 
cant has to wait for an animal after appli- 
cation has been accepted depends upon 
the number of animals available and the 
number of prior applicants who want 
the same sex, color, or age animal. The 
most requested animals are three-to- 
five-year-old mares and jennies (female 
burros). 

Currently, there is no charge for 
these wild horses and burros. An adopter 
pays only a veterinarian's fee, the cost of 
transporting the animal from the state in 
which it was captured to the distribution 
pickup point, and a portion of the adop- 
tion center's handling charge. Since 
January 2, 1982, there is a fee of $200 per 
horse and $75 per burro, plus transporta- 
tion costs. The veterinary cost is included 
in the adoption fee. 

Burford explained that the adoption 
fee is necessary to help partially reim- 
burse the U.S. Government for what it 
spends to remove the animals from the 
rangelands, process adoption applica- 
tions, provide medical examinations and 
vaccinations, and feed and handle the 
wild horses and burros during the adop- 
tion process. Adopters are advised of the 
exact costs when animals become avail- 
able. 

BLM estimates there are currently 
over 70,000 wild horses and burros on 
public rangelands in 10 western states, 
with more than half concentrated in 
Nevada and Wyoming. According to BLM 
range specialists, the optimum number 
the ranges will support for good man- 
agement is approximately 25,000. 



Wildlife Successes in 1981 

A happy ending for a "widowed" bald 
eagle, a promising beginning for young 
sea turtles, and a successful journey for 
some endangered geese are just a few of 
the "good news" stories that happened to 
fish and wildlife in 1981, according to the 
Interior Deparment's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

A rare black-footed ferret, the na- 
tion's most endangered mammal, was 
discovered in Wyoming, and service re- 
searchers studying it have since observed 
two more ferrets in the same vicinity. The 
ferrets are the first to be positively located 
in the wild since the early 1970s. (Seep. 32.) 

A female bald eagle in New York 
whose mate was shot la^t year got a new 
family, with some help from wildlife 
biologists. First she found a new mate — a 
male eagle that had been transplanted 
from Minnesota and released at Mon- 
tezuma National Wildlife Refuge in 1977. 
Then, because the female was too con- 
taminated with pesticide residues to pro- 
duce her own young, wildlife biologists 
put two eagle chicks into the new pair's 
nest. The chicks were reared successfully 
and will help to increase bald eagle num- 
bers in New York State. 

For the first time ever, two injured 
manatees were successfully released to 
the wild in Florida after being rehabili- 
tated in captivity. One of the large, docile 
"sea cows" was injured when she became 
entangled in a crab trap line, which 
wrapped tightly around her flippers. She 
was treated at Sea World and released 
with her calf, which was uninjured but 
had remained with its mother throughout 
the ordeal. Another female manatee that 
apparently had been struck by a boat was 
rehabilitated by two other private groups, 
Marineland and Homosassa Springs. The 
oceanaria and park groups rescue injured 
manatees, an endangered species, under 



an arrangement with the Fish and Wildlife 
Service. 

On the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a 
wildlife biologist turned air traffic control- 
ler in a research experiment to prevent 
young night-flying seabirds from crashing 
into brightly lighted areas. By putting 
shields on outdoor lights that were con- 
fusing the birds — a threatened species 
called the Newell's Manx shearwater — he 
succeeded in reducing the number of 
crashes by 28 percent. And at aid stations 
established to collect downed birds, 
members of the public turned in hundreds 
of the shearwaters, most of which were 
saved and released to fly another day. 

About 2,000 endangered Kemp's Rid- 
ley sea turtle eggs were moved by the Fish 
and Wildlife Service and the Mexican 
Fisheries Department from a Mexican 
nesting beach to Padre Island National 
Seashore, where biologists are trying to 
establish a second, protected nesting 
beach. So that the little turtles would be- 
come "imprinted" on Padre Island, they 
were allowed to hatch and make their way 
to the ocean before they were captured 
again and transported to a National 
Marine Fisheries Service facility in Galves- 
ton, Texas. They will be raised in captivity 
until they are about one year old, when 
they will be large enough to have a good 
chance of surviving in the wild. The sea 
turtles will then be released in Gulf wa- 
ters, and it is hoped they will return even- 
tually to Padre Island to nest. 

Scores of endangered Aleutian 
Canada geese that were raised in captivity 
in the lower 48 states were transplanted to 
Alaska's Aleutian Islands and are now mi- 
grating successfully with wild birds to 
wintering grounds in California. In all, 
more than 2,600 Aleutian Canada geese 
have been counted on their wintering 
grounds, up from a low of 800 in 1975. 

A record 530 Atlantic salmon re- 
turned to the Connecticut River to spawn. 



The young from the 1.2 million eggs pro- 
duced by these highly prized game fish 
will be reared at state and federal fish 
hatcheries and released into the river to 
help rebuild the fishery. Salmon disap- 
peared from the Connecticut 100 years ago 
after dams blocked the migration of adult 
salmon to their spawning areas. The effort 
to restore the salmon in the North- 
eastern United States began in 1967 and 
involves the Fish and Wildlife Service, the 
states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, 
New Hampshire, and Vermont, the 
Commerce Department's National Marine 
Fisheries Service, and two private power 
companies. 

As a result of recovery efforts for the 
severely endangered Puerto Rican parrot, 
a record number of nine parrot chicks 
were produced and survived in the wild 
this year. Two more chicks were produced 
in captivity, one of which was placed in a 
nest and survived to join the wild flock. 
This brings the total number of Puerto 
Rican parrots to 29 in the wild and 15 in 
captivity. 

Service research biologists reported 
that eggshell thickness and reproduction 
are improving in eagles, osprey, and 
brown pelicans, and that the numbers of 
sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper's 
hawks are increasing dramatically. Re- 
searchers now agree that DDE, a persistent 
breakdown product of DDT, was responsi- 
ble for eggshell thinning, reproductive 
failure, and population declines in the 
bird populations. 

American shad spawned naturally in 
the Susquehanna River for the first time in 
150 years. The spawning followed the re- 
lease of 1,165 adult shad in the river in May 
1981 by the Pennsylvania Fish Commis- 
sion and the Fish and Wildlife Service. 
The two agencies are collaborating with 
other state and federal agencies and five 
power companies to restore the Sus- 
quehanna's historic shad fishery. 



March & April at Field Museum 



March 16 through April 15 



New Exhibits 



"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast." Open- 
ing April 24. Members' Preview 1 to 9 p.m., April 22 and 23. This 
sf)ectacular exhibit compares and contrasts the life and culture 
of the Northwest Coast Indians and the Eskimos. The five gal- 
leries of the exhibit deal with environment and history, hunting 
and collecting, the village and society, the spiritual world, and 
art. Within each of these galleries are dioramas, colorful artifact 
displays, study areas, and video presentations. Hall 10. 

Continuing Exhibits 

Hall of African Mammals. Discover the surprising variety of 
African mammals, from the huge bongo or forest hog to the 
dainty klipspringer, in preparation for the lecture, "Predators 



and Their Prey: The Serengeti." Two of Field Museum's best 
known dioramas are here: the Man-Eating Lions of Tsavo and 
the African Waterhole. The African Waterhole, the Museum's 
largest habitat group, includes the giraffe, gazelle, zebra, and 
rhinoceros. 

Hall of Ancient Egyptl^ns. Field Museum's Egyptian exhibit, 
one of the country's best, has been improved by the addition of a 
new exhibit area, "In the Shadow of the Pyramid." You may now 
enter tomb chapel rooms built over 4,000 years ago and a replica 
of the chapel of Nakht, on loan from the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. Other exhibits detail life in prehistoric and early historic 
eras of Egypt. Photomurals explain how the tomb chapels came 
to Field Museum. Among the most compelling objects in the 
older area are the human and animal mummies. Hall J. 35 

Continued on back cover 



t^ 



EDITH FLEMING 

916 PLEASANT 

OAK PARK ILL 60302 



March & April at Field Museum 



March 16 through April 15 
Continued from inside back cover 



New Programs 

Ray a. Kroc Environmental Lecture. "Predators and Their 
Prey: The Serengeti." Sunday, March 28, 2 p.m. Award-winning 
photographer and author Baron Hugo van Lawick describes the 
incredible variety of animal life which includes more than 100 
species of mammals and 500 of birds, inhabiting Serengeti Na- 
tional Park, in Tanzania, Africa. As a Serengeti area resident 
for 14 years, he has been able to capture the circle of life and 
death among the animals with vivid language and beautiful 
photographs. Members: $3. Nonmembers: $5. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. The Spring 1982 series of 
these popular adult-oriented travel films is beginning at a new 
time — 1:30 p.m. Admission is free through the West Entrance. 
Doors open at 12:45 p.m. 
March 20: "In the Footsteps of Richard Halliburton," wath 

William Stockdale 
March 27: "China After Mao," with Jens Bjerre 
April 3: "The Galapagos," with John Wilson 
April 10: "Paris and the Seine," with Kathy Dusek 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Tours, craft projects, slide pre- 
sentations, and films which use Field Museum exhibits as a 
springboard for new insights into natural history projects are 
featured on Saturdays and Sundays. March's "Film Feature" 
subject is mammals from around the world. 
March 20 1:30 p.m. Saga of the Sea Otter, a "Film Feature." 
March 21 1:30 p.m. "Egypt's Middle Kingdom: Tombs, Art, 

and Literature," slide lecture. 
March 27 1:30 p.m. Baobab: Portrait of a Tree, 

"Film Feature." 
March 28 1:30 p.m. "Ibtankhamun: Discovery and Treasures 

of the Tomb," slide lecture. 
April 3 12:30 p.m. "Public and Private Life in 18th Dynasty 

Egypt." slide program. 

2 p.m. "American Indian Dress," tour. 
April 10 "Ancient Egypt," tour. 

Spring Journey "A Touch of Field Museum." This self-guid- 
ing tour covers such touchable exhibits as bones, meteorites, 
and polar bears. Tree Journey pamphlets available at Museum 
entrances. 



"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Nortiiwest Coast" 

Special Programs 

Northwest Coast Lecture Series. "A Culture Develops." The 
concluding two lectures in this series are designed to enhance 
the visitor's appreciation of Field Museum's newest permanent 
exhibit, "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast," 
which opens April 24. Each lecture is individually complete 
and given by a leading authority on native cultures of the 
Northwest. Entrance for these 8 p.m. lectures is through the 
West door. Members: $3. Nonmembers: $4. 
March 19 "Adaptations: Cultural Variations," by Wavne Sut- 

tles, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon. 
March 26 "Cosmology, Role of the Shaman," by George Mac- 
Donald, University of British Columbia, Museum of 
Anthropology, Vancouver, British Columbia. 

Learning Museum Course. "Arts of Tide and Tbndra: An Arctic 
and Northwest Coast Perspective." Dr. Robert Grumet, visiting 
lecturer and anthropologist, compares and contrasts the tra- 
ditional art forms of the Northwest Coast Indians with those 
of the Eskimos through striking slide presentations, the use of 
authentic artifacts and traditional music. The course meets for 
six consecutive Thesday evenings at 7 p.m. beginning April 13. 
Advance registration now being accepted. For more informa- 
tion, call 322-8854. Members: $40. Nonmembers: $45. 

Contemporary Arts Symposium. "Echoes of the Past, Tides of 
Change." Five noted Northwest Coast Indian and Eskimo ar- 
tists discuss modern trends influencing their art. Together the 
artists speak authoritatively about the state of North America's 
richest and most famous artistic heritage. A related Learning 
Museum event. Sunday, April 18, 1:30 to 3:30 p.m. Members: 
$6. Nonmembers: $8. 

Continuing Programs 

March and April Hours. The Museum is open every day, 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays the Museum is op)en 9 
a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. It is 
closed March 15 and Good Friday, April 9. Obtain a pass at the 
reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



Ai)iil i;)H2 



'^^ 



m 



-d^k 






m 



<!s$>- 



S^, ^' 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Laughlin 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James]. O'Connor 

cliairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L, Boyd 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R, Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Meivoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
WUliam H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

April 1982 

Volume 53, Number 4 



The Northwest Coast Collections: Legacry of 
a Living Culture 

by Peter L. Macnair 



Diagram of Hall 10 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 

Northwest Coast" 13-16 



Alaskan Native Culture Jburfor Members 19 



Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast 

by Carolyn Blackmon, chairman of the Department of 

Education, and Ronald L. Weber, visiting assistant 

curator of anthropology 20 



April and May at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



26 



COVER 

Northwest Coast masks on view in Gallery FV, "Spiritual 
World," in the exhibit "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast," opening April 24 in Hall 10. (Members' 
preview April 22, 23.) Exhibit case shown on front cover 
contains Kwakiutl masks; that on the back cover contains 
masks of the Tlingit, Haida, and T^imshian. Photo by Ron 
Tksta. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) U publistied monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at L^ke Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3,00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. 




THE NORTHWEST COAST COLLECTIONS 

LEGACY OF A LIVING CULTURE 



by Peter L. Macnair 



Increasingly, museums are being scrutinized for 
the way in which they present and interpret ethno- 
graphic material, and rightly so, for the attitudes 
of the past often reflect a cultural imperialism that 
is generally not acceptable today. Examination of 
the records of anv museum established in the 



Peter L. Macnair is curator of ethnology at the British 
Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C. At the open- 
ing of Field Museum's new exhibit, "Maritime Peoples of 
the Arctic and Northwest Coast," Mr Macnair will serve 
as the official representative of the Province of British 
Columbia. He will lecture on "Kwakiutl Winter Cere- 
monies" on Friday, Ma}' 14, at eight o'clock. 



nineteent h century demonstrates clearly an attempt 
to amass a large, comprehensiye collection of a way 
of life that was rapidly passing. Where collecting 
had a scientific basis and was guided by qualified 
personnel, the results were gratifvang and provide 
helpful information for toda/s student of material 
culture. Regrettably, other institutions sought to 
impress by sheer numbers alone and such collec- 
tions and the display of them remain little more 
than cabinets of curiosities. 

The discipline of anthropology' was still very 
much in its infancy at the end of the nineteenth 
century, but pioneers like Franz Boas were leading 
the study into a respectable social science. Material 



Early photo of 
diorama of Hdmatsa, 
or cannibal dance, of 
the Kwakiutl, as it 
appeared when first 
installed in 1904. The 
diorama may be seen 
again today in Gallery 
IV, Hall 10. Neg. 16242. 
(Color detail shown on 
p. 18.) 3 




Hdmatsa dress worn 

by Bob Harris (left) 

and Charles Nowell 

(ri^tj, both Kwakiutl 

Indians, at 1904 St. 

Louis Exposition. 



13583 

culture was a legitimate interest within anthropol- 
ogy and the systematic approach to identifying ma- 
terials from which the objects were made, describ- 
ing their use, and recording their social context, was 
an appropriate curatorial activity. Such documenta- 
tion justified the need to preserve apparently dying 
arts and customs for future generations. 

Inspired by the material culture of Indian and 
Eskimo peoples who visited Chicago to demonstrate 
their exotic lifeways at the World's Columbian Ex- 
position of 1893, Boas helped establish the collection 
that forms the core of the Field Museum's holdings. 
In many respects his information about the material 
of the Northwest Coast Indians is unequalled, and 
for this the active participation of native people in 
collecting and identifying it must be recognized. 
Boas' primary native associate was George Hunt, 
from the northern Vancouver Island Kwakiutl vil- 
lage of Fort Rupert. Rigorously trained to record 



13581 



myths, legends, technology, and ceremonial events 
in both English and his native language, Hunt pro- 
vided a legacy of information that will continue to 
overwhelm those seeking to use his contributions. 

The Boas-Hunt tradition at the Field Museum 
was continued in the first decade of the twentieth 
century by a British Columbia-based medical doc- 
tor, Charles F. Newcombe, and his Kwakiutl collab- 
orator, Charlie Nowell. In 1901, Newcombe was 
engaged to add to the Northwest Coast collection 
and to plan and prepare exhibits that would feature 
the culture of the people of this area. In 1902 he col- 
lected mainly Haida material and later added ob- 
jects from other tribal groups. 

Great expositions continued to hold immense 
public interest at this time and Newcombe took 
several Kwakiutl and Nootkan Indians to the St. 
Louis World's Fair in 1904. He and Charlie Nowell 
stopped offin Chicago on their return to the Pacific 



Northwest to plan collecting strategy, identify cer- 
tain objects, and to discuss the displays that New- 
combe was to design for the Field Museum. 

Not all the objects Newcombe required could 
be obtained from the field. As a result, Nowell and 
his Denaktok village associate, Bob Harris, created 
certain objects for the displays. The Newcombe cor- 
respondence reveals how Charlie was asked to make 
a (recentiv constructed) cradle "look old-fashioned" 
by eliminating the "whiteman's paint" used to deco- 
rate the piece. 

Men such as Charlie Nowell had a vast sense of 
humour and a flair for the theatrical, and they must 
have greatly entertained those midwesterners 
whom they came to know through the museum 
project. And while performing and working for the 
whiteman, they retained a conviction that what 
they were offering was part of a real, living, and 
viable tradition. 

Perhaps the incident of cannibalism at St. Louis 
is an indication of the sfxintaneous creativity and yet 
serious intent of these roguish early associates 
of the Field Museum. Among the many peoples 
brought to the fair were a group of pygmies. Bob 
Harris, the carver, was fascinated by them and be- 
friended one by supplying him with extra food. 
The Kwakiutl, assisted by their Nootkan associates, 
staged a hamatsa, or cannibal dance for fairgoers. 
In this most prestigious of Kwakiutl performances, 
the dancer is said to be inspired by the spirit of a 
ferocious man-eating njonster, who, at the begin- 
ning of time stole humans from a village and took 
them to his mountain fastness at the north end of 
the world to eat. Inflamed by this awesome spirit- 
power, the hamatsa dancer circles the floor of the 
ceremonial house and appears to bite the arms of 
certain members of the audience. 

In time he is subdued by healing songs and the 
actions of attendants and is returned to a state of 
normalcy. As an alternative to the biting sequence, 
the dancer may enter holding a corpse in his arms 
and appear to eat it. Yet all of this was simply highly 
staged theatre. 

But back to the troujje in St. Louis. Bob Harris 
was performing as hamatsa when the singers made 
a mistake in the song. This angered him and Charlie 
Nowell announced this fact to the sizable audience 
viewing the performance. Attendants sought to re- 
strain the enraged dancer, but he escaped their 
grasp and rushed to a point on the stage where their 
pygmy friend sat. Harris seized the diminutive fel- 
low and rushed behind a painted screen. Then he 
reemerged, handling his victim so roughly that the 
pygmy screeched in terror. The hamatsa then placed 
his captive on the floor and bit his neck so furiously 
that blood spurted over the stage. The Kwakiutl 
ended the presentation by cutting strips of flesh off 
the corpse and eating them. 

By all reports the crowd was outraged. Consta- 




Haida totem pole 
model carved by 
Charles Ederishaw, c. 
1900. Cat. 79696. 




Northwest Coast 
whistles. Gallery IV. 



bles had to restrain the unfortunate victim's people 
from attacking with sjjears. If Nowell is to be be- 
lieved, a distraught Newcombe muttered that it was 
murder and Harris would be hanged for certain. 
Ever the orator, Charlie Nowell announced that his 
people had done a great thing and had acted accord- 
ing to the dictates of the winter dance. 

Somewhat later the group proceeded to their 
on-site dance house which quickly filled with fair 
officials and curious onlookers. Harris danced 
around the fire, shaking his rattle and singing. Then 
he moved towards the remains of the unfortunate, 
at this point covered by a mat , and sang an incanta- 
tion over the body. As he sang, Nowell transla.ted the 
words, indicating successively, "that fiesh was now 
back on the bones; that the body was entire; and 



that the body was finally quite warm." The cover- 
ing was suddenly flung aside and the victim sat 
up stiffly and slowly began to unlimber his body. 
Charlie rose before the audience and addressed 
them as follows: "I am very glad to learn that our 
friend here, Bob Harris, done this great thing. You all 
saw him when he ate the flesh of this little man that 
is standing by his side. This is the same man that 
was dead, and his flesh was all eaten up. Now he has 
his flesh and his life back, and now he is alive. And I 
am glad that there will be no law that will come 
against us." (From "Smoke from Their Fires, The Life 
of a KwakiutI Chief," by Clellan S. Ford, Yale Univer- 
sity Press, Inc., 1941.) Sensing the drama of the 
situation, Newcombe stood up and delivered a 
lengthy speech in which he detailed the elaborate 
theatrical achievements and other considerable 
accomplishments of the Northwest Coast peoples. 

Bob Harris was obviously a master of the theat- 
rical prop. Even today his carving skills are remem- 
bered. One informant claims his talent was so con- 
siderable that when he completed a carving of a 
grizzly bear, it transformed into a living animal. 
Harris died shortly after this incident. He was a man 
who had explored his stagecraft to the point where 
people believed it became real, foreshadowing his 
demise. 

Happily, Nowell reveals the secret of their 
amazing performance. Over several days Harris 
carefulh' observed the pygmy and created a like 
mannequin; he carved a head from wood and 
modeled a body by scrupulously dissecting and rear- 
ticulating a sheep's carcass, the "body" was then 
smoked as a finishing touch. He simulated the 
victim's cr\' with a whistle manufactured of wood 
and reed and filled a bladder with animal blood for 
the final effect. 

Bob Harris and Charlie Nowell are but a few of 
the great Northwest Coast Indian artists, singers, 
orators, and chiefs of the recent past who are still 
remembered today. In part, they are recalled 
through archival records and anthropological pub- 
lications but they also survive in the memories of 
those still living who had the good fortune to know 
the leading men and women of two or three genera- 
tions past. There were many who successfully 
bridged two worlds and made both all the richer 
for it. 

What of the forebears of those native people 
who strove to help provide us with a written record 
of their magic world? As far back as earliest Euro- 
american contact with the northwest coast of North 
America, certain jjersonalities emerged to be iden- 
tified and described. The majority were chiefs who 
quickly sought to control all communication with 
the strangers and their novel trade goods. When 
Captain James Cook landed on Vancouver Island's 
west coast in 1778, he came to know the Moachat 
Nootkan Chief named Maquinna. Cook entered ob- 




.^jmm Northwest Coast 
yM potlatch (detail), 
Wl Gallery III. 



servations about him and his people in his journals; 
his staffartist, a man named John Webber, sketched 
various village scapes, house interiors and portraits, 
leaving an invaluable record. Some two decades 
later an English-born ship's armorer sailing aboard 
an American vessel was captured and enslaved bv 
the same Maquinna for a period of two years. The 
enslaved John Jewitt was eventually rescued and 
survived to publish his memoirs, which have since 
proved useful in attempts to reconstruct the history 
of the early contact period in Maquinna's territory. 

Other Euroamericans followed, some like Cap- 
tain George Vancouver to assiduously chart the 
North Pacific Coast of the continent. Others came to 
exploit the sea otter trade, finding they could sell the 
lustrous f)elts in China for huge profit. In time, this 
source of income was slaughtered to a point of near 
extinction and the maritime fur trade collapsed. 
However, it was quickly replaced by a more perma- 
nent land-based fur trade. This saw the advent of 
the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820, and fortified 



trading posts soon dotted the coast, continuing to 
offer a wide variety of manufactured goods. 

All this while the Indians remained in ascen- 
dency, manipulating trade to their own advantage 
and always outnumbering the whites. Then in 1862 
tragedy struck. A ship from San Francisco reached 
Fort Victoria with a passenger aboard suffering 
from smallpox. Indians from along the entire length 
of the coast were visiting Victoria and most con- 
tracted the dread disease. As they made their way 
northward, often ill and disspirited, they were 
attacked by other groups who became unwitting 
victims themselves. Unscrupulous traders entered 
villages filled with decaying corpses, stripped blan- 
kets from bodies and moved on to the next healthy 
village to repeat the cycle. This unhappy chapter in 
British Columbia's history was quickly over for want 
of victims to work upon. Within two years, more 
than one third of the native population of what is 
now British Columbia died. The ravages of gun- 
power, alcohol, mumps, measles, chickenpox. 



tuberculosis and other infectious diseases also took 
their toll, so that by 1929 the province s native popu- 
lation reached an all-time low. This figure of 22,600 
was down from a precontact estimate of 85,000. 
The Haida living on the Queen Charlotte Islands 
suffered most dramatically; they were reduced from 
a probable 8,000 to 588 souls in 1915. Given these 
figures, recoverv or retention of traditional culture 
seemed impossible. Yet, people have tenaciously 
held on, maintaining as much as possible despite 
the onslaught of disease, and religious and civil 
suppression so that today rebirth becomes 
significant. 

While common aspects of culture and envi- 
ronment link the people living on the coast of north- 
ern California to southeastern Alaska, major dis- 
tinctions exist. Unifying factors include the tracta- 
ble, versatile red cedar tree, which provides most of 
life's needs: bark for clothing and rope; branches 
and roots for withe and basketry; and the sturdy 
trunk for houseplanks, canoes, boxes, totem poles, 
utensils, and ceremonial objects. 

The other constant in this distinct cultural and 
ecological area is the salmon. Five species of this 
anadramous fish spawn in rivers and streams, the 
larger of which penetrate the Coast Range and p)er- 
mit access as far as the Rocky Mountains. Additional 
fauna and flora contribute importantly to life on 
the Northwest Coast although salmon and cedar 
prevail. 

Yet even in the epicenter of this natural prov- 
ince vast discrepancies occur. Certain gulf islands in 
Puget Sound and Georgia Strait receive so little rain- 
fall that a species of cactus actually flourishes in 
isolated rocky areas. At about the time the cactus is 
blooming some of the northernmost straits are 
choked with flotillas of icebergs, calved off from 
glaciers at the head of ^ords. 

While it is easy to create the impression of 
a moderate climate and an abundance of food, 
hunger and even starvation were not unknown to 
the coastal peoples. The farther north one travels, 
the more rigorous becomes the food quest. The 
range in climate between the northern and southern 
borders is significant; on the Fraser and Columbia 
Rivers, summer-caught salmon can be preserved by 
drying in the hot canyon air. lb the north, the much 
more labor-intensive method of smoking fish is 
required, as the flesh will not cure in the cooler, 
moister atmosphere of an Alaskan summer. 

Within the vast area are fieoples whose lin- 
guistic origins cover at least six language families. 
Anthropologists prefer to describe these gross 
categories as linguistic groups and from north to 
south they include Tlingit, Haida, Tfeimshian, 
Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Nootkan, Coast Salish, and 
Chinook. But we are dealing with such a time depth 
here that mutually unintelligible languages have 
developed within these general categories. For 



example, there are actually nine separate languages 
among the Coast Salish group although all are ulti- 
mately derived from a common tongue. 

Given the differences in environment and cul- 
ture there is at least one universal denominator and 
that is the sea. Its moods range from raging surf 
flung by a winter's storm onto the jagged rocks of the 
exposed outer coast to protected inland waterways 
in summer as still as the sun at noon. Myriad islands 
add miles of coastline offering both harbor and 
succor. Through these passages Indian people ven- 
tured, travelling hundreds of miles to trade, inter- 
marry, or make war. 

The summer's activities of gathering and fish- 
ing saw people disbursed throughout the territory 
often functioning independently as small famUy 
groups in their pursuit of food. But as winter ap- 
proached and gales mixed sea spume and rain as 
one, people drew back to the permanent winter 
villages and began an intense, introspective life 
dominated bv the presence of ancient spirits that 
left their mountain, heavenly and mythical retreats 
to surround the villages during the sacred wdnter 
season. 

At this time people assume a new order, intro- 
ducing personal names that are used only in the 
ceremonial season. Society is ranked in a manner 
that often differs from that of the secular summer 
months. The mythic encounters of ancestors ac- 
quired through descent, marriage, or warfare are 
reenacted according to rigid privilege and if disputes 
of ownership occur, intensely competitive gift-giving 
may result in an attempt to gain supremacy over a 
rival. 

While the majority of dance dramas relate to 
the time when the world was young and animals 
could turn at will into human form and back again, 
others,which on one level appear to be myths, relate 
to actual events. 

One lineage of Nishga people living on the Nass 
River have a mask that when manipulated causes 
the nose to extend almost two feet. The nose is a 
telescoping device, controlled by strings. Its use re- 
calls a legend that saw a monster step from a cave 
and by extending its nose across a river valley, save a 
village from a threatening lava flow. The lava beds 
are very much in evidence today and geologists indi- 
cate the eruption occurred no more than 300 years 
ago. Such cataclysmic events demand explanation 
and in time they become vested in myth. 

When a family intends to display, assume, or 
transfer jealously guarded prerogatives, they invite 
witnesses to view the event. The presentation of a 
series of dances could continue for several weeks 
during which time guests must be fed and housed 
by the host group. Displays might take place inside 
a cedar plank house designed to accommodate as 
many as 500 people. Here, at night, illusion was 
enhanced by the flicker of firelight. Interplay of light 



and shadow was created by the fire which aUer- 
nately highlighted and obscured the magnificent 
sculptural planes of carved masks and other stage 
properties. Actors fell into the fire, were horribly 
burned and then miraculously made whole. Women 
were beheaded and then recreated. Sea monsters 
festooned with kelp came trumpeting out of the sea 
while small birds flew through the dance house 
calling to one another. 

Once the dance privileges were shown, the host 
was required to distribute food and wealth goods to 
his guests. By accepting the gifts, which were pre- 
sented according to rank, the guests acknowledged 
their host's claim to his entitlements. Thus, the 
host's status was validated by the public witness of 
his guests. 

The apparent orgy of gift-giving horrified civil 
and religious authorities, who petitioned the Cana- 
dian government to ban the institution known as 
the potlatch. Legislation was first attempted in 1884 



but it was not until the earlv twentieth centurv that 
individuals were successfully charged and jailed for 
participating in events that encompassed all aspects 
of society: ceremonial, religious, ritual, economic, - 
and social. 

1>emendous moral and legal pressure was put 
up)on Indian jjeople to give up their old ways. The 
fires of the human heart grew dim, yet many per- 
sisted and were able to carry over important knowl- 
edge oflanguage, culture, and tradition to the pres- 
ent day. In 1951 the Canadian Indian Act was rewrit- 
ten and the repressive sections against the potlatch 
were simply deleted. Descendents of the determined 
few are again standing where Charlie Nowell and 
Bob Harris once stood. As did their forebears, they 
have contributed substantially to the creation of a 
magnificent new exhibit and have demonstrated 
that the cooperation with native peoples established 
as a precedent more than 75 years ago continues to 
be a hallmark of the Field Museum. D 




Carved argillite dish 
Haida.Diam. 13~li 
inches; 1894 gift of 
J. L. Gould. Cat. 
17952. Neg. 102063. 



Field Museum Store 




GALLERY 9 



Museum Members and the general public are invited to a new 
exhibition selling of the finest art works by top artists and 
craftsmen of the Arctic and Pacific Northwest. The gallery 
opening coincides with the opening of Hall 1 0. 
Artists represented include: 



Primrose Adams 
Larry Avakana 
Steve Brown 
Joe David 
Robert Davidson 
Dorothy Grant 
Calvin Hunt 
Henry Hunt 
Tony Hunt 
Tony Hunt, Jr 
Nathan Jackson 
Jo^n Livingston 



Melvin Olanna 
Duane Pasco 
Katie Pasco 
Selina Peratrovich 
Bill Reid 
Cheryl Samuel 
Jim Schoppert 
Joe Senengetuck 
Ron Senengetuck 
Norman Tait 
Art Thompson 



All from British Columbia, Alaska, and Washington, 
their works here assembled present a stunning array 
of talent never before seen in Chicago. Included are 
wood carvings, masks, jewelry totems, baskets, 
weavings, serigraphs, and button blankets. 

Gallery 9 Hours: 1 1-5 or by special appointment. 



Museum Store Remodeled 

The Museum Store, newly remodeled, is again open. A new 
section, featunng choice items related to special exhibitions, 
currently features a wide vanety of merchandise from the 
Arctic and the Pacifc Northwest or related to the cultures 
of those regions. 




25 8«n. Poll aarortca. AlaV>a 



Gallery III, "Village and Society. " Portion of exhibit showing personal adornment and clothing of Eskimos. Ron Testa photo. 



11 




Gallery III, "Village and Society." Portion of exhibit featuring ceremonial dress of Northwest Coast peoples is shown. Robe 
in center belonged to Kasawak (Edwin Scott), a Haida chief. Behind the robe, on the wall, is a Haida button blanket. Ron 
Testa photo. 



12 



Maritime Peoi 



FISHING,HUNTING 
and GATHERING 




HALL 3 



HALL 4 



I Peoples of the Northwest Coast 
Eskimo Peoples 
Eskimo and Northwest Coast Peoples 



£s OF THE Arctic & Nori 



Hall 10 



VILLAGE and SOCIETY 



SPIRITUAL WORLI 



ATION 
ESS 



KWAKIUTL HOUSE 
everyday life 



EMENT 
ERNS 

ERS 
ARE 

DOLLS and TOYS 



KWAKIUTL HOUSE 
ceremonial life 



"^y-^y^ 



PERSONAL 
ADORNMENT 



HOUSE 
^TYPES 



CEREMONIAL 
DRESS --^ 




PIPES 
GAMES 



HOUSEHOLD EQUIP- 
MENT and TOYS 



POTLATCH 
('■gift-giving') 



SALISH SPIRIT 
CANOE CEREMONY 



RATTLES WHISTLES 
THEATRICS/ 



V 



CHARMS KWAKIUTL 

WINTER CEREMONY 

SHAMAN'S 
/ EQUIPMENT 



bench audiovisual 

unit 



DE 
kan 



SETTLEMENT 
PATTERNS 



PERSONAL ADORNMENT 
and CLOTHING 



SKIN-WORKING 



ESKIMO HOUSE 



N( 
No 



DEATH and BURIAL 



SHAMANISM 
5HAMAN TRAINING 



SHAMAN 



DRUMS 



HAMATSA 



Tlingit, I 
Tsims 



bench) ^^' 



bench 



SHAMAN'S 
EQUIPMENT 



CEREMONIES 
and FESTIVALS 



/ 



bench 



^ 



SHAMAN MA 



HALLS 



HALL 6 



HALL 7 



HWEST Coast 



ART 



KWAKIUTL 
sITER CEREMONIAL 



FKAN WINTER 

^EMONIALS 

an, Salish, 

linook 

^^ 

'.SKS— 

Bella 
Coola 

\SKS 
■akiutlX 



TWO-DIMENSIONAL ART 
I SCULPTURE 



BOXES 



BOWLS 



.VISUAL PLAY 



SPOONS and LADLES- 



PAINTING 
BEAR in ART 



BOX- and CANOE' 
I MAKING 

I V 



BASKETS 



MATS 



BASKETWEAVING 
MATERIALS 



WOODWORKING 



HORN-WORKING BASKET- and MAT- 
WEAVING 



ICONOGRAPHY 



la, OTHER CEREMONIAL 
T EOUIPMENT 

/isual 

lit 



TOTEM 
(Tlingit) 




ENGRAVING 



tr® 



ee® 

TOTEMS 
akiuti and Hai 

©00 



ART of 
CHARLES EDENSHAW 

GOLD and SILVER 



ARGILLITE 



PRINTS and 
SCULPTURES 



/ 



SERI- 
GRAPHS 



TOTEMS 
(Nootkan) 

audiovisual 
unit 



e ® 


® ® 


® ® 




TOTEMS TOTEMS 
(Bella Coola) (Salish) 



bench 



BLANKET-WEAVING SKIN-WORKING 



bench 



BLANKETS 




HALLS 



HALL 9 



16 




Gallery IV, "Spiritual World. " Life-size representation of Eskimo shaman dancing. Ron Testa photo. 



17 




Gallery IV, "Spiritual World." Diorama of Hdmatsa Society ceremony (Kwakiutl). The diorama was constructed in 1904, its 
seven mannequins reproduced from life casts made on Vancouver Island, B.C., in 1899. Ron Testa photo. 



18 




June 18 -July 2 

June 18: Fly from Chicago to Anchorage, 
transfer to Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
City tour, including Fine Arts Museum, 
then dinner at historic Club 25. Over- 
night Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 19: Flight to Kotzebue, with day 
tour and overnight first class hotel. 
June 20: Depart for Nome; day tour of 
Nome. Depart for Anchorage; overnight 
Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 21: Depart early morning by motor- 
coach to Denali National Park (formerly 
McKinley). Afternoon and evening free 
for National Park Service slide shows 
and demonstrations, overnight first class 
hotel in park. 

June 22: Early morning wildlife tour in 
park; early afternoon motorcoach to 
Fairbanks. Overnight Captain Bartlett 
Hotel. 

June 23: Special tour and lecture for Field 
Museum by University of Alaska, on 
ivory and totem carving, agriculture, 
permafrost construction, oil develop- 
ment, economic situation, etc. Overnight 
Captain Bartlett Hotel. 
June 24: Fly Fairbanks to Whitehorse. 
Yukon River raft trip and outdoor BBQ 
dinner. Overnight at Travelodge. 
June 25: Day-long trip on narrow-guage 



railway to Skagway. Free time to sight- 
see, then to Klondike Hotel for overnight. 
June 26: 5-hour boat curise to Juneau; to 
Baranof Hotel for overnight, with stop at 
Mendenhall Glacier enroute. Late after- 
noon walking and van tour, including 
historic district, gold mine, government 
buildings; .outdoor salmon bake dinner. 
Overnight Baranof Hotel. 
June 27: Morning tour of Alaska State 
Museum. Afternoon program on Alaska 
Native Land Claims Settlement Act and 
current native economic conditions. 
Board cruise shipM.V. Statendam in late 
afternoon. Meals on board begin with 
dinner Cruise ship departs 11:00 p.m. 
(Statendam is 25,000-ton luxury liner.) 
June 28: Day of cruising on Glacier Bay; 
lecture room provided to the group. 
June29: Portofcall: Sitka. Special tour of 
Sheldon Jackson Museum, National 
Park Service exhibits, totem collection, 
Russian Orthodox church, Baranof Cas- 
tle site. 

June 30: Cruising off British Columbia 
coast. 

July 1: Arrive in Vancouver by Staten- 
dam in morning. Special tour of Van- 
couver, highlighting Northwest Coast 
Indian art; overnight Bayshore Inn. 
July 2: Fly from Vancouver to Chicago. 
This tour is limited to 30 persons (dou- 



ble occupancy), and includes for the tour 
price of $3,700 (single supplement: $400) 
a lecturer and escort; all lodging, sight- 
seeing, and transportation; best hotels 
available in each city; class D, E, and F 
outside cabins on the cruise ship; meals 
in the itinerary plus all breakfasts and 
all meals on the Statendam; all ground 
tours and transfers in exclusive vehicles 
and specially done for the Field Museum 
group with 30 participants. With 15-29 
participants, tours will be done exclu- 
sively, but transfers may be combined 
with other travelers. 

Our tour leader will be Dr. Margaret 
B. Blackman, associate professor of 
anthropology at SUNY-College at 
Brockport, New York, an authority on 
native cultures of the Northwest Coast 
and Alaska. 



If you wish additional de- 
tails for any tour or would 
like to be placed on a special 
mailing list, please call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours 
manager, at 322-8862, or 
write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



19 




Maritime peoples of the arctic and northwest coast 

A New Permanent Exhibit in Hall 10 

by Carolyn Blackmon and Ronald L. Weber 



Gau-erv ///. Cutaway 

replica ofKwakiutl 

house, with daily-life 

20 fiimishings. 



Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast 
marks a new era for Field Museum. It is the first 
major permanent collection to be reinstalled in 
over forty years, and it signifies the beginning of 
a new exhibit renovation program. 

The Northwest Coast Indian and Eskimo 
collections are of high importance for their 
richness and diversity in materials, design, 
craftsmanship, and regional variation. Collected 
primarily for the World's Columbian Exposition of 
1893, the artifacts represent these cultures between 
1850 and 1920. 



The five galleries within the exhibit follow a 
structured approach to man in his several cultural 
modes: people live within a space — their environ- 
ment; they use their environment to obtain food by 
fishing, hunting, and gathering; they devise shelter, 
live in villages, and form a structured society; they 
deal with the spiritual world and explain their 
existence on the basis of religious belief; tools are 



Carolyn Blackmon is chairman of the Department of 
Education, Ronald L. Weber is visiting assistant curator. 
Department of Anthropology'. 



made and decorated, and works of art are created. 
The Museum has used an innovative efTort in 
combining the artifacts with appropriate infor- 
mation. The challenge was to determine types 
of visitor use and needs across the spectrum of 
organized school groups to the casual visitor. 
A strategy was devised to present three levels 
of information that support the main themes. 
Level I is reflected in the individual gallery titles 
and large dynamic exhibits that present a major 
concept or idea. Level II exhibits, surrounding 
the central theme, are concerned with the 
many separate stories that support the main 
idea. These exhibits contain labels that often 
call out special interest items. Level III provides 
peripheral study areas that display similar 



objects which were used for a specific purpose. 
The exhibit floor plan (center spread, pp. 
14-16) provides an overview of the strategy. 

Assigning appropriate names for tribal and 
other cultural groups within the context of the 
exhibit, was not a routine matter. Some Canadian 
Eskimos prefer to be know^n as Inuit, meaning 
"real people" in their language. The Algonkian 
-word Eskimo , meaning "raw flesh eaters," is 
the only term that properly designates all of the 
native inhabitants of the arctic area from Alas- 
ka to Greenland. So Eskimo has been used in 
the exhibit for all people of this region. The 
misconception that all Eskimos share a close, 
common identity derives from an external 
vievi^oint; there is no single expression used 




Gallery II. Alaskan 
Eskimo fishing 
equipment. 21 



Gallery V. Northwest 
Coast basketry. 



bv Eskimos that lumps all of them together 
in such a convenient fashion. 

The same linguistic problem prevailed in 
finding suitable cultural tags for peoples of the 
Northwest Coast area. Today, those who speak 
the Nootkan language prefer to be known as 

"West Coast People" (west coast of Vancouver 
Island). The word nootka has no meaning in 
their language. But because the designation 

"West Coast People" may be too easily confused 
with "Northwest Coast People," the name 
Nootkan — meaning Nootka speakers — has 
been used throughout the exhibit. 




•fS 



Introduction 

In the first two miniature dioramas, dealing solely 
with the natural environment of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast, man is absent. However, the 
resources which man depended upon are included 
in detail. In "Prehistory," man is introduced into 
both the Arctic and Northwest Coast areas. "His- 
tory of Peoples" shows the history of European con- 
tacts with Arctic and Northwest Coast peoples, 
from a European as well as an Indian perspective, 
and "History of Collections" considers how the 
collection -originated. A short film about the 
peoples of Alaska and the Northwest Coast as 
thev live today completes the Introduction. 

Fishing, Hunting, and Gathering 

The two central dioramas present the chief 
subsistence activities of the Eskimo, (sea hunt- 



Gallery II. Model of 
Nootkan salmon trap. 





22 





Gallery IV. Alaskan 
Eskimo shaman 
masks. 



f 




Gallery V. Alaskan 
Eskimo walrus tusk 
I engraving. Two lower 
I pieces are carved as 
'ttt' a cribbage boards. 



ing) and of Northwest Coast peoples (salmon 
fishing). Level II cases show fishing technology, 
food gathering, and transportation, among 
others. A 16-foot Nootkan style salmon fishing 
canoe is on view, complete with paddles, boxes, 
and hooks. The boat was built specially for the 
new exhibit by Lance Wilkie, a Makah Indian 
of Neah Bay, Washington; baskets and mats 
made by Margaret Irving, also a Makah, of Neah 
Bay, have been placed in the canoe. 

Level III study areas contain halibut hooks, 
trap sticks, and clubs for use on seals and fish. 
The Eskimo side of the gallery contains materials 
concerned with land hunting, whaling, fishing, 
transportation, and the hunting and utilization 
of the seal. This gallery joins Hall 4, where one 
may find general information on Pre-Columbian 
American Indian food gathering patterns. 

Village and Society 

The replicas of Eskimo and Kwakiutl houses are 
constructed in cutaway fashion. On the Northwest 
Coast side are the two side-by-side Kwakiutl house 




Gallery IV. 

Accoutrements of 

Kwakiutl winter 

ceremony. 



replicas, identical in structure; the first contains 
the materials of daily life, the second is arranged 
for ceremonial activities. In the daily-life replica, 
fronted with glass, a woman in calico tends a fire 
as she prepares to roast mussels. In the house's 
sleeping room, left rear, two men are passing the 
time at gambling. A mixture of traditional and 
European goods are to be seen about the house. 
The houseposts have the raven crest on top. 

The ceremonial house is a walk-in exhibit, 
furnished only with an elaborately designed, 
portable, three-sectioned ceremonial dance screen 
that features the raven crest. A large, circular hole 
in the screen's center reveals a number of masks 
behind it. The houses were constructed on site for 
the exhibit by Kwakiutl Indians Tony and Calvin 
Hunt, and John Livingston; the masks were made 
by Doug Cranmer and Richard Hunt, also 
Kwakiutls. 

On the west wall we find a cutaway replica 
of a subterranean Eskimo house. The Village and 



Society gallery enters directly into Hall 5, which 
contains the Museum's renowned Pawnee earth 
lodge. Thus, three distinct North American house 
types, all within close proximity to one another, 
may be readily compared. Settlement patterns, 
house types, trade, warfare, clothing, personal 
adornment, toys, games, and pipes are also here. 
An exhibit of the potlatch (gift-giving) prepares 
the visitor for the next gallery, the Spiritual World. 



Spiritual World 

To the right we see a representation of an Eskimo 
shaman dancing. A few steps beyond, and to the 
left, we are confronted by the arresting figure of a 
Kwakiutl Hamatsa initiate and dancer emerging 
from a dance screen. This diorama, with seven 
life-size mannequins, was completed in 1904. The 
figures were modeled from life casts made on 
Vancouver Island in 1899. Nearby cases provide 



24 





90P*% 



information on shamanism, curing, and the winter 
ceremony. Beyond the Hamatsa diorama we come 
upon an awesome collection of spectacular masks, 
arranged by region of origin. 

Art 

Twenty-three towering totem poles and houseposts 
carved by Tlingit, Haida, Bella Coola, Kwakiutl, 
Salish, and Nootkan artists dominate the area. 
Exhibits include animal crests, two- and three- 
dimensional art forms, transformation themes 
in art, and the working of wood, horn, skin, argil- 
lite, and metals. The division of labor between 
men and women is treated in sections on mat- 
making, basketry, and blanket-weaving. An exhibit 
of serigraphs, hand-silk-screened prints, features 
the current renaissance of Northwest Coast art. 
A case devoted to the artist as an individual pre- 
sents works by John Robson, Charles Edenshaw, 
and his descendant the contemporarv Robert 
Davidson. The gallery also contains works by John 



Cross, Doug Cranmer, Joe Daxdd, Stan Green, Bill 
Reid, Roy Vickers,Johnny-Kit-Elswa, and Xa'niyus 
(Bob Harris), in addition to many fine pieces by 
unknown artists. 

Level III study areas containing boxes, 
bowls, spoons, baskets, mats, and blankets display 
superb pieces of artistry and craftsmanship. Since 
Eskimo artists generally work on a small scale, 
ivory engraving and stone-carving, the section 
dealing with their creations is on a correspond- 
ingly small scale. Among the contemporary 
Eskimo artists represented are Kingmeata, 
Kakulu, and Joseph Senungetuk. 

Major funding for "Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast" has been provided 
by grants from the National Endowment for the 
Humanities, with additional funding from the 
National Endowment for the Arts, Chicago Park 
District, the Barker Welfare Foundation, the Robert 
R. McCormick Charitable Trust, and the Frederick 
Henr\' Prince Testamentary Trust. D 



Gallery I. Diorama of 
Northwest Coast 
environment. 



25 



April & May at Field Museum 

Apnl 16 to May 15 



26 



Neiv Exhibits 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest 
Coast." Hall 10. A dramatic new, permanent exhibit 
opens April 24! This innovative exhibit compares and 
contrasts the theatrically ornate cultures from the 
North Pacific Coast with the austere but individu- 
alistic Eskimo societies. Situated along the 5,000- 
mile coast of the Northern Pacific and Arctic 
oceans, these two distinct cultures have adapted 
to differing environments by using similar tech- 
niques to harvest the riches of the rivers and oceans. 

Enter the Introductory Gallery (I) from Hall 3 
on the northeast corner of Stanley Field Hall. Here 
the lush forested Northern Pacific area is compared 
to the barren tundra of the Arctic. The Northwest 
Coast Indians and the Eskimos both lived by hunting 
and fishing; they never depended on agriculture. 
How they hunted, fished, and gathered from the 
land and sea is explained in Gallery II. Full-sized 
house replicas of each group are featured in the 
Village and Society Galleiy (III). The Spiritual World 
Gallery (IV) defines the inter-relationships of the 
human, animal, and spiritual world. In the final 
gallery (V) the stunning art of the Northwest Coast 
Natives and Eskimos is dramatically presented. 
The towering totem poles and tiny scrimshawlike 
engravings exemplify the rich artistic heritage 
of these groups. 

Here is an exhibit you'll enjoy at a leisurely pace, 
but will want to return to again and again. 

Gallery Nine. Special exhibit area in front of Hall 9. 
An art gallery for viewing and purchasing. The work 
of the 21 modern Northwest Coast and Eskimo art- 
ists on display represents an exciting renaissance in 
their art. From April 24 to May 25. 

Museum Bookstore. Look for the newly remodeled 
Museum gift and book shop facilities when visiting 
the Maritime Peoples exhibit. 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic 

and Northivest Coast" 

S{)ecial Programs 

Contemporary Arts Symposium. "Echoes of the Past, 
Tides of Change." Five noted Northwest Coast Indian 
and Eskimo artists speak authoritatively about the 
state of North America's richest and most famous 
artistic heritage. A related Learning Museum event. 
Sunday, April 18, 1:30 to 3:30 p.m. Members: $6. 
Nonmembers: $8. 

Northwest Coast Lecture Series. "Strategies of So- 
ciety: Social Organization." The second lecture series 



concentrates on the social structures of Northwest 
coast tribes and how their art is integrated into those 
societies. You may attend the whole series or any 
individual lecture. Each lecture is given by a leading 
authority on native cultures of the Northwest. En- 
trance for these 8 p.m. lectures is through the West 
door. The series is $9 for Members and $12 for non- 
members. Single lecture is $3; $4 for nonmembers. 
May 14: "Kwakiutl Winter Ceremonies," bv Peter 
Macnair, Curator of Anthropology, British Columbia 
Provincial Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. 



Opening Festivities 

Member's Preview. Hall 10. April 22 and 23, from 
1 p.m. to 9 p.m. Hilary Stewart, consultant for the 
exhibit's labels will be on hand to discuss the exhibit. 
The West Coast Singers and Dancers from British 
Columbia will perform on Thursday only (April 22) 
from 4 to 5 p.m. 

Pole Raising. Outside Museum's North entrance at 
1 p.m. In honor of this new exhibit, Field Museum 
will erect its first outdoor artifact — a 55-foot totem 
pole named "Big Beaver," carved by Nishga artist 
Norman Tait. The pole-raising will be accomplished 
with traditional native ceremonies. April 24 at 1 p.m. 

Ceremonl^l D.-\nces. Stanley Field Hall. A group 
of Nishga dancers will perform dances like those 
which commemorate important events in tribal life, 
to dramatize the totem pole raising. April 24 and 
25 at 3 p.m. 

Kwakiutl Dances. Stanley Field Hall. See a Museum 
exhibit come to life! Kwakiutl winter ceremony 
dances will be performed just as they are pictured 
in the exhibit. April 25 at 11 a.m. 

Craft Demonstrations. Stanley Field Hall. Some of 
the Kwakiutl and Nishga dancers are also excellent 
artists. They will demonstrate in a variety of media 
using regional materials such as wood, bone, and 
grasses. April 25 at noon. 



New Programs 

Dinosaur Scavenger Hunt— A Weekend Family 
Program. Participants can go on a "dig" in Field 
Museum's Dinosaur Hall (Hall 38) by using a spe- 
cially prepared self-guided tour. Volunteers and 
staff will be on hand to help families discover 
more about these fascinating creatures. Tour 



Lifesize mannequin of 
Kwakiutl Hdmatsa Soci- 
ety initiate, in Hall 10, 
Gallery IV ("Spiritual 
World"). Initiates, clothed 
just in hemlock boughs, 
were inducted only dur- 
ing the society's winter 
ceremonials. 




begins at the head of the Apatosaurus, the largest 
dinosaur, in Hall 38. April 17 and 18 from 1 to 3 p.m. 

Edward E. AyerFilm Lecture Series. The Spring 
1982 series of these popular adult-oriented travel 
films is beginning at a new time — 1:30 p.m. Admis- 
sion is free through the West Door. Members receive 
priority seating. 
April 17: "South and East Africa" with 

Ted Bumiller. 
April 24: "Himalayan Odyssey" with 

Frank Klicar. 

Spring Journey. "A Touch of Field Museum." This 
self-guiding tour covers such touchable exhibits as 
bones, meteorites, and polar bears. Free Journey 
pamphlets available at Museum entrances. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Tours, craft proj- 
ects, slide presentations, and films which use Field 
Museum exhibits as a springboard for new insights 
into natural history projects are featured on Satur- 
days and Sundays. Check Weekend Sheet available at 
Museum entrances for added programs. 



1 p.m. "Malvina Hoffman." Film and 
slide lecture concentrates on Portraits 
of Mankind collection commissioned 
by Field Museum. 

1 p.m. "The World of Dinosaurs." Tour 
of dinosaur collection covers basic facts 
and some speculations. 

1 p.m. "Dragons." Tour compares the 
dragons of Tibet and China with those 
from the West. 

2 p.m. "Tibetan Life and Rehgion." Slide 
lecture contrasts Tibet today with tra- 
ditional life. Tour of Museum's Tibetan 
collection will follow lecture. 

11:30 a.m. "Ancient Egypt." Tour explores 
everyday life from myths to mummies. 

1 p.m. "The Brontosaurus Story." Slide 
program surveys dinosaurs and other 
prehistoric animals. 

2 p.m. "Malvina Hoffman." Film and 
slide lecture. 

May 15 3 p.m. "Life in Ancient Egypt." Tour 
introduces newly installed exhibit and 
describes practices of Nile Valley inhab- 
itants such as mummification. 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Individuals with scien- 
tific interests and backgrounds are needed to work in 
various Museum departments. Contact the Volun- 
teer Coordinator, 922-9410, ext. 360. 

April and May Hours. In April, the Museum is open 
daily 9a.m. toSp.m., except Fridays. During May, 
the Museum is open every day 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., 
except Fridays. On Fridays, throughout the year, the 
Museum is open 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 4 
p.m. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, main floor. 



Museum Telephone.- (312) 922-9410 



27 










.r\ 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



May 1982 






W- 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Presidetit: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Laughlin 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff PJwtographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairmaji 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
MarshaU Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I, Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. WiUdns 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
WilUam V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
). Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

May 1982 

Volume 53, Number 5 



Charles Darwin: A Tribute from the Standpoint 
of Modem Evolutionary Theory 

by Bruce D. Patterson, assistant curator. 
Division of Mammals 



Thinking Scientifically 

by John Tirrell, associate curator. 
Department of Anthropology 



Alaska Tburfor Members 



8 
13 



Philippine Emergerwe 

Learning Museum Program 

by Bennett Bronson, associate curator. Department 

of Anthropology and Anthony Pfeiffer, 

project coordinator 



14 



Theatre Sans Fil 

Giant Puppet Show Comes to Field Museum 
June 26, 27 



Field Museum Tour to Australia 



18 
19 



Sorrte Responses to Early Contact 
on the Pacific Northwest Coast 

by Marlene Mussell 



Our Environment 



20 
25 



Field Museum Tburs to Kenya and 
to the Baraboo Range 



26 



May andjune at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



COVER 

Hollow bronze representation of the ancient E^ptian god 
Horns inform of a falcon. The bird wears the sacred cobra, 
or uraeus, emblematic of sovereignty, and the double crown 
of united E^pt. Eyes are overlaid with gold. About actual 
size. On view in case 17, HallJ. Gift of Stanley Field andEmest 
R. Graham. Cat. no. 173231. 



PHOTO CREDITS. Cover: NP148; p. 3, 4, 9: courtesy Bettmann Archive lnc.^_10 
Historical Pictures Service, Chicago; p 11- Bettmann A'ch^ Inc. P.l^ ^44375, 
p. 15: N21450; p. 16: N23491; p. 17 (top): N22067; p. ^^ (bottom). N23248^18 
Thpatre Sans FiT D 19 Qantas; p. 20: National Mantime Museum, p 21 N10t3b/J 
^11 N1^66 p'^23 N108468; p. 26 (top): Edward Olsen; p 26 (bottom): Audrey 
Faden. 



Field Musfum of Natunl History Butlriin (USPS 89S-940) is putjtished monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n 60605 Subscriptions: $6.00 annually »3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
indudes Bullelm subscription Opmions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. UnsoUcited manuscripts are welcome Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605 lSSN:001S-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, n. 



Charles Darwin: A Tribute 

from the Standpoint 

of Modern Evolutionary Theory 



by Bruce D. Patterson 
Assistant Curator, Division of Mammals 



 








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^^^IK ^^ 



On April 19, 1882, Charles Darwin died; he was 
in the 74th year of his life. Plagued by infirmities 
for much of his adult life, Darwin had led a life 
of quiet reflection at his family home in Down, 
England. Darwin's thinking was to produce a 
revolution in the way in which we view nature 
and ourselves. Perhaps no other scientist in 
history has so radically reordered human aware- 
ness. The centennial of Darwin's death presents 
an occasion for the celebration of human achieve- 
ment and genius. 

Darwin's insights into evolutionary phe- 
nomena were nothing short of remarkable. His 

Bruce Patterson, who joined the Field Museum staff in 1981, 
IS the recent recipient of the James H. Davis Prize, awarded 
by the Graduate School of New Mexico State University, Las 
Cruces, for his doctoral dissertation. 



Charles Darwin, 
age 61 



theory of evolution via natural selection was 
simplicity itself: 1) All biological populations are 
variable in myriad characteristics relevant to 
survival and reproduction; this variability is in 
part heritable. 2) Each biological population 
produces vastly greater numbers of offspring 
than are necessary for the replacement of the 
parental population (Darwin calculated that the 
descendants of a single pair of slow-breeding 
elephants would number more than 19 million 
after as little as 750 years, were each to survive 
and reproduce). Thus, 3) there must be a con- 
stant "struggle for existence" in which favored 
variations come to predominate in populations 
via differential survival and reproduction. While 
the two tenets of evolution via natural selection 
were well established prior to Darwin, it took 




Alfred Russel Wallace 

(1823-1913), 

co-discoverer of the 

theory of evolution by 

natural selection. 



Darwin's genius to combine them in such a way 
as to conclude that living organisms should be 
embroiled in unceasing evolutionary change. 

The inherent plausibility of evolution by 
natural selection was, however, not sufficient to 
sway a skeptical scientific and public audience. 
Darwin opened his first notebook on facts in 
relation to the origin of species in July, 1837, 
shortly after returning from the now-famous 
voyage of the H.M.S. Beagle. He was to spend 
much of the following two decades amassing 
evidence for his ideas on the mutability of spe- 
cies. During this period of incubation, Darwin 
wrote numerous scholarly works, on such dis- 
parate topics as the formation of coral reefs, the 
nature of earthquakes, the actions of earth- 
worms, and the systematics of barnacles. 

Darwin's theory on the origin of species 
was presented to the scientific community in 
abstract form in the company of a nearly identi- 
cal, but independently derived, version written 
by Alfred Russel Wallace. The two papers on 



natural selection were published simultaneously 
in the fournal of the Proceedings of the Linnean 
Society in 1858. Much later, Darwin was to write 
that "our joint publications excited very little 
attention.... This shows how necessary it is that 
any new view should be explained at considera- 
ble length in order to arouse public attention." 

The Origin of Species, the single most influ- 
ential work of Darwin's career, was pubhshed 
the following year, in November, 1859. The first 
edihon of 1,250 copies sold out on the day of 
publication, and a second edition of 3,000 copies 
soon afterwards. By 1876, 16,000 copies of the 
book had been sold in England, and translations 
of the book had appeared in most European 
languages. In his personal letters, Darwin re- 
ferred to this work as an "abstract" of a longer, 
more definitive work on the same subject — 
perhaps the Origin can be seen as an abstract of 
all his scientific work, the theme about which 
his various studies were drawn. 

The 1860s saw the publication of four other 
books by Darwin. These were followed in Feb- 
ruary, 1871, by the publication of the Descent of 
Man. In the introduction to that work, Darwin 
stated: "During many years I collected notes on 
the origin or descent of man, without any inten- 
tion of publishing on the subject, but rather 
with the determination not to publish, as I 
thought that I should thus only add to the prej- 
udices against my views. It seemed to me suffi- 
cient to indicate, in the first edition of my 'Origin 
of Species,' that by this work 'light would be 
thrown on the origin of man and his history'; 
and this implies that man must be included 
with other organic beings in any general conclu- 
sion respecting his manner of appearance on 
this earth." Emboldened by the general acclaim 
given the Origin by contemporary scientists, 
Darwin published the application of this general 
theory to human evolution. 

The Descent of Man produced a radical 
change in human perception of the natural order, 
overthrowing the concept of man's sovereignty 
over nature that had prevailed in philosophy 
since the dawn of civilization. By affirming our 
kinship with nature, our place amid countless 
other species of organisms in a system of ever- 
branching genealogy, Darwin stole our domin- 
ion but bequeathed us an extended family. More 
than a century later, we still feel the profound 
impact of this philosophical revolution. 

We at Field Museum are especially indebted 
to Charles Darwin. His theory of evolution 
makes intelligible a vast body of scientific obser- 
vations: it defines the way in which we view the 
interrelationships of organisms, and even the 
way that specimens are arranged in our research 
collections (scienhsts use genealogy as an order- 




Darwin spent eight years (1846-54) studyingyarious species of barnacles, and pub- 
lished two large monographs on the subject. Those shown here are from an 1851 edi- 
tion. In his autobiography he noted that "The Cirripedes form a highly varying and 
difficult group of species to class; and my work zvas of considerable use to me, when I 
had to discuss in the Origin of Species the principles of a natural classification." 



ing principle much as librarians use the Library 
of Congress classification system). Many of the 
questions Darwin raised in the nineteenth cen- 
tury still persist as the most fundamental and 
challenging questions in biology. These ques- 
tions serve as focuses of scientific debate, and 
comprise the basis for much of the research 
conducted by curators at the Field Museum. 
Among them are: 



• What is the tempo of evolutionary change? 
Does evolution proceed by gradual, incremental, 
and continous changes, or is change a sudden 
phenomenon followed by extended periods of 
evolutionary tranquility? 

• Why are there gaps in the fossil record, where 
we look for evolutionary intermediates? Are 
these attributable to imperfections of the fossil 
record or to the mechanism of evolution? 




Darwin's view of the 

formation of barrier 

reefs and atolls in 

consequence of the 

subsidence of islands 

was first published in 

1842; an initial stage 

in this geological 

process, shown here, 

is from that study. 

Darwin later wrote 

"No other work of 

mine was begun in so 

deductive a spirit as 

this, for the whole 

theory was thought out 

on the west coast of 

South America, before 

I had seen a true coral 

reef. I had therefore 

only to verify and 

extend my views by a 

careful examination of 

living reefs" 



• What is the basis for major evolutionary 
novelties (such as the power of flight or image- 
forming eyes)? Do these result from a steady 
accumulation of minor genetic changes or from 
the single occurrence of a "macromutation?" 

• How much of evolutionary change can be 
attributed to adaptation, and how much must 
be ceded to historical artifacts, structural cor- 
relations, and genetic drift? 

• Is there a tendency toward greater complex- 
ity of organization or perfection in evolutionary 
sequences? Are evolutionary survivors more 
adapted than extinct forms, or were they luckier 
in avoiding randomly occurring extinctions? 

• What are the units of selection? While natural 
selection clearly operates among individuals of 
a population, can it also operate at the level of 
genes, chromosomes, populations, and species? 

• How closely should biological classifications 
reflect relationships based on descent ("clad- 
ism") versus relationships based on similarity 
("gradism")? 

• What is "altruism" in an evolutionary sense? 
Do units of selection ever behave in such a way 
as to endanger their own prospects of genetic 



representation in subsequent generations? 

• What is the role of competition in ecological 
communities? Is competition an on-going pro- 
cess or do competitive problems demand evolu- 
tionary solutions? 

• What is the basis for species abundance? 
Why are some species rare and others greatly 
abundant? 

In 1979 and 1980, the research staff at Field 
Museum published more than 120 books and 
articles on natural history. (To give some notion 
of scale to this production, the 21 papers pub- 
lished in Fieldiana — the Museum's continuing 
monograph series — totalled almost 3,400 pages!) 
Virtually all of these works have bearing on 
evolutionary theory, serving to further develop 
and refine Darwin's vision of life. The enormous 
research efforts directed towards evolutionary 
theory by scientists at Field Museum and else- 
where serve as testaments to Darwin's genius 
and understanding. 

Darwin closed his Origin of Species on a 
philosophical note that has become the basis for 
biophilosophy, or the philosophy of life: "There 
is grandeur in this view of life, with its several 
powers, having been originally breathed by the 
Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, 
whilst this planet has gone cycling on according 
to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a 
beginning endless forms most beautiful and 
most wonderful have been, and are being 
evolved ."D 



J^13®e 









Darwin clearly perceived the underlying similarity between nature's selection of favorable variations and that vracticed by 
farmers and ranchers everywhere; this analogy was central to his theory. "Variation under domestication" was the title of the 
first chapter of the Origin of Species as well as the subject of a book published in 1868, from which this illustration is taken .The 
science of genetics, which would subsequently prove fully complementary to Darwin's theory, was also an outgrowth of the 
study of domesticated varieties. 



Field Museum Library Holdings of the 
Works of Charles Darwin 



BOOKS 

The Zoology of the Voyage of the H. M.S. 'Beagle,' Underthe 
Command of Captain Fitzroy, R.N., during the Years 1832 
to 1836. London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1939-1943. 
Geological Observations on the Volcanic Islands and Parts 
of South America Visited during the Voyage of H. M.S. 
'Beagle.' Srd. ed. New York: D. AppletonandCo., 1891. 
Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology 
of the Countries Visited during the Voyages Round the 
World of H.M.S. 'Beagle.' 2nd ed. London: John 
Murray, 1890. 

The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs. 3rd ed. New 
York: D. Appleton and Co., 1889. 
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. 3rd. 
ed. London: John Murray, 1861. 

On the Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilized 
by Insects. 2nd ed., rev. New York: D. Appleton and 
Co., 1892. 

The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. 2nd ed. 
New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1893. 
The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. 
Isted., 1st issue. London: John Murray, 1868. 
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. 1st 
American ed. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1871. 
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, (n.i.). 
New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1894. 
Insectivorous Plants. 1st American ed. New York: 
D. Appleton and Co., 1875. 

The Effects of Cross' and Self-fertilization in the Vegetable 
Kingdom, (n.i.). New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1892. 
The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Spe- 
cies, (n.i.). New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1893. 
The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Action of 
Worms, with Observations on their Habits. 1st ed. Lon- 
don: John Murray, 1881. 

MONOGRAPHS 

"A Monograph on the Fossil Lepadidae or Peduncu- 
lated Cirripedes of Great Britain." Paleontographical Soci- 
ety, 1851. 

"A Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia, with Fig- 
ures of all the Species." Ray Society, 1851-1854. 
"A Monograph on the Fossil Balanidae and Verrucidae 
of Great Britain." Paleontographical Society, 1854. 



NOTEBOOKS and LETTERS 

Charles Darwin's Diary of the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Beagle.' 
Edited by Nora Barlow. Cambridge University Press, 
1934. 

Darwin's Ornithological Notes. British Museum (Natural 
History) Hist. Ser. 2. British Museum (Natural Histo- 
ry), 1963. 

The Foundations of the "Origin of Species"; Two Essays 
Written in 1842 and 1844 by Charles Darwin. Edited by 
Francis Darwin. Cambridge University Press, 1909. 
Notebooks on the Transmutations of Species. Edited by 
G. de Beer. British Museum (Natural History), 1960- 
1961. 

Charles Darwin on the Routes of Male Humble Bees. 
British Museum (Natural History) Hist. Ser. 3. British 
Museum (Natural History), 1968. 
Charles Darwin's Queries about Expression. British Muse- 
um (Natural History) Hist. Ser. 3. British Museum 
(Natural History), 1972. 

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882. Lon- 
don: Collins, 1958. 

The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin. Edited by Francis 
Darwin. London: John Murray, 1887. 
More Letters of Charles Darwin. Edited by Francis Dar- 
win. London: John Murray, 1903. 
The Collected Papers of Charles Darwin. Edited by Paul 
Barrett. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972. 
Extracts from Letters Addressed to Professor Henslow by 
C. Danvin, Esq. Cambridge Philosophical Society, 1960. 
Letters between Charles Darwin and Illinois Natural- 
ist Benjamin D. Walsh. Original copies, (see Bulletin of 
Field Museum of Natural History 45(1):8-15) 
plus a number of technical journals in which Darwin 
published his shorter works {e.g. Journal of the Proceed- 
ings of the Linnean Society, Geological Society Proceedings, 
etc.) 

plus dozens of biographical and semibiographical 
works covering Darwin's role in the development of 
modern biological science 

If several copies of a work are to be found in the Museum 
Library, the earliest edition is given here. Holdings are gen- 
erally arranged by date of original publication. The notation 
"(n.i.)" indicates no additional publishing information is 
available. 




Thinking Scientifically 

The modem battle between evolution and creation science 
reveals that many people do not understand how science works 

by John Terrell 

Associate Curator of Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology 



"About thirty years ago there was much talk 
that geologists ought only to observe and not 
theorise; and I well remember some one saying 
that at this rate a man might as well go into a 
gravel-pit and count the pebbles and describe 
the colours. How odd it is that anyone should 
not see that all observation must be for or against 
some view if it is to be of any service!" This 
comment by Charles Darwin shows what the 
zoologist Michael Ghiselin has argued was the 
secret of Darwin's success: he was a man who 
thought. He reasoned imaginatively and 
carefully. He criticized his own ideas. 

This quotation comes from a letter Darwin 
wrote in 1861 to Henry Fawcett, a radical 
Cambridge economist and follower of John 
Stuart Mill, the philosopher and logician. The 
letter dates from a time little more than three 
years after Darwin first made public his own 
controversial, some said radical, theory about 
the origin of new species of plants and animals 
by means of natural selechon. The most 
important point in his comment is perhaps this 
one: all observation must be for or against some 
view if it is to be of any service. The philosophy of 
science implied by this statement — that facts, 
however diligently gathered, do not alone prove 
anything — was as controversial in the mid-nine- 
teenth century as Darwin's views on the origin 
of species. Nowadays, of course, everybody 
knows that theories, hypotheses, and specu- 
lation are as basic to science as the most solidly 
established facts. Or do they? 

For nine days last December Judge William 
Overton heard scienhsts and lawyers challenge 
Arkansas' new "creation science" law. Act 590. 
The law said creationism, based on the Bible, 
merited equal treatment with the teaching of 
Darwinian evolution in primary and secondary 
schools. Judge Overton ruled against the law: in 
his opinion, creation science was not science at 
all, nor did it fit general descriptions of "what 
scientists think" and "what scientists do." 

Defenders of the law had argued that both 
creationism and Darwinian evolution are equally 
valid, alternative scientific models. Echoing 
Darwin's critics of more than a hundred years 
earlier, they noted that evolutionary theory 



could not be proved with certainty. Hence, they 
said, evolution — like creationism — is not a true 
scientific theory. Such an argument, however 
well-intentioned, reveals that people even today 
do not understand how science works. 

Darwin respected the need for theories and 
hypotheses in scientific work, regardless how 
contrary to established thought and traditional 
common sense they might be. He was always 
on the lookout for facts. But once he had 
established a fact by what he thought was 
reasonable observation, he would at once begin 
to ask questions suggested by that fact to see if 
he could construct some tentative hypothesis 
which could explain not only that singular fact 
but might also be applicable to other cases. He 
would then proceed to see if his hypothesis did 
work in those other situations. As Darwin 
described his method of research: "my general 
line of argument" is one of "inventing a theory 
and seeing how many classes of facts the theory 
would explain." 

Sometimes he rebuked himself for "my 
common error of being too speculative." But he 
knew better. As he wrote in 1857 to Alfred Russel 
Wallace, the co-discoverer of the theory of evo- 
lution by natural selection: "I am extremely glad 
to hear that you are attending to distribution in 
accordance with theoretical ideas. I am a firm 
believer that wdthout speculation there is no 
good and original observation. Few travellers 
have attended to such points as you are now at 
work on; and, indeed, the whole subject of 
distribution of animals is dreadfully behind that 
of plants. You say that you have been somewhat 
surprised at no notice having been taken of 
your paper in the Annals. 1 cannot say that I am, 
for so very few naturalists care for anything 
beyond the mere description of species." 

This last remark — that few naturalists care 
for anything beyond the mere description of 
species — sounds perhaps extreme. However, it 
may reveal Darwin's self-consciousness about 
the degree to which his research, and Wallace's, 
departed from accepted methods of inductive 
science. 

The inductive approach in science is com- 
monly traced back to the Elizabethan philoso- 




Thomas Nast cartoon 
of Charles Darwin 
(rt.) and the founder 
of the Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty 
to Animals. Caption 
reads: "The defrauded 
gorilla: 'That man 
wants to claim my 
pedigree. He says he is 
one of my descendants. ' 
Mr. Bergh: 'Now, Mr. 
Darwin, how could 
you insult him?" 



pher and statesman Francis Bacon, who railed 
against speculation, insufficiently founded on 
fact, in his book The New Organon, published in 
1620. Simply described, the "new principles" 
set down by Bacon show how you can build an 
ideal argument from particular cases to arrive at 
true, scientific laws. 

The historian David Hull reports that scien- 
tists and philosophers in the mid-nineteenth 
century were fully aware of the shortcomings of 
Bacon's logical approach. Science had not and 
could not progress solely according to his meth- 
ods of true induction. Even so, during the last 
century someone who reasoned instead the 
way Darwin did, using the less formal but far 
more realistic logical process of give-and-take 
between fact and theory, was apt to be imme- 
diately suspect — especially if the ideas being 
put forward were as heretical as those of organic 
evolution. To a great extent. Bacon had set the 
tone for so rigid a view of proper scientific logic 
when he wrote: "Those, however, who aspire 
not to guess and divine, but to discover and 
know, who propose not to devise mimic and 
fabulous worlds of their own, but to examine 
and dissect the nature of this very world itself, 
must go to the facts themselves for everything." 

Given this intellectual heritage, it hardly 
seems surprising that Darwin at times tried to 
impress his readers that his theory of evolution 
had grown more out of facts than clever specu- 
lation. He claimed in his Autobiography that he 
began his investigations on the evolution of 
new species in 1837 by working "on true Baconi- 
an principles, and without any theory collected 
facts on a wholesale scale." Only after fifteen 



months had passed in this way and after he 
happened to read for amusement Thomas Mal- 
thus's Essay on population did the idea of natural 
selection due to the struggle for existence finally 
occur to him, so that "I had at last got a theory 
by which to work." 

This account does make it appear that Dar- 
win discovered natural selection by gathering 
facts and letting them speak for themselves. But 
from all his writings, including his Autobiography, 
it is clear enough that the basic concepts of evo- 
lution had, in fact, already begun to form in his 
mind during his voyage on the Beagle to the 
South Pacific in 1831-1836. More than that, from 
his notebooks written in 1837 and 1838 it is known 
that he had struck on the idea of natural selection 
before reading Malthus. 

After the publication of the Origin of Species 
in 1859 Darwin was genuinely disturbed by the 
harsh criticism he received. He had expected 
people to be abusive about what he had to say 
for he knew he was challenging fundamental 
beliefs about Creation and humankind's place in 
nature. But he was not prepared for the attacks 
against his methods. Some of the most respected 
scientists and philosophers of his day dismissed 
his ideas by saying his book was little more than 
pure conjecture and that he had proved nothing. 
There is little need to wonder why Darwin later 
warned his young friend John Scott, a gardener 
and self-taught botanist, to be "very sparing in 
introducing theory in your papers (I formerly 
erred much in Geology in that way): let theory 
guide your observations, but till your reputation is 
well established be sparing in publishing theory. 
It makes persons doubt your observations." 




Samuel "Soapy Sam" 

Wilberforce, (1805-73), 

who defended Anglican 

Christianity against 

the Darwinian heresy. 



10 



Both the success of Darwin's scientific work 
and the bitter criticism leveled against his ap- 
proach and his person point to a disturbing 
conclusion. The late biochemist and Nobel lau- 
reate Jacques Monod observed that the world of 
science can be divided into two camps: those for 
whom truth resides in solid objects, actually 
and fully present, and those who look beyond 
particular things for the ideal forms they repre- 
sent. "There are but two kinds of scholars," 
concluded Monod, "those who love ideas and 
those who loathe them." 

This judgment is unjust. The world of 
science and scholarship cannot be divided neatly 
into extreme opposing camps. But we should 
take a note of warning from Monod's observa- 
tion. Evidently some people even within science 
become suspicious if they believe you are going 
beyond the facts. It may be too facile to say such 
persons "loathe ideas." But how then do facts 
and theories fit together in science? 

A scientist's approach to the world is marked 
by three characteristics. First, science is based 
on observation. Regardless how skillfully you 
phrase your research questions or how clever 
your speculative ideas, if you cannot find a way 
to answer your questions or test your ideas by 
making observations, then you cannot properly 
be said to be "doing science." In short, while 



perhaps some scientists may loathe ideas, no 
scientist can embrace the option of loathing 
facts of observation. 

While science is based on observation, it is 
generally understood that science is more than 
a collection of diligently gathered facts. As the 
mathematician Henri Poincare wrote: "Science 
is built up of facts, as a house is built of stones; 
but an accumulation of facts is no more a science 
than a heap of stones is a house." Thus, another 
characteristic of science is wanting something 
more than isolated facts. That is, the aim of 
science is to generalize about people and nature. 

If you think about it, this aim is paradoxical, 
because these first two characteristics of science 
— observation and generalization — are con- 
tradictory; namely, scientists rely on their pow- 
ers of observation to make generalizations about 
the world that can never be observed, because 
the conclusions of science are always about 
things in general, not things in particular! 

This paradox is one that bothers many peo- 
ple. It does mean that even the simplest gener- 
alization is at least one step "beyond the facts." 
This is the reason for the great importance 
universally placed on a third characteristic of 
science. In the words of Poincare again: "Every 
generalisation is a hypothesis." 

What this means is that the process of mak- 
ing observations and forming generalizations 
never stops. Every scientific generalization is 
only provisionally "true," because you can never 
be absolutely sure that the next observation you 
make — which perhaps by all rights ought to be 
precisely like the ones you have been making 
— may not surprise you after all and turn out to 
be quite different, instead. 

The importance of all three of these charac- 
teristics of science — observation, generalization, 
and hypothesis — is not always seen. For exam- 
ple, one of the supposed villians in the history 
of science is Bishop Samuel "Soapy Sam" Wil- 
berforce. His role in defending Anglican Chris- 
tianity against the Darwinian heresy is often 
cast as that of an ignorant, outmoded divine 
who fought and lost a hopeless rear-guard action 
against the superior forces of enlightened scien- 
tific truth. As Richard Wrangham of Cambridge 
University observed several years ago, however. 
Soapy Sam's protests actually show he believed 
natural selection to be a more powerful force 
than Darwin himself allowed. "To the Bishop 
natural selection maintained adaptation, and 
perfect adaptation reflected God's perfection. 
It was the imperfection of Darwinian natural 
selection, rather than its overwhelming power 
to affect species, which worried him." 

Wilberforce wrote a lengthy review of Dar- 
win's book for the Quarterly Revieiv of July 1860 



which Darwin declared "picks out with skill all 
the most conjectural parts, and brings forward 
well all the difficulties." In some respects modem 
creationists sound no different from Wilberforce, 
for he, too, claimed Darwin's theory was based 
on "the merest hypothesis, supported by the 
most unfounded assumptions." 

Even if the Bishop's arguments against the 
Origin did on occasion find their mark, the lesson 
for us remains the same. Wilberforce believed 
that the complicated patterns of the organic 
world reveal Truth and the Power of God. Dar- 
win, on the other hand, knew that all scientific 
generalizations, including those in the Origin, 
are only hypotheses ever in need of experiment 
and conhnual testing. Unlike the Bishop, he 
was content with something less than absolute 
truth. "My book has been well abused, praised, 
and splendidly quizzed by the Bishop of Oxford; 
but from what 1 see of its influence on really 
good workers in science, 1 feel confident that, in 
the main, I am on the right road." 

We have now come to another quandary 
over which philosophers of logic and science 
have spent a great deal of time in argument and 
writing. Let us accept that the truth of a scientific 
idea is something that must be judged by seeing 
how well it organizes observations that have 
already been made and how well it sets us on 
the road to making new observations that ought 
to fall into line in some predicted way if we are 
at all on the right track. Then what are we to say 
about ideas that lead us to observations that we 
cannot make, either because we have not yet 
found the evidence needed to make them, or 
because we have not invented the tool that 
would let us see things in quite the manner 
required? 

The biologist C.H. Waddington in his book 
Tools for Thought wrote that to use the scientific 
method effechvely, you need to know how to 
ask important questions and then how to devise 
experiments that will give you clear-cut answers 
one way or the other. But as he observed, a 
clear, well-phrased question in itself is of possi- 
bly little use if there is no way of answering it. 
"It was no use asking perfectly clear and definite 
questions about the consistency of the moon's 
surface until there was some way of sending 
either a man or a probe up there to obtain an 
answer Similarly, there are many questions 
about history and evolution which can be very 
defirutely stated, but which will probably always 
remain unanswerable." 

Waddington is a little misleading. There is 
no way you can be absolutely sure beforehand 
whether a question is answerable until you 
have asked it. Familiarity with a scientific subject 
and the sorts of questions that others have asked 




Henri Poincare (1854- 
1912), French mathe- 
matician, who wrote, 
"Science is built up 
of facts, as a house is 
built of stones; but an 
accumulation of facts 
is no more a science 
than a heap of stones 
is a house! 



may equip you to ask useful questions that are 
probably answerable, too. But such a cautious 
pursuit of ideas is not likely to lead to truly star- 
tling discoveries. 

Waddington's own conclusion, therefore, 
about the qualities of the talented scientist is 
hardly a useful instruction: "It is the ability to 
formulate clear-cut questions which invite yes- 
and-no answers, where a technique exists, or 
can be invented, to obtain these answers, which 
separates the successful scientist from the merely 
competent professional." This statement begs 
the issue, particularly when he adds: "or can be 
invented." An ironic illustration that this is so 
comes from Darwin's own career. 

A month after the Origin was published, no 
less an old friend than the Rev. Adam Sedgwick, 
Darwin's former teacher of geology at Cam- 
bridge, wrote to him in complete dismay. "If I 
did not think you a good-tempered and truth- 
loving man, I should not tell you that ... I have 
read your book with more pain than pleasure. 
Parts of it I admired greatly, parts I laughed at 
till my sides were almost sore; other parts 1 read 
with absolute sorrow, because I think them 
utterly false and grievously mischievous. You 
have deserted — after a start in that tram-road of 
all solid physical truth — the true method of 
induction, and started us in a machinery as 
wild, I think, as Bishop Wilkins's locomotive 
that was to sail with us to the moon." 



11 



12 



One of Darwin's biographers. Sir Gavin de 
Beer, has remarked that Sedgwick attacked Dar- 
win's methods because he could not successfully 
impugn his seemingly irrreligious views by 
refuting his facts. Seen in hindsight, however, 
the Rev. Sedgwick could not have made a more 
unfortunate choice of analogy with which to 
damn Darwin's ideas than what he called Bishop 
Wilkins's "locomotive." 

John Wilkins, theologian and preacher, 
scientific experimenter. Warden of Wadham 
College, Oxford, and ultimately Lord Bishop of 
Chester, was the single most influential organ- 
izer and popularizer of science — notably the 
new Copernican astronomy — in seventeenth 
century England. He was a founder of the Royal 
Society. And as author of The Discovery Of A 
World In The Moone, which first appeared in 
1638, and several later works on science, Wilkins 
was the most important thinker of his century 
on manned flight as a scientific problem. It was 
he who forecast the invention of the aircraft — 
what Sedgwick called Bishop Wilkins's locomo- 
tive — and the development of space travel. 

This incident from the life of Charles Dar- 
win — with its ironic twist of fate that the person 
Sedgwick held up to Darwin as similarly misdi- 
rected is now seen as astonishingly foresighted 
— points to yet another feature of scientific think- 
ing that is as significant as the others we have 
previously mentioned. Contrary to what Wad- 
dington seems to have been saying when he 
wrote that a clearly defined question is of no 
use if there is no available way of answering it, 
scientists cannot afford to limit their inquiries 
solely to those questions for which they expect 
or hope to find decisive answers that will settle 
matters once and for all. 

For example, the fact that scientists had 
been trying to devise a single, unified theory 
of light since the seventeenth century without 
success — until the work of Planck and Einstein 
at the start of the present century — in no way 
lessens the significance of the research accom- 
plished or the questions asked. Like it or not, 
scientists must face the fact of life that knowledge 
is rarely adequate enough to rule out all but one 
of the possible theories that could explain the 
same phenomena in different ways. 

In short, one of the certainties of science is 
that most of the really interesting questions that 
we want to ask have more than one plausible 
answer. Indeed, as the history of thought bearing 
on the nature of light shows, we ought to be 
especially watchful when it looks as if competing 
theories can at last be reduced to one. After 
all, the rival "wave" and "corpuscular" theories 
of light waxed and waned in complementary 
fashion for two hundred years, only to be com- 



bined — paradoxically — into the ruling quantum 
theory of the present day. Need it be added that 
even the quantum theory of light is now subject 
to doubt and challenge? 

Thus, to the three characteristics of a scien- 
tific approach to the world — observation, gen- 
eralization, and hypothesis — we have now 
added two more. These are, first, the scientist's 
acceptance of his or her fate that one can never 
be 100 percent right on any question of real 
complexity and excitement; and second, the 
scientist's recognition that knowledge is rarely 
complete enough to rule out all but one of the 
plausible ways of answering even the clearest, 
most carefully defined question about the world 
and human events. On the contrary, the history 
of science cautions us to be wary if we seem to 
be arriving at only one explanation to some 
problem. In such a situation, there is a good 
chance nature is only fooling us. Or perhaps 
more likely, we are only fooling ourselves. 

Nothing we have discussed here should be 
taken to imply that scientists and philosophers 
of science are today in full agreement about 
how science works, about how scientists think, 
or about how science differs, say, from art, 
ethics, or religion. Nothing could be farther 
from the truth. And in a way, that is precisely 
the point. Science may not, and perhaps cannot, 
lead to absolute certainty or ultimate truth. The 
test of good science is instead whether you are 
traveling, in the main, on the right road, for sci- 
ence is how you travel, not a final destination. D 



Further reading 

de Beer, Gavin, Charles Darwin. London: Thomas 
Nelson and Sons, 1963 

Hull, David, Darwin and His Critics. Cambridge, Mass.: 
Harvard University Press, 1973 

Monod, Jacques, Chance and Necessity. New York: 
Vintage Books, 1972 

Ospovat, Dov, "Darwin after Malthas," Journal of the 
History of Biology, Vol. 12, no. 2 (1979), pages 211-30 

Poincare, Henri, Science and Hypothesis, New York: 
Dover Publications, 1952. 

Ruse, Michael, The Darwinian Revolution. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1979 

Shapiro, Barbara, John Wilkins, 1614-1672. Berkeley, 
Cal.: University of California Press, 1969 

Waddington, Conrad, Tools for Thought. London: 
Paladin, 1977 

Wrangham, Richard, "The Bishop of Oxford: not so 
soapy," New Scientist, Vol. 83, no. 1167 (9 August 1979), 
pages 450-51 



Alaskan 




. NATfVE CULTUEE TOUR FOR MEMBERS 




June 18 -July 2 

June 18: Fly from Chicago to Anchorage, 
transfer to Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
City tour, including Fine Arts Museum, 
then dinner at historic Club 25. Over- 
night Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 19: Flight to Kotzebue, with day 
tour and overnight first class hotel. 
June 20: Depart for Nome; day tour of 
Nome. Depart for Anchorage; overnight 
Sheraton Anchorage Hotel. 
June 21: Depart early morning by motor- 
coach to Denali National Park (formerly 
McKinley). Afternoon and evening free 
for National Park Service slide shows 
and demonstrations, overnight first class 
hotel in park. 

June 22: Early morning wildlife tour in 
park; early afternoon motorcoach to 
Fairbanks. Overnight Captain Bartlett 
Hotel. 

June 23: Special tour and lecture for Field 
Museum by University of Alaska, on 
ivory and totem carving, agriculture, 
permafrost construction, oil develop- 
ment, economic situation, etc. Overnight 
Captain Bartlett Hotel. 
June 24: Fly Fairbanks to Whitehorse. 
Yukon River raft trip and outdoor BBQ 
dinner Overnight at Travelodge. 
June 25: Day-long trip on narrow-guage 



railway to Skagway. Free time to sight- 
see, then to Klondike Hotel for overnight. 
June 26: 5-hour boat curise to Juneau; to 
Baranof Hotel for overnight, with stop at 
Mendenhall Glacier enroute. Late after- 
noon walking and van tour, including 
historic district, gold mine, government 
buildings; .outdoor salmon bake dinner. 
Overnight Baranof Hotel. 
June 27: Morning tour of Alaska State 
Museum. Afternoon program on Alaska 
Native Land Claims Settlement Act and 
current native economic conditions. 
Board cruise shipM.y. Statendam in late 
afternoon. Meals on board begin with 
dinner. Cruise ship departs 11:00 p.m. 
{Statendam is 25,000-ton luxury liner.) 
June 28: Day of cruising on Glacier Bay; 
lecture room provided to the group. 
June 29: Port of call: Sitka. Special tour of 
Sheldon Jackson Museum, National 
Park Service exhibits, totem collection, 
Russian Orthodox church, Baranof Cas- 
tle site. 

June 30: Cruising off British Columbia 
coast. 

July 1: Arrive in Vancouver by Staten- 
dam in morning. Special tour of Van- 
couver, highlighting Northwest Coast 
Indian art; overnight Bayshore Inn. 
July 2: Fly from Vancouver to Chicago. 
This tour is limited to 30 persons (dou- 



ble occupancy), and includes for the tour 
price of $3,700 (single supplement: $400) 
a lecturer and escort; all lodging, sight- 
seeing, and transportation; best hotels 
available in each city; class D, E, and F 
outside cabins on the cruise ship; meals 
in the itinerary plus all breakfasts and 
all meals on the Statendam; all ground 
tours and transfers in exclusive vehicles 
and specially done for the Field Museum 
group with 30 participants. With 15-29 
participants, tours will be done exclu- 
sively, but transfers may be combined 
with other travelers. 

Our tour leader will be Dr Margaret 
B. Blackman, associate professor of 
anthropology at SUNY-College at 
Brockport, New York, an authority on 
native cultures of the Northwest Coast 
and Alaska. 



If you wish additional de- 
tails for any tour or would 
like to be placed on a special 
mailing list, please call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours 
manager, at 322-8862, or 
write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605. 



13 



TTii's solid gold, 4'/2-lb. 

statue, acquired by 

Field Museum in 

1922, is the single 

most spectacular find 

yet made in Philippine 

archaeology (according 

to H. Otley Beyer, 

who for decades has 

been the dean of 

archaeologists in the 

area). The Buddhist 

goddess was made ca. 

AD. 1100-1300 and 

demonstrates an Asian 

influence on Philippine 

culture dating back to 

A.D. 1000 at the latest. 




LEARNING MUSEUM CONTINUES WITH 

Philippine Emergence 



By Anthony Pfeiffer, Project Coordinator 
and Bennet Bronson, Associate Curator of Asiatic Archaeology and Ethnology 



14 



Just southeast of China, forming a barrier 
between the South China Sea and the Pacific 
Ocean, seven thousand islands stretch in a chain 
a thousand miles long. The chain is anchored 



by large islands at either end: Luzon to the north 
and Mindanao to the south. Now known as the 
Republic of the Philippines, this archipelago 
holds a striking variety of cultures. They are at 



once a tribute to the overwhelming force of 
colonial occupation and a testament to the fierce 
endurance of native traditions. 

People first settled the archipelago hun- 
dreds of thousands of years ago when sea levels 
were low and one could walk between the 
Philippines and neighboring islands. Eventually 
the immigrants became sailors and farmers. 
Early Filipinos and their Malayo-Polynesian kin 
sailed to Africa and far into the Pacific. The 
farming peoples of the northern Philippines 
built colossal stone-walled terraces for their rice 
fields, terraces which became one of the wonders 
of the world. The peoples of the south were 
traders, warriors, artists, and weavers of some 
of the world's finest and least known textiles. 
There was arfistic accomplishment in the central 
Philippines as well, but we know little about it. 
About 400 years ago most aspects of the origi- 
nal Central Filipino culture were altered so 
completely as to obliterate everything that had 
gone before. 

The agents of this extraordinary change 
were a handful of overdressed foreigners who 
appeared as explorers in 1521 at the thriving 
port of Cebu, just north of Mindanao. They 
stayed for a few months, then left hurriedly 
after their leader, Ferdinand Magellan, was 
killed in a fight on a neighboring island. They 
left one object behind: a miniature statue of the 
child Jesus, a gift to the Cebu queen. She could 
not have imagined that this figure would come 
to be worshipped by 30 million Filipinos or that 
it would transform her land more completely 
than any other part of Asia. 

Christianity came again to the central areas 
in 1565, borne not by explorers but by conquerors. 
By 1600 the soldiers and missionaries of Spain 
ruled half the Philippine land area and three 
quarters of its people. Shrines and idols were 
destroyed. The old leaders were Christianized 
and Hispanicized or replaced. Palaces for the 
new leaders sprang up, along with churches, 
monasteries, universities, and cities. The ancient 
arts disappeared as did much else, except for 
the local languages and certain foods and 
attitudes. The creativity of the Filipino people 
was inexorably channeled into Spanish ways. 

Many Filipino traditions, such as reverence 
for the dead, thanksgiving after harvest, and 
fear of evil, were easily incorporated or reinter- 
preted in the light of Christianity. A heritage 
of craftsmanship was turned to new themes. 
Instead of flnztos, or guardian figurines, for exam- 
ple, Filipinos began to make ornate statues of 
the Virgin Mary, some with realistic and deli- 
cately carved hands of ivory. Philippine-made 
ivory saints became the state of the art and were 
exported to churches in Spain and Mexico. 




Mindanao chief (Bago- 
bo tribe). The ornate 
textiles he wears are 
legacy of pre-Hispanic 
southern Philippines. 



^.\y> 



Only in the extreme north and south of the 
Philippines did the old ways survive. Warlike 
peoples — the "pagans" of the northern moun- 
tains and southern jungles and the Moros or 
Muslims of the coastal lands of eastern Minda- 
nao and Sulu — fought the Spanish to a stand- 
still. They were incessant raiders who sought 
slaves, loot, and — those who were headhunters 
— heads. They fought skillful defensive wars 
against Spanish pacifying expeditions. 

The real stars of the resistance were the 
Moros, possessors of a brilliant artistic culture, 
talented weaponsmiths and shipbuilders, and 
masters of amphibious and trench warfare tac- 
tics. For more than three centuries they kept the 
Spanish at bay. In the early 1900s they fought 
fiercely against the Americans. They have con- 
tinued to resist the government of the Philip- 



15 



Sultan's grandson 

poses in typical Mow 

style: with hand poised 

on sword. Standing 

boys are his servants. 




16 



pines since its independence from the United 
States in 1946. Few peoples in history have 
fought for their freedom so effectively and long. 

The effect of centuries of Spanish occupation 
in cultural terms was to divide the Philippines 
into four parts: the unconverted areas of north- 
ern Luzon, the non-Muslim and non-Christian 
interior of Mindanao, the Muslim coastal areas 
of the southern islands, and the Catholic central 
part of the country. The last of these is the one 
that now dominates. More than ninety percent 
of Filipinos form part of the initially Hispanicized 
and then Americanized national culture, which 
most Americans (and Filipino-Americans) think 
of when they use the word "Filipino." 

Yet the minority cultures are uniquely fas- 
cinating. They are a study in contrasts. The iso- 
lated Bilaan of Mindanao live in poor, plain 
shacks, but their clothing and textile arts are 
among the most splendid in Asia. Ifugao peoples 
of Luzon are exheadhunters, talented sculptors, 
and — with their great rice terraces built of 
stone — landscape architects on a truly titanic 
scale. For centuries the Moro Tausug of Sulu in 
the far south withstood the war fleets of the 
Spanish Empire in cannon-armed canoes. Al- 
though seeming like backward savages, the 
Hanunoo of Mindoro know agriculture as well 
as any Illinois farmer; their own alphabet, devel- 
oped in prehistoric times, was used not for re- 
cord-keeping but for writing poetry. 

These minority cultures are important 



because they closely represent what all of the 
Philippines was like before the Spanish came. 
To Filipino- Americans, almost all of whom come 
from majority culture backgrounds, the "other" 
Philippines provide a key to their heritage. Is 
the Philippines just an extension of the West, 
mysteriously transplanted on Southeast Asian 
soil? Or are the Spanish-style food, the fine 
American-style education system, and fervent 
Catholic faith just thin veneers on an essentially 
Asian land? Such questions can be answered 
only by studying non- Westernized minorities 
and pre-Spanish history. 

Philippine Emergence affords the oppor- 
tunity to explore Philippine roots from their 
deepest prehistoric origins to their most recent 



The Learning Museum at Field Museum 

The Learning Museum Program began at Field Muse- 
um in 1979 with a grant from the National Endow- 
ment for the Humanities (NEW, a federal agency. 
The NEH grant allowed the Museum to present a 
three-year sequence of learning opportunities focused 
on its outstanding exhibits and collections. Courses 
were designed to give participants an opportunity to 
explore a subject in depth. Field Museum is pleased to 
announce that the Learning Museum program con- 
tinues as a featured offering in Course for Adults 
brochures. The program emphasizes special Museum 
activities and strengths as it did under NEH funding. 




controversial moments. The lecture course con- 
siders the pre-Spanish phase of Philippine his- 
tory, the Spanish period, the living or recently 
vanished minority cultures of the far North and 
South, and the role of the Philippines in world 
affairs today. Philippine Emergence is offered in 
conjunction with "The Art and People of the 
Philippines," an exhibition opening at Field 
Museum on July 17. Details of the course are 
announced in the summer 1982 Courses for Adults 
brochure. 

Watch also for the announcement of Filipino 
Afternoon in the July/August Calendar of Events. 
You are invited to celebrate the traditions of the 




Entire mountains such 
as those seen here were 
spectacularly trans- 
formed into rice ter- 
races by the farmers of 
the Cordillera Central, 
Luzon. 



Philippines. Dances from the Philippines, pre- 
sented by Lakambini of the Urban Gateways 
Folk Arts Program, are among the day's featured 
activities. Lakambini is a troupe of young artists 
who are dedicated to their Filipino cultural her- 
itage. Their dances reflect the Indo-Malaysian, 
Muslim, and Spanish influences found through- 
out the islands. Lakambini dances to the Kulin- 
tang orchestra, traditional music made on a set 
of graduated gongs. A narrator provides back- 
ground information on the culture and arts of 
the Philippines and Filipino- Americans. Filipino 
Afternoon is held on Sunday, July 18 from 1 to 
4 p.m. and is free with Museum admission. D 



Moro sailboat of the 
type often used in 
raids against the 
Spanish and for pirat- 
ical expeditions. 17 



PUPPETS EXTRAORDINAIRE: 

Theatre Sans Fil 

(The No Strings Puppet Theatre) 

James Simp)son Theatre 

June 26, 27 

2:00 p.m. 

Members: $3.00; Nonmembers: $4.00 




This unique theatre medium of gigantic puppets (6 to 
12 feet tall) makes its first apjjearance at Field Museum 
on June 26 and 27 with two American Indian legends, 
"Blue Sky Takes a Wife" and "The White Raven? The 
entire fascinating production is entitled "Tales fixjm 
the Smokehouse? 

Adults and children alike marvel at the striking 
visual and musical eflFects employed in the enactment 
of these ancient tales, in which more than 40 enormous 
puppets apjjear. Reviewers have termed the production 
"cm absolutely elegant pupjjet show that brings a my- 
thic experience to life in rapturous detail? The program, 
a Learning Museum event, is made pwssible by a grant 
from the National Endo\vment for the Humanities. 

The only Canadian company to work with giant 
puppets, the Theatre Sans FU has develojjed new tech- 
niques for their fabrication and manipulation. The 
Theatre Sans FUs was founded in 1971 and now has 
nine productions to its credit. The comjjany's reputation 
has grown steadily over the years and it was chosen to 
represent Canada at the International Pupjiet Festival 
in Washington, D.C. in 1980. 

For ticket information, please call (312) 322-8854. 
Tickets will also be available at the West Door box 
office one hour before curtain time. 



Field Museum Tours for Members 

Australia Tour 

August 23-Sqytember 12 
Tour Price: $4,998 (double occupancy) 



Leader of this extraordinary tour is Dr. Alan Solem, curator and 
head. Division of Invertebrates, who has made nine trips to Aus- 
tralia in connection with his study of land snails. The tour will fea- 
ture the glory of the Western Australia spring, the greatest display 
of wildflowers in the world, the charm of an English countryside in 
South Australian vineyards, a face-to-face meeting with eastern 
Australian wildlife in Victoria, and the awesome expanses and 
spectacular mountains of central Australia. 

The tour will arrive in Sydney on August 25, then take a 75- 
minute flight to Melbourne. The two days in Melbourne will in- 
clude visits to a local wildlife sanctuary as well as to various sites of 
cultural interest. 

A 40-minute flight on August 27 will take the group to Ade- 
laide, followed by visits to local vineyards. A 90-minute flight that 
evening will terminate at Alice Springs, the group's base of opera- 
tions for six days. Highlights here include sight-seeing into the 
outback, bush barbecues, and a visit to spectacular Ayers Rock. 

September 3 will be spent in and around Perth. Rides by 



hydrofoil and river boat will be optional. September 4 will be spent 
traveling by motorcoach to Augusta while viewing some of Aus- 
tralia's most delightful scenery. 

September 5: A trip to Walpole-Normalup National Park, see- 
ing 200-foot-high stands of red tingle trees, September 6: Colorful 
Albany, an old whaling port. September 7; A day trip to the Poron- 
gorup and Stirling mountain ranges. 

September 8: Return to Perth via the Albany Highway, with 
views of the Darling Range. September 9; Perth, with time for 
shopping and sight-seeing. September 10: In Sydney for a day of 
leisure for shopping, sightseeing, or day tours. 

September 11: Depart from Sydney for U.S. Having lost a day 
by crossing the International Date Line, we overnight at San Fran- 
cisco's Sheraton Airport Hotel. 

September 12: Arrival in Chicago. 

For additional information on this tour, please write or call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours Manager, at Field Museum, 322-8862. 




...- 19 




MM 



Some Responses to 
Early Contact on the 
Pacific Northwest Coast 

by Marlene Mussell 



m; 



rost early documentation of European contact 
Lwith the Northwest Coast peoples amply 
records the reactions of the explorers, their 
arrogance, curiosity, fear, amusement, and 
admiration; but such reports largely fail to re- 
count the natives' response to such contacts. By 
using European documentation as well as native 
oral traditions, we may arrive at an enlightening 
and somehmes amusing view of two cultures 
trying to understand and categorize one another. 
This may also yield a more balanced viewpoint, 
and a clearer picture of the groups' mutual reac- 
tion emerges. 

The discoveries of these early explorers 
validated the existence of what Europeans had 
termed the "New World," although the popula- 
tions of this continent had emigrated here from 
Siberia some 20,000 to 40,000 years earlier. A 
tradition which was to evolve into the historic 
Northwest Coast culture had emerged by at 
least 1,000 B.C., and by 500 B.C. there is evidence 
of an antecedent Northwest Coast art style. 
Captain James Cook's Thus, a complex and highly evolved society 
ships in Nootka Sound, ^^g ^^ ^^^^ t^ witness its own discovery by 
B.C. Drawing by  i-,,,! 

John Webber (1778), Europeans m 1741. 
20 expedition artist. The first contact occurred in that year 



between Vitus Bering, a Dane in the employ of 
the Russians, and the Tlingit, near Cross Sound, 
Alaska. This meeting was followed three years 
later by that of the Spaniard Juan Josef Perez 
Hernandez, who encountered a Haida group 
on Graham Island, B.C. In 1778 Captain James 
Cook, of England, made contact with the 
Nootkan of Nootka Sound, B.C., and in 1786, 
the French admiral La Perouse traded with the 
Tlingit in Lituya Bay, B.C. Other expeditions 
also occurred during this period, but these four 
highlight the internationalism of the discovery 
of the Northwest Coast, involving as it did Rus- 
sian, Spanish, English, and French explorers. 
In their accounts, many of the explorers 
tended to emphasize only what they felt was 
the Indians' awe and fear upon first seeing the 
white man and his great ships. While these 
reacHons were most natural, such descriptions 
seem to contradict the explorers' reports of the 
Indians' occasional aggressiveness, and their 
willingness not only to approach the European 
ships, but to climb aboard and barter for trinkets 
and pieces of iron. European reports also often 
failed to acknowledge the Indians' contributions 
to the discoveries of the European. By using 
Indian oral traditions, another view of such 
discoveries emerges. Thus, Captain Cook's 
"discovery" of Vancouver Island is given a less 
familiar and perhaps more down-to-earth 
approach in this contemporary Nootkan oral 
account: "They were led into a shelter, these ships. 
They got stuck. They were anchored out in the 
open Pacific and a bunch of Indian people. . . 



Marlene Mussell is a volunteer for the project "Maritime 
Peoples of the Arctic and the Northwest Coast." 



directed these ships that couldn't get in, 'cause 
they didn't know, and they were told to come 
around that point."' 

A more balanced and probably more realis- 
tic report of early encounters concerns the first 
meeting between the Tlingit and members of 
the 1789 Malaspina expedition: "The first view, 
when they were near was one of great astonish- 
ment, both for the Indians and for us; for the 
Indians because they did not cease looking at 
the ships, ... for us because such strange and 
marvelous subjects presented themselves to our 
sight'.'^ Each side captured these early meetings 
through their art; the Europeans by painting 
scenes of their ships "on location," and the 
Indians by carving petroglyphs. 

Both groups tended to focus on aspects of 
the other's culture and appearance to which 
they could relate in terms of their own back- 
grounds. One of Cook's men, for example, 
compared the Nootkan to the Scottish in 
appearance.^ William Beresford, a member 
of Captain George Dixon's 1789 expedition, 
described a woman whose "countenance had 
all the cheerful glow of an English milkmaid; . . . 
she was what could be reckoned handsome 
even in England.'"* The Indians seemed hard 
put to classify the Europeans, but the visitors' 
strange appearance was soon explained in cul- 
tural terms. 



To the Tlingit, the members of La Perouse's 
expedition looked like small black birds rising in 
the body of a great black raven. As the Tlingits' 
creator, Yehlh, often assumed the form of a 
raven, they thought that Yehlh had now 
returned to earth in this guise. As the sails were 
folded and the sailors climbed the rigging, it 
appeared to the Tlingit as if great birds were 
folding their wings, and from them, flocks of 
small black messengers were rising and flying 
about. ^ The Nootkan reasoned that since the 
Europeans lived on a floating thing — the ship 
— then the visitors must be fish, a notion con- 
firmed by the appearance of two expedition 
members in particular: a man with a large 
hooked nose who was surely a dog salmon, and 
a hunchback who must have been the humpback 
salmon transformed. Even today a Nootkan 
word for "Europeans" is mamal'ni: literally, 
"people who live on the water and float around, 
having no land."* 

Finally satisfied that these strangers were 
indeed human, the Indians were willing to trade; 
but before this could get under way, a welcoming 
ceremony was performed from the canoes. In 
1778, James King, lieutenant on Cook's ship, the 
Resolution, describes such a welcoming cere- 
mony: "the figure and actions of one of these 
(Indians) were truly frightful, he worked himself 
into the highest frenzy, uttering something 







^^^-J^ 






miif^:^^'Wem»m-r0' 



Petroglyph on Wed- 
ding Rocks, Cave 
Alava, B.C., snowing 
explorers' ships. -i 



Man of Nootka 

Sound. Portrait by 

John Webber, 1778. 



between a howl and a song, . . . this was followed 
by a violent way of talking, seemingly with vast 
difficulty in uttering the Harshest and rudest 
words." King concludes however: "yet we did 
not attribute this incantation to threatening or 
any ill will towards us; on the contrary they 
seem'd quite pleased with us. . ."^ La Perouse 
similarly describes such a reception, concluding 
that these songs were by no means disagreeable, 
"greatly resembling the plain chaunt of our 
churches."® David Sam well, surgeon's first mate 
on the Resolution, also writes about the Indians' 
singing in terms easily accessible to an English- 
man of those times: "they all sung in concert in 
a wild Manner, which some of our sailors com- 
pared to that of a Brother Tar on board who it 
seems in his time had cryed Potatoes about 
London."' 

Most of the early discoverers noted how 
much Northwest Coast Indians enjoyed singing, 
and Samwell described what must have been an 
intereshng cultural exchange between two 
groups who finally found a medium that they 




could enjoy and share together. After a Nootkan 
"sang in concert in no disagreeable Stile," the 
ship's crew reciprocated, giving "them in return 
a few tunes on two french Horns after their 
song was ended, to these they were very atten- 
tive, not a word to be heard among them during 
the time of playing; this situation was returned 
by another Song from the Indians, after which 
we gave them a Tune on the Drum and Fife to 
which they paid the same attention as they had 
done to the Horns. These Canoes staid by the 
Ship most of the Night seemingly with no 
other View but that of gratifying their Curios- 
ity."^° It is interesting here to note the Indians' 
attentiveness; for they observed the Europeans' 
performance with a cultural curiosity similar 
to that of the many explorers. The so-called 
observers had become the observed. 

At times, both groups obviously regarded 
the other with a certain contempt, possibly 
because each felt superior. The Indians' con- 
tempt found expression in stealing whatever 
they could lay their hands on. De Laguna writes 
that the Tlingit seized what they desired only 
from inferiors.^' Because the Europeans also 
often failed to reciprocate courtesies, especially 
with respect to the chiefs, the natives may have 
decided that the visitors were fair game for cheat- 
ing and theft. This sense of their own superiority 
is underscored by the fact that when caught 
stealing, the nahves behaved as though it were 
just a joke. Samwell records that when a native 
was apprehended stealing Captain Cook's 
watch, he "gave it up quietly and laughed in his 
(captor's) face."^^ Samwell also notes that "they 
considered it as a piece of Dexterity (even sport) 
that did them credit ra(ther) than any dishon- 
our."'^ La Perouse, for one, angrily denounced 
these "deceitful and malicious savages" who 
took every opportunity to rob whenever no one 
was looking.'* 

While the early explorers have left us 
thorough accounts of the natives' exotic apparel, 
utensils, and material culture in general, we 
have little information on how the Indians 
viewed or responded to the material culture of 
the Europeans. In part, this is because members 
of nonliterate societies are dependent on their 
oral tradition as the medium for documenting 
historical events and their own responses to 
them. The importance of this oral tradition as 
an historical resource has not always been fully 
realized, though it has been shown that native 
history can be passed down orally, through 
generations, with minimal modification of fac- 
tual content. Such an oral tradition among the 
Northwest Coast peoples records their attempts 
to come to terms with and understand European 
goods. 



■^. 



I, I ', \ \ I ! ' W 



rtiT 



mvmm^m^mmiummmA 




While Europeans puzzled over the meaning 
of the potlatch gift-giving ceremony, carved 
totem poles, masks, and other items, the Indians 
tried to cope with such everyday European 
goods as pilot biscuits, syrup, and hatchets. 
One Nootkan recounts that, bewildered by gifts 
of pilot biscuits, the Indians simply stored them 
away as good luck charms. Another relates how 
the biscuits were regarded as lovely pieces of 
wood to be kept as souvenirs. A European 
hatchet was worn by a chief as a necklace; instead 
of being eaten, syrup was tried as a crack sealant 



for canoes in the way that Indians normally 
used hot seal oil. ^^ 

Again we see the natives attempting to categ- 
orize a cultural curiosity so they could more 
readily comprehend it. Lieutenant King wrote 
— and his words could refer just as eas- 
ily to the native response to the European: "It 
will require the assistance of ones imagination 
to have an adequate Idea of the . . .Actions of 
these first Visitors."'"' One should add that the 
use of both oral and written traditions is also 
required, n 



House interior, Nootka 
Sound. Drawing by 
John Webber, 1778. 



Notes 



1. Efrat, Barbara and W.J. Langlois, "The Contact 
Period as Recorded by Indian Oral Tradition" in Nu. 
tka. Captain Cook and The Spanish Explorers on the Coast. 
Sound Heritage, Vol. VII, No. 1: 54-62, 1978. p. 55 

2. De Laguna, Frederica. Under Mount Saint Elias: 
The History and Cultureofthe Yakutat Tlingit, Part I and II. 
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 1972. 
Part I., p. 141. 

3. Beaglehole, J.C. The Journals of Captain James Cook 
on his Voyages of Discovery: The Voyage of the Resolution 
and Discovery 1776-1780, Vol. Ill, Part I and II. Cam- 
bridge published for the Hakluyt Society at the Uni- 
versity Press, 1967. Part I, p. 311. 

4. Dixon, Captain George. A Voyage Round The 
World; hut more particularly to the North-West Coast of 
America: performed in 1785, 1786, 1787 and 1788. George 
Goulding, London, 1789. p. 171. 



5. Emmons, G.T "Native Accounts of the meeting 
between La Perouse and the Tlingit," American Anthro- 
pology. Vol. 13: 294-298, 1911. p.297. 

6. Sound Heritage. Ibid., p. 60. 

7. Beaglehole, Ibid., part II., p. 1,394. 

8. La Perouse, Jean Francoise de Gallup, Comte de. 
A Voyage round the World, performed in the years 1785, 
1786, 1787 and 1788. Vol. I. A. Hamilton, London, 1799. 
p. 370. 

9. Beaglehole, Ibid., p. 1,088. 
Ibid. 



10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



De Laguna, Ibid., Part II., p. 355. 

Beaglehole, Ibid., p. 1,096. 

Ibid., p.LlOO. 

La Perouse, p. 398. 

Sound Heritage, p. 58. 

Beaglehole, p. 1,392. 



23 



Field Museum Store 




GALLERY NINE 



Museum Members and the general public are invited to a new 
exhibition selling of the finest art works by top artists and 
craftsmen of the Arctic and Pacific Northwest. The gallery 
opening coincides with the opening of Hall 1 0. 
Artists represented include: 



Primrose Adams 
Larry Avakana 
Steve Brown 
Joe David 
Robert Davidson 
Dorothy Grant 
Calvin Hunt 
Henry Hunt 
Tony Hunt 
Tony Hunt, Jr 
Nathan ]ackson 
John Livingston 



Melvin Olanna 
Duane Pasco 
Katie Pasco 
Selina Peratrovich 
Bill Reid 
Cheryl Samuel 
Jim Schoppert 
Joe Senengetuck 
Ron Senengetuck 
Norman Tait 
Art Thompson 



All from British Columbia, Alaska, and Washington, 
their works here assembled present a stunning array 
of talent never before seen in Chicago. Included are 
wood carvings, masks, jewelry totems, baskets, 
weavings, serigraphs, and button blankets. 

Gallery Nine Hours: 1 1-5 or by special appointment. 



Museum Store Remodeled 

The Museum Store, newly remodeled, is again open. A new 
section, featuring choice items related to special exhibitions, 
currently features a wide vanety of merchandise from the 
Arctic and the Pacific Northwest or related to the cultures 
of those regions. 



24 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Ten Years Later: Bird Populations 
Rise as DDT Falls 

Ten years after the official ban on the use 
of DDT, the news from the wild is good: 
Bald eagles, brown pelicans, and other 
bird species once decimated by the pesti- 
cide are repopulating former habitats as 
chemical residues fade. 

The pesticide was banned in 1972 in 
the face of scientific evidence that it was 
causing serious environmental problems, 
including reproductive failure in suscepti- 
ble bird species. For the past decade, hu- 
man efforts have combined with natural 
forces to restore species that experienced 
sudden, sharp declines in the 1950s and 
1960s. While specialists have teamed up to 
put intensive recovery programs into ac- 
tion, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service re- 
searchers have completed studies that 
have proven DDE, a breakdown product of 
DDT, to be specifically responsible for egg- 
shell thinning — the main reason some 
birds could no longer reproduce. Service 
scientists also learned which species were 
sensitive to the pesticide, as well as which 
ones suffered the heaviest exposures. 

Scientists at the service's Patuxent 
Wildlife Research Center near Washing- 
ton, D.C. began to study the impact of DDT 
on wildlife shortly after World War II. In 
their investigations, service scientists 
compared field observation with special- 
ized laboratory research on surrogate spe- 
cies. They verified that sensitive species 
most seriously affected by ddt build-ups 
were those which preyed on fish and oth- 
er small animals that had been exposed to 
DDT. Scientists learned that the higher a 
species and its food source were on the 
"food chain," the more severe the impact. 




The bald eagle was highly vulnerable 
since it fed heavily on fish in which DDT re- 
sidues had accumulated. By the late 1960s 
breeding populations had been practically 
lost in the Great Lakes region and on the 
East Coast, with just one known breeding 
pair each in New Jersey and New York 
State. Recently, however, bald eagles 
have returned to nest in formerly contami- 
nated wetlands. Florida's population, 
which dropped 90 percent in the 1950s has 
made a complete comeback, and the ea- 
gle's return to such regions as the Great 
Lakes may signal a turning point for 
America's national symbol. 

The peregrine falcon — an efficient 
hunter which can strike its prey at 200 
mph in mid-air — occupies a position in 
the food chain similar to that of the bald 
eagle and suffered a similar decline. By the 
late 1960s there were no peregrines 
known to nest east of the Mississippi Riv- 
er, where several hundred pairs had exist- 
ed formerly. Since there were no birds left 
to repopulate former habitats, the falcon's 
recovery has been aided in the last decade 
by re-introduction of captive-reared birds 
to promising areas, including cihes where 
prey such as starlings and pigeons 
abounds. 

While bald eagles and peregrine fal- 
cons were contaminated by DDT through 
high concentrations in their diets, re- 
search has shown that they are less than 
half as sensitive to the pesticide as the en- 
dangered brown pelican. Most pelican 
populations on the Atlantic and Gulf 
coasts were hard hit in the 1960s. In South 
Carolina, for instance, there were about 
6,000 breeding pairs before ddt washed 
into Atlantic estuaries. In 1969 — a low 
point for pelicans and other contaminated 
species — only 1,100 to 1,200 pairs were left 
and reproduction was nil. Now the peli- 
cans number some 5,000 pairs, their rapid 
comeback mostly due to their principal 
food source, the menhaden fish, not hav- 
ing retained much ddt residue. Service 
scientists say that while pelican popula- 
tions are not yet completely restored, their 
reproductive rate in most of the U.S. has 
returned to near normal. 

The osprey (fish hawk) also staged a 
rapid comeback after being nearly eradi- 
cated in parts of the East. From New York 
to Boston the osprey population fell from 
1,000 to 100 breeding pairs in the 1960s. 
But the species has been on the rise since 
the mid-1970s, with normal reproduction. 
Biologists hope ospreys will reach their 
pre-DDT populaHon level by the end of the 
century. 

Scientists have not completely an- 
swered why species with similar habitats 
vary in their sensitivity to ddt. The black 



duck, for instance, is more sensitive to ddt 
than the mallard. Terns and skimmers that 
shared coastal habitats and fish diets with 
pelicans apparently were not affected by 
the pesticide. Herring gulls consumed 
heavy amounts with little adverse reac- 
tion. 

Although DDT has been banned in the 
U.S. for a decade and residues in most 
areas are slowly fading, some bird popula- 
tions are still affected. In Los Angeles, for 
instance, high residues in sediments that 
are taking years to break down continue to 
contaminate pelicans. Also, some West- 
em migratory bird populations, including 
peregrine falcons and black-crowned 
night herons, are absorbing DDT in Latin 
American countries where the pesticide is 
still used. 

The service's research with ddt and 
other chemicals has demonstrated that 
different species react very differently to 
each compound and industrial chemical. 
For example, evidence thus far indicates 
that polychlorinated biphenyls (pcb's) 
have little if any effect on reproduction in 
some wild birds at levels normally found 
in today's environment. In contrast, some 
mammals are sensitive to minute amounts 
of pcb's in their habitats. 



California Condor Pair 
Lays and Loses Egg 

Condor Research Center biologists have 
become the first persons ever to witness 
the laying of a California condor egg and 
its loss 12 days later over a cliff edge dur- 
ing a complicated series of disputes be- 
tween the pair members. 

Remarkably, the female laid her egg 
from a standing position. It fell from a 
height of nearly a foot to the floor of a cliff 
cave, apparently without suffering any 
damage. Whether such egg laying is typi- 
cal for the species is not known. ~^~ 




OUR ENVIRONMENT 



According to Noel Snyder, the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service team leader at 
the Condor Research Center in Ventura, 
the biologist observed the event through a 
telescope at a distance of one-third of a 
mile in a mountainous region northwest 
of Los Angeles. The egg was laid at exactly 
2:06 p.m., February 14; the female began 
incubating the egg just six minutes later. 

Incubation proceeded smoothly, with 
both birds taking several-day turns sitting 
on the egg until February 24, when the fe- 
male returned from foraging and her mate 
refused to let her take over the incubation. 
She attempted to get to the egg for two 
days, only to be repeatedly rebuffed by 



the male. Finally, on February 26, she 
managed to work the egg out from under 
her mate, but it rolled out of the nest cave 
onto a ledge in the process. The birds at- 
tempted to roll the egg back into the cave 
but were unable to get it up the incline. Ul- 
hmately, the egg rolled off the cliff during 
further disputes over which bird would sit 
on it. 

Only about 30 California condors re- 
main in the wild, all in southern Califor- 
nia. "With so few birds left," Snyder said, 
"the success of every nesting attempt is 
important and every loss is a great disap- 
pointment." He added that there is still a 
"reasonably good chance" the pair may 
lay a second egg, since they lost the first 
one so early in the breeding season. In 
fact, the pair was seen courting and check- 
ing nestholes again within two days of los- 
ing the egg. Normally, California condors 



lay only one egg every two years, but they 
have been known to re-lay within a year if 
they lose an egg early. 

The condor pair is believed to be the 
same pair that successfully fledged a chick 
two years ago from a nest cave close to the 
one used this year. There were arguments 
between the pair in 1980 as well, accord- 
ing to Snyder, but the disputes did not 
develop so early and caused no apparent 
harm to the breeding effort. 

Only four other active pairs of con- 
dors have been located by the research 
team. One of these produced a fledgling 
last year and is not expected to breed this 
year as they are still caring for this young- 
ster. None of the other three pairs has laid 
as yet, with two months to go in the egg- 
laying season. The research team is keep- 
ing track of all these pairs from a safe 
distance. 



Field Museum Tours for Members 




Kenya 

with optional extension to the Seychelles 

September 11-October 1 

price to be announced 

There Is Now as there always has been, an aura or mystery 
surrounding Africa — Tropical islands and the coast, endless 
palm-fringed beaches, snow-capped mountains on the equator, 
jungle primeval, sun-baked plains. They are all a part of East 
Africa. The wildlife. . . the stately processions of elephant and 
giraffe, prides of lion, the beautiful and rare leopard, the elegant 
cheetah, the magnificent migration of the wildebeest and zebra. 
Only here in East Africa is there still such diversity. 

The itinerary includes a daytime stopover in London, over- 
nights at the Nairobi Hilton, Mt. Lodge Tree Hotel, Samburu 
Game Lodge, Mount Kenya Safari Club, Lake Hotel (at Lake 
Naivasha), Governor's Camp (Masai Mara Game Reserve), and 
other first class accommodations. An overnight stay in London 
will conclude the trip. A three-day extension to the Seychelles 
Islands is available as an ophon. 

Tour lecturer will be Audrey Faden, a native Kenyan, who 
formerly served as Officer in Charge of EducaHon at the National 
Museum of Kenya, Nairobi. 



Jcwellikt: Devil's Lake 



For tour information, please write or call the Tours Office, 322-8862 

Wisconsin's Baraboo Range 

May 22-23 
$125.00 

Dr Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, will lead tour members 
through the Baraboo Range and along the shores and hinterland 
of beautiful Devil's Lake, 150 miles northwest of Chicago. The 
Baraboo Range is of special interest as a monadnock — what is left 
of an ancient mountain range and which now stands out above 
the younger rocks and sediments. The range consists of quart- 
zite — more than one billion years old — which, although com- 
pressed in places into vertical folds, retains the original sedimen- 
tary structures. The mountains were further modified by glaciers, 
forming the lake and the picturesque glens, and changing the 
course of rivers. 

Overnight accommodations and meals will be at a nearby 
motel. Hiking clothes are strongly recommended for the sched- 
uled hikes. The trip is not suitable for children, but younger 
people interested in natural history are welcome. For further 
details please call or write the Tours office. 




Beach scene, Seychelles 



May & June at Field Museum 

May 16 through June 15 



New Exhibits 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest 
Coast." Hall 10. This dramatic new, permanent 
exhibit opened April 24. It is an innovative exhibit 
which compares and contrasts the theatrically 
ornate cultures from the North Pacific Coast with 
the austere but individualistic Eskimo societies. 
Situated along the coasts of the Northern Pacific 
and Arctic oceans, these two distinct cultures 
have adapted to difl^ering environments by using 
similar techniques to harvest the riches of the 
rivers and oceans. 

Enter the Introductory Gallery (I) from Hall 3 
on the northeast comer of Stanley Field Hall. Here 
the lush forested Northern Pacific area is com- 
pared to the barren tundra of the Arctic. The 
Northwest Coast Indians and the Eskimos both 
lived by hunting and fishing; they never depended 
on agriculture. How they hunted, fished, and 
gathered from the land and sea is explained in 
Gallery II. Full-sized house replicas of each group 
are featured in the Village and Society Gallery (III). 
The Spiritual World Gallery (IV) defines the inter- 
relationships of the human, animal, and Spiritual 
world. In the final Gallery (V) the stunning art of 
the Northwest Coast Natives and Eskimos is 
dramatically presented. The towering totem poles 
and tiny scrimshawlike engravings exemplify the 
rich artistic heritage of these groups. 

Here is an exhibit you'll enjoy at a leisurely 
pace, but will want to return to again and again. 

• Gallery Nine. Special exhibit area in Hall 9. An 
art gallery for viewing and purchasing. One may 
select from the work of more than 20 of the finest 
contemporary Northwest Coast and Eskimo art- 
ists. From April 24 to May 25. 

• Museum Store. Look for the newly remodeled 
Museum gift and book shop facilities when vis- 
iting the Maritime Peoples exhibit. 

• Totem Pole. Field Museum's first outdoor arti- 
fact, a 55-foot totem pole was raised to herald 
the April 24 opening of "Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast." 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic 

and Northwest Coast" 

Special Programs 

Northwest Coast Lecture Series. "Strategies of 
Society: Social Organization." The second lecture 



series concentrates on the social structures of 
Northwest Coast tribes and how their art is inte- 
grated into those societies. You may attend the 
whole series or any individual lecture. Each lec- 
ture is given by a leading authority on native cul- 
tures of the Northwest. Entrance for these 8 p.m. 
lectures is through the West door. The series is $9 
for Members and $12 for nonmembers. Single lec- 
ture is $3; $4 for nonmembers. 
n May 14 "Kwakiutl Winter Ceremonies," by 

Peter Macnair, curator of anthropol- 
ogy, British Columbia Provincial Mu- 
seum, Victoria, British Columbia. 
D May 21 "THngit Property Law," by RositaWorl, 
Department of Anthropology, Uni- 
versity of Alaska, Anchorage, Alaska. 
n May 28 "Heraldic Symbolism," by Joan 

Vastokas, Department of Anthropol- 
ogy, Ti'ent University, Petersborough, 
Ontario. 
n June 4 "Historical Perspectives: Form and 
Ti^adition in Regional Art," by Bill 
Holm, curator of Northwest Coast 
art, Burke Museum, University of 
Washington, Seattle, Washington. 

The Gie Sun Dancers. Tlingit Indians Irom Juneau, 
Alaska, will perform in Stanley Field Hall. Each 
Tlingit dance and its song is considered a family 
property to be performed on public occasions 
with the proper costumes and carvings. May 22 
and 23 at 1 and 3 p.m. 

Craft Demonstrations. The Tlingit and Haida 
craftspeople, who are active in the revitalization 
of Northwest Coast art forms, demonstrate their 
skills. They use such regional materials as wood, 
bone, argillite (a slate-like stone), grasses, and 
wool. The three renowned Haida basket weavers 
who will show basketry techniques are: Primrose 
Adams, Selina Peratrovich and Delores Churchill. 
May 22 and 23 at 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. 

Northwest Coast Film Series: "People of the Tide 
and Tlindra." A film series for deepening museum- 
goers' appreciation of the new permanent exhibit, 
"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest 
Coast." Free vvdth Museum admission. Saturdays 

Continued on back cover 



27 



EDITH FLEMING 

94 6 PLEASAMT 

OAK PARK ILL 60302 



May & June at Field Museum 



Continued from 

and Sundays in May, 1:30 p.m. in Lecture Hall L 

May 15, 16 Eskimo Artist: Kenojuak. The life and 
work of an Eskimo woman artist. 
The Legend of the Magic Knives. A 
Kwakiutl legend is told through 
totem pole carvings. 

May 22, 23 Wooden Box Made by Steaming and 
Bending. The traditional methods of 
making cedar boxes is shown. 
Nathan Jackson: Tlingit Artist. A con- 
temporary artist shares his insight 
into the nature of Tlingit art. 

May 29, 30 People of the Seal: Eskimo Summer. 
The summertime activities of Netsilik 
Eskimos is portrayed. 
The Crooked Beak of Heaven. A pot- 
latch and other traditional ceremo- 
nies of Northwest Coast Indians are 
documented. 

New Programs 

Kites on the Wing. A Weekend Family Program. 
Make your own kite in the shape of a bird and 
fly it (weather permitting) . Members of the Chicago- 
land Skyliners, a kite-flying club, will be on hand to 
assist. Compare the behavior and habitats of dif- 
ferent birds and view the special display of kites. 
Bring your own #20 brown paper bag and at 
least 50 feet of kite string. May 16 from 1 to 3 p.m. 

International Museum Day screening of the film 
"Museum" offers an inside look at how a museum 
functions and who the people are who work in 
them. May 16 at 1 p.m. and at 3 p.m. Free with 
Museum admission. 

Gamelan Concert. The Gamelan Repertoire 
Ensemble, now in its fifth year of performing, and 
the three-year-old Gamelan Performance Ensem- 
ble will both play during this concert in James 
Simpson Theatre. June 13 at 2 p.m. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. Tours, craft projects, 
slide presentations, and films which use Field 



inside back cover 

Museum exhibits as a springboard for new in- 
sights into natural history projects are featured 
on Saturdays and Sundays. Check Weekend Sheet 
available at Museum entrances for added 
programs. 

May 15, 3 p.m. "Life in Ancient Egypt," tour. 

May 16, 1:30 p.m. "Hitankhamun: Discovery and 

TY^asures of the Tomb," slide 

program. 
May 23, 1:30 p.m. "Tibetan Life and Religion," 

slide program. 
May 29, 2 p.m. "Chinese Ceramic Tl'aditions," 

tour. 
June 5, 1:30 p.m. "Malvina Hoffman," slide 

program. 
June 6, 1:30 p.m. "Egypt in 1923: A Nile Journey," 

film. 
June 12, 1 p.m. "Tibet Today," slide program. 
June 12, 2 p.m. "Tibet," film. 

The Nature Conservancy is a national conservation 
organization committed to preserving natural 
diversity by protecting lands with the best exam- 
ples of all components of our natural world. Slide 
lecture presents examples of preserves retained 
by the Conservancy and managed by volunteer 
land stewards. June 5 at 2 p.m. 

Continuing Programs 

Volunteer Opportunities. Individuals with scien- 
tific interests and backgrounds are needed to 
work in various Museum departments. Contact 
the Volunteer Coordinator, 922-9410, ext. 360. 

May AND June Hours. The Museum is open daily 
9 a.m. to 6 p.m. except Fridays. On Fridays, the 
Museum is open from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. throughout 
the year. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays 9 a.m. to 
4 p.m. Closed Memorial Day, May 31. Obtain a pass 
at the reception desk, main floor. 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



June 1982 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Laughlin 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chainnati 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M, Jones 
Hugo). Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N Field 
Paul W.Goodrich 
Clifford C'. Gregg 
Sarauel InsuU, Jr. 
WiJliam V Kahler 
William H. MitcheU 
JohnM. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

June 1982 

Volume 53, Number 6 


Big Beaver Comes to Chicago 

New Totem Pole Installed 


3 


Theatre Sans Fil 

Giant Puppet Show Comes to Field Museum 
June 26, 27 


9 


Field Briefs 


10 


Records from Stone 

Mammoth Publication Project Completed 
bv Alice K. Schneider 


12 


Probing the Roots of the Lincoln Park 
Totem Pole 

by Virginia A. Leslie 


18 


Field Museum's Tour to Australia 


22 



Reindeer Transport in Alaska 

bv James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology 

and Ethnology 



23 



Arctic Housing — Eskimo Style 

bv Daniel J. Jovce, staff member of the Maritime 
Peoples of the Northwest Coast Project 



Field Museum's Tour to Kenya 



Our Environment 



28 
32 
33 



June O'July at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



Fieldiana: 1981 Titles 



34 

33 



FRONT COVER 

Detail of Big Beaver totem pole, installed in front of Field 
Museum April 24, 1982. Shown here is head of grandson of 
Beaver Chief; he holds beaver tail. Photo by Tom Hocker. 

BACK COVER 

Detail of Big Beaver totem pole: head of Beaver Chief Photo 
bvRon Testa. 



FMd Museum of Natural History BuUetin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combmed 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Unve, 
Chicago, D. 60605. Subscriptions: $6,00 annually $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bullelm subscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarUy reflect the policy of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second dass postage 
paid at Chicago, II. 



Big Beaver Conies to Field Museum 




April 24, 1982, is a day to remember in the 
history of Field Museum and of the City of 
Chicago. For on that sunny, windswept Saturday, 
the Big Beaver totem pole, the 55-foot creation of 
Norman Tait, was raised and dedicated in front of 
the Museum — the first artifact to be on permanent 
exhibit outside the Museum in its 89-year history. 

For the City of Chicago, the pole was now to 
be counted among the city's great outdoor works of 
art, taking its rightful place among a Picasso, a 
Miro, a Calder, an Oldenburg, and a Chagall, among 
others. 

The pole was carved in Vancouver, B.C., by 
Nishga artist Norman Tkit, of the Tbimshian group 
of Northwest Coast Indians. Tait was commissioned 
by the Museum to carve the pole for the celebration 
of the opening of the new permanent exhibit, "Mari- 
time Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast" in 
Hall 10. 

Tait began his task by going into the forest to 
select the perfect tree. With the help of the British 
Columbia Council of Forest Industries, a 65-foot 
cedar tree was cut and transported to the ware- 



house, where he and his apprentices set to work. 
They began their carving after Tait retold the Beaver 
Legend to the group of workers. 

It is the story of how a family of Indians (Tait's 
ancestors) came to learn of the beaver's wa)?s and 
adopted the beaver figure as its clan symbol. To 
the Northwest Coast Indian carver, the pole is the 
medium for the telling of an age-old story — one 
held dear to the family of the carver and only 
allowed to be told by that family. 

When totem poles were first observed by 
European explorers they were thought to be objects 
of worship. Further contact revealed that the poles 
were simply a way to publicly tell a story and at the 
same time bring honor and status to the owner of 
the pole. In the complex societies of the Northwest 
Coast, honor and status were as important as 
material wealth. 

Free-standing poles, like the one Tait has carved 



Big Beaver totem pole, detail of human face. Photo by Tbm 
Hacker. 



Opposite: Detail of 

pole shomng figures 

of four brothers who 

adopted the Big 

Beaver storv. Photo 

by Tom Hocker. 



Top: Big Beaver 

arrives in Chicago 

April 9 via CPRail/Soo 

Line at Edward Mines 

Lumber Company. 

Middle: In front of 

Field Museum on 

April 22; Museum 

staff members shift 

the pole so that 

can'ers may complete 

final details. Bottom: 

April 23— staff 

members carry the 

pole into final position 

before raising. Photos 

bv Ron Testa. 



for Field Museum, are outgrowths of carved house- 
posts or support beams used inside Indian houses. 
Woodcarvers without peer in the Americas, the 
Northwest Coast Indians decorated these large 
wooden beams with intricate designs, using a 
unique tool, the hand adze, with precision and 
delicacy. 

The pole was raised at its lakefront setting in 
the traditional manner, using six ropes to pull it 
upright. Thousands assembled for the pole raising 
ceremony and over 200 actually assisted in raising 
it. Among those present was Her Honor Jane Byrne, 
mayor of the City of Chicago. 

Before the pole-raising, carver Norman Tait 



delivered a brief address: 

To the people of Chicago, and especially to Her 
Honor Mayor Bvme, I would like to welcome you to 
witness the birth of the Big Beaver. It has been in 
labor pains for the last six months. Where we take 
nine months, the totem pole takes six months, so I 
would like to invite the people of Chicago to come 
forward and help with the umbilical cord of this 
great person, the Big Beaver. I'd like you to also wit- 
ness the first time that the family of Rufus Watts will 
have dahced and raised thepoleat thesame time in 
about 80 years. This group is very new as compared 
to the very rich peoples of the Northwest Coast. I 
would like to thank you all for coming. Thank you. 




Jm^f^' .b.- 




The Big Beaver Legend 

The "Big Beaver" pole which Norman Tait carved for Field 
Museum depicts the figures involved in the Beaver legend 
and part of his famil/s history. The story was told to him 
by his maternal grandfather, Rufus Watts, and has been 
passed on from generation to generation. It describes the 
adoption of Beaver songs, dances, and images by the Eagle 
tribe; it is part of the Nishga heritage and is seen as the 
truth by the Nishga people. 

The story is about a family of five brothers. They were 
about to give a feast, and, to do so, had the responsibility 
to earn a lot of money. In those days money was measured 
in beaver pelts so the five brothers set off on a beaver hunt 
in the lake areas where there were known to be many 
beaver dams. The youngest brother was taken along to 
look after the pelts once they had been skinned. He was to 
count, record, and pack them. 

Not long after they had set out, the brothers came 
across a family of beavers and the hunt began. Soon they 
had collected numerous pelts. In the process of the kill, the 
beavers scattered in panic in an effort to escape. Although 
many did not escape, two small beavers did manage to get 
away from the hunters. The younger brother, sitting on 
top of the hill, noticed these two small animals running 
away. He felt sorry for the struggling beavers and went 
down the hill to help them get away. He encouraged them 
to keep on running and also gave them assistance in get- 
ting over the larger dams that were in their paths. The 
younger brother showed the little beavers great sympathy 
and gentleness. 

Eventually the two beavers disappeared into a bigger 
pond at the other end of the creek which held a very large 
beaver lodge. The younger brother noticed a smoke-hole 
in the roof of the lodge, which was used to let out smoke 
and let in light. He was puzzled. This was most unusual 
for the beaver dams. The ones he knew did not have 
smoke-holes. He peered down the smoke-hole just in time 
to see the two small beavers undressing! They were taking 
off their beaver clothing and the young man was surprised 
to see that the two little beavers were actually human be- 
ings. He continued to watch as they sat on the lap of the 
Beaver Chief and told him all about the slaughter in which 
their uncles and grandfathers were being killed at the 
other end of the creek. 

The great Beaver Chief, dressed in beaver clothes and 
beaver headdress, began to sing the Mourning Song and 
dance the Mourning Dance. He also sang a Cold Song 
which called for a freeze over the lake to protect the re- 
maining beavers that had managed to stay alive. 

The younger brother heard the songs and saw the dance 
and felt saddened by the extent of the hunt. He decided to 
adopt the songs and the dance. As he watched he noticed a 
large Totem Pole standing beside the Beaver Chief which 
consisted of many carved beavers and was called the "Big 
Beaver" pole. The young man decided to adopt this pole as 
his family crest. He went back to his brothers to share his 
discoveries. He showed them the dance that the beavers 
had performed. He sang the Mourn/n^Son^ and the Cold 
Song. The four brothers were also feeling remorseful that 
they had killed so many beavers. To show their feelings 
and in respect for the dead they decided to accept the 
younger brother's suggestion and adopted the songs and 
the dance of the beaver people. D 





Above: Procession on 

April 23, preceding 

mming the pole. 

Right: Norman Tait 

addresses audience on 

Museum 's north steps 

on April 24 prior to 

pole-raising. Chicago 

Mavorjane Bxrne is 

seated at left. Photos 

bv Ron Testa. 





Above: Rufus Watts 
(left), the Elder, grand- 
father of Norman 
Tait, wears Eagle Clan 
helmet. Norman Tait 
(right) wears Beaver 
Clan helmet. Left: The 
pole is about to be 
raised. Photos by Tom 
Hocker (above) and 
Ron Testa. 



April 24, 1982: 
"Big Beaver" is raised. 
Photo by Tom Hocker. 




PUPPETS EXTRAORDINAIRE: 



Theatre Sans Kl 

(The No Strings Puppet Theatre) 

James Simpson Theatre 

June 26, 27 

2:00 p.m. 

Members: $3.00; Nonmembers: $4.00 



"^ 




This unique theatre medium of gigantic puppets (6 to 
12 feet tall) makes its first apjjearance at Field Museum 
on June 26 and 27 with two American Indian legends, 
"Blue Sky Takes a Wife" and "The White Raven? The 
entire fascinating production is entitled "Tales from 
the Smokehouse'.' 

Adults and children alike marvel at the striking 
visual and musical effects employed in the enactment 
of these ancient tales, in which more than 40 enormous 
pupf)ets appear. Reviewers have termed the production 
"an absolutely elegant puppet show that brings a my- 
thic exjjerience to Ufe in rapturous detail? The program, 
a Learning Museum event, is made possible by a grant 
from the National Endowment for the Humanities. 

The only Canadian company to work with giant 
pupjjets, the Theatre Sans FU has develojied new tech- 
niques for their fabrication and manipulation. The 
Theatre Sans Fils was founded in 1971 and now has 
nine productions to its credit. The company's reputation 
has groivn steadily over the years and it was chosen to 
represent Canada at the International Puppet Festival 
in Washington, D.C. in 1980. 

For ticket information, please call (312) 322-8854. 
Tickets will also be available at the West Door box 
office one hour before curtain time. ' 



FIELD BRIEFS 



Philippine Exhibit Opens July 17 

The largest special exhibit of traditional 
Filipino art to be held anywhere since 
1905, "The People and Art of the Philip- 
pines'/ will be on view in Hall 26 from July 
17 through December 31. (Members' pre- 
view Friday, July 16, 1 to 9 p.m.) 

The exhibit includes loans from 16 mu- 
seums and 14 private collections in the 
U.S., Europe, and the Philippines. The 
400 objects in the show are selected to give 
a comprehensive view of the culture of 
this former Spanish and then American 
colony, now a major Southeast Asian 
nation. Special emphasis is given to the 
ceramics and gold of the prehistoric peri- 
od, the Catholic arts of Spanish colonial 
times, the noted wood sculpture of the 
northern Philippines, and the extraordi- 
nary but almost unknown textiles of the 
southern Philippines. 

"A Philippine Afternoon" will be held 
on Sunday, July 18, from 1 to 4 p.m., offer- 
ing a variety of programs in connection 
with the new exhibit. There will be music, 
dance, and craft demonstrations. Indige- 
nous PhUippine dishes, reflecting the 
impact of Indonesian, Asian, and Spanish 
cultures may be sampled. 



Commitment to Distinction Program 

Field Museum's Corporate and Founda- 
tion Division Commitment to Distinction 
Program for 1982 and 1983 is under way. 
This program seeks financial support from 
the corporate and foundation community, 
and involves leading corporation execu- 
tives in development efforts on behalf of 
Field Museum. 

George R. Baker, executive vice presi- 
dent. Continental Illinois Corporation and 
Field Museum trustee, chairs the 1982-83 
committee involving 10 section chairmen 
and more than 50 committeemen. Recent- 
ly, section chairmen gathered at the Muse- 
um for an orientation meeting. This 
meeting provided valuable insights con- 
cerning the activities being conducted in 
the Museum's areas of scientific research, 
exhibition, and education. 

Section chairmen for the 1982-83 pro- 
gram include: Daniel Calibraro, vice presi- 
dent. Corporate Communications, WGN 
Continental Broadcasting; Wade Fetzer, 
vice president. Investment Banking Ser- 
vices, Goldman, Sachs and Company; 
Thomas Hague, assistant to the chairman, 
Borg-Wamer Corporation; Robert Jagel, 



vice president. Planning and Administra- 
tion, Amoco Chemical Corporation; John 
Jones, senior vice president and treasurer, 
Chicago Bridge and Iron Company; 
Adrian Kruse, partner in banking, Ernst 
& Whinney; Donald Petkus, vice presi- 
dent. Commonwealth Edison Company; 
Stephen White, senior vice president, 
banking. Northern Trust Company; W. 
Denis Wright, senior vice president. 
Continental Illinois National Bank and Jay 
D. Proops, vice president and treasurer, 
Esmark, Inc. 

Past support for Field Museum by the 
corporate and foundation community has 
been very generous and with the out- 
standing committee of corporate leaders 
currently lending their assistance. Field 
Museum's 1982-83 Corporate and Foun- 
dation Division will achieve the continued 
and increased support of the business 
sector. 

Advisory Committee Named to 
Museum's Planned Giving Program 

An Advisory Committee to the Museum's 
Planned Giving Program has been named, 
and recently held its initial, orientation 



Members' Nights October 7, 8 

The special evenings that all Members 
have been waiting for — Members' Nights 
— will take place this year on Thursday, 
October 7, and Friday, October 8, from 6 to 
10 p.m. As in the past, the festive two- 
night open house will feature behind-the- 
scenes visits for all Members to curatorial 
areas, laboratories, preparators' work- 
shops, and other facilities that are not 
ordinarily accessible to the public. Cura- 
tors and other staff will be on hand to dis- 
cuss their research and the collections 
with visitors. Live music will be featured 
in Stanley Field Hall and, of course, re- 
freshments wi]\ be served. 



New Hours Schedule 

As of May 1, a new schedule of visiting 
hours to Field Museum went into effect. 
The new daily hours are 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 
p.m., year-round. The day of the week 
during which no admission fee is required 
of nonmembers has been changed to 
Thursday (from Friday). In addition to 
these changes, the Museum will in the 
future be closed on Thanksgiving Day 
(beginning this year), as well as on 
10 Christmas and New Year's Day. 



Fossil Loan to Smithsonian. Fossils of six South American vertebrates and one cast were recently 
loaned to the United States National Museum (part of the Smithsonian Institution) for a special 
exhibit being mounted there. Jessica Harrison (right), research associate, and Dan Chaney (left), 
preparator, both of the Department of Paleobiology, USNM, are shown in Field Museum's fossil 
preparator's lab with some of the specimens to be loaned. With them are Field Museum's Larry Mar- 
shall (2nd from left), assistant curator of fossil mammals, and William F. Simpson, Field Museum's 
preparator of fossil vertebrates. Dr. Harrison stands by the carapace of a glyptodont; to the left is a 
mastodont skull; the large skeleton on the table is that of a giant ground sloth. Behind Harrison's 
hand is a cast of the smaller skull of a scxalled "terror bird," or Andalgalomis. 




meeting. The committee will advise staff, 
participate in clinics and seminars, and 
generally make known the Museum's 
programs to professional associates and 
to others. 

The committeemen, who will serve 
two-year terms, will work with two trus- 
tees of the Museum. William R. Dickin- 
son, Jr., of Wilson & Mcllvain, serves as 
chairman, and Hugo J. Melvoin, C.P., 
serves as vice-chairman. 

The committeemen are: John P. Crilly, 
vice president and division head. Personal 
Banking and Trust, First National Bank of 
Chicago; Millard J. Grauer, CLU, Owens, 
Grauer, Dotterer and Dewyer; Addis E. 
Hull III, partner, Jenner & Block, and 
head. Estate Planning and Probate Divi- 
sion; Samuel W. Hunt, senior vice presi- 
dent and head. Trust Personal Services, 
Continental Illinois National Bank & Trust 
Company; Thomas F. Jones, Jr., senior 
vice president. Personal Trust Group, 
Harris Trust & Savings; Reinald McCrum, 
vice president. Trust Personal Financial 
Planning, the Northern Trust Bank; and 
Martin H. Rosenberg, executive director, 
Illinois CPA Society. 




Women's Board presidents, past and present. ShownattheMay 5, 1982, Women's Board An- 
nual Meeting are (L. to r.) Mrs. T. Stanton Armour (newly elected president), Mrs. Robert Wells 
Carton (president 1980-82), Mrs. Edward F. Swift (1978-80), Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson (1974-76), 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger (1972-74), and Mrs. Edward Byron Smith (1970-72). Not shown is Mrs. 
Joseph E. Rich (1976-78). The Women's Board was founded by the late Mrs. Hermon Dunlap Smith, 
who served as first president, 1966-70. 



New Women's Board Officers 



The new president of Field Museum's 
Women's Board is Mrs. T. Stanton 
Armour, elected at the board's annual 
meeting. May 5. Mrs. Armour succeeds 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton, elected in 1980. 
Other new officers elected at the meeting 
were Mrs. John W. Madigan, vice presi- 
dent; Mrs. Evan G. Moore, vice president; 
Mrs. George Barr McCutcheon II, record- 
ing secretary; Mrs. Philip D. Block III, cor- 
responding secretary; Mrs. Angelo R. 
Arena, board member-at-large; and Mrs. 
Hammond E. Chaffetz, board member- 
at-large. 

Continuing in their respective offices 
are Mrs. John C. Meeker, vice president; 
Mrs. Newton N. Minow, treasurer; and 
Mrs. Ben W. Heineman, board member- 
at-large. 



Public Relations Manager Honored 

Mary A. Cassai, Field Museum's public 
relations manager, has received a 1982 
Merit Award from the Publicity Club of 
Chicago for individual management of a 
publicity campaign in the "Institutional 
Programs" classification. The award was 
given for the planning and coordination of 
a print-television-radio program on Field 
Museum produced by the advertising firm 
of D' Arcy-MacManus & Masius, Inc. 

The award is given to the top ten per- 
cent of advertising and public relations 
professionals in the Midwest. Last year 
Cassai was also honored by the Publicity 
Club of Chicago for outstanding promo- 
tion of the "Great Bronze Age of China" 
exhibit. 



Mr. Hisazo Nagatani, center, is presented a certificate by Field Museum President Willard L. 
Boyd at a dinner in Nagatani's honor, March 30. The certificate named Nagatani, donor of many 
fine works of Chinese and Japanese art, as a benefactor of the Museum. Seated at right is Dr. Lau- 
rence Sickman, distinguished sinologist and former director of the Nelson Gallery, Kansas City, Mo. 



IMPIRIAL ROIES 




"Azure Dragon," from 
stone coffin of Wang 
Hui, Szechuan, Han 

dynasty, 56 x 122 cm, 
#233583. 




Records from Stone 

faj Alice K. Schneider 
Associate, Department of Anthropology 



12 



The first time I exchanged appreciations with 
an elderly Chinese scholar on his country's art, 
he inquired, "Are you familiar with Chinese 
robins?" 

I gazed at his open, smiling face for clues to 
his meaning, but could only lamely reply, "No, 
I didn't know there was a separate species." 

Last summer I was to give a slide-show talk 
on Chinese rubbings, a subject I had been closely 
involved with for more than 15 years — ever 
since the "robins" were straightened out. The 
talk was to be for a senior citizens' study group, 
and on the morning of the presentation I over- 
heard a lady tell her husband that she wouldn't 
be able to join him for their customary afternoon 
stroll because she planned to attend a session 
on "Chinese massage." 

So what are these elusive objects, these 
Chinese rubbings? They are simply prints, mis- 
named "rubbings" because in English we do 
not have a close equivalent for that art form: 
impressions made by tamping indelible ink on 
mulberry paper that has been placed over an 
incised surface, usually stone or wood. This is 
called the "wet" method, as distinguished from 
the "dry." 

In the latter, paper is truly rubbed with 
charcoal or crayon. Because dry, or "English 
rubbings" (so-called because most were made 
from inscribed tablets in English churches), are 



more familiar to us, we borrow the term "rub- 
bings." The wet technique far outlasts the dry (I 
have seen a rubbing fragment from the seventh 
century). But for some reason, the wet method 
continues to be used almost exclusively in the 
Orient, notably in China and Korea. 

Still less familiar to the western world are 
the engraved stones themselves and what they 
represent: more than 2,000 years of cultural 
history. They include not only important com- 
memorations comparable to those found in the 
ruins of other ancient civilizations, but a variety 
of documents as well as religious works. This 
information is rarely found in books published 
in the West on China, possibly because there 
has never been a comprehensive study of this 
remarkable phenomenon in either East or West. 
But 80 years ago the exciting potential of this 
material came to the attention of a young sinol- 
ogist, Berthold Laufer. 

In 1901, Laufer, a recent emigrant from 
Cologne to the United States, was sent to China 
to obtain artifacts for New York's American 



Catalogue of Chinese Rubbings from Field Museum 
(1981), 746 pp., was researched by Hoshein Tchen and 
Kenneth M. Starr, prepared by Alice K. Schneider, 
photographed by Herta Newton and Field Museum 
Division of Photography, and edited by Hartmut Wal- 
ravens. Fieldiana Anthropology New Series Number 
3; $67.50. 



Museum. While there, he was advised by 
Chinese scholars that for research purposes he 
must have rubbings made from the engraved 
stones which were to be found in temples, im- 
perial buildings, and their courtyards. The easily 
transportable rubbings would provide an inex- 
pensive permanent library of research tools 
from original sources that he could always use 
in the convenience of his own study. 

Ultimately, Laufer acquired some 4,000 
rubbings in China, shipping them back to the 
American Museum for safekeeping. In time, the 
collection was to be one of the largest and most 
comprehensive in the world. But for many years, 
because of Laufer's involvement in so many 
other research activities, he had little opportu- 
nity to use these rubbings. In 1907, Laufer joined 
the curatorial staff of Field Museum, and in 
1923, upon his request, the American Museum 
presented the entire collection to him. 

In 1929 Laufer sought funds to finally re- 
search and catalog the collection. He proposed 
the establishment of an "Oriental Research 



Institute" in Washington, D.C., which would 
underwrite his "project of a corpus inscriptio- 
num Sinicarum," as he called it. Over a period 
of 15 years, the rubbings were to be cataloged 
into 15 volumes. The projected cost: $150,000. 
But in October, 1929, the American economy 
collapsed, and the ambitious project never ma- 
terialized. A catalog of only the non-Chinese 
portion of the collection was published in his 
lifetime. Laufer died in 1936, leaving a body of 
published and unpublished work that was as 
remarkable for its intellectual amplitude as for 
its size. Included in his will was a bequest to the 
Field Museum of his entire library of rubbings. 

It was fitting that the cataloging of the rub- 
bings collection was finalized by another scholar 
equally dedicated to achieving a bridge between 
the cultures of the East and West: Dr Hoshien 
Tchen, a refugee from China who came to Field 
Museum in 1954; he remained until 1973, serving 
as consultant for the East Asian collection. 

A collector of Chinese art as well as former 
legal adviser to the Palace collection in Peking, 









^i. f 



4-V^ 



C'^ ^ 'i^^^^ -*. 



't»^M. ^^^-^M^.} ff> 



^^-^• 






i^ 



.t% 



•i 










^M^i^^m^^-^^,^ .J^,Sii>^.~^^^^^^. 






% 






"Prancing Deer/Horse 
and Rider" tomb brick 
relief from Szechuan, 
mid-2nd century; 43 x 
44 cm: #233533. 13 




"Landscape, Pine Tree, Cranes," from Confucius Temple, 
Hsi-an; 189 x 79 cm, #244810. 



14 



Tchen was curious to view the Field Museum's 
holdings in Chinese art and artifacts. What was 
not then known, not even to Dr. Kenneth Starr, 
the East Asia curator, was the importance of the 
contents of some 30 boxes from the American 
Museum that had remained in storage for more 
than a quarter century. Dr. Tchen has spoken 
often of opening these boxes as "a tremendous, 
exciting discovery," describing their contents as 
"the best part of the Chinese collection." 

In 1961 Starr and Tchen began to curate the 
rubbings collection, Tchen doing the research, 
largely with the aid of Chinese sources, and 
Starr doing the editing — a responsibility I grad- 
ually took over after coming to the Museum 
as a volunteer in 1965. 

Cataloging collections is a large part of mu- 
seum work. Usually it involves identification of 
the specimen, determination of its age and pro- 
venience, when and where it was obtained by 
the Museum (not always identical with pro- 
venience), physical characteristics, by whom it 
was made, etc. A photo, ideally, rounds out the 
catalog entry — all of this posted on a 3 x 5 index 
card for the curator's file and duplicated in a set 
of ledgers, kept in the department office. Today, 
in Field Museum's Department of Anthropology, 
most of this information has been stored in a 
Computer as well. (See "Cannibals, Catalogs and 
Computers," September 1977 Bulletin, p. 10.) In 
the late 1950s, Starr designed an 8 x 11-inch card 
that would accommodate more information 
about the rubbing or engraving it documented. 

Fortunately, for those of us interested in 
Chinese antiquities, cataloging in that country 
is an ancient, highly respected tradition, and 
among the Chinese literati there is also a cher- 
ished tradition of collecting objects of historic or 
aesthetic value. So in addition to information 
available in public archives, were those orderly 
notebooks kept by private collectors; some col- 
lectors even published memoranda on their art 
works or antiquities. And then there were the 
ti-pos — colophons written on the mountings of 
valuable rubbings, sometimes even engraved 
into the stones. 

However, from the mid-Ming dynasty 
{ca. 1500) on, the Chinese did not consider their 
contemporary engravings important enough to 
record. By then, many engravings were recuts, 
copies of older stones which time had worn 
away or which had entirely disappeared, leaving 
only rubbings to trace from. Therefore, for those 
rubbings not described in any publication, Tchen 
had to glean his data from the rubbings them- 
selves — no simple task. This required the ability 
to read classical Chinese (a skill roughly com- 
parable to that of a present-day Englishman 
reading Chaucer), for many inscriptions were 



written in this antique style. It also required a 
familiarity with the Chinese classics and their 
writers, with collections of rubbings and their 
collectors, artists, calligraphy and writing styles 
of various periods, and an eye for recognizing a 
recut stone. Few young people in China today 
can do any of this. 

This ability to distinguish between originals 
and recuts was perhaps the most recondite of 
the skills involved. Recuts were made at least as 
early as the Sung dynasty (960-1279), and in 
some instances there were even forgeries of 
famous calligraphers. A recut was made from a 
fresh stone slab on which a rubbing of the origi- 
nal stone had been imposed as a pattern. Recut 
engravings, therefore, contained all the original 
information, including dates, signatures, and 
even seals of the original. Recut stones were 
also made from copies of earlier copies of pos- 
sibly a freehand copy of an original painting. 

The condition of a rubbing is not necessarily 
an indication of its age; the condition depends 
on how well the paper has been preserved. I 
have seen beautiful rubbings from the Sung 
dynasty which had been carefully preserved in 
private collections; I have also seen twentieth- 
century rubbings that were already victims of 
neglect. 

Laufer's meticulous field notes were of 
particular help to Tchen — except for his data on 
proveniences. For the last millennium, inscribed 
stones of historic significance had been removed 
from their outdoor settings to pagodas, temples, 
and other structures that offered some protection 
from the elements; but in being moved, infor- 
mation about the original site was not always 
recorded. For this reason, the provenience given 
for a large number of rubbings in our collection 
may be a particular temple, though that temple 
was in fact merely a repository. 

An early catalog, based upon Laufer's field 
notes, had been prepared by C. Y. Hu and Rose 
G. Miller, who worked at Field Museum between 
1939 and 1944. In his research, Tchen frequently 
referred to the Hu-Miller catalog; but mistakes 
and omissions had to be corrected. And Hu- 
Miller covered only the acquisitions made by 
Laufer, not later additions to the collection. 

Rubbings acquired from other people, such 
as some 300 fascinahng prints made from Han 
(206 B.C. -AD. 220) tomb tiles and stones in Sze- 
chuan by D.C. Graham in the 1930s, required 
sources of information other than Hu-Miller. 
These various sources were not always in 
agreement. In contrast, a well known private 
collection of old rubbings mounted in book 
form and purchased by the Museum in the 1960s 
was thoroughly documented. Tchen often 
referred to our work as "very delicate" because 




it was so easy for errors to be committed. 

In early 1972 it looked as though we were 
actually going to finish researching this vast 
collechon. Our completed 8 x 11 catalog cards 
could have made a stack nine feet high. The 
rubbings — some as large as 4 x 7 feet — were 
all returned to their enormous storage cabinets. 
One final question remained: What was to 
happen now? 

Was all this work to remain buried in stor- 
age, the final resting place of so much research, 
or should it be made available to scholars hungry 
for research tools? Few scholars knew of this 
collection, even fewer that information about 
each item in the collection was now readily 
accessible. A modest catalog list would do; but 
how does such a list reach its intended readers? 
Dr. James VanStone, editor of Fieldiana, the Mu- 
seum's continuing monograph series, proposed 
that a comprehensive compendium be prepared. 
I blithely agreed to spend one more year on this 
work. It was to take nine. 

Approval for publication in Fieldiana was 
dependent upon several conditions: first, con- 
firmation by a recognized scholar in at least a 
closely related field that the results of our 
research were worth publication. This posed 
something of a problem since there was no 
authority in this country on Chinese rubbings. 
Funding for the project was also required. In 
addition, compiling a book required an editor 
with a thorough knowledge of Chinese. Dr. 
Tchen would no longer be available. Reaching 
the respectable age of 80, he was to retire in 
1973. 

Fortunately, none of these problems proved 
insurmountable. Professor T. H. Tsien, director 
of the University of Chicago's East Asian Library, 
and an eminent authority on the development 
of writing in China, heartily approved the idea 



Catalogue of 
Chinese Rubbings 
from Field Museum 



15 



of the proposed work. He based his endorse- 
ment on recognition of the importance of the 
collection and on his respect for the scholarship 
of Dr. Tchen. Funding for the project was ob- 
tained from the National Endowment for the 
Arts. And from Laufer's home town of Cologne, 
in 1974, came another young graduate in Chinese 
studies and one of the world's three experts in 
the Manchu language. Dr. Hartmut Walravens. 
He had come to examine manuscripts of Laufer's 
for a bibliography he was preparing, and he 
remained, in his words, "to act as midwife" for 
the rubbings collection catalog. 

Walraven's contributions went far beyond 
the duties of editing. He compiled an extremely 
useful bibliography from Tchen's sources — a 
task that would have been an impossibility for 
me, since most of these sources were in Chinese. 
He did further research in areas of his expertise 
such as Manchu, Mongolian, and on rubbbings 
from two Christian cemeteries in China, which 
were of particular interest to him. He also helped 
to design and execute the extremely complicated 
indices and other sections of the book. He did 
the editing in Cologne and later Hamburg, over 
a period of years, for it had been agreed that we 
would work by mail. I was to send him dupli- 
cates of manuscript copy in installments of about 
100 sheets each to minimize difficulties in the 
event of loss. And indeed one packet was lost 
with neither of us being aw^re of it at the time. 
The Post Office had placed its stamp over 



my envelope number. By the time we realized 
that a packet was missing, a complete numerical 
order of catalog entries had been worked out. 
As a consequence of the loss the numbering 
had to be redone — a task of several months. 
This was just the beginning of many problems 
exacerbated by thousands of miles between us. 
Because of a long delay in receiving an antici- 
pated introduction, both of us — independent of 
the other — solicited another. After four years 
we had three! 

A specialist in Arabic was needed. Wal- 
ravens found one in Germany; 1 found one here. 
And the opinions of the two on certain texts 
differed. Duplicates of file cards, prepared 
because there were duplicate rubbings in the 
collection, were endlessly turning up; so the 
duplicate entries they generated in the book 
had to be weeded out. Even some new rubbings 
materialized, overlooked by Tchen and myself 
in our research. And finally, two boxes of rub- 
bings sent to us by the American Museum in 
1970 turned out to be ours; they, too, had to be 
included. Unaccountably, these Laufer rubbings 
had remained at the American Museum all these 
years. The appendices grew. 

It was at this point that reconstruction of 
rooms in the Department of Anthropology 
began. The incessant drilling of pneumatic 
hammers and flying dust made work there so 
difficult that I bought an electric typewriter 
and continued the project at home. 



One of 16 illustrations 
of steps in processing 

cotton, from stone sl(W 

in the Imperial Palace, 
Peking: 1765 or later; 

26x26 cm, #118293. 

16 (Cropped at top) 





In May, 1977, five years later, the finished 
manuscript was submitted to the Fieldiana editor 
for final processing before being typeset. What 
had we accomplished? A behemoth catalog of 
2,014 printed rubbing entries with titles in 
English and Chinese characters, plus translit- 
erations. Some titles, where called for, 
were done in transliterations of Manchu, 
Mongolian, Tibetan, etc. Individual indices of 
titles, personal names, temples, proveniences, 
and so forth, as well as the usual subject index 
ran to 148 printed pages. The indices alone had 
involved three years of cross-checking, shaping, 
and refining by several dedicated volunteers as 
well as by Walravens and me. The illustrations 
filled 137 full pages. 

Again, a dedicated volunteer, Herta New- 
ton, a former professional photographer, and I, 
working three days a week at the Museum, 
"finished" the photography for the book in two 
years. Not that the selection of photographs 
was by any means then completed; it was most 



difficult to represent pictorially a collection of 
such enormous proportions and variety. In the 
case of very large rubbings of calligraphy, only 
details were photographed, because it would 
have been impossible to see anything adequately 
in a small photograph. 

Still ahead were four years of editing and 
proofreading by the Fieldiana editor and several 
of us, paid and unpaid, associated with the 
project. 

Why do we do these things? 

Fortunately, we cling to ideas, beliefs, and 
morsels of encouragement. I had absorbed Dr. 
Tchen's conviction that we were compiling the 
first catalog of its kind anywhere in the world, 
important not only because its subject was rub- 
bings, but for its extraordinary breadth and 
scope. The final product, I am satisfied, is a 
valuable, unique research tool — "Project of a 
Corpus Inscriptionum Sinicarum," even though 
I had known nothing of Laufer's ambitious 
attempt until after the book was finished. D 



Map of China during 
general Sung period 
and places visited by 
the legendary Emperor 
Yii, from Confucius 
Temple, Hsi-an, dated 
1137: 79 X 78 cm: 
#245523. This has 
been described by schol- 
ars as the most remark- 
able cartographic work 
of its age in any culture. 



17 



Probing the Roots of 

The Lhteoln Park Totem Pole 



br Virginia A. Leslie 



The City of Chicago can boast of two monu- 
mental family trees: carved cedar totem 
poles from the Pacific Northwest Coast. One 
was acquired by the city more than half a century 
ago; the other went on view outside Field 
Museum on April 24 of this year. 

The former is a 40-foot pole located in 
Lincoln Park at Lake Shore Drive and Addison 
Street. It was given to the Chicago Park District 
in 1929 by James L. Kraft, founder of Kraft Foods, 
Inc. (now Kraft, Inc.), and dedicated to the 
schoolchildren of Chicago. It is the remarkable 
story of the Lincoln Park pole that concerns us. 

Mr. Kraft, an accomplished lapidary and 
collector of jade, made trips to Alaska and the 
Pacific Northwest in his search for jade and 
other rare minerals; while on these trips the 
unique art and culture of the Northwest Coast 
Indians attracted him. In 1926, after several 



Lincoln Park totem pole 

as it apyeared at Alert 

Bay, B.C., about 1910. 

Courtesy American 

Museum of Natural 

18 History. 




years' negotiation, he purchased through inter- 
mediaries two totem poles (including that in 
Lincoln Park) and a 15-foot-long feast dish; the 
three huge carvings were shipped to Chicago 
from British Columbia on railroad flatcars. 

In 1927 the feast dish was given to the Wis- 
consin State Historical Society, in Madison, and 
in 1952 the society loaned the dish to the Thomas 
Burke Memorial Washington State Museum at 
the University of Washington in Seattle, where 
it remains on exhibit. 

One of the totem poles now stands on pri- 
vate property, "Kraftwood Gardens," of the 
Kraft family in northeastern Wisconsin. The 
other pole lay on the Chicago River dock of a 
Kraft plant for three years. Finally, in 1929, James 
Kraft gave the pole to the City of Chicago. It 
was erected in Lincoln Park and officially dedi- 
cated in June of that year. 

Preparations at Field Museum for the new 
maritime peoples exhibit in Hall 10 (which fea- 
tures 24 totem poles) stimulated renewed inter- 
est in the Lincoln Park pole. Dr. Ronald L. Weber, 
visiting assistant curator for the Northwest Coast 
Project, was skeptical of information on the 
pole's bronze plaque, which attributes the pole 
to the Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands, 
British Columbia. For a number of reasons, 
including stylistic features and motifs in the 
pole's design, he concluded that it was actually 
the work of the Kwakiutl of Vancouver Island, 
rather than of the Haida. His doubts led to my 
investigations. 

Kwakiutl poles are often dramatic and col- 
orful, as is the Lincoln Park pole. Kwakiutl pole 
figures are frequently painted in several colors, 
notably white and green, and the proportion of 
head to body of carved figures is relatively real- 
istic; thunderbirds and eagles are embellished 
with outstretched wings and other appendages 
for heightened effect. Haida poles are greater in 
diameter than the Kwakiutl. Carving is deep in 
Haida poles, but the cylindrical form of the log 
is retained; large and small creatures are inter- 
twined, prominent heads are half the full length 
of figures, and detail work in Haida poles is 



Virginia A. Leslie was a volunteer for the Northwest Coast 
Project. 



more apt to be carved than painted; red and 
black are used, but sparingly. 

Several Northwest Coast symbols are miss- 
ing from the Lincoln Park pole or are incorrectly 
placed. Plumes characteristically found on the 
thunderbird's head are missing, but those of a 
seesioohl (mythological serpent) are between 
the whale's tail and the thunderbird's claws; the 
whale has large, outspread wings, though 
winged whales are not to be found on any other 
known Northwest Coast pole or even in the 
mythology of the region. 

The probable explanation for these oddities 
is that before the two poles were shipped to 
Chicago, the wings and plumes were detached 
to prevent damage. When reassembled, the 
thunderbird's wings were correctly attached to 
the Lincoln Park pole, but both the thunderbird's 
wings and the seesioohl plumes of the Wisconsin 
pole were reattached by mistake to the Lincoln 
Park pole. A rudimentary set of wings unlike 
any to be found on Northwest Coast poles were 
added to the Wisconsin pole; apparently these 
were carved in Wisconsin. 

Close inspection of photos taken at Alert 
Bay between 1903 and 1910 leaves no doubt that 
the two poles once stood in that village and are 
of Kwakiutl, not Haida, origin. There are also 
paintings by well known Canadian artist Emily 
Carr of these poles as they stood at Alert Bay 



in 1912. According to information in the Kraft 
archives, the two poles are so old that no one 
knows when they were carved, but Alert Bay 
was settled in the 1870s, and 1898 photos of the 
village fail to show them. 

Further evidence that the Lincoln Park pole 
is Kwakiutl rather than Haida is to be found in 
records about the pole held by Kraft: "It was 
not carved by human hands," says a recorded 
legend, "but came floating down the Nimpkish 
River in prehistoric times to the steelheaded 
man, . . . founder of the tribe, as a symbol of pro- 
tection from the Great Spirit." The Nimpkish 
River flows into Johnstone Strait, across from 
Alert Bay (home of the Kwakiutl). This is some 
200 miles south of the Queen Charlotte Islands 
(home of the Haida). 

The bronze plaque in front of the Lincoln 
Park pole names that pole "Kwa Ma Rolas," 
which, says Bill Holm (curator at Thomas Burke 
Museum), is a corruption of "Gwa mo las," or 
"K'wamaxalas" — the name of the Alert Bay 
owner of the Wisconsin pole. Kraft's interme- 
diaries, probably not well informed about North- 
west Coast art, were apparently confused about 
the poles' identities and legends. "The Kraft 
version of the myths," says Holm, "includes 
many correct names and recognizable snatches 
of the stories, but it has all been garbled." 

The pole that once stood before Chief 




Lincoln Park totem pole 
about 1967 (left) and 
during 1929 dedication 
ceremony (right). Note 
differences, particular- 
ly in painted design. 
Photos courtesy 
Kraft, Inc. 19 



Waxawidi's house, in Alert Bay, is described by 
Holm as having "a thunderbird at the top, next 
a baleen whale (Gwa' yam) with a man on the 
back and at the bottom a sea monster. The baleen 
whale has a small dorsal fin, very long pectoral 
fins, and a row of white spots on each side." 
This description of the whale accurately de- 
scribes that on the Lincoln Park pole. "By com- 
parison, the killer whale on the Kraftwood 
Gardens pole has a very long dorsal fin, short 
wide pectoral fins, no spots, and a differently 
shaped head." The idea of the Haida origin and 
antiquity of the two poles, he concludes, "is 
preposterous." 

Gloria Cranmer Webster, curator of U'Mista 
Cultural Society at Alert Bay and granddaughter 
of Chief Gwa mo las, reports that in 1978 her 
brother Doug Cranmer designed a new version 
of the Gwa mo las pole in honor of their father. 
The pole bears a striking resemblance to the 
Kraftwood Gardens pole. 

So we have every reason to believe that the 
two poles (as well as the feast dish now in Seattle) 
were carved by the Kwakiutl of Alert Bay in the 
early 1900s. Perhaps the mistake of attribution 



of these three pieces is partly because a number 
of small Haida argillite (dark carbonaceous slate) 
sculptures were also shipped in 1926 to Kraft 
from the Queen Charlotte Islands. 



Conservation of the Lincoln Park Pole 

The victim of carpenter ants, vandals, and the 
normal processes of weathering and decay, the 
Lincoln Park pole has undergone more than a 
dozen modifications since 1929. All of this res- 
toration has been done under the direction of 
Kraft, since it was arranged at the time of pre- 
sentation that the company would continue to 
assume the task of maintenance. 

In 1958 the arm positions of the pole's hu- 
man figure were changed because rotting had 
occurred in the arm sockets; one hand was 
moved so that it covered the figure's eyes. (A 
visitor observed that the figure no longer had to 
watch the spectacle of rush hour traffic which 
passed before it.) In 1966 the pole was drastically 
renovated: the sea monster at the base, the 
thunderbird at the top, and the human figure 



Bronze plaque at 

Lincoln Park totem 

pole. Corrected, it 

should read: 

"Waxawidi, historic 

Kwakiutl Indian totem 

pole from Alert Bay, 

Vancouver Island, 

B.C., carved from a 

single red cedar The 

figures from top to base 

represent the Kulos, 

member of the 

thunderbird family, the 

baleen whale with a 

20 man on its back" 






[A4,^ 





COTKNV i'i 



eaKr.KT<nTr> va tit 



Ui 






l%ktX 



Uv2UI 



iSsirKr' 



««..->^bx>H;vY FEET men m,., . . , 

feTKK, TELLS THE TRlh^L US AOi^ 
TM O OV ONE OF THE Q] 
LAltON'^ tN TfciE^.^ VORt 

_J^RyED . ; ^OTflE^P6Ll|.; 

« RESENT THE XDLt>S;GREA:ife ;._, - 
tONDERBlRD; FOUNDER OF THtv .t ^V. 
^H&-.\DSO MAN;AND TUE RILLEl QifEA Li 



m- 



.rtiE SCHdOL ClULDREH OK _ 
JlMXMK: ROLAS'rSTANtiiS %i LlNJCOLi 



' ■'^HmiiAMERtCACN.riNDK 



i^ 



w^ 



% •^■* 







The Kraftwood Gardens (Wisconsin) totem pole as it appeared in Alert Bay, B.C., about 1910 (left pole in left photo), and in 
Kraftwood Gardens, about 1950. Left photo courtesy Vancouver Museums and Planetarium Association — the Vancouver 
Museum; right photo courtesy Edith Dahlberg. 



were recarved by skilled Kraft workers. Their 
work appears to be a faithful attempt at restora- 
tion, but the painted symbols were inaccurately 
reproduced. The significance of features in the 
original painting, which had been more elabo- 
rate, could never have been appreciated by a 
restorer unacquainted with Northwest Coast 
art. A Kraft supervisor of the restoration has 
suggested that Kraft workers trying to copy the 
intricate symbols perhaps didn't realize how 
important it was to duplicate features with great 
accuracy. The original painted symbols on the 
pole have almost totally disappeared. 

Kraft has tried conscientiously to hold back 
and to repair the onslaughts of time as well as 



acts of vandalism against the pole. This historic 
monument should be restored to its original 
form by a skilled Kwakiutl craftsman. D 



Of particular help to the author in researching this article were 
Ronald L. Weber, visiting assistant curator in Anthropology, 
Field Museum; Bill Holm, curator of Northwest Coast Indian 
art at the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State 
Museum at the University of Washington in Seattle; Peter 
Macnair, curator of anthropology at the British Columbia 
Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.; Everett Kuhn, Sarah 
M. Mauro, John X. Thomas, and Albert F. Schuber — all of 
Kraft, Inc.; and Edith Dahlberg (daughter of James Kraft), 
who loaned photographs and other material. Additional 
information was found in the Chicago Historical Society 
Library and in archives of the Chicago Park District. 



21 



Field Museum Tours for Members 

Australia Tour 

August 23-September 12 
Tour Price: $4,998 (double occupancy) 



Leader of this extraordinary tour is Dr. Alan Solem, curator and 
head. Division of Invertebrates, who has made nine trips to Aus- 
tralia in connection with his study of land snails. The tour will fea- 
ture the glory of the Western Australia spring, the greatest display 
of wildflowers in the world, the charm of an English countryside in 
South Australian vineyards, a face-to-face meeting with eastern 
Australian wildlife in Victoria, and the awesome expanses and 
spectacular mountains of central Australia. 

The tour will arrive in Sydney on August 25, then take a 75- 
minute flight to Melbourne. The two days in Melbourne will in- 
clude visits to a local wildlife sanctuary as well as to various sites of 
cultural interest. 

A 40-minute flight on August 27 will take the group to Ade- 
laide, followed by visits to local vineyards. A 90-minute flight that 
evening will terminate at Alice Springs, the group's base of opera- 
Hons for six days. Highlights here include sight-seeing into the 
outback, bush barbecues, and a visit to spectacular Ayers Rock. 

September 3 will be spent in and around Perth. Rides by 



hydrofoil and river boat will be optional. September 4 will be spent 
traveling by motorcoach to Augusta while viewing some of Aus- 
tralia's most delightful scenery. 

September 5: A trip to Walpole-Normalup National Park, see- 
ing 200-foot-high stands of red tingle trees, September 6: Colorful 
Albany, an old whaling port. September 7: A day trip to the Poron- 
gorup and Stirling mountain ranges. 

September 8: Return to Perth via the Albany Highway, with 
views of the Darling Range. September 9: Perth, with time for 
shopping and sight-seeing. September 10: In Sydney for a day of 
leisure for shopping, sightseeing, or day tours. 

September 11: Depart from Sydney for U.S. Having lost a day 
by crossing the International Date Line, we overnight at San Fran- 
cisco's Sheraton Airport Hotel. 

September 12: Arrival in Chicago. 

For additional information on this tour, please write or call 
Dorothy Roder, Tours Manager, at Field Museum, 322-8862. 




Reindeer Transport in Alaska 



by James W. VanStone 
Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 




In 1892 domestic reindeer were brought from 
northeastern Siberia to the southern Seward 
Peninsula region of western Alaska through the 
joint efforts of the Reverend Sheldon Jackson, 
Presbyterian missionary and first general agent 
of education in Alaska, and Captain Michael A. 
Healy of the U.S. Revenue Marine Service. 

This relocation program, supported by the 
U.S. Bureau of Education, was intended to pro- 
vide Alaskan Eskimos with a new source of food 
that would offset a recent decline in sea mam- 
mals; during the second half of the nineteenth 
century, commercial interests had indulged in 
unrestricted killing of whales, walrus, and seals. 
There also appeared to be a small market for the 
meat and skins of the reindeer, and it was hoped 
that Eskimos could derive a cash income from 
their sale. 

The first deer were landed by the U.S. 
Revenue Cutter Bear in July 1982 on the north 
shore of Port Clarence at a place that the Rever- 
end Jackson had named the Teller Reindeer Sta- 
tion (after John M. Teller, a United States senator 
who had helped steer appropriations for the pro- 
ject through Congress). Chukchi herders were 
brought from Siberia to teach Eskimos the tech- 



niques of herding and the proper methods of car- 
ing for the animals. Between 1892 and 1902 more 
than 1,200 reindeer were landed at Teller and, as 
herders were trained, the deer were eventually 
dispersed to Eskimo communities. 

At the opening of the station. Miner W. 
Bruce, a former Nebraska journalist, was ap- 
pointed superintendent. He and one assistant 
had charge of four Chukchi herders, an equal 
number of Eskimo apprentices, and approxi- 
mately 175 reindeer. Bruce served as superin- 
tendent for only one year, then became a trader 
to widely scattered areas of Alaska, where a size- 
able portion of his business was the collecting of 
Eskimo manufactures for resale. It was during 
this period that he negotiated sales of important 
collections of Eskimo material culture to Field 
Columbian Museum (later named Field Museum 
of Natural History); these were acquired by the 
Museum in 1894 and 1896. 

The Reverend Jackson, who traveled exten- 
sively in Alaska every summer between 1886 and 
1906, also obtained Eskimo artifacts, and his col- 
lection of approximately 270 undocumented 
specimens from western and northwestern Alas- 
ka was acquired for the World's Columbian 



Eskimo herders with 
reindeer at Port 
Clarence, Seward 
Peninsula, Alaska. 
Note small stature of 
reindeer. N17013 



23 



The Reverend Sheldon 

Jackson, Presbyterian 

missionary who helped 

introduce reindeer into 

Alaska. NW8676 



24 




100km 



-v ^«J^-°'- 



Exposition and accessioned by Field Columbian 
Museum in October 1893 (accession 126). This 
collection contains a number of interesting speci- 
mens associated with the reindeer project and 
related to the use of these creatures as draft 
animals. 

Although the Chukchi herders who were 
brought from Siberia proved to be unsatisfactory 
and were soon replaced by Norwegian Lapland- 
ers, the Siberians were responsible for the intro- 
duction of certain items of material culture 
associated with reindeer transport that had been 
previously unknown in mainland Alaska. In 
Alaska, dogs had been the only animals used by 
Eskimos to pull sleds, and although the intro- 
duced reindeer had originally been perceived as 
a food source, it was only natural that the Chuk- 
chi would stress the value of these animals for 
transport, since this type of use was important to 
them in their Siberian homeland. 

The collection of Eskimo material culture 
made by Jackson contains two Siberian-style 
sleds, a reindeer collar, and three whips specif- 
ically associated with reindeer transport. It is 
possible that Jackson obtained these articles in 
Siberia himself or that they were brought from 
there by Chukchi herders; but it is more likely 
that the items were made in Alaska by Eskimos 
who modeled them after Siberian prototypes. In 
any event, they closely resemble reindeer equip- 
ment used by Eskimos on St. Lawrence Island in 
Bering Strait and by Eskimos and Chukchi on the 
adjacent Siberian coast. 

The first sled (cat. no. 13122), top photo, op- 
posite, is about 6y2 feet long, 17 inches wide, and 
weighs slightly over 20 pounds. The wooden 
runners, curving up toward the front, are fas- 
tened to narrower strips which curve over and 
are spliced to short sections; these, in turn, are 
lashed to parallel pieces forming the sides of the 
bed. The bed itself is formed by two long pieces 
of wood which run parallel to the side pieces and 
five short crosspieces lashed at right angles to 
them at approximately one-foot intervals. Under 
each crosspiece is a curved antler stanchion 
lashed to the bed and the runners. Further sup- 
port is provided on each side by slanting pieces 
which extend from the second stanchion (from 
the front) to the runners between the third and 
fourth stanchions. The bed is about half the 
length of the sled Vertical wooden stanchions 
are on each side between the first and second 
antler stanchions. For additional support, lash- 
ings extend from this point to the runners both in 
front and behind . At the rear of the sled, a curved 
piece of wood arches from one side of the back 
stanchion to the same place on the opposite side. 
On the left side a curved support piece — actually 
two pieces spliced — extends from the runner be- 




Siberian-style Alaskan 
Eskimo sleds (above 
#13122, below 
#13123). m08462, 
m08460 




> 




/ 




k 



o 



Re inclccx. (/(fltA^n_h.> 



Late 19th-century 
drawing by unknown 
Bering Strait Eskimo. 
Courtesy Smithsonian 
Institution, National 
Anthropological 
Archives. 25 




Above, left: reindeer collar (#19360, N108251 ); above right: 
harnessed reindeer (photo courtesy Archives and Historical 
Collections, the Episcopal Church): below: 19th-century 
drawing by Eskimo, showing harness apparently made of 
skin or leather (photo courtesy Smithsonian Institution, 
National Anthropological Archives). 





tween the fourth and fifth stanchions to the side 
of the curved back piece. The sled shoes are rec- 
tangular sections of whale rib with paired lashing 
holes connected by a lashing slot. All lashings 
and splices are with strips of untanned sealskin. 

The second sled (cat. no. 13123), second 
photo from top, previous page, is about 20 inches 
longer than the first and about the same width. 
Although constructed in much the same manner, 
it is somewhat heavier and more solidly built. 
Construction of the bed is similar except that 
there are seven crosspieces and a corresponding 
number of curved antler stanchions. The runners 
extend to within a foot of the front, where they 
are spliced to curved pieces which extend over 
and are spliced to the sides of the bed just in front 
of the first stanchion. There is a stabilizing cross- 
piece which joins the two runners at the front of 
the sled. Slanting reinforcements for the stan- 
chions extend on either side from the bed at a 
point just beyond the second stanchion to the 
runners between the fifth and sixth stanchions. 
All lashings and splices are made with tanned 
strips of sealskin. There is no upright curved 
piece at the back of this sled and one-piece whale 
bone shoes are lashed to the runners. 

A sled similar to the above two being pulled 
by a pair of reindeer is shown in a late 19th- 
century drawing on the previous page by an 
unknown Bering Strait Eskimo. Flat-bedded 
Alaskan Eskimo sleds, also used with reindeer, 
were probably more suitable for heavy loads. 

The Jackson collection contains a single rein- 
deer collar (cat. no. 19360), above, which consists 
of three curved pieces rather carefully fashioned 
of spruce driftwood. All are approximately 36 
inches in length; the harness fragments adhering 
to them are strips of tanned sealskin with the hair 
removed. All pieces are slightly countersunk on 
one side in the area of harness slots, and the side 
pieces are decorated with engraved half circles 
and parallel lines. 



The side pieces of such a collar fit rather far 
back on the reindeer's neck and were tied togeth- 
er at the notches on the bottom (see reindeer 
photo, opposite). The top piece fits across the 
animal's back in the same area. Strips of harness 
extend from both sides and the top. A late 19th- 
century Eskimo drawing (opposite page, bot- 
tom) shows a complete reindeer harness appar- 
ently made entirely of skin or commercially 
tanned leather, rather than with a wooden collar 
like Field Museum's specimen. 

Dimensions of the collar just described indi- 
cate that domestic reindeer were small animals. 
They seldom grew to more than three feet at the 
shoulders and were usually less than two-thirds 
the size of their wild caribou relatives. The small 
stature of reindeer is clearly illustrated in the 
photo on page 23, which shows two of the ani- 
mals with three Eskimo herders near Port Clar- 
ence on Seward Peninsula. The remainder of a 
herd can be seen in the background. 

There are three reindeer whips in the Jack- 
son collection, two of which are shown at left. 
The whip on the right in the photo (cat. no. 
13146) is 55 inches long and consists of a wood 
shaft which widens slightly at the proximal end, 
where a round antler ferule is attached. The 
length has been increased by means of a much 
shorter piece of wood spliced to the distal end 
with sinew. A small ivory knob fits over the distal 
tip and is attached with sinew. The harnessed 
reindeer was encouraged to move faster by sim- 
ply being touched with this knob. The driver in 
the drawing on page 25 holds a similar whip. The 
left whip shown here (cat. no. 13148) — 95 inches 
long — has an ivory ferule at the proximal end of 
the shaft; at the distal end a sealskin cracker is 
attached with braided sinew. 

Items of Siberian material culture like those 
described here are among the few tangible re- 
mains of an early government program to pro- 
mote the welfare of Alaskan Eskimos. Although 
domestic reindeer owned by Eskimos lasted in 
some areas of Alaska as late as the mid-1940s, the 
animals eventually disappeared and the herding 
program must be regarded as a failure. Reasons 
for this failure were multiple; among them were 
poor herding techniques, predation, disease, 
marketing problems, and vacillating govern- 
ment policies. 

Most important, perhaps, was the fact that 
the nomadic routine required for good close 
herding was scarcely compatible with the seden- 
tary pattern of village life traditional to most 
Alaskan Eskimos. Failure on the part of the gov- 
ernment to appreciate this incompatibility was 
probably the single most important reason for 
the eventual complete failure of the reindeer 
herding program. D 



Reindeer whips 
(#13148 at left, 
#13146 at right). 
m08689 



27 



Arctic Housing— Eskimo Style 



by Daniel J. Joyce 

StafTMember of the Maritime Peoples 
of the Arctic and Northwest Coast Project 



Cutaway replica of 

Alaskan Eskimo house 

in Gallery III, Hall 10. 

Photo by Ron Testa. 




28 



Gallery III ("Village and Society") of Hall 10, 
where the new exhibit, "Maritime Peoples of 
the Arctic and Northwest Coast',' was installed 
in April, features a cutaway full-scale replica of 
an Eskimo* house of western Alaska. The house 
is furnished with items of daily life that were 
typical at the turn of the century. 

In the soft glow of firelight during the long 
winter nights, family members lounged about 
in such a dwelling, talking of everyday affairs in 
their remote comer of the world. For them, this 
was the only world that mattered. They 
stretched out on sleeping platforms, naked 
under their animal-hide covers. To them, the 
cool temperatures were comfortable. In the half- 
light, they saw only walls of driftwood and 
whalebone darkened with soot. Through the 
smokehole in the ceiling, they may have caught 
glimpses of the northern lights. 



The tiny dwelling was partly underground; 
a passageway, several feet long, led from the 
entrance to the house interior. A drop of a few 
feet in the passageway floor level trapped incom- 
ing cold air (which is heavier) before it could 
reach the main living area. Outside, the house 
was covered with layers of sod, which also 
helped keep out the cold. The house was thus 



* Anthropologists place Eskimos, on the basis of geography, 
in three groups: Alaskan and Siberian, Central (Canadian), 
and Greenland. As used here, the term Eskimo designates all 
native Arctic people. The Eskimos of the central Canadian 
Arctic prefer to be called Inuit, meaning "real people" The 
Algonkian word eskimo ("raw flesh eaters" ) is the only term 
that refers to all Arctic peoples as a whole. There is no native 
word that refers to all the people of the Arctic from Siberia to 
Greenland. The term Eskimo is used here because of its famil- 
iarity to the general readership. 



Eskimos of the central 
Arctic live in tempo- 
rary igloos. Photo cour- 
tesy Smithsonian 
Institution. 





1f9^ „Xc 




' :^'Wr'"'" 



1,1 f-;--* 



msmw ^ ^* 



H Ch ief reindeer herder 
"^ at Point Hope, Alaska, 
with his family outside 
semisubterranean 
house. Note the use of 
sod blocks. Courtesy 
the Archives and His- 
torical Collections, the 
Episcopal Church. 29 



Eskimo woman mends 
sealskin tent. Courtesy 
Smithsonian Institu- 
tion National Anthro- 
pological Archives. 



Eskimo village at 

Point Hope, Alaska, in 

the early 1880s. 

Whalebone, stone, and 

driftwood were used in 

the construction of 

these semisubterranean 

houses. Note the 

drying racks and 

barrels. On the left is a 

tent. Courtesy New 

Bedford Whaling 

Museum, New 

Bedford, Mass. 




comfortably insulated against the bitter 
weather. 

It was situated among several other houses 
on a hill near the Bering Sea. The nearest houses 
were those occupied by relatives within the 
large extended family. Near the center of the 
village was the somewhat larger kashgee, or kajiji, 
used for ceremonies. 

Next to each house were racks for drying 
fish and meat, raised caches for storage, and 
racks for boats and sledges. From the hill, the 
villagers could scan the area for the game essen- 
tial to their survival. They were also able to 
observe from this vantage point any hostile 
persons when still at a distance. These people 
were fishermen, as are the Eskimos of today; 
but they also hunted and continue to hunt land 
and sea animals. Their struggle for survival was 



a difficult one, with the threat of starvation 
never far off. 

The central concern of Eskimos, wherever 
they may live, is the hunt and the struggle for 
survival. Most Eskimos live on the tundra, with 
its vast, rock-strewn hills. Vegetation here con- 
sists of little more than moss, lichen, and low 
shrub. During the brief summer, the topsoil 
thaws down to the permafrost, but the melt- 
water remains, resulting in a marshy, mosquito- 
infested area, where walking can be difficult if 
not treacherous. In the winter it is frozen solid 
and snow covered. In this environment, the 
Eskimo has developed a material culture using 
only ice, snow, dirt, animal skins, and bone. 
The bodies of animals provide not just food, but 
clothing, tents, tools, utensils, weapons, lamp 
oil, and ornaments. 





Eskimos of the central Arctic, unlike those 
of Alaska, live in temporary villages. They spend 
their winters in large groups on the ice, where 
hunting is better; and there they live in igloos. 
In May, when the ice of the igloos begins to 
melt, the roof is replaced with seal skin; the 
walls, made of snow blocks, are left intact. Sum- 
mer villages, with fewer Eskimos, consist of 
tipi-shaped tents made up of double layers of 
seal skin. Sixty or more skins may be used to 
make a large tent. In the fall, when it is still too 
warm for building igloos, they make only the 
walls of their houses with blocks of lake ice; the 
roof is covered with seal skin. 

Greenland Eskimos make block-shaped 
houses of stone and turf; the windows are 
covered with translucent gut. This type of con- 
struction may be attributable to the influence 
of Norse settlers arriving on the island as early 
as AD. 900 or to Danish colonists, who came 
in 1721. 



The coming of explorers, traders, and 
whalers affected the style of Eskimo life, but the 
changes occurred gradually. Many Eskimos 
continue to live by the hunt today, but this activ- 
ity has greatly changed since the introduction of 
the repeating rifle. With this new ability to kill 
game quickly and at much greater distances, 
the old technology of the hunt became obsolete. 
Other twentieth-century changes included the 
type of dwelling: many Alaskan Eskimos now 
live in frame buildings constructed from milled 
lumber, though tents and igloos are still to be 
seen. D 



Members of the Department of Exhibition who constructed 
and furnished the Eskimo House in Hall 10 were Mark Staff 
Brandl, Barbara Burkhardt, Raoul Deal, Kathryn Field, Jeff 
Hoke, Mitch Kane, Ed Kestler, Tom Lucas, Marty Matin, 
Dan Oppenheimer, and the author. James VanStone, curator 
of North American archaeology and ethnology, was 
consultant. 



Drawing of semi- 
subterranean Eskimo 
house on Nunivak 
Island, used as basis 
for Field Museum's 
Eskimo house replica. 
From Archaeology of 
St. Lawrence Island, 
Alaska, byH.B. 
Collins, Jr. (1937). 



Kaniagmiut house 
near the Naknek River, 
Alaska, about 1890. A 
cache is at left and the 
house is at right. Evi- 
dences of enculturation 
may be seen: wash tubs, 
white clothing, metal 
can, and chimney. 
Courtesy Smithsonian 
Institution National 
Anthropological 
Archives. 




iW FIELD 
MUSEL^ 



Come with Us to Kenya! 

Field Museum Tbur for Members 



September 11-30 
Tour Price: $3,195 

per person, double occupancy 
single supplement: $430 

optional extension to the Seychelles Islands: $1435 additional 



Itineraiy 

Sept. 11: Depart Chicago via British Airways 
for London. 

Sept. 12: Depart London in the evening via 
British Airways for Nairobi, Kenya. 
Sept. 13: Nairobi. Early morning arrival in 
Nairobi, where you will be met and taken to 
the luxurious Norfolk Hotel. The rest of the 
day will be at leisure to relax, sleep, swim, 
or wander around the shops. 
Sept. 14: Mountain National Parks. Today 
you are off on safari, driving past estates 
and plantations to one of Kenya's gracious 
up-country hotels, the Outspan. Enjov a buffet 
lunch here; this afternoon continue into the 
Mountain National Parks — a deeply forested 
area. Overnight will be at Mountain Lodge, 
a "tree house" sitting high above a lighted 
waterhole where you watch the game. 
Sept. 15: Samburu Game Reserve. Leaving 
the park, continue along the vallev and the 
slopes of Mt. Kenya, descending into rugged 
Northern Province. Pass through the 
town of Isiolo where your vehicle will be 
surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares. Proceed to Samburu Game Reserve 
and view game as you drive to the lovely 
Samburu Lodge. Later in the day, a game 
drive. 

Sept. IG: Samburu Game Reserve. A full day 
of viewing giraffe, zebra, and gerenuk. 
Samburu is also a very good park for elephant 
and leopard. Evening at the lodge. 
Sept. 17: Mt. Kenya. After breakfast, drive 
to Mount Kenya Safari Club. Spend a restful 
afternoon at this resort with its magnificent 
gardens situated under Mt. Kenya. 
Sept. 18: Mt. Kenya. Taking a picnic lunch, 
there will be a full day visit to a ranch for a 
rare opportunity to view game on foot, or 
you may wish to stay behind to enjoy the 
club's tennis, swimming, horseback riding, 
and trout fishing. 

Sept. 19: Lake Naivasha. After breakfast, 
drive towards Lake Naivasha. The bird life 
is spectacular. In the afternoon you can swim 
in the pool or just relax. 
Sept. 20: Masai Mara Game Reserve. This 
morning you will drive through the town of 
32 Narok, the main Masai town where you may 



wish to buy various wares. Proceed on to 
Masai Mara Game Reserve and your luxury 
camp, Kichwa Tembo. You will have an 
afternoon game drive, followed by cocktails 
around the campfire and a gourmet dinner. 
Sept. 21: Masai Mara Game Reserve. A full 
day of game viewing. Game here is limitless. 
The lion population is very large. Also 
elephant, rhino, giraffe, hyena, cape buffalo, 
hartebeeste, topi, impala, gazelle, and bird 
life. Explore the river area, seeing crocodile 
or hippos. There is also the opportunity of a 
walking safari — where you will track 
animals on foot. After a long day in the bush, 
enjoy drinks around the campfire and 
dine in an elegance quite unexpected in 
the wilderness. 

Sept. 22: Nairobi. After breakfast drive back 
to Nairobi, stopping en route for lunch at the 
home of Mrs. Mitchell, a life-long resident 
of Kenva, whose family began the first tea 
plantation in Kenya in the 1920s. 

Arrival back in Nairobi will be in the 
mid-afternoon and will be at leisure for your 
own activities. 

Sept. 23: Amboseli National Park. Off on 
safari again, heading towards Amboseli 
National Park, famous for its big game and 
superb view of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Following 
lunch at the lodge, spend the afternoon game 
viewing. 

Sept. 24: Amboseli National Park. Following 
early breakfast, a full day of game vie\ving, 
taking a picnic lunch with you. 

Sept. 25: Tsavo National Park. This morning 
continue further south to Tsavo National 
Park. View game before arriving at Kilaguni 
Lodge for lunch. From the lodge watch the 
game wander in to drink at the waterhole. 
This afternoon go out in search of the great 
herds of elephant. You will also visit at 
Mzima Springs where you will view from an 
underground tank hippo, crocodile and fish. 
Late this afternoon arrive at Ngulia Lodge. 

Sept. 2G: Mombasa. This morning drive to 
the luxurious Taita Hills Lodge, set among 
beautiful gardens. Continue southwards to 
Mombasa and the TWo Fishes Hotel. Here 
the balance of the day will be at leisure. 



Sept. 27: Mombasa. A full day excursion to 
Shimba Hills National Reserve, a forested 
plateau. Later this afternoon return to the 
comforts of your hotel. 
Sept. 28: Mombasa. A full day at leisure to 
relax on the beach, swim in the Indian 
Ocean, or just soak up the tropical sun. There 
is also the opportunity to hire a boat and 
search for fish such as marlin, sailfish and 
shark. If your preference is the underwater 
world, you can go diving off the reef. This 
evening wander down to a local hotel for a 
cocktail or relax in the quiet of the Leopard 
Beach Hotel. 

Sept. 29: Nairobi. Morning flight back 
to Nairobi, where day rooms have been 
reserved at the Norfolk Hotel for your 
convenience. The balance of the day will 
be at leisure for shopping and sightseeing. 
Late evening transfer to the airport for flight 
to London. 

Sept. 30: Chicago. Arrive London early this 
morning and transfer to day rooms at the 
Sheraton Skyline Hotel. Your Chicago flight 
will leave early this afternoon, arriving in 
Chicago later the same day. 

An optional excursion to the Seychelles Islands 
is available upon request. Operation of this 
extension is contingent on the enrollment of 
four or more people. The Seychelles, in the 
heart of the Indian Ocean, are acclaimed as 
one of the loveliest and most unspoiled 
beauty spots. Thev offer an atmosphere of 
timelessness and tranquility. Please let us 
kno\v ifyou wish to have further information. 

Audrey Faden, a native of Kenya, will be our 
guest lecturer. With her keen interest in 
wildlife, conservation, and plant life, she is 
a natural to lead our tour. Audrey served 
as Officer in Charge of Education at the 
National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi, and 
was instrumental in organizing Wildlife 
Clubs of Kenya. She served on the Field 
Museum volunteer staff and has done field 
research and general collecting of plants in 
Kenya. 

For further information on this su- 
perb tour, please call or write 
Dorothy Roder, (312)322-8862. 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Squabbling California Condors 
Have Second Egg 

The pair of California condors that acci- 
dentally lost their egg in a domestic squab- 
ble in late February (as reported in the May 
Bulletin) have laid a second egg, giving 
condor biologists cause for rejoicing. 

Biologists of the Condor Research Cen- 
ter got their first look at the egg shortly 
after noon on April 8, when the female 
rolled it out of a dark corner of the nest- 
hole into full view of an observation 
station a half mile distant. The egg was 
produced some time during the previous 
day, judging from the behavior of the 
female, and was laid in a cave about 100 
yards distant from the cave the pair used 
for their first egg. Both sites are located in 
a remote mountainous region northeast of 
Ventura, California. 

The condor pair's first egg, laid on Feb- 
ruary 14, was lost over the edge of the cliff 
12 days later as the birds fought over which 
would sit on it. The condors, believed to 
be the same pair that successfully fledged 
a chick in 1980, also squabbled at that time 
over which would feed the young, but the 
disputes did no apparent harm. 

The condor biologists are not only con- 
cerned about discord between the condor 
pair, but are also worried about a pair of 
opportunistic ravens that have already in- 
truded into the condors' nest cave. Ravens 
are known predators of the eggs of other 
birds. Progress in the 60-day incubation of 
the California condor egg laid on April 7 
will be closely watched by the research 
team. 

The time between loss of the first egg 
and laying of the second was about 40 
days, according to Noel Snyder of the U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service and John Ogden 
of the National Audubon Society, co-lead- 
ers of the Condor Research Center. "This 
is the best evidence yet obtained that the 
critically endangered California condor 
will re-nest after a nesting failure early in 
the breeding season',' Snyder said. 

Relaying after early egg loss has long 
been known for captive Andean condors, 
but whether the California species might 
act similarly has been a matter of conjec- 
ture. The question now appears to be 
resolved. 

The ability of the Andean condors to 
re-lay after failure has enabled zoos and 
research institutions such as the Patu- 
xent Wildlife Research Center to greatly 
increase the breeding rate of this close 
relative of the California condor. Andean 
condors, like California condors, normally 
lay only a single egg every other year. If an 
egg is removed from the nest to be 
hatched in an incubator, the pair can usu- 



ally be expected to lay a second egg about 
a month later, a process called "double 
clutching'.' If the second egg is likewise 
removed, the parents sometimes will lay 
even a third egg. In this way, capHve re- 
production can be multiplied greatly over 
what pairs normally produce in the wild. 

Biologists hope to be able to double and 
triple clutch captive California condors. 
Captive breeding of California condors re- 
cently received federal and state approval 
as an important part of the efforts to save 
the species from extinction. Only about 30 
California condors remain in the wild, all 
in southern California. There is only one 
individual in captivity, a male bird at the 
Los Angeles Zoo, named Topatopa. 

Snyder and Ogden emphasize the im- 
portance of the recent proof of natural 
double clutching to the captive breeding 
program. If wild pairs will re-nest after 
early failure, it should be possible to estab- 
lish a captive population by taking wild 
eggs for artificial incubation without 
having much effect on natural wild pro- 
duction and without reducing the size of 
the wild population. 

Only four other active pairs of condors 
have been located by the research team. 
One of these produced a fledgling last 
year and is not expected to breed this year 
as they are still caring for this youngster. 
None of the other three pairs has laid as 
yet, with one month to go in the egg-lay- 
ing season. The research team is keeping 
close track of all these pairs from a safe 
distance. 



Federal Studies of 
Bird and Aircraft Collisions 

Like oil and water, birds and planes don't 
mix. When they do, the skills of the wild- 
life biologist and the professional airport 
manager are often needed to get them 
apart, and keep them separated. 

Each year, more than 1,400 collisions 
between birds and aircraft occur in the 
United States. Although the toll in deaths 
and injuries is fortunately low, an estimat- 
ed $20 million in damage is caused to air- 
craft annually. 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
and the Federal Aviation Administration 
are working on research projects that may 
help reduce bird strikes and improve the 
margin of safety for the traveling public. 
These studies are part of an existing 
agreement between the two federal agen- 
cies to step up the identification of bird ha- 
zards at airports. They range in scope 
from a study of bird strike hazards at air- 
ports as part of the development of proto- 



type risk maps that could be used nation- 
wide, to surveys of bird-tempting earth- 
worms that emerge on rain-soaked run- 
ways at particular airports. 

Bird hazards have grown since the 
early days of flight, as airplanes have be- 
come larger and faster and air traffic lanes 
more congested. Since the 1940s, when re- 
cords were first kept on the death toll from 
bird strikes, more than 150 people have 
been killed in collisions blamed wholly or 
partly on birds. 

Serious air collisions with birds most 
typically involve small private jets or tur- 
boprop airplanes. In September 1981, for 
instance, a collision between seagulls and 
a U.S. Air Force T-38 at Cleveland's Burke 
Lakefront Airport claimed the life of the 
commander of the military's famed Thun- 
derbird Demonstration Team. Another 
death occurred last spring when a migrat- 
ing common loon crashed through the 
windshield of an executive jet near Cincin- 
nati, killing the co-pilot and injuring the 
pilot. (A four-pound bird struck by an air- 
plane traveling at 300 mph exerts almost 
nine tons of force at its point of impact; at 
600 mph, the force jumps to 36 tons.) 

Occasionally the death toll and air- 
craft damage can reach even more serious 
proportions. A 1960 collision between a 
commercial airliner and a flock of starlings 
claimed the lives of 62 people at Boston's 
Logan Airport. In 1975, a plane with 129 
passengers at Kennedy Airport in New 
York sucked a flock of seagulls into an en- 
gine on take-off. A fire broke out that con- 
sumed the plane within five minutes, 
although all passengers were evacuated 
safely. 

"As long as man competes with birds 
for airspace, there will be the danger of 
collisions. The trick is to avoid having 
them compete for the same space at the 
same time and to reduce the attractiveness 
of airports to birds," says a Fish and Wild- 
life Service official. "Through the research 
projects that we are currently conducting, 
we hope to gain a much greater under- 
standing of the natural forces that draw 
birds to airports, so that they can be com- 
pensated for in the design, siting, and op- 
eration of these facilities." 

The service provides technical assist- 
ance to nearly 200 airports with bird prob- 
lems each year. That assistance can range 
from solutions that temporarily disperse 
problem flocks of birds through the use of 
noisy propane cannons and shellcrackers 
to full biological surveys that recommend 
altering vegetation or drainage patterns 
around airports. In this latest series of re- 
search projects, however, biologists hope 
to learn more about the basic biological 
factors that draw birds to airports. 33 



June & July at Field Museum 



June 16 through July 15 



New Exhibits 

"Exhibitions, Expeditions and Expositions" This photo- 
graphic essay offers the viewer a look at the construction 
of Field Museum's building more than 60 years ago and 
of some famous exhibits. It is now on display between 
the Anniversary Exhibit in Hall 3 and the entrance to 
"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast" 
(Hall 10) . Designed by Don Emery and researched by 
Beverly Serrell, Exhibition, and the Field Museum Photog- 
raphy Department. 

Continuing Exhibits 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast'.' 
Just opened! Field Museum's new permanent exhibit 
compares the theatrically ornate cultures of the Pacific 
Northwest Coast with the austere but individualistic 
Eskimo societies. Their prehistoric origins, history, food- 
gathering, social life, spiritual beliefs, art ranging from 
massive totem poles to exquisite basketry— all are shown 
in five galleries through displays, dioramas, full-sized 
replicas, and films. It's an exhibit you'll return to again 
and again for new insights into these remarkable peoples 
and their triumph over the environment. 

"Place FOR Wonder? "Touch everything!" is the motto 
of this mini-museum, a delight to young and old alike. 
Look for a new exhibit in the People's Center showcasing 
clothing, toys, and everyday objects from India, opening 
injune. Continuing exhibits include "Earthquake Charlie^ 
a huge Alaskan polar bear; volcanic ash from Mt. St. 
Helens; and collections of fossils, minerals, and shells. 
Many labels also in braille. Open 1-3 daily. Saturday and 
Sunday 10-12, 1-3. 

"The Insect World? View butterflies from many parts of 
the world, with their brilliant turquoise, purple, orange, 
and red hues. Madagascar's iridescent "Less" butterfly 
alone displays 8 dazzling colors! Moths range in size 
from the "Hercules" of New Guinea, with a 10-inch wing 
span, to the tiny "Blackberry Borer? Rivaling the "Her- 
cules" is the huge African "Rhinoceros beetle" — 8 inches 
long, including 2-inch-long pincers. Main floor, outside 
Hall 21. 



34 





New programs 

"The Art of Papermaking? Field Museum's June Family 
Feature for parents and children of all ages. Saturday's 
program includes a slide lecture on papermaking tech- 
niques such as coloring, sizing, pressing, and drying; 
and the opportunity for participants to make their ovin 
sheet of paper. On Sunday, the slide program will be 
followed by a film on Japanese papermaking. Lecture 
Hall I. Saturday and Sunday,June 19 and 20 at 2 p.m. 

"Tales from the Smokehouse? The Theatre Sans Fil (No 
Strings Puppet Theatre) from Montreal uses giant puppets 
(6 to 12 feet tall) to retell the legends of Canada's Indians. 
The stories are told by tribal elders to the younger men 
as they gather in a smokehouse to purify their souls. 
More than 40 stringless pupp)ets in costumes inspired by 
Northwest Coast designs are used to act out two stories. 
The first, "Blue Sky Takes a Wife',' is an Ojibway love 
story; the second, "The White Raven',' explains the Tsim- 
shian view of creation. Members $3; nonmembers, $4. 
James Simpson Theatre. Saturday and Sunday, June 26 
and 27 at 2 p.m. 

"In Search of Dinosaurs? Take a Summer Journey among 
Field Museum's dinosaur specimens! Discover the basic 
facts about dinosaurs and their closest relatives. For a 
self-guiding tour, free Journey pamphlets are available at 
Museum entrances. 

Summer Fun Workshops for Young People. Field Museum's 
exhibits will come alive for the young people ages 4 to 15 
who participate in one of the more than 80 workshops 



offered this summer. These workshops take place Monday 
through Saturday and are taught by Field Museum staff, 
Chicago area teachers, and visiting artists. Children can, 
for instance, press flowers, make flutes, write in Chinese, 
or make a casting of a giant fossil tooth. Workshops 
include "Bug Hunt',' "Inside the Volcano',' "Northwest 
Coast Masks," "Whales," "Dragons and Dinosaurs," "Sum- 
mer Sprouts," and many more. For more information 
and to receive a brochure, call (312) 322-8854. July 6- 
August 2. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. These weekend programs 
of tours, films, and slide presentations will provide the 
springboard for a better understanding of natural history. 
Check "Weekend Sheet" at Museum entrances for addi- 
tional programs and locations. 
June 19 at 11:30 a.m.: "Ancient Egypt" tour. 

at 2 p.m.: "Malvina Hoffman" film and slide 

lecture. 
June 26 at 1 p.m.: "Tibet Today" film program. 

at 2 p.m.: "Tibet" tour. 

July 3 at 2:30 p.m. : "Indians of North America" tour. 



July 10 at 3:00 p.m.: 
July 11 at 2:00 p.m.: 



"Life in Ancient Egypt" tour. 
"Northwest Coast Indians: Cedar 
Carvings" tour. 



Continuing Programs 

Museum Hours. Field Museum instituted new hours 
beginning May 1. The Museum is now open daily, includ- 
ing Saturdays and Sundays, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., year- 
round. There will be no more late Friday hours. The free 
day is now Thursday, instead of Friday. The Museum 
is closed on Thanksgiving Day, Christmas, and New 
Year's Day. 

Library Hours. Duringjune and July the Museum Library 
is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. It will be closed 
on Monday, July 5. To visit the Library, obtain a pass at 
the reception desk, main floor. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Individuals with scientific 
interests and backgrounds are needed to work in various 
Museum departments. Contact the Volunteer Coordina- 
tor, 922-9410. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Fieldiana: 1981 Titles 



Fieldiana is a continuing series of sci- 
entific papers and monographs in the 
disciplines of anthropology, botany, 
zoology, and geology; the series is in- 
tended primarily for exchange-distri- 
bution to museums, libraries, and 
universities, but all titles are also 
available for public purchase. 

The following titles, published in 
1981, may be ordered from the Divi- 
sion of Publications. Members are 
entitled to a 10 percent discount. Pub- 
lication number should accompany 
order. A catalog of all available Fieldi- 
ana titles is available on request. 
(Please specify discipline: anthropol- 
ogy, botany, geology, or zoology.) 

Fieldiana: Anthropology 

1326. "An analysis of Santa Maria Urn 
Painting and Its Cultural Implications',' by 
Ronald L. Weber. New Series Number 2. 

$3.75. 

1327. "Catalogue of Chinese Rubbings 
from Field Museum',' researched by 
Hoshien Tchen and M. Kenneth Starr, pre- 
pared by Alice K. Schneider, photo- 
graphed by Herta Newton and Field 
Museum Division of Photography, edited 
by Hartmut Walravens. New Series 
Number 3. $6750. 



1328. "Athapaskan Clothing and Related 
Objects in the Collections of Field Museum 
of Natural History,' By James W. Van- 
Stone. New Series Number 4. $7.00. 

Fieldiana: Botany 

1317. "Ferns and Fern Allies of Guatemala 
— Part II Polypodiaceae',' by Robert G. 
Stolze, the Genus Elaphogiossum by John 
T. Mickel, the Genus Thelypteris by Alan 
R. Smith. New Series Number 6. $23.50. 

1319. "Flora of Peru — Family Compositae 
Part II, Tribe Anthemideae',' by J. Francis 
MacBride and Collaborators and Michael 
O. Dillon. New Series Number 7 $2.75. 

1322. "Five New Species of Brunfelsia 
from South America (Solanaceae)',' by 
Timothy Plowman. New Series Number 
8. $2.50. 



Fieldiana: Geology 

1315. "The Mammalian Fauna of Madura 
Cave, Western Australia, Part IV',' by 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr. and William D. 
Turnbull. New Series Number 6. $7.50. 

1318. "Review of the Hathlyacyninae, an 
Extinct Subfamily of South American 
'Dog-like' Marsupials',' by Larry G. Mar- 
shall. New Series Number 7 $11.75. 

1320. "The Families and Genera of Marsu- 



pialia',' by Larry G. Marshall. New Series 
Numbers. $6.75. 

1321. "Geology and Geochronology of the 
Mammal-bearing Tertiary of the Valle de 
Santa Maria and Rio Corral Quemado, 
Catamarca Province, Argentina',' by Larry 
G. Marshall and Bryan Patterson. New 
Series Number 9. $8.00. 

1323. "Introduction and Index to Fieldiana: 
Geology Volume 33',' by Eugene S. Rich- 
ardson, Jr. and William D. Turnbull. Vol- 
ume 33, Number 31. No charge. 



Fieldiana: Zoology 

1316. "A Multivariate Study of the Family 
Molossidae (Mammalia, Chiroptera): 
Morphology, Ecology, Evolution',' by Pa- 
tricia Waring Freeman. New Series 
Number 7 $13.25. 

1324. "The Blennioid Fishes of Belize and 
Honduras, Central America, with Com- 
ments on their Systematics, Ecology, and 
Distribution (Blennidae, Chaenopsidae, 
Labrisomidae, Tripterygiidae)',' by David 
W. Greenfield and Robert Karl Johnson. 
New Series Number 8. $11.50. 

1325. "Taxonomy and Evolution of the Sin- 
ica Group of Macaques: 2. Species and 
Subspecies Accounts of the Indian Bonnet 
Macaque, Macaca Radiata',' by Jack Food- 
en. New Series Number 9. $5.50. 35 



!lllJ}J 




Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

July/August 1982 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



President: WiUard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Laughlin 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 




Board OF Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chaitviaii 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gorden Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E, Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
JohnS. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H, MitcheU 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

July/August 1982 
Volume 53, Number 7 



New Exhibit ofPhilippine Art and 
Culture Opensjuly 17 



Field Museum and the Philippines 

bvBennet Branson, associate curator of 
Asian archaeology and ethnology 



Peru's Preceramic Menu 

by Barbara Jackson and Terry Stacker 



■a, 



Morpho: Thejewel of TVopical Rain Forests 

by Allen M. Young 24 

26 



Kenya Tbur for Members 



Egjpt Tbur for Members 



34 



Field Briefs 



35 



July, August, and September at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming Events 



back 
cover 



COVER 

Wooden santo: San Isidra.ar St. Isidore, the patron of good 
harvests. Polychrome over this gesso on hardwood. 18th-19th 
centun: 54 cm. Lent bv Luis Ma Araneta, Manila. One of the 
420 objects displayed in the new exhibit, "The People and Art 
of the Philippines," on liew in Hall 26 from July 17 through 
December 31. Photo by Ron Testa. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605, Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policv of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. 1SSN:11015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, II. 



The People and Art of the Philippines 

Exhibit Opens July 17 

Members' Preview July 16 




^Noven cotton headcloth from Sulu Archipelago; Samal or Yakan. 98 cm. Collection of Field Museum. Gift of Dr. Alexander Spoehr. #257291. 



This impressive assemblage of 420 artifacts, 
on view until December 31, is the largest spe- 
cial exhibition of traditional Filipino art to be 
held anywhere since 1905, with loans from 
16 museums and 13 private collections in the 
United States, Europe, and the Philippines. 
The objects were selected to give a compre- 
hensive view of the culture of this former 



Spanish and then American colony, now a 
major Southeast Asian nation. Special 
emphasis is on prehistoric ceramics and 
gold, Catholic arts of Spanish colonial times, 
wood sculpture of the northern Philippines, 
and the extraordinary textiles of the southern 
Philippines. On view in Hall 26. Members' 
preview: Friday, July 16 from 1 to 9 p.m. 3 



Field Museum 

AND 

The Philippines 

by Bennet Bronson 
Associate Curator, Asian Archaeology^ and Ethnology 



Colonialism and 

The Cummings Expedition 

The Museum's first serious involvement with the 
Philippines came as an indirect result of the great 
St. Louis World Exposition of 1904, where objects 
and peoples from the colonies of several nations 
were on display. As the Philippines had only 
recently become an American colony, having 
been acquired during the Spanish-American War 
of 1898, and as America had no other colonies, the 
extensive Philippine exhibits at St. Louis created 
both a sensation and an awareness of a problem. 
The sensation came from the rich variety of 
cultures that existed in the new colony, ranging 
from those of headhunters to those of sophisti- 
cated city dwellers. The handsome and magni- 
ficently costumed Bagobos impressed most 
visitors, as did an exhibit of Philippine export 
crafts and industries, and a contingent of notably 
fierce-looking Bontocs. Few visitors seem to have 
been uncomfortable at the zoo-like aspects of 
having colonial subjects on display. Such things 




George Dorsey. N108072 



were customary at world's fairs in those days, 
and besides, many of the colonial subjects are 
reported to have enjoyed the experience. 

The problem that bothered thoughtful vis- 
itors was that America had obviously bitten off 
more than it could easily, or should, chew. Many 
agreed with Mark Twain that a free nation should 
not have colonies in the first place. Others were 
uncomfortable about a point the exposidon 
brought home with special force: our sheer ig- 
norance about what we had gotten into. Com- 
pared with the English or Dutch, Americans 
knew nothing about running colonies, and com- 
pared with most colonies of most European pow- 
ers, the Philippines were poorly known in the 
first place. The Spanish had controlled only the 
central three-fifths of the country. Parts of the 
northern and southern ends of the Philippines 
were sHU as much terra incognita as the basins of 
the Congo and Amazon. 

It may have been because of this that, in late 

1905, a grain merchant from Clifton, Illinois, 
Robert F. Cummings, approached the Museum 
with a startling proposition: he was willing to 
fund extensive anthropological research in the 
Philippines with two apparent provisions, that 
the people of Illinois should benefit and that the 
work should begin immediately. 

The Museum was definitely interested. It 
had just failed in an attempt to purchase some of 
the Philippine material exhibited at St. Louis 
(which had already been promised to the 
Smithsonian) and was pleased to find another 
way of building up its collections. Several 
months of discussions between Cummings 
and George Dorsey, chief curator of the 
Anthropology Department then followed. 
Agreement was abruptly reached in March, 

1906. Cummings pledged no less than $20,000 
to cover all expenses of fieldwork. In return, 
the Museum seems to have guaranteed to 
bear the costs of setting up a large permanent 
Philippine exhibition. 

After that, things moved quickly. S. C. 




S. C. Simms. N78430 

Simms (then assistant curator of ethnology) was 
already on a ship to Manila by the end of April, 
and within the next three years no fewer than 
four other Field Museum anthropologists de- 
parted for the Philippines. Simms was there 
from June through December 1906 and again 
from April 1909 to January 1910. Faye Cooper 
Cole stayed from January 1907 to June 1908 and 
from October 1909 to January 1911; Laura 
Benedict from August 1906 to February 1908; 
William Jones from September 1907 to March 
1909 (when he was killed before his work was 



completed); and Dorsey himself for a flying visit 
in December 1908. By the end of 1911, when all 
objects, photographs, recordings, and notes 
were back in Chicago, the Museum found 
itself with not only an unparalleled collec- 
tion but a treasure trove of written data that 
has thus far resulted in at least eight books 
and numerous articles. 

The next few pages present excerpts from 
field letters that did not appear in any of those 
books or articles. These have been chosen partly 
for their anthropological and historical interest 
but also partly because of the (sometimes unflat- 
tering) light they shed on the attitudes and prob- 
lems of scientists working in the field. 



Letters from the field 

SIMMS TO DORSEY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1906 

S. C. Simms, more museologist than fieldworker, was 
thrown into the breach as the only person in the An- 
thropology Department who could be spared from his 
Chicago duties at the time the Cummings agreement 
was finalized. He was sent out almost immediately, 
without time to learn much about either the Philippines 
or its cultures. Considering the disadvantages under 
which he worked, he made a passable collection but, as 
this and many of his other letters show, he did not enjoy 
the experience. Here Simms is writing from comforta- 
ble surroundings in the then newly established resort 
town ofBaguio: 

My dear Dorsey: 

No one regrets more than I in having to abandon 




Tinguian cargadores 
in Bangued, Abra 
Province, Luzon. 
Photo by Charles 
Martin] ca. 1905. 
N28788 




Embroidered men's jacket 0/ abaca cloth, from Mindanao, 
Bila-an. 53 cm. Collection of Field Museum. #129374. 



my collecting in Benguet Prov/^^ — at least 
until I am able to be about. Nothing serious 
but it came mighty near it and I don't care for 
a repetition of it. 

The Aguo river, which Prof. Wooster 
warned*^' me about did the trick. I reached the 
bank of the Aguo Sunday morning after 4 hours 
of hiking to find the river up a bit. 

Could not get my personal cargadores*^' to 
cross it then. River kept rising with increased 
rainfall. Did not prepare for chow as was told 
was not necessary for I could get rice, camotes, 
etc. along trail. Two of the cargadores were 
dispatched to find a house but could not. So 
under the shelter of a huge rock on a very rocky 
bed we stayed while it rained and rained — and 
until the following morning without a single 
mouthful to eat — 29 hours since last meal. Built 
fires and attracted attention to natives on other 
side of river who came on Monday to river edge. 
After river had fallen slightly and plunged in 
way up stream and landed on my side. After 
many gestures they understood to carry cargo, 
cargadores and myself over. Every thing and 
person but myself and horse got over without 
accident. I was it. Two natives leading horse 
^vith me in saddle to give it weight — and just in 



midstream the brute stumbled, fell, went under 
and me with him. Downstream we went at a 
very lively pace, finally landing against a large 
boulder with horse against me and my back and 
shoulder testify that I hit something pretty hard 
and for the poor brute he received a gash over 
his eye. As soon as we could get the horse out- 
— and it was a hard job — 1 went as fast as possi- 
ble to Bangras'"*' where I had something to eat 
and a change of clothes — proceeded then to 
Caboyan where I slept and left next morning for 
Ambuklao trying to get to Baguio where there is 
a sanitorium. Bruises and wrenches hurting 



1. He was collecting among the Kankanay and 
Ibaloi, ethnic groups inhabiting the area around and 
near Baguio. 

2. Dean C. Worcester, who often appears in these 
letters, was then America's leading expert on the 
minority peoples of the Philippines. He had recently 
finished serving on the Presidium-like Taft Committee 
and held the powerful post of colonial secretary of 
the interior. Simms misspells his name deliberately; 
the two men were not fond of each other. 

3. Spanish for "porters" or "bearers." 

4. Several of the place names in Simm's account can- 
not be identified. 




like body [?]. Had to cross the same (Aguo) 

river at Ambukeo by being pulled across on 
a high stretched carabao hide rope of slender 
diameter — seated in carabao yoke — however I 
got across — likewise cargo and cargadores the 
same way — had chow at Ambukeo — then for 
Baguio and while on top of mountain near 
Ambukeo typhoon drove me to shelter in native 
house near Tabyo — 4 hours from Baguio. 

Been here but a day nursing. 

Typhoon continues at rate of 1 in. rainfall 
one hour and it will take days and days for the 
trails to dry and my injuries to improve. 



DORSEY TO COLE, JUNE 3, 1907 

George Dorsey kept close track of his fieldworkers from 
Chicago. While his rather frank criticisms of Simms 
seem a bit harsh, they reveal the writer as a good 
anthropologist. He not only gives generally sensible 
advice but has a surprisingly modern attitude toward 
the goals of fieldwork. 

. . .1 have commented on Simms collection before. 
1 may say to you confidentially again that it is 
very unsatisfactory from many points of view; 



especially it represents nothing completely, 
no art, no industry, no ceremonies; represents 
odds and ends which were found in site, but 
which have no particular coherence. Simms is a 
good judge of good material, and of course his 
specimens all are of high excellence individually, 
but they represent links rather than a chain 
which exhibits a story. The collection represents 
no processes; it is quite devoid of games, traps, 
snares; has no foods, nothing illustrating the 
methods of preparation of foods; and is of course 
very weak in all the little ephemeral things which 
are in themselves trite and trivial, but which are 
essential to illustrate the culture. We want col- 
lections which will illustrate completely all the 
different groups of people which you encounter. 
Do your work deliberately; be in no hurry; do it 
thoroughly, completely and well. I have no 
doubt of your ability, and no fear of your failing. 
It would possibly be more to the Museum's 
interest for you to keep moving from one place 
to another, rapidly amassing material, but this 
would be of no great credit to you. It is much 
more to your credit, more to our honor and 
glory if you do nothing else than to cover one 
distinctive group of peoples, doing them 
thoroughly and well. 




Upper right: Faye 
Cooper Cole. N44788 



COLE TO DORSEY, APRIL 22, 1907 

Faye Cooper Cole was younger, better trained, and 
much more field-oriented than Simms. He also had 
more local background, having just completed several 
months' study in Berlin, than a leading center for 
Philippine studies. In this letter, written from 
Bangued in the northwestern corner of Luzon, he is de- 
scribing part of a recent journey in Tinguian country, 
seeking a little known subtribe called "Alzados" by 
their neighbors. 

Cole seems a good deal more cheerftd than Sirmns 
about the rigors of the field. 

. . .At last, we reached the summit, and after a 
rather more rapid descent, came to the first rice 
fields where about fifty Alzados,*'* armed with 
shields, spears, and axes, awaited us. It was a 
mighty interesting sight but one which made 




my cargadores hunt for padlocks to be sure that 
their heads were fastened on securely. When 
they learned our mission, the whole party 
fell in behind and accompanied us to the first 
rancheria,'^' Am-ti, where we had a big feast 
of venison and eels. After Amti, we spent two 
days at Danoc, and were always given the fat 
of a lean land. Leaving Danoc, I started down 
the Ikmin River to Duamon, also spelled 
Doa-angan, a town no white man had ever 
seen, and the reason for this was soon 
evident; the river in places ran through a 
canon not fifty yards wide and cut through 
solid granite; the "trail" ran above the river 
ten or fifteen feet, and in few places could 
you put your feet together. The smooth rocks 
offered no hand hold, and a slip meant at least a 
bath in the rushing waters and perhaps broken 
bones. With ordinary shoes, the trip could not 
be made, but 1 was provided with rope sole 
pragatos and got along nicely. Until near the 
village, we had crossed the river when necessary 
on two bamboo poles which served as bridges, 
but just at dark, we had to plunge in and ford 
where the water was waist deep and so swift as 
almost to carry us away. We were two days with 
these people and while there accidentally saw 
an interesting ceremony'"*' which I have since 
learned is also practiced by the Tinguianes. The 
plunge in the river resulted in wet clothes which 
we hung out to dry over night. In the morning, 
a pair of trousers was missing, and diligent 
search failed to disclose the thief. After a con- 
sultation, the old men brought out a rice mortar 



1. Cole later concludes that the Alzados are a mixed 
group, partly Bontoc and partly Tinguian. 

2. "Rancheria" here means a small settlement or ham- 
let, not a ranch. 

3. Oath rituals for detecting malefactors are common 
in many societies. This particular ritual seems more 
effective in providing free beer for everyone than in 
restoring Cole's trousers. 




Bagobo women in gala 
dress, Davao Province, 
Mindanao. Photo by 
Faye Cooper Cole, ca. 
1910. N34859 



Bagobo musicians of 
Davao Province, 
Mindanao. Photo by 
Faye Cooper Cole, ca. 
1910. N21460 



on which they put a dish containing basi and a 
knife; they then prayed to the spirits that the 
thief might die, the snakes bite him, or disaster 
come to his fields and family. This done, they 
made every man, woman, and child stand before 
the mortar and pray to the spirits that these 
calamities might fall on them if they were guilty. 
A jar of basi*"** was then opened, and we had a 
drinking bout after which, they presented us 
with a spear and shield to make good the loss. 
They told me that they would soon know the 
thief as the guilty one would have the misfortune 
he had invoked, and that then he or his family 
must pay for the basi and the presents; if he 
should not be detected, the expense would be 
divided among the whole people. 

JONES TO DORSEY, MARCH 19, 1909 

William Jones was murdered by the Ilongots with him 
nine days after the following letter ivas written. One- 
quarter Crow Indian and brought up as an Indian in 
Oklahoma, Jones had been a remarkable success story, 
becoming in succession a cowboy, a pupil in a school for 
Indians, and then graduating from Andover, Harvard, 
and Columbia, where he became the first American 
Indian to get a Ph.D. in anthropology. 

His frontier background and his acute love of na- 
ture seems to have eased his acclimatization in what 
then, as now, was one of the wildest parts of the Philip- 

4. "Basi" is the rice beer of the Luzon mountain area. 




'^^<r-M 



Ceramic vessel from 

Negros island. First 

millenium B.C. 

31.2 cm. Lent by the 

University Museum, 

University of 

San Carlos, Cebu 

City, Cebu. 




10 



pines. These traits may also, however, have cost him 
his life. He was a tough and brave man, working 
among a people where such machismo could easily 
prove fatal. 

He is ivriting from Dumubatu near the edge of 
llongot country, in western central Luzon, having 
been delayed there by reports of cholera in belter- 
pacified areas downstream near Echague. 

My dear Doctor Dorsey: 

I thought I had sent you my last letter from this 
bunch of llongots but here goes another because 
I have a chance to send it. I am still here because 
the men have not yet made balsas enough to 
raft me and my all down to Echague. When 
Bowers''' left here last fall he cleaned up all the 
balsas; and though the river has fallen 2 months 
earlier than last year the men have not been 
able to build other balsas. The bamboo material 
is just far enough away to make it risky to go for 
it and as 1 write a bunch of men have gone out 
to search for 2 youths who went for bamboo 
yesterday and have not returned and you see 
the weather is growing more torrid every day 
and the sun can now shine for a whole day at a 
time. As a result every llongot house is on the 
watch for prowlers looking for heads and ambi- 
tious youths are off looking for the same in other 
districts. As Capt. Bowers said at Tamie when 
the llongots refused to do his bidding because 
what he wanted involved a taboo: "This may be 
good ethnology, Jones, but by God it makes me 



1. A U.S. Army officer who had commanded a recent 
pacifying expedition. 



tired." He said he had seen many kinds of 
damned fools in these islands but the llongot 
was the damnedest. Well I don't know that I 
would agree with the sentiments he expressed, 
but he is probably correct when he thinks the 
llongot exasperating from a practical point of 
view. I shall need about 15 balsas and I've sent 
for Panipagan and Kagadyanan to come down 
with 8 but I don't know what is keeping them. 
1 would not bet on it but 1 believe I shall be out 
of here in 10 days. 

I've just returned from a visit of nearly a 
week in the mountains of the west. I got a few 
objects I did not have and a little extra informa- 
tion. What wearied me was to hear of my Alikod 
friends off on a head hunt, their objective being 
Gumiyad. This place is southwest of Ifugu in 
the mountains and is said to be a large district. 
1 tried getting there once but my friends balked 
on account of the rains, the prospect of lack of 
food and the report that a war party of Gumiyad 
was in the neighborhood of Alikod. They wanted 
to get on trail of the party and cut off its return. 
Please don't entertain any notion that I am seek- 
ing for adventure and naturally there's a little 
risk but so there is riding in the cart behind 
the old grey mare. The point is this — warfare 
among the wildmen of Luzon is rapidly being 
checked*^' and this is practically the only ter- 
ritory where the mice have free play. And so 
all I've desired and still desire is to observe 
and note what happens. 

. . . Smith*^' sent me word that the cholera 

2. Not among the llongot, as it turned out. They were 
still hunting heads as late as the 1970s. 

3. A trader. 

Continued on p. 28 




William fones 



A Philippine Afternoon 

Sunday, July 18 



Celebrate the traditions and cultural heritage 
of the Philippines on Sunday, July 18, at Field 
Museum. This special event complements the 
opening of our newest exhibit, "The People and 
Art of the Philippines',' on view from July 17 
through December 31. Including 400 objects 
selected from 29 museums and private collections 
throughout the w^orld, this exhibit is the first 
comprehensive survey of Filipino art ever organ- 
ized in the United States. It represents all periods 
and styles of Filipino art from prehistoric to 
modern times. 

"A Philippine Afternoon" features traditional 
Philippine dance by Lakambini of the Urban 
Gateways Folk Arts Program at 1:30 p.m. and 
3:30 p.m. A troupe of young artists dedicated to 
preserving their Filipino heritage, Lakambini 
performs dances that reflect the Indo-Malaysian, 





Muslim, and Spanish influences found through- 
out the Philippines. Lakambini dances to a 
kulitang orchestra, with traditional music made 
on a set of graduated gongs. Come and taste 
delicious Philippine cuisine from 1:00 p.m. to 
3:00 p.m. Sample both indigenous dishes and 
foods reflecting the influence of Indonesian, 
Asian, and Spanish cultures. Dr. Bennet Bronson, 
associate curator of Asian Archaeology and 
Ethnology at Field Museum, offers an illustrated 
lecture entitled "The Philippine Connection" at 
2:00 p.m. in Lecture Hall I. His lecture traces the 
history of Field Museum's outstanding collection 
of Philippine artifacts; the Museum's collection 
is considered to be one of the world's finest. 

All events are free with admission to the 
Museum. Tickets are not required. "A Philippine 
Afternoon" is a Related Learning Museum Special 
Event. For more information, call (312) 322-8854. 



11 



Overlooking the lush 
greenness of the irri- 
gated river valley is the 
ancient Chimu fortress 
at Paramonga, 200 km 
north of Lima. The 52 
rivers that cross-cut 
the narrow ribbon of 
coastal desert, only 10 
of which flow year- 
round, provide the only 
water for irrigation of 
the coastal area. 




Peru's Preceramic Menu 



by Barbara Jackson and Terry Stacker 
Photos courtesy of the authors 



12 



One of the Major Areas of prehistoric civili- 
zation in the New World is the stark desert land- 
scape of coastal Peru. The founders of this 
ancient civilization constructed elaborate stone 
buildings almost 4,000 years ago. This monu- 
mental architecture, a hallmark of civilization, is 
the earliest in the New World and was erected by 
a population to which the technology of ceramics 
was still unknown — a unique situation in world 
history. Essential to an understanding of how 



civilization developed in such a barren, austere 
environment is a consideration of food resources 
that comprised the preceramic menu. 

The role of maritime resources in the devel- 
opment of sedentary populations has ignited 
anthropological controversy and discussion. 
One school of thought, led by Michael Moseley, 
associate curator of Middle and South American 
archaeology and ethnology at Field Museum, 
proposes that the food supplies made available 





by the teeming Peru Current provided a substan- 
tial basis for civilization development. Oppo- 
nents of this theory — citing the unreliability of 
the sea as a constant food source and the low 
protein value of seafood — argue that Peru's 
irrigated river valleys were the predominant 
geographical area providing the food base for 
a developing civilization. 

COASTAL ENVIRONMENT and FOOD GATHERING 

A great variety of ecological zones, resulting from 
the unique geography of the Peruvian coastal 
strip, appears to have enabled the preceramic 
groups to amass and store considerable amounts 
of food. The desert coast strip, ranging from 10 to 
80 km (about 6 to 50 miles) in width, extends the 
length ofPeru, a total of 2, 250 km. Totheeast, the 



desert sands ascend abruptly into the backdrop of 
the towering Andes Mountains, the source for 
the 52 rivers that flow through the coastal zone 
into the Pacific. The exaggerated ascent of the 
coastal shelf to the Andes is occasionally inter- 
rupted by low hills, known as lomas, or fog 
oases. The cold and immensely rich Peru Current 
(formerly called the Humboldt Current) borders 
the ribbon of coastal desert closely on the west. 

The coastal strip is cross-cut by a series of 
rivers, some flowing only intermittently in 
accordance with the highland rainy season. 
Coast travelers are often struck by the juxta- 
position of green, fertile river valleys with the 
adjacent monochromatic desert landscape; 
one can literally stand with one foot in the hot 
desert sand and the other in verdant vegetation. 

Early preceramic peoples may have collected 
for consumption river valley plants that were 
the precursors of such cultigens as squashes, 
beans, and peppers. As an increased variety of 
domesticated plants, including peanuts, cucum- 
bers, and manioc, became available during the 
later preceramic periods, cultivation efforts were 
probably intensified. The location of many cot- 
ton, preceramic sites (i.e., where cotton had been 
introduced) such as Huarmey (in the Huarmey 
River Valley) and El Paraiso (in the Chillon 
River Valley), close to cultivatable land as well 
as to the sea, indicates that the inhabitants of 
these sites were well aware of the advantages 
of multiple food source exploitation and that 
they constructed their population center in 
ways to maximize use of the ocean as well as 
of fertile lands. 

It is possible that some vegetal items were 
cultivated away from the river valleys on the 
lomas. About 3 to 8 km inland, these hills are dis- 
tinguished from the desert by seasonal plant 
blooming and growth made possible by moisture 
precipitated from a fog blanket, or garua. This 
phenomenon is characteristic of the six-month 
Peruvian coastal winter, which is concurrent 
with the highland summer. Moisture from the 
garua provides virtually the only precipitation 
for the entire coast since rain falls only about 
once every 20 years. Moisture accumulation in 
plant systems and blooming depend upon con- 
densation on dormant plant cover. Cyclical varia- 
tions in amount of garua precipitation result in 
varying degrees of plant growth. 

The over-exploitation of trees and shrubs for 
fuel and construction has denuded most lomas, 
except for some grass cover during the garua 
months. Long-time residents of the coast de- 
scribe the lomas as being covered with small 
trees and bushes as recently as 30 years ago. Re- 
forestation experiments at several ancient lomas 
are allowing geographers, ecologists, and ar- 



13 



Lomas such as the 
experimentally refor- 
ested one in the hack- 
ground were probably 
a source of firewood and 
building material for 
ancient Peruvians. 




14 



chaeologists to see what lomas may have been 
like prehistorically. Plant, animal, and bird life 
combine to produce a charming, mist-filled 
dreamland in precarious balance between cli- 
matic factors and human needs. 

The preceramic menu may have included 
several lomas food items when in season. Many 
plants that grew in the river valleys may have 
also grown on the lomas hillsides alongside such 
fruit trees as the mito. Small animals such as 
foxes and rodents may have been hunted on 
the lomas and in the river valleys by ancient 
Peruvians. But judging from the low frequency 
of land mammal bones recovered from prece- 
ramic sites, it appears that the coastal terrestrial 
environment afforded a minimal amount of 
meat protein sources. 

The importance of lomas as a prehistoric 
food resource environmental zone is very uncer- 
tain. Cyclical fluctuations oigarua intensity often 
result in minimal blooming. In fact, in only one of 
the last five years was there sufficient precipita- 
tion to result in lush growth on the lomas. It is 
very possible that the lomas were of greater value 
to preceramic peoples as a resource for products 
like grasses and woody shrubs used in mat and 
housing construction and for fuel and as a graz- 
ing area for highland animals during the high- 
land dry season. 

The seasonal blooming of the lomas occurs 
during the highland dry season, when the high- 
land food resources are at their lowest. Pre- 
historic Peruvians may have followed llama 



and guanaco herds in search of grazing areas 
from the highlands down to the coast, where 
they could graze on the grassy lomas slopes 
during moist coastal winter months. Rem- 
nants of ancient stone corrals used by pre- 
historic herders still stand, and many of these 
provide the foundations for corrals used by 
modern herders during their seasonal residence 
on the coast. 

The Andes Mountains, descending so 
sharply to the coast in a series of abruptly angular 
trenches, were also an accessible environmental 
zone to ancient coastal Peruvians. The steep val- 
leys, easily traversable by sturdy prehistoric peo- 
ples and their herds, were corridors linking food 
resources and populations in the highlands and 
coast. In fact, it is only 60 km from the early 
coastal preceramic site of Paloma to the sierra 
cave site of Tres Ventanas, dated to about 8,000 
years ago. A significant number of shellfish re- 
mains have been recovered from Tres Ventanas 
and other highland sites, confirming that food 
was transported from the coast up to the moun- 
tains. Archaeological testimony is only of shell 
transport from coast to sierra, but it is prob- 
able that the reverse was true and that many 
highland food products were included in the 
coastal preceramic diet. Guinea pigs and ducks 
may have been domesticated in the highlands 
as early as 7,000 years ago. Grains such as the 
high-protein quinoa and amaranth may have 
been domesticated at about the same Hme. To- 
gether with such tubers as potatoes (the time of 



domestication of which remains uncertain), 
these highland foods would have contributed 
to a diversified and substantial protein base. 
Highland transport of such foods to the coast in 
exchange for preserved marine foods like dried 
shellfish and salted fish must certainly have 
played a role with the sea resources in the 
development of early coastal civilization. 

SEAFOOD 

The seafood portion of the preceramic menu, list- 
ing a large variety of items, was an extremely im- 
portant resource base for coastal preceramic 
groups. New information has led to a clearer 
evaluation of the role that maritime resources 
may have had in laying the foundation for that 
developing Peruvian preceramic civilization 
characterized by its monumental architecture. 
In our travels, we have traversed the entire 
coastline of Peru, visiting archaeological sites 
and interviewing local inhabitants. We lived 
for six months in the small fishing village of 
San Bartolo, about 60 km south of Lima, where 
we participated in fishing and in shellfish 
gathering with the villagers and sampled many 
of the same delicious seafood items that had 



once contributed to the preceramic diet base. 
In addition, as members of an archaeological 
project excavating the early preceramic site 
of Paloma, we had the opportunity to partake 
in the uncovering of the lifeways of these ancient 
Peruvians. The site has been dated to approxi- 
mately 8,000 to 5,000 years ago and has a very 
well preserved series of human, artifactual and 
ecological remains. 

The exceptional preservation of this and 
other coastal sites is due to the aridity of the 
coastal environment. Industrious native Peru- 
vians, to the despair of archaeologists, have 
taken advantage of the well preserved prod- 
ucts of their distant ancestors. Looted pottery, 
finely woven textiles, and delicately wrought 
gold and silver objets d'art demand hand- 
some prices on the international antiquities 
market. Today, the discarded remains of hastily 
looted excavations lie scattered over the desert 
surface, mute testimony to decades of intensive 
grave robbing. 

Fortunately, the arid environment has also 
preserved less aesthetic cultural aspects, namely 
garbage middens. Middens, which are mounds 
consisting of shells of edible mollusks and other 
refuse marking the sites of prehistoric human 



The importance of ma- 
rine resources to the 
daily life of ancient 
Peruvians was shared 
in their ideological 
realm. St\/lized repre- 
sentations of pelicans 
and fish motifs at the 
600-year-old capital of 
the imperial Chimu 
kingdom of Chan-Chan 
on the north coast of 
Peru illustrate the 
weaving of marine 
resource awareness 
into architectural and 
ideological design. 




15 



The3,500-meter-hiQh 
Andean puno is me 
natural habitat of the 
llama. In search of 
grazing areas during 
the highland dry sea- 
son, ancient Peruvians 
may have traveled to 
blooming coastal 
lomas, following herds 
of llama and guanaco. 
Modern herders travel 
to the coast during the 
coastal winter season, 
utilizing prehistoric 
stone corrals on loma 
hillsides to house their 
herds after grazing. 



habitation, are easily identified by the scattering 
of white shell fragments in the sandy Peruvian 
desert. Midden remains hold important clues of 
prehistoric diet and the methods employed to 
obtain those foodstuffs. The composition of pre- 
cotton, preceramic middens like those at Paloma 
as well as later cotton, preceramic middens such 
as those as Huaca Prieta and Alto Salaverry, 
indicate that the sea was used extensively for 
a variety of food sources throughout the 
preceramic periods. 

These food sources are of three general 
types: fish, shellfish, and sea mammal. Our re- 
search has evaluated each of these categories in 
terms of ease of acquisition, transport to habita- 
tion sites, processing techniques for consump- 
tion, preservation methods for storage, and 
relative importance in the preceramic diet. 

The deep Peruvian coastal waters constitute 
perhaps the richest marine biome in the entire 
world. The Peru Current, sweeping up from cold 
southern Antarctic waters, closely parallels the 
Peruvian shoreline because of the abrupt incline 
of the Andes from the ocean floor. A phenom- 
enon called upwelling, produced by a combi- 
nation of wind and ocean movements, brings 
colder, plankton-bearing, deeper water closer 
to the ocean surface, thus creating a rich 
feeding ground for anchovies and progres- 



sively larger fish and sea mammals such as 
seals and whales. The proximity of this feeding 
ground to the ocean surface and to the shore- 
line allowed it to be exploited extensively by 
prehistoric human populations. 

Peru leads the world in anchovy fishmeal 
production; used primarily as a protein-rich 
animal feed, it is exported worldwide. The con- 
sequences of decades of intensive anchovy 
exploitation have induced the present Peru- 
vian government to implement and enforce 
legislation limiting the annual tonnage of 
anchovies harvested. 

The presence of numerous bone and shell 
fishhooks, along with identifiable fish remains, 
in preceramic middens, confirm the listing of a 
variety of fish dishes in the preceramic food 
base. Over 250 species of fish inhabit the rich 
feeding grounds of the coastal waters. It is 
questionable whether the technological capa- 
bilities of the earliest fishermen permitted 
extensive exploitation of this abundant fish 
population. Cotton used in durable fishing nets 
was not domesticated until approximately 4,500 
years ago. It is possible that, prior to the do- 
mestication of cotton, nets were made from 
grass fibers collected from river valleys and 
blooming lomas. 

The ancient inhabitants of the precotton. 




preceramic site of Paloma crafted fine grass nets 
for use as body and head coverings, so we know 
that the ability to make nets antedated by 
thousands of years the domestication of cotton. 
Fine bone needles and tools found in association 
with preceramic burials and houses may have 
been used for net-making. Gourds, a common 
find in early preceramic middens, may have been 
used as net floats. Although grass fishing nets 
have never been recovered from preceramic mid- 
dens, it is possible that their exposure to the 
ocean waters may have hastened their decom- 
position. Nets may also have been discarded on 
the beach rather than at the occupation site, as 
much as 5 km away. 

It is also questionable whether ancient Peru- 
vians used boats to fish in richer waters further 
from shore. Like nets, remains of boats have not 
been found in early preceramic sites. Ancient 
Peruvians may have used tule reeds growing in 
river valleys to construct boats similar to those 
used today by crab fishermen of the town of 
Huanchaco, near the archaeological site of 
Chan-Chan on the north coast of Peru. Tule 
boats, known as caballitos de tortora (reed 
ponies), are known archaeologically through 
2,000-year-old Moche ceramic depiction. Tule 
reeds have been found in preceramic middens, 
and it is entirely possible that early Peruvians 
utilized them much as they are used today. The 
absence of boat remains in the archaeological 
record could be for the same reasons affecting 
the preservation of fishing nets. 

Anchovies. Although it is uncertain whether 
nets and seaworthy fishing craft were used, it is 
clear that fish, specifically anchovies, were a sub- 
stantial protein source to preceramic Peruvians. 
Excavations at Paloma revealed that anchovy 
fishmeal comprised the majority of the fish re- 
mains uncovered at the site. The significance 
of anchovies in the preceramic diet as well 
as the presence of numerous grinding stones 
found in the remains of Paloma houses — an 
incongruity in a supposedly preagricultural 
society — was puzzling. Fortunately, we wit- 
nessed a remarkable phenomenon during 
our residence in San Bartolo that helped us 
to fit the puzzle pieces together: 

For two days and two nights, thousands 
upon thousands of anchovies followed by the 
larger jurel, a fish similar to mackerel, "leaped" 
onto the shore, beaching themselves. The 
townspeople told us that such fishruns occur 
about four times during the course of the year. 
Villagers left countless anchovies to rot on the 
beach, in favor of the tastier jurels which were 
easily and rapidly caught from rocky jetties with 
a simple hook and line. 

Periodic prehistoric anchovy runs would 



have enabled ancient Peruvians to gather great 
amounts of anchovies and other fish without the 
benefit of nets and fishing craft. The periodic oc- 
currence of fishruns not induced by man has 
been documented ethnographically for South 
and Central America. During one of the days of 
the anchovy run, we fished offshore with a net. 
The number of fish obtained (over two wheelbar- 
rows full), in addition to a bucket of crab, was 
certainly in excess of ordinary hauls and empha- 
sized the immense amount of protein that could 
be easily acquired during periodic fishruns. 

It appears that the ancient Palomans uti- 
lized bountiful anchovy runs by converting the 
fresh fish into preservable fishmeal. Processing 
probably involved the following steps: First, 
the fish may have been placed on the ground 
or hung in net bags for a few days. In the lat- 
ter case, oil could be collected as the fish des- 
sicated. Modern Peruvians use fish oil as a soup 
base and the oil may have been used in much 
the same manner prehistorically. Once dried, 
the fish may have been ground into meal in 
grinding stones. The remaining oil in the fish 
would reduce friction, thus explaining a lack 
of wear and polish on the Paloma grinding 
stones. The meal was probably dried for a few 
more days to prevent spoilage. 

Anchovy strati graphic lenses (j.e., archaeo- 
logical deposits, lens-shaped in cross section) at 
Paloma were initially interpreted as the residue 
of fishmeal production. However, the absence 
of foreign elements such as flies, indicate that 
these deposits were primary storage. One might 
imagine coastal villagers laboring night and day 
during fishruns to procure and process as many 
anchovies and other fish as possible. It appears 
that these villagers stored the fishmeal produced 
for future use by heaping it on the ground then 
covering it with earth to prevent its exposure to 
the garua and pests. The relative ease of acquisi- 
tion and processing would probably have made 
anchovies one of the least expensive items 
on the preceramic menu as well as a staple 
during food crises. 

Whales. The chance witnessing of the fishrun 
helped us to fit other pieces of the puzzle of the 
preceramic diet together. Whale bones are found 
in almost all Peruvian coastal preceramic mid- 
dens and were occasionally used as housing con- 
struction material and even perhaps as sacred 
chairs for important members of the group. 
Whale strandings along the Pacific shores of the 
Americas occur today and are documented pre- 
historically for the Old World through artistic 
depiction. Ethnohistorical accounts relate the 
gathering of groups of coastal peoples and 
the complex social rituals called for at the 
occurrence of a whale stranding. The reason 



17 



R. Benfer, co-principal 

investigator of the 

Paloma excavations, 

photographs the well 

presented mat and 

grass covering of an 

ancient Paloma hiirial. 

The grass, locally 

knoion as junco, was 

pnobably collected from 

the Chika River Valley 

7 hn away. 







^n?v^i?r/; 



whales beach themselves, singly or in groups, 
remains a mystery. However, the phenomenon 
of beaching explains the finding of whale bone 
in the refuse of preceramic cultures that did 
not have the technological capabilities to pursue 
whales at sea. Is it possible that the preceramic 
food base may have included whale meat and 
other whale by-products, not just as a once-in- 
a-lifetime treat, but as a relatively common, 
if not regular, meal? 



The stratigraphic cut 
at a refuse midden of 
the Tank site at Ancon 
has an accumulation of 
shellfish remains more 
than 6 meters deep. 
Shellfish were an im- 
portant item on the 
preceramic menu al- 
though the preservahle 
and bulky nature of 
shell may skew the as- 
sessment of preceramic 
diet by inflating its pro- 
tein ana caloric value. 
Nevertheless, middens 
such as these document 
its common and stan- 
dard placement in the 
18 preceramic diet. 




Baleen whales, so named for a whale bone in 
place of teeth, allowing them to strain small 
organisms from water, find the coastal cold 
Peruvian waters attractive because of the rich 
supply of plankton. Within the last 100 years, 
the coastal Peruvian whale population has 
been seriously decimated due to heavy whaling 
operations. In fact, blue whales, weighing over 
150 tons as adults, have vanished from coastal 
Peruvian waters because of over-exploitation. 
It is certain that the number of whales was 
much higher prehistorically than today. 
Whale beachings may have been as frequent as 
anchovy runs. Although there is of course a 
vast difference in the number of fish versus 
the number of whales that beach themselves, 
the amount of immediately accessible protein 
represented may be roughly comparable if not 
in favor of the whale. The few numbers of whale 
bone found in preceramic middens may merely 
be a reflection of the transport problem 
involved, rather than of the frequency of 
whale strandings. Historical documentation of 
stranded whales on the coast of South America 
tell of beaching-site butcherings, with as much 
fresh meat as possible consumed during feasts 
that lasted several days and were attended by 
groups of coastal residents who came to share in 
the food resource temporarily made available 
in the huge body of a beached whale. A whale 
carcass could not be processed for storage by 
preceramic Peruvians and so was only a tem- 
porary boon to their food supplies. Because 



anchovy fishmeal, on the other hand, could be 
preserved and stored for many months, pos- 
sibly years, it was certainly a much greater and 
an exceedingly more reliable protein source 
than the immense whale. 

To our knowledge, there has been no at- 
tempt to calculate the caloric and protein value 
represented by the preceramic presence of whale 
bone. Adult whales range in size from about 10 to 
30 meters (approx. 35 to 100 feet) long and up to 
150 tons in weight, depending upon the species. 
A section containing one adult vertebra repre- 
sents at least one ton of edible meat. The total 
amount of edible meat available from a stranded 
whale is almost beyond comprehension. 

Of course, the common listing of whale meat 
and by-products on the preceramic menu cannot 
be substantiated until a reliable estimation of the 
frequency of whale strandings is made. Unfortu- 
nately, there is very little information on the 
subject. We have discussed the difficulties of 
accurate assessment of such nonseasonal and, 
apparently, randomly occurring phenomenon as 
whale strandings with staff scientists of the Peru- 
vian Institute of the Sea. One of these scientists 
related an account of a whale stranding about 100 
km south of Lima that had been told to her. A 
man who had witnessed a whale beaching went 
to Lima for a truck to transport sections of the 
whale. On his return to the whale beaching site 
two days later, all evidence of the whale had dis- 
appeared. The event was not substantiated in 
any standard way, and serves to illustrate the dif- 
ficulty of obtaining reliable data on such a matter. 

Seals, Sea Birds. The ecological interface be- 
tween the land and the sea contributed other 
food items. Ethongraphic literature on South 
American Indians documents the hunting of 
seals by hunters using heavy sticks to club the 
seals to death while they slept on the beach. The 
remains of seals and sea lions comprise a signifi- 
cant part of preceramic middens and indicate 
their important positions in the preceramic diet. 

Sea birds roosting on rocky enclaves were 
also subjected to surprise attacks by ancient 
hunters. The consensus among native Peru- 
vians, in our conversations with them, is a dis- 
taste for sea birds as a food source even in times 
of dire hunger. Perhaps ancient Peruvians felt 
the same way and gave sea birds a lowly place 
as a dietary source, thus explaining the low 
proportion of bird bone in preceramic middens. 

Shellfish. Conversely, shellfish were 
awarded a much higher position. The Peruvian 
coastal shellfish population is not only very high 
in numbers but has an extremely wide range of 
species. Opponents of the maritime foundation 
of civilization theory argue that shellfish is a poor 
protein source and could not have contributed 



significantly to the dietary requirements of a 
developing society. However, estimations of pro- 
tein value have commonly been based on fresh- 
water shellfish and are therefore not relevant 
here. The vast amounts of shell refuse character- 
izing precotton, preceramic middens indicate 
that indeed they were consumed as a staple in 
the earlier preceramic periods. The almost seven- 
meter-deep accumulation of shell refuse at the 
8,000-year-old Tank site at Ancon, north of Lima, 
demonstrates the popularity and importance of 
shellfish in the preceramic diet. 

The decreased importance of shellfish in the 
later cotton preceramic era is indicated by a re- 
duction of the proportion of shellfish debris in 
later middens. With the domestication of cotton 
used in fishing net manufacture, fishing may 
have replaced shellfish collecting as an inten- 
sive daily subsistence activity to provide more 
food for a growing population; however, shell- 
fish certainly continued to be gathered and 
consumed regularly. Human predation of 
shellfish through thousands of years may also 
have led to the reduction of the easily acces- 
sible shellfish populations. 

Many shellfish that served as a food re- 
source for early preceramic peoples were easily 
obtainable and did not require elaborate equip- 
ment. Techniques of collection were probably 
much the same as those used today by coastal 
shellfish gatherers. Net bags or gourds were 
used to carry the collected shellfish. It appears 
that several of the gourds found at Paloma were 
mended and possibly decorated, an indication of 
their importance as containers prior to the inven- 
tion of ceramics. 

Choros (Aulacomia ater and chormytilus 
chorus), types of mussel, are the most abundant 
and popularly purchased shellfish in Peru today. 



A cache of bone fish- 
hooks am a coral 
abrader found in exca- 
vations of a house 
at Paloma. Preceramic 
fishermen tied strings 
made from grass fibers 
around bone and 
shell fishhooks to use 
for fishing in the 
nearby Pacific. 





Fish is a popular 

Peruvian dish, perhaps 

reflecting a taste 

acquired over 5,000 

years ago. 



The fishing village of 
San Bartolo. 



Their natural habitat ranges from about 30 me- 
ters to 1 km offshore and between 20 to 35 meters 
deep on a rocky sea floor. Their overwhelming 
presence at such sites as Paloma indicates that 
prehistorically choros occupied habitats closer to 
shore. All the choro divers that we have inter- 
viewed speculate that shallow beds must have 
been enormous in the preindustrial era. Large 
choro beds are still occasionally found close to 
shore but are rapidly decimated by divers. The 



collection of choros simply involves raking them 
from the sea floor into a net. Ancient Peruvians 
may have floated bundles of tule reeds out to 
deeper waters and used them to support the 
weight of the shellfish catch. 

The proportion of shellfish in middens at 
different locations reflects differing shellfish 
habitats in accordance with geographical char- 
acteristics. For example, machas (Mesodesma 
domacium) were not frequently consumed 
by ancient Palomans although these clams com- 
prise a major portion of the preceramic Chilca 
middens 15 km from Paloma. The shoreline 
closest to Chilca is a sandy expanse of beach 
which is the natural habitat of machas. In con- 
trast, the closest beach to Paloma is a rocky 
inlet highly amenable to choro habitation. 

Machas are found very easily by observing 
their movement in sand and/or by wading in 
water knee-deep and feeling for them with the 
feet. They are harvested today with a hoelike 
device. Prehistoric Peruvians may have used 
a similar method by attaching a large shell 
to a stick or simply collected them by hand. 
The rarity of machas in the Paloma middens 
and the rarity of choros in the Chilca middens 
indicate that these early preceramic groups 
had exclusive territories. 




The relative frequency of almejas {Semele 
saeida), a clam found in preceramic, precotton 
middens, points to a lower frequency of con- 
sumption, possibly because they are more 
difficult to procure. Since they are attached to 
rocks, they must be pried loose with a sharp 
implement. Nonetheless, ancient Peruvians 
enjoyed large, very tasty almejas on a regular if 
not daily basis. 

Pectens (Pecten purpuratus) are considered 
a shellfish delicacy in Peru and accordingly are 
relatively high priced. Harvesting techniques are 
the same as those employed for choros. Along 
with almejas, machas, and choros, pectens are 
only the most commonly seen shellfish along the 
coast of Peru. An amazing number of species in- 
habiting the coastal waters lend themselves to a 
very tasty and diversified seafood cuisine. The 
range of species recovered from preceramic 
middens along the coast bear witness to the 
fact that many other shellfish types, including 
snails, were commonly consumed foods in the 
preceramic periods. 

Shellfish may have been dried for later con- 
sumption by heating over an open fire. Our own 
experiments confirm that shellfish can be pre- 
served for at least three days by removal of the 
moisture through heating on an open hearth. 
Using plants, specifically achupalla and cac- 
tus, gathered from the lomas for fuel, we 
conducted a series of tests involving roasting 
choros over an open fire. A minimum of 110 
grams (4 oz.) of achupalla and 450 grams (1 lb.) 
of cactus was necessary to adequately cook a 
dozen choros. The amount of fuel required 
may point to the processes involved in pre- 
historic denudation of the lomas. 

Shellfish provided an important material re- 
source to early preceramic peoples as well. The 
noted archaeologist Junius Bird found in his ex- 
cavations at the preceramic, precotton site of 
Quiani, Chile, that the earliest inhabitants of 
Quiani used shells to the exclusion of all other 
material in making fishhooks. It appears that the 
same is true for the early Palomans, who only 
later used bone as a manufacturing material for 
fishhooks. Shell as a material source is durable 
and produces a fine, sharp edge, making it ideal 
for knives and scrapers. Many tools made from 
shell, an easily acquired material, have been re- 
covered from preceramic middens. In addition, 
jewelry made from shell was raised to the level of 
a fine art in the coastal cultures. Even as far back 
as the early preceramic, individuals utilized 
shells to make tubular and circular beads and 
pendants of various shapes and sizes for decora- 
tive purposes. Burials excavated at the site of 
Paloma show that ornamental shell pieces were 
worn as collars and bracelets. 




Supplementing the clues provided by the 
well preserved remains of preceramic meals and 
the tools and equipment used to procure those 
meals, studies of the human remains of the 
preceramic site occupants are helpful in clearing 
our blurry picture of the preceramic coastal die- 
tary base. The high incidence of exaggerated 
lower back osteoarthritis among prehistoric 
Peruvians indicates that these individuals parti- 
cipated in activities that were highly stressful to 
the lower back. The daily transport of net bags 
and gourds filled with harvested shellfish on 
one's back from the collection areas to the occu- 
pation site would certainly have contributed to, if 
not caused, a painful arthritic condition. 

THE DENIM. RECORD 

A diet high in shellfish and other seafood is con- 
sidered to be highly abrasive to teeth. The pre- 
ceramic menu included daily quantities of sand 



The shar-ply descending^ 
crevices of the geologi- 
cally young Andes 
Mountains were likely 
the pathways of ancient 
Peruvians traveling to 
the coast and hack again 
to the sierra. 



21 



Caballitos, "little 
ponies" are used in 
the town ofHuanchaco, 
20 km north ofTrujillo, 
for crabbing today. Tule 
reeds, from whim such 
boats are made, have 
been identified in 
coastal preceramic 
middens. Ancient 
Peruvians may have 
used similar water- 
craft to collect shellfish 
and to fish in deeper 
offshore waters. 



A diet high in abrasive 

contents such as that 

of shellfish and anchovy 

fishmeal has resulted 

in the complete removal 

of the eiwmel surface 

of this maxillary first 

molar and loss of 

much of the enamel 

surface of its adjacent 

partners of this former 

22 Paloma resident. 





^. 



wT ' . 






X. 



iL 



Ikib^K 



and minute fishbone, unavoidable in the con- 
sumption of shellfish and anchovy fishmeal. 
Preceramic skeletons show extreme tooth wear 
as a result of a highly abrasive diet. 

Abscesses can result from extreme tooth 
wear, as well as from periodontal disease and 
cavities. An infection at the tooth root will often 
spread, destroying the surrounding bone if it re- 
mains untreated. Without the benefits of modern 
medicine, abscesses spreading to other areas of 
the body can result in death. 



S^.^i- 




m 







The close examination of teeth can be very 
important in evaluating the dietary health of 
prehistoric peoples. Macroscopic defects such 
as enamel hypoplasia, which appear as readily 
visible linear grooves or pits, indicate certain 
health stressful conditions suffered by the indi- 
vidual. These conditions may result from dis- 
ease, metabolic disturbances, or malnutrition. 
The preceramic diet was subjected to periodic 
food shortages, perhaps causing the devel- 
opment of enamel hypoplasia in many pre- 
ceramic individuals. 



EL NINO 

Periodic extreme food shortages were due to a 
natural, disastrous event known as EI Nino 
("the child") so named because of its com- 
mon appearance during the Christmas season 
roughly every 20 to 25 years. (See "El Nino, the 
Catastrophic Flooding of Coastal Peru," in Bul- 
letin, July-August and September, 1979.) El Nifio 
is a warm-water intrusion from the north into the 
Peru Current, diminishing the upwelling of 
colder deeper water. Elevated water tempera- 
tures kill off the plankton, initiating a calamitous 
sequence of events for the rest of the plankton- 
dependent trophic chain. The equatorial warm 
water thrust into the colder Peru Current dis- 
turbs the climatic equilibrium and periodically 
results in torrential rainstorms causing extensive 
flooding on the coastal desert strip. Flooding of 
cultivated land, along with diminished sea re- 
sources, as a result of particularly intense El Ni- 
hos, results in drastic food shortages today. The 
prehistoric consequences must have been even 
more disastrous. Yet, preceramic peoples man- 
aged to develop and flourish as a civilization 
through such cyclical food shortages. To combat 
periods of food crisis, the preceramic food re- 



source base included a variety of storeable items 
such as anchovy fishmeal and vegetal products 
that could be accumulated well in advance and 
stored in mass quantities. 

The innovation of permanent building facili- 
ties like those found at the 4,000-year-old 
El Paraiso is indicative of the implementation 
of permanent and increasingly larger storage 
facilities. Only one building was excavated at 
El Paraiso by Frederic Engel, an archaeologist 
well known for his preceramic discoveries at 
such sites as Paracas, Asis, and Paloma. This 
building was excavated because it was one 
of the smallest structures visible and its loca- 
tion on high ground prevented its being totally 
embedded in silt carried by the Chillon River. 
This 35-room building, we believe, was a stor- 
age facility, although negligible artifactual 
remains were found during excavation in 
support of this conclusion. 

The excavated building at El Paraiso is in an 
easily defensible location abutting the hillsides of 
a small valley. It is likely that during extended pe- 
riods of food crises, as after a devasting El Nifio, 
sites such as EI Paraiso would have been threat- 
ened by groups desperate for foodstuffs. The lo- 
cation of the El Paraiso storage facility reflects the 



high priority of defensibility given to stored food 
supplies. 

The cotton preceramic construction of large, 
permanent, and defensible storage facilities sug- 
gests several conclusions. First, the populations 
responsible for the construction of such sites as 
El Paraiso had enough person-power to concen- 
trate on architectural endeavors as well as to sup- 
port the population with their dietary needs. 
Secondly, the construction of elaborate stone 
architecture and the procurement of mass 
quantities of storeable foods points to a stiatified 
level of society with leaders directing large 
numbers of workers. Thirdly, the preceramic 
food base definitely included those large store- 
able quantities of food necessary to provide the 
basis of civilization development. 

It appears that the preceramic menu not 
only provided a steady food base, but one that 
was highly diversified and sayory. This was 
possible because of the prehistoric multiple 
exploitation of land as well as sea resources. 
Perhaps the diversified cuisine was an im- 
portant factor in the subsequent civilization 
growth and reflected a cultural predisposition 
for experimentation and utilization of all 
available resources. D 




A close look at the only 
entrance to what is be- 
lieved to have been a 
storage facility. The 
4,000-year-olci build- 
ing is located on the up- 
slope of the river valley 
and built on a series of 
platforms, perhaps to 
guard stored fishmeal 
and other food products 
against periodic flood- 
ing and raids by hun- 
gry preceramic groups. 



23 



Morpho granadensis, 
male 




MORPHO 

The Jewel of Tropical Rain Forests 



br Allen M. Young 
Photos courtesy of the author 



24 



T' he magnificent morpho butterflies of the 
Amazon rain forest stunned the early natu- 
ralists from Europe who saw them for the first 
time more than two centuries ago. Perhaps 
nowhere outside the tropical rain forests of 
Central and South America, where they number 
some 40 species, have large butterflies of such 
awesome beauty been found. The name "mor- 
pho" is an alternate name for Aphrodite, the 
ancient Greek goddess of wisdom and beauty. 
The upper sides of their expansive, brittle 
wings have a glistening, iridescent blue sheen. 
The iridescence, ranging from vivid, almost 
mirrorlike dazzling blue to deep purple and 
brown, is due to complex arrangements of 
microscopic grooves on the tiny, shingled scales, 
which absorb all but the blue wavelengths of 
daylight. In this respect, the morpho's blue 
differs from other butterfly colors, which are 
due to pigment. Throughout the animal king- 



dom, as a matter of fact, blue coloration is seldom 
due to pigment. 

The intensity of the blue reflection depends 
on the angle of wing to sunlight. When the 
sunlight is almost perpendicular to the wing 
surface, the brightness of the blue is greatest; 
further from the perpendicular, the wing ap- 
pears less blue and more brown. Because these 
magnificent butterflies, so popular with collec- 
tors (as well as makers of inlaid table tops, coast- 
ers, wall decorations, and a multitude of curios), 
have long been zealously sought out, wing ma- 
terial has also been in ample supply for biologists 
investigating the phenomenon of iridescence. 

The eyes of the butterfly are very sensitive 
to blue color; male morphos, for example, will 



Allen M. Young is curator and head of the Invertebrate Zool- 
ogy Section of ttie Milwaukee Public Museum. 



often pursue a blue workshirt for some distance. 
Thus, the blue may function in courtship from a 
distance, allowing cruising butterflies to locate 
each other and initiate the early stages of court- 
ship if the signals and partners are right. 
In some species only the males are blue, the 
females being orange and brown. Such sexual 
dimorphism suggests a lower price tag placed 
on males; females, being egg-bearers, are 
less expendable and therefore more cryp- 
tically colored. 

In morpho species with sexes of similar 
appearance, flash communication from a dis- 
tance may bring potential mates together; other 
cues then take over in determining species rec- 
ognition. But the attractiveness of the color is 
also a disadvantage: some insectivorous birds 
are remarkably agile at catching the butterflies 
on the wing. I have found heaps of wings of 
morpho butterflies in forests. Even so, some of 
the more iridescent species, by erratic flight 
patterns, may evade the birds. Slow-motion 
photography of a morpho in flight shows the 
insect literally dropping from sight against the 
forest backdrop. This can occur when the wings 
close, thus concealing the iridescence, or when, 
for a fraction of a second, the angles of the 
wings to the sun are so oblique that the insect 
becomes a brown smudge against the forest. 

Some morpho species feed mainly at dusk. 
As the butterflies are settled on the ground, 
with wings closed, the large eyespotlike mark- 
ings on the underside are enhanced by the rays 
of sunlight filtering obliquely through the forest, 
perhaps frightening off predators such as small 
lizards roaming the forest litter. 

Much more is known about the mechanism 
of color in morphos than about their natural 
history and biology. Gradually, however, we are 
coming to understand the life cycle and natural 
history of widespread species such as Morpho 
peleides, a member of the achilles superspecies 
complex believed to have evolved in the Amazon 
rain forests. Peleides is one of two achilles species 
that have extended into the humid and moist 
mid-elevation and lowland forest zones of 
Central America and Mexico. Peleides and its 
near relative, Morpho granadensis, found in 
Costa Rica's Caribbean or Atlantic watershed 
rain forests, have been the subject of my inves- 
tigation for the last twelve years. 

The females of both species place their eggs 
singly on the upper surfaces of mature leaves of 
various trees, shrubs, and vines of the pea family 
(Leguminosae) bordering climax rain forest 
formations. I vividly remember my first sighting 
of an ovipositing female peleides: Wading through 
the clear, cold waters of a swift mountain stream, 
I came to a section where the butterflies were 




Developmental 
stages of Morpho 
peleides. Top: first 
instar, which reaches 
maximum length 
of about 10 mm. 
Middle: third instar, 
which grows to about 
40 mm. Bottom: 
prepupa, about 
70 mm (23/4") long. 25 



FIEm 
MUSEUM 



Come with Us to Kenya! 

Field Museum Tbur for Members 



September 11-30 
Tour Price: $3,195 

per person, double occupancy 
single supplement: $430 

optional extension to the Seychelles Islands: $1435 additional 



Itineraiy 

Sept. 11: Depart Chicago via British Airways 
for London. 

Sept. 12: Depart London in the evening via 
British Airways for Nairobi, Kenya. 
Sept. 13: Nairobi. Earlv morning arrival in 
Nairobi, where you will be met and taken to 
the luxurious Norfolk Hotel. The rest of the 
dav will be at leisure to relax, sleep, swim, 
or wander around the shops. 
Sept. 14: Mountain National Parks. Today 
you are off on safari, driving past estates 
and plantations to one of Kenya's gracious 
up-country hotels, the Outspan. Enjoy a buffet 
lunch here; this afternoon continue into the 
Mountain National Parks — a deeply forested 
area. Overnight will be at Mountain Lodge, 
a "tree house" sitting high above a lighted 
waterhole where )'ou watch the game. 
Sept. 15: Samburu Game Reserve. Leaving 
the park, continue along the valley and the 
slopes of Mt. Kenya, descending into rugged 
Northern Province. Pass through the 
town of Isiolo where vour vehicle will be 
surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares. Proceed to Samburu Game Reserve 
and view game as vou drive to the lovely 
Samburu Lodge. Later in the day, a game 
drive. 

Sept. IG: Samburu Game Reserve. A full day 
of viewing giraflfe, zebra, and gerenuk. 
Samburu is also a ver\' good park for elephant 
and leopard. Evening at the lodge. 
Sept. 17: Mt. Kenya. After breakfast, drive 
to Mount Kenya Safari Club. Spend a restful 
afternoon at this resort with its magnificent 
gardens situated under Mt. Kenya. 
Sept. 18: Mt. Kenya. "Mdng a picnic lunch, 
there will be a full day visit to a ranch for a 
rare opportunity to ^iew game on foot, or 
vou may wish to stay behind to enjoy the 
club's tennis, svWmming, horseback riding, 
and trout fishing. 

Sept. 19: Lake Naivasha. After breakfast, 
drive towards Lake Naivasha. The bird lite 
is spectacular. In the afternoon you can swim 
in the pool or just relax. 
Sept. 20: Masai Mara Game Reserve. This 
morning you will dri\'e through the town of 
26 Narok, the main Masai town where vou mav 



wish to buy various wares. Proceed on to 
Masai Mara Game Reserve and vour luxuiy 
camp, Kichwa Tembo. You will have an 
afternoon game drive, followed by cocktails 
around the campfire and a gourmet dinner. 
Sept. 21: Masai Mara Game Reser\'e. A full 
day of game viewing. Game here is limitless. 
The lion population is very large. Also 
elephant, rhino, giraffe, hyena, cape buffalo, 
hartebeeste, topi, impala, gazelle, and bird 
life. Explore the river area, seeing crocodile 
or hippos. There is also the opportunity of a 
walking safari — where you will track 
animals on foot . After a long day in the bush , 
enjoy drinks around the campfire and 
dine in an elegance quite unexpected in 
the wilderness. 

Sept. 22: Nairobi. After breakfast drive back 
to Nairobi, stopping en route for lunch at the 
home of Mrs. Mitchell, a life-long resident 
of Kenya, whose family began the first tea 
plantation in Kenya in the 1920s. 

Arrival back in Nairobi will be in the 
mid-aftemoon and will be at leisure for your 
own activities. 

Sept. 23: Amboseli National Park. Off on 
safari again, heading towards Amboseli 
National Park, famous for its big game and 
superb \'iew of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Following 
lunch at the lodge, sfjend the afternoon game 
viewing. 

Sept. 24: Amboseli National Park. Following 
early breakfast, a flill day of game viewing, 
taking a picnic lunch with you. 

Sept. 25: "Ravo National Park. This morning 
continue flirther south to Tsavo National 
Park. View game before arriving at Kilaguni 
Lodge for lunch. From the lodge watch the 
game wander in to drink at the waterhole. 
This afternoon go out in search of the great 
herds of elephant. You will also visit at 
Mzima Springs where vou will xiew from an 
underground tank hippo, crocodile and fish. 
Late this afternoon arrive at Ngulia Ixxlge. 

Sept. 26: Mombasa. This morning drive to 
the luxurious Taita Hills Lodge, set among 
beautiful gardens. Continue southwards to 
Mombasa and the TVvo Fishes Hotel. Here 
the balance of the day will be at leisure. 



Sept. 27: Mombasa. A full day excursion to 
Shimba Hills National Reserve, a forested 
plateau. Later this afternoon return to the 
comforts of your hotel. 
Sept. 28: Mombasa. A full day at leisure to 
relax on the beach, swim in the Indian 
Ocean, or just soak up the tropical sun. There 
is also the opportunity to hire a boat and 
search for fish such as marlin, sailfish and 
shark. If your preference is the underwater 
world, you can go diving off the reef. This 
evening wander dovni to a local hotel for a 
cocktail or relax in the quiet of the Leopard 
Beach Hotel. 

Sept. 29: Nairobi. Morning flight back 
to Nairobi, where day rooms have been 
reserved at the Norfolk Hotel for vour 
convenience. The balance of the day will 
be at leisure for shopping and sightseeing. 
Late evening transfer to the airport for flight 
to London. 

Sept. 30: Chicago. Arrive London early this 
morning and transfer to day rooms at the 
Sheraton Skyline Hotel. Your Chicago flight 
viall leave early this afternoon, arriving in 
Chicago later the same day. 

An optional excursion to the Seychelles Islands 
is available upon request. Operation of this 
extension is contingent on the enrollment of 
four or more people. The Seychelles, in the 
heart of the Indian Ocean, are acclaimed as 
one of the loveliest and most unspoiled 
beauty spwts. They offer an atmosphere of 
timelessness and tranquility. Please let us 
know if you wish to have fiirther information. 

Audrey Faden, a native of Kenya, will be our 
guest lecturer. With her keen interest in 
wildlife, conservation, and plant life, she is 
a natural to lead our tour. Audrey served 
as Officer in Charge of Education at the 
National Museum of Kenya, Nairobi, and 
was instrumental in organizing Wildlife 
Clubs of Kenya. She served on the Field 
Museum volunteer stafTand has done field 
research and general collecting of plants in 
Kenya. 

For flirther information on this su- 
perb tour, please call or write 
Dorothy Roder, (312)322-8862. 



unusually abundant. After about twenty min- 
utes of wading chest-deep, I spotted the big 
butterfly fluttering near a patch of mucuna vines 
some fifteen meters away. I froze for a moment 
before slowly approaching it, then had the thrill 
of watching the morpho place up to twenty 
eggs, each on a separate leaf of the same vine, 
before it flew off. I had been at the right place at 
the right time to witness an event that few biol- 
ogists have been privileged to see. 

The gaudily colored, hairy morpho cater- 
pillars, which emerge from their eggs in about 
12 days, are decorated in a rich patchwork of 
yellows, reds, and brown. They spin thin silken 
mats to anchor themselves to leaves of the food 
plant, and take as long as three months to 
complete their development. 

Working high in the mountains of Costa Rica 
and studying the caterpillars on tagged vines 
in the wild around the clock, I found that 
the caterpillars have a distinctive bimodal feed- 
ing cycle, that is, with peak feeding at dawn 
and dusk and very little feeding in between. 
During the brighter daylight hours, the cater- 
pillars remain immobile, hidden away behind 



shaded leaves and branches of the food plant. 
When disturbed, they often emit a pungent, 
margerinelike odor from a tiny eversible gland 
just in front of the forelegs. Nonetheless, many 
caterpillars are victimized by parasitic wasps 
and flies, which can effectively limit the morpho 
populations in areas of rain forest. 

The fully grown caterpillar then becomes 
a very mobile green prepupa that wanders about 
in search of a suitable site to pupate. The plump, 
green pupa that finally forms is camouflaged 
among leaves not too far from the food plant. 
About three weeks later, the magnificent 
butterfly emerges. 

Some morpho species in Central America, 
such as peleides, appear to be "fugitive" species 
and colonize the secondary vegetation along 
road cuts and rivers where the larval food plants 
grow in abundance. The more ecologically re- 
stricted granadensis and several other species are 
more closely associated with the undisturbed 
tropical rain forest habitat. The greatest threat 
to the survival of these ecologically restricted 
species is the wholesale destruction of tropical 
rain forests in Central and South America. D 




The subtle earth 
tones of the lower 
side of Morpho 
peleides' wings are 
in sharp contrast to 
the dazzling irides- 
cence of the upper 
surface. The butter- 
fly emerged from 
its pupa only 
minutes before. 27 



PHILIPPINES 

Continued from p. 10 

was being checked in the down stream towns; 
and that so far as Echague was concerned the 
people there had been visited only with a severe 
case of what he put in the plural of an ancient, 
indelicate, but expressive monosyllable. Hence 
all that is keeping me is the lack of rafts but 
these I can get in time. 



BENEDICT TO DORSEY, NOVEMBER 23, 1907 

Laura Benedict, an ex-schoolteacher who had fallen in 
love with anthropology and had taken courses in the 
subject at Columbia, was a collector for the Museum 
who paid her own way to the Philippines. Her semi- 
amateur status may have kept Dorsey from putting 
her on the payroll, but he let her use the Museum's 
name and supervised her as closely as any of his 
paid fieldworkers. 
The three Ilongot men She seems to have done well among her Bagobo, 

convicted of murdering one of the better known peoples of southwestern 
^%ZlZpwJiZ", Mindanao, but to have had real problems with 
Luzon. 1909. N3366i non-Bagobos. This, her last field letter, was written 




from Santa Cruz in Davao Province, an area that had 
recently seen a great expansion of American-owned 
manila hemp plantations. 

My dear Dr. Dorsey: 

Recently I sent you two letters under dates of 
November 9 and Nov. 11 or 12. They may never 
have reached you; some of my mail has been 
tampered with; four boxes of provisions 
(amounting to $66.00) have been stolen en route; 
other mysterious things have happened. Sadly 
enough, it is (almost certainly) not natives, but 
white settlers, who do these things. Were it not 
for the Americans and French'^' people, life would 
be happy indeed, among the Bagobo alone. 

In one of those letters I told you that my 
business of collecting ethnological objects among 
the Bagobo, was passing under a monoply. 
This fact becomes daily more apparent, and I 
might almost say that a syndicate has been 
formed, including several people, two of them 
men who can practically control the market for 
Bagobo treasures; one because he employs the 
newly-moved Taluu people as his laborers; the 
other, through his influence as owner of the 
central American store for Bagobo trade, 
where they owe large debts, and as the buyer 
of their hemp. *^* 

. . .While I am laboriously struggling over 
the distinction between the ears and eyes of the 
crocodile pattern in the textiles, or trying to 
extract some information about a little line in 
the carving of the tagau, my neighbor jumps on 
his horse, sweeps through the hills, and loads 
in Bagobo objects to the value of hundreds of 
pesos, in two or three hours. 

. . .1 would willingly cooperate with anybody 
who came to me frankly with a wish to preserve 
Bagobo records and Bagobo treaures. But it is 
unfortunate that all this material should be 
rushed out of the islands without my having 
chance to see the native owners or the makers, 
and get points which can never be ascertained 
in America. Moreover, these men have not taken 
a straight course: I have given them information, 
help, friendship, and they are reciprocating 
with a most contemptible tangle of deceit 
and cunning. 

. . .If they had only been honest with me, 
I could plan much better. I often wonder what 
they could have written you,*^' to explain their 

1. The French wife (or mistress) of the American plan- 
tation owner, Mr. John. 

2. Mr. John raises part of his hemp in his own fields 
but also buys part of it from Bagobo smallholders in 
the neighborhood. 

3. Benedict states elsewhere in this letter that she sus- 
pects Mr. John of shipping his Bagobo material off to 
Field Museum. In reality, as far as is known, he was 
not in contact with this or any other museum. 



sudden coup deforce. In the meantime, I ought 
to be in the mountains, but if I leave my little 
collection here, some harm would assuredly 
come to it, and I cannot send it off till I get the 
pattern names identified, which is a very slow 
process. For example, every Bagobo woman 
will say that a little design called tecco is just 
"batucca binubuhud" (i.e. purely a conventional 
or geometric pattern). After several months, 
some girl will let slip that it imitates the move- 
ment of a stream of water as it meanders along. 
You see how 1 hate to let the things leave my 
hands for good and all. Enclosed is the rubbing 
of a tagau^*^ which will show you what I am 
trying to do in one direction of the decorative 
art. It is slow work, but deeply interesting. 

. . .In closing this somewhat discursive letter 
I have this to say: If I am correct in my belief 
(toward which all appearances point) that all 
these Bagobo things are being shipped to you, 
on no account let Mr. John or his partners dis- 
cover that I have written you of what is going 
on. They think 1 do not know, and in that lies 
my safety in being left free to carry on my studies 
without futher molestation. Bum the letter 
quietly that I wrote you about one of the agents 
concerned in this business. If he got wind of 
it, he would take some swift revenge that 
might mean harm to my work. I do not know 

4. An incised bamboo tube, probably for tobacco. 





Ilongot women with 
heavy loads. Nueva 
Vizcaya Province, 
Luzon. Photo by 
William Jones, 1908. 
N23375 



Ilonsot men in mock 
battle. Nueva Vizcaya 
Province, Luzon. 
^ Photo by William 
"" Jones, 1908.N2966629 



Bag of abaca cloth 
ornamented with glass 
and porcelain beads 
and brass bells, from 
Mindanao; Bagobo. 
Lent by the National 
Museum of Natural 
History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washing- 
ton, D.C. #387634. 



Wooden food bowl 

from northern Luzon; 

Ifugao. 30.3 cm. 

Collection of Field 

Museum. mi3349. 









,.-«"""'"""^^'^^/' 


% 








/'• 1 -4';:: ■•''•.' 




? '^»Vo>'^^ 


r •'■.'••♦:. '- , 


"Slft^L. . ZT-*^^- asariliX.*-' 


i? li "^ ^ 









what their grudge can be, nor why they 
have assumed this hostile attitude. It came like 
a bolt out of a clear sky, and there is no one 
who can be trusted to speak on the matter/^' 

COLE TO DORSEY, JULY 25, 1910 

Cole returned to the Philippines for his second stint 
there in 1909 and reached the Davao area, where 
Benedict worked, in July, 1910. Benedict was in 
Chicago at the time trying to sell her collection to 
Dorsey for an amount which, Cole says in another 
letter, would have been enough to buy large collections 
from every tribe in Davao Province. In this letter he 
focuses on another subject. 

. . .You will be interested in knowing the straight 
of Miss Benedict's visit here. She came full of 





30 



enthusiasm but evidently short of funds. It ap- 
pears that she proceeded at once to overdo and 
at the same time starve herself. In order to devote 
all her energies to the work, she cut herself 
away from the other Americans and lived in a 
little hut by herself even when in the civilized 
towns. In a few months she had ruined her 
health and her mind could not stand the strain. 
"The planters were plotting to raise prices on 
her; later they tried to steal her collection, and 
finally they had designs on her life. Two old 
maids from Boston who were also studying the 
Bagobos were trying to set the natives against 
her and were also after her notes. After a time, 
her condition was such that she was removed to 
the hospital in Davao, but new troubles awaited 
her here for her enemies attached electric bat- 
teries to her bed so she could not sleep, and the 
wife of the missionary sent her cake and sweet- 
meats with poison in them. Finally acting on 
Worcester's advice, the Captain of Constabulary 
sent her to Manila where her sister took her in 
charge."*'' The people she most feared are the 
best people of the district and there seems to 
have been not the slightest grounds for her 
suspicions. All agree that she learned more of 
the Bagobo language and got closer to the 
people than any other person has done, and it 
is also their opinion that her collection was 
exceptionally fine.*'^* 

5. The next letter clarifies this point. 

1. It is not clear whom Cole is quoting, but Benedict's 
paranoia is amply confirmed by her own letters. 

2. She eventually sold her collection, which was 
indeed very fine, to the American Museum of 
Natural History. 




Stitch-resist dyed men's trousers 0/ abaca cloth, from Mindanao; Kulaman. 58 cm. Collection of Field Museum. #129645. 



Field Museum's Philippine Anthropological Collection 



Although the Cummings Expeditions produced the bulk 
X^of the Philippine material at Field Museum, many un- 
related acquisitions have substantially strengthened the col- 
lection over the years. The most important of these were 
Dean C. Worcester's gift, sometime in the late 1920's, of 
some 5,000 negatives of photographs of Philippine tribal 
areas taken between 1900 and 1910, and Evett D. Hester's 
1954-57 gift of some 400 pieces of excavated porcelain from 
Philippine sites. 

The history and nature of the museum's Philippine 
collection are laid out in the tables on page 32. While the 
tables speak for themselves, they point to several inter- 
esting conclusions that have surprised even members of 
the Museum staff. 

First, Faye Cooper Cole was clearly the champion field 
collector. Almost half of the total collection was acquired by 
him personally, and his field notes and photographs form a 
major part of the excellent documentation we have on 
our Philippine material. While Dorsey's planning and 



Cummings' generosity laid the groundwork, it is clear that 
Cole is the one who made the collection what it is — one of 
the two finest anywhere. 

Second, the collection as listed in Table III has serious 
gaps, especially as regards the peoples of western 
Mindanao, of parts of the Sulu Islands, of Mindoro, of 
northeastern Luzon, and — by far the most significant — of 
the Christianized central Philippines. The Anthropology 
Department hopes to begin filling some of these gaps in 
future years. 

Third, it will be noticed that Table II indicates virtually 
no activity in the Philippines collections between the early 
1920s and the early 1950s. This is not a peculiarity of Field 
Museum's interests but reflects a very general phenom- 
enon: between World War I and II, Americans in the 
United States almost stopped thinking or writing about 
the Philippines. Why this happened is not at all clear 
(most historians of the Philippine-American relations do 
not even comment on it), but it had major effects on many 



31 




TABLE I 
Cummings Expedition Fieldworkers and Collections 



Tinguian woman weaving, Abra Province, Luzon. Photo by 
Faye Cooper Cole, 1907. N29143 



fields, including anthropology. No more than a handful 
of anthropologists set foot in the Philippines between 
1910 and 1950, a period which was the golden age of so- 
cial science in such nearby areas as Indonesia. The result 
is that we are surprisingly ignorant about such subjects 
as ethnic arts, oral literature, tribal religions, and even 
the basic social organization of minority groups. 
Although anthropological research by Americans and, 
more importantly, by native Filipinos has revived in recent 
years, the Philippines remain one of the anthropologically 
least known areas of the world. 



Worker and Data 


Ethnic Groups 


Objects 


S. C. Simms, 1906 


Ibaloi, Kankanay, Bontoc, Ifugao 


1,236 


W. Jones, 1906-8 


Uongot 


1,275 


F. C. Cole, 1907-8 


Tinguian, Kalinga, Isneg 


2,489 


S. C. Simms, 1909-10 


Ifugao, Bontoc 


1,201 


F. C. Cole, 1909-11 


Batak, Bukidnon, Bagobo, Bilaan, 






Mandaya, Kulaman, Tagakaola, etc. 


2,256 


L. Benedict, 1906-8* 


Bagobo 


1 


F. Gardner, 1909* 


Mangyan 


163 


A. C.Jenks, 1904-6* 


Bontoc and Maranao 


214 



*Fieldwork not financed by Field Museum but field-coUected material purchased with 
Cummings funds. 

TABLE II 

Gifts and non-Cummings Purchases for 

Field Museum Philippine Collections 



Years 


Acquisi- 
tions 


Objects 


Years 


Acquisi- 
tions 


Objects 


Years 


Acquisi- 
tions 


Objects 


1893-97 

1898-1902 

1903-07 

1908-12 

1913-17 

1918-22 



1 
7 
8 
4 
5 



213 
361 
219 
138 
20 


1923-27 
1928-32 
1933-37 
1938-42 
1943-47 
1948-52 






1 








1 




1953-7 

1958-62 

1963-7 

1968-72 

1973-77 

1978-82 


4 

6 

5 
3 
4 
12 


412 
46 
35 
10 
21 

126 



TABLE in 

Field Museum's Philippine Ethnographic 

Collections, A Partial List 



Place 


Ethnic Group 


Objects 


Place 


Ethnic Group 


Objects 


Luzon 


Bontoc 


777 


Mindanao 


Bagobo 


517 




Ibaloi 


373 




Biia-an 


273 




Ifugao 


1168* 




Bukidnon 


663 




Ilongot 


1221 




Kulaman 


173 




Isneg 


174 




Mandaya 


415 




Kankanay 


239 




Magindanao 


25 




Negrito 


486 




Manobo 


6* 




Tinguian 


1232 




Moro (Mindanao 
or Sulu) 


103* 




Tagalog and re- 












lated groups 


98 




Subanun 


1 


Mindoro 


Mangyan/Hanunoo 


91 




Tagakaolo 


5* 


Visayas 


Cebuano, etc. 


24* 




TiruravT'boli 


22 


Palawan 


Batak 


146 


Sulu 


Moro 


20* 




Tagbanua 


80 




Samal/Yakan 
Tausug 


4 
18* 



*Known to be an underestimate. 

The Museum also has about 800 archaeological items from the Philippines. 



Books Based on Field Museum 
Collections or Expeditions 

COLE, FAYE-COOPER 

1912 Chinese Pottery in the Philippines. 
Fieldiana, Anth. Ser. 12, 1. 

42 pp and 22 pis 

1913 Wild Tribes of the Davao District. 
Fieldiana, Anth. Ser. 12, 2. 

203 pp and 75 pis 

1915 Traditions of the Tinguian. 
Fieldiana, Anth. Ser. 14, 1. 
226 pp 

1922 The Tinguian. 

Fieldiana, Anth. Ser. 14, 2. 
489 pp and 83 pis 

1956 The Bukidnon of Mindanao. 

Fieldiana Anth. Ser. 46. 
32 140 pp and 66 pis 



COLE, MABEL COOK 
1929 



Savage Gentlemen 

D. van Nostrand and Co., New York 

249 pp 

MANUEL, E. ARSENIO 

1978 Toward an Inventory of Philippine Musical Instruments. 
Asian Studies, Quezon City, Philippines. 
82 pp 

RIDEOUT, H. M. 

1912 William Jones: Indian, Cowboy, American Scholar. 
Stokes, New York. 
100 pp 



Donors to Field Museum Philippine Anthropological Collections 



E. E. Ayer 

F. Otley Beyer 
Irene Brittingham 
F. K. Crosby 
Fred Evangelista 
Louis Fuchs, Jr 
Evett D. Hester 
John Hoellen 



Joel D. John 
Kay Kimberley 
Mrs. G. T. Langhorne 
Charles A. H. McCauley 
John and Withrow Meeker 
Homer T. Merrill 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Anna M. Murphy 



Louis Neubeyer 

Albert H. Newman 

Mary Ng 

Luther Parker 

Philippine National Museum 

Hyman A. Pierce 

Jessica Roza 

Irving Spencer 



Alex Spoehr 
Wilhelm G. Solheim II 
David G. Swanson 
Antonia Thomas 
Theodore van Zelst 
Orry C. Waltz 
Mrs. Philip Wrigley 



Questions and Answers About the Philippine Show 



Why is the exhibit being shown in Chicago? 

Because there are 75,000 Filipino-Americans here, because 
Chicago has a long history of interest in the Philippines, 
and because it has unusual resources for backing up such a 
show. No fevk'er than four major centers of Philippine 
studies are located in the Chicago metropolitan area: 
The University of Chicago, Northern Illinois University, 
The Newberry Library, and Field Museum. 



northern Philippines; bululs are much desired by collectors 
of ethnic and "primitive" art. The best selection ever as- 
sembled of southern Philippines weavings, the greatest of 
the world's still-undiscovered textile art traditions. 

How old are they? 

50,000-50 years old. The bulk of the objects date to between 
A.D. 1600 and 1900. 



What's in the show? 

Ancient gold objects and ceramics, historic Catholic sculp- 
ture and paintings, wooden statues, steel swords, brass 
jars, baskets, jewelry, costumes, and cloth — about 400 
objects in all. All represent traditional Filipino rather than 
American-European workmanship and taste. 

Are the objects worth looking at? 

Very much so. Each object in the exhibition was chosen 
by experts as the finest example of its kind after search- 
ing through most existing Philippines collections on 
three continents. 

Which objects are the most interesting? 

The Manunggul Jar, a registered National Treasure of the 
Republic of the Philippines and one of the most famous 
artifacts ever excavated in that country. The Agusan Gold 
Image, another very famous excavated artifact. A large and 
fine selection of the bulul statues made by the Ifugaos of the 



Where do the objects come from? 

The collections of 16 museums and 13 private collec- 
tions in the U.S., Europe, and the Philippines. About 
20 percent comes from Field Museum's own excellent 
Philippine collections. 

Who made them? 

Members of 25 ethnic groups ranging from simple head- 
hunters to sophisticated city dwellers. The city dwellers 
are not necessarily finer artists than the headhunters. 
The groups with the largest number of objects in the 
show are the Tagalog/Pampangans, the Ifugaos, the 
Maranaos, and the Bagobos. 

Who organized the show? 

A group of experts from the University of Hawaii and 
the University of California at Los Angeles, under the 
sponsorship of the Museum of Cultural History of UCLA. 
Field Museum was closely involved in the initial planning. 




Mom fighting knife, Sulu Archipelago. 60 cm. Gift of Walker B. Davis. #115456 



33 





r 





FIELD BRIEFS 







Women's Board Members Mrs. Robert H. Malott (left) and Mrs. Charles S. Potter and Field 
Museum President Willard L. Boyd were on hand recently to observe the burying of a time capsule 
beneath the totem pole in front of the Field Museum. The 55-foot pole, carved by Northwest Coast 
artist Norman Tail, was raised April 24 to celebrate the opening of "The Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast" exhibit. The Women's Board raised funds for the commissioning of 
the pole and for activities during opening week of the exhibit. The time capsule contains names of 
contributors, staff members, and volunteers wno worked on the exhibit, historical information 
about Field Museum and the exhibit, as well as tools used by the artists who carved the pole. 



Members' Nights October 7, 8 

The special evenings that all Members 
have been waiting for — Members' Nights 
— will take place this year on Thursday, 
October 7, and Friday, October 8, from 6 to 
10 p.m. As in the past, the festive two- 
night open house will feature behind-the- 
scenes visits for all Members to curatorial 
areas, laboratories, preparators' work- 
shops, and other facilities that are not 
ordinarily accessible to the public. Cura- 
tors and other staff will be on hand to dis- 
cuss their research and the collections 
with visitors. Live music will be featured 
in Stanley Field Hall and, of course, re- 
freshments will be served. 



Terrell on Leave for 1982-83 

John Terrell, associate curator of Oceanic 
archaeology and ethnology, has accepted 
an invitation by the State University of 
New York at Binghamton to be a visiting 
professor of anthropology for the 1982-83 
academic year. 

The Department of Anthropology at 
Binghamton is well-known for research 
work in human ecology. Terrell says this 
invitation comes in recognition of his con- 
tributions to Pacific Islands biogeography 
and ecology — subjects featured in his 
forthcoming book. Science and Prehistory in 
the Pacific Islands. 




EDITH FLEMING 

"946 PLEASANT 

OAK PARK ILL 60302 



Jufyi August & September at Field Museum 



July 16 through September 15 



New Exhibits 

"The People and Art of the Philippines." The largest special exhibi- 
tion of traditional Filipino art to be held anywhere since 1905, with 
loans from 16 museums and 14 private collections in the U.S., 
Europe, and the Philippines. The 420 objects were selected to 
give a comprehensive \iew of the culture of this former Spanish 
and then American colony, now a major Southeast Asian nation. 
Special emphasis is on prehistoric ceramics and gold. Catholic 
arts of Spanish colonial times, wood sculpture of the northern 
Philippines, and the extraordinary textiles of the southern 
Philippines. July 17 to December 31. Hall 26. Members' pre- 
view: Friday, July 16 from 1 to 9 p.m. 



3:30p.m. (seep. 11). A 2 p.m. lecture by Dr. BennetBronson, cura- 
tor of Asian archeology and ethnology, will trace the history of 
Field Museum's outstanding Philippine collection. Free uath 
Museum admission. Sunday, July 18, from 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. 

Family Features for Jlt,y and August. "Raku," a demonstration of 
ancient Japanese pottery-making techniques. Saturday, July 17, 
1 to 3 p.m.; Sundavjjuly 18, 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. 

"Patterns on People." Tour various cultures to discover their 
concepts of personal adornment, then experiment with adinkra 
stamps on paper and Amazon rolling stamps to decorate your- 
self 1:00 p.m., August 14 and 15. 



Continuing Exliibits 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast." Field 
Museum's newest permanent exhibit compares the ornate cul- 
tures from the Pacific Northwest Coast with those of the austere 
Eskimo societies. Prehistoric origins, history, food-gathering, 
social life, spiritual beliefs, and art are shown through displavs, 
dioramas, replicas, and films. It's an exhibit you'll return to 
again and again. 

"Exhibitions, Expeditions and Expositions." This photographic 
essay offers the Wewer a behind-the scenes look at the construc- 
tion of Field Museum's building and of some famous exhibits. 
On display between Halls 3 and 10. 

Hall of Ancient Egyptians. Field Museum's Egyptian exhibit, one 
of the country's best, has been renovated. You mav now enter tomb 
chapels built more than 4,000 years ago and a chapel replica on 
loan from the Metropolitan. Other exhibits detail life in prehistoric 
and early historic eras. Among the most compelling objects in the 
older area are the mummies. Hall J. 

New Programs 

"A Philippine Afternoon." Celebrate Philippine traditions by sam- 
pling its music, dance, and food at an afternoon of programs de- 
signed to coordinate with "The People and Art of the Philippines" 
exhibit. Highlights include dance performances at 1:30 p.m. and 



Continuing Programs 

Weekend Discovery Programs. New vistas of natural histor\' will be 
opened to visitors attending these tours, demonstrations, and 
films. Check Weekend Sheet available at Museum entrances for 
complete schedule and program locations. 

Highlight Tours. Special one-hour tours focus on the most popular 
exhibits. Subjects include ancient Egyptian religion, ceremony and 
art in Northwest Coast and Eskimo culture, American Indian 
rituals, and animal behavior as shown in habitat displays. 
Tours meet at North Information Booth, 1 p.m. Monday through 
Thursdays, July 6 through August 31. 

Dinosaur Days. Two fun-filled days of lectures, craft demonstra- 
tions, and tours present the storv of dinosaurs, prehistoric mam- 
mals, and armored fish. Make fossil rubbings of a flying pterosaur, 
draw giant dinosaur murals, create floating specimens, play "Pin 
the Bone on the Dinosaur," or mold dinosaurs out of clay. Saturday 
and Sundav, September 11 and 12. 

Museum Hours. Field Museum is ojjen daily, including Saturdavs 
and Sundays, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The free day is Thursday. 

Library Hours. During Julv, August, and September the library will 
be open weekdavs from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Closed Labor Day, Sept. 6. 
To visit the Museum Library, obtain a pass at the reception desk, 
main floor. 



Museum Telephone : (312) 922-9410. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

September 1982 




Field Museum 




of Natural History 


Bulletin 




Published by 




Field Museum of Natural History 


Founded 1893 




President: Willard L. Boyd 




Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 




Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 


Production Liaison: Kathryn 


Laughlin 


Calendar: Mary Cassai 




Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 




Board OF Trustees 


Life Trustees 


James J. O'Connor 


Harry O. Bercher 


chairman 


Joseph N. Field 


Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 


Paul W. Goodrich 


George R. Baker 


Clifford C. Gregg 


Robert O. Bass 


Samuel Insull, Jr 


Gorden Bent 


WiUiam V. Kahler 


Bowen Blair 


William H. Mitchell 


Willard L. Bovd 


John M. Simpson 


Stanton R. Cook 


J. Howard Wood 


O.C. Davis 




William R. Dickinson, Jr. 




Thomas E. Donnelley II 




Marshall Field 




Richard M. Jones 




Hugo J. Melvoin 




Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 




Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 




James H. Ransom 




John S. Runnells 




William L. Searle 




Edward Byron Smith 




Robert H. Strotz 




John W. Sullivan 




William G. Swartchild, Jr 




Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 




E. Leland Webber 




Julian B. Wilkins 




Blaine J. Yarrington 





Egypt Tour for Members 

January 7-26, 1983 
$4,100, double occupancy 

An unforgettable v\s\X to the land of the pharaohs, including 
an 11-dav Nile cruise aboard a chartered yacht. The tour 
leader is Del Nord, a distinguished U.S. Egyptologist. For de- 
tails, write Field Museum Tours, Roose\'elt Road and Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605, or call Dorothy Roder at the 
Tours office, 322-8862. 



CONTENTS 
September 1982 
Volume 53, Number 8 



Members' Nights: October 7 and 8 



The Rawson-MacMillan Elxpedition of 1926 

bv David M. Walsten 



Dinosaur Days 

September 12 and 13 



22 



Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization 

bvAlan L. Kolata, \isiting assistant curator, 

Andean archaeolog,' 13 



Fijlh Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film 

September 25 and 26 19 



Members' Jbur to Baja California and the 

Sea of Cortex 29 



Latino Images: The Other Americas 

bv Donald McVicker and Anthony Pfeiffer, Learning Museum 
project coordinator 30 



Museum Views... and Viewpoints 

sketches bv Marion Pahl 



34 



We're Here 

a reminiscence bv WiUiam Burger, chairman of the 
Department of Botany 33 



Our Environment 



36 



Field Briefs 



38 



September and October at Field Museum 

Calendar of coming events 39 



COVER 

Monolithic gateway to Kalasasaya, principal temple of the ancient 
Andean city of Tiwanaku. See ""Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean 
Ciiilization," p. 13. Photo by Alan L. Kolata. 



Field Museum of Natural Hstory Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
Julv/August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Uke Sliore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605, Subscripttons; $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarUy reflect the polio of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410 Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-D703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, 11. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
1982 HOLIDAY CARD 




The Women's Board of Field Museum 
is pleased to announce that a special 
holiday card will be available £or your 
1982 holiday greetings. 

The first in a collector's series to be 
offered, this beautiful full-color scene 
is adapted from one of the treasures in 
the Museum's Mary W. Runnells 
Rare Book Room. 

Printed on fine quality ivory paper stock 
with matching envelope, the card may 
be ordered with the following greeting: 
"Warmest wishes for the holiday season" 
printed in a festive forest green. For 
those who prefer to use the card for 
personal notes or for invitations, it is 
available without the greeting. 

Proceeds from the sale of the card will 
benefit Field Museum. 



Actual size: 6-5/8" x 5-1/8" 
Order form and price schedule on reverse side. 



lour oraer benelits l*ielcl iviuseum. Ihank you I 


PRICE LIST 


50 CARDS 


75 CARDS 


100 CARDS 


EACH ADDED 
25 CARDS 


*\VitIi name imprint (one line) 


$24.00 


$34.50 


$45.00 


$11.25 


Without name imprint 


20.00 


30.00 


40.00 


10.00 


\V'ithout name or greeting 


20.00 


30.00 


40.00 


10.00 


*Optional printed envelope (2 lines) 


5.75 


6.25 


6.75 


.75 



*Add $1.00 per order tor extra line printed on card or envelope. Printed orders not accepted after December 1. 
Please allow four weeks for delivery. For information: (312) 322-8870. 



I would like to order: 

holiday cards, with name 

holiday cards, without name 

plain cards, no greeting 

Please imprint name on card as follows: 



Please imprint address on envelope as follows: 



Add for shipping and handling: 

50 to 100 cards $2.00 
100 to 300 cards $3.00 
over 300 cards $4.00 



Card total: 
Sales tax (7%): 
Printed envelopes: 
Shipping and handling: 
Check enclosed for: 



Please return check payable to Field Museum 

and order to: 

Holiday Cards 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

The proceeds from the sale of this holiday card benefit Field Museum and one-half of the purchase price is tax 
deductible. We are unable to extend the usual 10% discount to Museum members. 



Ship to: 

Name 

Address - 
City. 



State . 



Daytime Telephone 



Zip. 




Have you ever wanted to make your own fossil 
fish? Or learn about scorpions, centipedes, and 
spiders? Then be sure to come to Members' 
Nights on Thursday, October 7, and Friday, October 8, 
from 6:00 to 10:00 p.m. (Third floor opens at 7:00 p.m.) 

Entertainment for Members' Nights will feature the 
Natyakalalayam School performing dances from India, 
under the direction of Hema Rajagopalan. These young 
girls in native costumes perform both pure and expres- 
sional dances which are as graceful as they are intricate. 
Well-received at our Asia festival, they are sure to delight 
both youngsters and adults. 

Another act, featured at our Asia Festival and return- 
ing by popular demand, is Han Hua So, the amazing 
16-year-old Chinese acrobat. This young woman, who 
amazed us with her "Bowl Balancing" act^ will again 
perform her dazzling feats in Chinese ballet gymnastics. 

Appearing from Chicago's Degerberg Academy will 
be Nate Defensor and Jim Wauchon, who will demon- 
strate Philippine martial arts. Sticks, knives, and swords 
as well as the open hand are used in these arts, which 
have been described as the most highly developed wea- 
pons arts in the world. Passed from generation to gener- 
ation, they were banned in the Philippines 400 years ago 
but are today enjoying renewed popularity. The demon- 
stration will keep you spellbound! 

Other evening highlights include: 
Ground Floor: Serpent Slide Show; Miniature Monsters of 
the Deep; Make Your Own Family Totem Pole; Animal 
Camouflage; Collection Showcase on Slides: Malvina 
Hoffman and Indian Art of the Northwest Coast. 
First Floor: Totem Poles, Masks, and Shamans; Pin the 
Bone on the Dino; In Search of Strange and Unusual Pets; 



Your Name in the Egyptian ABC's. 

Second Floor: Members' Preview of "The Last and First 

Eskimos" (a photographic exhibit) ; "The People and Art 

of the Philippines," our current traveling exhibit. 

Third Floor: Architectural Curiosities; Art, Death and 

Life in New Ireland; Make Your Own Fossil Fish; Scanning 

Electron Microscope: Vision into the World of the Tiny; 

Plants of the Bible. 

Fourth Floor: Various Aspects of Exhibit and Graphic 

Design; Silk-Screening Demonstration; Exhibit Production. 

Free parking is available in the north Museum lot 
and the Soldier Field lot. Or use the free round-trip charter 
bus service betw^een the Loop and the Museum's south 
entrance. These CT^ buses marked Field Museum will 
originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station 
and stop at the Canal Street entrance of Northwestern 
Station, Washington and State, Washington and Michigan, 
Adams and Michigan, and Balbo and Michigan. Buses 
will run circuits beginning at 5:45 p.m. and continue at 
15-minute intervals until the museum closes. (Buses will 
travel to the train stations until the departure of the last 
train. Please check your train schedule for the exact times.) 

Reasonably priced dinners and snacks will be 
available in the Museum food service area from 6:00 
to 8:00 p.m. 

To achieve a more even distribution of visitors, we 
suggest you follow this alphabetical schedule: 
A through L: Thursday, October 7 
M through Z: Friday, October 8 

Admittance will be by invitation, so please retain 
your Members' Night invitation and present it at the 
door for admittance for you and your family. 

We look forward to seeing you! 3 



«;■▼■.» 1 • •# . AAA •■'»»*'»^. . .. .. *».».T^,. 



.* •• 



T/ie schooner 

Bowdoin in Nain, 

Labrador, harbor. 




The Rawson-MacMillan 
Subarctic Expedition of 1926 

Field Museum's first expedition into the Far North 

hv David M. Walsten 



Frederick H. Rawson, 
Sr. sponsored the 1926 
expedition as well as a 
second one to the same 
general region in 
1927-28. He served as a 
Museum trustee from 
4 1927 to 1935. 




"MacMillan expedition," wired Field Museum 
president Stanley Field on April 15, 1926, "con- 
templates visiting Labrador, Greenland, Baffin 
Land to investigate pre-Columbian Norse ruins, 
make general collections in ethnology, zoology 
and geology, which would result in adequate 
representation of the life of the Eskimo and 
arctic mammals, birds, fishes, minerals, these 
being deficient in Field Museum at present .... 
Desire to emphasize my great personal delight 
and satisfaction if you will accept this invitaHon 
to become sponsor of the expedition and bene- 
factor of the Museum'.' 

The recipient of the telegram, Frederick H. 
Rawson, Sr. (on vacation in Florida), wired 
back: "As an evidence of my regard for high 
position Museum has reached as an educational 
center as well as housing priceless collections 
most of which has come about through your 
great executive management and aid will be 
glad to sponsor MacMillan expedition. ..." 

As the result of Rawson's benefachon. Field 
Museum's first collecting venture into the far 



North was on its way to becoming a reality. Two 
expeditions were actually to take place, acquiring 
more than 9,000 specimens for the Museum's 
collections.* Perhaps equally important were 
the observations Field Museum personnel were 
able to make in regions that had seldom or never 
before been visited by scientists. 

At the time of his decision to underwrite 
the expedihon, Frederick Holbrook Rawson 
(1872-1937) was chairman of the board of the 
Union Trust Company of Chicago. In 1927 he 
was named a trustee of the Field Museum, serv- 
ing in that post until 1935. After Union Trust's 
merger with the First National Bank of Chicago, 
Rawson became First National's board chair- 
man. Subsequently he founded and was chair- 
man of the board of the Mercantile Trust and 
Savings Bank. 

Over a period of nearly half a century, 
expedition leader Donald Baxter MacMillan 
(1874-1970) accompanied or led numerous expe- 
ditions to Arctic and subarctic regions, begin- 
ning with the Peary Arctic Club Expedition of 
1908-09. His final trip to the Arctic was in 1957 
at the age of 82. 

The Field Museum Annual Report for 1926 
summarized the expedition's itinerary: 

"The expedition sailed from Wiscasset, 
Maine, June 19, in Commander MacMillan's 
auxiliary schooner "Bowdoin," accompanied by 



*Rawson was also sponsor of the 1929 Rawson-Field 
Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa. 




The schooner Sachem, 
shown off Newfound- 
land, accompanied the 
Bowdoin. 



Commander Rowe B. Metcalf's auxiliary 
schooner "Sachem." Along the coast of Maine 
stops were made at various ports, the last being 
Bar Harbor. On June 28, they arrived at Sydney, 
Nova Scotia, from there sailing to Curling near 
the head of Bay Island, Newfoundland. 

"Battle Harbor, their first port in Labrador, 
was reached July 3, and there a delay of three 
days was caused by ice and weather conditions. 
While sailing northward in the more open waters 
near the barren rocky coast, eleven stops of 
varying length were made in Labrador. On July 
20, they arrived at Cape Mugford where, the 
conditions appearing favorable, they changed 




Aboard the Bowdoin 
were (I. tor): Ralph 
Robinson, mate; 
Ashley Hine, taxider- 
mist; Kennett Rawson, 
boatswain; Paul McGee, 
radio operator; John 
Janes, engineer; Alfred 
C. Weed, ichthyologist; 
Donald B. MacMillan, 
captain and owner; 
Dick Salman, second 
mate; Dr. Thomas, 
physician; William 
Boogar, cook; and 
Joseph N. Field, cabin 
boy. Rawson, then 15, 
is today a New York 
publishing company 
executive; Field, a Field 
Museum trustee since 
1934, lives in California. 



Left: Stanley Field, 
Field Museum presi- 
dent 1908-64. Right: 
D. C. Davies, director 
of Field Museum 
1921-28 




their course, passed through the ice pack off the 
coast of Labrador and in a few hours, were in 
the open waters and headed for Greenland. 

"The first landing place in Greenland was 
at a little bay south of Sukkertoppen. Sailing 
northward, they visited Sukkertoppen, Akpa- 
miut. South Stromfjord and Simuitak. About 
noon of August 1 they arrived at Godhavn, 
Disko Island, the farthest point north reached 
by the expedition, and on the following day 
they began to sail homeward. On the return 
trip, along the west coast of Greenland, they 
stopped at Egedesminde, Holstenborg, and 
Sukkertoppen, but at the last mentioned place 
only long enough to load oil before sailing for 
Baffin Land. 

"Reaching Baffin Land in a fog, they an- 
chored in a little harbor behind Cape Haven and 
as soon as they were able to locate their position, 
August 15, they sailed for Labrador. A number 
of ports were again visited along the coast of 
Labrador as well as in Nova Scotia and Maine, 



Frederick Rawson's 

yacht Gadfly motored 

up to Wiscasset to see 

6 the expedition off. 




and on September 11, twelve weeks after they 
started northward, the expedition returned to 
Wiscasset, Maine." 

According to an Associated Press story 
that appeared in newspapers at the time of the 
Bowdoin's departure, the Rawson-MacMillan 
venture was one of only two Arctic expeditions 
to be made that year (among 11 planned by six 
nahons) with scientific research as the sole pur- 
pose. It was MacMillan's tenth journey into 
the Arctic in 18 years. 

Field Museum's representatives on the 
1926 expedition were bird taxidermist Ashley 
Hine and assistant curator of fishes Alfred 

C. Weed. James H. C. Martens of Cornell Uni- 
versity went along to collect geological speci- 
mens for the Museum. Frederick Rawson's 
15-year-old son, Kennett, and Stanley Field's 
14-year-old son, Joe (now a Field Museum life 
trustee), were the Bowdoin's boatswain and 
cabin boy, respectively. 

Since radio technology was still in its in- 
fancy, radio messages between Field Museum 
and the expedition were for the most part 
brief and reception was often poor. Chicago- 
based Zenith Radio Corporation, which donated 
short wave radio equipment for the Bowdoin 
as well as a radio operator, also assumed the 
responsibility for relaying messages between 
the schooner and Field Museum. Zenith presi- 
dent E. F. McDonald, Jr. wrote Museum director 

D. C. Davies on July 14 that his operator on the 
Bowdoin could "send messages only on Tuesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday nights, while they 

are in port. The reason for this is that two ships 



in the same harbor cannot send and receive at 
the same time. They can do this only when at 
sea, and the ships widely separated." (The 
schooner Sachem was also equipped with 
radio equipment.) 

Nonetheless, radio messages came through 
with regularity, so Museum president Stanley 
Field, director D. C. Davies, and sponsor 
Frederick Rawson were able to follow closely 
the expedition's progress. Short wave operators 
in California, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Massa- 
chusetts, and other areas picked up messages 
from the Bowdoin that routinely reported mat- 
ters such as weather and ice conditions, land- 
falls, and collechng activities ashore. There 
were also emergencies: 

A July 13 radiogram from MacMillan to 
Davies read: "Held here [Indian Harbor, Labra- 
dor] . . . for two days by bad easterly gale. Fine 
weather today, but ice packs extend as far east 
and north as eye can reach. Waiting for westerly 
wind to drive it off the coast. Dr. Thomas 
[Bowdoin's physician] called upon to assist 
today in emergency [appendectomy] upon 16- 
year-old girl in one of four schooners in harbor. 
Operation successful. Scientists hard at work." 

MacMillan to Davies, July 19: "Anchored 
tonight in Port Manners in North Labrador. 
Shall examine tomorrow what Eskimos declare 
are Norse ruins. May leave for Greenland 
tomorrow night." 

MacMillan to Davies, July 20: "Visited land 
off northern Labrador coast and examined what 
are declared by the Eskimos . . . to be the former 
home of the stranger people [?] who came to sea 

in boats a long time ago. These are called 

by them Tunit. There are traditions here that 
these Eskimos fought with the Norsemen and 
killed some of them. 

"I have learned of other places where the 
old Norsemen lived and I shall visit them on my 
return from northern Greenland in August. The 
houses six in number consist chiefly of tumbled 
down masses of glacier boulders and resemble 
foundations of wooden houses roughly rectan- 
gular in shape. Near these were several straight 
walls which may have been built by the Norse- 
men against the Eskimos. With all these findings 
anywhere in North America there is really no 
absolute proof that these are Norse ruins. 

"Further and more careful work is 
necessary. 

"In this last part [reported the operator 
who took the message] it was impossible to 
catch many words of the message but by piecing 
it together somehow I learned that the Bowdoin 
with a boat by its side which is called Sachem 
are proceeding toward Greenland and expect to 
get there by next Friday morning. The crew is 




feeling fine and says to give their regards to 
their friends through the press'.' 

Ashley Hine to Museum taxidermist Leon 
Pray, July 26: "You would enjoy the delightfully 
charming scenery along the coast of Labrador. 
Thousands of islands, beautifully tinted ice- 
bergs, and never saw such sky effects. This 
country surely is an artist's paradise. Reached 
Sukkertoppen today." 

MacMillan to Davies, August 2: "Crossed 
Arctic Circle last night. Now at Disko, our ob- 
jective. . . . Plan to start back within few days 
after visiting Ritenbank and Greenland's most 
active glacier at Jacobshaven, obtaining here 
samples of coal and native iron." 

Joseph N. Field to Stanley Field, August 10: 
"Am sorry have not sent you a message for so 
long. Am having a wonderful time dancing 
with the pretty Greenland girls at Holstenborg." 

J. Field to S. Field, August 12: "We reached 
Sukkertoppen today. . . . Why didn't you talk 
to us from WJAZ Zenith Radio Station last night? 
Tell American Boy that I will not promise to 
write for them but I will try it." 

J. Field to S. Field, August 16: "In Baffin 
Land yesterday. Lots of ice. Abbie (Abie 
Bromfield, expedition interpreter) killed 
1,500-pound walrus today." 

Hine to Wilfred Osgood, chairman of the 
Department of Zoology, August 23: "Meeting 
with good success have . . . fine series of snow 
bunting, Lapland long spur, wheatear, etc. 
American eider, surf scoter, and black mallards 
in the total eclipse beautiful, white and gray gyr 
falcon and downy young, also glaucous and 
iceland gulls and ptarmigan immatures . . . and 



Aboard the Bowdoin 
on "Masquerade Day," 
(I. to r.): Rawson, 
Weed, Janes, Field, 
Thomas, Salman, 
Robinson. 



i*i«-. . ^ kV.V.V. 



.«--'» • ♦' 



- - '-'A-'-i.^ » • • 'y-*.*.*.*'*'*'/....*^ \v««><, -:^ **w 



Left: /o/in T. Crowell, 

Jr. , captain of the 

Sachem, with Eskimo 

visitors. Right: Bosun 

Ken Rawson. 




Left: joe Field takes 

his turn at the wheel. 

Right: Eskimo carving 

found at Kugsuak, 

South Stromfjord, 

Greenland. 



I have made satisfactory color sketches of all. I 
find the days too short for there is much to do, 
work which cannot be postponed, small mam- 
mals are scarce but we have a number of fine 
specimens for study and exhibihon, today the 
warmest for six weeks ... 75 [degrees] mosqui- 





toes and black flies are working over time and 
are wonderful eye, ear, nose, and throat spe- 
cialists, the Eskimos are very interesting and 
nice people to know . . . Iceland gulls were 
feeding on blueberries, we landed a nice walrus 
. . . aurora borealis at close range are delight- 
fully interesting. ..." 

J. Field to S. Field, August 24: "We are at 
Jack Lane's Bay Labrador hunting and enjoying 
ourselves in every way possible. We should 
reach Christmas Cove September 10. Hope you 
and Mother meet me there and run on to 
Wiscassett with us'.' 

Hine to Osgood, August 28: "Bowdoin now 
working up and down Jack Lanes Bay. Today 
the ship seems deserted with most of the crew 
ashore engaged in hunting or exploration. 
Would like very much to have gone with the 
boys but an abundance of skins means plenty of 



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H 


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||^[|[|JJPpBE^^?^5BMB^^^BiWBIeJ^?^*^*tB||^^BuI^B^B 





Holstenborg, Greenland 



work for me at the bench. You would enjoy the 
contrast between my Bowdoin studio and the 
one I had grown so accustomed to at the 
Museum. Space in our limited surroundings 
here is a prized possession. However, I have 
my own little spot twixt radio and ice box. Battery 
boxes support a bit of panel board which com- 
prises my desk. On the wall, bulkhead they call 
it, everywhere are pinned my notes and 



sketches. Birdskins packed in every conceivable 
nook and corner, when the ship rolls as in heavy 
seas, bird skins and radio fly together so Sparks 
remarks. A jolly crew though and all happy in 
the thought of our timely return. . . ." 

Hine to U. A. Dohmen (head of Museum's 
Division of Printing), September 4; "Anchored 
on account of fog, rain and cold weather help to 
make conditions more unpleasant. It does not 




Taxidermist Ashley 
Hine with one of his 
sketches 9 



'*-.T.1l"* 



' r».» •-• \'» *'^,. 



.. %Va*^T^ 



.fc • •-'' • ♦'^ - - '•vi^ » " • '^-•»n\*'*'«'^,...«.^\\%V/y . .:»%v.« 



Captain "Mac" shares 

Georee Catlirt's book 

on Indians with Nas- 

kapi friends. 




seem possible the summer has slipped by. We 
still have about us odd shaped icebergs with 
their beautiful tints of pale blue, green and violet. 
They are so interestingly beautiful, they almost 
seem to speak to one. ..." 

A week later the Bowdoin's weary but 
happy crew stepped ashore again at Wiscasset, 
Maine. 

On September 13 Stanley Field wrote to 
Commander MacMillan about Joe: "I am 



delighted with what this trip has done for Joe. 
Physically and mentally he is a changed boy 
and was broken hearted at leaving the Bowdoin 
and the crew. He is crazy to go on another 
expedition with you. The trip did wonders 
for him. ..." 

Field also expressed his pleasure with the 
scientific results of the venture and with the 
quality of MacMillan's leadership. 

MacMillan replied: "It is very gratifying to 
me to learn that the results of the Rawson- 
MacMillan Museum Expedition of 1926 are most 
satisfactory to you. . . . I feel, in view of the fact 
that our expedition was limited to the brief 
period of three months, which in reality means 
a two-months working period, . . . that our 
scientists, in spite of being seriously handi- 
capped by narrow quarters on board ship, did 
extremely well. 

"After 19 years of Arctic work, the truth is 
more pronounced than ever that ample and 
really valuable results along certain lines cannot 
be obtained during the summer months. . . . 
Because of ice conditions in the Eastern Arctic 
regions, a ship cannot reach [islands there] until 
the 15th of July and even August 1st. By this 
time the birds have changed their mating plum- 
age, the eggs are hatched, the young . . . are 
gone. Early spring flowers are withered thus 



Icebergs viewed from 
10 Bowdoin off Labrador. 




making botanical data incomplete and therefore 
of little value scientifically. . . . 

"Facts pertaining to northern animal life 
obtained and noted during the short-summer 
season, are misleading . . . Summer observa- 
tions are not enough. The work should be con- 
tinued throughout the year . . . human life . . . 
is also much different among the Eskimos 
and Nascopic Indians ... in summer than 
in winter. 

"Therefore, to make a full and complete 
study, . . . the period of work should continue 
at least for 15 months from date of departure to 
date of return." 

MacMillan was successful in making his 
point. The following year, 1927, he was to lead a 
second Rawson expedition. It was to last, as he 
proposed, for fifteen months. □ 





i^ 


fHti r> !1k^H 


kMi i 


"m H 


^^^^HHL^^^^Hsl Ir* ili^ 




^^^^^^^^^Bt^ '^^m^B Hk^flSt ^ 



The Museum's annual report for 1926 summarized 
the results of the expedition: 

Although the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic 
Expedition was conducted in the interest of the Mu- 
seum as a whole and not primarily in behalf of the 
Department of Zoology, nevertheless it was the 
means of adding many new and desirable speci- 
mens of vertebrate and invertebrate animals to the 
Museum's collections. 

. . . collecting was done, whenever possible, 
in all of the harbors visited. In this work the 
members of the passenger crew gave much valu- 
able . . . assistance. Those who were fond of shoot- 
ing obtained a sufficient number of birds to keep 
Mr. Hine busy skinning and making color sketches. 
Wherever trips ashore could be made, collecting 
was done in streams, ponds, and tide pools. ... It 
was of much interest to discover fishes living in 
many landlocked ponds high up on the islands 
along the coast of Labrador. As some of these 
ponds apparently freeze solid in winter, the ques- 
Hon arises as to how the small species of fish man- 
age to survive. 

The 1,811 zoological specimens obtained 
. . . include: mammals, 52; birds, 158; bird eggs, 28; 
fishes, 642; insects, 260; and invertebrates other 
than insects, 671. [These are] of particular value in 
that the Museum had previously very few speci- 
mens from Labrador and Greenland ... a large 
proportion of the birds obtained are water birds, 
. . . urgently needed for the proper re-installation 
of the exhibit of North American birds now under 
way. One of the birds that is especially desirable is 
the Greenland Wheat-eater, a species formerly not 
in the Museum's collection. . . . 

An interesting collection of 100 well-prepared 
specimens of Greenland plants was made by Mr. A. 
C. Weed. . . . 

Wherever a landfall was made [geologist lames 
Martens] secured representative rocks and miner- 
als. Some of the localities visited, . . . have never 
been previously reported on by geologists. ... As 
far as possible, large specimens, suitable for 
Museum display were obtained. These chiefly 
illustrate rock structures and such . . . phenomena 
as dikes, veins, folds and ripplemarks. . . . 



At two localities in Maine sets of specimens 
representing the principal formations outcropping 
were collected. . . . In Nova Scotia, . . . good slabs 
of ripple-marked sandstone were obtained from 
Sydney, a specimen of conglomerate from near 
Baddeck, gypsum from the white cliffs at Big Har- 
bor and glacieted pebbles from St. Peter. 

Near Curling, . . . Newfoundland, . . . speci- 
mens were collected ilustrating the development of 
rock cleavage and jointing, the formation of veins, 
and some showing . . . materials . . . mined at 
the slate, limestone and quartzite quarries of 
the region. 

Many localities in Labrador were visited. 
. . . With the exception of some loose sands and 
gravels on the surface, all of the rocks . . . were 
found to be very ancient and to contain no fossils. 
From these localities were collected large speci- 
mens of . . . gneiss which show jointing, foliahon, 
banding and folding. Trap dikes were found at 
nearly every harbor, and specimens were collected 
to show columnar and irregular jointing and the in- 
crease in size of the mineral grains from the margin 
of the dike toward the center. . . . 

Some mineral specimens were also collected in 
Labrador: chatoyant labradorite, . . . hypers- 
thene, . . . serpentine, . . . actinolite, . . . albite 
and potash feldspar. ... In Greenland . . . the 
rocks were found to resemble those of Labrador, 
being mostly gneisses with trap dikes. In South 
Stromfjord ... a locality yielded . . . soapstone 
such as is used by Eskimos for stoves or lamps. 
Specimens of talc and asbestos were also obtained. 

On Disko Island, specimens were collected 
from the Tertiary volcanic rocks. . . . Most of them 
contain zeolites in cavities. . . . Specimens of 
native iron of Disko Island were obtained from the 
Eskimos. Two specimens of sand obtained from 
Holstenborg showed the effects of sorting by 
waves, the sand being separated into a heavy por- 
tion, consisting largely of garnet and a light one 
which is nearly all quartz and feldspar. At Baffin 
Island, a short stay . . . prevented collecting any- 
thing more than some pieces of banded gneiss. . . . 

The total number of geological specimens col- 
lected was 579, and the number of geological pho- 
tographs made was 181. . . . 



Stanley Field (rt.), 
Mrs. Field, and Cap- 
tain MacMillan admire 
birdskin mat from Suk- 
kertoppen, Greenland, 
following the arrival 
of the Bowdoin at Wis- 
casseton September 11. 



11 



Dinosaur Days 

Saturday and Sunday, September 11 and 12 
11:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m. 



What happened 65 million years ago? Did a 
star explode, exposing our planet to such 
immense radiation that the earth's ozone 
layer was burnt off, or did a huge asteroid collide with 
our planet, darkening the skies with debris that made fur- 
ther life impossible for many species? These are but two 
of many theories about dinosaurs. Regardless which 
proves correct the result was the same — the complete 
eradication of the greatest and most mysterious of all 
creatures — the dinosaurs! 

Our investigation of these wondrous reptiles is rela- 
tively recent, dating from the first published descriptions 
in England in 1824, which identified the "great fossil 
lizard of Stonefield." Before that, dinosaurs did not exist 
for us. 

Come to Field Museum September 11 and 12 to find 
out about these ancient reptiles that ruled the earth for 
140 million years. Enter Stanley Field Hall, decorated 
for this annual celebration with an arcade of murals of 
"unsung creatures": dueling archaeopteryxes, a flying 
pteranodon, the duck-billed hypacrosaurus, and more. 
Slide lectures, films, craft projects, performances, and 
self-guided tours breathe life into dinosaurs, armored 
giants of the seas, and fossil mammals. 

A special program, "Fantasy Dinosaurs on Film," 
will be presented at 2:00 p.m. on Saturday by Donald F. 
Glut, author of The Dinosaur Scrapbook. With the aid 
of film clips from dinosaur classics, Mr. Glut will show 



how movie dinosaurs are created and animated. Slide 
lectures designed to expose the newest theories include: 
"Ancients of the Deep: Fossil Fishes," "Sauropods — 
the Ultimate Dinosaurs," "Cope and Marsh: the Saurian 
Scandals," "Dinosaur Update — New Discoveries," and 
a slide tour of the life and work of Charles Knight, the art- 
ist who painted the historic murals in Field Museum's 
Hall of Dinosaurs. 

Children can enter the world of dinosaurs by visiting 
the "Hadrosaur Habitat," a total environment that re- 
creates the sights and sounds of the living world of dino- 
saurs. A costumed Tyrannosaurus rex relates to children 
many tales, including that of an ankylosaur in search of 
water and of a forest fire during dinosaur times. 

Join us on the sidewalks on the north side of Field 
Museum to create a giant dinosaur mural in colored 
chalk, or view a coelacanth, the recently discovered 
lobe-finned fish once thought to be extinct for millions 
of years. The entire family can enjoy special performan- 
ces by synthesizer artist Doug Babb who, with the 
audience's help, creates a "Prehistoric Soundscape" 
— a symphony of "dinosaur sounds." 

The second annual "Dinosaur Days" promises to be 
exciting and information-packed for dinosaur enthusiasts 
of all ages. The programs are free with admission to the 
Museum — no tickets required. A schedule of activities 
will be available at all Museum entrances on "Dinosaur 
Days." For more information call (312) 322-8854. 



12 




ZbigniewJastrzebski 




PRELUDE 

The Spanish chroniclers following in the 
wake of the destruction of Tawantinsuyu, 
the vast imperial realm of the Inca, inquired 
about the origins of that great conquering nation 
from Cuzco. They were invariably told that the 
first Incas emerged in the south, in the land the 
Inca called CoUasuyu. This Inca myth of origins 
derived, in part, from an ancient native belief in 
the sacred character of CoUasuyu's LakeTiticaca, 
the largest body of water in the Andean uplands. 

More importantly, this myth reflected the 
key economic and demographic position that 
Collasuyu held in the political composition of 
Tawantinsuyu. It was not simple coincidence 
that the great king Pachakuteq (a.d. 1438-70) initi- 
ated the Inca regime of imperial conquest by 
moving against the native Aymara kingdoms of 
the Titicaca basin. 

From both archaeological and ethnohistoric 
evidence, we know that two of the most power- 
ful of these Aymara kingdoms were centered on 
the western shores of Lake Titicaca. One of these 
nations was the Colla, who built their capital, 
Hatuncolla, to the north of the modern Peruvian 
city of Puno. The other lake kingdom, a bitter ri- 
val of the Colla, was the Lupaqa, who ruled from 
the town of Chucuito to the south of Puno. 

The economic foundations of these two 
kingdoms were conditioned in part by landscape 
and environment. These two states evolved on 



Photos by the author excq>t where noted otherwise 

the Andean high plateau, or altiplano, situated 
between two great mountain chains: the Cordil- 
lera Occidental in Peru and, to the east in Bolivia, 
the towering Cordillera Real. The altiplano is a 
cold, windswept environment subject to a 
marked alternation between dry and wet seasons . 
During the wet season, generally November to 
March, frequent torrential rains cause periodic 
changes in the levels of the many lakes in the Tit- 
icaca basin, including that of Lake Titicaca itself. 

The topography, elevation, and attendant 
cold climate of the altiplano severely constrain the 
agricultural inventory of the Titicaca basin: only 
hardy tubers such as potato, oca, ulluco, and 
mashwa, and the unique cold-adapted che- 
nopod grains, quinoa and caniwa, can be readily 
cultivated in this dour environment. These crops 
were cultivated intensively in pre-Columbian 
times. They continue to play a prominent role in 
the diet of the modern inhabitants of the altiplano . 

Despite these environmental limitations on 
the agricultural regime, when even limited plant 
cultivation was combined with large-scale herd- 
ing of llama and alpaca, the biotic potential of the 
Titicaca basin was enormous. The large indige- 



Major portions of this essay are excerpted from Dr. Kolata's 
article, "The Evolution of Civilization in the South Andes," 
which will appear in Ancient South Americans, Jesse 
Jennings, editor. W. H. Freeman and Company Publishers, 
San Francisco. 



A remarkable ceramic 
rendering of a trophy 
head discovered by 
Bolivia's Institute of 
Archaeology at Kala- 
sasaya, Ttwanaku's 
principal temple. This 
stunning portrait is 
emblematic of the sensi- 
tivity and sophistica- 
tion of the plastic arts 
produced in the great 
civilizations of the 
ancient Andean world. 



13 



YEARS AD/BC 



1500 

1200 

900 

600 

300 

AD_ 
BC 

300 

600 

900 

1200 

1500 



nous population and political importance of the 
altiplano, as mirrored in the powerful Colla and 
Lupaqa kingdoms, attest to this essential fact of 
Andean cultural geography. 

Without doubt, the cornerstone of the 
altiplano economy was camelid pastoralism. 
Sixteenth-century documents from the Lake 
Titicaca region reveal that the Aymara kingdoms 
controlled immense herds of llama and alpaca. 
Some wealthy nobles owned up to 50,000 animals 
and the total camelid population for this region 
probably exceeded 500,000. 

These enormous herds were grazed in sierra 
basins above 2,500 meters and on the cold semi- 
arid grasslands of the puna. The vast, gently un- 
dulating zone of the puna lies above the effective 
limits of intensive agriculture. Without llama and 
alpaca intermediaries, this important zone 
would have had little economic value for man. 
Without pastoralism, the economic and demo- 
graphic power base of Collasuyu would have 
been greatly diminished. 

The llama and alpaca were bred carefully, 
primarily for their wool, which was woven into a 
variety of textile products: tunics, bags, hats, 
slings, and the like. The textiles, in turn, were di- 
rectly used as clothing, exchanged for food and 
other products, or used to discharge social obli- 
gations. Secondarily, these Andean herd animals 
were a readily available source of meat and could 
themselves be exchanged for other food prod- 
ucts. Finally, the llama was used for millennia 
in Collasuyu as an efficient pack animal. Llama 
caravans made up of as many as 2,000 animals 



RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY 



14 L 



LATE HORIZON (INCA) 

LATE INTERMEDIATE PERIOD 
(AYMARA KINGDOMS) 



TIWANAKUV 
TIWANAKU IV 
TIWANAKUIII-" 
TIWANAKU II 
TIWANAKU I 
LATECHIRIPA 



EARLY CHIRIPA 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
SITES 



Inak-uyu, Pilko-kaina, 
Hatuncolla, Chucuito 



f Luqurmafa, Pajchiri 
PK-1a/b, PK-2, PK-3 
PK-4, PK-5, PK-6, 
PK-13 



T 



X 

o 



PK-la 



PK-1a(?) 



carried a wide array of food products, textiles, 
pottery, and metals throughout Collasuyu. 

It is this latter use of the llama as pack animal 
that allowed the kingdoms of the Titicaca basin to 
expand their economic universe beyond the con- 
fines of the altiplano. Caravans from the high- 
lands journeyed hundreds of kilometers to the 
selva on the eastern slopes of the Andes as well as 
to the Pacific coasts of Peru and Chile. In these 
warm lands of lower altitude, the highlanders 
obtained coca, maize, tropical fruits, pepper, 
dried fish, medicinal plants, and other goods not 
available in their colder homeland. 

The warm-land products were acquired 
through trade, but also more directly through 
colonies established by the highlanders on the 
Pacific coasts and in the valleys of the selva. The 
Lupaqa, for instance, had colonists working 
lands in the coastal valley of Moquegua in ex- 
treme southern Peru. This uniquely highland 
Andean system of directly exploiting distant 
lands at lower altitudes could not have func- 
tioned without the camelid caravans. The large 
pack trains of llamas transported the desired 
exotic goods from the colonies back to the alti- 
plano homeland. The caravans also served as 
the primary vehicle of communication between 
the colonists, who lived in potentially hostile 
foreign lands, and their sierra-based kinfolk 
and compatriots. 

Just prior to their conquest by the Inca, then, 
the kingdoms of the Titicaca basin operated three 
remarkably rich economic systems: (1) intensive 
cultivation of tubers and chenopod grains in the 
altiplano homeland, (2) extensive herding of 
llama and alpaca, and (3) farflung networks of 
trade caravans and colonies in the warmlands to 
the east, west, and south of the altiplano. This 
productive tripartite economy was not an inven- 
tion of the late pre-Hispanic kingdoms. On the 
contrary, these interrelated economies had far 
more ancient roots in Collasuyu. 

When Pachaquteq moved first to conquer 
the kingdoms of Lake Titicaca, he was acknowl- 
edging that Collasuyu held the economic and 
demographic key to his nascent empire. Once 
the Inca secured the Titicaca basin, their armies 
naturally marched down the ancient caravan 
routes to the coasts of southern Peru and north- 
ern Chile, to the selva of eastern Bolivia and into 
the uplands of northwestern Argentina. Over 
one thousand years prior to the advent of the 
Inca, these same routes to empire were followed, 
and most probably created by one of the greatest 
native states of the ancient Americas: Tiwanaku. 
Ironically, despite its seminal role in the rich and 
complex cultural history of the Andes, Tiwanaku 
is perhaps the least understood pre-Columbian 
civilization of the New World. As with any "mys- 





i&^«4?^^i..K^^^-*^-'"^'^^^^ 



WTTlV^ ^..:' 




Vista of the Bolivian 
altiplano with the 
towering Cordillera 
Real in the background 
and contemvorary 
farmer's fields in the 
foreground. 



terious" and little known culture, countless 
theories purporting to explain the genesis, evo- 
lution, and impact of Tiwanaku in the ancient 
Andean world abound. But it is only in the past 
few years that a reliable body of empirical evi- 
dence has emerged capable of testing and cor- 
recting the hypotheses embedded in these 
speculative theories, some of which border on 
the distinctly bizzare (see "Archaeology at the 
Top of the World" in Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin, October 1979). 

THE NATURE OF TIWANAKU 



many of the primary symbols and stylistic con- 
ventions of Tiwanaku art. From the sixth to the 
ninth century, Huari was instrumental in spread- 
ing its interpretation of the Tiwanaku style, and 
presumably the religious doctrines and social 
beliefs enbodied in this style, throughout the 
highlands and coast of Peru. The precise nature 
of the relationship between Huari and Tiwanaku 
remains unclear. It is likely that neither city held 
hegemony over the other, although the recent 
discovery of Tiwanaku style building with finely 
cut ashlar {i.e., hewn, rectangular) masonry be- 
neath the surface architecture at Huari may alter 



For an entire millennium (100 b.c.-a.d. 900), the 
political and cultural history of the Titicaca basin 
was determined by the fortunes of a single peo- 
ple and their singular city: Tiwanaku. Tiwanaku 
rose to prominence around 100 B.C., first in the 
southern Lake Titicaca region, and then later, 
around a.d. 200, throughout the entire lake basin. 
Monumental construction projects, both archi- 
tectural and agrarian, began at Tiwanaku during 
phase 3 (a.d. 100-375) of the Tiwanaku archaeo- 
logical sequence. They continued unabated 
throughout the succeeding Tiwanaku 4 (a.d. 
375-725), or "Classic Tiwanaku',' phase. In this 
latter phase Tiwanaku achieved true imperial 
status, establishing administrative centers, sat- 
ellite cities, and economic colonies over the 
altiplano, in the Bolivian selva and on the coasts 
of southern Peru and northern Chile. 

During the sixth century, the inhabitants of 
the urban settlement of Huari in the southern 
highlands of Peru adopted and reinterpreted 




Cut Spondylus shell 
llama figurine, height: 
1 in. 77ie Spondylus 
is native to the warm, 
coastal waters of Ecua- 
dor. Its shell was traded 
throughout the Andes, 
often as a symbol of 
royalty. This figurine, 
now in the National 
Museum of Archaeol- 
ogy, La Paz, Bolivia, 
was discovered on the 
surface of mound pk-3 
by Anna Kolata in 
November, 1981. 
Photo: Fleur Hales. ^5 



LAKE TITICACA 




Tiwanaku and vicinity. Superimposed box represents area drawn in map below. 



Pampa Koani and vicinity. Shown here is an extensive zone of ancient agricultural fields, together with a system of causeways that linked local adminis- 
trative sites with the regional administrative centers ofLuqurmata and Pajchiri. Superimposed box represents the detailed area of fields, causeways, and 
archaeological sites mapped on opposite page. 





Detailed map of a portion of the Pampa Koani showing distinct systems of ancient drained fields, causeways, and the major 
archaeological sites discussed in the text. White arrows outline the course of an old river meander. Black arrows outline the ar- 
tificially channelized course of the Rio Catari. 



17 




Chullpa, or 
stone burial tower, on 
the island ofCumana 
overlooking Lake 
Titicaca. Such towers, 
along with the agricul- 
tural terraces in the 
background, date 
to post-Tiwanakii 
times, in the period 
AD. 1000-1500. Photo: 
Michael Moseley. 



Portion of a 

wall built with finely 

cut stone blocks at the 

pyramid ofAkapana 

18 at Tiwanaku. 



this assessment. Huari and Tiwanaku may have 
functioned as autonomous, "dual capitals" of 
the imperial realm, controlling the northern and 
southern regions of the empire respectively. This 
type of political arrangement is not without 
precedent in the history of Andean empire. Just 
prior to its conquest by the Spanish, the Inca, 
because of internal political squabbles, briefly 
had two de facto capitals, one in Quito, the 
other in Cuzco. 

Many archaeologists, particularly those who 
believe that Huari was the only true political cap- 
ital of empire in the Andes at this time, have 
interpreted Tiwanaku simply as a ceremonial 
center: the focus of periodic pilgrimages from 
throughout the southern Andes, but lacking a 
substantial resident population. This interpreta- 
tion of Tiwanaku resulted from considering only 
its most impressive monumental architecture: 
the pyramid of Akapana, and the two major 
temples of Pumapunku and Kalasasaya (for a 
description of the principal architecture at Tiwa- 



naku, see "Archaeology at the Top of the World," 
cited above). However, recent research has 
shown that the total occupation area of the settle- 
ment, including both public and residential archi- 
tecture, exceeds four square kilometers, implying 
a larger permanent population than had been 
suspected. Although insufficiently explored, as a 
first approximation, the density and extent of 
cultural debris in this residential zone suggests a 
peak urban population for Tiwanaku between 
30,000 and 50,000. There was certainly a much 
larger nonresident population living in Tiwan- 
aku's surrounding rural hinterland engaged in 
agricultural and pastoral pursuits to support 
themselves and the growing urban complex. 

PAMPA KOANI: TIWANAKU'S 
AGRICULTURAL ESTATE 

The rulers of Tiwanaku were actively concerned 
with reclaiming land for agriculture in this 
hinterland. Around the southern and western 
shores of Lake Titicaca lies a vast network of 
prehistoric agricultural fields associated with 
Tiwanaku 3 and 4 phase sites. These fields are not 
uniform in size or shape, although all performed 
a similar function: draining planting surfaces to 
permit cultivation. 

Two major types of field systems can be rec- 
ognized in the Titicaca basin: (1) extensive raised 
fields forming low, rectangular platforms which 

Continued on p. 23 




Fifth Annual Festival 

OF 

Anthropology ON Film 

FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
West Entrance 

Saturday and Sunday, September 25, 26, 1982 
10:30 a.m. -5:30 p.m. 

A Special Invitation to Explore 
THE Rich Diversity of World Culture on Film 



Our fifth annual festival features new releases by 
leading ethnographic filmmakers, a wide variety 
of work by Chicago area filmmakers, rarely seen 
expedition footage from Field Museum's film ar- 
chives, films on ritual and celebration, films of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast, and favorite films of 
previous festivals. 

More than 50 films are to be shown in Simpson 
Theatre, Lecture Hall I, and Lecture Hall II — all 
within a few steps of the Museum's barrier-free west 
entrance. Saturday's features include new releases 
(Simpson Theatre, all day), ritual and celebration 
films (Lecture Hall I, 10:30 a.m. -2:00 p.m.), films by 
Chicago filmmakers (Lecture Hall I, 2:00-5:30 
p.m.), many highlights from past festivals (Lecture 
Hall II, 10:30 a.m. -2:00 p.m.) and films from the 



Arctic and Northwest Coast (Lecture Hall II, 2:00- 
5:00 p.m.). 

Sunday's features include more new releases 
(Simpson Theatre, 10:30 a.m. -5:30 p.m.), several 
highlights from past festivals (Lecture Hall I, 10:30 
a.m. -1:30 p.m.), and extensive footage from films 
made during Museum expeditions of the 1920s. 
Below is a detailed schedule with program notes; 
final adjustments may be made, however, so be sure 
to check future listings. 

Please use the coupon on page 22 to order 
tickets. A schedule reflecting any final program 
adjustments will accompany tickets ordered by mail. 
However, this program is to be used as your Festival 
guide and film notes. (It may be easily separated 
from the magazine staples.) 



Saturday, Sept. 25 
James Simpson Theatre 

10:30 a.m. -5:30 p.m. 

new releases 

Sea Side Woman (1979) 
by Oscar Grille 
5 minutes; color 

An enchanting animation set in the Caribbean. Five minutes of 
fun and adventure seen through an island girl's eyes. Music 
by Linda McCartney and Wings. 



Goodbye Old Man (1980) 

By Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies 

70 minutes; color 

An ethnographic record of a bereavement ceremony as prac- 

This schedule is subject to change 



ticed by Melville Island's Tiwi people. Shown are activities prior 
to the ceremonials: painting cemetery poles, dances, a mock 
attack on spirits of the dead. 

The Veiled Revolution (1980) 

by Elizabeth Fernea and Marilyn Gaunt 

30 minutes 

Egypt was the first Arab country where women marched in 
political demonstrations, removed the veil, and received public 
secular education. The granddaughters of those early feminists 
are now returning to traditional values. Why? What do the 
women say about it? 

An Acquired Taste (1981) 
by Ralph Arlyck 



25 minutes; color 

A fi Im about how we experience the notion of success — that 
obsession with "making it" built so deep into our culture. 



19 



A filmmaker's personal, whimsical journey through his own 
school and working life in an effort to understand this. 

Dadi's Family 0980) 

by Michael Camerini and Rina Gill 

58 minutes; color 

A portrait of village women in India, and of a family in crisis. 
The women of Dadi's family shatter Third World women 
stereotypes as they reflect on their lives, roles, and per- 
ceptions of change. 

Creenaway (1982) 
by Sue Gilbert 
50 minutes; color 

A portrait of an aristocratic American couple living on their own 
island. Exploring wealth and its manifestations from an "inside" 
perspective: the filmmaker is their daughter. A Chicago premiere. 

Todos Santos Cuchumatan/Report from a 
Guatemalan Village (1982) 
by Olivia Carrescia 
40 minutes; color 

This film looks at a Guatemalan Indian village. Interviews with 
villagers reveal political and economic changes now under- 
way; the film also depicts the cycle of the harvest, the fiesta of 
Todos Santos, and the seasonal migration to work in lowland 
plantations. A Chicago premiere. 

Living Treasures of Japan (1981) 
by Norris Brock 
60 minutes; color 

Japan has honored more than 70 of its citizens as "Holders of 
Important Intangible Cultural Properties." This film profiles a 
potter, dollmaker, puppeteer, papermaker, koto musician, 
swordmaker, textile artist, kabuki actor, and bellmaker. 

Lecture Hall I 

10:30 a.m. -2:00 p.m. 
RITUAL AND CELEBRATION 

Bali: The Mask of Rangda (1975) 
by Marvin Bellin and Elda Hartley 
30 minutes; color 

Forty years after Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson filmed 
a similar ritual, Bellin and Hartley present an overview of a 
masked dance drama, narrating their own interpretation. 

lyomande: The Ainu Bear Festival {iWmed in 1930s, 
released 1970) 
26 minutes; b/w 

A narrated document of the annual Japanese Ainu Bear Festival, 
depicting preparations for a bear cub sacrifice, with feasting, 
dancing, and singing. A rich document of material culture and 
ceremonial life. 

Gelede: A Yoruba Masquerade (1970) 
by Francis Speed and Peggy Harper 
24 minutes; color 

An impressive, colorful Nigerian mask dance-drama enacted 
to combat the forces of witches, reinforcing definitions of men's 
and women's roles. The film documents events leading to the 
spectacular midnight appearance of the great Efa masks and 
the next day's festivities. 

Wagon Festival at Puri (1959) 
From Encyclopaedia Cinematographica Collection 
20 7 minutes; b/w silent 



One of the most amazing wagons ever pulled through city 
streets highlights Orissa's Juggernaut celebration. The wagon, 
several stories high, is pulled by dozens of people through 
crowds of thousands gathered for one of India's great festivals. 

Festival at Mizumi (1979) 

by Tom Haar 

28 minutes; color 

A document of a centuries-old spring festival in the town of 
Mizumi, Japan. Featured are the 1 2 days of preparation and 
rehearsal, the performance of Dengaku dances and a Noh play. 

Navajo Indians (1939) 

by Encyclopaedia Britannica films, with Clark Wissler 

11 minutes; b/w 

The events preceding and during the marriage of Taska and 
Ainaba are portrayed in authentic scenes of Navajo work, 
recreation, and ritual of the late 1930s. 

Judge Wooton and Coon on a Log (1970) 
by Herb E. Smith 

10 minutes; b/w 

The dog that gets the raccoon off the log and into the river quick- 
est is the contest winner in this July 4 celebration in Kentucky. 
Wooton's comments on life in the Kentucky hills are inter- 
spersed with the canine feats. 

2:00 p.m. -5:30 p.m. 
CHICAGO FILMMAKERS 

A special 3y2-hour program features the work of Chicago 
filmmakers Tom Palazzolo, Jeff Kreines, Dana Hodgdon, 
and others, some of whom will be on hand for discussion. 
Check final schedule for complete listing. 

Bean's Bachelor Party, Rodger, Practice Wedding, It's 

Later than You Think 

Films by Tom Palazzolo 

Mr. Palazzolo has made more than 50 independent films in 

his career and is well known for his cinema verite portraits of 

Chicago Life. Mr Palazzolo will be present to introduce his films. 

Dear Friends (1980) 
by Dana Hodgdon 

11 minutes; color 

A satirical look at suburban life via the "family Christmas letter." 

The Plaint of Steve Kreines as Recorded by His 
Younger Brother Jeff (1974) 
by Jeff Kreines 
47 minutes; b/w 

Observant, compassionate, and humorous cinema verite 
account of the effect on middle-class, Jewish parents of their 
first-born son finding a job, buying a car, and moving into his 
own apartment. Expertly made by the younger brother, who 
interacts with his family during the filming. 

Ricky and Rocky 0973) 

by Tom Palazzolo and Jeff Kreines 

18 minutes; color 

A backyard surprise bridal shower filmed cinema verite in 
suburban Chicago. 

fij/a(1981) 

by Sharon Zurek and Lucinda Guard 

5 minutes; color 

A wonderful portrait of a snack shop waitress on Michigan 
Avenue. 



Lecture Hall II 

10:30 a.m. -2:00 p.m. 

HIGHLIGHTS FROM PAST FESTIVALS 

The Nuer (1971) 

by Hilary Harris and George Briedenbach 

60 minutes; color 

Life among these East African herders revolves largely around 
their cattle, supplying their basic material and spiritual needs. 
Portrayed are a bride price dispute, a ghost marriage, a revival- 
istic ceremony to combat smallpox, and a young men's initiation. 

Under the Men's Tree (1974) 
by David and Judith MacDougali 
15 minutes; b/w 

Jie tribesmen of Uganda gather under the men's tree for chores 
of fashioning leather thongs and making spears, and at the same 
time engage in priceless banter, mostly about automobiles and 
the relative worth of an automobile and a man. 

Cinema (1971) 

by Sebastian C. Schroeder 

3 minutes; color 

In Kabul, Afghanistan, is an itinerant motion picture exhibitor 
with a wonderfully weird street cinema whose light source is 
the sun and a hand-cranked projector Admission is H and 
performances last about 3 minutes. 

The Painted Truck (1971) 

by Judith and Stanley Halletand Sebastian C. Schroeder 

28 minutes; color 

There are two methods of transportation in Afghanistan — 
camels and trucks — and trucks are taking over This truck 
driver tells what it is like to live and work there and reveals 
much about his country's society, traditions, and culture. 

Hush Hoggies Hush (1979) 
by Bill Ferris and Judy Reiser 

4 minutes; b/w 

For 35 years, Tom Johnson of Betonia, Miss., has trained his 
pigs to "pray" before they eat their trough. You have to see it to 
believe it! 

Qeros: The Shape of Survival (1978) 
by John Cohen 
53 minutes; color 

A fascinating document of Peruvian Indians at 14,000 feet in 
the Andes. The grandeur of the landscape and the beauty of the 
music, weaving, and ceremonies are ever-present as the film 
examines their pattern of survival. 

2:00-5:00 p.m. 

FILMS OF THE ARCTIC AND 
NORTHWEST COAST 

How to Build an Igloo (1949) 
National Film Board of Canada 
10 minutes; b/w 

A demonstration of igloo-building in the far north. We see 
how snow is chosen, how blocks are arranged, how the igloo 
is ventilated. 

Eskimo Artist: Kenojuak (1964) 
by John Feeney 
19 minutes; color 

In this award-winning film we see Eskimo life through the eyes 
of Kenojuak, whose beautiful drawings tell us so much about 



her people's close relationship with nature. Today, her art is 
eagerly collected around the world. 

At the Time of Whaling (1974) 

by Leonard Kamerling and Sarah Elder 

38 minutes; color 

An excellent film from the Alaska Native Heritage Series about 
the Eskimo's traditional and contemporary culture. Produced 
by the community in local language. English subtitles. Animal 
slaughter scenes may disturb some viewers. 

The Owl Who Married a Goose (1974) 
by Caroline Leaf 
8 minutes; color 

An animated Eskimo legend with the voices and sounds of 
Eskimos. Like most Eskimo legends this is based on a nature 
theme — interacting creatures of the wild. It also has the wry 
humor of many Eskimo stories. 

The Loon's Necklace (1949, restored 1981) 

11 minutes; color 

Restored version. Through the use of authentic Northwest Coast 
Indian masks, the film tells of Kelora, a blind shaman who seeks 
the loon's aid in regaining his sight. 

Potlatch: A Strict Law Bids Us Dance (1975) 
by Dennis Wheeler 
53 minutes; color 

This exceptional film is the result of a strong collaboration and 
empathy between filmmaker and subjects, the KwakiutI Indians 
of the Northwest Coast. In the 1920s, the Canadian government 
made a strong effort to repress the now-famous potlatch, which 
is of great significance in KwakiutI culture. 

Nathan Jackson, Tlingit Artist (1979) 
14 minutes; color 

Contemporary Tlingit Indian artist Nathan Jackson speaks 
on traditional Tlingit art as he creates an elaborate wooden 
house front. 

Sunday^ Sept. 26 
James Simpson Theatre 

10:30 a.m. -5:30 p.m. 

NEW RELEASES 

Suzhou (1981) 
by Sue Yung Li 
30 minutes; color 

From the "Cities in China" series. An intimate exploration of 
China's longtime aesthetic and cultural center. 

A Wife Among Wives (1981) 
by David and Judith MacDougali 
75 minutes; color 

An inquiry into the marriage systems and values of the semino- 
madic Turkana of Kenya. This film is the third of the "Turkana 
Conversations" trilogy by acclaimed filmmakers David and 
Judith MacDougali. 

Long Shot (1982) 
by Jane Hunziker 
55 minutes; color 

A beautiful, pastoral portrait of Basque shepherds in Colorado. 
The film documents their work through the year These tradi- 
tional herders are in competition with the "feed lot" tech- 
nology — and their way of life is quickly disapp)earing. 
A Chicago premiere. 



21 



Courts and Councils: Dispute Settlement in India 

(1981) 

Worldview Productions 

30 minutes; color 

An intriguing look at legal processes in India with scenes of local 
councils acting on cases and formal court tribunals reflecting 
the British legacy of "adversarial justice." A Chicago premiere. 

Extinction: The Last Tasmanian (1980) 
Artists Film Party 
60 minutes; color 

This amazing documentary tells the tragic story of British col- 
onization of the island and the annihilation of the Tasmanians. 

Fiji: The Great Council of Chiefs (1979) 
by Robert Strum 
29 minutes; color 

Traditional and western components of ritual mix at the 
1978 meeting of Fiji Island chiefs. 

Soldier Girls (1981) 

by Nick Broomfield and Joan Churchill 

87 minutes; color 

A riveting account of young women newly inducted into the 
U.S. Army. Shot over a period of months, the film shows their 
painful adjustment to military life. Some adapt, some do not. 



Lecture Hall I 

10:30 a.m. -1:30 p.m. 

HIGHLIGHTS FROM PAST FESTIVALS 

Cinema (1971) 

by Sebastian C. Schroeder 

3 minutes; color 

In Kabul, Afghanistan, is an itinerant motion picture exhibitor 
with a wonderfully weird street cinema whose light source is 
the sun and a hand-cranked projector. 

Trobriand Cricket: An Ingenious Response to 

Colonialism (1976) 

by Jerry Leach and Gary Kildea 

53 minutes; color 

A wonderfully entertaining film, Trobriand Cricket documents 



transformation of the traditional British game of cricket into the 
present Trobriand version. 

The Stilt Dancers of Long Bow Village (1981) 
by Carma Hinton and Richard Gordon 
28 minutes; color 

A remarkable film documenting the revival of stilt dancing in a 
rural Chinese village. Banned for nearly 10 years during the 
Cultural Revolution, stilt dancing is a folk art that combines 
myth, history, contemporary politics, and daily village life. 

Adama, the Fulani Magician (1980) 
by Jim Rosellini 
22 minutes; color 

An entrancing film portrait of a renowned deaf African street 
performer and practitioner of ancient magic. 

2:00-5:00 p.m. 

EXPEDITION FILM EXCERPTS FROM 

MUSEUM ARCHIVES 

Features film excerpts from Field Museum's early collect- 
ing expeditions. These rarely seen films show important 
artifacts from our Anthropology collections in their origi- 
nal context, vk'hile other films document zoological col- 
lecting techniques in the early '20s and '30s. 

Jungle Islands: Crane Pacific Expedition of 1928-29 

Intended as a pleasure cruise, this voyage was transformed 
into a scientific expedition which brought back thousands of 
sfjecimens. 

Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of 1926 

Field Museum's first expedition into the far north which inves- 
tigated alleged pre-Columbian Norse ruins. Scientists collected 
mammals, birds, fishes, minerals, and Eskimo artifacts. 

Borden — Field Museum Arctic Expedition 

A 1927 trip to Alaska and beyond which brought back valuable 
zoological specimens and anthropological artifacts. 

Ancient Egypt 

Fascinating footage of the pyramids, the Nile and the people 
of Egypt filmed in 1923. 

Kelly Roosevelt Field Museum Expedition to Asia 

Rare footage from curatorial expedition to Asia in 1929. 

Thome — Graves Expedition to Alaska 

This expedition was launched to collect large arctic mammals. 



This schedule is subject to change 



For Festival information call 322-8854 



22 



Fifth Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film 

September 25 and 26, 1982 



City 



Zip 



Phone: Daytime 



n Member 



Evening 



n Nonmember 



Memljers: one day: $6.00; series: $10.00 

Nonmembers: one day: $7.00; series: $12.00 

Students with current college i.D. are admitted at Members' prices. 

Saturday only D Sunday only D Entire Series D 

Number of Tickets Requested 

Member Nonmember 



Amount enclosed: $_ 



(check payable to 

Field Museum) 

Please use west entrance for free admission to Museum. Confirmation will be 
mailed* upon receipt of check. Please include self-addressed, stamped envelope. 
Mail to: 

Film Festival/Education Department 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road al Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

•If coupon and check are received one week or less before the program, reservations 
will be held in your name at the west door. 




Ancient agricultural 
fields near the shore of 
Lake Titicaca. Oi'er 
1,000 years ago these 
fields were remarkably 
fertile, producing 
abundant harvests of 
high altitude adapted 
crops. Today, these 
fields lie dormant, 
graphically testifying 
to the agricultural 
prowess ofTiwanaku. 



TIWANAKU 



Continued from p. 18 

were constructed by excavating earth from either 
side of the projected field and mounding it in the 
center. The resulHng agricultural construction 
was an elevated planting surface ranging from 
5 to 15 meters wide and up to 200 meters long, (2) 
linear-ridged fields consisting of narrow (1-3 
meters), levelled ridges separated by parallel fur- 
rows of similar width. Like its larger counterpart, 
ridged fields have great variability in length, 
ranging from 10 to over 100 meters. 

There appears to be a correlation between 
spatial disposition and field type. In general, the 
larger raised fields are found along the margins 
of the lake plain, in land which is subject to annual 
wet season inundation and supersaturation. 
Most ridged fields, in contrast, are located on 
land 5 to 30 kilometers from the lake itself, on 
both level and sloping ground. This apparent 
spatial separation of field types may have been a 
function of local differences of drainage require- 
ments, topography, soils, or crop types. 

Three years ago, in conjunction with 
Bolivia's National Institute of Archaeology, I 
began an ongoing investigation of one important 
zone of drained fields together with associated 
sites directly related to Tiwanaku. This zone en- 
compasses an area of approximately 100 square 
kilometers near the base of the Taraco Peninsula, 
some ten kilometers north ofTiwanaku. Archae- 
ological survey in this region, called the Pampa 
Koani, located nine major terraced mounds that 
are clearly the result of large-scale corporate con- 
strucHon, and a multitude of smaller habitation 
mounds in direct association with the agricultu- 



ral fields. Of the nine terraced platform mounds, 
two contiguous structures, designated PK-5 and 
PK-6, reached enormous proportions (120 meters 
X 75 meters x 3.5 meters), rivalling the scale of 
Pumapunku at Tiwanaku itself. 

Subsequent excavation in these platform 
mounds uncovered a great quantity of ceramics, 
fragments of copper and bronze, finely polished 



Tapestry tunic from 
the desert coast of Peru. 
Portrayed, in the lower 
register, are representa- 
tions of trophy heads 
and stylized geometric 
designs. In the upper 
register are complex 
representations of feline- 
masked, winged war- 
riors bearing staffs. This 
textile is a splendid 
example of provincial 
Huari-Tiwanaku art. 




The author examines 

modern agricultural 

fields outside of La 

Paz. Because of poor 

drainage, these fields 

are encrusted with 

salt. Unless they are 

properly flushed with 

fresh water, these fields 

will rapidly become 

useless for cultivation. 

Salinization was also a 

problem for Tiwarmku's 

farmers, and may 

have contributed to the 

agrarian collapse of the 

Pampa Koani. Photo: 

Michael Moseley. 



Stone and bone tools, and several human and 
llama burials. Preliminary analysis of the "exca- 
vated cultural material indicates that the giant 
twin mounds were initially constructed in Tiwa- 
naku phase 3. During "Classic Tiwanaku" (phase 
4) times, the two platforms were remodeled and 
enlarged. The other seven large corporate struc- 
tures carry similar Tiwanaku 3-4 dates, although 
the bulk of the ceramic material pertains to the 
latter phase. 

It is of more than passing interest that in the 
deepest strata of three excavations, fragments of 
Chiripa polychrome and fiber-tempered pottery, 
as well as Tiwanaku 1 phase pottery, were re- 
covered. Evidence of Chiripa, a direct cultural 
predecessor of Tiwanaku and one of the most an- 
cient ceramic-producing cultures of the Andean 
area dating to the period from 1500-200 B.C., was 
found in the deepest layers of our excavations in 
the structures designated PK-la/b and PK-3. 
From the 2.75-meter levels of a test pit in PK-3, 
we recovered examples of Chiripa Polychrome, 
among the finest multicolored ceramic wares of 
this early period in Andean prehistory. Even 
more significantly, at a depth of 2.80 meters in 
PK-la, we discovered a hearth and what may 
be the curved, cut-stone wall of an ancient 
Chiripa house. 

The significance of this modest architectural 
discovery cannot be overestimated. Together 
with the fragments of fiber-tempered and poly- 
chrome pottery, this structure is direct evidence 




Recent systematic 
excavations by Boliv- 
ia's National Institute 
of Archaeology at the 
great temple ofPuma- 
punku at Tiwanaku. 
Note the beautiful 
ashlar masonry (regu- 
lar rectangular blocks 
ofandesite and sand- 
stone) used in the 
construction of Puma- 
24 punku'b terraces. 





Seeking shelter from a 
cold altiplano rain, 
the author's excavation 
crew finds refuge, of a 
sort, under the wooden 
side of the expedition's 
truck. Working for the 
National Institute of 
Archaeology, these 
Aymara Indian men 
have become skilled 
in the techniques of 
excavating the ruins 
of their long-forgot- 
ten ancestors. 






that the people of Chiripa were living on the 
Pampa Koani. As in the later Tiwanaku periods, 
there was only one compelling reason for the 
Chiripa people to live on this vast, flat plain on 
Lake Titicaca's shore: to exploit this incredibly 
fertile land for agricultural purposes. 

Indirectly our archaeological discoveries im- 
ply that, from a remarkably early date (1500 B.C.), 
the people of the Bolivian altiplano were engaged 
productively in agricultural pursuits, perhaps 
even in the intensive cultivation of ridged fields. 
If this conclusion is confirmed by future re- 
search, the Pampa Koani will take its place as the 
focus of one of the earliest and most important 
expressions of aboriginal agriculture in the 
New World. 

Truly massive land reclamation programs, 
however, were not undertaken until the later 
Tiwanaku period (phases 3-4). During this time 
when the major platform mounds were being 
erected, an entire river, the Rio Catari which 
crosses the Pampa Koani, was channelized and 
artificially diverted away from the middle of the 
pampa to facilitate reclamation of this period- 
ically inundated land. The meander channel of 
the old river course may be seen in the accom- 
panying field system map, as well as the artifi- 
cially straightened banks of the "new" course. 
This field system map is based on aerial photo- 
graphs which clearly show that the area of 
drained fields below the old river meander is 
poorly preserved relative to fossil fields else- 
where on the pampa. Although this must still be 
properly confirmed on the ground, I would sur- 
mise that the poorly preserved fields below the 



meander represent the oldest systematic net- 
work of drained fields on Pampa Koani. At some 
time after this initial network was in operation, 
the river was diverted away from the middle of 
the pampa and artificially channelized to accom- 
modate a vigorous episode of agrarian expan- 
sion. All of the better preserved fields to the west 
and north of the old meander channel probably 
date to this active phase of new land reclamation. 
Eventually, drained fields were constructed 
throughout the entire Pampa Koani region and 
beyond, to encompass an area exceeding 100 
square kilometers. 

Architectural and agrarian construction 
projects of such an audacious scale are the hall- 



The two foremen of the 
excavation crew record- 
ing archaeological 
strata in a deep test pit 
in mound pk-IS (pwi-4) 
on the Pampa Koani. 
Visible are various 
floors of adobe and 
packed clay represent- 
ing a protracted occu- 
pation of the mound. 




Small Tiwanaku 

IV phase jar with 

multiple condor head 

motif. This jar was 

excavated from an old 

occupation floor in 

mound PK-la and is 

now on display at the 

National Museum 

of Archaeology in 

La Paz. 



marks of a highly organized, state-level society 
that can invest in a vast, integrated labor pool. 
The Tiwanaku state's method of mobilizing labor 
resources of this magnitude w^as probably some 
form of the ancient and virtually pan-Andean 
labor tax system. The labor tax system, best 
known from the Inca, who referred to it as the 
mita obligation, required each household to per- 
form a designated amount of labor service for the 
state each year. The mita institution was the driv- 
ing force behind the rapid and efficient construc- 
tion of the monumental, government-inspired 
projects such as palaces, temples, agricultural 
terraces, and the sweeping, uninterrupted re- 
claimed fields of the Pampa Koani. 

Agricultural activity continued on the 
Pampa Koani into the succeeding Tiwanaku 5 
phase (ad. 725-1000). Thereafter, there seems to 
have been massive agrarian collapse, probably 
brought on by the political disintegration of the 
Tiwanaku empire. After this time, the drained 
fields of the Pampa Koani were never reutilized. 
The Inca occupation of the zone is restricted to 
the surrounding hillsides which became the 
focus of a second type of agricultural reclamation: 
the construction of large terraces, or andenes. The 
abandonment of the Pampa Koani drained fields 
may have been due to a major change in the level 
of Lake Titicaca that adversely affected the agri- 
cultural regime (modern records show that the 
lake level fluctuates as much as 4 meters in a dec- 





26 



Head of a sandstone sculpture from the site of Pokotia. This 
piece IS representative of a style of early Tiwanaku stone carv- 
ing, probably dating to around 300 B.C. It now rests, together 
with a similar companion piece, next to the portal of the Cath- 
olic church in Tiwanaku. 



ade). Today, this vast zone of agricultural fields 
lies dormant and salt-encrusted, dwarfing the 
modern area of cultivation. These fields are elo- 
quent testimony to the agricultural prowess and 
productivity of the Tiwanaku state. 

During Classic Tiwanaku (phase 4) times, 
two major, state-inspired administrative centers 
were established just west of the Pampa Koani at 
the edge of Lake Titicaca. One of these centers, 
Luqurmata, was erected on a large artificially lev- 
elled hilltop overlooking the lake. Luqurmata 
was constructed with dressed stone blocks and 
features a rectangular sunken court fitted with 
finely cut staircases and gateways as the princi- 
pal element of its architectural ensemble. Of 
course, rectangular sunken courts, polished ash- 
lar masonry, monumental cut-stone gateways 
and staircases are the most prominent architec- 
tural features of Tiwanaku itself, and these served 
as models for construction in its satellite centers. 
In addition to the finely conceived architecture at 
Luqurmata, beautiful, highly burnished Classic 
Tiwanaku ceramic vessels, semiprecious stone 
pendants, slivers of embossed gold and silver, 
and shattered fragments of stone sculpture have 
all been recovered from this dramatic, acropolis- 
like site. 

Approximately 8 kilometers north and 
slightly east of Luqurmata, on an opposite shore 
of Lake Titicaca, lies a virtually identical counter- 
part nestled into a small bay backed by imposing 
mountain peaks. This site, called Pajchiri, was 



constructed on massive, artificial terraces and 
also boasts large-scale stone architecture, includ- 
ing a particularly impressive staircase carved 
from a single block. Although little scientific 
work has been done on Pajchiri, it clearly dates 
to Tiwanaku phase 4 times. The proximity of 
Luqurmata and Pajchiri to the contemporaneous 
agricultural fields of the Pampa Koani suggests 
that these remarkable satellite settlements of 
Tiwanaku were directly involved in administer- 
ing the huge agrarian reclamation programs on 
that plain. 

Taken as a whole, we can reconstruct a hier- 
archical settlement network for Tiwanaku and its 
proximal affiliated sites: Tiwanaku itself as the 
primary center and capital of the state; Luqur- 
mata and Pajchiri as secondary, regional admin- 
istrative centers; the major terraced mounds of 
Pampa Koani as tertiary local administrative 
centers; and the small habitation mounds dis- 
persed throughout the agricultural fields as 
quaternary loci of the population engaged in 
intensive farming. Such a four-part settlement 
system is a distinguishing characteristic of an 
integrated preindustrial state and suggests that 
the Tiwanaku state maintained a high degree of 
administrative efficiency and centralization of 
agricultural production. 

A similar pattern of strategically located, 
state-built administrative centers near zones of 
potentially arable land can be documented for 
the entire circum-Titicaca region during Tiwa- 
naku phases 3-4. Most of the known Tiwanaku 
satellite settlements of this type, such as Wankani, 
Mocachi, and the like, are situated along the 
southern and eastern rim of the lake in Bolivia. 
However, there is clear evidence for intrusive 
Tiwanaku sites in the northern Titicaca basin of 
Peru near Puno and on the island of Esteves. In 



PRIMARY CENTER 

Capital TIWANAKU 

SECONDARY CENTERS 1 1 

Regional Administration LUQURMATA PAJCHIRI 

TERTIARY CENTERS | I \ I I I 

Local Administration PK-2 PK-3 PK-4 PK-5 PK-6 PK-13 



QUATERNARY LOCI 

Agricultural Production — 



MULTIPLE HABITATION MOUNDS 




Schematic Representation of Tiwanaku's Hierarchical Settlement Network 

addition, Tiwanaku ceramics dating to phases 3 
through 5 are documented for a wide area of the 
Peruvian altiplano, particularly in the area around 
Puno, which, probably not coincidentally, en- 
compasses a wide zone of prehistoric drained 
fields. This distinctive settlement pattern clearly 
reflects a political unification of the Titicaca basin 
imposed by Tiwanaku, directed toward expand- 
ing that state's agricultural production. 

COLONIES AND CARAVANS 

The Tiwanaku state economy, although 
grounded in intensive altiplano agriculture, was 
not restricted to it. With Tiwanaku we have the 
first unambiguous evidence for a formalized 
system of vertical control over the economic 
resources of ecologically distinct zones through 
colonization. In the Inca empire, state adminis- 
tered economic colonies were termed mitmaq- 
kuna. Tiwanaku economic colonies appear to 
have been fully analogous to the Inca mitmaqkuna, 
which functioned as a critical organizational tool 



Tkvo beautiful "Classic 
Tiwanaku ' ceramic 
portraits of nobles of 
the realm. The male 
figure wears a conical 
headdress, ear spools, 
andalabret. The female 
figure, forming the 
base of a whistling jar, 
wears an elaborate 
necklace and has a 
hole for a removable 
labret, now missing. 
These two pieces were 
said to have been found 
together in a tomp 
on the peninsula of 
Copacabana in Bolivia. 
They are now in the 
collection of the British 
Museum, London. ZT 



Tiwanaku IV phase 
pottery bowl represent- 
ing llama caravan. 
Shown here is one of 
three interlinked llamas 
xvith packs on their 
backs. 




28 



of the empire. It is likely that the Tiwanaku (and 
Huari) economic colonies served as a prototype 
or model for the later Inca manifestation. 

Economic colonies established by Tiwanaku 
can be recognized to the east of the altiplano on the 
edge of the Bolivian selva, as well as to the west, 
on the Pacific coasts of southern Peru and northern 
Chile. In the lands to the east of Lake Titicaca, 
sites such as Sina, Ninokorin and, southward in 
the Cochabamba area, Arani, Tiquipaya, Pucara 
and Perereta were founded at various times in the 
Tiwanaku 3-5 period to exploit the rich resources 
.of this temperate and tropical zone. In this way, 
the residents of the imperial capital on the high- 
land plateau enjoyed direct access to large quan- 
tities of important warm land crops such as maize 
and coca, as well as more exotic goods such as 
tropical birds and medicinal plants. 

In similar fashion, Tiwanaku maintained 
colonies on the Pacific coasts in the valleys of 
extreme southern Peru and northern Chile. Tex- 
tiles, gold keros (a type of drinking vessel) and 
carved wooden snuff trays in the purest Classic 
Tiwanaku style have been recovered from graves 
in Chile. Fragments of Classic Tiwanaku textiles 
are reported from the Moquegua-Ilo area of 
southern Peru, as well as somewhat farther 
north from the lea area. These objects may very 
well have been produced at and imported from 
the imperial capital itself as the possessions of an 
elite class of Tiwanaku administrators. There are 
substantial Tiwanaku 5 phase occupations at sites 
in southern Peru such as Chen Chen, Loreto 
Viejo, and Tacna, and in northern Chile at 
Pisagua, Chiu Chiu, Quitor, and others. The 
archaeological evidence points to intense Tiwa- 
naku interest in and direct utilization of the warm 
lands of the Pacific coast throughout the Tiwa- 
naku 4 and 5 phases. 

Apart from altiplano agriculture and mitmaq- 
kuna-XiVe colonies, a third element played a vital 
role in Tiwanaku's imperial economy: llama cara- 
vans. It is again in the centuries dominated by Ti- 
wanaku that we have the first solid evidence for 
the systematic state-directed organization of an 
important Andean social and economic institu- 



tion. Llama caravans organized by the Tiwanaku 
empire journeyed throughout the Bolivian high 
plateau and into the interior valleys and coasts of 
Chile bearing enormous quantities of goods to be 
exchanged and redistributed. Through this Chil- 
ean connection, Tiwanaku influence extended 
even farther to the south into the uplands of 
northwestern Argentina. 

TIWANAKU IN PERSPECTIVE 

After the disintegration of the old Tiwanaku 
empire around a.d. 1000, the political unity in the 
Titicaca basin that it had fostered was shattered 
into a number of smaller, competing states. As 
we have seen, two of the more powerful of these, 
the Colla and the Lupaqa, were independent 
kingdoms situated in the northern Titicaca basin. 
Other similar polities, such as the Collagua to the 
northwest and the Pacaje to the southwest of 
Lake Titicaca, maintained their own spheres of 
influence, although these were continuously 
contested. 

Given the still fragmentary nature of our 
knowledge about Tiwanaku, it is singularly diffi- 
cult to assess the impact that this empire of the 
high plateau had on the ancient Andean world. 
Nevertheless, we have been able to trace the 
roots of the integrated, tripartite economy (inten- 
sive agriculture, extensive herding, colonies and 
caravans) that has been historically documented 
for the late pre-Hispanic kingdoms of Lake 
Titicaca, to the highly organized state economy 
engendered and maintained by Tiwanaku over 
1,000 years earlier. 

We know further that during its thousand- 
year imperium, Tiwanaku was the paramount 
city of the Titicaca basin, which, in turn, was the 
major demographic center of the Andes. Many of 
the important organizational features character- 
istic of the later Inca empire can be traced to the 
shattered remains of Tiwanaku that are left to us. 
The centralization of political power in an impe- 
rial capital, the inculcation of state propaganda 
through widespread dissemination of an impe- 
rial art style, the use of mita labor in massive state 
construction projects, and the establishment of 
mitmaqkuna economic colonies are all archaeo- 
logically definable elements in the ancient 
Tiwanaku polity. 

The Inca emperors themselves acknowl- 
edged the pervasive influence of Tiwanaku on 
the political geography of the Andean world 
when they traced their royal lineage to the inhab- 
itants of that once splendid metropolis of the 
altiplano. In doing this, they were invoking the 
mystique of Tiwanaku's imperial past to justify 
their own ultimately successful attempt to recon- 
stitute an empire in the Andes. D 



TOURS FOR MEMBERS 



Baja California 
and the Sea of Cortez 

February 19 to March 4, 1983 



Just 50 miles south of the Califor- 
nia border is a subtropical para- 
dise for marine life — the Sea of 
Cortez. Steeped in legend and his- 
tory, Baja California and the Sea of 
Cortez have the mystique of the 
unknown. Virtually inaccessible by 
road until 1973 and with only 5 per- 
cent of the coastline yet accessible by 
road, Baja had remained largely un- 
visited except by the most dedicated 
of scientists and sportsmen. 

What they found, a treasure 
house of life, you can now share from 
the comfort of a first-class natural 
history cruise ship. Lyall Watson, au- 
thor of Whales of the World, has said, 
"there is probably no other body of 
water in the world where more spe- 
cies of cetacean can be seen more 
clearly than in the Sea of Cortez." Add 
to that a fantastically rich seabird 
fauna, the richest assemblage of 
shallow- water marine life in the east- 
ern Pacific , giant barrel cacti , boojum 
trees, rock paintings, rugged mono- 
liths, and soaring peaks and cliffs 
plunging vertically into the sea, and 
you have a natural history trip be- 
yond comparison. 

And that's only the first half! The 
second week of this 14-day tour in- 
cludes a visit to the outer shore la- 
goonal breeding and nursery areas of 
the California gray whale. We will 
spend two days approaching and 
watching these wondrous creatures 
at close range. Also in the second 
w^eek a visit to the fabulous San 
Benitos islands, home to huge colo- 
nies of elephant seals, sea lions, and 
diverse bird life. 




Accommodations for the trip 
will be on board the 143.5-foot 
Pacific Northwest Explorer, a one- 
class ship of 99.7 tons gross weight. 
Built in 1980, air-conditioned 
throughout, with all cabins outside 
and with private facilities, this ship is 
ideal for natural history observation 
in that her IVz-fooi draft allows very 
close approach to the land and high 
maneuverability while approach- 
ing whales. Veteran Captain Robert 
Hempstead has captained the ship 
in two previous and highly suc- 
cessful (1981, 19823 seasons of Baja 
coastal explorations. 

Leading the tour will be Dr 
Robert K.Johnson, curator of fishes 
and chairman of the Department of 



Zoology. A graduate of Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography, Dr. Johnson 
has participated in two previous Baja 
Circumnavigated tours. Special Ex- 
peditions, a division of Lindblad 
Ti-avel, operators of the ship to be 
used, will provide several additional 
naturalists whose expertise will fur- 
ther enrich our experience. For fiarther 
information and a detailed brochure 
please call Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum Tours, at (312) 322-8862 
or write to Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago IL 60605. 



Dr. Johnson 's article "Baja Circumnavigated " 
appeared in the October 1981 Field Museum 
Bulletin. 




The grim visage of 
a Jaguar warrior, 
painted in Mexico a 
thousand years ago, 
suggests the military 
might behind the rise 
and fall of early states 
which existed long 
before the well-known 
Aztecs and Incas estab- 
lished their empires. 




Learning Museum Program Continues With 



Latino Images: The Other Americas 

By Donald McVicker, Sociology/Anthropology Department Head, North Central College, and 
Anthony Pfeiffer, Project Coordinator, Department of Education, Field Museum 



30 



For thousands of years neighboring settle- 
ments throughout the world were sepa- 
rated from each other by mutual antagonism 
or passive avoidance and by differing languages and 
cultural traditions. Social and geographic barriers 
often narrowed travel and communication to strictly 
local affairs. However, by 1500 B.C. in what is known 
today as Latin America, some tribes began to exert 
their influences over their neighbors. Chiefdoms 
arose and extended their sway over their neighbor's 
neighbors. Boundaries of the tribal world were shat- 
tered and states were born. As realms that were as 
mysterious to the conquerors as the far reaches of 
the solar system are to us were discovered, the first 
empires emerged. 

The preliterate world of the early empires was a 
world of strangers speaking a babble of tongues. All 
expansionist states now faced the same problem: 



how to communicate to a multi-ethnic and multi- 
linguistic populace in the absence of a written 
language. Imperial art, carved in stone and wood, 
modeled in clay and adobe, or magnificently painted 
on walls, became an "international" medium for 
power proclaiming itself. Subject peoples soon 
incorporated the symbols of imperial power into 
their native arts and crafts, only to replace them by 
other themes as empires collapsed. In ancient high- 
land Mexico, for example, cycles of conquest were 
recorded on painted walls in public places. The 
recently discovered murals of Cacaxtla in the state of 
Tlaxcala depict a bloody battle between jaguar war- 
riors and feathered invaders as well as a new impe- 
rial harmony expressed as a balance between the 
symbols of the jaguar-associated deity Tezcatlipraca 
and those of the feathered serpent Quetzalcoatl. 
Spanish conquistadors brought the pre- 



Columbian cycles of conquest to an end; they gained 
control of the gold and souls they so avidly sought. 
However, the natives of New Spain learned quickly 
from their conquercrs. They recorded their own ver- 
sions of events in traditional picture books and in the 
strange new writing system of the Spaniards. Indian 
artists adopted Spanish themes as they had adopted 
the power symbols of their earlier conquerors. Their 
works of Christian art included remnants of ancient 
beliefs, skillfully blended with the new symbols. The 
Cross was molded on traditional clay discs; rows of 
animal figures recalling the pantheon of native gods 
were painted in churches, and dogs which evoked 
the memory of the once all-powerful feathered 
serpent were carved in convents. Conquest faded, 
ancient beliefs were supressed; but the tradition of 
visual art continued to serve as a means of commu- 
nication with the largely illiterate masses. 

The Spanish empire began its long decline dur- 
ing the seventeenth century. Even the seemingly 
inexhaustable mines of silver and gold began to 
play out. Although few recognized it at the time, 
lowly food crops, not royal bullion, were the true 
treasures of the New World. The early native em- 
pires had been based on Indian corn and potatoes, 
just as centuries later sugar and coffee provided the 
basis for colonial wealth. 

The gradually loosening grip of Spain on her 
colonies was reflected in both colonial elite art and 
folk art, with dramatically opposed results. Colonial 
art, produced by second-rate artists for their pa- 



The Learning Museum At Field Museum 

The Learning Museum Program began at Field Museum 
in 1979 with a gran t from the Na tional Endowmen t for 
the Humanities (NEH), a federal agency. The NEH 
grant allowed the Museum to present a three-vear 
sequence of learning opportunities focused on its out- 
standing exhibits and collections. Courses were de- 
signed to give participants an opportunity to explore a 
subject in depth. Field Museum is pleased to announce 
that the Learning Museum Program continues as a fea- 
tured offering in Courses for Adults brochures. The 
program emphasizes special Museum activities and 
strengths as it did under NEH funding. 



. PiL'^i.''. 



trons, mimicked the Spanish baroque style; folk 
art, retaining its vitality, reached new heights of 
creativity. Even today, folk themes dominate much 
of Latin American art, and appear in both public 
and private collections. 

Spanish American independence was achieved 
early in the nineteenth century, and modem nations 
began to emerge. Ho\vever, it was soon apparent 
that many independent republics had exchanged 
one form of colonialism for aqpther; autocratic 
rule had been traded for repressive dictatorships 
and Spanish imperialism for Euro-American 
dependerice. 

By the end of the nineteenth century the influ- 
ence of the United States in Spanish America, for 
good or ill, began to increase spectacularly. This 
influence resulted in economic progress coupled 



(Of 




The monolithic "portal 
of the sun "at Tiwanaku, 
Bolivia, is portrayed in 
this engraving. Before 
the Inca, great high- 
land empires were 
formed a t Tiwanaku 
and at Huari in Peru. 
The spread of these 
empires can be traced 
by the appearance of 
the "staffgod" (por- 
trayed above the 
portal) on pottery 
from Perus Pacific 

coast. 2534 31 




with increased inequality. Democratic regimes were 
supported when they were congruent with Ameri- 
can economic and security interests. When they 
were not, the installations of military dictatorships 
were condoned. In Mexico, Porfirio Diaz's "bread 
and stick" dictatorship (1877-1911) opened the flood- 
gates for American and European investments. 
Investors purchased commercial estates at the 
expense of peasant land holdings. The scene was set 
for ten years of revolution. 

The twentieth-century Mexican revolution was 
the first to reverse the tide of dollar imperialism and 
allow the resurgence of native traditions. Once again 
the power of art blending ancient and modern 
themes was realized. Neo-Aztec architecture at the 
National Autonomous University expressed pride in 
national heritage, and murals throughout the coun- 
try sent the message of revolution to the people. 

Among the new generation of muralists, Diego 
Rivera (1886-1957) was the master. In his Mexico City 
National Palace murals he glorified pre-Hispanic 
culture, villified the conquerors, and showed the 
church corrupt. To summarize his vision of history 
Rivera chose the ancient Aztec symbol of an eagle 
perched on a cactus. But instead of painting the tra- 
ditional captive serpent in the eagle's beak, he de- 
picted the symbolic destruction of Spanish rule. 

Rivera's message was brought to the United 
States in the 1930s when he was commissioned to do 
a mural for the RCA Building in New York's Rocke- 



ABOVE: The great 16th- 
century English botanist 
John Gerar is portrayed 
in his work, The Herball 
or general historie of 
plantes, holdings potato 
plant. Although Utile 
esteemed on its arrival in 
Europe, the Peruvian 
potato was toprovean 
invaluable basic food 
around the world. 86183A. 
BELOW: A Chiriguano 
Indian woman of Bolivia 
produces traditional 
pottery in 1960. Never 
conquered by the Inca, 
the Chiriguano fell 
victim to the Spaniards, 
and were subject to the 
Jesuits. When thejesuits 
were expelled in 1767 
and their lands opened to 
Spanish civil and 
military settlers, the 
Indians fled into the 
forests. There they retain 
remnan ts of their ancien t 
32 way of life. 96478 





^ 



This early Colonial ornamental clay disc, discovered at Teotihuacan, Mexico, isnowin thecoUection ofthe Field Museum. A 
Prehispanic sun design serves as the background for a symbolic moun tain - temple topped by a Christian cross. <mz7 



feller Center. The mural set off such a storm of anti- 
revolutionary protest that the uncompleted fresco 
was smashed to powder. However, destruction of 
art by conqueror or capitalist does not suppress the 
demand for social justice. Even today, revolutionary 



folk art continues to proclaim its message. On the 
walls of Chicago's barrios the plight of the Latino 
minority in the United States is deplored, and the rec- 
ord of United States political, cultural, and eonomic 
intervention in Latin America is questioned.]]]] 



Latino Imagf.s: The Other Americas invites you to ex- 
plore Latin American culture from pre-Hispanic times 
to present. Delve into the origins of symbols as visual 
representations of empire and power. Aztec, Maya, 
Inca, and other imperial regimes proclaimed their 
might through emblems which became incorporated 
into the art ofthe people they conquered. The Spanish 
symbols of sacred and secular power were in turn in- 
corporated into the evolution of a new artistic heritage. 
This heritage kept alive native traditions, which were 
later reborn in the fire of revolution. Visual symbols of 
power, which were once expressed in sculpture 'and 
mural, are now stated in film. This new medium brings 
movement and immediacy to the present day Latino 
struggle for land and liberty. 

Latino Images: The Other Americas offers a look at 



the roots of Chicago's largest ethnic minority. The pro- 
gram offers timely historical perspectives on Latin 
America, and the controversial role ofthe United States 
in determining its affairs, the program explores how 
native vitality has endured despite indigenous empire 
and Spanish imperialism. Discover how the lasting 
voice of nationalistic art still speaks to the people in an 
age of global conformity. Listen to the people of Latin 
America. This is a critical time in the history ofthe re- 
lationship between the United States and the Latin 
American countries, a critical time for airing issues. 
How well non-Latinos balance their interests with an 
understanding of these issues may shape the course of 
future events from El Salvador to the Falkland (Malvi- 
nas) Islands. See the Fall, 1982 Courses for Adultshro- 
chure for complete program details. 



33 



Museum Views... and Viewpoints 

These cartoons by Marion Pahl, former Field Museum illustrator, origi- 
nally appeared in the January, 1957 Bulletin. But her candid, tongue- 
in-cheek sketches of visitor behavior could well have been done in 1982. 



^^i?»^>lijs^ 




V/:^~i- 





■■'^'^^■'ti- 




34 



•'^~ 







We^re Here! 

William Burger, Chairman of the 
Department of Botany, recounts an 
experience while on a recent col- 
lecting expedition to Costa Rica: A 
difficult situation has a happy 
conclusion, thanks to Costa 
Rican hospitality 



/have often told people what a pleasure it has 
been to work in Costa Rica. A small democ- 
racy between Nicaragua and Panama with a 
friendly, highly literate populace, Costa Rica also 
supports an extraordinarily rich flora and fauna. 
Our work in preparing an encyclopedia-like review 
of the flowering plants of this region has meant 
six expeditions for me over the last fifteen years. 
These trips have covered every month of the year 
and gotten us into almost every corner of this pic- 
turesque and mountainous land. 

In aU these many trips I have never had an 
unpleasant interpersonal encounter with a Costa 
Rican. Whether I've been tramping across a farmer's 
field, arriving unannounced at a study site, or 
bumping my Jeep into a police car (wath policemen 
inside), Costa Ricans have always been courteous, 
open, and friendly. But one always fears that maybe 
on the next trip the long-overdue bad encounter 
will take place. 

A short time after arriving in Costa Rica in late 
January, our colleague, Jorge Gomez-Laurito, told 
us of a dairy farmer on the slopes of Volcan Mira- 
valles who had provided biologists with a room at 
his home. Jorge suggested we use this as a base 
from which to collect and I thought it was a great 
idea. This long-dormant volcano supports lush wet 
forest and is in a chain of volcanoes in the north- 
western part of the country that has been little 
collected. So, together with Kerry Barringer (visiting 
assistant curator on the flora project), the three of 
us piled ourselves and our gear into the Landcruiser 
and were off for Volcan Miravalles. 

Jorge, who has a joint appointment at the 
Universidad de Costa Rica and the Museo Nacional, 
had made arrangements. But after traveling five 
hours and finally working our way up the dirt road 
to the farm of our intended host — you guessed it 
— we had arrived before the news that we were 
coming. Not only had this farmer (a prosperous 
dairyman) no idea that he might have three visitors 
he had never seen before, but he was busy loading 
his family and gear into a station wagon. It seems 



the entire family was off for a mini-vacation down 
on the Pacific coast and we had come in just as 
they were getting ready to leave. Egad, I thought. 
The last hotel we had passed was nothing more 
than cinder-block walls with a tin roof and a 
couple of rooms; this was going to be a very uncom- 
fortable collecting trip. But after introductions and 
talking with Jorge for a while our host welcomed 
us to his lovely hacienda, extending us the key of 
the house, and with the phrase "su casa" left with 
his family for the coast. I knew Costa Ricans were 
friendly, but this I hadn't expected. 

The ranch-style home on gentle slopes sur- 
rounded by pasture and evergreen wet forest for- 
mations was our base for three days and nights. 
After messing up the carport and open porch with 
dirt and the debris of plant collections you can be 
assured that we scrubbed and swept it well. This 
was the least we could do to show our appreciation 
for such extraordinary hospitality. D 




35 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Killen of Bald E^e Fined, Sentenced 

After pleading guilty to <±axges at ^toot- 
ing and IdBmgaboId eagle, two Peuy vile, 
MO t e si dent s reua t ily were fined SMIOO 
each, given a one-year su sp en d ed jal 
sei^ence, and their hm t tit t g md filling 
prnrifeges suspended for three years. The 
dead, nmatme e^le was iband near the 
ftfimiini|T|Ti River in Pen^r Cuunly, mo. on 
February 26. 

The Vfissouri Department of Conser- 
vation was notified, and it was soon deter- 
mined diat die bird had been shot with a 
-22 calibre rifle. It had been banded by the 
U.S. fish and VVUdlife Service as a nestling 
in northern Wlsconan on Jvme 8, 1980. 

A joint investigation was initiated bv 
state and FWS agents. A local news re- 
lease about the eagle shooting gyneiale d a 
number ot leads provided bf ooncefned 
citizens. After foOowing op on the leads 
and conducting numeroas interviewst, 
agents submitted a report to the U.S. At- 
tocney's office in St. Louis, and that office 
fikd >J wges in U.S. District Court in St. 
Louis against the two men for killing the 
ea^ in violation of the Federal Eagle Ad, 
which protects bald and goiden ea^es. 
The bald eagle is classified as an endan- 
gered species in most states, indodiog 
\Gsso(iii, and either endangered or threat- 
ened in every state except Alaska. 



New ID Marking on Blackbirds 
Aids Sunflower Crop Damage Research 

Red-winged blackbirds in bnited num- 
bers were taken for scientific purposes 
by state and federal wildlife officials in 
several northcentral arul western states 
last spring as the birds migrated from win- 
tering l ocations to breeding grounds. This 
action was part of continuing efforts bv 
U.S. Fish and VVUdlife Service (FW5) re- 
search biologists to learn specifics of sea- 
sonal movements of the biacktaiids as 
these relate to fall sunfkrwer crop daonge 
in the Dakotas and Nfinnesota. 

Samples of migrating breedii^ black- 
birds taken in Iowa, Kansas, Kfissooii, 
Nebraska. North and South Dakota, Wis- 
consin, and Minnesota and sent protnpttv 
to Ae FWS's Denver Wildlife Research 
Center (DWRQ were examined under 
ultraviolet tight for identification mark- 
ings not visiWe to the naked eye. 

Scientists at the research center were 
looking for birds nvarked earlier this year 
by a new^ method at two wintering roost 
sites near Squaw Creek National Wildlife 
Refuge m northwest VCssoun. They hope 
36 to leam the migration routes taken and lo- 



cations Of bfeedn^ marshes used 1^ the 
marked bffds- 

The new method used to mark birds for 
later identification was devefaped over 
four years at DWRC. it allows huge 
numbers of bads to be marked m a rela- 
tively short time by hefioopter. Masses of 
roostmg hsds were spnyed uritha hamt- 
tess finoRscent point p ^ gmait with the 
substance of lakiim powder and visMe 
only under nhiavialet ^^ 

Research Kologist &lwafd Kiottle of 
DWRC said five to nine n^Bon male red- 
wn^ed btatilwds were marked in north- 
western !)Assaari with the new lechniqae 
this year. Only about 75,000 biaddnds 
were marked over the past do 20 years 
by DWRC scientists using the usual 
method of applying legbands one at a 
tMne k^ hand to mifividuai buds caught 
for that purpose. 

Knitfle befieves the new method wfli 
lead ipiii Hy to greater knowledge of red- 
wMiged lila i H i iid popublians and their 
overaH distiJwti on in the central U.S., 
their seasonal movenHnls;, and locations 
of their wvrter roosimg and spring breed- 
ing sites. He said this knowled^ is an 
essential step in fimfcig uwaiis to efhsL- 
UitJy oontral red wiugied Uackbud dant- 
age to siiiifli WW' i orops- 



Two Fwdjiigfi e d Fishes Believed Extinct 

Two Great Lakes fishes have been pro- 
posed far removal fiotn die endangered 
species list because they are presumed 
extinct, the U.S. Fish and Widflife Service 
has armounoed. Removal of die two fishes 
would bring die nuui bei of U.S. species 
faiedas" rndw i g p'i > i f "or *U a walenw l'to 
289. Ihe fishes, die blue pace and longiaw 
Cisco, once helped to suppo i t sobstviiial 
HBiwiffrtal fishenes. No specimens of 
either haw ! be e n l i uui i dai u u ithelaleBfiQs- 

Bfae pice, a su b sp e ci es of waltic, 
l a s l f ii a ly w ul faond in Lakes &ie aaid 
Ontario and in die ^QagaIa River. Sindar 
in appearance to walleye except far dieir 
bine color, they weighed 1^ to 2 pounds 
and grew 1^ to 16 inciies long. Blue pike 
were numerous in the late MKks, but by 
1913 the catch began to show extreme fluc- 
tuations between abundance and scarcity; 
in 1956 the CDOu»eraal fishery ooBafwrd 

Fishery b i i ii i gias belcve diat over- 
fishing led to the popidalun HiwliialMMis 
and eventua l crash of the fishery by dis- 
rupting the blue pike's natural balance 
between production and mortakty. Preda- 
tion by and muipetilion vrith rainbow 
stnelt, an introduced species, also may 
have been detrimental to bine p&e. The 



fishery's frJafwr in I95B may have been 
due to oiygen depletion, paiticnlaily m 
vrestem Lake Erie. Hybridization with 
vfaleye may have been lesponsUe farthe 
&ial disappearsice of the lemaining stock 
ofUuepfte. 

The longiaw CISCO grew to be about 12 
to 15 inches long and w e i g hed about a 
pound, and occurred in Lakes Michi- 
gjBi, Huron, and Erie. Along with other 
deepwater ciscoes. they were valued as a 
smoked fish and stqiported a stdstantial 
fishery unt3 about 199). They were cang^ 
by gjhels set in water hum no to 300 feet 
deep. As the ciscoe s decreased in abun- 
dance, net mesh sbx vras decreased, 
wfaicfa caused further depletion of the 
population. Habitat degradation, par- 
ticularly in Lake Erie, piedation by sea 
lampreys, and competiti on with 'rfrlBrr 
ciscoes, alewife, anid rainbow smelt are 
be&eved to have fuithc i reduced cisoo 
iiuuibcis. Recent icseaich has mdicatcd 
that some specie s of Cisco in die Great 
Lakes may have hybridized and are not 
presently genetitaBv i i ol a l ed . 

The longiaw cisoD was fisted as en- 
dar^eied in 1967 and the bhie pdce in 197D, 
and a r ecu v ei y team was estabfished far 
Une pike. However, since no specimens 
of eitfier fish could be found, there vras 
fittle that could be done under the Endan- 
gered Species Act to help the species 
r e c o v er, fai 1977 die Bhie Pike Reoovciy 
Team contacted aD State fish and game 
^encies in the Uniled States to detemine 
if Hue pOoe existed in dnrwateis. After 
aD r e sp onded ne gativ el y , die r e cove r y 
team concluded that the species was 
extinct and recommended removing it 
from the endangered s pecies list. No 
recove r y team vras ever estabfished far 
longiaw Cisco. A status r e vi ew of bodi 
species, initiat e d in 1979, turn e d up rw 
1 to milk'ate that die two spe- 



If the fishes are removed fiom the en- 
dangered species list 3s proposed, federal 
agencies would no longer be required to 
oonsidt widi the Fish and WUHe Service 
to determine if dieir activities in the Great 
Lakes region a»e Hoely to adversely afiect 
the two species. 

The Fish and Wiklfife Service is re- 
qnestir^ poMc oommenis on biological or 
odier relevant data on any bbw pice or 
longiaw asoo populations which may st9 
east, and any adifition^ mfamatun oon- 
oemii^ hBtonc range and dislubutwn of 
these species. Co mm e nts should be ad- 
dressed to Regional Director. U.S. Fish 
and Wlkflife Service, Federal Buddn^ 
Fort SneOing, Twin Cities, Minnesota 
55111. 



Public Scores Low in Wildlife 
Quiz, Study Shows 

Most Americans don't know very much 
about animals or wildlife conservation 
issues and are more likely to see wild 
animals on television or in zoos than in the 
wild, according to a study conducted for 
the Interior Department's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

The study, which has important impli- 
cations for wildlife conservation and man- 
agement fjrograms, was conducted by Dr 
Stephen Kellert of Yale University in the 
fall of 1978 and involved interviews with 
3,107 adult Americans. Kellert reported his 
initial findings in 1979, and has recently 
published two new reports on his data. 

Among Kellert's findings were the 
following: 

• Most Americans know relatively little 
about animals. Although coyotes are often 
killed in western states to protect live- 
stock, 75 f>ercent of those surveyed did not 
know that the coyote is not an endangered 
species. Half of the public did not know 
that the statement "spiders have 10 legs," 
is false, and only slightly more that half 
knew that insects do not have backbones 
and that veal does not come from lamb. 

• Fifty-eight percent said they cared more 
about the suffering of individual animals 
than about species populaHon levels. This 
is an important finding for wildlife manag- 
ers, whose work is generally more con- 
cerned with conserving populations of 
animals than with the welfare of each indi- 
vidual member of a species. 

• Of all demographic variables, education 
was the most sensitive indicator affecting 
knowledge of animals. People with a 
graduate education knew more about 
animals than any other group and were 
more interested in wildlife and more con- 
cerned about the natural environment. 
People with less than a sixth grade educa- 
tion were almost the opposite of those 
with graduate education in basic percep- 
tions and understanding of animals. 

• Differences between urban and rural 
residents "may represent one of the most 
difficult and imjwrtant problems con- 
fronting the wildlife management field in 
the 1980s," according to the study. Resi- 
dents of rural areas generally know more 
about animals, participate in more wildlife 
activities, are more supportive of practical 
uses of animals, and are less concerned 
about "animal rights" issues than urban 
residents. Residents of cities with popula- 
tions of more than one million had ex- 
tremely low animal knowledge scores, 
and were more opposed to hunting and 
predator control and more concerned 
about humane or ethical treatment of 
animals than rural residents. 

• Forty-five p>ercent had fished during the 
pn-eceding two years. The most common 
reason for fishing was to eat fresh fish (28 
percent). Twenty percent fished primarily 
for sjjort. 



• There are striking regional differences 
in knowledge and attitudes about ani- 
mals. Alaskans were the most knowledge- 
able, followed by residents of the Rocky 
Mountain states. Residents of the North- 
east were the least knowledgeable. Pacific 
Coast residents were more concerned 
about ethical treatment of animals and 
"animal rights" issues and were opposed 
to hunting more often than residents of 
other regions. Southerners tended to be 
more interested than others in practical or 
material values of animals. 

• Watching animal television shows, 
owning pets, and visiting zoos are Amer- 
ican's most frequent animal-related activi- 
ties. During the two years before they 
were interviewed, 78 percent had 
watched a wildlife television show, 67 p>er- 
cent had owned a pet, and 46 f>ercent had 
visited a zoo. 




• Twenty-five percent of the sample had 
hunted at some time during their lives, 
and 14 f>eTcent had hunted in the two 
years before they were interviewed. Fifty- 
three fjercent of those who had hunted at 
some time no longer hunt, primarily be- 
cause of lack of opportunity. Forty-three 
p>ercent hunted primarily to obtain meat, 
37 percent for sp>ort or recreation, and 11 
p>ercent to be close to nature. 

• Twenty-five percent said they had bird- 
watched in the preceding two years. Of 
these, three percent were "committed" 
birdwatchers who could identify more 
than 40 species. Contrary to the p)opuIar 
stereotype of the little old lady in tennis 
shoes, the average committed birder was a 
42-year-old male. 

Formalin Pronounced Safe 
for Treatment of Fish Diseases 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has 
cleared the way for the lawful use of for- 
malin in fish culture after nine years of 
intensive research that proves the 
compound can be used without harm 
to fish, consumers, or the environment. 

"Fish culturists agree that it's almost im- 
possible to raise important food and sport 
species such as catfish and trout without 
formalin to control external parasites and 
fungal infections," says an agency spokes- 
man. "Thus, our efforts to get this chemi- 
cal registered have represented one of the 
service's primary fishery research respon- 
sibilities for nearly a decade." 

Formalin has been known to fishery ex- 
perts since 1909, when it was used to con- 



trol parasites on rainbow trout. In time, 
the compound became the most widely 
used chemical in the treatment of fish dis- 
ease because of its versatility and effec- 
tiveness. Use of the drug was lawful until 
the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act 
was amended in 1972, to require registra- 
tion of all drugs and chemicals used on 
food animals. After receiving a permit for 
experimental use, the service undertook 
the necessary research to register formalin 
for fishery use. Now, formalin can be law- 
fully used by federal, state, and private 
fish culturists to control parasites of trout, 
catfish, salmon, largemouth bass, and 
bluegjDs; and to control fungus on sal- 
mon, trout, and pike eggs. 

The most common external parasite that 
plagues fish is khthyophthirius, or "ich." 
Formalin can cure "ich," which can infect 
all freshwater species including home 
aquarium Sfjecies — a $60 million industry. 
All fish are more prone to disease after be- 
ing handled, as their natural protective 
coating of slime is gone. Then disease can 
spread rapidly; for example, Saprolegnia 
fungi can infect and kill virtually all fish or 
eggs in an enclosure within 24 hours. Both 
Saprolegnia and Ichtyobodo ("costia"), 
which infects fish gills, can be successfuUy 
treated with formalin. 

Formalin is a liquid formaldehyde solu- 
tion which is heavily diluted for fish cul- 
ture use. The standard concentrate is 37 
percent formaldehyde, and it is further 
weakened to a fraction of its original 
strength before it is used on fish or eggs. 
The service investigated possible hazards 
to fishery workers in the course of its re- 
search and found no problems when 
profjer precautions were taken. 

The service's formalin-related research 
has been guided by the agency's National 
Fishery Research Laboratory at La Crosse, 
Wisconsin. Studies were designed to an- 
swer a broad range of questions about the 
possible drawbacks of its use. Potential 
side effects on fish that were ruled out in- 
cluded birth defects, cancer, and chromo- 
somal damage that could cause mutants. 
Other research measured the amount of 
residue in treated fish, the compound's ef- 
fects on plants, and chemical interactions 
with pollutants and other products in 
the water 




FIELD BRIEFS 



Carolyn Blackmon Elected to 
AAM Committee Chairmanship 

Carolyn Blackmon, chairman of the Muse- 
um's Department of Education since 1978, 
was elected to the chairmanship of the Ed- 
ucation Committee of the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums at its annual meeting 
in Philadelphia in June. 

Mrs. Blackmon came to Field Museum 
as a volunteer in 1968 and in 1971 became 
acting coordinator for Harris Extension, 
which provides exhibits on a loan basis to 
Chicago-area schools. From 1972 to 1975 
she served as coordinator of Special Edu- 
cational Services for the Department of 
Education; from 1975 to 1977 she was head 
of Program Development and in 1977 be- 
came head of Public Programs. 




imowisiniOF 

WOMllHSfORr 



New Girl Scout patch 



New Girl Scout Patch Program 

The Girl Scouts of Chicago, in collabora- 
tion with Field Museum's Department of 
Education, has developed a new patch 
program for Girl Scouts entitled "Field 
Museum Exploration." The patch require- 
ments include several planned visits on a 
group basis to the Museum as well as 
related troop meeting discussions and 
activities. To earn the patch the scouts 
will also develop and exhibit a natural 
history project. 

The Girl Scouts of Chicago was estab- 
lished in 1922, with current membership 
(ages 5-17) at more than 18,700, compris- 
ing 1,200 troops. 




38 



Fifth Annual Festival 
of Anthropology on Film 

See pages 19-22 for 
complete schedule 



Carolyn Blackmon 



James H. Swartchild 
1910-1982 

James H. Swartchild, a Field Museum vol- 
unteer since 1975, died recently at the age 
of 71. A skilled photographer, he recorded 
with his camera a great many Field Mu- 
seum events, notably Women's Board acti- 
vities, and photographed thousands of 
artifacts in the Museum's collections. 
During each of his seven years at Field 
Museum he devoted more than 600 hours 
of service. 

Swartchild was a director and past pres- 
ident of the Chicago Jewelers Association. 
He is survived by his wife, Catherine; two 
children, Gail and James Jr; and five 
grandchildren. His brother, William G. 
Swartchild, is a Museum trustee and past 
chairman of the Board of Trustees. 



Kellogg Grant Focuses on Field Museum 
as National Center for Museum Studies 

A fellowship/internship program has 
been launched by the Field Museum to 
expand the educational role of museums 
in society. The project is funded by a 
three-year grant of $405,750 from the W. 
K. Kellogg Foundation, of Battle Creek, 
Ml. Monies from the grant will support 
one-week fellowships at the Museum for 
museum educators, and two series of 
seminars for museum educators, curators. 



and designers on the "team" approach 
to exhibit development. Field Museum 
staff will serve as faculty during these 
seminars. Carolyn Blackmon, chairman 
of the Department of Education, is pro- 
ject director. 

The fellowships and internships will 
cover topics such as goal-setting, policy 
formulation, museum mission, space 
resources, exhibit design, and assessing 
the needs of the local community and the 
adult learner. 

The W. K. Kellogg Foundation, estab- 
lished in 1930 "to help people help them- 
selves," has distributed more than $585 
million in support of programs in agricul- 
ture, education, and health. 



Cole Named Anthropology Head 

Glen H. Cole, curator of Old World prehis- 
tory, assumed the chairmanship of the 
Department of Anthropology on July 1, 
succeeding Phillip H. Lewis, curator of 
primitive art and Melanesian archaeol- 
ogy, who had chaired or co-chaired the 
department since December 1975. 

Cole received his bachelor's degree 
from Reed College, his master's and Ph.D 
from the University of Chicago, and he 
joined the Field Museum staff in 1965. His 
research has focused on East African pre- 
history and he has done field work at a 
variety of sites in East Africa. 



Glen H. Cole 




September &> October at Field Museum 



September 16-October 15 



Continuing Exhibits 

"The People and Art of the Philippines." Through December 
31. A stunning exhibit containing some of the finest examples 
of Philippine art from prehistoric times to the present. The 
420 objects have been gathered from 29 private sources and 
museums, including the Field's fine collection. Special 
emphasis is given to the prehistoric ceramics and gold, 
church art from the Spanish colonial period, wood sculpture 
from the northern tribal peoples and exquisite woven, 
beaded, and embroidered textiles from southern Philippine 
peoples. Hall 26, second floor 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast." 
Field Museum's landmark permanent exhibit compares and 
contrasts the way Eskimos and Northwest Coast Indians 
have adapted to widely differing environments along the 
continuous northern Pacific and Arctic coastlines. The two 
groups have flourished since prehistoric times by harvesting 
the riches of the oceans. The five sections of the exhibit use 
displays, films, and full-sized replicas to depict the origins, 
food-gathering techniques, social life, spiritual beliefs, and 
art of these peoples. Here is an exhibit so big you'll want to 
return to it often for new insights into how these unique 
cultures existed in harmony with their surroundings. Hall 
10, first floor 

Marine Mammals. Visit these life-sized dioramas to familiar- 
ize yourself with the intriguing animals which are the subject 
of October's Familv Features and Discovery Programs. The 
pale light of the setting Arctic sun in the walrus diorama 
suffuses the hall, giving it the watery look of underwater 
regions where sea mammals might be found. Enjoy scenes 
of otters or seal parents playing with their young, see under- 
water views of the horned narwhal and the odd-looking 
manatee, and marvel at the bulk of a 5,000-pound male 
elephant seal. Hall N, lower floor. 





^j-^- 
.<•>- ~ 






New Programs 

Fifth Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film. This year's 
program will feature some of the most popular films of the 
first four festivals, new works by Chicago filmmakers, and 
rare archival films of early Field Museum expeditions. See 
pages 19-22 for details. Advance tickets are available from 
the Education Department, Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. or may be purchased at the door Tickets are: 
Members, $6; nonmembers, $7 per day. Members, $10; 
nonmembers $12 per series. Sat. &= Sun., Sept. 25 &> 26. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. Ti-avel around the world 
via film every Saturday and Sunday in October and Novem- 
ber. Narrated by the filmmakers themselves, these free 
90-minute film/lectures are recommended for adults. The 
films begin at 1:30 p.m. in the James Simpson Theatre. 
Admission is through the West Entrance. Members 
receive priority seating. Oct. 2: "Austria," Oct. 9: "Hawaii," 
Oct. 16: "Scotland." 

Ray a. Kroc Environmental Field Trips. These one-day field 
trips with a knowledgeable leader go to local areas of bio- 
logical or ecological interest. They begin September 11 and 
are offered weekends through October. See field trip brochure 
for details. Early registration by mail is strongly advised. 

Continued on back cover 39 



September &> October at Field Museum 



Continued from inside cover 



Adult Education. Registration is now open for the fall courses 
which begin October 18. The Learning Museum course will 
be "Latino Images: The Other Americans." See pages 30-33 
as well as the Fall Adult Education brochure for details. 

Fall Journey. This self-guided tour of Field Museum's diora- 
mas and other exhibits mirrors what you can see outside in 
Chicago during the fall season. Free Journey pamphlets 
available at Museum entrances. 

"Extinction," a Kroc Environmental Lecture bv Dr Paul 
Ehrlich. Sunday, October 17 at 2 p.m. Watch for details of 
this important lecture by one of the world's leading ecologists 
in next month's Bulletin. 



being planned around sea mammals. History and legends 
once depicted them as mermaids or monsters of the deep, 
but recent scientific research into the social lives and com- 
munication systems of whales, dolphins, seals, and otters 
have shown them to be complex, highly intelligent creatures. 
Look for a complete schedule in the Education Depart- 
ment's Calendar of Events or the Weekend Sheet available 
at Museum entrances. 

Weekend Events Line. A prerecorded telephone message 
gives up-to-date information about such weekend events as 
Discovery Programs, Family Features, films, and special 
programs. Call (312) 322-8854 weekends. 



5th Annutil Festival 
ijff Anthropology on Film 



QVe^ 



60 



^iv-'*® 



September 25, 26 
seepages 19-22 



Continuing Programs 

Weekend Discovery Programs and Family Features. New 
vistas of natural history will be opened to visitors who attend 
these tours, films, slide programs, and participatory acti\a- 
ties. September's programs will focus on traditions from 
various cultures. In October a whole range of programs is 



Museum Hours. The Museum is open daily from 9 a.m. 
to 5 p.m. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Closed Columbus Day, October 11. Obtain a pass at the 
reception desk, first floor. 



Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



October 1982 




Members' Nights 



October 7 and 8 
6:00—10:00 p.m. 



Field Museum 




of Natural History 


Bulletin 




Published by 




Field Museum of Natural History 


Founded 1893 




President: Willard L. Boyd 




Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 




Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 


Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 


Calendar: Mary Cassai 




Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 




Board of Trustees 


Life Trustees 


James J. O'Connor 


Harry O. Bercher 


chairman 


Joseph N. Field 


Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 


Paul W. Goodrich 


George R. Baker 


Clifford C. Gregg 


Robert O. Bass 


Samuel Insull, Jr 


Gordon Bent 


William V. Kahler 


Bowen Blair 


William H. Mitchell 


Willard L. Boyd 


John M. Simpson 


Stanton R. Cook 


J. Howard Wood 


O.C. Davis 




William R. Dickinson, Jr 




Thomas E. Donnelley II 




Marshall Field 




Richard M. Jones 




Hugo J. Melvoin 




Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 




Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 




James H. Ransom 




John S. Runnells 




William L. Searle 




Edward Byron Smith 




Robert H. Strotz 




John W. Sullivan 




William G. Swartchild, Jr. 




Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 




E. Leland Webber 




Julian B. Wilkins 




Blaine J. Yarrington 





CONTENTS 

October 1982 
Volume 53, Number 9 



Members' Nights: October 7 and 8 



Getting There 

Former paleontologist Elmer S. Riggs journeys to South 

America in preparation for his first field work there 

bv Larrv G. Marshall 4 



Field Museum Tbur to Baja California and the 

Sea ofCortez J3 



Cetaceans, Pinnipeds, and Sirens of the Sea 

Specially featured during October Weekends 14 



Field Museum's Panda and the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition of 1929 

bv David M. Walsten tB 



Paul Ehrlich Lecture (October 17) 

Paul Winter Consort Performance (October 22) 20 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series 



21 



The Battle Against Dutch Elm Disease 

bv David M. Walsten 22 



Field Briefs 



26 



October and November at Field Museum 27 

Calendar of coming events 



COVER 

View of Anderson Lake, Nicolet National Forest, Wisconsin. 

Photo bv Bob Brudd, Tinlev Park, Illinois. 



Egypt Tour for Members 

Januan' 7-26, 1983 
$4,200, double occupancy 

An unforgettable visit to the land of the pharaohs, including an 
U-dav Nile cruise aboard a chartered yacht. The tour leader is Del 
Nord, a distinguished U.S. Egv'jitologist. For details, write Field 
Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
eOfiOS, or call Domthv Roder at the Tours ofTice, 322-8«G2. 



Field Museum of hialural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is publistied monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Sliore Drive, 
Chicago, U. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are Iheir own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:aai5-07Q3 



A Special Invitation to Members 




The 1983 Field Museum Calendar is now 
available to Members on a special advance 
order basis. This year, in addition to 
receiving your regular copy of the Cal- 
endar, you will be able to purchase gift 
copies of the Calendar issue for friends 
and family! 

The 1983 special Calendar issue spotlights 
Botany, and includes 12 pages of color 
illustrations as well as a beautiful color 
cover. For this limited offer, the purchase 
price is $3.50 each, which includes the 10% 
discount to Members, postage and han- 
dling costs. There is an additional 10% dis- 
count for orders of 25 copies or more. 

There is no better way to say Happy Holi- 
day all year long than with this beautiful 
Calendar from Field Museum. So place 
your order now — and remember, all gift 
orders must be received by November 15, 
1982. 

Order form on reverse side. 



PHOTO BY WILLIAM BURGER 



1983 FIELD MUSEUM CALENDAR 



Please send me copies of the 1983 Calendar at $3.50 each. (This price includes Members discount, 

postage and handling costs) 



Total amount enclosed $_ 



Orders must be received by November 15, 1982. 

Calendars will be mailed by December 1, 1982. 

For further information, please contact the Museum Store at 922-9410. 



Please send this form with your check, made out to Field Museum to: 

Calendar Gift Offer 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. 
Chicago, II. 60605-2499 

Name 

Street 

City State. 

Zip Phone 




Have you ever wanted to make your own fossil 
fish? Or learn about scorpions, centipedes, and 
spiders? Then be sure to come to Members' 
Nights on Thursday, October 7, and Friday, October 8, 
from 6:00 to 10:00 p.m. (Third floor opens at 7:00 p.m.) 
Entertainment for Members' Nights will feature the 
Natyakalalayam School performing dances from India, 
under the direction of Hema Rajagopalan. These voung 
girls in native costumes perform both pure and expres- 
sional dances which are as graceful as they are intricate. 
Well-received at our Asia festival, they are sure to delight 
both youngsters and adults. 

Another act, featured at our Asia Festival and return- 
ing by popular demand, is Han Hua So, the amazing 
16-year-old Chinese acrobat. This young woman, who 
amazed us with her "Bowl Balancing" act^ will again 
perform her dazzling feats in Chinese ballet gymnastics. 
Appearing from Chicago's Degerberg Academy will 
be Nate Defensor and Jim Wauchon, who will demon- 
strate Philippine martial arts. Sticks, knives, and swords 
as well as the open hand are used in these arts, which 
have been described as the most highly developed wea- 
pons arts in the world. Passed from generation to gener- 
ation, they were banned in the Philippines 400 years ago 
but are today enjoying renewed popularity. The demon- 
stration will keep you spellbound! 

Other evening highlights include: 
Ground Floor: Serpent Slide Show; Miniature Monsters of 
the Deep; Make Your Own Family Totem Pole; Animal 
Camouflage; Collection Showcase on Slides: Malvina 
Hoffman and Indian Art of the Northwest Coast. 
First Floor: Totem Poles, Masks, and Shamans; Pin the 
Bone on the Dino; In Search of Strange and Unusual Pets; 



Your Name in the Egyptian ABC's. 

Second Floor: Members' Preview of "The Last and First 

Eskimos" (a photographic exhibit); "The People and Art 

of the Philippines," our current traveling exhibit. 

Third Floor: Architectural Curiosities; Art, Death and 

Life in New Ireland; Make Your Own Fossil Fish; Scanning 

Electron Microscope: Vision into the World of the Tiny; 

Plants of the Bible. 

Fourth Floor: Various Aspects of Exhibit and Graphic 

Design; Silk-Screening Demonstration; Exhibit Production. 

Free parking is available in the north Museum lot 
and the Soldier Field lot. Or use the free round-trip charter 
bus service between the Loop and the Museum's south 
entrance. These CTA buses marked Field Museum will 
originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station 
and stop at the Canal Street entrance of Northwestern 
Station, Washington and State, Washington and Michigan, 
Adams and Michigan, and Balbo and Michigan. Buses 
will run circuits beginning at 5:45 p.m. and continue at 
15-minute intervals until the museum closes. (Buses will 
travel to the train stations until the departure of the last 
train. Please check vour train schedule for the exact times.) 

Reasonably priced dinners and snacks will be 
available in the Museum food service area from 6:00 
to 8:00 p.m. 

To achieve a more even distribution of visitors, we 
suggest you follow this alphabetical schedule: 
A through L: Thursday, October 7 
M through Z: Friday, October 8 

Admittance will be by invitation, so please retain 
your Members' Night invitation and present it at the 
door for admittance for you and your family. 

We look forward to seeing you! 3 



Getting There 

The journal of former paleontologist Elmer S. Riggs recounts 
the pleasures, annoyances, and frustrations of expedition 

logistics sixty years ago 

by Larry G. Marshall 



"... lying awake in our bunks among the sage- 
brush of Wyoming to enjoy the coolness of a 
desert night," reminisced Elmer Riggs of his field 
trip days as a student, "looking up into the starry 
canopy above, we planned an undertaking 
which each of us was sooner or later to carry out 
under the constellation of the Southern Cross." 

Paleontologist Riggs, who served on the 
Field Museum staff from 1898 to 1942, saw that 
dream of collecting in the Southern Hemisphere 
come true in 1922, when plans for an expedition 
to southern Argentina (the Marshall Field Pale- 
ontological Expedition to Patagonia, 1922-24) 
were approved. Riggs and two assistants, John 
B. Abbott and George F. Sternberg, left Chicago 
on November 6 of that year; but travel sixty years 
ago was agonizingly slow and more than eight 
weeks passed before the men were at a collecting 
site and able to begin scouting for fossils. 

The following account, drawn mostly from 
Riggs' personal journal, covers that frustrating 
period before Riggs, Abbott, and Sternberg 
arrived in the field — when the men, impatient to 
do their collecting, had to abide the endless 
delays and red tape of foreign travel. But there 
were good times too; the pleasures of making 
new friends and the adventure of fresh expe- 
rience in a strange land. 



The Departure 
Chicago to New York 

November 6, 1922, Chicago. The day of starting on 
our long-planned journey to South America has 
arrived. All of the rush and strain of preparation 
of ceaseless work, days, nights, and Sundays 
has been leading up to this. 



*Larry G. Marshall is with the Department of Geosciences of 
the University of Arizona, Tucson. Later ivork hy Riggs in 
Argentina and Bolivia was treated hy Marshall in the March 
and May 1978 issues of the Bulletin. 



Monday morning, I am up at 6:00 and am 
off for the Museum at 7:15. Personal clothing is 
all packed and the men are closing up the trunks 
of equipment. Abbott is handling the packing, 
and Sternberg will take over the trunks and 
attend to checking. At 9:00, Miss Prosser brings 
the report that Dr. Farrington* is in the Museum. 
This requires conference in deference to this 
office, and some delay. 

Now comes the report that Martin, the 
teamster, has fallen dead on the way and Par- 
melee's Express Company is called to deliver 
our trunks at the station. Sternberg locks my 
keys in my suitcase. In locking the photographic 
chest, my keys are missed and an excited search 
and exasperating delay follows. Sternberg is 
sent to the basement to open my suitcase and 
there the missing keys are found. 

A hasty call on the Museum Director, [D.C. 
Davies], a visit to close accounts with Mr. Bridge, 
the Museum auditor, to mail some letters, and 
then lunch in the Museum cafeteria. 

A few last good-byes, and at 1:20 a taxi is 
called for me. $400 is drawn on letter of credit to 
reimburse my personal account for a check given 
Mr. Bridge, and I return to the Union Stahon 
where I arrive 50 minutes before train time. 

Twenty minutes before train time and in 
comes Mr. Moore of the Museum with a message 
that the Southern Cross, our steamer, has post- 
poned sailing until November 15th. Then 
Sternberg is sent to see if the baggage is aboard. 
Nobody wishes to return — but, where is Abbott? 

Sternberg and I are starting for the train 
gate when six minutes before train time in comes 
Abbott. We take him aboard without explanation 
and are at last settled in our sleeper for the trip. 

We pass out through the familiar suburbs 
of the city with a feeling that we may not see 
them for many months again. All have dinner 



*OliverCummings Farrington, curator of the Department of 
Geology, 1894-1933. 



on the Pullman and settle down for a night of 
rest after a nerve-racking day. 

November 7, Pittsburgh. Awoke early to the con- 
sciousness that we were at last on our way and 
that all of the worries were over for a time at 
least. Then remembering the bundle of money, 
travelers checks, letter of credit, passport, etc. 
rolled in my money belt and stowed under the 
mattress at my head, a new realization of respon- 
sibility came to me. 

I dressed hurriedly as Sternberg came to 
say "20 minutes to Pittsburgh." Our baggage 
was checked while we went to find an eating 
place. Letters mailed, we all went to Carnegie 
Museum. Inquiring for Mr. O. A. Peterson [field 
assistant during earlier Princeton expedition to 
Patagonia] the door-man asked "Are you gentle- 
men from Chicago?" To our answer in the affir- 
mative, he advised that we were expected, in a 
way that was both reassuring and hospitable. 

Passing up the stairs to Peterson's study, 
that genial gentleman came forward with the 
glad hand and quickly drew up chairs for all. 
Without more ado he launched immediately 
into our South American plans. Returning a 



favor, Peterson prepared letters to ranchmen 
whom we would meet in Patagonia. 

Novembers, Washington. Early we awoke, run- 
ning through the hills between Harrisburg and 
Baltimore with train an hour late. Upon arriving 
in Washington, we went at once to the Saint 
James Hotel where I first put up in '98. Then all 
went to the National Museum. Mr. Gidley 
[curator of vertebrate paleontology] soon came 
in and we were shown about and talked speci- 
mens until 1:00 when we went to lunch. 

After lunch 1 went to look up the Argentine 
Ambassador to get letters to admit our equip- 
ment duty-free. 

November 9, Washington. In the morning went 
directly to the United States Geological Survey. 
. . . Secured letters ... to corresponding officials of 
the Argentine Geological Survey. Took train at 
3:00, lunch at Philadelphia, and reached 
Princeton at 8:30. Found lodging at private 
house 

November 10, Princeton, N.} Found Dr. Farr 

and learned that Dr. Sinclair had been Curator 
for some years Sinclair took us to the 




Elmer S. Riggs (1869- 
1963), was a member 
of the department of 
(Geology staff from 
1898 to 1942. He led 
twelve expeditions to 
western United States, 
two to Canada, and 
two to Argentina and 
Bolivia — spending 
four years in South 
America. 49132 5 



Museum, opened cases, and furnished books. 
In the evening after light in the Museum failed, 
a careful examination of Hatcher's card cata- 
logue* was made and his localities recorded 
along with lists of specimens found in each. 

November 11. The forenoon was spent on finish- 
ing the hasty study of collections. The afternoon 
was devoted to discussion of literature, while 
Sternberg took an early train to New York. 

November 12, New York. Arrived at Pennsylvania 
Station at 7:10 p.m. and went by subway to Hotel 
Endicott. Sternberg joined us at 9:00. Sunday 
morning I went to Hoboken, New Jersey to 
inquire about the arrival of our goods sent by 
express, and to have the six trunks from Prince- 
ton transferred from Jersey City to Pier 1, 
Hoboken, the point of sailing. I visited the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History but found the 
upper floors closed on account of a flower show. 
Returned to hotel and spent the afternoon and 
evening writing. 

November 13. All went to Battery park to have 
passports visaed by Brazilian consul. Then 
Sternberg went to docks to look after baggage 
while Abbott and I called on Mr. Stadelman at 
Marshall Field's and got the tickets. Too much 
can not be said of Stadelman's courtesy and 
care for our transportation in and entrance into 
Argentina, and comfort on the way. 

November 14. Sternberg went looking for personal 
equipment while Abbott and I went to buy army 
saddles, get new vaccination certificate from 
Board of Health, and more photographs. 

November 15. Date of sailing. Arose only half 
rested after working until 1:00 a.m. in prepara- 
tion for sailing. Took taxi for pier at 10:45, picked 



up army goods on the way. Went aboard at 
2:00. Personally supervised loading and distri- 
buhon of baggage. Sailed at 6:30. Watched lights 
as we went slowly down the bay, passed Bedloes 
Island and the Statue of Liberty, then went below 
to write letters. We were assigned two rooms 
with bath between; Sternberg and Abbott in 
room 111, and I alone in room 109. These quarters 
have been found most comfortable and conve- 
nient, thanks to Stadelman. 

At Sea 

New York to Buenos Aires 

November 16. In the night I awoke to feel a gentle 
rolling sensation and a cold wind blowing 
through the port. We were passing through a 
little squall which drowned out the sailor's quar- 
ters where ports were left open. 

November 17. The first thing is to bring my journal 
entries down to date. This was planned as a 
feature of the expedition but in the rush and 
stress of the past few days has been neglected. 
Now I am writing for the past ten days with 
memory still fresh. Another piece of work 
planned for this voyage is the Log, which 
Fannie* has asked for as a daily narrative of our 
voyage. This may be worthwhile for her and the 
boys. Dinner at 7:00 and I am tired of writing. 
After dinner a game of cards in smoking room 
of upper deck. 

November 18. Next thing I knew was the bugle 
blaring out the first call. Then came to me the 
soldier's complaint, "I'm going to kill that bugler 
and throw his bugle overboard." 

The air is mild and I have donned lighter 
clothing. The sea is breaking a little and the 



*]ohn Bell Hatcher first collected fossils in Patagonia in 1896. 



*Riggs' ZL'ife 



Traditional shuffle- 
board — one of the main 
diversions aboard the 
6 Southern Cross. 48831 





Plaza del Mayo in 
Buenos Aires. Riggs 
stayed at Avenida 
Palace Hotel Heft). 43947 



wind is summery. The seamen are setting up 
the swimming tank of canvas on a spar frame. I 
got out my Palm Beach suit and had it pressed. 

After lunch, 1 lie down for a few moments 
in my state room to rest, the warm air blowing 
through the ports. This is luxurious and I con- 
clude upon reading a few Spanish lessons. A 
page or two and the book is dropped. The next I 
know is the sound of softly swaying music. I 
slowly awake to the conscious luxury of having 
slept two hours in mid-afternoon. Not since a 
child in my mother's cradle have I known such 
a restful, quiet, rocking to sleep. 

While at dinner the steward brought a wire- 
less reading: "On board Saint Teresa. Good Luck. 
Good-bye. Osgood." We answered, "Thanks. 
All's well. Good-bye. Riggs." [Wilfred H. 
Osgood, curator of Zoology at Field Museum, 
was returning from South America.] 

November 21. Arose early this morning to have a 
swim in the tank. After a good breakfast, went 
to upper deck and punched bag a while. Met 
Mr. Foulds who is familiar with the Patagonian 
coast. Told me that Mr. Halliday, to whom I 
carry a letter from Peterson, is in business at 
Santa Cruz dealing in Ford cars. He told me also 
that coastal steamers [between Buenos Aires 
and Rio Gallegos] ran irregularly from four per 
week to ten or more days apart. 

November 12. Met and talked with Reverend 
Bauman, methodist minister. He advised us to 
carry rifles south. Second mention of lawlessness 
in southern provinces in Argentina. Says that 
everybody carries arms there. Spoke also of 
difficulty of a foreigner getting title to property. 
Courts very corrupt. Men 95% anti-religious. 
Look upon Catholic Church as cause of failure 
to make progress North America has made. He 
put it this way — "Puritans came to North Amer- 
ica seeking God, Conquistadors came to South 
America seeking Gold." 



November 24. This was the great day on account 
of crossing the equator. We crossed about 2:00 
p.m. Neptune dinner at night. 

November 25. Last night some of the passengers 
asked me to give them a talk on fossil animals. 
Most of the passengers came and listened in the 
social hall for an hour. Talked general earth 
history and finished with fossil animals of South 
and North America. 

November 28, Rio de Janeiro. About noon sighted 
first land, two mountains 69 miles east of Rio. 
Toward 3:00 p.m. Sugar-loaf mountain came 
into view, then the harbor entrance. Delayed in 
harbor until after sunset. About 8:30 we started 
ashore. 

Walked about until 10:30, very hot, stuffy. 
Learned just how little we could make ourselves 
understood in Portuguese. 

November 29. At 2:40 we pulled away from the 
wharf and swung out into the bay. The ocean 
breeze has driven me below to change Palm 
Beach suit for woolens and long undergarments. 
How I shall chafe! 

December 2, Montevideo. Awoke to find the 
steamer entering the Rio de La Plata with the 
city of Montevideo in sight. After breakfast we 
went ashore. About 1:10 the steamer was backed 
away by stern tug and once more we were out 
in the river. The Rio de La Plata, celebrated in 
story and in song, hardly justifies the name 
"silver river. " A little grayer than the sea-water 
we had become accustomed to, a wake of yel- 
lowish mud was constantly stirred by the ship's 
propellers, and we were told that our ship would 
often scrape the bottom. The course was marked 
by buoys. 

Buenos Aires 

December 3. Awoke to find ship coming to wharf 
(after 17 days voyage and two days behind 



Buenos Aires' Plaza 
Congreso in 1922. 49950 




schedule). After a comfortable breakfast we 
went ashore, had baggage carried to custom 
house by porter, examined, stamped, and re- 
leased. Went to Avenida Palace Hotel. Rooms 
fairly light with one window in each court. Mr. 
Hopper took us over and introduced us at 
American Club. 

December 4. Kaiser met us at Custom-house to 
take trunks through customs. Showed letter 
from Embassy at Washington, but would not 
pass trunks duty free. Advised us to see 
American Consul. 

As that office was open only in afternoon, 
went to inquire about sailing to Rio Gallegos. 
Dropped in on Mr. T. A. Lyman and deliver a 
letter from Lawrence Armour of Chicago to 
him. He took much interest, engaged passage 
for us December 22nd to Rio Gallegos, advised 
about banking, and undertook to clear our 
baggage. 

December 6. Today the Southern Cross sails for 
New York. Had lunch at Y.M.C. A. At 2:00 went 
to Department of Interior to deliver letter and to 
ask for credentials to territorial governors. 

Called on Mr. Campbell on way home and 
learned that baggage was cleared of customs, 
with some incidental expenses of cartage, 
trouble, etc. Kaiser phoned to Museo de La Plata 
and arranged for our visit there tomorrow. 



December 7. Pleasant ride to La Plata, good lunch, 
nice comfortable walk through park grounds. 
At 2:00 entered Museum, had great doors swung 
open to us and the Director ushered us into his 
office. Had interchange of speeches, of cards, 
met Dr. Santiago Roth, and Dr. Schiller. 

We were greatly impressed with the extent 
of the paleontological exhibits, the large number 
of mounted skeletons, and especially the com- 
pleteness of specimens from the Pampas For- 
mation. The collection of human skulls was all 
that its reputation led us to expect. 

Returned to Buenos Aires at 6:00 p.m. to 
find our photographs in the evening issue of El 
Accieri with an account of our visit. 



While in La Plata, Riggs was notified that a new 
national law had been passed restricting the col- 
lection of paleontological, palaeoanthropological, 
anthropological, and archaeological specimens 
by foreign institutions and their personnel. 
Information concerning this law was broken to 
Riggs gently by Luis Maria Torres, director of 
Museo de La Plata. 

The terms of the law were severe and it was 
drafted by men who were employed to enforce it. 
Provisions were made for the inspection of all 
collections by the commission before they could 
be shipped out of the country; any specimens 




Museo de La Plata, La 
Plata, Argentina. 48961 



deemed new to science could be confiscated; half 
of any series of desirable specimens could be 
withheld; and the field work could be restricted 
or certain localities barred. If rigidly enforced, 
such regulations could greatly limit or vitiate 
Riggs' proposed collecting efforts. 

The law made it necessary for any foreign 
expedition to place itself under the jurisdiction of 
the Argentine government. The law provided for 
establishment of an Argentine commission, con- 
sisting of the directors of the principal Argentine 
museums. The chairman of the commission was 
Carlos Ameghino, director of the Museo Nacional 
de Historia Natural in Buenos Aires. Because 
Ameghino was in poor health, Torres acted in his 
stead. As fate had it, the Field Museum expedi- 
tion was the first to come under the new law, but 
Torres personally assured Riggs that the expedi- 
tion "would not be embarrassed," that he would 
freely cooperate with it and secure the necessary 
permit. In case of any new specimen, he assured 
Riggs that the deposition of a plaster cast would 
probably suffice, and also, that where specimens 
were represented in Argentine museums, 
nothing would be exacted from the collections 
made by the expedition. 

Collecting permits were sought from two 
government departments. Although the neces- 
sary permission was ultimately obtained, Riggs 
was required to make monthly reports to the 
commission. Twenty-three days were spent in 
Buenos Aires getting through government red 
tape to secure the necessary documents, and to 
satisfy Argentine officials that Field Museum's 
endeavor was honorable. 



territorial governors. Kaiser brought them from 
La Plata last evening. The forenoon has been 
spent behind closed doors getting off a letter to 
the Museum. It was sent in duplicate to Director 
[Davies] and Curator [Farrington] from lack of 
time to write two. The important matter con- 
cerned permits, restrictions, etc. These letters 
were rushed to mail in time for the sailing of the 
American Legion. 

December 22. Sailing from Buenos Aires for Rio 
Gallegos. Had a hurried breakfast and returned 
to lock trunks and pack hand baggage. Steamer 
Asturiano sails at 3:00 p.m. Went to U.S. Consul 
and registered, giving a full pedigree, and three 
photographs. 



Early December is summer in the Southern Hem- 
isphere and the sheep shearing season in Patago- 
nia. Absentee estancia owners and their families 
who normally lived in Buenos Aires visit their 
outlying properties for vacations and to super- 
vise marketing of the wool. The Austuriano's 
steerage was crowded with shearers, many from 
Spain or Italy for the annual shearing season. 

After three days sailing, the Asturiano arrived 
at Puerto Madryn, the most northern port in 
Pagatonia. The straggling town of one-story 
buildings on a rugged shoreline was an introduc- 
tion to what Riggs would see farther south. 



December 21. Preparations for sailing to Rio Gallegos. 
In the morning there remained the important 
letters to be written to the ^luseum. This had 
been held up awaiting receipt of letters to the 



December 25. Arrival at Puerta Madryn. Awaken- 
ing shortly before 8:00 the first glance out of the 
port showed land. A low-lying sandy bar barely 
two miles away. We entered the narrows of 
Puerta Madryn. Soon the land closed in on the 
right and within an hour the scattered buildings 
of the town could be discerned through the 
glass. The bluffs beyond, partially bare, appear 
less than 100 feet above sea-level. They appear a 



Elmer Riggs (center) 
starids hy typical high- 
wheeled Argentine 
freight cart. 69480 




brownish gray in the distance. This we later 
observe is due to the growth of chica and other 
scrub. No trees are seen. 

About 10:00 a.m. we dock beside a long 
pier built of black structural steel projecting V2 
mile onto the bay [the only steel pier of its kind 
in Patagonia]. A double track of narrow gauge 
railroad traverses it. Our Welsh friends went 
ashore to go by train to Trelew [some 50 km to 
the southeast]. We all went ashore to find a 
struggling town of wooden buildings with cor- 
rugated iron roofs. A few were painted. 

Later Abbott and I walked a mile along a 
road leading toward the Mesa. We passed on 
the outskirts a corral and road-house where two 
South American high wheel carts with wool 
were standing beside the road. A half barrel 



which apparently served as a water cask was 
swung under the iron axle. Other trappings 
were hung at convenient places. The wool was 
wrapped in burlap, forming bundles from which 
scraggly wisps projected everywhere. 

Farther along were three wagons, two of 
the Argentine high-hind wheel type, the third 
looked American. Under each wagon a man 
was rolled in a dirty blanket, having a siesta. 
On the hillside horses wandered seeking food 
among the chico bushes. 

A strange Christmas it was to us in the heat 
of a sun-baked little port. Tired, I threw myself 
on my cot and slept until 5:00 p.m. A half hour 
later the breeze came in from the sea quite cool. 

In the evening, at 8:30, we went to dining 
room. Soon there was evidence of great prepa- 



Lonwdoro Rivadavia, 
central Patagonia's 

oil port. 4S896 




ration, and passengers with townsfolk came in. 
By 10:00 the room was filled, music began, and 
soon the waiters were removing tables to make 
room for dancing. 

The Captain led a first number. The tango 
danced here is very slow and stately with pauses 
and side movement. A feature of the gathering 
was the cosmopolitan mixing of all classes. A 
stout rural policeman in top boots did a patige 
dance with a fleshy matron, much to the amuse- 
ment of our English friends. 

December 26. Sailing from Puerto Madryn. The 
event of the morning was the appearance of the 
enormous German excursion steamer Catalonia. 
(She was headed through the Straits of Magellan 
to the Chilean coast and due to return to Buenos 
Aires by way of the Falkland Islands.) Shortly 
before sailing I made photographs of town, 
pier, Catalonia, and finally the harbor with ships 
as we steamed out at 12:30. 



low for large shipping. Some small islands lie at 
the river mouth. A larger one known as Penguin 
Island lies off coast farther south. 

The party went ashore in a lighter and spent 
five or six hours about the town. The buildings 
are mostly of corrugated iron. The better huts 
are of cut stone, or of cement finish. Automobiles 
of Ford, Overland and other makes were every- 
where on the streets. 

December 29. San Julian. We are anchored since 
6:00 a.m. in the river some miles from shore. 
The land lies low inshore but there are buttes 
200 or 300 feet in height to the north. Wool is 
being taken aboard from large schooner-like 
lighters. 

December 30. Santa Cruz. This port, like San 
Julian, are typical short-stop visits for north- 
south bound steamers and were important ship- 
ping ports for wool and hides. 



A night run from Puerto Madryn brought the 
Asturiano to Comodoro Rivadavia, the oil-port of 
central Patagonia. On board were English and 
American engineers and oil drillers bound for the 
various camps located there. Comodoro was en- 
joying a typical boom after oil was discovered 
there in 1906, and was reported to have a popula- 
tion of 20,000, inclusive of town and some ten 
neighboring camps. 

Comodoro is at the back of a wide bight, 
with neither harbor nor pier. The ship anchored a 
mile from shore, and passengers and cargo were 
towed to shore in lighters. These entered the har- 
bor in early morning, and discharged cargo con- 
sisting largely of barrels of north Argentine wine, 
potatoes and flour from Rosario, and coal from 
Wales. Mingled with this was the household fur- 
niture of families moving from port to port. If the 
southeasterly winds chanced to be boistrous, as 
they often were, ships would ride for days at an- 
chor until the weather calmed, or would sail on 
without discharging cargo. On one occasion dur- 
ing the rough weather, Riggs saw passengers 
hoisted ashore from lighters in a square of sail- 
cloth by a steam derrick on the landing. The cliffs 
behind Comodoro are much higher than those at 
Puerto Madryn, and indicated great possibilities 
for fossil collecting. 

Puerto Deseado, reached on Thursday, De- 
cember 28, is built on the rugged north bank of 
the Rio Deseado, about two miles from the coast. 
With a population of 2,000 it enjoyed the distinc- 
tion of railway terminus for a line running 300 km 
inland to Las Heras. 



Rio Gallegos 

At dawn on the last day of the year, December 31, 
1922, and the ninth after sailing, the Asturiano en- 
tered the mouth of the Rio Gallegos and set an- 
chor offshore from the port town of Rio Gallegos. 
At 8:30, a lighter towed by a sturdy steam launch 
came out to greet the Asturiano. Passengers lined 
the rail watching the lighter bobbing upon the 
waves, bumping ship and ladder. Baggage was 
lowered aboard and passengers were slowly and 
fearfully passed down the ladder and swung to 
the lighter by a pair of swarthy sailors. 

A strong westerly wind lashed the harbor 
waters into breakers and there, tossed about on a 
choppy sea and drenched with spray, some of 
the passengers became seasick for the first time. 
Then the ship's steam launch came alongside 
and picked up the lighter's hawser and took it in 
tow, not alongside as had been done in quiet wa- 
ters but with a long tow line. After 20 minutes of 
buffeting and liberal sprinkling from salt water, 
they ran on the beach a mile from the ship. A 
steep sandy slope strewn with cobble stones and 
covered with wet sea-mud from the last high tide 
dipped down to the water's edge. Trunks, bags, 
sea chests, and bundles of nondescript baggage 
were born ashore and dumped in heaps by bare- 
footed porters. 



December 28, Puerto Deseado. Water is rather shal- 



A miscellaneous crowd lined the shore. As I 
approached a stack of trunks, boxes, chests, 
and furniture, a tall young man asked, "Is this 
Mr. Riggs?" Receiving my answer in the affir- 
mative he offered a hearty handshake and 
replied that he was Coleman of Chicago. Then 



11 



in quite a genuine manner he asked, "What can 
I do for you?" 

This hearty and friendly greeting did much 
toward relieving a feeling of strangeness at being 
dumped ashore amid the babble of a strange 
tongue. Asking for a hotel and indicating that 
we had been recommended to the Hotel Argen- 
tina, he led us at once to the proprietor who 
stood near. We took a waiting car to inspect, 
while the other members of the party collected 
our baggage. Later we all went to the hotel while 
a cargador loaded our 16 pieces of baggage upon 
a two-wheel cart with one horse in harness and 
a second hitched to the frame. 



The city of Rio Gallegos, the most southerly port 
on the Argentine mainland, lies just north of the 
Straits of Magellan. With a population then of 
3,500, it is the capital of Santa Cruz Province. A 
straggling town of one-story buildings, Rio Gal- 
legos extends for a mile or more along the shore. 
The better buildings were brick faced with ce- 
ment, but most were constructed of corrugated 
iron. Only one hotel was two stories in height. In 
the poorer quarters buildings were constructed 
of the flattened sheets of metal from kerosene 
cans nailed to a wooden framework. The streets 
were in part graded, though seldom paved. Rio 
Gallegos is only slightly more important than 
neighboring ports to the north, and has not the 
distinction of a pier, dock, or railway. 

Their hotel was built about an open court. 
There were no outside windows, and the rooms 
were lighted by means of glass doors leading to 



the enclosed passageway. No provision existed 
for heating the room artificially; when the sun 
shone on the glass-covered areas it was quite 
comfortable; otherwise one had to put on more 
clothing or go to bed to keep warm. 

The first days in Rio Gallegos were highlight- 
ed by the cordiality of the English-speaking resi- 
dents and their eagerness to lend a helping hand. 
Through the kindness of the Swift Packing Com- 
pany of Chicago, Riggs had been provided with 
letters of introduction to G.C. Whitney, superin- 
tendent of their plant at Rio Gallegos. Whitney 
lost no time in calling on the party at their hotel 
and in showing them about the city. He also pro- 
vided a capable interpreter, Signor Grossi, reput- 
edly the son of an Italian count, who introduced 
them to the provisional governor. Colonel Isa, 
and smoothed the way to obtaining those creden- 
tials so essential to admitting one to confidence in 
Argentine communities. The necessary creden- 
tials were issued and the party directed to the de- 
partment of rural police where each man was reg- 
istered, fingerprinted, and measured. Yet, so well 
was the matter handled, that they all spent a 
pleasant half hour at the police station, staying for 
tea. 

Letters of introduction from Governor Isa to 
a group of English-speaking sheep ranchers in 
the area made the next step easy. On January 4, 
Whitney with his car and driver, took Riggs and 
party to the estancia of Don Carlos Felton, some 
20 km from the town of Rio Gallegos. In the 
months to come, Felton's estancia was to prove 
one of the most productive localities to be worked 
by Riggs and his party in the province of Santa 
Cruz.D 










12!(! 



Abbott (left) and 

Sternberg setting 

' t lie first camp. 4««s3 







TOURS FOR MEMBERS 



Baja California 
and the Sea of Cortez 

February 19 to March 4, 1983 



Just 50 miles south of the California 
border is a subtropical paradise for 
marine life — the Sea of Cortez. 
Steeped in legend and history, Baja 
California and the Sea of Cortez have 
the mystique of the unknown. Virtu- 
ally inaccessible by road until 1973 
and with only 5 percent of the coast- 
line yet accessible by road, Baja had 
remained largely unvisited except by 
the most dedicated of scientists and 
sportsmen. 

What they found, a treasure 
house of life, you can now share from 
the comfort of a first-class natural his- 
tory cruise ship. Lyall Watson, author 
of Whales of the World, has said, "there 
is probably no other body of water in 
the world where more species of ceta- 
cean can be seen more clearly than 
in the Sea of Cortez." Add to that a 
fantastically rich seabird fauna, the 
richest assemblage of shallow-water 
marine life in the eastern Pacific, giant 
barrel cacti, boojum trees, rock paint- 
ings, rugged monoliths, and soaring 
peaks and cliffs plunging vertically 
into the sea, and you have a natural 
history trip beyond comparison. 

And that's only the first half! 
The second week of this 14-day tour 
includes a visit to the outer shore la- 
goonal breeding and nursery areas of 
the California gray whale. We will 
spend two days approaching and 
watching them at close range. Also in 
the second week a visit to San Benitos 
islands, home to colonies of elephant 
seals, sea lions, and diverse bird life. 
Accommodations for the trip will 
be on board the 143.5-foot Pacific 
Northwest Explorer, a one-class ship 
of 99.7 tons gross weight. Built in 
1980, air-conditioned throughout, 
with all cabins outside and with 




private facilities, this ship is ideal 
for natural history observation in that 
her 7y2-foot draft allows very close 
approach to the land and high maneu- 
verability while approaching whales. 
Veteran Captain Robert Hempstead 
has captained the ship in two previous 
and highly successful (1981, 1982) sea- 
sons of Baja coastal explorations. 

Leading the tour will be Dr 
Robert K. Johnson, curator of fishes 
and chairman of the Department of 
Zoology. A graduate of Scripps Insti- 
tution of Oceanography, Dr. Johnson 
has participated in two previous Baja 
Circumnavigated tours. Special Expe- 
ditions, a division of Lindblad Travel, 
operators of the ship to be used, will 
provide several additional naturalists 
whose expertise will further enrich 
our experience. 



The following prices are from San 
Diego and include overnight at Holi- 
day Inn Embarcadero. Air fare is not 
included. Lower deck, double cabin, 
$2,650, single cabin $3,680; bridge 
deck: $3,680; main deck: $3,540; up- 
per deck: $2,990 or $3,680, depending 
on size. We can arrange air transpor- 
tation to and from San Diego or partic- 
ipants can meet group at Holiday Inn. 

For further information and a de- 
tailed brochure please call Dorothy 
Roder, Field Museum Tours, at (312) 
322-8862 or write to Field Museum 
Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



Dr. Johnsons article "Baja Circiimna\igated " 
appeared in the October 1981 Field Museum 
Bulletin. 




:. 13 



Cetaceans, Pinnipeds and 
Sirens of the Sea 



w. 




hales and all mammals of the seas have 
fascinated people throughout history. Drauangs of 
whales dating from 2200 B.C. have been found on 
rocks in Norway. Aristotle noted in the 4th century 
B.C. that the marine creatures of the Mediterranean 
were warm blooded, breathed air, and produced live 
young. The sacred temple of Delphi was, according to 
pre-Minoan legend, named for a god that had 
appeared in the form of a dolphin. The Northwest 
Coast peoples of North America have for centuries re- 
flected their close association to "skana," the orca 
whale, in totem poles and silver carvings, and in clev- 

October 2 

2 p.m. 

The California Grav Whale (16m) film presents biological 
information on this mammal whose highly predictable habits 
and migratory patterns nearly led to its extinction. 

2:30 p.m. 

Saga of the Sea Otter (25m) film. View this unique mammal 
which possesses the ability to use tools. As a result of an inter- 
national law established in 1911, approximately 1,200 of these 
intelligent creatures are protected and surviye today in the 
ofTshore kelp beds near Monterey, California. 

3:00 p.m. 

Sea Mammals, slide lecture. Ocean mammals figure promi- 
nently in maritime legends. Explore the realms of fantasy and 



erly executed masks used in dance ceremonies. 

Each weekend of this October, Discovery Pro- 
grams, Family Features, special lectures and perfor- 
mances focus on these intriguing animals. Take a 
close look at the social lives, habits, and communica- 
tion systems of these complex sea creatures. Learn 
about the current status of whaling, and discover the 
secrets of jojoba — a plant whose oily fruit may help 
end the slaughter of the sperm Avhale. Explore the 
legend and dispel the myths about mermaids, sea 
sirens and monsters of the deep. 



fact about the manatee, dolphin, sea lion, and seal. 

October 9 

2:00 p.m. 

Beluga Babv (25m) film. Watch the drama of the struggle for 

life of a baby beluga whale born in captivity at the Vancouver 

Aquarium. 

2:30 p.m. 

The Right Whale: An Endangered Species (24rrr) film. A docu- 
mentary' of Roger Payne's research and study of the southern 
right whale off the coast of Argentina. The film presents find- 
ings about the physical characteristics, feeding, mating, raising 
of young, communication, play, and locomotion of this rare 
mammal of grace and power. 




Ill I tuitions from Hislijirv Nnturclk' ties Cef.icpes (1804), bv C. S. Sonnini 




October 16 

noon to 2:00 p.m. 

Tagging Whales Family Feature. Net a whale in Field Museum's 
make-believe ocean. Then compare the whale you Ve landed 
with our whale identification chart. 

2:00 p.m. 

The Orca Whale (28m) film. A study of the endangered "killer" 
whale which shows this remarkably intelligent creature to be 
agressive only when provoked. This film studies the orca 
whale's breathing, communication, and navigation. 

3:00 p.m. 

Greenpeace — Voyages to Save the Whales film, question-and- 
answer session follows. Documentary footage of one conser- 
vation group's attempt to combat the present-day slaughter 
of whales. 



Museum for an unforgettable evening with the Paul Winter 
Consort, whose music embraces the sounds of whales, eagles, 
wolves, rivers, and oceans. 
Members: $8.00; nonmembers: $10.00 

October 23 

2:00 p.m. 

Whales, Dolphins and Men (52m) film. Scientists are studying 
whales to determine their speed, how thev use sound to com- 
municate, their abilit\' to see, how to train them, and how they 
travel through water. This film exposes the brutal and barbaric 
techniques of modern whaling and presents options to end 
this senseless slaughter. 




October 17 

noon to 2:00 p.m. 

Tagging Whales Familv Feature. 

2:00 p.m. 

Extinction special lecture. Dr. Paul Ehrlich discusses positive 
proposals for human survival detailed in his most recent book. 
Extinction. He documents the methods of extinction — over- 
exploitation of a species for meat and fur, poisoning of life 
support systems, and habitat destruction. Ehrlich makes it 
clear that each species has a vital role to play in its ecosystem, 
and all species deserve to exist in their natural balance. 
Members: $3.00; nonmembers: $5:00 

October 22 

8:00 p.m. 

The Paul Winter Consort, special performance. Come to Field 



3:00 p.m. 

Whales: Mysten^and Magnificence in the Deep slide lecture. 
There is something special about cetaceans, something that 
stirs our emotions, provokes our curiosities, and sparks our 
imagination. This illustrated lecture provides you with an 
overview of the world's whales, examines their present status, 
and asks you to help protect their future. 

October 30 

2 p.m. 

Jojoba (23m) film. Native to harsh, arid, and rockv lands this 
wonderful plant promises an alternative solution to the unnec- 
essar\' use of oil from the endangered sperm whale. 

2:30 p.m. 

The Great Whales (60m) film. At one time these magnificent 
mammals were feared, hated, and hunted to near extinction. 
Now the largest creature ever to have lived on earth is emerging 
as a fascinating source of study for humankind. 15 



Taxidermists Julius 
Friesser (left) and 
Frank Wonder com- 
plete installation of the 
l^iant panda diorama 
in 1930. 81166 




Field Museum's Panda 

AND THE KELLEY-ROOSEVELTS 

Expedition of 1929 



bv David M. Walsten 



16 



In December, 1964, The Giant Panda, A Mor- 
phological Study of Evolutionary Mechanisms 
was published in the Museum's continu- 
ing monograph series, "Fieldiana: Zoology 
Memoirs." The 339-page treatise was the cap- 
stone achievement of D. Dwight Davis (1908-65), 
curator of vertebrate anatomy who died sud- 
denly just weeks after its publication; the mono- 
graph remains today the definitive work on the 
anatomy of the giant panda, one of the rarest of 
mammals.' 

The giant panda specimens studied by 
Davis included the skeleton of a male acquired 
in China's Szechuan Province in 1929 by Field 
Museum's William V. Kelley-Roosevelts Expe- 
dition to Eastern Asia. This specimen, which 
may be seen in a diorama in Hall 17 ("Asian 
Mammals"), reputedly was the first to be 



collected by hunters from outside China 
(and obtained in an age before collecting 
specimens by means of the rifle was generally 
frowned upon). 

Davis's monograph established the giant 
panda as a member of the bear family (Ursidae). 
He found sufficient differences from the rest of 
the ursids, however — he called the giant panda 
"a highly specialized bear" — to place it in a 
subfamily by itself: Ailuropodinae, with 



l.Only about eleven giant pandas are now in captivity 
outside of The People's Republic of China: in the 
Washington National Zoological Park, the Madrid 
Zoo, the Zoological Society of London, Mexico's Cha- 
pultepec Zoo, and Japan's Ueno Zoo. Madrid's 
female giant panda gave birth to twins in September 
of this year. 



the rest of the bear family falling into the sub- 
family Ursinae.^ 

But at the time of the Kelley-Roosevelts 
Expedition, "no one knew exactly how this 
animal should be classified, whether it was a 
bear, a panda or an entirely new species," wrote 
Theodore Roosevelt in Trailing the Giant Panda,' 
the account of the venture he coauthored with 
his brother Kermit. So for them the search was 
particularly intriguing. "We had slight hope of 
getting it," he wrote. "So slight in fact that we 
did not let even our close friends know what 
our real objective was." 

Plans for the expedition had developed 
almost casually: 

"For some time after we got back from our 
last expedition . . . everything was as peaceful as a 
May morning. It did not seem as if there could be 
anything more delightful in life than Oyster Bay 
and our families. There was much to do for both 
of us, and days passed like scenes in a cinemato- 
graph. More than a year drifted by without our 
noticing it. Then strange but familiar voices be- 
gan whispering to us That was the beginning 

of our downfall 

"Almost without realizing it we started to 
discuss where we should go next. Naturally we 
turned to the blank spaces on the map, those fas- 
cinating white blotches with perhaps the dotted 
course of a surmised river marked and 
"unknown" printed across them. These are 
much fewer now than they were twenty years 
ago, but such as they are they beckon just as 
irresistibly 

"Finally our eyes turned to that part of Asia 
northwest of Indo-China, where the rugged ram- 
parts of the Himalayas gradually descend to the 

tropical coastal plains Kermit and I would 

strike north into this country either through 
Tibet or by the old Bhamo-Talifu trail, which runs 
from Burma to Yunnan. Where we were travel- 
ling through uncharted country we would make 
a rough attempt to map it. After pressing in as far 
as possible we would collect such of the animals 
as we could. The Golden Fleece of our trip was 
the giant panda 

"Once the plans had taken shape the ques- 
tion arose of financing the expedition. Neither 
Kermit nor 1 have sufficient money to carry the 
expense necessary for such a trip. We decided to 
go to Chicago and tell our old friend Stanley 



2. Theodore H. Reed, then director of the National 
Zoological Park, stated in 1972 (in "What's Black and 
White and Loved All Over?" National Geographic, 
December, 1972) that "Smithsonian Instituhon scien- 
tists have concluded that the giant panda and the rac- 
coonlike lesser panda merit a separate family altoge- 
ther. Chinese zoologists hold the same opinion." 

3. Trailing the Giant Panda, by Theodore Roosevelt and 
Kermit Roosevelt, Scribners, New York, 1929 (278 pp.) 





Theodore Roosevelt, 
Suydam Cutting, 
and Kermit Roosevelt 
(I. to r.), shown in 
Yunnan. si433 



William V. Kelley, 
Museum trustee 
1929-32 and expe- 
dition sponsor. 83432 



17 



D. Dwight Davis 

(1908-65), former 

curator of vertebrate 

anatomy and author of 

definitive treatise on 

the giant panda, sjim 




Field, President of the Field Museum of Natural 
History 

"The moment we mentioned it to Mr. Field 
he was enthusiastic. He gave us a dinner that 
night at his house. There we met William V. 
Kelley, a generous patron of the Museum.^ We 
broached the subject to him and without a 
moment's hesitation he told us he would stand 
behind us and finance the venture." 

As the region to be visited was known to be 
bleak and mountainous, with poor roads and 
not always friendly inhabitants, it was realized 
that little time could be spent collecting fauna 
and flora along the road to the interior. So to 
make a more thorough biological survey, it was 
decided to take along several trained naturalists, 
some of whom could remain in one place long 
enough to gather a representation of the plant 
and animal life. For this reason the expedition 
was organized in two divisions, each for the 
separate regions. 

The main division included the Roosevelts, 
Suydam Cutting, a noted explorer and photog- 
rapher; and Herbert Stevens, a British naturalist 
who had much collecting experience in Assam 
and Indochina. The Roosevelt group sailed 
from New York on November 10, 1928. 

The actual business of the expedition — 
collecting — was begun at Tengyueh, Yunnan 
Province, early in January. From Tengyueh, on 
January 5, the expedition continued northward, 

4. William V. Kelley was a Field Museum trustee 
1929-32. 



while Stevens followed slowly and collected 
along the way, eventually rejoining the main 
party. By rather slow and trying stages, with 
mules and horses for riding and carrying the 
equipment, over poor roads or mere paths in a 
mountainous country, the expedition proceeded 
toward the province of Szechuan, at one point 
reaching an elevation of 16,000 feet. 

The Museum's Annual Report for 1929 
recounted the expedition's progress: 

"As they worked northward, the hunters 
made frequent inquiries regarding the occur- 
rence of large animals, but until they reached Tat- 
sienlu they were not encouraged to give much 

time to hunting for the giant panda although 

a few specimens from native sources had come 
out to European museums, they had been in 
most cases somewhat imperfect and poorly pre- 
served. Reliable information about it was diffi- 
cult to obtain, and it seemed quite certain that 
even after its habitat was located it would be very 
rare and hard to find. A first trial for it was made 
in a region only two days' travel to the northward 
from Tatsienlu, but this proved to be based on 
false reports and the party returned to Tatsienlu. 
On this short trip, however, several specimens of 
the burrhel or blue sheep were obtained. 

"On March 6, the party left Tatsienlu to pro- 
ceed eastward to Mouping, where definite infor- 
mation was forthcoming to the effect that at least 
one giant panda had been seen and killed in that 
region about ten years before. With this scant en- 
couragement and with the knowledge that the 
original discovery of the animal had been in this 
vicinity, six days were devoted to intensive hunt- 
ing in the hills near Mouping. This was laborious 
work near the timberline and through heavy 
bamboo growth in which one can see but a short 
distance. Old traces of the animal sought were 
found, but in spite of the best efforts of the 
Roosevelts and fourteen native hunters who ac- 
companied them, no large game was sighted. In 
one place, however, they encountered a troupe 
of the rare and beautiful monkeys known as the 
golden or snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus) 
and nine specimens were collected. 

"From Mouping the expedition turned south- 
ward to the old walled village of Yachow and 
thence through fairly populous valleys to Tzetati 
and Tsalo. Near this last place word came that the 
giant pandas might be found in the country of 
the Lolo tribe adjoining this Chinese outpost. 
Hence a special hunt was arranged in the vicinity 
of a place called Yehli at about latitude 29° 15' 
north and a little north of the Chinese village of 
Tachow. This took place on April 13 and was 
crowned with success." 

In Trailing the Giant Panda Kermit Roosevelt 
described this segment of the expedition; 

"We set off with four hunters. A thin misty 
rain set in. It was a cheerless beginning for what 

was destined to be our red letter day further 

up the valley we turned off into a ravine. It was 



only a short way further on that we came upon 
giant panda tracks in the snow. The animal had 
evidently passed a goodish while before the 
snow ceased falling, but some sign that one of 
the Lolos found was recent enough to thor- 
oughly arouse all four natives 

"The beishung [panda] appeared to be tra- 
velling along in leisurely fashion, browsing on 
the bamboos as he went. The amount of sign that 
he left made us realize that we had been correct 
in making a conservative estimate of the number 
of beishung inhabiting the country beyond 
Muping, in which we hunted 

"The bamboo jungle proved a particularly 
unpleasant form of obstacle course, where many 
of the feathery tops were weighed down by snow 
and frozen fast in the ground. Drenched by rain 
and soaked by snow, whenever a moment's halt 
was called we alternately shivered and panted. 
For a few minutes the sun came out, and we were 
in dread that it would melt the tracks, but after a 
brief interval the murky clouds hid it again. 

"We had been following the trail for two and 
a half hours when we came to a more open jun- 
gle. Tall spruce trees towered their giant bulk 
above the bamboos. Lichen-covered alders were 
dotted about. An occasional blue or yellow flow- 
er poked its head up where the snow lay lighter. 
Here the panda had turned his attention more 
seriously upon provender. Under one tree he 
had made himself a nest of bamboos. His claw 
marks scored the bark, and we looked eagerly 
among the sturdy branches to see whether we 
could distinguish a black and white form crouch- 
ing on a limb. His tracks led. . .first in one direc- 
tion, then in another. Unexpectedly close I heard 
a clicking chirp. It might have been a bamboo 
snapping or the creaking of the interlocking 
branches of two trees swayed by the wind. I re- 
membered the eager interest of the Muping hun- 
ters at hearing just such a sound. Noiselessly one 
of them darted forward. He had not got forty 
yards before he turned back to eagerly motion to 
us to hurry. 

"As I gained his side he pointed to a giant 
spruce thirty yards away. The bole was hol- 
lowed, and from it emerged the head and fore- 
quarters of a beishung. He looked sleepily from 
side to side as he sauntered forth. He seemed 
very large, and like the animal of a dream, for we 
had given up whatever small hopes we had ever 
had of seeing one. And now he appeared much 
larger than life with his white head with black 
spectacles, his black collar and white saddle. 

"Ted had started in a different direction with 
another Lolo, so ... 1 eagerly signalled him. 
Though in reality only a short time, it was a 
nerve-wracking wait. The giant panda, dazed by 
sleep, was not really aroused, and was walking 
slowly away into the bamboos. If frightened it 
could vanish like smoke in the jungle. As soon as 
Ted came up we fired simultaneously at the out- 
line of the disappearing panda 

"A couple of the dogs that had been hunting 



in the valley below now came bounding by us, 
but they very evidently did not share their mas- 
ter's opinions as to the innocuous character of 
the beishung. They trailed, howling, behind us 
and nothing could induce them to go ahead. 
No help, however, was needed, for the chase 
ended in seventy-five yards. He was a splendid 
old male 

"The shikaries [guides], the Lolos, and our- 
selves held a mutual rejoicing, each in his 
own tongue. Our great good fortune could only 
with much effort be credited. We had hunted 
hard and long, usually in the face of every 
adverse circumstance. 

"Great were the celebrations held that night. 
The wife of the village headman ordered a sheep 
to be slaughtered, and resolutely refused to 
allow us to foot the bill. Intermingled with it all, 
there was strongly pervading an element of 
superstition. The beishung was at first not per- 
mitted in the compound, and we were afraid that 
we would have to skin it in the rain and snow and 
mud. Religious scruples were at length so far 
relaxed as to permit the shikaries to carry it into 
an isolated hayloft. A deeply interested group 
surrounded us at our work, but not an omnivo- 
rous Lolo of the lot would touch a morsel of the 

flesh after we left a priest was to be sent for 

and an all-embracing ceremony of purification 
would be held, to cleanse the house and its sur- 
roundings from any shadow that the death of the 
giant panda might cast upon it. 

"The feasting lasted until the small hours 

It was late when we crawled up into the hayloft 
where our bedding was laid out. Never were the 
sleeping bags more gratefully welcome. Al- 
though we were past the age when "visions of 
sugar plums" could "dance through our heads," 
black and white beishungs were never long 
absent from our dreams that night. " 



One of the most productive expeditions in 
the Museum's history, the Kelley-Roosevelts 
venture acquired a greatly varied collection of 
the vertebrate fauna of a little-known part of the 
world. The total number of zoological specimens 
credited to the expedition was 15,397, of which 
1,479 were mammals, 5,194 birds, 453 reptiles, 
438 freshwater fishes, and 7,833 insects. In addi- 
tion there were 2,400 sheets of plants. D 




19 




Paul Winter and wolf making music together 

Spend an unforgettable e\'ening 
with the Paul Winter Consort, 
whose music embraces the sounds of 
whales, eagles, wolves, rivers, and 
oceans. In the 20 vears that Winter 
has been performing, he has created 
some of the most intriguing music 
heard amnvhere. 

The Paul Winter Consort at- 
tempts to enhance our lives by mak- 



ing us aware of the en\'ironment and 
of the plight of endangered species. 
Winter is a musical "hunter-gatherer,"^ 
spending his career in quest of 
"the lixang sounds of nature and wild 
beings, to bring life to historic and 
ethnic traditions of music, and to 
reawaken the natural resources of 
harmonv and rh^'thm within people." 
One of the group's most recent al- 



The 

Paul 
Winter 
Consort 

Friday, Oct. 22 
8:00 p.m. 

James Simpson Theatre 

bums. Callings, is comprised of 
recordings that mate human notes 
with the natural music of land and 
sea mammals and birds. 

We encourage vou to order 
tickets in ad\'ance for this ver\' spe- 
cial event. Tickets will be sold at the 
w^est door on a space-available-onh' 
basis. Call 322-8854 for more infor- 
mation. Members: $8.00, non- 
members: $10.00. 



RAY A. KROC ENVIRONMENTAL LECTURE: 



ro 



Extinction^ with Dr. Paul Ehrlich 

Sunday, October 17, 2:00 p.m. James Simpson Theatre 



How long can Homo sapiens sur- 
\i\'e if we persist in destro\ing 
other species? Ecologist Paul Ehrlich 
has long warned that destruction of 
natural habitats is accelerating the 
rate of species extinction. Have we 
now reached the point where the 
future of humankind is threatened? 
In this illustrated lecture Ehrlich 
presents positive approaches for 
sur\i\'al for our owti sfjecies and 
all others. 

Paul Ehrlich started his scientific 
career as an entomologist. As his 
research widened, Ehrlich became 
concerned by evidence of habitat 
i,iestruction which resulted in sjsecies 
LXtiiiCtion. He became alarmed that 
humaiikinrl's e.xploitation of other 
.species was rapidh' diminishing the 
.number and variet}' of life forms on 
i^ur planet. The Population Bomb, 



written by Ehrlich in the earlv 1960s, 
drew attention to the need for pre- 
serving natural resources. 

Now Ehrlich s concern has 
broadened. In his newest book, 
Rxtinction, coauthored with his 
wife, Anne, he questions how long 
even the human sp)ecies can exist if 
measures are not taken to preserve 
the ecological systems supporting 
our civilizations. 

A professor of biologv' and pop- 
ulation studies at Stanford, Ehrlich 
is a well known e.xjjert on ecology 
and evolution. From his studv of the 
fossil record he realizes that species 
extinction has alwavs occurred, but 
estimates that the rate of extinction 
of bird and animal spjecies has in- 
creased between 5 and 50 times in 
the past four centuries. Ehrlich pro- 
jects the extinction rate will rise 



some 40 to 400 times in the coming 
decades. 

Tickets are available at the West 
Entrance to the Museum one hour 
prior to the lecture; $3.00 for 
members, $5.00 for nonmembers. 




Paul Ehrlich 



Edward E. Aver Film Lecture Series 



FALL 1982 

These 90-minute travel films are held every Saturday in October and November at 1 :30 p.m. in 
James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free at the Museum's barrier-free West Entrance. Doors 
open at 12:45 p.m. Members must bring their membership cards for priority seating privileges. 
When the theatre has reached its full seating capacity, the doors will be closed by Security per- 
sonnel in compliance with fire regulations. Recommended for adults. 





Oct. 2: "The Shadow and Splendor of Austria, " 
with Howard Meyers, Lucia Perrigo 



Oct. 9: "Central Africa, " with Ron Shanin 



Oct. 16: "Scotland Forever, " with Charles Forbes 
Taylor 








Oct. 23: "Yugoslavia and the Slavic Race, " with Oct. 30: "The Great Train Trip Across Siberia, " Nov. 6: "Wandering in Greece, " with Bill Madsen 



Gene Wiancko 



with William Stockdale 





Nov. 13: "Caribbean Paradise, " with lohn Roberts Nov. 20: "Antarctica, " with Ted Walker 



Nov. 27: "A Summer in Italy, " with Ted Bumiller 21 



The Battle Against Dutch Elm Disease 



By David M. Walsten 



No plant disease has aroused more public 
distress in the midwestern and northeast- 
em states than Dutch elm disease, which was 
first recognized on this side of the Atlantic barely 
half a century ago. For those few manufacturers 
who have used elm wood in certain products, the 
loss of these trees has not posed a serious hard- 
ship; but it has been of overriding concern to vil- 
lage, town, and city dwellers, for whom the elm 
(notably the American elm, Ultnus americanus) 
has been an essential part of the landscape. 

Invariably fatal unless therapeutic measures 
are taken (even then the prognosis is poor), 
Dutch elm disease is caused by a single species of 
microscopic fungus, Ceratocystis ulmi, which 
apparently kills the elm by blocking off fluid- 
carrying vessels. By itself, the fungus would be 
of little more than academic interest; but it is part- 
nered by a beetle, which effectively transports 
the fungus spores on its body hairs from dis- 
eased trees to healthy ones. In Europe a number 
of beetle species of the family Scolytidae (bark 
beetles) are the disease vectors, or carriers — 
notably the so-called smaller elm bark beetle. 



Scolytus multistriatus. In North America two spe- 
cies carry the fungus, S. multistriatus (known 
here as the European elm bark beetle) and Hylur- 
gopinus rufipes, commonly called the native elm 
bark beetle. 

Most elm species naHve to North America 
and Europe (there are about 45 recognized spe- 
cies worldwide) are highly susceptible to the dis- 
ease. But curiously, about three-fourths of the 20 
or so species indigenous to Asia show a marked 
resistance. This characteristic of many Asian spe- 
cies, it has been suggested, is because in this 
region where the elm genus is thought to have 
originated, there has been more time for resis- 
tance to develop by means of natural selection. 

As the disease has continued its spread in 
the United States and Canada, the possibility of 
the elm being wiped out in large areas has 
seemed less and less fantastic. The prevailing 
view of experts, however, is that we will win the 
battle against the disease — eventually. 

Several methods have been used, none with 
much success to date, in combating it: quarantin- 
ing infected wood, trenching between adjacent 




GiUet Avenue, 

W'aiikegan, JUinois, 

vjo- e ana after Dutch 

t'bn disease came to 

::.;.;. The upper photo 

(■«■; taken in 1962, the 

:ozuer photo several 

years later. 





elms, i.e., those closer than 50 feet (thus severing 
the interconnecting roots that can convey the 
fungus from one tree to the next), the pruning of 
diseased limbs and the destruction of dead or 
dying elm wood (in which the fungus can con- 
tinue to live as a saprophyte and where beetles 
breed), the application of fungicides and insecti- 
cides, the application of bacteria which kill the 
fungus, the baiting and trapping of beetles, and 
the development of resistant elm hybrids 
through selective breeding. 

The disease was formally described only as 
recently as 1919, when it caught the attention of 
a Dutch botanist — hence, the name. Two years 
later another Dutch researcher identified C. ultni 
as the pathogen. In 1934 a U.S. Department of 
Agriculture worker confirmed the suspicions of 
earlier investigators that the principal vector of 
the disease was S. multistriatus. 

Although the presence of this beetle in 
North America was first established in 1904 (near 
Boston), the disease it transmitted was not seen 
in our elms until 1930, when it was identified in 
Cleveland. This outbreak was short-lived. Soon 
after, however, Dutch elm disease began to kill 
off elms in the New York City area. It had come to 
stay. By 1950 the disease had arrived in Illinois, 
by 1952 had crossed the Mississippi (into Mis- 
souri), and in 1973 it reached the Pacific coast 
(Oregon). In 1981 Dutch elm disease remained 
unreported in only seven of the lower 48 states: 
Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, 
Nevada, Utah, and Washington. 

The North American Vectors 

The native species of elm bark beetle occurs only 
east of the Rockies, but the European beetle is 
now found wherever American elms occur. 
Although it was once believed that the north- 
ward advance of S. multistriatus was limited by its 
low tolerance of subzero temperatures in north- 
ern latitudes, recent studies indicate that it has 
quickly adapted to severe cold.' 

S. multistriatus and H. rufipes differ mark- 



David M. Walsten was formerly in a Dutch elm disease con- 
trol program at the University of Wisconsin. 



edly from one another in their habits: The adults 
burrow tunnels, or galleries, along which they 
lay their eggs at intervals, the European beetle 
making its gallery along the grain of the wood, 
the native beetle tunneling at a right angle to it. 
Emerging from their eggs, the larvae of both spe- 
cies create individual tunnels as they eat through 
the wood, working away from the central brood 
tunnel . At the far end of its individual tunnel, the 
larva pupates. The adult that finally emerges 
bores upward to the bark surface, then flies off, 
traveling as much as several miles. Typically, the 
American beetle attacks the elm's trunk and 
lower limbs, while its European counterpart 
attacks the upper crown. A healthy elm is 
most apt to be attacked in late May, in June, or 
early July. 

S. multistriatus has two generations per year 
in more northern latitudes; in the southern part 
of its range a third generation is begun. The 
native beetle usually has only one generation per 
year and completes the winter in the tree as a 
fully grown larva or as an adult. It flies off in late 
summer to another tree to feed on limb bark, 
then crawls to the trunk or a large limb, where it 
overwinters in the outer bark. 

Beginning in spring, adults of the European 
beetle fly to trees that are already in a state of 
decline, where they breed. Some females breed 
for a second time in another tree. Fully grown lar- 
vae overwinter in the bark, first emerging as 
adults about mid-May. 

The fungus is spread to a new tree by the 
European beetle when it penetrates a twig crotch 
to feed. It is believed that the native beetle trans- 
mits the disease in spring when it moves from its 
hibernation site in the outer bark to feed in the 
branches or when it moves to the sapwood. 

Recognizing an Infection 

The first sign of Dutch elm disease is the wilting 
of leaves, most often at the tips of branches, fol- 
lowed by curling and progressive yellowing and 
browning; or the leaves may dry up while still 
green. (These conditions may have other causes 
as well; diagnosis must be left to an expert.) 
Investigators at Utah State University and the 



The vectors, or carriers, 
of Dutch elm disease. 
Left: the smaller elm 
bark beetle, or 
European elm bark 
beetle (Scolytus 
multistriatus); right: 
the native elm bark 
beetle (Hylurgopinus 
rufipes). The two 
species are about the 
same size: Vu to Vs 
inch in length. 
From "Dutch Elm 
Disease," by G. A. 
Strobel and G. N. 
Lanier. Copyright 
© 3981 by Scientific 
American, Inc. All 
rights reserved. 




Early sprinv view of a 

55-year-old hybrid elm 

(Ulmus japonica x 

U. wilsoniana) at 

Morton Arboretum, 

Lisle, Illinois. This 

handsome hybrid is 

one of a number being 

tested for resistance to 

Dutch elm disease by 

George Ware and 

associates at the 

arboretum. Photo by 

John Kohout, courtesy 

Morton Arboretum. 



Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station be- 
lieve that a toxin produced by the fungus inter- 
feres with the mechanics of fluid transmission in 
the elm's vascular system: the leaves wilt and die 
simply because they are not getting enough 
water. In any case, an infected elm will succumb 
to the disease if left untreated. But the percen- 
tage of cures is low and these are confined to 
trees in early stages of the disease. Diseased 
limbs must be pruned and the wounds dressed.^ 
But pruning is no guarantee of survival, for the 
fungus may already have spread within the 
tree's system. 

Fungicides 

In the mid-1970s, a systematic fungicide {i.e., 
one that is injected into the tree) with 
benzimadazole as its active ingredient, was 
approved by the EPA and marketed for use 
against Dutch elm disease. Some strains of 
C. ulmi, however, have been shown to be resis- 
tant to this fungicide. Arborists also reported 
that the formulation did not truly kill the 
fungus, but merely inhibited and isolated it 



within the tree. Although this formulation 
continues to be marketed by several manufac- 
turers, some arborists have discontinued its 
use. It has been shown to be of little or no use 
in treating trees already infected with the dis- 
ease, and some report that injections, which 
must be done annually, are not only costly, 
but the multiple injection holes can severely 
weaken the tree and make it vulnerable to 
secondary infection. 

About five years ago another EPA- 
approved formulation, with thiabendazole as 
its active ingredient, was also marketed. Resis- 
tance in C. ulmi has not been observed, but the 
product is costly, and the multiple, annual 
injections of this fungicide can also result in 
secondary infections that may weaken or kill 
the tree, report some arborists. 

A recent wire service story reported that an 
Iowa arborist had been successful in the treat- 
ment of Dutch elm disease by using a prepara- 
tion of mercuric chloride, long recognized as a 
powerful fungicidal agent. The story failed to 
mention, however, that mercuric chloride, high- 
ly toxic to man and wildlife, is not approved by 
the Environmental Protection Agency for such 
application. 

A Fungus-Killing Bacterium 

Recent work at Montana State University offers 
some hope that biological weaponry against the 
fungus may be effective. Under Gary A. Strobel, 
the Montana research team found a bacterium, 
Pseudomonas syringae, that produces a substance 
which inhibits the growth of the fungus. The bac- 
terium and its antimycotic agent are not toxic to 
elms, and the bacterium introduced into living 
elm tissue has demonstrated its ability to survive 
there. Experimentally, Strobel's team showed 
that fungus-infected elms became infection-free 
after inoculahon with P. syringae. 

In a field experiment, "... 22 diseased trees 
were treated with the bacteria and an equal 
number of trees were left untreated as controls. 
All the control trees but one either died or de- 
clined drastically in . . . two growing seasons. In 
the treated groups seven of the eight trees that 
were lightly infected and were treated early in 
the growing season survived with little or no sign 
of decline over two . . . seasons. The other treated 
trees that either were treated later in the season 
or were more heavily infected died or declined."^ 

So far, so good. But Strobel points out that 
several important questions remain to be an- 
swered: Can the bacterium thrive and spread in 
an elm population? Could P. syringae prove 
pathogenic to certain plants? Can it pass human 
and environmental safety standards? A major 
chemical firm is field testing the bacterium, with 



a view toward possibly marketing it. But even if 
all goes well, it will be a considerable time before 
P. syringae or its synthesized antimycotic are 
available on the shelves of lawn and garden 
supply stores. 

Harold Hoover, assistant superintendent of 
Forestry for the city of Elmhurst, Illinois, has also 
been doing field tests with P. syringae, involving 
himself particularly with problems of fluid 
translocation in the elm. Conventionally, fluids 
containing P. syringae (as well as systematic fun- 
gicides and insecticides) are administered 
through %6 inch holes drilled into the tree to a 
depth of about V/i to 2 inches. By means of dye 
tracers, however. Hoover found that the move- 
ment of fluids radially from the column of tissue 
receiving the inoculate is not sufficient in elms to 
properly infuse peripheral tissues infected with 
C. ulmi: in twigs and small branches and just 
under the bark of the trunk and major limbs. 

For better fluid distribution. Hoover intro- 
duces his material through a cut made with a 
circular saw that completely girdles the trunk, 
penetrating to a depth of about two annual rings 
and angling downward about 25°. As Hoover 
continues to experiment and test his radical tech- 
nique, he is also trying to reduce mortality that is 
a common sequel to cutting the tree so severely. 

Beetle-Inhibiting Fungus 

A researcher at the University College of Wales, 
J. Webber, has found that a fungus, Phomopsis 
oblonga, which occurs naturally in elm bark, par- 
ticularly in the wych elm (U. glabra), indigenous 
to Britain, could be playing an important part in 
limiting the disease in some parts of Britain, 
where it first appeared in 1927.^ Tests with S. tnul- 
tistriatus and S. scolytus showed that P. oblonga 
reduces the number of beetle offspring as well as 
the amount of potential breeding material. Both 
factors, Webber believes, have some role in 
reducing vector populations. But, he concludes, 
how this reduction can influence the spread of 
Dutch elm disease in Great Britain is still open 
to speculation. 



by virgin European beetles. In nature the action 
of these substances results in the mass attraction 
of elm bark beetles to a single target tree; hence, 
the spectacularly contagious nature of the 
disease. 

Synthetically produced, these attractants 
have been used effectively in the baiting and 
trapping of the European elm bark beetle, but 
practical problems in the application of the bait- 
ing method may continue to be serious obstacles 
where it is intended to reduce beetle popula- 
tions. The method may have greater utility, in 
the long term, for simply monitoring the pres- 
ence of beetle populations. Some Chicago-area 
agencies are currently using the baiting method 
for this purpose. 

Resistant Hybrids: The Ultimate Solution? 

The most promising solution to the Dutch elm 
problem yet advanced may lie in the develop- 
ment of resistant hybrids, an area of inves- 
tigation that is being pursued by a number of 
horticulturists around the country, notably 
George Ware, research group administrator at 
Morton Arboretum, Lisle, Illinois. Ware is partic- 
ularly interested in the potential of the Japanese 
elm, U. japonica, and the Siberian elm, U. pumila, 
both of which show a high degree of resistance. 
Ware is hopeful that crossing these with other 
Asian species, particularly those showing high 
stress tolerance for urban conditions, could result 
in a fertile hybrid that combines all the desired 
features, in addition to being resistant. Of all the 
avenues toward an effective weapon in this bat- 
tle, plant breeding is the slowest; but there are 
those who believe it may be the ultimate answer. 
Meanwhile, the best course of action for the 
private property owner who wishes to safeguard 
his elms from infestation or who suspects that his 
trees already have the disease, is to consult a 
local arborist. Chicago-area property owners 
may contact the Cooperative Extension Service 
(University of Illinois), in Rolling Meadows, 
Illinois. n 



Baiting and Trapping of Beetles 

Perhaps the most sophisticated weapon now 
being used against the disease is the trapping of 
adult beetles with baits of chemical attractants. 
Researchers at the State University of New York 
College of Environmental Science and Forestry at 
Syracuse, in cooperation with scientists at the 
U.S. Forest Shade Tree Laboratory, in Delaware, 
Ohio, isolated three beetle attractants. One of 
these substances is produced by fungus-infested 
or moribund bark; the other two are elaborated 



'D.B. Roden: "The potential for selection for freeze- 
tolerance in an Ontario population of Scolytus multi- 
striatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)," in Canadian Forestry 
Service Research Notes (1981) 1 (3) 17-18. Published by 
Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ont., Canada. 

■V.R. Landwehr, et al: "Attraction of the native elm 
bark beetle to American elm after the pruning of 
branches, " in journal of Economic Entomology, (1981) Vol. 
74, 577-580. 

'"Dutch Elm Disease," by Gary A. Strobel and Gerald 
N. Lanier, in Scientific American, August 1981, p. 66. 
^Webber, J.: "A natural biological control of Dutch elm 
disease," in Nature, UK (1981) 292 (5822) 449-451. 



25 



FIELD BRIEFS 




Prince Philiy, the Duke of Edinburgh 



Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 
Chairs November 8 Symposium 

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, presi- 
dent of World Wildlife Fund-International, 
will chair a symposium on "Tropical 
Forests: Vanishing Cradle of Diversity" 
in James Simpson Theatre on Monday, 
November 8, at 6:00 p.m. 
Taking part in the symposium will be 




iTie People and Art of the Philippines 

ontitiues in Hall 26 through December 31. 

2t ^^^'ito In/ Ron Testa, w-os 



Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., director of Field 
Museum; Dr. William Burger, chairman of 
the Department of Botany; Dr. John W. 
Fitzpatrick, associate curator and head. 
Division of Birds; and Dr. Peter H. Raven, 
director of the Missouri Botanical Garden 
and professor of biology at Washington 
Universitv, St. Louis. 

Following the symposium. His Roval 
Highness will be guest of honor at a black 
tie reception and dinner in Stanlev Field 
Hall. The reception begins at 7:00 p.m. 
Hosting the event are Mr. and Mrs. T 
Stanton Armour; Mr. and Mrs. Marshall 
Field; Mr. and Mrs. Brooks McCormick; 
Mr. and Mrs. James O'Connor; and Mr. 
and Mrs. Jeffrey R. Short, Jr. 

Tickets for the combined symposium 
and dinner program are S250 per person, 
with reser\'ations available on a first come, 
first served basis. Checks should be made 
payable to World Wildlife Fund-U.S. Pro- 
ceeds will benefit World Wildlife Fund- 
International, World Wildlife Fund-U.S., 
and the Botanical Program of Field 
Museum of Natural Historv. Inquiries 
about where to send payment and other 
matters mav be made bv calling the 
Women's Board Office, (312) 322-8870. 

World Wildlife Fund is a private, inter- 
national conservation organization dedi- 
cated to preserving endangered wildlife 
and habitats throughout the world and to 
protecting the biological resources upon 
which human well-being depends. Its 
activities are scientifically based, aim to 
produce immediate and long-term conser- 
vation benefits, and provide models for 
natural resource management techniques 
and policies. 

Field Museum is the final stop in a series 
of 1982 visits to the United States bv Prince 
Philip on behalf of the World Wildlife 
Fund. Previous stops include Los Angeles 
and Houston. 



A Critical Time in Government Funding 

A $30 million Chicago Park district match- 
ing bond issue for capital improvements at 
eight Chicago museums, including Field 
Museum, located on Chicago park land 
failed to win approval at the June session 
of the Illinois State Legislature. As a re- 
sult, the museums will have to wait until 
the next legislative session for the bond 
issue to be reconsidered. 

Under the proposal. Field Museum 
would have received $6,700,000 for build- 
ing renovation, which sum would have 
had to be matched dollar-for-dollar with 
privately raised funds. 

The Illinois General Assembly did ap- 
prove state grants to museums on public 



lands in Illinois totalling $1 million for 
the fiscal year, which began July 1, 1982. 
Although Governor Thompson had elimi- 
nated all state support for museums in his 
budget proposal, he signed the appro- 
priation bill in July. Field Museum ex- 
pects to receive about $174,000 from this 
appropriation. 

At the federal level. Congress rejected 
President Reagan's proposal to rescind 
$11.5 million for the Institute of Museum 
Services in fiscal 1982. The President's 
budget calls for elimination of all funds for 
the Institute in fiscal 1983 and for substan- 
tial cuts in appropriations for the National 
Endowments for the Arts and Humani- 
ties. Congress has not yet acted on these 
recommendations. 

"The country is experiencing difficult 
economic times and museums expect to 
share equitably in government cutbacks," 
commented Willard Bovd, president of 
Field Museum. "However, museums have 
been asked to take 100 percent cuts in 
some state and federal programs. That is 
more than their fair share. 

"While less than 40 percent of Field Mu- 
seum's operating expenditures come from 
government funds — local, state, and 
federal — the public funds provide unre- 
stricted support to heat, light, maintain 
and operate the Museum." 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing date: Sept. 15, 1982. Title: Field Museum of Natural 
Hiitory Bulletin. Publication no. 898940. Frequency of 
publication: Monthly except for combined July/August 
issue. Number of issues published annually: U. 
Annual subscription price: S6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. 
at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605-2496. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural Historv. Editor- 
David M. Walsten. Known bondholders, mortgages, 
and other security holders: none. Nonprofit status has 
not changed during the preceding 12 months. 





Av. no. 


Actual no. 




copies 


copies 




each issue 


single issue 




preceding 


nearest to 




Umos. 


filing date 


Total copies printed . . . 


. . 39,044 . . . 


35,200 


Paid Circulation (sales 






through dealers. 






vendors, carriers) . . . 


. . None . . . 


None 


Paid circulation (mail 






subscriptions) 


. . 35,823 . . . 


32,243 


Total paid circulation . . 


. . 35,823 . . . 


32,243 


Free distribution 


670 .. . 


670 


Total distribution .... 


. . 36,493 . . . 


32,913 


Office use, left over . . . 


. . 2,551 . . . 


2,287 


Total 


. . 39,044 . . . 


35,200 



I certify that the statements made by me above are cor- 
rect and complete. Andrea G. Bonnette. vice president 
for Finance and Museum Services. 



October and November at Field Museum 



October 16 throu^ November 15 



Continuing Exhibits 

"The People and Art of the Philippines." Through 
December 31. A stunning exhibit containing some 
of the finest examples of Philippine art from prehis- 
toric times to the present. The 420 objects have 
been gathered from 29 private sources and muse- 
ums, including the Field's fine collection. Special 
emphasis is given to the prehistoric ceramics and 
gold, church art from the Spanish colonial period, 
wood sculpture from the northern tribal peoples 
and exquisite woven, beaded, and embroidered 
textiles from southern Philippine peoples. Hall 26, 
second floor. 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest 
Coast." Field Museum's landmark permanent exhibit 
compares and contrasts the way Eskimos and North- 
west Coast Indians have adapted to widely differing 
environments along the continuous northern Pacific 
and Arctic coastlines. The two groups have flour- 
ished since prehistoric times by harvesting the riches 
of the oceans. The five sections of the exhibit use 
displays, films, and full-sized replicas to depict the 
origins, food-gathering techniques, social life, spir- 
itual beliefs, and art of these peoples. Here is an 
exhibit so big you'll want to return to it often for 
new insights into how these unique cultures existed 
in harmony with their surroundings. Hall 10, 
first floor. 

"Man in His Environment." The information con- 
tained in this multimedia exhibit reinforces the 
thrust of many of Field Museum's October programs, 
especially "Extinction," the October 17 lecture by 
Dr. Paul Ehrlich. It uses films and displays to 
describe the ecological relationship of plants and 
animals to their surroundings and defines man's 
effect on this delicate balance. Learn how man is 
consuming the irreplaceable resources of the earth, 
poisoning the air, land, and waters and disrupting 
nature's equilibrium. Discover some of the alterna- 
tives to our current destructive wavs and ponder 
whether we are willing to make the adjustments 
necessar\' to reverse the process. Hall 18, first floor. 

"The Last and the First Eskimos." Opened October 9. 
This photographic study is the joint effort of pho- 
tographer Alex Harris and child psychiatrist 
Dr. Robert Coles. It documents the white man's 



influence during a transitional period in the history 
of Alaskan Eskimos. Through January 23, 1983. 
Special exhibit area in front of Hall 9, first floor. 

New Programs 

"Extinction," Ray A. Kroc Environmental Lecture 
by Dr. Paul Ehrlich. To Dr. Ehrlich, internationallv 
known author, scientist, and Stanford Universit}' 
professor, the fate of the human species depends on 
maintaining the planet's current diversity and abun- 
dance of life. He feels that without the free "public 
services" this viable ecosystem provides, such as 
water purification, soil creation, waste disposal, 
and pest control, there could be no ci\'ilization and 
perhaps no human life. Yet mankind is destroying 
the very system that our welfare depends upon. We 
are forcing extinction of species at a rate which 
greatly exceeds the rate of any natural processes to 
replace them. Hear Dr. Ehrlich's thoughtful argu- 
ments and his positive proposals to reverse the tide 
toward species extinction. Don't miss this important 
lecture! Sunday, October 17 at 2 p.m. in James Simp- 
son Theatre. Members: $3; nonmembers: $5. 

The Paul Winter Consort. Celebrate ethnic traditions 
in harmony with the natural world through the 
free-spirited music of this inventive group. Their 
music unites the styles of jazz, svTnphony, Latin 
American, and African music with natural sounds 
of wolves, whales, wind, and water. A livelv evening 
designed to reawaken the natural resources of har- 
mony and rhvthm within us all! Order vour tickets 
early for this special event. Tickets will be sold at 
the door on a space available basis only. Friday, 
October 22 at 8 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 
Members: $8; nonmembers; $10. 

Parent/Child Workshops. Registration opens October 
1 for this fall's sessions. Parent-child teams can 
work on a craft project or join a participator}' event. 
Topics include paper-making, bookbinding, Inca 
techniques for pottery making and dinosaur mural 
painting. Sessions keved to child's age. Detailed 
brochure will be mailed to Members or available 
from Education Department. Workshops will be 
held November 6, 14, and 20. 



Continued on back cover 



27 



October and November at Field Museum 



Continued frotn inside back cover 



"The Last /\nd First Eskimos" An illustrated lecture 
by photographer Alex Harris in conjunction with 
the exliibit of his work nov\' on display at Field 
Museum. Harris describes liis life and work among the 
Eskimos, recording their culture at a critical point 
in its histon'. November 14 at 2 p.m. Members: $3; 
nonmembers $5. Enter through the West Entrance. 

Continuing Programs 

"Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. Travel around 
the world via film ever\' Saturday afternoon in 
October and November. Narrated by the filmmakers 
themselves, these free 90-minute film/lectures are 
recommended for adults. The films begin at 
1:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. Admission is 
through the West Entrance. Members receive priori t\' 
seating. Oct. 16, "Scotland"; Oct. 23, "Japan"; Oct. 
30, "Great Train Trip Across Siberia"; Nov. 6, 
"Greece"; Nov. 13, "Mexico." 

Fall Journey. "Autumn Walkabout" is a self-guided 
tour of Field Museum exhibits and dioramas that 
mirror what you can see outside in Chicago during 
the fall season. Free Jour/iey pamphlets available at 
Museum entrances. 

Weekend Evt;nts Line. A prerecorded telephone mes- 
sage gives up-to-date information about such week- 
end e\'ents as Discoverv' Programs, Family Features, 
films, and special programs. Call (312) 322-8854 
weekends. 

WEi'Ki.Nn Dis(:o\'ery Progr^vms. New vistas of natural 
history are opened through these tours, films, slide 
programs, and participatory acti\ities. Octobers 



programs entitled "Cetaceans, Pinnepeds, and Sirens 
of the Sea," are planned around sea mammals. His- 
tory and legend once depicted them as mermaids 
or monsters of the deep, but recent scientific re- 
search into the social lives and communication 
systems of whales, dolphins, seals, and otters have 
shown them to be complex, highly intelligent crea- 
tures. Oct. 16: 2 p.m., "The Orca Whale"; 3 p.m. 
"Greenpeace — Voyages to Save the Whales," discus- 
sion session led by Greenpeace Director Diane Mac- 
Quillan to follow; Oct. 23: 2 p.m., "Whales, Dolphins 
and Men"; 3 p.m., "Whales: Mystery and Magnifi- 
cence in the Deep"; Oct. 30, 2 p.m., "Jojoba"; 2:30 
p.m., "The Great Whales." Two Egvptian tours have 
been scheduled in No\'ember. Thev are: Nov. 6, 11:30 
a.m., "Ancient EgNpt; and Nov. 7, 12 noon, "Prepa- 
ration for After Life in Ancient Egypt." 

Family Feature. "Tagging Whales." In conjunction 
with October s Discovery Programs, "Cetaceans, 
Pinnepeds, and Sirens of the Sea," this Family Feature 
is designed to familiarize young \dsitors with the 
whale family (cetaceans). Children can net a paper 
whale in a make-believe ocean, identify their catch, 
and take home a properly "tagged" whale. Saturda\' 
and Sunday, October 16 and 17, from 12 noon to 
2 p.m. in Hall 19. 

Museum Hours. The Museum is open daily from 
9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Free day is Thursday. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, 
first floor. 

Museum Phone: (312) 922-9410 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

November 1982 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



CONTENTS 

November 1982 
Volume 53, Number 10 



Field Briefs 



President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 
Calendar: Mary Cassai 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



"Ziggy" Finds NeH' Home at Field Museum 

bv Michael Reed and Jean Sellar 
preparators, Division of Mammals 



Elephants and Tiixidermy 



Field Museum Tburs 



The Last and First Eskimos 

Exhibit in Hall 9 through Januarv' 23 



10 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 



Native American Tburist Crafts 

A 19th Centun' Example from Alaska 

bvjames W. VanStone 12 

curator of North American archaeology and ethnology 



Hunters in a Changing World 

bvjean Treloggen Peterson 



16 



Our Environment 



17 



November and December at Field Museum 

Calendar of Coming E\'ents 26 



COVER 

''Zigg\% " Brookfield Zoo 's famed elephan t in 1973. The bones 
of this exceptionalh' large Indian elephant now reside in the 
Field Museum collection. Zigg\' died in 1975. For more on 
Ziggy, seepage 4. Photo courtesy Chicago Zoological Society. 



Field Museum of Slalural Histon, Bulletm (USPS 898-940) is pubiistied monthly, except combined 
liilv August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road al Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605 SubsiTiptions: $600 annually, $3'00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin sut>scription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarilv reflect the policv of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome Museum 
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FIELD BRIEFS 








1^ 



I 




James W. Valentine 84553 



Jin Yu-gan 84552 



Peter W. Galton 84550 



Visiting Scientist Program 

Field Museum's Visiting Scientist Pro- 
gram, initiated in 1979, continues to attract 
geologists and paleontologists from the 
United States and abroad. Under the pro- 
gram, scientists are given space and facili- 
ties for research at the Museum, the 
opportunity to work with the Museum's 
collections, and to collaborate with the 
Field Museum's own staff. 

Recent visiting scientists under the 
program included Jin Yu-gan, associate 
researcher at the Nanjing Institute of 
Geology and Paleontology, Academia 
Sinica, of the People's Republic of China; 
James W. Valentine of the Department of 
Geological Sciences, University of Califor- 
nia, Santa Barbara; and Peter W. Galton, 
of the University of Bridgeport, Bridge- 
port, Conn. Mr. Jin and Dr. Valentine are 
invertebrate paleontologists; Dr. Galton is 
a vertebrate paleontologist who was here 
to study Field Museum's type specimen of 
Brachiosaurus altithorax, one of the largest 
dinosaur species known. 



Peter R. Crane Joins Staff 

Paleobotanist Peter R. Crane joined the 
Department of Geology staff in September 
as assistant curator. He received his 
undergraduate degree and doctorate at 
the University of Reading, England, and 
served with Reading's Department of 



Botany from 1978 to 1981. During the past 
year Crane has been a visiting research 
scholar at Indiana University, working on 
some of the earliest known fossil flowers. 
His research has centered on the fos- 
sil history and evolution of flowering 
plants, but his interests cover all aspects of 
paleobotany and their relevance to under- 
standing plant evolution. 



A Founders' Find 

On September 30, housekeeper Tony 
Valentino was watering plants in the 
Founders Room. To his amazement, a 
one-inch adult land snail with greenish- 



yellow shell and brown body crawled 
from the base of a tree. 

Alan Solem, curator of invertebrates, 
identified the snail as Zachrysia (Chrysias) 
provisoria (Pfeiffer, 1858). There is no com- 
mon name for this species that originally 
lived in Cuba. Whether it was native to 
Nassau, Bahamas, or introduced there is 
uncertain, but by 1956 it had been acciden- 
tally introduced into south Florida. Today 
it has a moderately wide distribution in 
Florida and occasionally travels north on 
ornamental plants and thus unexpectedly 
adds to the decor in greenhouses, homes, 
and even Founders' Room at Field 
Museum. 

Nicknamed "Zach," it now resides in 
the Division of Invertebrates. 




"Zach," surprise visitor in Founders Room 93432 



'Ziggy" Finds New Home 
at Field Museum 



by Michael Reed and Jean Sellar 
preparators, Dmsion of Mammals 



fore from tribes as disparate as the Bongos 
of Sudan and the Kurrabas of Sri Lanka has it that 
elephants die in secret graveyards scouted by 
warder elephants who protect the bones from 
desecration. Persistent ivory hunters have failed 
to discover any such graveyards, although the 
paucity of observations of elephants dead from 
natural causes has led to speculation that the car- 
casses are gathered in one place. Possibly ele- 
phants often die in or near water and their dense 
bones quickly sink into mud. Certainly the de- 
composition and dissolution of even so large an 
animal occurs very quickly in tropical areas. 



Michael Reed and 

Ziggy's skull before 

4 processing 




But there is a deposition of elephant bones 
much closer. Right here at the Museum in the 
Division of Mammals there are bones from nu- 
merous elephants. And the collecHon has just 
received one of its most impressive members to 
date, Ziggy. 

Ziggy was notorious both for his size and 
for being a "rogue male." Of the two, his repu- 
tation for size was far better deserved. Asian 
elephants (Elephas maximus) like Ziggy seldom 
exceed 11,000 lbs.; however, Ziggy weighed in 
at approximately 13,000 lbs. African elephants 
(Loxodonta afrkana), the larger of the modern-day 
species of elephants, rarely reach Ziggy's size, 
although some field estimates of wild bulls have 
gone much higher.* 

Legend has it that Ziggy killed two men 
before he came to Brookfield Zoo, one in Europe 
and one in San Diego. However, there is no evi- 
dence of any kind that Ziggy ever caused human 
deaths. In 1941 Ziggy did charge, pin, and start 
to crush his keeper, the skilled elephant trainer, 
George "Slim" Lewis. It is probable that the near- 
ly fatal attack failed only because Ziggy's lengthy 
tusks got in the way. At the time of the attack, 
Ziggy was in a poorly understood condition 
called musth, which is linked with irritable and 
aggressive behavior in male Asian elephants. 

Ziggy was brought to the U.S. in 1920, when 
about two years old. Florenz Ziegfeld, the show- 
man, was at the New York dock when the young 
elephant, then called "Herman," was being un- 
loaded. Impetuously, he bought him as a present 
for his daughter, but a string of mishaps con- 
vinced Ziegfeld that even juvenile elephants do 
not make suitable pets. Ringling Bros. Circus 
bought the elephant, then sold him to Singer's 
Midgets Circus, who named the elephant after 
his earlier owner. 

The circus traveled with the renamed Ziggy 



*An African elephant in the collection of the Smithson- 
ian Institution is estimated to have weighed 20,000 lbs. 




dancing "the lurch" and playing the harmonica 
all over the U.S. and Europe. Male Asian ele- 
phants become sexually mature at 14 to 15 years 
of age; when Ziggy was a little older than this he 
began to be willful and uncooperative. As a re- 
sult, Ziggy was sold to Brookfield Zoo in 1936, 
where he stayed until his death in 1975. 

After the attack on his keeper, Ziggy had to 
be confined indoors. A major fund-raising cam- 
paign by the zoo, with notable contributions 
from schoolchildren, allowed the construction 
of a large, safe indoor-outdoor enclosure. Ziggy 



Bones in the Division 
of Mammals collection: 
(from left) femurs of 
Ziggy fElephas maxi- 
musj, giraffe (Giraffa 
cameiopardalis), 
black rhinoceros (Dice- 
ros bicornisj, greater 
kudu (Tragelaphus 
strepsiceros), and 
Dall sheep (Ovis 
dalli). Group of 
smaller bones belong 
to hyrax (Procavia 
capensisj. 93431 



had a popular "coming-out" party in 1971 when 
the work was completed. He made the news 
again four years later when an exploratory 
attempt to help his keeper open the shift door 
resulted in Ziggy falling into his 10-foot-deep 
moat. Winches were necessary to haul him up- 
right, and 100,000 lbs. of limestone were brought 
in to form a ramp for him to walk out. He refused 
to do so, even when bribed with his missed daily 
400-lb. meal. Finally, the old bull responded to 
the presence of a young female and walked up 
to his enclosure 30 hours after he had fallen. 




Several attempts were made to mate Ziggy, 
but no offspring resulted. Attempts to breed cap- 
tive elephants are seldom successful, which is 
unfortunate, since both the population and 
range of the two elephant species has declined. 



Above: (from left) curator Bruce Patterson, preparator Mi- 
chael Reed, and collection manager Robert Izor lower Ziggy' s 
skull into 224-gallon steel kettle. Below: Michael Reed re- 
moves soft tissues from around bones of skull. 




Whenever a new specimen is to be added 
to the Mammal collection, a determination must 
be made as to the best preparation method for 
long-term storage. The use of dermestid beetles 
is preferred for processing skeletal materials be- 
cause their tiny mouthparts can remove flesh 
from skeletons without damaging or disarticu- 
lating the specimen.** However, maintenance 
of a beetle colony big enough to process animals 
larger than deer is difficult. 

The escape-proof cages containing the 
beetles take up too much room, and it can be 
difficult even for the Field Museum to provide 
enough food in the form of animal carcasses to 
keep so large a colony going over a period of 
time. Fats and oils are not completely removed 
from large specimens by beetles, and the speci- 
mens dry out and become unappetizing before 
the beetles can finish them. The most important 
maintenance consideration is that the large size 
of the beetle population in such a container 
makes it impossible to exercise the precise con- 
trols necessary to protect small delicate mam- 
mals from damage during processing. Therefore, 
we prefer to use several medium-size beetle 
colonies in 20-to-30 gallon tanks instead of one 
large 100-gallon colony. 

There are a great many other methods of 
cleaning specimens to choose from: maceration, 
dissolving tissues with acids or alkalis, boiling 
in water or ammonia, or digesting with enzymes. 
The method we chose for Ziggy was cooking at 
160°F with laundry enzymes and detergent. 

Our large mammal preparation equipment, 
located on the third floor in the Ellen Thome 
Smith Bird and Mammal Study Center, consists 
of two gas burners, a variety of 3-to-lO gallon 
pots, and two steam-jacketed stainless steel ket- 
tles, one with a 60-gallon capacity, the other with 
a 224-gallon capacity. The size and condition of 
the specimen determines which is to be used. 
The gas burners and pots are used for dog- to 
sheep-size animals or parts of larger animals that 
require special attention, such as joints that must 
remain articulated. The two steam-jacketed ket- 
tles are used for sheep- to elephant-size animals. 
Ziggy's skeleton was prepared using this latter 
equipment. 

As with all cooking, there is more to this 
process than merely heating pots of water. Holes 



**See "Dermestids," by Robert M. Timm, February, 
1982 Bulletin. 



are first drilled in the long leg bones to aid mar- 
row removal. If more than one animal is to be 
processed in the same kettle at one time, each 
animal (or its parts) is individually placed in a 
nylon mesh bag. Degreasing and softening of 
hssue is accelerated by the use of household 
laundry detergent; both an enzyme and non- 
phosphate detergent are used. The specimens 
are cooked until the tissue covering the bones 
reaches a gelatinous consistency. It may take as 
little as several hours or as long as several days 
to obtain the desired results. The water is 
changed between each step and the specimens 
are rinsed thoroughly to remove detergent resi- 
due. We then use a soft wire brush, scissors, or 
cartilage knife to remove any remaining tissue 
or detergent residue. 

The clean bones are spread out to dry. The 
long leg bones are especially susceptible to crack- 
ing at this stage. Covering these bones with blot- 
ting paper slows the drying process and prevents 
drastic cracking. Although the bones of an ele- 
phant like Ziggy are many times larger than the 
bones of most animals we deal with, they are pre- 
pared in the way just outlined. The only differ- 
ence is that far more time is needed to process 
elephant bones. 

The stresses put on individual bones by 
changes in water temperature, laundry deter- 
gent, and the drying process are major draw- 
backs to this method. We brush on and inject into 
crevices a dilute solution of a plastic-like mate- 
rial (glyptal) to harden weak spots and prevent 
cracking of teeth. The specimen is now ready to 
be cataloged and numbered. Large specimens, 
like Ziggy, are installed directly into the storage 
cases of the research collection; whenever pos- 
sible, specimens are boxed and labeled before 
installation. 

Our work in the Zoology preparation lab is 
not for taxidermic purposes. The majority of ex- 
hibits are permanent, so preparation efforts have 
shifted towards scientific applications. Individ- 
ual bones are more readily handled and meas- 
ured when not wired together, as in a mounted 
skeleton. However, we do receive a number of 
inquiries every year from people interested in 
preparation of skeletal material. They need only 
follow the basic procedures outlined above. An 
excellent source of additional information is 
Anatomical Preparations, by Milton Hildebrand 
(University of California Press, 1968). 

This story has not ended the saga of Ziggy, 
for his final resting place is in a research collec- 
tion of worldwide coverage and importance. The 
research collection is utilized through loans 
made to and visits from qualified scientists from 
this country and around the world. We welcome 
Ziggy as a valuable addition to our collection. D 





Above; Jean Sellar 
(left), Michael Reed 
and Bruce Patterson 
with one of Ziggy' s 
tusks. Left: The 
cleaned skull is ready 
to be stored in the 
research collection. 
Pelvic bones are 
in kettle. 




Elephants and Taxidermy 

A brief span of time — perhaps fifteen years at 
most^separate the Dumbolike representation of 
Indian elephants above and the stunning lifelike 
African elephants at the right. The Indian elephants 
and their cousin, the mammoth, upper right, were 
on view in the 1890s at Field Museum's first quar- 
ters — the building which had served as the Palace 
of Fine Arts, in Jackson Park, during the World's 
Columbian Exposition. (At its founding in 1893 
the museum was named "The Columbian Museum 
of Chicago"; the following year the name was 
changed to "Field Columbian Museum." Shortly 
before the death of founder Marshall Field in 1906, 
the name was again changed to "Field Museum of 
Natural History.") 

The pair of African elephants at right were ac- 
quired by then chief taxidermist Carl Akeley during 
a 14-month expedition to Africa in 1905-06. They 
may still be seen, of course, m Stanley Field Hall, 
every bit as impressive and lifelike as when mounted 
more than 70 years ago. The Indian elephants and 
the mammoth were disposed of before the museum 
moved to its present huildin'^ in Grant Park in 
1921. 



'•^tCa. __ 



TOURS FOR MEMBERS 




Feluccas on Nile 

Egypt Tour with Nile Cruise 

Januarys 7-26 
Our Egypt tour offers a rare opportunity for in-depth 
visits to the treasures along the Nile under the leader- 
ship of Mrs. Del Nord, doctoral candidate in Egyptology 
at the University of Chicago. 

The itinerary will include Cairo, Memphis, Sak- 
kara, Aswan/Abu Simbel, Edfu, Esna, Luxor, Thebes, 
the Vallev of the Kings and Queens, Dendereh, Abydos, 
Amarna, Middle Kingdom tombs at Beni Hasan, the 
pwamid at Medum, and much more. The tour also 
includes an 11-dav Nile crviise on a chartered, modern 
Nile steamer, The Sphinx. The tour price is $4,200 per 
person based upon double occupancy. This includes 
all air transportation, meals, Nile cruise, hotels, tips, 
taxes, transfers, visa fees, admissions, baggage han- 
dling, escorts, and more. 

Since advance bookings have already been made 
for this popular tour (limited to 30), only a few accom- 
modations remain; early encjuiries, therefore, are 
suggested. Reservations will be honored in the 
order received. 

New Providence and Andros Islands 
Ecology Tbur 

Februan^ 24-March 5, 1983 

If you think "it's better in the Bahamas," but are looking 
for more than just a perfect beach, our 10-day study 
tour to the Bahamas' New Providence and Andros 
Islands will offer that extra dimension for you. 

Departure from Chicago's O'Hare Airport is sched- 
uled for Thursdav, Februan' 24, for Nassau, on New 
Providence Island. While in Nassau the cit\' tour will 
include Blackbeard's Tower, old village of Fox Hill, the 
farming area, L\'ford Cay, and other points of interest. 



There will be an opportunity for you to meet Bahamian 
government dignitaries and other notable experts. 

On Monday, February 28, we'll fly (12-minute 
flight) from Nassau to the tranquility of Andros Island. 
One of the special features of this trip is the unique 
opportunity to spend six days on this out island at a 
comfortable lodge (not open to the public) with private 
cottages right on the ocean's edge. Air conditioning is 
provided by the fresh breezes from the sea. The beach 
begins at the cabin door. Our meals in the dining room 
of the main lodge will be delicious and plentiful, with 
many Bahamian specialties. 

The magnificent Andros Barrier Reef is one mile 
offshore, about a ten-minute boat ride, and the marine 
life on the reef is fantastic. We will be able to studv the 
reef from boats especially constructed for this purpose. 
If you prefer to snorkel, there will be equipment for 
your use. 

There will be nature walks on both islands, with 
emphasis on plant and animal life. We'll visit a de- 
lightful village where the natives will be involved in 
the local industry' of hand printing fine cloth, and 
we'll explore an experimental farm in operation. 

Margaret Rabley, a dedicated environmentalist, 
will be our guest lecturer. Mrs. Rabley lived for the 
past ten vears in the Bahamas, where she was science 
coordinator and lecturer at the College of the Bahamas. 
She has written several books on the wild flowers of 
the Bahamas and Caribbean, and her research work 
covered manv aspects of Bahamian plant and 
animal life. 

This tour will be modestly priced, and fills up 
rapidlv. The miLximum number of participants is 25. 
We hope you will make your reservation early Please 
telephone (our direct telephone number is 
312-322-8862) or write to Field Museum Tours. 




Nassciii In-wav 



The Last and First Eskimos: Photos by Alex Harris 

On view in Hall 9 through January 23 




First Communion day, TUnunak, May 1978 

Alex Harris and Dr. Robert Coles went to Alaska for the 
first time in 1973, to conduct research for a new volume 
of the series "Children of Crises." Their study of children 
soon became a study of \allage life. Since that first trip 
they have returned to Alaska many times - sometimes 
together, more often separately - but alwavs remaining 
in touch and sharing their experiences. Manv of the 
Harris photographs, together wdth an extensive text bv 
Coles, were published as The Last and First Eskimos bv 
New York Graphic Society' in 1978. 

Harris set out to photograph several remote rural 
\illages where Eskimo traditions still persist. Cultural 
10 and environmental changes are occurring so fast in 



Alaska that many of the photographs have already 
acquired an historical perspective. By 1981, for instance, 
most of the residents of Shungnak had moved to new^ 
go\'ernment housing, about a mile from the \illage 
Harris photographed. 

In the areas Harris photographed, a subsistence 
wav of life exists side-b\'-side with the cash-job economy, 
and both offer \iable options. These are \'illages where 
a grandfather cannot speak with his grandchildren 
because thev speak different languages. It is this com- 
ple.vitA' - and the dignih' of the people which has some- 
how remained intact - that Harris saw and set out to 
record and, in fact capture so well. □ 



Eskimo dancing, Tlmunak, April 1976 




Native American Tourist Crafts 

A 19th Century Example from Alaska 



bv James W. VanStone 
Curator of North American Archaeology' and Ethnology 



12 



We usually associate native American 
crafts made specifically for the tourist 
trade with curio stores in Wisconsin Dells or 
roadside stands near the pueblos in New Mexico. 
It should be kept in mind, however, that the 
term "tourist" can be applied not only to those 
who visit exotic areas and cultures today, but 
also to those who traveled in frontier regions at 
a relatively early date. The fact that such indi- 
viduals were usually in these remote regions for 
business rather than pleasure is not necessarily 
relevant. A tourist can be defined as anyone 
whose interest is stimulated by environments 
and ways of life different from his own, and who 
desires to acquire souvenirs of his experiences. 

In Alaska such early tourists included gold 
miners, commercial whalers, and members of 
exploring and scientific expeditions who, begin- 
ning in the 1850s, came to the territory in ever-in- 
creasing numbers. At first these visitors pur- 
chased, as mementoes of their experience, items 
of material culture made by Eskimos and Indians 
for their own use. As the demand increased, 
however, the native peoples of Alaska went to 
work to produce items specifically for trade. 
Examples of this type of "market art" made by 
19th-century Eskimos include the engraved ivory 
pipes, ivory carvings, and elaborate skin bags 
that can be seen in the new exhibit, "Maritime 
Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast, " in 
Hall 10. 

One of the most unusual examples of 19th- 
century Eskimo market art in the Field Museum 
collection — an item of craftsmanship that tells us 
a good deal about native life — is a model of a 
qasgiq, or ceremonial house. The model is part 
of a collection of ethnographic material made by 
Marcus O. Cherry along the lower Yukon River 
for the World's Columbian Exposition. From 
July, 1889 until the summer of 1892 Cherry was an 
employee of the Episcopal mission at the Ingalik 
Indian village of Anvik, on the lower-middle 
Yukon River. He traveled extensively and his 



collection, mostly Eskimo material, was exhibited 
in the Anthropological Building at the Exposition 
and afterwards transferred to the newly estab- 
lished Field Columbian Museum (later to be 
named Field Museum of Natural History), which 
accessioned it on October 31, 1893. 

A qasgiq was the most conspicuous structure 
in'any Eskimo village in western Alaska. 
Although similar in construction to family dwell- 
ings, it was much larger and usually located on 
the highest plot of ground or in the center of a 
community; larger communities had more than 
one. A qasgiq was generally square, as much as 
25 feet (7.6m) on a side, and had a single raised 
bench around the walls. 

A qasgiq had many functions, but most 
importantly it was the central place in the lives 
of men. In addition to being their eating and 
sleeping place, it also served as a workshop 
where tools and hunting and fishing equipment 
were made. A boy went to the qasgiq to live 
when he was about five years old and it was 
there that he learned the techniques and lore of 
his culture by watching the craftsmen at work 
and listening to stories of great events of the 
past told with enthusiasm by the oldest men. 

Among the most enjoyable activities occur- 
ring in the qasgiq were sweat baths taken by the 
men and boys at frequent intervals during the 
winter. Edward William Nelson, a collector of 
ethnographic material in Alaska for the Smith- 
sonian Inshtution in the early 1880s, has 
described these baths in graphic detail: 

Every man has a small urine tub near his place, where 
this liquid is saved for bathing. A portion of the floor in 
the center of the room is made of planks so arranged 
that they can be taken up, exposing a pit beneath, in 
which a fire of drift logs is built. When the smoke has 
passed off and the wood is reduced to a bed of coals, a 
cover is put over the smoke hole in the roof and the men 
sit naked about the room until they are in profuse per- 
spiration; then they bathe in the urine, which com- 
bines with the oil on their bodies, and thus takes the 



place of soap, after which they go outside and pour 

water over their bodies until they become cool 

[Because of the intense heat] the bathers are obliged to 
use respirators [made of grass] to protect their lungs. ' 

Although the cjosgiq was normally the domain 
of men and boys, on special occasions it served 
as a general meeting place. Many of the impor- 
tant ceremonies were also held in the qasgiq, 
including dances and feasts which honored the 
dead and propitiated the spirits of game animals. 
Most of the time women were permitted in the 
qasgiq only when they brought food for the men, 
but on some occasions the whole community 
was present. 

Nelson has described and illustrated a typi- 
cal qasgiq found in villages from Norton Sound 
south to the Kuskokwim River (fig. 3). Its main 
room had a plank floor, benches for sitting and 
sleeping, and lamp stands where pottery lamps 
burning seal oil helped to alleviate the gloom in 
this semisubterranean structure. The walls, 
made of horizontal logs or vertical planks, were 
seven or eight feet high and the roof was cribbed 
with a central skylight and smoke hole. 

In summer the qasgiq was entered through 
a passage at ground level, but in winter the 
inside door was sealed and the occupants 
entered through an underground passage 
emerging through a hole in the plank floor near 
the fireplace. It was this part of the plank floor 
that could be removed when a fire was built for 
the sweat baths. 



Point Hope 



'^°"'"'-"»» 




BERING SEA 



ALASKA 



In winter too, the entrance tunnel served as 
a cold trap, helping to keep the interior of the 
qasgiq warm. Like family dwellings, the wooden 
structure of the qasgiq was covered with earth 
and a layer of sod. Even without a fire it 
remained warm in winter and the residents 
were frequently stripped to the waist or com- 
pletely naked. On the side and back platforms 
each man had his own place. Elderly men of 
high status and important visitors from other 
villages occupied choice places in the back 




13 



corners while younger men were obliged to 
content themselves with places closer to the 
drafty entrance. 

The model ijasgic] collected by Marcus Cherry 
for the World's Columbian Exposition lacks a 
specific provenience, although we know that it 
represents the type of structure described by 
Nelson and characteristic of communities on the 
lower Yukon River and vicinity. On this speci- 
men someone has written "St. Michael" in pen- 
cil, so it is possible that the model was collected 
in that coastal village north of the mouth of the 
Yukon. 



sides, pegged in place and also lashed to the 
sides, which represent the benches. On these 
benches are crude wooden figures representing 
persons taking part in a ceremony, five along 
the back and on one side, six (two of which are 
missing) on the other, and four along the front 
(figs. 2,4). Worked to a pointed peg at the base, 
which extends through a hole in the bench, 
these figures lack arms and legs and the features 
are crudely indicated. In the center of the back 
bench, facing the entrance, is a single figure 
raised above and in front of the others on a thin 
stick; the figure holds a long stick pointed for- 




Window 

and 

Smoke hole 




fireplace 



o 5 5 5 ST 

Summer Passageway 



Winter Passageway 




14 



The front and two sides of this model, which 
is approximately 35 cm square and about 40 cm 
high in the center (about 14 by 16 inches), are 
constructed of single pieces of wood, slightly 
curved by steaming, and lashed together at the 
corners with spruce root (fig. 1). The back con- 
sists of two overlapping pieces lashed with root, 
while the bottom is a single piece lashed at 
intervals to the sides. Around the upper edges 
of the sides are four shaped strips of wood, 
forming a rim which is held in place with wooden 
pegs. In the center of the front piece near the 
bottom edge is a square opening, which repre- 
sents the entrance from the summer passageway 
into the main room of the qasgiq. 

The cover of the model is a stylized repre- 
sentation of the structure's roof. The cribbing is 
in the four corners so that no center posts are 
required. This cover consists of four triangular 
pieces lashed together with root near the top 
and bottom. At the top is a square opening to 
admit light and release smoke. It is covered 
with a small piece of seal intestine held in place 
by a framework of four narrow strips of wood 
pegged in place. The roof-cover is hinged to the 
main body of the structure along one side with 
three strips of sealskin. On the opposite side is 
a broken loop handle of the same material. 

In the interior of the model there are strips 
of wood approximately 6cm wide along all four 



ward toward the entrance. A similar figure on 
the left bench (barely visible in figure 2) lacks 
the horizontal stick. Unlike the other figures on 
the benches, these two have legs. They also 
have small wooden pegs on each side of the 
head, possibly representing antlers. 

Below the benches, on the floor of the qasgiq, 
is a square framework of narrow strips of wood, 
pegged to the bottom piece, which originally 
held six figures. Three of these are along the 




entrance 



back (partially visible in figure 2), a fourth is 
missing, and there is one on each side. The 
entrance is flanked by a figure on each side; the 
bases of these two figures, which face the back 
bench, form long pegs inserted directly into the 
floor of the qasgiq (fig. 4). In the brief notes which 
accompany the Cherry collection, these two 
figures are identified as shamans, the traditional 
Eskimo religious practitioners who served as 
intermediaries between ordinary people and 
the spirit world. 

Although it is impossible to say with cer- 
tainty which ceremony is being celebrated in 
this model qasgiq, Nelson tells us that the pres- 
ence of long wooden rods is associated with the 
Great Feast of the Dead, a common festival in 
one form or another all along the coast of western 
and northwestern Alaska. In this ceremony the 
nearest blood relative of a deceased individual 
honored his spirit with presents of food, drink, 
and clothing. This was accomplished with the 
assistance of the dead man's namesake at the 
first Festival of the Dead following the former's 
death. At this time only small offerings of food 
were presented, but all effort was directed 
toward the Great Feast of the Dead. 

After the passing of one or two years, the 
chief mourner began to accumulate valuable 
articles such as furs of various kinds, clothing, 
and food. He or she frequently saved for as 
many as six or more years until the store of goods 
had grown considerably. At the same time, 
other chief mourners were doing the same thing 
and eventually several individuals would con- 
clude that they had saved enough to make one 
of these great festivals. The ceremony, when it 
occurred, lasted five or more days and resem- 
bled, in some respects, the potlatch on the 
Northwest Coast. The Great Feast of the Dead 
was one of the most common ceremonies in the 
St. Michael area and runners were sent to 
neighboring villages with invitations. Most 
ceremonies held in the qasgiq, whatever their 
origin, sought in one way or another not only to 
honor the dead, but to placate the spirits of the 
animals on which the Eskimos depended for 
food. Festivals for the dead were celebrated by 
coastal Eskimos as far north as Point Hope. 

Observances similar to the one described 
were also common along the Yukon River among 
the neighboring Ingalik, Athapaskan-speaking 
Indians whose culture was influenced consider- 
ably by their Eskimo neighbors and whose social 
life, including ceremonies in the qasgiq, has 
been described in detail by the anthropologist 
Cornelius Osgood. Of specific interest in the 
present context is his description of a "lucky 
pole ceremony," performed about the time of 
the winter solstice. For this ceremony a spruce 



tree was cut down to obtain a pole of a height 
equal to the distance between the floor of the 
qasgiq and the smoke hole. The pole was then 
decorated with hawk feathers and, to the accom- 
paniment of a ceremonial song, brought into 
the qasgiq through the smoke hole. The pole's 
maker had previously presided at a ceremony 
in honor of the dead. 

As the pole was brought into the qasgiq, the 
person holding the butt end, a shaman, made 
noises in imitation of birds and animals. At the 
end of the ceremony, some men tried to climb 
the pole, which had been made slippery by 
many greasy hands. The successful climber 
pulled the pole up through the smoke hole while 
all others present threw up their hands and 
yelled. According to Osgood, the purpose of 
the "lucky pole ceremony" was to increase the 
abundance of game animals.^ The presence in 
the model qasgiq of figures raised on poles and 
also carrying them certainly suggests the depic- 
tion of a ceremony similar to those just 
described . 

The importance of the qasgiq in Alaskan 
Eskimo life continued into the early 20th century. 
Its eventual decline was due in part to the grad- 
ual replacement of the aboriginal religion with 
Christian beliefs and, a related development, to 
the increasing importance of the nuclear family, 
in which the men lived at home with their wives 
and children. Even today, however, some vil- 
lages maintain a structure like the traditional 
qasgiq which serves as a meeting place for the 
entire community, a place where local elections 
are held, movies are shown, and other events of 
general interest take place. 

A model qasgiq like the one collected by 
Marcus Cherry is not unique in assemblages of 
19th-century Eskimo material culture in muse- 
ums. Similar models dating from the same 
period and from the same general area are to be 
found in the collections of the Sheldon Jackson 
Museum in Sitka, Alaska, the Lowie Museum 
of Anthropology at the University of California 
in Berkeley, and the Alaska State Museum in 
Juneau. The economic impetus for their con- 
struction may have been rooted in an attempt 
by native Americans in Alaska to capitalize on a 
vital aspect of their social and ceremonial life 
certain to impress outsiders. These early tourists 
were eager to bring back tangible examples of 
the exotic aspects of a culture with which they 
were becoming increasingly acquainted but 
only little understood. D 



7. Nelson, E.W., The Eskimo about Bering Strait. 18th An- 
nual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, pp. 287-288. 
2. Osgood, C, Ingalik Material Culture. Yale University 
Publications in Anthropology, no. 22, 1940, pp. 422-423. 



15 



Hunters in a Changing World 



by Jean Treloggen Peterson 

Photos byjean Peterson and Warren Peterson 



Today, hunting and gathering, the most 
enduring and prevalent lifeway known 
to humankind, is threatened in virtually 
every corner of the world, where it has been hid- 
den from the incursions of modern technology. 
Without effective, rapid intervention the next 
century will see only remnants of today's hunt- 
ing populations, and with the loss of that life- 
way, the world will lose the environmental 
knowledge and the unique wilderness manage- 
ment skills commanded by these various 
peoples. 

The great majority of earth's human popu- 
lation have made their living by hunting, fishing, 
and collecting wild fruits, grains, and vegetables. 
With the simplest of tools on the one hand, and 
a sophisticated knowledge of their environment 
on the other, these peoples move their house- 
holds from place to place as they procure their 
food and other life essentials. Perhaps the most 
persuasive testimony to the stability, attractive- 
ness, and efficiency of the hunting-gathering 



lifeway is that probably tens of thousands of 

hunters persist in their lifeway to this day, on 
each nonpolar continent, and despite the 
advance of an urban industrial technology and 
continued assaults on their wilderness environ- 
ments and culture. 

While a hunting-gathering lifeway is 
dependent on the existence and management of 
wilderness resources, it is only in recent centu- 
ries that hunters have sought retreat in order to 
inhabit these environments. For as long as we 
can know, these peoples have been an important 
part of the world economy. Early Chinese and 
Roman writers often mention hunter-gatherers 
as sources of wilderness products for places with 
more developed economies. Often these "prim- 
itive" peoples engaged in quite active world 



Jean Treloggen Peterson is associate professor of Human 
Development and Family Ecology at the University of Illi- 
nois, Urbana. 



An Agta man fashions 

an arrow from a reed 

shaft and metal point 

shaped from a large 

nail. Fletching is 

attaclied with plant 

16 fiber and tree resin. 




trade, as, for example, the ancient ivory com- 
merce of Africa or the New World fur trade of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Asian hunt- 
ers have, from earliest recorded history, partic- 
ipated in such trade, supplying bird's nests, tree 
resins, rattan, spices, and other forest products 
in exchange for cooking vessels, textiles, and 
tools. To their nearest neighbors, usually farmers 
or herders, hunters have offered food and other 
wilderness products critical to the farming and 
herding lifeway. 

Contradicting long-standing impressions of 
the hunting-gathering lifeway, anthropologists 
have demonstrated in the last decade that these 
peoples, whether dwellers in tropical forest (jun- 
gle), desert, or the arctic, provide themselves 
quite adequate food with a minimal labor 
investment. In large part their success is depen- 
dent on environmental knowledge and manage- 
ment. Often revering their wilderness home as 
a deity or seeing each object within it imbued 
with a sacred force, they show uncanny aware- 
ness of the location and habits of the plants and 
animals within it. They may utilize controlled 
burning to encourage propagation of certain 
plants for their own use, or to attract the animals 
they hunt. They understand the growing and 
reproductive cycles of the local species and, for 
example, propagate many of the wild food and 
medicinal plants they use. In some cases, as 
among the Philippine Negritos, women suckle 
the abandoned or orphaned young of the species 
they hunt. The same environmental concern is 
manifest in their negative reactions to environ- 
mental degradation such as irresponsible log- 
ging or dynamiting of fishing waters. 

Often their ecological understanding is quite 
sophisticated: they recognize relationships 
among species at an impressively knowledgea- 
ble level. So exacting is this knowledge and 
associated skills that, in many groups, years are 
spent in mastering it and individuals do not 
achieve their full productive potential until they 
are 30 to 40 years of age. They understand the 
economic and medicinal uses of virtually 
hundreds of species, take only what they can 
use, and ingeniously use all of what they take. 
They are unquestionably unsurpassed in their 
knowledge of the usefulness and care of the 
wilderness. By living in harmony with their 
environment, managing its resources, and main- 
taining a low population density, they have pre- 
served it and continue to harvest their livelihood 
from it. The Negrito hunters of the Philippines 
provide us with telling evidence of what the 
hunter-gatherer subsistence mode has been, its 
potential efficacy in a modern world, and the 
tragedy of its demise. 

The hunting-gathering lifeway persists 



THE PHILIPPINES 



Isabels Prov. 

 Nueva Vizcaya Prov. 
L ^ Quirino Prov. 



Zimbales Prov 




^^o SULU 
'^c- •' ARCHIPELAGO 



throughout much of the Sierra Madre range and 
adjacent coastal areas on Luzon, the northern- 
most large island of the Philippines. In Palanan, 
Isabela Province, on Luzon's northeastern coast, 
about 800 Negrito hunters, who call themselves 
Agta, share a bay watershed and adjoining 
mountains with approximately 10,000 non- 
Negrito farmers. The hunters typically move 
every seven to ten days during the dry season, 
January through September, three to five nuclear 
families erecting simple lean-to shelters at each 
site they inhabit, hunting pig and deer with bow 
and arrow, and fishing the riverine or coastal 
waters with simple spears or bows. 

The rainy months, which inhibit mobility, 
demand somewhat more substantial dwellings, 
but any sunny day finds the Agta leaving this 
more permanent camp of eight to ten families. 



17 



An area of logging, 
carried out uy a re- 
sponsible company 
utilizing the best 
equipment available to 
prevent undue damage 
to the forest. 








-^.■i 



and scattering to favorite fishing and iiunting 
sites. Some of them, mostly old persons who lack 
the strength or stamina for hunting, fishing, and 
gathering, plant small garden plots to roots or 
corn. In order to plant, they clear underbrush 
and saplings from a forested area, burn the rub- 
ble, and plant in the nutrient-rich ash. This age- 
old practice, called swidden, is highly effective in 
forested tropical areas with poor soils. Hunting 
and fishing, however, continue to provide a sig- 
nificant part of their caloric needs, and all of their 
animal protein needs. So successful are they at 
wild animal protein acquisition that they supply 
not only themselves, but also their Palanan farm- 
ing neighbors, with an ample protein supply. 

These Palanan farmers, physically and cul- 
turally different from the Agfa, plant a few 
hectares* to corn, roots, and a little rice, using 
hand plows and water buffalo. They keep few 
domestic animals, and instead acquire animal 
protein from the Agfa hunters. Over-all wild 
animal protein consumption for the Palanan 
and Agfa inhabitants of that watershed averages 
six grams per capita per day, a figure which com- 
pares most favorably with overall animal pro- 
tein consumption for developing nations. In 
exchange for the game and fish they provide, 
Agfa receive corn and roots to satisfy most of 
their carbohydrate staple needs. 

In addition to food exchanges, farmers rely 
on Agfa labor during planting and harvest, and 
receive from them rattan for mending houses 
and farm implements, houseposts, honey, and 
often, as the farmers' families grow and land 
needs increase, the opportunity to take over 
abandoned Agfa garden plots for development 
into farm fields. They often give Agfa clothing 
and medicine, and shelter during typhoons. 

The trade carried on by these two popula- 



18 



*One hectare equals about 2.47 acres. 



tions has probably existed since agriculture 
began in the area. Similar exchanges of protein 
for carbohydrate foods are reported, as well, 
among hunters or herders and farmers from else- 
where in Southeast Asia, India, Africa, and the 
New World. Beyond the actual trade relations 
in Palanan, the two populations have indirect 
but significant effects on each other's habitats 
and, consequently, livelihood. Agfa, as noted, 
often turn over old garden plots to farming 
friends. By the time such transfer is made, grass 
has entered the garden site, rendering it untilla- 
ble with the simple Agfa swidden technology. 
Were there no agricultural peoples to move onto 
this land, these plots would be allowed to grow 
back to forest for several generations. Palanan 
farmers, however, with their plows, draft ani- 
mals, and more labor-intensive systems can turn 
these plots to productive farmland. The initial 
Agfa clearing spares them hundreds of hours 
of labor 

Agta hunting activity, too, is of significant 
benefit to their neighbors' farming endeavors. 
Not only does it supply their meat, but it pro- 
vides a check on major crop pests — deer and 
pigs. Throughout the Philippines wherever any 
patchy forest remains, farmers often lose 30 to 
40 percent of their crop to foraging game. In 
Palanan, too, farmers suffer high crop loss to 
game, especially in areas where clearing is active. 
Once an area is stabilized, however, they lose 
only 10 percent of their crop and receive meat 
which they value at five times the worth of the 
crop lost. Agta hunting is the most effective 
game control measure operating in the area. 

The Palanan farmers have had an equally 
beneficial effect on Agta lifeway and subsis- 
tence. These farmers, whether clearing new 
fields or expanding Agta garden plots, continue 
to enlarge their fields piecemeal, taking several 
years to fully clear a three- to five-hectare field 
(equal to about two or three average city blocks). 
Typically they remove grasses, brush, and 
smaller trees, planting among the larger trees. 
When larger trees are finally cut, high above the 
ground to avoid the labor of cutting through the 
buttressing roots, the stumps are left to rot before 
removal is attempted, again to reduce labor 
investment. Should crop yields fall after several 
years, or family land needs change because of 
births or deaths, the land may be abandoned and 
allowed to regenerate to forest. Permanent 
crops, usually fruit trees, remain, eventually to 
be surrounded by their wild cousins. 

These farming practices produce ideal con- 
ditions for the promotion of "edge effect," or 
"habitat mosaic" — terms ecologists use to refer 
to the attraction of some species of animals to 
areas offering environmental diversity. Those 




Young people have 
their arms and upper 
torsos cut in geometric 
designs to produce 
decorative scars. 



animal species which are dependent on two or 
more environmental types, feeding perhaps on 
grasslands at night and sheltering in the forest 
during the day, are drawn to these kinds of con- 
ditions, and exist in such areas in larger numbers 
than in a single environmental type. Palanan 



farm clearing provides the ideal mosaic of broken 
cover, forest, and, importantly, the high biomass 
of crop fields; in spite of Agfa hunting and farmer 
efforts to deter game access to crops, pig and 
deer continue to feed in farm fields. The wild 
forest fruits, upon which pig and deer feed. 




An Agta in the employ 
of a farmer, clears 
grass flmperata 
cylendrica) which has 
replaced the forest . 19 




This beach campsite 
provides easy access to 
freshwater marine and 
freshwater fishing and 
hunting in the forest. 






i^. 



Mt^-^ 




20 



Negritos of the Zam- 
bales area on a reserva- 
tion. The area has been 
ahnost completely 
deforested and they 
now make a living 
principally by selling 
palm hearts and broom 
grass. An under- 
ground insect has 
become a major protein 
source, along with fish. 

prosper as well under these clearing conditions; 
many forest fruits are light-seekers which grow 
in profusion on the edges of any clearing, or 
appear in the initial successional period of forest 
regeneration in abandoned gardens or fields. 
Given these conditions it is apparent that 
Agfa hunters, too, will cluster near those edges 
that offer easy access to both trade and game. 
Recreation of Agfa campsites over four genera- 
tions shows them hugging the peripheries of 
Palanan settlement for that period of time, 
exploiting what they call the "best" hunting 
sites, those adjacent to farmers' fields. Over 
a four-month period in 1978, Agfa, inhabiting 
three river valleys and connecting mountains 
and coastal areas, killed 43.2 percent of pig 



and 26.7 percent of deer within 200 meters of 
farmers' fields, a total of 54.8 percent of pig 
and 33.3 percent of deer within 1.5 kilometers 
of fields. This bag, taken by only 17 hunters, 
provided nearly 1,000 kilograms (about 2,200 
lbs.) of meat to the 53 Agfa and Palanan families 
inhabiting the area over a four-month period. 
This represents an impressive supply of protein, 
particularly given that this was the "off" hunting 
season, the hot, drier period of the year when 
game are lean, and some have retreated to the 
cooler, forested interior. 

What is less apparent than the attraction of 
game and hunters to the forest-field edge is the 
fact that farming expansion has apparently pro- 
duced an absolute increase in the wild pig pop- 



ulation. Pigs are an opportunistic species; that 
is, they produce many young, up to ten in a litter, 
many of which would perish under undisturbed 
forest conditions. The forest fruits upon which 
pig feed bear predominantly in October, Novem- 
ber, and December, the period of heavy rain. By 
March they are barren. Pigs mate during these 
rainy months, and bear young in March and 
April, nursing them as late as July. The period 
of minimum forest food availability is the period 
of maximum vulnerability for young pigs. Their 
absolute population increase is effected by the 
fact that they feed on farmers' rice in March until 
it is harvested in May. May through July, they 
feed on corn. Given this dependence on farm 
crops, more young pigs survive. In fact, without 
Agta hunting activity they would become an 
intolerable crop pest; Agta hunting converts this 
pest to food. 

Certainly these forest animals live in com- 
petition with an impoverished human popula- 
tion. They do, however, meet a portion of their 
food needs in the forest and, therefore, take few- 
er resources from humans than would domestic 
grazing animals. The Palanan case, with further 
study, promises a means of suggesting approp- 
riate game-land management measures to pro- 
vide a significant food supply in Palanan and 
elsewhere, without environrtiental degradation 
and without devotion of large land tracts exclu- 
sively to the production of animal protein foods, 
as in the development of grazing programs. This 
is a lesson of potential interest to the world, and 
of compelling interest to hungry developing 



nations. Game-land management alone cannot 
achieve these results; we need to draw, as well, 
on the skills, knowledge, and traditional sub- 
sistence modes of indigenous peoples who have 
been managing such environments long before 
intercropping, commercial fertilizers, industrial- 
ized agriculture, hydroelectric power, or other 
modern developments were conceived of. In 
most parts of the world, including the Philip- 
pines, twentieth-century encroachment is elimi- 
nating both the environment and the cultural 
skills essential to such sound management. 

Palanan has been a relatively protected 
environment. No roads enter it; the rugged 
Sierra Madre, treacherous coastline, vulnerabil- 
ity to typhoons, and often dangerous currents 
have shielded the area from major industrial and 
agricultural development. The only logging com- 
pany in Palanan must bring all equipment in by 
barge and float out logs. Under these adverse 
conditions the company has scarcely maintained 
a foothold. Elsewhere in the Philippines hunters 
have been displaced and disenfranchised. First, 
the Spanish destroyed vast forested areas in the 
construction and maintenance of their galleons; 
then smallpox, introduced from Europe, deci- 
mated both human and game populations. Later, 
in the nineteenth century, the Spanish intro- 
duced plantation agriculture, often to produce 
non-food crops such as tobacco and abaca, which 
claimed forested land and displaced food- 
producing farmers to upland forested areas. 

More recently multinational agro-industry, 
logging, and mining have claimed traditional 




This Agta man is 
collecting tree resin 
which will be used 
as an adhesive to 
attach an arrow 
point to the shaft. 



21 




Art Agta woman 
prepares agal, a 
starchy food processed 
from me pith of the 
carioca palm. It must 
be repeatedly leached 
after the pulp is re- 
moved from the palm. 



An Agta couple xvork 
together in the con- 
struction of their 
lean-to shelter. As he 
prepares cord from 
plant fiber she uses the 
cord to attach shingles. 




Holiday Happenings ^^S^^ 



22 



This holiday season make Field Museum a 
family destination! Here are some special 
places and events you won't want to miss: 

D "Wild Things: Film Series for Families. " 
Celebrate the wonders of the animal world 
through films, tours, and projects. 

n "Parol — Lanterns from the Philip- 
pines. " Make a Christmas decoration from 
another land in this Family Feature. 

□ "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast. " See how Eskimos 
really live. 

For Holiday Shopping: The Museum 



Store. Unusual items such as tiny tinkling 
tree of brass bells from the Philippines; 
ethnic jewelry; mounted butterflies and 
shells; children's picture and coloring 
books; or dinosaur T-shirts — all of these 
help to make gift selection for anyone in 
any price category a snap. 
And for Holiday Feasting: The Museum 
Cafeteria. Special holiday foods — 
traditional Thanksgi\ing treats ditring 
November, Christmas pastries and fruit 
cake in December Take home some fruit 
cake, or just feed your body and rest your 
feet in our spacious cafeteria! 



hunting lands, or have again displaced other 
Filipinos who must in turn move in on their less 
sophisticated neighbors to claim land and 
rebuild the landscape in upland areas. These 
changes often lead to runoff, soil slump, and 
other destruction of fragile upland environ- 
ments. Unchecked population growth, too, has 
led to a necessary geographical expansion of 
Philippine peoples. In many areas, once proud 
and efficient hunters have lost their lifeway and 
their dignity to one incursion or another. Dressed 
in rags, suffering skin diseases born of a degen- 
erated diet, often coerced into prostitution, 
enhced to drink alcohol, ashamed of their new 
poverty, their kinky hair, and dark skin, they 
have had little opportunity or incentive for 
transition to another productive lifeway, and 
have clung tenaciously to some semblance of 
hunting-gathering. 

Near Clark Field, the U.S. Air Force Base, 
in Luzon's Zambales Province, Negritos live off 
the trash piles and largess of the U.S. military. 
Lacking their own "jungle," they find periodic 
employment providing jungle training to mil- 
itary personnel. Elsewhere in Zambales 
Negritos, trapped between plantation agricul- 
ture moving up from the coast and logging in the 
mountains, have now become the victims of 
anomie. In Quirino and Nueva Vizcaya prov- 
inces, areas largely stripped by logging com- 
panies, Negritos travel long distances to obtain 
minor forest products, such as healing herbs 
and aphrodisiacs, for farmers who give them, 
in exchange, gin, tobacco, rice, and canned fish 
(many still observe a traditional taboo on the 
consumption of domestic meat). In Bicol, where 
coconut plantations have replaced the forest, 
they gather copra, and for their efforts are pro- 
vided sardines, rice, alcohol, and tobacco. Like 
tens of thousands of others around the world, 
these Negritos represent a tremendous pro- 
ductive force robbed of their productivity, wit- 
nessing the destruction of their environment in 
this century. 

Even on the inhospitable and isolated coast 
of Northeastern Luzon the last decade has had 
a dramatic impact. From 1970 to 1978 the number 
of farmers in the three river valley study area had 
quadrupled. This expansion by itself might have 
had little effect on the Agta there. More signifi- 
cant is the fact that the number of immigrants 
from outside Palanan had also quadrupled. 
These newcomers had brought with them pref- 
erences for a cash economy that places new value 
on land and labor, and for an animal protein 
production technology which renders farmer 
trade with Agta less attractive; they also had a 
penchant for cutting down trees, thus creating a 
naked landscape; made "pig bombs," which turn 



hunting grounds to mine fields; and showed a 
disdain for Agta lifestyle and dignity. The result 
is an environment and a culture on the threshold 
of irreversible change. 

The immigrants brought with them the cash 
to buy land and the industry for clearing land 
and for generating more cash. The land in ques- 
tion in this particular area had been proposed by 
the Philippine government as an Agta civil res- 
ervation. Nonetheless, unscrupulous middle- 
men "purchased" plots of this land from the Agta 
for anywhere from $1 . 50 to $50 for a hectare, then 
sold it to immigrants. Most Agta are interested 
in having access to hunting territory, not to 
agricultural land. The presence of farmers has 
not usually created a problem; some of these 
newly arrived farmers, however, are different. 
They do not like Agta to hunt or camp on "their" 
land, and they do not like to trade in kind. Rath- 
er, they purchase what they want with cash, and 
pay cash for labor or for tree resins collected by 
the Agta. Agta suddenly have reduced access to 
hunting and trade and increased access to 
quantities of cash. With little investment incen- 
tive, many Agta spend their earnings on alcohol, 
gambling, alcohol, and sweetened snack foods 
such as cookies and candy. 

The perspective and plight of these immi- 
grant farmers deserves understanding as well. 
Most of them came to Palanan as victims of and 
refugees from landlessness and/or political 
unrest and the threat of insurrection. They pur- 
chased, often with no awareness of Agta land 
rights, "their" land with hard-earned cash. Cer- 
tainly their preference for producing their own 
animal protein through the use of fish traps and 
their fish preservation methods, rather than 
engaging in transactions with Agta, cannot be 
condemned in spite of its effect on the Agta. 
Their treatment of the environment and indige- 
nous populations, however, is open to criticism. 

Unhke the Palanan farmers, they do not 
create an untidy edge, a patchy forest cover near 
their fields which might shelter game and pre- 
vent undue runoff. They strip the landscape 
whether or not they intend to plant that crop 
year They then mine their fields and adjacent 
forests with homemade "pig bombs," explosive 
devices fashioned from matchheads, concealed 
in yams, and intended to wound foraging pigs. 
Also dangerous to humans, these bombs render 
a good deal of Agta hunting ground unfit for 
human access. What Palanan farmers have pre- 
ferred to rely on Agta and time to provide — 
cleared fields, animal protein, and crop protec- 
tion — these invaders prefer to achieve through 
their own intense labor investment, on their 
own terms. 

Perhaps the most damaging effect the new- 



23 



comers have had stems from their scorn of all 
things Agta. While some immigrants have adapt- 
ed successfully to the indigenous culture, others 
berate the Agta for their nakedness and "idle- 
ness," mock their dwellings, systematically 
teach them to be ashamed and, in extreme cases, 
get them drunk, cheat them at gambling, then 
threaten violent retaliation if they fail to make 
good their debts. It is very much the story of the 
native Americans replayed a centurv or two 
later, in a world that should have learned better. 
Ultimately, these farmers cannot be held respon- 
sible; they, too, are the products of the impact of 
"development" on the larger landscape. 

Logging, plantation agriculture, industry, 
and dam projects displace farmers and hunters 
throughout the Third World, often disregardful 
of the very real economic value of those indi- 
genous technologies or the environments they 
maintain and use so well. Rural areas are conse- 
quently deluged with landless newcomers, 
struggling for subsistence in an environment 
which offers diminished resources. Traditional 
communities often find their resources strained, 
as well, by the establishment of nonfood pro- 
ducing communities of loggers or miners in the 
area. On the northeast coast of Luzon, a three- 
dav hike north of Palanan, a logging camp of 
about 4,000 persons depends heavily on the food 
production efforts of Palanan hunters, fishers, 
and farmers. While the Palanan economy might. 



with planning, expand to support this additional 
population, fortuitous exploitation of that envi- 
ronment produces a strain which can certainly 
bring about environmental degradation with 
time. Its immediate effect can be observed in the 
deteriorated health of the indigenes, and in 
death rates, particularly among children. 

The hunters' loss is ours, not only in huma- 
nistic and spiritual terms, but in sound economic 
and environmental terms. As manv begin to 
question the ability of multinational industrial 
complexes to sustain the earth and its life forms, 
it seems urgent that we assess the economic and 
environmental viability and sustainability of 
those lifeways which have survived for so long 
and apparently so well. They need not, and 
should not, be preserved as living museums. 
They should, however, be tapped to reveal 
means of using the earth's precious resources to 
man's benefit without destroying them. Their 
potential integration into the modern economy 
to provide food and wilderness products to a 
wider market, and to provide models for the 
management and restoration of fragile environ- 
ments, should be explored. Ironically, this cen- 
tury, which mav most need the maintenance 
skills hunter-gatherers can offer us, may destroy 
those populations which have, through suc- 
cessful environmental management, sur\'ived 
so long, as examples of the majority of human- 
kind's tenure on this earth. D 



An A^ta uvman 

ronstruit- ncrjamilxi's 

lean-to shelter. A 

relative helps her by 

fashioning palm fronds 

24 into shingles. 




OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Natural Insecticides 

Those electronic insect-zappers used to kill 
mosquitoes and other insect pests may 
seem a modern triumph, but two Cana- 
dian researchers have discovered that 
Nature, as usual, was already way ahead. 

Members of the sunflower family, 
including daisies, black-eyed susans and 
marigolds, contain chemicals known as 
polyacetylenes, and as these chemicals 
sop up sunlight they become toxic to 
insects; their poison loses its punch in the 
dark. Researchers say they do not yet 
know precisely how the plants convert the 
sun's energy into a chemical insect-zap, 
but they do know that the zaps can be 
powerful. Says one; "We have found one 
compound to be more toxic to mosquito 
larvae in the light than DDT." 

Carrots and wild parsnips contain 
similar chemicals that can kill caterpillars 
feeding on them during daylight hours. 
Researchers hope some of these com- 
pounds will be useful for crop protection 
and provide more environmentally accept- 
able alternatives to agriculturists. 



Herring Gulls and Sunlight 

Solar technology is still a comparatively 
new science, and new developments are 
reported almost daily. Birds, however, 
have been studying it for a long time. 

A Ohio State University zoologist 
studying the behavior of herring gulls 
finds that on a very hot day the birds face 
directly into the sun, so that the rays hit 
the smallest possible amount of body sur- 
face and are reflected from the white 
feathers of the breast. On cool days, the 
burds turn their backs on the sun, absorb- 
ing heat through their grey wings. The 
scientist estimates that they absorb about 
four times as much heat with their backs 
turned to the sun. 

The gulls also have learned that the 
more oblique the angle at which the sun 
strikes them, the less heat they receive, 
and they continually adjust this angle 
according to whether they are hot or cold. 

It has long been known that certain 
cold-blooded vertebrates as well as inver- 
tebrates orient themselves to the sun in 
comparable ways. 



Catfish on the March 

Walking catfish that have multiplied into 
the millions have reached Tampa in a 15- 
year trek from south Florida, and may 



march into Georgia, wildlife researchers 
say. 

The Asian fish, which move by drag- 
ging themselves by spikey pectoral fins 
"like infantrymen holding rifles in their 
elbows," are moving northward from 
pond to pond on a journey that began at 
Boca Raton 15 years ago when a dozen 
escaped from a fish farmer's exotic species 
collection. 

The oxygen-breathing fish, which can 
crawl over land up to a mile a night, appar- 
ently have taken advantage of Florida's 
thousands of ponds, lakes, and canals to 
move anywhere from 180 to 250 miles, 
wildlife experts say. 



Wolves Back to Glacier? 

Researchers hope to reestablish a wolf 
population in Glacier National Park by 
using controlled burning techniques to 
create moose and beaver habitat, the 
wolves' primary prey. It is hoped the new 
food source will attract nearby wolves 
from Canada, where they are still rela- 
tively numerous. 



New Weapon Against Red Fire Ant 

No insect is loathed more than the red fire 
ant, Solowpsis iuvicta, in the southern 
United States. Entrenched in about 
230,000 acres in 13 states, the ant lives in 
colonies of up to 50,000 insects that inhabit 
mounds up to three feet high and hard 
enough to wreck farm machinery that 
runs into them. The ants are aggressive 
and have a painful sting, which has been 
blamed for human deaths as well as that of 
livestock. Accidentally imported from 
South America around 1900, the ant has so 
far survived all efforts to do it in, including 
a federal eradication campaign that came 
to an end in the 1970's when the insecti- 
cide Mirex, which the ants were surviving 
anyhow, was banned as a potential 
human carcinogen. 

The Department of Agriculture is 
now claiming considerable success with a 
new chemical that may work where insec- 
ticides failed. The substance, called MV- 
678, is a synthetic that mimics the ant's 
own juvenile hormones. It is dangerous, 
the department says, only to insects, and a 
"very narrow" range of insects at that. It 
does not kill the ants, but retards their 
growth until the ant society collapses. 

In tests, MV-678 has been mixed with 
soybean oil and corn grits and sprayed 
around the ants' nests. Worker ants eat 
the baits and go home to feed the imma- 



ture ants, including the next generation's 
cohort of workers, by regurgitation. The 
chemical swiftly degrades in the environ- 
ment, according to the Agriculture 
Department, but not in the stomachs of 
the worker ants. 

At first, the immature ants dosed with 
MV-678 by their nursemaids developed 
into malformed sexually mature ants, but 
later failed to develop at all, remaining in 
the juvenile stage — and staying home in 
the nest. Without the next crop of workers 
to feed it, the colony dies, the department 
reported; success was claimed in abolish- 
ing 80 to 90 percent of fire ant colonies 
with two applications of the hormone. 

MV-678 was developed by Meyer 
Schwarz, a chemist with the Agricultural 
Research Service of the Agriculture 
Department in Beltsville, Md., and has 
been licensed to Stauffer Chemical Com- 
pany for further development and testing. 



The Lowly But Invaluable Earthworm 

How long does an earthworm live? Esti- 
mates range from three to ten years — a 
short life, but one of great usefulness. In 
the course of years, wormcasts will build 
up a surface layer of soil of almost unbe- 
lievable depth, amounting in weight to 
several tons per acre per year. With their 
mineral-rich castings, the worms make 
available to plants the nutrients in the soil. 
The diligent earthworm may well be 
the world's oldest labor saver, at least as 
far as man is concerned. Charles Darwin 
reminds us that long before man was 
around to invent the plow, "the land was, 
in fact, regularly plowed, and still con- 
tinues to be thus plowed, by earthworms. 
It may be doubted whether there are many 
other animals which have played so impor- 
tant a part in the history of the world." 




November and December at Field Museum 



November 16 throu^ December 13 



26 



Continuing Exhibits 

"The Last and First Eskimos." October 9, 1982 to 
Januarv 23, 1983. This photographic display cap- 
tures a culture at its turning point. It documents 
a group of Eskimos including grandparents, who 
follow traditional ways, and their grandchildren, 
who live in the white man's world. It is the joint 
effort of photographer Ale.x Harris and psychi- 
atrist Dr. Robert Coles. First floor. Hall 9. 

"The People and Art of the Philippines." Through 
December 31, 1982. The 420 outstanding exam- 
ples of Philippine arts and crafts reveal the fas- 
cinating history of this Southeast Asian nation. 
The prehistoric ceramics and gold pieces, the 
Catholic religious art, the gailv colored textiles 
from southern Muslim tribes and the intricate 
wood car\ings from still-primitive northern peo- 
ples are among the exhibit highlights. Second 
floor. Hall 26. 

Hall of Ancient Egyptl\ns. "In the Shadow of 
the P\Tamid" exhibit area, which updated Field 
Museum's already excellent Egv'ptian collection, 
will be one vear old this November. The exhibit 
opens the interior of 4,000-vear-old tomb rooms 
so that Wsitors can now admire their wall canings 
at close range. Visitors may also view exhibits 
detailing life in prehistoric and early historic eras 
of Egj'pt, photomurals explaining how the tomb 
chapels came to Field Museum, and a replica of 
the chapel of Nakht on loan from the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art. This chapel displays facsimiles 
of some of the finest and most colorful Eg\^tian 
tomb paintings ever discovered. Ground floor, 
Hall J. 

New Programs 

"Wild Things: Film Series for Families." Parents 
and children can investigate the fate of some birds 
and animals in today's world through these films 
and related tours and art projects. The series is 
recommended for families with children age 5 
and older. Free with Museum admission. Meet at 
Lecture Hall I near the West Entrance. Dec. 4 — 
Sky Lords: Birds of Prey: "Last Stronghold of the 
Eagles," film; "Osprey's Domain," film; "We Care 
About Eagles," slide show; and "Eagle Food Chain 
Mobile," art activity. Dec. 11 — Herds on Hoof: 



"Sable Island," film; "Big Horn," film; "A Walk on 
the Wild Side," tour; and "Wild Horse Animated 
Slide Show," art acti\'ity. Dec. 18 — Water Birds: 
"Project Puffin," film; "The Loon's Necklace," 
film; "The Owl Who Married a Goose," film; and 
"Design a Duck," art acti\at\'. 

"Parol — Star Lanterns from the Philippines." A 
Family Feature. Families can visit "The People and 
Art of the Philippines" exhibit on their own and 
then follow a trail of Philippine star lanterns to the 
North Meeting Room. After a demonstration on 
how to make this Philippine decoration, which 
s\Tnbolizes the Star of Bethlehem, families can 
make their owti "Parols" out of bamboo and 
colored tissue. Free with Museum admission. 
Saturday, December 18 at 2:30 p.m.; Sunday, 
December 19 at 1 p.m. 

Coming in January: 

"Winter Fun." A series of weekend workshops 
for children will explore natural histon' through 
tours, films, and art acti\'ities. Members will 
receive a Winter Fun Brochure in December with 
a complete schedule. Call the Museum's Depart- 
ment of Education during business hours at 
322-8854 to order a brochure. 



Continuing Programs 

Parent/Child Workshops. The four workshops on 
No\'ember 20 offer parent-child teams a chance to 
u'ork on a craft project or join a participator^' 
e\'ent. Sessions are ke\'ed to child's age. 

"Hadrosaur Habitat," 10 a.m. to 12 noon, for 
ages 5-6. Make a dinosaur habitat in your owti 
shoe box. 

"The Bookbinder's Art," 10 a.m. to 12 noon and 
1 p.m. to 3 p.m., for ages 7-9. Make sheets of paper 
in the morning and in the afternoon bind them 
into a book. 

"Naturalists Afield," 1 p.m. to3p.m., for ages 5-6. 
Use your senses to discover the world of nature. 

"Tribal Markings," 1 p.m. to 3 p.m., for ages 7-8. 
Learn how other cultures use personal decora- 
tions and then decorate yourself. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lecture Series. Travel around 
the world \ia film every Saturday afternoon in 



November and December at Field Museum 



November. Narrated by the filmmakers them- 
selves, these free 90-minute film/lectures begin at 
1:30 in James Simpson Theatre. Admission is 
through the West Entrance. Members receive 
priorit}' seating. Nov. 20, "Antarctica," with Ted 
Walker; Nov. 27, "Italy," with Ted Bumiller. 

Weekend Events Line. A prerecorded telephone 
message gives up-to-date information about such 
weekend programs as Discovery Programs, Fam- 
ily Features, films, and special programs. Call 
(312) 322-8854 weekends. 

Weekend Discovery Programs. New vistas of nat- 
ural history are opened through these tours, films, 
slide programs, and participatory activities. On 
Nov. 20, 11:30 to 3:30, a day of tours and dem- 
onstrations is planned to celebrate the first anni- 
versary of the opening of the tomb chapel room of 
Unis-Ankh and Netjer-User. Nov. 27, 1:30 p.m., 
"The Ancient Egyptians"; Nov. 28, 1:30 p.m., "Sky 
Lords: Birds of Prey." December's programs in- 
clude tours of Northwest Coast exhibit, tours of 
the Egyptian Hall, and slide programs on dino- 
saurs and dinosaur specialists. Dec. 4, 1 p.m., 
"Indians of Tide and Tundra"; Dec. 5, 1 p.m., 
"Cope and Marsh: The Saurian Scandals"; Dec. 11, 



1:30 p.m., "Red Land/Black Land"; Dec. 12, 
1 p.m., "Sauropods: The Ultimate Dinosaurs." 

Winter Journey. "Eskimos — Arctic Hunters." 
This self-guiding tour will help vou discover how 
the Eskimo hunters succeeded in the world's most 
difficult environment. Free Journev pamphlets 
are available at Museum entrances. 

Volunteer Opportunities. Volunteers are needed 
to give Geology programs to school groups and 
to give weekday and Saturday programs in the 
Pawnee Earth Lodge. Also limited openings for 
volunteers in Geology and Zoology. Contact 
Volunteer Coordinator at 922-9410, ext. 360. 

Museum Hours. The Museum is open daily from 
9 a.m. to 4 p.m. The free day is Thursday. It is 
closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas Day and 
New Year's Day. 

The Museum Library is open weekdays from 9 a.m. 
to 4 p.m. Obtain a pass at the reception desk, 
main floor. The Library will be closed Thanks- 
giving, the day before Christmas, and on 
Christmas Day. 

Museum Phone: (312) 922-9410 



0^^^^ Holiday Happenings '^^*^'^ 



This holiday season make Field Museum a 
family destination! Here are some special 
places and events you won't want to miss: 

n "Wild Things: Film Series for Families. " 
Celebrate the wonders of the animal world 
through films, tours, and projects. 

n "Parol — Lanterns from the Philip- 
pines. " Make a Christmas decoration from 
another land in this Family Feature. 

n "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast. " See how Eskimos 
reaUy live. 

For Holiday Shopping: The Museum 



Store. Unusual items such as tiny tinkling 
tree of brass bells from the Philippines; 
ethnic jewelry; mounted butterflies and 
sheUs; children's picture and coloring 
books; or dinosaur T-shirts — all of these 
help to make gift selection for anyone in 
any price category a snap. 

And for Holiday Feasting: The Museum 
Cafeteria. Special holiday foods — 
traditional Thanksgiving treats during 
November, Christmas pastries and fruit 
cake in December Take home some fruit 
cake, or just feed your body and rest your 
feet in our spacious cafetjeria! 



27 



EDITH FLEMING 

9'»& PLEASANT 

OAK PARK ILL 60302 



^ 



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For Christinas 
Give FleldMuseum 



.. w .v^^ 



Whether you are tning to decide on a Christmas 
gift for the small child or for "the man who has 
everN-thing," a gift of Membership in Field 
Museum is always appropriate. 

For the adult, a Membership can proxide a wealth 
of opportunities to ftirther explore the realm of natural 
histor>'; for the child it can open the doors to a lifetime 
of scientific interest or professional endeavor Infinitely 
more than a storehouse of fascinating specimens and 
exhibits. Field Museum ofiers to its Members at every 
age level a varied selection of exciting learning experien- 
ces \ia the classroom, workshop, laboratory, film lecture, 
or field trip. 

Perhaps equally important; with a Field Museum 
Membership you are gi^'ing a shared relationship, for 
Field Museum is indeed its Members. 



^%^!J^.^ 



■^^m^^ 



clip and mail this coupon or facsimile 



to: Membership Department 

Field Museum of Natural Histor\- 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, II 6()6a=> 

I wish to send gift memberships to the following: 



Gift recipient's name 



Gift recipient's name 



Mv name 



Street 



Street 



Street 



CitA- 



State 



Zip 



Cixs 



State 



Zip 



Cit\ 



State 



Zip 



_ Indi\idual membership 820 
Lj Family membership 825 



n Indi\idual membership 820 
n Family membership 825 



n Cheek enclosed payable to Field Museum 
D Please bill me 

D Charge to Master Charge acc't # 

n Charge to \'isa acc't # _ 



n Send gift card annoimccmcnt in my name 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



December 1982 




Calendar for 1983 



Field Museum 




of Natural History 




Bulletin 




Published by 




Field Museum of Natural History | 


Founded 1893 




President: Willard L. Boyd 




Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 




Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 


Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 


Calendar: Mary Cassai 




Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 




Board OF Trustees 


Life Trustees 


James). O'Connor 


Harry O. Bercher 


chairman 


Joseph N. Field 


Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 


Clifford C. Gregg 


George R. Baker 


Samuel Insull, Jr. 


Robert O. Bass 


William V. Kahler 


Gordon Bent 


William H.Mitchell 


Bowen Blair 


John M. Simpson 


Willard L Boyd 


J. Howard Wood 


Stanton R. Cook 




O.C. Davis 




William R. Dickinson, Jr. 




Thomas E. Donnelley 11 




Marshall Field 




Richard M. Jones 




Hugo J. Melvoin 




Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 




Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 




James H. Ransom 




John S. Runnells 




William L. Searle 




Edward Byron Smith 




Robert H. Strotz 




John W. Sullivan 




William G. Swartchild, Jr 




Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 




E. Leland Webber 




Julian B. Wilkins 




Blaine J. Yarrington 





CONTENTS 

December 1982 
Volume 53, Number 11 



1983: The Year of the Plant 

by William Burger, chairman. Department of Botany 

Appointment Calendar for 1983 

Featuring botanical photos taken in or near 
Chicago by William Burger 



COVER 

Spring beauty, Claytonia virginica. 
Photo by William Burger 



Fi^id Museum of Natural History Bulletm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
J uly August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II h06(l? Sulsscriptions: Sb 00 annuallv. S3. 00 tor schools. Museum meml>ership 
includes Builcliii subscription. Opinions expressed bv authors are their own and do not 
nccessariiv rcilect the polic\" ol Field .Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
ptione: (312) ^22-9410. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural Histor\', 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, 11, 




Turban squash {Cucurbita mnxima variety turbaniformis). These specimens were used as models for the reproduction on view 
in the Hall of Useful Plants (Hall 28). 

1983: The Year of the Plant 

by William Burger 
Chairman, Department of Botany 



The calendar for 1983, comprising this issue 
of the Bulletin, features plant life and is 
part of Field Museum's focus on botany in 1983. 
Plant science is one of the four major research 
areas at Field Museum, the others being 
anthropology', geologv', and zoology'. 

What is especially significant about botany 
at Field Museum in 1983 is the reopening of one 
of our largest halls. Plants of the World (Hall 
29). Renoyation will include reinstallation of all 
exhibits (except dioramas, which remained 
intact), reorganization of materials, rehanging 
the mural-size paintings, installing nevy light- 
ing and carpeting, and constructing a lounge 
that will look eastward to Lake Michigan 

Field Museum houses the largest and most 



comprehensiye collection of plant models in 
the world; these form the core of the newly 
renovated hall. The model-building program 
was begun by former Museum president Stanle\' 
Field in 1909 and continued for oyer half a cen- 
tury. The models coyer all groups of plants, 
from algae and fungi to conifers and flowering 
plants. A new exhibit floor plan will allo\y vis- 
itors to compare related groups of plants in a 
more meaningful way. Special areas are de\'oted 
to the naming of plants, the system of classifi- 
cation, flovyers and their pollination sv'stems, 
and dispersal of seeds and fruit. We belie\'e 
Hall 29 to be the world Is largest single botanical 
museum exhibit. Don't miss it when it opens 
in 1983. 



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13 

first quarter 


O 




OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 

1 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 


in 

1 

oc 

3 


(N 




CD 


AUGUST 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 4 5 6 
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 
14 15 16 17 18 19 20 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 
28 29 30 31 


<t 


^ 


00 


in 



h'"--;- 






•* •> ^ 






3«» • " 5*: 



-"<^- 



, '> 






>^^^-^^- 



cr'-:*^^ 



/■A^: 



sBf^ 



• » ••;"-■ 



"^r-^i 




. ■■.<vr- 



*^^. 




-^i 



tri: 



:-^^ 



-^^i: 



?<?r^^ii 



iL^^^i 



V  -•'.,'■ 



.^^■^T 



-v-^ 



1^1^'t 



.^#, ■> 



s v. ;! 









A.v> 






^%#; 

.*-.--^ 






J^. 



fH*^^^ ^V, 



. --.-vV • 



E 

3 



%^'. 



7.V 



Jilr-KV 






s: 



li 



^ 



I 

o 



Q 



CQ 

o 

H 
U 

O 



'^ 


00 


m 


CN 
CN 


CN 




r^ 


3 


21 

O 

lull moon 


28 

last quarter 




^ •! 


13 

lirst quarter 


20 

Orionid 
meteor 
shower 


(N 




in 


CN 


OJ 


CO 

CN ,; 




-^ 


^ 


00 


in 

CN 


MOVEMBER 

S M T W T F S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 


to 


10 

COLUMBUS DAY 


r^ 


\ z 

CN \ 


SEPTEMBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 


CN 


o 


CO 


\ o 

CN V 




3 



3 
SO 

c 

3 

U. 



o 

H 
CD 



I 

o 

D 
cn 






I 



CQ 

> 

o 



lO 


12 

first quarter 


Oj 


CO 
CN 




^ •s 

^ ^ 


VETERANS DAY 


CXD 


lO 
CN 




to 


o 


r^ 


24 

THANKSGIVING 
Museum closed 




(N 


9 

Taurid 
meteor 
shower 
(leihr) 


CD 


to 

CN 


o 
to 




CO 

_|Z 

z"^ 


ID 


CN 
CN 


CN 


DECEMBER 

S M T W T F S 
1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 
18 19 20 21 22 23 24 
25 26 27 28 29 30 31 


r^ 


3 


CN 


00 
CN 


OCTOBER 

S M T W T F S 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 


^ 


to 


20 

O 

full moon 


[^ * 
CN 

1— 

z 

UJ 

> 

Q 
< 



01 

13 









U 



m 
Q 



to 


O 


2,10 

O *0 fi? 


s 


to 


CN 


a> 


<X) 


?Q 


o 
to 


HANUKKAH 


00 


m 


first day of winter . 

22 


CN 




r^ 


3 


CN 


00 
CN 




CO 


13 

Geminid 
meteor 
shower 

(55/hr) 


o 

CN 


CN 


JANUARY 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

8 9 10 1 1 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 3 1 


in 


12 

first quarter 


O 0| 

"g 

c - =: 

S ^1 


26 

last quarter 


NOVEMBER 

5 M T W T r S 
12 3 4 5 
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 
13 14 15 16 17 18 19 
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 
27 28 29 30 




^ 


00 


If) 

CN 

< 

?E 

(/) 3-0 

CC M 10 
X 30 
US U 



EDITH FLEIIMG 

9'*G PLEASAf^T 

OAK PARK ILL 60302