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Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

January 1983 

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Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 

Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 


Januan' 1983 
Volume 54, Number 1 

Winter Fun 

Field Briefs 

A Layman's Guide to Resources, Reserves, 
and Recovery 

bv Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy' 


Tburfor Members: 

Grand Canyon and the Colorado 


Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mis. T. Stanton Annour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley n 
MarshaU Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.Stiotz 
John W. Sullivan 
WillUm G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. UUnd Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yanington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr. 
William V. Kahler 
WiUiam H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 

Field Museum of Satural Hatory Bullelm (USPS 898-940) is pul>ltshed monthly, except combined 
July/ August B5ue. by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago, D 60t)05 Subscriptions: $6 00 annually. S3-0O for schools. Museum memt>ership 
includes Sullrtm subscription Opinions expressed bv authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the polic>- of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone; (312) 922-9410 Postmaster Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive. Chicago, II 60605 lSSN:0015-0703 

An Industrial Miracle in a Golden Age: 

The 17th Century Cloth Exports of India 12 

bv Bennett Branson 

Associate Curator of Asian archaeology' and ethnologx' 

Index to Volume 53 (January-December, 1982) 26 


Table cowr made in western India, ad 1 700-1850. Made for use in 
India. This remarkable piece uill be on \ieu' in Hall 27 beginning 
Januan' 29 (Members 'pre\ie\vjan. 28) as part of the exhibit ''Master 
Divrs to the World: Early Fabrics from India. " For more on Indian 
chvcs' art see pp. 12-25. 

This piece looks a bit like patchwork but is made from a single, 
uncut cloth. It mavha\'e functioned as a sampler, showing many 
different single-flower block stamps and a manvlous range of 
subtle earth-tone colors. 

The di'er made it using onlv a few dyes but many brief 
immersions in the vat, each time taking it out, drying it, covering 
another triangle or ttvo with wax (or a similar resist), and then 
dipping it back in again. The fact that the resulting series of colors 
have not faded into each other in all this time is a testimony to the 
remarkable fastness ofearlv Indian natural dws. Permanent 
wllows are said to haw been particularly hard to achi'ei'e before 
the dewlopment ofsinthetic coal tar and petroleum dyes in the 
late 19th centurx'. 

The flowvrs are naturalistic enough that most could probably 
be identified bv someone with a good knowledge of the desert wild 
and garden flowvrs ofRajasthan. where these cloths were made. 

D\'ed cotton, with stamped (and brushed-on?) mordants and 
resist. National Museum, New Delhi 56.48/12. 

Field Museum is grateful to Garamond/Pridemark Press, Inc., 
of Baltimore Man-land, and to the Tbxtile Museum, Washington, 
D.C. for the use of color transparencies to produce color plates on 
the cover and on pages 12-18. 

Workshops for Children 1983 

Children ages 4 to 12 are invited to explore Field Museum's 
collections in a series of exciting weekend workshops 

Saturday, January 8 

"AN ESKIMO WINTER": See how Eskimo children adapt their 

fun to the indoors: play their games and make your own Eskimo 


Ages 4-5; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $6, nonmembers: 18. 

"ROYAL AFRICAN BANNERS": Hear legends about these sym 
bols and use colorful stamps to make your own banner or tie- 
dye fabric. 
Ages 6-7; 1 to 3pm. Members: 18, nonmembers: JIO. 

"DINOSAUR MURAL": With your class, paint a giant dinosaur 
mural and make a small dinosaur drawing into a button to 
wear home! 

Ages 6-7; Saturdays, Jan. 8 and 15, from 10am to 12 noon. 
Members: $14, nonmembers; $16. 

"LEGEND OF THE WHTTE SNAKE LADY": Find out about this 
ancient folk art, learn to make shadow figures from Chinese 
legends, and join together to give your own shadow play. 
Ages 8-9; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $8, nonmembers: $10. 

Sunday, January 9 

"THUNDER LIZARDS": Learn about dinosaur sizes and habits 

and make your own stuffed prehistoric pal. 

Ages 4-5; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $8, nonmembers: $10. 

Hear the calls of various frogs and learn about their life stages 
— egg, to tadpole, to adult. 
Ages 6-7; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

"JOURNEY THROUGH TIME": Examine trilobite, dinosaur, and 
woolly mammoth fossils and make a giant time-line trail 
through the Museum halls! 
Ages 6-7; 1 to 3pm. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

"DIARY OF AN INDIAN WARRIOR": Find out about the lives of 

the Sioux, Cheyenne, and Kiowa; build your own tipi to set up 


Ages 8-9; 1 to 3pm. Members: $8, nonmembers: $10. 

"DECODING THEROSETTA STONE": Study a facsimile of this 
mysterious stone and create your o^vn Egyptian stela rubbing. 
Ages 10-12: 10am to 12 noon. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

Saturday, January 15 

"GIANTS— YESTERDAY AND TODAY": Compare today's giants 

with yesterday's and find out how they cope with their huge 


Ages 4-5; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

"SPIRTT AND ANIMAL DANCERS": Usten to myths that enliven 
Indian ceremonies, create your own myth, dance, and music. 
Ages 6-7; 1 to 3 pm. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

"A BOOK OF MYTHICAL TALES": Look at slides of scientific 
drawings of real animals. Choose your favorite, then paint a 
fantasy creature that you write a story about. 
Ages 6-7; 1 to 3 pm, Saturdays, Jan. 15 and 22. Members: $12, 
nonmembers: $14. 

"FILMMAKING": Using archival photographs and exhibit halls, 
the group makes Super 8 film documenting the construction 
of the Museum building and the collection and display of the 
Museum's many famous exhibits. 

Ages 7-9; Saturdays, Jan. 15, 22, and 29; 1 to 3pm. Members: 
$22, nonmembers: $25. 

"KI-AIKIDO": Exercises that aid the coordination of mind, 
body, and breathing introduce you to the art of ki-aikido. 
Ages 8-9; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $6, nonmembers: $8. 

"BOTANIC ILLUSTRATION": Students learn to use microscopes 
and drawings tools in examining a dried plant, then create a 
part of that sf)ecimen. 
Ages 10-12; 1 to 3pm. Members: $8, nonmembers: $10. 3 

Saturday.Januaiy 22 

'JUNGLE UNDER GLASS". Discover the world of plants: build a 

minianire tropical rain forest. 

Ages 4-5; 10am to 12 noon. Members: 18, nonmembcrs: JIO. 

'ANIMAL ACCESSORIES': Learn about special adaputions of 

animals by discussing and imitating their ways of life. 

Ages 6-7; 10am to 12 noon. Members: $8. nonmembcrs: 110. 

'ROCK AND ROLL': Answer important questions about rocks 

and minerals through lab experiments and a tour of geology 


Ages 8-9; 10am to 12 noon. Members: »6, nonmembers: J8. 

'A NIGHT IN THE FIELD': Camp out inside Field Museum! Let 
museum staff introduce you to the world of Field Museum. 
Snacks and breakfast included. 

Ages 9-10; Saturday. Jan. 22, 6:30pm to Sunday, Jan 23, 9am. 
Saturday, Jan. 29, 6:30pm to Sunday, Jan 30, 9am. Members: 
122, normiembcrs: J25. 

•IN PURSUIT OF THE PAST": Learn how artifacts are dated, 
reconstructed, and analyzed by working in a lab, then draw 
conclusions from your findings. 
Ages 10-12; 1 to 3pm. Members: *8, nonmembers: »10. 

Saturday, January 29 

'NIGHTTIME HUNTERS— OWLS': Learn about these fascinating 

birds and make your own bean bag snowy owl. 

Ages 4-5; 10am to 12 noon. Members: 18, nonmembers: JIO. 

-SOMETHING FISHY": Find out about walking catfish, electric 

fish, and megamouth (a new shark species) and their unique 


Ages 6-7; 1 to 3pm. Members: »6, nonmembers: >8. 

"PASSAGE TO INDIA": After touring Field Museum's new 
exhibit, "Master Dyers to the World," learn about resist-dyeing 

technique and create your own designs. 

Ages 8-9; 10am to 12 noon. Members: *8, nonmembers: 


'FRIEND OR FOE': Learn to appreciate misunderstood animals; 

track their geographic locations. 

Ages 8-9; 1 to 3pm. Members: 16, nonmembers: J8. 

at the North Information Booth at 1:00pm and tour the 
Museum's exhibits to learn how animals prepare for winter 
hardships. Learn to make suet and seed treats for winter wild- 
life. This program is/ree; no tickets required. 

Saturday.January 15 

"Winter Critters": What do animals do in winter? 

Sunday.January 16 

'Birds in My Backyard": Know the birds that winter in or near 

EXHIBTT OPENING: "Master Dyers to the Worid: Early Fabrics 
from India" features rare, beautiful clodis fi-om 15th- 18th 
century' India. 

Members' preview: From 5 to 7pm on Friday, January 28. 
Special guest for the preview will be Dr. Mattiebelle Gittinger, 
guest curator and author of the exhibit catalog. Dr Gittinger 
will be in the Museum Store for an autograph session from 
5:15 to 6:00pm. From 6:15 to 6:45 she will deliver an exhibit 
slide lecture in Lecture Hall 1. 

The public opening for this exhibit is Saturday.January 29. 

Museum Hours: 9:00am to 5KX)pm daily (closed New Year's Day) 

Museum Telephone: (312) 922-9410 

Weekend EVENTS: (312) 322-8854 

1 Complete coupon and mail with 
1 check payable to "Field Museum" 

1 Return to: Winter Funi 983 

1 Dept. of Education 

j Field Museum of Natural History 

For Office Use 

Date Received 

Name of Parent 

Date Returned 


1 Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive 
} Chk»go,IL 60605-2497 

City State 


Telepfxxie; Daytime Evening 

1 Child's Name (last name first) 


Woritshop Title 




1 Encio— mW Kidr—Md. »t«mpi) «nv«lop« tor pctority In i»tft»M»lloiL 



Austin L. Rand 1906-82 

Former Field Museum curator Austin 
Loomer Rand (right) died November 6 in 
Avon Park, Florida; he was 76 years old. A 
world renowned ornithologist. Rand 
served on the Field Museum staff from 
1947 to 1970, his final post being chief cura- 
tor of Zoology. Following his retirement 
he moved to Lake Placid, Florida. 

A native of Nova Scotia, Rand's field 
work took him to Madagascar, the Philip- 
pines, and to New Guinea. Before joining 
the Field Museum staff he was with the 
American Museum of Natural History in 
New York (1929-42) and with the NaHonal 
Museum of Canada (1942-47). He wrote a 
number of popular as well as technical 
books on birds, and frequently contrib- 
uted articles to the Bulletin. His popular 
work Ornithology: An Introduction appeared 
in 1967 

Rand is survived by his wife, Rheua; 
two sons, Stanley and William; and four 

50 Millionth Visitor Returns 

E. Leland Webber, president emeritus of 
Field Museum, had a surprise visit to his 
office on November 19 by John M. Witte, a 
life member now of Tulsa, Oklahoma. On 
July 2, 1962, Witte, then twelve years old, 
became the 50 millionth visitor to Field 
Museum (then known as Chicago Natural 
History Museum), and Webber, then 
director, presented him with a life mem- 
bership certificate. Witte's parents, Mr. 
and Mrs. John S. Witte, of suburban 
Westchester, are also Field Museum 
members and are frequent visitors to the 

Shown below are E. Leland Webber 
and John M. Witte in 1962 (left) and 1982. 


'4- . 

World Wildlife 
Evening, Prince 
Philip Presides 

A November 8 S^'mposium at 
Field Museum on "Tropical 
Forests: Vanishing Cradle of 
Diversity" was the occasion for 
a visit by Prince Philip, Duke of 
Edinburgh, president of World 
Wildlife Fund-International, 
who served as symposium 
chairman. A reception and din- 
ner followed the symposium in 
Stanley Field Hall. Shown here 
are the prince and some of the 
evening's guests. 

From top lefi, clockwise: 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta, Prince 
Philip; Mr James J. O'Connor, 
Mrs. and Dr WiUard L. Boyd; 
The Honorable Jane Byrne, 
Prince Philip, Mrs. T. Stanton 
Armour, Mr Russell Train; 
Dr Boyd; Mrs. Armour, 
Prince Philip, Mrs. James 
J. O'Connor, Mrs. Harry 
O. Bercher; Dr Edward A. 
Newman, Mr Arthur Rubloff, 
Mrs. Robert A. Pritzker; Dr 
Edwin J. DeCosta, Mrs. 
Armour, Prince Philip, 
Mrs. DeCosta. 

A LAYMAN'S Guide to 
Resources, Reserves, and Recovery 

by Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 

Dark as a Dungeon 

It's dark as a dungeon, and damp as the dew. 
The dangers are double, the pleasures are few, 
Where the rain never falls, and the sun never shines. 
It's dark as a dungeon, way down in the mines. 

— M. Travis 

Many Years Ago I worked in a mine. I did 
it for less than a year, but the experience was 

Miners work hard, in a dark, hazardous en- 
vironment. I got to know a lot of men who have 
been miners for life. They are hardy, fatalistic, 
and superstitious — like seamen. I heard tales of 
mines 9,000 feet deep, where the drifts (tunnels) 
through the ore creak and groan as the rock walls 
slowly sag inward to finally fill the open space 
that cannot be permanently supported at that 
depth. The strategy is to keep the drifts moving, 
backfill with waste rock, and let them cave in be- 
hind you. Mines at such depths are beastly hot 
and bone dry. 

My mine was only 1, 100 feet deep. The drifts 
were wet — ankle deep with cold water, and the 
walls and ceilings oozed and dripped a constant 
shower of water. The cold, dank air was laden 
with the smell of crushed rock and stale dyna- 
mite. Half a dozen times a day I would hear a 
series of short whistle notes, a miner's voice 
shouting, "Blast, blast, blast!!!" followed by a 
resounding deep thump that rumbled through 
the rock, and a sudden rush of hot air that roared 
down the drift. They had just dynamited a mass 
of ore. 

As I used to slosh along the drifts, the light 
on my hard hat piercing the damp darkness, 
picking out the twists, turns, and dead ends, I 
recall wondering how many of the people who 
live up on the surface of this planet have any idea 
what goes on down here, and how they get the 
products they use. Now, years later, I've decided 
practically no one has any idea what this is about. 

Even today, sometimes as 1 look around a 
room I can't help ticking off in my mind the vast 
number of products and devices we take for 
granted that are made from minerals hard won 
by miners: all the metals of our cars and homes, 
glass, all electrical appliances, computers, tran- 

sistors, lighting, TV sets, bricks, fertilizers for the 
foods we eat, and on and on- — everything that 
is not made of wood or natural fibers. 

There is a good deal of misinformation about 
mineral resources, and this is especially troubling 
when the misinformed are legislators, adminis- 
trators, bureaucrats, and political candidates. 
It is easy to state half truths about mineral re- 
sources, or make statements that are both true 
and false at the same time. 

Some years ago I recall hearing a council- 
man of a suburb near Chicago say that water 
resources would never be a problem for his vil- 
lage because "a subterranean river from Lake 
Superior flows right under the village." This is 
absolutely wrong, of course. At some time in his 
past real facts were mixed up, and this "fact" was 
the result. In that particular case a sandstone 
formation below that village (and hundreds of 
other municipalities in Illinois, Wisconsin, 
Michigan, and Iowa) carried groundwater that 
entered the sandstone, where it outcropped, as 
soaked-in rain, in central Wisconsin — not Lake 
Superior! Dipping gently southward from Wis- 
consin, the sandstone lies almost 2,000 feet 
below that particular village. The recharge rate 
and flow rate are so slow that a few dozen vil- 
lages pumping from deep wells would soon 
exhaust it. Worse yet, due to chemicals in the 
sandstone a large portion of the water is unus- 
able. Nevertheless, this bit of "knowledge" had 
its effect on this poliHcian's voting record in mat- 
ters of water use in his village. 

Over the past dozen years two presidential 
candidates have made a particular statement 
which is true, but misleading: Of the petroleum 
in the United States that was here when the Pil- 
grims landed, about half remains in the ground. 
We need only apply the right incentives to get it 
pumped out. In other words, we've only used 
about half the petroleum. The rest is still down 
there waiting to be had. The statement is true — 
however, too simplistic. It's more complicated 
than that. 

Such a statement makes oil companies look 
bad in the eyes of the public. If there is an amount 
of oil about equal to what we've already used, 
why are they sitting on it? Why are we (the USA) 
left vulnerable to the whims and politics of the 

OPEC nations when we could be totally inde- 
pendent of them? To understand this we have 
to look at the average oil deposit. 

Contrary to popular belief, oil "pools" are 
not pools at all. When an oil geologist talks about 
pools he knows what he means, but the word car- 
ries a popular image of a kind of underground 
cavity filled with well mixed oil, like the stuff that 
comes out of a can in your friendly filling station. 
A still somewhat simplified, but more correct 
image, is that of oil droplets filling the tiny pore 
spaces between mineral grains. In many 
untapped "pools" the oil is charged with 
methane gas, just as a carbonated drink is 
charged with carbon dioxide. When the methane 
pressure is high and the oil drill hits the layer of 
rock holding the oil, you get the "gusher" made 
famous in old movies. It's just like opening a bot- 
tle of champagne, or shaking up a coke. In cases 
where the methane pressure is lower, as it is 
most of the time, the oil can be readily pumped 
up from considerable depth, driven upward by 
the pressure of the gas, along with the suction 
of the pumping system. As times goes by, this 
natural gas charge is lost, the viscosity increases, 
and pumping becomes more difficult. 

Another factor also comes into play. Oil is 
not a single product. It consists of a mixture of 
light to heavy fracHons that can span a range 
from thin and almost watery, to thick, tarry, and 
mudlike in consistency. Some oil fields have high 
fractions of lightweight oils and some are mainly 
heavy oils. Taking all oil deposits together, 
roughly half is light and easily pumped, and half 
is dense and pumping is impossible. 

Oil companies make every attempt to get all 
the oil out of a given field by straight pumping. 
This is called primary recovery, and is the cheapest 
oil to produce. When the lightest fractions have 
been gotten, the next technique is to try fractur- 
ing and water flooding. This uses the fact that 
oil will float on water. A second hole is drilled 
down to the oil-bearing layer. Water is force- 
pumped down this hole. Some of the remaining 
oil is dislodged by the water and the mixture of 
oil and water is pumped out of the original 
production well. This process is called secondary 
recovery. As a rough national average, at this 
stage about half the original oil in the deposit has 
been obtained. The remaining half consists of 
tarry, sticky oil that cannot be dislodged from be- 
tween mineral grains in the rock. At this point 
the oil field may be considered effectively dead. 
It is this half of the original oil, politicians imply, 
that can be gotten with the right incentives. 

There are ways to obtain this remaining oil 
— but at a high cost. The least desirable of these 
is to put in an underground mine, mine out the 
rock, bring it to the surface, crush it, heat it 

(which uses energy) and distill out the oil. This 
is the expensive method that has been used to 
remove oil from the much talked-about "oil 
shales" and "tar sands." The other method is 
to pump down a complex mixture of chemicals 
called surfactants and detergents. They release 
the sticky oils from the mineral grains and sus- 
pend them in an emulsion which can be pumped 
to the surface. The chemicals that are needed for 
this process, which is called tertiary recovery, are 
expensive to produce. 

On top of all this, there is still another con- 
sideration. Most refineries, which turn oil into 
such finished products as gasoline, are designed 
to handle oils of light to medium weight. In order 
to refine the heavy oils obtained by tertiary re- 
covery major new investments must be made in 
refining equipment. 

The end result is that the methods necessary 
to remove the remaining half of the oil in the USA 
are very expensive. Translated into the price you 
pay for gasoline or heating oil, OPEC oil (most 
of which involves secondary recovery at most) 
is vastly cheaper. 

Turning from the oil industry, there are two 
other general words bandied about the mineral 
industry — words often used incorrectly: reserve 
and resource. It's common to hear them used in- 
terchangeably by political and business leaders 
and by members of the communications media. 
They are, actually, not interchangeable. 

A reserve is an amount of a natural mineral 
product — such as metallic ore, petroleum, coal, 
water, industrial stone, etc. — that can be meas- 
ured in tons (or barrels) and is known to exist. In 
addition, the mineral must be producible with 
existing technology at a cost that is not prohibi- 
tive on the current marketplace. 

There are several levels of confidence in- 
volved in knowing the amount of a given re- 
serve. Ore in the ground (or oil, or water, etc.), 
for example, can be measured with reasonable 
accuracy by a combination of geophysical and 
geochemical methods, along with direct obser- 
vation of drill cores that have been made. These 
are called measured reserves, and can be spoken 
about with great confidence in matters of na- 
tional planning, price structures, markets, and 

Then there are indicated reserves. These are 
based on limited and widely spaced measure- 
ments of ore in the area surrounding the meas- 
ured reserves. The supposition is that a few 
random samples, combined with some map- 
ping, can indicate whether a significant amount 
of ore extends beyond the measured reserve 
area. Back when I worked in a mine I was in- 
volved in the mapping that led to estimates of 
indicated reserves. Indicated reserves can be 

talked about with less confidence. 

Finally, there are what is called inferred 
reserves. These are projections of ore possibilities 
into broad regions surrounding an ore body 
based on the general geological character of the 
type of ore and on the mining history of similar 
ore bodies elsewhere in the world. Few or no 
samples are taken. Such reserves can be spoken 
of with little confidence. 

On top of these three degrees of knowledge 
about a given ore body (or oil "pool"), there is 
superimposed the consideration of economic re- 
serves. Suppose, for example, you have an iron 
ore deposit with a measured reserve of 700 mil- 
lion tons. Your chief user is, perhaps, a single 
auto company. Based on your sales to that man- 
ufacturer the reserves should last a comfortable 
36 years. Suddenly there is a boom in auto pro- 
duction. The projected life of your mining com- 
pany drops effectively to 9 years because of the 
increased demand A mining company in such 
a spot will go into a panic. Its economic lifetime 
has decreased to an unacceptably short period. 
This has exactly the same result on the company 
as if it suddenly discovered that it had made a 

bad assessment of its measured reserve by a fac- 
tor of four. 

Another economic factor can also come into 
• play in certain ores. For example, suppose a cop- 
per mine opened in 1880 and mined ore that con- 
tained 4 percent copper — a very rich mine by 
modern standards. In terms of 1880 mining 
practices if the ore grade fell below 1 percent cop- 
per it could not be profitably mined. A hundred 
years later, however, mining methods have im- 
proved to the point where 0.02 percent copper 
can be extracted fairly easily. In the 1980s, how- 
ever, other costs have risen and an ore body with 
as little as 0.02 percent copper wouldn't be 
enough to justify starting a new mine. A start-up 
consists of more than tunnelling into the rock. 
It involves mine buildings, crushers, and ore- 
processing equipment, ore concentration equip- 
ment and buildings to house it, housing for 
miners and their families, and a fleet of costly 
ore-carrying trucks. The capital investment is 
huge. If, however, there is an existing mine, and 
the ore grade keeps getting leaner and leaner, 
down to 0.02 percent, this low grade can be 

Continued on p. 25 


Field Museum Store's hefty (20 oz. ), life-size apples would 
bring more than ^6,500 each if they were actually of gold, but 
these stunning brass look-alikes are available to you now at 
just 328 each (less member's 10% discount) — the perfect 
paperweight, table decoration, or conversation piece. The 
carved wooden bowl is Philippine (317). 

These and thousands of other gifts for that special person 
in your life can be found in Field Museum Store's own exotic 
collection from around the world. 

Open daily, 9:00am to 5:00pm. 


M E Rada 

Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 27 - June 5 

An exciting 280-mile cruise down the Colorado River bv motorized rubber 
raft, camping outdoors under the stars. Dr. Bertram G. Woodland, curator 
ofpetrolog}^, will lead the tour. Group limited to 25. For additional informa- 
tion call (322-8862) or write the Tours Office. 

The following account of Field Museum's 1981 Grand Canyon 
trip was written by participant Gail Richardson: 

I grew up in the city and never considered roughing 
it. When the letter came from the Field Museum an- 
nouncing a white-water rafting trip down the Colorado 
River through the Grand Canyon I was horrified to hear 
my husband of 21 years gleefully announce, "We're 
going, of course!" 

"Rapids? Sleeping outside?" I croaked. "Never!" 

Two months later on a blazing mid-July day I stood 
on the beach at Lees Ferry, Arizona, surveying with 
dismay the two 37-foot rubber rafts which were to trans- 
port our group to Lake Mead on the down side of some 
of the roughest rapids in the world. Our leader, a charm- 
ing geologist from the Field Museum, made me almost 
ashamed of my terror since he was making the trip with 
a broken collarbone and cracked ribs received in a mug- 
ging six days before. Seeing his bravery I decided 1 could 
at least pretend to enjoy myself for the next nine days. To 
my amazement pretending wasn't necessary. 1 had the 
adventure of my life and became a convert to camping. 

I discovered the skyscraper doesn't exist that can 

rival the Canyon spires, slashed with hotly glowing 
colors. No luxury hotel anywhere can provide a suite as 
glorious as the Canyon at night. Lying on the top of my 
sleepingbag with no bugs to pester me I watched the 
stars arrange themselves across the inky sky in their 
ageless constellations. 1 hadn't known they could sparkle 
so brilliantly. 

I, who had dreaded the rapids, joined those who 
rode in front, yelping in delight as we catapulted into 
foaming torrents and roaring with laughter when we 
got drenched in 55 degree water. You dried in ten min- 
utes, anyhow! Quickly, I forgot to wonder what my hair 
looked like and chuckled with the others about our 
bedraggled state. 

No opulent spa or resort pool can stand comparison 
to the springs and natural pools tucked within the inner 
Canyon. Where water exists the desert retreats, and we 
were enchanted to find ferns and plants in profusion 
surrounding a cascade or feathering the outlines of 
breathtakingly clear, sun-warmed water where we frol- 
icked and dove and knew we had come close to para- 
dise. 11 

An Industrial Miracle in a Golden Age: 
The 17th-Century Cloth Exports of India 

Associate Curator, Asian Archaeology and Ethnology 

Exhibition, "Master Dyers to the World: Early Fabrics from India," opens January 29 in Hall 27 


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Jiip;uiest'-stvlt" morning gown, ad 
1700-50. Southeastern India. 
Made for siile in Euro[H" 

This shows. briUianth: how 
to .s/i,i/x" <i textile fxittern so that 
it can Ix' tailored into a Sftecific 
s^amient. The great pine tree 
grows from a nxrkv mound at 
the Ixick ami spreads up to the 
shoulders, along the sleews, and 
around to the front. The divd 
pattern [X'rtix'tlv matches the 
form of the linished coat. 

It was made tor a Euro/x'an 
market, vet the layout and the 
twisted pine mot if are classically 
JafMnese. It .'ieems almost certain 
that the Indian designer had 
seen a real kimono fromjapan, 
probably brought to the Coro- 
mandel Coast (that part of India 
south and just north of Madras) 
by Dutch traders in the late 17th 
century Thatjapanese designs 
wvre already iniluencing Euro- 
[X'an tastes in 1~(X). long lieibre 
Comnuxloiv Perr\' and the great 
JafKin craze of the late 19th 
century, is one of the surprises of 
this show. 

Lh'ed cotton, with brushed- 
on mordants and drawn resist. 
Royal Ontario Museum. Toronto, j 

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J. 1 


Palam[X)re Bedco\'er. ad 1700-50. • 
Southeastern India. Made for 
sale in Europe. 

With its large center medal- 
lion and corner segments, the 
basic layout of this palampore 
resembles a Persian carpet: but 
the filler design looks Japanese or 
Okinawan. Notice how the 
(Indian-type) birds are some- 
times cut offbv the curws of the 
rose-colored meander pattern: a 
pla\'ful design concept that is 
typically Japanese. The designer 
of this piece clearly knew the 
textiles ofsewral other countries. 
His genius lay in his abiliti' to 
adapt, reinterpret, and combine 
these into new forms. 
P}'ed cotton, with bnished- 
on mordants and drawn resist. 
Gemeentemuseum de Hidde 
Nijland Stichting, Hindeloopen, 
Netherlands 131 


At the end of Januaiy , a new special exhi- 
bition, "Master IDyers to the World," 
opens at Field Museum for a three- 
month run. The subject of the show is cloth, 
much of it of cotton, most of it two to three 
hundred years old, and all of it woven and dyed 
in India. Some pieces were once very cheap; others 
were worn by kings. In a number of ways, they — 
or rather, they and the hundreds of millions of 
cloths like them that have now vanished — may 
be the most important of all textiles. 

A glance at those illustrated here will reveal 
one of the reasons why this is so. Many are aston- 

ishingly beautiful, made with a skill in handling 
fiber and natural dyes that may never have been 
equalled. The exhibition includes no fewer than 
six of the ten-odd Indian cloths that are known to 
have survived from the 17th century, a golden 
age when the prestige and skill of Indian textile 
artists are said to have reached heights never 
attained before or since. Two of the cloths in the 
exhibition, the Brooklyn Museum Hanging and 
the Riboud Textile (both of which are too large 
and detailed to be illustrated here) are actually 
famous. Several are so brilliantly designed and 
flawlessly made that they may well rank among 



Wall hanging with Dutchmen, ad 1640-50. Southeastern India. 
Made for use in India. 

Amoiifi the more important surviving 1 Tth-centuiy Indian cloths, this 
in inlervstinfi both tor its depictions of Dutch and Indo-Persian costumes 
and for its architectural format. The costumes appear to be historically 
accurate: similarities betvveen these and costumes in Persian and Dutch 
paintings are what make such a precise dating possible. The superposed 
pa\ilions framing indixiduals in formal poses are a characteristic of the art 
s|^■le ofVijayanagar, the great South Indian empire that was destro^vd short- 
ly before this cloth was made. 

The European fondness for dogs was a trait that fascinated Asians dur- 
ing the t6th and t~th centuries. Numerous Indian and Japanese pictures of 
that period show European traders in'f/i dogs and other pets on laps, on 
shauldem, or under chairs and tables. This particular dog is about to knock 
owr an Indian bottle and a glass sweets dish imported from Venice. 

D\vd cotton, with drawn and brushed-on resist and mordants. Victoria 
and Albert Wu.seimi, London 687-1898. 

Aquatic scene on cloth fragment, ad 1600-1700. India. 
Made for use in India. 

This is all that remains of what must have been a most interesting 
pictorial hanging. The skillfully drawn cartoonlike figures were dyed in an 
unusual number of colors, and this, plus the liberal use of gold tinsel, 
indicates a higft price. Howewr, its function is not known. Would such a 
scene haw appealed to early European traders, generally a humorless lot? 
But then, who was it made for? Is there an Indian myth or legend that in- 
cludes a man eaten bv a sea monster, another man swimming in a lotus 
pond, and small tame land monsters with their indixidual food bowls? 

As far as is known, no other cloth like it .siimves. 

D\ed cotton, with brushed-on and drawn mordants and resist, applied 
tinsel. Textile Museum, Washington, D.C. 6.41 


KiinippurSari, Ai) 18(X1- 

190(), South India. 

Made tor use in India. 

H'eai'prs and dirrs 
luid to axi/x'rafe to 
cmite the putlernin^^ 
on this textile t}fx: 
During weaiinfi. the 
)iold [Kit terns were 
ci-ealed by tuftestn' 
methods in a cloth that 
was otherwise plain- 
u-oiip/i. Next, the d\vr 
outlined further pat- 
terns on the finished 
cloth, tisinfia wax re- 
sist for lines that K-oiild 
stay white and mor- 
dants for lines and 
zones that would turn 
black and red. It may 
ha\-e needed only one 
soakii\^ in the dw vat 
to produce the full 
range of black, white, 
and deep brick red. 
Notice how care- 
fully integrated the 
wown and d}'ed pat- 
terns arc, and the dyvr's 
use of subtly graded 
mordants so that the 
red areas are darker 
near their edges. togi\'e 
an illusion of depth. 
Such cloth Has made 
onlv in a handful of til- 
lages a t Karuppur, near 
Tanjore in southern 
India. The art of mak- 
ing it has now died out. 
Cotton and gold. 
Textile Museum, Wa- 
shington, D.C. 6.78 

Opposite page: Sarong. 
Ai) 1700-1800. South- 
eastern India. Traded 
to Indonesia. 

Another extraor- 
dinary' cloth, showing 
su/x-rb craftsmanship. 
Nothing as good is 
made nowadaiv in 
either India or Indone- 
sia. Notice the clewrly 
hidden birds. 
An intricate mos- 
aic of geometric forms 
tills the borders and 
centertield of this 
man s or woman s 
itTa/around skirt. 
Small, fenilike liatik 
patterns and birds are 
tuckifl in the comeiv, 
but the primary' de- 
signs are formed of 
.•i(iuarcs and interlacing 
knots. I Ik t''nenes<of 
detail ami h ihncv of 
color sliatlv^ rt^vval 
consummate a: ::• In 
as well as total nvi-rrn 
ol linear design. Made 
16 "" the Coromandel 

the best individual pieces of cloth in existence. 

Yet, their beauty and technical perfection 
may not be the most interesting features of these 
cloths, for they also stand for a critically impor- 
tant historical phenomenon. In their day, Indian 
textiles of these types were made and exported in 
very large quantities. More of them, in fact, were 
shipped abroad than any other industrial prod- 
uct of premodem times. 

True, China had long sent moderate amounts 
of its silks to places as far away as Rome, while 
the English as late as the 18th century felt that 
their most important export was fine woolen 
cloth. Indeed, the majority of early states seem to 
have produced at least some textiles for interna- 
tional markets. Woven fiber products made good 
export commodities, being always welcome to 
fashion-conscious foreign elites as well as being 
unbreakable, easy to carry, and valuable in pro- 
portion to their weight. The volume of such early 
textile exports, however, was almost always 
small. Only in the case of India did the trade in- 
volve more than a few hundreds or thousands of 
expensive cloths per year, destined for wear by a 
small and wealthy minority. 

It is possible that this pattern of "splendid 
but trifling trade" in luxury items was broken by 
Indian merchants at a fairly early date. The "Mas- 
ter Dyers" exhibition includes a number of rather 
coarse, utilitarian-seeming Indian textiles found 
at the 15th-century site of Fostat, in Egypt. Even 
earlier fragments of exported Indian cloth have 
recently been found at Quseir on the Red Sea (see 
Bulletin, June 1980) by Donald Whitcomb, for- 
merly a curator at Field Museum, and Janet John- 
son of the Oriental Institute. The Quseir cloths 
may be as early as AD 1300, and prove beyond 
question that trade in non-luxury textiles be- 
tween India and the Middle East existed at that 
date. However, we have no means of determining 
the quantities involved. Mediaeval sources have 
not preserved statistics on Indian textile exports. 

The earliest adequate statistics to survive 
come from the records of the great Dutch and 
English East India companies, which followed 
the Portuguese into Asia in the early 1600s and 
almost immediately found that they had to use 
Indian textiles to buy spices in Indonesia; the 
growers were not interested in cash or, seemingly, 
in most other commodities. The Dutch and Eng- 
lish companies both, therefore, became involved 
in exporting Indian textiles, at first to consumer 
markets within Asia but soon to consumers in 
Europe, Africa, and the Americas as well. The two 
companies are important in economic history as 
the first of the great multinationals and the first 
corporations with modem-style stockholders 
and boards of directors. Fortunately for us, they 
were also the first commercial organizations to 

maintain really good records, and these are what 
make it possible to reconstruct the 17th-century 
Indian textile trade in considerable detail. 

Briefly, what the records show is a pattern of 
rapid, almost explosive growth. In 1610, Euro- 
pean- and Asian-owned ships were already carry- 
ing about ten million yards of cloth to Southeast 
Asia and the Middle East, plus a few yards of 
samples to Europe. By 1625, the within-Asia vol- 
ume had doubled. In the 1650s, the Asian trade 
had begun to level off at 25-30 million yards, but 
several million now went to Europe and Africa. A 
trickle was even reaching the new colonies in 
North America — one of the first Americans to 
own an Indian textile was the accused witch. 

Anne Hibben, who in 1636 was said to have a 
number of items made of imported calico in her 
Boston home. 

In the late 1660s, European imports passed 
the ten million mark and continued to rise sharp- 
ly, reaching a yearly average of between 35 and 40 
million by the early 1680s; in the peak year of 
1684, the English East India Company alone im- 
ported 45 million yards of Indian cloth — more 
than six yards for each man, woman, and child in 
Great Britain. If one adds in the exports carried by 
Dutch and other Europeans and by the then very 
active native Indian and Arab traders, it seems 
clear that in 1684 Indian exports to all points to- 
talled more than 100 million yards. 

Ckast (perhajKi in Tiin- 
jorv), it Hvi.s" c(}llccted in 
Indonesia. Similar 
cloths wciv once 
traded to Thailand and 

D\vd cotton, Hith 
d^a^\^l resist and 
hnished-on mordant, 
Colleclions, Kmto, 



Phao kiao (an ele- 
phant's cloth?). AD 
1700-1800. hidia. 
Made for .sale in 

The Thais use 
diagonal grid pat- 
terns and pictures of 
di\ine beings in 
much of their omi 
art. This, however, 
is Indian work, 
made according to 
Thai patterns — wt 
another example of 
the first-clas^ 
market researcl: 
done by the India r 
textile industn'. 

The three 
figures in the me- 
dalhons are kinnari, 
a type ofdixine 
being also known in 
India but here de- 
picted in an essen- 
tially Thai st\'le. It is 
e\ident that the 
Indian artist had a 
Thai pattern (a 
painting?) to cop\ 
this part of the 
design from. The 
other figures are less 
Thai in flavor Per- 
haps the\' were 
drawn by a different 
person, or perhaps 
by the same artist 
working from mem- 
ory rather than an 
actual Thai-made 
pattern. Notice that 
the mordant for the 
last stage of dyeing, 
to produce the 
brown color, has 
been carelessly 
The elephant 
costume theorv i- 
based on one expert 's 
guessivork. Though 
pLiusibU: it is as vet 

Dyed c ntton, 

v.ith (/r.ii<7i and 

stanjpeti rrsht and 

mordantt. \ u ii iria 

and Alberts, rum, 

London T5^ • 'W. 

Given the spectacular nature of Indian ex- 
port growth and the fact that this was well public- 
ized at the time, it is no surprise to find that the 
European textile industry was already in an up- 
roar by the late 1670s. By the early 1680s, it was in 
a panic. Industrialists and lobbyists made impas- 
sioned appeals to parliaments and kings. Public 
relations men and concerned citizens (among 
them Daniel Defoe, the author of numerous so- 
cial tracts as well as of Robinson Crusoe) produced 
a flood of pamphlets and newspaper articles 
claiming, quite plausibly, that hundreds of thou- 
sands of European textile workers were about to 
starve and their national economies irreparably 
damaged. Unpatriotic wearers of Indian-made 
cloths were denounced and occasionally assault- 
ed in the streets. Cries for protective legislation 

were heard in every European capital; some sug- 
gested punitive customs duties and others, an 
outright prohibition against importing or wear- 
ing Asian cloth. 

Eventually, after considerable opposition 
from the various East India Companies (of which 
there were then four, none overly concerned at 
the whining of a handful of unimportant textile 
workers and industrialists), the new laws were 
passed and the Indian threat receded. Much 
smuggling, of course, continued, and fashion- 
conscious people of both sexes went on being 
just as unpatriotic as usual. One Western Euro- 
pean nation, Holland, even failed to pass the 
required legislation. But these sequels do not 
concern us at the moment. 

What matters is the extraordinary situation 

that existed in the early 1680s when, as seems 
quite clear, a collection of simple and undernour- 
ished brown people in an exotic country man- 
aged to pull off an industrial miracle. They had 
already succeeded in eliminating most of the lo- 
cal textile industry in the Middle East and South- 
east Asia. Now they had come within an ace of 
displacing even the powerful and traditionally 
successful textile makers of Western Europe. 

They had in fact done something that had never 
been done before. For the first time in history, a 
manufactured non-luxury product made in a sin- 
gle country was on the verge of dominating the 
consumer markets of the entire world. 

The question is, how could this have hap- 
pened? What was the secret of Indian success? 
How is it even possible that a collection of impov- 
erished, mostly illiterate weavers and dyers liv- 

Indian Textile Terms in English 

The India trade of the 17th and 18th centuries 
brought not only cloths to the West but a new 
textile vocabulary as well. Much of this vocabu- 
lary survives in English, sometimes so well inte- 
grated into our language that most of us do not 
think of them as foreign words. 

Bandanna. From Hindi bandhitu, a method of tie- 
dyeing. In the 19th century, a bandanna was a 
rich yellow or red silk handkerchief with tie- 
dyed white diamond-shaped spots. In the 
17th century, it was a small cloth, perhaps 
ikat-dyed, from Bengal. 

Calico. From Calicut, an important city in south- 
western India. Once a pattern-dyed cloth in 
several colors, the term was later used in the 
textile industry to mean a grade of fairly fine, 
plain-woven cotton cloth, often undyed. A 
memory of the earlier meaning survives in the 
phrase "calico cat." 

Cashmere. From the name of a kingdom, later a 
province, in northern India and Pakistan. The 
very fine and soft goat-wool cloth of Kashmir 
is still highly esteemed, though most cash- 
meres are woven or knitted elsewhere, often 
with mixtures of less costly sheep wools. 
Cashmere shawls, the complexly embroi- 
dered cloths from Kashmir that were common 
here and in Europe in the late 19th century, 
were not necessarily made of cashmere wool. 

Chintz. From Hindi chint and Sanskrit chitra, 
"spotted" or "variegated." In the 17th cen- 
tury, a cotton cloth with block-printed or 
hand drawn patterns. Modern American- 
made chintzes are glazed printed cloths, often 
with flower designs, used as curtain and up- 
holstery fabrics. 

Dungaree. From Maharastrian donggari, a type 
of plain, coarse, strong cloth, usually white or 
blue. Dungaree was used for sailors' work 
clothing as far back as the 17th century. 

Gingham. Perhaps from Malay-Javanese ging- 
gang, a name used locally in Southeast Asia 
and by European traders for a type of Indian 
cloth. 17th century ginghams were fine 
striped silk-cotton textiles made in Bengal. 
All-cotton imitations were later made in Coro- 
mandel and, eventually, in Europe and the 
United States. Some were striped and others 

Gunny. From Sanskrit goni, "sack." Since the 

16th century, a sturdy but very coarse cloth 
woven from jute fiber, employed mainly for 
making sacks in which grain, cotton, and 
other loose goods were stored and shipped. 

Khaki. From Hindi-Urdu khaki, "dusty, dust- 
colored." Various sorts of strong light-brown 
cloth used for military uniforms. The idea that 
khaki might have advantages over brightly 
colored uniform materials does not seem to 
have occurred to the world's armies until a 
few British units began wearing it in northern 
India in the late 1850s. 

Muslin. From Mosul, a city in Iraq. The term 
originally applied to a silk or silk and gold 
cloth woven in and around Mosul, but traders 
in India during the 16th century began using 
it to refer to extremely fine cotton cloths from 
Bengal. Its modern meaning comes from this 
Indian usage, though our muslin bedsheets 
are less delicate than the legendary white 
muslins of Dacca, said to be so fine that wide 
pieces could be passed through a woman's 

Pajama. From Hindi-Urdu pae-jama, "leg cloth- 
ing." A pair of loose trousers tied around the 
waist. In European usage, the term came to 
include a loose shirt as well. Pajamas were 
popular among Europeans in India long be- 
fore they migrated to England and the United 
States in the 19th century. 

Percale. Possibly from Tamil percaula, "spar- 
kling." Since the 17th century, a plain white 
cloth made in south India for use as a base in 
chintz-making. Percales were originally less 
fine than muslins. 

Seersucker. The etymology is unknown but 
probably related to such vaguely similar 17th- 
18th century cloth names as sestienne, suker- 
ton, and sarasse gobar. In the 18th century, 
seersucker was a mixed silk-cotton striped 
cloth from Bengal. 

Taffeta. From Farsi taften, "to spin." A fine silk 
cloth, originally from Bengal in the 17th cen- 
tury. Modem taffetas can be of silk or artificial 
fibers and are characterized by their lustrous 

Tussore. Perhaps from Sanskrit tasara, "shut- 
tle." A rough silk cloth woven from cocoons 
of wild silkworms. The term goes back to the 
16th century, when it meant an inexpensive 
type of wild silk from eastern India. 



ing in backward villages in ren\ote parts of Asia 
could compete on a more than level footing with 
the long-famous textile industries of western Eu- 
rope? In what conceivable way could they do this 
when their product had to be shipped twelve 
thousand expensive miles — around the south- 
em end of Africa — before it could be sold in com- 
petition with European cloths made with the 
most modern machinery only a few miles from 
the marketplace? 

Spokesmen for the hard-pressed European 
industry had several answers. They hinted at a 
plot by the giant (and indeed, ruthless) East Asia 
companies to monopolize the textile business by 
selling at a loss so as to bankrupt all competitors. 
They decried the irrationality of feminine fash- 
ion, which chose frivolous Indian stuffs over 
honest English (or French, Dutch, etc.) broad- 
cloth. And they complained constantly at the un- 
fairness of having to compete with the extremely 
low-cost labor of India. 

All of these assertions were undoubtedly in 
a sense correct. Yet, as might be expected, the 
cloth makers of Europe did tend to view the si- 
tuation in a rather one-sided way. 

The vast power of the East India companies, 
for instance, was clearly a factor but hardly a de- 
cisive one. At the time, the companies had little 
real control within India. The weavers and dyers 
were not their employees, and neither were the 
wealthy middlemen with whom they contracted 
each year for delivery of given amounts of cloth; 
the companies' factors often had to buy their 
supplies on the open market just like anyone 
else. They were not even the biggest buyers in 
that market. 

Native Indian merchants owned ships as 
large as the Europeans and regularly carried 
more cloth and other goods to some of the major 
foreign markets (to the Middle East, for in- 
stance). Further, the companies faced what a 
modem corporation would regard as an intolera- 
ble amount of overhead: arbitrary taxes and 
bribes exacted by officials in both Europe and 
Asia; the two-year period needed for their ships 
to make one round trip, eating up interest and 
maintenance costs all the while; constant losses 
from shipwreck and piracy; the need for fortify- 
ing all trading stations and hiring private armies 
and navies to protect these; and — on top of eve- 
rything — the startling dishonesty of their own 
employees in an age when bribes and kickbacks 
were normal practice but conspiring against 
one's employers was considered bad form every- 
where except, apparently, among Europeans 
stationed in Asia. 

Thus, although the companies seemed to 
make astronomical profits from the textile trade, 
their margins were in reality quite thin. What 

kept the cloth they sold competitive was good 
accounting and good market research based on 
careful tracking of sales and constant experimen- 
tation with new patterns and fabrics. It could 
well be argued that the European textile indus- 
try's main problem was bad management. They 
might have had much less trouble in fighting off 
the Indian challenge if they had been nearly as 
good at the marketing side of their own business 
as were the East Asia companies. 

The idea that consumers were buying Indian 
instead of French or British cloth simply from fri- 
volity was of course just wishful thinking. As far 
as one can judge from the few samples that sur- 
vive, the Indian cloth was actually better: at least 
as beautiful, more practical, and a good deal 
cheaper than anything comparable on the 

The beauty is evident. The designers in In- 
dia, about whom little else is known, seem to 
have worked much like their modem counter- 
parts, staying in close touch with producers and 
buyers, creating patterns targeted at the specific 
needs of certain markets, and actively experi- 
menting with new weaves and patterns which 
might expand a market or create one where none 
had existed before. Surviving cargo manifests 
show that it was a rare shipment in the 17th cen- 
tury that did not include special bundles of sam- 
ples or "new-style stuffs," apparently aimed at 
testing and rechecking consumer tastes. The two 
Europe-bound cloths illustrated on pages 12 and 
13 are of types that were as nontraditional to 
Indians as to Europeans; the patterns of both 
probably originated as special samples created 
in the early 1700s, a period when tastemakers 
in Europe were particularly interested in novel 

Further, both the old and the new designs 
for export cloths tended to be well executed by 
the Indian weavers and dyers, who seem to have 
been capable of handling an unusually broad 
range of techniques and of changing these rapidly 
in response to shifts in demand. One of the diffi- 
culties of studying 17th- and 18th-century Indian 
textiles is guessing where they came from, when 
one knows that hundreds of clothmaking vil- 
lages in several different parts of India were quite 
capable, if necessary, of adapting to the produc- 
tion of almost any type of cloth. 

We might note in passing that the high qual- 
ity of Indian designs is proved not just by the few 
cloths that have survived but by the reactions of 
European manufacturers, who may have de- 
nounced the frivolous imports in public but who 
were apparently in private making every effort to 
imitate them. They continued doing this for 
more than two hundred years. As late as the 
1830s, when the Indian economic challenge had 

been crushed by colonial armies and by the 
Industrial Revolution, the bulk of the colored 
cloths produced by the power looms of Manches- 
ter in England and Lowell in Massachusetts were 
still called by Indian names such as ginghams, 
chintzes, and calicoes and were printed with 
flower designs nearly identical with those 
shipped from India to Europe two hundred years 
before. In fact, 17th-century-styled chintz is still 
being made. It can be seen, used for sofa covers 
and curtains, in almost any furniture store. 

a cheap labor supply. European clothmakers 
tried such explanations but were no more con- 
vincing than a modern American manufacturer 
would be if he tried to attribute the success of Jap- 
anese television sets to the same factors. Modern 
Japan, as we have all become aware, makes good 
electronic equipment because it has technology 
as good as or better than its foreign competitors. 
The same conclusion appears to apply to the 
comparison of 17th-century Indian and Euro- 
pean textile industries. India was not at all back- 

The "calico craze" in Europe. Importing (and, in France, wearing) Indian patterned cloth became illegal almost 
as soon as, in the IGSOs, it became fashionable. Among the few Eunypeans to risk haxing portraits made while 
dressed "a I'lndienne" are this French nobleman in 1695, in a morning goun (of Bengali silk-cotton:'), and this 
presumably non-noble Frenchwoman in 1 790, modeling a dress of Indian cotton in the st}'le and colors of the 
French Remlution. The original prints are in the Bibliotheque National, Paris (left), and one of the British 
national collections in London (right). 

On the other hand, good styling and able 
marketing were not the only things, and perhaps 
not the main things, that sold a product back in 
that remote pre-advertising age. Consumers 
then were at least as impressed by practical quali- 
ties as by esthetics and image, and this was 
where the superiority of Indian cloths was per- 
haps most evident. They came in colors which 
could be washed repeatedly without fading. Be- 
ing mainly of cotton and cotton-silk mixtures, 
they were far more comfortable for wear in warm 
weather and indoors than were the traditional 
woolens and linens of Europe. And, of course, 
they were economical. Many were outstandingly 
cheap, and even the most expensive types were 
more durable and better made than any non- 
Indian cloth that could be sold at a comparable 

The important point here is that differences 
in practical qualities like these cannot be ex- 
plained simply in terms of marketing ability and 

ward. In fact, incredible as it may have seemed to 
their competitors and in spite of the apparent 
simplicity of their looms and other equipment, 
Indian clothmakers were in many ways far ahead 
of Europe in scientific understanding of their 

This is perhaf)s most obvious with respect to 
the Indian knowledge of dyes. The key to giving 
permanent colors to plant fibers like cotton and 
linen is the proper use of mordants — com- 
pounds of iron or aluminum which intensify and 
fix dye colors by causing them to "bite" into the 
surface of the fiber. India had a whole range of 
these as well as dyes that were better to begin 
with. They also employed their mordants in 
complex ways, typically using two different mor- 
dants at once and then blocking off other areas of 
the cloth surface with a "batik" wax resist, mak- 
ing it possible to produce several colors with a 
single immersion in the dye vat. An important 
Indian innovation was the use of special pens 


An Indian silk-weawr. 
Thin craOsman. from 
Thana near Bombav. 
weaws on a draw- 
loom built into the 
earthen floor of a 
house. In spite of its 
rustic appearance, it 
is a sophisticated 
machine capable of 
producing complexir 
patterned cloth. From 
Journal of Indian Art, 


and several kinds of wood and wood-and-metal 
printing blocks to apply both mordants and re- 
sists, making the process much faster and, if 
desired, enabling the dyer to produce patterns of 
astonishing complexity. 

Contemporary Europeans seem often to 
have thought that India had discovered a myste- 
rious method of painting or printing dyes direct- 
ly onto the cloth, but dyers there had no more 
luck with this approach than anyone else in the 
days before modem chemical dyes. What the In- 
dians painted or printed on were only the color- 
less mordants and resists; they achieved their 
actual colors through soaking cloths in conven- 
tional dye vats. The general idea was by no 
means a commercial secret. Yet European dyers 
had much trouble with it, even when using im- 
ported Indian dyestuffs. Few of their colors 
could withstand washing, especially when the 
cloth involved was of linen or cotton and often 
too when it was of wool or silk. It seems to have 
taken more than a century and a half of experi- 
mentation before Europeans learned how to 
make the full range of dye colors truly permanent 

on plant fiber cloths; not until the 1750s does one 
begin to find British dyers claiming that their 
own chintzes were just as good as the authentic 
Indian product. 

One of the more interesting sidelights of this 
particular issue is its connection with sanitation. 
Europeans had worn colored linen cloth for 
thousands of years before they came in contact 
with Indian dyeing technology. The question is, 
how did they wash these? The answer seems to 
be, as rarely as possible. Some unmordanted col- 
ors are not safely washable even on easily-dyed 
woolen cloths, and almost none are fast on linens 
and cottons. Early wearers of Indian imports 
tended to exclaim that the colors actually became 
brighter after washing. As in the case of similar 
statements about Oriental rugs, naturally this 
was an exaggeration. But it was also a bit omi- 
nous if one thinks of what it implied about all the 
people who were wearing non-Indian colored 
cloth. We have little definite data on the atmos- 
phere of public places in Europe between the 
Neolithic (when flax and cotton were first do- 
mesticated) and the late 17th century, as the 

noses of even the acutest social critics tended to 
be desensitized. However, it is tempting to think 
that the new Indian dyeing technology had an ef- 
fect on public health that was at least as signifi- 
cant as its role in fashion. 

Other technological advances by Indians 
were more important in keeping prices low than 
in improving the quality of the product. Methods 
of applying designs by using blocks rather than 
brushes had been perfected in India long before 
the first European contacts. In spite of the diffi- 
culties of preparing whole sets of finely carved 
and precisely matched blocks — as many as five 
or six sometimes had to be fitted inside one oth- 
er, each for a separate color — the block-stamping 
technique was a clear improvement in terms of 
the speed with which cloth could be decorated. 
Low-priced textiles for sale within India and on 
the African and European markets were gener- 
ally produced in this way. 

Much of this market was of great interest to 
European textile manufacturers, who saw enor- 
mous potential in sales to slave traders, Carib- 
bean plantation owners, American Indians, and 
poor people in their own countries. Yet here 
again imitating the methods used in India 
proved quite difficult. Intensive research and 
experimentation in cloth "printing" (on import- 
ed Indian white cloth — European cloths were 
apparently not smooth and even enough) began 
in England as early as 1650. It was not fully suc- 
cessful until about 1750, and continued to be 
done with Indian-style flat wooden blocks for 
another quarter-century before the introduction 
of the faster and almost equally precise copper- 
cylinder rotary printer. 

Another advantage of the Indian textile in- 
dustry was its access to large supplies of cotton, a 
plant which grows well in Indian soils and 
which, as the most high-yielding of major fiber 
crops, is intrinsically the least expensive material 
for making cloth. Europeans also sometimes 
cited this as one of the reasons why Indian com- 
petition was unfair. Yet, using Indian-style cot- 
ton also required technological know-how which 
contemporary Europeans had still not developed. 

Spinners and weavers in Britain during the 
17th century are said to have had trouble even 
with the long-stapled (and comparatively unpro- 
ductive) Sea Island cottons of the Caribbean, and 
it took many years before they could handle the 
high-yielding short-fih)ered cottons which India 
had always used. Their success in learning how 
to gin and spin such cottons was in fact a key ele- 
ment not only in the Industrial Revolution of the 
1770s through the 1790s but in the tremendous 
growth of cotton plantations in the American 

One could probably find still more explana- 

tions for the earlier industrial success of India: an 
outstandingly flexible financial system, organi- 
zational methods that involved a much greater 
rationalization of production than in Europe 
(where weavers as late as the 1700s often still 
spun their own yams, dyed their own cloth, and 
even made it up into tailored clothes), and entre- 
preneurial attitudes among the merchant classes 
which were at least as strongly developed as any 
such attitudes in Europe. However, I will not get 
into such topics here. It is enough to emphasize 
once again the extraordinary fact that India in the 
17th century came very close to controlling most 
of the world's textile markets, and that the expla- 
nation was by no means as simple as their em- 
battled competitors claimed. 

A story that has been hinted at but cannot be 
fully told here is that of the long-range European 
response to the Indian challenge, for this would 
involve nothing less than describing the origins 
of the Industrial Revolution. One wonders 
whether anyone alive in the 1680s could have 
imagined such an outcome. Assuming that such 
a person was aware of the now widely recog- 
nized role of textile industries as keys to indus- 
trial development (in most nations, clothmaking 
has been the first industry to be mechanized, and 
profits and know-how from that have tended to 
be the mainspring of growth in other economic 
sectors), would he have had any idea of what 
was actually going to happen? 

Would it not have been most logical to pre- 
dict that free trade would eventually triumph, 
that the superbly efficient textile makers of India, 
in tandem with the heavily capitalized East India 
companies, would eventually overwhelm their 
European competitors, and that Indian capital- 
ists would then mechanize their mills and move 
onward to the improvement of their (already 
highly regarded) iron and steel industry? 

It is in fact one of the more tantalizing and 
least recognized might-have-beens of history. If 
things had worked out only slightly differently, 
the Industrial Revolution might have taken place 
in India. We could now be living in a world 
where Indian tourists complained constantly 
about the squalor of England and where Europe 
and North America would be underdeveloped 
quasi-colonies whose main function was provid- 
ing raw materials for the insatiable factories of 
Bengal and Gujarat. 

Among the reasons why this did not happen 
were the high quality of 18th- and 19th-century 
European armies (which eventually seized the 
main Indian textile-producing centers and thus 
found a noneconomic solution to the problem of 
unfair competition) and the surprisingly open at- 
titude of European textile manufacturers. As 
pointed out earlier, these manufacturers had 


been thoroughly frightened back in the 1670s 
and 1680s and so had lobbied hard for stringent 
controls on Indian imports. When they got the 
tariff protection they wanted, however, they 
seem not to have succumbed to the normal ten- 
dency to relax into old and inefficient ways. In- 
stead, they initiated a major, long-term program 
of research and development. 

They made intensive studies of Indian 
weaving, cloth-printing, and dyeing methods. 
Slowly and then with increasing speed they be- 
gan to learn. By 1760 they could imitate all except 
the very finest of Indian cloths. By 1785, after two 
decades of remarkable innovation, they had 
made most of the key inventions of the Industrial 
Revolution and were in a position to sell good 
cotton cloth even more cheaply than the Indians. 

By 1790, the clothmakers of Britain had become 
apostles of free trade, denouncing all tariffs as 
obstacles to economic progress. By 1800, Indian 
textile exports to Europe had fallen almost to zero 
and were dropping sharply in Africa and North 

The final symbolic victory of the Europeans 
did not occur until 1830. In that year, or possibly 
in 1831, in the early summer of the Industrial Age 
when Britannia already ruled the waves and 
most of India as well, the mills of Manchester 
shipped forty million yards of cotton cloth to 
India. They thus matched for the first time the 
quantity of cloth that had been exported in the re- 
verse direction, from India to Britain, almost a 
hundred and fifty years before. D 


Thanks are due to Dr. Mattiebelle Gittinger and other members of the staff of the Textile Museum of Washington, 
D.C., the originating institution for the "Master Dyers to the World. " The Textile Museum has gone beyond nor- 
mal professional courtesy in helping with the Field Museum version of that exhibition. Further, it has allowed not 
just its photographs but its printer's actual color separations to be used as illustrations in this article. 

Dr. Gittinger conceived the exhibition, went through the arduous loan negotiations connected with it, and 
wrote the remarkable catalogue listed in the bibliography below. This looks as well on a coffee table as any exhibition 
catalogue. However, it is also a ground-breaking work of historical and artistic scholarship. Most of the captions for 
the color plates in this article are partially borrowed from it. So are some of the ideas, although Dr. Gittinger natu- 
rally is not responsible for the present author's mistakes. 


Bibliographic Note 

While most of the data given here can be checked in 
readily accessible sources, a few conclusions are based 
on economic statistics culled from the Daghregisters, 
the voluminous daily records kept at the Dutch East 
India Company's headquarters in Batavia. These data 
will eventually be published in full, but interested 
readers are invited to contact the author if they find 
anything in this article that seems to contradict the 
standard works listed below. 


Gittinger, Mattiebelle 

1982. Master Dyers to the World Trade and Technology in 
Early Indian Dyed Fabrics. Textile Museum, Washing- 
ton. (The catalogue for the 'Master Dyers' exhibition, 
with detailed color and black-and-white plates of all 
cloths in the exhibition, comprehensive descriptive 
notes, and important discussions of various theoreti- 
cal issues.) 

Irwin, John and Katherine B. Brett 

1970. Origins of Chintz. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 
London. (A good and well illustrated treatment of the 
types of chintz exported to Europe.) 


Chaudhuri, R. N. 

1978. The Trading World of Asia and the East India 
Companies, 1660-1770. Cambridge University Press, 

London. (Definitive statistics on the cloth trade and 
other commercial activities of the British East India 

Glamann, Kristof 

1958. Dutch-Asiatic Trade, 1620-1740. Danish Science 
Press, Copenhagen. (Though much less comprehen- 
sive than Chaudhuri, the best available statistics on 
the cloth trade of the Dutch East India Company.) 


Steensgaard, Nils 

1974. The Asian Trade Revolution in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. (Important 
for updates and comments on van Leur's theories, 
though focused mainly on trade in the Middle East.) 

Van Leur, J. C. 

1957. (late 1930s) Indonesian Trade and Society, Essays in 
Economic and Social History. W. van Hoeve, The Hague. 
(The seminal work of its field; many disagree with van 
Leur but everyone quotes him.) 


Baines, Edward 

1966. (1835) History of the Cotton Manufacture in Great 
Britain. Frank Cass and Co., London. (A massively 
well-informed view of the Industrial Revolution by an 
intelligent participant. Baines is much more conscious 
than most later writers of the debt owed by 
British cloth makers to their Indian predecessors.) 

RESERVES conY from p. 10 

mined because the capital investment was 

mostly made long ago, when the ore was richer. 

The point of giving this long example is to 
explain another common misuse of so-called 
"facts" about ores (and oil) by politicians, bu- 
reaucrats, some members of industry, and the 
news media. If they want to scare you with a 
"fact" they can say, truthfully, that the So-And- 
So Mine, which used to mine 4 percent copper 
ore has been squeezed down to lean ore of only 
0.02 percent — a sign that America is running out 
of copper! 

This need not necessarily be true. Certainly, 
based on this particular mine alone, it can't be 
correctly concluded we're running out of copper. 
The old mine continues to operate because it's 
cheaper to mine lower grade ore at a site where 
all the capital facilities already exist than it is to 
start up a new mine, even where the ore might 
be a little bit richer. 

I do not think that those who use such 
e)l»mples incorrectly (and 1 heard this specific 
example used years ago) are necessarily aware of 
the complexities that make their points invalid. 

Thus, depending on what kind of reserve 
you're talking about, it's possible to make any 
kind of case you like. I've heard different "lead- 
ing authorities" quoted in the press, making 
statements such as "America has more coal 
reserves than any nation in the world," and 
"America's coal reserves are outstripped by 
those of China and the Soviet Union." Both 
"authorities" can actually be correct, even 
though their statements contradict one another. 
It depends on whether they're lumping together 
measured + indicated + inferred reserves, or 
are talking about only measured reserves. On 
top of that, depending on the point th^ speaker 
wants to make, he might use only measured 
reserves for the USA and measured + indicated 
+ inferred reserves for China, or vice versa. 
Once again, games can be played with loose 
usage of the word "reserve." 

Another word, mentioned earlier, is resource. 
Although many use it interchangeably with re- 
serve, it doesn't mean the same thing at all. A 
mineral resource is the total amount of a given 
mineral in the earth's crust under a given region. 
It includes all the three kinds of reserves plus all 
amounts of the substance that are present at trace 
levels of concentration, regardless of the cost or 
technical means to extract it. The total resource 
is generally a number that is unknowable with 
high accuracy. It only can be estimated. 

It happens, often, that public figures and the 
news media use estimates of resources to make 
a point, but treat them as if they were reserves. 
Thus, the earlier example of the 50 percent of oil 
that is still in the ground in the USA is actually 

a resource. Under present technology it is too 
costly to extract to be a reserve. The remaining 
oil resource may someday become a reserve. It 
is, however, possible to conceive of a hypotheti- 
cal resource that would never become a reserve. 
For example, if there existed a two-inch-thick 
layer of coal at a depth of 8,000 feet under the 
entire United States, the total tonnage of coal 
would be 632 billion tons! This would be an enor- 
mous resource, but absolutely unexploitable. 
The energy required to mine such a thin layer at 
such a depth over such an enormous area would 
far exceed the energy that could be ever obtained 
from burning the coal. Such a resource would 
never, under any technology or price structure 
become a reserve. 

Those individuals in the public eye, who 
make statements about "vast untapped resources 
(or reserves)" are often armed with dubious fig- 
ures and erroneous concepts of this kind. Some 
of these policymakers are totally unaware of the 
basis for the figures they use. They have the idea 
that if economic factors are right, anything can 
be extracted. In some cases this is true; in other 
cases it can never be true. 

Finally, for those resources and reserves that 
are geographically restricted there are serious 
economic considerations. Ores, such as copper, 
zinc, and lead, occur in many places in the world. 
They are resources for many different countries 
and those countries which do not have much of 
them have a choice of countries from whom they 
can purchase these minerals at the best price. On 
the other hand, some ores are very restricted. 
The best example of this is chromium, which 
occurs in abundance in Rhodesia, South Africa, 
and the USSR. No other country has any signifi- 
cant chromium. Yet it is chromium, when added 
to steel, that makes stainless steel, which is used 
in a large number of industries, particularly in 
the sanitary handling of foods. Milk, for exam- 
ple, can only be transported hygienically in stain- 
less steel tanker trucks. Although the United 
States may take strong exception to the politics 
of some of these countries, it must deal with 
them to obtain chromium ore. 

Ever since the first cave man picked up the 
first stone to use as a tool or weapon, mankind 
has used the mineral materials of the earth for 
his well-being. Back then, the mineral wealth 
appeared limitless. Today, with better knowl- 
edge of mineral resources, it still appears almost 
limitless. True, some materials are in limited 
abundance in the long pull — like oil and certain 
metals. Substitutions will have to be made, and 
have been made already in some cases. In the 
long run the main resource that we will need is 
the ingenuity of mankind. So far, that seems to 
be truly limitless. D 


Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 53 (1982) 


Ancient Air Breathers, by W.D.I. Rolfe: Ja 12 

Arts of Tide and Tundra: An Arctic and Northwest 

Coast Perspective, by R.S. Grumel and A. Pfeiffer: 

Mr 16 
Battle Against Dutch Elm Disease. The. by D. Wal- 

slen: O 22 
Big Beaver Comes to Chicago: Je 3 
Charles Darwin: A Tribute from the Standpoint of 

Modem Evolutionary Theory, by B. D. Patterson: 

My 3 
Dermestids. By R. Timm: F 14 
Egyptian Hall Rejuvenated: ia 18 
Elephants and Taxidermy: N 8 
Field Museum and the Philippines, by B. Bronson: 

Field Museum as Architecture, by W. Burger: Mr 3 
Field Museum s Panda and the KellevRoosevelts 

Expedition of 1929. by D. Walslen:'0 16 
Fifth Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film: S 19 
Getting There, by L. Marshall: O 4 
Gone Fishing in the Gulf of Honduras, bv R. K. John- 
son and D.W. Greenfield: F 20 
Hunters in a Changing World, by J. T. Peterson: N 16 
Last and First Eskimos: N 10 
Latin American Neighbors Day: Ja 17 
Latino Images: The Other Americas, by D. McVicker 

and A. Pfeiffer: S 30 
Letters from the Arctic— L by E. Olsen: Ja 27 
Letters from the Arctic— U. by E. Olsen: F 4 
Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast. 

by C. Blackmon and R. Weber: Ap 20 
Morpho: The Jewel of the Tropical Rain Forests, by 

Museum Views and Viewpoints, by M. Pahl: S 34 
Native American Tourist Crafts, by J. W. VanStone: 

New Light on Penis Past, by M. E. Moseley, R.A. 

Feldman, and I. Pritzker: Ja 3 
Nihoa Island, by T.J. Riley: Mr 21 
I9S3: The Year of the Plant, by W. Burger: D 3 
Northwest Coast Collections. The: Legacy of a Liv- 
ing Culture, by P. L Macnair: Ap 3 

Northwest Coast Indian Housing, by D. J. Joyce: Mr 8 
Peru's Preceramic Menu, by B. Jackson and T. 

Slocker: J/A 12 
Philippine Emergence, by B. Bronson Jind A. Pfeif- 
fer: My 14 
Plains Indian Bull-Boat. The. by J. W. VanStone: F9 
Probing the Roots of the Lincoln Park Totem Pole, by 

V. Leslie: Je 18 
Rawson-MacMillan Expedition of 1929. The. by 

D. Walsten: S 4 
Records from Stone, by A. Schneider: Je 12 
Reindeer Transport in Alaska, by J. W. VanStone: 

Some Responses to Early Contact on the Pacific 

Northwest Coast, by M. Mussell: My 20 
Thinking Scientifically, by J. Terrell: My 8 
Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization, by 

A. Kolata: S 13 
Tribes, Traditions, and Totem Poles: The Northwest 

Coast Achievement, by A. Pfeiffer: Ja 22 
Volunteers Honored: Mr 28 
Were Here, by W. Burger: S 35 
Ziggy Finds New Home at Field Museum, by M. Reed 

and J. Sellar: N 4 


Blackmon, C: Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 

Northwest Coast, kp 20 
Bronson, B. Field Museum and the Philippines, J/A4 

: Philippine Emergence. My 14 

Burger. W. : Field Museum as Architecture. Mr 3 

: 1983: The Year of the Plant. D 3 

: Were Here. S 35 

Feldman, R. A.: New Light on Peru's Past. Ja 3 
Greenfield , D. W. : Gone Fishing in the Gulf of Hondu- 
ras. F 20 
Grumet, R.S.: Arts of Tide and Tundra. Mr 16 
Jackson, B.: Peru's Preceramic Menu. J/A 12 
Johnson, R. K.: Gone Fishing in the Gulf of Hondu- 
ras. F 20 
Joyce, D. J.: Northwest Ccxist Indian Housing. Mr 8 
Kolata, A.: Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civili- 
zation, S 13 

Leslie, v.; Probing the Roots of the Lincoln Park 

Totem Pole, ie 18 
Macnair, P.: The Northwest Coast Collections. Ap 3 
McVicker, D.: Latino Images: The Other Americas. 

Marshall, L.: Getting There, O 4 
Moseley, M.E.: New Light on Peru's Past: Ja 3 
Mussell, M: Some Responses to Early Contact on the 

Pacific Northwest Coast, My 20 
Olsen, E.: Letters from the Arctic — /, Ja 27 

: Letters from the Arctic — //. F 4 

Pahl, M.: Museum Views and Viewpoints, S 34 
Patterson, B. D.: Charles Darwin: A Tribute. My 3 
Peterson, J. T.: Hunters in a Changing World. N 16 
Pfeiffer, K.: Arts of Tide and Tundra. Mr 16 

: Latino Images: The Other Americas, S 30 

: Philippine Emergence, My 14 

: Tribes. Traditions, and Totem Poles, 

Pritzker, I.: New Light on Peru s Past, Ja 3 
Reed, M.: Ziggy Finds New Home at Field Museum. 

Riley, T.J.: Nihoa Island. Mr 21 
Rolfe W. D. \.. Ancient Air Breathers. Ja 12 
Schneider, A.: Records from Stone. Je 2 
Sellar, J.: Ziggy Finds New Home at Field Museum. 

N4 ^ 

Stocker, T: Pern's Preceramic Menu. J/A 12 
Terrell, J.: Thinking Scientifically. My 8 
Timm, R: Dermestids. F 14 
VanStone, J. W.: Native American Tourists Crafts, 


: The Plains Indian Bull-Boat, F 9 

: Reindeer Transport in Alaska, Je 23 

Walsten, D.: The Battle Against Dutch Elm Disease, 

: Field Museum's Panda and the Kelley- 

Roosevelts Expedition. O 16 

: The Rawson-MacMillan Expedition of 

1929. S 4 

Weber R. : Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and North- 
west Coast, Ap 20 

Young, A.: Morpho: Jewel of the Tropical American 
Rain Forests, J/A 24 


Abbot. J.B.: 04 

Agusan gold image: My 14 


Alert Bay, B.C.: Je 18 

Aleutian Canada geese: 

Mr 35 
Aiken, W. Germany (fossil 

beds): Ja 13 
Allen, H.:Ja 35 
all-terrain vehicle: F 6 
alpaca: S 14 
altiplano: S 13 
American elm: O 22 
American shad: Mr 35 
anchovy (as food): J/A 17 
Ancon, Peru: J/A 18 
Andean civilization: Ja 4 
arachnid, trigonolarbid: 

Arctic: Ja 27, F 4 
argillile dish: Ap 8 
Arikara Indians: F 12 
Armour Mrs. T. S: Je 11 
Anhropleura: ia 15 
ashlar masonry: S 15 
asteroid impact: F5 
Mlantic salmon: Mr 35 
Aymara: S 13 

Bach, IJ Mr 5 

Bacon. F.:.Mv9 

26 Baffin Is.; Ja '29 

Bagobo people: My 15, J/A 4 
bald eagle: Ja 35, Mr 35, 

My 25. S 36 
bark beetle: O 22 
Barker Welfare Fdtn.: Ap 25 
basketry, NW Coast: Ap 22 
Bay Islands: F 21 
Belize: F 20 
Benedict, L: J/A 5 
Benfer, R.: J/A 18 
Bensinger, Mrs. B.E.: Je II 
benzimadazole: O 24 
Bering, v.: My 20 
Bernbaum, E.: F27 
Bemice P. Bishop Museum: 

Mr 21 
Big Beaver: Je 2. 3 
Bilaan people: My 16 
bird-plane collisions: Je 23 
blackbird: S 36 
black-footed ferret: Mr 32 
Blackmon, C.:S 38 
blue pike: S 36 
Boas, F.: Ap3 
Bodmer, C: F 12 
Bonamo, P.M.: Ja 12 
bone cleaning: N 4 
Bontoc people: J/A 4 
Boogar, W.: S 5 
bookwus: Mr 18 
Bowdoin (ship): S 4 
Boyd, W.L.: Jell, J/A 35 
Bruce, M.W.:Je 23 
Brookfield Zoo: N 5 

Brudd. B.: O 2 
Buenos Aires: O 7 
"bug room": F 14 
bull-boat: F 9 
Bulwer's petrel: Mr 24 
Burger,W.:0 26, D2 
Burgess Shale: Ja 12 
burro adoption: Mr 34 
Bushman: S 34 
Butler. J: Ja 30 
butterfly vision: J/A 25 
butterfly wings: J/A 24 

Cacaxtle: S 30 
California condor: My 25. 

cannibal dance (hamatsa): 

Caribbean: F 20 
Carpenter, C: Ja23 
Can-oil, Sen J: Mr 21 
Carton, Mrs. R.W. Jell 
Cassai, M.:Jell 
catfish, walking: N 25 
centipede fossil: Ja 14 
Ceratocystis ulmi (fungus): 

Cerro Baul: Ja 3 
Chan Chan: J/A 15 
Chicago Park District: Ap 25 
ChiefSealtle:Mr 14 
Chimu kingdom: J/A 15 
Chiribaya pottery: Ja 7 
Chirif)a: S 24 
Christensen. C: Mr 21 

Christianity in Philippines: 

My 14 
Christmas Bird (boat) : F 23 
Chucuito: S 13 
Chukchi reindeer herders: 

chulpa: Ja 9. S 18 
Cole. G.H.: 3 38 
Coleman. L.: Ja 27 
Coles, R.: N 10 
Colla: S 13 
Colasuyu: S 13 
Comodoro Rivadavia: O 10 
conquistador: S 30 
Contisuyu, Peru: Ja 13 
Cook,Capt.J.:Ap6, My20 
Coof)er, G.A.: Ja 12 
Cooper's hawk: Mr 35 
Cordillera Real: S 15 
Cornwallis Is.: Ja 29, F 6 
Costa Rica: J/A 27, S 35 
Crabill, R.: Ja 13 
Crane, P.R.:N3 
Cranmer, D.:Ap24,Je20 
Craterostigmus fossil: Ja 13 
creation science: My 8 
Cross. J.: Ap 25 
Cuajone copper mine: Ja 6 
Cummings, R.F.: J/A4 
Curtis. E.S.:FI2.Mr9 
Cutting. S.: O 17 
Cuzco: S 13 

Darwin, C: My 3, 8 
David, J: Ap 25 
Davidson, R.: Ja 25, Ap 25 
Davis. D.D.: O 16 
DDT: My 25 
deer, killer: Ja 35 
[)enaktok Village. B.C.: Ap 5 
Dence. M.: F4 
Denig. E.T: F 12 
[}ermestes maculatus 

(beetle): F 14 
dermestid beetle: F 14 
Devon Is: Ja 29. F 4 
Diaz. P.: S 32 
Discovery of a World in the 

Moon, The: My 12 
Dixon. G.: My 21 
Dorsey. G.:J/A4 
Dutch elm disease: O 22 

earthworm: N 25 
Edenshaw. C: Ap 5. 25 
elephant graveyards: N 4 
Ellesmere Is.: Ja 31 
Elliott. D.G.: Ja 24 
elm hybrids: O 25 
elm tree: O 22 
Eoarthropleura: ia 15 
Eskimo dwellings: Je 28 
European elm bark beetle: 

evolution theory: My 3. 8 

F.H. Prince Testamentary 

Trust: Ap 25 
Fairbanks, A.W.:F 9 
Farrington, O.C.:N4 
Fawcett, H.:My8 
Felton,ConC.:0 12 
Fleld,S.:S4,0 17 
Fieldiana titles for 1981: Je 35 
filament blenny: F 23 
Fitzpatrick,J.W.:0 26 
Ford, C.S.:Ap6 
formalin: S 37 
Founders' Room snail: N 3 
Friesser, J.: O 16 

Corf//y (ship): S 6 
Gallon, P.W.:N 3 
garua: J/A 13 
Geology, Muse of: Mr 2 
Ghiselin, M.:My8 
giant panda: O 16 
Gilboa, N.Y. mudstones: 

Girl Scout patch: S 38 
Glovers Reef: F 20 
glyptal: N 7 
golden monkey (snub-nosed 

monkey): O 18 
Gomez-Laurito, J.: S 35 
Gondwana: Ja 16 
Green, S.:Ap 25 
Grierson, D.: Ja 12 
Grise Fjord: Ja 33 
ground willow: F 6 
grunt (fish): F 24 
guanaco: J/A 14 
Gulf of Honduras: F 20 
gypsum: F 7 

Haida: Ap 8 
Hakluyt's Trauels: F 18 
Hall J (ancient Egypt): Ja 18 
Hall 10 (Maritime Peoples): 

hamatsa (KwakiutI cannibal 

dance): Ap3 
Harris, A.: N 10 
Harris, Bob: Ap 4 
Hatuncolla: S 13 
Haughton Crater: F 6 
Hawaiian Islands: Mr 21 
Hawaiian monk seal: Mr 24 
hazardous waste disposal: 

Mr 33 
Healy, Capt. M.A.:Je23 
Henry, A: F 12 
Hering, H.:Mr2 
herring gulls: N 25 
Hocker, T: Je 2 
Hoe, L.:Ja27 
Holm, B.:Je 19 
Ho'oWo/o (ship): Mr 21 
Hoover, H.: O 25 
Hope Is.: Mr 8 
Horus: My 2 
Hu, C. Y.: Je 15 
Huari, Peru: S 15 
Hudson's Bay Co.: Ap 7 
Hull, D.: My 9 
Hiinicken, M.: Ja 15 
Hunt, C: Mr 8, Ap 24 
Hunt, G.: Ap4 
Hunt, R.:Ap24 
Hunt, R.:Ap24 
Hunt, T: Mr 8, Ap 24 
Hylurgopinus rufipes 

(beetle): A 22 
Hyndman, E.:Mr28 

khthyophlhirius (fish 

disease): S 37 
Ichtyobodo (fish disease): 

Ifugao people: My 16, J/A 30 
igloo: Je 28 

Mongol people: J/A 10 
Inca civilization: S 13 
insecticides, natural: N 25 
Irving, M.:Ap 23 
Izor, R.: N 6 

Jackson, Rev. S.: Je 23 
Janes, J.: S5 
Jastrzebski, Z.: F23 
Jin YuGan-N 3 
Johnny-Kit-Elswa: Ap 25 
Jones, W.: J/A 5 

Kakula: Ap 25 
Kalasasaya, Bolivia: S 2 
Kamehameha I: Mr 23 
kangaroo rat: F 14 
Karall, D.:Mr28 
kashgee (kajiji): Je 30 
Kelley,W.V.:0 16 
Kelley-Roosevelts Exped.: 

Kemp's Ridley sea turtle: 

Mr 35 
Kethley, J.: Ja 13 
Kingmeata: Ap 25 
Kissin, S.: Ja27 
Kolata,A.:Ja 17 
Kraft, J.: Je 18 
Kraftwood Gardens: Je 18 
Kraus, 0.:Ja 14 
Kurz, R.F.: F 12 
Kuskokwim River: F 13 
KwakiutI Indians: Mr 8 
Kwethluk, AK: F 13 


La Perouse: My 20 

Lake Michigan dunes: F2 

Lake Titicaca: S 13 

Larpenteur, C: F 12 

Uufer, B.:Je 12 

Lewis, P.H.: S 38 

Lewis and Clark Exped.: F 13 

Lighthouse Reef: F21 

Lincoln Park totem pole: 

Livingston, J.: Mr 9, Ap 24 
llama: J/A 14, S 14 
loma: ]lk 13 
longjaw Cisco: S 36 
Lupaqa: S 13 
Lyon, AG.: Ja 14 

McGee, P.:S35 
machilid fossil: Ja 14 
Malott, Mrs. R.H.:J/A35 
Malzahn, E.: Ja 12 
manatee: Mr 35 
Maquinna: Ap 6 
Maritime Peoples exhibit 

(Hall 10): Mr 8, 

Ap 20, Je 29 
Marshall, L: Ja 17 
Marshall Field Paleontologi- 

cal Exped. to Patagonia, 

1922-24:0 4 
Martens, J.H.C.: S 6 
Mary W. Runnells Rare Book 

Room: F 3 
Maximilian of Wied, Prince: 

Mayta Capac: Ja 4 
Mazon Creek: Ja 12 
Mecca shale: Ja 12 
mercuric chloride: 24 
Metcalf, R.B.:S5 
Meteor Crater (AZ):F 5 
meteorites: Ja 27 
Miezio, R.: F 15 
Miller, R.G.:Je 15 
Miskito Coast: F 20 
Missouri River: F 9 
Monod,J.: My 10 
Montevideo: O 7 
Moore, R.:Ja 30 
Moquegua Valley: Ja 4 

Moro people: My 15 
Moseley, M.:J/A12 
mud turtle: Mr 33 
Miiller, K.:Jal2 
MuseodelaPlata:0 9 
Mus. ofSci. and Ind.: F9 
muskoxen: Ja 31 
musth: N 4 

Nagatani, H.: Je 11 

Nakht: Ja 18 


native elm bark beetle: O 22 

NEA: Ap 25 


Negritos: N 17 

NEH: Ap 25 

Netjer-user: Ja 18 

Nevling, L.I.,Jr.:0 26 

Newel I's Manx shearwater: 

Mr 35 
Newton, H.: Je 17 
Nino, El: J/A 22 
Nishga Indians: Ap 8 
Nootka Indians: Ap 4, 22, 

My 20 
Nootka Sound: My 20 
Northwest Coast: Ja 22 
Northwest Coast collections: 

"Norse ruins": S 7 
Norton, R.: Ja 14 
Nowell, C.:Ap4 

Opabinia: ia 12 
Orgeuil meteorite: Ja 14 
Osgood, C.:N 15 
osprey: My 25 
ostracode fossil: Ja 13 
ownership, statement of: 

Pachakuteq: S 13 
Palmer, A: Ja 22 
Paloma, Peru: J/A 14 
Pampa Koani: S 16 
panda: O 16 
Paraiso, E1:J/A23 
Paramonga, Peru: J/A 12 
Patterson, B.:N 7 
Patterson, Mrs. O.M.: Jell 
Pattie, D.: Ja 30 
pelican: My 25 
peregrine falcon: My 25 
Peterson, J.T:N 16 
Peterson, W.: N 16 
Peru: Ja 3 

Peru Current: J/A 16 
Peru, prehistoric: J/A 12 
Peruvian Museum of Health 

Sciences: Ja 1 1 
Peruvian Nat'l Cultural Inst.: 

Philip, Prince: 26 
Philippine arts: J/A 3 
Philippine arts exhibit: Je 10 
"pig bomb": N 23 
Pittman, G.:Ja30 
Plains Indians: F9 
Planned Giving Program: F 3 
Plants of the World Hall 

(Hall 29): D 3 
Poincare, H.: My 10 
polar bear: Ja 34 
Polynesians, prehistoric: 

Mr 21 
"Portal of the Sun": S 31 
potlatch: Ap 7 
Potter, Mrs. C.S.: J/A 35 
prairie workshop: F27 
Prilchardia remota: Mr 24 
Pseudomonas syringae: O 24 
Puerta Madryn, Argentina: O 9 
Puerto Rican parrot: Mr 35 
Pumapunka: S 23 
Puno: #13 
Putnam, F.W.:F 9 

qasgiq: N 12 

Raven. P.H.: 26 
Rawson, F.H.,Sr.:S4 
Rawson, K.: S 5 
red fire ant: N 25 
Reid, B.:Ja25, Ap25 
reindeer herding: Je 23 
Resolute Bay: Ja 29, F 6 
Rhynie, Scotland fossil beds: 

Rich, Mrs.J. E.:Je 11 
Riggs, E.S.:0 4 
Rio Gallegos, Argentina: O 9 
Rivera, D.:S 32 
Roberto Clemente High 

School: Ja 17 
Robertson, B.:Ja 27, F 4 
Robinson, R.: S 5 
Robson, J.: Ap 25 
Roosevelt, K.:0 17 
Roosevelt, T:0 17 
R.R. McCormick Charitable 

Trust: Ap 25 
rubbings, Chinese: Je 12 
Runnells, Mr. and 

Mrs. Johns.: F 3 

Sachem (ship): S 5 
St. Louis Expo of 1904: Ap 4 
Salman, D.: S5 
SalmonRiver, B.C.:Mr II 
salmon trap, Nootkan: Ap 22 
salt dome: F4 
Samwell, D.:My22 
San Bartolo, Peru: J/A 15 
Saprolegnia (fish disease): 

saxifrage: Ja 30 
Scolytidae (bark beetles): 

Scolylus multistriatus 

(beetle): 22 
Sedgwick, A.: My 11 
Senungetuk, J.: Ap 25 
sexual dimorphism in 

butterfiies: J/A 24 
shaman masks: AP 23 
Shambhala, Tibet: F 27 
sharp-shinned hawk: Mr 35 
shatter cone: F 4 
Shear, W.:Ja 14 
shellfish (Peru): J/A 19 
shrew skeleton: F 15 
Sickman, L.: Je 11 
silverfish fossil: Ja 14 
Simms, S.C: J/A4 
smallpox and Indians: Ap 7 
Smith, A.: Ja 30 
Smith, E.L.:Ja 14 
Smith, Mrs. E.B.:Je 11 
Smith, Mrs. H.D.: Jell 
Smithsonian Inst., fossil loan 

to: Je 1 1 
snub-nosed monkey (golden 

monkey): O 18 
Somel, A.: N3 
Southern Peru Copper Corp.: 

Spondylus (mollusk): S 15 
Stanley Field Hall: Mr 3 
Starr, K.:Je 14 
Sternberg, G.F.: 4 
Stevens, H.: O 18 
Stormer, L.: Ja 15 
Strobel,G.A.:0 24 
sunflower: S 36 
Sverdrup Glacier: Ja 33 
swidden: N 18 
Swift, Mrs. E.F.: Jell 

Tahuantinsuyu, Peru: Ja 3 

Tales from the Smokehouse: 

Mr 19 
Tawantinsuyu: S 13 
Tcihen, H.:Jel3 
Tecopa pupfish: Mr 33 
Tengboche Monastery: F 27 
Teotihuacan: S 33 
Terrell, J: J/A 35 
Tezcatlipaca: S 30 
Theatre Sans Fil: Mr 19, 

My 18 
thiabendazole: O 24 
Thomas, Dr.: S 5 
Thompson, D.: F 12 
Tibet, F 27 
Titicaca, Lake: Ja 7 
Tiwanaku: Ja 7; S 13, 31 
Tlaxcala: S 30 
Toquepala Caves: Ja 1 1 
totem poles: Ja 22, Mr 17, 

Truelove Inlet: Ja 29 
Tsonoqua: Mr 18 
tundra: Ja 31 
turban squash: D 3 

Unis-ankh: Ja 18 

Valentine, J.W.:N 3 
Valentino, T: N 3 
Vancouver, G: Ap7 
Vancouver Is.: My 20 
Vega, de la, Garcilaso: Ja 4 
Verame, J.: Ja35 
Vickers, R.:Ap25 
Visiting Scientist Program: 

Volcan Miravalles, Costa 

Rica: S 35 

W.K. Kellogg Fdtn: 5 38 
Waddington, C.H.:My 11 
Wallace,A.R.:My4, 8 
Walravens, H.: Je 16 
walrus tusk engraving: Ap 23 
Ware, G.: 25 
water fiea fossil: Ja 13 
Watts, R.:Je5 
Waukegan, II: O 22 
Webber,J.:My20, 25 
Weber, R.L.:Je 18 
Webster, G.C.:Je 20 
Wedding Rocks, B.C. 

petroglyph: My 21 
Weed, A.C.: S 5 
whales as food: J/A 17 
whistles, NW Coast: Ap 6 
Whittington, H.B.:Ja 12 
whooping crane: Mr 32 
Wilberforce,S.:My 10 
wild horse adoption: Mr 34 
Wilkie, L:Ap23 
winter ceremony, KwakiutI: 

wolf: N 25 

Women's Board: F 3. J/A 35 
Wonder, F.: O 16 
Worcester, D.C.: J/A 6 
World Wildlife Fund: O 26 
World's Columbian Expo.: 

F9,Ap4, N8 

Xa 'niyus (B. Harris): Ap 25 
Xumtaspi-Nahwitti, B.C.: 
Mr 8 

Yen, D.: Mr 22 

Zachrysia prouisoria 

(snail): N 3 
Zenith Radio Corp.: S 6 
Ziegfeld, F.: N 4 
Ziggy: N 2 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Fcbnjary 1983 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 


February 1983 
Volume 54, Number 2 

Events at Field Museum in February 

Africa: A Celebration of Black History 

Field Briefs 

The Journal of Wilfred Osgfxtd 

With an introduction by Bruce D. Patterson, 
Assistant Curator of Mammals 


Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Gei>rge R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnellev II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jn 
Lorin I. Nevling, jr. 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mr^. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine j. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel InsuU, Jr 
William V. Kahler 
William H. MitcheU 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

Field Museum Tours 


Field Museum of Natural Hislory Bulletm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
ChKago. n. 60605 Subscriptions: S6,00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the polic\' of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone; (312) 9229410 Postmaster Please send from .3579 to Field Museum "< Natural History. 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. II li«605 1SSN.0O15-O7D3 

Precolumbian Murals in a Mexican Church 14 

By Terry Stocker and Barbarajackson 

Plants That Lie and Cheat (well almost) 23 

By Williatn Burger 

Chairman, Department of Botany 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

March and April 


Clean-upfor the Mediterranean 

By Norman Myers 



TVi'o sculptures by Henry Heriug (1874-1949), a New York sculptor 
who had been a pupil of the famed Augustus Saint-Gaudens 
(1848-1907). These twofigures, twice life-size, represent "Science" (left) 
and "Tlie Dissemination of Knowledge," and may be seen near the 
northwest and northeast comers, respectively, of Stanley Field Hall at 
the second-floor level. (Corresponding figures representing "Record" 
and "Research" are at ttie other two comers.) 

The four pieces, executed about 1917, were among a total of 14 
statues, 4 bas-relief figures, and a lion-head medallion done by 
Heringfor the new Museum. Eight of the figures, for reasons now 
unknown, were never incorporated into the architecture of Field 
Museum. Four, however, found tlieir way above the north and south 
porticoi of Chicago's Museum of Science and Industr}>. Tliese figures 
represent the four directions. The location of the remaining four 
statues, representing tlie four traditional elements — air, water, fire, 
and earth — is unknoiiii. 

The Field Museum statuary as well as ttie rest oftlie building's 
imposing architecture may be studied ivith particular advantage 
during special two-hour guided architectural walks that are being 
jointly sponsored by the Field Museum and the Chicago Architecture 

These walking tours will be held at 1:00 p.m. on the following 
Sundays: Februar}' 6 and ZO, March 6 and 20, April 3 and 17. Cost of 
tlie tour is $5.00 for members (Field Museum or Chicago Architecture 
Foundation) and $8.00 for nonmembers. Reservations must be made 
with Befcsi' Kittle at the Chicago Architecture Foundation, 782-1776. 
As the tours are limited to 25 persons, please call early to reserve your 
place. We are sure tluiteven the most seasoned trawler will find these 
walks a delight! 

Field Museum Events 


Special Events 

"Natural History Film Festival" 
Saturdays at 1 :30pm, West Entrance 
February 5, 12, 19, and 26 

Many of the most engaging and beautiful natural his- 
tory films in the world are the work of a group located 
in the city of Bristol, England who specialize in wildlife 
programs for the BBC television. Rich in visual content 
and meticulously researched, the Natural History 
Unit's films illustrate animal behavior,, botany, ecologi- 
cal issues, and other biological topics. Join us at Field 
Museum February 5, at 1 :30pm as Chris Parsons, 
currently head of the BBC Natural History Unit, intro- 
duces six weeks of exciting film. These films are made 
possible through Films Incorporated, exclusive dis- 

tributor of BBC films in the United States. The films 
are free with Museum admission. Tickets are not 

February 5 Chris Parsons, Introduction 
"Animal Olympians," {50m) 
"Water Walkers," (25m) 

February 1 2 "The Rotten World About Us," (50m) 
"The Impossible Bird," (25m) 

February 1 9 "Tree of Thorns," (50m) 

"The Impossible Bird," (25m) 

February 26 "Invasion of the Land," (58m) 

"Ambush at Masai Mara," (25m) 

Highli gilts 

Africa: A Celebration of Black Heritage 

"Dances of West Africa," with Najwa Dance Corps 
Sunday, February 20, 3:00pm, Stanley Field Hall 

In an exciting mixture of dance, music, drama, and 
history Najwa Dance Corps brings to you a perfor- 
mance which preserves the styles and techniques of 
different eras in African history. Najwa I is an interna- 
tionally acclaimed dancer who has continued a tradi- 
tion of teaching, performing and artistic endeavors 
through the Najwa Dance Corps. The Corps performs 
a suite of dances in celebration of "Daso." 

The performance is free with Museum admission. 
Tickets are not required. This program is partially 
supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

"Africa Alive" Family Feature 
Saturday and Sunday, February 26 and 27 
1:00pm, Hall E 

Africa is a continent of many cultures and distinctive 
art styles. A walk through Hall E, Cultures of Africa and 
Madagascar, introduces you to the creativity of these 
diverse people. 

"Ashanti Gold Weights" In West Africa, brass 
weights were used by the Ashanti to measure gojd 
dust. Using clay, make your own small weight in geo- 
metric, animal, or human shapes. 

"Jewelry of IMasai" The Masai people of East Africa 
are famous for their beaded necklaces of multicolored 
strands. Find out why jewelry is important and make 
your own Masai necklace. 

"The Art of Tie-Dye" Join artist Rah-Bird as he dem- 
onstrates the rich African tradition of textile tie-dyeing. 
Watch beautiful patterns emerge on cloth and learn 
how the decoration of fabric has become a truly crea- 
tive art form throughout Africa. _^. 

Field Museum Events 


Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
discovery tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for 
families and adults. Check the Weekend "Passport" upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

February 6 

1:00pm KwakiutI Winter 
Ceremonies, tour 


February 12 

1 1 :30am Ancient Egypt, tour 

February 26 


February 19 

1 :00pm Tibet Today, slide lecture/ 


1 :00pm 

2:00pm Film Feature: 

■'Salmon People" (25m) 


and "Potlatch: A Strict Law 

Bids Us Dance" (53m) 

February 20 

2:00pm Film Feature: 

"Haida Carver" (13m) 

February 27 


and "Nathan Jackson, 

Tlingit Artist" (14m) 

Treasures from the Totem 

Forest, tour 

Treasures from the Totem 

Forest, tour 

Tibet Today, slide lecture/ 


Film Feature: 

The Legend of the Magic Knives" 

(11m) and "The Crooked Beak 

of Heaven" (55m) 

Film Feature: ""In the Land of 

the War Canoes" (45m) 

Coming Events 


with Douglas Ewart and Inventions 
Sunday, March 6, 3:00pm, James 
Simpson Theatre 

Members: $3.00, Nonmembers: $5.00 
Experience the delightful, lyrical music of 
Douglas Ewart and Hamid Hank Drake on 
winds and percussion along with special 
guest performers. Watch for more pro- 
gram information in the March Bulletin. 

IVIUSEUM HOURS: 9:00am to 5:00pm daily 
MUSEUM TELEPHONE: (312)922-9410 


Begin the week of February 7. Call 
322-8855 if you have any questions 
about the courses offered. 

(312) 322-8854 

Take advantage of our Weekend Events 
Line for up-to-date information about spe- 
cial events, weekend programs, and Fam- 
ily Features. The recorded message gives 
detailed information about the Department 
of Education's special programs. 


Please complete this coupon for your pro- 
gram selection and any other special 
events Be sure to complete all requested 
information on the ticket application and 
include the section number where ap- 
propriate. If your ticket request is received 
less than one week before a program, 
tickets will be held In your name at the 
West Entrance box office until one-hall 
hour before the event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets 
will tje mailed upon receipt ol check Re- 
lunds will be made only il the program is 
sold out 




# Requested 


# Requested 










For Office Use 

Date Rec'd 

Date Returned 



Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, II 60605-2497 


A Celebration 
Of Black Heritage 

Sunday. Feb. 20, 3:00pm 

"Dances of West Africa," with Najwa Dance Corps, 

in Stanley Field Hall. 

This program is free, with Museum admission; 

ho ticl<et required. 

Saturday, Feb. 26, lKX)pm and 

Sunday, Feb. 27, 1:00pm 

February Family Features: "Africa Alive" in Hall E. These 

features include three new participatory activities: 

"Ashanti Gold Weights," "Jewelry of Masai," 

and "The Art of Tie-Die." 

Sunday, March 6, 3:00pm 

"Music from the Bamboo Forest," with Douglas Ewart and 

inventions, in Simpson Theatre. 

Members: $3.00; nonmembers: $5.00 

These programs are partially supported by a 

grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

Najwa Dance Corps 

'Music from the Bamboo Forest, " with Douglas Ewart and Inuentions 


Your uall opens up so many 

• You can decide on distribution 
of your assets; (without a will the 
state does it for you) 

• You can resolve important 
responsibilities, such as naming 
guardians for minor children; 
(without a will, the state decides 
for vou) 

• You can save unnecessary' costs 
and estate taxes, in mam* cases; 

• Make special gifts to special 

• Make that "big gift" vou ahva^ 
wanted to make. 

But too many people put off writ- 
ing their wills, until it's too late. 
Call your attorney today and 
make an appointment to draw up 
your will right awavl 
And remember that Field 
Museum of Natural Histon- 
welcomes bequests as a thouglit- 
ful means of supf)ort. Your be- 
quest goes into the Endowment 
Fund, income from which sup- 
ports exhibition, education, and 
basic scientific research prog- 
rams. Your name and your be- 
quest to Field Museum therebv 
become as perpetual as natural 
histon' itself. 

Our free booklet helps get you 
started. . .Write today! 

Clip and Mail Tbday' 

Planned Gi\ing OfTice 
Field Museum of Natural Histon' 
Roose\'elt Road at Lake Shon? Drix-e 
Chicago, 11 G06()5 

Please send me my free copy of 37 
Things People 'know' Alxjut Wills 
That Aren't Really So." 



City State . 


You can reach me at: 

Phone (home) 

6 i fhusiness) 


Master Dyers to the World: 
Early Fabrics from India 
Now on View in Hall 27 

The stunning new show, which opened 
January 29, will continue through April 
10. It is an international loan exhibition 
organized by the Textile Museum in 
Washington, D.C. in conjunction with the 
U.S. Subcommission of Education and 
Culture and with the official cooperation 
of the Indian Government. The exhibition 
features the superb pattern-dyed cloths 
made in India between the 15th and 18th 
centuries and highlights the achievement 
of Indian textile artists in colorful pattern- 
ing of cotton textiles with brilliant fast 

Cecilia Bodman, B.V.M. 

Sister Cecilia Bodman, a long-time volun- 
teer in the Department of Botany, died on 
December 14. Her area of special interest 
was the Tremallales, a complex group of 
fungi, and her expertise was used to par- 
ticular advantage in curating this part of 
the Museum's plant collection. 

A member of the Sisters of Charitv of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, Sister Cecilia was 
professor emeritus of biology at Munde- 
lein College, where she had served as 
chairman of the Biology Department. 

Attention Chocolate Lovers 

Field Museum Stores now carries edible 
elephants — in the form of dark chocolate 
"coins" embossed with the image of the 

fighting bull elephants in Stanley Field 
Hall. Wrapped in gold foil, they come 
handsomely packaged — two to a box. If 
you've never set a tooth to an elephant, 
now's the time. Eighty-five cents a box. 

Volunteers Honored 

Field Museum's army of faithful volun- 
teers will be honored on Friday, February 
14, with a cocktail reception in Stanley 
Field Hall. Special recognition will be 
made of those who volunteered 500 hours 
of service or more during 1982 and of those 
who have served 15 years or more. In a 
coordinated program headed by Joyce 
Matuszewich, volunteers serve the 
Museum in virtually every phase of its 
special activities: specimen preparation, 
collection maintenance, library work, 
public education programs, cataloging, 
editing, scientific drawing, and a great 
deal more. Their collective contribution of 
skills, expertise, and energy is of critical 
importance to Field Museum. 

Gifts and Bequests for 1982 

Thanks to the support of its many friends. 
Field Museum was able to balance its 
operating budget for 1982. Unrestricted 
contributions for the year amounted to 
51,738,376; restricted gifts and bequests 
totaled $1,551,601. The total private sup- 
port was 83,289,977. The Museum is 
most grateful to those who have 
thus helped sustain day-to-dav opera- 
tions as well as its vitally imp)ortant pro- 
grams of research, exhibition, and public 

A Reunion, of Sorts 

Among Field Museum's better icnown col- 
lections are the bronzes of sculptress Mal- 
vina Hoffman (1887-1966), known as The 
Races of Mankind. Totaling 104 pieces, 
they were commissioned by Field Muse- 
um in 1930. In 1933, when 80 percent of the 
pieces had been completed, they were 
placed on view in Hall 3, where they re- 
mained until 1967. 

Many of the Hoffman pieces are still 
on view in the Museum, but they are no 
longer together in a single location. One of 
these, Kashmiri Man, in Hall N, was the 
reason for a recent visit by Mr. A.N.D. 
Haksar, of India. The handsome figure, in 
a pose of meditation, was modeled by the 
visitor's father, Prakash Haksar, half a 

century ago. A.N.D. Haksar posed for the 
Museum photographer with the image of 
his father, and the result may be seen in 
the photo below. In 1971, Prakash Hak- 
sar's daughter, Mrs. Kiran Dar (above) al- 
so visited for the same reason. The photo 
at left is of Prakash Haksar at about the 
time he modeled for the statue. 

The Journal of Wilfred Osgood 

The Marshall Field Chilean Expedition of 1922-23 

Introduction by BrUCE D. PaTTERSON 
Assistant Curator of Mammals 

Wilfred Hudson Osgood (1875-1947), one 
of the most distinguished curators ever 
to serve on the Field Museum staff, 
first came to the Museum as assistant curator of 
mammals and birds in 1909, after serving as 
assistant biologist in the Biological Survey of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture. In 1921 he was 
made chief curator of zoology, a post he held 
until retiring in 1941; he remained active after- 
wards as curator emeritus. During the course of 
his remarkable career he produced 205 papers 
and books. 

Osgood made many contributions to sys- 
tematic mammalogy (the study of evolutionary 
relationships among mammals); perhaps the 
greatest of these was an understanding of 
populations. Unlike other taxonomists of his 
day, who routinely named individual variants as 
subspecies, species, or even genera, Osgood rec- 
ognized the natural variation within populations 
as an integral aspect of systematics, something to 
be understood in terms of environmental condi- 
tions and history, and as the raw material for 
natural selection. His approach to nomenclature 
is well documented in his first two generic revi- 
sions, that of the pocket mice (Perognathus) pub- 
lished in 1900, and of the deer mice (Pewmyscus), 
published in 1909. Osgood examined some 3,000 
specimens in the course of the former work, and 
some 27,000 specimens during the latter. In 
doing so he erected a standard still current in 
systematic mammalogy. It should come as no 

surprise that subsequent revisions of these 
genera have found little to improve upon. 

Like other great systematists, Osgood based 
his studies on extensive fieldwork. During his 
career, he made 30 expeditions of varying dura- 
tions that carried him to the far comers of the 
globe. Fieldwork gave Osgood a first-hand 
knowledge of his material that could never have 
been achieved through the study of museum 
specimens alone. The journals of his expedi- 
tions, comprising 26 volumes in the Museum's 
library, contain a great wealth of natural history 
information as well as his impressions of peoples 
and places now remote in both space and time. 

While preparing for my own fieldwork in 
the Chilean archipelago, which began last month 
(January), 1 consulted Osgood's account of his 
trip there as leader of the Marshall Field Chilean 
Expedition of 1922-23. Osgood began fieldwork 
on Isla Chiloe, a large island some 600 miles 
south of Valparaiso, the biota of which had last 
been studied by Charles Darwin during his 
Beagle voyage. Darwin's collections on the 
islands in 1834 had been the basis for many scien- 
tific names, and Osgood wished to investigate 
this biota more fully. Accompanied by Colin C. 
Sanborn and Boardman Conover* of Field 
Museum, and by Luis Moreira of Chile's Nation- 
al Museum in Santiago, Osgood spent six weeks 
on Chiloe, assembling the first North American 
collection of Chilean mammals. The specimens 
he collected there would later prove to contain a 

Northeastern shoreline 
of Chiloe Island, Chile, 
where Os-^ood collected 
8 in 1922 and 192.^. 

genus, a species, and three subspecies of mam- 
mals that were new to science. 

The following is Wilfred Osgood's account 
of that trip, as recorded in his journal: 

Dec. 21. Left early this morning [from Quelen on 
the island of Chiloe] and arrived in Quellon [near 
the southern end] around noon. Established 
ourselves with Ruperto Vera who supplied us 
with a vacant house and gives us meals at his 
own table — not too good, but substantial. Tripe, 
sheepsheads, kidneys, pigsfeet and other tidbits 
from a larger part of the menu than we would 
prefer. Got a few traps out before dark in some 
swampy places on cleared ground and in a bit of 
woodland. Saw a snipe and a number of small 
birds. Shot a fine Hylactes, my first Tapaculo, 
called here wit wit or whet whet on account of its 
loud much repeated call which is startling when 
it proceeds suddenly from a thicket only a few 
feet away. Found some small mottled toads 
under logs on a hillside. 

Dec. 22. Caught some small mice which look like 
Akodons. They are fairly common and seem to 
prefer cleared land altho they live also in el monte. 
Sanborn got a yg. house rat and they are com- 
mon along the beach. 

Dec. 31. A little over a week in Quellon gives us 
some idea of the fauna of Chiloe. Birds are very 
abundant but the number of species seen so far is 
only about 30 exclusive of waterbirds. The very 
common ones are the robin or zorzal, the diuca 
[finch], chincol [rufous-collared sparrow], house 
wren, two tapaculos, a small Scytalopus [bab- 
bler], a small white crowned greenish flycatcher 
(Elaenia), a hummer, and a Phrysilus. A fine Cine- 
lodes is abundant on the shore which is mostly 
flat and gravelly or pebbly. It flits about the front 
street and lights on the fences, docks, etc. At low 
tide it is pecking around under the pilings of the 
docks and buildings. It also appears along 
streams in open meadows and there acts much 
like a water thrush and its appearance also sug- 
gests that bird. Chimangos are fairly common 
and often seen beach combing but they are dis- 
tinctly less numerous than farther north. A flock 
of black-headed gulls and some pintail ducks 
stay around a grassy salt flat. Several Hudsonian 
curlews work around the bay. Large black- 
headed gulls are also seen. A couple small white 
terns are about and perhaps are Arctic terns or 
some similar species. A few penguins appear 

*Colin Sanborn (1897-1962) was a preparator in ornithology 
at the time of this expedition; when he retired in 1956 he was 
curator of Mammals. Boardman Conover (1892-1950) was 
never a Museum staff member, but in 1936 he was made a 
research associate in Birds and from 1940 until his death he 
served on the Board of Trustees. 

Wilfred Osgood during 
his 1922-23 expedi- 
tion, or shortly 

now and then often near shore and one day a boy 
brought in a live one tied with a string to its foot. 
Two or three small porpoises amble along our 
waterfront nearly every day. A large white- 
bellied and white-necked cormorant is in small 
numbers and a few black ones also. According to 
indefinite reports, pelicans have been known to 
occur. Foxes seem to be practically unknown in 
this part of the island and many people here say 
there are none anywhere on the island, but some 
know of reports of them on the west coast. Near 
San Pedro Id., where Darwin got the type of 
[Dusicyon] fulvipes, none have been seen within 
any reliable memory. Deer are common 
apparently as soon as one gets away from clear- 
ings and cultivation. The only other mammals 
mentioned by the natives are the coypu [an aqua- 
tic rodent superficially resembling muskrats] 
and the otters. They hunt these in the summer 
season when the fur is poor and of little value 
because they say it is easier to get them than in 
the winter when the fur would be of more value. 
For coypu skins they get about 5 or 6 pesos or less 
than $1 each. 

The land is pretty well cleared near the shore 
and is pasture with stumps, patches of ferns, and 
small swampy areas given to sphagnum-like 
moss and bunches oifuncus. The forest behind is 
not like a northern forest, but reminds of a tropi- 
cal forest or more especially of the temperate 
forest of the Andes although it is less luxuriant 
than this. It is full of climbing bamboo which is 
usually very difficult to get through. There are 
some air plants and much moss on the large 

trunks. A little red flower that looks like a waxy 
fuchsia is abundant on mossy trunks and stubs 

Conover and Moreira arrived on the 29th 
and established themselves with us in the old 
house. Began negotiations to get away. . . . 
Jan. 6. Weather right and fine and less wind but 
the expected steamers do not come and our pa- 
tience is running low. This afternoon a boy 
brought a large cocoi heron and Sanborn tackled 
the job of skinning it. The Huandad came in and 
we engaged her to take us to Inio for 250 pesos, 
not expensive for five men, a big rowboat, and 31 
pieces of baggage, not counting guns, etc. Had 
dinner on shore and went aboard about 10 
o'clock after trying again to swat the one or two 
small bats that fly up and down the street. The 
Huandad was filthy, crowded and uncomfortable, 
but we got the special privilege of sleeping or 
trying to alongside the cap's cabin. 

The coypu, a rodent common to Chiloe Island that super- 
ficially resembles the muskrat. 

The Huandad tied up at Quellon, Chiloe island. The "filthy, 
crowded, and uncomfortable" ship took Osgood and his com- 
panions on an overnight trip to Inio. 


Jan. 7. Made a good camp in a grove of large trees 
after clearing away much "quila" or bamboo. 
Fresh water from a spring. Big salt marshes 
around the mouth of the river As we came in 
saw many gulls, cormorants, black oystercatch- 
ers, etc. Spent most of the day making camp. 
Jan. 8. Weather fine, bright and cloudless. Traps 
near beach yielded only common Akodon. There 
is a sort of yucca like plant, perhaps a screw pine, 
growing in the rocky points about the beach and 
other plants not seen elsewhere. Crossed the 
river and worked around grassy slews but 
couldn't get far on account of tidal channels. 
Conover and Sanborn went up the beautiful long 
curving beach and Luis picked a good mess of 
wild strawberries, round and rather hard, not 
quite so well flavored and juicy as ours, but still 
very good indeed. In afternoon found trail across 
to another beach east of us showing we are on a 

peninsula which forms the eastern boundary of 
the estero [estuary] of the Inio. The country is 
very flat but some low hills can be seen up the 
river Huapiquilan and various small islands are 
easily seen. The vegetation behind all the 
beaches having a south frontage is much influ- 
enced by wind and has a picturesque look. 
Found some fox tracks on beach .... 
Jan. 9. Again clear and bright .... found a cat that 
at first glimpse didn't look unlike a domestic 
pussy. . . . Later in day. . . a fox . . . was brought 
in by fishermen whose dog smelled it out. 
Jan. 10. Warm and fine. Went down to end of east 
beach and on around several points of rock. 
Wonderful shell beaches, some of them good 
sized shells still unbroken — pure shell and 
almost nothing else. Saw a couple deer tracks 
near a litfle water hole. There is very little fresh 
water here and our camp supply is limited and 

none too good. Caught a large eared Phyllotis and 
Sanborn got several and some Oryzomys around 
the old fishing shack across the river. Shot a 
large-eared bat, perhaps an Eptesicus [in fact, a 

Jan. 11. A few thin clouds this afternoon, but fine 
weather. Sanborn found a stranded porpoise on 
the beach this morning and we took its skull and 
some of the meat since it was still warm and 
seemed to have been killed by being pounded in 
the surf in shallow water. Saw a penguin at close 
range fishing and driving little fish out of the 
water in front of him. They are very seal like in 
action and even have a sort of sniffing snort as 
they come up after a long dive. They are not 
abundant here and are usually seen singly. 
Jan. 12. A little foggy this morning but bright later 
in the day .... Conover took an all day hike up 
the beach and got some steamer ducks, kelp 
geese, and oystercatchers. Hudsonian curlews 
by hundreds. 

Jan. 13. Quite cloudy till late in afternoon when 
the sun appeared. Quite pleased to find a 
Caenolestes in one of my mouse traps this morn- 
ing. Evidently it ran across the trap as it was 
caught by one hind leg only. It is small and has a 
short much thickened tail. Its color is plain 
brown much like obscurus ... Its premolars are 
very peculiar and doubtless it is generically dis- 
tinct from the northern forms. A little misty rain 
this evening and light west wind. Quite calm for 
last three days. 

Jan. 14. Set more traps last night in Caenolestes 
territory but had a poor catch. The one specimen 
was caught in a dry runway under a log at edge 
of bamboo thicket. There is much bamboo or 
"quila" here and all dead or dying after fruiting 
which it is said to do every seven or eight years. 
Jan. 15. Last night put [out] fresh fish bait ... in 

Boardman Conover, 
who assisted on the ex- 
pedition, was a gener- 
ous donor to Field 
Museum until his 
death in 1950. 

the east beach and was rewarded this morning 
with a nice male fox in fairly good pelage. This 
makes a pair from a locality only 15 to 20 miles 
from the region where Darwin got the type [of D. 
fulvipes] and settles the point as to whether the 
animal still occurs there. Several people in Quel- 
lon seemed to doubt its existence, perhaps be- 
cause of an inclination to discredit Darwin if 
possible. Mouse traps in the woods which I 
baited with bacon and meat failed to get more 
Caenolestes, but caught a couple of the short- 
tailed shrew mice . . . [Notiomys valdivianus] 
showing their preference for that kind of bait. 
Found a couple Darwin's frogs in a mossy place 
in deep woods after a rain. 

Continued on p. 28 

Quellon residents. 
Note penguin on 
tether. 11 


M E Rada 

Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 27 - June 5 

An exciting 280-mile cruise down the Colorado River by motorized rubber 
raft, camping outdoors under the stars. Dr. Bertram G. Woodland, curator 
ofpetrolog}^, will lead the tour Group limited to 25. For additional informa- 
tion call (322-8862) or wTite the Tours Office. 

The following account of Field Museum's 1981 Grand Canyon 
trip was written by participant Gail Richardson: 

I grew up in the city and never considered roughing 
it. When the letter came from the Field Museum an- 
nouncing a white-water rafting trip down the Colorado 
River through the Grand Canyon I was horrified to hear 
my husband of 21 years gleefully announce, "We're 
going, of course!" 

"Rapids? Sleeping outside?" I croaked. "Never!" 
Two months later on a blazing mid-July day I stood 
on the beach at Lees Ferry, Arizona, surveying with 
dismay the two 37-foot rubber rafts which were to trans- 
port our group to Lake Mead on the down side of some 
of the roughest rapids in the world. Our leader, a charm- 
ing geologist from the Field Museum, made me almost 
ashamed of my terror since he was making the trip with 
a broken collarbone and cracked ribs received in a mug- 
ging six days before. Seeing his bravery I decided I could 
at least pretend to enjoy myself for the next nine days. To 
my amazement pretending wasn't necessary. I had the 
adventure of my life and became a convert to camping. 
.,2 I discovered the skyscraper doesn't exist that can 

rival the Canyon spires, slashed with hotly glowing 
colors. No luxury hotel anywhere can provide a suite as 
glorious as the Canyon at night. Lying on the top of my 
sleepingbag with no bugs to pester me I watched the 
stars arrange themselves across the inky sky in their 
ageless constellations. I hadn't known they could sparkle 
so brilliantly. 

I, who had dreaded the rapids, joined those who 
rode in front, yelping in delight as we catapulted into 
foaming torrents and roaring with laughter when we 
got drenched in 55 degree water. You dried in ten min- 
utes, anyhow! Quickly, I forgot to wonder what my hair 
looked like and chuckled with the others about our 
bedraggled state. 

No opulent spa or resort pool can stand comparison 
to the springs and natural pools tucked within the inner 
Canyon. Where water exists the desert retreats, and we 
were enchanted to find ferns and plants in profusion 
surrounding a cascade or feathering the outlines of 
breathtakingly clear, sun-warmed water where we frol- 
icked and dove and knew we had come close to para- 

China Tour 

October 7-28 

Leader: Phillip H. Woodruff 

For price, itinerary, and 
other information, please 
write or call the Tours 
Office (322-8862). 

The 400-year-old 

church oflxmiquilpan, 

in the state of Hidalgo, 

Mexico, is a treasury of 

murals that incorporate 


American as well as 

European traditions. 

Opposite: The 

beautifully tiled aisle ■ 

flankeaby rows of 

narrow, wooden pews 

leads to an altar 

dominated by an 

elaborately structured 

shrine. Portions of 

murals are at right. 

Precolumbian Murals in a Mexican Clmrch 

bvTem' Stocker and Baibara Jackson 

Photos courtesy of the authors 


Ixmiquilpan is a quiet town one hundred 
miles north of Mexico City in the arid state 
of Hidalgo.. With 10,000 inhabitants, it is a 
population center of the Otomi Indians. During 
Precolumbian times, the Otomi were regarded 
by the Aztecs as a fierce and warlike people, 
and one of the highest echelons of Aztec warriors 
was called the Otomic class. Today, the Otomi 
continue to survive, using ancient crafts such as 
beating fiber from the agave cactus and weaving 
this into carrying bags, which they sell. 

It is possible that the sixteenth-century 
Spanish conquistadores were aware of the 

Otomi's reputation as a savage and violent peo- 
ple when building the fortresslike church that 
dominates one side of the Ixmiquilpan town 
plaza. The massive walls of the colonial church 
are supported by flying buttresses, and entry is 
through a set of heavy wooden doors with five 
hand-wrought hinges on each side. The Spanish 
friars may have felt that they could be safe from 
an uprising behind the stout walls and doors. 
Inside the church, murals painted about 
1564 by the Indians as part of their corvee, or 
work service required by the conquerors, were 
a constant reminder of potential violence. The 


Portion of mural 
in alcove. 


four-hundred-year-old Augustinian church and 
attached monastery of Ixmiquilpan are little 
known for these murals that depict Indian war- 
fare, decapitations, and other brutalities. They 
were, in fact, hidden from view for almost 300 
years by coats of paint applied over them. They 
were not revealed again until the early 1960s, 
when the clergy and congregation decided to 
renovate the church. When parts of the walls 
were stripped of old layers of paint, the murals 
were exposed. News of the unique archaeologi- 
cal discovery soon spread throughout Mexico 
and the world. Although the murals were exe- 
cuted in the style of Aztec picture paintings, a 
combination of European and Aztec elements 
makes those murals unlike any other known. 

Except for the murals, the church interior is 
like that of any other large colonial Mexican 
church. However, the murals bring to light a 
strange chapter in the history of Christianity. 
Each of the unique painted images can be consid- 
ered as pages in a text of New World history. 
The story begins on the wall to the left of the 
entrance, proceeds to the walls of the chancel 
(behind the altar), continues on the right wall, 
and ends to the right of the entrance. Five dis- 

The muraled walls of the dimly lit sacristy hold an important 
clue to the meaning of the painted allegory lining the lualls 

of me chancel and nave. 


Two Indians engage in 

mortal combat. The one 

at left wears the peaked 

headdress symholic of 

the converted chief. 

Above him arches a 

heavy vine, 

presumably a symbol of 

guardianship. The vine 

motif occurs elsewhere 

in the murals, always 

associated with the 

Christian warrior. At 

left is a severed head, 

below a fallen xvarrior. 


tinct panels are on each of the side walls. The 
walls of the chancel are decorated with the idol 
of an Aztec image on the days of various saints. 

The significance of these murals has con- 
tinued to perplex anthropologists, historians, 
and church scholars. We, too, have been per- 
plexed since we first viewed the Ixmiquilpan 
murals in 1972. But in July of last year, while on 
a trip to Ixmiquilpan to photograph the murals, 
a chance event gave us the opportunity to 
grasp the elusive meaning of the murals. 

On that occasion we were accompanied to 
the Ixmiquilpan church by photographer and 
fellow Mexico traveler, Scott Lamb. As Scott 
viewed the murals through his camera, a young 
woman came up to tell us that the mayor's per- 
mission was necessar)' before photographing 
the church's interior. At the mayor's office, 
across the town square, we were referred to the 
local priest. The same young woman then re- 
turned with us to the church where we could 
telephone the priest from a back room. 

To our astonishment, we found that this 
room's walls were also covered with murals, as 
was the adjacent sacristy. All but one of the 

scenes were of stages in the life of Christ; the 
exception portrayed the conversion of a local 
Indian chief to Christianity in front of the newly 
arrived padre. The murals in the sacristy were 
all of a European style, while those in the nave 
and chancel were a stylistic combinaHon of Euro- 
pean and Aztec elements. 

The headpiece of the Indian chief depicted 
in the sacristy attracted our attention, for most 
of the victorious Indian warriors shown in the 
church's murals wore a similar headpiece. The 
similarity suggested that the major theme of the 
murals was a military confrontation between 
newly converted Indians and those who had 
denied Christianity. 

Among Precolumbian Indian groups mil- 
itary victory was determined by one god pre- 
vailing over another. The murals' jaguar — the 
major diety or symbol of Precolumbian war- 
fare — is depicted with an arrow through its 
body, thus symbolizing the victory of the Chris- 
tian god over the god of the Ixmiquilpan Indians. 
The scene of the Jaguar's death, presumably, is 
the conclusion of the painted allegory. 

The victorious warrior shown below the 

Below a bust of the 
crucified Christ, the 
mural shows a warrior 
dressed in traditional 
warfare garb of a coyote 


The final chapter of the 

allegoty is in two 

sections. The upper 

section represents the 

defeat of the heathen 

Indmn nation by 

Christianity. The 

piercing of the jaguar's 

body with an arrow 

symbolizes the death of 

the non-Christian 

Indian civilization. The 

lower section (compare 

with that shown on p. 

18) shows actual 

combat. The presumed 

victor, wearing the 

peaked headdress and 

brandishing an 

obsidian-lined sword, 

has decapitated one 

opponent, wounded 

another, and is 

engaging a third. 


slain jaguar wears a headpiece identical to that 
worn by the converted chief represented in the 
sacristy. The portrayed warrior, in fact, may be 
the converted chief engaged in battle against 
the "heathens." The shield he carries, on which 
a human head is painted, is unlike any other in 
the Ixmiquilpan murals; Precolumbian shields, 
as a matter of fact, have never been found with 
human representations. The face on this shield 
is probably a beardless representation of Jesus 
Christ, who is the ideological victor in the battle. 
The Aztecs, themselves, had a bearded god 
named Quetzalcoatl in their mythology, though 
he was seldom depicted with a beard. 

Once the end of the mural allegory was 
identified, the beginning became apparent on 
the opposite wall at the entrance of the church. 
The initial scene is a painting of the symbol of 
the Aztec nation, an eagle perched on a cactus 
holding a serpent in its beak. 

The second scene is fragmented, but it 
appears to be a representation of a victorious 
warrior wearing a jaguar skin. The diagnostic 
headpiece of the converted chief is lacking, 
however. This scene can be interpreted to mean 
that the Christian converts were initially attacked 

by the non-Christian Indian groups. The re- 
maining panels are scenes of additional battles. 
Often they are too fragmentary for description 
or interpretation. Even where complete, their 
significance is not always apparent. 

A question for future archaeological re- 
search will be whether murals of similar warfare 
scenes occur in other colonial churches. This is 
doubtful. Ixmiquilpan is probably unique in this 
respect because the militant force of the area, 
though small, was fierce enough to defeat even 
the Aztecs. Thus, the principal message of the 
murals was that the Christian god vanquished 
the pagan gods. The conversion of the remaining 
non-Christian Indians probably took another 
hundred years to be accomplished. After that, a 
more conventional set of murals was probably 
painted over the originals. The walls were paint- 
ed a third time before the present century. 

The decision of several years ago to paint 
the Ixmiquilpan church for a fourth time and 
the subsequent, startling revelations, left the 
congregation and the church with a curious 
paradox: the walls are a national archaeological 
treasure, but their meaning has remained un- 
known to those who pray by them.D 

Detail of combat 


Plants That Lie 

And Cheat (welly almost) 


Caralluma speciosa, a succulent asclepiad of Africa, pro- 
duces large foul-smelling flowers which attract flies. 

By William Burger 

Chairman, Department of Botany 
Photos by the author 


lants are a rather static form of life; many 
spend their entire existence rooted in a single 
spot. Though they can create dramatic 
flourishes with new foliage or colorful flower- 
ing, we generally do not think of plants as hav- 
ing much in the way of behavior. It is therefore 
surprising to come across words such as fraud 
and deceit in the botanical literature. 

References to deception in the life of plants 
are mostly associated with the process of 
flowering. Large and colorful flowers are large 
and colorful in order to attract pollinating in- 
sects or birds. (Many plants have been bred to 
be even larger and more colorful to decorate our 
homes and gardens.) Colorful flowers attract 
pollinators to enhance cross-pollination (cross- 
fertilization). The benefit of cross-pollination for 
the plant is a generation of seeds with a greater 
variety of traits. This seems to be a kind of in- 
surance policy. If conditions change, a more 
variable array of offspring should have a better 
chance of including a few individuals suited to 
the new conditions. 

But what are the advantages of cross- 
pollination to the pollinating insect or bird? 
None, directly; the pollinators must be re- 
warded for their visit. These rewards usually 
come in the form of energy-rich food for the pol- 
linators: nectar or pollen. The colorful flower- 
parts are just the advertising; pollen or nectar is 
what the flower-visitor is after. The bumblebee 
must gather sufficient food and energy not only 
to keep itself going, but also to feed its brood, 
ensuring that there will be bumblebees in the 
year to come. 

It is in this special relationship of flowering 
plant and pollinating animal that some species 
of plants have taken to cheating. That is to say, 
a colorful show but no nectar. While rare, this 
type of flowering behavior has been reported 
both in little orchids and in a few large tropical 
trees. The trees in question, members of the 
catalpa family, can be quite spectacular. First, 
they drop all their leaves; then they put out a 
synchronous show of brilliantly colored and 
large flowers. A few days later the flowers are 
gone and, hopefully, enough bees and other in- 
sects have been fooled so that pollen has been 
carried from tree to tree in sufficient quantity to 
produce an adequate seed crop. 

Cheats, whether in the plant world or our 
own, cannot be too obvious or too common. 
Whether a large tree or a little orchid, the cheat- 
ing strategy is generally the same: mimicry, or 
looking like an "honest" plant. In the case of the 
trees just mentioned, they are not common and 
they resemble other trees of the same family 
which also lose all their leaves and also put on a 

A few orchids have carried the art of deceit 
even further down the road of sin and degrada- 
tion. These particular species take advantage of 
two weaknesses in their insect dupes, poor 
eyesight and masculine impulsiveness. These 
insects — male bees or flies and lacking any 
sense of restraint — have the unfortunate habit 
of pouncing on the objects of their desire. The 

Grass pink orchid flowers 
in the foreground appear to 
be mimicking the phlox 
flowers in the background. 

colorful synchronous show of flowers. 

Our native orchid, the grass pink (Calopo- 
gon pulchellus) often lives in sites close to the 
smooth phlox {Phlox glaberrima) and flowers at 
the same time. While the flowers of grass pink 
and phlox differ greatly in form, they are similar 
in size and very similar in color. The grass pink 
appears to mimic a model (phlox) which is both 
common and a reliable source of nectar. Grass 
pinks are far less common than phlox and offer 
no nectar, but the system works because the 
mimicking orchids are not encountered as often 
as nectar-bearing flowers of phlox. A recent 
study of a similar orchid. Calypso bulbosa, has 
shown that the flowers bloom at a time in early 
spring when newly emerged queen bumblebees 
are making their initial flights. Thus, there are 
many "naive" bees out seeking nectar when 
these nectarless fakers (the calypso orchids) are 
in full flower. But the bumblebees don't stay 
dumb, and soon learn to recognize the nectar- 
less orchids. 

orchid flowers, mimicking the female insects, 
get pounced upon with sufficient frequency to 
effect cross-pollination. During the insect- 
orchid encounter, the pollen sacs of the flower 
are pasted onto the body of the insect in such a 
way that the pollen sacs can be transferred to 
the flower of a later mistaken encounter. In a 
recent publication an especially macho bee is 
illustrated carrying 32 pollen sacs on his rump, 
evidence that he had recently embraced no 
fewer than 16 orchid flowers. 

From a discussion of pleasures of the flesh 
we can readily shift to a more common form of 
floral deception, rotting flesh. A small percen- 
tage of flowers augment a color scheme of dark 
reddish purple with aromas that range from 
mildly offensive to strongly putrid. Such flow- 
ers attract flies whose larvae develop in de- 
caying animals. Some of these flowers do more 
than simply attract the flies; they trap them for 
awhile. The entrapment ensures that the flies 
will be covered with pollen when they are re- 


Left: Cutaway view 

of the flower of 

Aristolochia elegans. 

Color and odor induce 

flies to enter the tubular 

part of the flower. 

There, they may he 

trapped for a day as the 

flower shifts from its 

receptive phase to its 

pollinating phase. 

Right: A large 

inflorescence. An odor 

of rotting flesh attracts 

flies down into the 

purple spathe. Minute 

flowers are borne on the 

lower part of the central 



leased. This combination of entrapment and 
mimicry of rotten flesh is found in certain 
flowers of the aroid, asclepiad, and aristolochia 

Other forms of deceit in the plant world are 
much less dramatic. Such deceptions are often 
part of the plant's defense system. Some desert 
succulents look so much like their rocky sur- 
roundings that they seem to have camouflaged 
themselves. The "flowering stones" of southern 
Africa have been interpreted as the products of 
such a defensive strategy. They are easy to see 
only when they produce their showy little flowers. 

One of the most interesting cases of defen- 
sive deception regards leaves with little white 
rounded protuberances on their upper surfaces: 
fake insect eggs! The resemblance of these leaf 
developments to the eggs of certain butterflies 
in a few species of plants is no accident. This 
form of plant deception requires that the but- 
terflies inspect the plant before they lay their 
own eggs and that they tend to pass by plants 
that appear to have had eggs already deposited 
on them. This is a smart operation on the part of 
the lady butterfly; if eggs are already on the 
plant, the first-hatched caterpillars may devour 
the smaller caterpillars of a later brood. Recent 
experiments have shown that by removing the 

plant's "fake eggs" the butterflies are in fact 
more likely to deposit eggs. 

Biologists are not content to exclaim "isn't 
nature wonderful"; part of the business of biolo- 
gy is trying to explain how these marvels have 
come about. The general explanation is natural 
selection. In the above case, plants with little 
white spots may have had fewer caterpillars 
chewing on them and been able to produce 
more seeds. If the little white spots were part of 
the plant's hereditary make-up, one can see 
how this trait would increase in time under the 
continued "pressure" of the butterflies and their 

Mimicry, whether by plants or animals, has 
been a central topic in discussions of natural 
selection. However, some scientists have been 
troubled by the use of 'natural selection' as a re- 
troactive explanation for almost everything we 
find in nature. Nevertheless, there is recent evi- 
dence that the evolution of plant mimicry in re- 
sponse to selective forces goes on unabated. 
The most recent examples are where modern 
agriculture has introduced new environmental 
parameters and the plants (mostly weeds) have 
responded. In a few cases some weeds have de- 
veloped seeds very similar in size and in weight 
to the seed crop with which they grow. The 

selective factor here is the mechanical seed- 
harvesting machinery. The weed seeds, by 
"mimicking" the seed crop, get themselves har- 
vested and distributed, and are thus more likely 

tionships. Many of these discoveries are being 
made in the tropics, both because the tropical 
biota has been poorly explored and because it is 
so rich in diversity. And that brings up an un- 

Parts of this floioer of a 
South American orchid 

(Trichoceros sp.) resem- 
ble the body of an insect. 
This species is probably 
pollirmted by male insects 
as described in the text. 

to be part of next year's crop. 

It matters little whether one approaches 
these natural phenomena with the analytic mind 
of a scientist or the delight of the child. What is 
fascinating is that as we continue to study nature 
we continue to discover novel and intricate rela- 

fortunate note. While millions are being spent to 
study the interior of the atom and the far reaches 
of space, far less is being spent on the study of 
tropical biology. Stars and atoms will be here for 
eons, but much of the tropical biota is fast 
disappearing. D 

Tours for Members 

New Providence and Andros Islands Ecology Tour 

February 24~March 5 

Last call for this exciting lO-day adventure 


If you wish to be placed on the mailing list for any of our fall tours 
(Kenya in September, China in October, Costa Rica in November), 
please write the Tours Office or call (312) 322-8862. 




Field Museum houses many valuable objects. 
One set of artifacts, created at the Museum, is 
unsurpassed in the world — The Stanley Field 
Collection of Plant Models. These exquisite 
models, initiated by Mr. Field in 1909, 
comprise one of Field Museum's largest and 
most beautiful collections. The size, variety, 
and scope of the models, built over a period of 
half a century, provide a unique exhibit 
resource. "Plants of the World, " an exhibit 
that surveys the entire plant kingdom, will 
highlight these models. 

Proceeds from an all-day symposium will assist 
in the renovation of the Botany Hall. The 
permanent exhibit," Plants of the World, "is 
scheduled to open in the fall of 1983. 

The Women's Board of Field Museum 

invites you to help renovate 

The Botany Hall 

Please join us for an all-day Symposium on Friday, March 11, 1983 
Lectures, Lunch, & More 

"Flowers: Sex and Seduction 
in the Life of Plants"* 

'The Global Impact of New 
World Food Plants '* 


Dr. William C. Burger 
Chairman, Department of Botany 
Field Museum of Natural History 

Mr. William Grime 

Manager, Systematic Botanical 


Field Museum of Natural History 

*Each lecture will be given in the morning and repeated in the afternoon. 
Shopping at our Botany Boutique 


Optional behind-the-scenes 
tour of Botany Department 
following afternoon lectures 


1 Reservations are limited and will be accepted in the 
1 order received. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of 
1 check. 

Please reserve places at $20 each, i 
Name [ 
Address | 

1 Please detach and return with your check to: 

! Mrs. Edward F. Swift 

1 The Women's Board 

1 Field Museum of Natural History 

I Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 

! Chicago Illinois 60605-2496 

Zip Telephone i 

Special rates are available for groups of 10 | 
or more. For specific information, please j 
call 322-8870. Please make check payable | 
to Field Museum of Natural History. | 

Ayer Film Lectures 

March and April 

James Simpson Theatre 
Saturdays, 1:30 pm 

The entrance to James Simpson Theatre is conveniently located 
inside the West Entrance. This is of special interest to the 
handicapped, for the entrance is at ground level, with all steps 
eliminated. The West Entrance also provides free admission to 

the theatre. Access to other Museum areas, however, requires 
the regular admission fee (except on Thursdays) or mem- 
bership identification. The film/lectures are 90 minutes long, 
and are recommended for adults. Doors open at 12:45pm. 

March 5 

"Mexico" by Robin Williams 
Follow the coastline of Mexico from the Sea of 
Cortez to the Caribbean. Our journe\' begins at 
Loreto, first capital of the Californias and con- 
tinues on to the land of the Maya — Uxmal, 
Chichen ItzA, Muna, Izamal, and Canciin. 

March 26 

"California Wilderness" bv Bob Ronc\' 
Within Californias boundaries are the highest 
point in the United States, the lowest point in 
the western hemisphere, the Sierra Nevada, des- 
erts, redwood forests, the Pacific coast and lush 
valleys. Discover the variety' of plant and animal 
life that populates this rich landscape. 

April 16 

"The Naturalist Afield" by Sieve Maslowski 
Beginning in fall with a trip to Yellowstone and 
Teton National Parks, we witness the jousting of 
bull elk, the drilling for sap by the sweets-loving 
sapsucker, and the denning of foxes. 

March 12 

"Europe by TVain" by Andre de la Varre 
Take a ride on the worlds fastest train, TYes 
Grand Vitesse, which reaches speeds up to 200 
mph. TVacking through Europe, tour a czar's 
train, witness a Croatian wedding, attend a 
Yugoslavian uTcstling match, and see how lace 
is made in Antwerp. 

April 2 

"Hawaii" by Frank Nichols 
A visit to 4 of Hawaii's most beautiful islands 
where we see the orchid gardens of Nani Mau, 
King Kamehameha's birthplace, watch a Filipino 
community celebrate its 75th anniversary in 
Hawaii, and a Buddhist dance festival. The 
finale is a ride through Kauai's central moun- 

April 23 

"The Three Rivieras" by Frank Carney 

Tl-avel to the Italian Riviera with its villages of 

the Cinque Terre and Michelangelo's marble 

quarries. The French Riviera offers a contrast 

between ultra-modern cities and quaint villages. 

We continue on to the Spanish Riviera, the Costa 


March 19 

"Belgium" by Kathleen Dusek 
Belgium is a land of two peoples — the Dutch- 
speaking people of the north and the French 
speakers of the south. Visit a lace-making school 
in Bruge, St. Bavo (Cathedral at Ghent, and 
Antwerp's diamond industr\' center. To the 
south explore Waterloo, St. Jacque's Church at 
Li^ge, and Belgium's hub of activity: Brussels. 


"Vancouver" by Tom Sterhng 
Sterling takes us to the rainforests and beaches 
of the Northwest Coast. On Vancouver Island 
we spend time with elk, deer, wolf, and a xarc 
marmot. Tl-aveling to Victoria, British Col- 
umbia's capitol, we meet orca whales, watch 
tufted puffins, peregrine falcons, and Steller's 
sea lions. 

April 30 

"Mighty Mississippi" by Willlis Butler 
Follow the Mississippi for almost 2,500 miles, 
from its source in Minnesota to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. The color, sights, sounds, histori', and music 
are presented to you as we travel back in histor\- 
and into the future of this mighty waterway 27 

Continued from p. 11 

Town of Castro, Chiloe 
Island, visited by 
Osgood. Note distinct- 
ive diagonal planking 
of center structure. 


Jan. 16. A party of five Chilotes came in today 
bringing another live Pudu which their dogs had 
put into the water on their way down from Quel- 
lon. This seems to be the common way of hunt- 
ing the deer — in fact, the only one, although it 
might be possible to jump them in a region 
where they were abundant. We have seen only a 
few tracks on the beaches and it is evident that 
they are not common here. Bought the deer for 
another 20 pesos and tied it in camp. It seemed to 
have been scarcely hurt by the dogs and tugged 
actively at its rope, usually going to the end of its 
tether and then trying to break away by making a 
leap which resulted in its going around in a circle 
with its back bowed up and its head jerked down 
at every jump. It showed no combativeness, but 
after becoming somewhat exhausted it lay down 
and sulked .... 

fan. 17. Sanborn and I set out with the tide this 
morning to go up the Rio Inio with the boat, this 
being our last chance. It began to rain shortly 
after we started and we had rather a wet trip. 
Passing the sand bars and shallows of the 
"estero" we came in about 2 miles to a river more 
or less confined between banks heavily forested. 
The tide helped us along and we went up some 8 
or 10 miles, rowing for about 4 hours. The lower 
river is about 50 to 100 ft. wide and runs thru 
heavy forest. Some narrow grassy "pajonales" 
Continue up a couple of miles from time to time 
and thereafter the banks were difficult to land on 
on account of the over hanging vegetation. Many 
trees and bushes seem to grow in the brackish 
water and some 4 miles up there were frequent 
places where the boat had to be pushed and 
eased thru branches. All along there was much 
"quila." Finally came to a place which seemed to 
require much work with the ax and as it was still 
raining decided to make camp. Managed to find 
a place where we could land the boat and cut 
away enough "quila" to pitch the little fly we 
carried. Managed to get a fire started and while 
Sanborn took a nap I prospected around and ran 

into a little pool of fresh water which was some- 
thing encouraging for we had only a little pailful 
and hadn't seen any side streams, the ground all 
being rather low and the banks obscured with 
vegetation. After supper sat on our cots under 
the fly in a drizzling rain and cleaned our guns 
and watched the tide go down and darkness 
come in. Trees and what seemed to be bushes 
came out of water and stood stark and muddy in 
the dusk. A coypu came swimming by when 
nearly dark and a hurried shot failed to get him 
because in reaching into a handful of shells lying 
in the cot, I picked the only load of 20.5 buckshot 
in the lot. 

Jan. 18. Rained very hard almost all night and this 
morning our little 20 ft. sq. clearing was sur- 
rounded by dripping bamboos etc. and the river 
was flowing bankful with a strong current, 
against which it was clear we could do nothing 
with our heavy boat and clumsy hand made 
oars. The tide was due to fall but the river con- 
tinued to run at the same level and it was evident 
the waters had increased from the rain to such an 
extent that the tide from below would have no 
effect on them. The river water was found to be 
perfectly fresh. Our plan of going up and down- 
stream in the tide, therefore, seemed hopeless 
and after an hour or two getting breakfast and 
fooling around, decided to move downstream 
and make another camp altho the prospects of 
getting more wetting and clearing out more quila 
had no charms for us. The clouds lifted a little 
and we started, Sanborn in the bow and myself 
in the stern paddling quietly with one of the 
short oars. A couple miles down, an otter, the 
so-called Huillin was seen swimming near the 
bank and as we swung around it dove and came 
up near the boat lifting its head clear of the water 
giving Sanborn a fine shot and a load of sixes 
killed it. It floated on the water a moment as we 
turned the boat and then with a big splash dis- 
appeared and we thought we had lost it, but it 
soon came floating down about 6 in. below the 

surface and might have been missed if it had not 
passed close by my end of the boat within reach 
of my hand. 

Went on down and cleared considerable 
brush out of the river, expecting to come back in 
the evening. In the wet and rush Sanborn threw 
his machete along with a piece of brush into the 
river. Cut our way into the bank and made 
another camp. Firewood still harder to find and 
rain continuing in little showers. Cleared a little 
and at 5 o'clock started downstream looking for 
otters and coypu. Signs of otter are abundant 
and at half tide the dark caverns among the roots 
of the trees along the bank show where they run. 
In two hours floating and paddling we saw three 
coypu swimming in midstream several hundred 
yards in front of us. Altho there was little light 
and no noise, each of these saw us and dove at a 
distance to come up with a tail slap under the 
bank near us as much as to say goodbye. Return- 
ing upstream, used the carbide lamp and jacked 
carefully all the way but failed to see anything. 
Reached camp about 11 o'clock somewhat dis- 
gusted. Sanborn took a couple shots at a big cocoi 
heron thinking it was a deer and we heard some 
large owls. Saw a small bat, smaller than the one 
we have taken [probably Myotis chiloensis]. 
Jan. 19. Up at 3 this morning to catch the ebb tide 
but even at that we were late and had to pull 
against the beginning flood before reaching the 
main camp. The forest along the banks of the 
river is very beautiful and in many places sug- 
gested a stream in Wisconsin or Michigan. Saw a 
night heron, a small bittern, a pair of kingfishers, 
and many robins. The robins were along the 
muddy banks at the water's edge and at a little 
distance appeared like shorebirds. On the salt 
marsh around the estero coming up saw a flock 
of white-rumped swallows congregated as if 
for migration. Saw more curlews, yellowlegs, 
oyster-catchers, etc. Reached camp around noon 
in good weather and found it a busy place. Con- 
over had been to Huapiquilan yesterday where 
he got many Carrancas and half grown young. 
The deer had died yesterday, apparently of 
starvation and Conover had bought a couple 
coypus from the native hunters. They also had a 
Goto del Mar [small sea otter, literally "sea cat"], 
but wanted 50 pesos for it which he refused to 
pay. Later 4 Chilotes from Rio Zorra appeared 
and I bought a couple more coypus from them. 
In the afternoon, another bunch appeared and 
somewhat to our surprise announced that they 
were the ones commissioned to take us back to 
Quellon. We were too busy to do much for them 
but they pitched a camp on the shore near us. 
]an. 20. Took in all my traps which had been 
standing while we were away in the chance of 
something worth while. Many rotten mice and 

one fine male Caenolestes far gone and full of fly 
blows. It is essentially the same as the female but 
much larger. The tail is bluish black and much 
thickened. The terminal % of the underside is 
white and the upper side of the same is speckled 
blackish and white, the tip being white all 
around. The feet are dusky with the toes abrupt- 
ly white, especially in the front feet. The nasal 
plate seems rather long and has a well-marked 
longitudinal central furrow. 

Our Chilotes complained of having no food, 
of losing time, and especially of not having been 
advised of our boat to carry. This last they said 
they positively couldn't do and we believed 
them after our own experience with it. Arranged 
with Ignacio Chaure and party to take the little 
boat and we ourselves to start day after tomor- 
row, weather permitting. A few showers today 
and wind shifty. Chaure went up river today and 
killed an otter which I bought for 40 pesos. 
Ian. 21. The fishermen left early this morning 
and also the men with our small boat. The weath- 
er looked good early in the morning but later 
was nasty and rainy and we didn't envy them 
their choice of a starting day. Put in the day fin- 
ishing specimens, cleaning up and packing. 
Conover feeling seedy with slight chills and a 
bad stomach. 

]an. 22. No wind this morning and we were out at 
3 and got everything packed into the boat and 
away at 6:25. The four Chilotes, 2 middle-aged 
men and 2 young fellows of 20 or thereabouts, 
took the great long oars and pulled away cheer- 
fully. As we rounded the first point, Sanborn 

CoUn Sanborn poses 
until pudu fawn. 29 


and Conover saw an animal on shore which they 
thought was a deer. The oarsmen worked like 
machines and we made fairly good progress. 
Saw many shearwaters or Sardelas, many pen- 
guins, cormorants, etc. The cormorants are of 
three species: one all black, one black with white 
underparts, and one with black head, neck and 
back and white belly. The last is the least numer- 
ous and perhaps is the common species of the 
Peruvian coast here near its southern limit. For 
several miles 4 or 5 porpoises played about our 
boat, frequently rising within 20 ft. Passing 
Ayentema there was quite a heavy swell but the 
well-loaded chalupa rode the rollers easily and as 
the tide favored us we made good progress. The 
chalupa is the boat of the country, made of native 
lumber, pointed at both ends, strong and sea- 
worthy. They come in all sizes. A small one is a 
chalupita and a large one a chalupon. They remind 
of a dory somewhat. Ours carried 9 men and 
1,500 lbs. of baggage quite comfortably and four 
oars propelled it at a good rate. 

Coming into San Pedro channel a little south 
breeze appeared and we hoisted sail for a mile or 
so. Stopped at a little cove on San Pedro Id. to 
boil coffee and eat a snack and then went on, the 
Chilotes again taking the oars and pulling with a 
steady inhuman machine-like perseverance 
against both wind and tide. In the canal the cur- 
rent was strong and it was necessary to follow 
the shore closely in order to take advantage of 
the eddies and backwaters. The island of San 
Pedro is higher ground than any we have seen 
heretofore and the canal is quite picturesque 
with high banks on both sides on occasionally a 
rock too steep for any vegtation to maintain it- 
self. Saw some peculiar red-faced grebes and 
some steamer ducks, one pair of which had a 
small brood of young which we failed to secure. 
They are said to make their nests at some dis- 
tance from shore at the edge of the monte and 
their tracks on the adjacent beach give a clue to 
the situation. The young are now several weeks 
old. Our boy Juan says he has found nests with 6 
eggs and once one with 12 which he thinks was 
due to 2 birds. At the eastern entrance to S. P. 
canal found a small whaling ship anchored. She 
hailed us and a motley crowd came to her side 
and asked if we had anything to sell such as fish 
or mariscos [shellfish]. Met a party from the lum- 
ber camp in the bay of Guandad and bought a 
spotted fawn pudu from them which they had 
just caught with their dogs. It was unhurt and 
exceedingly pretty, and I had it in my lap for 
much of the time for the rest of the way. Stopped 
just beyond the canal and cooked a good supper. 
I supposed the men would want to spend the 
night and start again tomorrow for they had been 
rowing hard and continuously for 12 hours, but 

no, they said it might rain tomorrow and they 
would go on tonight. So we started on just as it 
was getting dark and dozed or peered ahead at 
the dim outlines of the land, while the oars 
clicked regularly for five hours more and the 
heavy boat gradually gained on the wind and 
tide. It was a wonderful exhibition of strength 
and endurance and when one stopped to think 
that the wage of these men was only 3 pesos per 
day or about 25c Am. gold his sense of the topsy- 
turviness of Chile was further increased. It was 
one of those nights that one remembers — a little 
drizzling rain, dark and misty, the shore looming 
up occasionally and then disappearing, long 
pulls for a point that seemed always a little furth- 
er on, then the crash of waves on rocks awash as 
we actually reach the point and the panting cry of 
the bow oarsman as, without missing a stroke, 
he cried to the steersman to head "mas a fuera" 
[seaward] or "mas a orilla" [shoreward]. We 
were crowded on a pile of baggage in the stem, 
curled up in various positions — Conover and 
Sanborn tried to sleep but most of the time I 
found it too interesting and half reclined. The 
little deer rattled his tiny hoofs on the canvas 
when he got uneasy and at other times would lie 
quietly in my arms. It was chilly and wet but with 
several coats and sweaters on we didn't suffer. 
]an. 23. Arrived about 2 a.m. roused Don Ruper- 
to for the key to our "cottage by the sea," spurred 
our jaded oarsmen to assist in carrying the bag- 
gage ashore and all hit the hay. This morning I 
got up to have some coffee and a fried egg with 
Ruperto but the others slept late. My offers for 
live deer began to materialize at once and by 
night, in addition to the fawn we had two more 
males, one fully adult and in fine dark coat, the 
other a younger male still shedding. A dead one 
came in also, a fine adult male and of this I saved 
both skin and a skeleton. Misty and showery 
most of the day. 

Jan. 24. A busy day skinning deer etc. and trying 
to dry skins inside with a charcoal fire. Wind in 
west and rain by spells. Sanborn divided the 
outfit and got ready to leave on the Arturo which 
is expected tomorrow. 

Jan. 25. Arturo failed to appear. Succession of 
showers most of the day. Bought a young coypu 
and added him to the menagerie. He snaps at us 
and growls and at times has a humming sound 
apparently from his throat He also clicks his 
teeth to threaten. He did this when approached 
by the innocent little fawn which is ready to 
make friends with any other animal. Gave him a 
cabbage leaf and put him in a box. He finally ate 
the cabbage but didn't seem to care much for it 
Later we found he had a great fondness for pota- 
toes and by taking advantage of this we got him a 
little tamer so that with care we could touch him 

without causing a rumpus. 
}an. 26. The Arturo came in about noon and San- 
bom and Luis were all ready to start even rolling 
their beds, but the captain didn't like the weather 
and said they wouldn't go to Melinka until 
next trip. A little hail in one of the showers this 
afternoon .... 

Young Ferenberg brought me the skin of a 
Dromiciops, badly prepared and without skull. 
They are said to live in holes in trees and to be 
"muy escaso" [very rare]. A story is current of 

one found in the center of a big tree when split 
open etc. as per usual. 

Jan. 27 Sun and showers mixed today. Bought a 
chungungo or Gato del Mar today from some 
Chilotes who brought it in saying the negocio 
must be secret, evidently because they had been 
grub-staked by someone else. It is much smaller 
than the Huillin and darker in color. At night our 
livestock is hard to manage. The big deer got 
tangled in his rope and thrashes around on the 
hard floor making a terrific racket. The first night 
the fawn was alone and slept peacefully in the 
burlap . . . which I gave him. The next night he 
was in with the young buck and wandered about 
all night now and then crying with a plaintive 
little squeal. When introduced to the yg. buck he 
immediately prostrated himself to be licked and 
later tried to nuzzle him. The young buck treated 
him kindly and I tied them out under the same 
tree, but in a short Hme the little fellow began a 
continuous crying and has been uneasy ever 
since. It seemed as if the reintroduction to his 
kind reminded him of his mother. He is very 
nosy and curious and will poke about the room 
investigating everything and everybody. 1 can 
make him lie down by placing him on a mat and 
holding him forcibly until he gives up and stops 
struggling and crying and then he lies quiet and 
lets me stroke him or leave him there. Today it 
was rainy and we kept him inside where we were 

Jan. 28. The little deer was sick this morning and 
after a while it was evident it was serious. We fed 
him a good deal of milk yesterday and played 
with him a lot. Once we caught him trying to eat 
an empty match box and very likely he got into 
something with arsenic in it. He was too weak to 
stand and we put him in the sun and he had a 
series of convulsions, kicking his little feet as if to 
be his end. Finally I had to kill him. Weather a 
little better today. 

Jan. 29. Sanborn and Luis took the Imperial this 
noon for Melinka on a nice calm sunny day. 
Wilson wires that he will be here in a few days 
and since we have so many skins partly dry 
Conover and I decided to wait for the next boat. 
Jan. 30. Fine weather again with a good south 
wind and snow mountains showing again on the 
far side of Corcovado Gulf. Skins drying nicely 
and boxes all fixed to receive them on short 

Jan. 31. More fine weather and it is evident the 
"tiempo esta fijo" [weather is stable] finally. 
Writing and doing odd jobs most of the day. 
Yesterday a coypu was killed on the main water- 
front of Quellon, a rare occurrence. It was 
wandering along the shore and only took to the 
water when someone started a hue and cry and it 
was disabled with an oar. Bought it and skinned 


and found a fine old male. Two chalupas of gateros 
(otter hunters] came in yesterday after a month's 
trip in the south, Huapiquilan, Guaitecas, Tic 
Toe, etc. They proceeded to get drunk and then 
to fight. The most popular drinking place is 
across the street from us and the excitement is 
nearby. They drink wine, whiskey, and pure 
alcohol and water. Altho very quick and shy 
when sober, they get noisy and quarrelsome 
when drunk. Took a few photos, went for a walk 
this afternoon to the hills back of town to take 
pictures and perhaps to pick up a scarce bird but 
had no luck. The appearance of the country is 
somewhat changed. The foxgloves have gone to 
seed and this makes a great difference. The grass 
is getting brown, the berries are ripening and it is 
the beginning of fall. A large composite with 
yellow flowers is blooming and at a little distance 
one might suppose goldenrod was here. 
Feb. 1 . A soft warm sunny day, as beautiful as the 
elements ever combined to make. A dead calm 
throughout the forenoon left the waters of the 
harbor serene and smooth. It was so inviting that 
some of the young people went in bathing, 
something probably rather rare in Quellon. Took 
a walk up the stream that comes in at the head of 
the bay. Found it very pretty, in places remind- 
ing of a good old-fashioned trout stream with 
riffles, pebbles, overhanging banks, grassy bor- 
ders, etc., but soon got above this to thickets of 
quila and other brush. Shot a male specimen of 
the grosbeak we have occasionally seen but not 
obtained. The flycatchers are nesting now but 
almost everything else is through. In the estuary 
were the usual flocks of gulls. Many large red- 
dish brown squid stranded at low tide. These are 

2-3 ft. long and must be formidable appearing 
alive in the water. In the afternoon a brisk S.W. 
wind broke the bay into white caps and chalupas 
under full canvas were scudding about. Most of 
the population of natives here is in the islands 
Coldita, Cailui, and Laitec where they were ori- 
ginally on account the better grounds for shell- 
fish. Don Ruperto says the whole district of 
Quellon has nearly 3,000 people but this hardly 
seems possible. In Quellon there can't be more 
than 5-600. In the evening a wonderful full 
moon. It seems like the tropic moon and much 
stronger than any northern moon. 
Feb. 2. The Huandad came in at 11:30 p.m. last 
night and for a time we considered leaving in 
her, but she's such a lousy dirty tub, and we've 
still so many little things to do, decided to let her 
go and take a chance on the Yates being here 
soon, with the possibility also of seeing Wilson. 
Another beautiful day, but a few clouds hanging 
about the southern and western horizon. Snow 
mountains in the east dear and distinct. Spent 
the day packing and rearranging outfit. Found 
the last commeal in the office of La Comunidad 
where it had been all the fime. 
Feb. 3. More fine weather and nothing to do but 
sit and wait for the expected steamer. A rumor 
has it the Yates left Pto. Montt yesterday so she 
might get here today or tomorrow, but we be- 
lieve nothing. Worked on accounts and wrote 
letters. A small boy brought in another of the big 
beetles known as "Cantarios" and I tried to kill it 
with tobacco smoke and later with hibach, but 
although these seemed to stupify it so it was still, 
it revived after a time and clawed the inside of 
the cartridge box in which it was confined. Many 


Otter hunters of 

Boardman Conoivr re- 
laxes as best he can on 
deck of S.S. Imperial 
in GulfofCorcovado. 

Chilotes in town looking for Wilson and again 
many drunks who got quarrelsome. They say 
there are not natives south of here except for the 
few about the Guaitecas with headquarters at 
Melinka. Formerly there was a tribe in the Cho- 
nos which used to come up here raiding and 
carrying off the women and goods of the Chiloe 
natives. This tribe is now extinct or absorbed 
with the people here. Quellon is really the south- 
ernmost natural settlement in Chiloe, since 
Aysen is a recent development under a company 
concession. Sixteen years ago, there were only 
three houses in the present site of Quellon. Quel- 
lon Viejo, a little to the east is older and shows on 
older maps, but it amounted to very little. There 
are now about 200 families in the town and about 
the bay.The school for boys has about 100 kids 
and that for girls 70. From this dope, Chiappa 
thinks the population must be about 2,000. La 
Comunidad is a combination of three companies 
which has a concession for lumbering over all of 
southern Chile from a point near Queilan south 
indefinitely. They paid a lump sum to the gov't (3 
million pesos?) and seem to have control of land 
titles and everything and cannot be ousted ex- 
cept on 10 years notice from the gov't 

Had dinner tonight with Don Victor M. 
Chiappa, manager of the Comunidad here. 
Among other things he served a very delicious 
cordial made from the berries of the luma tree 
and native aguardiente. 

Feb. 4. A few clouds this morning but perfectly 
clear later with a brisk west wind. After almuerzo 
[lunch], accepted an invitation to go on a family 
picnic with the Veras after being assured we 
could see the steamer if she should come in. 
Roamed directly across the bay to a sandy beach 
and lay in the shade of a flowering "Erryon" bush 

with the old folks while the younger ones went 
in bathing. Cooked a young lamb on spits and 
feasted on the roast with bread and wine, beer, 
and Chicha etc. with coffee -I- tea etc. A Dutch 
picnic with a South American flavor and both 
enjoyable and interesting. Still no steamer and 
patience nearly exhausted. 
Feb. 5. Clear and warm again and more hopes for 
steamers. For awhile they came in here in flocks 
and now they seem never to come. Fleas are very 
bad here and we are hoping that Aysen may be 
too cold for them if we ever get there. Everyone 
tells us, the weather is very unusual, but it 
doesn't help us much, while we are sitting 
around waiting. The Huandad came in at noon 
looking dirtier and sloppier than ever after her 
trip to Aysen. At about 6 o'clock, the Arturo came 
again from Pto. Montt and left about midnight 
for Melinka. 

Feb. 6. Strong SW wind and a few clouds about 
and a little cooler this morning. Played with a yg. 
parrot Conover bought from a boy yesterday. 
The Yates is lost somewhere and now we are 
looking for the Imperial again. "Arturo" came in 
just after dinner bringing Sanborn and Luis back 
from Melinka. They came ashore and spent the 
evening with us, reporting good luck with birds 
but not much with mammals, Sanborn being 
able to catch only a half dozen of one species of 
mouse. They went aboard again at 11 to leave 
"bien temprano" for Puerto Montt. 
Feb. 7. Awakened at 5 this morning by whistling 
which I at first thought was the "Arturo" leaving 
but soon learned was the "Imperial" arriving in a 
great hurry. Piled out of bed and hustled things 
together for a quick get-away, paying bills on the 
dock and leaving our house in charge of the 
parrot . . . . □ 

Clean-up Jbr the Mediterranean 

by Norman Myers 

Environmental efforts among the 
community of nations do not present 
a very good track record. Action plans 
to reduce transfrontier pollution, for 
example, are characterized as much 
by squabbles as by settlements. All 
the more welcome, then, is a remark- 
able campaign to clean up the 
Mediterranean. The strategy has been 
put together through some fancy dip- 
lomatic footwork on the part of the 
main international agency concerned, 
the United Nations Environment 
Program (unep). 

The Mediterranean has recently 
become a cesspool for the 100 million 
people who live around its shores, 
and for those throngs who take their 
vacations in the region each year. 
As an enclosed sea — the only signif- 
icant outlet is the narrow Strait of 
Gibraltar — the Mediterranean re- 
news its waters roughly once every 
80 years. This means that for the 18 
nations bordering the sea, the pres- 
ent situation amounts to a case of 
"Let's get our act together, or we shall 
soon find ourselves with a killed-off 

Few areas of the world are subject 
to as much human disruption as the 
Mediterranean. Although the sea is 
one of the world's main waterways for 
shipping, at least 85 percent of pollu- 
tants stem from land sources in the 
form of industrial waste, municipal 
sewage, and agricultural pesticides. 
Some 70 rivers, large and small, daily 
deposit thousands of tons of indus- 
trial effluents. At least 120 coastal 
cities and towns pump 90 percent of 
their sewage untreated, or at best little 
treated, into offshore waters. With 
only one percent of earth's ocean sur- 
face, the Mediterranean is believed to 
feature one half of all floating oil, tar, 
and general garbage that mess up the 
earth's seas. 

Not surprisingly, the region is 
subject to several endemic diseases, 
including viral hepatitis, dysentery. 

Norman Myers, of Oxford, England, is a con- 
34 sultant in environment and development. 

typhoid, polio, and cholera. Spain re- 
cently suffered an outbreak of 
typhoid that hospitalized dozens of 
people. Along France's fashionable 
Cote d'Azur, sunbathers are warned 
off stained sands by black pollution 
flags, and swimmers are kept out of 
the most poisoned waters by police 
patrols. In 1979, 19 people in Naples 
died of cholera after eating contam- 
inated mussels; and in Rome, as in 
Naples, you hear that if you order 
oysters in a restaurant you are playing 
"Italian roulette." 

The Mediterranean harbors hun- 
dreds of fish species, many of them 
exotic enough to rank as luxury food 
items. While the annual catch 
amounts to only 2 percent of all fish 
taken around the world each year, its 
economic value is 6 percent, and is 
worth $1 billion. But now that mount- 
ing pollution is aggravating a history 
of overharvesting of fisheries, several 
species, notably the hake and the red 
mullet, have declined in just a few 
years from exceptionally abundant to 
almost extinct. Consumers in Spain, 
Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, and 
Israel complain that the price of fish 
on their dinner plates is several times 
higher than if the fish had been 
caught in the Atlantic. 

Apart from pollution, the 
Mediterranean suffers from poorly 
planned tourism. Hotels, marinas, 
and other facilities are desecrating 
one natural area after another, dis- 
rupting wildlife communities right 
around the Mediterranean basin. The 
monk seal, flourishing in tens of 
thousands as recently as the early 
1960s, is now below 1,000. A similarly 
dismal story applies to the marine tur- 
tle. Along coastal zones, there are 
growing threats for wetland species 
such as the spectacled salamander, 
the Iberian midwife toad, and the 
Israel painted frog, among 34 amphib- 
ian and reptile species that are rapidly 
losing living space. Likewise in trou- 
ble is the demoiselle crane, together 
with 200 other bird species in need of 
special protection. Among 12 en- 
dangered mammals is the Corsican 

red deer, having been elbowed to the 
edge of oblivion. On top of these 
vertebrates, there is a lengthening 
line of invertebrates whose numbers 
have been perilously reduced. 

In 1975, UNEP started on what 
seemed an absurdly ambitious proj- 
ect. It wanted to persuade the 18 
coastal nations to formulate a joint 
strategy to confront the challenge. In 
the event, unep succeeded in getting 
17 of the nations (the one absentee 
was xenophobic Albania) to sit down 
and formulate a Plan of Action. 
UNEP's feat was all the more excep- 
tional in that Israel eventually agreed 
to make common cause with its tradi- 
tional enemies — Syria, Egypt, and 
Libya, as did Algeria with France and 
Turkey with Greece. Indeed, all the 
ages-long enemies of the region final- 
ly got together to prepare a collective 
clean-up program. 

Since 1973, there has been a pro- 
tracted process of scientific research, 
economic evaluation, and legal plan- 
ning. The upshot has been an en- 
vironmental breakthrough in late 
1980, when a conference gathered in 
Athens. Sponsored by unep in con- 
junction with FAG and unesco, 
together with support from citizen 
groups such as the International Un- 
ion for Conservation of Nature and 
Natural Resources, the conference 
agreed on a draft treaty, the final form 
of which came into operation in 1982. 

The principal output of the 
Athens meeting has been a set of in- 
itiatives to tackle pollution. First of all 
there is a "black list" of contaminants 
that will steadily be eliminated from 
the scene by all source countries, 
especially by the three worst pollu- 
tors, France, Italy, and Spain. In- 
cluded on the black list are mercury, 
highly toxic even in trace amounts, 
100 tons of which are dumped into the 
sea each year; radioactive materials, 
of which 2,500 curies of radionuclides 
enter the sea each year; and a number 
of carcinogenic and mutagenic sub- 
stances. A second "grey list" includes 
substances such as lead (3,800 tons 
dumped into the sea each year), zinc 

(21,000 tons), copper, titanium, crude 
oils and hydrocarbons, pathogenic 
microorganisms, nonbiodegradable 
detergents, and other substances 
(e.g. pesticides, 90,000 tons) that have 
an adverse effect on fish and shell- 
fish — tuna, swordfish, and marine 
mammals contain 5 to 10 times more 
heavy metals than their counterparts 
in open oceans. Since these grey-list 
substances are less poisonous than 
the black-list items, and are more easi- 
ly rendered harmless through natural 
processes, some of them can continue 
to be discharged into the Mediterra- 
nean — but only under strict scientific 
control and licensing procedures. A 
broadscale monitoring exercise has 
been launched, drawling on the coor- 
dinated efforts of 86 laboratories in 16 
countries. International cooperation 
wfith a vengeance! 

Howf soon will the Mediterra- 
nean be safe for local residents and 
tourists? According to Stjepan Keck- 
es, a Yugoslav marine scientist who 
heads the unep team, "a lot of the 
Mediterranean might look clean, but 
there is 'invisible' pollution from 
heavy metals and bacteria. While it is 
an illusion to imagine that the 
Mediterranean will ever be pristine, 
we can reverse the tide of pollution, 
and guarantee safe, clean waters." 
Naturally this won't be done over- 
night. The skies of London were not 
made fog-free, or the River Thames 
safe for salmon, in a month or a year. 
But while the Mediterranean is sick, it 
is not yet dead. I believe we can make 
it a great deal better by the end of this 

In addition to antipollution 
measures, the treaty is setting up an 
expanded network of parks and re- 
serves for wildlife. These will be lo- 
cated both in the sea and on land. The 
present handful of protected areas 
will eventually be increased to over 

The agreement of late 1980 goes 
way beyond the most optimistic ex- 
pectations of observers, whether sci- 
entists, industralists, or politicians. In 
terms of environmental politics 
among the community of nations, it 
ranks alongside a disarmament agree- 
ment. There is hardly a region on 

earth with greater political disparities 
among countries in question, yet they 
have been persuaded to rise above 
their individual interests in favor of 
collective welfare. 

True, the clean-up program will 
not come cheap. It will cost at least $15 
billion during the next 15 years to con- 
trol pollution alone. But the nations 
concerned cannot afford to turn away 
from the price tab of their past delin- 
quency. The tourist industry alone is 
now worth $10 billion a year, and the 
flood of sun-seeking visitors is pro- 
jected to double by the year 2000. So 
the clean-up plan can, in this sense, 
be considered an exceptional 
"cheapie." Fittingly, 85 percent of the 
funds are to be supplied by the three 
countries most to blame, France, Italy 
and Spain — these also being the 
countries with the biggest tourism in- 
dustries. As UNEP's deputy director, 
Peter S. Thatcher, points out, "It is 
perfectly obvious that immense eco- 
nomic interests are involved. While 
the pollution controls will be gradual, 
they will represent a progressive pro- 
cess. Equally obvious, we are making 
a sound beginning." 

The entire unep effort has 
attracted so many plaudits from 
cynical environmentalists around the 
world, that the Mediterranean blue- 
print is serving as a model for parallel 
programs in other regional seas. The 
Baltic became so fouled by 1970 that its 
fisheries virtually came to an end, but 
with sufficient political commitment 
and ecological kr.ow-how there is 
hope that they can be restored to life. 
The Caribbean probably features 
more rapidly growing coastal indus- 
try, especially in the way of super- 
polluting petrochemical complexes, 
than any other marine zone on 
earth — and the nations bordering on 
the Caribbean have received warning 
from the 140 million gallons of oil 
spewed from the Ixtoc oil well off 

There may even be prospect of a 
politico-environmental breakthrough 
in that region of extreme discord, the 
Persian Gulf. As an indication of the 
problems involved, it has taken four 
years to achieve agreement between 
the two main "sides," Iran and the 

Demoiselle crane 

rest. Part of the squabbling arose over 
the mere name: the word "Persian" 
did not please the Arabs at all, a 
switch to "Arabian" was strictly un- 
acceptable to the Iranians, and the 
"Gulf" was intolerable all round. So 
the zone is now known simply as 
"The Region." Plainly, there is a pre- 
mium on reaching agreement among 
the nations in question before a single 
oiltanker collision wreaks far more 
ecological injury than in most other 
parts of the marine realm. Yet, so 
keen are coastal states to achieve 
accord, that delegates from Iran and 
Iraq get together around a conference 
table, and greet each other with 
fraternal assurances, even while the 
two nations continue to wage war. 

All in all, unep's Regional Sea's 
Program must count among the most 
remarkable of the agency's diverse 
activities. It accounts for a trifling 
part, less than one tenth, of unep's 
total budget, yet it advances with 
giant strides. Governments have 
agreed to Action Plans for clean-up 
programs in seven regional seas 
around the earth, and only three 
others remain to be tackled — but just 
think of the political complexities on 
the cards in the China Sea! Nonethe- 
less, the ebullient Dr. Keckes is not to 
be daunted. An acceptable shopping 
list of initiatives for the Mediterra- 
nean would have been reckoned out 
of sight less than ten years ago. □ 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

March 1983 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 


March 1983 

Volume 54, Number 3 

March Events at Field Museum 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

March and April 

Collecting in the Upper Amazon 

A Report from the Field 

by Timothy Plowman, assistant curator of botany 

Volunteers Honored 


Board of Trustees 

James). O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

Geology and Creationism 16 

by David M. Rrnip 

Research Associate, Department ofGeolo^ 

Tbursfor Members 


Our Environment 



Sprin^^is upon us this month. What better symbol of that happy turn 
of events than the tulip. Photo by William Burner, chaimmn oftlie 
DeparUnent of'Bolany. 

Field Miaeum of Nalural His/ory Bulletm (USPS 898-'M0) is published monlt\ly. except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Mu.seum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (.312) **22-'M10. Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 11. 60605 lSSN:0015-0703. Second class postage 
paid at Chicago. II 

Special Events 


Sundays, March 20 and 27, 1:00pm, 
West Entrance 

As a complement to its newest exhibit, "Master Dyers 
to the World: Early Fabrics from India," which opened 
January 29 in Hall 27, Field Museum is screening 
three contemporary, feature-length Indian films. 

March 20, 1:00pm "Dadi's Family" (58m) 

A portrait of village women in India, and of a family 
in crisis. 

"Father Panchali" (1 1 2m) 

Directed by Satyajit Ray, "Song of the Road" is part 
one of three feature length films that study the life of 
a Bengali village family. 

March 27, 1:00pm "Manthan" 
(The Churning) (134m) 

"Manthan" was financed entirely by the farmers of 
Gujarat who donated two rupees each for the pro- 
duction of this film directed by Shyam Senegal. 
Senegal's concerns are the problems of caste 
which cannot be wished away. 

These films are free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. The film program is partially 
funded by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

Saturday, March 5 and 12 
1:30pm, West Entrance 

This month concludes the showing of some of the 
most engaging and beautiful natural history films in 
the world. These films are made possible through 
Films, Inc. The film screenings are free with 
Museum admission. Tickets are not necessary. 

March 5 

March 12 

Ice. Wind and Fire (from 
Flight of ttie Condor) (50m), 
The Mouse's Tale (25m). 
Signs and Signals (from 
The Discovery of Animal 
Behavioi) (50m). 
Flower from the Flames 


"Music From the Bamboo Forest" 

with Douglas Ewart and Inventions 

Sunday, March 6, 3 :00pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Come and experience the delightful and lyrical mus- 
ic of Douglas Ewart and his group Inventions. The 
concert features multi-instrumentalist Douglas Ewart 
on winds and Hamid Hank Drake on percussion, 
along with special guest performers. 

Ewart is a composer, performer, teacher, and 
instrument-maker who came to the U.S. from 
Jamaica, in 1963. He is president of the Chicago 
Chapter of the Association for the Advancement of 
Creative Musicians. Ewart has been active in the Chi 
cage jazz "scene" since the mid-60s, recording with 
such greats as Muhal Richard Abrams, Anthony 
Sraxton, Chico Freeman, Rosco Mitchell, and 
George Lewis. 

This performance is partially funded by a grant from 
the Illinois Arts Council. Please use the attached 
coupon to order tickets. 

Members: $3:00; nonmembers: $5:00 

"Fabric Fables" Family Feature 
Sunday, March 13 and Saturday, March 19 
1:00pm to 3:00pm, Hall 24, Second Floor East 

India's fabrics are woven rich in age-old traditions. 
Since ancient times, a vanety of colors, designs, and 
pictures have blended to tell the stories of India. Visit 
our current exhibit, "Master Dyers to the World: Early 
Fabrics from India." Findout how prints of peacocks, 
tigers, and elephant riders illustrate Indian folklore. 
Come to Hall 24 and make blockprint stamps so the 
entire family can print a decorative fable on cloth! 
Free with Museum admission. This program is par- 
tially supported by an Illinois Arts Council grant. 


Each Saturday and Sunday the public is invited to explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free Discovery tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum 
are designed for families and adults. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for complete sche- 
dule and program locations. These programs are partially supported by an Illinois Arts Council grant. 

March 5 


Dinosaur Life Styles 
Tour contrasts old ideas 
about dinosaurs with new 
ones about their appear- 
ance, behavior, and 

March 6 2:00pm Treasures from the 
Totem Forest 
A walk through the 
Museum's newest per- 
manent exhibit Introduces 
the Indians of southeast 
Alaska and British Colum- 

March 13 1:00pm Hopi Ceremonial Life 
This 30-minute tour de- 
scribes the life and 
religious ceremony of 
North America's oldest sur- 
viving culture. 
2:00pm Chinese Ceramic 

This 45-minute tour of mas- 
terworks In the permanent 

collection explores 6,000 
years of Chinese art. 

March 19 1:00pm Ancient Roots of t^odern 

Learn how plant foods 
traveled to many parts of 
the world before they ar- 
rived on our own dinner 

March 20 12:30pm The Brontosaurus Story 
30-minute tour looks at 
some of the newest dis- 
coveries about the 
"thunder lizard." 
1 :30pm Fireballs and Shooting 

Stars: Keys to the Universe 
30-minute tour explains the 
origins, types, sizes, and 
importance of meteontes. 

March 27 1 :00pm Wildflowers of Spring and 

A slide showing of 
wildflowers you can see in 
the Chicago area. 

Coming Events 

The Queen's Garden 

Dr. John Paling, Oxford Scientific Films, Ltd. 

Sunday, April 17, 2:00pm 

James Simpson Theatre 

John Paling was a lecturer in zoology at Oxford when 
he became interested in the development of photo- 
graphic techniques that would enable audiences to 

share the incredible sights of nature previously 

known only to scientists. Don't miss this opportunity 
to hear Dr Paling who, since that time, has sought 
ways of producing spectacular footage recording 
the wonders of the natural world. 

Members: $3.00; nonmembers: $5.00 


Program Title 



# Requested 


# Requested 



# Requested 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 

one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets will 

be mailed on receipt of check. Refunds will be 
made only if program is sold out. 








For Office Use: 

Date Received 

Date Returned 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addresed 
stamped envelope to: 


Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. IL 60605-2497 

Ayer Film Lectures 

March and April 

James Simpson Theatre 
Saturdays, 1:30 pm 

The entrance to James Simpson Theatre is conveniently located 
inside the West Entrance. This is of special interest to the 
handicapf)ed, for the entrance is at ground level, with all steps 
eliminated. The West Entrance also provides free admission to 

March 5 

"Mexico" by Robin Williams 
Follow the coastline of Mexico from the Sea of 
Cortez to the Caribbean. Our journe)' begins at 
Ixjreto, first capital of the Californias and con- 
tinues on to the land of the Maya — Uxmal, 
Chichen UzA, Muna, Izamal, and Cancun. 

March 26 

"California Wilderness" bv Bob Kone\' 
Within California's boundaries are the highest 
point in the United States, the lowest point in 
the western hemisphere, the Sierra Nevada, des- 
erts, redwood forests, the Pacific coast and lush 
valleys. Discover the variety of plant and animal 
life that populates this rich landscape. 

April 16 

"The Naturalist Afield" by Steve Maslowski 
Beginning in fall with a trip to Yellowstone and 
Tfeton National Parks, we witness the jousting of 
bull elk, the drilling for sap bv the sweets-loving 
sapsucker, and the denning of foxes. 

the theatre. Access to other Museum areas, however, requires 
the regular admission fee (except on Thursdays) or mem- 
bership identification. The film/lcctures are 90 minutes long, 
and are recommended for adults. Doors op)en at 12:45pm. 

March 12 

"Europe by Tl-ain" by Andre de la Varrc 
Take a ride on the worlds fastest train, Ths 
Grand Vitesse, which reaches speeds up to 200 
mph. Tracking througli Europe, tour a czar's 
train, witness a Croatian wedding, attend a 
Yugoslavian wrestling match, and see how lace 
is made in Antwerp. 

April 2 

"Hawaii" by Frank Nichols 
A visit to 4 of Hawaii's most beautiful islands 
where we see the orchid gardens of Nani Mau, 
King Kamehameha's birthplace, watch a Filipino 
community celebrate its 75th anniversary in 
Hawaii, and a Buddhist dance festival. The 
finale is a ride through Kauai's central moun- 

April 23 

"The Three Rivieras" by Frank Carney 

TVavel to the Italian Riviera with its villages of 

the Cinque Terre and Michelangelo's marble 

quarries. The French Riviera offers a contrast 

between ultra-mtxiern cities and quaint villages. 

We continue on to the Sjjanish Ri\iera, the Costa 


March 19 

"Belgium" by Kathleen Dusek 
Belgium is a land of two peoples — the Dutch- 
speaking people of the north and the French 
speakers of the south. Visit a lace-making school 
in Bruge. St. Bavo Cathedral at Ghent, and 
Antwerp's diamond industr\' center To the 
south explore Waterloo, St. Jacquc's Church at 
Li^ge, and Belgium's hub of activity: Brussels. 

Aj)ril U 

"Vancouver" by Tom Sterling 
Sterling takes us to the rainforests and Ix-achcs 
of the Northwest Coast. On Vancouver Island 
we spend time unth elk, deer, wolf, and a jare 
marmot. Tt-avcling to Victoria, British Col- 
umbia's capitol, we meet orca whales, watch 
tufted puffins, peregrine falcons, and Steller's 
sea lions. 

April 30 

"Mighty Mississippi" by WilUis Butler 
Follow the Mississippi for almost 2„'50O miles, 
from its source in Minnesota to the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. The color, sights, sounds, histors', and music 
are presented to you as we travel back in history 
and into the future of this mighty' waterway. 5 


Rare Medal Given by Member 

Before moving to retirement on Merritt 
Island, Florida, Field Museum Member 
Mrs. Annie May Rosenberg gave to the 
Museum a bronze medal struck in Rome, 
Italy, in 1892, commemorating the World's 
Columbian Exposition. 

Of rare numismatic value, the medal 
has been accessioned into the Museum's 
collections. It is now on display in Hall 3 
with other memorabilia of the Columbian 
Exposition. It had been in Mrs. Rosen- 
berg's family for many years, along with a 
first-day Hcket to the 1893 Fair, which she 
also gave the Museum. 

"Field Museum is my favorite 
museum," Mrs. Rosenberg said. " I want 
to give something to the Museum so that 
everyone may benefit from it." In addition 
to the medal and ticket, Mrs. Rosenberg 
gave precious metals and stock, proceeds 
of which she asked to be added to the 
Museum's General Endowment Fund. 

The Museum currently is embarked 
on a program to increase the Endowment 
to help ensure the Museum's future. The 
Planned Giving Office invites bequests, 
gifts of life insurance, real estate, and cash 
or securities. Cash or securities may be ex- 
changed for a life income trust to the 
donor, if desired. 

The obverse of medal recently given to Field 
Museum by Mrs. Annie May Rosenberg. 

Willard L. Boyd 

1992 and Beyond 

The following text is from an address given 
by Willard L. Boyd, president of Field 
^Auseum, at a recent meeting of the Eco- 
nomic Club of Chicago. — Ed. 
Too often our vision of 1992 is limited 
in time and space. Our World's Fair 
must be the means for a greater end. 
It must be mdre than a Chicago car- 
nival for the m Mlewest, more than 
a six months shi case for high tech 
and space exploration, more than a 
financial success. Like ihe Columbian 
! xposition of 1893, our Fair must be 
more than an event. It must be a 
6 vvaterslu'd for the future. It must 

have enduring consequences for Chi- 
cago and serve as a world market- 
place of ideas and ideals for the 
21st century. 

In planning for the Age of Dis- 
covery, we have much to learn from 
our forebears. Chicagoans have 
always been determined visionaries. 
Emerging from the fire of 1871 and in 
the middle of economic crisis, they 
conceived and held the World's 
Columbian Exposition of 1893. There 
were times when they and other 
American cities doubted Chicago's 
ability to host a Fair of global signifi- 
cance. Yet, their ambitions were 
limitless. After one planning session, 
Augustus Saint-Gaudens jubilantly 
proclaimed it to have been "the great- 
est meeting of artists since the fif- 
teenth century." Indeed, the Colum- 
bian Exposition was a physical won- 
der. More importantly, it stimulated 
minds and aspirations for years to 

Even before the Fair, Chicago's 
intellectual and business leaders real- 
ized that extraordinary natural his- 
tory collections would be exhibited 
and that their presence in Chicago 
offered the opportunity to establish 
one of the world's great museums. 
The Field Columbian Museum 
opened in June of 1894 in the surviv- 
ing Palace of Fine Arts Building, now 
the Museum of Science and Industry. 
Immediately before the Fair, the Chi- 
cago Symphony and the University 
of Chicago were organized and the 
Newberry Library came into being. 

The original portion of the 
present Art Institute was built as the 
site for the World's Congress of 
Ideas, which was a major feature of 
the Fair. Among those who partici- 
pated in the Congresses were Samuel 
Gompers, Frederick Douglas, Susan 
B. Anthony, Jane Addams, Woodrow 
Wilson, and John Dewey. 

The arts were also well repre- 
sented at the Fair. Paderewski per- 
formed the classics, while Scott 
Joplin played ragtime. The emerging 
American musical was represented 
by Lillian Russell and Florenz Zieg- 
feld, Jr. Women played a major role 
in the Congress and the Fair. Under 
the leadership of Bertha Palmer, they 
enlisted the participation of women 

The Columbian Exposition had 
a lasting effect on this city. It contrib- 
uted enormously to the world's per- 
ception of Chicago. After the Fair, 
Harper's Magazine wrote: "The imme- 
diate future of Chicago is an inter- 
esting study for observers .... It is 
hardly too much to say that she has 
been the most important city in the 
land .... But what will become of her 
now? Will she drop gracefully down 
to hard pan and become once more 
a comparatively commonplace, big 
western town, or will she keep right 
on and strive by tremendous hustling 
to maintain the central and command- 
ing position which was lent her by 
the Fair?. . ." 

In 1933 Chicago celebrated a cen- 
tury of progress in a time of despair. 

The Museum of Science and Industry 
and The Adler Planetarium opened 
their doors that year. The Lakefront 
was expanded. The Fair included a 
Hall of Social Science, because the 
depression had sharpened the inter- 
ests of the public in social change. 
A Science Congress was sponsored 
jointly by the Fair and the American 
Association for the Advancement 
of Science. 

Now we approach our Fair, and 
we do so in uncertain times. We fail our 
predecessors, we fail ourselves, and 
we fail future generations, if we are 
the first Chicagoans without dreams. 
But our Fair cannot be a straight-line 
projection of prior successes. McCor- 
mick Place is a continuous and impres- 
sive industrial and trade fair itself, Dis- 
ney and theme parks have perfected the 
midway. EPCOT Center affords us a 
vivid view of the future. As Chicago 
undertakes the 1992 World's Fair, its 
unique asset once again is our city's 
individual and collective talent, imag- 
ination, and determination; 1992 
gives us the opportunity to demon- 
strate to the world that we are still 
pioneers and that Chicago will lead 
in the next century. 

Our Fair must generate its leg- 
acy. Our Fair must be as invigorating 
to succeeding decades as were the 
fairs of 1893 and 1933. Our Fair must 
make a difference in the physical 
and intellectual future of Chicago, a 
difference which the whole world 
can identify for many years, a dif- 
ference which will not be eclipsed by 
the next fair in the next city. 

Clearly, our Fair needs a major 
physical focus, a visible, unique, and 
lasting site. The site which has been 
selected cannot be matched any- 
where for its combination of beauty, 
accessibility, and centrahty. Chicago 
is distinguished for its lakefront, its 
cultural and educational institutions, 
its center city, and its diverse neigh- 
borhoods. These multiples make Chi- 
cago extraordinary. The selected site 
is best suited to strengthen all of 
these resources if we follow the prov- 
en advice of Daniel Burnham to 
make no little plans. His vision 
helped to make Chicago a worldly 
city, and it has not been rendered 
obsolete by the need for freeways 

and parking. Our task, in part, is to 
guarantee that there will be a 
vigorous population to use those 
freeways and parking lots in the year 
2000. Chicago is coming to the end 
of an era, and we must make no little 
plans for a new era. 

In recent years, Chicago center 
city planning has focused on the 
North Loop and the Near North Side. 
The Fair site provides the impetus for 
South Loop and near South Loop 
Development. The site allows us to 
expand our lakefront and to bring 
families to south Grant Park and 
Burnham Harbor for the day as they 
now go to Lincoln and other city 
parks. This expanded lakefront park 
can be connected on a east-west axis 
to a reborn South Loop and Near 
South Neighborhoods. Coordinated 
planning can be undertaken which 
will assure mutually harmonious 
development for Park District sports, 
McCormick Place, and the cultural 
institutions. To accomplish this, we 
must solve Lake Shore Drive prob- 
lems in this area which are even more 
serious than the S curve to the north. 

If we plan thoughtfully and 
jointly, we can benefit Chicago for 
generations. We can extend the 
beauty and recreation afforded by the 
lakefront. We can provide expansion 
for McCormick Place. We can provide 
the environment for present and fur- 
ture cultural institutions to flourish in 
Grant Park as originally planned. The 
location of Adler Planetarium, Shedd 
Aquarium, and Field Museum of 
Natural History at the south end of 
Grant Park rounded out what (our 
urban historian) Carl Condit has 
called "the largest, oldest, and archi- 
tecturally most impressive cultural 
center in the United States. The com- 
plex begins on the north with the 
(Cultural Center) and rings Grant 
Park along Michigan Avenue, includ- 
ing the Art Institute, Orchestra Hall, 
Fine Arts Building, and the Audito- 
rium, winding up with the three insti- 
tutions at the south end of the Park." 

The success of this planning, the 
success of this Fair, and the success 
of this City depend on people. Peo- 
ple, not structures, make a great City, 
make a great Fair. While we must, of 
necessity, fix Fair responsibility on a 

managing board of limited size, we 
must also have a participatory pro- 
cess which is open minded, open 
ended, open to all. In doing so, we 
recognize that today's eccentric idea 
is tomorrow's practical solution. 

Our Fair needs to tap the talents 
and aspirations of people every- 
where just as was done in 1893 by the 
World's Congress. This can be done 
simultaneously on the fair site and in 
the neighborhoods of the world. It 
can be done in fair buildings, it can 
be done in neighborhood halls, it can 
be done at home by television and 
computer, and we can be linked 
across the planet by satellite. 

Aptly designated the Age of Dis- 
covery, the next Chicago World's Fair 
will emphasize human initiative and 
creativity. As in ages past so in ages 
future, people will be our greatest 
natural resource. In a time of limited 
physical resources, our future 
depends more heavily on our ideas 
and our ideals. We must explore the 
basic sciences, humanities, and arts 
through our educational, cultural, 
and research organizations. We must 
develop our individual ethics and 
mutual respect through our homes, 
churches, and communities. We 
must then apply our basic knowl- 
edge and basic values through the 
professions, business, labor, and 
government. We must learn to live 
together sensitively and sensibly in 
our neighborhoods, in our city, in 
our world. 

The creative talents of all Chica- 
goans must be enlisted if our Fair is 
to open a new era. Groups, institu- 
tions, communities, and individuals 
should organize international sym- 
posia and local discussions and pre- 
sent world and local talent which will 
together enlarge and enliven our vi- 
sion of the future. In doing so, we 
ought not spare ourselves. For as 
Christopher Columbus wrote his 
son: "If I failed to do something it 
was only due either (to) the im- 
possibility of the thing itself or (to) its 
being entirely beyond my knowledge 
and my power. God requires in such 
cases only the will." If Chicago is the 
"I will" city, we shall realize that our 
Age of Discovery is our never-ending 
frontier. D 

Collecting in the Upper Amazon 

A Field Report from Timothy Plowman, Assistant Curator of Botany 
Introduction by William Burger, Chairman, Dqjartment of Botany 

Assistant Curator 

Timothy Plowman, 

now collecting in the 

Amazon Basin. 

Of all the land areas of our planet, the largest and least 
explored remains the Amazon Basin. From the eastern 
slopes of the Andes mountains in Bolivia, Peru, 
Ecuador, and Colombia to the shores of the Atlantic, 
this basin covers an area larger than the continental 
United States. It supports the largest evergreen trop- 
ical lowland forest in the world and the most poorly 
known. Rapid economic development is now making it 
possible to gather information in areas that were 
previously inaccessible or very difficult to reach. The 
Projecto Flora Amazonica is a joint Brazilian-U.S. 
venture to collect information about this area through 
coordinated inter-institutional research programs and 
expeditions. Field Museum's Botany Department has 
concentrated much of its efforts on studying the plants 
of the American tropics. It is therefore appropriate that 
we are one of the institutions involved in this interna- 
tional research effort. 

Dr. Timothy Plowman of our department is the 
Assistant Coordinator of the project's U.S. Committee 
and was with the latest expedition during December. 
The following letter describes some of his experiences at 
that time in the upper Amazon. — W. B. 

3 Jan 1983 Manaus 

Dear Bill: 

Happy New Year though it's hard to believe it's 
1983. Both Christmas and New Year's seem 
remote holidays in the steamy tropics, where 
every day seems like every other. 

Our trip was really great although quite 
short because of the delay in our visas. Still, it 
seems like we were out for a couple of months, 
not weeks. We arrived in Manaus at the conve- 
nient hour of 3am to a rather unenthusiastic re- 
ception at immigration. My companion Wade 
was missing an important piece of paper in his 
file of documents, one which apparently was 
not returned from the Consulate in Toronto. I 
mustered as much of my rusty Portuguese as 
possible at that hour. After much grumbling 
and a long delay on the part of the Customs 
Officer, he stamped us in. I'm sure that a small 
propina would have helped matters immensely 
but I wasn't thinking clearly at the time. Bruce 
Nelson, our Projeto Flora liaison in Manaus, 
met us at the airport and provided a place to 
sleep that night. We left the next day by plane 
for Tefe, which lies about halfway between 
Manaus and the Peruvian border on the Rio 
Solimoes (as the Amazon is called west of Man- 
aus in Brazil). In Tefe we met our Brasilian col- 
leagues, consisting of two trainee botanists from 
INPA in Manaus, two tecnicos mateiros (general 
assistants), and the three crew members of our 
boat the Pium. The Pium is named for the vora- 
cious no-see-um so well known in these parts. It 
is an 18 m. long river boat, with one deck, an en- 
gine room, a galley and a toilet. We had a num- 
ber of mechanical problems along the way but 
in general the boat was fine and just about the 
right size for our work. It did become rather 
crowded however, especially when we hired a 
local boy to serve as an axman-guide up the Rio 
Japura our ultimate goal. We were then ten: at 
night when all the hammocks were strung 
across the boat, it was a major challenge to 
reach the back of the boat and the bathroom 
(especially amusing when we all came down 


SOUTH AMERICA (northern) 

with acute diarrhea). But everyone was very 
amiable and helpful and dedicated to making 
the trip a success. The Brasilian group had 
already been out in the field seven weeks col- 
lecting and waiting our arrival. Considering the 
close quarters, and long absence from home, 
everyone was surprisingly patient and good- 
natured. We spent just one day in Tefe while 
our mechanic replaced a part in the engine, 
and then took off for the Japura. Tefe lies on 
the southern bank of the Solimoes directly 
across from the Japura delta. 

The Rio Japura is a northern tributary of the 
Solimoes but runs parallel to it for much of its 
length. The Japura originates in the Andes of 
southern Colombia, where it is called the Rio 
Caqueta. It is considered a "white water" river 
like the main Amazon but is considerably dark- 
er in color than the Solimoes owing to the large 
number of "black water" rivers, which enter on 
the north bank of the Japura. These resemble 
the waters of the Rio Negro basin which is the 
next river system north of the Japuri. The delta 
of the Japura is an immense maze of channels 
and islands, well over 100 km. across. Navigat- 

ing these waters takes a lot of experience, espe- 
cially since there are virtually no conspicuous 
landmarks. We did in fact get lost one day in 
one of our outboards, when the Pium took a 
different channel than we did. The entire area of 
the lower Japura is vdrzea forest, which is found 
in lowlying areas along the main white water 
rivers and is subject to several months of annual 
flooding. We arrived at the very end of the dry 
season, which we found out is not the optimal 
hme of year for collecting. In any case the vdrzea 
is relatively uniform in species composition and 
also well known compared to the forests on ter- 
ra firme. We spotted only a few small temporary 
settlements in the lower Japura where people 
from other areas come to grow manioc during 
the low water. In general the whole lower part 
of the river is uninhabited by humans. During 
high water the waters from the much larger 
Solimoes dominate the area and turn it into a 
river-lake some 15,000 km^ in area, covered 
with forest. 

The first terra firme on the Japura appears 
about 150 km. from the Solimoes, and then only 
the northern bank. We made some collections 

Hall 29 diorama 

showing pond with 

typical vegetation in 

Upper Amazon region. 

Hall 29. featuring 

"Plants of the World," 

is nmv being 

reinstalled and will be 

opened later this year. 


along the way upriver from our outboards, join- 
ing the Pium in late afternoon when we usually 
had a heavy thunderstorm. We had exception- 
ally good weather during our entire trip, but 
the rainstorms became increasingly frequent 
towards the end. Since we developed another 
engine problem, we decided to head for Maraa, 
the only "town" in this part of the river, and the 
first major settlement on terra firme. Maraa sits 
next to a large blackwater "igapo" lake fed by 
two sizable meandering streams. Maraa is one 
of those overgrown villages which can't handle 
becoming a town. There are just two main 
(mud) streets each three blocks long. The rest 
of the town consists of the church plaza and a 
rather nice little park on the riverfront. Away 
from the river, the town abruptly descends into 
a swamp. There is no real port, just a series of 
sidewalks which go down to the river. Since 
our generator was broken we had to plug into 
Maraa electric current. The town "electrician" 
. me down to the boat and attached a long ex- 
tension cord to a nearby public lamp post. No 
one seemed to mind and the next day other 
boats in port also tapped into the town gener- 

We arrived (unfortunately for our peace of 
mind, but quite luckily for the crew) just in time 
for the start of the "Festa do Padoeira", an an- 
nual weeklong celebration of the town's found- 
ing, and the biggest event in Maraa of the entire 
year. Scores of boats began arriving from all 
over the Western Amazon, even from Colombia. 
Since the port area was tiny, there was a lot of 
crowding and elbowing for space in front of the 
town. Most of these were river traders, carrying 
such unsavory cargoes as partially dried pirar- 
ucu, the Amazon's largest commercial fish, 
leaky drums of gasoline, general merchandise 
and a healthy rat population. There arose a 
virtual rush of activity around town with the 
setting up of stalls for vendors throughout the 
plaza and waterfront. And many people start- 
ing arriving from the hinterlands, including a 
group of very acculturated Indians, who 
stayed at their own inn run by the government. 
The three bars/poolhalls in town were packed 
and there was even a dance at the local "night- 
club" (written thus in English across the front of 
a completely empty wooden shack). An incred- 
ibly loud P. A. system was set up with constant 
announcements of the course of the festival. 

interspersed with music played on not quite the 
right speed but a high volume. The local Padre, 
a Dutchman recently arrived from the Congo, 
monopolized the microphone to advertize his 
nightly bingo game. He was in desperate straits 
to pay for the recent paint job on his church, 
and managed to sell all of us bingo cards every 
night. Our Brasilian leader Cid won one night; 
the prize was a bottle of communion wine! All 
of this would have been great fun, except the 
port became very polluted very quickly and we 
all came down with dysentery. Fortunately we 
spent the days out in the forests and soon 
started to have our daily baths out in the middle 
of the Japura from the outboards. 

From Maraa, we were able to make day 
trips to a number of different areas and habitats. 
Across the Japura were extensive varzea forests 
dissected with channels with connections to the 
Solimoes; the flow of water through these was 
northward into the Japura. The waters of the 
Solimoes were immediately recognizable by 
their muddy cafe au lait color and by the great 
amount of debris, in the form of floating grasses 
and water hyacinth as well as quantities of dead 
logs and trees. The Japura is a very "clean" river 
by comparison. 

We concentrated our collecting efforts on 
the north bank and the terra firme habitats. The 
forests had been cleared only in the immediate 
environs of Maraa and its lake, and further 
afield only the large timber trees near the river 
had been cut. So we had easy access to hand- 
some primary forests. Only a few scattered 
Canamaris Indians still live in this area, and as I 
mentioned they are highly acculturated. Still 
they know the trails well and still migrate for 
part of the year to the Rio Negro drainage to the 
north. Several Canamaris worked for us as 
guides during our stay. 

Considering this was not a time of a flower- 
ing peak in the forest, we found a surprising 
number of trees in flower or fruit. Our main 
problem, and that faced by plant collectors 
throughout the tropics, was how to get speci- 
mens of the larger trees. The smaller ones we 
could reach with a tree pruner with extendable 
poles, or they could be cut down. But some of 
the choicest species, which we could spot with 
binoculars, seemed to flower only when they 
reached canopy height of 30-35 meters, and 
often up to 1 m. in diameter, or much greater if 
buttresses were present. We managed to cut 
down a few of the medium-sized trees with axes 
(our chain saw broke down early on), but this 
was extremely hard and time-consuming work. 
One tree might take two men an hour of steady 
chopping, if the wood was not especially 
hard. We simply did not have enough manpow- 

er to fell more than two or three large trees per 
day. The very big trees could only be appreci- 
ated through binoculars, although we did try 
several times to shoot down branches with a 
shotgun. For the most part, this is an ineffective 
and expensive technique. One advantage to fell- 
ing the larger trees is that many other trees, as 
well as lianas and epiphytes come down with 
them, so we could usually count on at least ten 
additional, and often little known, species to 
accompany the explosive crash of a big tree fall. 
But with such logistical problems, it is no won- 
der the tree flora, which is by far the most di- 
verse element here, remains incompletely 
known. One sometimes hopes to run into a li- 
mited clearcutting timber or roadbuilding op- 
eration to be able to make specimens of every 
tree as it comes down, but we did not have such 
(dubious) luck at Maraa. 

The forests here are dominated by several 
plant families, and these varied only in relahve 
frequencies from one locality to another. The 
most conspicuous are the Sapotaceae, Legumi- 
nosae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, Burseraceae 
and Lecythidaceae. All of these groups are large 
tree families known for being notoriously diffi- 
cult taxonomically, especially in the American 
tropics. Part of the problem in studying them is 
obtaining a reasonable sample of specimens due 
to the problems discussed above. Still there re- 
mains a tremendous diversity of species here, 
which only such intensive and extensive collect- 
ing expeditions will be able to uncover. 

After our stay at Maraa, we headed back 
down the Japura to Tefe. Both Wade and I 
would have liked to have proceeded to the Co- 
lombian border but our companions had already 
been there and our time was running short. We 
were obliged to return to Manaus before Christ- 
mas and it took at least a week of travel to reach 
Colombia. So that trip will have to wait until 
next time. We reached Tefe in just one day's 
time. We spent a day packing up many of our 
accumulated specimens and shipped them by 
air freight back to inpa headquarters in Manaus. 
The boat was beginning to get very crowded. 
Oddly, Tefe seemed like a thriving metropolis 
after Maraa. Tefe was known as "Ega" in the 
18th and 19th century and was visited by von 
Martius in 1819 during his famous expedition to 
Brazil. The town has a few remnants of a pre- 
viously elegant and important river town, back 
in the days of the Amazonian rubber boom. 
There are a number of beautiful and ornate 
tum-of-the-century port buildings along the 
shore, now deserted and crumbling, but still 
outstanding compared to the faceless concrete 
structures of recent years. Tefe sits on a high 
point of land at the mouth of Lago Tefe, which is 


Forest view in Upper 

Amazon as conceived 

by 19th-century artist 

in Flora Brasiliensis 

(1840-1906), edited by 

Karl Martin and 

August Eicbler. 


protected from the main stream of the Solimoes 
by a narrow island. It is still an important trad- 
ing point but its products are now the less lucra- 
tive Brazil nuts and fish. Tefe is today a rather 
shabby town which seems not to have progressed 
during the past half century. It has an offensive 
odor because of the large storehouses of dried 
fish (primarily pirarucu) found here and the 
apparent absence of a functional sewage system. 
As soon as we finished our town business, 
we left Tefe for the less populated areas across 
the Lake. Lago Tefe is about 55 km. long and 
around 8 km. across. It is said to be quite shal- 
low but appears to be a very sizable body of wa- 
ter. It is fed by the north-flowing Rio Tefe and 
Rio Bauana, as well as many smaller rivers. The 
water is very dark but not muddy, similar to the 
Rio Negro, the lake is surrounded by large ex- 
panses of white sand beaches. Large areas of 
the upper reaches of the lake are flooded for 

most of the year and covered with a typical igapo 
type vegetation. Igapo differs from vdrzea only in 
that it refers to seasonally flooded forest on 
blackwater instead of Whitewater rivers. Still, 
there are characteristic species which are found 
in each of these flooded habitats, and few that 
are found in both. We anchored the Pium next to 
a deserted white sand beach about 15 km. from 
Tefe. Previous residents had left plantations of 
limes, abiu (the caimito of Peru) and cupuassii, a 
relative of cacao with a large, woody fruit con- 
taining delicious white pulp. We still lived on 
the boat but spend most of our time on shore 
where we set up a specimen processing area 
under a grove of trees, certainly a much more 
pleasant working area than the rat-infested port 
of Maraa. The terra firme forests along the 
shores of Lago Tefe had been logged but we 
could appreciate their grandiosity from the size 
of Brazil Nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) which are 
usually left for nut collectors who still harvest 
the world's Brazil nut supply from wild trees. 
Some of these reached two meters in diameter 
and dwarfed most of the remaining trees. Piles 
of cut-open Brazil nut pods found throughout 
the forest showed that these trees were still 
actively being harvested. The family composi- 
tion of the forests at Tefe was similar to that of 
Maraa although we found a number of species 
not seen anywhere on the Japura. 

We made one day trip to the estuary of the 
Rio Bauana, which is a large black-water habitat 
without any noticeable current. This igapo lake 
is littered with the standing trunks of dead 
trees, with only a few living ones, of the wide- 
spread reverine legume Macrolobium acaciifolium. 
Between the standing tree skeletons were both 
living and dead individuals of a shrub {Symmeria 
sp?, Polygonaceae) which is also extremely 
abundant in these open flooded shallow igapo 
lakes. The remains of the dead trees and shrubs 
gave the landscape a strange and mysterious 
aspect. Among them were floating mats of two 
species of aquatic grasses both competing for 
living space by sending out incredibly fast- 
growing floating stolons along the surface of 
the water. 

Partly because of the forbidding look of this 
"river" and because we had no idea which 
channel to take, we tried to find a local guide. 
We stopped at a small community on one of the 
few terra firme sites, which was clearly in the 
throes of the "morning after". One poor soul 
who could hardly stand up was appointed by an 
imposing patriarch. Still, he was able to point 
the way through a highly confusing maze of 
half-clear channels as well as through areas 
where we had to pole across grown over float- 
ing mats. We were rewarded along the way by a 

fantastic display of bird life, especially herons, 
egrets and hawks. Finally we arrived at an Indi- 
an hut across the estuary where we found an ac- 
cessible patch of terra firme forest. It was worth 
the trip because we found a number of species 
which did not occur along the middle and lower 
parts of the lake, including spectacular pink- 
flowered Couratari, a large tree of the Brazil nut 
family, and one tree for which the family still re- 
mains unknown to us. 

A few days after arriving at Maraa, four of 
the botanists began to notice small patches of 
discolored skin in exposed areas. This was 
attributed to a small hymenopteran called potd, 
which issues a poisonous spray when disturbed. 
The insect was attracted to the lights on the boat 
at night and were so small and slender that they 
easily slipped through the holes in our mos- 
quito nets. Our leader Cid had developed, by 
the time we arrived at Tefe, an ugly black ede- 
matous swelling on his forearm along with 
burning chest pains. Since he had only one arm, 
(childhood accident) he became especially con- 
cerned about what was happening. A doctor in 
Tefe pronounced leishmanniasis, which it was 
not, and we still believe that it was a severe 
reaction to the insidious poto. I developed an 
extremely itchy generalized rash over my arms, 
back, and legs which persisted until well after 
we arrived in Manaus. Cid decided to fly back to 
Manaus from Tefe, even though it was very dif- 
ficult to get a seat on the plane because of the 

holidays. We left him on standby in Tefe and 
started downriver on the Solimoes. We traveled 
all day and well into the night for two days. 
During the last half of the trip we were caught 
between two storms, one going up river and 
another going down, and it rained torrentially 
for the entire trip back to Manaus. The rainy 
season had definitely begun but we had been 
very lucky in enjoying almost ideal weather 
throughout our trip. 

Now back in Manaus, we begin the long 
and tedious task of sorting the specimens 
(almost everything had been dried during the 
trip), and dividing them into equal sets for in- 
stitutions in Brazil and the United States. The 
people at inpa, our host institution, have been 
extremely helpful. We feel especially grateful for 
having had such a congenial group of people to 
work with. Our final count of specimens col- 
lected is 2,014 different plants, with a total num- 
ber of duplicates exceeding 20,000. Considering 
the frequent problems, bureaucratic, mechanic- 
al, medical and otherwise — we feel that it's 
been worthwhile. 

Anyway all is well and 1 will leave Wednes- 
day for Fortaleza, the interior of Ceara and 
Bahia, then Salvador, Ilheus and the institute of 
Cacao, and finally Rio at the end of February. 
Sorry about the typing job herein but you 
should see what I am using, and the way it 
fights back. Happy New Year. — Tim 


View of Rio japurd, 


Flora Brasiliensis. 

tttaiiis^ 13 

1982 Volunteers Honored 

On February 14, Valentine's Day, Field Museum honored its 300 
1982 volunteers with a reception in Stanley Field Hall. Heart- 
shaped balloons fluttered as the volunteers and their guests visited 
with staff members away from the laboratories and offices where 
most volunteers contribute their time and talents. Volunteers in 
1982 contributed a total of 46,556 hours, working in almost every 
department of the Museum. 

Field Museum President Willard L. Boyd welcomed the 
volunteers and expressed, on behalf of the staff, the appreciation 
felt for their service. Museum Director Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. pre- 
sented awards to two volunteers who have given fifteen years of 
continuous service to the Museum: Stanley Dvorak, Jr., a volun- 
teer in the Invertebrates Division, Zoology Department; and Anne 
Ross, Department of Education. 

Records show that Stanley Dvorak began volunteering at the 
Museum in 1967, but by then he was already an established 
Wednesday visitor in the division. An interest in marine shells first 
brought him to the Museum in 1953. At that time, the division had 
acquired more than two million new specimens in a decade, staff 
energies were devoted to processing the new material. Stanley 
worked through group after group, helping to identify material, 
offering new specimens to Field Museum from his own personal 
collection, and advising staff on purchases. When Stanley's in- 

terests developed in freshwater clams of local streams and lakes, 
he became the Invertebrate Division's "foul weather" friend. 
Wednesdays which were good weather days found Stanley off on 
a collecting excursion. Yet, Stanley found enough time in the last 
few years to allow him to review several collections of about 50,000 
specimens of the beautiful Florida tree snails of the genus Liguus. 

Although for a time Anne Ross led a double life at Field 
Museum — volunteering in both the Zoology and the Education 
Departments, most of her fifteen years of service has been in the 
Education Department. Anne was one of the first Museum 
volunteers to give educational programs to school groups. She was 
trained to give programs in all areas — biology, geology, and 
anthropology. As the Education Department's school program- 
ming expanded, most volunteers became specialists. But Anne 
continued to expand her repertoire and today is one of the few 
volunteers who can switch from "Egypt" to "Dinosaurs" to "Rocks 
and Minerals" at a moment's notice. Anne's dry humor and 
proven reliability has won her friends both in Education and in the 
Amphibians and Reptiles Division of Zoology, where she reor- 
ganized the reprint library a few years back. 

Dr. Nevling personally presented gifts to those 1982 volun- 
teers who had each contributed over 500 hours to the Museum. D 

500 Hours or more 

William Bentley; Anthropology: photographed artifacts in 
Asian collections. 

Connie Crane; Anthropology: record-keeping; assisted with 
coordination of Maritime Peoples of the Artie and Northwest 
Coast exhibit; research assistant. 

Jim Currey; Zoology, Mammals Division: skinned, fleshed, and 
prepared skeletal specimens; regasketed cases; record-keeping. 

Loma Gonzales; Zoology, Insect Division: recorded locality data 
for taxonomic and biogeographic study; checked localities on 
maps; entered computer data. 

Margaret Martling; Botany: worked with type photography pro- 
cessing; reprint collections; identification of materials removed 
from exhibits; added new cards to reference files. 

Rosanne Miezio; Zoology, Mamals Division: scientific illustration 
and photocopying. 

Clara Richardson: Zoology, Fishes Division: scientific illustration. 

Llois Stein; Anthroplogy: researched and catalogued Oceanic and 
African collections; assisted in Pacific storeroom reorganization. 

Over 400 Hours 

Louva Calhoun, Anthropology: illustrating and assisting with 
cataloging of the Isimila prehistoric collection. 

501 Centurv, Anthropology: accessioned and catalogued in gen- 
eral projects in Asian Division. 

Patricia Dodson, .Anthropology: office organization and coordina- 
Hon; proofing and editing manuscripts; bibliographic research; 
general office work. 

Eric Frazer, Anthropology: worked on preventive conservation 
and textile storage. 

Frank Greene, Jr., Geology: collected Mazon Creek specimens, 
recorded field distributions; cleaned specimens. 

Dorothy Oliver, Library: indexed Museum's annual reports; 
assisted with interlibrary loan requests, filed new book cards; 
retrieved books for visitors; special projects. 

Gary Ossewaarde, Education: researched and conducted 
weekend tours in anthropology; assisted in special events 
and workshops. 

David Weiss, Anthropology: Administrative assistant in Asian 
Division; responsible for overseeing loans; miscellaneous corre- 
spondence, special projects. 

Over 300 Hours 

Dennis Bara, Membership: weekend membership representative. 

Sanda Bauer, Anthropology: Record-keeping; assisted with Hall 
10 exhibit; designed coloring book on Northwest Coast Indian art. 

Sophie Ann Brunner, Zoology, Reptiles Division: skeleton prep- 
aration, organization, and maintenance. 

James Burd, Anthropology: accessioned and catalogued in gen- 
eral departmental projects in Asian Division. 

Dolores Fetes, Geology: compiling information for catalogue of 
fossil vertebrate type specimens inventorying; assisted with chil- 
dren's workshop. 

Peter Gayford, Anthropology: cataloguing McCormick collection. 


Halina Goldsmith, Education: conducted programs for school 
groups and public in Place for Wonder and in Maritime 
Peoples Hall. 

Joseph Levin, Geology: cataloguing the John Clark collection of 
Oligocene mammals; reorganized fossil bird collection. 

Melba Mayo, Education: conducted tours for school groups in 
anthropology and geology halls; gave public Highlights of Field 
Museum tours. 

Withrow Meeker, Anthropology: preparation for Philippine 
exhibit; cataloguing Chinese paintings. 

Carolyn Moore, Anthropology: special projects researcher in 
Asian Division. 

The following volunteers each gave over 50 hours in service to 
Field Museum in 1982. 

Louise Neuert, Anthropology: worked on preventative conserva- 
tion and storage of materials. 

Forman Onderdonk, Education: gave programs to school groups 
and public in Pawnee earth lodge and in Maritime Peoples Hall; 
assisted with children's workshops. 

Elizabeth Rada, Botany: organizing reprints and typing card index 
for reprint collection in Botany library; typing manuscripts. 

James Skorcz, Library: worked in Reading Room; filled inter- 
library loan requests, filed cards in card catalog, retrieved books 
for visitors; compiled statistics; special projects. 

Charles Staiush, Anthropology: bibliographic research; analysis of 
field work; field work. 

Zinette Yacker, Education: gave programs to school groups and 
public in Pawnee earth lodge and in Maritime People's Hall. 


Nathalie Alberts 
Sanda Bauer 
Dodie Baumgarten 
William C. Bentley 
Patricia Bercher 
Marjorie Bohn 
Julie Braun 
James E. Burd 
Louva Calhoun 
Sol Century 
Margaret Chung 
Connie Crane 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Steven Diamond 
Patricia Dodson 
Nancy Fagin 
Eric Frazer 
Peter Gayford 
Helen Gayner 
Dorothy Hal)er 
Anne Leonard 
Virginia Leslie 
Michelle Leuallen 
Susan Lynch 
Withrow Meeker 
Carolyn Moore 
George Morse 
Louise Neuert 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 
PhUip Pinsof 
William Rom 
Rol>ert Rosb)erg 
Sara Scherh)ere 
Charles Stanisn 
Eric Stein 
Llois Stein 
James Swartchild* 
Cathy Tlapa 
Paula-Ann Vasquez- 

Alice Wei 
David Weiss 
Reeva Wolfson 


Virginia Beatty 
Cecilia Bodman* 
Stephen Dercole 
Phyllis Dix 
Deborah Green 
Mary Lou Grein 
Caroll Henry 
Marion Lehuta 
Margaret Martling 
Elizabeth Rada 
Barbara Siekowski 

Lorraine Thauland 
Lillian Vanek 
Fred Weiss 


Charlotte Morton 
Helen Ruch 


Hermann Bowersox 


Dolores Arbanas 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baker 
Lucia Barba 
Gwen Bamett 
Winifred Batson 
Elaine Bernstein 
Sharon Boemmel 
Sandra Boots 
Charles Braner 
Carol Briscoe 
Teddy Buddington 
Steve Buehler 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
Carol Bunhng 
Mary E. Burt 
Joseph Cablk 
Katny Cagney 
Susan Matthys Curran 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Carol Deutsch 
Marianne Diekman 
Delores Dobberstein 
Caryn Doniny 
John Dunn 
Jean Durkin 
Lynn Dyer 
Alice Eckley 
Ruth Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Jennifer Elliott 
Agatha Elmes 
Jean Ettner 
Nancy Evans 
Martha Farwell 
Ruth Fouche 
Gerda Frank 
Janine Fuerst 
Shirley Fuller 
Miriam Futransky 
Bemice Gardner 
Suzanne Garvin 
Nancy Gerson 

Delores Glasbrenner 
Halina Goldsmith 
Helen Gornstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Ann Grimes 
Karen Grupp 
Michael Hall 
Barbara Hathaway 
Shirley Hattis 
Audrey Hiller 
April Hohol 
Zelda Honor 
Scott Houtteman 
Betty Hubbard 
Ellen Hyndman 
Micki Johns 
Nancy Jonathan 
Malcolm Jones 
Carol Kacin 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Dorothy Kathan 
Shirley Kennedy 
Barbara Keune 
Marjorie King 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Glenda Kowalski 
Teresa LaMaster 
Carol Landow 
Joan Lauf 
James Lowers 
Ruth Luthringer 
Margaret Madel 
Sara Majer 
Gabby Margo 
Melba Mayo 
Marita Maxey 
Mark McColIam 
Carole McMahon 
Beverly Meyer 
Reed Millsaps 
Anne Murpny 
Chariita Nachtrab 
Linda Nard 
Mary Naunton 
Johri Ben Nelson 
Mary S. Nelson 
Forman Onderdonk 
Joan Opila 

Gary Ossewaarde 
Anita Padnos 
Raymond Parker 
Michelle Parker 
Frank Paulo 
Steffi Postol 
Jacquelyn Prine 
Ann Rafajczyk 
Ernest Reed 

Elly Ripp 
Laurel Kippey 
Barbara Roob 
Kathy Rose 
Beverlv Rosen 
Sarah ftosenbloom 
Anne Ross 
Susan Rowley 
Lenore Ruehr 
Linda Sandberg 
Marian Saska 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Jessie Sherrod 
Florence Seiko 
Judith Sherry 
Dorothy Skala 
Deborah Silber 
Doris Simkin 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spensley 
Robyn Strauss 
Bea Swartchild 
Mary Alice Sutton 
Jane Thain 
Patricia Tyson 
Barbara Vear 
Charles Vischulis 
Bertram Walton 
Harold Waterman 
Bob Weicherding 
Marv Wenzel 
Scott Willsey 
Zinnette Yacker 


Audrey Burns 
Steven Johnson 
Diane Jurado 


Donald Gemmel 


John Bauer 
Joan Biba 
Jean Carton 
Lynn Dyer 
Kathleen Early 
Linda Egebrecht 
Marie Fischl 
Louis Galvez III 
Frank A. Greene, Jr. 
Cecily Gregory 
Carol Hallow 
Calvin Harris 
Harold L. Honor 

Paul Kenneth Johnson 
Gerald Kuechner 
Joyce Kieffer 
Joseph Levin 
Alice Mills 
Rose Ocampo 
China Oughton 
Therese Palmer* 
Susanne Petersson 
Jean Porretto 
Sarah Powell 
Ann Rubeck 
Thelma Schwartz 
Lynn Siegel 
Steven Sroka 
Patricia Talbot 
Mary Ann Walkosz 


Andrea McDonald 


Arden Frederick 
Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Mabiel Johnson 
Dorothy Oliver 
Marie Louise 
James Skorcz 


Carrie Anderson 
Dennis Bara 


Robyn Michaels 
Kathryn Mozden 
Jacqueline Tracy 


Doris Simkin 
Gay Voss 
Reeva Wolfson 


Beth Barnes 
Gladys Boyd 
Camille Bzdek 
Suzanne Pier Fauteux 
Yvonne Gonzalez 
Doug Jacobs 
Frank Leslie 

Jennifer Newman 
Gloria Tabom 
Osa Theus 

Loretfa Green 

William Roder 


Neal Abarbanell 
Mario Ambrosino 
Lawrence Berman 
Steve Brady 
Joseph Browne 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Jim Currey 
Stanley Dvorak 
Andrea Gaski 
Marty Germann 
Christine Geymer 
Elizabeth Louise Girardi 
Lorna Gonzales 
Greta Gratzinger 
Henry Greenwald 
L. Jarfies Hitz 
Nancy Hubbard 
Jennifer Ikerd 
Malcolm Jones 
Carole Kaml>er 
Dorothy Karall 
Lisa Leslie 
Elizabeth Lizzio 
David Matusik 
Rosanne Miezio 
Doris Nitecki 
Edwardine Nodzenski 
Miles Olson 
Laura Pederson 
Robert Protosevich 
Sri Raj 
Lee Rapp 
Sheila Reynolds 
Clara Richardson 
Jim Sipiora 
Lorain Stephens 
Rita Veal 
Virginia Vergara 
David Walker 
Hal Waterman 
Mary Wenzel 
Philip Woutat 
Katherine Wright 



A itiiieteaitli-centuri/ view oj the Great Flood, with Noah's Ark in the background. The bloated corpses of larger vertebrate animals have risen 
to the surface. Creationists have used such scenarios to explain the abundance of vertebrate fossils in the upper (i/oiinger) parts of the geologic 
column. (Courtesy Historical Pictures Service — Chicago.) 

Geology and Creationism 

David M. Raup 


This essay is inspired by my reread- 
ing of Science and Creation, by 
Boardman, Koontz, and Morris 
(1973). Science and Creation is not the 
most recent treatment, but it is one 
of the best in the sense of being a 
clear and unambiguous statement 
of the case made by contemporary 

David M. Raup is a research associate in 
Geology at Field Museum and chairman of 
the Department of the Geophysical Sciences 
of the University of Chicago. 

creationists against the con- 
ventional wisdom of evolution. 
The same basic ground is covered 
by later books, such as those by 
Wysong (1976) and Gish (1978). 

1 will be concerned here only 
with the strictly geological and 
paleontological parts of the argu- 
ment. Thus, I will not consider 
such diverse questions as the origin 
of life, the origin of DNA, applica- 
tions of the first and second laws of 
thermodynamics, elaborate prob- 
ability arguments, and so forth. I 
doubt if there is any single in- 
dividual within the scientific com- 

munity who could cope with the 
full range of arguments without the 
help of an army of consultants in 
special fields. 

The Main Arguments 
of Scientific Creationism 

The geological and paleontological 

"Geology and Creationism" is adapted from 
the essay "The Geological and Paleontolog- 
ical Arguments of Creationism," by David 
M. Raup, appearing in Scientistfi Confront 
Creationism (W.W. Norton, 1983), edited by 
Laurie R. Godfrey. Copyright © 1983 by 
Laurie R. Godfrey. Reproduction, in whole 
or in part, without written permission of 
editor and publisher is strictly prohibited. 


arguments made by scientific 
creationists vary somewhat from 
author to author, and many rather 
long lists of presumed failings of 
the rock and fossil records have 
been published, but there is a 
group of recurrent arguments 
which I will discuss under four 
main headings. 

1) Evidence of catastrophe in the 
fossil record. It is a common plea of 
the creationists that the geological 
record shows ample evidence of 
very sudden events and they con- 
sider this anathema to the rather 
gradualistic, uniform processes of 
geology and evolution described in 
many basic textbooks. The ex- 
amples presented by the creation- 
ists are legion, but emphasis is 
usually given to what are referred 
to as fossil graveyards; that is, those 
situations where there is evidence 
of sudden annihilation of pop- 
ulations of single species or of 
whole communities. The preserva- 
tion of Pleistocene mammals in the 
tar pits at La Brea is one of many 
cases often cited. Emphasis is also 
given to poly strate fossils. This refers 
to situations where a single fossil 
specimen, such as an upright tree 
trunk, cuts across or is included in 
rocks covering a significant span of 
geologic time. The creationists 
point out, probably correctly in 
most cases, that the occurrence of a 
long tree trunk in life position sug- 
gests extremely rapid deposition of 
the surrounding rock. Otherwise, 
the tree trunk would have decayed 
and disappeared before it could be 
embedded. Fossil graveyards and 
polystrate fossils are combined to 
argue for the general principle that 
most fossils are the result of some 
unusual, short-lived event and do 
not represent a gradual or uniform 

In a slightly different context, 
ephemeral markings are often cited as 
evidence of catastrophe. These in- 
clude such sedimentary features as 
ripple marks, rain drop im- 

pressions, and mud cracks. Also 
included are footprints (of di- 
nosaurs, for example) and a host of 
other biological markings. The 
argument is again made that these 
tracks and trails could not be pre- 
served without some sort of un- 
usual catastrophe. 

2) Relative dating based on fossils . 
As is well known, geological dating 
normally takes two forms: relative 
dating developed empirically from 
the sequences of fossils and absolute 
dating based on a variety of tech- 
niques yielding an age in thou- 
sands or millions of years. The 
scientific creationists have long 
criticized the system of relative dat- 
ing based on fossils. One of their 
arguments is the claim that the 
basic reasoning is circular: that a 
geologist identifies fossils as being 
of a certain age only because those 
fossils have been found only in 
rocks of that age. In addition, the 
creationists note that the entire col- 
umn is never found in one simple 
stack and that the geologic column 
of the textbooks is actually a com- 
posite built up from small seg- 
ments scattered around the world. 
The creationists argue that there is 
a large element of inference in the 
process of building up the chronol- 
ogy and they have been quick to 
find fault with many of the details 
of the composite, or standard, 

One also runs into the argu- 
ment that the system of relative 
dating is circular because it 
assumes evolution; that is, fossils 
are placed in the sequence by their 
"stage of evolution" and the se- 
quence itself is later used as evi- 
dence for evolution. As will be. 
shown below, this particular point 
is a misunderstanding of the way 
geology works. Rarely, if ever, is 
the stage of evolution used as a 
means of placing a fossil in the 
geologic time scale. 

3) Absolute dating. This is a 
complex subject and creationists' 

arguments deal primarily with 
alleged discordances or in- 
compatibilities of dating methods 
using radioactive isotopes. The 
basic argument is that the number 
of inconsistencies in radiometric 
dahng is great enough to disqualify 
the method. 

4) Disagreement between the fossil 
record and the predictions of Dar- 
winian theory. To the scientific 
creationist, the Darwinian theory 
of evolution predicts that we 
should find in the fossil record a 
continuous chain of evolutionary 
stages with ample intermediate or 
transitional forms between major 
groups. For authority, creationists 
quote Darwin and indeed it is a 
simple matter to find in Darwin's 
writings the prediction of gradual 
evolution with intermediates 
strung out as beads on a string. The 
creationists then point to the rather 
sudden appearance in the fossil 
record of many new groups and the 
general lack of intermediates as evi- 
dence that Darwinian theory does 
not hold up. Also, in a slightly dif- 
ferent vein, the creationists cite the 
so-called living fossils: those organ- 
isms that have shown little or no 
change through long periods of 
geologic time. It is not clear to me 
that Darwinian or neo-Darwinian 
theory predicts that evolutionary 
change must occur — so the living 
fossil argument may be a straw 

Later in this essay I will con- 
sider the several arguments just 
presented in greater detail. But 
first, a couple of other elements of 
the problem should be considered. 
One is a list of arguments not made 
by scientific creationists and the 
other is the general question of 
whether the scientific creationists 
are indeed behaving in a scientific 

Arguments Not Made By 
the Creationists 

One irony of the current debate be- 



tween the evolutionists and 
creationists is that the evolutionists 
often allege a number of arguments 
they assume the creationists are 
maldng but w^hich, in fact, are not 
being used by the contemporary 
breed of scientific creationist. Let 
me single out the most important 
of these. 

1) The Bible as the only authority. 
The Biblical accounts of creation 
and of the history of the Earth are 
often cited in the literature of the 
scientific creationists. Many 
creationists obviously believe that 
the Bible is correct in every detail. 
In fact, to become a member of the 
Creation Research Society one is 
obliged to subscribe to a Statement 
of Belief which includes agreeing 
that "the account of origins in 
Genesis is a factual presentation of 
simple historical truths." With this 
as background, the creationist 
could be content simply to present, 
and perhaps interpret, the Biblical 
account and leave it at that, with no 
reference to observational data 
from natural history. But this is not 
the approach. Rather, the Biblical 
account is used as a model or hy- 
pothesis and its predictions are 
tested with data from geology, 
paleontology, and other fields. 

Several lists of predictions of 
the creation model have been pub- 
lished (Gish, 1978, pp. 50-51, for 
example). Testing these pre- 
dictions often involves rather 
elaborate, and surprisingly con- 
ventional, research studies. A re- 
cent example is a reappraisal of the 
well-known limestone deposits of 
Silurian age at Thornton Quarry in 
Illinois (D'Armond, 1980). These 
deposits are conventionally un- 
derstood to be buried reefs, and ex- 
tensive work has been done on 
them over many years. D'Armond 
attempts to argue that the deposits 
are simply the result of catastrophic 

flooding and while I do not agree 
with his analysis or his con- 
clusions, the study is clearly an at- 
tempt to use geologic data to prove 
an aspect of the creation model. 

Thus, while most practitioners 
of scientific creationism firmly be- 
lieve in the authority of the Bible, 
they are not relying on it as the sole 
authority. Rather, they are search- 
ing for corroborative data from a 
wide range of sources. Theoretical- 
ly, a creationist such as D'Armond 
could conclude that the creation 
model is not viable because of a lack 
of corroboration from geological 
data. This is very unlikely for the 
committed creationist, but the lit- 
erature of scientific creation does 

provide the interested layman with 
the opportunity to conclude that 
the Biblical account is falsified by 
scientific data. 

2) Natural selection denied. It 
comes as a great surprise to many 
evolutionists that contemporary 
scientific creationists do in fact 
accept Darwinian natural selection 
and its modem genetic basis. That 
is, they grant that populations 
of species are variable, that the 
variability is heritable, and that 
through natural selection, evolu- 
tion from one form to another takes 
place. Thus, classic cases of natural 
selection (such as industrial mela- 
nism) do not bother the creation- 
ists. In fact, their textbooks often 

Rancho La Brea tar pit, near Los Angeles. A "fossil graveyard" of Pleistocene mammals 
commonly cited by creationists as evidence of sudden annihilation of entire communities of 
animals. Photo courtesy George C. Page Museum, La Brea Discoveries (branch of the Los 
Angeles County Museum of Natural History). 


include exhaustive and rather good 
treatments of the works of geneti- 
cists and population biologists on 
natural selection. The creationists 
do draw the line, however, at us- 
ing natural selection to explain the 
origin of major groups (families 
and orders). 

The foregoing can be illus- 
trated by quoting from Boardman 
effl/.,(1973, pp. 39-40): 
"Creationists recognize that varia- 
tion and mutation and natural selec- 
tion are real processes but they feel 
that evolutionists are not justified 
scientifically in extrapolating from 
the essentially trivial cases of muta- 
tion and natural selection which can 
be observed to occur in the present 
world to the gigantic sequence of 
evolutionary changes which must 
have occurred in the past if the 
organic world is to be accounted for 
on this basis . . . When all is said and 
done. . . examples of supposed 
present-day evolution that are com- 
monly cited in textbooks are actually 
nothing but relatively minor var- 
iations within the originally-created 
kinds. . . Essentially stability of the 
created kinds is postulated, though 
with a wide range of adaptive variety 
possible within the kinds. . . ." 

It is thus the creationists' argu- 
ment that the basic groups of or- 
ganisms were created separately 
and that each created kind has un- 
dergone modification by perfectly 
conventional Darwinian means. 

3) Single catastrophe required. 
The creationists rely heavily on the 
idea that a single major flood was 
responsible for much of what we 
see in the geologic and paleonto- 
logical records. This is inspired, of 
course, by the famous Noachian 
Deluge but the important element 
here is that the creationists do not 
insist that there be only one such 
flood, but rather, they claim one 
large flood followed by an attenu- 
ated series of smaller floods. They 
argue that the preflood condition — 
an Earth covered by crystalline 

rocks — lasted for some thousands 
of years and that this was followed 
by several months of flooding 
(Wysong, 1976). The flooding is 
seen as producing the complex 
stratigraphy of sedimentary depos- 
its that historical geologists and 
paleontologists deal with. 
Although there is some disagree- 
ment among creationists, the con- 
sensus is that there were a number 
of floods subsidiary to and follow- 
ing the Flood of Noah. 

Are Scientific Creationists Scientific? 

It is commonly argued by the evo- 
lutionists that the creationists' 
arguments are not worthy of dis- 
cussion in a scientific context be- 
cause they are not using scientific 
methods and their work is thus not 
science. As this argument goes, the 
forum for the debate — if there is to 
be one — should be in the arena of 
religion and philosophy rather 
than science. To support this gen- 
eral point of view, it is often argued 
that the creationists have allegiance 
to a single ideology (the Bible) and 
are thus not free enough in- 
tellectually to consider questions of 
origins in a scientifically acceptable 
manner. It is also alleged that the 
arguments made by the scientific 
creationists are almost all negative 
ones and thus do not constitute sci- 
ence. Whether these arguments 
have validity surely depends upon 
which scientific creationists are be- 
ing evaluated. 

There is no question that there 
is a strong correspondence be- 
tween support of the creationist 
idea and commitment to a single 
religious view. Increasingly, how- 
ever, people without strong 
religious commitment are being 
drawn into and are expressing 
some acceptance of the arguments 
made by the scientific creationists. 
Therefore, control by an ideology 
may represent an argument in 
some quarters but certainly not all. 

Furthermore, I think it can be 
argued that whether a body of 
reasoning is scientific or not should 
stand on its own merits rather than 
on the question of whether the 
adherents are committed to one 
ideology or another. Many ex- 
cellent scientists would also fail a 
test of personal ideology. 

In my view, a number of the 
arguments used by the creationists 
are scientific in the sense that they 
use the basic methods of reasoning 
and of testing hypotheses normally 
considered to be scientific. This 
does not mean, of course, that the 
conclusions are correct. Bad sci- 
ence may be just as scientific in the 
sense of methodology as good 

In spite of my claim that at 
least some of the scientific creation- 
ists are behaving scientifically, they 
have some major problems in exe- 
cution. Some of these are simple 
errors of fact or understanding of 
the way in which evolutionary biol- 
ogy and paleontology are done. For 
example, it was noted earlier that 
scientific creationists argue that it is 
invalid for geologists and 
paleontologists to determine the 
age of fossils on the basis of some 
presumed level or grade of evolu- 
tion. This is a clear misunderstand- 
ing of the way geology and 
paleontology operate. The de- 
velopment of the relative time scale 
for the fossiliferous part of the 
geologic column is purely empiric- 
al. The fossils could just as well be 
any sort of funny marks on rocks, 
unrelated to biological entities, as 
long as they are non-randomly dis- 
tributed in time. 

Other errors of fact are illus- 
trated by the often quoted co- 
occurrence of dinosaur and human 
footprints in Cretaceous lime- 
stones of Texas. This is one of many 
instances where lack of paleonto- 
logical training and lack of experi- 
ence with fossilization have led the 
creationists astray. In this particu- 



lar case the dinosaur footprints are 
real but the human footprints are 
not, or at least that is the judgment 
of vertebrate paleontologists who 
have worked extensively with fos- 
sil trackways of terrestrial tetra- 
pods. So, although the scientific 
creationists have done a rather 
remarkable job of absorbing a 
complex discipline, some errors 
of fact and of understanding have 
crept in. 

A more serious deficiency in 
the scientific method used by the 
creationists is their repeated in- 
sistence on experimental evidence 
and their insistence that there be 
no exceptions. The creationists are 
fond of claiming that in order to be 
scientifically demonstrable, some- 
thing must (1) be amenable to proof 
by experiment and (2) without ex- 
ceptions. These requirements are 
probably valid in certain areas of 
science, particularly in parts of 
physics and chemistry and in cer- 
tain areas of engineering. What the 
creationists seem to miss is the fact 
that geology and paleontology are 
historical sciences and therefore ex- 
perimental testing of predictions is 
difficult if not impossible and that 
these sciences rely largely on statis- 
tical inference; that is, on the build- 
ing of a general case which accepts 
exceptions as tolerable. 

In this context, the kind of in- 
ference made by geologists and 
paleontologists is not unlike that 
made in clinical medicine where 
both diagnosis and treatment are 
extremely inexact and individual 
decisions may depend upon 
assessment of probabilities and 
predictions which may, in many 
cases, turn out to be incorrect. The 
"batting average" is high enough in 
most areas of medicine to justify 
these fields as being not only 
scientific but well worth the effort. 
Clinical medicine is often an his- 

torical science in that inferences 
and generalizations are based on 
past events which were totally 

Let me give an example in a 
geological context. The basic 
geologic column was developed on 
the assumption of the so-called 
Law of Superposition. This law 
simply says that younger rocks are 
deposited on top of older rocks and 
therefore that if one finds a se- 
quence of rocks, the youngest are 
at the top and the oldest are at the 
bottom. This is not a very profound 
law but it has been extremely use- 
ful and was vitally important in the 
development of the geologic time 
scale. Not uncommonly, however, 
demonstrably young rocks are 

What the creationists 
seem to miss is the fact 

that geology and 

paleontology rely largely 

on statistical inference; 

that is, on the building of a 

general case which 

accepts exceptions as 


found beneath older rocks. Often, 
the reason for this reversal of the 
expected sequence is clearly the re- 
sult of movement of the rocks by 
tectonic forces after deposition, 
specifically by thrust faulting 
(where one set of rocks is literally 
thrust up over a younger set of 
rocks long after the original se- 
quence was deposited). Under 
ideal conditions, one can find clear 
evidence of thrust faulting and can 
even identify the surface along 
which the movement took place. In 
such situations, the reversal of the 
order is not a meaningful exception 
to the Law of Superposition. 

With many well documented 
cases of thrust faulHng in hand, the 
geologist feels confident to in- 

terpret a reversed sequence as the 
result of faulting even though actu- 
al evidence of the fault cannot be 
found in the particular case. This 
practice is dangerous, of course. It 
could be that the interpretation of 
such discordant sequences is in 
error, but the geologist is comfort- 
able with the reasoning because the 
number of unexplained exceptions 
to simple superposition is very 
small compared with the number 
of situations where the expected 
sequence is found or where a clear 
explanation for the disturbed se- 
quence is available. It is in this 
sense that the geologist is making a 
statistical argument when he in- 
terprets a reversed sequence by re- 
course to thrusting. 

The creationists appear con- 
tent to cite one or a half dozen 
unexplained cases of reversal to 
disqualify the whole system of geo- 
logic chronology. Actually, what 
they should be trying to do is build 
up a statistical argument wherein 
the number of unexplained ex- 
ceptions is so large as to jeopardize 
the entire reasoning. They have not 
been able to do this and I suspect 
they have not tried because of their 
basic thesis that a theory or law can 
be brought down by a small num- 
ber of exceptions. 

In summary, my feeling is that 
the better students of scientific 
creationism are using scientific 
methods, but not using them well. 

The Rocks and Fossils Say Yes! 

In this section I will attempt to re- 
spond to the four main arguments 
of the scientific creationists pre- 
sented earlier in this essay. The re- 
sponses will perforce be limited 
and general but I hope they wiU an- 
swer the major points satisfactorily. 
Catastrophism. The catastro- 
phism argument is a straw man. In 
the nineteenth century, the com- 
bination of Lyellian geology and 
Danvinian biology did promote a 


conventional wisdom that the 
Earth and life evolved by very grad- 
ual processes moving at uniform 
rates. Many of the examples of 
catastrophism now being cited by 
the scientific creationists were well 
known but either ignored or given 
very secondary importance in 
nineteenth century geology and 
paleontology. A great deal has 
changed, however, and con- 
temporary geologists and paleon- 
tologists now generally accept 
catastrophe as a "way of life" 
although they may avoid the word 
catastrophe. In fact, many geolog- 
ists now see rare, short-lived 
events as being the principal con- 
tributors to geologic sequences. In 
many instances, an exposure of 
rock records a series of special 
events (storms, hurricanes, land 
slides, slumps, or volcanic erup- 
tion) which produced large 
volumes of sediment but which 
represent only a fraction of the 
elapsed time covered by the total 
sequence. The periods of relative 
quiet contribute only a small part of 
the record. The days are almost 
gone when a geologist looks at 
such a sequence, measures its 
thickness, estimates the total 
amount of elapsed time, and then 
divides one by the other to com- 
pute the rate of deposition in 
centimeters per thousand years. 

The question then is not 
whether catastrophes occurred (in- 
cluding large floods) but whether 
they were relatively few in number, 
with one large flood dominating 
geologic history. Assuming that 
our geologic time scale is reason- 
ably accurate, geologists and 
paleontologists have identified 
many thousand separate cata- 
strophic events. So, any scenario 
based on catastrophism must in- 
clude a very much larger number of 
small and large catastrophes than is 
allowed by the creationist model. 
Therefore, the general argument 
concerning catastrophism is a non- 

argument. Creationists claim that 
geology says that there should be 
no catastrophes. Creationists find 
some catastrophes and geologists 
find many — far more than sug- 
gested by the creationist model. 1 
suspect that the problem results 
from a basic misunderstanding of 
geology as it is now practiced. The 
misunderstanding has been caused 
in part by the geologists them- 
selves: the nineteenth century idea 
of uniformitarianism and gradual- 
ism still exists in popular treat- 
ments of geology, some museum 
exhibits, and in lower-level text- 
books. It is even still taught in 
secondary school classrooms and 
one can hardly blame the creation- 
ists for having the idea that the con- 
ventional wisdom in geology is still 
a noncatastrophic one. 

Relative time scales. The charge 
that the construction of the geo- 
logic scale involves circularity has a 
certain amount of validity. It is true 
that we date fossils on the basis of 
our experience with the temporal 
distribution of the same fossils else- 
where. If one finds a totally new 
fossil on a roadside, it is impossible 
to place it in the geologic time scale 
because it is not in association with 
rocks or fossils of known age. 
Thus, the procedure is far from 
ideal and the geologic ranges of fos- 
sils are constantly being revised 
(usually extended) as new occur- 
rences are found. In spite of this 
problem, the system does work! 
The best evidence for this is that the 
mineral and petroleum industries 
around the world depend upon the 
use of fossils in dating. If an oil 
company learns that petroleum is 
found in buried reefs of Silurian 
age, for example, its geologists 
search for reefs of Silurian age else- 
where. It has been shown over and 
over again that by following this 
strategy, more petroleum will be 
found than if drilling is done on a 
random basis. 1 think it quite un- 
likely that the major mineral and 

petroleum companies of the world 
could be fooled. 

There is another important ele- 
ment of this argument: the use of 
fossils in geologic dating is in no 
way dependent upon biological 
theories of evolution. The best evi- 
dence for this is that the geologic 
column as we know it was quite 
fully developed by about 1815, 
nearly half a century before Darwin 
pubhshed The Origin of Species. In 
other words, the geologic chronol- 
ogy was developed on the basis of 
fossils before we had any Darwin- 
ian theory and it was developed by 
people who subscribed largely to a 
creationist view of life. So, geolo- 
gists using a creationist paradigm 
developed the geologic column 
and only later was evolutionary 
theory added as a means of un- 
derstanding or interpreting the 
sequence of fossils found in the 
rocks. It is in this context that I 
noted earlier that fossils would 
work just as well in geologic chro- 
nology if they were only funny 
marks on rocks. 

The idea that geologists date a 
rock by the stage of evolution of its 
fossils is so deeply ingrained in 
creationist thought that it needs 
more discussion. In describing 
how the geologic column was de- 
veloped, Boardman, etai, (1973, p. 
33) wrote: ". . . the standard column 
was developed on the basis of the 
assumption of evolution. The fos- 
sils of 'early' ages are characterized 
by simplicity, of 'later' ages by com- 
plexity, because evolution must 
theoretically have proceeded 
generally in this manner." Sim- 
ilarly, Wysong (1976, p. 353) wrote: 
". . .fossils are gathered from 
around the world. . .and assem- 
bled in a progressive order from 
simple to complex on a chart." No- 
thing could be farther from the 

1 have already noted that the 
geologic column was constructed 
before Darwin but there are other 



problems with the quotations just 
given. The method described by 
Boardman and Wysong would not 
work even if it were tried. To be 
sure, the oldest fossils known are 
of rather simple, procaryotic organ- 
isms (in which the nucleus is not 
separated from the cytoplasm by a 
nuclear membrane) and younger 
rocks contain more complex forms 
(multicellular, eucaryotic organ- 
isms — i.e., those with true nuclei), 
but there is no recognizable trend 
toward increased complexity that is 
clear enough to use for dating pur- 
poses. This is in part because com- 
plexity is so difficult to measure: Is 
an insect more or less complex than 
a starfish? This is an "apples and 
oranges" problem which defies a 
rigorous metric. Even where the 
fossil record of a coherent group of 
organisms can be traced for long 
periods of time, increasing com- 
plexity through time is elusive at 
best. (This is ont- of the interesting 
aspects of evolution: the process is 
not clearly directional.) Also, for 
the creationists' view of the way 

geologic dating works to be true, 
"simple" organisms would have to 
go extinct to make way for "com- 
plex" organisms so that the fossils 
in a given rock would give a clear 
signal. In fact, many primitive pro- 
caryotes (bacteria, blue-green 
algae, etc.) are still living today — 
apparently quite happily. For this 
reason alone, stage of evolution 
could not be used to build a geo- 
logic time scale. 

The whole problem is made 
more difficult by the fact that a sur- 
prising number of geologists with 
specialties other than paleontology 
share the same misconceptions. 
Wysong (1976, pp. 352-353) takes 
obvious pleasure in quoting W.M. 
Elsasser in the Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica (1973) as saying: ". . .the 
geological method presumes the 
existence in these periods of liv- 
ing beings of gradually increasing 
complexity." Professor Elsasser is 
an excellent geophysicist but his 
expertise in fields distant from 
geophysics cannot be expected to 
be optimal. The creationists (and 
probably Professor Elsasser) come 
by their misunderstanding hon- 
estly, at least in part. Many teachers 

and textbook writers, especially in 
the late nineteenth and early twen- 
tieth centuries, have been so car- 
ried away by the elegance of the 
Darwinian model that they have 
ascribed powers to it that do not 
exist. It would be a fine thing if we 
could use some abstract estimate of 
stage of evolution to date rocks — 
but we cannot! 

The most significant finding of 
radiometric dating, of course, is 
that the Earth is extremely old, per- 
haps 4.5 billion years old, and that 
life on Earth is almost as old. This is 
in direct conflict with the 10,000- 
year-old Earth of scientific creation- 
ism. Although there could be some 
error in radiometric dating (and 
probably is) it is inconceivable, to 
me at least, that the error could be 
anything approaching the differ- 
ence between billions of years and 
thousands of years. 

Darwinian predictions. Darwin 
predicted that the fossil record 
should show a reasonably smooth 
continuum of ancestor-descendant 
pairs with a satisfactory number of 
intermediates between major 
groups. Darwin even went so far as 
to say that if this were not found in 

Rooted tree trunk J'Afeet tall found in an 
upright position in a coal mine at Aldeson, 
Oklahoma. The fossil is a clear indication of 
rapid burial and this sort of preservation is 
surprisingly common in the geologic re- 
cord. Comparably sudden burial today is 
caused by local floods and landslides, yet 
the creationists use such cases in the rock 
record as evidence for the Deluge. 


the fossil record, his general theory 
of evolution would be in serious 
jeopardy. Such smooth transitions 
were not found in Darwin's time 
and he explained this in part on the 
basis of an incomplete geologic rec- 
ord and in part on the lack of study 
of that record. We are now more 
than a hundred years after Darwin 
and the situation is little changed. 
Since Darwin, a tremendous ex- 
pansion of paleontological knowl- 
edge has taken place and we know 
much more about the fossil record 
than we did but the basic situation 
is not very much different. We 
actually may have fewer examples 
of smooth transition than we had in 
Darwin's time because some of the 
old examples have turned out to be 
invalid when studied in more de- 
tail. To be sure, some new inter- 
mediates or transitional forms have 
been found, particularly among 
land vertebrates. But if Darwin 
were writing today he would prob- 
ably still have to cite a disturbing 
lack of missing links or transitional 
forms between the major groups of 

An interesting irony in this 
whole business is that the creation- 
ists accept as fact the mistaken no- 
tion that the geologic record shows 
a progression from simple to com- 
plex organisms. Faced with the 
problem of reconciling this pre- 
sumed sequence with rapid depo- 
sition by the Flood, the creationists 
develop painful explanations of the 
sequence: large mammals floated 
to the surface of the Flood sea, com- 
plex (and therefore more mobile 
and intelligent) animals were able 
to escape to higher ground, and so 
on. So, the creationists have fit 
essentially false information into 
their model — something that 
would have been quite unnec- 
essary had they read the geologi- 
cal literature more carefully. 

Absolute dating. The use of 
radioactive isotopes in geologic 
dating has many problems. The 

methods are inexact and contain 
many sources of error. In order for 
the system to work the parent iso- 
tope must enter the rock in the 
absence of any of its daughter 
products and also, the accumula- 
tion of daughter products must be 
contained in a closed system so 
there is no leakage of daughter pro- 
ducts out of the rock nor migration 
of indistinguishable isotopes into 
the rock after it is formed. Further- 
more, the half-life of the radioac- 
tive isotope must be well known. 
The last assumption is apparently 
on firm ground but the others are 
always subject to problems and 
errors. This means that a series of 
dates run on a single rock may pro- 
duce quite different results, either 
because of leakage or contamina- 
tion or because different isotopes 
record different events in the 
geologic history of the rock. 

Of all the methods, probably 
carbon 14 is the least dependable 
and yet it is the most interesting to 
many people because it is applied 
to the most recent part of geologic 
history. In spite of all the difficul- 
ties, however, radiometric meth- 
ods do work well statistically; that 
is, there are enough concordant 
dates that the method is successful 
in dating rocks. One of the best evi- 
dences of this is the fact that the rel- 
ative ages of rocks based on fossils 
correlate extremely well with the 
absolute ages of the same rocks 
based on radiometric methods. The 
correlation is excellent even though 
the two methods are as nearly in- 
dependent as any two methods of 
measuring time could be. 

How does the evolutionist ex- 
plain the lack of intermediates? I 
see three principal areas of expla- 
nation, all of which probably op- 
erate to some degree. The first of 
these is a simple artifact of our 
taxonomic system of classification. 
The practicing paleontologist is 
obliged to place any newly found 
fossil in the linnean system of tax- 

onomy. Thus, if one finds a birdlike 
reptile or a reptilelike bird (such as 
Archaeopteryx), there is no pro- 
cedure in the taxonomic system for 
labeling and classifying this as an 
intermediate between two classes, 
Aves and Reptilia. Rather, the prac- 
ticing paleontologist must make a 
decision to place his fossil in one 
category or the other. The im- 
possibility of officially recognizing 
transitional forms produces an 
artificial dichotomy between 
biologic groups. It is conventional 
to classify Archaeopteryx as a bird. I 
have no doubt, however, that if it 
were permissible under the rules of 
taxonomy to put Archaeopteryx in 
some sort of category intermediate 
between birds and reptiles that we 
would indeed do that. Thus, be- 
cause of the nature of classification, 
there appear to be many fewer in- 
termediates than probably exist. 

In this context, it should be 
noted that creationists occasionally 
make the argument that the 
Darwinian model should predict a 
complete absence of distinct kinds 
of organisms. Boardman, et al., 
(1973, p. 68) put it this way: "If 
all organisms have actually 
descended by evolution from com- 
mon ancestors, it seems inexplic- 
able that there should be any 
distinct categories of organisms at 
all. One would certainly expect that 
nature would instead exhibit a con- 
tinual series of organisms, with 
each grading into the other so im- 
perceptibly that any kind of 
classification system would be 

This, unfortunately, shows a 
lack of understanding of the sepa- 
ration of genetic systems through 
reproductive isolation. There is 
little or no gene flow between spe- 
cies because they do not normally 
interbreed. Thus, each species is 
able to evolve on a course indepen- 
dent of all others and there is no 
opportunity for blending once spe- 
ciation has taken place-. Given time. 



and perhaps subsequent specia- 
tion events, organisms become dis- 
tinct. By the same reasoning, major 
groups such as molluscs and ar- 
thropods become increasingly dis- 
tinct and separated by anatomical 
gaps. So, the presence of distinct 
kinds of organisms (especially 
when viewed at an instant in time) 
is a reasonable prediction of the 
evolutionary model. Because the 
creationist model also predicts dis- 
tinct kinds (Gish, 1978), their mere 
presence cannot be a basis for argu- 
ment between the two viewpoints. 
The only argument is whether the 
historical record of fossils should 
show more transitions between the 
dishnct kinds than it does. 

A second line of explanation 
for the underrepresentation of in- 
termediates is the same one that 
Darwin used, namely that the fossil 
record is incomplete. We have as 
fossils a tiny fraction of the species 
that have existed. There are many 
ways of documenting this, but one 
is simply to look at the comparative 
numbers of extinct and living spe- 
cies. There are something like two 
million species known to be living 
today. We know that the average 
duration of a species is short rela- 
tive to the total span of geologic 
time. Therefore, there must have 
been turnover in species composi- 
tion of the earth many times since 
the beginning of the fossil record. 
If we had even reasonably good 
fossil preservation, the number of 
known fossil species should thus 
be some large multiple of the num- 
ber of species living today. Yet only 
about a quarter of a million fossil 
species have been found. This can 
only lead to the conclusion that the 
odds against fossilization are so 
high that we are seeing just a tiny 
fragment of past life. Also, along 
the general idea of catastrophism, 
the fossils that we do see depend 

Rnindrop impressions preserved in a sediiue}itari/ rock. Creationists use such specinwns as 
evidence of instantaneous and catastrophic burial of the land surface. In fact, the conditions 
for such preservation are conunonly observed today, especially in desert situations lohere 
soft mud with rain prints is baked hard by the sun. 

largely upon occasional or unusual 
physical and biological events and 
therefore the record is not a un- 
iform or random sampling of life of 
the past. 

Under these circumstances, 
finding transitional forms (or any 
other particular form) is unlikely 
and it is thus not surprising that 
our record appears to be quite un- 
even and jerky. In addition, most 
major groups of organisms origi- 
nated quite early in the geological 
record: in that part which is es- 
pecially poor and where in- 

termediate forms would be even 
less likely to be found. In this con- 
text, it is not surprising that our 
best intermediate or transitional 
forms are among land vertebrates, 
which evolved rather late in 
geologic time. 

A third general explanation for 
the relative lack of intermediates is 
that transitional forms constitute 
very short intervals of geologic 
time if, as many evolutionary theo- 
rists now believe, the change from 
one major type to another occurs 
rather rapidly (the punctuated 


equilibrium model of Eldredge and 
Gould, 1972). This simply lessens 
the probability of finding 

With these considerations in 
mind, one can argue that the fossil 
record is compatible with the pre- 
dictions of evolutionary theory. 

Could The Evolutionists Be Wrong? 

It would be folly for evolutionists to 
claim that they have a complete 
and accurate understanding of the 
history of life and of the processes 
that produced that history. Too 
many major paradigms in science 
have been overturned for any such 
absolute statement of confidence to 
be wise. We should consider alter- 
natives and we should consider the 
possibility that we might be wrong 
in at least some parts of the basic 
framework of evolutionary think- 
ing. And this consideration of 
alternatives is, in fact, going on in 
the 1980s with challenges from 
within evolutionary biology itself 
to the neo-Darwinian model as it is 
applied to macroevolution (Lewin, 

There are some basic aspects of 
evolution, however, that are so 

close to being simple observation 
and measurement that evolution- 
ists can claim to be right. In particu- 
lar, geologic dating (both relative 
and absolute) is on extremely firm 
ground. To challenge the basic 
chronology of life forms would be 
like claiming that the Sun is only 
10,000 miles from the Earth or that 
the Earth is flat. In effect, we can 
"see" the geologic time scale! If 
organic evolution is defined as 
change in the biological makeup of 
life on Earth over time then we 
certainly do have evolution and 
can "see" the fossil record of that 

The problem of deducing the 
mechanisms of evolution is quite a 
different matter. We are confident 
that the process of natural selection 
works at the population level and 
there is no argument about this 
between the evolutionists and the 
creationists. But we are not sure 
whether we can extrapolate this 
process of microevolution to explain 
the larger scale events of macro- 
evolution. Even if it turns out that 
the classical Darwinian model does 
not explain some aspects of evolu- 
tion, we will not be obliged to shift 
to a creation model. The literature 
of evolutionary biology and 

paleobiology contains a host of 
alternative biological models and 
these are being evaluated and 
tested in many separate research 
projects. Thus, the scientific 
creationists are totally wrong in 
their so-called two model 
approach: the claim that if the 
Darwinian model is discredited, 
the only alternative is the creation 
model. D 


Boardman, William, Koontz, Robert F., 
and Morris, Henry. 1973. Science and 
Creation. San Diego: Creation- 
Science Research Center. 

D'Armond, D. B. 1980. Thornton quar- 
ry deposits: a fossil coral reef or a 
catastrophic flood deposit? A pre- 
liminary study. Creation Research Soci- 
ety Quarterly, 17:88-105. 

Eldredge, Niles and Gould, Stephen J. 
1972. Punctuated equilibria: an 
alternative to phyletic gradualism. In 
Models in Paleobiology, ed. T. J. M. 
Schopf, pp. 82-115. San Francisco: 
Freeman, Cooper and Co. 

Gish, DuaneT. 1978. Evolution? The Fos- 
sils Say No! San Diego: Creation-Life 

Lewin, R. 1980. Evolutionary theory 
under fire. Science 210:883-87. 

Wysong, R. L. 1976. The Creation- 
Evolution Controversy. Midland, 
Mich.: Inquiry Press. 

Take a Guided Walk 
Through Time! 

Xlow would you like to take a guided walk through time? The opportunity can be yours 
when Field Museum and the Chicago Architecture Foundation join together to offer two- 
hour guided architectural walks through Field Museum. These walking tours will be held at 
1: 00 p. m. on the following Sundays: March 6, March 20, April 3, and April 17. 

Cost of the tour is 05.00 for members (Field Museum or Chicago Architecture 
Foundation) and 08.00 for nonmembers. Reservations must be made with Betsy Kittie at 
the Chicago Architecture Foundation, 782-1776. 

As the tours are limited to 25 persons, please call early to reserve your place. We are 
sure that even the most seasoned traveler will find these walks a delight! 



Grand Canyon 


Costa Rica 

May 27 -June 5 

: to Be Announced 



October 7- 28 

For detailed information on any tour please call or 
write die Field Museum Tours office (322-8862) 


Sale of Confiscated Wildlife Products 
Yields $250,000 for U.S. Treasury 

The sale of a 10-year backlog of confiscated 
wildlife products has generated an esti- 
mated $250,000 in bids from people across 
the country. Proceeds from the sale, less 
administrative costs, will be deposited in 
the U.S. Treasury. The products have been 
stored at government expense since their 
involvement in violations of various feder- 
al and state wildlife conservation laws. 

"It's unfortunate that so many people 
had to learn about these laws the hard 
way," commented a U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
official. "Many of the laws have been on 
the books for years. We hope that every- 
one, especially those in the travel and 
fashion industries, will make a special 
effort to learn about them so that they can 
be spared the expense and embarrass- 
ment of having their shipments confis- 
cated when they arrive illegally in this 

stand; $688 for four elephant foot ice buck- 
ets; $220 for 44 hollow ostrich eggs; $1,257 
for a lion skin; $1,678 for a mink coat; and 
$310 for 72 pairs of ladies' python shoes. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service has a 
much greater volume of more restricted 
products that cannot be sold, such as en- 
dangered species, marine mammal, and 
migratory bird specimens and products. 
They are being made available as loans or 
donations to zoos, museums, universi- 
ties, research institutions, or government 
agencies for public display or educational 

Raccoon Dog Imports Prohibited 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has 
listed the raccoon dog (Ni/cterciites pro- 
ci/onoides) as an injurious animal under 
the Lacey Act in order to limit its importa- 
tion into the United States. The injurious 
animal list includes species such as the 

pelage is used by furriers for coat trim and 
parka linings. Two American fur farms 
already raise raccoon dogs, selling their 
pelts to the fur trade for an average of 
about $80 each. Although none of the cap- 
tive animals is known to have escaped at 
this time, it is feared that if more fur farms 
were allowed to raise the animals, 
accidental releases would eventually 
occur as has already happened with nu- 
tria, gerbils, monk parakeets, walking cat- 
fish, and other exotic animals. The danger 
is that the diminutive but adaptable dogs 
would move into ecological niches already 
occupied by native American furbearers. 
Their ability to live in many different cli- 
mates and forage on a wide variety of 
foods put them at an advantage over na- 
tive furbearers. Bobcats, lynxes, foxes, 
badgers, opossums, skunks, and raccoons 
might suffer if raccoon dogs take hold. 
The alien animals could also do serious 
damage to ground nesters such as ducks, 
geese, and upland game birds. 

About 28,000 bids were placed by 574 
people in the largest sale of its kind of 380 
lots of ivory, reptile leather products, fur 
coats, and assorted curios made from 
wildlife. Several people bid on the entire 
collection, while as many as 150 bid on 
many of the individual lots. The highest 
bid, and also a tie bid broken by the flip of 
a coin, was $14,753.30 for 94 fur coats sold 
as one lot. The second high bid of $14,144 
was for 640 pieces of black coral jewelry. 
Other winning bids were $357.99 for an 
armadillo guitar with broken strings; $909 
for nine armadillo handbags; $552.60 for 
36 elephant hide beer mugs; $1,928.88 for a 
53.8-pound elephant tusk; $180 for four 
stuffed caimans; $200 for a stuffed coati- 
mundi; $500 for a large elephant foot 

mongoose, the fruit bat, Indian wild dog, 
and others which the Secretary of the In- 
terior has determined are harmful to the 

Though actually Asiatic canids, rac- 
coon dogs resemble the American raccoon 
and have many raccoonlike habits, includ- 
ing a wide selection of foods ranging from 
bird eggs and small mammals to carrion 
and garbage. Between 1929 and 1955, Rus- 
sian wildlife agents captured nearly 9,000 
raccoon dogs from their natural Eastern 
Siberian range and released them as fur- 
bearers in central and western parts of the 
Soviet Union. From these stocks, the 
animals have become widely established 
in Europe from Scandinavia to Greece. 

Their dense, yellowish, black-tipped 

Raccoon dog 
ou view in 
Hall 15. 

Like its namesake, the raccoon dog 
weighs from 10 to 17 pounds, has dense, 
grizzled fur, black cheek spots, small feet, 
and a full tail. It is also nocturnal. Unlike 
the raccoon, which usually makes its den 
in a hollow tree, the raccoon dog digs its 
own burrow. And like a bear it fattens up 
in the fall and sleeps through the coldest 
months. It is, in fact, the only known win- 
ter sleeper of the world's canids. 

Listing raccoon dogs as injurious 
animals prohibits both the importation 
and interstate shipment of live specimens 
except under permit for scientific, medi- 
cal, educational, or zoological purposes. 
The Canadian Wildlife Service placed the 
raccoon dog on its Import Control List in 
October 1981. 27 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

AprU 1983 

A Celebration of Birds 

Louis Agassiz Fuertes and His Art 

April 30 to June 26 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 


April 1983 

Volume 54, Number 4 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

April Events at Field Museum 

A Celebration of Birds 

Paiutiti\is by Uniis A^fcussiz Fiiertes 
Kvhihitioii opens April 30 

Fuertes in Abyssinia, 

jrom A Celebration of'Birds. 
by Robert McCrackeii Peck 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marstiall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G.Swartchild,Ir 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 


In the March 1983 Bulletin, on pages 22 and 23, a block of copy in 
David M, Raup's article, "Geology and Creatlonism," was imposed 
out of sequence. Paragraphs 2 and 3 of the third column on page 22 
should directly follow paragraph 2, column 2. on page 23, The editor 
inadvertently transposed the copy during final production and offers 
his apologies to the author and to readers 

Field Museum Tburs 


Field Briefs 


Hall 10 First Anniversar}' Celebration 


Our Environment 


Fieldiana: Titles Published in 1982 


Plants of the World Photography Competition 1983 18 

Thinsections: A Natural Art Form 

by Edward Olseu, Curcilor of Minendo;^' 


Athapaskan Indian Clothing in the Collections 

of Field Museum 22 

byJciDies IV. VaiiStoiic 

Curcitor ofiXorth Anirriraii Anlicimh'^' and Ethnolo^^ 


Paiutiti^^ofy;r-ay-hr(idnl kiii^^islier done ifi Ahyssiiiid (Ethiopia) in 
1927 by Uniis /^ifa.s.s/:- I'ucrtes. Painting:; /,s aiuDtiy; .wrral doz-cii hi' 
Funics ill tlir Field Miisriiiii collection. F^vhihilioii ofFuertcs paiiit- 
iiiij;s, oi-^aiiized by the Academy ofWatural Scieiicci. Philadelphia, 
opens in Hall .9 on April 3(). See page 5. 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
Julv^August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at L,ake Shore Drive, 
Chicaj^o, n, 60605, Subscriptions; $6,00 annually, $3,00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed bv authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410, Postmaster; Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. 
Roosevelt Road at l.ake Shore Drive, Chicago, II, 60605, ISSN:0015-0703, Second class postage 
paid at Chicago, II, 

Special Events 


"The Queen's Garden" 
with Dr. John Paling 
Sunday, April17 
2:00 pm, West Entrance 

In the center of London's swirling traffic there is a 
sanctuary — a green oasis which has intrigued 
thousands of Londoners and visitors alike. A land- 
mark in history, where some 350 years ago James I 
planted a mulberry tree which still grows, still bears 
fruit ... not quite 40 acres, yet more precious, per- 
haps, than any crown jewel — the Queen's Garden at 
Buckingham Palace. 

Dr. John Paling was an Oxford lecturer when he be- 
came interested in developing photo techniques that 
would enable lay viewers to share the incredible 
sights of nature previously known only to scientists. 
Several Oxford fellows who shared this ambition 
organized themselves into Oxford Scientific Films, 
Ltd., seeking new ways to record on film the 
wonders of nature. Before long imaginative 
scientists-turned-filmmakers were described by the 
London Times as . . . "probably the most technically 
advanced biological filming unit in the world." 

"A Calendar of Gems" Family Feature 
Saturday and Sunday, April 16 and 17 
1 :00pm. Hall of Gems, 2nd Floor 

Certain minerals enjoy special status for their color, 
brilliancy, or rarity. Many have been held sacred and 
are surrounded by traditions and legends. Gems 
have been assigned to the months of the year and 
these birthstones, many people believe, bring luck to 
the wearer and influence one's personality by 
enhancing important traits. Learn how gemstones 
are formed, the symbolism behind your birthstone, 
then seek out your "special mineral" in the Hall of 

Join us as Dr. John Paling brings to us one hour of 
sheer magic and exploration Share the incredible 
sights of nature with us. This program is supported in 
part by the Ray A. Kroc Environmental Fund and is 
recommended for adults and children. Please use 
the coupon below for tickets. 

Members: $3.00; nonmembers: $5.00 

"Maritime Peoples of the Arctic 
and Northwest Coast" 
First Anniversary Celebration 
Sunday, April 24 12:00noon-3:30pm 

Join us for a special day as we celebrate the first an- 
niversary of the opening of Hall 10. Featured activi- 
ties include: "Joe David — Spirit of the Mask"; a film 
about Northwest Coast carver, Joe David; "Art of the 
Northwest Coast," a slide lecture on the designs and 
motifs of these people of totems; a tour on KwakiutI 
Winter Ceremonies; and for the children, a chance to 
draw their own six-foot totem pole. Consult the Week- 
end Passport when you arrive for more information. 
See page 15 for a complete schedule of programs. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

Saturdays at 1 :30pm, James Simpson Theatre 

April 2 "Hawaii," with Frank Nichols 
April 9 "Vancouver," with Tom Sterling 
April 16 "The Naturalist Afield Pt. 2," with 

Steve Maslowski 
Apnl23 "The Three Rivieras," with Frank Carney 
April 30 "Mighty Mississippi, "with Willis Butler 


Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. 
Free discovery tours, demonstrations, and films related to exhibits are designed for families and 
adults. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for schedules and locations. These programs are 
partially supported by an Illinois Arts Council grant. 

April 2 1;00pm Hopi Ceremonial Life, tour 

April 9 11 :30am Ancient Egypt, tour 

April 10 1:30pm Eskimos: Hunter of the North, 

April 16 2:00pm Malvina Hoffman, 

film slide lecture 

Apnl17, 23 2:30pm 

Treasures of the Totem 

Forest, tour 

April 23 2:00pm 

Masks, Boxes, and Bowls, 

slide lecture 

April 30 2:30pm 

Chinese Ceramic Traditions 



"A Celebration of Birds: 

Louis Agassiz Fuertes and His Art" 

April 30 to June 26, Hall 9 

Louis Agassiz Fuertes is considered by many to be 
America's greatest illustrator of birds. This exhibit, 
featuring more than 125 works, illustrates his superb 

draftsmanship, innovative compositions, and sensi- 
tive use of color and light, A New York resident, 
Fuertes travelled widely in search of birds, visiting 
five continents during the late 19th and early 20th 
centuries. Also on view will be a rare copy of Audu- 
bon's The Birds of America, paintings by Rockwell 
Kent, Abbott Thayer, and others. 


Kaze-no-ko (Children of the Wind) 
presented by The Asia Society of New York 
Sunday, May 8, 2:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Join us as Kaze-no-ko, a team of Japanese actors' 
mimes, bring an enchanting view of the world past 
and present. For advance ticket purchase use 
coupon below 

Members: $6.00: nonmembers: $8.00 

Courses for Adults 

Beginning the week of April 11. 
Call 322-8855 for course and 
registration information. 

Kroc Environmental Field Trips 

Register now for May and June weekend field trips. 
Call 322-8855 for more information. 


Program Title 



• ReqjesteO 


• Requested 



» Requested 



Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events Com- 
plete all requested information on tfie applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 


one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field fvtuseum Tickets will 


made only if program is sold out. 









For Off ice Use: 

Date Received 

Date Returned 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addresed 
stamped envelope to: 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Public Programs: Department of Education 

Field tVluseum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. IL 60605-2497 

^^.n: ^ Celebration of Birds 

Louis Agassiz Fuertes and his Art 

April 30-June 26 

Hall 9 

Fuertes (1874-1927,) was a native of New York state 
who travelled the world in search of wildlife subjects 
in the late 19th century and the early years of this cen- 
tury. For some time he has been regarded by many as 

Supplementing the show, during its Chicago 
visit, will be a group of Fuertes paintings from Field 
Museum's own collection of his work, which numbers 
several dozen pieces. 

by Fuertes 

more talented than Audubon. Nonetheless, this is the 
first time a full-scale retrospective of his work has been 
offered. The show will contain field sketches, draw- 
ings, and finished paintings from all periods of the 
arfisf s life. 

While Fuertes' exquisite bird paintings will be the 
major focus of the exhibit, there will also be represen- 
tative paindngs of mammals and insects made during 
the artist's expeditions in Central and South America 
and in Africa. A number of works by natural history 
painters who influenced or were influenced by Fuertes 
will also be included, such as Audubon, Ernest 
Thompson Seton, Allan Brooks, George Miksch Sut- 
ton, Courtenay Brandreth and Roger Tory Peterson. 

Organized by the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and circulated by sites (Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service), the exhibi- 
tion was made possible by the Atlantic Richfield 
Foundation, the Insurance Company of North Amer- 
ica, and the National Endowment for the Arts. 

Many of the paintings in the exhibition are also 
included in the new full-length biography A Celebra- 
tion of Birds, by Robert McCracken Peck. The following 
account (pages 6-11) of Fuertes' last work in the field, 
with the Field Museum/Chicago Daily News Abyssi- 
nian Expedition in 1926-27, is excerpted from A Celebra- 
tion of Birds and used by permission of Walker & Co. 


In the early spring of 1926, 
Louis Fuertes received a direct and 
rather startling letter from James E. 
Baum, a wealthy Chicago writer 
and sportsman whom he had met 
while vacationing at a Wyoming 
ranch the summer before. The let- 
ter read, in part, as follows: 

with Wilfred Osgood, curator of 
zoology at the Field Museum of 
Natural History and a long-time 
friend of Fuertes. Osgood became 
interested in the project, and 
together they devised a plan 
whereby the expedition could be 
officially sanctioned — cmd financed 


The speed with which the trip 
had been arranged, and the tele- 
gram announcing its final settle- 
ment, seemed to Fuertes almost too 

If a man should come to you and ask: 
What is the strangest country in the 
world to-day? Where is the bird Ufe the 
most curious and plentiful? You would 
unquestionably answer both by one 
word — Abyssinia . 

All right. Now that we have es- 
tablished the desirability of your going 
there, what do you say to going with 
me next September? 

Baum went on to explain that he 
was planning to take his family to 
Europe, spend the summer in 
France and England, then embark 
on a three-month hunting trip in 
Abyssinia (now Ethiopia). While 
Fuertes was excited by the idea of 
seeing Africa, he had some doubts 
about mixing a working expedition 
of the sort he would have washed 
with the recreational expedition 
Baum was proposing. 

On a trip to Chicago a few weeks 

after receipt of the letter, Fuertes 

6 went with Baum to discuss the idea 

Left: crowned lap- 
wing; right: spur- 
winged lapwing, in) 

SKala "Neek- 

— by the museum. A week later, 
Baum talked with his friend Walter 
Strong, editor of the Chicago Daily 
Nems, to see if the paper would pro- 
vide partial support of the expedi- 
tion in exchange for exclusive 
rights to cover the trip.- At the same 
time, Osgood approached the 
museum's president, Stanley 
Field, and its director, David 
Charles Davies, to discuss how 
much of the cost the museum 
would be willing to underwrite. 
"We've sold our proposition," 
wrote Osgood to Fuertes a few 
days later. "In fact, we're over- 
subscribed and the privilege of 
backing us was near to becoming a 
matter of contention between bid- 
ders." Before Osgood's letter ar- 
rived, however, the bidding was 
over and the results announced: 

good to be true. "The actuality has 
always hitherto seemed somewhat 
nebulous and third-personcd," he 
■wrote to Osgood. "Now it looms 
and it behooves me to assail my job 
with a purposeful finality it isn't 
used to!" 

The Field Museum/Chicago 
Daily News Abyssinian Exf>edition 
traveled by boat from Marseilles, 
through the Suez Caned and dowm 
the Red Sea, arriving in Djibouti, 
French Somaliland, on October 4, 
1926. From there, the group trav- 
eled three days by train to Addis 
Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia, 500 
miles to the west. In addition to 
Baum, Fuertes, and Osgood, the 
party included C. Suydam Cutting 
— a patron of the Field Museum 
who had volunteered for the ex- 
pedition — and Alfred M. Bailey, a 
young zoologist who had recently 
joined the museum staff. 

"There is no describing 
Addis," wrote Fuertes a day after 
arriving in the capital, "so I'll try! 
Crowded aimless streets — full of 
people of all sorts, cattle, sheep, 
goats, camels, horses, burros, and 
more of the same." To Baum it was 
a "forest town" surrounded by 
dense strands of eucalyptus and 
footpaths winding "everywhere 
through the woods without appar- 
ent rime or reason." And to Bailey, 
Addis Ababa was "a primitive 
town, a page turned back to the 
days of the Arabian Knights." 

Taking up residence in the 
commodious Imperial Hotel, the 
party spend several weeks 
purchasing mules, hiring bearers, 
and obtaining the necessary travel 
permits. This last important task 
required an audience with Ras 

Tafari (Haile Selassie), emperor of 
Ethiopia. The thirty-four-year-old 
monarch, whose titles also in- 
cluded Prince Regent, King of 
Kings, and Conquering Lion of Ju- 
dah, received the Americans with 
cordial dignity just a few days after 
their arrival. "I suppose we were 
there half an hour," recalled 

After outlining the plans roughly, 
0[sgood] explained the purposes of 
our work and presented the two books 
of photos of the museum and Chicago, 
and I gave my two books [specially 
bound copies of the National Geographic 
Book of Birds and Book of Animals illus- 
trated by Fuertes] with the request that 
one be passed on to the Empress. O 
said, 'These are not expensive gifts; 
merely evidences of our gratitude, and 
an explication of the nature of our 
work.' Ras Tafari then smiled his nicest 
(which is very nice) and said, 'The 

thought ahead is worth a great 
price.'. . .Then, after all business was 
concluded, the Ras said, 'I will see you 
again before you leave,' and soon after, 
we came away. We felt that if we had 
impressed him as strongly as he did us 
we should have no trouble. 

As Fuertes had hoped, the 
positive impressions were mutual, 
and Ras Tafari provided the travel 
documents necessary to guarantee 
safe passage for the expedition 
members to all parts of the Country. 
Before their departure from Addis 
Ababa, the Ras invited the Amer- 
icans to an elaborate dinner party 
with bountiful and delicious food, 
solid gold dinner service, cut glass 
goblets, and china bearing the 
Abyssinian royal crest. After- 
wards, Osgood showed movies of 
life in America, and discussed the 
purpose and contents of the Field 


i- V 

BAUM*BA11EY*«D CUTTINO- ■■ "'■ nij ^• 

IMTlRE PARTY •••••• Hvlf /% 

PTfllLBOAO »#«»«>»>| I I I I II I I I I - Kl^r' / '■Cl^^' 

OOuNDEPiES J-JI^JZJ:. )\ //"^tKc^^ Co,? 

^,.vcRS ^<:=^ ^kl'(is^ ^^-^v 

^ ■^ j^c r \ HLJ 

«c»Li or MiLtf* \^ y*'^ 

8&«o JMO >o so <oo >9o aoo * tao soo 

t-< 1-* i-i 

^/"\l*ke rudolpi 

Museum. "'Why, these animals 
stand exactly as if they were alive/" 
exclaimed the Ras when he saw 
pictures of the museum's African 
dioramas. "'I don't understand 
how stuffed skins can be made to 
appear so Hfelike. Now I can see 
why people are interested in muse- 
ums. This is a great work you are 
doing, educartonal and instructive 
and I shall be glad to give you every 

While Ras Tafari's support was 
the most critical for the expedi- 
tion's success, offers of assistance 
from other sources were also 
accepted with enthusiasm. When a 
European resident of the capital. 
Colonel D.A. Sanford, offered the 
use of his ranch on the rim of the 
Muger River, thirty miles north of 
Addis Ababa, Osgood suggested 
that Fuertes and Bailey accept the 

Traveling first by car, then on 
horseback, the two men observed 
an abundance of bird life along the 
way. "This is the highlight of my 
ornithological career," exclaimed 
Fuertes at one point during the 
trip. "Birds everywhere and every 
damned one is new to me." 

Fuertes' productivity in 
Abyssinia, both in specimen prep- 
aration and painting, is quite re- 
markable, considering that all of 
his luggage was lost in transit. In a 
letter describing the bad luck, he 
admitted, "I am handicapped by 
having to use untried and un- 
accustomed tools, inadequate 
clothes for the uplands where it 
gets really cold, no painting or even 
drav^ng things at all, and the loss 
of a whole trunkful of conveniences 
— drying trays, skinning tools, etc., 
that I had carefully planned 
. . . .But I can get along," he de- 
clared, "and it would take a lot 
more than that to throw me." 
Borrowing clothing, guns, and 
skinning supplies from other 
members of the expedition, and 
8 purchasing a small watercolor set 

in Addis before leaving for the 
ranch, the ingenious naturalist pro- 
ceeded through the rest of his Abys- 
sinian stay undaunted. 

Colonel Sanford's ranch 
proved to be almost as exotic as the 
bird life. Perched on the rim of the 
Muger Canyon, it overlooked some 
of the most spectacular scenery in 
East Africa. "Roses and snapdra- 
gons bloomed profusely, and the 
view from the front porch across 
the rose-filled garden and the deep 
canyon beyond was one we were 
not likely to forget," recalled 
Bailey. Since the two men had the 
ranch to themselves, with a full 
staff of servants to support them, 
their work was not inhibited by so- 
cial obligations. Rising at dawn, 
each would spend the morning col- 
lecting — Fuertes, birds; and Bailey, 
small mammals. By 9:30 or 10:00, 
they would return to the house for 
a day's worth of specimen prepara- 
tion. "We sit on the porch skin- 
ning," wrote Fuertes, "and toss the 
bodies of birds and mice into the 
air; none has yet hit ground, for a 
dozen graceful kites sailing around 
nip them on the fly as daintily as 
can be." 

Fuertes and Bailey were sorry 
to leave the ranch after only six 
days, but when Osgood wrote that 
preparations for the expedition's 
southern trip to Arusi had been 
completed and the rest of the party 
would soon be ready to depart, 
they had little choice but to return 
to Addis Ababa. Each had pre- 
pared over eighty specimens for 
the museum during their stay at 
the Muger Canyon. 

On October 30, 1926, almost a 
month after its arrival in Addis 
Ababa, the expedition was ready to 
leave for Arusi. "It was like setting 
off to the wars this afternoon," 
wrote Jack Baum in his first syndi- 
cated column about the expedition: 
A string of thirty-six pack mules 
makes an imposing outfit. Add to that, 
nine mounted men, naghdis, personal 
b)oys, two cooks and two interpreters. 

Those men must ride. They are not to 
be confused with the twenty common 
packers or mulleteers who walk- 
.... Strung out along the line carrying 
their old-style French army guns, mod- 
el 1870, were ten sabanias, or guards 
. . . with heavy cartridge belts gleaming 

in the bright sunlight We forded a 

stream, climbed a long sloping hill and 
saw t)efore us Mount Zuquala, rising 
like a gigantic pyramid to the south. 
The broad African landscape spread 
out at our feet with its thombush, its 
flat-topped acacia trees, its shimmering 
haze, its illimitable distances, its broad 
plains. That trying six months of prep- 
aration was over. The trip had begun. 

By the time they returned to 
Addis Ababa two months later, the 
expedition had succeeded in one of 
its missions: obtaining specimens 
of the beautiful homed nyala for a 
habitat group in the Field Museum. 
Fuertes and Osgood, who had split 
off from the rest of the group, had 
collected over an extensive area to 
the south. Fuertes reported in a let- 
ter to his wife that during the 
course of the trip he had "painted 
50 or 60 field studies, many quite 
elaborate, and collected and pre- 
served 559 birds ... in over 40 dif- 
ferent camps." Osgood, who had 
been collecting with Fuertes, 
returned with nearly 500 mammal 
specimens, including a number of 
large antelope. 

At their reunion in the capital 
city in late January, the two explor- 
ing parties had many tales of 
adventure to relate. Encounters 
v^th wandering bands of brigand 
"shiftas" and a near-fatal leopard 
attack had added excitement to the 
Baum, Bailey, and Cutting party's 
experiences. Osgood and Fuertes 
found their adventures somewhat 
less dangerous, except for one 
occasion when Fuertes, separated 
from the main caravan, was hailed 
and held "social prisoner" by a 
local chieftain for more than two 
hours. "We had, of course, many 
picturesque experiences," re- 
counted Fuertes, "my topnotcher, 
perhaps, being a late afternoon 

swim in Lake Sh'ala with the hip- 
popotami coming up to huffle and 
blow every few minutes, often 
quite nearby. They were not at all 
alarmed, and we had a very nice 
swim together!" 

During their second stay in 

camped on the 10,000-foot summit 
of Mount Entoto, then at Colonel 
Sanford's ranch on the Muger 
River, where Fuertes and Bailey 
had made their first Abyssinian 

After a study of the canyon 

to see an assemblage of half a thousand 
soldiers sent out to greet us. It was a 
touch of the Arabian Knights and 
medieval splendor; the white-clad 
Abyssianians headed by a dignified 
chamberlain were drawn up in double 
file, and a reed-and-trumpet band blew 
lustily on their instruments — each one 
capable of playing a single note. We 

African pyg- 
my kingfisher 
by Fuertes 

Addis Ababa, the Field Museum 
party was again entertained by 
Haile Selassie, who took a keen 
interest in their travels and scientific 
work. When Fuertes showed him 
some of the bird studies he had 
made in the field, wrote Jack Baum, 
"The Ras was much impressed, 
especially by one of a guinea fowl, 
so much so, in fact, that he ordered 
an attendant to bring in a live 
guinea fowl. He compared the live 
bird to the picture and gasped at 
the resemblance. ..." Fuertes 
asked the Ras to choose one of the 
studies he liked, to be worked up 
into a finished painting by which 
he could remember the expedition. 
The Ras chose a trogon. 

After replenishing supplies in 
Addis Ababa and bidding farewell 
to the emperor, the expedition 
headed north toward the moun- 
tainous province of Gojam. They 

bottom, not previously visited, the 
caravan traveled further north and 
entered a large plateau, an agri- 
cultural area "tilled by strong- 
looking Gallas who drove oxen 
hitched to plows which were mere- 
ly crooked sticks." From there, the 
party descended into the deep 
chasm of the Abbai River, or Blue 
Nile, and after an arduous climb up 
the far side, arrived in Gojam, a 
province governed by the powerful 
Ras Hailu. There they were met by 
a messenger with greetings from 
the Ras and an invitation to visit in 
the provincial capital, Bichana. 
"Our reception by the great chief- 
tain was all that anyone could ask," 
recalled Bailey: 

Our caravan of approximately a hun- 
dred mules crossed a weak bridge over 
the river without any of the heavily 
laden animals falling through. We 
finally came to a high ridge. We 
climbed the steep hill and were amazed 

made a triumphant march across the 
plains, preceded by the band and fol- 
lowed by the throng of soldiers. A large 
tent had been erected for us. The 
ground was covered with oriental rugs, 
and we made ourselves comfortable 
while lunch was being prepared. 
Greetings were sent to the Ras, and it 
was not long before lines of slaves were 
before our tent bearing gifts of tej (a na- 
tive mead), beer, chickens and eggs, 
and an ox to be killed for our men. 

After several days of feasting 
and entertainment, and a hunt 
with the Ras at which a thousand of 
his followers were in attendance, 
the party left Bichana. 

As before the expedition di- 
vided into two groups. Baum, 
Bailey, and Cutting went north to 
the Simyen Highlands to collect 
Abyssinian ibex and other big 
game. Fuertes and Osgood trav- 
eled west of Lake Tsana in search 
of birds and small mammals. 

Along the trail, Fuertes spot- 9 

ted a large snake in the trail ahead 
of his party. Since few snakes had 
been collected during the expedi- 
tion, he drew his revolver and shot 
the six-foot reptile from the saddle. 
Then, according to Bailey, he dis- 
mounted and "in spite of the hor- 
rified protests of the natives, he 

1st. There, Bailey recorded in his 
journal, the party "stayed at the 
Grant Hotel, a rambling first-class 
affair on the banks of the Blue 
Nile," where they attended to the 
packing of their specimens. "A 
carpenter was hired and 22 cases of 
specimens, etc., were packed." 

picked it up. He was careless; the 
snake was not dead, and it struck, 
just scraping the skin of his hand." 
Months later, Osgood wrote from 
the Field Museum to tell Fuertes 
that the snake had been identified 
as a Mamba, probably the most poi- 
sonous species in AJfrica. " Maybe 
there is a God, after all," wrote 
Osgood, recalling his friend's 
close call. 

The divided parties met as 
planned after two months' separa- 
tion and, traveling together 
through dangerous brigand coun- 
try, crossed the Sudanese border 
10 and arrived in Khartoum on May 

Fuertes wrote his son Sumner that 
the trip had provided "a lot of fun 
and interest" and had "netted 2,000 
birds, 1,400 mammals and 100 scat- 
tering specimens — 3,500 in all, all 
first class and of very valuable 

After a week in Khartoum, 
the expedition steamed up the Nile 
and, after stops in Cairo and Alex- 
andria, crossed the Mediterranean, 
which Bailey and the others found 
"delightfully cool ... in contrast to 
the 115 degrees we had experienced 
in the Sudan." 

Meeting his wife and daugh- 
ter in London, Fuertes returned to 

the United States with them in 
May. As their boat headed for New 
York, another American was mak- 
ing history in the air above them. 
Though they did not see his plane, 
the Fuertes delighted in the news 
of Charles Lindbergh's successful 
trans-Atlantic flight. 

Narina trogon 
by Fuertes 

The Abyssinian trip, Fuertes' 
longest and most distant, was also 
his last, for less than three months 
after his return he suffered the fatal 
automobile accident that left his 
friends and admirers stunned and 
saddened. In a Bird-Lore obituary, 
Frank Chapman commented on 
Fuertes' qualities as a field natural- 
ist and on his value as a friend: 

Fuertes' value in the field was not 
restricted to his cheerful comradeship 
and his skill as an artist. He was a keen, 
tireless, and persistent collector and a 
stimulating scientific associate. In the 
Canadian Rockies it was Fuertes who 
discovered the nests of Ptarmigan and 
Pipit that appear in the American 

Museum's Arctic-Alpine Group. In 
Mexico it was Fuertes who in the field 
recognized as new the Oriole sub- 
sequently named for him, and in the 
dense subtropical forests of the Co- 
lombian Andes he secured specimens 
and identified the notes of birds which 
no other member of our party saw. 

Nor did he confine his activities to 
science and art, to preserving birds as 
well as to painting them. Always he did 
more than his share of the work inci- 
dent to travel and life in the open. He 
was an experienced woodsman, a good 
packer, a capital cook, a master hand 
with tools, who could mend anything, 
and in adversity and sickness no 
mother could have been more tender. 

So one might conHnue to enumerate 
the qualities for which Fuertes was be- 
loved and still fail to convey a realiza- 
tion of the rare personal charm which 
made his mere presence a source of 
joyous possibilities. To those who lives 
were enriched by his friendship the 
world will never be the same again. 

Above: Fuertes with lammergeier, a type of 
vulture. Below: Fuertes visits with 
Fitaurari Adamassu, a local chief in north- 
ern Abyssinia. 

A Celebration of Birds 

The Life and Art of Louis Agassiz Fuertes 

by Robert McCracken Peck; introduction by Roger Tory Peterson 

Published for The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Walker and Company, New York 

xiii + 178 pages, 49 color plates 


Now available at Field Museum Stores 
1 0% discount for Members 

This exceptionally beautiful study of the life and work of Fuertes may be ordered by mail from the Field 
Museum Stores. Please make check or money order payable to Field Museum, including $2. 00 for postage 
and handling. 



Kenya, September 10-28 


with optional extension 
to the Sev'chelles 

September 10-28 
price to be announced 

There is an aura or myster\' surrounding 
Africa: tropical islands and the coast, 
endless beaches, snow-capped moun- 
tains, jungle primex'al, and sun-baked 
plains. Thev' are all part of East Africa. 
Onlv here can one find such diversity'. The 
itinerarv' includes a da\1ime stopover in 
London, ov-emights at the Nairobi Hilton, 
Mt. Lodge T^ee Hotel, Samburu Game 
Lodge, Mount Kenva Safari Club, and 
other 1st class accommodations. An over- 

night stav in London concludes the trip. A 
3-dav extension to the Seychelles is an 
available option. Tour lecturer will be 
Audre\- Faden, former staffer of the Na- 
tional Museum of Kenya, who has led two 
earlier Field Museum tours to Kenya. 

A second option — a safari b\' camel — is 
also planned, thou^ not yet confirmed at 
publication time. 

Wisconsin's Baraboo Range 

May 14—15 

Dr. Edward Olsen, curator of mineralog\', 
will lead you through the Baraboo Range 
and the hinterland of Devil's Lake, 150 
miles from Chicago. The range is a rem- 
nant of an ancient formation of moun- 
tains, standing out above the younger 


rocks and sediments. It provides the ener- 
getic hiker with a fascinating learning 
opportunitv as well as an invigorating 
outing. Overnight accommodations and 
meals will be at a nearbv motel. Hiking 
clothes are strongly recommended. The 
trip is not suitable for children, but 
younger people interested in natural his- 
tory are welcome. 

Ancient Capitals of China 

October 6-28 
price to be announced 

The unique itinerant' of this tour, rarely 
granted by the Chinese authorities, in- 
cludes the most significant sites of early 
Imperial China and will gi\'e an opportu- 
nit^' to explore in depth the civilization 
which characterizes one of the earth's 
longest-lived societies. At a small addi- 
tional cost, TOU may remain longer in Ja- 
pan at completion of the China tour. Tour 
leader is Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, Ph.D. 
candidate in Chinese histori,' at the Uni- 
\'ersit\' of Chicago. This is Mr. WoodrufTs 
4th time as a Field Museum China tour 

Grand Canyon 

May 27-June 5 

Last call for this exciting ad\enttire, trav- 
eling b\' rubberized motor raft down the 
Colorado River! 

For further information on any tour, 
please call Dorothy Roder at 322-886Z or 
write Field Museum Tburs. 

12 Devil !. Lake— Baraboo Ransje, May 14-15 



hen one looks at a map of 
Central America the first impres- 
sion is that the small countries 
located there must be very sim- 
ilar to each other. But this is not 
the case; some have had ven' dif- 
ferent histories and their climates 
and physiography differ as well. 
Costa Rica, situated between 
Nicaragua and Panama has been 
called the Switzerland of middle 
America. While it doesn't have 
snow-capped mountains, the ver- 
dant pastures with dair\' cattle, 
cool forested highlands, and the 
occasional blond youngster do 
make one think of a central Eu- 
ropean setting. 

Costa Rica is distinguished 
by a large middle class, a high 
literacy rate, a strong tradition of 
democratic government and the 
lack of an army. (When President 
Kennedy came to visit they had to 
borrow cannons from Nicaragua 
to make up the traditional 21-gun 
salute.) The friendliness of the 
people and their strong educa- 
tional system has made Costa 
Rica a hospitable country for visi- 
tors and scientific researchers. 
Excellent medical care and atten- 
tion to clean water and sanitation 
make it one of the safest coun- 
tries in the tropics to visit. 

While these factors have 
helped make Costa Rica some- 
thing of a mecca for research in 
tropical biology, the principal 
reason for such work is its veiy 
rich flora and fauna. On a flat 
map Costa Rica has about half 
the area of Ohio, but the country 
boasts half as many flowering 

plants as all of North America 
north of Mexico, and almost twice 
as many ferns. Eight hundred 
species of birds have been re- 
corded in Costa Rica, a little over 
600 being permanent residents. 
How does such a small area 

Costa Rica 

January 14-27 

pack in so many species? A large 
part of the answer to this is that 
Costa Rica is anvthing but flat; 
high mountains, deep valleys, 
active volcanoes, and broad allu- 
vial plains provide a great variety 
of habitats. The wide range of 
altitudes (from sea level to 12,000 
feet) have superimposed upon 
them a variety of rainfall pat- 
terns, from 36 inches of rain in 

the seasonally dry northwest to 
over 150 inches of rain per year in 
the northeast. The wonderful mix 
of altitude, rainfall, and topogra- 
phy give Costa Rica a wide array 
of vegetation types and support 
the diversity of plants and 

In January of 1984 Field 
Museum will be offering a tour to 
Costa Rica focusing on the variety 
of tropical habitats and its rich 
biota. Cool and mist\' cloud for- 
ests, lowland rain forests, riverine 
swamp forests and seasonally 
deciduous forests will be \'isited. 
We will also spend time looking 
at how people have utilized these 
tropical areas to produce food 
crops, ornamental plants, and a 
variety of other crops that cannot 
be grown in colder climes. 

While plans for the tour are 
ambitious (it will be a "busy" 
tour more than a leisurelv one), 
we will pace ourselves so as to be 
able to record our views and im- 
pressions on film. Photography of 
tropical vegetation, ornamental 
plants, and wildlife will be a ma- 
jor objective. William Burger, 
chairman of the Museum's De- 
partment of Botany, and Tom 
Economou, a tropical horticul- 
turalist based in Miami, will lead 
this tour. 

A deposit of $50.00 per per- 
son will secure a reservation. 
The price of the tour will be an- 
nounced in the near future. 
Itinerary and other information 
may be obtained by writing or 
calling the Field Museum Iburs 
office: 322-8862. « 


Many false ideas about wills 
actually cause people to put ofT 
or neglect writing their wills. The 
booklet offered below explains 
why ever}' adult needs a will, and 
the sooner the better. Send for 
your copy now. 

But, what if I change my 
mind?. . . 

What if I write my will now while 
I am still young, then change my 
mind in fi\'e wars when my chil- 
dren are older and my financial 
situation has altered?. . . 

Most people do change their 
minds, sex-eral times in fact, as 
their li\'es and personal goals 
change. That is why wills can and 
should be changed periodically. 
Some changes can be made with a 
simple amendment; others may 
require rewriting. 

The booklet ofiered below 
has some helpful information 
about writing or updating your 
will, and how to include a gift to 
Field Museum of Natural Histoiy 
after your familys needs are met. 
Order your free copy today. 

Clip and Mail Tbday! 

Planned Gning Office 
Field Museum of Natural Histon' 
R£X)se\'ell Road at Lake Shore Drh^ 
Chicago, IL 60605 

Please send me my free copy af''37 
Thinffs People 'knotv' About Wills 
That Aren 't Really So." 




You can reach me at: 

Phone (home) 



Spring Systematics Symposium 

The sixth annual Spring Systematics 
Symposium will be held at Field 
Museum on May 13 and 14. The theme 
this year is "Extinction." Symposium 
chairman is Matthew N. Nitecki, cura- 
tor of fossil invertebrates. 

The symp>osium will include seven 
lectures, delivered on Saturday, May 
14, in James Simpson Theatre. At 
9:30am, Walter Alvarez, of the Univer- 
sity of California, Berkeley, will sjjeak 
on "The Impact Theory for the Termi- 
nal-Cretaceous Mass Extinction." At 
10:15am, Paul S. Martin of the Univer- 
sity of Arizona, will speak on "Pleis- 
tocene Overkill: A Challenging Mod- 
el." At 11:00am, Andrew H. Knoll, of 

Harvard University, will sp>eak on "Ex- 
tinctions in the Evolutionary History of 
Vascular Plants." At 1:15pm, Thomas E. 
Lovejoy of World Wildlife Fund-U.S., 
will speak on "Ecosystem Decay of 
Amazon Forest Remnants." At 2:0()pm, 
Jared M. Diamond, of the University of 
California, Los Angeles, wrill speak on 
"Extinctions on Real and Virtual Is- 
lands." At 3:00pm, Alan C. Walker, of 
Johns Hopkins University, will speak 
on "Extinction in Human Evolution." 
At 3:45 pm, Steven M. Stanley will 
speak on "Extinction in the Marine 

Information on registering for the 
symposium may be obtained by writ- 
ing the chairman. Dr. Nitecki, Depart- 
ment of Geology, Field Museum. 

Tlie exhibit "Master Dyers to the World: Early Fabrics from India" will remain on view in 
Hall 27 through April 10. Featured are superb pattern-dyed clothes made in India between the 
ISth and 18th centuries, sino 

Ron Tesia 

Maritime Peoples 
Of the Arctic and Northwest Coast 

Sunday, April 24 

cloin us for a special day of tours, films, art 
activities, and games as we celebrate the first 
anniversary of the opening of "Maritime Peo- 
ples of the Arctic and northwest Coast. " In this 
exhibit. Field Museum takes its visitors to 
another world — a world that changes from 

lush forests and teeming rivers to coastal 
Qords and bleak frozen tundras. Examine and 
compare two distinct cultures, the theatrically 
ornate northwest Coast Indians and the aus- 
tere but individualistic Eskimo. We invite you 
and your family to take part in the festivities. 

12:00noon to 3:30pm 

northwest Coast Indian 

1:30pm to 2:30pm 

"Totem Pole Design," 

Matching Game 

Family Art Project 


"Eskimos: Hunters of 


"Treasures of the 

the north," tour 

Totem Forest," tour 


Film Feature: "The 


Film Feature: "Salmon 

Crooked Beak of 

People," (25m) 

Heaven," (55m) 


Film Feature: "The 


"The Totem Pole 

Eskimo in Life and 

People," tour 

Legend: The Living 


"KwakiutI Winter Cere- 

Stone," (22m) 

monies," tour 


Film Premiere: "Joe 


Film Feature: "People 

David— Spirit of the 

of the Seal: Eskimo 

MasK" (24m) 

Summer," {52m) 


Film Feature: "From 


"Art of the northwest 

the First People," (50m) 

Coast," slide lecture 



Boy Bites (and Kills) Snake 

A 14-year-old goatherd in Natal, South 
Africa, chewed out the throat of a 15- 
foot python to kill it before it could 
crush him to death, according to South 
Africa Digest. 

The story would have remained 
untold if the shaken young man had 
not decided he wanted his picture 
taken with the dead snake. 

He and two adults walked 15 miles 
to the nearest police station carrying 
the giant reptile in a box. The nameless 
youth told police he had suddenly 
found himself in the constricting coils 
of the python, with only a small club to 
defend himself. 

Fortunately the snake's teeth 
became embedded in the head of the 
club and the boy avoided the nasty bite 
that pythons are capable of inflicting. 

Then, as the snake's grip tight- 
ened, the boy sank his teeth into 
its neck and chewed until the snake 
was dead. 

Fish and Wildlife Service Identifies 

Vertebrates that May Be Listed as 

Threatened or Endangered 

Three-hundred-sixty-three United 
States fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, 
and mammals that are being consid- 
ered for addition to the List of 
Endangered and Threatened Wildlife 
have been identified by the Interior De- 
partment's U.S. Fish and Wildlife 

The list of "candidate" species 
includes 62 animals for which the serv- 
ice already has substantial information 
to support the biological appropriate- 
ness of proposing to list the species as 
endangered or threatened, and for 
which the preparation and publication 
of such proposals are anticipated. Also 
identified are 301 species for which 
further information is needed to de- 
termine whether they qualify for list- 

The majority of candidate species 
are fish (136), followed by birds (71), 
mammals (64), reptiles (47), and 
amphibians (45). 

Also identified are 38 species that 

are no longer being considered as 

16 endangered or threatened. Among 

these are 14 species that are presumed 
to be extinct; six that are not regarded 
as taxonomically valid species or sub- 
species; and 18 that are more wide- 
spread than formerly believed or that 
are not presently subject to any 
identifiable threat. 

The list of species included in the 
notice of review may be obtained from 
the Federal Register document or by 
writing to the Director (OES), U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Department of 
the Interior, Washington, D.C. 20240. 
Comments or information on the listed 
species may also be sent to the above 

At the present time, 296 species 
that occur in the United States and 468 
foreign species are included on the 
U.S. List of Endangered and Threat- 
ened Wildlife and Plants. 

Iowa's Backward Deer 

About 500 deer in Iowa have their ant- 
lers on backward and the state is blam- 
ing the federal government. 

These deer appear on the yellow 
deer-crossing signs along highways, 
said Richard Thornton, a member of 
the Iowa Conservation Commission. 

"I noticed the deer on the signs 
about a year ago and couldn't believe 
it," Mr. Thornton said. 

Dwight Stevens, an engineer for 
the Iowa Department of Transporta- 
tion, said the agency "just used the 
design that's in our manuals" when 
they made the 500 signs. The manuals 
are published by the Federal Highway 

Lower Forty-Eight's Caribou 
Declared Endangered 

The last herd of woodland caribou still 
occurring in the United States outside 
of Alaska, Idaho's southern Selkirk 
Mountain herd, will be added to the 
endangered species list under an 
emergency rule. Interior Secretary 
James Watt has announced. 

"Listing the caribou as endan- 
gered has been under consideration for 
nearly 10 years," Watt said, "but no ac- 
tion to protect the species was taken by 
previous administrations." 

Only 13 to 20 animals survive in 
the population in Washington, Idaho, 
and southern British Columbia, mak- 
ing the woodland caribou the most 
critically endangered mammal in the 
"Lower 48." 

The caribou occur primarily on 
National Forest lands administered by 
the U.S. Forest Service, which has 
taken necessary steps to protect the 
caribou's habitat. The population is 
threatened by poaching, wildfire, and 
collisions with vehicles. Poachers 
killed at least one animal from the herd 
annually from 1980 through 1982. Calf 
survival is low, possibly due to inbreed- 
ing in the small herd, and the herd is 
not being replenished by the immigra- 
tion of woodland caribou from other 
populations in Canada, which also 
have been declining. 

Woodland caribou (a different sub- 
species from the caribou of northern 
Alaska) once occupied nearly the entire 
forested region from southeastern 
Alaska and British Columbia to New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia. In the low- 
er 48, they were found in Washington, 
Idaho, Montana, Minnesota, Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan, Vermont, New Hamp- 
shire, and Maine. Largely because of 
illegal hunting and massive habitat 
alteration, caribou disappeared from 
New England by about 1908 and from 
the Great Lakes states by 1940. Wood- 
land caribou populations in Alaska and 
Canada are not now considered to be 
endangered or threatened. 

The southern Selkirk Mountain 
herd is eligible for protection under a 
provision of the Endangered Species 
Act that provides for listing of a "dis- 
tinct population" of a vertebrate spe- 
cies that is endangered or threatened in 
a particular area, even though the spe- 
cies may be more numerous elsewhere. 

Listing of the woodland caribou as 
"endangered" should improve coordi- 
nation and management of federal 
agency actions that could affect the 
herd, facilitate international coopera- 
tion on the caribou's behalf, and pro- 
vide for development of a caribou 
recovery plan that spells out actions 
that need to be taken to conserve the 

The listing will also provide addi- 
tional federal law enforcement pro- 
tection for the herd. Poachers will be 

subject to penalties under the En- 
dangered Species Act, which can range 
up to $20,000 in fines, one year in pris- 
on, and forfeiture of vehicles and 
equipment used in the violation. 

The emergency rule protects the 
caribou as "endangered" for 240 days, 
during which time the Fish and Wild- 
life Service intends to propose per- 
manent endangered status for this 
population. No critical habitat was de- 
signated for the caribou under the 
emergency rule. 

National Bald Eagle Program Aided 
by Private Support 

Many more bald eagle chicks will be 
finding homes in the wild soon as a 
result of a major grant to the govern- 
ment bald eagle breeding program by 
the DuPont Company. The financial 
commitment to the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service will enable the Interior De- 
partment agency to more than double 
the number of eaglets produced in 

captivity at its Patuxent Wildlife Re- 
search Center in Laurel, Maryland. The 
eagles are released in states where bald 
eagle numbers are low. 

Researchers at the Patuxent Wild- 
life Research Center began breeding 
eagles in the mid-1970s and now have 
eight pairs — the largest captive bald 
eagle breeding colony in the world. 
Since 1977, the center has supplied 44 
healthy young eagles to replenish eagle 
populations in nine states — New York, 
Virginia, Delaware, New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Maine, Georgia, Tennessee, 
and Ohio. 

The eagles are returned to the wild 
through one of two techniques. In the 
"fostering" method, three-week-old 
eaglets are placed in nests built by wild 
eagles that laid no eggs or whose eggs 
failed to hatch. The eaglets are quickly 
accepted and cared for by their un- 
suspecting foster parents. In "hack- 
ing," slightly older chicks are placed in 
lofty towers constructed in a wild area 
and are fed by attendants (who remain 
out of sight) until the birds learn to fly 

and hunt for themselves. 

Although a record 13 eaglets were 
produced in 1982, the Patuxent pro- 
gram still could not provide as many 
eaglets for release as were requested by 
state wildlife agencies. The DuPont 
grant will be used to restore a number 
of large eagle enclosures and to add 
fiersonnel to care for eagles. As a result, 
the captive breeding colony will be en- 
larged to include 12 pairs of breeding 
birds. Through husbandry techniques 
developed by Patuxent researchers to 
increase the rate of reproduction, such 
a breeding colony could potentially 
supply as many as 36 eaglets to the wild 
each year. 

Patuxent is the largest wildlife 
research center in the world and is well 
known for pioneering research on the 
effects of contaminants on wildlife, 
studies of bird populations and habitat, 
and field research on endangered spe- 
cies such as the California condor, as 
well as for captive breeding of whoop- 
ing cranes, Andean condors, bald 
eagles, and other endangered species. 

Fieldiana: 1982 Titles 

Fieldiana is a continuing series of 
scientific papers and monographs 
in the disciplines of anthropology, 
botany, zoology, and geology; the 
series is intended primarily for 
exchange-distribution to muse- 
ums, libraries, and universities, 
but all titles are also available for 
public purchase. 

The follov^ing titles, published 
in 1982, may be ordered from the 
Division of Publications. Members 
are entitled to a 10 percent dis- 
count. Publication number should 
accompany order. A catalog of all 
available Fieldiana titles is available 
on request. (Please specify disci- 
pline: anthropology, botany, geolo- 
gy, or zoology.) 

Fieldiana: Anthropology 

1337. "The Speck Collection of Mon- 
tagnais Material Culture from the Low- 
er St. Lawrence Drainage, Quebec," by 
James W. VanStone. New Series Num- 
ber 5. $7.00. 

Fieldiana: Botany 

1333. "Flora of Peru — Family Com- 
positae: Part III — Genus Mikania — Tribe 
Eupatorieae," by J. Francis Macbride 
and collaborators, Walter C. Holmes 
and Sidney McDonald. New Series 
Number 9. $7.00. 

1335. "Flora of Peru — Family Com- 
positae: Part IV-Tribe Cardueae," by J. 
Francis Macbride and collaborators. 
Michael O. Dillon. New Series Number 

10. $2.00. 

1336. "Flora of Peru — Additions to 
Tribe Vernonieae (Compositae): 1," by J. 
Francis Macbride and collaborators. 
Michael O. Dillon. New Series Number 

11. $2.25. 

Fieldiana: Geology 

1331. "Systematics of the South Amer- 
ican Marsupial Family Microbiother- 
iidae," by Larry G. Marshall. New 
Series Number 10. $10.50. 

1332. "The Mammalian Fauna of 
Madura Cave, Western Australia. Part 
V: Diprotodonta (Part)," by Ernest L. 

Lundelius, Jr. and William D. TurnbuU. 
New Series Number 11. $4.50. 

1339. "Systematics of the Extinct South 
American Marsupial Family Polydol- 
opidae," by Larry G. Marshall. New 
Series Number 12. $12.25. 

Fieldiana: Zoology 

1329. "Taxonomy and Evolution of the 
Sinica Group of Macaques: 3. Species 
and Subspecies Accounts of Macaca 
assamensis," by Jack Fooden. New 
Series Number 10. $5.25. 

1330. "Neotropical Deer (Cervidae). 
Part I. Pudus, Genus Pudu Gray," by 
Philip Hershkovitz. New Series Num- 
ber 11. $11.25. 

1334. "Fishes of the Families Everman- 
nellidae and Scopelarchidae: Systema- 
tics, Morphology, Interrelationships, 
and Zoogeography," by Robert Karl 
Johnson. New Series Number 12. 

1338. "Notes on Tyrant Flycatchers 
(Aves: Tyrannidae)," by Melvin A. 
Traylor, Jr. New Series Number 13. 
$3.00. 17 

Plants of the World 
Photography Competition 1983 

The splendid exhibit "Plants of the World" will open at Field 
Museom on September 24. Over 400 plant models, constructed 
of glass, paraffin, and natural matenals, ranging in size from a 
few millimeters to eight feet tall form the finest and most com- 
plete collection of such models in the world. The models are sur- 
rounded by five magnificent dioramas and thirteen large murals. 
Within this impressive setting the museum visitor will have a 
unique opportunity to learn about and experience the mysteries 
of plant life 

In celebration of flowers and the exhibit's opening, the 
Museum announces the Plants of the World Photography Com- 
petition. For this event, all memt)ers who are photographers 
(regardless of residence) as well as nonmember photographers 
in the Chicago metropolitan area are encouraged to submit 


Entries will be accepted iDetween August 1 and August 15. 1983. 
Mail to: 

Field Museum Photography Competition 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605 

Please pack entnes with care. Field Museum assumes no 
responsibility for damage or loss in shipment, delivery, 
and/or return. 


Enclose a suitable self-addressed, stamped envelope for return 
of the entries. Entries that are not so accompanied will be dis- 
carded. Field Museum assumes no responsibility for damage or 
loss in return mail. 


• Grand Prize: Reproduction of the winning entry as the front 
cover illustration of the October 1983 Field Museum Bulletin. 

• First, Second, and Third Awards of Merit Group I and II: to be 
reproduced in the October Museum Bulletin. 

• Six Honorable Mentions 

slides of flowers and plants without any further restrictions on 
subject matter — any subject in the realm of the plant kingdom is 
acceptable. The competition is divided into two age groups: 
Group I entrants must be under 1 7 years old as of August 1, 
1983; Group II entrants must be 17 years or older as of 
August 1, 1983. 

To enter, follow instructions and complete the form below. 
Slides must not be mounted in glass. Only original slides taken 
by the entrant that have not previously been published are 
acceptable Indicate the proper slide orientation for projection 
with a dot in the upper right corner of the mounting on the non- 
emulsion side, together with your name and slide title. 

Please make your check payable to Field Museum. 

• Certificates of Selection. 

• The prizes that will be offered will be announced in the 
May Bulletin. 

Award-winning photographs will bie on exhibition in Gallery Nine 
for the opening days of the Plants of the World exhibit, Septem- 
ber 24 to October 9, 1983. The Museum reserves the right to 
publish, exhibit, and use for promotion the winning photographs. 
The decision of the judges is final. 


Competition is open to photographers in the Chicago metropoli- 
tan area (Cook, Lake, McHenry, Kane, DuPage, and Will counties) 
and a// museum members. Employees of Field Museum and the 
cosponsor and their immediate families are not eligible. 


A completed entry form and entry fee of $5.00 must accompany 
each entry of one to three 35mm color slides. Entrants may sub- 
mit three entries of 1 to 3 slides each (a maximum of 9 slides for 
the contest). 

Entry fomns are also available at Field Museum's Information 
Desk. The form may be photocopied for additional entries. 

Join us in this celebration of flowers and photography 

Entry Form; Plants of the World Photography (Competition 

This form must accompany all entries. Use the guidelines above as a checklist. 



JDaytime phone- 



Group L 


Zip Code 

Group I L 

Enclose $5 00 check or money order payable to Field Museum of Natural History. 

I understand and agree to the conditions of the contest as stated in the atxjve guidelines. 

Signature: Date: 


X here is beauty in the natural 
world that surrounds us. Flowers, 
mountains, butterflies, brightly 
colored birds, leaves, branches, the 
many moods of sky, water, snow, 
and cloud, all please our eye as we 
pass through places and seasons. 

Western European artists of 
the 18th and early 19th centuries 
attempted to depict the beauties and 

A Natural 
Art Form 

text and photos 

by Edward Olsen, 

Curator of Mineralogy 

extract the essence of beauty in the 
world around us. 

What we traditionally think 
of as natural beauty is the surface of 
our planet, its creatures and its 
atmosphere, although our ventures 
into the space around Earth, and to 
some of the planets has broadened 
our perspective. The planet Saturn, 
viewed from a space probe, is 

Igneous rock, consisting of olivine (blue and violet), pyroxene (white), and Plagioclase-feldspar (shades of gray). lOOX 

moods of Nature in an almost pre- 
cise photographic way. With con- 
summate skill they stopped time, 
capturing a fleeting mood or event, 
holding it in place to share with any 
who paused to view their work. 
The camera has, in part, taken over 

some of their art. These artists were 
followed by the great impression- 
ists, many of whom painted Nature's 
moods in ways no camera could 
capture. These were followed by 
abstract impressionists, who use 
color and form in an attempt to 

breathtaking in its pattern of subtle 
colors, shadows, and spinning 
rings. Earth itself, seen from near 
space, is like abstract art — frosty 
swirls of white on a sapphire-blue 
sphere. There is abstract beauty be- 
neath our feet. Within the pebbles 

Volcanic rock — large crystals of pyroxene (bright colors and gray) in fine-grained matrix. lOOX 

of the beach, the gravels of the 
roads, the rocks of the mountains 
and deep beneath the surface are 
locked strikingly beautiful abstract 
patterns few realize are there. 

It was in the 19th century 
these patterns were first seen. The 

available. Then it was discovered 
that if a rock were cut flat and 
ground down to hair-thickness, 
light would pass through it. 
Viewed through a microscope the 
pattern of mineral grains could be 
seen and something could be 

thin slices — called thinsections — in 
light that was polarized, different 
minerals took on different ranges 
of colors and this could be used to 
tell them apart. Polarized light uses 
the principle common today in the 
design of some sunglasses. How 

Igneous rock — Criss-crossing blades of ptagioclase (white) with blue, red, brown, and green crystals of pyroxene. lOOX 

methods by which men had stud- 
ied rocks and the minerals that 
comprise them were, until then, 
relatively simple. Shape, color, the 
overt patterns visible to the 
unaided eye or through a simple 
magnifier, were the only methods 

learned of how the rock came to be 
formed as it was. Although some 
minerals of deep color still showed 
those colors when viewed this way, 
other minerals of weak to colorless 
hues all looked about alike. Then it 
was discovered that viewing these 

this operates physically is well 
understood but beyond the scope 
of this article. We need only appre- 
ciate that combinations of polariz- 
ers and other simple optical acces- 
sories create a rich display of colors 
— colors that depend on the physi- 

20 Metamorfthic rock: bwttte-mica (broum and tan) and quartz (white). 1(X)X 

Metamorphic rock: Biotite-mica (brmcii and tan) 

cal and chemical structure of the 
minerals to be found in any rock. 

Reference books are available 
that permit the geologist to deter- 
mine, on the basis of optical and 
color characteristics, which min- 
erals are which. From this, much 

Metamorphic rock: Biotite-mica (pink and green) 

ivitli quartz (white and yellow). 1(X)X 

fessional eye of the geologist the 
patterns of shapes and colors tell 
stories of ancient upheavals in the 
crust of the Earth — tremendous 
pressures and heat that contorted, 
recrystallized, and reacted the min- 
erals of these rocks; lavas that erupt- 

with quartz (white and tan). lOOX 

provides, recalling past experi- 
ences and moods. Many abstract 
impressionists chose to allow the 
viewer complete freedom of inter- 
pretation by leaving their works 
untitled. In a sense the pictures 
shown here are untitled; the rock 

can be learned about the processes 
that have operated to form the 
rocks of the planet on which we live. 
The photographs shown here 
were made of thinsections of a 
variety of rocks as seen through a 
polarizing microscope. To the pro- 

ed onto the surface and flowed 
down the slopes of volcanos. 

To the untrained eye the 
scenes are riots of color and form 
that move the imagination. As with 
abstract impressionism, each view- 
er sees what his or her imagination 

names will not mean much to 
most viewers. These pictures are 
designed to please the imagination 
and the mind's eye — and to extend 
your awareness of the beauties of 
Nature, to the Earth deep beneath 
your feet. D 21 

Athapaskan Indian Qothing 

In the Collections of Field Museum 

fcy James W VanStone 
Curator oj North American 
Archaeology and Ethnology 

Ihe Athapaskan-speaking Indi- 
ans of central, western, and south- 
western Alaska were contacted by 
Russian explorers in the late 18th 
and early 19th centuries, relatively 
late when compared with the first 
European penetration of other 
areas of North America. Their tra- 
ditional material culture was modi- 
fied quickly, however, and there 
were few opportunities for in- 
terested observers to make collec- 
tions for preservation in European 
and American museums. 

Traditional clothing changed 
more rapidly than other items of 
material culture, primarily because 
ready-made European garments 
saved work and were, in most cases. 

more comfortable to wear. It is little 
wonder, perhaps, that the Indians 
appreciated the special qualities of 
wool, which is warm and light and 
can be washed, as opposed to tan- 
ned caribou or moose skin, both of 
which are heavy and highly ab- 

Although a number of muse- 
ums have some items of traditional 
or modified-traditional northern 
Athapaskan clothing, usuaUy un- 
documented, few have collections 
of any size. Ethnographers work- 
ing in the field attempted to recon- 
struct aboriginal clothing styles for 
the Ingalik, Tanaina, western 
Kutchin, Han, and Upper Tanana 
(fig. 3), but their efforts have been 

handicapped by limited informa- 
tion available from their infor- 

Collections in Field Museum's 
Department of Anthropology con- 
tain 31 items of northern Athapas- 
kan summer clothing and related 
objects collected in the Yukon Val- 
ley of Alaska near the end of the 
19th century. A representative sam- 
ple of six specimens are described 
here and related to historical 
accounts from that period; some 
comments on provenience are also 

Figure 1 shows the front of a 
tunic of tanned caribou skin dec- 
orated with a broad beaded band 
worked on a separate piece of skin 


and attached, with a noticeable dip 
in the center, across the upper part 
to the backs of the shoulders. On 
the back of this garment, a similar 
beaded band extends across just 
below the armpits; radiating fringed 
rows ornament the pointed lower 
edges on both sides. This tunic has 
an extremely complicated pattern 
consisting of many separate pieces 
of skin. A single, large piece forms 
the back of the garment, folding 
over on the sides where it is joined 
to a flaring center section which ex- 
tends down the front. 

Another caribou skin tunic has 
an elaborate decorative band across 
the front (fig. 2), consisting of ten 
parallel rows of beads below which 
is an elaborate fringe. A simpler 
fringe in back extends along a line 
of red pigment. There are vertical 
lines of beadwork down the center 
points on both sides and a fringe 
along the lower edge. All the back 
and most of the front of this gar- 
ment is made from a single piece 
of skin that extends over the 

These tunics adhere to the tra- 
ditional Athapaskan form both in 
cut and decoration as it has been 
described among Alaskan and con- 
tiguous Canadian groups by early 
observers and ethnographers. A 
decorative band, quilled and/or 
beaded, extending across the chest 
and usually across the back as well 
and having a fringed lower edge is 
reported for the Ingalik, Koyukon, 
and various Kutchin groups. This 
decorative band is said to have 
been characteristic of both men's 
and women's garments. 

The most frequently described 
characteristic of Athapaskan tunics 
is a bottom edge that is cut to a deep 
center point both in front and back. 
Among Yukon drainage and con- 
tiguous peoples, this is generally 
believed to have been a particular 
feature of men's garments, although 
among the Ingalik and Mackenzie 
drainage Kutchin it is mentioned as 
having been characteristic of the 
tunics of both sexes. In spite of the 
ethnohistorical and ethnographic 
evidence, it seems probable, on the 

basis of an examination of museum 
specimens, that "the presence of 
pointed tunics is not necessarily or 
exclusively a male fashion. Draw- 
ings by Alexander H. Murray, a 
Hudson's Bay Company trader at 
Fort Yukon on the upper Yukon 
River in 1847-48, illustrate both the 
beaded bands and the pointed bot- 
tom edges previously mentioned 
(figs. 4 and 7). 

Moccasin-trousers were the 
characteristic form of Athapaskan 
lower garment, worn by both men 
and women. Although few obser- 
vers of contact-traditional Athapas- 
kan life noted in detail their style of 
decoration, it is clear from the brief 
references which do occur that 
there was wide distribution of a de- 
sign that included bands of beads 
or porcupine quills around the 
knee and down the front, with in- 
step bifurcations joining an ankle 
band (fig. 8). The pattern of this 
typical specimen, one of six exam- 
ples in Field Museum's collection, 
indicates that the legs and waist 
were cut from a single piece of skin. 


100 200 300 400 500 

^' III/ ^■t^^^ l^fK-M C'^UJH-/^#/W 



with separate pieces at the crotch 
and at the instep and soles of the 
moccasins. A drawing by Alex- 
ander Murray shows moccasin- 
trousers as well as tunics like those 
already described (fig. 9). 

A Field Museum tunic that 
does not conform to the traditional 

pattern is a square-cut jacket that 
reaches to the waist and opens 
down the front. The most conspicu- 
ous feature of the decoration on this 
jacket is applied bands of woven, 
unsewn quillwork which extends 
down both sides of the front open- 
ing and around the garment's bot- 

tom edge. Similar bands occur 
around the sleeve ends and across 
each shoulder. The bands are 
worked on sinew and rectangular 
strips of skin (fig. 10). With the ex- 
ception of the sleeves, this jacket is 
constructed of a single piece of skin 
folded, cut, and sewn in such a 


'p''' .- />• 

manner as to compensate for over- 
laps at the shoulders. A narrow 
piece is sewn around the neck 

Jackets Hke this, combining 
native and European design, may be 
related to the chief's coat first men- 
tioned by Murray as having been 
awarded in 1848 to a Kutchin at Fort 
Yukon for service to the Hudson's 
Bay Company. It is a style of coat 
which, utilizing different materials 
and new decorative motifs, has 



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persisted until today among Alas- 
kan Athapaskans. 

The collection contains a com- 
plete child's costume of tanned 
caribou skin consisting of a tunic 
and a pair of moccasin-trousers. 
The tunic (figs. 5 and 6) has an 
attached hood and sleeves that are 
closed at the ends in the form of 
mittens; these have a slit in each 
cuff through which the hand could 
be extended. An important feature 
of the decoration on this tunic is a 
quill-wrapped fringe sewn to the 
garment. Just above the fringe is a 
band of plaited quills. The lower edge 
of the tunic is also ornamented 
vWth a quill-v^apped fringe. 

Accession information accom- 
panying this specimen suggests 
that it may have been originally 
collected at Fort Yukon in 1860-61. If 
this is accurate, the costume can, 
with some certainty, be attributed 
to the Kutchin. It would also be 
considerably older than most 
specimens of Athapaskan clothing 
in American museum collections. 

Whether or not this attribution 
is correct, it is dear that the use of a 

hooded shirt with mittens sev^m to 
the sleeves had a wide distribution 
among northern Athapaskans. The 
most distinctive feature of the gar- 
ment is the attached hood; this fea- 
ture is not characteristic of any other 
type of traditional Athapas- 
kan tunic. The earliest sources make 
no mention of an attached hood, 
although Alexander Murray 
illustrates a child wearing what is 
apparently a parka in one of his 
sketches (fig. 12). Because of the 
widespread distribution of such 
a child's garment, the form was 
almost certainly known to Atha- 
paskans in aboriginal times. 

A hood, typical of four in the 
Field Museum collection, consists 
of a single V-shaped piece of tan- 
ned caribou skin notched and sewn 
at the upper end. The long and 
heavily beaded fringe on this speci- 
men is, however, unusual (fig. 11). 
Virtually all illustrated hoods in 
various museum collections are 
more helmet-like than this and all 
are attributed either to the Kutchin 
or the Tanaina. Among most, if not 
all, Athapaskan groups, both men 

.-Sff^:*^ /\ 



I %. 


9 25 

and women wore some kind of 
headgear and various types of 
"caps" are described in the litera- 
ture. The detached hood, worn as 
an integral part of the summer cos- 
tume, is believed to have been 
characteristic of female rather than 
male dress. 

The decoration of clothing was 
the major artistic expression of 
northern Athapaskans and the 
most important traditional decora- 
tive elements were elaborate 
geometric designs in porcupine 
quills. Glass beads began to replace 
quills early in the 19th century, hav- 
ing been traded into the interior of 
Alaska from Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany posts on the Mackenzie River 
and its tributaries and from Rus- 
sian trading posts on Cook Inlet 
and at the mouth of the Yukon Riv- 
er. By 1885 some Indians used 
beads almost exclusively for dec- 
orating their garments; as late as 
1865 Indians on the Tanana River, a 
Yukon tributary, were still skilled 
at quillwork decoration. 

The introduction of beads 

eventually resulted in a shift from 
traditional geometric motifs to pre- 
dominantly floral patterns. Beads 
permitted greater flexibility of de- 
sign and were much easier to use 
than porcupine quills. Geometric 
patterns did not disappear quickly. 
Such designs are characteristic of 
the ornamentation on the speci- 
mens described here, but these de- 
signs are larger and less complex 
than the extremely fine work that 
was possible with the narrow, flat- 
tened quills. It is apparent that flor- 
al designs did not become truly 
popular until after the introduction 
of tiny seed beads and silk thread 
some time after 1900. 

More significant than their 
decorative value, perhaps, is the 
fact that beads quickly became an 
important symbol of wealth among 
the various Athapaskan groups. 
Beads fitted easily into the native 
conception of values because of the 
precontact trade in dentalium shells. 
As the impact of the new economy 
increased toward the end of the 
19th century, however, beads 


inevitably lost much of their value 
in the monetary sense. Neverthe- 
less, as decoration they denoted 
wealth and ii\fluence. This certain- 
ly explains the amount of beaded 
decoration on some Field Museum 
specimens, an amount that adds 
considerably to the weight of the 
garments and undoubtedly made 
them awkward and somewhat 
uncomfortable to wear. 

Given the absence of precise 
documentation, it is difficult if 
not impossible to assign proveni- 
ences to the garments described and 
illustrated here on the basis of 
typological features alone. An ex- 
amination of the literature and a 
comparison of Field Museum's 
specimens with published exam- 
ples from other museum col- 
lections reveals that the clothing 
styles and decoration of western 
Athapaskan groups were very 

The documentation accom- 
panying Field Museum's speci- 
mens may be inconclusive, but at 
least it provides an approximate 



date of collection and indicates that 
the specimens were collected, or at 
least originated, in that part of the 
Yukon valley within Alaska. This is 
hardly a precise provenience, but 
the fact remains that much of the 
area is within the territory occupied 
traditionally by only two groups, 
the Kutchin and Koyukon. Com- 
parison of Field Museum garments 
with those described by early 
observers and with examples cur- 
rently in museum collections in- 
dicates that however similar the 
style and decoration of all western 
Athapaskan clothing may have 
been, the tunics, moccasin-trous- 
ers, and hood described here bear 
an exceptionally close resemblance 
to descriptions of Kutchin clothing 
as well as to actual specimens with 
either tentative or positive Kutchin 
and Koyukon attributions. If the 
case for the former is stronger, it 
may only be because much more 

information is available both in the 
literature and through museum 
collections relevant to Kutchin 
clothing; thus, comparisons are 
easier. D 


The Far North. 2000 Years of Es- 
kimo and American Indian Art. 
National Gallery of Art, Wash- 
ington, D.C. 1973. 

Clark, A. Mc. 1974. The Athapas- 
kans. Strangers of the North. 
National Museum of Man, 

Murray, A.H. 1910. Journal of the 
Yukon, 1847-1848. Edited by L.J. 
Burpee. Publications of the Cana- 
dian Archives, no. 4. Ottawa. 

Siebert, E.V. 1980. Northern Atha- 
paskan Collections of the First 
Half of the Nineteenth Century. 
Translated by David H. Kraus. 
Edited with an Introduction by 
James W. VanStone. Arctic An- 

thropology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 49- 

Thompson, J. 1972. Preliminary 
Study of Traditional Kutchin 
Clothing in Museums. National 
Museum of Man, Ethnology 
Oivision, Mercury Series, paper 
no. 1. Ottawa. 

VanStone, J.W. 1974. Athapaskan 
Adaptations. Hunters and Fisher- 
men of the Subarctic Forests. 
Harlan Davison, Inc., Arlington 
Heights, 111. 

. 1981. Athapaskan Clothing 

and Related Objects in the Col- 
lections of Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History. Fieldiana: An- 
thropology, n.s., no. 4. 

Zagoskin, L.A. 1967. Lieutenant 
Zagoskin's Travels in Russian 
America, 1842-1844. The First 
Ethnographic and Geographic 
InvesHgations in the Yukon and 
Kuskokwim Valleys of Alaska. 
University of Toronto Press. 27 





fRAL His' 


Y Bulletin 






' .-?K 

•^ i- 









r. * JB?^ ^ 

;-..^^K=i ,>: i.A^^^^^Vi 

,.: iiUSJS 


Field Museum 
of Natural History 


May 1983 

Volume 54, Number 5 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Kathryn Hargrave 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchiid, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

May Events at Field Museum 


Members' Nights 


Field Briefs 


Field Museum Jbursfor Members 


Ti'adition ofChado — The Way of Tea 


Eastern and Western Tyaditions in 
Hand Papermaking 

by Timothy Barrett 


Kaze-no-ko, "Children of the Wind" 


Patronage ofTz'u Chou Type Wares 

by Yutaka Miuo 


Archaeology Around the Shores 

by Kevin McGowan and Thomas J. Riley 


Field Museum Tour to China 


Our Environment 


Plants of the World Photography Competition 27 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July^ August issue, by Field Museum ot Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, D 60605, Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum memt>ership 
includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410 Postmaster: Please send from 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore [)rive, Chicago, II 60605 ISSN:Om5-0703 


T^uzure Nishiki silk tapestry (detail). This extraordinary 22- 
by-13-foot work of art, on view in Hall 3, was first exhibited at 
the World's Columbian Kvposition in Chicago in 1893. It was 
completed in that year by tlie firm ofjirnbei Kawashima, 
Kyoto, Japan, and represents a religious celebration at the 
Temple of Nikko. Depicted in the procession are 586 men, 
wearing a variety of costumes. According to a newspaper 
account at the time of its initial exhibition, the quality oftlie 
piece exceeds even tliat of France's famed Gobelin tapestries, 
with about 33 warps to the inch. Photo by Ron Tista. 


Members' Nights 

May 19 and 20 
6:30-9:30 pm 


iscover a whole new world at the Field Museum! Come to Members' Nights and learn about recently 
discovered plants from the tropics or the rediscovery of rare plants in our own area. View original bronze 
sculptures by Malvina Hoffman, learn about their historical background and how such works are restored. 
Discover meteorites in Antarctica, evolving monkeys in the New World, snakes in India, or sea serpents! No 
matter what your interest or age, you will be sure to enjoy our 32nd Annual members' Nights, on Thursday, May 
19, and Friday May 20, from 6:30 to 9: 30 p. m Entertainment this year will be provided by the Balkanske Igre 
Folk Orchestra, a group of six musicians who will perform folk music from the Balkan countries, eastern and 
central Europe 

Other evening highlights will include: 
dJ'Ground Floor: Caribbean Reef Fishes: Systematics and Ecology, Amazonian Forest Fishes: Systematics and 
Ecology, Fish Skeletons: Preparation and Study, and Sea Serpents: Diversity and Research 
c^First Floor Spotlighting Volunteers, Weave Awhile, Totem Poles, Masks and Shamans, Odd Man Out: The 
Botany Guessing Game, Living Jewels, and the Pawnee Earth Lodge. 

(C?"Second Floor: TTie Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: A New Look at the Work of Edward Curtis, Of 
Catalogues, Calculators and Computers: The Scientific Computer at Field Museum, Walk through Time: A 
Guided Tour through the Collections of Fossils and Invertebrates 

(C?"TTiird Floor: Human Bones and Bronze Heads, Discover Anthropology on Postage Stamps, Women in 
the Field: Archaeologists and Ethnographers, Past and Present, Botanical Discoveries, Near and Far, Our Daily 
Bread, New Teeth for Fossil Reptiles and Amphibians, TTie Inside Story on Fossil Plants, How the Library Cares 
for Books (and How You Can for Yours), Homebodies, Aquatic Insects, Mammalian Montage, and Moun- 
tain of Birds 
(n>Fourth Floor: Exhibitionists' Expo, and Design and Development. 

Free parking will be available in the north Museum lot and the Soldier Field lot. Or use the free 
round- trip charter bus service between the Loop and the Museum's south entrance These CTA buses marked 
"Field Museum" will originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station and stop at the Canal Street 
entrance of Northwestern Station, Washington and State, Washington and Michigan, Adams and Michigan, 
and Balbo and Michigan. Buses will run circuits beginning at 6:15 p. m. and continue at 15-minute intervals until 
approximately 9:45 p m 

Reasonably priced dinners and snacks will be available in the Museum food service areas until 8: 00 p. m. 

To achieve a more even distribution of visitors, we suggest you follow this alphabetical schedule: 
A through L Thursday, May 19 

M through Z Friday, May 20 

Admittance will be by invitation, so please retain your Members' Night invitation and present it at the 
door for admittance for you and your family. 

Don't forget! Come to Members' Nights and discover a whole new world at the Field! 5 


Gift of Royal Azel 

CD. Peacock, Chicago jewelers, have 
given Field Museum an exceedingly 
rare royal azel gemstone, which occurs 
only in the Kalahari Desert of southern 
Africa, where it was found in 1975. 
Magenta with bluish overtones, it is the 
first new stone to be entered into the 
exclusive list of gems in decades. The 
Peacock gift includes both a faceted 
stone of 17.64 carats and a rough piece. 
They will be placed on exhibit in the 
Hall of Gems. 

Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. 

Eugene S. Richardson, Jr., who joined 
the Department of Geolog\' in 1946 as 
curator of fossil invertebrates, died on 
January- 21. Sixt\'-six years of age, he 
had been retired from his curatorial 
post only since the pre\-ious November. 

A native of Philadelphia, Richard- 
son held degrees from Williams Col- 
lege, Pennsylvania State University, 
and Princeton Universit^■. His primary 
area of interest as a paleontologist was 
the Upper Carboniferous, or Pennsyl- 
vanian Period, and he was noted as the 
primary investigator of the Carbonifer- 
ous fauna of Mazon Creek, Illinois, one 
of the world's richest fossil sites of that 
geologic age. Visitors to Field Museum 
are familiar with his work first hand in 
Hall 37, the Hall of Invertebrate Pale- 
ontology, of which Richardson was the 
prime mover and planner. 

He produced a large body of tech- 
nical papers and articles; among his 
most widely acclaimed and cited works 
was The Paleoecological History of Two 
Pennsylvanian Black Shales (1963), co- 
authored with Rainer Zangerl. It was in 
the belles lettres essay, however, that 
Richardson's unusual literary skills 
were particularly manifest. Here his 
special gift for irony and mordant wit 
had free rein. 

In addition to his professional ac- 
tivities, Richardson had wide-ranging 
intellectual, cultural, and aesthetic in- 
terests — a renaissance man in the tru- 
est sense. Richardson was competent 
6 in a number of foreign languages as 

Bust of Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. by Tibor 
Perenyi, former Field Museum scientific 
illustrator who retired in 1978 and now re- 
sides in Vienna, Austria. The bust was 
recently on view in Budapest in an exhibi- 
tion of works by artists of Hungarian birth 
who now live in another country. 

well as the classics; among his scholarly 
activities was research in the Dutch 
Colonial histor\' of the West Indies. At 
his country home, near Gumee, Illi- 
nois, he Ofjerated a small letterpress, 
setting all type himself and producing 
from time to time artfully wrought pub- 
lications of various small format under 
the imprint The Vanishing Press, 
which he distributed among his friends 
and acquaintances. 

A man of uncommon personal 
integrity, intellectual elan, and gener- 
osity of spirit, he was also blessed 
with that capacity to regard the exfjeri- 
ence of life as the supreme adventure; 
Gene Richardson belonged to a most 
exclusive company. His friends. Field 
Museum, and the world that felt his 
presence are much the better for the 
time he shared with us. — D.M.W. 

"Science in Action": Free Summer 

Courses in Anthropology and 
Biology for High School Students 

The Department of Education's new 
three-week course in biology starts 
June 20 and ends Monday, July 11. The 
Summer Anthro]X)logy Course, now in 
its eighteenth year, meets for the usual 
six weeks, from June 27 through 
August 5. Any able, highly motivated 
high school student may apply for 
either (but not both) of these courses. 

Both programs make fullest use of 
their Museum setting and are taught at 
college level by Museum staff and uni- 
versity professors who embody their 
own field of specialization in each sci- 
ence. Participants will engage in work- 
shops, individual projects, and field 
studies, and will visit laboratories and 
collections behind the scenes. 

The biology course includes two 
days of collecting in the field; the 
anthropology course has scheduled 
field trips to examine ethnohistoric 
documents in Chicago's Newberry 
Library' and to tour Chicago's ethnic 
neighborhoods. In addition, the fifth 
week of the anthropology program will 
again be devoted to the archaeological 
excavation of a local prehistoric site. 

Hours of both courses are week- 
days 9:15 a.m. to 3:00 or 3:30 p.m., ex- 
cept during the week of the dig, when 
the charter bus leaves Field Museum at 
9:00 a.m. and returns by 5:00 p.m. 

Field Museum's Spensley Fund 
supports half of each of these high 
school programs, with the other half of 
anthrofwlogy again funded by the Uni- 
versity of Illinois at Chicago and of biol- 
ogy by the Ray A. Kroc Environmental 
Education Fund. Program directors 
and coordinating instructors are Eliza- 
beth Deis, biolog)' instructor. Depart- 
ment of Education; and Harriet Smith, 
anthropology instructor emeritus. 
Field Museum. 

A brochure and application form 
are available by calling (312) 922-9410, 
ext. 246. Completed applications will 
be due at the Museum by May 13. Inter- 
views with the highest-rated appli- 
cants will take place May 14 through 28. 
Notification of final selection will be 
made on June 2. 


Need A Getaway Weekend? 

Take one with a purpose this spring and 
enjoy the rewards for many weeks to come 
Join our group, under the expert leadership 
of Dr Edward Olsen, curator of mineral- 
ogy, as we explore Wisconsin's Baraboo 
Range Departure Saturday May 14, return 
Sunday, May 15 Price $125 00 (includes 
meals, and transportation from Field 
Museum and return) This is one of our 
most popular trips Space is limited 

William Bu-gi 

Costa Rica Tour 

January 14-27, 1984 

Leader: Dr William Burger, 

Chairman of Field Museum's 

Department of Botany 


With Optional Extension 

To the Seychelles 


Seychelles Extension $1,350 

A really exciting adventurous and in-depth 
safari carefully planned under the expert 
guidance of our leader, Audrey Faden This 
is the third consecutive year Audrey has led 
this tour for Field Museum She is a former 
staffer of the National Museum of Kenya 
and her keen interest in wildlife, conserva- 
tion, and plant life make her a natural to 
lead our tour If you have an inquisitive 
mind and would like to learn about the 
wildlife, ecology, and plant life, this safari 
should be your choice Photography will 
be a major objective on this tour and our 
specially equipped safari vehicles will pro- 
vide clear visibility for all participants. 

For further infornialiun on any tour, 
please call Dorothy Roder at 322-8862 or 
write Field Museum Tburs. 

Iradition of Chado — The Way of Tea 

with The Urasenke Tea Ceremony Society 

Sunday, May 1, 2:00 pm 
Stanley Field HaU 


.he popularity of tea is worldwide, but no - 
where does tea contribute as much to the cultur- 
al milieu as in Japan. Cha-no-yu, which literally 
means "hot water for tea," is known in the West- 
em world as the tea ceremony. In Japan the 
preparation and drinking of tea has acquired 
aesthetic and spiritual significance and has de- 
veloped into a distinct artistic accomplishment 
The ceremony is not only based in the etiquette 
of the service, but in the contemplation of land- 
scaped gardens, tea utensils, paintings, flower 
arrangements, and all of the elements that coex- 
ist in a harmonious relationship with the cere- 
mony. The philosophy of chado is based on four 
concepts: Wa — harmony, Kei — respect, Sei — 

purity, and Jaicu — tranquility. The ultimate aim 
is deep spiritual satisfaction through the constant 
practice of these four principles. 

On Sunday, May 1, at 2:00pm The Urasenke 
Tea Ceremony Society' invites you to obsen-e 
"the Way of Tea" It is the belief of the followers of 
the Urasenke tradition that the Way of Tea can 
be the foundation of a way of life; that peacefiilness 
fi-om a bowl of tea can be shared with anyone. 
Join us in Stanley Field HaU for this fascinating 
performance and demonstration of Chado — 
the Way of Tea. This performance is fi^ee with 
Museum admission and tickets are not required. 
AH Arts of the Orient programs are partially 
fiinded by a grant fi-om the Illinois Arts Council. 

Philosophy of Chado 

A Unique Synthesis oflraditions 

1 he underlying philosophy of Chado evolved fixjm 
Zen Buddhism. Zen is the Japanese counterpart of 
the Chinese word ch 'an, which is a translation of the 
Sanskrit word dhyana, meaning the meditation that 
leads to deep spiritual insight There is a saying that 
"To study the Way of Tea is to study Zen." This 

Wk, harmony. This is a 
feeling of oneness with na- 
ture and people. At a tea 
gathering, there should be 
harmony between host 
and guest, guest and guest, 
mood and season, the 
food served and the uten- 
sils used. Sensiti^^ty to the 
changing rhythms of the 
seasons, and harmony 

emphasizes that potentially it is a rigorous spiritual 
discipline, a way of training body and mind in aware- 
ness. Sen Rikyu summarized the principles of the 
discipline of chado in four concepts, wa, kei, sei, 

with these changes pen'ades Chado. According to the 
season a host chooses utensils,- flowers, and scroll, 
and uses either a portable brazier or a sunken hearth. 
The unpredictable nature of weather is an integral 
part of a tea gathering and is not to be shut out ig- 
nored, or considered inconvenient This harmony 
with nature quietly leads one to an understanding of 
the evanescence of all things and the unchanging in 
the changing. 

Kei, respect Respect, 
naturally resulting 
from a feeling of grati- 
tude, is extended not 
only to people but also 
to the utensils used, 
and to our daily life- 
style. The etiquette of 
the tearoom helps one 
to learn to apply the 
principle of kei. To the 
uninitiated what may appear at first as an excessively 
strict and formal etiquette is in actuality a means of 
teaching kei. The hospitality of the host, the concern 
of the guests for each other and the host, and the care- 
ful handling of the utensils exemplify this respect 

Sei, purity. Cleanliness 
and orderliness, in both 
the physical and spiritual 
sense, is a very important 
part of the study of Tea, 
just as it is in Zen training. 
Rikyu must have learned 
the importance of simple 
cleaning in his study of 
Zen. In Zen, even the 
most mundane acts — 
washing dishes or cleaning floors — are the seeds 
of enlightenment In the words of a man of eighth- 
century China, "How wondrous this, how mysterious! 
I carry fiiel, 1 draw water." When the host cleans his 
utensils he is simultaneously purifying his heart and 
mind through his total concentration on his task. The 
guests, before entering the tea hut pass along a garden 
path and rinse their hands and wash out their mouths 
at a low stone water basin, thereby symbolically puri- 
fying themselves of the "dust" of the everyday worl^ 
outside the tearoom. Sei also implies simplification, 
the elimination of all unnecessary elements. The 
appearance of the garden path and tea hut are exam- 
ples of this kind of simplicity. The path is only to 
lead the guest to the tea hut and is without expansive 
views or artilxl details. After a tea gathering, the host 
sits in solitude in the tea hut to reflect for a moment 
He then cleans the hut and stores the utensfls away. 
The room is again bare. If a room — like our lives — 
is cluttered it is difficult to keep clean and ordered. 

Jaku, tranquilify. Through 
die constant practice of 
wa, kei, and sei one is pre- 
pared to approach the ut- 
ter stillness and silence of 
tranquility. But this tran- 
quilify is not the famihar 
psychological state but 
a spiritual state that tran- 
scends one's mind and body 
even as it emanates from 
it It is the dynamic force 
of one's innermost being that infuses the practice of 
Tea. Without it a tea gathering loses all significance. 

The phflosophy of Chado has also been influenced 
by Shintoism. Acute sensitivify to nature is a striking 
characteristic of Japanese culture and far predates 
the introduction of Buddhism and Chinese influence. 
To the Shinto beUever, nature is considered sacred 
and endowed with spirit The emphasis on purify and 
cleanUness also probably derives fi-om a Shinto belief 
that true and natural beaufy is not revealed if covered 
with dirt The practice of cleansing hands and mouth 
at the stone water-basin before entering the tea hut 
almost certainly is rooted in Shinto. Before entering a 
Shinto shrine, one goes through a similar ritual. 

Through Zen, Chado is also linked with Chinese 
Taoism. Chado literally means the "Way of Tea," and 
the character for "do" ( tao in Chinese) is translated as 
"way" or "path." Tao is often explained as being the 
Way of the Universe, or the Way of Ultimate Reahfy. 
Taoists beUeved that to know his true nature, man 
should order his life so as to be in harmony with this 
way. Sitting meditation and breath control were prac- 
ticed, and cultivation of both spiritual and physical 
cleanliness, were important means of developing in- 
ward awareness. In other words, true realify can only 
be perceived in a life that is "garnished and swept," 
where all is clean. 

Later, the term tao came to be used in Chinese and 
Japanese Buddhism to indicate the "Way of the Bud- 
dha." In Japan, it has also been used to denote var- 
ious disciplines deriving firom Zen: Chado or the Way 
of Tea; Kendo or the Way of the Sword; Shodo or the 
Way of the Brush (caUigraphy). 

The underlying philosophy of Chado is a rich and 
unique synthesis of oriental cultural and rehgious 
tradition. Summarized by Sen Rikyu, the four princi- 
ples of Chado are harmony, respect purify, and 
tianquilify. Constantly practicing these four princi- 
ples, whether in the tearoom or not will increase 
one's spiritual awareness and help one to find inner 
peace. — Uiusenke Foundation 

Eastern and A^stern Traditions 
In Hand Papermaking 

J^-^very autumn in Japan, as the 
rice harvest ends and farming tools 
are put away,' the leaves begin to 
fall from the paper mulberry, or 
kozo, trees signifying their readi- 
ness for harvest. Farmers all over 
the country remove a different set 
of tools from storage and, as the 
weather grows colder, a cycle that 
has been repeated for centuries 
begins again. 

Working as a group, the farmer- 

1. Kozo (Broussonetia Kazinoki Sieb.) is but 
one of three species from which the white 
inner bark or bast fiber is harvested for Japa- 
nese hand papermaking. The other two 
trees are mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera 
Sieb. et Zucc.) and gampi (Diplomorpha sikoki- 
ana Nakai). Both are processed in a manner 
similar to that outlined for kozo. 

Leaves of the paper mulberry, or kozo 

by Timothy Barrett 

photos by Uie author 

craftspeople of the community cut 
and bundle the trees, then steam 
the bundles for two hours to soften 
the bark. Sitting and chatting about 
all that has happened since last 
year's kozo harvest, they strip the 
valuable bark from the unwanted 
inner wood. The stripped bark is 
dried outdoors, then baled for stor- 
age. Later, when more time is avail- 
able, the bark is first soaked in a 
clear stream, then carried to a 
workshop area. There a flaky layer 
of black outer bark is carefully 
scraped away with a knife. Thor- 
oughly rinsed in clear water, the 
clean bark is then hung in the fresh 
air to dry. 

In a dammed-off part of the 


stream, the cleaned bark is soaked 
yet again, sometimes for days, to 
lighten the color of the fiber. Fol- 
lowing this natural bleaching step, 
it is cooked in a solution of lye 
made from wood ashes (gathered 
from cooking and bath water fires). 
The nonfibrous parts of the bark 
are thus softened and eventually 
liquified, leaving only the fiber req- 
uisite for making paper. Gentle 
rinsing of the cooked bark strands 
in clear cold water removes any 
remaining lye solution. To ensure 
that the final product will be defect- 
free, each strand of cooked bark is 
scrupulously inspected by hand in 
cold water and any specks or dis- 
colored matter are picked away. 
The evening before sheets are to be 
formed, or very early the next 
morning, the bark strands are 
hand-beaten to loosen all the indi- 
vidual fibers from one another 

A measured amount of fiber is 
than added to a vat of cold water 
and thoroughly mixed until all fi- 
bers are well separated. A stringy, 
viscous material rendered from 
tororo-aoi root^ is added to the fiber- 

2. Tororo-aoi is a species of hibiscus raised 
every year especially for papermaking. Bo- 
tanical names are Hibiscus manibot L. or Abel- 
moschus manihot Medikus, depending on the 
reference. The viscous product from tororo 
added to the vat is not a mucilage, glue, or 
size. The term used here is "formation aid," 
since its main function is to change the 
nature of the water and fiber mixture, dis- 
persing the fibers and slowing the overall 
drainage rate. Any substance with an adhe- 
sive quality would interfere with parting of 
the sheets after pressing. 

water mixture, initially to promote 
dispersion of the very long (1 centi- 
meter average) kozo fibers. 

After a second light mixing, 
the fibers are ready to be formed 
into sheets. The papermaker 
grasps his sheet mould — a type of 
flat sieve — and dips the near edge 
into the vat, flooding the mould 
surface with the viscous mixture. 
The solution is poured off the far 
side. More solution is gathered 
along the near edge of the mould; 
this time, however, the solution 
(contained by the "deckle" — a rec- 
tangular frame on top of the 
mould) is sloshed back and forth 
across the mould's porous surface. 
As the sloshing continues, the liq- 
uid portion of the mixture passes 
through the sievelike mould sur- 
face; the fiber is contained on top, 
gradually forming the first layers of 
a sheet. 

At this point, the viscous tororo- 
aoi additive serves to retard the 
drainage rate. It is the combined 
effect of the tororo-aoi formation 
aid, the sloshing sheet-forming ac- 
Hon, and the unusual fiber length 
that enable the Japanese to create 
such very thin, even, and delicate 
papers. In producing an excep- 
tionally thin tissue paper, the vat 
mixing begins with a very small 
proportion of fiber to water, and 
formation aid is then added until 
the drainage rate is slowed enough 
for controlled sheet-forming. 

When the desired sheet thick- 
ness is achieved, solution remain- 
ing in the mould is tossed off the far 
edge. The flexible bamboo splint 
and silk-thread surface, or su, of the 
mould is then removed and low- 
ered (with the new sheet of paper 

Timothy Barrett, who produces Japanese 
and Western handmade papers at his Kala- 
mazoo, Michigan, workshop, has been in- 
volved in this rare craft for a decade. From 
1975 to 1977, on a Fulbright Felloivship, 
Barrett studied traditional papermaking 
methods in japan. He is currently complet- 
ing his second book on the subject. 

Mr. Barrett will provide a lecture demonstration on 
"Japanese Tradition of Papermaking" on Saturday, 
May 14, 2:00pm in Stanley Field Hall. 

adhering) down and across a pile of 
previously stacked damp sheets. The 
su is then drawn away, leaving 
the new sheet smooth and unwrin- 
kled atop the others. The craftsman 
returns the su to the mould to 
form another sheet; by the end of 
the day 300 to 500 sheets will be 

spected, packaged, and the 
finished product is ready for the 
customer. Throughout the long 
winter months, the same routine is 
repeated again and again. 

In the spring, new shoots arise 
from the stumps where last fall's 
trees were cut, the craftspeople put 
their papermaking tools away for 

Bundles oj cut kozo prior to steaming 

Stripping bark from inner wood 

The next day the stack of paper 
is pressed to remove excess water 
and strengthen the paper. The 
sheets are then peeled, one by one, 
from the stack. The paper does not 
stick together mainly because the 
exceptionally long fibers have been 
laminated into the highly cohesive 
individual sheets during sheet- 
forming. Each damp sheet is then 
carefully brushed smooth onto 
wooden boards and taken out- 
doors on the boards to dry in the 
sun. After the dried paper is 
stripped from the boards, it is in- 


Bleaching in stream 

Straining foreign matter from viscous tomro-aoi formation aid 


another season and return to rice 
planting. The papermaking cycle 
works in direct harmony with the 
cycles dictated by nature. It is no 
wonder that the finished paper em- 
bodies so much character and life. 

Traditionally made Japanese 
paper has a natural warm color, 
a lustrous sheen, and a curious, 
strong, crisp, yet soft feel; it has a 
suppleness reminiscent of deer- 
skin, and a quality totally unlike 
that of machine-made paper. Un- 
fortunately, and surprisingly, pa- 
pers of this sort are rarely made in 
Japan today, even though at least 
500 papermaking houses are still at 
work. As is the case with many 
other traditional hand crafts, the 
use of natural raw materials and 
the reliance on time-consuming, 
natural processes have gradually 
given way to modern scientific 
approaches and to demands for a 
cheaper product. 

Today, although a few houses 
still use traditional methods, fiber 
is usually grown by non-papermak- 
ing farmers, soaked and washed 
only minimally, cooked (and some- 
times bleached) with chemicals, 
and beaten with machinery. The 
traditional kozo fibers are often 
mixed with foreign bark fibers and 
wood pulp (commercially prepared 
from hardwood or softwood trees), 
and the sheets are made all year 
round, so that the materials are not 
always kept fresh by cold working 
conditions. The finished sheets are 
often dried on heated indoor 
sheetmetal surfaces. Although 
considerably cheaper and perhaps 
just as permanent as traditionally 
made paper, the sheet produced by 
means of these newer materials 
and methods often lacks the 
strength, the golden warm natural 
color, the strong soft-crispness, 
and the luster of papers made in 
the traditional way; all these qual- 
ities have been compromised or 
eliminated in the new paper Fortu- 
nately, these traditional paper- 

making methods — though still 
uncommon — are being perpet- 
uated by a small, though dedicated 
group of young Japanese. 

There are rich and important 
lessons to be learned by a Western- 
er living and studying in a culture 
where the traditions go back so far. 
But ironically, the most important 
lesson for such a visitor concerns 
not the culture and craft he went 
abroad to study, but his own. As 
the result of my two years' study in 
Japan, I have grown to respect the 
Western hand papermaking tradi- 
tions as well. For me, these are no 
longer simply "old out-of-date meth- 
ods," but the collective work of 
generations of unknown craftsmen 
— accumulated lessons that were 
passed on as a package from one 
generation of artisans to the next. 

In Japan, by talking and work- 
ing with craftspeople, it is possible 
to directly absorb many centuries- 
old traditions. Much of the early 
European papermaking process, 
however, died out centuries ago. 
Young contemporary craftspeople 
interested in the early European 
techniques have considerable re- 
search ahead of us if we are to fully 
understand and possibly apply the 
older methods in the contempo- 
rary craft. 

Some papers used in books 
produced in Europe between 1450 
and 1700 remain not only sur- 
prisingly strong, but have a warm 
white natural color, a creamy rich- 
ness and pliancy uncommon in 
contemporary papers. In large 
part, this can be attributed to the 
linen and hempen rags used as raw 
materials, to the slow, careful 
fermentation of rags prior to beat- 
ing, to the natural loft (air) drying 
of the finished sheets, and perhaps 
as well to the gelatin surface size 
that was used to finish the paper. 
Western hand papermaking retains 
few of these steps in its present 
form, and although the sheet (like 
contemporary Japanese paper) is 

. ,g -^ga 

^ 1 \ 

■ . 1 

*■■"" """ .^^. \ 

^^ ^|^B!9 





Top: Forming sheets. 

Middle: Adding a 

newly formed sheet 

to stacK of wet paper. 

Bottom: Peeling new 

damp sheet from stack 

after pressing. 


formed by hand, is reasonable in 
price, perhaps long-lasting and 
durable, and is receptive to the 
artist's brush or the printer's ink, 
we are not likely to see in it the 

warm natural color, or feel that 
rich, supple, creamy texture. The 
possibility of renewing certain old 
European traditions and applying 
them to the contemporary craft is 

Fresh paper brushed onto boards, 
dn/mg in sun 

one of the most exciting and poten- 
tially rewarding aspects of work- 
ing in the hand papermaking field 

Persons interested in further 
reading on Japanese and Western 
hand papermaking should consult 
Dard Hunter's Papermaking — History 
and Technique of an Ancient Craft, 
originally published by Knopf 
(1943) but now available as a Dover 
paperback. Sukey Hughes treats 
Japanese hand papermaking in 
Washi — the World of Japanese Hand- 
made Paper (Kodansha, 1978). My 
own Japanese Papermaking — Tradi- 
tions, Tools and Techniques is to be 
published this fall by John Weather- 
hill, Tokyo and New York. D 

Forming westem-stvie sheets. 

Traditional packaging of finished paper 



"Children of the Wind" 

Sunday, May 8 


James Simpson Theatre 

Tickets: Members 36.00; nonmembers $8.00 


.aze-no-ko is Japan's leading children's theatre. 
With hoops, sticks, and balls magically trans- 
formed into horses, herons, caterpillars, and a whole 
assortment of marvelous creatures, the troupe 
rekindles the spark of creativity in each of us. 

Under the guidance of artistic director Yukio 
Sekiya, the troupe is dedicated to arousing and 
developing creativity. Using a technique called ani- 
mime, which involves basic props such as sticks, 
hoops, and ropes bent into imaginative shapes by 
nimble fingers, Kaze-no-ko tells the story of a colt 
seeing the world on its first day. The hands and 
arms of the troupe create the almost lifelike shapes 
of turtles, swans, and crabs, and the beautiful 
story of the Ugly Duckling is retold with paper 
ducks created through the Japanese art of paper 
folding — origami. 

I^e-no-ko is a joyous visual experience 
for the whole family. Don't miss the opportunity to 
share a creative experience with this troupe which 
has thrilled audiences the world over. 

You are encouraged to order tickets in 
advance for this special event Tickets are sold at 
the door on a space available basis only, for further 
information please call (312 ) 322-8854. 15 

Patronage ofl^'u-Chou Type Wares 

by YutakaMino 

JL z'u-chou type wares have enjoyed 
one of the longest histories of any 
major group of Chinese ceramics, 
having been produced since the 
tenth century at numerous kilns in 
north China. Modern interest in 
these wares has been stimulated by 
excavations made at ancient kiln 
sites, and these recent discoveries, 
particularly those of the last 25 
years, have resulted in an extensive 
body of new information. 

Tz'u-chou ware is named for a 
major site of its produchon and the 

principal center of the ceramic in- 
dustry in northern China, Tz'u- 
chou, known today as Tz'u-hsien, 
in southern Hopei province. The 
success and longevity of Tz'u-chou 
type wares is chiefly explained by 
the fact that they never benefited 
from official patronage or from ex- 
port revenues, and that they were 
established on a popular and do- 
mestic economic base. 

Unlike most other Chinese 
ceramic wares, the development of 
Tz'u-chou wares was not inter- 

rupted by the overthrow of dynas- 
ties. Their discovery, in rare cases, 
in Japan, eastern Java, Borneo, and 
the Celebes has led some to believe 
that they may have been an "export 
ware." But the numbers found 
abroad are so insignificant that it is 
unlikely that they were made, as 
were some other Chinese wares, 
just for a foreign market. 

Yutaka Mino is curator. Oriental Art 
Department, Indianapolis Museum of Art. 

Ancient T:'u<hou kiln P'eng-ch'eng-chen in Tz'u-hsien. Photo courtesy the Tz'u-hsien Cultural Bureau, Hopei province. 


The Tz'u-chou kilns sprang up 
to supply a growing popular mar- 
ket in the early Sung period (960- 
1280) when prosperity and stability 
produced a rising standard of liv- 
ing for the common people. Judg- 
ing from the large proportion of 
dishes, bowls, jars, and ceramic 
pillows found at kiln sites, a large 
part of the production of the Tz'u- 
chou wares consisted of household 

Thousands of examples of 
such wares were found at the site of 
the Sung town of Chii-lu in Chii-lu- 
hsien, southern Hopei province, 
destroyed by floods in 1108. A stele 
in Chii-lu records that in the 
autumn of the second year of Ta- 
kuan (1108) the Chang River broke 
its banks and flooded the town, 
burying nearly everything in as 
much as twenty feet of mud. Dis- 
covered accidentally by local resi- 
dents in 1918, much of the site was 
pillaged, and the best ceramic finds 
were sold to dealers and shipped 
out of China. By the time the Tien- 
tsin Museum sent a team to Chii- 
lu-hsien in 1920 to investigate, it 
was able to acquire a sampling of 
the wares only by paying rather in- 
flated prices. A 1923 report pub- 
lished by the Tientsin Museum lists 
objects such as bowls, lobed jars, 
two-handle jars, pillows, basins, 
vases, and ewers of Tz'u-chou type 
ware. Many pieces have ink in- 
scriptions on the base, recording 
their purchase, price, date, and the 
buyer's name. None of these pieces 
are dated later than a.d. 1108, the 
flood year. One pillow bears an 
inscription on the base that com- 
memorates a wedding day in the 
second year of Ch'ung-ning, or 
1103. A bowl-shaped lower portion 
of a covered box — presumably a 
container for herbal medicines — 
bears its purchase date: May 25 in 
the second year of Ta-kuan reign 
(1108), at the price of thirty dollars. 

In 1921, archaeologists from 
the National Historical Museum in 

Peking found at the Chii-lu site the 
remains of two houses, one belong- 
ing to a family named Wang and 
the other to a family named Tung. 
Some 200 objects of ceramic and 
other materials were found, includ- 
ing dishes and bowls set on a 
wooden table. 


Wine jar, Chin dynasty, Uth-Hth centu- 
ries. Tz'u-chou type ware. Indianapolis 
Museum of Art collection. 

Another dwelling site at which 
many Tz'u-chou type wares have 
been discovered is Ch'ing-ho-hsien, 
which was inhabited in Sung and 
later times. But here no clearly dated 
material has been found. 

Large numbers of Tz'u-chou 
type ceramic wares have been 
found in tombs across the northern 
part of China. They appear not to 
have been made specifically as 
funerary wares, but were just ob- 

jects of daily use buried with the 
dead. Numerous objects were 
buried in a group of tombs exca- 
vated at Shih-chuang, Ching- 
hsing-hsien, Hopei province. In 
one of the tombs the remains of a 
man and woman were discovered 
with their heads resting on pillows 
of Tz'u-chou type ware decorated 
with stamped designs. The jars and 
bowls placed above their heads are 
also of Tz'u-chou type. 

The ceramics industry in the 
North grew rapidly in the early part 
of the Sung period so that by the 
early eleventh century it was con- 
sidered profitable enough to tap as 
a source of government revenue. A 
stele dated 1008 recording the 
appointment of a ceramics tax offi- 
cer in Shansi province was found at 
a Tz'u-chou ware kiln site at Hung- 
shan-chen, Chieh-hsiu-hsien, in 
that province. 

The kilns supplied not only an 
extensive market for household 
wares, but provided producers and 
distributors of regional wines and 
spirits with containers of many 
sizes and shapes. Jars inscribed 
with names of wines or wine 
shops, or with wine endorsements 
are known, and these must have 
been ordered by merchants at the 
local kilns. The Sung text, Chiu- 
ming-chi by Chang Neng-ch'en, a 
compilation of names of famous 
wines and wine shops, gives evi- 
dence of a large, flourishing wine 
and spirits industry. The text lists 
shops and brand names as well as 
the names of wines and the places 
where they were produced. Most 
of these places are in north China, 
many in the vicinity of kilns. The 
Chiu-hsiao-shih, or "Short History of 
Wine," by Sung Po-jen of the Yiian 
dynasty (1280-1368) also records 
names of wines and the places 
where they were produced. 

An additional economic factor 
contributing to the development of 
Tz'u-chou type wares was the prox- 
imity of kilns to coal mines, on 17 

Modem Tz'u-chou studio at P'eng-ch'eng-chen in Tz'u-hsien. Photo courtesy the Tz'u-hsien Cultural Bureau, Hopei province. 


which they relied for fuel. The short- 
age of trees in the north brought 
coal into regular use as a fuel in the 
Northern Sung period. Coal was 
used for cooking in the capital, 
K'ai-feng, during the Northern 
Sung, and traces of coal ash have 
been found at kiln sites of Tz'u- 
chou type wares and also of Ting 
ware of the Sung dynasty. The 
essential materials of clay and 
running water seem to have been 
in good supply in the coal mining 
areas. In fact, clay was regularly 
found associated with deposits of 
coal, and it is recorded that fine clay 
always lay directly above and be- 
low the layer of coal. 

Evidence of official patronage 
of Tz'u-chou type wares appears 
rather late in their development. 
None is known from the Sung pe- 
riod. In the Yiian dynasty pieces 

marked vWth the characters for "im- 
perial repository" were made for 
court use. One of the kiln sites at 
which these official jars were 
ordered was Kuan-t'ai, where a 
black-glazed example was exca- 
vated. Others, with the inscription 
written in black on the white- 
slipped body, were found among 
Yuan remains in Peking. 

By the Ming dynasty (1368- 
1644), official patronage of the 
Tz'u-chou kilns had reached more 
significant proportions. Ming texts 
record that the court ordered large 
numbers of wine jars of Tz'u-chou 
type. The Ming-hui-tien (a compila- 
tion of state regulations of the Ming 
dynasty) states that during the 
Hsuan-te period (1426-1435) 51,850 
wine containers were ordered from 
Chiin-chou, in Honan, and from 
Tz'u-chou and C'hii-yang-hsien, in 

Hopei each year. In the thirty- 
second year of the Chia-ching pe- 
riod (1553), also, large numbers of 
jars were ordered from these three 
areas. Because very few jars or 
vases of the Chiin ware type are 
known today, it may be assumed 
that the wine jars from Chiin-chou 
were also of Tz'u-chou type. 

According to the Shih-huo-chih 
of the Ming Shih ("History of the 
Ming"), in the early part of the 
dynasty, the Prince of Chao's 
household ordered its sacrificial 
vessels from Tz'u-chou. The palace 
was situated not far away, in 
Chang-te-fu (modem day Anyang). 
The Tz'u<hou-chih, or "Gazetteer of 
Tz'u-chou," another source of 
information, records that in the 
twelfth year of the Hung-chih pe- 
riod (1498), 11,936 p'ing-t'an wine 
jars were paid to the government as 

Left: large wine jar, Ming dynasti/, dated 1571 . Royal Ontario Museum. Right: covered jar. Chin dynasty, 12th-13th centuries. Collection of 
Mr. and Mrs. Janos Szekeres, Stamford, Conn. Both pieces are Tz'u-chou type ware. 

tax. The buildings section of the 
same text mentions storehouses for 
official wine jars in the Tz'u-chou 
area during the Ming. One was 

located at Shih-ch'iao-tung, Nan- 
kuan, then moved to Liu-li-ts'un 
and finally back again to the origi- 
nal location Another official store- 

house was in P'eng-ch'eng, in 
Fu-yxian. Each year the ceramic jars 
made for official use were collected 
and stored in these warehouses be- 
fore being shipped by river to the 
capital. After the dynasty's end 
they fell into disuse. 

The official patronage of Tz'u- 
chou kilns reached a peak in the 
Ming dynasty. Even at its highest 
level, however, the actual opera- 
tion of the kilns appears to have 
been largely free of official inter- 
ference. Throughout their develop- 
ment, the ceramics themselves 
continue to reflect popular rather 
then courtly taste. 

The design and decoration of 
the wares are a lively testament to 
both the needs and the aspiration 
of the people, providing evidence 
of their material culture, of their 
appreciation of beauty, of their 
form of entertainment, their 
wishes for success, wealth and 
offering, and also of their moral 
and spiritual beliefs. D 

Pillow, Northern Sung dynasty, late 11th- 
early 12th century. Tz'ti-chou type ware. 
Field Museum collection. 


Archaeology Around the Shores 

tr\' Kei in McGowan and Thomas J. Riley 
photos courtesy of the authors 

JLiike most days, this one begins 
before daybreak with a group of 
sluggish undergraduates gathered 
at a clearing along the lake shore. A 
mist rises from the water, fore- 
telling another humid day. Tower- 
ing trees and thick undergrowth 
hold back the first rays of sunlight 
that mark dawn. Perhaps in re- 
sponse to our noise, thousands of 
birds take flight to some other part 
of the lake in search of another 
day's food. 

With considerable clatter the 
students unload from trailers the 
two boats that we have brought to 
the shore and carry them into the 
water. Finally, motors secured, 
equipment in place, the students 
don life jackets and board the tiny 
craft. The whine of outboards 
pierces the stillness of the morning 
and fish leap as our bow cuts the 
mirror of reflected sky and trees. 
Once again we begin our daily jour- 
ney to the archaeological site that 
we are excavating on an island in 
the lake. 

As we round a headland, an 
early morning wind has raised a 
chop that was not apparent when 
we embarked, and the smaller boat 
slows to avoid swamping. Soon, 
however, the site comes into view. 
In the distance it is easy to discern 
the form of the large dead tree 
killed by high lake waters and now 
covered by creeping vines. As we 
approach the terrace that we 
cleared some weeks before, the 
unmistakable signs of an archae- 
ological excavation become appar- 
ent. Rectangular trenches and neat 
20 stringed squares are flanked by 

piles of sifted earth. About them 
stand wooden stakes that mark off 
the carefully measured grids. In a 
few minutes, trowelling, shovel- 
ling, and sifting will begin again. 
On every face is the anticipation 
that today's work will bring to light 
important clues to the prehistory of 
the area. 

The foregoing narrative could 
be from an account of any of a hun- 
dred archaeological expeditions in 
the last fifty years — about a morn- 
ing on the Nile River south of the 
Aswan Dam with archaeologists in 
search of the remains of ancient 
Egypt; or on Tonle Sap in Cambo- 
dia in search of Khmer settlements 
that supported Angkor Wat. It is 
there, in such exotic, remote re- 
gions that most people picture 
archaeologists at work. But the 
excitement of discovery and the 
adventure of coping with nature is 
common to all archaeological ex- 
cavations no matter where they are 
located. In fact, we experienced 
these emotions while working on 
the prairie lands of central Illinois, 
near the town of Shelbyville. 

This community of about 6, 000 
people, some 180 miles south of 
Chicago, has recently become a fo- 
cal point for the U.S. Army Corps 
of Engineers' plan to manage the 
water resources of the Kaskaskia 
River Basin. This is achieved by 
regulating water flow through a 
dam on the river, where it passes 
near downtown Shelbyville. The 
dam has resulted in the formation 
of an 11,000-acre body of water — 
Lake Shelbyville — that cross-cuts 
Shelby and Moultrie counties. 

The land that now surrounds 
or is covered by Lake Shelbyville 
has been of long-standing research 
interest to the Department of 
Anthropology at the University of 
Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Since 
1960, faculty and graduate students 
there have sought to uncover more 
facts about the long cultural history 
in the Shelbyville area. The sum- 
mer of 1982 saw the continuation of 
this research interest with one 
difference. Undergraduates were 
incorporated into the overall re- 
search program; students interested 
in learning about archaeological 
field and laboratory techniques 
were provided credit for participa- 
tion in the program. The research 
work would also be in concert with 
the overall long-term design estab- 
lished by the university for examin- 
ing Shelbyville's archaeological 

Last summer's program 
attracted twelve students — men 
and women — from a variety of 
backgrounds. We had two foreign 
students — from England and 
South Korea. The rest were from 
Illinois, some who had grown up in 
Chicago's inner city and some from 
rural communities. There was also 
a considerable age span — from 19 to 
the mid-40s. The result of this 
rather heterogeneous mix was an 
effective, harmonious work team. 

Kevin McCowan is a graduate student in 
anthropology at the University of Illinois at 
Urbana-Champaign. Thomas }. Riley, an 
archaeologist and anthropologist, is asso- 
ciate dean of the Graduate College at that 



Excavating at the Fultz site 

The University of Illinois re- 
search interest in the Shelbyville 
area began with the authorization 
for a reservoir with the passage of 
the Flood Control Act in 1958. Sur- 
vey and excavation began in 1960 as 
a result of the Reservoir Salvage 
Act of 1960, which provided for the 
recovery and preservation of his- 
torical and archaeological data that 
might be destroyed as a result of 
the construction of federally 
funded or licensed dams, reser- 
voirs, and attendant facilities 
(McGimsey and Davis, 1977). Initial 
work in the area was funded by the 
National Park Service. The com- 
bined efforts of several researchers 

resulted in the identification of 62 
archaeological sites. 

These initial surveys were 
handicapped by limited funds, 
short field time, and poor ground 
visibility because of crop cover. It 
was estimated that only 40 percent of 
the reservoir was surveyed before 
impoundment of the water began 
in 1970. Unfortunately, the sur- 
veyed area excluded the southern 
half of the lake, leaving a sizable 
area archaeologically unknown. 

The late sixties and early sev- 
enties proved to be a hiatus in the 
research efforts in Shelbyville, but 
federal concern for the resources 
continued to grow. A myriad of 

federal legislation and presidential 
orders directed federal agencies to 
take care of the archaeological re- 
sources within their jurisdiction. 

But all the legislation in the 
world, of course, amounts to noth- 
ing if there is no enforcement. One 
caring individual, however, can 
sometimes suffice to push agencies 
into compliance with their man- 
dated duties. In Shelbyville there 
were two such men: Environmen- 
tal Officer Al Lookofsky and Dis- 
trict Archaeologist Terry Norris, 
both of whom work for the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis 
District. Under their influence, 
contracts were reestablished with 
the University of Illinois with a 
design to develop a complete 
archaeological resource inventory 
of the lake. 

The first step in this operation 
was carried out by Charles Moffat, 
then a university graduate student, 
who resurveyed the northern half 
of the lake. Moffat identified 61 
new sites which had not been 
found by the earlier archaeologists. 
His research demonstrated the 
archaeological richness of this area 
and the adverse effects of lake ero- 
sion on the archaeological re- 
sources. His recommendations 
were to salvage several sites that 
were threatened with destruction 
by the lake waters but which gave 
surface indication of containing 
valuable archaeological informa- 
tion. He also emphasized the need 
to finish the resource inventory of 
the lake area. 

Last summer our efforts were 
directed to the first of Moffat's rec- 
ommendations: salvaging threatened 
sites. Our team excavated two sites 
known to have suffered damage 
due to the lake location, though the 
types of damage varied consider- 
ably. Our main interest was in the 
"Fultz" site (ll-Mt-14), because the 
lake was eroding the site away. The 
second site was the "George Ward" 
site (ll-Mt-5), affected because of 


its unique location. At normal res- 
ervoir levels this site now appears 
as a large island in the new lake, 
and boaters have found it to be a 
convenient recreation spot. Unfor- 
tunately, the site had already been 
vandalized by souvenir hunters, 
and this illegal digging apparently 
destroyed most of the significant 
features contained there. Our 
interest in the site was to determine 
if sufficient valuable information 
remained to qualify it for nomina- 
tion to the National Register for 
Historic Places. 

We began excavation at the 
Fultz site during the second week 
of June, seeking evidence of settle- 
ments. Earlier research suggested 
we could find evidence for at least 
two different stages of settlement, 
one during the Middle Woodland 
period (300 B.C.-A.D. 500), and 
another during the Mississippian 
period (A.D. 900-1500). The earlier 
research also revealed prehistoric 
house foundations, a cemetery, 
and traces of old farming fields. We 
hoped we could uncover some of 
the foundations to help identify the 
people of the Kaskaskia River Val- 

ley and determine who their con- 
tacts were. House patterns can also 
give an indication of a settlement's 
size and suggest how many f>eopje 
were living there. But unfortunate- 
ly, heavy rains had brought the 
lake to a higher than normal level, 
inundating both the village and 
burial areas and precluding any in- 
vestigative work. However, we 
were able to recover important in- 
formation from the large garbage 
pits these people had dug into the 
hard ground. 

Garbage is like gold to an ar- 
chaeologist. The materials that 
people discard can reveal much 
about their lifestyle. In garbage we 
can find evidence for the type of 
diet people were living on. A gar- 
bage heap is also the place where 
many broken household goods, 
like pottery and tools, end up. 
These remains of technological sys- 
tems can be used to indicate 
relationships between different 
settlements, in one instant of time 
as well as across a period of time. 
We were able to excavate several of 
these trash pits before rising lake 
water forced us to abandon the 

Fultz site and explore our back-up 
site, the Ward site. 

The island on which the Ward 
site is located is in the northern part 
of the reservoir about a mile from 
the Fultz site. We were immediate- 
ly struck by the extent to which the 
large burial mound on the site had 
been vandalized; it resembled a 
small battlefield dotted with cra- 
ters. The craters were surrounded 
by a jumble of decaying leaves, 
squirming millipedes, sandstone 
slabs, and human bone fragments. 
But in spite of the severe pot-hunt- 
ing destruction, the site still con- 
tained much valuable information. 

Our excavations into the 
mound were confined to a small 
area which had been most heavily 
vandalized. Here we recovered 
information on at least ten burials 
which showed very diverse inter- 
ment practices. Some of the dead 
were in an extended body position 
similar to that in our own burial 
practice. Others lay on their side, in 
the fetal position. Some appeared 
not to have been buried right after 
death. These bodies had appar- 
ently been allowed to decay or 


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The Life and Art of Louis Agassiz Fuertes 

by Robert McCracken Peck; introduction by Roger Tory Peterson 

Published for The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Walker and Company, New York 

xiii -t- 178 pages, 49 color plates 


Now available at Field Museum Stores 
10% discount for Members 

This exceptionally beautiful study of the life and work of Fuertes may be ordered by mail from the Field 
Museum Stores. Please make check or money order payable to Field Museum, including $2. 00 for postage 
and handling. 

were burned until all the flesh was 
off the skeleton. The bones were 
then apparently gathered up and 
buried as small bundles. There also 
is evidence in this mound that 
some bodies were cremated. 

Among the burials we found a 
number of grave goods, including 
complete ceramic vessels as well as 
ceramic pieces which had, it seems, 
been intentionally shattered before 
the body was interred. We also 
found large stone knives. All of this 
information suggested that the site 
should be protected and placed on 
the Nahonal Historic Register. By 
excavating only the most severely 
disturbed areas it is hoped that 
some of the remaining burials can 
be allowed to rest undisturbed, 
protected from future intrusion. 

Taking the information from 
the Fultz and Ward sites and from 
previous investigations around the 
lake, it is possible to paint a broad 
picture of Mississippian settle- 
ments in the Shelbyville area about 
800 years ago. To do this one must 
visualize the landscape as it was be- 
fore the lake was formed. The life of 
these Indians was focused near the 
muddy confluence of the Kaskas- 
kia and West Okaw rivers. In the 
flats surrounding this junction they 
were able to till fields and grow 
com. Having no plows or beasts of 
burden, they got along with dig- 
ging sticks and hoes made from 
stone or shell. 

In the surrounding forests and 
prairie they hunted deer and elk. 
The rivers provided fish and sea- 
sonal migratory waterfowl. They 
were also well acquainted with the 
potential of wild plant resources, 
some of which, like nuts, they 
could gather and store. With these 
resources they were able to estab- 
lish relatively permanent villages 
near their fields. Some lived in 
homes built by setting posts 
around a rectangular pit (Moffat, 
1979). These homes had cooking 
areas and storage pits for food or 

The Fultz site was in constant danger of being eroded away by the waters of Lake Shelbyville. 

Students drawing wall profiles at Fultz site. 



Many false ideas about wills 
actually cause people to put off 
or neglect writing their wills. The 
booklet offered below explains 
why every adult needs a will, and 
the sooner the better. Send for 
your copy now. 

But, what if I change my 
mind?. . . 

What if I write my will now while 
I am still young, then change my 
mind in five years when my chil- 
dren are older and my financial 
situation has altered?. . . 

Most people do change their 
minds, several times in fact, as 
their lives and personal goals 
change. That is why wills can and 
should be changed periodically. 
Some changes can be made with a 
simple amendment; others miay 
require rewriting. 

The booklet offered below 
has some helpful information 
about writing or updating your 
will, and how to include a gift to 
Field Museum of Natural History 
after vour family's needs are met. 
Order vour free copy today. 

Clip and Mail Tbdayl 

Planned Giving Office 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605 

Please send me my free copy of "37 
Things People 'know' About Wills 
ThatAren 't Reallv So." 




You can reach me at: 
Phone (home) 


Nearly complete potteru vessel found with 
features at George Ward site. 

tools. The dead were buried in 
cemeteries near the agricultural 
fields, or in one of the large burial 
mounds constructed on natural 
rises. At this time Indian settlers of 
the Shelbyville area appear to have 
been more closely tied to the Indi- 
ans in the Embarrass River valley, 
less than 40 miles to the east, rather 
than to the large complex settle- 
ment of Cahokia, Illinois, to the 

This scenario of Mississippian 
life along the middle Kaskaskia 
River is by no means complete, but 
we hope our ongoing research in 
this area will make the picture more 
substantial. In fact, it is the un- 
known aspects of past cultures 
which stimulate an archaeologist to 
go out and search for more pieces 
to the giant puzzle he works with. 
Each afternoon, as the archaeolo- 
gist prepares to leave the field, he 
must consider the day's evidence — 
what does it say about the people 
who left it behind? The answers 
serve as guidelines for tomorrow's 
research. D 


Illinois Archaeology: 

Illinois Archaeological Survey 
1959 Illinois Archaeology. Illinois 
Archaeological Society Bulletin 1, 
University of Illinois, Urbana. 

Trigger, Bruce G. ed. 

1979 Handbook of North American 
Indians, Vol. 15. Smithsonian Institute, 
Washington, D.C. 

Federal Legislation: 

King, Thomas F. et. al. 
1977 Anthropology in Historic Preser- 
vation. Academic Press, New York. 

McGimsey, Charles R. and Hester 
A. Davis 

1977 The Management of Archaeologi- 
cal Resources: The Airlie House Report. 
Society for American Archaeology, 
Washington, D.C. 

Shelbyville Archaeology: 

Gardner, William 

1969 'The Havana Cultural Tradi- 
tion iri the Upper Kaskaskia River 
Valley, Illinois"; Ph.D. Dissertation, 
Dept. of Anthropology, University 
of Illinois, Urbana. 

Moffat, Charles R. 
1979 "A Final Report of a Cultural 
Resource Survey of selected 
Portions of the Shelbyville Reservoir 
Shoreline Area"; Report submitted 
to the Army Corps of Engineers, 
St. Louis District. 

Plants of the World 
Photography Competition 1983 

The splendid exhibit "Plants of the World" will open at Field 
Museum on September 24. Over 400 plant models, constructed 
of glass, paraffin, and natural materials, ranging in size from a 
few millimeters to eight feet tall form the finest and most com- 
plete collection of such models in the world. The models are sur- 
rounded by five magnificent dioramas and thirteen large murals. 
Within this impressive setting the museum visitor will have a 
unique opportunity to learn about and experience the mysteries 
of plant life. 

In celebration of flowers and the exhibit's opening, the 
Museum announces the Plants of the World Photography Com- 
petition. For this event, all members who are photographers 
(regardless of residence) as well as nonmember photographers 
in the Chicago metropolitan area are encouraged to submit 


Entries will be accepted between August 1 and August 15, 1983. 

Mail to: 

Field Museum Photography Competition 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 

Chicago, IL 60605 

Please pack entries with care. Field Museum assumes no 
responsibility for damage or loss in shipment, delivery, 
and/or return. 


Enclose a suitable self-addressed, stamped envelope for return 
of the entries. Entries that are not so accompanied will be dis- 
carded. Field Museum assumes no responsibility for damage or 
loss in return mail. 


• Grand Prize: Reproduction of the winning entry as the front 
cover illustration of the October 1983 Field Museum Bulletin. 

• First, Second, and Third Awards of Merit Group I and II: to be 
reproduced in the October Museum Bulletin. 

• Six Honorable Mentions. 

slides of flowers and plants without any further restrictions on 
subject matter — any subject in the realm of the plant kingdom is 
acceptable. The competition is divided into two age groups; 
Group I entrants must be under 1 7 years old as of August 1 , 
1983; Group II entrants must be 17 years or older as of 
August 1, 1983. 

To enter, follow instructions and complete the form below. 
Slides must not be mounted in glass. Only original slides taken 
by the entrant that have not previously been published are 
acceptable. Indicate the proper slide orientation for projection 
with a dot in the upper right corner of the mounting on the non- 
emulsion side, together with your name and slide title. 

Please make your check payable to Field Museum. 

• Certificates of Selection. 

• The prizes that will be offered will be announced in the 
June Bulletin. 

Award-winning photographs will be on exhibition in Gallery Nine 
for the opening days of the Plants of the World exhibit, Septem- 
ber 24 to October 9, 1983. The Museum reserves the right to 
publish, exhibit, and use for promotion the winning photographs. 
The decision of the judges is final. 


Competition is open to photographers in the Chicago metropoli- 
tan area (Cook, Lake, McHenry, Kane, DuPage, and Will counties) 
and all museum members. Employees of Field Museum and the 
cosponsor and their immediate families are not eligible. 


A completed entry form and entry fee of $5.00 must accompany 
each entry of one to three 35mm color slides. Entrants may sub- 
mit three entries of 1 to 3 slides each (a maximum of 9 slides for 
the contest). 

Entry forms are also available at Field Museum's Information 
Desk. The form may be photocopied for additional entries. 

Join us in this celebration of flowers and photography 

Entry Form: Plants of the World Photography Competition 

This form must accompany all entries. Use the guidelines above as a checklist. 



-Daytime phone- 


Group I- 


Zip Code 

Group IL 

Enclose $5.00 check or money order payable to Field Museum of Natural History. 

I understand and agree to the conditions of the contest as stated in the above guidelines. 

Signature: Date: 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

June 1983 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 


June 1983 

Volume 54, Number 6 

June Events at Field Museum 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Archaeological Reconaissance 
in Southern Peru 

by Charles Stanish and Irene Pritzker 


Board of TkusTEES 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Rob)ert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley H 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J . Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
William G.Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

Ttiursfor Members 


Ecological Studies of 
Tropical Cicadas 

by Allen M. Young 


Our Environment 


Plants of the World Photography Competition 27 


A 15th-century Inca wooden llama head in the Field Museum collec- 
tion from the imperial capital ofCuzco. Human populations in the 
Andes rely heavily on the llama as a source of wool, arid meat and as 
an important pack animal. Field Museum personnel are presently 
conducting extensive archaeological research in the Southern Per- 
uvian Andes. (See pages 6-17.) Photo by Fleur Hales. 

Fietd Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 89&-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum memljerstiip 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notificahon of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Memljership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. 

der offers qualified volunteers an opportunity to 
share their knowledge of natural history with 
youngsters. Weekday volunteers are also needed in 
Botany, Geology and Zoology. Contact the Volun- 
teer Coordinator at 922-9410, x360 for information. 

Special Events 

"Reel Life: Film as Art vs. Film as Documentation" 
Saturday, June11, 10:00am-5:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Ethnographic films describe the behavior of different 
cultures. This type of film is as old as cinema itself, 
(vlany of these films are considered landmarks of 
documentary filming and valuable records of native 
peoples, but are they? Do these films portray the 
"truth" about a culture or are they the personalized 
and artistic vision of the filmmaker? 

Join us for a fascinating day of film and commentary 
The program begins with "The Shadow Catcher," the 
life and work of Edward S. Curtis, followed by "In the 
Land of the War Canoes." Then Dr. Paul Hockings 
comments on the issue of film as art vs. film as 
documentation at 1:00pm. The afternoon screenings 
feature "Jaguar" by Jean Rouch and "Moana of the 
South Seas" by Robert Flaherty A complete sche- 
dule follows. 

Summer Fun 1983 

Children ages 4-12 are invited to explore Field 
Museum's collections in a series of exciting work- 
shops beginning July 5. Explore the world of Tibetan 
legends, find out how paleontologists reconstruct a 
dinosaur, see how temple dancers perform in India, 
learn the newest archaeological field methods, and 
make your own scientific illustration of a botanic 
specimen. Anthropologists, zoologists, archaeolog- 
ists, artists, dancers, and filmmakers bring their tal- 
ent and expertise to create new, informative and 
creative experiences. 

Enrollment for these workshops is limited and adv- 
ance registration must be done by mail. Call (312) 
322-8854, Monday through Friday for up-to-date 
information about Summer Fun. 

10:00am "The Shadow Catcher" (88m) 

11:30am "In the Land of the War Canoes" (44m) 
Edward S. Curtis 

1:00pm "How Do Anthropology Films Handle 

Reality" with Dr Paul Hockings, Dept. of 
Anthropology University of Illinois, 

1:30pm "Culloden" (72m) 
Peter Watkins 

2:45pm "Jaguar" (93m) 
Jean Rouch 

4:20pm "Moana of the South Seas" (85m) 
Robert Flaherty 

These films are free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 


"Creepy Features" 
Saturday and Sunday 
June 18 and 19, 1 :00 pm 
Hall 18 

Join us for fun films about bugs, beetles, and 
butterflies followed by "Bug Hunt, " a do-it-yourself 
whodunit. The films and "Bug Hunt" performance are 
free with Museum admission. Tickets are not re- 

1:00pm, "The Beekeeper" (14m) In this wonderfully 
straightfonward documentary an engaging young 
man explains his unusual job as a beekeeper 

1:15pm, "Nature Morte aux Fruits" (2m) Utilizing cut- 
out animation, this film is an irreverent study of an 
18th-century Neapolitan still life in which the agents 
of nature (caterpillars, butterflies, and larvae) con- 
sume the models (fruit, wine, and oysters.) 

1:20'pm, "The Presence" (3m) Stan Brakhage exam- 
ines the world of insects from the point of view of a 
beetle. This is an experimental film with wonderful 
close-ups of the beetle. 

1:25pm, "Don't" (19m) A "perils of Pauline" format 
dramatizes the life cycle of a monarch butterfly 

Bug Hunt:" A Do-lt-Yourself Whodunit" 
Saturday and Sunday, June 18 and 19, 2:00 pm 
Hall 18 

Children and their parents are invited to help in the 
investigation of a mystery! A monarch caterpillar has 
disappeared from a local garden. Her friends Lottie 
Ladybug, Bernice Bee, and Gullible Grasshopper 
have hired a top-notch "gumshoe" to solve the case. 
Participate in the drama as a cast of insect charact- 
ers follow the clues of the "missing monarch." 


Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. 
Free discovery tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are de- 
signed for families and adults. Check the Weekend "Passport" upon arrival for the complete sche- 
dule and program locations. These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Arts Council. 




Eskimos: Hunters of the 
North, tour 



Museum Safari, tour 


Masks, Boxes, and Bowls, 
slide lecture 



Tibet Today, slide lecture/tour 


From Catlln to Curtis, slide 



Chinese Ceramic Traditions, 

18 2:30pm 









Curtis' Vanishing People, slide 


Museum Safari, tour 

Treasures from the Totem 

Forest, tour 

Film Feature: "Audubon" 


Ancient Egypt, tour 

Tibet Today slide lecture/tour 

Life In Ancient Egypt, tour 


Program Title 





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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

Archaeological Reconnaissance in Southern Peru 

by Charles Stanish and Irene Prttzker 


Field Museum Continues Participation in Joint U.S.-Peruvian 
Research into Far-Flung Comers oflnca Empire 


photos by Robert Feldman except where indicated 

ive centuries ago the imperial armies of the Incas 
marched — and opened up a new chapter in world his- 
tory. Tahuantinsuyu, or the "Land of the Four Quar- 
ters," as the empire was called, controlled, at the 
height of its power, as many as 84 distinct provinces 
stretching 4,300 km over some of the most rugged ter- 
rain in the world. In the brief period of 97 years, the 
Incas welded dozens of ethnic groups and indepen- 
dent "nations" into a single political system that rival- 
led the Roman Empire. Like the Roman Empire, the 
success of Tahuantinsuyu lay not only in Inca military 

might, but in its administrative capacity to integrate 
these widely disparate peoples into a single political 
and economic system. 

One of the most enigmatic comers of this amazing 
realm is an area in the southwest of Peru called by the 
Incas Contisuyu, or "Land of the Setting Sun." Within 
the boundaries of Contisuyu is the modern Moquegua 
Valley, known today, and in the fifteenth century, for 
its rich agricultural produce. For years, archaeologists 
and historians have suspected that Moquegua con- 
tained enormous research potential, but problems of 

Above photo: The iowering massif of Cerro Baul dominates the ud- 
per SAoquegua Valley. This impregnable natural fortress was the 
6 site of pre-Hispanic towns dating to at least a.d. 600. 

Charles Stanish is a doctoral candidate in the Department of 
Anthropology, University of Chicago. Irene Pritzker is a coordina- 
tor of the Constisuyu Program. 

funding and organization prevented any scientific in- 
vestigations until the successful launching last year of 
Programa Contisuyu. 

Programa Contisuyu is a coordinated effort by 
Field Museum and the Peruvian Health Sciences 
Museum to research, conserve, and develop the antiq- 
uities and heritage of the Moquegua Valley. U.S. 
businessmen sponsored this cooperative scientific 
effort because they were concerned that their mining 
and industrial development was exposing a rich, but 
unstudied cultural and natural heritage. In the Jan- 
uary 1982 Bulletin we described the formation and 
goals of Programa Contisuyu, and we are pleased to 
report that the program is now supporting systematic 
archaeological surveys of the region. Here we 
summarize the first important results of these surveys 
conducted by Charles Stanish. 

Until now, we had no real idea of the nature and 
extent of Inca rule in Moquegua, although several early 
Spanish documents mentioned the valley as a major 
maize-producing zone for the Lake Titicaca region to 
the northeast. Now, for the first time, we can begin to 
sift fact from fiction. It seems that the Inca incorpo- 
rated the Moquegua region in order to expand the tax 
base of their empire. All taxes were paid in two prin- 
cipal types of labor: agricultural work on state and 
church fields, and mita — work by males on state con- 
struction projects, such as building agricultural ter- 
races, roads, or new towns. Thus, to incorporate the 
people of Moquegua within their empire, the Incas 
had to mastermind a massive reorganization so that 
labor taxes could be paid and the agricultural yields 
produced could be directed toward state and church 

Our survey began at the hilltop "fortress" be- 
lieved to be the initial site besieged by the Inca armies. 
This is the great natural massif of Cerro Baul, termed 
by ourproject the "Masada of the Andes," since 
chroniclers report that it was to its safety that the na- 
tive inhabitants retreated before they were finally sup- 
pressed by the Inca. The sprawling ruins have never 
really been documented, and although locals believe 
them to be the remains of the besieged town that the 
Inca chroniclers described, the scattered sherds of 
painted pottery among the masonry foundations indi- 
cate that most of the buildings were erected in con- 
junction with a much earlier culture that had occupied 
the valley. At best, Cerro Baul was only a strategic re- 
treat when the valley's population briefly defied the 
might of the Inca. 


There was no evidence that the great mesa was occu- 
pied at all after it was incorporated within Tahuantin- 

Members of the Proyecto Contisuyu staff examine a pit dug by trea- 
sure hunters. A goal of the project is to prevent such damage in the 
future through public participation in preserving Moquegua' s past. 

Grinding slab used to process maize, or Indian corn. These artifacts 
are found scattered throughout the archaeological sites in Mo- 

suyu; it was apparently, and sensibly, not Inca policy 
to leave newly conquered subjects occupying forts and 
strategic settings from which rebellion might spread, 
or from where it might prove difficult to extract the 
labor taxes. Our survey and mapping activities con- 
firm what is known to be a general Inca policy of 
resettling people in agriculturally productive areas. As 
we mentioned, we believe that the crown claimed title 
to all land, dividing it into three estates: church, state, 
and government land. In virtually all cases the Inca 
built an impressive town designed to house the pro- 
vincial officials, collect taxes, garrison troops, and pro- 
vide lodging for visiting dignitaries. 

Inca chronicler Garcilasco de la Vega relates that 
imperial authorities established two new towns or cit- 
ies in the area we mapped. One, called Cuchuna, was 
near the base of Cerro Baul; the other, called Mo- 
quehua, was twelve miles away. It was from the latter 
that the modern city and the Moquegua region derive 
their names. Garcilaso's accounts are not always reli- 

View of the upper Moquegua Valley. Terrace systems built centuries 
ago continue to provide a rich agricultural base for the region. 

The Mocjuegua puna, or high sierra, where several Inca period sites 
were founa. Shown here is a recently abandoned farmstead built 
over the ruins of the Inca settlement. 

Plan of the Inca adminis- 
trative center at Torata 
Alta. The Inca nobility 
probably controlled the 
affairs of the Tarata prov- 
ince from this site. 

Plan of 
Torata Alta 


Southern Peru Copper Corp. 

Museo Peruano de la Ciencias de la Salud 

Field Museum of Natural History 





?;■ Chulpas 

Dashed lines indicate 
modern constructions 

1 inch = 40 meters 

able, and we have not, as yet, been able to locate 
ancient Moquehua. It may well lie under the modem 
city, or Garcilaso may have confused or embellished 
his story. A likely candidate for Cuchuna is situated 
above the present village of Torata on a low wide hill 
about 10 km from the base of Cerro Baul. The site 
includes a village of local people and a nearby complex 

Plan of a pre-Inca village 
(north) and a set of Inca 
storehouses (south) at 
Cantata. The symmetry of 
Torata Alta (page 9) con- 
trasts sharply with that of 
the pre-Inca villages in 
Moquegua. Sharp differ- 
ences between these cul- 
tures are further reflected 
in architectural and cera- 
mic styles. 


of impressive masonry buUdings built in a radically 
different architectural style. This complex, known as 
Torata Alta, or "High Torata," shows clear evidence of 
Inca town planning with uniform, straight streets 
running in a large grid pattern, reminiscent of a Ro- 
man imperial military settlement. In fact, the gridlike 
layout of Torata Alta is rather similar to early Spanish 
towns, but in mapping the many buildings we found 
only distinctive Inca pottery, suggesting that the site 
was probably a small administrative center in the 
elaborate Inca hierarchy. 

The western half of the new town shows the 
greatest architectural uniformity. There are fourteen 
rectangular courts, delineated by streets and contain- 
ing structures that could have served to store maize, 
root crops, tubers, and other tax products collected 
from the surrounding agricultural area. 

In the north-central section of Torata Alta, a mod- 
ern soccer field occupies what may have been the main 
plaza of the complex. Plazas in Inca administrative 
centers such as Torata Alta had several functions, 
including public ceremonies which promulgated and 
displayed Inca authority as well as activities which re- 
lated to the inspection of agricultural yields that were 
either stored locally, or were transported along the 
royal highway system to other locations. In this con- 
nection it is significant that the principal street of the 
present town runs adjacent to the main plaza and exits 
out of the site onto a major ancient road; the latter runs 
through the surrounding terraced fields as it ascends 
the mountains. 

The southeast portion of Torata Alta has buildings 
with the least formal layout. This suggests that it was 
the principal residential area of the local officials and 
administrators. In recent years, treasure hunters have 
dug into the rooms and courts, unfortunately expos- 
ing ancient refuse and midden remains. 

In the south-central sector of the present town 
there are remains of at least 16 small round structures 
identified as chulpas — burial towers where people of 
distinction were interred. In the mountains northeast 

1 inch = 38 meters 



of Moquegua, the Inca and their subjects built beauti- 
ful mortuary towers of finely cut rock several stories 
high. In contrast, the chulpas of Torata Alta, which 
were looted long ago, are low and small, about 1.5 m in 
diameter and only about 1 m high in their tumbled- 
down state. This supports descriptions by Inca chroni- 
clers that while Torata Alta was the major administra- 
tive node in Moquegua, it was subservient to a larger 
hierarchy of more powerful centers. 

The Inca incorporation of Contisuyu required not 
only the management of people and labor, which Tor- 
ata Alta was designed to handle, but management of 
the agricultural fruits of their labor. From previous 
explorations in other quarters of Tahuantinsuyu, we 
know that mita labor was used to build warehousing 
complexes on the hillsides near administrative cen- 
ters. In our summer of explorations, we located and 
mapped a magnificent complex of storehouses high 
above Torata Alta on Cerro Camata, approximately 10 
km away. The suffix kamach means "govern," or 
"order." In the southern Andes there are several site 

names incorporating camata, and there is good reason 
to suspect that Camata, like Moquegua, might have 
been the original name of a location used by the Inca 
themselves or by their local subjects. 

The well preserved Camata storehouses are built 
in typical Inca architectural pattern and comprise 
banks of contiguous rooms measuring about 5 x 5 m 
each and laid out in several rows. The walls are con- 
structed of local, uncut stones, set in adobe mortar, 
and although the thatch roofing is gone, the walls still 
stand higher than a man's head. The rooms were en- 
tered through the roof by means of projecting stones 
that were built into the walls so they could serve as 
steps. To keep the agricultural produce fresh, small 
rectangular ventilator openings were built into the 
base of the walls. There are three rows of storehouses 
at Camata, and by conservatively estimating the max- 
imum height of the walls at 2 m the total potential stor- 
age capacity of the complex was on the order of 700 
cubic meters of agricultural produce. The storehouse 
rows are arranged around a small plaza that, reminis- 

A single Inca storehouse, typical of those described at the Camata 
site. It is thought that these storehouses were used to keep grain and 

other produce before being transported to other Inca settlements or 
collected by the Inca government. 


Charles Stanish 

cent of the Torata Alta main plaza, connects with a ma- 
jor Inca highway. 

Other smaller storage facilities are found along 
the road as it ascends the hills from Camata. There is a 
scattering of nearby chulpas and some well-made office 
or residential buildings that probably served officials 
concerned with management of the warehouse com- 
plex. Several kilometers to the east on the Inca royal 
highway is another set of storage facilities, also associ- 
ated with massive terraced fields. 

These storage sites may represent the most 
important feature in the economic oganization of Mo- 
quegua. We know that well before Cuzco was any- 
thing more than a small village, people from the high 
Lake Titicaca region in Bolivia maintained settlements 
or "colonies" in the valley in order to exploit the low- 
land climate and rich soils. Here could be grown 
maize, coca, and a variety of important crops that 
could not stand the nightly frosts in the mountains. 
These people built a large and expansive state known 
as Tiwanaku (See the September 1982 Bulletin.) In par- 
ticular, the Tiwanaku state was interested in Indian 
com, or maize. Maize was not only an important com- 
ponent of the Andean diet, but had ritual uses and was 
also fermented into a popular beverage known as 
chicha beer. 

After the collapse of Tiwanaku and the abandon- 
ment of highland settlement in Moquegua, we suspect 

that these economic links were continued on a less for- 
mal basis. Ethnohistoric documents from the sixteenth 
century describe Lupaqan lords from the Titicaca 
region (a small pre-Inca kingdom that continued to ex- 
ist as a vassal state of Tahuantinsuyu), as sending cara- 
vans of llamas loaded with highland goods, such as 
potatoes, to exchange for maize and marine products 
from the valleys and coast. 

When the Inca conquered the Titicaca basin, it 
was apparently necessary to continue these economic 
links with the Moquegua valley. The construction of 
the terraces and storehouses at Camata represent the 
reimposition of formalized, state-level control over the 
maize fields in the valley in a manner that was prob- 
ably not unlike that found earlier during the flores- 
cence of Tiwanaku. 

Based on this hypothesis that the Inca maintained 
this exchange route between the altiplano (the high- 
land grassland and the country where the Titicaca 
basin is located), we set out to see if any intermediate 
sites could be found. Thanks to an incredible piece of 
archaeological luck, in less than two days we found 
three very small Inca sites high in the mountains above 
the alpine limits of agriculture, near Lake Suches, a 
beautiful body of fresh cold water at 4,300 m above sea 
level. This is wild and rugged llama-herding country, 
with the most unique, savage, and magnificent scen- 
ery imaginable. Today it is almost uninhabited. 


Stone llama head from Cuzco carved for the 
Inca nobility. Such artifacts were used for 
ritual purposes and were probably intro- 
duced into Moquegua at the time of the 
Inca conquest a century or two before the 
arrival of the Spanish. 

The three small sites did not have the complex 
architecture of the valley sites, but we did find, scat- 
tered on the surface, pieces of unmistakable Inca, or 
Cuzco-inspired pottery, which was similar to that 
found in the Moquegua Valley. We also found exposed 
ash and garbage remains that indicated to us that the 
sites were small residences of some sort. Our luck con- 
tinued as we found a 1947 report by the Swedish 
archaeologist Stig Ryden, who described virtually 
identical pottery on Inca sites near the Tizvanaku area. 

The most distinctive ceramic design is that of a 
delicately stylized llama painted on the inside of 
plates. This is a common motif found throughout 
the altiplano but not as yet found in the valley. Other 
ceramics however, were common to both the Lake 
Suches sites and the Moquegua valley towns. 

Lake Suches may therefore lie on an important 
pre-Hispanic transport route between Moquegua and 
Lake Titicaca, which is situated on the border of Peru 
and Bolivia. Alternatively, these sites could have 
served as the houses of those tending flocks of llama 

Archaeological work of Con- 
tisuyu Program sheds new light 
on Incan Empire — the New 
World's counterpart, in signifi- 
cant ways, of ancient Rome 

and alpaca for the Inca state. It is also likely that the 
Suches sites functioned in both capacities. This we will 
not fully understand until we conduct future excava- 
tions. What we have done in just this preliminary sea- 
son of work is to show a probable connection between 
the Moquegua Valley and Lake Titicaca. 

A major methodological problem in defining the 
nature of the Inca expansion and administration in the 
valley is simply distinguishing Inca from non-Incas. 

A historic period hacienda near Torata built in a typical Spanish 
colonial style. After the Spanish conquest, Moquegua continued to 

be a major agricultural and wine producing area. 

Fortunately, the problem is controlled by the dramatic 
contrast between indigenous and Cuzco-inspired 
architectural and ceramic styles. Both Camata and Tor- 
ata Alta are located within 500 m of major pre-lnca or 
contemporary local villages. In both villages we see 
the stark architectural contrast of curvilinear walls and 
rooms built on terraces conforming to the general 
topographic contours of the natural hill. The series of 
passageways, perimeter walls, and controlled access 
to the interior of the sites reflect defensive or military 
considerations which are wholly absent in the Inca 


We have yet to explore or map a myriad of Inca in- 
stallations that the conquest and reorganization of the 
Moquegua region brought about. But it has become 
quite clear to us that the imposition of a new political 
and economic order required a hierarchy of state- 
founded settlements which ranged from the magnifi- 
cent administrative complex at Torata Alta, through 
the warehouses of Camata, to the herding or way sta- 
tions at Lake Suches. From flights over the more 
remote sections of the Moquegua Basin we know that 
many other architectural monuments exist and remain 
to be integrated into our understanding of the Inca 

An area of immediate concern is with the most 
ubiquitous of all the local ancient monuments: the 
andenes, or the vast systems of abandoned agricultural 
terraces from which the Andes derive their name. Tor- 
ata Alta is surrounded by these masonry-faced struc- 


Inca ceramics such as the famous aryballoid vase (opposite page, top) 
and the serving plate (opposite page, bottom) contrast with tne 
brightly colored pre-Inca Chiribaya polychromes (this page). These 
differences in material remains help us identify the age and cultural 
affiliation of the numerous archaeological sites in the valley. 

The Moquegua valley, as seen from the Inca town ofTorata Alta. The modern town ofTorata rests in the foothills of this important Inca site. 

tures; Camata sits atop them, and the Inca highway 
system crosses countless kilometers of once fertile 
farmland reclaimed by andenes. 

While the discrimination between Inca and non- 
Inca sites is a relatively simple task, the ability to dis- 
tinguish between Inca and non-Inca terrace-canal- 
field systems is much more difficult. It is critical that 
we be able to make this distinction for the following 
reason: We know that the basis of the Inca economy 
was the mita labor tax system and that it was principal- 
ly applied to agriculture and agro-engineering con- 
structions, but if we hope to understand anything 
about the economic impact of the Inca occupation and 
the process of imperial administration, it is vital that 
we can clearly determine the agricultural systems 
created by, and worked for the Inca hierarchy. 

Our surveys show that the terraces were built in a 

pattern of segmented walls, which probably reflects 

mita work units, and the Inca seem to have wisely in- 

16 vested labor taxes in making the rugged landscape 

more bountiful. Yet, why are they no longer farmed? 
Abandoned andenes encompass at least 30 percent 
more land than are farmed today in the same region. 
Reactivated, they would have a very significant eco- 
nomic impact. Yet, before this can be pursued we must 
unravel the subtle mystery of why they were aban- 
doned; otherwise, reactivation might simply lead to 
making the same mistake twice. The necessary field 
research, which vdll begin this year, involves the en- 
deavors of botanists, geologists, hydrologists, engi- 
neers, and archaeologists. 

To this end, the resources of Field Museum 
are indispensable. Utilizing the Museum's computer sys- 
tem, we will be able to apply a complex multivariate 
statistical technique to the various terrace systems in 
the valley. By measuring a number of variables, such 
as slope, height, terrace area, etc., we can mathemati- 
cally distinguish between different sets of agricultural 
systems that otherwise would be indistinguishable by 
qualitative examination. 

These mathematically distinct groups of terrace 
characteristics will, we hope, reflect differences in con- 
struction technique and engineering expertise which 
should have existed between the Inca agricultural 
engineers and their local counterparts. Likewise, the 
analysis of high-altitude photographs to define Inca 
road systems and canals should help pinpoint those 
agricultural systems built and operated by the Inca 

Our preliminary survey of last summer has raised 
far more questions than we have been able to answer, 
but we hope that future research in Contisuyu will aid 
a thorough understanding of Inca period settlement 
and agricultural land use. Through the mechanism of 
Programa Contisuyu, we hope to be able to provide a 
firm anthropological data base which can be used for 
modem agricultural expansion. 

This will be feasible, and perhaps more successful 
than previous attempts, because we will understand 
not only the mechanics of pre-Hispanic agriculture, 
but the social, demographic, and political concomi- 
tants of this complex system — factors which have been 
largely ignored by agricultural planners and gov- 
ernmental agencies seeking to rejuvenate the ancient 
systems. Past failures of multimillion dollar land 
reclamation and land reform projects throughout the 
developing world has been due, in part, to an in- 
adequate understanding of these social parameters. 

Now that Programa Contisuyu is an established 
ongoing program, future research prospects are excit- 
ing. This year we expect to discover new sites which 
will augment our current body of knowledge of the 
extent and influence of the Inca empire. D 

Abandoned terraces dominate much of Moquegua's landscape. 
Years of disuse have led to their severe erosion and damage. A goal of 
Proyecto Contisuyu is to assess the feasibility of rejuvenating some 
of these agricultural systems for the betterment of all Peru. 


Costa Rica Tour 

January 14-27, 1984 

Leader: Dn William Burger, 

Chairman of Field Museum's 

Department of Botany 


With Optional Extension 

To the Seychelles 


Seychelles Extension $1,350 

September 10-28 


A really exciting adventurous and in-depth 
safari carefully planned under the expert 
guidance of our leader, Audrey Faden This 
is the third consecutive year Audrey has led 
this tour for Field Museum She is a former 
staffer of the National Museum of Kenya 
and her keen interest in wildlife, conserva- 
tion, and plant life make her a natural to 

lead our tour If you have an inquisitive 
mind and would like to learn about the 
wildlife, ecology, and plant life, this safari 
should be your choice Photography will 
be a major objective on this tour and our 
specially equipped safari vehicles will pro- 
vide clear visibility for all participants 



^he unique itinerary of this tour, 
rarely granted by the Chinese authori- 
ties, includes the most significant sites 
of early Imperial China and will give an 
opportunity to explore in depth the 
civilization which characterizes one of 
the earth's longest-lived societies. At a 
small additional cost, you may remain 
longer in Japan at completion of the 
China tour Tour leader is Mr Phillip H. 
Woodruff, Ph.D. candidate in Chinese 
history at the University of Chicago. 
This is Mr Woodruff's 4th time as a 
Field Museum China tour leader 


October 6: Mid-day departure via Ja- 
pan Airlines on a direct flight to Tokyo's 
New International Airport (Narita) 
October 7; Afternoon arrival Trans- 
fer by private bus to the New Takanawa 

Hotel in downtown Tokyo ( 15 minutes 
by car to the Ginza). 
October 8: Morning at leisure for 
individual options. Afternoon city tour 
to see Tokyo's treasures. 
October 9: Morning transfer by pri- 
vate bus to Narita airport Depart from 
Tokyo for Beijing (Peking) Short meet- 
ing with representative of China Inter- 
national Travel Service on arrival 
October 9-27: In China. The only 
flight scheduled on our itinerary in Chi- 
na is from Beijing to Xian (Sian), the 
other transfers between cities will be via 
train. Chin&'s train schedules are more 
reliable than the air schedules, and you 
get the additional opportunity to see 
more of the countryside 

The following is our anticipated 

October 9. Enter Beijing (side trip to 
the Great Wall and the Ming Tombs),- 
October 12: Flight to Xian, October 
15: Luoyang (side trip to Longmen 

caves), October 17: Zhengzhou, Octo- 
ber 20: Kaifeng, October 22: Suzhou 
(overnight train ride), October 24: 

October 17: Depart Shanghai by air 
for flight to Tokyo. Overnight at Nikko 
Narita Hotel (near airport). Dinner at 
the hotel 

October 28: Day in Narita at leisure, 
breakfast at the hotel is included. The 
city of Narita is very lovely and interest- 
ing, and you may wish to visit the 
downtown area The hotel affords a 
lovely garden area with a snack bar and 
an outdoor swimming pool for relaxing. 
Early evening flight (6:00 p.m.) 
via Japan Airlines for Chicago, arriving 
in Chicago at 5: 15 p.m. (When we cross 
the International Date Line, we regain 
the day we "lost" en route, thus arriving 
in Chicago before we left Tokyo!) 

For further information on any tour, 
phase call Dorothy Roder at 322-8862 or 
write Field Museum Tburs. 


Ecological Studies of Tropical Cicadas 

by Allen M.Young 

• icadas are robust, plant- 
sucking insects belonging to the 
order Homoptera; among their 
closest relatives are the aphids, 
leafhoppers, and mealybugs. 
Many species are well known in 
North America for the summer- 
time habit of males chorusing in 
the treetops. 

Working in the garden during 
midsummer in the Midwest one 
may often come upon the large, 
discarded exoskeleton, or husk, of 

Newly emerged adult cicada -with husk. 

the cicada nymph — the immature, 
or growing, phase. The cast-off 
husks still cling to the leaves and 
branches of shrubs, to tree trunks 
and to fences. The female, which 
lives for a few weeks, makes a tiny 
slit in the bark of a branch and 
deposits her eggs there. After 
hatching, the young nymphs drop 
to the ground and burrow into the 
soil, where they feed on sap from 
plant roots, using a stylet-like beak. 
Depending on the species, the 

nymph stage may last anywhere 
from three to twenty years, which 
poses a difficulty for researchers 
interested in making repeated cen- 
suses of cicada populations. Yet, 
some of the most thorough 
research on cicadas has dealt with 
the North American periodical 
cicadas, the so-called "13-year" and 
"17-year" cicadas.' Among the 
most distinguished investigators of 
these were two former Field 
Museum staff members: the late 
Henry Dybas, former curator of in- 
sects, and the late D. Dwight 
Davis, former curator of vertebrate 
anatomy (whose research interests 
ranged well beyond his prescribed 

Unlike most other cicadas, the 
periodicals not only have long life 
cycles, they also emerge in popula- 
tion densities which far ex-ceed 
those of most nonperiodical spe- 
cies. The periodicals have syn- 
chronized adult hatches in a given 
region or regions, and adults of any 
particular species are generally ab- 
sent for most of the intervening 

1 . In many areas cicadas are commonly 
called locusts, a term more properly applied 
to certain grasshoppers. 

2. The next major emergence of 17-year 
cicadas in the Chicago area will take place in 
late May and early June of 1990. Just east of 
Chicago, throughout most of Indiana, west- 
em Ohio, and southernmost Michigan, a 
separate brood is scheduled to make its 
appearance in 1987. 

Allen M. Young is curator and head of the 
Invertebrate Zoology Section of the Mil- 
waukee Public Museum. 

years between emergences. It has 
been proposed that huge mass 
emergences of cicadas at intervals 
of many years is a mechanism by 
which cicadas satiate their 
predators and thus are able to sur- 
vive in greater numbers.^ 

Excepting a few species that 
are pests of sugar cane plantations 
and have come under scrutiny for 
obvious economic reasons, far less 
is known about tropical than about 
temperate region cicadas. But in 
Costa Rica (the size of Vermont and 
New Hampshire combined) there 
are far more genera and species of 
cicadas than in all the United States 
east of the Mississippi. Periodical 
cicadas with life cycles of 13 or 17 
years apparently do not occur in 
Costa Rica, nor on the other hand 
do they all seem to be annual; 
some, I suspect, have cycles of 3 to 
5 years. 

With National Science Foun- 
dation grants I had the opportunity 
to study the cicada fauna of Costa 
Rica for five years, identifying 
nearly thirty species in the north- 
ern half of that tiny country. Even 
within small areas of tropical rain 
forest I was able to find several 
genera and species of these insects 
active at different times of the year. 

With assistance from Law- 
rence University students (Apple- 
ton, Wisconsin), I censused cicada 
populations during the five-year 
period in a broad transect from the 
coastal Caribbean lowlands, into 
montane rain forests, through 
montane river gorges and coffee 
plantations, and into the decid- 
uous dry forests of the coastal Paci- 
fic region. We censused the num- 
ber of species in each locality and 
noted the timing of seasonal emer- 
gences. We also investigated emer- 
gence locations in particular sites. 

Above: A portion of Field Museum's cicada 
exhibit, showing diversity of forms. Below: 
Mounted cicada specimens, with adults 
above and nymph husks below. 


' -r 


(MiriD STkTiS 

noting whether nymphal husks 
were spread more or less evenly 
over large areas or whether they 
were clumped in small areas around 
certain tree species. 

I early found that the husks of 
different species could easily be 
identified on the basis of size, 
shape, color pattern, and prom- 
inent structures such as those on 
dorsal thoracic, or "back," areas. 
The nymphal husk is nearly a rep- 
lica of the adult, except for the ab- 
sence of fully developed wings. 
During their long development 
period underground, cicada 
nymphs molt many times in cells or 
chambers, but the final molt with 
the fully formed adult emerging, is 
aboveground. So the researcher 
who is sampling populations can 

do this with relative ease by count- 
ing discarded husks at regular 
intervals throughout the year and 
over a succession of years. The 
husks, which persist for several 
months before decomposing, pro- 
vide an accurate record of hatches. 

Within each of a dozen or so 
forest sites in the transect, I marked 
off quadrat plots and collected all 
cicada husks in them over the five- 
year period, choosing habitats 
where I observed adult cicadas in 
trees. Quadrats were selected for 
the most part at random, but with 
some consideration for sites with a 
variety of tree species large enough 
to have canopies. 

Since the area of my study had 
considerable altitude variations — 
from 30 to 1,300 meters, I found 

differences in the cicada fauna ac- 
cording to elevation and habitat. 
Differences in distribution are also 
related to ecological conditions 
such as availability of resources, 
past biogeographical events, and 
man's recent impact on tropical for- 
ests. Lowland and mid-elevation 
(so-called premontane) tropical 
rain forest sites, I found, supported 
many more genera and species of 
cicadas than the lowland tropical 
dry forest, and also produced more 
species than occur in agricultural 
zones such as coffee plantations. 
The greatest range in cicada body 
size occurs in lowland and premon- 
tane tropical rain forest. Mem- 
bers of a few genera are as small 
as 10 mm (Vio inch) long, others as 
long as 60 mm (about 2% inches). 

Much of the highland landscape of Costa Rica and other parts of Cen- 
tral America is an expanding patchwork of gulley forests and grazing 

pastures. Cicada populations in such places become largely restricted 
to forest "islands." 

Allen M. Vtxing 

Allen M. \bung 

The rain forest cicada Fidicina spinocosta 
gives off a shrill whistle-like call at dusk in 
Costa Kica. It is most commonly encoun- 
tered in dense second-growth forest, where 
the adults are well concealed by the foliage. 

At any single locality, I found 
that peak adult en\ergence periods 
occur annually for different spe- 
cies. In areas where the seasons are 
distinct, some species hatch mostly 
in the long dry season while other 
species emerge in the rainy season. 
The pattern is much the same in the 
semimoist highland forests and in 
coffee-growing areas. But in the 
lowland and foothill tropical rain 
forest zones, where differences be- 
tween the seasons are less marked, 
the patterns of annual emergence 
are more diffuse. Here, the dry sea- 
son is short and erratic, and cica- 
das do not appear to synchronize 
hatches very well with it. Yet, I 
observed that a few species always 
emerge near the end of the dry sea- 
son; and when dry conditions recur 

during the long rainy season, very 
low numbers of them appear. 

The environmental stimuli 
that synchronize tropical cicada 
hatching with wetter or drier pe- 
riods remain unknown. It is pos- 
sible, however, that nymphs 
finished with their underground 
development phase respond to 
temperature and soil moisture 
changes. Whether they respond to 
season-related changes in the 
chemistry of food plant sap re- 
mains an intriguing question for fu- 
ture research. 

It's easy to determine which 
species are active at various times 
of the year by noting their dis- 
tinctive songs. Male cicadas of 
many genera produce a song char- 
acteristic for their particular 
species. The song is produced by a 
pair of special organs, called tim- 
bals, on the dorsal side of the first 
abdominal segment. Within these 
organs, riblike bands lying in a 
membrane are vibrated by power- 
ful muscles, producing a whining 
or rasping sound that is amplified 
by large air sacs in the abdomen. 
The result, which may be audible at 
great distances, is believed to at- 
tract the female for mating. 

Because successful reproduc- 
Hon in cicadas is often linked to the 
courtship song of the male, the 
song-producing mechanism has 
been subject to a great deal of nat- 
ural selection. The song of an indi- 
vidual cicada may vary in different 
respects according to the time of 
day, and it is influenced by changes 
in temperature and in the amount 
of cloud cover. Cicadas that become 
adults, mate, and die during the 
rainy season will sing during 
cloudy weather and even in light 
rain, while dry-season species cus- 
tomarily sing only when the sun 
shines. The males of many species 
chorus in unison, usually at the 
edge of a forest or at a light-gap 
within the forest, as if to send out 
one big love signal. Thomas E. 

Moore, a noted University of Mich- 
igan cicada behaviorist, and other 
investigators have shown that a 
tape recording of a cicada's song 
played in a forest where the cicadas 
are silent can stimulate them to 
chorus in unison. 

Observing that different spe- 
cies at each of my study sites had 
distinctive songs, I arranged for 
Moore to tape-record the songs of 
species at each site. We hope to use 
behavioral data from the tapes, 
together with the morphological 
and ecological data, to construct a 
key to the cicada species of Costa 
Rica, a tool that may prove useful to 
future researchers. Many of the 
genera and species discovered in 
my samples, and occurring in col- 
lections of other biologists in Costa 
Rica, also occur in other parts of 
Central and South America. 

Cicadas have keen vision, and 

Pacarina cicadas on grass stems in an open 
pasture in Guanacaste Province, Costa 
Rica, during the rainy season. The genus 
Pacarina in Costa Rica and elsewhere in 
Central America is largely associated with 
semidry to dry pasture lands and shrub 


A choral aggregation of males o/Fidicina 

pronoe, aary season cicada, on branches 

of "madero negro," a legume tree, at the 

border of a black pepper field in Costa Rica. 

they use their large compound 
eyes in evading predators such as in- 
sectivorous birds as well as in 
recognizing members of their own 
species. In a few species of the 
genus Zammara, the males are 
splashed with vivid greens, while 
the females — in addition to being 
considerably smaller — are marked 
with a drab olive-green. Such sex- 
ual dimorphism, together with the 
loud rasp of the male, may enhance 
mate-recognition amidst the 

shaded foliage of the tropical for- 
est. But 1 have frequently observed 
birds cue into a singing male Zam- 
mara and successfully pluck it from 
a tree trunk. Lizards may also 
locate male cicadas by orienting to 
their song. But the synchronous 
chorusing of hundreds of cicadas 
over large areas of the forest may 
confuse predators. 

The "sun-down cicada," Fidici- 
na mannifera, a large-bodied spe- 
cies, is so named because it choruses 

AlenM Mbung 

for only fifteen or twenty minutes 
near sundown and occasionally for 
a brief period at sunrise. This be- 
havior is most evident in tropical 
rain forests, less so in dry forest 
areas, where adults of the same 
species can sometimes be heard at 
other hours. 

It was the sun-down cicada 
that led me to one of the most inter- 
esting aspects of cicada ecology in 
Costa Rica. When I started my 
research on these insects, I often 


Egg slits of Fidicina sericans in a dead 

AMn M. Vtoung 

Husks of two cicadas that often occur 
together tn the same patches of tropical rain 
forest in Costa Rica: Fidicina sericans be- 
low, and Fidicina mannifera above. The 
husks of different species are often easily dis- 
tinguished in the field by color and other 

found small clumps of the large, 
chocolate-brown glossy husks of 
this species beneath large legume 
trees, mostly Pentaclethra, in the 
lowland and foothill rain forest 
study sites. 

Upon closer inspection over 
several years, I found that husks of 
several species continually turned 
up beneath legume trees, while 
much less frequently were they 
found beneath other kinds of trees 
in the same forest areas. This husk- 
legume association seemed to pre- 
vail in most of the sites I studied, 
including coffee plantations. In 
Costa Rica, legume trees of the 
genus Inga are used to shade the 
coffee bushes, and I found piles of 
husks beneath the legume trees 
and between the rows of coffee 
bushes, but very few husks were to 
be found away from these trees. 

The pattern of association was 

1 also observed in rain forests 
that large-bodied species such as 
Zammara smaragdina and Fidicina 
sericans frequently place their eggs 
in dead branches and fronds of 
understory trees and palms just be- 
low the canopy of Pentaclethra. 
Thus, the cicadas seemed to be 
selectively placing their eggs very 
close to legumes. 

Although none of the cicadas 
studied appears to be periodical, it 
might be that adults from a single 
batch of eggs will emerge in differ- 
ent years, with emergences occur- 
ring annually for several years 
following the minimum period for 
development. It might also be that 
cicadas tend to use the same patch- 
es of tropical forest repeatedly for 
breeding and that the target areas 
are those with large legume trees. 

Why legumes? A very good 
question that still remains unan- 
swered. If it is to be assumed that 
there is a general pattern of co- 
occurrence, and that the legume 
trees are isolated in pastures and 
yards, the question becomes one of 
determining the adaptive signifi- 
cance of the relationship. A key ele- 
ment is that legume trees are major 
components of climax forest forma- 
tions in the tropics, but don't occur 
in temperate zone climax forests of 
the world. The relationship of cica- 
das with legume trees in the tropics 
may well be one of primordial ori- 
gin arising in the early evolution of 
complex tropical forest communi- 
ties millions of years ago. 

Since legume trees do not 
occur in temperate climax forests, 
one would not expect such an as- 
sociation in temperate zones. 
There is no apparent relationship, 
in fact, between legume trees and 
cicadas in these regions. A search 
of thousands of black locust trees 
conducted along the shores of Lake 
Michigan yielded not a single cica- 
da husk. 

Because numerous cicada spe- 
cies require long development per- 
iods, natural selection might have 
favored the feeding association of 
the nymphs with those trees that 
provide the most, or best, nutri- 
ents. Doing so might accelerate the 
growth rate of cicadas and reduce 
the length of time required for 

Enter the legumes. This plant 
family is noted for the associa- 
tion of many of its species with 
nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are in 
nodules on the roots. This is a sym- 
biotic association in which the 
plant receives nutrients from the 
soil via the metabolic pathways of 
the bacteria, and the bacteria 
receive useful waste products from 
the tree's metabolism for their own 
use. An effect of the symbiosis is a 
more nutritious sap in legumes 
than in trees without such a re- 
lationship, and it is adaptive for cica- 
das to feed selectively on the former 

Other trees with different 
symbiotic associations with fungi 
and other plants, may also be 
candidates as hosts for the tropical 
cicada. I propose that the clumping 
of cicada husks beneath legume 
trees reflects a primary host 
association of the nymphs with 
the trees' root systems, though 
nymphs may also feed on roots of 
other trees in the area. All of this is 
speculation, but is nonetheless a 
worthwhile avenue of research, 
one aimed at determining the 
mechanisms responsible for the 
relationship between host trees 
and cicadas in the forests of tropical 

When tropical forests are 
cleared away (and this destruction 
is occurring at an alarming rate) the 
availability of host trees for cicadas 
will shrink considerably, perhaps 
entirely. If the feeding association 
of nymphs with roots is a special- 
ized one, cicadas in the tropics may 
not have the ability to switch to 
new, less nutritive hosts. D 25 


Arctic Peregrine Falcon Reclassified 

The Arctic peregrine falcon, listed as an 
"endangered" species since 1970, has 
recovered sufficiently from the effects of 
environmental contaminants to be reclas- 
sified to "threatened" status, according to 
the Interior Department's U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service. 

"Endangered" means that a species is 
in danger of extinction throughout all or a 
significant portion of its range. 
"Threatened," a less dire status, means 
that a species is likely to become en- 
dangered within the foreseeable future. A 
proposal to reclassify the Arctic peregrine 
to "threatened" status has been published 
in the Federal Register. 

Data gathered by wildlife biologists 
indicate that the Arctic peregrine is not 
now endangered through a significant 
portion of its range. Levels of DDT and its 
metabolites have been decreasing in 
female peregrine falcons and the number 
of young falcons produced annually has 
increased since the mid-1970s. Strong pro- 
tective regulations, vigorous law enforce- 
ment, and relatively secure habitat have 
also contributed to the Arctic peregrine's 
improved status. 

The Arctic is one of three subspecies 
of peregrine falcons in North America. 
Arctic peregrines nest in Arctic regions 
from Alaska through Canada to Green- 
land and winter from the southern United 
States through all of Central and South 
America to central Chile and Argentina. 

A second subspecies, the American 
peregrine, was extirpated as a nesting bird 
in the eastern United States during the 
1960s and has been the subject of intensive 
recovery efforts, including release of 
captive-bred birds to the wild. The Amer- 
ican peregrine remains classified as "en- 
dangered." A third subspecies, Peale's 
peregrine, is not considered "en- 
dangered" or "threatened." 

Where Have All the Eagles Gone? 

Results of midwinter bald eagle counts 
throughout the Midwest revealed only 
508 eagles in 1983, compared to 933 in 1982 
and 835 in 1981. This is a 46 percent de- 
crease in total numbers despite more 
observers in the field, according to Eagle 
Valley Environmentalists, Inc., of Apple 
Valley, Illinois. This brings the wintering 
26 eagle population back to what it was about 

15 years ago. The reason for this tremen- 
dous reduction is unknown. It follows a 
decline in bald eagle reproduction 
throughout the upper Midwest and cen- 
tral Canada during last summer. 

Last year many people believed that 
bald eagles moved further south into 
states such as Arkansas, Mississippi, 
Texas and Oklahoma. If this were true 
then the recent mild winter should have 
allowed the eagles to stay in their more 
northern wintering areas. However, this 
does not appear to be the case, since no 
eagles were reported at Dams #2-6 on the 
Mississippi River and only a few were re- 
ported along the Wisconsin River. 

The results of this winter's count de- 
monstrates that in order to gain an 
understanding of bald eagle movements 
and population trends, there is a need for 
more intensive and more comprehensive 
studies of wintering eagles across the na- 

Florida's 'Weed Trees' Outlawed 

Three types of tree in South Florida have 
been outlawed because they are harmful 
to human health or destroy other plants 
and wildlife. 

All at one time were imported from 
abroad: the Australian pine; the mela- 
leuca, a member of the myrtle family also 
of Australian origin; and the Brazilian 
pepper, sometimes called Florida holly. 

State officials concede it may sound 
like something out of a horror film, but the 
menace is real. 

"If everyone moved out, these three 
plants would take over," said Lisbeth Britt, 
a biologist called in to help enforce Dade 
County's new Exotic Tree Ordinance. 
"The melaleucas would take over the wet- 
lands, the holly would take over the pine- 
lands and the Australian pines, the 

All three trees were introduced to 
Florida for what seemed like good ideas at 
the time. The Australian pine was used in 
the 1920s as a windbreak around citrus 
groves and because it grew so quickly. 
Melaleuca and Brazilian pepper became 
popular with landscapers. 

Now, officials say, the Australian 
pine, which can grow 10 to 12 feet a year, is 
destroying the natural habitat of turtles 
and marsh rabbits on barrier islands. 
Shallow-rooted and brittle, it is also a 

threat to human life during strong winds. 

The melaleuca, which blooms quickly 
enough to produce seed within three 
years of taking root, is a favorite nesting 
place for mice and rats. And it produces an 
oil that can cause asthmalike wheezing 
and coughing. 

The Brazilian pepper sprouts huge 
quantities of red berries, which birds scat- 
ter all over the place. Large parts of the 
Florida Everglades are overgrown, threat- 
ening the swampy area's unique natural 

Jack Ewel, a botanist at the University 
of Florida, says the imported trees, thriv- 
ing in part because of environmental dis- 
ruption, "could result in plant and animal 
communities in south Florida that the 
world hasn't seen before." 

That is not a happy thought for coun- 
ty officials, who already have to deal with 
toads, which can poison dogs and cats, 
and alligators, which occasionally turn up 
in canals and swimming pools. 

Under the ordinance, the "weed 
trees" may no longer be imported, grown, 
planted or transported in Dade County. 

Communities have begun programs 
under which residents can request free re- 
moval and replacement of Australian 
pines and melaleuca hedges. 

An Australian pine eradication pro- 
gram is under way at Cape Florida State 
Park on Key Biscayne, an island just south 
of Miami Beach. The trees are slashed and 
a herbicide is injected, killing them within 
six to eight months. 

Brazilian pepper and melaleuca are 
not so easy to destroy. Direct use of herbi- 
cide on melaleucas will cause the seed 
pods to burst and scatter. Brazilian pepper 
stumps and roots put out new suckers 
almost as soon as the trunks have been 
sawed off. 

Floridians have only themselves to 
blame, Mr. Ewel says. Not only were the 
"exotics" imported by people, but disrup- 
tion of the natural environment by devel- 
opers and farmers has also helped them 
spread so rapidly, he says. 

A team of University of Florida biol- 
ogists found, for example, that it was 
almost impossible to establish the Brazil- 
ian pepper in an undisturbed forest. 

Ewel says that since southern Florida 
is so young, geologically speaking, it is not 
fully populated by naturally spreading 
plants and animals, and imported ones 
become naturalized as they find "niches" 
in the ecosystem. 

Plants of the World 
Photography Competition 1983 

The exhibit "Plants of the World" will open at Field Museum on 
September 24. In celebration of flowers and the exhibit opening, 
the tVluseum announces the Plants of the World Photography 
Competition, cosponsored by Field Museum, Standard Photo, Helix 
Ltd. , and Astra Photo Service. All members who are photographers 
(regardless of residence) as well as non-member photographers in 
the Chicago metropolitan area may submit slides of flowers and 
plants without any further restrictions on subject matter — any 
subject in the realm of the plant (kingdom is acceptable. The 

Winning photographs will be featured in the October Bulletin and in 
Gallery Nine, September 23 through October 1 1 . An individual 
membership to Field Museum accompanies the award. The 
Museum reserves the right to publish, exhibit, and use for promotion 
the winning photographs. The decision of the judges is final. 

Six Honorable Mentions will be on exhibit and receive 
memberships. Winners of Certificates of Selection will also be on 

Judges: Dr. William Burger, Chairman, Department of Botany 
Field Museum: John Alderson, award-winning commercial 
photographer, columnist and critic, Chicago Sun-Times', and Ron 
Bailey award winning photographer, Chicago Tribune. 


Competition is open to photographers in the Chicago metropolitan 
area (Cook, Lake, McHenry Kane, DuPage, and Will counties) and 
all museum members. Employees of Field Museum and the 
cosponsor and their immediate families are not eligible. 


A completed entry form and entry fee of $5.00 must accompany 
each entry of one to three 35mm color slides. Entrants may submit 
three entries of 1 to 3 slides each (a maximum of 9 slides for the 

Entry forms are also available at Field Museum's information Desk. 
The form may be photocopied for additional entries. 

competition is divided into two age groups: Group I entrants must 
be under 17 years old as of August 1, 1983: Group II entrants must 
be 1 7 years or older as of August 1 , 1 983. To enter, complete the 
form below. Slides must not be mounted in glass. Only original 
slides that have not been published are acceptable. Indicate the 
proper slide orientation for projection with a dot in the upper right 
corner of the mounting on the non-emulsion side, together with your 
name and slide title. Please make your check payable to Field 


Entries will be accepted between August 1 and 15. Mail to: 

Field Museum Photography Competition 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605 

Pack entries with care. Field Museum assumes no responsibility for 
damage or loss in shipment, delivery and/or return. 


Enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope for return of entries. 
Entries not so accompanied will be discarded. Field Museum 
assumes no responsibility for damage or loss in return mail. 


• Grand prize: Minolta XD11 camera with 50mm 1.7lens: photo will 
also appear as cover illustration for October 1983 Field Museum 

• First prize: (Group I) Helion all-weather rubber-coated 8x10 
binoculars: (Group II) weekend trip to Horicon Marsh to view 
Canadian goose migration. 

• Second prize: (Group I) $50 worth of film processing: (Group II) 
$100 worth of film processing. 

• Third prize: (Group I) Helix 101 flash unit: (Group II) Kamrac 
camera bag. 

• Certificates of selection. 

Entry Form; Plants of the World Photography Competition 

This form must accompany all entries. Use the guidelines above as a checklist. 



-Daytime phone- 


Group I- 


Zip Code 

Group II- 

Enclose $5.00 check or money order payable to Field Museum of Natural History. 

I understand and agree to the conditions of the contest as stated in the above guidelines. 

Signature: — Oa\e: 


Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor! Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Allen Ambrosini 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnellev II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugoj. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H.Mitchell 
JohnM. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 


July/August 1983 
Volume 54, Number 7 

July and August Events at Field Museum 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Biennial Report, 1981-82 


Sites of field work by Field Museum scientists around the world in 
1981-82, the period covered by this biennial report. Each blue dot 
identifies the location of field work bv one of the Museum's anthro- 
pologists, botanists, geologists, or zoologists. For more on these 
activities see the Collections and Research sections of this report. 

Field Muinm of Natural History Bullrtin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Ctiicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum memtiership 
includes Bulletin sut>scnption. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410 Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. 1SSN:0015-0703. 

The nine sculptures shown in this report ai^ the work of Henry Bering (1874- 
1949), and were commissioned for the Field Museum building and completed, 
for the most part, in 1918. Those shown on pages 20, 21, 23, and 25 are relief 
sculptures on the building "s exterior, and represent the Museum's four curatorial 
departments. The sculpture on Jjage 28 is one of four identical pieces — so-called 
caryatids — that serve as roof-supporting columns on the four small porches 
flanking the north and south entrances. They are paired with an equal number 
of nearly identical statues. The two types differ mainly in stance. The statues on 
pages 30, 32, 34, and 36, representing "Nature," "Record," "The Dissemination 
of Knowledge," and "Research," are in the four comers of Stanley Field Hall. The 
exterior pieces are of Georgian white marble, the inside ones of plaster. All are 
done at the same scale — about twice life-size. Hering also did the medallion 
with lion's head center that is repeated several times inside the building and out, 
as well as gargovle-like lion's heads, in terra cotta, also to be seen at several 
points along the eaves. 


Summer Evening with Star Gods 

A joint program with the Adier Planetarium 

Saturday, July 30 or Sunday, July 31 

4:45pm, James Simpson Theatre, \Afest Entrance 

Native North Americans were as fascinated with the 
night skies as we are today. From their fascination with 
the heavens and beliefs about the universe grew a 
cosmology that colored and shaped their lives. Bring 
the family and join us as we enter the world of the Star 

The evening begins in James Simpson Theatre with 
a brief orientation to the cultures of selected North 
American Indians including the Pawnee, the Hopi, 
and tribes of the Northwest. Then take an after-hours 
trip to the Museum's North American Indian halls, the 
Pawnee Earth Lodge, and related Indian exhibits. 
Examples of the traditions, astronomical legends, 
and cultures of these early Americans are highlighted 
as you browse through the exhibits. 

At 5:45pm, wander down the mall to the Planetarium 
and enjoy a picnic supper on the plaza. Families are 
invited to bring their own picnics or reserve a chicken 
box supper 

After the picnic, we enter the Planetarium Sky Theatre 
and Phyllis Pitluga, senior astronomer, takes us on a 
special trip to the skies of the Star Gods as they were 
seen from the prairies of the Pawnee Indians to the 
shores of the Northwest Coast centuries ago. Follow- 
ing this special show, everyone is invited to visit the 
"Star Gods of the Ancient Americas." The Planetarium 
hosts this traveling exhibit from the Museum of the 
American Indian, New York City, through September 
12. The show presents the ancient astronomical lore of 
five native American cultures with more than 150 spec- 
tacular archaeological artifacts. 

Members: $3.00 
Nonmembers: $5.00 
Box Suppers: $4.00 
Section A: Saturday July 30 
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weel< before program, tickets will be field in your name at West 

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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field f\/luseum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Dnve 
Chicago. IL 60605-2497 


Family Feature, July 
"The Simple Cell, Not So Simple" 
Saturday and Sunday, July 9 and July 10 
1:30pm, Lecture Hall I, West Entrance 

The cell is the basic unit of all living things. Some cells 
are separate microscopic organisms which can per- 
form all the activities necessary for their own survival. 
Although these organisms are single cells, they are 
not "simple." They have been evolving for millions of 
years and each species has adapted to its tiny corner 
of the environment. Use microscopes to explore a hid- 
den world and find out about the lives of these fasci- 
nating organisms which thrive in the air, in water, and 
even in yourself. 

"Arctic Antics" 

Saturday, August 6, 1:00pm 

Hall N— North (Marine Mammals Exhibit) 

Ground Floor 

Dress as your favorite polar pal (penguins are easy) 
and come to see Field Museum's films concerning life 
in and out of the Arctic waters. Listen to the sounds of 
a humpback whale in our underwater environment and 
take a close look at the social lives, habitats and com- 
munication systems of penguins, sea otters, whales, 
and sea lions. 

1:00pm, "Six Penguins" (5m) In this delightful puppet 
animation, six friendly penguins help rescue a whale 

that is stuck in ice shards. Later, the whale returns the 
favor and rescues the penguins from a polar bear 

1:10pm, "Otters: Clowns of the Sea" (14m) An otter pup 
is lost and dramatically reunited with its mother in a 
film that documents this creature's unique abilities, 
including food gathering and using tools. 

1:25pm, "Beluga Baby" (25m) Watch the drama of the 
struggle for life of a baby beluga whale, born in cap- 
tivity at the Vancouver Aquarium in British Columbia. 

2:00pm, "The Sea Lions" (9m) Take a look at the lives 
of sea lions; sunbathing, swimming, and nuzzling 

Family Feature, August 

"Hopi Sand Painting" 

Saturday and Sunday, August 27, 28 

1:00pm, Hall 7, Indians of SW United States 

The farming people of the deserts of the American 
Southwest depend upon rain for their crops to grow. 
Sand paintings are made on the ground to influence 
powerful spirits to bring rain, plentiful crops, and other 
beneficial things to man. Sand of many colors, corn 
pollen, and crushed flower petals are used to "paint" 
symbols of the sun, stars, clouds, snakes, or spirits. 
Learn about the lives and ceremonies of the Hopi and 
design your own colorful sand painting. 

Weekend ^ach Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 

Pmnratnc discovery tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for 

rrograms families and adults. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 

locations. These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 




1 :30pm Tibet Today, slide lecture/tour 
1 2:30pm Museum Safari, tour 


6 1 1 :00am 

14 12:30pm 

20 1 :30pm 


Ancient Egypt, tour 

Museum Safari, tour 

Esl<imos: IHunters ofttie North, 

1 :30pm Treasures from the Totem Forest, 

1 2:30pm Museum Safari, tour 
1 :00pm Life in Ancient Egypt, tour 


Plants of the World 
Photography Competition 1983 

The splendid exhibit "Plants of the World" opens at 
Field l\/luseum on Saturday September 24. Over 400 
plant models, 5 magnificent dioramas, and thirteen 
large murals are included in this exhibit. 

In celebration of this exhibit opening, the Museum 
announces the Plants of the World Photography Com- 
petition. Photographers who are Field Museum mem- 
bers or who live in the Chicago metropolitan area are 
encouraged to submit 35mm slides of any subject in 
the realm of the plant kingdom. Entries will be 
accepted between August 1 and August 15, 1983. 

For further information and entry form, see page 43. 

Field Museum of Natural History Biennial Report 1981-82 

Dedicated to 
E. Leiand Webber 

After thirty years of extraordinary leadersfiip, Lee Webber became president 
emeritus of Field Museum on August 31, 1981. For two decades, fie served as 
director and president, providing basic direction and strengtfi in all areas of 
Field Museum operations. During tfiose years fie developed a strong financial 
base for tfie Museum, significantly improved tfie pfiysicai plant, and stimulated 
important programmatic development. His leadersfiip secured for Field 
Museum a continuing place among the foremost natural history institutions of 
the world. 

Lee Webber is a museum leader in Chicago and in the United States. As 
the dean of Chicago museum executives, his counsel is sought by his city col- 
leagues. As a national leader, he serves as chairman of the Legislative Commit- 
tee of the Association of American Museums, and has been a member of the 
National Council for the Arts and the Institute of Museum Services. He earlier 
chaired the commission which formulated the Belmont Report, the landmark 
statement on American museums. 

In addition to his museum leadership, Lee Webber is a dedicated volun- 
teer and advocate on behalf of all nonprofit organizations. He continues his 
commitment to Field Museum as special adviser to the president and is 
actively involved in a variety of Chicago civic concerns. 

In every way Lee Webber sets the example for the future of Field Museum. 
We esteem him as the modern builder of this great institution. 





J J^m 


1 1 



Unlike most contemporary museums, Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History remains true to the original Platonic idea of a 
museum as a place of speculation and research in conjunc- 
tion with collections. Natural history collections contain the 
direct evidence of being. Field Museum deals with the rela- 
tionship of life and things on this planet, cataloguing and 
explaining the enduring and fundamental nature of our liv- 
ing together 

Field Museum collects, studies, exhibits, and teaches. 
It combines the sciences, humanities, and arts through 
anthropology, botany geology and zoology In its mission. 
Field Museum ranges from a children's museum to an ad- 
vanced institute of international importance. 

The Museum's concerns are worldwide in terms of nat- 
ural phenomena and human history. Scholars and visitors 
come from around the globe to learn. At any one time, some 
100,000 items from the collections are on loan for study and 
exhibit. The Museum's curators are engaged in research on 
every continent, as the cover of this report depicts. The peo- 
ple of Chicago and Illinois are the special beneficiaries of 
this center of learning. 

The 1981-82 biennium was a time of significant ad- 
vancement for the Museum. We are deeply indebted to the 
many individuals, businesses, foundations and governmen- 
tal agencies which made these programs possible 
through their generous contribution of time and funds. We 
are pleased to present this report of our most recent bien- 
nium, documenting in brief collections, research, teaching, 
exhibition, publications, and other significant achievements 
of the people who made Field Museum strong during that 

People, not structures, make a great museum. Field 
Museum is staff, trustees, volunteers, members, donors, 
visitors, and taxpayers. All have made the 1981-82 Biennium 
a time of accomplishment for the Museum. 

Nearly 400 staff members devote themselves to con- 
ducting the day-to-day activities of this diverse institution. In 
addition to the thirty-five members of the curatorial staff, 
there were nearly 100 staff members engaged in various 
aspects of research and collection management. The 
Department of Education staff of twenty-four provides edu- 
cational programs and public events which benefit thou- 
sands. The Exhibition Department provides the aesthetic 
and design dimension enjoyed by all visitors. 

Physically the largest museum in Chicago, nearly a mil- 
lion square feet were well cared for and provisioned by the 

Top to bottom: Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, Department 
of Geology, explores ice cave, Devon Island: Carolyn fvloore, 
Volunteer Department of Anttiropology v^ltti Japanese lacquer- 
ware on view in Hall 32: Timottiy Plowman, assistant curator 
Department of Botany (right, witti Tony Swain, Boston University), 
collecting specimens in Upper Amazon region: Division of Mam- 
mals preparators Jean Sellar and IVIictiael Reed (left and center), 
witf) Assistant Curator Bruce D. Patterson, fiold tusk of Ziggy ttie 
Brookfield Zoo elepliant wtio died in 1975. Tfie elephant's skeleton 
was added to the collection. 


responsible staff. Visitors Services and Security staff were 
cordial hosts to visitors as well as round-the-clock guard- 
ians of the Museum's treasures. The Engineering staff con- 
served energy and met the varying needs of the seasons, 
night and day Maintenance kept the building sound and 
attractive. And Housekeeping provided a bright, inviting 
environment in which our visitors could participate and en- 
joy the vast storehouse of knowledge that is Field Museum. 

Visitors and connoisseurs alike were intrigued by the 
Museum's store. People enjoyed lunches and dinners in our 
dining facilities. We were also the venue for many of Chi- 
cago's great social and civic affairs. 

Our Membership and Public Relations departments 
along with the Bulletin, Fieldiana, Mailing and Printing Ser- 
vices kept us in close touch with our many constituencies. 
The Tours program offered exciting journeys. The Develop- 
ment staff enlisted the financial support of corporations and 
individuals; while the Financial Department saw to it that our 
bills were paid and our budget balanced. 

The work of the Museum was also carried on by 
enthusiastic and able volunteers; the gift of time is as vital to 
the mission of the Museum as the gift of funds. The Women's 
Board has provided both. Happily our corporate and indi- 
vidual donors of funds increased in number and in size of 
their contributions. Chicago, Illinois and American taxpay- 
ers demonstrated their steadfast commitment to the 
Museum through their governmental grants. 

The governance of Field Museum rests with the Board 
of Trustees. During the Biennium, 33 individuals served as 
trustees and life trustees. William G. Swartchild, Jr sen/ed 
with distinction as Chairman of the Board. He provided 
imaginative and dedicated leadership. In addition, he was 
recognized as a national leader among museum trustees. In 
January, 1982, James J. O'Connor, Chairman of the Board of 
Commonwealth Edison Company was elected chairman. 
He is demonstrating his vision and commitment to the future 
of this museum through his outstanding leadership as chair- 

Two distinguished life trustees of Field Museum died 
during 1982. William McCormick Blair served as trustee 
from 1939 to 1972 and Paul W. Goodrich from 1966 to 1980. 
Each in his own way made enduring and vital contributions 
to the advancement of the Field Museum. We are ever 
indebted to them both. 

On September 1, 1981, Willard L. Boyd succeeded E. 
Leiand Webber as president of Field Museum. Boyd came 
from the University of Iowa, where he served as president 
and professor of law. He also served as a member of the 
National Council on the Arts, chairman of the American 
Association of Universities, chairman of the Section on Legal 
Education of the American Bar Association, chairman of the 
Center for Research Libraries, and as a member of the 
Advisory Board of the Metropolitan Opera. 

Those who joined the scientific staff during the bien- 
nium included Bruce D. Patterson, appointed assistant 
curator of mammals in 1981; Peter Crane, named assistant 

James J. O'Connor (above) and William G. Swartchild, Jr. 


William Tumbull. curator of fossil mammals, with titanothere jaw- 
bone from Washakie Basin (Wyoming). Tumbull has found there 
about 20 relatively complete skulls of this ancient relative of the 
horse, which roamed that region 42-46 million years ago. 

curator of paleobotany in 1982; and James S. Ashe, 
appointed assistant curator of insects in 1982. 

Donald Skinner, who had been acting department 
head, was named chairman of the Department of Exhibition 
in 1981; and Glen H. Cole, curator of Old World prehistory, 
was appointed chairman of the Department of Anthropology 
in 1982, succeeding Phillip H. Lewis in that post. Andrea G. 
Bonnette was named to the new post of vice president. Fi- 
nance and Museum Services, as part of a reorganization of 
the l\^useum's administrative structure. Joann Thorson was 
appointed to the new post of manager of Financial Oper- 
ations and Patricia Parks joined the staff as administrator of 
Human Resources (as the Personnel Department was 

Retiring staff members included Eugene S. Richard- 
son, curator of invertebrate fossils, who left in 1982 and died 
on January 21, 1983; and Hubert A. Homan, manager of Per- 
sonnel, who left in 1981 and died on March 25, 1983. Curator 
Emeritus of Insects Henry Dybas died on October 5, 1981; 
he had served on the staff from 1941 to 1980. Former chief 
curator of zoology Austin L. Rand died on November 6, 
1982. Rand had been a Field Museum staff member from 
1947 to 1970. 

Our visitors have enlivened our days and Biennium. We 
are grateful to the thousands of people who have made 
1981-82 such an exciting Biennium for Field Museum. 

We are our institutions, their successes are our 

Museum collections of anthropological, biological, and 
geological specimens are banks for storage and retrieval of 
basic information. They are the tangible and permanent 
sample and record of the earth, its biota and, in the case of 
human culture, the documentation and record of man and 
society. They provide an indispensable source of informa- 
tion for an ever-increasing number of scientific and educa- 
tional, governmental users. Field Museum's collections and 
libraries are the primary basis for research efforts of the 
staff, associates, and a very large professional and lay con- 
stituency The collections are also the nucleus and primary 
source of excellence in the Museum's exhibition programs, 
and they serve a diversity of educational needs, including 
the varied programs of the Department of Education. The 
assembling and maintenance of collections are basic 
reasons for the very existence of the natural history museum. 

The Museum's collections increased by some 516,000 
specimens during the 1981-82 biennium. The Anthropology 
collection grew in size to a total of 410,500 specimens with 
the acquisition of 2,650 items. These were included in 80 
accessions through gifts, purchases, and exchanges. The 
Geology collection grew by the addition of 48,000 speci- 
mens, mostly collected by members of the department. Im- 
portant additions also occurred as gifts from 100 individual 
and corporate donors. A total of 48,272 specimens were 
accessioned by the Department of Botany during the bien- 
nium. Most were from the neotropics (New World tropics), 
the area of the department's particular strength. 


The collections of the six divisions of the Department of 
Zoology grew by a total of 417,245 specimens in 1981 and 
1982 (Insects: 266,315; Invertebrates: 54,164; Fishes: 
87,922; Birds: 4,390; Amphibians and Reptiles: 3,153; Mam- 
mals: 1,301). Collection additions follow clearly stated de- 
partmental accession priorities, which are designed to 
strengthen existing collections. 

Today most basic research is done in university or gov- 
ernmentally supported laboratories. Field f\/luseum is the ex- 
ceptional independent research institution. Its research is 
significant in the biological and earth sciences and in 

Anthropology The principal research of Bennet Bronson 
during 1981-82 concerned preindustrial iron metallurgy of 
Asian cultures (a collaborative study with Prof. William 
Rostoker of the University of Illinois at Chicago). 

Glen Cole continued working on a report concerning 
the Chaminade School Prehistoric Site, in Malawe. He com- 
pleted study of the artifacts recovered from the excavations 
and continued a statistical analysis. In another continuing 
project, Cole gathered data and analyzed artifacts from the 
Isimila Prehistoric Site in Tanzania. He also resumed work 
on sediment analysis of material from the Nsongezi Pre- 
historic Site in Uganda. 

Alan Kolata's fieldwork and writing focused on two very 
different regions of the Andes: the Bolivian highland plateau 
and Peru's desert coast. He also made surveys of archae- 
ological sites related to the Pre-Columbian empire of 
Tiwanaku around Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. 

Phillip Lewis did field work in Lossu Village, northern 
New Ireland, from May through August, 1981, revisiting an 
area he had studied in 1953-54 and in 1970. The 1981 work, 
funded by an NBA Fellowship for Museum Professionals, in- 
volved observations of malanggan memorial ceremonies 
and updating the village census and map — data that will 
provide a historical view of the village settlement pattern 
back to 1929. 

The research of Michael Moseley and Robert Feldman 
focused on analysis of agrarian collapse in Peru. Two 
physical processes, they report, are implicated in Andean 
agrarian collapse. The basic contributory process is gra- 
dual uplift of the Pacific watershed related to high rates of 
tectonic activity along the Andean continental margin. The 
continental margin is being underthrust by the sea floor at 
rates of 10 centimeters (2.54 inches) per year or more, caus- 
ing ground slope changes. The second process involves 
rare, but recurrent torrential rains, which are caused by El 
Nino perturbations of normal and meteorological currents. 
When major rain falls do occur — as in 1925 and 1982 — they 
fall upon steep, unvegetated land surfaces that have ex- 
perienced tectonic destabilization. As a result, drainage 
systems flood, producing extensive and intensive erosion 
and mass wasting. 

Phyllis Rabineau began a research project on the cos- 
tumes used during contemporary American Indian dances. 

Glen Cole, curator of Old World prehistory, with "Middle Stone Age" 
artifacts from Nsongezi (East Africa). 


Christine Niezgoda. assistant in Department of Botany, with scan- 
ning electron microscope. The SEM is used extensively by all sci- 
entific departments. 

conducting research at the Huntington Library, Pasadena, 
California, where she located notes and photographs of 
Grace Nicholson. Most of Field Museum's northern Califor- 
nian ethnographic materials were collected by Nicholson, 
who was probably the source for most of the Museum's 
Homer Sargent basket collection. 

John Terrell, in February 1981, took a six-month leave 
of absence to be Visiting Senior Fulbright Lecturer and 
Research Scholar at the University of Auckland in New Zea- 
land. While there he taught a course on Pacific prehistory. 
He also continued to research and write a book concerning 
Science and Prehistory in the Pacific Islands (the proposed 
title). Terrell took another leave of absence, beginning in 
August 1982, to serve as Visiting Professor of Human Ecol- 
ogy at the State University of New York in Binghamton. 

James W. VanStone completed research on the 
Museum's collection of Northern Athapaskan clothing and 
on the collection of Montagnais material culture made by 
Frank G. Speck. He completed research on the collection of 
Plains Cree material culture made by the late S.C. Simms, 
and did research on Southern Tutchone clothing and ter- 
ritorial groups in west-central Alaska before 1898. VanStone 
also initiated research on the William Duncan Strong collec- 
tion of Naskapi material culture. 

In 1982, shortly after the completion of the Maritime 
Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast exhibit (Hall 10), 
Ronald Weber was named an Anthropology research asso- 
ciate. He researched the Lt. George Emmons collection 
of Tlingit basketry. This research also involved editing 
Emmons' notes on the collection for possible publication. 
Weber was involved in Amazonian prehistory research 
as well. 

Before leaving the Museum in 1981, Donald Whitcomb 
traveled to Egypt to conduct fieldwork. He also prepared 
for publication a preliminary excavation report on Quseir 
al-Qadim and a final excavation report of Qasr-i Abu Nasr. 


Botany. The primary objective of botanical research at 
Field Museum is classification and nomenclature. This 
means getting related specimens together in realistic 
categories (e.g., genera, species), then determining that 
they have the right names. This work is generally done in 
two ways; by working with a specific group of plants to 
produce monographs and revisions, and by working in 
a specific region to produce a flora; both are done at Field 
Museum. The geographic areas of concentration are Vera- 
cruz (Mexico), Costa Rica, and Peru. Groups studied 
intensively include the coca family several groups in the 
sunflower family the puffball (fungi) family and Southern 
Hemisphere liverworts. 

Of the permanent staff, William Burger studied the flora 
of Costa Rica and flowering plant evolution, Michael Dillon 
studied the Compositae family and the flora of Peru, John 
Engel studied liverworts of the Southern Hemisphere, not- 
ably Tasmanian liverworts, Timothy Plowman studied the 
Coca family and worked on ethnobotany of the Upper Ama- 
zon Basin, Patricio Ponce de Leon worked on the puffball 


family and mushroom identification. Four visiting curators 
were also actively engaged in research: Kerry Barringer 
(flora of Costa Rica), Sylvia Feuer-Forster (pollen studies), 
Michael Huft (flora Mesoamericana) and Michael Nee (flora 
of Veracruz). 

Important useful plants have, in many cases, had long 
histories and have often been grown and prepared in a vari- 
ety of ways. The leaf of the Coca tree fits this pattern, and 
there is archaeological evidence that it has been used for 
thousands of years. Chewing coca leaves has made it pos- 
sible for people to work effectively at very high altitudes in 
the Andes mountains. Timothy Plowman continued to study 
the ethnobotany of coca with chemists, archaeologists, 
anthropologists, and medical researchers, in unraveling the 
many aspects of this fascinating plant. 

In studying the medicinal plants of the Upper Amazon 
forests. Plowman points out that the native Amazonians are 
remarkably astute; they soon realize that modern "western" 
medicines are very effective. Unfortunately they are coming 
to eschew their native medicines as they shift to modern 
pharmaceuticals. While this is reasonable to them, it is dis- 
turbing to us, for they are abandoning plant-derived medi- 
cinals, some of which have never been investigated by sci- 
ence. There is a strong likelihood, Plowman emphasizes, 
that we may thus lose important knowledge that might 
otherwise lead to effective new medicines for all of us. 
Salvaging this rapidly disappearing knowledge should have 
high priority but the active cooperation of botanists, anthro- 
pologists, and chemists is required. 

Geology Research topics pursued by Geology staff in 
1981-82 included: Origin of frogs (by John Bolt); evolution 
of the ear and hearing in amphibians (Bolt); computer sim- 
ulation of tooth replacement in reptiles and amphibians 
(Bolt); paleobotany and evolution of the birch family in the 
northern hemisphere (Peter Crane); structure and function 
of reproductive organs in early flowering plants from several 
localities in the U.S. (Crane); morphology evolution, and re- 
lationships of fossil algae from the Paleozoic era (Matthew 
Nitecki); search for an iridium anomaly, which would be in- 
dicative of a meteorite impact, associated with a major 
extinction event 350 million years ago (Edward Olsen); 
evolution of the solar system as inferred from study of a new 
kind of carbonaceous meteorite (Olsen); computer simula- 
tion of growth in a group of fossil invertebrates (David 
Raup); quantitative analysis of evolutionary patterns 
throughout the fossil record (Raup); evolution of the mamma- 
lian fauna in a great intermontane basin in Wyoming 45 mil- 
lion years ago (William Turnbull); anatomy of the ear region 
in an early mammal from China (Turnbull); changes in the 
composition and orientation of mineral grains during 
deformation (Bertram Woodland). 

A ten-day field trip by Peter Crane to the Potomac 
Group of the Atlantic coastal plain produced sediment sam- 
ples with well preserved plant material for detailed examina- 
tion in the laboratory This yielded a diverse and interesting 
sub-macro-fossil flora of conifers, ferns, gingkophytes, 

Jin Yu-gan, of the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Paleontology, 
studied Mississippian brachiopods at Field Museum under the 
Department of Geology's Visiting Scientist Program in 1981. 



Robert Timm, assistant curator and head, Division of Mammals, 
measures warthog teetti. 

cycadophytes, and angiosperms. The angiosperm remains 
in the samples are currently some of the oldest of all flower- 
ing plants known. 

In the fall of 1981 Matthew Nitecki was a guest scientist 
of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Most of his time was 
spent at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics in 
Academgorodok in Novosibirsk, where he worked with 
Soviet paleontologists on problematic Lower Paleozoic fos- 
sils. He also studied Paleozoic algae at the Paleontological 
Institutes in Leningrad and Moscow. 

In the summer of 1981 Olsen was part of a four-man 
expedition to the Canadian arctic islands to search for 
meteorites on two ice caps. Because meteorites are very 
well preserved in cold conditions, the ice cap in Antarctica 
has yielded thousands of fragments of them. The ice caps 
on Greenland and in the Canadian arctic will probably also 
be sources of these objects. However, heavy melting con- 
ditions (which permits meteorites to sink into the ice) were 
encountered, and no meteorites were found. 

William Turnbull spent two seven-week seasons in the 
Washakie Basin (Wyoming) in relation to the systematic 
study of the mammalian fauna. 

Bertram Woodland did fieldwork to support the 
research involved collecting in the Upper Peninsula of 
Michigan and in North Wales and the Southern Uplands of 
Scotland. The research of these staff members was sup- 
ported by the following field work and research trips: 

John Bolt spent three weeks in 1981 in the Lower Per- 
mian (275 million years ago) of Oklahoma and the Upper 
Triassic (200 million years ago) of Texas and three weeks in 
the Upper Triassic of Arizona. In 1982, he spent a month in 
12 the Upper Triassic of Arizona (Petrified Forest National 

Park). (His interest in the Triassic stems from his conclusion 
that ancestors of the modern amphibian orders are likely to 
be found in the Triassic — so far the earliest modern amphib- 
ians, with a single possible exception, are from the Juras- 
sic.) The Petrified Forest yielded a rich quarry, but the pres- 
ence of modern-type amphibians is, of course, not certain. 

Twelve researchers participated in the Visiting Scientist 
program in the Department of Geology during the biennium, 
six each in 1981 and 1982. K.S.W. Campbell, Department of 
Geology, The Australian National University, Canberra, stud- 
ied Paleozoic lungfishes (of which Field Museum has a 
good collection), and Silurian and Devonian trilobites. 
George McGhee, Department of Geological Sciences, 
Rutgers University, worked on mathematical description 
and simulation of shell growth and on the paleocology and 
evolution of Late Devonian marine communities. Glenn Mer- 
rill, Department of Geology, The College of Charleston, 
Charleston, South Carolina, worked on depositional history 
of black shales of the Illinois Basin. Colin Patterson, Depart- 
ment of Paleontology, British Museum (Natural History), 
worked on a handbook of Paleoichthyology and other proj- 
ects. Siegfried Rietschel, director, Landessamlungen fur 
NatiJrkunde Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, West Germany, worked 
on receptaculitids (fossil algae) with Matthew Nitecki. W.D.I. 
Rolfe, Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland, studied 
Paleozoic arthropods, especially from the Mazon Creek 
faunas. Jin Yu-Gan, Nanjing Institute of Geology and 
Paleontology, AcademiaSinica, studied Mississippian 
brachiopods. Antoni Hoffman, Institut fur Geologie und 
Palaontologie, Tubingen, West Germany, worked on evolu- 
tion of marine ecosystems. 

Zoology. Members of the scientific staff of the Museum's 
largest department, Zoology, were also involved in diverse 
research activities. Alan Solem, of the Division of Inverte- 
brates, worked principally on species diversity of New Zea- 
land land snails and on the morphology of certain Australian 
land snails. 

In the Division of Insects, John Kethley worked on tech- 
niques for recovering mites from bird skins in the Museum 
collection and on a revision of the classification of certain 
mite groups. Larry Watrous reviewed classification of cer- 
tain genera in the beetle family Tenebrionidae. In the Divi- 
sion of Fishes, Donald Stewart worked on the systematics 
and ecology of fishes of the Upper Amazon Basin and on 
revision of the catfish genus Cheirocerus. Robert K. John- 
son worked on the systematics, morphology, interrelation- 
ships, and larval development, notably in fishes of the Gulf 
of Honduras. 

In the Division of Birds, John Fitzpatrick completed a 
study of the Florida scrub jay. Fitzpatrick and David Willard 
studied population densities and distribution of Eastern 
Great Lakes birds. Ongoing projects included studies of fly- 
catcher morphology and ecological studies of certain Peru- 
vian birds. In the Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
Robert F. Inger worked on variation in flying lizards and on 
the morphology of certain frogs. Harold Voris studied the 


diet of sea snakes and Hymen Marx investigated morpho- 
logical variation in skeletal structure of snakes of the supra- 
family Colubroidea. In the Division of Mammals, Bruce D, 
Patterson, who joined the staff in July 1981, worked princi- 
pally on aspects of evolution and adapation in chipmunks of 
Southwestern United States. Robert Timm studied species 
variation and hybridization in pocket gophers. 

Fieldiana, Field Museum's continuing series of scientific 
monographs, published 25 titles during the biennium, 
including four in Anthropology six in Botany, Eight in Geol- 
ogy, and seven in Zoology Especially noteworthy in the 
1981-82 list was the long-awaited, 746-page Catalogue of 
Chinese Rubbings from the Field Museum, which repre- 
sented the culmination of some 20 years of curatorial 
research and 15 years of editorial work. John R. Bolt, chair- 
man of the Department of Geology is scientific editor of 
Fieldiana; Tanisse R. Bushman is managing editor 

As the Department of Education launched into the 1980s, 
the staff reviewed past successes and looked to future 
opportunities for new programs and audiences. Thus, 1981- 
82 was approached with a keener awareness of visitors and 
their needs. 

Program emphasis is focused on teacher training, 
school programs, and loan materials developed in concert 
with school curricula, and participatory programs for adults, 
families and children. The Museum's rich and diverse col- 
lections on exhibit together with the Museum's curatorial ex- 
pertise form the base for a broad variety of offerings. The 
sixth annual Anthropology Film Festival brought world cul- 
tures and traditions to our attention, "Dinosaur Day" was 
born, and festivals involved many people from Chicago's 
major ethnic communities. 

The major programmatic effort was devoted to the 
celebration and opening of Maritime Peoples of the Arctic 
and Northwest Coast exhibit. High points included the tradi- 
tional raising of the totem pole "Big Beavet" in front of the 
Museum, lectures by authorities on Eskimo and Northwest 
Coast cultures, and performances that made history — par- 
ticularly by members of the Hunt family whose KwakiutI 
ancestors had performed here in 1983. 

The major goal of the Department of Education is to in- 
crease programs and participation, while maintaining the 
high quality for which we are noted. The following statistics 
provide an overview on participation in 1981-82: 6,464 
school programs for 209,671 students and teachers; 5,603 
free loans delivered to schools, 5,502 items picked up at the 
Museum by teachers; 198 courses for 5,782 adults; 119 field 
trips for 4,157 adults and families; and 918 Weekend Discov- 
ery Programs for 28,671 visitors. The sum total of these and 
many other special programs including children's work- 
shops is 8,048 programs attended by 696,426 people, or 
40 percent of all Museum visitors. 

This service could not have been provided without the 
assistance of dedicated and knowledgeable volunteers. 

Catalogue of Chinese Rubbings from the Field Museum, in the 
Fieldiana Anthropology series. 

Public raising of 55-foot totem pole in front of Field Museum on 
April 24. 1982. 



Department of Education class seines for specimens in local 

Over 350 volunteers served Field Museum on a one- to 
three-day weekly basis. Of these, 150 assisted as instruc- 
tors in the Departnnent of Education. The Pawnee Earth 
Lodge and Place for Wonder, for example, could not have 
opened to the public every day without them. During 1981- 
82 volunteers contributed 89,312 hours or the full-time 
equivalent of 25 staff members. These figures help to 
demonstrate that the department's role of interpreting the 
collections to the public is being felt by a rapidly widening 
segment of the community 

Two new programs were initiated in 1982, a two-year 
student-teacher training program, funded by the Joyce 
Foundation; and funds for a three-year national, regional, 
and local professional midcareer training program were 
awarded by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. 

The Department of Education also received funding for 
special programs during 1981-82 from the following 
sources: Illinois Arts Council, National Endowment for the 
Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities, the Field 
Museum Women's Board, the Spensley Fund, the Mayos, 
University of Illinois at Chicago, and the Chicago Board of 

The April 24, 1982, opening of "Maritime Peoples of the 
Arctic and Northwest Coast" was the most significant and 
memorable exhibition event of the biennium. Subject matter 
leadership was provided by James VanStone, curator of 
North American archaeology and ethnology, and by Ronald 
L. Weber, visiting assistant curator The exhibit contrasts the 
cultures of the Northwest Coast with that of the Eskimo 
14 cultures. 

A sequence of five galleries provide an introduction to 
the exhibit and, successively treat fishing, hunting, and 
gathering; village and society; the spiritual world; and art. 
Each hall offers three levels of presentation to accommo- 
date different visitor interests and needs. Visitor-activated 
audio-visual units and an innovative exhibit case illumina- 
tion system enhance the presentation of nearly 2,500 ob- 
jects from the Museum's collection. 

The opening was accompanied by a variety of cere- 
monies and programs, most notably the raising of a 55-foot 
totem pole in front of the Museum. Carved specially for Field 
Museum by Mr Norman Tait, a Nishga Indian of British 
Columbia, the pole was raised in the traditional manner by 
the public. Chicago Mayor Jane Byrne and other dignitaries 
were present for the historic pole-raising. Programs in- 
cluded ceremonial dances performed in Stanley Field Hall 
by Nishga dancers and demonstrations of Northwest Coast 
craft work. 

Funding for "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and North- 
west Coast" was provided by grants from the National En- 
dowment for the Humanities, the National Endowment for 
the Arts, Chicago Park District, the Barker Welfare Founda- 
tion, the Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust, the 
Frederick Henry Prince Testamentary Trust, and Marshall 
Field and Co., in memory of James L. Palmer, former chair- 
man of the Board of Trustees. The Field Museum Women's 
Board also undertook a major fund-raising drive to support 
the exhibit, underwrite the carving and installation of the 
totem pole, and make financiallly feasible events and cere- 
monies related to the Hall 10 opening. 

Another exciting permanent installation, opened on 
November 21 , 1981 , was that of the tomb chapels of Unis- 
Ankh and Netjer-User, Egyptian dignitaries who lived ca. 
2400-2300 B.C. Walk-in access was provided for the first 
time to the tomb chapel of Unis-Ankh and viewing access 
was provided to the interior of the tomb chapel of Net- 
jer-User Though acquired by the Museum in 1908 and situ- 
ated on the Museum's ground floor for over half a century, 
these tomb chapels had never been fully accessible to the 
visitor The wondrous beauty of the paintings and inscrip- 
tions that embellish their interiors, telling of ancient cere- 
monies, are at last open to public view. Only one other U.S. 
museum provides similar access. 

Concurrent with the tomb chapel reopening was the 
installation of a walk-in facsimile of the tomb of Nakht {ca. 
1453-1286 B.C.), on loan from the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art. The tomb's interior walls are embellished with scenes 
from Eighteenth Dynasty Egypt. Curatorial guidance for the 
hall renovation was provided by Donald Whitcomb, visiting 
assistant curator. Middle Eastern archaeology 

Two impressive major travelling exhibits marked the 
biennium. "Hopi Kachina: Spirit of Life" and "The Year of the 
Hopi," on view June 13 through September, 8, 1981, were 
shown concurrently The former was organized by the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the Hopi 
people; the latter was sponsored by Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Services (sites). Both exhibits were supplemented 


by items from our own collection. The exhibits were sup- 
ported in part by Santa Fe Industries Foundation. 

The principal special exhibit of 1982 was "The People 
and Art of the Philippines," on view in Hall 26 from July 17 
through December 31. Sponsored by the fvluseum of Cul- 
tural History of UCLA, the show featured 420 artifacts, mak- 
ing it the largest special exhibit of traditional Filipino art to 
be mounted anywhere since 1905. The materials exhibited 
included historic Catholic sculpture and paintings, wooden 
statues, swords, brass jars, basketry jewelry, ceramics, 
gold work, costumes, and textiles, most dating between a.d. 
1600 and 1900. Like the 1981 Hopi exhibitions, the Philippine 
show also contained items from the collection of Field 
t\/luseum, which has the largest collection of Philippine 
materials outside the Philippines. 

A portion of two halls (3 and 9) were remodelled for 
smaller exhibits. One such exhibit was "The Last and First 
Eskimos," on view in Hall 9 from October 9, 1982 into Jan- 
uary 1983. Featuring the photos of Alex Harris and text of the 
child psychiatrist Dr Robert Coles, it documented the Euro- 
pean influence during a transitional period in the history of 
Alaska Eskimos. 

The outstanding work of the Department of Exhibition 
was recognized by a grant from the W. K. Kellogg Founda- 
tion to teach exhibit design to people from museums all over 
the United States. The department also received a grant 
from the National Endowment for the Arts for the design of 
an interior graphic and signage system. .' 

The opening of the Library's f\/lary W. Runnells Rare Book 
Room on December 2, 1981, was the culmination of many 
years of planning. The room provides for the first time 
proper temperature and humidity controls and security that 
will add many years of useful life to the Library's 6,000 rare 
volumes. During 1981 work was also completed on the 
cataloging of this collection. Funding for the new room was 
provided by Trustee and t\/lrs. John S. Runnells. 

More than 5,000 new volumes were added to the 
Library's collection during the biennium, a considerable 
advance over the last reporting period and bringing the 
Library's total size to 205,500 volumes. In addition to funds 
provided by the ongoing Cherry Library Fund and the Louis 
A. and Frances B. Wagner Library Fund, substantial sums 
were provided by the Rice Foundation in memory of Dan 
and Ada Rice and by the Grainger Foundation. These funds 
permitted us to purchase books to support the research 
work of the curatorial staff that otherwise we would have 
been unable to afford. 

Gifts were a significant factor in the increase as well. 
Henry Field, a former curator, continued to send materials to 
be added to the large library he has already donated. Over 
100 titles were received from the library of the late Bryan 
Patterson, also a former curator Anthony J. Pfeiffer of the 
Museum's Department of Education gave a collection of 
works on anthropology and archaeology Many other 
donors generously gave one or more volumes. 

The collection of books on Japanese art and culture 
previously given by Cdr. G.E. Boone and Katherine P. 

Scientific Illustrator Zbigniew Jastrzebskt traces 4,000-year-old 
inscriptions in tomb chapel of Unis-Ankh, recently opened to 
public view in Hall J. 

The Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room, housing some 6,000 
volumes, opened in December 1981, was funded by Trustee and 
Mrs. John S. Runnells. 




n B 

The Founders' Room, reconstructed and refurnished in 1982 
through a gift from Dr and Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta and the Waiter E. 
Heller Foundation. The portrait above the fireplace is of Marshall 
Field, the Museum founder 

Boone was cataloged. This collection of over 500 titles has 
immensely enriched our collection in this area. Cataloging 
also began on the Donald Richards bryological library, a 
notable collection in this area of research. 

In addition to her duties as reference librarian, Michele 
Calhoun served as the Library's delegate to LARG (Library/ 
Anthropology Resources Group) and has participated in 
several of the group's bibliographic projects, including 
Serial Publications in Anttiropology, the second edition 
of which was published in 1981. This volume is a listing 
of all currently issued periodicals in anthropology and 

During the biennium 2,500 visitors made use of the 
Library's Reading Room, utilizing a total of 15,000 volumes. 
Through the interlibrary loan system, two titles were lent for 
every one borrowed. Thirty-five percent of the requests 
came from outside Illinois, 24 percent from outside the Mid- 
west, and 3 percent from outside the United States. 

Field Museum was one of the first institutions of its kind to 
initiate long-range planning. The Museum established, for 
example, a formal development program in 1969, followed 
almost immediately by a Capital Campaign and a regular 
series of five-year budgeting forecasts. The result of this for- 
ward planning has saved the Museum from deficit spending 
while at the same time ensuring programmatic advances. 
At the head of the Resource Planning and Develop- 
16 ment Committee has been Robert 0. Bass, retired vice 

chairman of Borg-Warner Corporation, who has been in- 
strumental in the Museum's fund-raising efforts through a 
selfless commitment of personal time and business acu- 
men. The increasing strength of the Corporate and Founda- 
tion Gifts Division during 1981 and 1982 was attributable to 
the dedicated efforts of Stanton R. Cook, president of the 
Tribune Company, who served the division as its chairman 
during 1981; and George R. Baker, consultant, who provided 
its leadership in 1982. They enlisted a team of corporate ex- 
ecutives, whose efforts brought more than $3.3 million to 
Field Museum during 1981 and 1982. The individual Gifts 
Division, under the vigorous leadership of Gordon Bent, 
partner of Bacon, Whipple and Company, raised almost $2 
million during this period. 

The result of this coordinated effort was the securing of 
$5,209,619 during the biennium. Approximately 450 busi- 
nesses and nearly 4,000 individuals provided this support. 
The Museum wishes to cite the following donors for excep- 
tional generosity 

Benefactors during the biennium were: Mrs. Leigh 
(Mary) Block (bequest). Commander and Mrs. G. E. Boone, 
Mr and Mrs. DeWitt Buchanan and The Buchanan Family 
Foundation, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Dr and Mrs. Karl 
Menninger, Hisazo Nagatani, Mr Hermon Dunlap Smith* 
Amoco Foundation, Chicago Community Trust, The Joyce 
Foundation, and the John D. & Catherine T MacArthur 

Field Museum is particularly grateful to Dr. and Mrs. 
Edwin J. DeCosta and the Walter E. Heller Foundation for 
making possible the renovation of the former office of Stan- 
ley Field (Board president 1908-64). Rededicated as the 
Founders' Room in 1982, this new facility represents the 
continuing role of founders in the Museum's future. 

Major Corporate and Philanthropic Foundation Donors: 
Abbott Laboratories; Allstate Foundation; Arthur Andersen 
&Co.; Barker Welfare Foundation; Beatrice Foods Co.; 
Borg-Warner Foundation, Inc.; Commonwealth Edison 
Company; Consolidated Foods Corporation; Continental 
Bank Foundation; Dart & Kraft, Inc.; The DeSoto Foun- 
dation; The Dial Foundation; R.R. Donnelley & Sons Com- 
pany; Esmark, Inc. Foundation; FM.C. Foundation; Field 
Enterprises Charitable Corporation; Field Foundation of Illi- 
nois, Inc.; First National Bank of Chicago Foundation; Ford 
Motor Company Fund; General Mills Foundation; Harris 
Bank Foundation; Allen Heath Memorial Foundation; House- 
hold International; Illinois Bell Telephone Company; Inter- 
national Business Machines Corporation; International 
Minerals & Chemical Corp.; Robert R. McCormick Chari- 
table Trust; McGraw Foundation; McMaster-Carr Supply 
Company; Naico Foundation; Northern Illinois Gas Com- 
pany; The Northern Trust Company; Peat, Marwick, Mitchell 
& Company; Peoples Energy Corporation; Albert Pick, Jr 
Fund; S & C Electric Company; Santa Fe Railway Founda- 
tion; Dr Scholl Foundation; Sears, Roebuck & Company; 
Southern Peru Copper Corporation; Sterling-Morton Chari- 
table Trust; John 8. Swift Company Charitable Trust; United 
Airlines Foundation; United States Gypsum; Walgreen 


Benefit Fund; A. Montgomery Ward Foundation; Western 
Electric Fund; and Arttiur Young & Company. 

During this period, the newly inaugurated Planned Giv- 
ing Program, subsidized by a two-year grant from the Joyce 
Foundation of Chicago, actively encouraged bequests and 
participants in life income trust. Particularly emphasis has 
been placed on the Museum Pooled Income Fund. (In a 
pooled income fund, substantial gifts of donors are com- 
ingled in a trust, through which those donors receive lifetime 
incomes. Upon the death of a participating donor, the re- 
mainder of his or her share is transferred to the Museum's 
General Endowment Fund.) At the end of 1982, the Field 
Museum Pooled Income Fund held in trust assets valued at 
approximately $150,000. 

During 1981 and 1982, the Endowment Fund was 
strenghtened by $854,702 from bequests of Museum do 
nors who wished to ensure the Museum's future as well 
as to perpetuate their annual giving. 

Founded in 1966, the Women's Board continued to be a 
vital source of strength and leadership for Field Museum. 
Board members have traditionally been involved in many of 
the Museum's activities. At the close of 1982, two Women's 
Board members were serving on the Board of Trustees, fif- 
teen on committees of that group, and many more as 
volunteers in various Museum departments. Susan E. Van- 
denBosch served as Women's Board coordinator 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton, a creative and energetic 
president, completed her term of office at the 1982 annual 
meeting and was ably succeeded by Mrs. T. Stanton 
Armour, who continues to bring an innovative and dynamic 
leadership to the office. 

The Women's Board sponsored a great number of 
important programs during these two years. Two, in particu- 
lar, were exceptionally noteworthy In April 1982, under Mrs. 
Carton's administration, the "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic 
and Northwest Coast" exhibit opened with the help of the 
Women's Board. Coinciding with the week-long opening 
celebration was the successful completion of a major 
Women's Board project to raise funds to support the exhibit 

Among distinguished guests of Field Museum in 1982 was Prince 
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh on November 8. The occasion of his visit 
was the November 8 symposium "Tropical Forests: Vanishing Cra- 
dle of Diversity," which he chaired. He Is shown here with (I. to r.) I^rs. 
Harry O. Bercher Mrs. James J. O'Connor and Mrs. T. Stanton 
Armour at a reception that followed the symposium. 

and to make the 55-foot totem pole now to be seen in front 
of the Museum a reality A great many board members 
served on committees organizing the exhibit dedication, a 
gala preview dinner, and the festive pole-raising which 
culminated the week of activities. 

As board president, Mrs. Armour served as committee 
chairman for the November 1982 World Wildlife Fund sym- 
posium and black tie dinner at Field Museum, with H.R.H. 
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh as guest of honor Museum 
scientists William C. Burger and John W Fitzpatrick partici- 
pated in a panel discussion on "Tropical Forests: Vanishing 
Cradle of Diversity," together with other noted scientists. 
500 guests attended the symposium and dinner 

In September 1982 Mrs. Armour announced the next 
major Women's Board project — raising funds toward the 
renovation of the permanent Botany exhibit, "Plants of the 
World," scheduled to open in 1983. 

The Field Museum Tours program, which had been reacti- 
vated in 1976, involved 415 Members during the biennium in 
a wide range of tour activities. Tours were offered to Alaska, 
Ecuador and the Galapagos, the Bahamas (New Provi- 
dence and Andros Islands), Kenya (with optional extension 
to the Seychelles), the People's Republic of China, Egypt, 
Papua New Guinea, the Holy Land, India, Peru-Bolivia, 
Grand Canyon, and to Baja California and the Sea of 
Cortez. There were also weekend trips to the Baraboo 
(Wisconsin) range and an archaeological field trip to 
southern Illinois. 

Most of the tours were led by Field Museum staff, 
including John Fitzpatrick, Robert K. Johnson, Alan Kolata, 
Phillip Lewis, Matthew Nitecki, Edward Olsen, Donald Whit- 
comb, and Bertram Woodland. Dorothy Roder directed the 
tours program. 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Statements of Revenues, Expenses, and Changes in Fund Balances 
Year Ended December 31, 1982 
with comparative totals for 1981 


Chicago Park District property tax collections 

Government grants 

Interest and dividend income 

Net realized gain on investments sold 




Auxiliary enterprises, net of direct costs 


Total revenues 





1 ,740,740 
361 ,644 



Scientific support 
Education and exhibition 
Administration and museum services 
Development, Public Relations, Membership 
Auxiliary enterprises — indirect costs 
Capital improvement expenditures 
Overhead costs charged to grants 

Total expenses 

Increase in fund balance before transfer 
Nonmandatory transfer — capital improvements 

Increase in fund balance 

Fund balances at beginning of year 

Fund balances at end of year 



1 ,060,383 


901 ,368 



(181,048 ) 


(200,000 ) 


$1 ,636.469 

Source: Field Museum of Natural History audited financial statements for the year ended December 31, 1982. 

A complex institution such as Field Museum is a major 
enterprise to operate, as the above financial figures dem- 
onstrate. Physically the largest museum in Chicago, the 
maintenance and operation of nearly a million square feet 
accounts for the largest category of expense — "Administra- 
tion and Museum Services." This was up $328,864 from 1981 
— in large measure a reflection of inflation. 















$ 2,967,099 


$ 2,240,513 

;i ,320,578 




$ 80,565 

$ 438,327 







1 ,637,479 









991 ,496 







481 ,979 



















1 1 ,434,561 


991 ,496 





















Basics such as energy, building repair and mainte- 
nance, security and visitor services, printing, postage, tele- 
phones, supplies, and housekeeping comprise the bulk of 
the Administration and Museum Services expense cate- 



The list below is comprised of the scientific publications of 
the Field Museum curatorial staff for the years 1979-82. As in 
other years, staff members have also published reviews, ab- 
stracts, encyclopedia entries, and numerous popular arti- 
cles and books. 


Bronson, Bennet 

1979. (with I. Glover and D. Bayard) Comments on Megaliths in South- 
east Asia, pp. 253-254. In: Smith, R. B., and W. Watson, eds , Early 
South East Asia. Oxford University Press, New York and Kuala Lumpur 

1979. Late Prehistory and Early History in Central Thailand with Special 
Reference to Chansen, pp. 315-336. In: Smith, R. B., and W. Watson, 
eds. , Early South East Asia. Oxford University Press, New York and 
Kuala Lumpur 

1979. The Archaeology of Sumatra and the Problem of Srivijaya, pp. 
395-405. In: Smith, R. B., and W. Watson, eds.. Early South East Asia. 
Oxford University Press, New York and Kuala Lumpur 

1982. (with Eric E. Deeds) The Land in Front of Chan Chan. Agrarian 
Expansion, Reform, and Collapse in the Moche Valley pp 25-54. In: 
Chan Chan, Andean Desert City. School of American Research Ad- 
vanced Seminar Studies. University of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe. 

1982. (with Robert Feldman) Living with Crises: a Relentless Nature 
Stalked Chan Chan's Fortunes. Early Man. vol. 4, pp. 10-13. 1982. 
(with Robert Feldman and Charles R. Ortloff) Hydraulic Engineering 
Aspects of the Chimu Chicama-Moche Intervalley Canal. American 
Antiquity vol. 47, pp. 572-595. 

1982. (with Alan Kolata) Making a Land Bountiful: Lessons from the King- 
dom of Chimor Early Man, vol. 4, pp. 4-5. 
Rabineau. Phyllis 

1979. Feather Arts: Beauty, Wealth, and Spirit from Five Continents. Field 
Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 88 pp. 

Terrell. John 

1980. (with Anne Leonard) Patterns of Paradise. Field Museum of Natural 
History Chicago. 76 pp. 

1981. Linguistics and the Peopling of the Pacific Islands. Journal of the 
Polynesian Society vol. 90, pp. 225-258. 


Danziger Christine 

1979. (with James Hanson) Conservation of a Tlingit Totem Pole, pp. 
18-79. Preprints of the American Institute of Conservation of Historic 
and Artistic Works. Washington, DC. 

Feldman, Robert 

1981 Two Additional Cases of Lumbar Malformation from the Peruvian 
Coastal Preceramic. Current Anthropology vol. 22, pp. 286-287. 

1982. Peru's Master Builders, p. 4. El Chasqui (Organ of the Peruvian 
Arts Society, Chicago), July 
KoLATA, Alan 

1980. ChanchSn: Crecimento de una Ciudad Antigua, pp. 130-154. In: 
Ravines, Rogger, ed., Chanchan Metropoli Chimu. Institute de Estu- 
dios Peruanos, Lima 

1981 . Chronologia Basada en Adobes de Chan Chan. Investigaclon Ar- 
queologica, Tnjjillo, Peru. 

1982. Chronology and Settlement Growth at Chan Chan, pp. 67-85. In: 
Chan Chan, Andean Desert City. School of American Research Ad- 
vanced Seminar Studies. University of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe. 

Leonard. Anne 

See under John Terrell. 
Lewis. Phillip 
1979. Art in Changing New Ireland, pp. 378-391. In: Mead, S. M., ed., 
Exploring the Visual Art of Oceania. University Press of Hawaii, 
Moseley Michael 
1982. Introduction: Human Exploitation and Organization on the North 
Andean Coast, pp. 1-24. In: Chan Chan. Andean Desert City. School 
of Americana Research Advanced Seminar Studies. University of New 
Mexico Press. Santa Fe. 

1982 Chan Chan Cloistered City . . . The Home of God-Kings. Early 
Man. vol 4, pp 6-9 

1982. (ed , with Kent C Day) Chan Chan, Andean Desert City. School of 
American Research Advanced Seminar Studies. University of New 
Mexico Press, Santa Fe xxii + 373 pp. 

1981. Population Genetics Biological Models and the Prehistory of the 
South West Pacific. Archaeology in Oceania, vol. 16, pp. 119-121. 
VanStone. James W. 

1979. Athapaskan-Eskimo Relations in West-Central Alaska: an Ethnohis- 
torical Perspective. Arctic Anthropology vol. 16, pp. 152-159. 

1979. Historic Ingalik Settlements along the Yukon, Innoko and Anvik Riv- 
ers, Alaska. Fieldiana: Anthropology, vol. 72. 

1979. Ingalik Contact Ecology: an Ethnohistory of the Lower-Middle 
Yukon, 1790-1935. Fieldiana: Anthropology vol. 71. 

1980. Alaska Natives and the White Man's Religion: a Cultural Interface 
in Historical Perspective, pp. 175-179. In: Shalkop, A., ed , Exploration 
in Alaska: Captain Cook Commemorative Lectures, June-November. 
1978. Cook Inlet Historical Society, Anchorage. 

1980. The Bruce Collection of Eskimo Material Culture from Kotzebue 
Sound, Alaska. Fieldiana: Anthropology n.s., vol. 1. 

1980. (ed. and trans., with D. H. Kraus) "Northern Athapaskan Col- 
lections of the First Half of the Nineteenth Century," by E. V. Siebert. 
Arctic Anthropology vol. 17, pp. 49-76. 

1981. Athapaskan Clothing and Related Objects in the Collections of 
Field Museum of Natural History Fieldiana: Anthropology, n.s., vol. 4. 

1981. Etnoistoricheskie Issledovaniya na Alyaske: Obzor In: Alekseev, 
V. P., etal., eds., Traditsionnye Kultury Severnoy Sibiri i Severnoy 
Ameriki. Institute of Ethnography Moscow. 

1981. Museum and Archival Resources for Subarctic Alaska, pp. 49-51. 
In: HandlMOk of North American Indians, vol. 6, Subarctic. 

1981. (with I. Goddard), Territorial Groups of West Central Alaska before 
1898, pp. 556-561. In: Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 6, 

1982. Southern Tutchone Clothing and Tlingit Trade. Arctic Anthropology. 
vol. 19, pp. 51-61. 

1982. The Speck Collection of Montagnais Material Culture from the 
Lower St. Lawrence Drainage, Quebec. Fieldiana: Anthropology, n.s., 
vol. 5. 


1982. (with W. H. Oswalt) Alaskan Eskimos in Historical Perspective. In: 
The Last and First Eskimos (brochure for an exhibit). International 
Center of Photography, New York. March 26-May 9. 
Weber, Ronald 

1981. An analysis of Santa Maria Urn Painting and Its Cultural Implica- 
tions. Fieldiana: Anthropology, n.s., vol. 2. 

1981. Current Research in the Amazon Basin and Eastern Brazil. Amer- 
ican Antiquity, vol. 46, pp. 204-207. 

1981. Current Research — Amazon Basin and Eastern Brazil. American 
Antiquity, vol. 47, pp. 207-209. 

1982. Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast. Archaeology 
vol. 35, pp. 66-69. 

1982. Tsimshian Twined Basketry, Stylistic and Cultural Relationships. 

American Indian Basketry, vol. 2, pp. 26-30. 
1982. (with Constance Crane) Those Who Dwell Beside the Sea. Alaska 

Journal, vol. 12, pp. 20-25. 
Whitcomb Donald 

1979. The City of Istakhr and the Marvdasht Plain. Akten des VII. Inter- 
nationalen Kongresses fur Iranische Kunst und Archaologie. Mun- 
chen, 7-10 September 1976. 

1980. (with J. Johnson) Dossier el-Qadim und der Rote Meer-Handel. 
DasAltertum, vol. 26, pp. 103-112. 

1981. Siraf Regional Survey; Archaeological Reconnaissances in the 
Jam, Dezhgah, and Calendar Valleys. Siraf, vol. 1. 


Burger. William C. 

1979. Cladistics: Useful Tool or Rigid Dogma? Taxon, vol. 28, pp. 

1980. On the Origin of Flowers. International Association ofAngiosperm 
and Paleobotanists Newsletter, vol. 6, pp. 1-3. 

1981. Heresy Revived; the Monocot Theory of Angiosperm Origin, Evolu- 
tionary Theory vol. 5, 189-225. 

1981. A New Peperomia from Nicaragua. Phytologia, vol. 48 (2), pp. 

1981. Notes on The Flora of Costa Rica. V. A New Species of Coccoloba 

and New Records of Polygonaceae. Phytologia, vol. 49, pp. 387-389. 

dens. vol. 67, pp. 537-553, 579-582, 678-681 , 735-743, 772-776, 
1981. Family Compositae. II. Tribe Anthemideae. In: Macbride, J. Fran- 
cis, and collaborators. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana: Botany n.s., vol. 7, 
pp. 1-21. 

1981. Three New Species of Flourensia (Asteraceae-Heliantheae) from 
South America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens, vol. 68, 
pp. 104-110. 

1982. Family Compositae. IV. Tribe Cardueae. In: Macbride, J. Francis, 
and collaborators. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana: Botany n.s., vol. 10, 

pp. 1-8. 

1982. Additions to Tribe Vernonieae (Compositae), I. In: Macbride, J. 
Francis, and collaborators, Flora of Peru. Fieldiana: Botany n.s., vol. 
11, pp. 1-7. 

1982. (with B. L. Turner) Chromosome Numbers of Peruvian Compositae. 
Rhodora. vol. 84, pp. 131-137. 

1979. Austral Hepaticae. X. A Revision of Hepatostolonophora Engel et 
Schust., nom. nov. (Hepaticae). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Labo- 
ratory, vol. 46, pp. 91-108. 

1979. Austral Hepaticae. XI. Lophocoleaceae; New Taxa, New Com- 
binations and Realignments Phytologia. vol. 41 (5), pp. 309-312. 

1980. Austral Hepaticae. XII. A New Species of Clasmatocolea (Hepati- 
cae) from Tasmania. Bryologist, vol. 83, pp. 220-223. 

1980. A Monograph on Clasmatocolea (Hepaticae). Fieldiana: Botany, 
n.s., vol. 3, pp. i-viii, 1-229. 

1981. Austral Hepaticae. XIII. Two New Genera of Geocalycaceae 
(Lophocoleaceae). Phytologia, vol. 47 pp. 309-312 

1981 Austral Hepaticae. XV. Brevianthaceae, fam. nov., and Brevian- 
thus, gen. nov, from Tasmania. Phytologia, vol. 47 pp. 317-318. 

1981. Index Hepaticarum Supplementum; 1976-1977. Taxon, vol. 30, pp. 

1981. Necrology of James Donald Richards. Taxon, vol. 30, pp. 875-876. 

1982. Anthocerotopsida, pp. 304-305. In: Parker, Sybil P, ed.. Synopsis 
and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 

1982. Haplomitrium monoicum, a Remarkable New Species of Calob- 
ryales (Hepaticae) from New Caledonia, Together with a Reclassifica- 
tion of Subg. Haplomitriu. Annals of the l\/1issouri Botanical Garden, 
vol. 68, pp. 668-676. 

1981. Why Are There So Many Kinds of Flowering Plants? Bioscience, 
vol. 31, pp. 572, 577-581. 

1981. Why Are There So Many Kinds of Flowering Plants in Costa Rica? 
Brenesia, vol. 17, pp. 371-388. 

1982. (with Alan Solem) The Tyranny and Opportunity of Numbers. ASC 
l\lewsletter, vol. 10, pp. 1-5. 

Dillon. Michael O. 

1979. Chromosome Reports for Asteraceae. Taxon, vol. 28, pp. 278-279. 

1980. Compositae; Introduction to Family pp. 12-21. In: Macbride, J. 
Francis, and collaborators. Flora of Peru. Fieldiana: Botany n.s., vol. 5. 

1980. (with B. L. Turner) Chromosome Reports for Krameriaceae and 
Solanaceae. Taxon. vol. 29, p. 534. 

1980 (1981). Acosmium. Aeschynomene, Alysicarpus, Ateleia, Chaeto- 
calyx, Dussia, Myroxylon, Ormosia, Sophora. Stylosanthes, and Zor- 
nia. In: Dwyer, John D., and collaborators. Flora of Panama. V. Legumi- 
nosae Subfamily Papilionoideae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gar- 

1982. Hepaticopsida, pp. 271-304. In: Parker, Sybil P., ed.. Synopsis and 
Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 

1982. (with R. M. Schuster) Austral Hepaticae. XVII. Pachyschistochila 
Schust. et Engel, gen. nov. Phytologia. vol. 50, pp. 177-180. 
Faden. Robert B. 

1979. Aneilema longirrhizum. Flowering Plants of Africa, vol. 45 (3-4), p. 

1979 (with D. D. Soejarto and N. R. Farnsworth) Indian Podophyllum; Is 
It Podophyllum emodi or Podophyllum hexandrum? Taxon. vol. 28, pp. 

1980. The Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Some Asiatic Species of Mur- 
dannia (Commelinaceae); The Identity of Commelina medica Lour; 
and Commelina tuberosa Lour Taxon, vol. 29, pp. 71-82. 

Feuer. Sylvia 
1979. (with Job Kuijt) Pollen Morphology and Evolution in Psittacanthus 
(Loranthaceae). Botanical Notes, vol. 132, pp. 295-309. 



1980 (with Job Kuijt) Fine Structure of Mistletoe Pollen. III. Large- 
flowered Neotropical Loranthaceae and Their Australian Relatives. 
American Journal of Botany, vol 67, pp. 34-51. 

1982 Pollen Morphology and Relationships of the Misodendraceae. Nor- 

diskegen Journal of Botany, vol. 1 , pp. 731-734. 
1982. (with Job Kui|t) Fine Structure of Mistletoe Pollen. IV. Eurasian and 

Australian ViscumL. (Viscaceae). American Journal of Botany, vol. 69, 

pp. 1-12. 
1982. (with Job Kuijt) A Re-evaluation of Pfirygilanthus nudus Mol. 

(Loranthaceae). Brittonia, vol 34, pp. 42-47. 
NiEZGODA. Christine J. 

1979. (with Lorin I. Nevling, Jr.) The Correct Generic Placement of Albizia 

cartxinaria Britton Phytologia. vol. 44, pp. 307-312. 
1979. (with Lorin I. Nevling, Jr) Some Problematic Species o^ Albizia. 

Ptiytologia. vol 44, pp 377-380. 
Plowman, Timothy C. 
1979 Botanical Perspectives on Coca. Journal of Psyctiedelic Drugs, 

vol. 11, pp. 103-117. 
1979. The Genus Brunfelsia: a Conspectus of the Taxonomy and 

Biogeography In: Hawkes, J. G., R. N. Lester, and A. D. Skelding, 

eds.. The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linnean Society 

Symposium Series no. 7. See under R. E. Schultes. 
1979. (with B. Holmstedt, J. E. Lindgren, and L. Rivier) Cocaine in Blood 

of Coca Chewers. Journal of Ethnopharmacology vol. 1, pp. 69-78. 

1979. (with Andrew T Weil) Coca Pests and Pesticides. Journal of 
Ethnopharmacology, vol. 1, pp. 263-278. 

1980. The identity of Amazonian and Trujillo Coca. Botanical /Museum 
Leaflets, Harvard University, vol. 27, pp. 45-68. 

1980. Botanical Perspectives on Coca-Cocaine, pp. 90-105. In: Jeri, 
F.R., ed . Proceedings of the Interamerican Seminar on Coca and 

1981. Amazonian Coca. Journal of Ethnopharmacology vol. 3, pp. 

1981. Brugsmansia (Baum-Datura) in Sudamerika, pp. 436-443. In: \fol- 
ger, Gisela, ed. Rausch und RealitSt. Drogen im Kulturvergleich. \AdI. 
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1981. (with Murray S. Blum and Laurent Rivier) Fate of Cocaine in the 
Lymantriid Eloria noyesi, a Predator of Erythroxylum Coca. Phyto- 
chemistry vol. 20, pp. 2499-2500. 

1982. Chamairo: l^ussatia hyacinthina — an Admixture to Coca from 
Amazonian Peru and Bolivia. Botanical t^useum Leaflets. Harvard Uni- 
versity, vol. 28, pp. 253-261. 

1982. The Identification of Coca (Erythroxylum Species): 1860-1910. Lin- 
naean Society, Botanical Journal, vol. 84, pp. 329-353 

1982. (with Bruce A. Bohm and Fred R. Ganders) Biosystematics and 
Evolution of Cultivated Coca (Erythroxylaceae). Systematic Botany 
vol. 7, pp. 121-133. 

1982. (with W. John Kress and Helen Kennedy) Heliconia zebrina: a New 
Name for a Handsome Peruvian Heliconia (l^usaceae). Baileya, vol. 
21, pp. 149-157. 

1982. (with B. Holmstedt, J. E. Lindgren, L. Rivier, R. E. Schultes, and O. 
Tovar) Indole alkaloids in Amazonian Myristicaceae: Field and Labora- 
tory Research. Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, vol. 28, 
pp. 215-234. 
Ponce de Leon, Patricio 

1981 Langermannia bicolor (Ley.) Demoulin & Dring. Phytologia, vol. 48, 
pp. 373-383. 

1982. Gasteromycetes, pp. 256-263. In: Parker, Sybil P, ed.. Synopsis 

and Classification of Living Organisms. McGraw-Hill, New York. 
1982. Lysurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd in Illinois. Phytologia, vol. 

50, pp. 271-278. 
1982. (with Clifford W. Smith) Hawaiian Geastroid Fungi. Mycologia, vol. 

74, pp. 712-717. 
Schultes. Richard Evans 
1979 (ed., with Timothy Plowman) The Ethnobotany of Brugmansia by 

Tommie Earl Lockwood. Journal of Ethnopharmacology vol. 1, pp. 

Stolze. Robert G. 
1981. (with contnbutions by J. T Mickel and A. R. Smith) Ferns and Fern 

Allies of Guatemala. II. Polypodiaceae. Fieldiana: Botany n.s., vol. 6, 

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Bolt, John R. 
1979. Amphibamus grandicepts as a Juvenile Dissorophid: Evidence 
and Implications, pp. 529-563. In: Nitecki, M. H , ed , l^azon Creek 
Fossils. Academic Press, New York. 

1979. (with R. E. Lombard) Evolution of the Tetrapod Ear: an Analysis and 
Reinterpretation Linnaean Society, Biological Journal, vol. 11, pp. 

1980. New Tetrapods with Bicuspid Teeth from the Fort Sill Locality (Low- 
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1980. (with R. DeMar) Growth Rings in Dinosaur Teeth. Nature, vol. 288 
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1981. (with R. DeMar) Dentitional Organization and Function in a Triassic 
Reptile. Journal of Paleontology vol. 55, pp. 967-984. 

Crane, Peter R. 
1979. (with G. Flint) Calcified Angiosperm Roots from the Upper Eocene 
of Southern England. Annals of Botany, vol. 44; pp. 107-112. 

1979. (with P. H. Smith) Fungal Spores of the genus Pesavis from the 
Lower Tertiary of Britain. Linnean Society Botanical Journal, vol. 79; 
pp. 243-248. 

1980. (with E A. Jerzembowski) Insect Leaf Mines from the Palaeocene 
of Southern England. Journal of Natural History, vol. 14; pp. 629-636. 

1981. Betulaceous Leaves and Fruits from the British Upper Palaeocene. 
Linnean Society Botanical Journal, vol. 83; pp. 123-156. 

1981 (with P. F. Cannon, S. L. Jury, and D. M. Moore) Report, University 
of Reading, Botanical Expedition to South East Spain. 22 pp. 

1982. Dating. In: Moore, D. M., ed.. The Green Planet. Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press, Cambridge. 

1982 Quarternary Environments and Vegetation. In: Moore, D. M., ed.. 
The Green Planet. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

1982. Tertiary Environments and Vegetation. In: Moore, D. M., ed.. The 
Green Planet. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

1982. (with C. R. Hill) Evolutionary Cladistics and the Origin of Angio- 
sperms, pp. 269-361. /n.- Joysey K. A., and A. E. Friday eds.. Prob- 
lems of Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Proceedings of the Systematics 
Association Symposeium, Cambridge. 1981. Academic Press, New 

1982. (with S. R. Manchester) An Extinct Juglandaceous Fruit from the 
Upper Palaeocene of Southern England. Linnaean Society, Botanical 
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Marshall. Larry G. 

1979. Evolution of Metatherian and Eutherian (Mammalian) Characters: a 
Review based on cladistic Methodology Linnaean Society (London), 
Zoological Journal, vol. 66, pp. 369-410. 

1979. A Model for South American Cricetine (Rodentia) Paleobiogeogra- 
phy Paleobiology vol. 5, pp. 126-132. 

1979. Review of the Prothylacyninae, an Extinct Subfamily of South 
American "Dog-like" Marsupials. Fieldiana: Geology n.s., vol. 3, pp. 

1979. (with R. F Butler, R. E. Drake, G. H. Curtis, and R. H. Tedford). 
Calibration of the Great American Interchange. Science, vol. 204, pp. 

1979. (with W. J. Zinsmeister, H. H. Camacho, R. E. Drake, and W. M. 
Roggenthen) Geological Cruise along the Coast of Patagonia during 
the Austral Winter of 1976— RA/ Hero Cruise 78-3. Antarctic Journal of 
the United States, vol. 9, pp. 25-28. 

1980. Marsupial Paleobiogeography pp. 345-386. /n. Jacobs, L. L., ed., 
Aspects of Vertebrate History. Museum of Northern Arizona Press. 
407 pp. 

1980. Systematics of the South American Marsupial Family Caenolesti- 
dae. Fieldiana: Geology n.s., vol. 5, pp. 1-145. 

1980. (with D. M. Raup) Variation between Groups in Evolutionary Rates: 
a Statistical Test of Significance. Paleobiolgy vol. 6, pp. 9-21. 

1981. The Families and Genera of Marsupialia. Fieldiana: Geology n.s., 
vol.8, pp 1-65. 

1981. The Great American Interchange— an Invasion-induced Crisis for 
South American Mammals, pp. 133-229. In: Nitecki, M.H., ed., biotic 
Crises in Ecological and Evolutionary Time. Academic press, New 

1981 . Review of the Hathlyacyninae, an Extinct Subfamily of South Amer- 
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1981. (with R. F Butler, R. E. Drake, and G. H. Curtis) Calibration of the 
Beginning of the Age of Mammals in Patagonia. Science, vol. 212, pp. 



1981. (with W. J. Zinsmeister, R. E. Drake, and G. H. Curtis) First 
Radioisotope (""K — ""Ar) Age of Marine Neogene Rionegro Beds in 
Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Science, vol. 212, p. 440. 

1981, (witti B. Patterson) Late Tertiary Geology, Geochronology and Ver- 
tebrate Paleontology of the Valle de Santa Maria and Rio Corral 
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1982. Calibration of the Age of Mammals in Argentina National Geo- 
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1982. Calibration of the Age of Mammals in South America. In: Phy- 
togeny and Biogeography 

1982. Systematics of the South American Marsupial Family Microbiother- 
idae. Fieldiana: Geology n.s., vol. 10, pp. 1-78. 

1982. Systematics of the Extinct South American Marsupial Family Poly- 
dolopidae. Fieldiana: Geology n.s., vol. 12, pp. 1-109. 

1981. (with I. T. Zhuravleva, E. I. Miagkova, and D. F Toomey) Compari- 
son of Soanites bimuralis W\Vn archaeocyathids and Receptacultitids. 
PaleontologicalJournal, Moscow, no. 1, pp. 5-9 (in Russian). 1982. 
Paleontological Journal, vol. 15, pp. 1-5 (English translation). 

1982. (ed.) Biochemical Aspects of Evolutionary Biology University of 
Chicago Press, Chicago. 324 pp. 

1982. Field Museum of Natural History, pp. 224-230. In: Kiger, J. C, ed.. 

Research Institutions and Learned Societies. Greenwood, Westport, 

1982. Understanding Evolution. Quarterly Review of Biology vol. 57, 

pp. 318-319. 
1982. (with S. Rietschel) Concept of Kingdom Archeata. Journal of 

Paleontology vol. 56 (suppl.), p. 22. 
1982. (with D. C. Fisher) Problems in the Analysis of Receptaculitid 

1982. (with 8. D. Webb, J. J. Sepkoski, Jr., and D. M. Raup) Science, 
Mammalian Evolution and the Great American Interchange. 

1982. (with G. H. Curtis, R. E. Drake, and G. S. Odin) NDS 120, In: Odin, 
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1982. (with G. H. Curtis, R. E. Drake, and G. S. Odin) NDS 138. In: Odin, 
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1979. Les algues Dasycladales. Journal of Paleontology vol. 53, pp. 513. 

1979. Mazon Creek Fauna and Flora — a Hundred Years of Investigation, 
pp. 1-11. In: f^azon Creek Fossils. Academic Press, New York. 

1979. (ed.) tvlazon Creek Fossils. Academic Press, New York. 581 pp. 

1979, (with S. C. Finney) Fisherites nov. gen. reticulatus (Owen, 1844), a 
New Name for Receptaculites oweni Hall, 1861. Journal of Paleontol- 
ogy vol. 53, pp. 750-753. 

1979. (with D. F Toomey) The Nature and Distribution of Calathid Algae, 

p. 132. Symposium International des Algues Fossiles. 
1979. (with F Debrenne) The Nature of Radiocyathids and Their 

Relationship to Receptaculitids and Archaeocyathids. Geobios, no. 

12,fasc. 1, pp. 5-27. 
1979. (with D. F. Toomey) Organic Buildups in the Lower Ordovician 

(Canadian) of Texas and Oklahoma. Fieldiana: Geology, n.s., vol. 2, 

pp. 1-181. 
1979. (with J. L Lemke, H. W. Pullman, and M. E. Johnson) Reply on 

"Acceptance of Plate Tectonic Theory by Geologists." Geology vol. 7, 

p. 164. 

1979. (with R. H. Hansman) Type Graptolithina in Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History. Fieldiana: Geology, n.s,, vol, 1, pp, 1-9. 

1980. Featured Institution: Field Museum of Natural History ASC A/ews- 
letter, vol. 8, pp. 61-70. 

1980. (with D. F Toomey) Nature and Classification of Receptaculitids. 
Bulletin of the Center for Research and Exploration of Prod. Elf-Aquit. , 
vol. 3, pp. 725-732, 

1980. (witti J. L. Lemke and H. Pullman) Studies of the Acceptance of 
Plate Tectonics, pp. 614-621. In: Sears, M., and D. Merriman, eds.. 
Oceanography: The Past. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-New York. 

1981. (ed.) Biotic Crises in Ecological and Evolutionary Time. Academic 
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Affinities. Proceedings of the Third North American Paleontological 

Convention, vol. 1, pp. 181-186. 
1982. (with D. C. Fisher) Receptaculitids Are Problematic Paleozoic 

Algae. Journal of Paleontology vol. 56 (suppl.), p. 10. 
1982. (with D. C. Fisher) Standardization of the Anatomical Orientation 

of Receptaculitids. Ivlemoirs of the Paleontology Society vol. 13. 
Olsen, Edward J, 
1979. A New Measure of the Nickel Content of Meteoritic Copper. 

tvleteoritics, vol. 14, p. 307. 
1979. (with Charles F Lewis) Ktenasite from Creede, Colorado. American 

fvtineralogist, vol. 64, pp. 446-448. 
1979. (with W. Zeitschel) Rica Aventura: A New Iron Meteorite from Chile. 

tvleteoritics, vol. 14, pp. 51-54. 
1979. (with Lawrence Grossman and James M. Lattimer) Silicon In 

Carbonaceous Chondrite Metal; Relic of High-Temperature Con- 
densation. Science, vol. 206, pp. 449-451. 
1981. Estimates of the Quantity of Meteorites in the East Antarctic Ice 

Cap. Nature, vol. 292, pp. 516-519. 
1981. Vugs in Ordinary Chondrites. Meteoritics, vol. 16, pp. 45-59. 
1981. (with A. M. Davis, T Tanaka, and G. J. MacPherson) The Antarctic 

Achondrite ALHA 76005: A Polymict Eucrite. Geochimica et Cos- 

mochimica Acta, vol. 45, pp. 1267-1279, 

1981, (with Toshiko K, Mayeda and Robert N. Clayton) Cristobalite- 
Pyroxene in an L6 Chondrite: Implications for Metamorphism. Earth 
and Planetary Science Letters, vol . 56 pp. 82-88. 

1982. (with P B. Robertson, L. C. Coleman, and S. A. Kissin) Canadian 
Arctic Meteorite Search: 1981. hAeteoritics, vol. 17 PP 163-170. 

TuRNBULL. William D. 
1981. (with E. L. Lundelius, Jr). The Mammalian Fauna of Madura Cave, 
Western Australia. IV. Peramelidae. Fieldiana: Geology, n.s., vol. 6, 
pp. 1-72. 

1981. (ed. with E. S. Richardson) Fieldiana: Geology vol. 33, pp. 

1982. (with E. L. Lundelius, Jr) The Mammalian Fauna of Madura Cave, 
Western Australia. V. Diprotodonta (Part) Vombatidae, Phascolarc-' 
tidae, Phalangeridae, and Burramydiae. Fieldiana: Geology, n.s. vol. 
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Woodland. Bertram G. 

1979. Geometry and Origin of Deformational Structures in the Pre- 
cambnan Metamorphic Rocks of ttie Hill City Area, Black Hills, Soutti 
Dakota. Contributions to Geology, vol. 17, pp. 1-23. 

1979 (witfi R. C. Stenstrom) Tfie Occurrence and Origin of Siderite Con- 
cretions in tfie Francis Creek Sfiale (Pennsylvanian) of Nortfieastern 
Illinois, pp. 69-103. In: Nitecki, M. H.. ed.. Mazon Creek Fossils. 
Academic Press, New York. 

1982. Gradational Development of Domainal Slaty Cleavage, Its Origin 
and Relation to Ctilorite Porptiyroblasts in tfie Maninsburg Fomnation, 
Eastern Pennsylvania. Tectonophysics, vol. 82, pp. 89-124. 

1982. (with G. Baird) Pennsylvanian Coalified Rhizomorphs in Illinois: 
Evidence for Non-Compressive Coalification to Bituminous Coal Rank. 
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Ashe. J. S. 
1981. Studies of the Life History and Habits of Phanerota fasciata 
(Say) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), with Notes on the 
(Mushroom as a Habitat and Descriptions of the Immature Stages. 
Coleopterists Bulletin, vol. 35, pp. 83-96. 

1981. Pupal Cell Construction in the Aleocharinae (Staphylinidae). 
Coleopterists Bulletin, vol. 35, pp. 341-343. 

1982. Evidence on the Species Status of Phanerota fasciata (Say) and 
Phanerota dissinrtilis (Erichson) (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) from 
Host Mushroom Relationships. Coleopterists Bulletin, vol. 36, pp. 

1979. (with D. E. Willard and J. W. Terborgh) A New Species of Humming- 
bird from Peru. Wilson Bulletin, vol. 91, pp. 171-186. 

1979. (with J. P. O'Neill) A New Species of Pygmy-Tyrant from the Peru- 
vian Mountains. Auk. vol. 96, pp. 443-447 

1980. Foraging Behavior of Neotropical Tyrant Flycatchers. Condor, vol. 
82, pp. 43-57 

1980. A New Race of Atlepetes leucopterus. with Comments on 
Widespread Albinism in>4. /. dressen (Taczanowski). Auk, vol. 97, 
pp. 883-887 

1980. Some Aspects of Speciation in South American Flycatchers. Pro- 
ceedings of the Seventeenth International Ornithological Congress. 
West Berlin, pp. 1273-1279. 

1980. Wintering of North American Tyrant Flycatchers in the Neotropics, 
pp. 67-78. In: Keast, A., and E. Morton, eds., /Migrant Birds in the 
Neotropics Smithsonian Institution Zoological Park Publication no. 5. 

1980. (with D. E. Willard) Sage Thrasher (First Wisconsin State Record.) 
Passenger Pigeon, vol. 42, pp. 44-45. 

1980. (with G. E. Woolfenden) The Selfish Behavior of Avian Altruists. Pro- 
ceedings of the Seventeenth International Ornitttological Congress. 
West Berlin, pp. 886-889. 

1981. Search Strategies of Tyrant Flycatchers. Animal Behavior, vol. 29, 
pp. 810-821. 

1981. (with G. E. Woolfenden) Demography Is a Cornerstone of 
Sociobiology Auk. vol. 98, pp. 406-407 

1982. Conioptilon mcilhennyi—the Black-faced Cotinga, pp. 125-127 In: 
Snow. D. W. ed.. The Cotingas. British Museum and Oxford University 
Press, London. 

1982. (with M. A. Traylor, Jr.) A Survey of Tyrant Flycatchers. Living Bird. 

vol. 19, pp. 7-50. 
1982. (with D. E. Willard) Twenty-one Bird Species New or Little Known 

from the Republic of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Omittiological 

Club, vol. 102, pp. 153-158 
Inger. Robert F. 

1979. Abundances of Amphibians and Reptiles in Tropical Forests of 
South-East Asia, pp. 93-110. In: Marshall, A. G, ed.. Transactions of 
the Sixth Aberdeen-Hull Symposium on Malesian Ecology University 
of Hull Department of Geography Miscellaneous Series, no. 22. 

1980. Densities of Floor-dwelling Frogs and Lizards in Lowland Forests 
of Southeast Asia and Central America. American Naturalist, vol. 115, 
pp. 761-770. 

1980 Relative Abundances of Frogs and Lizards in Forests of Southeast 

Asia. Biotropica. vol 12, pp. 14-22. 
1980 (with Kari J. Frogner) New Species of Narrow-Mouth Frogs (genus 

Microhyta) from Borneo Sarawak Museum Journal, vol. 27, pp. 311- 

1980. (with W. C. Brown) Species of the Scincid Genus Dasia Gray 
24 Fieldiana: Zoology, n.s., vol. 3. 

1981. (with R. J. Wassersug and K. J. Frogner) Adaptations for Life in Tree 
Holes by Rhacophorid Tadpoles from Thailand. Journal of Herpetol- 
ogy. vol. 15, pp. 41-52. 

Johnson, Robert K. 
1979. (with D. W. Greenfield) The Blennioid Fishes of Belize and Hon- 
duras, Central America, with Comments on Their Systematics, Ecol- 
ogy and Distribution (Blenniidae: Chaenopsidae: Labrisomidae: 
Tripterygiidae). Fieldiana: Zoology, n.s., vol. 8. 
1979. (with M. A. Barnett) An Inverse Correlation between Meristic 
Characters and Food Supply in Midwater Fishes: Evidence and Possi- 
ble Explanations (reprint of 1975 paper), pp. 49-62. In: Love, M. S., 
and G. M. Cailiet, eds.. Readings in Ichthyology Goodyear Publishing 
Co., Santa Monica. 

1982. Fishes of the Families Evermannellidae and Scopelarchidae: 
Systematics, Morphology Interrelationships, and Zoogeography 
Fieldiana: Zoology, n.s., vol. 12. 

1982. (with A. E. Leviton. R. H. Gibbs, and R. McDiarmid) Computer Ap- 
plications to Collection Management in Herpetology and Ichthyology 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. 109 pp. 
Kethley. John B. 

1979. An Index to the Acarina Collections of the World (to the Family 
Level). Special Publication no. 3. U.S. naval Medical Research Unit, 
Cairo. 87 pp. 

1979. (with H. A. P. M. Lombert and F S. Lukoschus) Observations on 
Quill Wall Mites from North American Birds (Acaridei: Laminosiopti- 
dae: Fainocoptinae). international Journal of Acarinology. vol 5. 
pp. 102-110. 

Marx. Hymen 

1981. (with Alan R. Resetar) A Redescription and Generic Reallocation of 
the African Colubrid Snake Elapocalamus gracilis Boulenger, with a 
Discussion of the Union of the Brille and Postocular Shield. Journal of 
Herpetology vol. 15, pp. 83-89. 

1982. (with George B. Rabb and Stevan J. Arnold) Pythonodipsas and 
Spalerosophis. Colubrid Snake Genera Convergent to the Vipers. 
Copeia. pp. 553-561. 

Patterson. Bruce D. 

1980. Montane Mammalian Biogeography in New Mexico. Southwestern 
Naturalist, vol. 25, pp. 33-40. 

1980. A New Subspecies of Eutamias quadrivittatus (Rodentia: Sciuri- 
dae) from the Organ Mountains, New Mexico. Journal of t^ammalogy, 
vol. 61, pp. 455-464. 

1981. Morphological Shifts of Some Isolated Populations of Eutamias 
(Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Different Congeneric Assemblages. Evolution, 
vol. 35, pp. 53-66. 

1982. Pleistocene Vicariance, Montane Islands, and the Evolutionary 
Divergence of Some Chipmunks (Genus Eutamias). Journal of Mam- 
malogy vol. 63, pp. 387-398 

1982. (with C. S. Thaeler, Jr.) The Mammalian Baculum: Hypotheses 
on the Nature of Bacular Variability. Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 63, 
pp. 1-15. 
SOLEM.G. Alan 

1979. Biogeographic Significance of Land Snails, Paleozoic to Recent, 
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Biogeography. Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment. Pro- 
ceedings of the Thirty-seventh Annual Biogeography Colloquium and 
Selected Papers. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 

1979. Camaenid Land Snails from Western and Central Australia (Mollus- 
ca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). I. Taxa with Trans-Australian Distribu- 
tions. Records of the Western Australian Museum. Supplement no. 10, 
pp. 1-142. 

1979. Some Mollusks from Afghanistan. Fieldiana: Zoology n.s., vol. 1. 

1979. A Theory of Land Snail Biogeographic Patterns through Time, 
pp. 225-249. In: van der Spoel, S., A. C. van Bruggen. and J. Lever, 
eds.. Pathways in Malacology. Sixth Europiean Malacological Con- 
gress. Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, Utrecht; W. Junk, Publishers, 
The Hague. 

1979. (with Ellis Yochelson) North American Paleozoic Land Snails, with 
a Summary of Other Paleozoic Non-Marine Snails. U.S. Geological 
Survey Professional Paper no 1072. 42 pp. 

1981. Camaenid Land Snails from Westem and Central Australia (Md- 
lusca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). II. Taxa from the Kimberley Am- 
p//rt7agac/a I redale, 1933 Records of ttte Westem Australian Museum, 
Supplement no 11, pp. 147-320. 

1981. Camaenid Land Snails from Westem and Central Australia (Mollus- 
ca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). III. Taxa from the Ningbing Ranges and 
Nearby Areas. Records of the Westem Australian Museum. Supple- 
ment no. 11 pp. 321-425. 


1981. Land Snail Biogeography: a True Snail's Pace of Change, pp. 197- 
237. In: Nelson, G., and D. E. Rosen, eds., Vicariance Biogeography: 
a Critique. Columbia University Press, New York. 

1981. Small Land Snails from Northern Australia. I. Species of Gylio- 
traclrtela Tomlin, 1930 (Ivlollusca: Pulmonata: Vertiginidae). Journal 
of the Malacological Society of Australia, vol. 5, pp. 87-100. 

1981. (with W. K. Emerson, B. Roth, and F. G. Thompson) Standards for 
Malacological Collections. Curator, vol. 24, pp. 19-28. 

1981. (with F. M. Climo and D. J. Roscoe) Sympatric Species Diversity 
of New Zealand Land Snails. New Zealand Journal of Zoology vol. 8, 
pp. 453-485. 

1982. Small Land Snails from Northern Australia. II. Species of Westra- 
cystis Iredale, 1939 (Mollusca: Pulmonata, Helicarionidae). Journal of 
the Malacological Society of Australia, vol. 5, pp. 175-193. 

1982. Why New Zealand Forests Have So Many Land Snail Species. 
American Philosophical Society Yearbook for 1981, pp. 46-47 

1982. (with E.-L. Girardi, S. Slack-Smith, and G. M. Kendrick) ^usfroass/- 
minea letha, gen. nov., sp. nov., a Rare and Endangered Prosobranch 
Snail from South-Western Australia (Mollusca: Prosobranchia: Assi- 
mineidae). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia, vol. 65, 
pp. 119-129. 

1982. (with William Burger) The Tyranny and Opportunity of Numbers. 
ASC Newsletter, vol. 10, pp. 1-5. 
Stevwrt, Donald J. 

1980. with James f. Kitchell and Larry B. Crowder) Habitat Preferences 
and Fishery Oceanography, pp. 371-382. In: Bardach, J. E., et al., 
eds.. Fish Behavior and Its Use in the Capture and Culture of Fishes. 
International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, 

1981. (with James F Kitchell and Larry B. Crowder) Forage Fishes and 
Their Salmonid Predators in Lake Michigan. Transactions of the Amer- 
ican Fisheries Society, vol. 110, pp. 751-763. 

1981. (with J. J. Magnuson, C. L. Harrington, and G. N. Herbst) Re- 
sponses of Macrofauna to Short-Term Dynamics of a Gulf Stream Front 
on the Continental Shelf, pp. 441-448. In: Richards, F A., ed., Coastal 
Upwelling. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. 
TiMM. Robert M. 

1979. (with E. F Cook) The Effect of Hot Fly Larvae on Reproduction in 
White-footed Mice, Peromyscus leucopus. American /Midland Natural- 
ist, w\.:o:. pp. 2^^-2^7. 

1979. (with R. D. Price) Description of the Male of Geomydoecus scler- 
itus (Mallophaga; Trichodectidae) from the Southeastern Pocket 
GopUer. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, vol. 14, pp. 

1979. (with R. D. Price) A New Species of Geomydoecus (Mallophaga: 
Trichodectidae) from the Texas Pocket Gopher, Geomys personatus 
(Rodentia: Geomyidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 
vol. 52, pp. 264-268. 

1980. (with E. C. Birney) Mammals Collected by the Menage Scientific 
Expedition to the Philippine Islands and Borneo, 1890-1893. Journal of 
Mammalogy vol. 61, pp. 566-571. 

1980. (with A. H. Benton) Siphonaptera of Minnesota, pp. 158-177 In: 
Benton, A. H., ed.. An Atlas of the Fleas of the Eastern United States. 
Fredonia, N.Y. 177 pp. 

1980. (with R. D. Price) The Taxonomy of Geomydoecus (Mallophaga: 
Trichodectidae) from the Geomys bursarius complex (Rodentia: 
Geomyidae). Journal of Medical Entomology vol. 17 pp. 126-145. 

1981. (with R. E. Lee, Jr) Do Bot Flies, Cuterebra (Diptera: Cuterebridae), 
Emasculate Their Hosts? Jouma/ of Med/ca/Entomo/ogy vol. 18, pp. 

1982. Ectophylla alba. Mammalian Species. American Society of Mam- 
malogists, vol. 166, pp. 1-4. 

1982. (with R. E. Lee, Jr.) Is Host Castration an Evolutionary Strategy of 
Bot Flies? Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 416-417 

1982. (with E. B. Hart and L. R. Heaney) Karyotypic Variation in Pocket 
Gophers (Geomyidae: Geomys) from a Narrow Contact Zone in Neb- 
raska. Mammalian Chromosomes Newsletter, vol. 23, pp. 108-117 

1982. (with E. Halberg, F Halberg, R J. Regal, and P Cugini) Socially- 
related and Spontaneous Circadian Thermo-Acrophase Shifts in 
Rhabdomys pumilio, pp. 357-368. /n. Takahashi, R., and F Halberg, 
eds., Chronobiology Pergamon, New York. 

1982. (with L. H. Kermott) Subcutaneous and cutaneous melanins in 
Rhabdomys: Complementary Ultraviolet Radiation Shields. Journal of 
Mammalogy vol. 63, pp. 18-22. 

1982. (with R. E. Lee, Jr) Is Host Castration an Evolutionary Strategy of 
Bot Flies? Evolution, vol. 36, pp. 416--417. 

1982. (with E. B. Hart and L. R. Heaney) Karyotypic Variation in Pocket 
Gophers (Geomyidae: Geomys) from a Narrow Contact Zone in 
Nebraska Mammalian Chromosomes Newsletter, vol. 23, pp. 108-1 17. 

1982. (with L. H. Kermott) Subcutaneous and Cutaneous Melanins in 
Rhabdomys: Complementary Ultraviolet Radiation Shields. Journal of 
Mammalogy vol. 63, pp. 16-22. 
VoRis. Harold K. 

1979. (with B. C Jayne) Growth, Reproduction, and Population Struc- 
ture of a Marine Snake, Enhydrina schistosa (Hydrophiidae). Copeia, 
no. 2, pp. 307-318. 

1979. (with W. B. Jeffries) Observations on the Relationship between 
Octolasmis gray a (Davtj'm, 1851) (Thoracica: Cirripedia) and Certain 
Marine Snakes (Hydrophiidae). Crustaceana, vol. 37 pp. 123-132. 

1980. (with G. S, Glodek) Habitat, Diet, and Reproduction of the File 
Snake, Acrochordus granulatus, in the Straits of Malacca. Journal of 
Herpetology. vol. 14. pp. 108-1 1 1 . 

1981. (with C. A. Lemen) A Comparison of Reproductive Strategies 
among Marine Snakes. Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 50, pp. 89-101. 

1981. (with M. W. Moffett) Size and Proportion Relationships between the 
Beaked Sea Snake and Its Prey Biotropica, vol. 13, pp. 15-19. 

1982. (with W. B. Jeffries and M. Yang) Diversity and Distribution of the 
Pedunculate Barnacle, Octolasmis. in the Seas Adjacent to Singa- 
pore. Journal of Crustacean Biology 

1982. (with G. S. Glodek) Marine Snake Diets: Prey Composition, Diver- 
sity and Overlap. Copeia, no. 3, pp. 661-666. 
Watrous. Larry E. 

1979. (with C. A. Triplehorn) A Synopsis of the Genus Phaleria in the 
United States and Baja California (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Cole- 
opterists' Bulletin, vol. 33, pp. 275-295. 

1980. Lathrobium (Tetartopeus): Natural History Revision and Phy- 
logeny of the Nearctic Species (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Syst. 
Enterology vol. 5, pp. 303-338. 

1980. (with C. A. Triplehorn) Studies of Phaleria: Lectotype Designation 
for P. guatemalensis Champion, and a New Species from the West 
Coast of Mexico (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Coleopterists' Bulletin, 
vol. 34, pp. 55-65. 

1981. Studies of Lathrobium (Lobrathium): Revision and Phylogeny of 
the Grande Species Group (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Annals of the 
Enterological Society of America, vol. 4, pp. 144-150. 

1981. (with Q. D. Wheeler) The Out-Group Comparison Method of Char- 
acter Analysis. System. Zoology vol. 30, pp. 1-11. 

1982. A New Genus of Nitidulidae, with Comments on the Phylogenetic 
Placement of the Genus Colopterus Erichson (Coleoptera Nitidulidae). 
Coleopterists' Bulletin, vol. 36, pp. 1-11. 

1982. Review of Neotropical Archaeoglenes Broun (Coleoptera: Tene- 
brionidae). Coleopterists' Bulletin, vol. 36, pp. 135-142. 

1982. (with C. A. Triplehorn) Phaleria of the West Indies and Circum- 
Caribbean Region (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Coleopterists' Bulle- 
tin, vq\. 36, pp. 1-11. 


BOARD OF TRUSTEES, December 31, 1982 


James J O'Connor, 

Board Chairman 
Robert O Bass, 

Vice Chairrrtan 
William R. Dickinson, Jr., 

Vice Chairman 
James H Ransom, 

Vice Chairman 
William G. Swartchild. Jr., 

Vice Chairman 
Mrs Theodore D. Tieken, 

Vice Chairman 
Blaine J Yarrington, 

John S. Runnells, 

Willard L. Boyd. 

Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., 



Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L Boyd 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Meivoin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
William L. Searie 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
John W. Sullivan 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 


Harry Bercher 
William McCormick Blair 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W Goodrich 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Samuel Insull. Jr 
William V Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
J. Howard Wood 

Board Chairman 
James J. O'Connor 

Executive Committee 
James J. O'Connor, Board 

Robert O Bass, Vice 

William R. Dickinson, Jr, 

Vice Chairman 
James H. Ransom, Vice 

William G. Swartchild, Jr, 

Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Theodore D Tieken, 

Vice Chairman 
Blaine J. Yarrington, 

John S Runnells, Secretary 
Willard L. Boyd, President 
Staff Liaison 
Willard L. Boyd 

Vice Chairman — Program 

Planning & Evaluation 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Program Planning & 

Evaluation Committee 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Stanton R. Cook 
Hugo J. Meivoin 
William L. Searie 
Julian Wilkins 
Mrs. Edwin J DeCosta 
Mrs. Davie W. Grainger 
Mrs. John H. Leslie 
Theodore VanZelst 
Staff Liaison 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 

Vice Chairman — Resource 
Planning & Development 
Robert 0. Bass 

Resource Planning & 

Development Committee 
Mrs T Stanton Armour 
Bordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Marshall Field 
Richard M.Jones 
Mrs. Vernon Armour 
Mrs. Hammond E Chaffetz 
Mrs. Byron C Karzas 
John C Meeker 
Staff Liaison 
Thomas R. Sanders 

Vice Chairman — Public 

James H. Ransom 

Public Affairs Committee 
Charies F Murphy, Jr 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Howard E. Johnson 
Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 
Mrs. Newton N. Minow 
James Riley 
Staff Liaison 
Willard L. Boyd 

Chairman — Exhibition 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Exhibition Subcommittee 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour, 

Program Planning & 

Evaluation, resource 

Planning & Development 
Thomas E. Donnelley II, 

Internal Affairs 
Howard E. Johnson, Public 

Charies F Murphy, Jr, 

Facilities Planning 
James H. Ransom, Public 

Carolyn P. Blackmon 
Willard L. Boyd 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Donald Skinner 
Staff Liaison 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 

Vice Chairman — Facilities 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 

Facilities Planning 

Harry O. Bercher 
O. C. Davis 
Charles F Murphy, Jr 
John S. Runnells 
Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mrs. Wood-Prince 
Staff Liaison 
Andrea G. Bonnette 

Vice Chairman — Internal 

William G. Swartchild, Jr 

Internal Affairs Committee 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 

Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Hugo J. Meivoin 

Mrs. Philip D. Block III 

David Rewick 

Mrs. Edward F. Swift 

Staff Liaison 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
Andrea Bonnette 
Patricia Paries 

Chairman — Retirement 
Subcommittee of the 
Internal Affairs Committee 

E. Leiand Webber 

Retirement Subcommittee of 

ttie Internal Affairs 

William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Hugo J. Meivoin 
Staff Liaison 
Andrea Bonnette 

Chairman— Audit 
Subcommittee of the 
Intemal Affairs Committee 

Hugo J. Meivoin 

Audit Subcommittee of the 

Internal Affairs Committee 
David Rewick 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Staff Liaison 
Andrea Bonnette 

Treasurer — Investment 

Blaine J. Yarrington 

Investment Committee 
George R. Baker 
Bowen Blair 
Richard M. Jones 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
E. Leiand Webber 
Staff Liaison 
Andrea Bonnette 

Chairman — Nominating 

Marshall Field 

Nominating Committee 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Gordon Bent 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
Staff Liaison 
Willard L. Boyd 



Mrs. KeeneH. Addington Mi 

Mrs. Edward King Aldworth Mi 

Mrs. Richard I. Allen Mi 

Mrs. James W. Alsdorf Mi 

Mrs. Angelo R Arena M 

Mrs. A. Watson Armour III M 

Mrs. Laurance H. Armour, Jr. M 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour M 

Mrs. Vernon Armour M 

Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann M 

Mrs. Thomas G. Ayers M 

Mrs. George R. Baker M 

Mrs. Claude A. Barnett M 

Mrs. Robert 0. Bass M 

Mrs. George R. Beach M: 

Mrs. James H. Becker Mi 

Mrs. Edward H.Bennett, Jr Mi 

Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger Mi 

Mrs. Gordon Bent Mi 

Mrs. Richard Bentley Mi 

Mrs. Harry O. Bercher M 

Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic M 

Mrs. Harrington Bischof M 

Mrs. Bowen Blair M 

Mrs Frank W.BIatchford III M 

Mrs. Joseph L. Block M 

Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr M 

Mrs. Philip D. Block III M 

Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist M 

Mrs. Arthur S. Bowes M 
Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 

Mrs. Lester Harris Brill M 

Mrs. Robert E. Brooker M 

Mrs. Cameron Brown M 

Mrs. Isidore Brown Mi 

Mrs. Roger O. Brown Mi 

Mrs. Evelyn M. Bryant Mi 

Mrs. T. von Donop Mi 


Mrs. Thomas B. Burke M 

Mrs. Robert A. Carr M 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton M 

Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz M 

Mrs. Henry T. Chandler M 

Miss Nora F. Chandler M 

Mrs. George Chappell, Jr M 

Mrs. Walter L. Cherry M 

Mrs. J. Northhelfer Connor M 

Mrs. Stanton R. Cook M 

Mrs. Edward A. Cooper M 

Mrs. James R. Coulter M 

Mrs. William S. Covington M 

Mrs. Mark Crane M 

Mrs. Robert Lane Mi 


Mrs. Herschel H. Cudd Mi 

Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow Mi 

Mrs. Orval C. Davis Mi 

Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta Mi 

Mrs. Emmett Dedmon Mi 

Mrs. Robert O. Delaney M 

Mrs. Charles S. DeLong M 

Mrs. Charles Dennehy M 

Mrs. Edison Dick M 
Mrs. William R. Dickinson, Jr M 

Mrs. Stewart S. Dixon M 

Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon M 

Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley M 

Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II M 

Mrs. Maurice F. Dunne, Jr M 

Mrs. Robert C. Edwards M 

Mrs. R, Winfield Ellis M 

Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting M 

Mrs. Victor Elting III M 

Mrs. Winston Elting M 

Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing M 

Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman M 
Mrs. Ralph Falk 

s. Suzanne Clarke Falk 
s. Calvin Fentress 
s. Ftobert C. Ferris 
s. Joseph N. Field 
s. Marshall Field 
s. Charles Robert Foltz 
s. Peter B. Foreman 
s. Francis G. Foster, Jr 
s. Earl J. Frederick 
s. Gaylord A. Freeman 
s. William D. Frost 
s. Maurice F Fulton 
s. John S. Garvin 
s. John S. Gates 
s. Robert H. Gayner 
s. Isak V. Gerson 
s. Gerald S. Gidwitz 
s. James J. Glasser 
s. Julian R. Goldsmith 
s. Paul W. Goodrich 
s. David W. Grainger 
s. Donald C. Greaves 
s. Roger Griffin 
s. Robert C. Gunriess 
s. Robert P. Gwinn 
8. Burton W. Hales 
s. Corwith Hamill 
s. Charles L. Hardy 
s. William H. Hartz, Jr 
s. Frederick Charles 

s. Ben W. Heineman 
s. William A. Hewitt 
s. Stacy H. Hill 
s. Edward Hines 
s. John H. Hobart 
s. Richard H. Hobbs 

Thomas J. Hoffmann 
Miss Frances Hooper 
s. Fred W. Hoover, Jr 
s. Robert M. Hunt 

Chauncey Keep Hutchins 
s. Robert C. Hyndman 
s. Stanley O. Ikenberry 
s. Roberts. Ingersoll 

Samuel Insull, Jr 

Spencer E. Irons 
s. Frederick G. Jaicks 

Richard M. Jones 

John B. Judkins, Jr 

Byron C. Karzas 

Walter A. Krafft 

Bertram D. Kribben 

Louis B. Kuppenheimen 

s. Louis E. Laflin, Jr 

Norman Laski 
s. Gordon Leadbetter 
s. John H. Leslie 
s. John Woodworth Leslie 
s. Edward H. Levi 
s. Chapin Litten 
s. Albert E. M. Louer 
s. Donald G. Lubin 
s. Franklin J. Lunding 
s. Walter M. Mack 
s. Wallace D. Mackenzie 
s. John W. Madigan 
s. James F Magin 
s. Robert H. Malott 
s. David Mayer 
s. Frank D. Mayer 
s. Frank D. Mayer, Jr. 
s. James G. Maynard 
s. Franklin B. McCarty Jr 
s. Brooks McCormick 
s. George Barr 
McCutcheon II 

Mrs. Edward D. McDougal. Jr Mrs. 

Mrs. Remick McDowell Mrs. 

Mrs. John C. Meeker Mrs. 

Mrs. Henry W. Meers Mrs. 

Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin Mrs. 

Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller Mrs. 

Mrs. Newton N. Minow Mrs. 

Mrs. William H.Mitchell Mrs. 

Mrs. Kenneth F Montgomery Mrs. 

Mrs. Evan G. Moore Mrs. 

Mrs. Graham J. Morgan Mrs. 

Mrs. Arthur T Moulding Mrs. 

Mrs. Charles F. Murphy Jr Jr 

Mrs. Elita Mailers Murphy Mrs. 

Mrs. Charles F Nadler Mrs. 

Mrs. Edward FNeild III Mrs. 

Mrs. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr Mrs. 

Mrs. John D. Nichols Mrs. 

Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen Mrs. 

Mrs. Lucille Ann Nunes Mrs. 

Mrs. John Nuveen Mrs. 

Mrs. James J, O'Connor Mrs. 

Mrs. Patrick L. O'Malley Mrs. 

Mrs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil Mrs. 

Mrs. Richard C. Oughton Mrs. 

Mrs. Henry D. Paschen, Jr Mrs. 

Mrs. Donald W. Patterson Mrs. 

Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson Mrs. 

Mrs. R. Marlin Perkins Mrs. 

Mrs. Charles S. Potter 

Mrs. Edward S. Price 

Mrs. Frederick Childs Pullman 

Mrs. Howard C. Reeder 

Mrs. Robert W Reneker 

Mrs. Peter A. Repenning 

Mrs. Don H. Reuben 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

Mrs. T Clifford Rodman 

Mrs. Frederick Roe 

Mrs. Edward M. Roob 

Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

Mrs. Johns. Runnells 

Mrs. George W. Ryerson 

Muriel S. Savage 

Mrs. Arthur W.Schultz 

Mrs. William L. Searle 

Joanne Nagel Shaw 

Mrs. C.William Sidwell 

Mrs. Richard W. Simmons 

Mrs. John R. Siragusa 

Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith, Jr 

Mrs. Gordon H. Smith 

Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 

Mrs. LyIeM. Spencer 

Mrs. Gatzert Spiegel 

Mrs. Jack C.Staehle 

Mrs. E. Norman Staub 

Mrs Gardner H. Stern 

Mrs Adiai E. Stevenson III 

Mrs. John W. Stimpson 

Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

Mrs. William S. Street 

Mrs. Robert H. Strotz 

Mrs. Walter A. Stuhr,Jr 

Mrs. Barry Sullivan 

Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

Mrs. Harry Blair Sutter 

Mrs. William P Sutter 

Mrs. James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr 

Mrs. Edward F Swift 

Mrs. Hampden M. Swift 

Mrs. Phelps H. Swift 

Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr 

Mrs. John W.Taylor III 

Mrs. Samuel G. Taylor III 

Edward R. Telling 
Richard L. Thomas 
Bruce Thome 
Theodore D. Tieken 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 
Howard J. Trienens 
Chester D. Tripp 
C. Perin Tyler 
Theodore W Van Zelst 
V L. D. von Schlegell 
Thomas M. Ware 
Hempstead Washburne, 

E. Leiand Webber 
John Paul Welling 
John L.Welsh III 
Henry P. Wheeler 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Albert W. Williams 
Philip C.Williams 
Norman B. Williamson 
Robert H. Wilson 
Wallace C. Winter 
Peter Wolkonsky 
J. Howard Wood 
William Wood-Prince 
Frank H. Woods 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
George B. Young 



In addition to the many 
generous donors listed here, 
in 1981. 2,006 individuals 
and, in 1982. 2,253 individ- 
uals made contributions of 
under $100. The Museum is 
deeply grateful for this 


DoNOfis OF $5,000 OR More 


Mr. & Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

Abby K. Babcock (bequest) 

William H. Barnes (bequest) 

Robert O. Bass 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Bent 

Mr. & Mrs. Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Leigh (Mary) Block 

Cdr. & Mrs. G. E. Boone 
Mr. & Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Buchanan Family 
Foundation (Mr. & Mrs. 
DeWitt Buchanan, Jr.) 
Dr & Mrs. Robert W. Carton 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry G. 

Mr & Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 
Mr & Mrs. Walter L. 

Cherry, Jr 
Coleman Foundation, Inc. 
Patrick & Anna Cudahy Fund 
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
and the Walter E. Heller 
Mrs. Charles S. DeLong 
Mr & Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Gaylord 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E. 

Donnelley, Jr 
Clara Douglas (bequest) 
Mr & Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 
Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph N. Field 
Mr & Mrs. William M. 

Raymond H. Geer 
Grainger Foundation, Inc. 
(Mr & Mrs. David W. 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales 
Mrs. Norman R. Hanson 
HBB Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Theodore D. Tieken) 
Frank D. Huth (bequest) 
Mrs. Harold James 
John M. Simpson 
Foundation (Mr John M 
Mrs. Louis B. Kuppenheimer 
Frederick K. Leisch 
Mr & Mrs. John H. Leslie 
Chauncey & Marion Deering 
McCormick Foundation (C. 
D McCormick and Mr & 
Mrs. Brooks McCormick) 
Martin Foundation, Inc. (Mrs. 

Jennifer Martin) 
Oscar G & Elsa S. Mayer 
Charitable Trust (Mr & 
Mrs. Oscar G Mayer) 
Mr & Mrs Charles A. Mayer 
Mr & Mrs. William H. Mitchell 
Mr & Mrs. Charles F 
28 Murphy Jr 

Mathilda Newhouse 

Mr & Mrs. Milo E. Oliphant 
Peterborough Foundation 

(Mr & Mrs. Marshall Field) 
Mr & Mrs. Charles S. Potter 
Pritzker Foundation (A. N. 

Pritzker Abraham Pritzker) 
Rice Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Arthur Nolan, Jr) 
Mrs. T Clifford Rodman 
Mr & Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Arthur J. Schmitt Foundation 
Mr & Mrs. William L. Searle 
Hermon D. Smith* 
Mr&Mrs. JackC. Staehle 
Mrs. David W. Stewart 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Sullivan 
Susman & Asher Foundation 

(Mr Robert Asher) 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Taylor Jr 
Ruth c Vernon Taylor 

Foundation (William T. 

Bartholomay, Mrs. 

Theodore Tieken, Jr, and 

Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Smith) 
Mr & Mrs. Edward R. Telling 
Mrs. Chester D. Tripp and 

the Estate of Chester D. 

Mr & Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Mr & Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
W.R& H.B.White 

Foundation (Mr John 

Women's Board of Field 

Mr&Mrs. Blaine J. 


Donors OF 
$1,000 TO $4,999 

ACP Foundation (A. C. 

Buehler. Jr) 
Abra Prentice Anderson 

Charitable Trust (Mrs. 

Abra Prentice Anderson) 
Alsdorf Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. James W. Alsdorf) 
Arch W. Shaw Foundation 

(John I. Shaw) 
Mrs. Lester Armour 
Mrs. Vernon Armour 
Mr & Mrs. A. Watson Armour 

Mr & Mrs. Gary Bahr 
Mr & Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mrs. James H. Becker 
Mr & Mrs. Harry 0. Bercher 
Edwin A. Bergman 
Bessie Shields Foundation 

(Dr Thomas W. Shields) 
H. B. Blanke Charitable Trust 

"B" (Donald L. Blanke) 
Bjorkman Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. Carl G. Bjorkman) 
Mrs. Carolyn P. Blackmon 
William McCormick Blair* 
Mr & Mrs. Edward 

McCormick Blair 
Mrs. Harold S. Brady 
Svend & Elizabeth Bramsen 

Foundation (Mrs. 

Elizabeth Bramsen) 
Mr & Mrs. Robert E Brooker 
Mr & Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Henry O. Brown 

Dr & Mrs. DeWitt Buchanan, 

Mr & Mrs. Donald R 

Mr & Mrs. James E. Burd 
Cameron Brown Foundation 
(Mr & Mrs. Cameron 
Mr & Mrs. Harry B. Clow, Jr 
Collie-Swartchild Foundation 
(Mr* & Mrs. James 
Mr & Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mr & Mrs. David R. Corbett 
Mr & Mrs. William S. 

AG. Cox Charity Trust 
Mr&Mrs. Mark Crane 
Crawford Foundation 

(William F Crawford) 
Michael Cudahy 
D and R Fund (Mr & Mrs. 
Samuel R. Rosenthal) 
Davee Foundation (Ken M. 

Mr & Mrs. Orval C. Davis 
Edward J. DeWitt 
O. Paul Decker Memorial 
Foundation (Mrs. Edwin N. 
Mr & Mrs. James A. 

Delaney, Jr 
Mr&Mrs. Roberto. 

Dick Family Foundation (Mr 

& Mrs. A. B. Dick) 
Mrs. Arthur Dixon 
Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 
Foundation (Donna Wolf 
George H. Dovenmuehle 
Mrs. Robert T. Drake 
Mrs. Lyman M. Drake, Jr 
Mrs. Harry J. Dunbaugh 
Edwin J. Brach Foundation 
(Mrs. Bertram Z. Brodie) 
Elliott & Ann Donnelley 
Foundation (Mrs. Charles 
L. Hardy) 
Mrs. Bergen Evans 
Mr&Mrs. Thomas J. 

Mr & Mrs. Calvin Fentress, 

Wade Fetzer III 
Mr & Mrs. Marshall Field 
Howard S. Fisher 
Mrs. Anne R. Gait 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Garvin 
Paul J. Gerstley 
Mr & Mrs. James R. Getz 
Mr & Mrs Paul M. Goodrich 
Dr & Mrs. Donald C. 

Dr Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Rose B. Grosse 
Mr & Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 
Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 
H. Earl Hoover Foundation 

(H. Earl Hoover) 
Happy Hollow Fund (Mr & 

Mrs. Corwith Hamill) 
Mrs. William A. Hark 
Mrs. D. Foster Harland 
Mr & Mrs. Allan E. Harris 
David J. Harris 
Mr & Mrs. Robert S. 

Mrs. William H. Hartz, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Ben W. Heineman 
Mr & Mrs. Michael Helberg 
Francis M. Hodous 
John J. Hoellen 
Gerald Hollins 
Dr Helen Holt 
Holzheimer Fund (Carl 

Mr & Mrs. Reinhardt Jahn 
Jocarno Fund (Mr & Mrs. 

Norman J. Schlossman) 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas J. 

Mr & Mrs. Edward C. 

Mr & Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Emmett M.Joyce 
Mrs. Margaret Katzin 
Mrs. Spencer R.Keare 

Mr & Mrs. George P. 

Kendall, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Sheldeon E. Kent 
Mrs. E. Ogden Ketting 
Oscar Kottmann, Jr 
La Salle Adams Fund 

(Sidney Stein, Jr) 
Laurance H. Armour Jr & 

Margot B. Armour Family 

Foundation (Laurance H. 

Mrs. Richard W. Leach 
Mr & Mrs. Elliot Lehman 
Dr & Mrs. Edward H. Levi 
Mrs. Edward J. Loewenthal 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mr & Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 
H. Norris Love 
Mr & Mrs. Franklin J. 

Mrs. Robert L. Lyon 
Foster G. McGaw 

Foundation (Foster G. 

Annie May McLucas 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Don H. McLucas) 
Mr & Mrs. Earl Mahoney 
Mr & Mrs. Robert H. Malott 
Harold M. Mayer 
Mr & Mrs. James G. 

Mr & Mrs. Edwin E. Meader 
Mr & Mrs. Laszio L. 

Mr & Mrs. John Meeker 
Mr & Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 


Mr. & Mrs. John Perry Miller 

H. G. Mojonnier 

Lillian Molner Charitable 

Trust (Mr & Mrs. Morton 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Mooney 
Dr & Mrs. Evan Gregory 

Richard M. Morrow 
Mrs. & Mrs. Arthur T. 

Col. & Mrs. John B. Naser 
Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 
Mr & Mrs. Karl R Nygren 
Oak Park River Forest 

Community Foundation 

(Mr & Mrs. Wallis Austin) 
Offield Family Foundation 

(Wrigley Offield) 
Dr & Mrs. Eric Oldberg 
Otto W. Lehmann 

Foundation (Mr Robert O. 

Mrs. Richard C. Oughton 
Mrs. Karen Paldan 
Peroke Foundation (Mrs. 

Virginia O. Foreman) 
Philip A. Shapiro Foundation 

(Mrs. Barbara A. Shapiro) 
Philip D. Block Jr Family 

Foundation (Mrs. Philip 

Block, Jr.) 
Mr & Mrs. Allan M. Pickus 
George A. Poole 
Mr & Mrs. E. David Porter 
James H Ransom 
Mr & Mrs. John Shedd Reed 
Helen Reed 
Howard C. Reeder 
Ruth Regenstein 
David W. Rewick 
Dr & Mrs. Henry Rosett 
Daniel Rostenkowski 
Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowley 
Arthur Rubloff 
Mr & Mrs. Bernard Sahlins 
Sax Family Foundation 

(Leonard B. Sax) 
Walter E. Schuessler 
E. Charles Schuetz 
Mr & Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 
Seabury Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. John W. Seabury) 
Sedoh Foundation (Scott 

Edwin A. Seipp, Jr 
Jeffrey Shedd 
Mr & Mrs. Henry Shenker 
Siragusa Foundation (Ross 

D. Siragusa, Jr) 
Mr & Mrs. Edward B. Smith 
Thomas J. Smith 
Dr & Mrs. Daniel Snydacker 
Mr & Mrs. Irving Solomon 
Mrs. George T. Spensley 
Joseph J. Staniec 
Mrs. David 8. Stern, Jr 
Robert D. Stuart, Jr 
Bolton Sullivan Foundation 

(Bolton Sullivan) 
Mr & Mrs. William G. 

Swartchild, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Rod Taenzer 
Mr & Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Mrs. George A. Thornton 
Thorson Foundation 

(Rueben Thorson) 

Melvin A. Tray lor, Jr 

George S. Trees 

George S. Trees, Jr. 

Howard J. Trienens 

Dr & Mrs. Roger H. Van Bolt 

Glen R. Verber 

Viola Aloe Laski Charitable 

Trust (Mrs. Norman Laski) 
Mrs. Harold C. Voris 
Mrs. Theron Wasson 
Mrs. John Paul Welling 
Mr & Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 
Mrs. Jay N. Whipple 
Harold A. White 
Howard L. Willett Foundation 

(Mrs. Howard L. 

Willett, Jr) 
Dr & Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
J. Howard Wood 
Woodruff & Edwards 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Robert C. Edwards) 
Mrs. Claire Zeisler 
Kenneth V. Zwiener 

Donations OF 
$100 TO $1,000 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Aaron 
Dr & Mrs. Roberto Abdelnur 
Lester S. Abelson 

Foundation (Lester S. 

Alan L. Acker 
Mr & Mrs. L. Meredith 

Lowell E. Aokmann 
Dr William H. Adams 
Leiand C. Adams 
Cyrus H. Adams III 
Dr Robert Adier 
Robert S. AdIer Family Fund 

(Robert S. AdIer) 
Mr & Mrs. Frank F Ake 
Mr & Mrs. LeeWinfield 

Thomas W. Alder 
Mr & Mrs. Edward K. 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Alexander 
John Alexander, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Stanley Allan 
Louis A. Allen 
Mrs. Lois H. Allison 
Richard H. Alschuler 
Mrs. John D. Ames 
Dr & Mrs. M. Amimoto 
Brierly W. Anderson 
Mr & Mrs. Scott Anderson 
Mr & Mrs. Roger E. 

Thomas W. Andrews 
Mr & Mrs. Bob Andrus 
Ann J. Anesey 
Edward F Anixter 
Richard Ansel 
Joseph P. Antonow 
Mr & Mrs. Edward M. Apke 
Arthur I. Appleton 

Foundation (Arthur I. 

Mrs. E. A. Archer 
Mr & Mrs. Angelo Arena 
Laurance H. Armour Jr 
Mrs. Julian Armstrong 
Mrs. Leslie Arnett 
Mrs. Julius Auerbach 

Edwin C. Austin 
Avery Fund (Mr & Mrs. 

William H. Avery) 
Thomas G. Ayers 
Dr Orren D. Baab 
Mrs. William T. Bacon 
E. M. Bakin 
E. M. Bakwin 
Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Balaban 
Willard J. Ball 
Dr & Mrs. George E. Ball 
Mr & Mrs. James L. Ballard 
Mr & Mrs. Carl Balonick 
George M. Bard 
Ralph Austin Bard, Jr 
Mrs. Reid S. Barker 
Mrs. F Rose Barr 
George Barr. Foundation 

(George & Kristina Barr) 
Herbert Barsy 
Mrs. Robert Bartlett 
Mrs. George A. Basta 
AlbenFS Clara G.Bates 

Foundation (Mrs. George 

P. Edwards) 
Rex J. Bates 
Alvin H. Baum Family Fund 

(Alvin H. Baum) 
Mr & Mrs. George M. 

Lee Baumgarten 
Mr & Mrs. George R. Beach, 

Mrs. George W. Beadle 
Mr & Mrs. Edward A. 

Ross J. Beatty 
Mr & Mrs. William K. Beatty 
F H. Beberdick 
Robert C. Becherer 
Mr & Mrs. Edward M. Becht 
Lucille Becker 
Helga Behrmann 
Walter Belinky 
Chauncey M. Bell 
Mrs. Lee Phillip Bell 
Keith Bennett 
Lawrence E. Bennett 
Mr & Mrs, Edward H. 

Bennett, Jr 
John Herman Bensdorf 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
Mr & Mrs. John P Bent 
Mrs. Richard Bentley 
Mr & Mrs. William Bentley 
Mr & Mrs. James F. Bere 
Mr & Mrs. Eugene P. Berg 
Albert E. Berger Foundation 

(Miles Berger) 
Robert Bergman 
Richard C. Berliner 
Mrs. Edward J. Bermingham 
Bernauer Family Charitable 

Trust (John A. Bernauer) 
Mrs. Harry J. Bettendorf 
Jacqueline Beu 
Andrew P. Bieber 
Lee F. Biedermann 
Ruth A. Bieritz 
Mrs. Joseph S. Bigane, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Michael A. 

John N. Bingham 
Einar L. Bjorklund 
Mrs. Edith B. Blackwell 
Blake Blair 
Edward McCormick Blair, Jr 

Mr & Mrs.* Edward F 

Mrs. W R. Blew 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph L. Block 

Nelson C. Block 

Mrs. Samuel Block 

Mr & Mrs. Edwin R. 

Max S. Bloom 

Mr & Mrs. Stephen J. Bloom 

Thomas Board 

Dr Glenn F Boas 

Mr & Mrs George H. 

W. S. Bodman 

Mrs. Gilbert P Bogert 

Bohnen Family Foundation 
(R. G. Bohnen) 

William J. Bold 

Mrs. Daniel J. Boone 

Mrs. John Jay Borland II 

Robert A. Bowen 

Bowes Foundation (Mr & 
Mrs. Arthurs. Bowes) 

Mr & Mrs. William E. 

Mr & Mrs. William Beaty 

Lee A. Boye 

Paul R Boyer 

Mrs. Howard A. Boysen 

Mr & Mrs. Clarence G. 

John R. Bradley 

R. Sayre Bradshaw 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Brandt 

Harvey W Branigar, Jr 

Dr & Mrs. Joseph T Branit 

David P. Brannin 

Mrs. D. T Braun 

Morris Braun 

Mr & Mrs. James L. Breeling 

Mr & Mrs. William E. Breltzke 

Mrs. Paul K. Bresee 

Mr & Mrs. Derrick L. 

Mr & Mrs. Gerhard Brezina 

Mr & Mrs. Charles A. 

Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 

Mrs. Thomas H. Brittingham 

Mr & Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 

Mr & Mrs. Warren G. 

Alan R. Brodie 
Beckwith R. Bronson 
Herbert C. Brook 
Mr. William B. Browder 
Mr & Mrs. Cameron Brown 
Mrs. Charles H. Brown 
Dr Charles S. Brown 
H. Templeton Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Murray C. Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Ralph H. Brown 
Mr & Mrs. William M. Brown 
Charles Lee Brown 
Arthur B. Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Isidore Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert A. 

Richard Brumbaugh 
Mr & Mrs. Edwin C. Bruning 
Dr & Mrs. John R. Buchanan 
Mr & Mrs. C. Lawrence 

Henry Buchbinder 
Mr & Mrs. Paul Buchholz 

Mrs. T. von Donop 

Mr & Mrs. Samuel M. 

Bud wig, Jr 
Robert Buehler 
Mr & Mrs. Theodore H. 

Mr & Mrs. Edward Buker 
Lewis E. Bulkeley 
Dr & Mrs. Peter Burbulis 
Mr & Mrs. Gunnar Burgeson 
Mrs. Alfred L. Burke 
Grinnell Burke 
Romana Burke 
Mrs. Thomas B. Burke 
Homer A. Burnell 
Mrs. Joseph A Burnham 
Edward J. Burns 
Mr & Mrs. John S. Burr 
Robert S. Burrows 
Mr & Mrs. Myles R. Busse 
John C.Butler 
Josephine Dole Butler Trust 

(Mrs. Gerald Butler) 
Pamela D. Butler 
Robert B. Butz 
Mr & Mrs. William L. Byers 
James E. Byrne 
Morton D. Cahn 
Mr & Mrs. Pat J. Calabrese 
Mr & Mrs. Nick Calderone 
Mr &Mrs. Eugene J. 

Eugene Callen 
J. F Calmeyn 
William T Cameron 
Dr Catherine Cameron 
Mr & Mrs. Donald A. 

Campbell, Jr 
Hugh Campbell 
Dr & Mrs, James A. 

Carlin Fund (Leo J. Carlin) 
William J. Carney 
Peter R. Carney 
Mr&Mrs, William A. Caro 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Adams 

Mr & Mrs. Vernon Carstens 
Philip V Carter 
Brian J Casey 
Silas S. Cathcart 
Mr & Mrs. Victor E. Cavallari 
Mr & Mrs. Hammond E. 

Kent Chandler, Jr 
Mrs. George S. Chappell, Jr 
Frank F Chen 
Dr J. A. Chenicek 
Sidney Cheresh 
Dr &Mrs Eugene J. 

Mr & Mrs, Eugene J. 

W. T Chester 
Leonard C. Childs 
Dons R Childs 
R Newell Childs 
Mr & Mrs, Charles Chomsky 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard C. 

Mr. & Mrs. Weston R. 

Carl P Clare 
James H. Clark 
Zeta E. Clark 
George Clark 



Clarke Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. John Walter Clarke) 
Dolores Clavier 
Mr & Mrs. John Clemnner 
Kent S. Clow 
Marlon Clow 

Mr & Mrs. Jesse M Cobb 
Mr & Mrs. Eric W. Cochrane 
Perry Cohen 
Clarence L. Coleman, Jr & 

Lillian S Coleman 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Clarence L. Coleman) 
John E. Coleman 
Mr & Mrs. John R. Coleman 
Orel! T. Collins 
Jane B. & John C. Colman 

Philanthropic Fund (Mr & 

Mrs. John C. Colman) 
Robert R. Colyar 
Mr & Mrs. Earle M. Combs III 
John T. Concannon 
Dr & Mrs. Raymond H. 

Mrs. Philip Conley 
Mr. & Mrs. James P. Connelly 
Mr & Mrs. Donald W. Connor 
Margaret B. Conrad 
Louis J. Conti 
Mrs. Catherine Cooke 
Drs. Daniel & Marlel 

Rosalind Coopersmith 
Mrs. David P. Cordray 
Gail D. Cotton 
Donald C. Cottrell, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. James R. Coulter 
Jean Prien Courtright 
Marion E. Cowan 
Dr & Mrs. Winston D. Crabb 
Mrs. Norman L. Cram 
Arthur A. Cramer, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Richard Cramer 
Mrs. Betty Ann Cratty 
William B. Croucher 
Mrs. Elizabeth M. Crow 
John Powers Crowley 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Paul Cruikshank 
Marianne J Cruikshank 
Mr & Mrs. Herschel Cudd 
John E. Cullinane 
Frank Cullotta 
Edward M. Cummings 
Tilden Cummings 
Mr & Mrs. Hubert S. 

Edward A. Cushman 
Paul W. Cutler 
Dr & Mrs. M. H. Cutler 
Oscar O. D'Angelo 
Mr & Mrs John E. Dabbert 
Mr & Mrs. Loren Daily 
Bruce E Dalton 
George E. Danforth 
Dr & Mrs. Tapas K Das 

Mr & Mrs Leonard S. 

Mr & Mrs. Louis E Davidson 
Mr & Mrs. W Allen Davies 
Dr Judith M. Davis 
Percy B. Davis 
Mr & Mrs. Richard H Davis 
Mr & Mrs. Roy W. Davis 
Mr & Mrs William R. Davis 
Dr Arthur DeBoer 
30 Richard P. DeCamara 

Cyrus C. De Coster 

Mr & Mrs. Seymour S De 

Margaret De Marco 
R J. De Motte 
Mr & Mrs. James R. De 

Mr & Mrs. Herbert C. De 

Dr Sam Decker 
Mr & Mrs. R. Emmett 

W. S. Deeming 
Sarah A. Delaney 
William G. Demas 
Mrs. Charles Dennehy, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Derrickson 
Doris Devine 
Robert Diamant 
Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mark J. Dickelman 
Mrs. Clinton O. Dicken 
Mr & Mrs. Duane A. Diehl 
Mr & Mrs. Robert L. 

Ketherine Dietrich 
W. S. Dillon 

Mr & Mrs, Stewart S. Dixon 
Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 
Patricia Dodson 
Mrs. Nora Don 
James R. Donnelley 

Foundation (James R. 

Mrs. Robert D. Dooley 
Mr & Mrs. Gary R. Dorn 
William C. Douglas 
James H. Douglas, Jr 
H. James Douglass 
Dr & Mrs Denis B. Drennan 
Robert M. Drevs 
W. C. Dreyer 
Diane G. Drobish 
Mr & Mrs. Juergen 

Mr & Mrs. Michael F. Duane 
Mr & Mrs. William E. Dumke 
Mr & Mrs. Paul R. Duncan 
Mrs. Allison Dunham 
Mr & Mrs. Edwin R. Dunn 
Mr & Mrs. William J. Dunn 
Mr & Mrs. M. F. Dunne, Jr 
George W. Dunne 
B. L. Durling 

Mr & Mrs. Peter L. Dyson 
Mr & Mrs. Donald P Eckrich 
Sigmund E. Edelstone 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Sigmund E. Edelstone) 
Howard O. Edmonds 
John A. Edwards 
Mr & Mrs. W. S. Edwards 
Gerard J. Eger 
Joseph S. Ehrman, Jr 
James G. Ek 
William J. Elbersen 
Mr & Mrs. William O. 

David P Eller 

Mr & Mrs. F Osborne Elliott 
Caryl L. Elsey 
Mrs. Henry Embree 
M. Caroline Emich 
Mrs S. Engberg 
Mr & Mrs. Richard Engler 
Enivar Charitable Fund (Mrs. 

Leonard Florsheim) 
E. Stanley Enlund 

Mr & Mrs. E. J. Erick 

Mr & Mrs. Norman Erickson 

Mrs. William T. Erickson 

Harry F. Espensheid 

Mr & Mrs. Clay Evans 

Kenneth A. Evans 

Boyd N. Everett 

Mr & Mrs. David L. Everhart 

Mr & Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 

Mrs. Crawford F Failey 

Lucy F Fairbank 

Mr & Mrs. Burton H. 

Mrs. John J. Faissler 
Milton Falkoff 
Paul E. Fanta 
Richard J. Farrell 
Carl B. Fausey 
William E. Fay Jr 
Bruce A. Featherstone 
Frederick A. Fechtner 
Mr & Mrs. Milton Feldmar 
Charles R. Feldstein 
Mrs. R. W. Ferguson 
Mr &Mrs. Dennis A. 

Mrs. Virginia Ferrell 
Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 
John W. Fetzner 
Ann C. Field 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Fink 
William FinkI 
Jack L. Fisher 
Mr & Mrs. Russell W. Fisher 
Mr & Mrs. Walter Fisher 
Morgan L. Fitch 
E. 1. Fleming 
Mrs. Mildred C. Fletcher 
Mr & Mrs. James G. Flood 
Mr & Mrs. William Florian 
Mr & Mrs. Harold M. 

Dwight Follett 
Mrs. Robert L, Foots 
Edwin S. Ford 
Mrs. Zachary D. Ford 
George W. Forrest 
Mr & Mrs. Frank B. Foster 
Mr & Mrs. A. A. Frank, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Franke 
Marshall Frankel Foundation 

(Mr & Mrs. Marshall I. 

Dr Christabel Frederick 
Earl J. Frederick 
Mr & Mrs. James O. 

Freed man 
Norman & Edna Freehling 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Norman Freehling) 
Mrs. Ernest E. Freeman 
Gaylord A. Freeman, Jr 
Mrs. Frances L. Freeman 
Lee A. Freeman, Sr 
E. Taliaferro French 
Mr & Mrs. Donald B. French 
Robert A. Fried 
Mrs. Herbert A. Friedlich 
Mrs. Allan Friedman 
Mr & Mrs. Norton Friedman 
Mr & Mrs. R. E. Friese 
Mr & Mrs John W. Fritz 
Mrs. Edmund W. Froelich 
Mr & Mrs. Carlos M. Frum 
Frank M Fucik 
Mrs. Gregory L. Fugiel 
Fulk Family Charitable Trust 

(Mr & Mrs. R. Neal Fulk) 


W. W. Fullagar 
Douglas R. Fuller 
Mrs. Morton F Fulton 
Mr & Mrs. H. E. Funk 
Jack B. Gable 
Rudolph R. Gabriel 
Joseph M. Gabriel 
Mrs. Charles B. Gale 
Mr* & Mrs. Nicholas 

Mr & Mrs. George H. 

Bruce M. Ganek 
Mr & Mrs. Raymond Garbe 
F Sewall Gardner 
Henry K. Gardner 
Mr & Mrs. William P 

Mr & Mrs. James J. Gavin, 

Richard I. Gavin 
Alfred Gawthrop 
Gaylord Foundation, Inc. 

(Mr & Mrs. Edward 

Mr & Mrs. Robert H. Gayner 
Calvin M George 
Mr & Mrs. George Georgiou 
Paul Gerden 
Lawrence L. German 
Mr & Mrs. Isak V. Gerson 

Mr & Mrs. James L. 

William T Gibbs 
Thomas & Mary Jane Gibbs 
James Gibson, Jr 
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Gidwitz 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph L. Gidwitz 
Richard A. Giesen 
Mr & Mrs. Paul C. Gignilliat 
Mr & Mrs. William G. Gilbert 
Mr & Mrs. Harvey B. Gill 
Dr & Mrs. John H. Gilmore 
Chase Gilmore 
Dr Elizabeth L. Girardi 
Mrs. Clara W.GIabe 
James J. Glasser 
Glore Fund (Mr & Mrs. 

Robert Hixon Glore) 
Albert H. & lona D. Glos 

Foundation (Mrs. Albert H. 

Dr & Mrs. Alphonse Gnilka 
Gordon T. Goethal 
Mr & Mrs. David F Goldberg 
Dr & Mrs. Julian R. 

Dr & Mrs. Richard Goldwin 
Mrs. Alexander Gorbunoff 
Mrs. T Poultney Gorter 
William C. Goudie 
John H. Grace. Jr 


Dr. & Mrs. John S. 

C. R, Graf 
Bruce J. Graham 
Mary E. Graham 
Mr & Mrs. Kenneth Grant 
Mr & Mrs. Gerard E. 

Elsie Gratias 

Dr & Mrs. Gerald Grawey 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Gray 
William H. Green 
Aubrey Greenberg 
Greene-Michel Foundation 

(D. Daniel Michel) 
Mrs. Helen D. Greenbaum 
Mr & Mrs. Edward D. 

Victor E. Grimm 
John E. Groenings 

Charitable Foundation 

(John E. Groenings) 
Mr & Mrs. Harold Grumhaus 
Charles V. Grunwell 
Dr &Mrs. Rolf M.Gunnar 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. 

Edward F Gurka, Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Edwin L. Gustus 
Mr & Mrs. William N. Guthrie 
Dr & Mrs. Vernon L. Guynn 
Mr & Mrs. Robert A. 

Mr & Mrs. Charles C. 

Haffner III 
Mr & Mrs. Harry H. Hagey 
Mary W. Haggerty 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas W Hague 
Arthur G. Hailand 
Linda Hajic 

Mr & Mrs. Vern E. Hakola 
William M. Hales 
J. Parker Hall 
Mr & Mrs. Jonathan C. 

Mr & Mrs. Conwith Hamill 
Mr &Mrs. Andrew C. 

Eva Alice Hamilton 
Samuel Hamilton 
Stefan Hammond 
Mr & Mrs. Martin Hanley 
Mr. & Mrs. Allan Hansberger 
Mr & Mrs. Robert F. Hanson 
George G. Hardin Charitable 

Fund (George G. Hardin) 
Virginia Hardin 
Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 
Jack R. Harlan 
James D. Harper, Jr 
Mrs. Marian S. Harris 
Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris 
Mr & Mrs. S. H. Harris 
Harris Foundation (Irving B. 

Mr Stanley G. Harhs, Jr 
Mrs. Augustin S. Hart 
Mrs. James M. Hart 
Mrs. Richard Harza 
Dr & Mrs. Malcolm H. Hast 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome Hasterlik 
Mr Elsie L. Haug 
Mr & Mrs. Walter Hawrysz 
Mr & Mrs. Alfred H. Hayes 
Mrs. William H. Hazlett 
Grace C Hefner 
Mrs. Wilfred H, Heitmann 
Mr & Mrs. Richard G. Held 

Steven C. Henke 

Frank X. Henke, Jr 

O. L. Henninger 

Harold H. Hensold 

James F Herber 

Mr & Mrs. Gerard F Herkes 

Elton A. Herricklll 

Mrs. Edmond E. Herrscher 

Mrs. John Heymann 

Thomas D. Hicks 

Mr & Mrs. Daniel P. Hidding 

Surd Hikes 

Mr & Mrs Stacy H. Hill 

Margaret Hillis 

Mr & Mrs. Edward Hines 

John L. Hines 

Mr & Mrs. Harold H. Hines, 

Mr & Mrs. Donald H HIntz 
Mrs. Edwin F Hirsch 
Edwin W Hirsch 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome E. Hirsch 
E. W. Hirsch 
Dr & Mrs. Jerome H. 

Dr Hyman J. Hirschfield 
Mrs. James R. Hoatson 
Mr & Mrs. John Hobart 
Peggy L. Hoberg 
Josephine Hockenbeamer 
Mrs. Shirley L. Hodge 
Mrs. William R. Hodgson 
Dr & Mrs. Paul F Hoffman 
Mrs. Janet S. Hoffmann 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas J. 

Dave Hokin Foundation (Mr 

& Mrs. Robert F Hanson) 
Grace & Edwin E. Hokin 

Foundation (Edwin E. 

B. C. Holland 
Dr & Mrs. John A. Holmes 
Stanley H. Holmes 
Thomas Holmquest 
Florence O Hopkins 

Charitable Fund (Mr & 

Mrs. Isaac V. Gerson) 
Mrs. William D. Home, Jr. 
Leonard J. Honwich Family 

Foundation (Leonard J. 

Theodore Horwich 
Louis Hosbein Family 

Foundation (Louis 

R. A. Houston 
Mr & Mrs. P E. Howard 
Mr & Mrs. Roger F Howe 
Mr & Mrs. Lincoln B. 

Mrs. Otis L. Hubbard, Sr 
Katherine J. Hudson 
Mr & Mrs. R. B. Hulsen 
Marjorie H. Humphrey 
Dr & Mrs. James C. Hunt 
Mrs. William O. Hunt 
Mr & Mrs. Reed E. Hunt 
Mrs. C. K. Hunter 
Judge Robert L. Hunter 
Mrs. Harvey Huston 
Mr & Mrs. Chauncey K. 

Mr & Mrs. John B. Hutchins 
John S. Hutchins 
Mr & Mrs Robert A. 


Mr & Mrs. Howard H. 

Mr & Mrs. William Y. 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. 

Michael L. Igoe, Jr 
Charles Iker 
Mr & Mrs George M lllich, 

Dr & Mrs. George E. 

Illingworth, Jr 
Mrs. Dorothy M. Ingalls 
Dr & Mrs. Robert F Inger 
Mr & Mrs. Robert S. 

Mrs. Stephen L. Ingersoll 
Marion Inkster 
Mr & Mrs. Steven J. Ippolito 
The Ireland Foundation (Mr 

& Mrs. Melville H. Ireland) 
Mrs. Spencer E. Irons 
Mrs. Henry Inwin 
Hans D. Isenberg 
George S Isham 
Mrs. Henry P. Isham, Jr 
Robert J. Izor 
J. B, Charitable Trust (Philip 

D. Block, III) 
J. S, Charitable Trust 

(Thomas Sheffield, Jr) 
J. William GimbeUr&Odell 

B. Gimbel Foundation (J. 

William GimbeUr) 
Charles Jahn 
Mr & Mrs. Frederick G. 

Mr & Mrs. Willard K. Jaques 
Charles Jarasek 
Mrs. Charles C. Jarchow 
Robert B. Jarchow 
Mr &Mrs. Herbert G. 

Mrs Grace A. Jelinek 
Mr & Mrs. Downing B. Jenks 
Albert E. Jenner, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Kenneth R. 

Mr & Mrs. William R. Jentes 
Dr George N. Jessen 
Mr & Mrs. Donald B. 

Johnson, Jr 
Dr Frank R. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. James E. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Richard L. 

Mr & Mrs. Robert L. Johnson 
Robert L. Johnson 
Dr Walter L. Johnson, Jr 
Rev. & Mrs. William A. 

Henry A. Johnson 
Edith M. Johnson 
Carl A. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Alphonse I 

Mrs. S. K. Johnstone 
Mrs. Pierce Jones 
Mrs. Robert V. Jones 
Ronald Jones 
Paul Jorgensen 
Robert B. Joshel 
Mr & Mrs. Frank A. Jost, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Samuel Joyner 
Mrs. John B Judkins 
Mrs. Elizabeth Jung 

Richard Juro 

Mrs. Charles F. Kahn 

Louis & Ruth Kahnweiler 

Family Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. Louis S Kahnweiler) 
Mr & Mrs John R. 

Patricia M. Kammerer 
Virginia K Karnes 
Mr & Mrs. Byron C Karzas 
Lawrence Kasakoff 
Mr & Mrs V Kasmerchak 
Fred R. Kaufmann, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph C Kay, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas E Keane 
Florence M. Keebler 
Nelson H.Kehl 
Mr & Mrs. John P Keller 
Thomas H. Keller, Jr 
Russell P Kelley 
Mr&Mrs. FrankJ Kelley, III 
Donald P Kelly 
George G. Kelly 
T Lloyd Kelly Foundation 

(Mildred Wetten 

Mr & Mrs. Frederick T. 

Mr & Mrs. Donald G. Kempf, 

J. Richard Kendrick 
Taylor L. Kennedy 
Charles C. Kenwin 
Mrs. Deirdre D. Kieckhefer, 

Robert M. Kieckhefer 
W. S. Kinkead 
Mrs. Ansel Kinney 
Harvey Kipen 
Mr & Mrs. Robert P. 

Mrs. Weymouth Kirkland 
Clayton Kirkpatrick 
Mr & Mrs. John E. 

Rose Tracy Kirschner 
Glenn E. Kischel 
Mr & Mrs. Jules Klapman 
Mr & Mrs. Stephen Klemen 
Dr. & Mrs. Thornton Kline, Jr 
James C. Klouda 
Ethel & Philip Klutznick 

Charitable Trusts (Mr & 

Mrs. Philip Klutznick) 
Arthur R. Kneibler 
John S. Knight 
R.G.&E.M. Knight Fund 

(Mrs. Robert G. Knight) 
Leo P Knoerzer 
Lance L. Knox 
Maurice G. Knoy 
Ko-So Foundation (Kathryn 

B. Oppenheimer) 
Mrs. Raymond Felt Koch 
Mrs. Shirley Koenigs 
Gordon E. Kohler 
Mr & Mrs. FrankJ. Kolarik 
Mr & Mrs. Martin J. Koldyke 
C. R. Kopp 
Korhumel Foundation 

(Newton F. Korhumel) 
Peter J. Kosiba 
Lucille V. Kosinske 
Dr &Mrs. JohnJ Kottra 
Igor Kovac 
Harry O. Kovats, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Waud H. Kracke 
Mrs. Mary C Kraft 
Dr Chester C.Kratz 
Dr. Charles S. Kresnoff 
Dr & Mrs. Bertram Kribben 
Mr & Mrs. Carl A. Kroch 
Mr & Mrs W A Kroeplin 
Mr & Mrs. Edwin C 

Mrs. Allen B. Kuhlman 
Mr & Mrs. Paul A Kuhn 
Mrs. John F Kurfess 
Patti Kurgan 

Mr & Mrs. Clyde Kurlander 
William O. Kurtz, Jr 
Keith F. Kurzka 
Charles La Bow 
Mrs. William Ladany 
Mr & Mrs. Louis E. Laflin, Jr 
Dr Fredric D. Lake 
Dr & Mrs. Amrum Lakritz 
Melvin M. Landau 
George S. Landfield 
Mr & Mrs. Fred Lane 
Gordon Lang 
Mrs. Hilda Lanoff 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph B. 

Mrs. Walter D. Larkin 
Earl D. Larsen 
Mr & Mrs. Roger B. Larsen 
Mrs. Kenneth R. Larson 
Harry Lasch 

Mr&Mrs. William J. Lauf 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles P 

Mr & Mrs. Russell M. Lawall 
Mr & Mrs. John K. Laws 
David R. Laymen 
John R. Le Vally, Jr 
Dr Bernard S. Lee 
Leffman Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. Paul H. Leffman) 
Mr & Mrs. Wilbur S.Legg 
P C. Leiby 
Edward L. Lembitz 
Lona T Lendsey 
Richard A. Lenon 
Frederick R. Lent 
Robert L. Leopold Family 

Foundation (Robert L. 

Robert S. Lerner 
Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 
Charles & Ruth Levi 

Foundation (Charles Levi) 
Mr & Mrs. Lawrence R. 

Mr & Mrs. Michael D. Levin 
Mrs. Edward M. Levin, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Norman Lewis 
Robert A. Lewis 
Mrs. Miriam G. Lichtenstein 
Thomas M. Lillard, Jr 
Harrison C. Lingle 
Mrs. Katharine Lippitt 
Donald C. Lisle 
Mr & Mrs. Chapin Litten 
Col. & Mrs. James P. 

Dr W. C. Liu 

Mrs. Homer J. Livingston 
Mrs. Joseph F. Lizzadro 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Dr&Mrs. J.C Lockhart 
Allan & Elizabeth Loeb Fund 

(Dr Henry S Loeb) 



Mr & Mrs. John W. Loeding 

Mary Longbrake 

Mr. & Mrs Fred P Loss 

Philip W Lotz 

Dr Lloyd S Lourie 

Marilyn Jean Lovik 

M. R Lowenstine, Jr 

Peggy Lucas 

Mr & Mrs. Frank W. Luerssen 

Louise Lutz 

Mr & Mrs Francis Lynch 

Mrs. William D Mabie 

James W. MacDonald, Jr. 

Mrs. John A. MacLean, Jr 

Andrew MacLeod 

MacFund (Mr & Mrs. David 

O. Mackenzie) 
Walter M. Mack 
Mrs. Wallace D. MacKenzie 
Mr. & Mrs. J DeNavarre 

Macomb, Jr 
Mr. & Mrs John W. Madigan 
Mrs. Albert F. Madlener Jr. 
Mrs. Lorraine B. Madsen 
M. Vivian Mahan 
Tennis & Mary E. Mahoney 
Alice Majer 
Philips. Makin 
Mrs. Edith Grimm Malone 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome W 

James E. Mandler 
Harold & Edna Manhoff 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Harold Manhoff) 
John F Mannion 
Mr & Mrs. George L.Manta 
Mr & Mrs. Steven C. March 
John A. Marcinkiewicz 
Dr & Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 
Mr & Mrs. S. Edward Marder 
Dr & Mrs. Lawrence N. 

R. Bailey Markham 
Mrs. Jotin Jay Markham 
Dr & Mrs. Leo Markin 
Mr & Mrs. John W. 

Mrs. Gilvert H. Marquardt 
McKIm Marriott 
Peter John Marsh 
C. V. Martin Foundation (Mr 

& Mrs C Virgil Martin) 
Mrs. Harold T. Martin 
Dr & Mrs. Nester S. Martinez 
Mr & Mrs. Charles A. Mast 
Mrs. Keith Masters 
Mr & Mrs. Bruce D. Mateer 
Thomas N Mathers 
Russell Matthias 
Carolyn D. Mauger 
John M Maxwell 
Augustus K. Maxwell, Jr 
Mrs David Mayer 
Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 
Mrs. Robert B. Mayer 
Frank D. Mayer, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. George H. Maze 
Richard L. McClenahan 
Archibald McClure 
Dr Walter C McCrone 
C. W McCullough 
Mr & Mrs. G. Barr 

Mr & Mrs Wayne McDaniel 
Mr. & Mrs Robert B. 



Mr & Mrs Clement J. 

Mr & Mrs. Edward D. 

McDougal, Jr 
Mrs Remick McDowell 
Dr Ernest G. McEwen 
William D. McFarland 
Mr & Mrs. Risley B. 

McFeely, Jr 
Charles S. McGill 
John E. McGovern, Jr 
John M. McGregor 
Mrs. Thomas M. McGuire 
Mrs. John P. McHugh 
Mr. & Mrs. William B. 

Neil McKay 
William W. McKittrick 
Mrs. Frank McLoraine 
Andrew J. McMillan 
James A. McMullen 
Earl McNeil 
James E. McNulty 
Cleo Edwin McPherson 
Dr L. Steven Medgyesy 
Elisabeth C. Meeker 
Henry W. Meers, Fund (Mr & 

Mrs. Henry W. Meers) 
Mr & Mrs. Bernard D. 

Mr & Mrs. Ronald McK. 

Melvoin Foundation (Charles 

Mr & Mrs. Alfred Menzer 
Mr & Mrs. B. L. Mercer 
Neal Mermall 
Dr &Mrs. James W. 

Mr & Mrs. Glenn E. Merritt 
David Meskan 
Mr & Mrs. Robert L. 

Dr & Mrs. Richard S. Meyer 
Mrs. Vernon A. Meyer 
Mrs. Marion Meyer 
Mr & Mrs. Walter J. Meyer 
MGS Charitable Fund (Dr & 

Mrs. Siegfried F Strauss 
Harry W. Michael 
BertH. Michelsen 
Andres Michyeta 
Paul E. Miessler 
Dr & Mrs. Donald S. Miezio 
Mrs. C.Phillip Miller 
C. R. Miller 
Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 
Robert E.Miller 
Dr Shelby A. Miller 
Homer L. Miller 
Robert L Milligan 
Mrs. Harold J. Mills 
Frank R. Milnor 
Mr & Mrs. Charles Minarik 
Minow Charitable Fund (Mr 

& Mrs. Newton Minow) 
Thomas M. Mints, Jr 
Myron MInuskin 
Mr & Mrs. Ned E. Mitchell 
B. John Mix, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. James Mohan 
J. D. Mollendorf 
Marion Molyneaux 
Frank A. Monhart 
Henry I. Monheimer 
Robert A. Moody 
Mrs, Marjorie Moorhead 

Owe A. Moran 
Mr & Mrs Lawrence 

Mr & Mrs. E. F Morgan, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Donald Morris 
George L. Morrow 
Mrs. John Morrow, Jr 
Horace C. Moses, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Kenneth L. Moses 
Alfred E. Mossner 

Foundation (Alfred E. 

Mr & Mrs. Les Mouscher 
John A. Muhlenberg 
Mrs. Robert Mulder, Jr 
Dr Frances A. Mullen 
Aidan I. Mullett 
Manly W. Mumford 
Gerald R Munitz 
Mrs. Thomas G. Murdough 
Mr & Mrs. Kevin Murphy 
Richard J. Murphy 
Jeanne E. Murray 
Mr. & Mrs. William E. Mussett 
Mrs. Thomas R. Mutz 
Mr & Mrs. Arno R. Myers 
Mrs. Harold B. Myers 
Norman H. Nachman 
Dr & Mrs. Charles F Nadler 
Roscoe C. Nash 
Bernard Nath 
Mrs. Thomas Nathan 
Mr & Mrs. Edward F Neild 
Mrs. Purdie Nelson 
Prof. Harry G. Nelson 
RuthN. Nelson 
Dr John T. Nelson 
Walter A. Netsch 
Mr & Mrs. William F Neuert, 

Mrs. John C. Nevins 
Dr & Mrs. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Kenneth Newberger 
J. Robert Newgard 
Dr Edward A. Newman 
Frank B. Nichols 
George G. Nichols, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Norman Nie 
Mr & Mrs. Philip H. 

A. C. Nielsen, Jr Charitable 

Trust (Mr & Mrs. A. C. 

Nielsen, Jr) 
Thomas M. Niles 
Charles F Nims 
Mr & Mrs. Charles M. Nisen 
DianneM. Nishimura 
Murray & Grace Nissman 

Foundation (Grace 

Mr & Mrs. f^onald D. Niven 
Mr & Mrs. Ragnar W. Nordlof 
Mrs. Lawrence E. Norem 
Mr & Mrs. Harold W. Norman 
Mr & Mrs. Lester I. Norton 
Helena Nowicka 
Lucille Ann Nunes 
Mrs. John Nuveen 
Christopher P. Nystrom 
Donald O'Brien, Jr 
Mr &Mrs. James J. 

Mr & Mrs. Patrick J. 

Francis X. O'Donnell 
William P O'Keefe, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Patrick L. 



Mr & Mrs. Ralph T O'Neil 

Mrs. John J. O'Shaughnessy 

Donald O'Toole 

William R. Odell 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Ogan 

Marilynn deck 

Conrad Olender 

Wallace O. Oilman 

Mr & Mrs. Carl B Olson 

Rev. & Mrs. Alfred Raa 

Mr & Mrs. Fred Opitz 
Mrs. Edward H. 

W. Irving Osborne, Jr 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mrs. J.SanfordOtis 
James Otis, Jr 
Mrs. Fentress Ott 
Mr & Mrs. Ray E. Over 
David B. Owen 
Mr & Mrs. Brian M. Owens 
Llewellyn G. Owens 
Mr & Mrs. Lloyd Owens 
Nedra Oyen 
Russell Packard 
Mrs. Sarah R. Packard 
Dr. & Mrs. Walter L. Palmer 

Mr & Mrs. Lloyd J. Palmer 

Karl R. Palmer 

Dr Frank B. Papierniak 

George Parker 

Norman S. Parker 

Dr & Mrs. Robert W. Parsons 

Lloyd C. Partridge 

Dr & Mrs. Luke R. Pascale 

Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 

Dr & Mrs. John T Patterson 

Mrs. Cynthia Patterson 

Dr&Mrs. Robert J. 

William Pavey 
Philip G. Pavlina 
J. O. Peckham, Jr 
Paul William Peelers 
Dr Mariano Perez-Pelaez 
John H. Perkins 
Mr & Mrs. R. Marlin Perkins 
Mr. & Mrs. Julian S. Perry 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Peterlee 
Donald & Evelyn Peters 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Donald Peters) 
William O. Peterson 
Clifford T. Peterson 
Mrs. Bernard Peyton 


J. F. Rrank 

Lloyd E. Phelps 

William C. Philips, Jr. 

Mrs. Leone Phillips 

Frederick G. Pick 

■Mr & Mrs. Robert F Picken 

Frank E. Pielsticker 

Mr & Mrs. Robert G. Pierce 

Mr & Mrs. Harry Pierce 

Robert R. Pierson 

Roy J. Pierson 

Mrs Gordon L. Pirie 

Paul Piatt 

Sherwood K. Piatt 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph B. 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Plouff 
Mr & Mrs. James D. Polls 
Evelyn Pollack 
Mrs. Mignon P. Pollock 
Oren T. Pollock 
Mrs. Harold M. Pond 
Mrs. Henry Pope, Jr 
Kenneth Porrello 
Edward C. Porter 
Albert W. Potts 
Mr & Mrs. Eugene L. Powell 
Mr & Mrs. Robert T. Powers 
Robert B. Powles 
Robert C.Preble 
Mr & Mrs. Harold Press 
Mrs. George Preucil 
Mrs. Edward S. Price 
Mr & Mrs. John A. Pritzker 
Ralph E. Projahn 
Joseph Prokop 
Mr & Mrs. Allen L. Pusch 
Jack A. Quigley 
R. I. S. Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. Ivan G. Strauss) 
Mr & Mrs. George B. Rabb 
Mr & Mrs. Millard E. Rada 
Millard Rada, Jr 
Richard J. Radebaugh 
Mr & Mrs. James A. Radtke 
Audree M. Ragan 
Norman X. Raid! 
L. S. Raisch 

Mr & Mrs. Lon W. Ramsey 
Mr & Mrs. George A. 

Mr & Mrs. F R. Rapids 
Mr & Mrs. James M. Ratcliffe 
Mr & Mrs. Frank S. Read 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Reder 
William M. Redfield 
Gertrude E. Reeb 
Mr & Mrs. Charles A. Reed 
Mrs. Louise Reed 
Dr Clifton L. Reeder 
Mrs. Elinore Rees 
Mr & Mrs Gunther Reese 
Mr & Mrs Thomas J. Regan 
Mrs. Robert G. Regan 
Joseph Regenstein, Jr 
Robert H. Reid 
William J. Reid 
Marie K. Remien 
Mrs. Robert W. Reneker 
Myron J. Resnick 
Robert F Reusche 
Mr & Mrs. Richard W. Reuter 
PaulG. Reynolds 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas A. 

Reynolds, Jr 
Charles M. Rhodes 
Mrs. David Rhodes 
Mr & Mrs. Arthur L. Rice, Jr 

Mr & Mrs Joseph E. Rich 
Mr & Mrs Michael J. Rich 
Michael Rich 
Mr & Mrs. R. Norton 

Mr & Mrs. William C. 

Mr &Mrs. Henry I. 

Richardson, Jr. 
Dr & Mrs. James P. Richter 
Mrs. M. Riley 
Raymond G. Rinehart 
M. H. W. Ritchie 
Charles Ritten 
Dr. William R. Roach 
Mrs. Jack L. Robbins 
Mrs. Leo L. Roberg 
Harry V. Roberts 
Mrs. Helen S. Roberts 
Dr & Mrs. Raymond E. 

Mrs. Sanger P. Robinson 
Mrs. Elizabeth S. Robson 
H. P. Davis Rockwell 
Henry J. Rodemaker 
Dr& Mrs. Arthur A. 

Mrs. Florence Roe 
Milius Roe Foundation (Mrs. 

Frederick Roe) 
Alma P. & Selma Roeder 
Ottomar D Roeder 
Mrs. Ward C. Rogers 
Rohlen Foundation (Mr & 

Mrs. Karl V. Rohlen) 
Mr & Mrs. Edward M. Roob 
Harry A. Root, Jr 
Mrs. Philip Rootberg 
Mrs. Paul Rosenbaum 
Mrs. Leona Rosenberg 
Marvin D. Rosenberg 
Mervin Rosenman 
Mr & Mrs. Harold R. 

Mrs. Lillian Rosenthal 
Gerson M. Rosenthal, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Lawrence C. 

A. R. Rosos 

Dr & Mrs. William M. Ross 
Elizabeth B. Roth 
Walter L. Roth 
Mr & Mrs. Frank Rothschild 

Fund (A. Frank 

Mr &Mrs. Edwin A. 

Mrs. A. Loring Rowe 
Wilbur Rowley 
Mrs. Dorothys. Ruderman 
Mr&Mrs. D. G.Ruegg 
John W Ruettinger 
Charles T Rufener 
Mrs. Paul Russell 
Dr & Mrs John H. Rust 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas D. 

Mr & Mrs. Robert M. Ruud 
Mr & Mrs. Anthony M. 

Mr & Mrs. J. Coert 

Mr & Mrs. Robert G. Sachs 
Robert W. Saigh 
Mr & Mrs. Alfred Sail 
Henry T Sanders 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas R. 


Mary Ann Sanford 

Mrs. Gene Saper 

Mr. & Mrs. Joram Sassower 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond 

Mrs. Ann Saupe 
Dr Muriel Savage 
Mr. & Mrs. Calvin P. Sawyier 
Mr & Mrs. George Schaaf 
Richard J. Schade 
Mr. & Mrs. William J. 

Philip Schatf, Jr 
Mrs. Morton G. Schamberg 
Francis R. Schanck 
Mrs. Gerhart Schild 
Mrs. Mary E. Schlageter 
Mr & Mrs. Rudolph Schmidt 
Marvin H. Schmitt 
Mr & Mrs. Lawrence 

Dr Bruce Schreider 
Isabelle Schuh 
Steven Schuham 
Richard B. Schultz 
Julius J. Schwartz 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome H. 

Dr J. P Schweitzer 
Dr John S. Schweppe 
Mr & Mrs. Carl H. 

Mr & Mrs Roy Schwerdtman 
Mrs. Marion R. Scott 
Mr & Mrs. John Scott 
Mr & Mrs. John W Seabury 
Mr & Mrs. Fred Seaholm 
Irving Seaman, Jr 
Louise C. Searle 
Frank Sedlacek 
Mr & Mrs. William S. Seeley 
Ward D. Seidler 
Roger M. Seitz 
Denise Selz 

Mr & Mrs. C. Clin Sethness 
Mrs. Eileen G. Sexton 
Mr & Mrs. David L. Shaffer 
James G. Shakman 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. 

Mr & Mrs. James Shapiro 
Mr & Mrs. David C. Sharpe 
John I. Shaw 
Lee C. Shaw 
Mr & Mrs Theodore D. 

Chester Shell 
James G. Shennan 
Saul & Devorah Sherman 

Fund (Saul & Devorah 

Mr & Mrs. John W. Shields 
V. L. Shirley 

Mr & Mrs Fred Shoenbaum 
DeVer Sholes 
Mrs. Clyde E Shorey 
Mrs. MaryShrimplin 
Sidney N Shure Fund (S. N. 

Mr & Mrs C. William Sidwell 
Rosalyn Siegel 
Mr & Mrs. August C. 

Sievers, Jr 
Hubert & Wilma Silberman 

Charitable Foundation 

(Frank B. Frank) 
Ronald L. Simon 
Mr. & Mrs John R. Siragusa 

Mr Ross D. Siragusa 

Mr & Mrs. Arnold D Sirk 

Mrs Gerald A. Sivage 

Leon N. Skan 

Joseph J. Slattery 

Louis J. Slavin 

Dr Edward C. Smith 

Goff Smith 

Gordon Smith 

Grace F Smith 

Mr & Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 

Solomon B. Smith 

Mrs. Tempel Smith 

Mr & Mrs. William F Smith 

Matthew D Smith 

Mrs. Toni S. Smith 

William S. Smith 

Mr & Mrs. David M. Smith 

Gordon A. Smith 

Harold Byron Smith 

George D. Smith, II 

Mrs. S. R. Snider 

Mr & Mrs. Martin H. Snitzer 

James E. Snyder 

Mr & Mrs. Warren M. Snyder 

Melania K. Sokolowski 

Mr & Mrs. Lawrence P. 

Cynthia Y. Soltes 
Mr & Mrs. John F 

Hugo & Virginia B. 

Sonnenschein Charitable 

Fund (Mr & Mrs. Hugo 

Robert A. Southern 
Mr & Mrs. Jack D. Sparks 
Mr & Mrs. Harold E. Spencer 
Mrs. Lyie M. Spencer 
Mrs. Clara Spiegel 
Mrs. Robert E. Spiel 
Joel & Maxine Spitz 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Kenneth Nebenzahl) 
Vernon Squires 
Charles R. Staley 
Justin A. Stanley 
Stanmart Fund, Inc. (Dr. 

Stanton Fhedberg) 
Mrs. Pericles P. Stathas 
E. Norman Staub 
Clarke C. Stayman 
Albert O. Steffey 
Mrs. Henry L. Stein 
Sydney Stein, Jr 
George R. Steiner 
Grundy Steiner 
Manfred Steinfeld 
Harry C. Steinmeyer 
Mrs. W. H. Stellner 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Stemple 
Mr & Mrs. John Stephens 
Mr & Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 
Russell T Stern, Sr 
Paul C. Sternberg 
William R. Steur 
Hal S. R Stewart 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Stewart 
Donald M. Stillwaugh 
John W. Stimpson 
Edwin H. Stone 
Lloyd Stone 
Marvin & Anita Stone Family 

Foundation (Marvin N. 

Mr & Mrs. Howard A Stotler 

Marjorie & Robert Straus 

Endowment Fund (Mrs. 

Robert E Straus) 
Mrs. Harold E. Strauss 
Mr & Mrs. William S. Street 
Charles L. Strobeck 
Dr & Mrs. Robert H Strotz 
Erwin A. Stuebner 
Mr & Mrs. Philip J. Stuttman 
Ms. Susan Sullivan 
Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger 
Mr & Mrs. James L. Surpless 
Mrs. Harry B. Sutter 
William P Sutter 
Mrs. Harold G. Sutton 
David F Swain 
PhilipW.K. Sweet 
Mr&Mrs. Edward F Swift, III 
Mrs. Gustavus F Swift, Jr 
Gustavus F Swift, IV 
A. Dean Swift 
J. R. Swihart 

Mr & Mrs Lawrence Sykes 
Mr & Mrs. James B. Tafel 
Mr & Mrs. James M. Tait 
Mary Tamarri 
Joyce Tani 
L. Shirley Tark Charitable 

Fund (L. Shirley Tark) 
Rodger M. Tauman 
Mrs. Samuel G. Taylor III 
Mr&Mrs. John W.Taylor, III 
Mr & Mrs. R. W Taylor, Jr. 
Mrs. A. Thomas Taylor 
William L. Taylor, Jr 
Mrs. Gloria Teleki 
Sylvia K. Thoele 
Mr & Mrs. D. Robert Thomas 
Mrs. Evelyn B. Thomas 
Mr & Mrs. Richard L. 

Mrs. Thomas M. Thomas 
M. Evelyn Thomas 
Thoresen Foundation 

(William E. Thoresen) 
S. N. Tideman, Jr 
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley E. Tierney 
Walter A. Tomlinson 
Philip R. Toomin 
Bernard H. Traut 
Dr & Mrs. Michael R. Treister 
Dr Otto H. trippel 
Dr F E. Trobaugh, Jr 
Norman Tucker 
Mrs. Robert Tullis 
Robert Wood Tullis 
Dr. & Mrs. William D. Turnbull 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert G. 

Mr & Mrs. Charles H. Tweed 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Tyler 
Marian Phelps Tyler 
Edgar J. Uihiein, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Bohus Ulicny 
Mr. & Mrs. Nelson Urban 
Glenn S. Utt, Jr 
Dr Victoria B. Vacha 
Mrs. Emil Vacin 
Mrs. Derrick T Vail 
Murray & Virginia Vale 

Foundation (Mr & Mrs. 

Murray Vale) 
Mr & Mrs. Bart R. Van Eck 
Mrs. R. D. Van Kirk 
Mrs. Errett Van Nice 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert A. Vance 



Mr & Mrs. Peter 

Frank P Vanderploeg 
Lillian Vanek 
Dominick Varraveto, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. D. Throop Vaughn 
Mr & Mrs. B. Blair Vedder. Jr 
Mrs. William E. Veerhusen 
M. P. Venema 
Mr & Mrs. David H. Vernon 
Paul G. Vetter 

Mr & Mrs. Richard H. VIerick 
VogI Family Foundation (Mr 

& Mrs. Sol Weiner) 
Jo-Anne Vogt 
Mr & Mrs. Melvin Volz 
Omer Voss 

Dr. Harry K. Waddington 
Richard Wagner 
Mr & Mrs Richard A. 

Mr & Mrs. W. J. Wakefield 
Edwin A. Walcher, Jr 
Mr. & Mrs John J. Waldron 
Mary Ann & Charles R. 

Walgreen, Jr Fund 

(Charles R. Walgreen, Jr) 
Mr & Mrs. Harvey M Walken 
Mrs. SamuelJ. Walker 
George M. Walker & Family 
Mr & Mrs. Robert P Wallace 
Larry Waller 
Richard W. Waller 
Mr & Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 
Mr & Mrs. John P Walsh 
Mrs. Dorothy Walter 
Mrs. Milton H. Wandrey 
Dr S. Y. Wang 
Cynthia Armour Ward 
Mrs. Thomas M. Ware 
Ben O. Warren 
Mrs. Hempstead 

Washburne, Jr. 
Dr Richard Wassersug 
Edwin H. Watkins 
Mr&Mrs. Herbert J. Watt 
Mrs. George W. Watts 
Morrison Waud 
Dr Francis X Wazeter 
William D. Weaver 
Mrs. C. F Weber 
Morris S. Weeden 
Mr & Mrs. Charles W. 

Robert D Weigel 
Dr & Mrs. A. Weinstock 
Mr & Mrs. Paul J. Weir 
Mr & Mrs. Leonard B. 

Jack Weisman 
William B. Weiss 
Dr Virginia Weiss 
Mr & Mrs David E. Weiss 
Mrs. Paul A. Welbon 
Mrs. Edwin C. Welch 
Edward K Welles 
Mrs. Donald P Welles 
William D. Wells 
Dr & Mrs Rupert L. Wenzel 
Louis Werner Fund (Mr & 

Mrs. Louis Werner) 
Mr & Mrs B Kenneth West 
Frank O Wetmore II 
Mrs Scott Wheeler 
Robert B Whitaker 
Lee E. Whitcomb 
Russell M. Wicks 
34 Mr & Mrs Bernard Wieland 

Dr & Mrs. Inwin L. Wigren 
Dr & Mrs. George D 

Wi I banks 
Mr & Mrs Lawrence G. 

Mr & Mrs. Lydon Wild 
Wilemal Fund (Mrs. Gardner 

Bradford Wiles 
Mr & Mrs. George R Wilhelm 
Mr&Mrs. Julian B.Wilkins 
J. Humphrey Wilkinson 
Mr & Mrs. Howard L. Willett, 

Kenneth Williams 
Orrin R. Williams 
Mr & Mrs. Albert W. Williams 
Mrs. Burke Williamson 
Mr & Mrs Norman B. 

Amos G.Willis 
Christopher W. Wilson 
Mr & Mrs Robert H. Wilson 
Robert M. Wilson 
James M Wimmer 
John M. Winsor 
Mrs. John R. Wiren 
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur M. Wirtz 
Michael Wirtz 
Mr & Mrs Ernest R. Wish 
Mrs. Mildred C. Wisner 
Mr&Mrs. Richard M. 

Mary Anne Witkowski 
Mr & Mrs. William W.Wittie 
Murray Wolbach.Jr 
Arnold R. Wolff 
Mrs. Peter Wolkonsky 
Clifford Wolper 
Arthur M. Wood 
Henry C. Wood Foundation 

(Mr & Mrs. Henry C. 

Robert A Woods 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert N. 

William Wrigley 
Denise M. Wykel 
Mr & Mrs. Orval F Yarger 
Dr & Mrs. Harold M. Yatvin 
Theodore N. Yelich 
George B. Young 
Mr & Mrs. Hobart P. Young 
Mr & Mrs. Frank N. Young 
Milton & Rose Zadek Fund 

(Craig J & Nancy Z. 

Mr & Mrs. Louis Zahn 
Judy L. Zamb 
Dr Rainer Zangerl 
Mr & Mrs. Howard B 

Mr & Mrs Anthony G. Zulfer, 




Donors of 

A. Montgomery Ward 

Abbott Laboratories 
Albert Pick Jr Fund 
Allen Heath Memorial 

Allied Foundation 
Allstate Foundation 
Amoco Foundation, Inc. 
Amsted Industries 
Arthur Andersen & Co. 
Arthur Young & Co. 
Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
Barker Welfare Foundation 
Beatrice Foods Co. 
Borg Warner Foundation, 

Bunker-Ramo Foundation 
Chicago Community Trust 
Chicago Tribune 
Combined Insurance Co. 
Commonwealth Edison Co. 
Consolidated Foods Corp. 
Continental Bank 

Crane Packing Co. 
Dart & Kraft, Inc. 
The DeSoto Foundation 
The Dial Foundation 
Dr Scholl Foundation 
E W. Zimmerman, Inc. 
Esmark Inc. Foundation 
FMC Foundation 
Field Enterprises Charitable 

Field Foundation of Illinois, 

First National Bank of 

Chicago Foundation 
Ford Motor Company Fund 
FRC Investment Corp. 
Frederick Henry Prince Trust 
General Mills Foundation 
George L. Jewell Services, 

HBB Foundation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Hart Schaffner & Marx 

Chantable Foundation 
Household International 
IC Industries 
Illinois Bell Telephone Co 
Illinois Tool Works 

Inland Steel Ryerson 

Interiake Foundation 
International Business 

Machines Corp. 
International Minerals & 

Chemical Corp. 
Jewel Foundation 
John D.& Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
John S. Swift Company 

Charitable Trust 
Joyce Foundation 
Marshall Field & Company 

McGraw Foundation 

The Dissemination of Knowledge 

McMaster-Carr Supply Co. 
Montgomery Ward 

Naico Foundation 
Natural Gas Pipeline Co 
Northern Illinois Gas Co. 
The Northern Trust Co. 
Northwest Industries 

Peat, Manwick, Mitchell & 

Peoples Energy Corp. 
Quaker Oats Foundation 
R. R. Donnelley & Sons Co. 
Robert R. McCormick 

Charitable Trust 
S & C Electric Co. 
Santa Fe Railway 

Sargent & Lundy 
Sears Roebuck & Co. 
Signode Foundation, Inc. 
Southern Peru Copper Corp 
Steriing-Morton Charitable 

Texaco, Inc 

United Airlines Foundation 
United States Gypsum 

UOP Foundation 
W K. Kellogg Foundation 
Walgreen Benefit Fund 
Walter E. Heller Foundation 
Western Electric Fund 

Donors OF 
$1,000 TO $4,999 

A. G. Becker— Warburg 

A. S Hansen, Inc. 
Aetna Life and Casualty 

Companies of Illinois 
Alcoa Foundation 
American Hospital Supply 

American National Bank & 

Trust Company of Chicago 
AT&T Long Lines 
Americana Hotels Corp. 
AnixterBros., Inc. 
Axia, Inc. 

Bank American Foundation 
Baxter Travenol 

Laboratones. Inc. 
Bell Laboratories 


Bertha Le Bus Charitable 

Brown & Root, Inc. 
The Brunswick Foundation 
Carson Pirie Scott 

Central Steels. Wire 


Chemical Bank 
Cherry Electrical Products 

Chicago & Northwestern 

Transportation Co. 
Chicago Bears Football Club 
Chicago Title & Trust 

Company Foundation 

Clark Foundation 
Clow Foundation 
Combustion Engineering 

Power Systems, Inc. 
Consolidated Papers 

Crum & Forster Foundation 
Dana Corporation 

Edward Mines Lumber Co. 
Ernst & Whinney 
Faville-Le Valley Corp. 
Federal Signal Corp. 
Fluor Foundation 
Foote, Cone & Balding 
Fred S. James & Co. 
Gatx Corp. 

General Binding Corp. 
General Motors Corp. 

(Fisher Body Division) 
General Tire Foundation, 

George Pick & Co. 
Geraldi-Norton Memorial 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 
Gould Foundation 
Guarantee Trust Life 

Gust K. Newberg 

Construction Co. 
Harry Weese & Associates 
Helen Curtis Industries, Inc. 
Intermatic, Inc. 
J. C. Penney Co., Inc. 
James C. Hemphill 

John Mohr & Sons 
Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, 

Kelso-Burnett Electric Co. 
Kemper Educational and 

Charitable Fund 
Kirkland & Ellis 
The L. E. Myers Co. 
LaSalle National Bank 
Leo Burnett Co. 
Liquid Carbonic Corp. 
MacLean-Fogg Nut Co. 
Maremont Corp. Foundation 
Masonite Corp. 
Max Goldenberg Foundation 
McGraw-Edison Co. 
Morrison Construction Co. 
Motorola Foundation 
National Boulevard 


National Can 

Needham, Harper & Steers 

Advertising, Inc. 
North American Car Corp. 
Oakleigh L. Thorne 

Ogilvy& Mather, Inc. 
Oscar Mayer Foundation 
People Gas Light & Coke 

Pittway Corp. 
Power Systems, Inc. 
Price Waterhouse & Co 
Proctor & Gamble Co. 
Prudential Foundation 
Reliable Electric Co. 
Reuben H. Donnelley 
Rockwell International 
Rollins Burdick Hunter Co. 
Rust-Oleum Foundation 
Rydertypes, Inc. 
Schwarten Corp. 
SFN Companies 
Sealy Mattress Co. 
Sears Bank & Trust Co. 
Security Pacific Bank 
Seyfarth, Shaw, Fairweather, 

& Geraldson 
Shell Companies Foundation 
Sunbeam Corp. 
Szabo Food Service 
Talman Home Federal 

Savings & Loan of Illinois 
Time, Inc. 
Touche Ross & Co. 
Turner Construction Co. 
Union Oil Company of 

United Conveyor Foundation 
United States Steel 

Foundation, Inc. 
United Technologies 
Urban Investment & 

Development Co. 
Walter E. Heller & Co. 
Wheelabrator Foundation, 

William E. Mercer, Inc. 

Donors of 
$100 TO $999 

A. M. Kinney Associates, 

Alexander Building Co. 
All-Types Office Supply Co., 

Anderson Secretarial 

Service, Inc. 
Bernhard Woodwork Ltd. 
Bevrick Corp. 
Brand Insulations, Inc. 
Bronson & Bratton, Inc. 
Carrier Corporation 

Central National Bank in 

Cetron Electronic Corp. 
Channer Newman Securities 

Chicago Metallic Corp. 
Chicago Mountaineering 

The Chicago Ornithological 


The Chicago Shell Club 
Chicago White Metal 

Charitable Foundation 
Cities Service Foundation 
Clark Equipment Co. 
Clorox Co. 
Colonial Caterers of 

Mid-America, Inc. 
Container Corporation of 

Continental Group 
Cooper & Lybrand 
Corey Charitable 

Foundation, Inc. 
CPC International 
Craine Communications, 

Custom Organics, Inc. 
D'Arcy MacManus & Masius, 

Dale Maintenance Systems, 

Daniel J. Edelman, Inc. 
David F Swain & Co. 
Deloitte, Haskins & Sells 
DLM Inc. 
E. Besler&Co. 
Edelman Jankow Co. Inc. 
Edward Gray Corp. 
Electro Kinetics, Inc. 
Elkay Manufacturing Co. 
Equitable Life 

Assurance/Society of 

the U.S. 
Ethyl Products Co. 
Evans Transportation Co. 
The Florsheim Shoe Co. 
Frank B. Hall & Company of 

Freund Can Co. 
Fruehauf Foundation 
General Exhibits & Displays 
General Meters & Controls 

George R. McCoy & 

Associates, Inc. 
George S. May International 

Gulf Oil Foundation of 

Gus Berthold Electric Co. 
Harvey L. WalnerS 

Heco Envelope Co. 
Heidrick& Struggles 
Heller & Morris 
Helpmate, Inc. 
Hubbard Scientific (Division 

of Spectrum Industries, 

Hugo J. Kralovec & Co. 
Humboldt Manufacturing 

Hyre Electric Co. 
J. Walter Thompson 

Company Fund, Inc. 
Jays Foods 
Jobbers Supply Co. 
Johnson Kiddie Rides, Inc. 
Kar Products, Inc. 
Ketone Automotive, Inc. 
Kranzten Studios Inc. 
Lindberg Corp. 
Magnetic Media Information 
Manpower Temporary 

Mark Controls Foundation 

Marquette Charitable 

Marquette National Bank 
Martin Marietta Corp. 
Menzel Robinson Baldwin & 

Meryl Piatt, Inc. 
Mid-City National Bank 
Monogram Models 
Monsanto Fund 
Ohmite Manufacturing Co. 
P-K Tool & Manufacturing 

Pepper Construction Co. 
Pepsi-Cola General 
PPG Industries 
Process Gear Co., Inc. 
Processed Plastic 
GST Industries, Inc. 
R. J. Reynolds Industries 
R. S. Bacon Veneer Co. 
Regensteiner Publishing 
Richardson Electronics Ltd. 
Russell-Hampton Co. 
Sander Allen Advertising, 

Schuessler Knitting 
Sethness Products Co. 
Silvestri Paving Co. 
Skil Corp. 

Smith Barney & Co., Inc. 
Standard Car Trunk Co. 
Standard Oil Company of 

Stepan Chemical Co. 
Stocker Hinge 
Stone Foundation, Inc. 
Stone Perforating Co. 
Stouffer Foods 
Sweetheart Cup Corp. 
Tiber Kornhauser Ltd. 
Trainor Glass Co. 
Turtle Wax, Inc. 
Universal Metal Hose Co. 
Vance Publishing Corp. 
Wallace Business Forms 

Westlake Press, Inc. 
Wilkens-Anderson Co. 
Wisconsin Tool & Stamping 


Corporations Contributing 
Over $1 ,000 through Their 
Employee Matching Gifts 

Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
Borg-Warner Foundation 
Continental Bank 

Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 
International Minerals & 

Chemical Corp. 
The Quaker Oats Foundation 
Santa Fe Industries 
Time, Inc. 
United Technologies 

Corporations Contributing 
Under $1 ,000 through Their 
Employee Matching Gifts 

AT&T Long Lines 
Allied Foundation 
Armco Foundation 
Bank America Foundation 
Beatrice Foods Co. 
The Brunswick Foundation 
Leo Burnett Co., Inc. 
CPC International 
Chemical Bank 
Cities Service Foundation 
Consolidated Foods 
Continental Group 

Foundation, Inc. 
Digital Equipment Corp. 
Equitable Life Assurance 

Society of the U.S. 
Field Enterprises Charitable 

Gulf Oil Foundation of 

Harris Bank Foundation 
International Business 

Illinois Tools Works 

Johnson & Johnson 
Kirkland and Ellis 

Martin Marietta 
McDonald's Corp. 
McGraw-Edison Co. 
Northwest Industries 

Morton Nora/ich Products 
The NCR Foundation 
The Northern Trust 
Pennzoil Co. 
Pittway Corp. 
R. J. Reynolds Industries, 

Signode Foundation, Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. of Ohio 
The Travelers Insurance 

Westinghouse Electric Fund 




University of Alaska Museum 
Arizona State Museum of the 

University of Arizona 
T. Stanton Armour 
Greig Arnold 
Greig Arnold and the Makah 

Mrs George W. Beadle 
Karen Berger 
G. Beyer 
Iris Blanco 
Commander and Mrs. G. E. 

British Columbia Provincial 

Bennet Bronson 
Chicago Historical Society 
Margaret Chung 
Mr and Mrs. Ronald Cohen 
Mr and Mrs. Mark Crane 
Douglas Cranmer 
Patricia Dodson 
Dorset Fine Arts, Division of 

West Baffin Eskimo 

Cooperative Ltd. 
Henry Field 
Field Museum Women's 

Anne Fischer 
Mrs. Wayne Nash Garwood 

in memory of Kulamu 

McWayne Nash 
Ester Pardee Harper in 

memory of Elmer E. 

Florence C. Hart 
John J Hoellen 
John A. Holmes 
Terry Hunt 
Kay Kimberly 
Marguerite Kottman Fund 
Peter Lacovara 
Carl H. Leonard 
Mrs. John W. Lesie 
Phillip Lewis 
Mrs. J MacRae Linneman 

and Mrs James T. 

Mrs. Richard G. Livingston 
Mr. and Mrs. Franklin J. 

Dr. WahyonoM. 
Mr and Mrs George Barr 

Margaret Magie 
Withrow Meeker 
Dr and Mrs Karl Menninger 
Metropolitan Museum of Art 
Carolyn Moore 
Hisazo Nagatani 
Hisazo Nagatani in memory 

of Mrs. Chica Y. Nagatani 
Mary Ng 
Northwestern University 

Anthropology Department 
Steve O'Brien 
Bill Reid 
Merritt D. Sanders in 

memory of Joseph Beutel 
Bernardo Santillian 
C. Myrtle Schlung 
Grant B. Schmalgemeir 
36 Joseph E. Senungetuk 

William Simeone 
Marian Slagle 
Frances C. Slocum 
Tribal Arts Gallery 
Mrs. E. E. van Weel 
Mr. and Mrs. Theodore W. 

Mildred Warner 
Marlene Werner 
Vernon White 
Lance Wilke 
Williams College 
Daniel S. Wilson, Jr. 
Estate of Harold Young 


University of Adelaide 
University of Alabama 
Eric Anderson 
University of Arizona 
Kerry Barringer 
Paul Berry 

Universidad Simon Bolivar 
Universidad Boliviana 
Universidade de Brasilia 
University of British 

James Burkhalter 
G. Byrne de Caballero 
Centre de Pesquisas do 

California Academy of 

University of California, 

Canberra Botanical Gardens 
Chicago Botanical Garden 
Institute Botanico, Caracas 
Universidad de Chile 
Commonwealth Forestry 

Wade Davis 
John Engel 
Linda Escobar 
Fairchild Tropical Garden 
Fazenda Monte Alegre 
Jorge Gomez-Laurito 
University of Gdteborg 
Martin Grant 
College of Great Falls 
William Grim6 
University of Guelph 
Harvard University Herbaria 
Botanical Museum of 

Harvard University 
University of Hawaii 
William Hess 
Hunt Botanical Institute 
University of Illinois 
University of Illinois Medical 

Timothy Johns 
Stephen Koch 
Y. Kuwalhara 
University of Lethbridge 
Universidad de Los Andes 
Louisiana State University 
Lundell Herbarium 
Jardin Botanico de 

Marie Selby Botanical 

Penny Matekaitis 

Universidad Nacional 

Aut6noma de Mexico 
University of Michigan 
Michigan State University 
Missouri Botanical Garden 
Morton Arboretum 
Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, 

Michael Nee 

New Mexico State University 
New York Botanical Garden 
North Carolina State 

Northeast Louisiana 

University of Northern Iowa 
Ohio State University 
J, Palct 
Institute Nacional de 

Museo Nacional de 

Institute Nacional de 
Pesquisas da Amazonia, 
Timothy Plowman 
Polish Academy of Sciences 
National Herbarium of 

Pretoria, South Africa 
Robert Richards 
Jardim Botanico de Rio de 

Royal Botanical Gardens, 

Royal Botanical Gardens, 

Universidad Mayor de San 

Andres, La Paz 
Jos6 Schunke 
Melvin Shemluck 
Smithsonian Institution 
Smithsonian Tropical 
Research Institute 
Doel Soejarto 
Robert Stoize 

Antarctic Division, Tasmania 
Dept. of Science and 
University of Texas, Austin 
(Mexico) Institute Politecnico 

Institute for Systematic 

Botany Utrecht 
Mrs. David Vear 
Universidad Nacional de 

University of Wisconsin, 

University of Wisconsin, 
' Oshkosh 
Yale University 


American Meteorite 

Edward Anders 
Appalachian State 

Barbara Bach 
Donald Baird 
Gordon Baird 
Tom Beard 
Dave Beelor 


Gordon Bent 

Ute Bernhardt 

Joan Biba 

Robert Blodgett 

John Bolt 

Glen Bottlemy 

Emily Brandle 

Susan Brink 

Craig Brown 

U. F Buckwald 

Ted Bunch 

William Burger 

John Byrnes 

Chicago Grotto Group 

L N. Christensen 

Orville Clark 

Glen Commons 

Paul Copper 

Earl Cornwell 

Lloyd Crawley 

Dames & Moore 

Paul de Grool 

Kathleen Dedina 

Robert H. Denison 

Sally Di Novo 


Mike Doukas 

Jim DuPont 

Dept of Energy Mines and 

Resources (Canada) 
Paul Estep 

John Fagan 
Harvey Felbinger 
Vaughn Fitzgerald 
Albert Forslev 
Terry Frest 

Geological Enterprises 
Geology Museum- 
University of California 
The Gem Shop 
Cal Georges 
Arthur Gerk 
Frank Green 
Paul Harris 
Joseph Hearns 
Dieter Heinlein 
Mr. and Mrs. George Hejny 
Don Henry 
Glenn Huss 
Laurel Johnson 
Markes Johnson 
Kenneth Kietzke 

Kermit Kirkeby 
Katie Krueger 
Wann Langston, Jr. 
E. G. Latshaw 
Willard Levtze 
Pearl Lloyd Miller 
Al Look 

Kubet Luchterhand 
Helen McCammon 


Frank K. McKinney 
Cary Madden 
Larry Marshall 
Eugene Meieran 
Glen Merrill 
Paul Moore 
Matthew Nitecki 
Ragnar Nordlof 
Edward Olsen 
Everett Olsen 
Anne Orvieto 
Larry Osterberger 

Ronald Pine 
Roy Plotnick and Diane 

Princeton University 
M. E. Rada 
Mrs. Steve Ramsdell 
Michael Reed 
T Rich 

Eugene Richardson 
Ian Rolfe 
J. Rondot 
John Runnels 
Len Scheel 
Thomas Schopf 
Paul Sipiera 
Laurence Sloss 
Douglas Smith 
William Stafford 
Robert Timm 
William Timus 
Edward Valauskas 
T W VanZelst 
Theodore Visin 
Alan Woodland 
Mrs. Merten Wright 
Thomas Young 
Rainer Zangerl 


Academy of Natural 

Science, Chicago 
Branley Allan 
Peter Ames 
Jane Anderson 
Robert Anderson 
Robin Andrews 
Sophie Andris 
Anti-Cruelty Society 
W. T Atyeo 
James Bacon 
R. M. Bailey 
D. D. Baird 
Margaret Baker 
P M. Banarescu 
Karl Bartel 
J. Baskin 
B A. Becker 
Kevin Bel 
Bell Museum of Natural 

John Boruki 
M. Bozeman 
Brookfield Zoo 
L. E. Brown 
Walter Brown 
R. Brumback 
John Bruner 
G Burgess 
Carnegie Museum of Natural 

D. Castro 
Philip Chapman 
Franklin H. Chermock 


Chicago Zoological Society 

T A. Clarke 

Barbara Clausen 

Paul Clyne 

Glenn Cole 

Bruce B. Collette 

Joel L. Cracraft 

Doyle Damman 

Elizabeth B Deis 

Mike DIoogatch 

Bill and Helen Dowlin 

Robert Dunlavey 

Henry Dybas 

Linda Dybas 

Mary Ela 

Ken Emberton 

Robert Faden 

Mrs. Manuel Fink 

Robert Fisk 

John Fitzpatrick 

J. Foerster 

A. Formes 

P. W. Freeman 

Karl Frogner 

Mrs. Faye Frost 

Albert Gaser 

T K. George 

Frank Gill 

Steve Gilson 

Global Bird Imports 

Daniel Golani 

Michael Golubev 

Daniel Gonzales 

Richard R. Graber 

David W. Greenfield 

Paul Gritis 


Frank Hausman 

Jane Healy 

P. C. Heemstra 

Craig Hendee 

Sir Guy Henderson 

Philip Hershkovitz 

Peter Hocking 


H. Hoogstraal 

Anne Howden 

Henry Howden 

L. Hubricht 

Robert Inger 

Instituto Columbiano 

James Jankowoiak 
Colin Johnson 
Laurel Johnson 
R. K. Johnson 
Steven Karsen 
Jeff Kaufmann 
Greg Keiser 
J. Kerbis 
J. Kethley 
David Kistner 
Roger Klocek 
G F. Knowlton 
G. W. Krantz 
M. L. Kuns 
R. Larson 
J N. Layne 
Rene Laubach 
S. G. A. Leak 
Gus Ledure 
Boonsong Lekagul 
Cliff Lemen 
Randall B. Lewis 
Robyn Ann Lillehei 
Lincoln Park Zoo 

Los Angeles County 

Louisiana State University 

Museum of Zoology 
D. Ludwig 
J. G. Lundberg 
Borys Malkin 
S Maness 
L G. Marshall 
R. Martin 
Diane Maurer 
Roger May 
Gary Mazurek 
T J. McCarthy 
John McGuckin 
R. B McKean 
Michael Miller 
Walter Miller 
Sherman Minton 
J. Mix 

Ralph Morris 
Douglass Morse 
Brian Morton 
Mrs. Arthur T Moulding 
John Murphy (Dallas Zoo) 
John Murphy (Plainfield High 

Museum of Comparative 

Zoology Harvard 
Museum of Vertebrate 

Zoology University of 

California, Berkeley 
Michael Nee 
Mrs. M. Nee 
Robert W. Nero 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
H. Nijssen 
Ms. R. Nolan 
Novaks Aviary 
Michael O'Connor 
Lorain Olsen 
Robert Parker 
Chris Patricoski 
Bruce Patterson 
Ray Pawley 
Jarmila Peck 
Stewart Peck 
Carlos Perez-Santos 
Ronald Pine 
John Pizzimenti 
Princeton Museum of 


C. Prudick 
Gordiana Racic 
W. J. Rainboth 
Brett C. Ratcliffe 
Alan Resetar 
Robin Restall 
Bertha Rollo 
Barry Roth 

J. Runnels 

San Diego Zoo 

Sand Ridge Nature Center 

I. Sazima 

Patricia Schwalm 

D. Sheridan 
Tom Sherry 
Robert Silberglied 
Tony Silva 
William F Simpson 
James Sipiora 

W. F Smith-Vaniz 
Smithsonian Institution 
P Soini 

Harrison Steeves 
Julian A. Steyermark 
Street 1968 Expedition to 

Daniel Summers 

Walter Suter 

D Taphorn 

Robert Timm 

H. B. Tordotf 

M. P. Torres 

Melvin A. Traylor Jr 


William Turnbull 

Ronald W. Turner 

University of Arizona 

University of Michigan 

University of Nebraska 

University of South Florida 

R. P Vari 

B. Verdcourt 

Harold Voris 

John Wagner 

Sandra Walchuk 

R. A. Ward 

Richard Wassersug 

T Watanabe 

Larry Watrous 

Patricia Wattenmaker 

Syl Weindling 

S. H. Weitzman 

West Africa 1950-52 

Zoological Expedition 
Western Foundation for 

Vertet~"-ate Zoology 
David Willard 
James Wilson 
Glen E Woolfenden 
Mrs. Yang Chang Man 
Frank Young 
Ken Young 
W. Zaies 
Rainer Zangerl 
Robert M. Zink 
Zoological Survey of India 


Gordon C. Baird 

Sr Cecilia Bodman 

Willard L. Boyd 

Bennet Bronson 

William C. Burger 

Michele Calhoun 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 

Gerard R. Case 

Nancy A. Chavez Velasquez 

Elvehjem Museum of Art 

W. Peyton Fawcett 

Henry Field 

Vaughn Fitzgerald 

Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 

Kenneth J. Grabowski 

Virginia Gregg 

Paul Gritis 


Fritz Hamer 

Walter Hanisch Espindola 

Chauncy D. Harris 

Sheryl L. Heidenreich 

David M. Henkle 

Philip Hershkovitz 

Hirohito, Emperor of Japan 

Harry Hoogstraal 

Robert F Inger 

Rhoda Kalt 

Hans Krause 

Yvonne Letouzey 

Kubet Luchterhand 

Diane Messmann Mann 

Larry G. Marshall 

Hymen S. Marx 
Mayer Brown & Piatt 
Mrs. C, Philip Miller 
Seymour Miller 
Michael E Moseley 
Michael Nee 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
Matthew H. Nitecki 
Charles Novak 
John A. O'Keefe 
Edward J. Olsen 
Dale J. Osborn 
Pan American University 
Mrs. Bryan Patterson 
Anthony J. Reiffer 
Timothy Plowman 
Phyllis Rabineau 
Alan Resetar 
Eugene S Richardson 
AlfredaC Rogowski 
Gordon C. Sauer 
Ursula Scholz 
Thomas J. M. Schopf 
Charles A. Schultz 
Joyce Shaw 
Joanne Silver (in memory of 

Sol Gurewitz) 
Tony Silva 
Alan Solem 
Lorain Stephens 
Robert G. Stoize 
B. C. Stone 
David E. Stuart 
Mr & Mrs. William G. 

Swartchild, Jr 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 
Edward Valauskas 
James W VanStone 
Theodore W Van Zelst 
Harold K. Voris 
Paul D. Voth 
Maude Wahlman 
E. Leiand Webber 
Ronald Weber 
Rupert L. Wenzel 
Donald S. Whitcomb 
Louis O. Williams 


Amoco Production Company 
Borg-Warner Corporation 
Randall E. Jackson 
Dr and Mrs. Levin 
Mrs. Stanford B. Smith 
Mr Douglas Tibbetts 
Mrs. Harold C. Vons 
Mr. Theodore W. VanZelst 



Willard L. Boyd, 

Lorin I NevlJng, Jr., Ph.D., 

E Leiand Webber. B.B.Ad., 



the President 

Katherlne D. Chay, Secretary 
to the President 

Office of 
the Director 

Alice L. Lewis, Secretary to 
the Director 

Department of 

Glen Cole, Ph.D., Chairman 

and Curator, Prehistory 
Bennet Branson, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator, Asian 

Archaeology and 

Donald Collier, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus, Middle 

and South American 

Archaeology and 

Robert A. Feldman, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant Curator, 

Andean Archaeology 
AlanL Kolata, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant Curator, 

Andean Archaeology 
Phillip H. Lewis, Ph.D., 

Curator, Primitive Art and 

Melanesian Ethnology 
Michael E. Moseley Ph.D., 

Associate Curator, Middle 

and South American 

Archaeology and 

JohnE. Terrell, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator 

Oceanic Archaeology and 

James W VanStone, Ph.D., 

Curator, North American 

Archaeology and 

Ruth I. Andris, Restorer 
Kathleen Christon,B.S., 

Collections Assistant 
Christine S Danziger, M.S., 

Eric Frazer, B.F.A., Technical 

Sheryl L. Heidenreich, B.S., 

Administrative Assistant 
Joyce A Korbecki, B.A., 

Scientific Assistant 
Lillian Novak, B.A., 

Department Registrar 
M. Elizabeth O'MalleyB.A., 

Collections Assistant 
Phyllis G.Rabineau.M.A., 

Custodian of Collections 

Millard E. Rada, Collections 

Sylvia P Schueppert, 

Christine G. Taterka, 

Collections Assistant 

of Botany 

WilliamC. Burger, Ph.D., 

Chairman, Department of 

Botany and Curator, 

Vascular Plants 
Louis O. Williams, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus, Vascular 

John J. Engel.Ph.D., 

Richards Associate 

Curator. Bryology 
Patricio Ponce de Leon, 

Ph.D., Associate Curator, 

Timothy C. Plowman, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator, Vascular 

Kerry Barringer, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant Curator, 

Vascular Plants 
Michael O.Dillon, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant Curator, 

Vascular Plants 
Sylvia M. Feuer-Forster, 

Ph.D., Visiting Assistant 

Curator and Research 

Michael Nee, Ph.D., Visiting 

Assistant Curator 
Roberta C. Becker, B.A., 

Department Secretary 
William E. Grime, B.A., 

Manager of Systematic 

Botanical Collections 
RobertG.StoIze, B.S., 

Custodian, Pteridophyte 

Assistants: Birthel Atkinson. 

llonaCinis, Stephen 

Dercole, Peter Johnson, 

M.A., Penny Matekaitis, 

B.S., Christine Niezgoda, 

M.S., AlfredaRehling, 

Freddie Robinson, Kent 

Taylor B.S. 

of Geology 

JohnR. Bolt, Ph.D., 

Chairman, Department of 

Geology and Associate 

Curator. Fossil Reptiles 

and Amphibians 
RainerZangerl, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus, Fossil 

MatthewH. Nitecki, Ph.D., 

Curator, Fossil 

Edward J Olsen, Ph.D., 

Curator, Mineralogy 
WilliamD. Turnbull, Ph.D., 

Curator Fossil Mammals 
Bertram G. WDOdland, Ph.D., 

Curator, Petrology 

Peter R. Crane, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator, 

John Clay Bruner, M.S., 

Collection Manager, Fossil 

GaryGalbreath, PhD, 

Curatorial Associate and 

Technical Assistant 
John P Harris, Preparator. 

Maria A. Kovarek, 

Departmental Secretary 
Clarita Nuiiez, B.S., 

Collection Manager. Fossil 

William Sirhpson, B.S., 

Preparator. Fossil 

Assistants: Dorothy 

Eatough, M.A., Lorna 

Gonzales, B.S., Claire 


of Zoology 

Robert K.Johnson, Ph.D., 

Chairman. Department of 

Zoology and Associate 

Curator, Fishes 
Emmet R. Blake, D.Sc, 

Curator Emeritus, Birds 
Philip Hershkovitz, M.S., 

Curator Emeritus, 

Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., A.B., 

Curator Emeritus, Birds 
Rupert L.Wenzel, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus. Insects 
Robert F. Inger, Ph.D., 

Curator, Amphibians and 

Hymen S. Marx, B.S., 

Curator. Amphibians and 

Alan Solem, Ph.D., Curator. 

JohnW. Fitzpatnck, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator. Birds 
John B. Kethley, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator. Insects 
HaroldK. Vorid, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator. 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
James S. Ashe, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator Insects 
Donald J. Stewart, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator Fishes 
Robert M.Timm, Ph.D.. 

Assistant Curator, 

Bruce D. Patterson, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator. 

Larry E. Watrous, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator, Insects 
Robert J. Izor, B.S., 

Custodian of Collections. 

Darlene Pederson, 

Departmental Secretary 
LinneaLahlum, BA., 

Scientific Illustrator. 


AlanResetar, B.S , 

Custodian of Collections. 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
David E. Willard, Ph.D., 

Custodian of Collections, 


Assistants: Sophie Andris, 
Mammals; Margaret L. 
Baker, B.S., Invertebrates: 
Paul Gritis, Amphibians 
and Reptiles Aagje Hill, 
M.A., Insects: 
Bartholomew Lysy B.S., 
Insects: M. Dianne 
Maurer, BA, Birds: Gary 
Mazurek, B.A., Insects: 
Robert Mijatov, B.S. , 
Insects: Robert J. 
Schmitz, M.S., Fishes: 
Christopher Spurrier, 
Fishes: Daniel Summers, 
M.S., Insects: Brian 
Wilson, Reptiles. 

Secretaries: Sarah Derr 
Bruner, B.A., Mammals: 
Patricia Johnson, 
Invertebrates: Molly 
Ozaki, Amphibians and 

Advanced Tech- 
nologies laboratory 

John W. Fitzpatrick, Ph.D., 

Scientific Illustrators: Zorica 

Dabich, B.F.A.; Zbigniew 

Jastrebski, M.F.A.; 

Marlene Hill Werner, B.S. 
Rosetta Arrigo, M.A., 

Computer Operations 


The Library 

W. Peyton Fawcett, B.A., 

Michele Calhoun, M.S.L.S., 

Reference Librarian 
Eugenia J. Jang, A.A., 

Serials Librarian 
Chih-WeiPan, M.S., 

AlfredaC. Rogowski, 

Library Assistants: Kenneth 

J. Grabowski, M.S.; 

Patricia Piasecki, B.A.; 

Joyce Shaw, B.A., M.A.; 

Benjamin W. Williams, B.A. 

Field Museum Press 

JohnR. Bolt, Ph.D., 

Scientific Editor 
Tanisse R. Bushman, 

Managing Editor 


of Education 

Including personnel of the 
N. W. Harris Public School 
Extension, the Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Program, 
and the James Nelson 
and Anna Louise 
Raymond Foundation for 
Public School and 
Children's Lectures. 

Carolyn P. Blackmon, B.S., 

Chairman, Department of 

Theresa La Master, B.A., 

Departmental Secretary 
Special Programs: Maija 

Sedzielarz, B.A.; Beverty 

Serrell, M.S.; Harriet 

Smith, M.A. 
PhilipC. Hanson, M.S., 

Head, Group Programs 

Instructors: Elizabeth B. 

Deis, M.S.; Mane S. 

Feltus, M.A.; Edith 

Fleming, M.A.: Mary Ann 

Bloom, M.S.E.E.; Nina 

Haake, BA. 
Resource Coordinator Sue 

G. Rizzo 
Resource Assistant. Robert 

Cantu, A. A. 
Divisional Assistant: John 

SusanE.Stob.B.A., Head. 

Public Programs Division 
Program Developers: Susan 

M. Curran, B.S.; Robert 

Pickering, M.A.; Marianne 

W. Schoch, B.A., 

Jacqueline Tomulonis, 

Resource Coordinators: 

Jack MacRae, B.S.; Mark 

T Slater, M.A. 
Volunteer Coordinator 

Joyce E. Matuszewich, 

Departmental Secretaries: 

Rita S. Crozier, B.A.; Anne 


of Exhibition 

Donald R.Skinner.M. FA., 

Chairman, Department of 

Harvey M. Matthew, 

B.S.E.E., MBA, Head, 

Controls Division 
Jessica Newman, Secretary 
Richard T Pearson, B.A., 

Head. Production Division 
Beverly C. Scott B.S.C., 

Departmental Secretary 
Designers: Clifford Abrams, 

B.F.A.; Louise M. Belmont, 

B.A.; Paul Bluestone, B.A.; 

Donald P. Emery, B.F.A.; 

Barbaras. Mitter.B.F.A.; 

Gail Rogoznica-McKernin, 



Preparators: Howard Bezin, 
B.F.A.; Tamara Biggs, 
B. A; Marks, Brandl, 
B.F.A.; Carol 
Brunk-Harnlsh, B.A.; 
Barbara Burkhardt, B.FA ; 
John K. Cannon, M.F.A.; 
RaoulDeal, B.F.A.; 
Geoffrey A. Grove, B.S.; 
Jeffrey Hoke, Cfirlstlne F. 
Ingraham, tvlF.A.; Daniel 
J. Joyce, B.A,: Johin Judd. 
tyl.F.A.; MIcfiael Paha, 
B. FA.; Gregory C. 
Splggle, B.FA: Daniel L. 
Welnstock, B.F.A.; 
Cameron Zebrun, M.F.A. 


Andrea G. Bonnette, B.S., 
MBA, C. PA, Wee 
President, Finance and 
Museum Services 

Patricia N. Phillips, Secretary 
to the Vice President, 
Finance and Museum 


Joann K, Thorson, B.A., 
M.B.A., C.P.A., Manager, 
Financial Operations 

Alexander R. Friesel, B.G.S., 

Accounting Clerks: Carleen 
M. Konopka. Tack S. Lee, 
MBA, Gregory B.Reld, 
David E. SadowskI, Lynn 
M. Terpln. 

General Services 

GustavA. Noren, General 

Services Administrator 
Thomas W. Geary, B.S., 

Purchasing Agent 
Nina M. Cummlngs, B.A., 

Clerk, Photography 
Florence W, Hales, B.A., 

Kathryn F, Hargrave, B.A., 

Printing Production 

Lorraine A. Petkus, Clerk, 

Arline E. Sparacino, 

Departmental Secretary 
Ronald A.Testa,M. FA., 

Head of Photography 
Kristlne B. V\testerberg, B.A., 

Assistant to General 

Services Administrator 

Division of Printing 
and Publications 

Roger L. Buelow, Head of 

Edward D. Czerwin, Printer 
Frantz Ellacin, Clerk, 

Lorraine H, Hobe, Clerk, 


George C. Sebela, Head of 

John T Suffredin, Clerk, 



Norman P. Radtke, 

Manager. Physical Plant 
Andrls Pavasars, M.S., 

Deoartmental Clerk 
Gerald J. Struck, B.S., 

Architectural Construction 



Rudolph Dentino, Assistant 

Chief Engineer 
Audiovisual Technicians: 

Gerald Keene, George D. 

Electrician: Edward D, Rick 
Stationary Engineers: Robert 

J. Battaglla, Joseph 

Nejasnic, Harry Rayborn, 

Jr., Ray Roberts, Waller 

Engineering Assistants: 

Floyd Bluntson, Leonard 

Rick, Donald Ross, 

Timothy Tryba 


Shift Supervisors: Joseph J. 
Gue, Lee Mister 

Group Leaders: Bernard 
Douglas, Aaron Holmes 

Housekeepers: Harold A. 
Anderson, Kenneth V 
Anderson, Jacqueline 
Baguldy Wanda 
Campbell, Guadalupe 
Cuellar, Cleola Davis, 
Claudia Felix, Rodolfo 
Flores, Larry Gaines, 
Kwan Soo Han, Ezell 
Holmes, Dewayne 
Jamison, Edward J. 
Jurzak, Gerard Kernlzan, 
Ghlslalne Lubin, Lionel K. 
McGraw, JoseZ. Mendez, 
Ermlte Nazaire, Louis 
Phipps, Luclnda 
Plerre-Louls, Michael 
Roache, Kettly Rodrigue, 
John Stahl, Anthony D. 
Valentino, DIeudaide M. 
Victor, Juanlta Wallace, 
DabieS. Wiles 


Jacques L. PulizzI, Building 
Maintenance Supervisor 

Craftsmen: Carpenters: Dale 
S. Akin, Stanleys, 
Konopka, George C. 
Petrik, Ernst P. Toussalnt. 
Painters: George 
Schneider, Jr., Henry J. 
Tucker, Thomas Williams, 
Plasterer Louis M. Hobe 


PhllipG. Dibble, B.A., 

James V Blakemore, B.A , 
Administrative Assistant 

Clerks: Robert T. 
ChelmowskI, Patricia F. 

Salesclerks: Carmella 
Bonnan, Emily M. Brandle, 
Gloria Clayton, Tanya 
Combes, Helen Cooper, 
Kathleen M. Gyrlon, 
Sandra L. Jaffe, Fern E. 
Konyar, Delores E. Marler, 
Marcia MIzushima, 
Tonnetta Oubarl, Vita L. 
Posey, Dellsa Retrlgue, 
Karl Thompson, Ellse 

Human Resources 

Patricia Parks, Human 
Resources Administrator 

Jill Knudsen, 8. A., Human 
Resources Representative 

Susan Olson, Department 


Mary A. Hagberg, L.L.B., 

Mary Ann Johnson, 


Security and 
Visitor Services 

Senior Security Supervisors: 
Kathleen M. Larkin, B.A., 
Richard H. Leigh 

Sergeants: Richard Faron, 
Willie Franklin, Derrick 
Smith, Jose Preclado 

Security Officers: Paul Akin, 
Allx Alexandre, Allen 
AmbrosinI, Louis 
Andrade, Larry Banaszak, 
Arnold Barnes, Andrew 
Bluntson, Craig Bolton, 
Willie Brimage, Joseph 
Brown, Darlene Brox, Eliza 
White Castro, Chantal 
Charles, Sik Chin, Chirkina 
Chlrklna, Charles Cooper, 
Mark Crawford, Joanne 
Czart, Arthur Daniels, 
Vincent Davis, Myles 
Dubuclet, William Dubyk, 
Lionel Dunn, Helen Fledor, 
Brad Foxen, Richard 
Garlbay Nerval Glover, 
Jesse Gomez, Rosalie 
Gomez, Rudolph Gomez, 
Steve Grissom, Richard 
Groh, Ronald Hall, 
Geraldine Havranek, 
Stanley Haynes, Lloyd 
Heady Michael Holt, 
Charles Johnson, Ira 
Johnson, Michael Jones, 

Eddy Joseph. Roxanne 
Justick, Irene Kelly, Jeffrey 
Konyar, MIrlelle LaForest, 
Howard Langford, Kenold 
LIndor, Charles Lozano, 
Benjamin Martinez, 
Francisco Mendoza, 
Phoebe Moore, Cozzetta 
Morris, Karlyn Morris, 
Derek McGlortham, 
Anthony McKlnney, Ira 
Neubel, Gregory fijewson, 
Paul Plerre-Louls, Roberto 
PIzano, Rosemarie Rhyne, 
Martine Rousseau, 
Emanuel Russell, Elmer 
Sagehorn, Irma Sanchez, 
Brian Simmons, Earl 
Singleton III, Edmund 
Steward, William 
Thompson, DoraVallejo, 
JoeVallejo, DallaVaranka, 
Otto Vlllmek, Robert 


Thomas R. Sanders, B.S., 

Vice President. 

Elizabeth A. Moore, 

Departmental Secretary 


Clifford Buzard, M.S., 

M.Div., /Assoc/afe 

Development Officer 
Gerald R. Jindra, B.A., 

Assistant Development 

Lawrence B. Johnson, M.S., 

Assistant Development 

Margo Pecoulas, B.S., 

Records Coordinator 
Larry Phillips, B.A., 

Research Coordinator 
Veltrlce Thompson, Office 

Susan E. VandenBosch, 

B.A., Women's Board 



Jacqueline M. Felicetti, B.A., 

Membership Manager 
Joseph R. Fernandez. Clerk. 

Membership Applications 
Sophia luanow-Lemonides, 

B.A,, Membership Fees 

Mary Millsap, Receptionist 
Michael Pankow. Clerk. CRT 

Jeanmarie Rom, 


KathiL, Rose, B, A,, 

Departmental Assistant 
Telephone Clerks: Katherlne 

Crawford. Pearl 

Delacoma, Edna Millsap, 

Helen Talbot, Toby Rajput 

Public Relations 

Mary A. Cassai, Ph.D., Public 

Relations Manager 
Carol Kopeck. Public 

Relations Assistant 
Marianne Murphy B.A.. 

Public Relations Assistant 
Shirlana Neander, Secretary 
David M.Walsten.B.S., 

Editor, Field Museum of 

Natural History Bulletin 


Dorothys. Roder, Tour 

Deborah Brandle, Secretary 



Department of 

RobertJ. Braidwood, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. Old 

Vfforld Prehistory 
James A. Brown, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

North American 

JaneE. Buikstra, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. 

Physical Anthropology 
William Conklin.M.A.. 

Research Associate, 

Peruvian Architecture and 

PhilipJ.C. Dark, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. 

African Ethnology 
Fred Eggan, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Patricia Essenpreis, M.A., 

Research Associate. 

North American 

Bill Holm, M.F.A., Research 

Associate. North 

American Native Art 
F.Clark Howell, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. Old 

World Prehistory 
Janet Johnson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Middle Eastern 

Maxine R. Kleindienst, 

Ph D., Research 

Associate. Old World 

Donald W Lathrap, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

South American 

Archaeology and 

Jorge Marcos, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

South American 

FredL Nials, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Archaeological Sediments 
Charles Ortlotf,MAe.E., 

Research Associate 
George I. Quimby, M.S., 

Research Associate. 

North American 

Archaeology and 

Susan Ramirez-Horton, 

Ph.D., Research 

Associate. South 

American Ethnohistory 
Kenneth Starr, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, East 

Asian Archaeology and 

Ronald Weber, PhD , 

Research Associate, 

Amazon Basin, Northwest 

Coast Archaeology and 

Louva Calhoun. B A , B FA . 



James R. Getz, B.A., Field 

Associate, North 

American Archaeology 
Evett D Hester, M.S., Field 

Associate, Philippine 

Jeffrey Quilter, Ph.D., Field 

Associate. South 

American Archaeology 
Alice Schneider. B.A., 

Associate. Chinese 



Robert FBetz, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Margery C. Carlson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Sylvia M. Feuer-Forster, 

Ph.D., Research 

Associate, Phanerogamic 

Robin Foster, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Sidney F Glassman, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Arturo Gomez-Pompa. 

Ph.D.. Research 

Associate, Phanerogamic 

Rogers McVaugh. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Phanerogamic Botany 
RichardW. Pohl. Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Rolf Singer. Ph.D., Research 

Associate. Cryptogamic 

D. DoelSoejarto. Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Tod FStuessy Ph.D.. 

Research Associate. 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Marko Lewis. Field 

Ing. Agr. Antonio Molina R.. 

Field Associate 


Edgar FAIIin.M.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Edward Anders, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

David Bardack. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Herbert R Barghusen, 

Ph.D., Research 

Associate, Fossil 

Werner Baur. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 


Frank M. Carpenter, Sc.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Albert Dahlberg,D.D.S., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Robert DeMar, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Robert Dennison, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Daniel Fisher, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Arnold Friedman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Louis H. Fuchs, B.S.. 

Research Associate, 

Lawrence Grossman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Antoni Hoffman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
James A. Hopson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Riccardo Levi-Setti, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Kubet Luchterhand. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr., 

Ph.D., Research 

Associate. Fossil 

FrankK. McKinney, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Robert F Marschner, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Paul B. Moore, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

EverettC. Olson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Leonard B. Radinsky, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
David M. Raup, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Thomas J. M. Schopf. Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
J. John Sepkoski. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
JosephV. Smith. Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

PriscillaTurnbull. M.S., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Leigh Van Valen. Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 


ArthurC. Allyn. B.S.. 

Research Associate. 

James P. Bacon. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Rudyerd Boulton. B.S., 

Honorary Research 

Associate, Birds 
David Cook, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Joel Cracraft, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, Birds 
Anthony DeBlase, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Sharon B. Emerson^ Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
JackFooden, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

E.-L Girardi, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

David W. Greenfield, Ph.D , 

Research Associate, 

Harry Hoogstraal, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

William B. Jeffries, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
A. RossKiester, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
David Kistner, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

George V. Lauder, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Cliff Lemen, Ph.D., Research 

Associate, Zoology 
R.Eric Lombard, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

F. S. Lukoschus. Ph.D., 

Research Associate 

RobertE. Martin, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

LeeD Miller, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Charles FNadlerM.D., 

Research Associate, 

DaleJ. Osborn, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Charles E. Oxnard, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

RonaldH. Pine, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

John J. Pizzimenti. Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 


George B Rabb, Ph D., 

Research Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Austin L. Rand, Ph.D., 

Honorary Research 

Associate, Birds 
CharlesA. Reed, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Ronald Singer, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Luis de la Torre, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Jamie Thomerson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Robert Traub, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

John Wagner, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Rishard Wassersug, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Robert Fleming, Ph.D., Field 

Associate, Birds 
Karl J. Frogner, Ph.D., Field 

Associate, Amphibians 

and Reptiles 
George Haas, Ph.D., Field 

Associate, Amphibians 

and Reptiles 
Kiew Bong Heang, Ph.D., 

Field Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Thomas O. Lemke. M.S.. 

Field Associate, Mammals 
Federico Medem. Sc.D.. 

Field Associate, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Laurie Price. Field 

Associate, Invertebrates 
Janice K. Street. Field 

Associate, Mammals 
William S. Street. Field 

Associate, Mammals 
Walter Suter Ph.D.. Fie/d 

Associate, Insects 
Donald Taphorn. Ph.D.. Field 

Associate, Fishes 

Teresa A. Greenfield. M.A., 

Associate, Fishes 
Dorothy Karall.B.A.. 

Associate, Invertebrates 
Harry Nelson. Ph.D.. 

Associate, Insects 
Lorain Olsen. B.A., 

Associate, Birds 
DioscoroS. Rabor M.S.. 

Associate, Birds 


Neal Abarbanell 
Nathalie Alberts 
Mario Ambrosino 
Carrie F. Anderson 
CleoM. Anderson 
Dolores Arbanas 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baker 
Dennis M. Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Beth Barnes 
Gwen Barnett 
Carol A. Basolo 
Winifred Batson 
John Bauer 
Sanda Bauer 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Virginia Beatty 
Marvin Benjamin 
William C. Bentley 
Patricia Bercher 
Lawrence Berman 
Elaine K. Bernstein 
Joan BIba 
Riva Blechman 
Cecilia Bodman 
Sharon Boemmel 
Marjorie Bohn 
Sandra Boots 
Idessie Bowens 
Hermann Bowersox 
Gladys Boyd 
Kristine Bradof 
Steven Brady 
Charles Braner 
Julie Braun 
Kathryn Briggs 
Carol Briscoe 
Karen Brock 
Cassandra Brown 
Louise Brown 
Joseph Browne 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Teddy Buddington 
Steve Buehler 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
Carol Bunting 
James E. Burd 
Audrey Burns 
Mary E. Burt 
Camille Bzdek 
Joseph Cablk 
Kathy Cagney 
Louva Calhoun 
Sandra J. Cameron 
Robert Cantu 
Jean Carton 
Sol Century 
June Chomsky 
Margaret Chung 
Roger Cohn 
Judith Cottle 
Connie Crane 
Howard L. Crystal 
Susan Matthys Curran 
Jim Currey 
Kathryn Daskal 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Stephen Dercole 
Carol Deutsch 
Steven Diamond 
Marianne Diekman 
Phyllis Dix 

Delores Dobberstein 
Patricia Dodson 
Benny Daniel Dombek 
Caryn Doniny 
Lisa Dorn 
John E. Dunn 
Margaret Durbin 
Jean Durkin 
Stanley Dvorak 
Milada Dybas 
Lynn Dyer 
Kathleen Early 
Alice Eckley 
Linda Egebrecht 
Ruth Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Jennifer Elliott 
Agatha Elmes 
Jean Ettner 
Nancy Evans 
Nancy Fagin 
Martha Farwell 
Suzanne Pier Fauteux 
Dolores Fetes 
Marie Fischl 
Vaughn Fitzgerald 
Ruth Fouche 
Gerda Frank 
Patricia Franks 
Eric Frazer 
Arden Frederick 
Martha Frey 
Janine Fuerst 
Shirley Fuller 
Miriam Futransky 
Louis Galvez III 
Bernice Gardner 
Andrea Garski 
Suzanne Garvin 
Peter Gayford 
Helen Gayner 
Donald Gemmel 
Marty Germann 
Nancy Gerson 
Christine Geymer 
Elizabeth Louise Girardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
Halina Goldsmith 
Lorna Gonzales 
Yvonne Gonzalez 
Judy Gordon 
Helen Gornstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Greta Gratzinger 
Deborah Green 
Loretta Green 
Frank A. Greene, Jr. 
Henry Greenwald 
Robert Gregor 
Cecily Gregory 
Mary Lou Grein 
Ann B. Grimes 
Dolores T, Gross 
Karen Grupp 
Sol Gurewitz 
Geraldine Guttenberg 
Dorothy Haber 
Michael J. Hall 
Carol Hallow 
Calvin Harris 
Barbara Hathaway 
Shirley Hattis 
Caroll Henry 
Audrey Hiller 
L. James Hitz 
Vicki HIavacek 
April Hohol 

Harold L. Honor 
Zelda Honor 
Cathy Hosman 
Scott Houtteman 
Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Betty M. Hubbard 
Nancy Hubbard 
Adhenne Hunwitz 
Ellen Hyndman 
Jennifer Ikerd 
Darryl Isaacson 
Doug Jacobs 
Micki Johns 
Judith M. Johnson 
Karolyn Johnson 
Mabel S. Johnson 
Paul Kenneth Johnson 
Steven Johnson 
Nancy Jonathan 
Malcolm Jones 
Daniel Joyce 
Diane Jurado 
Carol Kacin 
Carole Kamber 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Dorothy Karall 
Dorothy Kathan 
Shirley Kennedy 
Barbara Keune 
Joyce Kieffer 
Marjorie King 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Glenda Kowalski 
Gerald Kuechner 
Teresa LaMaster 
Anita Landess 
Carol Landow 
Ellen Lark 
Joan Lauf 
Sui Min Lee 
Marion Lehuta 
Stephen LeMay 
Anne Leonard 
Frank Leslie 
Lisa Leslie 
Virginia Leslie 
Janet Leszcznski 
Michelle Leuallen 
Joseph F Levin 
Michelle Levin-Parker 
Inese Liepins 
Elizabeth Lizzio 
Ralph Lowell 
James Lowers 
Ruth Luthringer 
David Lynam 
Susan Lynch 
Edna MacQuilkin 
Margaret Madel 
Sara Majer 
Elizabeth Malott 
Gabby Margo 
Margaret Martling 
Robert Mastey 
David Matusik 
Marita Maxey 
Melba Mayo 
Mark McCollam 
Andrea McDonald 
Dorothea McGivney 
Carole McMahon 
Withrow Meeker 
Beth Metz 
Beverly Meyer 
Robyn Michaels 

Rosanne Miezio 

Alices. Mills 

Reed Millsaps 

Carolyn Moore 

George Morse 

Charlotte Morton 

Kathryn Mozden 

Anne Murphy 

Marlene Mussell 

Charlita Nachtrab 

Linda Nard 

Mary Naunton 

Lee Neary 

John Ben Nelson 

Mary S. Nelson 

Norman Nelson 

Louise Neuert 

Jennifer Newman 

Ernest Newton 

Herta Newton 

Doris Nitecki 

Edwardine Nodzenski 

Gretchen Norton 


Rose Ocampo 

Dorothy Oliver 

Miles Olson 

Forman Onderdonk 

Charles Oneyzia 

Joan Opila 

Marianne O'Shaughnessy 

Gary M. Ossewaarde 

China Oughton 

Anita Padnos 

Therese Palmer 

Michelle Parker 

Raymond Parker 

Delores Patton 

Frank M. Paulo 

Laura Pederson 

Tracy D. Pederson 

Renee Peron 

Mary Anne Peruchini 

Susanne Petersson 

Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 

Philip Pinsof 

Jean Porretto 

Steffi Postol 

Sarah Powell 

Jacquelyn Prine 

Robert Protosevich 

Elizabeth Rada 

Sri Raj 

Brad Randall 

Lee Rapp 

Ann Ratajczyk 

Ernest Reed 

Sheila Reynolds 

Clara Richardson 


Laurel Rippey 

Mary Robertson 

William Roder 

William Rom 

Barbara Roob 

Robert Rosberg 

Kathy Rose 

Beverly Rosen 

Susan Rosenberg 

Sarah Rosenbloom 

Marie Louise Rosenthal 

Anne Ross 

Susan Rowley 

Ann Rubeck 

Helen Ruch 

Lenore Ruehr 

Linda Sandberg 

Marian Saska 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Sara Scherberg 
Sylvia Schueppert 
Thelma Schwartz 
Florence Seiko 
Sheila Seybolt 
Jessie Sherrod 
Judith Sherry 
Lynn Siegel 
Barbara Siekowski 
Deborah Silber 
Doris Simkin 
Jim Sipiora 
Dorothy Skala 
James Skorcz 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spensley 
Steven Sroka 
Charles Stanish 
Eric Stein 
Llois Stein 
Lorain Stephens 
Robyn Strauss 
Deanna Stucky 
Mary Alice Sutton 
Bea Swartchild 
James Swartchild 
Gloria Taborn 
Patricia Talbot 
Benjamin Taylor 
Lorraine Thauland 
Osa Theus 
Cathy TIapa 
Jacqueline Tracy 
Dana Treister 
Mary Trybul 
Rebecca Tuttle 
Patricia Tyson 
Joan Ulrich 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Paula-Ann Vasquez- 

Rita Veal 
Barbara Vear 
Virginia Vergara 
Charles A. Vischulis 
Gay Voss 
David Walker 
Mary Ann Walkosz 
Bertram C. Walton 
Joyce Wash 
Harold Waterman 
Robbie Webber 
Alice Wei 
David Weiss 
Fred Weiss 
Mary Wenzel 
Penny Wheeler 
Bessie Whitley 
Cheryl A. Williams 
Francis A. Willsey 
Scott Willsey 
Gerda Wohl 
Reeva Wo If son 
Philip Woutat 
Katherine Wright 
Zinette Yacker 
Theodore Zwier 



Costa Rica 

January 14-27, 1984 


(includes round trip airfare 

and many meals) 

Visit San Jose, Cartago, Port Limon, Puerto 
Viego, Port of Puntarenas, Monte verde Forest 
Preserve and Cloud Forest, and more. This 
tour will give you an opportunity to explore in 
depth the plants and edible fruits of this coun- 
try plus many opportunities for photo- 

Dr. William C. Burger, curator and chair- 
man of Field Museum's Botany Department, 
has concentrated his attention on Costa Rica 
and has helped produce several volumes for 
the Flora of Costa Rica project. He has been 
on nine collecting trips to Costa Rica, and vis- 
ited many areas of the country. In addition to 
his interests in flowers and floras, Dr Burger 
has been an avid amateur photographer for 
more than 30 years. Also, Tom Economou, 
horticulturist and botanical plant explorer will 
join our group as co-leader We invite you to 
join us. 

ANCIENT Capitals of China 

October 6-28 

Beijing, Xian, Luoyang, Zehngzhou, 
Kaifeng, Suzhou and Shanghai. This itinerary 
includes the most significant sites of early Im- 
perial China and will give you an opportunity 
to explore in depth the civilization which char- 
acterizes one of the earth's longest-lived 

China's influence on our lives is now so 
well established as to go almost unnoticed. 
Take this magazine; the paper, the ink in which 
it is printed — indeed, the printing process — 
all owe their origin to the Chinese. Our whole 
lifestyle seems bound up in Chinese accom- 
plishments: the magnetic compass, the man- 
ufacture of steel, machinery for weaving, mill- 
ing and casting metals, deep drilling, paper 
money, silk spinning, and porcelain are all 
products of Chinese inventiveness and tech- 

Our tour of this vast and versatile land 
will include the time-honored treasures of Old 
China given an added depth by the progressive 
achievements of New China. This itinerary 
includes side trips to the Great Wall and the 
Ming Tombs and the famous Longmen Caves 
near Luoyang. Also it will include an in-depth 
visit to the recent archeological finds of the 
Qin Shi Huan Di at Xian. 

Our lecturer, Phillip Woodruff is experi- 
enced with travel in China, having led four 
42 previous tours for Field Museum. He speaks 

fluent Chinese and has an excellent rapport 
with the Chinese guides. This year he will 
have another extra dimension to bring to our 
tour as he is currently living and working in 
Beijing, where he will meet our group upon 

If a visit to China is in your travel plans 
why not make it this year while China remains 
a place that is different, unexploited, and 
seemingly unspoiled. Your visit to China will 
be the life-time experience that it sould be. 

We have a few spaces left for a group not 
to exeed 28 people. For further information, 
please call Field Museum Tours. 

Steamboat Cruise 
To Starved Rock 

October 12-14 

Help keep alive a way of life that goes back 
over a hundred years to when steamboats were 
the fastest, most comfortable means of trans- 
portation. Join us for a one-day cruise on the 
Str. Julia Belle Swain, the last steamer on the 
Illinois River, which we will board in Joliet at 
9:00 a.m. October 12. As we float along 
toward our destination (Starved Rock), we'll 
enjoy the picturesque scenery and several 
riverfront towns. You may become so relaxed 
watching the islands and sandbars slide by that 
you may catch a cat-nap in your deck lounge 

We will spend two nights at the beautiful 
rustic Starved Rock Lodge where we will en- 
joy nature walks, short talks, a slide show, and 
good food. Friday morning, October 14 we 
will return to Chicago by bus, stopping en 
route at the birthplace of Ronald Reagan in 
Tampico, Reagan's boyhood home in Dixon, 
the John Deere Historic Site in Grand Detour, 
"Black Hawk" statue at Lowden State Park, 
and the Stillman Valley State Monument. 

Our leader is John Clay Bruner, Field 
Museum's collection manager of vertebrate 
paleontology. For further information please 
call or write Dorothy Roder, Field Museum 
Tours. (Telephone 312/322-8862). 

Baraboo, Wisconsin 

October 1-2 

There is no lovelier or more diverse vacation- 
land in America than the state of Wisconsin — 
scenic country roads, rolling dairyland, stun- 
ning views from the palisades and immense 
bluffs. Best of all the location is convenient — 
Baraboo is just about 2'/2 hours from Chicago- 

Come and join us for a mini-vacation to 

the Baraboo range, 15,000-year-old heritage 
of the last glacier to cover Wisconsin. The 
background is fascinating; you will explore the 
gorges, gaps and moraines of the hills cut by 
erosion and the Wisconsin Glacier under the 
expert guidance of our eminent and amiable 
geologist. Dr. Edward Olsen. His lectures 
alone are practically worth the price of the en- 
tire weekend to say nothing of the wonderful 
outdoors experience. 

The price includes transportation by de- 
luxe motor coach round trip from Field 
Museum, all meals, overnight accommoda- 
tions and lectures. 

We have budgeted the price of this tour as 
low as possible to make it within reach of 
almost anyone interested in this special tour. 
Therefore, operation is contingent on an 
enrollment of at least 25 people. Please sign 
up early to ensure your reservation. 


with optional extension 
to the seychelles 


Seychelles Extension $1,350 

September 10-28, 1983 

You are invited to join us for an exciting 
19-day safari to East Africa accompanied 
throughout by Audrey Faden, experienced lec- 
turer and tour guide, plus local guides. Game 
is still plentiful and this tour is scheduled to 
coincide with the animal migration. It will be 
Spring in Kenya. The time to go is now! A trip 
to Kenya is a vacation that never ends. We 
hope you will make your reservation now. 

Sailing the Lesser Antilles 

Aboard the Tall Ship 

"Sea Cloud" 

January 26-February 4 , 1984 

Our itinerary offers a superb sampling of the 
best of the Caribbean — Antigua, St. Barts, 
Saba, Martinique and lies des Saints. With the 
professional leadership of Dr. John Fitzpa- 
trick, a Field Museum scientist, you will see 
and experience much more than the con- 
ventional sightseer. Dr. Fitzpatrick, is an 
excellent tour lecturer, and your trip will be 
greatly enhanced by his lectures and field 

We hope you will be able to join us on 
this incredible voyage. Price range, contingent 
on cabin selection, $3100/55,100 per person 
(includes round trip air fare from Chicago, 
hotel accommodations in St. John's, Antigua, 
full board while sailing on the (Sea Cloud). 

Plants of the World 
Photography Competition 1983 

The exhibit "Plants of the World" will open at Field Museum on 
September 24. In celebration of flowers and the exhibit opening, 
the Museum announces the Plants of the World Photography 
Competition, cosponsored by Field Museum, Standard Photo, Helix 
Ltd., and Astra Photo Service. All members who are photographers 
(regardless of residence) as well as non-member photographers in 
the Chicago metropolitan area may submit slides of flowers and 
plants without any further restrictions on subject matter — any 
subject in the realm of the plant kingdom is acceptable. The 

Winning photographs will be featured in the October Bulletin and in 
Gallery Nine. September 23 through October 1 1 . An individual 
membership to Field Museum accompanies the award. The 
Museum reserves the right to publish, exhibit, and use for promotion 
the yvinning photographs. The decision of the judges is final. 

Six Honorable Mentions will be on exhibit and receive 
memberships. Winners of Certificates of Selection will also be on 

Judges: Dr William Burger, Chairman, Department of Botany 
Field Museum; John Alderson, award-winning commercial 
photographer, columnist and critic, Chicago Sun-Times, and Ron 
Bailey award winning photographer, Chicago Tribune. 


Competition is open to photographers in the Chicago metropolitan 
area (Cook, Lake, McHenry Kane, DuPage, and Will counties) and 
a// museum members. Employees of Field Museum and the 
cosponsor and their immediate families are not eligible. 


A completed entry form and entry fee of $5.00 must accompany 
each entry of one to three 35mm color slides. Entrants may submit 
three entries of 1 to 3 slides each (a maximum of 9 slides for the 

Entry forms are also available at Field Museum's information Desk. 
The form may be photocopied for additional entries. 

competition is divided into two age groups: Group I entrants must 
be under 17 years old as of August 1, 1983; Group II entrants must 
be 17 years or older as of August 1, 1983. To enter, complete the 
form below. Slides must not be mounted in glass. Only original 
slides that have not been published are acceptable. Indicate the 
proper slide orientation for projection with a dot in the upper right 
corner of the mounting on the non-emulsion side, together with your 
name and slide title. Please make your check payable to Field 


Entries will be accepted between August 1 and 15. Mail to: 

Field Museum Photography Competition 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605 

Pack entries with care. Field Museum assumes no responsibility for 
damage or loss in shipment, delivery and/or return. 


Enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope for return of entries. 
Entries not so accompanied will be discarded. Field Museum 
assumes no responsibility for damage or loss in return mail. 


• Grand prize: Minolta XD11 camera with 50mm 1.7 lens; photo will 
also appear as cover illustration for October 1983 Field Museum 

• First prize: (Group I) Helion all-weather rubber-coated 8x10 
binoculars; (Group II) weekend trip to Horicon Marsh to view 
Canadian goose migration. 

• Second prize: (Group I) $50 worth of film processing; (Group II) 
$100 worth of film processing. 

• Third prize: (Group I) Helix 101 flash unit; (Group II) Kamrac 
camera bag. 

• Certificates of selection. 

Entry Form: Plants of the World Photography Competition 

This form must accompany all entries. Use the guidelines above as a checklist. 



-Daytime phone- 


Group L 


Zip Code 

Group I 

Enclose $5.00 check or money order payable to Field Museum of Natural History. 

I understand and agree to the conditions of the contest as stated in the above guidelines. 

Signature: Date: 


Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

Siptiinlxr 1983 

-^■K ^ 



Plants of the World 

Opens Saturday, September 24 
Members' Preview^ Friday, September 23 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: WUlard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Allen Ambrosini 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of TkusTEES 

James). O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo). Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
WilUam L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H.Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 


September 1983 
\folume 54, Number 8 

September Events at Field Mitseutn 

The Botanical World in Replica 

The Story of Field Museum's Astonishing 
Collection of Plant Models 

by Michael O. Dillon, assistant curator of botany, 
and Beverly Serrell, educational consultant. 
Department of Exhibition 

Bryophyte Collecting in the Bolivian Andes 

Letters from Marko Lewis, field associate. 
Department of Botany 

Field Briefs 


"El Nino": Recent Effects in Peru 

Letters from Robert Feldman, visiting assistant 

curator of Andean archaeology 16 

The Remarkable Maguey: Myth and Reality 

by Ttrry Stocker and Barbarajackson 19 


Our Environment 

Field Museum Tours 


Model of the flower of Lent TTibouchina granulosaj. Models of 
several hundred members of the Plant Kingdom, from algae to 
orchids, will be on permanent view with the openingofHall 29, 
"Plants of the World," on September 24 (Members' preview Sept. 23). 
See The Botanical World in Replica," p. 5. Photo by Ron Testa. 

FttU Musrum of Nalunl History Bulklin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605 Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 (or schools. Museum membership 
includes BulUtm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410 Notification of address change should include address label and Ije sent to 
Membership Department Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Like Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 60605. ISSN:0O15-O7a3. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, n. 


Plant Life in the Tropics: Symposium 

Sunday, September 25 

1:00— 4:00pm 

James Simpson Theatre 

Tropical forests are being destroyed so 
rapidly that much of the diversity of life 
on earth will disappear during most of 
our lifetimes. By the end of the century 
three out of every five people in the 
world will be living in ecologically de- 
vastated tropical countries. Their fu- 
tures, and ultimately ours, depend on 
the choices we make over the next dec- 
ade. Join us as Drs. Peter Raven, 
director of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden: William Burger, chairman, and 
Michael Dillon and Timothy Plowman, 
assistant curators of Field Museum's 
Department of Botany, using graphic 
slides from their fieldwork. explore with 
us how the preservation of tropical 
organisms affects the welfare of 

Members: $6.00 
Nonmembers: $8.00 

Order tickets with the attached coupon. 
Fees nonrefundable. 

Special Events 

•Travels of the Victory Garden" 
with Bob Thomson 
Saturday, September 24, 2:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Bob Thomson, host of the popular, 
nationally syndicated television garden- 
ing program "The Victory Garden," pre- 
sents a behind-the-scenes look at the 
travels of the Victory Garden. Join us as 
we travel to the gardens of Costa Rica, 
England. Holland, and Hawaii. Follow- 
ing the lecture, you can question the 
expert about your home garden. 

Members: $3.00 
Nonmembers: $5.00 

Funded in part by the Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Fund. Order tickets 
with the attached coupon. Fees non- 

A Celebration of Plants of the World 
Saturday, September 24 
1:00— 4:00pm 

Celebrate with Field Museum the 
beauty and diversity of nature's plants 
and flowers. Chicago area botanists, 
gardeners, and plant lovers present dem- 
onstrations, displays, and exhibits of 
live plants and flowers. Sample herbal 
teas, find out how to best design your 
small garden space, get your fingers 
dirty learning the do's and don't's of 

planting fall bulbs or create a beautiful 
array of dyes from natural plant mate- 
rials. View the fascinating art of Ikeba- 
na (Japanese flower arranging), learn 
how decorative gourds are used around 
the worid or find out how and where to 
plant trees in Chicago. 

Free with Museum admission. For a 
complete schedule of the day's events, 
send a self-addressed, stamped en- 
velope. 3 


Weekend Programs 

"Unlocking the Secrets of the Sphinx" 
with Mark Lehner, Field Director, 
The Sphinx end Isis Temple Project 
Sunday, September 18, 2:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

For centuries, the worid has wondered 
obout the Sphinx, and questioned why it 
was built. Mark Lehner is currently Field 
director for the first scientific study of 
the Sphinx. This study has shattered 
conventional wisdom about how and 
why the Sphinx was built. It reveals f>os- 
sible astronomical significance, explains 
the methods and materials used in con- 
struction and comments on the signifi- 
cance of the Sphinx in ancient Egyptian 
society. Join us for this fascinating, illus- 
trated lecture. Order tickets with the 
attached coupon. 

Members: $3.00 
Nonmembers: $5.00 
Fees nonrefundable 

Family Feature 

"Checagou: Home of the Potawotomi" 

Saturday and Sunday, September 10 

and 11, 1:30pm 

Hail 6, near Pawnee Earth Lodge 

Chicago is celebrating its )50th birth- 
day this year Joumey back with Field 
Museum to those early days before 
Chicago was bom. Relive the days 
when "Checagou" was home to the Pot- 
awotomi Indians. Watch a pupF>et show 
about life as a young Potawotomi boy in 
"Checagou." After the puppet show, 
children con moke their own Potawa- 
toml puppet. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

Travel the world on Thursdays in Sep>- 
tember and October at 1 :30 pm in 
James Simpson Theatre. Admission 
free. Doors open at 12:45 pm. Members 
must bring their cards for priority seat- 
ing privileges. 

• September 8: "The Great Lakes," 
with Frank Komey 

• September 15: "Europe's Teacup 
Countries," with Frank Klicar 

O September 22: "Mexico," with 
Howard and Lucia Meyers 
9 September 29: "Sweden," with 
Ric Dougherty 

Free tours, demonstrations, and films 
ore offered each Saturday and Sunday 
at Field Museum. September highlights 

3 12:00 noon Dinosaur Lifestyles 
(tour) See reconstructed skeletons 
of gigantic dinosaurs. Contrast old 
and new ideas about dinosaurs' 
appearance, behavior and environ- 

10 11:30a.m. Anc/enf Egypt (tour) 
Explore the troditions of ancient 
Egypt from everyday life to myths 
and mummies. 

1 1 12:30 p.m. Museum Safari (tour) 
See shrunken heads from the Ama- 
zon, mummies from ancient Egypt, 
and big game from Africa. 

17 1:00 p.m. "Life In A Tropical Rain 
Forest" (film, 30 min.) View the 
great variety of exotic life in three 
different types of tropical rain 

2:(X) p.m. Malvina Hoffman: Por- 
traits In Bronze (lecture/tour) Enjoy 
this elegant study of the races of 
man by the celebrated sculptor 

18 1 :(X) p.m. "Baobab: Portrait of a 
Tree" (film, 27 min.) Learn the 
mysteries of the giant baobab tree. 
The baobab provides a microenvir- 
onment which supports the lives of 
innumerable animals. 

25 12:30 p.m. Museum Safari (tour) 

See complete program schedule and 
location listing in Weekend Passport 
(pick up at any Field Museum entrance). 
Programs partially funded by the Illinois 
Arts Council. 


Program Title 


# Requested 


# Requested 



# Requested 


Please complete coupon tor your program 
selection and any other special events Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate, (f your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 

one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets will 

be mailed on receipt of check Refunds will be 
made only if program is sold out. 




For Office Use: 

Date Received 

Date Returned 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addresed 
stamped envelope to: 




4 Telephone 


Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

The Botanical World in Replica 

The Story of Field Museum's 
Astonishing Collection of Plant Models 

by Michael O. Dillon and Beverly Serrell 

Destruction of the world's tropical and subtropical 
forests is occurring at an accelerating and alarming 
rate; more than 35 acres of forest are being destroyed 
every minute in logging activities and land clearing for 
agriculture. Much of this destruction is due to profit- 
seeking ventures, but a lack of appreciation for these 
ecosystems is contributing to the steady loss of one of 
our major resources. Because of the general inaccessi- 
bility of tropical forests, few people have visited them, 
though many have had brief glimpses in botanical gar- 
dens or while viewing nature programs on television. 
The inadequacy of methods for exhibiting plant 
forms in museums has been a major obstacle to de- 
veloping this education medium — one that has great 
potential for increasing public awareness and appre- 
ciation of plant life. Because most museums lack the 
resources for making plant models, it is generally not 
feasible for them to produce satisfactory exhibits of 

Preparator Emil Sella (1944) puts finishing touches on model of 
Welwitschia. eoozr 

plant forms as they appear in nature. Chicagoans are 
very fortunate, however, in having an extensive bota- 
nical model collection at Field Museum. 

Plants of the World, one of the Museum's four 
largest halls, will allow visitors a unique opportunity 
to examine in model form many examples of tropical 
plants as well as temperate plants familiar to Chicago 
area residents. 

On November 1, 1893, barely six weeks after the 
founding of Field Museum (then called Columbian 
Museum of Chicago), Charles Frederick Millspaugh 
became the Museum's first curator of the Botany De- 
partment, a position he continued to hold for nearly 30 
years. Around Ithaca, New York, Millspaugh's birth- 
place, he had been known as the "boy naturalist." 
Though he had completed training to enter the medic- 
al profession, he abandoned this to pursue his con- 
suming interest in botany. Under Millspaugh's guid- 
ance, the Botany Department took shape, his special 
interest in economic botany and tropical plants lend- 
ing a direction and influence that continues to this day. 

The Museum had acquired from exhibitors at the 

Michael O. Dillon is assistant curator of vascular plants, Depart- 
ment of Botany; Beverly Serrell served as ediicational consultant. 
Department of Exhibition. Dr. Dillon was curator in charge of 
the exhibit. 

Plants of the World 

Members' preview: Friday, September 23 
3:00 to 8:00 pm 

Public opening: Saturday, September 24 
9:00 am to 5:00 pm 

Model of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes 

The Illinois woodlands scene is one of five large botanical dioramas completed between 1933 and 1941. 

Columbian Exposition a formidable collection of tim- 
bers, oils, gums, resins, fibers, fruits, seeds and 
grains; not included in this assemblage were living 
plants, which Millspaugh viewed as a major deficien- 
cy. So around 1896 he originated an exhibit concept 
that would ultimately solve this problem as well as re- 
volutionize the development and production of bota- 
nical exhibits. 

Millspaugh hired B.E. Dahlgren in 1909 to head a 
facility for producing plant models of exacting fidelity. 
An accomplished model-maker with professional 
experience in making dentures, Dahlgren was accus- 
tomed to working with wax, glass, and celluloid. The 
first plant reproductions completed by Dahlgren's 
team included the breadfruit and papaya models — the 
beginnings of one of the most impressive collections of 
plant models in the world. 

From the start, these creations sparked the inter- 
est of the public as well as scientists. The story is told of 
a distinguished foreign scientist being escorted by 
Millspaugh through the botany halls. Upon seeing 
some of the plant models, the visitor remarked, "It is 
very nice, but you cannot conduct a museum so! You 

Model o/Sanchezia noblis 

Above: Rq^roduction lab worker prepares milkweed model (about 
1915). Below: Preparator John Millar poses in 1920 with coconut 

palm collected in Florida. Specimen was subsequently copied in 
reproduction lab for museum's model, eem tasz? 

Canncnball tree model, the largest in the Museum's collection of 
plant reproductions. 49337 

cannot put in a plant, and when it wilts and fades put 
in another! It cannot be done." 

"But these plants," replied Millspaugh, "do not 
wilt or fade. They last forever. They are artificial." 

The scientist looked closely and exploded. "No! It 
cannot be! Yet, it is! My, but this is wonderful!" 

In addition to models of large flowering trees, 
herbs, ferns, and fungi, many tiny, intricate glass 
models of diatoms and algae were also constructed. 
Millspaugh termed these displays the "substitute for 
the microscope in museum installation." Indeed, the 
viewer can enjoy in these minute forms a singular 
beauty that is usually the exclusive viewing pleasure 
of the microscopist. 

The plant model shop was initially located several 
miles from the Museum, on Jefferson Street, and dur- 
ing its first five years, the staff was busy creating mod- 
els of plants from the tropics and subtropics, because 
these areas offer the greatest diversity of species. Ex- 
peditions continued through the years to obtain plants 

from regions such as Jamaica and Guiana (Guyana, Sur- 
inam, French Guiana, and neighboring regions) that 
are especially known for their species richness. In 1914 
the shop was closed for two years due to the impend- 
ing hostilities of World War I; but in 1916, before the 
United States entered the war. Museum President 
Stanley Field personally undertook the financial re- 
sponsibility of reopening the shop. It became very 
active, producing hundreds of models representing 
plants from all over the world. During a seven-month 
period in 1919-20, the lab was moved to Miami, Florida, 
to continue the production of tropical models. At first 
designated the Sara C. Field Laboratories in recogni- 
tion of the support of Mrs. Stanley Field, the name of 
the facility was changed in 1922 to that of her husband. 
The depression of the early 1930s had the effect of 
budgetary cutbacks at the Museum, but the Work Pro- 
jects Administration (WPA) gave the institution new 
life. Between May 1935 and June 1941 nearly 1.5 million 
man-hours were contributed by WPA workers, a share 
of this in the reproduction lab. During this period 
many of the spectacular ecological settings were com- 
pleted, including the alpine diorama and that of the 9 

giant water lily. During Worid War II, the production 
of models again was curtailed, but with the beginning 
oi the postwar period, the Staff was enlarged and pro- 
duction again increased. It was also during this period 
that the greatest effort was made towards the im- 
provement of existing displays by replacing photo- 
graphs of plants with models. 

The new exhibit is designed to present a general 
view of the plant kingdom, including fossil as well as 
living plants, algae to orchids, with more than 600 spe- 
cies represented. The flowering plant models com- 
prise the bulk of the collection, and many of these have 
been chosen for their importance to mankind or for 
some other particularly interesting feature. Also in- 
cluded are representatives of nearly 30 percent of the 
approximately 370 plant families, with examples of all 
major taxonomic groupings. Most of the models are 
life size and represent the entire plant. The cannonball 
tree and banana plant models, each over six feet tall, 
show the plants in their natural "poses" — planted in 
the soil, with dead as well as new leaves on the plant. 

Before a model was constructed, detailed water- 
colors were painted, field notes taken, and photos 
made of living plants in their natural habitat. The col- 
lected specimen was dissected and plaster of paris 
molds were made in the field of plant parts, such as 
leaves and flowers, while still fresh. These preliminary 
molds were subsequently used in the laboratory in the 
preparation of glass or metal molds. Plant material, 
preserved in fixative, was stored in jars until required 
for study during the final stages of model preparation. 
Often, large trunks, stems, or fruits were shipped back 
to Field Museum at considerable expense and effort. 

The materials of which the models were fabri- 
cated changed over the years. In the early days of the 
laboratory, latex, glass, wire, and various waxes were 
the standard building materials. After World War II, 
plastics became more commonly used. Techniques for 
compression and injection molding, which produced 
lifelike results, were developed. The most exquisite 
examples of the laboratory's work may be seen in the 
65 enlarged floral model cross-sections and in such 
floral details as long, filamentous stamens. Regret- 
tably, much of the information gained in the laboratory 
about pigments and production techniques was never 
recorded and is now lost. 

With time fast running out for many of the world's 
tropical plant habitats. Plants of the World will serve stu- 
dents, educators, and the public as a source of beauty 
and interest; and, it is hoped, wall lead to better pro- 
tection and management of our natural resources. D 

Plant models. Above: Medinilla magnifica; left: Bixa 

Bryophyte Collecting in the Bolivian Andes 

Letters from Field Associate Marko Lewis 

Great museums are built around great collections. The ex- 
hibits and research activities may be better known, but the 
central responsibility of Field Museum is housing millions of 
specimens. The museum tradition probably began with the 
curio cabinets of well-to-do collectors some three hundred 
years ago, a tradition that was transformed as early scien- 
tists, like Linnaeus and his colleagues, brought an almost 
religous zeal to collecting and classifying the living world. 
With the further development of science, many corners of the 
globe have been assiduously collected and our museums cu- 
rate the harvest of these many years. While some nations 
have restricted the export of their natural and cultural heri- 
tage, in many areas the business of collecting in the field goes 
on apace. 

But why continue collecting so busily? Of many living 
things, especially the very small, we have sampled only a 
small portion of the earth's diversity. There remain areas of 
the world where little or no collecting has been done; this is 
especially true in the tropics, where much of the world's liv- 
ing diversity resides. Also, while we may have a specimen or 
two of a particular species, this may not be enough to tell us 
about its relationships, and utterly insufficient for thinking 
about its ecology or geographic range. As in so many human 

endeavors, more seems to be a lot better when trying to 
understand the diversity of life. 

One of our field associates, Marko Lewis, is off in Boli- 
via collecting mosses and liverworts (collectively called the 
bryophytes). He is not a professional botanist but rather an 
avid amateur. His interest in this group of plants began while 
living in an isolated cabin in Alaska and grew to the point 
where he made a collecting trip to the high mountains of Boli- 
via in 1979. This land-locked country of mountains, deserts, 
and jungles proved so fascinating that Marko returned late 
last year with the aid of a National Geographic Society grant. 
This grant was developed by John Engel, our curator of 
bryophytes who has guided Marko's botanical work for over 
nine years. 

A man of keen intelligence, friendly manner, and the 
dedication of a true collector, Marko is also extremely frugal 
in his living habits and this has made it possible for him to 
work in remote areas with minimal funding. We are very 
fortunate to have him collecting for Field Museum. Marko 
has sent us a number of letters about his collecting activities 
over the last half year Herewith, a little sampler of what it's 
like collecting in far-away Bolivia. 
— William Burger, chairman. Department of Botany. 

December 1982. 1 made and processed about 600 col- 
lections the first half of this month, and will go out 
again after Christmas. We managed to roll the Uni- 
versity's Jefep over on its roof on the way back from 
Calambaya and no one was hurt but it made a mess 
out of my gear and broke the base of my stereoscope 
(I glued it back together). Spent a very cold evening 
in Milluni at 4800 meters [15,750 feet elevation], 
because after we rolled the jeep back on its wheels it 
wouldn't go and my camp outfit wasn't along. I will 
tell you that I'm now kind of afraid of these roads. 
January 1983. 1 spent most of last week preparing 
specimens collected before Christmas. I am now 
packing to make a trip down one of these trails: 
Ancoma-Tipuani, or Yani-Mapiri, or Consata-Mapiri. 
This will take me through dry valleys into various 
humid forests. They are all 3 to 7 day walks. From 
Mapiri I may work some on the Alto Beni if I can get a 
small boat or hire one to take me into the Serrania 
Chepite just north of Puerto Pando. There should be 

some good forest left in this area. I am in good health 
at last (I had mild bronchial pneumonia through most 
of late November-December). 

If you don't hear from me by mid-March I'm prob- 
ably lost in the jungle somewhere. 
February 1. 1 just completed a transect of the Andes 
from Titicaca down through Illampo and down 
through all the altitudes (3600-700m—U, 800-2, 300 
feet) to Mapiri at 600m. This was a twelve day slog, 
mostly on foot, the last four days on a foot trail 
through the selva salvaya with a 25 kilogram back- 
pack (full of specimens). I collected 499 

I'm completely covered with itchy bug bites left 
by invisible insects which seem to imperviate my 
every protective device. My gear received a good test- 
ing and for tropical forest-trail travel was found want- 
ing The trouble is the heat, the fact that the trails 

are sopping wet, the overhanging branches and thick 
brush one has to crawl through, and the insects (in- n 

Steve Dercole, assistant in cryptograms, Department of Botany, 
views baskets of Bolivian bryophyte specimens collected and shipped to 
the Museum by Marko Lewis. Photo by Ron Testa. 83239 

eluding "killer" bees that sting at the slightest prov- 
ocation and are found at every nice camp-type clear- 
ing of which there are few and far between, often 
none flat enough for a tent). So I'm going to reoutfit 
for my next forest excursion. The tent is allright but it 
has to be sealed up to keep out the bugs and is 
sweltering. All nylon gear gets clammy and dis- 
gusting. I may sew some cotton gauntlets on my ten- 
nis shoes, since socks are horrible smelly wet devices. 
Maybe thin cotton socks would do. 

I'm drying my specimens today in the shade near 
a little river where people from Mapiri come to bathe 
and wash clothing. I also washed my clothing (which 
are permanently stained) early in the morning. 
Watching the girls bathe has been much more inter- 
esting than watching the mosses dry. 
February 11. 1 have spent the last week collecting the 
north Yungas between Corovico and Chuspitata, 
elevations of 1800 to 3000 meters (5,900-9,840 feet). 
Collecting conditions are bad; it is raining more or 
less incessantly and the trails in the high cloud forests 
are kneedeep in mud. Within these altitudes there 
appear to be three distinct bryophyte communities 
(or zones). Below 1900m. most of the terrain is culti- 
12 vated in coffee and the trees used for shade have a 

small but distinct community of bryophytes. Their 
growth form, quite adnate to rock and bark, is sug- 
gestive of the drier lowland forests (at 700-1000 
meters). At 1900 meters there survives some shrubby 
cloud forest, which becomes a forest of trees 10 
meters tall at 2400m elevation. This is very mossy (or 
should I say liverworty?). The transition from low 
cloud forest bryophytes (here mostiy liverworts) to 
cold cloud forest bryophytes occurs at about 2400- 
2600 meters. Above this line the flora completely 
changes. Sphagnum is abundant and there is a com- 
munity of "giant" mosses which I haven't found 

The dept. of La Paz is very rich in bryophytes 
and without any trouble or loss to science a year 
could be spent in Dept. La Paz alone. I'm beginning 
to feel as if I'm not even scratching the surface of the 
flora. Every time I get to a new bend in the trail five 
species I've never seen before appear. I have a serious 
problem with the weight of equipment plus the 
weight of the wet bryophytes. In the cloud forest, a 
day's collecting easily weighs 25 lbs. wet. To dry, they 
need to be packed out to a drier climate. I am invent- 
ing a new wet tropical collecting system. 
March. I've decided to buy a Jeep if I can find one for 
less than $1500. The transportation system in Bolivia 
has fallen apart to the point where I'm losing a great 
deal of time as well as my health trying to deal with it. 
Within my project there are so many things 1 have to 

do that I can't successfully carry the gear and lab 
equipment needed on my back. What's happened 
since 1979 is that the transportistas need to pack the 
trucks so people are literally hanging onto the sides 
so they can pay for the gas and minimal repairs, with 
government controlled fares. The crowding, aside 
from the discomfort, means that once they leave the 
city they no longer stop along the road to pick up 
people like botanists who happen to be collecting in 
the campo. 

April. The Jeep has greatly improved my ability to col- 
lect but has added to my frustration in that now I can 
stop anyplace that looks good and collect, so it takes 
forever to go any distance. The flora changes every 
kilometer and 1 don't feel I've been able to really get a 
detailed picture of anything, just surface scanning 

each area for a half day to two days You have no 

idea how many valleys there are and each one (below 
the Sub Andean vegetation) is quite unique. There 
are so many species that it's maddening. I can't get a 
bead on it — all the rain shadows, the valleys creep 
this way and that, the flora constantly changes in ev- 
ery direction, the species vary all over the map, not 
only altitudinally but with varying humidities (and 
latitudes? who knows). 

May. I am presently waiting out a rainstorm in a deep 
canyon between Illamani and Muramata (two of Boli- 
via's largest icefields). I bought an old Land Rover last 
month and it is sufficient in size to have put a foam 
mattress in the pickup bed, so I'm laying in back. I 
got wet collecting this morning. I'm working my way 
down to the Ceja de Mon tafia habitat but I've had 
nothing but horrid weather. I climbed over Turquesi 
Pass and ended up in a snowstorm, ran out of 
kerosene and hiked back over the pass; three days 
and only about 100 specimens to show for the effort. I 
had lugged all my photo gear but couldn't set up to 
snap my pictures. I was attacked by wicked winds 
that shake the camera as well as the moss leaves. Oh 

well. Now I'm a bit worried that the rain will wash 
out the damn track I brought the jeep down. 

One other thing, I broke a meniscus [cartilage] in 
my knee in Yungas de Totora. I was laid up three 
weeks. The doctor wanted to operate. Both my knees 
are weak but I wear elastic bandages and am getting 
around (slower) alright. For 2 or 3 days my leg was 
stuck like like this: 

I just kept off it and it seems to 
have healed but walking downhill with a pack is a 
real chore. I have to be very careful not to slip or jar it 
too much. I also have recurring bouts of intestinal pa- 
rasites; usually I could probably open a natural gas 
plant. I live in one of the poorer sections in La Paz in a 
real nice place (a residential/gringo hotel) with a bal- 
cony, two rooms and a bathroom (shared). I'm look- 
ing for another place (cheaper) but haven't found 
anything yet. 1 spend about 50% or more of the time 
in the field but a lot of time is wasted in road block- 
ades, broken knees and horrible (always) weather. 
I've barely ever had a trip with liveable weather. The 
best weather is in La Paz or places like Sucre and 
Cochabamba where there aren't any bryophytes. The 
Ceja, Yungas, and alpine habitats are either freezing 
humid or near-freezing humid, lots of rain always 
and nary a ray of sunshine. The deserts (interandean 
dry valleys) are blistering hot and not so mossy. The 
tropical lowlands are either hot and sticky with mil- 
lions of biting creatures or pouring down rain like 
Noah's flood. Right now I'm freezing my ass off in 
the rain, half soaked. Maybe I'll fix coffee. D 

In his latest letter, Marko outlines a proposal to fund 
an additional year's collecting in Bolivia. 


Group Tours Offered for 

'Treasures from Shanghai," 

Exhibit Opening November 5 

Visit Field Museum this fall, and journey 
back in time through 6,000 years of Orien- 
tal culture. "Treasures from Shanghai: 
6,000 Years of Chinese Art,", a superb new 
exhibition from the Peoples' Republic of 
China, was organized specifically for the 
American public by the Shanghai 
Museum and the Asian Art Museum of 
San Francisco. Previously inaccessible to 
Western audiences, the exhibition is 
unparalleled in aesthetic and historical 

More than 200 exquisite objects reflect 
the varying techniques and styles of 
Chinese artists in a multitude of forms — 
sculpture, painting, ceramics, bronzes, 
jades. These treasures span the cultural 
eras of ancient China, from prehistory 
through the 20th century, and offer view- 
ers a visual feast of archeological materials 
and decorative arts, including Imperial 
Sung drinking vessels, T'ang ceramic 
horses, neolithic jeweled axes, Ming lac- 
quer furniture and Qing landscape paint- 
ings. Especially impressive is a procession 
of 66 glazed pottery honor guard figurines 
excavated from a Ming tomb, and a magic 
mirror of bronze whose surface reflects 
the decorative design on its back. 

Field Museum is one of only four mu- 
seums selected to host this major event, 
and will devote to "Shanghai" over 14,000 
square feet of exhibit space in galleries im- 
mediately adjacent to our own highly re- 
garded Asian collection. The exhibit will 
close on Feb. 14, 1984. 

Special arrangements have been 
made to accommodate group viewings of 
"Shanghai." Such viewings may be sched- 
uled during regular Museum public 
hours, 9am to 5pm, daily except Thursday 
(30 person minimum); or during nonpub- 
lic hours, on Wednesdays only, from 6 to 
9pm (50 person minimum). The admis- 
sion fee during public hours for group 
members will be $3, regardless of age; the 
admission fee during nonpublic hours will 
be S6, regardless of age. 

To provide an expanded perspective 
of "Treasures from Shanghai," an optional 
lecture will be available to such groups at a 
cost of $75. This program will examine the 
cultural and historical background behind 
the objects on exhibit and compare the vi- 
sions and techniques of Chinese artists 
with those of Western artists. 
14 Audio tours will be available to 

groups at a discounted rate. To be eligible 
for the discounted price of $1.50 per jjer- 
son, the entire group must reserve audio 
tours in advance. 

Groups visiting "Treasures from 
Shanghai" may also wish to make special 
arrangements for breakfast, lunch, or din- 
ner, served in a private dining area. 

A brochure on visits by groups of 50 
or more to "Treasures from Shanghai" 
is available by phoning the office of Gen- 
eral Services, at (312) 322-8864, or by writ- 
ing the office at Field Museum, Roose- 
velt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 

American Association of Museums 
Annual Meeting Attended by 
Field Museum Staff Members 

Of all the organizations that the Museum 
relates to, none is more important to its 
professional life than the American Asso- 
ciation of Museums. At the annual meet- 
ing of the AAM, this year in San Diego, the 
Museum was represented by staff who 
were involved in a broad array of activi- 
ties. The AAM is governed by a council 
composed of elected members, elected 
regional representatives, chairmen of 
standing committees, and heads of affili- 
ate organizations. 

Two Museum staff serve on the aam 
Council, Carolyn Blackmon as chairman 
of the Education Committee and Lorin 
Nevling as elected regional representative 
and as president of the affiliate organiza- 
tion, Association of Science Museum 
Directors. Field Museum President Emer- 
itus E. Leland Webber serves the aam as 
chairman of the Legislative Committee. 
Other working groups within the AAM 
include the Accreditation Committee, in 
which Director Nevling will serve as 
senior examiner, and the Trustees Com- 
mittee, in which Trustee William Swart- 
child has carried a strong leadership role. 
An ad hoc working group under the aegis 
of the Legislative Committee met to dis- 
cuss interaction between museums and 
the National Science Foundation. Black- 
mon and Nevling are members of this 

gfO"P- , , . . , 

The AAM is composed of six regional 

conferences. Field Museum being a mem- 
ber of the Midwest Museums Conference. 
Three Field Museum staff members serve 
on the MMC Council: Blackmon, Gustav 
Noren (editor of MMC Quarterly), and 
Nevling. The MMC council met during the 
course of the aam meetings. 

The core of the meeting is the pres- 
entations and panel discussions. This year 
the staff parHcipated actively as follows: 
Webber chaired the panel "aam Legisla- 
tive Update"; Thomas Sanders chaired the 
panel "Interfacing Development with 
Membership"; Blackmon was a panelist 
on "Promoting the Museum's Permanent 
Exhibits: New Approaches to an Old Chal- 
lenge"; Nevling was one of the pro- 
tagonists on "The Inseparable Activities of 
Research and Exhibition: Point and Coun- 
terpoint." Other staff attended sessions 
and panel presentations. 

One evening the participants toured 
the museums and galleries of La Jolla . One 
of the stops was the Mingei International 
Museum of World Folk Art, where Field 
Museum's award-winning traveling 
exhibit "Patterns of Paradise" was being 
featured. At the exhibition three "genera- 
tions" of Field Museum directors met for 
the first time, Clifford Gregg (1937-1962), 
E. Leland Webber (1962-1980), and L. 
Nevling (1980-present). 

The Museum won honors in the 2nd 
Annual AAM Design Competition, includ- 
ing highest honors for a brochure adver- 
tising the book Endodontoid Land Snails 
from Pacific Islands, by Alan Solem, curator 
of invertebrates, and awards of merit for 
Courses for Adults and E. Leland Webber Hall 

Bequests Are Welcome Gifts 

A gentleman with fond childhood memo- 
ries of his frequent visits to Field Museum 
recently notified the Museum's Planned 
Giving Office that he has provided for a 
$50,000 bequest to help ensure the future 
of the Museum and its programs for 

An elderly lady wished to perpetuate 
her annual $30 gift to the Museum, so she 
left $30,000 to Field Museum in her will. 

A retired couple, anxious to "get their 
affairs in order," recently drove across two 
states to spend a morning at the Museum 
to receive first-hand instructions as to how 
they would go about remembering Field 
Museum in their respective wills. A few 
weeks later, they wrote to say that they 
were leaving 25 percent of their estate to 
the Museum. 

These are but three examples of the 
nearly 100 Members who, since inaugura- 
tion of the Planned Giving Program two 
years ago this month, have notified the 
Museum that they are providing for the 
Museum in their wills. Prior to announce- 
ment of this program, many Members did 

not realize that a bequest is a welcome gift 
to Field Museum. 

All bequests, unless specifying a par- 
ticular scientific department, program, or 
project, are placed in the Museum's 
General Endowment Fund, the income of 
which proportionally supports all the 
many programs of education, exhibition, 
and research throughout the Museum. 
Much of the work the Museum now does 
is possible because of individuals who, 
years ago, wished to lend a hand to the 
next generation and had the foresight to 
include the Museum in their estate plans. 
Before establishment of the Planned Giv- 
ing Program, many Members were not 
aware that it has become imperative to in- 
crease the principal amount of the Endow- 
ment Fund to continue to help ensure the 
future of these programs. 

A bequest is a thoughtful gift, 
because of the planning and effort in- 
volved and because it shows a Member's 
concern for the next generation. It dem- 
onstrates a vote of confidence in the 
programsof research, education, andex- 
hibition offered by the Museum, and shows 
the desire to help ensure these programs 
for the future as the Museum moves into 
its second century in 1993. Such a gift can 
also memorialize a family name and per- 
petuate a Member's annual giving. Just as 
important is the satisfaction that one gets 
from knowing that his or her work will 
one day benefit the many — more than one 
million visitors a year — who come to Field 

Therefore, if there are Members who 
have remembered Field Museum in their 
wills but have not notified the Museum 
either personally or through their attor- 
neys, the Planned Giving Office would 
appreciate knowing. You may call collect 
(312) 322-8858, or write the Planned Giving 

Every person of age should have a 
will. A will enables a person to decide for 
himself or herself what will become of 
one's property at death, who will oversee 
distribution of the estate, and who will 
care for minor children. 

Many persons think that they need 
not have a will because their estates are 
not large enough. To their surprise, they 
will find that their estates are larger than 
they every imagined, after adding up all 
their assets. An estate is everything that a 
person owns: real estate, bank account, 
life insurance, house, car, jewelry, an- 
tiques, stocks, bonds, mortgages, col- 
lections, and special objects of sentimental 
value. Nevertheless, the size of an estate is 
not important; without a will, the state de- 
clares where the assets of a deceased per- 
son are to be distributed, irrespective of 
that person's wishes. 

Rainer Zangerl 

Zangerl Honored 

Rainer Zangerl, former chairman of the 
Department of Geology, now retired, was 
recently elected as a fellow of the Amer- 
ican Association for the Advancement of 
Science. The aaas defines a fellow as 
"a member whose efforts on behalf of 
the advancement of science or its applica- 
tions are scientifically or socially dis- 

Zangerl's name was presented to the 
association council for his "contributions 
to paleontology, particularly for work on 
the prehistory of turtles and chondrich- 
thyans and pioneering studies toward an 
understanding of the ecology of fossil 

Volunteer Ernie Reed Honored 

Ernie Reed, a volunteer at Field Museum 
for the last three years, has been selected 
for the 1983 Chicago Senior Citizens Hall 
of Fame. The Hall of Fame honors out- 
standing older persons who have made 
significant contributions to their pro- 
fessions, to society, and to life in the Chi- 
cago area. Ernie and other nominees were 
honored at the Hall of Fame award cere- 
mony earlier this year at the Preston Brad- 
ley Hall of the Chicago Library Cultural 

Ernie's background in history, educa- 
tion, and speech prepared him for a career 
in business. After serving in World War II 
he became manager of Education and Per- 
sonnel for International Harvester In 1949 
he joined Stone Container Corporation, as 
vice president in charge of Industrial Rela- 
tions. Upon retirement, Ernie found his 
part-time consulting work did not satisfy 
his need to remain an active part of the 
community, and he turned his attention 
and talents to Chicago's cultural institu- 
tions. Now he is active almost five days a 
week at Field Museum, the Art Institute, 

and other organizations. 

Volunteering is really nothing new 
for Ernie. He served on the Board of the 
Urban League for five years and the board 
of Junior Achievement also for five years. 
For two years he served on the Mayor's 
Committee of the State of Illinois Chamber 
of Commerce. At Field Museum, Ernie 
uses his skill with words and his back- 
ground in history to recreate the world of 
the Pawnee Indians for school groups 
who visit the Pawnee earth lodge. 

Ernie personifies the kind of an active 
life professional people can lead after re- 
tirement. He has combined his love of a 
subject matter — history — and his excel- 
lent ability to communicate and interact 
with people in his current volunteer posi- 
tions. For Field Museum, it is a bonus that 
he can describe his own past in Kansas 

Ernie Reed 

and relate it to the Pawnees, a tribe who 
once lived and hunted there. He is won- 
derful with children, and the impact of 
such a vigorous, enthusiastic instructor is 
important to many children who don't 
have older male role models. 

Ernie's commitment also points out 
what volunteering can do for the senior 
citizen. When asked what he is proudest 
of in his volunteer role he replies, "That I 
am still able to amass information and to 
use it productively." For Ernie the contin- 
ued opportunity to learn and to use his 
knowledge makes volunteering a satis- 
fying experience. 

Persons who are good with details and able to 
type may qualify for a behind-the-scenes volun- 
teer job at Field Museum. Persons who like to 
work with people may be interested in volun- 
teering for The Place for Wonder. An interview 
with the Volunteer Coordinator, Joyce Matus- 
zewich, may be set up by calling her at 922- 
9410, ext. 360. ' 15 







* ^- ' 


' V- 









"El Niiio": Recent Effects in Peru 

Robert Feldman, visiting assistant curator of 
Andean archaeology, reports from Peru on the 
latest effects of this awesome climatological phe- 

Photo by the author 

Bridge supports, 

dangerously weakened 

by flood waters, on 

Peru's north coast. 

I can't say that we predicted it, but we could see it 
coming. As archaeologists, we look at the past to see 
what happened and how the people responded, and 
then, generalizing from these data, try to apply our 
findings to the future. What we have been studying, 
and what has returned, is something called "El 
Nifio," which is a perturbation of the normal climato- 
logical patterns of the tropical Pacific. 

It has been said before, but I will say it again, that 
16 the coast of Peru is normally one of the driest deserts 

in the world. I must emphasize "normally," for every 
so often El Nino causes a change in the patterns of 
wind and ocean currents, a change which brings rain. 
It is called El Nirio after a warm ocean current that in- 
vades the cold waters of Peru from the north, often 
around Christmas time (hence El Nino, Spanish for 
the Christ Child). The best current explanation of 
what causes a nifio is that a period of strong trade 
winds blows water westward to Southeast Asia and 
Indonesia, resulting in a higher sea level there than in 

the eastern Pacific. If the winds slacken sharply, the 
water — wanned by the tropical sun — sloshes back 
east, colliding with Peru and overriding the cold Peru- 
vian (Humboldt) current. The warm water disrupts 
marine life and can cause rain to fall on the desert. 
The last major El Nino occurred in 1972 and, com- 
bined with overfishing, almost wiped out the vast 
schools of anchoveta {Engraulis rengins) that had pro- 
pelled Peru into first place among fishing nations 
(with a catch greater than the combined total of both 
North and Central America). 

The 1972 El Nifio made it into the news because 
of its effects on fish meal production, and hence on 
the price of beef (cattle eat fish meal as a protein sup- 
plement) and soybeans (which had to be substituted 
for the missing fish meal). This niho has made the 
pages of the Chicago Tribune, Sun Times, and Wall 
Street Journal because of the effect it is having on 
weather in the United States. Chicago's warm winter 
can be attributed to El Nino's influence on ocean 
temperatures in the eastern Pacific off Peru, as can 
the rains that devastated southern California's coast, 
and the drought Australia is experiencing. However, 
the real effects of El Nifio are being felt closer to the 
source, here in Peru, where torrential rains have iso- 
lated a quarter of the coast and a third of the highlands. 

Archaeological research by Field Museum staff 
identified several major El Nifios in the past: one, the 
Chimu Nino, occurred around a.d. 1100, and the 
other, the Moche Nirio, around a.d. 400. (See July/ 
August and September 1979 Bulletins). Rains caused 
by the Chimu Nifio washed out much of the system 
of irrigation canals upon which the people depended 
for their food and water. They also scoured out the 
center of the valley, eroding a band up to 2 km wide 
to a depth of at least several meters. The resultant 
drop in the level of the river bed (a product of slow 
tectonic uplift of the coast) left the canal intakes 
stranded high and dry. An attempt by the Chimu to 
rebuild the old canals was at best only partially suc- 
cessful, for we see in the archaeological record that 
they soon abandoned the old channels and built new 
ones that, adjusted to the lower river intake, could 
not reach as much land. This process of uplift, ero- 
sion and downcutting of the river bed, and canal 
abandonment is a continuing one that has caused 
land to be lost back to the desert at an average rate of 
about 35 percent per 1,000 years. 

The Moche and Chimu Nifios were many times 
more destructive than the 1925 El Nino, the worst in 
recent history — until this year. I have just returned to 
Lima from Trujillo, site of our earlier studies, and can 
attest to the destruction the rains have caused. I was 
almost unable to drive the 350 miles from Lima north 

because rains have sent water pouring down dry 
washes over the highway. Quebradas that have not 
seen water in years — if not decades — were turned 
into raging torrents. In Chimbote (about 80 miles 
south of Trujillo) I did not mind paying some children 
1,500 soles (about $1.20) to guide me over a 200-meter 
stretch of highway that had been converted into a 
muddy brown rushing river. (Even though I was in a 
four-wheel drive Toyota, it would have been of little 
use had I driven into a deeply eroded channel.) In 
several other places, the Pan American Highway had 
been cut but repaired. One bridge had collapsed, but 
fortunately in such a way that, with a few truckloads 
of rock and earth, was passable. 

So far it has rained twice in Trujillo, first in Jan- 
uary and again just two days (March 31) before I got 
there. Both times houses were damaged; flat mud 
roofs do not shed rain well. Mercedes, our secretary 
in Trujillo, was awakened in the middle of the night 
by water dripping on her through the bricks of her 
roof. Her neighbors across the street were out on 
their rooftop patio bailing the rainwater with buckets. 
The January rain caused extensive damage to the 
ruins of Chan Chan, the 800-year-old capital of the 
Chimu empire. Chan Chan is built of sun-baked mud 
bricks — adobes, which are cheap, readily made, and 
serve well in normal times. However, they tend to 
melt when rained upon. The worst damage was done 
to the clay friezes which decorate many of the walls in 
Chan Chan's palaces. After the rains, puddles of mud 
and water were left standing in the plazas and corri- 
dors of the abandoned city. 

Last week's rains indirectly flooded about two- 
thirds of Trujillo. The raging river spilled over into 
one of the main irrigation canals (La Mochica) that 
runs through the city. Water crested the canal's bank 
and soon had eroded a huge gap in the earthen walls, 
spilling out into the streets. Most of the water had 
dried up by the time 1 got there, but the newspaper 
showed photographs of people wading through the 
streets knee-deep in the flood. What I did see was 
mud everywhere, left as the waters receded. Away 
from the main flood, you could see little dams built 
from adobes or dirt by the local residents in an 
attempt to keep the water away from their block. 

In our studies, we first noticed the past rains by 
the damage they did to the canals. The floods caused 
by the El Niho have also left their mark on the canals. 
The break in La Mochica will be easy to repair in com- 
parison to the other damage. The two other main ca- 
nals, the Vichansao and the Moro, share a common 
intake at an elaborate cement diversion and flow 
measuring structure — or at least they did until the 
Moche river washed it away, along with the first 500 i7 

meters of the channels and close to a kilometer of the 
main upvalley highway. I could not get in to check, 
but I think that the Mochica's intake was also dam- 
aged. With their intakes gone, the Vichansao and 
Moro filled in with sand washed down from the 
Andes. The sections of the channels I saw, which 
were once more than a meter deep and 2-3 meters 
wide, were brimful with sand: it will take many 
weeks to clean them out, but by then the crops will 
have dried up, for it still is a desert. Rebuilding the 
intakes will take a long time too — if it can be done at 
all. Fortunately, it does not appear that there has 
been much river downcutting, so new intakes can be 
built without too much alteration of the old canals. 
However, had there been downcutting, one or both 
of the canals might have had to have been aban- 

Damage in Trujillo has been great, but is really 
nothing in comparison with what has happened far- 
ther north and in the mountains. I did not travel 
beyond Trujillo — indeed could not have — but the 
newspapers are full of reports. The departments 
(states) of Tumbes and Piura, in the far north of Peru, 
are cut off from the rest of the country. Major cities 
are under water, roads and bridges have been 
washed away, and the damage to crops and factories 
will run into many millions of dollars, money Peru 
can ill afford. Peru's oil pipeline over the Andes has 
been cut by landslides, but even if the crude oil could 
reach the refinery on the coast at Talara, it could not 
be processed, as flooding, mudslides, high winds, 
and a raging sea have destroyed parts of the refinery. 

The cities of the north are isolated. The physical 
layout of Peru is such that there is one main coastal 
road: the Pan American Highway. It has been cut in a 
number of places, and important bridges, including a 
new one over the Chira River at Sullana, have either 
been destroyed or are in such a precarious state that 
they must be closed. Food and fuel are running short, 
as is drinking water. El Nino has also brought ex- 
tremely high temperatures (more than 85°), so the 
heat, lack of water, and poor sanitation threaten to 
cause epidemics. 

The city of Piura has been especially hard hit. 
Normally it is quite dry, a dusty little town in the mid- 
dle of the desert. In his book The Green House, Pe- 
ruvian author Mario Vargas Llosa described the 
nightly "rain" of fine white dust over Piura and ev- 
erything in it. However (incredibly), for the last three 
months it has rained water on Piura every single day. 
Several weeks ago, a rain of 160 mm (6.3 inches) fell in 
one day, while just last week there was one of 75mm. 
With little vegetation on the desert to stop the rain, it 
soon builds into torrents that wash away everything 
18 in their path. 

Word out of the highlands is spotty, since single 
roads have been blocked by landslides or the bridges 
have been washed away, and telephone com- 
munication is cut too. However, most of the villages 
of the northern third of the Peruvian Andes have 
been affected. Landslides have buried villages and 
swept buses off the highway into the rivers. With the 
roads cut, food and fuel are growing scarce, the Per- 
uvian army is sending helicopters to ferry in essential 
supplies, but they are limited in what they can do. 

Rains in the central Andes behind Lima have cut 
the main road from the coast to the highlands. The 
Central Railroad, which serves the mines of Cerro de 
Pasco and La Oroya, has likewise been washed away 
in many places. Two years ago, when I was last in 
Peru, limited rains caused flooding and landslides 
that closed the railroad for almost two months. The 
smelters, which depend on fuel oil brought by train, 
almost had to shut down. This year it looks as if it will 
take much more than two months to reopen the rail 
line, and then only when the rains stop. The break in 
communication means the loss of millions of dollars 
in mineral production. 

The isolation of the north and the highlands is 
also affecting Lima. Produce, which travels by truck, 
cannot make it to the markets of Lima, which are be- 
ginning to experience spot shortages of fresh fruit 
and vegetables. People are beginning to complain. It 
remains to be seen if Peru's government — democrati- 
cally elected after twelve years of military rule, can 
survive El Nino. 

To make matters worse, and to increase the irony 
of the situation, the southern highlands of Peru from 
Cuzco through the altiplano to Lake Titicaca and 
beyond into Bolivia are experiencing the second year 
of a severe drought. January, February, and March 
are normally the rainy months in the sierra, but so far 
this year there has been only one rain. Lakes and riv- 
ers are drying up, and along with them, the fields 
and pasture lands. Campesinos (peasant farmers) are 
being forced to migrate to the large southern cities 
such as Arequipa, where there still is some water. If 
the drought lasts much longer — and normally there 
won't be much rain until the end of the year — it will 
create serious disruptions in the peasant economy of 
southern Peru and Bolivia. 

The forecasts are that El Nifio will continue for at 
least the next 6 months, if not into next year, although 
the present period of rains need not last as long. The 
lost crops and oil and mineral production will reduce 
Peru's 1983 gross national product by at least 10 per- 
cent, if not much more. On top of this, the gov- 
ernment must spend millions to repair damaged 
roads, bridges, railroads, and cities. □ 

Tlachiquero, or Mexican aguamiel collector, siphons sap from the 
maguey plant. Fermented, the milky white substance becomes pul- 
que, a popular beverage in the central Mexican plateau. 


Pulque is traditionalli/ drunk from a xoma — half a gourd that has 
been gaily decorated. 

Barbara Jackson and Terry Stocker are doctoral candidates in 
20 anthropology. 

. ome of the powerful Aztec and legendary Toltec 
civilizations, the arid plains and mountainsides of the 
central Mexican plateau have been occupied by man 
for at least ten thousand years. A vital key to human 
existence through the millennia here is the maguey 
plant, a persisting element in the dramatic mosaic of 
the Mexican landscape. A storehouse for many of 
man's basic needs, maguey provides those who nur- 
ture it with food and beverage, construction materials 
for buildings as well as household goods, fuel, and a 
means of cash income. Not surprisingly, it is also the 
source of considerable folklore, myth, and legend. 

The genus of maguey is Agave, commonly known 
in English-speaking countries as the century plant — 
an exaggerated allusion to the many years of growth 
before coming into bloom. There are more than 300 
species of the splayed, flat-leaved plant, all native to 
the Americas. Within the central plateau region of 
Mexico, about five Agave species, particularly A. atro- 
virens, are producers of pulque, a fermented beverage 
made from the maguey sap. The sap, called aguamiel, 
or, "honey water," ferments naturally. Since dis- 
tillation was unknown to the pre-Columbian cultures 
of Mexico, pulque, which rarely exceeds 6 or 7 percent 
in alcohol content, was the only liquid intoxicant 
known to them. The beverage is of a thin milky- white 
color and, when fresh, is topped with foam much like 
that on a glass of milk or beer. It is rather sweet, with a 
distinctive flavor that turns increasingly bitter until 
within a week's time it is unpalatable. 


Maguey is a central focus in the lives of the Otomi Indi- 
ans — the so-called "People of the Maguey," a name 
appropriate in history as well as the present — who live 
in the northern region of the state of Hidalgo, north of 
Mexico City. It was from the Otomi that we learned of 
the techniques of pulque production as well as the 
value of the maguey for human subsistence in the 
harsh central Mexican desert. 

While the maguey grows wild, most of the plants 
observed in the Mexican landscape are cultivated. The 
sprouts, or mecuates, which appear at the base of the 
parent plant, are transplanted after about three years. 
The maguey signals its maturity with a tapering of its 
heart; the plant is now preparing to shoot up a flower 
stalk that may reach forty feet in height. If the plant is 
to be used for pulque production, the heart must be 
cut out just before maturation. The resultant scar is left 
to heal for a few months, then reopened and irritated 
to loosen the surrounding pulp, producing a cavity 
that serves as a reservoir for the sap secreted into it. 
The walls of the cavity, which is some 12 to 18 inches 

across, are scraped daily to promote seepage of the 
aguamiel; twice daily the aguamiel is collected. For a 
period of six months a typical maguey may produce 
two to six liters of the substance daily. The leaves then 
wither and the plant dies. 

Collection of the aguamiel is a simple siphoning 
procedure. Traditionally, a long, bulbous gourd has 
served as the acocote, or siphon, but today the acocote 
is commonly of plastic, though mimicking the natural 
gourd in shape and color. The siphoned aguamiel is 
poured into wooden and aluminum kegs carried on a 
donkey's back or on a cart, then taken to a collection 
center or the home of the collector, depending upon 
the size of the operation. 

Pulque is produced by families for their private 
use as well as on a large-scale commercial basis. We 
had the opportunity to observe the various production 
stages of a large-scale pulque operahon in the moun- 
tain town of Nopalillo, near Pachuca, Hidalgo. Early 
one morning we watched the arrival of several tlachi- 
queros, or aguamiel collectors, at the Nopalillo fer- 
mentation center; their donkeys carried kegs filled 
with the morning's collection of aguamiel. Following 
the orders of an older woman who kept an eye on 
activities from the door, the tlachiqueros helped one 
another move the heavy 40-liter kegs into the fer- 
mentation room. The kegs were then emptied into 
vats that already contained pulque in various stages of 
fermentation. When this was finished and the fer- 
mentation room padlocked, the woman was at liberty 
to converse with her Gringo visitors. 

"As owner of such a business," she told us, "one 
must be very careful to keep track of the amount of 
aguamiel poured into each vat and to note the exact 
stage of fermentation. Making pulque is a delicate art. 
It must be allowed to ferment only so far before we 
send it to the main distribution center in Pachuca or it 
will become too strong and bitter before it can be sold. 
One such batch of pulque can be disastrous to the 
reputation of my business, so 1 keep a very careful 
watch on each of the vats. The amount of foam and the 
color of the liquid beneath in the vat tell me when it is 
time to load the trucks." 

A tlachiquero receives an average of 30 pesos 
(about 20c) for a culso (25 liters) of aguamiel, and his 
overall earnings depend on the number of maguey 
plants he collects from. At most, a tlachiquero can 
obtain aguamiel from 30 to 50 plants a day. The tla- 
chiquero, then, is among the lowest paid workers in 
Mexico, but the activity continues to be one of the few 
reliable sources of income for many peasants of the 
central highlands. 

The local pulque producer charges the regional 
wholesaler a minimum of 60 pesos for a culso of pul- 
que — double what he has paid the tlachiquero. His 

Otomi woman carries over her arm a bag woven of ixtli, or maguey 


profit margin is not much less than 100 percent, since 
production and transportation costs are minimal. The 
regional wholesaler sells pulque to the pulquerias, or 
bars, in communities of the area. The price for a glass 
of pulque may range from six pesos for that of average 
quality to fifteen for the freshest and sweetest. Be- 
tween the local wholesaler and the local distributor, 
the price is nearly tripled from about two and one-half 
pesos per liter. Yet, the final price of as little as 4c (U.S. 
equivalent) a cupful is considered reasonable. 

At the pulqueria one can enjoy a few rounds of 
pulque, relax, and chat with' friends. On Sundays and 
festival days, it is a lively gathering center for the men. 
While the wives sell wares or produce in the market- 
place or do their own shopping, the men enjoy the 
companionship of friends in the pulqueria. Once the 
exclusive domain of males, the pulqueria is now losing 
its disfinctive character as a tradidonal Mexican insti- 
tution; today one may sometimes see there a table of 
women friends having a round of pulque. Another 
change is the gradual disappearance of the xomas, the 
traditional pulque drinking cups made from the bot- 
toms of gourds and often elaborately decorated. These 
are being replaced with conventional glassware — 
much as the acocotes, or gourd siphons, are being 

Pulque is a drink of the poor, now scorned by 
Mexico's burgeoning middle class. The drinking of 
beer, which is more expensive, is a symbolic acknowl- 
edgement of the Mexican's changing perception of 
himself. As a result, the traditional atmosphere of the 
pulqueria, once an institution for males of all social 
and economic classes, has deteriorated. Perhaps more 
significant, the decline of pulque consumption has 

TuH) maguey stalks, about to 
flcmer, frame the majestic, 
19,000-foot Pico de Orizaba. 

The Tlachiquero's burro carries 

two kegs containing 40 titers 

22 eoch ofaguamiel. 

Aguamiel is poured 

into fermentation 


had drastic economic effects. As recently as thirty 
years ago, revenue from pulque sales was still con- 
tributing to the state treasury. 

At what point in history the fermenting qualities 
of aguamiel were discovered is not known, but a 1,600- 
year-old mural at the pyramid of Cholula depicts a 
boisterous scene of pulque-drinking revelers, clearly 
establishing that pulque-brewing was practised long 

before the arrival of the Aztecs in central Mexico. 

During the final stages of Aztec history, pulque 
overindulgence had great negative social implications. 
In Tenochtitlan, the capital, pulque could be publicly 
consumed only on certain ritual occasions. The penal- 
ty for public intoxication was public shaving of the 
offender's head and razing of his home. A second 
offense was punishable by death. Those few to whom 

The coarse ixtli, or maguey fiber, once dry, is spun into thread on a homemade spinning . 

Weaving ixtli into cloth 

the prohibition did not apply included women who 
had just given birth and the aged who, being of no 
further use in the economy, were permitted the plea- 
sures of indulgence during their remaining years. 
Finally, men who performed heavy labor were allowed 
to consume pulque in public because the beverage was 
thought to restore strength. 


Perhaps the only maguey species that continues to 
24 gain in value is the source of tequila. Agave tequilana. 

The production of tequila, now consumed worldwide, 
originated in the town of that name, in eastern Jalisco 
state, northwest of Mexico City. In order to be labeled 
"tequila," the spirit is still required by law to originate 
there. Though now a major industry with annual sales 
near fifty million dollars, tequila production is not of 
the same magnitude in the Mexican peasant economy 
as that of pulque which, unlike tequila, is both pro- 
duced and consumed only locally.* 

Maguey as Food Source 

Maguey was well recognized as a food source by some 
of central Mexico's earliest inhabitants. Archaeologist 
Richard MacNeish found remains of maguey quids, 
chewed-up wads of the maguey heart, in the lowest 
habitation levels of the Tehuacan Valley sequence dat- 
ing to 10,000 years ago. Though too tough and fibrous 
to be eaten, the maguey heart yields a nourishing liq- 
uid that is high in Vitamin C, protein, and fructose. 

Later in history the young, tender, inner leaves of 
the maguey were used as food. One of the earliest and 
most thorough chroniclers of Mexican life. Friar Ber- 
nardino Sahagiin, detailed techniques of preparation 
of different parts of the maguey for consumption: The 
pulpy leaves were sometimes pounded with stone, 
ground on a metate, or grinding stone, then cooked 
atop a comal, a plate for toasting tortillas. The fluid 
expressed from the maguey leaves could be used as a 
soup base. Today, the flower from the tapering 
maguey stalk, sauteed in oil, is considered a delicacy. 

Maguey in Medicine and Ritual 

As a source of medicines the maguey also figured pro- 
minently in native life. Juice pressed from the leaves of 
young magueys was applied to lacerations to promote 
healing; the dried leaves, pulverized and mixed with 
pine resin, provided a soothing poultice for inflamma- 
tions. Pulque was also used for healing. Mixed with 
herbs, roots, or hot peppers, it was prescribed for a 
variety of ailments. Chest pains and breathing difficul- 
ties were treated with a potion of pulque brewed with 
peppers. Women suffering difficult childbirth were 
given a pulque concoction to induce labor and alleviate 
the pain. Even today a brew made from maguey root is 
commonly believed to have curative properties. Nopa- 

*Nearly 7 million gallons of 110 proof tequila were exported from 
Mexico to the United States, alone, in 1982, a quantity which trans- 
lates to about 9.5 million gallons as water is added to reduce the 
alcohol level to 80 proof. 

lillo's most prominent citizen assured us that this brew 
was the best medicine in treating tuberculosis. 

Aztec priests used the sharp spines that hp the 
maguey leaf in rituals, inserting them into their 
tongues and the fleshy parts of their ears and calves; 
the blood was an offering to the gods. 

The spines themselves were sometimes served as 
offerings. Friar Sahagun describes the offering of 
bloodied maguey spines upon a bed of cut green reeds 
or fir branches. Such offerings were made during des- 
ignated events, perhaps festivals honoring the arrival 
of a new month and the god or goddess of that month. 
As with all other aspects of pre-Columbian ritual life, 
precise rules governed the method of collection, dis- 
persal, and ultimate disposition of the spines. 

Maguey Fiber 

In everyday life, the sharp spines were used as needles 
for sewing cloth made from maguey fiber, or ixtli. Be- 
fore the arrival of the Spaniards, most of the populace 
wore clothing of this fiber, cotton being reserved for 
the gowns and breechcloths of the elite and warrior 
classes. Today, however, it is rare to see clothing made 
from the coarse ixtli strands and sewn with a maguey 
needle. But Otomi in the region of Ixmiquilpan, Hidal- 
go, continue to fabricate and sell rope, saddle pads, 
storage bags, and similar items. 

To prepare the fiber for weaving, it is first sepa- 
rated from the pulp. Placed on an inclined board, the 

leaf is scraped with a double-handled stick inlaid with 
a metal edge. After a few minutes of strenuous work 
the thick flesh of the leaf is removed. The exposed fi- 
bers are then hung to dry for a few days. The dried 
strands are spun to strengthen and lengthen the fiber, 
and the spun fiber is woven into the material from 
which the various products are fashioned, these being 
produced on looms of various types and sizes. 

Ixtli products are sold in the regional markets that 
occur once a week throughout the northern secfion of 
Hidalgo and adjacent areas. Because these articles are 
so durable and long-lasting, they are seldom pur- 
chased, and prices remain low because the raw mate- 
rial is inexpensively produced and labor is cheap. Con- 
sequently, ixtli fiber goods are a poor source of income; 
yet, they provide the only income for many Otomi 
families. In contrast, sisal, or sisal hemp, and hene- 
quen, from other Agave species, are of much greater 
importance as industrial fibers, though these, too, 
have lost ground in recent times to the synthetics. 

Other Uses 

The maguey also provides a variety of other products, 
mostly used by the grower himself or his neighbors. 
Scrapings from the daily rasping of the pulque- 
producing plants provide fodder for livestock. The 
leaves are used both as roofing and as fuel; freshly cut 
leaves are used in the traditional Mexican barbacoa, a 
deep-pit barbequing of a whole goat or sheep. D 

Various products, crafted from ixtli, await buyers in village marketplace. 



Kirtland's Warbler Apparently 
Holding Its Own 

The recently completed census of Michi- 
gan's rare (endangered) Kirtland's warb- 
ler indicates the bird is maintaining its cur- 
rent population levels, according to a joint 
announcement of the U.S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service and the Michigan Department 
of Natural Resources. 

"This year, 213 singing males were 
counted, compared to 207 in 1982," says 
Larry Ryel of the Michigan DNR. "Assurri- 
ing the presence of one female for every 
male counted, that's a total breeding pop- 
ulation of 426 birds. Since 1971, census tak- 
ers have counted an average of 206 male 
warblers a year, from 167 in 1974 to 242 in 
1980. Current numbers, however, are well 
below the 432 males found in 1951 and the 
502 found in 1961," says Ryel, who is in 
charge of Statistics and Surveys for dnr 
Wildlife Division. 

Some 50 workers from the Michigan 
DNR, U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, plus several volunteers, 
located all but one of the birds in seven 
counties of northern Lower Michigan. 
The one exception was found in the west 
central- Upper Peninsula. Leading coun- 
ties were: Oscoda, with 79 males; Craw- 
ford, with 72; and Ogemaw, with 42. Sim- 
ilar searches in Ontario, Wisconsin and 
Minnesota failed to turn up any of the 
birds, Ryel says. 

The Kirtland's Warbler Recovery 
Team, headed by former Michigan DNR 
wildlife biologist John Byelich of Mio, is 
directing an extensive range management 
program on state and federal jack pine 
lands, designed to provide continuous 
habitat for a goal of 1,000 pairs of the birds. 
The species nests only in dense young 
stands of jack pine, which spring up 
naturally, following forest fires. Man- 
agement practices include commercial 
timber harvests, prescribed burns, and 

Bald Eagle Killings Revealed 

Between 200 and 300 bald eagles were de- 
liberately killed over the last three years 
on and near a national wildlife refuge in 
South Dakota to supply feathers, beaks, 
talons, and bones for a lucrative black 
market in Native American artifacts, 
26 according to a major federal undercover 

operation concluded recently in eight 

The two-year investigation by special 
agents of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser- 
vice is expected to result in the charging of 
up to 50 individuals for their involvement 
in the killing or sale of 19 species of federal- 
ly protected birds. Eighty federal and state 
conservation officers began contacting 
subjects and executing arrest or search 
warrants on June 15 in Florida, California, 
Utah, Oklahoma, Montana, Colorado, 
North Dakota, and South Dakota. Large 
quantities of bird parts and finished craft 
items were seized. 

The bird feathers and parts were used 
to manufacture "authentic" reproductions 
of Indian artifacts such as headdresses, 
rattles, jewelry, lances, hair ties, wing and 
peyote fans, whistles, and other orna- 
ments. The items were then sold to col- 
lectors and hobbyists in other parts of the 
nation and in Europe, where interest in 
American Indian artifacts is strong. 

Secretary of the Interior James Watt 
said that the investigation indicated that 
the "feather traffic" exists in most states. 
"Nationwide, it is thought to be directly 
responsible for the slaughter of at least 300 
bald eagles every year along with other 
protected species. Last year's bicentennial 
celebration of the naming of the bald eagle 
as our nation's symbol brought news that 
the species is beginning to recover from a 
number of threats," Watt said. "That's 
why it is particularly saddening to learn of 
this wanton slaughter." 

The killing of migratory birds and sale 
of their feathers and parts are prohibited 
under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Bald 
eagles and golden eagles are also pro- 
tected under the Endangered Species Act 
and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection 

Secretary Watt said that the focus of 
this investigation was to infiltrate the il- 
legal trade in bird feathers and parts and 
identify the individuals who were killing 
and selling them. "It is shocking that so 
many birds continue to be killed, since 
there have been several other major fed- 
eral crackdowns on illegal feather traffic 
that have received widespread news 
coverage in the last two years," Watt said. 
"Apparently some people still haven't 
gotten the message that we are serious 
about ending this business." 

Service enforcement officials note 
that this case differs from others in the 
past in that never before have such large 

numbers of whole carcasses been offered 
for sale, nor have so many individuals 
been charged with killing migratory birds 
at one time. During the investigations 
agents were sold 24 freshly killed bald and 
two golden eagle carcasses along with 
parts from a mix of 25 bald and golden 
eagles and hundreds of items made from 
other federally protected bird species in- 
cluding hawks, owls, songbirds, scissor- 
tailed flycatchers, and anhingas. 

Many of the scissor-tailed flycatchers 
were killed in Oklahoma, where they are 
the state bird and a protected species. 
These birds are desired because of their 
two long tail feathers that are used to 
make decorative fans. Typically between 
30 and 40 of these birds must be killed to 
make a single fan. 

The majority of the bald eagles were 
killed on or adjacent to the Karl E. Mundt 
National Wildlife Refuge in South Dakota 
and Nebraska that was established in 1974 
as a sanctuary for wintering and migrating 
eagles. Most were killed with baited traps 
or shot at night while roosting in trees. 

Under federal regulation, the Fish 
and Wildlife Service provides Native 
Americans with eagle feathers for reli- 
gious uses only from a feather repository 
in Pocatello, Idaho. These feathers are 
obtained from birds that are found dead 
from various accidents, natural causes, 
and human-related sources of mortality. 
The feathers may not be traded, bartered, 
or sold. The Fish and Wildlife Service has 
also provided Indians with waterfowl 
wings and tails and other wildlife parts 
obtained from hunting surveys and other 
sources. Possession of these items by Na- 
tive Americans is legal, but sale and trade 
are not. Indian leaders have supported 
prosecution of these violations and have 
spoken out against the exploitation of 
their heritage and religion. 

Penalties for each offense include: 
One year imprisonment and/or a $5,000 
fine under the Bald and Golden Eagle Pro- 
tection Act; two years imprisonment and/ 
or a $2,000 fine for felony sale under the 
Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and one year 
imprisonment and/or a $20,000 fine for 
violations of the Endangered Species Act. 
Since 1981, 113 individuals have been con- 
victed for violation of the Bald and Golden 
Eagle Protection Act. The undercover 
operation was coordinated by the Justice 
Department's Division of Land and Nat- 
ural Resources (Wildlife Section) with the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 


Steamboat Cruise 
To Starved Rock 

October 12-14 

r/elp keep alive a way of life that goes 
back over a hundred years to when 
steamboats were the fastest, most com- 
fortable means of transportation. Join us 
for a one-day cruise on the Str. Julia Belle 
Swain, the last steamer on the Illinois 
River, which we will board in Joliet at 
9:00 a.m. October 12. As we float along 
toward our destination (Starved Rock), 
we'll enjoy the picturesque scenery and 
several riverfront towns. 

We will spend two nights at the 
beautiful rustic Starved Rock Lodge 
where we will enjoy nature walks, short 
talks, a slide show, and good food. Friday 
morning, October 14, we will return to 
Chicago by bus, stopping en route at the 
birthplace of Ronald Reagan in Tampico, 
Reagan's boyhood home in Dixon, the 
John Deere Historic Site in Grand De- 
tour, "Rlack Hawk" statue at Lowden 
State Park, and the Stillman Valley State 

Our leader is John Clay Bruner, 
Field Museum's collection manager of 
vertebrate paleontology. 

Tropical Marine Biology 
Exploration of Isla Roatan 

February 15-24 

Crystal clear water, magnificent coral 
reefs, and a fantastic diversity of marine 
life are characteristic of the coast of 
Roatan, the largest of the Bay Islands in 
the Gulf of Honduras and some 30 miles 
off the Central American coast. Field 
Museum will conduct a 10-day tour to 
Roatan especially for divers that will 
combine superlative diving, expert in- 
struction in marine natural history, and 
an opportunity to observe or actively 
participate in the scientific collecting of 

An outstanding attraction for divers 
is spectacular "dropoffs" whose tops ex- 
tend into depths as shallow as 25 feet. 
Leading the tour will be two ichthyolog- 
ists with more than 10 years experience 
in the Caribbean as teachers, divers, and 
researchers. Illustrated talks about 
marine ecosystems will be combined 

with field trips to observe habitat types. 
Accommodations will be at the Reef 
House diving resort on Roatan. The all- 
inclusive price of $1,450 covers all travel, 
lodging, and meals at the Reef House, 
and two or three tank dives per day. An 
early indication of interest is suggested. 

Costa Rica 
January 14-27, $2,000 

Visit San Jose, Cartago, Port Limon, 
Puerto Viego, Port of Puntarenas, Mon- 
teverde Forest Preserve and Cloud For- 
est, and more. This tour will give you an 
opportunity to explore in depth the 
plants and edible fruits of this country 
plus many opportunities for photo- 

Dr. William C. Burger, curator and 
chairman of Field Museum's Botany De- 
partment, has been on nine collecting 
trips to Costa Rica, and visited many 
areas of the country. In addition to his 
interests in flowers and floras. Dr. Burger 
has been an avid amateur photographer 
for more than 30 years. Also, Tom Eco- 
nomou, horticulturist and botanical 
plant explorer will join our group as co- 

Baraboo, Wisconsin 

October 1-2 


There is no lovelier or more diverse 
vacationland in American than the state 
of Wisconsin — scenic country roads, 
rolling dairyland, stunning views from 
the palisades and immense bluffs. Best 
of all the location is convenient — Bara- 
boo is just about 2'/2 hours from Chicago. 

Come and join us for a mini-vacation 
to the Baraboo range, 15,000-year-old 
heritage of the last glacier to cover Wis- 
consin. The background is fascinating; 
you will explore the gorges, gaps, and 
moraines of the hills cut by erosion and 
the Wisconsin Glacier under the expert 
guidance of our eminent and amiable 
geologist, Dn Edward Olsen. 

The price includes transportation by 
deluxe motor coach round trip from 
Field Museum, all meals, overnight 
accommodations and lectures. We have 
budgeted the price of this tour as low as 
possible to make it within reach of 
almost anyone interested in this special 
tour. Therefore, operation is contingent 
on an enrollment of at least 25 people. 

Ancient Capitals of China 

October 6-28 

Beijing, Xian, Luoyang, Zehngzhou, 
Kaifeng, Suzhou and Shanghai. This 
itinerary includes the most significant 
sites of early Imperial China and will 
give you an opportunity to explore in 
depth the civilization which characte- 
rizes one of the earth's longest-lived 

Our tour of this vast and versatile 
land will include the time-honored trea- 
sures of Old China given an added depth 
by the progressive achievements of New 
China. This itinerary includes side trips 
to the Great Wall and the Ming Tombs 
and the famous Longmen Caves near 
Luoyang. Also it will include an in-depth 
visit to recent archeological finds at Xian. 

Our lecturer, Phillip Woodruff is ex- 
perienced with travel in China, having 
led four previous tours for Field Museum. 
He speaks fluent Chinese and has an 
excellent rapport with the Chinese 

Sailii\g the Lesser Antilles 
Aboard the Tall Ship 
"Sea Cloud" 

January 26-February 4, 1984 

Our itinerary offers a superb sampling 
of the best of the Caribbean — Antigua, 
St. Barts, Saba, Martinique and lies des 
Saints. With the professional leadership 
of Dr. John Fitzpatrick, a Field Museum 
scientist, you will see and experience 
much more than the conventional sight- 
seen Dn Fitzpatrick, is an excellent tour 
lecturer, and your trip will be greatly en- 
hanced by his lectures and field trips. 
Price range, contingent on cabin 
selection, $3,100/$5,10O per person (in- 
cludes round trip air fare from Chicago, 
hotel accommodations in St. John's, 
Antigua, full board while sailing on the 
Sea Cloud). 

For additonal information on any tour, 
please call Tours Manager Dorothy Roder 
at 322-8862 or write Field Museum 
Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



Field Museum Calendar for 1984, now available, features natural history photos 
from Antarctica to the Canadian Rockies. Wi" X 11", spiralbound. Order now for 
immediate delivery: $4.95, postpaid (10% discount on 25 copies or more). Please 
make check payable to Field Museum. Send to: Calendar, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, IL 60605. 

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

October 1983 


Dinosaur Days 
Oct. 22, 23 

Oct, 29, 30 

Thomas Lawton, 
Director, Freer 
Gallery of Art, 
Washington, D.C., 
lectures on "Art 
of the Warring 
States Period" 
Oct. 29 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: WUlard L. Boyd 
EHrector: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor . David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Allen Ambrosini 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 


October 1983 
Volume 54, Number 9 

October Events at Field Museum 

Sea Snakes: Mark, Release, Recapture 

by Harold Voris, Helen Voris, and William B.Jeffries 5 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
WUliam L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.'Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. LeUnd Webber 
Julian B. WUkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
WUliam V. Kahler 
WUliam H. MitcheU 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

Plants of the World Photography Ck>mpetition 1983 11 

fiM Muslim of Natural Htslory Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except comlxned 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, n. 60605. Sut>scriptjons: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum memt)ership 
includes Bullrtm sutwcription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
Mrily reflect the policy of Field Museum. UnsoUcited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410 Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department Postmaster Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, D 60605 ISSN:00I5-0703. Second cUss 
postage paid at Chicago, n. 

The Earliest Plants on Land 

by Peter R. Crane 


Field Museum Tburs for Members 



"Marsh Marigold," by Dou^ias Cole, Evanston, IL. Mr. Cole's 
photo was the grand prize winner among more than 1,000 
entries in Field Musem 's Plants of the World Photography 
Contest. For other winning entries see pages ll-i8. The top 36 
photos are on view in Gallery Nine throu^ October 11. 

Ownership, Management and Circulation 

FUingdate: Sept. 15, 1983. Title: Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. Publication 
no. 898940. Frequency of publication: Monthly except for combined July/ August 
issue. .Number of issues published annually: II. Annual subscription price: $6.(X). 
Office: Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 111. 60605-2496. 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History. Editor: David M. Walsten. Known 
bondholders, mortgages, and other security holders: none. Nonprofit status has 
not changed during the preceding 12 months. 

Av. no. copies each Actual no. copies 
isstte preceding single issue nearest 
12 mos. to filing date 
35,456 35,000 

Total copies printed 

Paid Circulation (sales through 

dealers, vendors, carriers) 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptions) 

Total paid circulation 

Free distribution 

Total distribution 

Office use, left over 


. . None None 

. 32,018 31,577 

. 32,018 31,577 

670 670 

. 32,688 32,247 

. 2,768 2,753 

. 35,456 35,000 

1 certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Andrea 
G. Bonnetle. vice president for Finance and Museum Services. 














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Edward E. Ayer Filin Lectures 

Travel the world on Thursdays in October 
at 1:30 pm in James Simpson Theatre. 
Admission free. Doors open at 12:A5 pm. 
Memtsers must bring their cards for priority 
seating privileges. 

•» October 6 "Canada," with 
Charles Forbes Taylors 

•» Octob)er 13 "Voyage of Columbus,' 
with Robyn Williams 

■» October 20 "Japan," with 
Thayer Soule 

»» October 27 "Iceland," with 

Rolsert Davis . 

Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are 
invited to explore the world of natural 
history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to 
ongoing exhibits at the Museum are 
designed for families and adults. Check 
the Weekend Passport upon arrival for 
the complete schedule and program 
locations. These programs are partially 
supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Arts Council. 


3:00pm Treasures from the 
Totem Forest 

Investigate the treasures of native 
cultures from southeast Alaska and 
British Columbia, whose majestic 
totem poles proclaim their mystical 
ties to the animal and spiritual 

2 1 :00pm Life in Ancient Egypt 

Experience the splendor of the 
pharaohs! Discover the art, tjeliefs, 
and lifestyles of the ancient Egyp- 
tians as you learn about the objects 
and practices which illustrate life 
along the ancient Nile. 

8 11 :30am Ancient Egypt 

Examine the traditions of ancient 
Egyptian culture from everyday life 
to mummification and the promise 
of an afterlife. Find out how scho- 
lars have learned atx)ut this amaz- 
ing civilization and atiout some of 
the mysteries that remain unsolved. 

12:30pm Traditional China 

Explore the fascinating culture of 
traditional China. Examine the time- 
less imagery and superb crafts- 
manship represented by Chinese 
masterworks in our permanent col- 

1 :30pm Tibet Today 

The sacred city of Lhasa, recently 
reopened to the world, is featured 
in this slide lecture about the Tibe- 
tan refugees, who have carried their 
faith into the mountainous areas 
surrounding this ancient religious 

2:30pm Tales from the 
Forbidden City 

For 500 years China was governed 
from a huge palace compound in 
the heart of the capital city of Pe- 
king. This slide lecture presents a tour 
of the palace city and anecdotes 
atx3ut Chinese imperial life during 
those five centuries. 

9 1 2:30pm Museum Safari 

See shrunken heads from the Ama- 
zon, mummies from ancient Egypt, 
and big game from Africa. 

1 5 3:00pm Battle of the LiHIe 
Big Horn 

Examine the dramatic events and 
consequential aftermath of the 
famous Sioux-Custer battle. Tradi- 
tional paintings by Native American 
artists and interpretive original photo- 
graphs illustrate this informative slide 

16 11 :30am China Through 
the Ages 

China; its inventions. Imperial court 
life and schools of thought are high- 
lighted as you walk through 
outstanding collections covering 
centuries of Chinese civilization. 

1 2:30pm7ourney Through 

Enjoy the scenic beauty and ro- 
mance of today's China in this slide 
lecture which carries you from mod- 
ern cities of Shanghai and Suzhou 
to the ancient imperial capital, Xian. 

2:30pm Arts and Inventions 
of China 

Discover the high level of cultural and 
technological development of tradi- 
tional China as you view magnificent 
art forms and ingenious inventions. 
Slide lecture allows close examina- 
tion of significant decorative and util- 
itarian Chinese artifacts. 

23 1 2:30pm Museum Safari 

See shrunken heads from the Ama- 
zon, mummies from ancient Egypt, 
and big game from Africa. 

29 1 2:30pm Chinese Ceramic 

Exotic Chinese ceramic wares have 
been prized and copied for hundreds 
of years. Examine the styles and 
techniques of the Chinese ceramic 
tradition that is so highly valued 
throughout the world. 


Program Title 



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♦ Requested 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any ottier special events Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number wtiere appro- 
priate If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 

one-half hour before event. Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets will 

made only if program is sold out 






4 Telephone 


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Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addresed 
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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

Sea Snakes: Mark-Release-Recapture 

by Harold Voris, Helen Voris, and William B. Jeffries 

JL he bright yellow plastic tag, tiny and slim, glis- 
tened like a jewel among the gray tones of the fish and 
snakes in the bottom of the boat — we had recaptured 
our first tagged sea snake! Success of the mark-and- 
recapture study on sea snakes was beginning to seem 

We were pleased and surprised. Why surprised? 
Hadn't we expected it to work? Well, yes and no. As 
the wide mouth of the Muar River on Malaysia's 
southwest coast swallowed up the first batch of 55 
tagged sea snakes, mostly babies at that, we looked 
out over the vast expanse of the Straits of Malacca, 
scarcely daring to hope that we would ever see any of 
them again. A previous researcher's attempt to do a 
mark-and-recapture study on the pelagic sea snake, 
Pelamis platurus, had failed to yield even one recapture 
after more than one thousand had been marked and 

Having studied the venomous sea snakes at Muar 
over a period of more than ten years, we had several 
reasons to think that a mark-and-recapture study 
might be successful there if anywhere. Collections 
made in 1971, 1975, 1976, and 1981 indicated that the 
species composition — that is, the number and relative 
frequency of various species — was stable. Enhydrina 
schistosa, the beaked sea snake, which was numerically 
dominant, seemed like a good candidate for the study. 
In 1975 large collections made at Muar over a ten- 
month period documented the stability of the species 
composition throughout the year, suggesting a resi- 
dent population. The age-class distribution of beaked 

Harold Voris is associate curator of amphibians and reptiles, Field 
Museum: Helen Voris is a loriterfor special projects, Department of 
Education, Field Museum; and William B. Jeffries is a research 
associate, Department of Zoology, Field Museum, and Dana Pro- 
fessor, Biology Department, Dickinson College. 

Harold and Helen Voris inspect young beaked sea snakes. 

C/ose-upo/Enhydrina schistosa, the beaked sea snake 

sea snakes in a subsequent collection made in 1976 dif- 
fered from that of previous years in ways that sug- 
gested that the large 1975 collections had resulted in a 
temporary alteration in the beaked sea snake pop- 
ulation structure; this again pointed to a resident pop- 
ulation. Lastly, open-water trawling 50 to 100 km south 
of Muar rarely resulted in beaked sea snake captures, 
further indicating that the Muar population might be 

Previous work on the sea snakes at Muar told us 
much about them. We had observed feeding behavior 
of the young beaked sea snakes, documented their 
dietary preference for catfish, and compared the diets 
of young and adult beaked sea snakes with other spe- 
cies: the beaked sea snake apparently uniquely spe- 
cializes on catfish, while other species specialize on 
eels or even fish eggs; a few are generalists, taking ev- 
erything from cuttlefish to eels. We had estimated 
digestion times to range from 24 to 48 hours, and aver- 
age growth rates of the young to be about 2.5 cm per 
month. We had learned that reproduction was season- 
al and, depending on the adult female's size, 6 to 32 
young are born alive each year. We had been able to 
determine a typical populahon profile for the beaked 
sea snake; that is, how individuals are distributed into 
age classes. 

Each step led to new questions, and the possibil- 
ity of successfully marking and recapturing sea snakes 
held tantalizing promise of some answers which could 
not be obtained by analysis of collections of preserved 
specimens. How large is the population of beaked sea 
snakes? What is the rate of weight gain among the 
young? Is there evidence of a pattern of movement by 
individuals or subgroups of the population? 

To estimate population size, the mark-and- 
recapture method requires that a sample of live anim- 
als drawn at random from the total population be 
marked so that their behavior and mortality are not 
affected when they are returned to the population. 
The method assumes that the marked individuals will 
mix randomly with the unmarked individuals and that 
in subsequent samples drawn from the population, 
neither marked or unmarked animals will be caught 
preferentially. The method also assumes that no 





Diagrammatic side view of stake net 




h» — \- 


births, deaths, or movement in or out of the pop- 
ulation occur over the sampling period. If all these 
requirements are met, then in subsequent random 
samples of the population the proportion of marked to 
unmarked snakes ought to be approximately the same 
as in the total population. With three out of four var- 
iables known (the total number of marked snakes, the 
number of marked snakes in the sample, and the total 
number of snakes in the sample), the fourth can then 
be calculated, yielding an estimate of the population 
size. As more samples are taken and more animals are 
marked, successive estimates come closer to the actual 
size of the population. 

Unlike the estimate of population size, which re- 
quires only that marked snakes be distinguishable 
from unmarked ones (for example, by a notch in the 
tail), determination of growth and movement of indi- 
viduals and the recognition of snakes from successive 
marking periods require that each snake have a 
unique identification, usually a numbered tag. 

The bright yellow tag we spied in the bottom of 
the boat, attached to our first recaptured sea snake, 
was one of three tagging methods we tried. Since we 
didn't know which would work best (or even if any 
would work at all) or where to attach a tag to a sea 
snake, the tagging method itself required some experi- 
mentation. The thin, individually numbered tubes of 
yellow plastic used by marine biologists to mark fish 
seemed like a logical choice. 

Using a special "gun," each tag was attached to 
the snake by a slender plastic T-shaped tether, identi- 
cal to those used to attach price tags to clothing. The T 
was inserted just under the skin, a few centimeters 
from the tail on the right side of the body. This allowed 
the tag to stream backwards close to the body and 

Tag has just been attached to sea snake's tail. 

Hydrophis melanosoma, a common sea snake resident of the 
Muar River estuary. 

apparently did not impede the snake's movement 
through the water. A short red tag was also inserted 
completely through the tail of the adults, using the 
same expanding T attachment method. A small num- 
bered metal tag was also clipped near the tip of the tail. 
Adults, then, had three tags each, juveniles two. This 
allowed estimates of the extent to which various types 
of tags were lost and the application of correction fac- 
tors to population size estimates. 

Fortunately, our first recaptured tagged snake 
was not our last; subsequent sampling sessions turned 
up varying numbers of them. The yellow tags seemed 
to be the best choice: the snakes' skin healed nicely 
around the plastic tether, and the tags were easy to 
spot and to read with a minimum of handling of the 
snakes. The metal tags were less effective. We discon- 
tinued using them after observing that they accumu- 
lated debris and wore holes in the edges of the snake's 
thin paddle tails; they often fell off entirely, leaving 

The fate of the red tags? We still don't know — we 
have recaptured only 2 adult beaked sea snakes. We 
have marked over 600 sea snakes, including 123 adults 
and 397 juvenile beaked sea snakes but we have recap- 
tured primarily juvenile beaked sea snakes. The size of 
the adult population remains unknown, but by treat- 
ing the data on the juveniles separately, the size of this 
year's crop of offspring can be estimated. One estima- 
tion method uses cumulative data on recaptures in 
successive tidal cycles. Using data from the five tidal 
cycles, the population of juveniles was estimated at 
1,839. But another way of analyzing the data, which is 
more telling and accurate, is to treat the tidal cycles 
independently. For the second through fourth tidal cy- 
cles studied, the size of the juvenile snake population 
was estimated at 1,273 (plus or minus 440), 986 (plus or ; 

Stake net in the mouth of the Muar River, Malaysia 

Young beaked sea snake eating a puff fish 

minus 275), and 940 (plus or minus 288), respectively. 
The differences between successive estimates suggest 
that some mortality among the young sea snakes 
occurs each month. This information on mortality, 
unique for sea snakes and exceedingly rare even for 
terrestrial snakes, is extremely valuable in helping us 
piece together a picture of the overall dynamics of the 
beaked sea snake population. 

Other information is also starting to accumulate 
from the mark-and-recapture study. As snakes were 
first captured they were weighed, and as they were 
recaptured they were reweighed, documenting a 
growth rate among young snakes of about one-half 
gram per day. 

We're still wondering what's happening with the 
adult snakes, but we've come up with a few theories. 
Perhaps the most plausible is that the Muar River estu- 
ary serves as a nursery for young snakes, with the 
gravid females from the offshore adult population 
coming into the river about February each year to give 
birth. We think that the young may spend anywhere 
from 6 to 12 months in the estuary, feeding on small 

catfish and some puff fish before moving further out to 
join the adult population, some of which occasionally 
feed in the estuary throughout the year. A number of 
questions come to mind. When does the juvenile pop- 
ulation leave the estuary to become part of the adult 
pool? Are other estuaries along the southwest coast 
of Malaysia also nurseries for beaked sea snakes? 

The Stake Net System 

We may never be able to answer some of these ques- 
tions, because the key to the success we have had at 
Muar has been the system of permanent stake nets in 
the mouth of the Muar River, and the extraordinary 
cooperation we have had over a twelve-year period 
from two fishermen, Chua Song Cheng (nicknamed 
"Ah Bee"), and Sia Meng. Sia Meng owns and oper- 
ates two stake nets in the mouth of the river, and Ah 
Bee has two nets slightly up-river. Ah Bee's nets have 
been in the river about 70 years; he purchased them 
from the previous owner 22 years ago. Sia Meng's nets 
have been in his family for about 50 years. For a num- 
ber of years he worked them with his father who, until 
recently, lived in a small house over one of the nets. In 
the days before motors on boats were common, this 
eliminated the problem of getting out to the nets twice 
a day during the fishing cycles. 

The net system consists of two lines of bamboo 
poles sunk into the river bottom in a V-shaped pattern, 
the wide end facing up river. A conical net is attached 

between the two poles at the narrow end of the V. Af- 
ter a high tide has flowed in, the net is lowered so that 
as the tide recedes over about a four-to-five-hour per- 
iod, the current of brackish water rushes through the 
net, trapping fish, prawns and sea snakes. We have 
measured current flow through each net at about 2.5 
knots at high tide. The end of the net, which is tied 
closed, is checked and emptied every half hour or so 
into a small sampan towed by the main boat. After the 
tide has fully receded, the net is pulled up and laid on a 
platform until its next use. The tides are the strongest 
during the new moon and full moon periods of each 
lunar month and fishing is carried out for about a week 
during each of these two periods. 

Each bamboo pole must be replaced about every 
three to four years at a cost of about US$40, but an 
occasional hardy pole can last ten years or more. Seat- 
ing a new pole in the soft river mud requires the efforts 
of about seven or eight people. To prolong the life of 
the rather expensive and hard-to-replace poles, in- 
verted tin cans are sometimes placed on them to pre- 
vent the soft centers from rotting out. (These cans also 
provide daytime roosts for bats, a series of which were 
collected for Field Museum's Mammal Division.) 

Even when fishing is poor, the nets provide food 
for the fishermen's families through the periodic har- 
vesting of mussels attached to the lower ends of the 
bamboo poles. When fishing is good, the catch can be 
prodigious; we watched over four bushels of fish and 
shrimp come in during one afternoon of fishing. Ah 

Ah Bee releasing the end of the net 

Bee, his wife, children, relatives, and friends then 
spent several hours washing and sorting the catch, 
preparing it for market. 

When the fish come in, so do the sea snakes. The 
reliability of the stake net system in the Muar River 
that has allowed us to learn so much about the sea snake 
community there — particularly about the beaked sea 
snake — offers us the chance to answer even more 
questions. Now that we have about 25 percent of the 
young beaked sea snake population marked, it may be 
possible to track the population over the next few 
years. Will the juveniles we marked this year return to 
the same Muar River system to breed when they have 
reached sexual maturity in about two years? That is, is 
there "homing" among sea snakes as in the salmon? 
Will we finally recapture more beaked sea snake 
adults if we return in February of next year when the 
gravid females usually give birth? Using the 
mark-and-recapture technique, we started out to learn 
simply the approximate size of the beaked sea snake 
population. The results were not exactly what we ex- 
pected, but they have led us to some even more inter- 
esting research possibilities for the future. D 

Ah Bee setting the net 

Harold Voris and Ah Bee bag captured sea snakes. 

Plants of the WdtM 
1983 Photography Contest 


.n celebration of flowers and the opening of the 
Museum's new exhibit, "Plants of the World," 226 
Chicago metropolitan photographers entered the 
Plants of the World 1983 photography competition. 
Their entries, numbering more than 1,000, were then 
judged by a panel of three experts: John Alderson, 
commercial photographer; columnist and critic, Chi- 
cago Sun Times; Ron Bailey, photographer; Chicago 
Tribune; and William Burger; chairman of Field 
Museum's Department of Botany. 

This experiment in the realm of photo contests 
provided gratifying results. The competitors were of 
high calibre and addressed the subject in fascinating 
ways. Each photo was a reminder of the sense of dis- 
covery that happens to anyone behind a camera lens. 
The same sense of discovery, it is hoped, awaits those 
who \iew the 36 winning photos in a special exhibit 
in Gallery Nine, complementing "Plants of the 
World." The photo exhibit will remain on \iew 
through October 11. 

The Field Museum wishes to express its appre- 
ciation to all participants in the contest for their 
efforts, enthusiasm, and interest in the Museum. 
Their helpful comments will be invaluable as the 
Museum lays plans for its next photo contest, sched- 
uled for early in 1985. That event will offer photog- 
raphers a broader; more inclusive range of subject 

Entries in this year's contest were judged for 
first, second, and third prizes in two categories, based 
on age: 16 years of age or younger ( Group I ), and 17 
years or older ( Group II ). Winner of the grand prize 
was "Marsh Marigold," by Douglas Cole, of Evan- 
ston, IL. That photo is featured as this month's Bulle- 

tin cover illustration. Three other photos by Me Cole 
were also cited for excellence: an honorable mention 
selection, "Ostrich Fern Detail" (shown on page 16), 
and two recipients of certificates of selection: "Hibis- 
cus" and "Cardinal Flower; Michigan." Photos win- 
ning the first, second, and third prizes and the six 
honorable mentions are reproduced on the following 

Certificates of selection were awarded the following: 
Steve Amam, Chicago, "Catahna Island, Kelp Forest" 
Carol E. Beatty, Evanston, IL, "Cycadaceae #3" 
Douglas Cole, Evanston, IL, "Hibiscus," and 

"Cardinal Flower; Michigan" 
Marcia Dabrowski, Chicago, "Sahuaro Splendor" 
Lynn Funkhousei; Chicago, "Water Lilies" 
James Green, Chicago, "Untided" 
Tom Hockei; Hammond, IN, "Gloxinia #2" 
James Hojnacki, Hoffman Estates, IL, "Lone Tree" 
Don Josif, NaperviUe, IL, "Northern Ontario Fall" 
A. J. Kloch, Skokie, IL, "SoUtaire" 
Ruth Luthringer; Oak Park, IL, "Adumbration" 
Helen Lynch, Countryside, IL, "Day Lilies," 

Ann Maksymiec, Chicago, "Pitcher Plant" 
Albert J. Miller; Highland Park, IL, "Toadstools 

and Moss" 
Michael McCafi-ey Chicago, "Untitied" 
Gretchen Nagel, Morris, IL, "Untitled" 
Andrew Prusak, Chicago, "Alpine Larch" 
Thomas J. Smith, Deerfield, IL, "Morning Mist" 
James Sonju, Chicago, "Mist Rose" 
Peggy Stevens, Chicago, 'Tellow Fringed Orchid" 
George WTiittington, Downers Grove, IL, 

"Sugar Maple" 




by Kurt Jambretz 





by Sandra Wojtal- Weber 





by John Ellefson 




Orange Hawkn'eed 

bv Joan Russell 

WTiitefish Bay, Wl 

A House ofBlossoms 
bv Joseph Estafanous 
Country Club Hills, IL 




^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^S^^ ■ ■'." 


^^^^^^^^^^^^^K^^v'' ' 

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by James Green 






Sunny Center 

by Deidre Baumann 



Ostrich Fern Detail 

by Douglas Cole 

Evanston, IL 


Butterfly on Flowers 

by Tom Hocker 

Hammond, IN 


by Thomas J. Eyerman 

Oak Park, IL 



Milkn'eed Pods 

by Marguerite Hartmann 

River Forest, IL 



by Mary Koga 


IF....Charity Begins at Home, Here is 


• It helps you while it helps the Museum.... 

• It gives you a lifetime income.... 

• It gives you an immediate income tax deduction... 

• It gives you an estate tax deduction.... 

• It unlocks capital gains, yet... 

• It relieves you of any capital gains tax... 

• It perpetuates your name and your giving... 

• It gives you great self-satisfactiorL... 

• It helps assure the future of Field Museum. 


IRS appmved, the Pooled Income 
Fund is a trust in which the gifts of 
several donors are comingled Your gift 
of $10,000 minimum will credit you 
with "Units" in the Pooled Income 
Fund. Based on the number of "Units" 
your gift represents (and you can add in 
increments of $1,000 multiple), you are 
given a monthly income for life. You 
can even name a second beneficiary to 
follow you. 

After your life, or upon the death of the 
last beneficiary, the money represented 
by your "Units" is tran^erred to the 
Field Museum General Endowment 
Fund... where your gift perpetuates your 
giving and honors your name. Income 
from the Endowment helps support 
each annual Operating Budget. Thus, 
your gift becomes " perpetual as 
natural history itself... " 


TO: Planned Giving Office Field Museum of Natural History 
East Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 


Please send, without obligation, your five brochure on the Field Museum 

Pooled Income Fund 

Also send irtformation on other forms of giving other than cash. 

NAME (Please Print) 





I can be reached aU Bus. : (^ l_ 

: Home: ( ) 



The Earliest Plants on Land 

by Peter R. Crane 

Assistant Curator of Paleobotany 

Department of Geology 

Looking back on the past it is always tempting to 
identify certain critical events which changed the 
course of history and without which all that came later 
would have been impossible. In the history of man the 
first use of tools and the beginnings of agriculture 
were just such events, and in the history of life none 
was more crucial than the first colonization of the land, 
which had been barren since the origin of the earth 

Land plants are the foundation of the terrestrial 
ecosystems on which we all depend for our survival. 
Plants harness the sun's energy to construct their tis- 
sues which provide food for the herbivores, and ulti- 
mately the carnivores, of the animal world. This sim- 
ple energy economy of plant producers and animal 
consumers ensures that the story of the colonization of 
the land is first and foremost the story of the origin of 
land plants. 

Our understanding of the earliest plants on land 
was built up gradually over a long period, but has in- 
creased dramatically over the last twenty years. Frag- 
mentary and often poorly preserved fossil plants have 
slowly yielded their secrets to painstaking paleobotan- 
ical work, and have provided an outline of some of the 
major events associated with the early evoluHon of a 
land flora. Although traces of life are found in some of 
the most ancient sedimentary rocks on earth, dated at 
about 3.8 billion years before present, the first evi- 
dence of land plants is not found until approximately 
430-400 million years ago. By this time a rich variety of 
plants and animals had already developed in the sea 
and presumably also in freshwater environments; and 
it is from forms like the green algae of today that the 
earliest land plants must have evolved. 

It is hardly surprising that the principal difficul- 
ties which confronted plant life in making the transi- 
tion from aquatic to terrestrial habitats relate directly 
to the problems of conserving and transporting water 
Several structural innovations which Appear to over- 
come these difficulties occur in almost all the plants 
living on land today. In the paleobotanical record it is 
the presence of these same structural innovations 
which allows us to infer whether a given fossil plant 
was more likely to have inhabited a terrestrial or an 
20 aquatic environment. 

Dehydration is the most fundamental problem of 
life on land. To cope with this, almost all terrestrial 
plants have a more or less impermeable, waxy, outer 
covering (the cuticle), which reduces water loss and 
provides a barrier to mechanical damage and patho- 
gens. However, the plant cannot be totally sealed from 
its environment and must retain some capability for 
gaseous exchange. Carbon dioxide, a vital raw mate- 
rial in the synthesis of complex organic molecules by 
photosynthesis, must be allowed into the tissues, and 
some mechanism must also exist to permit the escape 
of any excess oxygen generated by photosynthesis 
and not utilized in respiration. 

In water plants gases are exchanged in dissolved 
form all over the plant body; in land plants, however, 
the apparently conflicting requirements of preventing 
water loss but at the same time allowing gaseous ex- 
change, are reconciled by the presence of adjustable 
perforations (stomata) within the cuticle. Acting like a 
sophisticated valve, each stoma consists of a pore 
which can be opened or closed through the action of 
two flanking guard cells in response to conditions in 
the environment. The pore itself connects with a series 
of fine air spaces between the plant cells, an arrange- 
ment which allows rapid diffusion of gases through- 
out the plant tissues. 

A polished slab of Rhynie chert showing a layer of peat about 4 cm 
thick between two layers ofsand. The sUicifiea peat contains beauti- 
fully preserved fossils of Rhynia, Asteroxylon and other Lower 
Devonian plants. (Photograph by the author) 

Preventing water loss is not the only major prob- 
lem for terrestrial plants; of equal importance are 
obtaining water and transporting it around the plant 
body. Aquatic plants can absorb all of their require- 
ments from the environment over their entire surface; 
land plants, however, relying principally on soil mois- 
ture for water and mineral nutrients, absorb this mois- 
ture through special unicellular hairs known as rhi- 
zoids, or root hairs. The fluids are then transported 
around the plant body by specialized water-conduct- 
ing strands, formed from numerous interconnected, 
elongated cells. These conducting cells, or tracheids, 
which are dead at functional maturity even in other- 
wise living tissues, are one of the most conspicuous 
features of most living land plants. They are generally 
aggregated into a vascular strand of xylem tissue in the 
center of the stem; this strand is surrounded by thin- 
walled living conducting cells known as sieve ele- 
ments, which make up the phloem tissue. The main 
function of the xylem tracheids is to carry water and 
mineral nutrients absorbed from the soil, while sieve 
elements of the phloem carry organic nutrients gener- 
ated in photosynthetic parts of the plant to all the other 
living tissues. 

A final characteristic structural modification of 
land plants concerns the spores, which consHtute the 
mobile stage in the life cycle of the simplest land 
plants. The spores of most aquatic plants are dispersed 
through water, but those of the most ancient land 
plants were apparently wind dispersed. During their 
development, spores are protected within modified 
spore producing capsules (sporangia). The spores 
themselves are protected from dehydration, physical 
damage, and pathogens by an extremely resistant out- 
er wall made of a complex polyethylene-like sub- 
stance, sporopollenin. The potential for aerial dis- 
persal which this modified spore wall apparently con- 
ferred must have been an important factor in allowing 
rapid and effective colonization of barren land sur- 
faces over 400 million years ago. 

Paleobotany, like other areas of paleontology, re- 
lies for some of its most informative and spectacular 
fossils on a few happy accidents of preservation. For 
those interested in early land plants there is no more 
remarkable example than the early Devonian silicified 
peat (about 375 million years old) discovered in the 
early years of this century near the Scottish village of 
Rhynie. By a freak of serendipity the first of these plant 
specimens were collected from the rocks of a local 
wall, but later surveys and excavations revealed a 
small, geologically isolated deposit that is now prob- 
ably one of the best known paleobotanical localities in 
the world. 

These remarkable ancient plants were apparently 
preserved when the marshy area in which they were 

Reconstruction of a shoot tip of Asteroxylon mackiei from the 
Rhynie Chert. The stem was about 1 cm wide and covered with 
leaflike scales. The position and shape of the sporangia are tivo of the 
features which suggest a close relationsnip with present day 
club-mosses. Drawing based on a reconstruction in the Royal Scot- 
tish Museum, Edinburgh. 

growing was flooded with groundwater rich in dis- 
solved silica, perhaps derived from nearby hot 
springs. The total deposit is about eight feet thick, 
with alternating bands of peaty plant debris and sand. 
There were clearly several cycles of peat growth, each 
temporarily halted by a layer of sand deposited during 
flooding. The plants are preserved in three dimen- 
sions, embedded in hard blocks of a silica-based rock 
known as chert, exactly where they were growing dur- 
ing the early Devonian. Thin sections of the chert, re- 
veal extremely fine microscopic details of the plant tis- 

Several kinds of plants inhabited the ancient 
marsh at Rhynie, but two of the best known are Aster- 
oxylon, named after its xylem tissue, star-shaped in 
cross section, and Rhynia, named after the village 21 

Rhynia gwynne-vaughanii based on a recent reconstruction by 
Dr David Ldwards, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. The plant 
would probably have been aboiit 20 cm tall, and its structure is 
much more complex than earlier interpretations suggested. 

which is its only known locality in the world. These 
two plants were both small and rather simple, but 
nevertheless they show some fundamental structural 
differences. Asteroxylon was entirely covered with 
small scales, and the spores were produced in kidney- 
shaped sporangia attached laterally, immediately 
above the leaflike scales. Rhynia, in contrast, had 
smooth naked stems with elongated, ellipsoidal spor- 
angia borne at the stem apex. There were also impor- 
tant differences in the internal construction of these 
two plants. The xylem cylinder of Asteroxylon was 
fluted, and appears to have developed with the youn- 
ger cells toward the center and the oldest cells along 
the flanges. In Rhynia the reverse seems to have been 
true, with the xylem developing from the inside out- 
wards and thus the youngest cells occur toward the 

These two distinct suites of technical characters 
have been demonstrated in many other early Devo- 
nian fossils and seem to distinguish two quite different 
major groups of early land plants. The two lineages 
seem to have had separate evolutionary histories for 
22 almost 400 million years. Asteroxylon and certain con- 

temporary early Devonian plants {Zosterophyllum, 
Sawdonia, and Leclercqia) seem to have been pro- 
genitors of the diminutive club mosses, or lycopods, 
which survive today. In fact, Asteroxylon bears a very 
striking resemblence to the most primitive living club 
moss, Lycopodium selago. Rhynia, on the other hand, 
along with its early relatives (e.g., Psilophyton), 
apparently gave rise to all other major plant groups 
including ferns, horsetails, seed plants, and ultimately 
the flowering plants themselves. 

Fossil plants from Rhynie were first described 
over sixty years ago, and the insights which they con- 
tinue to provide have been substantiated and ampli- 
fied by studies of other early land plants from all over 
the world. Most of these other early plant fossils are 
much more poorly preserved; usually all that remains 
is a thin, compressed layer of coal. With careful prep- 
aration techniques, however, even these unpromising 
fossils can reveal minute details of cuticles, stomata, 
tracheids, and spores. It is remarkable how many of 
these fossils are now understood in considerable de- 
tail, and taken together they provide a fascinating pic- 
ture of the early diversification of land plants. Suc- 
cessively younger rocks show an increasing number of 
more and more sophisticated types. 

A mat of intertwined stems of the early Devonian plant Zoster- 
ophyllum from the Rhine valley in Germany. Each of the stems is 
about 2 mm wide. Unlike the Rhynie fossils, the stems are preserved 
only as impressions in a hard siltstone. (Field Museum Paleobotan- 
icat Collections, PP33500) 

Lycopodium, a living club-moss closely related to the Rhynie chert 
plant Asteroxylon. 

With time, there is a steady increase in plant com- 
plexity and diversity providing an unambiguous and 
striking testament to the concept of "descent with 
modification" w^hich is at the heart of the theory of 
evolution. The very earliest land plants had no wood, 
no leaves, no seeds, and no roots, but within 50 mil- 
lion years all of these fundamental features of modem 
plant life had evolved. These spectacular develop- 
ments in the plant world are paralleled in the 
paleozoological record, which reveals equally im- 
pressive innovations in the evolution of terrestrial 
animal life. Interactions between these early plants 
and animals were established very rapidly and 
represent the simple beginnings of today's complex 
terrestrial ecosystems. 

Plants even more primitive than those found at 
Rhynie occur elsewhere in older rocks. The earliest of 
these is Cooksonia, first reported in mid-Silurian strata 
(approximately 415 million years old) in Ireland. Cook- 
sonia is the name applied to tiny, simple, branching 
plant axes, which occasionally bear minute sporangia 
of about the same size as a pinhead. Ranging through 
about 35 million years of Silurian and Lower Devonian 
time, Cooksonia provides an instructive example of 
some of the many difficulties which arise as we 
attempt to interpret fossils of early land plants. Some 
of the younger Cooksonia specimens have yielded 

spores from the sporangia, but this has never been 
demonstrated in the older material, nor have definite 
tracheids or stomata been recognized in material of 
any age. 

These apparently trivial details lead to an inter- 
esting situation: the plant fossils generally regarded as 
the oldest vascular land plants do not unequivocally 
show any of the characteristic land plant adaptations! 
These features are often assumed to be present by ex- 
trapolation from younger specimens, the inference 
being that the older material is incompletely pre- 
served. Though this may be true, it is impossible at the 
moment to distinguish this situation from one in 
which some of the characteristic adaptations were 
actually absent from some of the earliest plants on 
land. Such absence would be of considerable biologi- 
cal interest, and is after all exactly what would be ex- 
pected if the characteristic land plant adaptaHons were 
acquired sequentially in response to the rigors of 
terrestrial life. However — as is so often the case in 
paleontology — what can and cannot be determined 
from fossil material is always limited by the quality of 
preservation, especially if it is a feature's absence that 
needs to be established! 

As we become more and more deeply embroiled 
in the minutiae of the fossil record it is easy to ignore or 
forget that the biological or evolutionary significance 
of even the most exquisitely preserved fossils must be 
interpreted within the framework that the living world 

A branching spiny axis of Psilophyton from the Rhine valley in 
Germany. The stem is about 2 mm wide and covered by numerous 
tiny spines. Psilophyton was a widespread early Devonian rela- 
tive of Rhynia. (Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, 
PP334990 23 

Cooksonia caledonica from the Lower Devonian of Scotland, 
based on a reconstruction by Dianne Edwards, University College, 
Cardiff. Each of the terminal sporangia would have been about 3 mm 
in diameter. 

provides. Concerning the origin of terrestrial vegeta- 
tion there are in fact several important questions de- 
rived from present-day biology on which the fossil rec- 
ord unfortunately remains silent. The first of these is 
the extent to which the first colonization of the land is 
analogous with the colonization of bare land surfaces 
on the earth by present-day plants. 

Where bare land surfaces occur today they are 
gradually colonized, perhaps over a period of several 
decades, by a progressive sequence of increasingly 
rich and more and more diverse plant communities. 
This idea of vegetational succession was first de- 
veloped in the early part of this century by Frederick 
A. Clements at the University of Minnesota. Like most 
abstract concepts in biology it is not totally free of diffi- 
culties and qualifications, but to Clements goes the 
24 credit for highlighting the sequential nature of vegeta- 

tional change. He recognized that these changes in- 
volved progressive modification of the environment 
by living organisms, which was seen as moving inex- 
orably towards some kind of apparent equilibrium, or 
"climax community." 

The many well-known examples of succession 
include the growth of vegetation as a lake gradually 
silts up, as volcanic activity produces new rock sur- 
faces, or as a system of dunes moves into open water. 
Some of Clements's most important observations were 
based on the sequence of changes which he observed 
at the Indiana Dunes, only several miles from Chi- 
cago. Many of the examples of succession which we 
can observe today have in their earliest stages a phase 
of cryptic colonization by microorganisms, including 
bacteria, fungi, minute arthropods, algae (particularly 
blue-green algae), lichens, and eventually mosses and 
liverworts. These organisms initiate the formation of 
soil which provides water and nutrients for the larger 
plants, or macrophytes, which appear later. 

Some of these macrophytes even establish asso- 
ciations with soil fungi as an additional means of 
obtaining important nutrients. Was the advent of mac- 
roscopic land plants in the later Silurian and early De- 
vonian preceded by a similar phase of microscopic col- 
onization? Some paleontologists have suggested 
strongly that it was, and have made a distinction be- 
tween two fundamental issues — the colonization of 
the land and the origin of vascular plants. The argu- 
ment has been made that the diversification of plants 
in the Silurian and Devonian reflects only a radiation 
of vascular plants, in a sense only those plants specifi- 

Polytrichum, a true moss, and one of the more complex of living 
bryophytes. The importance of the bryophyles in the early col- 
onization of the land is one of the many unsolved questions in our 
understanding of the development of the first terrestrial ecosystems. 
(Photo courtesy William Burger) 

cally adapted for life on land. From the point of view of 
subsequent plant evolution this is of course of fun- 
damental importance; however, excessive emphasis 
on the macroscopic plant record focuses on a later 
stage in the ecology of colonization, and perhaps di- 
verts attention from some important ecological 

Not surprisingly, the fossil record contributes lit- 
tle to this issue of the importance of early terrestrial 
microorganisms, but it is of interest that in the Rhynie 
peat, fungi, algae, and other microorganisms are ex- 
tremely abundant. 

A further outstanding question, but of a different 
kind, concerns the relationship of mosses and liver- 
worts (bryophytes) to more "advanced" land plants, 
and whether bryophytes were involved in any way in 
the initial colonization of the land surface. Analogies 
with present-day ecology imply that bryophytes, or 
bryophyte-like plants may have been among the ear- 
lier invaders of the land. However, although there are 
several enigmatic fossils which tantalizingly suggest 
features reminiscent of mosses and liverworts, there 
are no unequivocal bryophytic remains from Silurian 
or earliest Devonian rocks. Bryophytes fall con- 
veniently into the category of land plants which are 
not "fully fledged" and do not yet possess all of the 
characteristic land plant adaptations. Although they 
produce resistant-walled spores, and occasionally 
have stomata, bryophytes do not possess a well de- 
veloped cuticle or conducting strands of tracheids. 
The question of the position of the bryophytes is a fas- 
cinating and as yet unsolved issue; but when a clear 
understanding of early land plant evolution eventual- 
ly emerges it will have to take into account the evolu- 
tionary position and ecology of this diminutive group 
of "incipient" land plants. 

If the role of bryophytes in the early colonization 
of the land is enigmatic, then the position of certain 
bizarre Silurian and Devonian plant fossils is even 
more so. It is at least quite clear that the bryophytes, 
like the "higher" land plants, must have ultimately de- 
veloped from plants similar to living green algae, with 
which they are linked by a wide range of morphologi- 
cal and biochemical features; but for most early enig- 
matic fossils not even their relationship to the major 
different kinds of algae is clear. Some of these, such as 
Spongiophyton, have thick cuticular coverings perfo- 
rated by apparently simple holes on one surface, while 
others such as Parka and Protosalvinia produce 
sporopollenin-impregnated, resistant-walled spores. 

There is also a rich diversity of dispersed micro- 
scopic plant debris, which includes cuticle-like sheets, 
resistant-walled spores, and peculiar tubes with a 
banded appearance which are similar but not identical 
to tracheids. There has been a good deal of dispute 

Parka, one of the many enigmatic early Devonian plants. Each 
circular area is about 2 mm tn diameter and contains hundreds of 
resistant-walled spores. (Photograph by the author) 

between those paleobotanists who regard these re- 
mains as of uncertain relevance to the colonization of 
the land, and those who consider them convincing 
and highly significant evidence of some kind of early 
land flora. The basic question is whether such plants 
are part of the "mainstream" of land plant evolution or 
whether they are merely bizarre developments in 
quite distinct evolutionary lineages. What exactly 
these early plants and plant fragments are telling us is 
still unclear, but the evidence is mounting that they 
played an important ecological, if not phylogenetic, 
role in the colonization of the land. In the develop- 
ment of almost any science the most dramatic progress 
comes not by reiterating how good our current 
theories are and what they elegantly explain, but 
rather by worrying over the abnormal, the inconve- 
nient, and the apparently inexplicable. In the inves- 
tigation of how life moved onto land, attempts to 
resolve some of the many Silurian and Devonian enig- 
mas are most likely to provide new and challenging 
perspectives on one of the most crucial events in the 
history of life on earth. D 25 


Alaska Natural History Tour 

June 1984 

Experience the Great Land. Descriptions 
of Alaska are filled with superlatives — a 
state more than twice the size of Texas 
with a population less than that of Den- 
ver, 3 3,000 miles of coastline, 119 million 
acres of forest, 14 of the highest peaks in 
the United States culminating in Mt. De- 
nali (formerly Mt. McKinley), at 20,320 
feet, the highest in North America. Alaska 
is equally a land of wildHfe superlatives, 
from her great herds of caribou to swarm- 
ing seabird rookeries to surging salmon in 
migration. When one thinks of Alaska one 
thinks of wilderness, of nature still fresh 
and undomesricated, of experiences 
dreamed of but mostly unavailable to us 
of the lower 48. 

Join us in June 1984 for an Alaskan 
odyssey through a wide range of habitats 
from the rockbound fur seal and sea bird 
colonies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping 
forest and calving glaciers of the south- 
east, to the grandeur of the Alaskan 
Range, to the fjordlike quiet and beauty 
of the inland passage. Experience Alaska 
as few have. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, 
bus, boat, horseback, and foot — whatever 
best enhances our experience. Emphasis 
will be on the land, its history, its wildlife. 
Interpretarion combined with direct ob- 
servation will provide an enjoyment and 
quality of experience unavailable to the 
casual visitor. Whatever your interest in 
natural history — marine mammals, bird- 
ing, mountains, photography, flowers, for- 
ests, glaciers, icebergs, rivers — this tour 
will show you Alaska in all its diversity 
and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of Field Museum. 

Exact dates and rate will be 
announced. Please call or write to be 
placed on mailing list. 


January 14-27 


Visit San Jose, Cartago, Port Limon, Puer- 
to Viego, Port of Puntarenas, Monteverde 
Forest Preserve and Cloud Forest, and 
more. This tour will give you an oppor- 
tunity to explore in depth the plants and 
edible fruits of this country plus many op- 
portuniries for photographing. 

Dr William C. Burger, curator and 
chairman of Field Museum's Botany De- 
partment, has been on nine coUecring 
trips to Costa Rica, and visited many areas 
of the country. In addidon to his interests 
in flowers and floras. Dr. Burger has been 
an avid amateur photographer for more 
than 30 years. Tom Economou, horticul- 
turist and botanical plant explorer will 
also join our group as co-leader. 

Tropical Marine Biology 

Exploration of Isla Roatan 

February 15-24 

Crystal clear water, magnificent coral 
reefs, and a fantastic diversity of marine 
life are characteristics of the coast of 
Roatan, the largest of the Bay Islands in 
the Gulf of Honduras and some 30 miles 
off the Central American coast. Field 
Museum will conduct a 10-day tour to 
Roatan especially for divers that will com- 
bine superlarive diving, expert instruction 
in marine natural history, and an oppor- 
tunity to observe or actively participate in 
the scienrific coUecring of fishes. 

An outstanding attraction for divers 
is spectacular "drop-offs" whose tops ex- 
tend into depths as shallow as 2 5 feet. 
Leading the tour will be two ichthyolog- 
ists with more than 10 year? experience in 
the Caribbean as teachers, divers, and re- 
searchers: Dr. Robert Karl Johnson, cura- 

tor of fishes and chairman of Field 
Museum's Department of Zoology; and 
Dr. David W. Greenfield, professor of 
biological sciences and associate dean of 
the Graduate School at Northern lUinois 
University. Illustrated talks about marine 
ecosystems will be combined with field 
trips to observe habitat types. 

Accommodarions will be at the Reef 
House diving resort on Roatan. The 
all-inclusive price of $1,450 covers all 
travel, lodging, and meals at the Reef 
House, and two or three tank dives per 
day. An early indicarion of interest is sug- 


Wonders of the Nile 

January 31-February 16, 1984 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharaohs, including an 8-day 
Nile cruise aboard the luxurious Sheraton 
Nile Steamer. The tour leader is Dr. Bruce 
Williams, a disringuished U.S. Egyptolo- 
gist. Dr Williams is an expert in archaeology 
and ancient history, and has recently 
helped develop a fascinating new theory 
on the origins of the Egyprian state. He 
will travel with the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and personally 
conduct all lectures and sightseeing. High- 
lights of our tour will be the pyramids and 
Sphinx of Giza, little-visited monuments 
of Middle Egypt, King Tut's tomb, the 
holiday resort of Aswan, and a visit to 
Abu Simbel. 

For additional ittfontiatioyi on any tour, please call 
Tours Manager Dorothy Roda at 322-8862 or write 
Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago. IL 60605. 



Field Museum Calendar for 1984, now available, features natural history photos 
from Antarctica to the Canadian Rockies. iVz" X 11", spiralbound. Order now for 
immediate delivery: $4.95, postpaid (10% discount on 25 copies or more). Please 
make check payable to Field Museum. Send to: Calendar, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, IL 60605. 

. I -. ITH FLE»irNG 



Novt'inlur Umii 

Treasures from the Shanghai Museum 
6,()()() Years of Chinese Art 

' ) NowiiiIhtS — IVbinian 14 

) Moinbfrs'l*rt'vie\\ rricUiy, NovfiiilH'r4 

) Chiiu'se Art: k'cturtvs, demonstrations, films 

6th Aiiniial A nt hropolot^y Film Festival, November 19 and 20 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 


Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor : David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Allen Ambrosini 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
JohnS. Runnells 
Patrick G Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert HStrotz 
William G.Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

Fietd Musfum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum oi Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605 Subscriptions; $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bullrtiri subscriphon. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notificahon of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Memlwrship Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Dnve, Chicago, II. 60605 ISSN:0015-07D3 


November 1983 
Volume 54, Number 10 

November Events at Field Museum 

Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6,000 Years 
(if Chinese Art 5 

by Yutaka Mino and Katheritie R. Tiiang 

The Inside Story on Fossil Plants 

by Peter R. Crane 


Sixth Annual Anthropology Film Festival 13 

November 19, 20 

Field Museum Jburs 



Tripod kui, found in the Slianghai municipalit}' and repre- 
sentative of Chinese potter}' of the Liangzhu culture. The 
piece, carbon-dated at 4,055 to 4,345 years old, is one of 232 
art objects and artifacts on view in the exhibition "TYeasures 
from the Shangliai Museum — 6,000 Years ofChinoie Art" 
from November 5 through February 14. Members' preview 
November 4. 

Tlie Liangzhu culture was a stage of the regional 
Neolithic development tluit vt'os localized along coastal 
areas in the northern part of Zhejiang Province and 
flourished during the third millennium B.C. Tfie remarkably 
shaped vessel is comprised of three hollow legs tliat taper to 
tiny pointed feet. The legs join tofonn a lobed body with 
smoothly swelling contours, strongly sugf^estive of the form of 
a pig. The animal analog}' is can-iedfiirtlier in the placement 
oftlie neck at one end of the vessel alxive tn'o of the legs and 
the tail-like wide liandle at tlw opposite end. The mouth rim 
US pinched together to form a small pouringspout. Photo 
courtesy the Asian Art Museum of San Frcmcisco. 

Treasures from the 

Shanghai Museum: 

6t000 Years of Chinese Art 


Opening November 5. This spectacular 
exhibition, spanning the entire history of 
Chinese art. is the first U.S. showing of 
pieces selected entirely from the collection 
of a single museum in the People's Repub- 
lic of China. The Shanghai Museum's col- 
lection of more than 100.000 items is one 
of the most comprehensive and varied in 
China. The 232 objects in this exhibit 
include bronze vessels, ceramics, paint- 
ings, applied arts, and artifacts excavated 
in the Shanghai region. This lecture series 
provides special insights into the col- 
lection's significance. The program is sup- 
ported by the National Endowment for the 
Humanities, a federal agency. 

Art of the Warring States Period 

Dr Thomas Lawton, director. 

Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

Saturday. Oct. 29, 2:00pm 

The Golden Period: 
Song Dynasty Ceramics 

Dr Yutaka Mino. curator 
Department of Oriental Art 
Indianapolis Museum of Art 
Saturday. Nov. 5. 2:00pm 

Legacy of the Chinese Painter 

Dr Richard Bamhart. 
Department of History of Art 
Yale University 
Saturday. Nov. 12, 2:00pm 

Members: single lecture: $3:00: 

series: $7.00 
Nonmembers: single lecture: $5.00: 

series: $13.00 
The coupon should be used to order 
Fees are nonrefundable. 


Roots of Chinese Culture — Film Series 

November 12. 13. and 26, l:00pm 
West Entrance 

These free films explore the development 
of this unique civilization. The roots of 
Chinese culture are traced from the rem- 
nants of prehistory to modem traditions. 

Saturday. Nov. 12 

1 :00pm 

China: Portrait of the Land examines the 

influence of geography upon the fabric of 

Chinese culture. 

1 :30pm 

Chinese Jade Carving profiles the skills 
and techniques of a master jade carver 
practicing his traditional art. 

Sunday. Nov. 13 


China: The Making of a Civilization 

discusses the search for the origins of 

Chinese civilization through artifacts, 

documents, and art. 


Stilt Dancers of Long Bow Village docu- 
ments the reviveil of stilt damcing in a rured 
Chinese village. Beinned during the Cul- 
tural Revolution, stilt dancing is a folk art 
that combines myth, history, contempo- 
rary politics, and daily village life. 

Saturday. Nov. 26 

China: Hundred Schools to One docu- 
ments the Warring States Period and the 
technological and agricultural revolution 
leading up to the formation of the Qin 
(Chin) empire (475 to 221 B.C.). 

1 :30pm 

China: The First Empires covers the ad- 
vent of the Imperial Age with Qin (Chin) 
and the expansion of the empire under the 
Han dynasty. During this period the Great 
Wall was built and China was centralized. 

Family Feature 

Painting Pandas and Chinese Animals 
Monica Liu. artist and historian 
Friday and Saturday, Nov. 25 and 26, 
Stanley Field Hall 

In China, the brush zind ink are versatile 
tools used to celebrate the wonders of na- 
ture. For centuries. Chinese painters have 
loved to animate their works with trans- 
forming dragons, graceful cranes, menac- 
ing tigers, and playful pandas. Monica Liu 
demonstrates the brushwork used to de- 
pict these popular motifs. Children can try 
their hand at painting Chinese animals on 
traditional Chinese rice paper Free activity 
with museum admission. 



Sixth Annual Field Museum Anthropology Film 

Saturday and Sunday, November 19 and 20 10:00am 
—500pm West Entrance 

A special invitation to explore the rich diversity of 
vv^orld culture on film. The sixth annual festival fea- 
tures films on possession and curins, cultural ecolo- 
gy art and expression, v^omen, homes, work, and 
more. Filmmaker Timothy Asch introduces his new 
releases dealing with the life and work of a female 
spirit healer in Bali: A Balinese Trance Seance, Jero 
on Jero, and A Balinese Massage. These are shown 
on Saturday 

On Sunday Timothy Asch and Napoleon Chagnon, 
chairman of Northwestern University's Department of 
Anthropology discuss the relationship between 
filmmaker and anthropologist that is a requisite for 
the production of ethnographic documentation. A 
Father Washes His Children, Children 's Magical Death, 
The Ax Fight, and A Man Called Bee were produced 
by Chagnon and Asch v^tien they studied the rich 
and complex lives of the yanomamo people in 
southern Venezuela. 

Additional festival highlights include Where Did You 
Get That Woman by Loretta Smith, the memories of a 
ladies' room attendant; To Find The Baruya Story, 
about the work of a French anthropologist with a 
New Guinea tribe: and Eze Nwata-. The Small King 
water rites of healing in Nigeria. New releases 
include Possum Opossum, Shannon Count/ ■Home, 
Summer of the Loucheux, and the shortened version 
of Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers 

Films are screened in James Simpson Theatre, Lec- 
ture Hall I, and Lecture Hall II, at the Museum's West 
Entrance. Consult the final schedule for exact times. 
Complete Film Notes are listed on pages 13 through 
16 and are available at the festival. 

Members: $6.00 
Nonmembers: $7.00 

Series $10.00 
Series: $12.00 

Students with current college I.D. are admitted at the 
members' price. The coupon below should be used 
to order series or daily tickets. Fees are nonrefund- 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to 

explore the world of natural history at Field 

Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films 

related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are 

designed for families and adults. Check the 

Weekend Passport upon arrival for the 

complete schedule and program locations. 

The programs are partially supported by a 

grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 


5 11:30am Ancient Egypt. 

Investigate the traditions of ancient 

Egyptian civilization from everyday 

life to mummification and the 

promise of an afterlife. 

6 1 :00am HopI Ceremonial Life. 

The Hopi Indians of northeastern 


Arizona established a rich and 

flourishing culture in their desert 


surroundings. Learn about the life 


and ceremonies of North America's 


oldest surviving culture. 



12:30pm Museum Safari. See\^ 

out shrunken heads from the 


Amazon, mummies from ancient 

Egypt, and big game from Africa. 


20 12:30pm Museum Safari. Sezk 


out shrunken heads from the 

Amazon, mummies from ancient 

Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

26 3:00pm Arts and Inventions of 

China. Explore the cultural and 

technological achievements of 

classical China in a slide lecture of 

magnificent art forms and ingenious 




27 2 30pm Tiaditlonal China. 


Examine the timeless imagery and 


superb craftsmanship represented 

by Chinese masterworks in Field 

Museum's permanent collection. 


Program Title 



# Requested 


# Requested 



# Requested 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 

one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 

made only if program is sold out. 




For Office Use: 

Date Received 

Date Returned 




Telephone Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 

Return complete ticket application with a self-addresed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field t\^useum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 

NOVEMBER 5, 1983 to FEBRUARY 14, 1984 

Treasures from the Shanghai Museum 


by Yutaka Mino and Katherine R. Tsiang 

Photos courtesy the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco 


'rganized by the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco collections of Chinese art in the world. Open only since I9'52, it 

and the Shanghai Museum, the exhibition "Treasures from the houses over 1()4,()()() works of art in all media, dating from the 

Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art" comes directly Paleolithic period to the present day. The current exhibition is 

from San Francisco, where it opened in May on the first stop of a spectacular selection ot 232 of these works, incluchng bronze 

its U.S. tour. The Shanghai Museum holds one of the greatest and ceramic pieces, paintings, and examples ot decorative arts 

The Bronze Age in China arose from the late Neolithic culture. 
An emergent bronze intiustry produced the most impressive exam- 
ples of Bronze Age craftsmanship of any early civilization in the 
world. In the Shang dynasty (ca. I6th-llth centuries B.C.) a dis- 
tinctive style of ornament derived from animal forms tvas applied 
almost universally to the ceremonial bronze vessels and weapons 
of the nobility A rare exception to this style is to be found in the 

square axe. or yue, above, on which the decoration consists of ab- 
stract elements only: eighteen crosses inlaid in turquoise in two 
rings around the central circular hole. The number and arrange- 
ment of the crosses suggests an astrological or cosmological signifi- 
cance. The shape of the ring of crosses resembles that of the jade 
annulary discs that are traditionally believed to have been symbols 
of Heaven. 

^^hen the Zhou overthrew the Shang and established a new dynasty in the eleventh century B.C., they 
borrowed certain features of Shang civilization. Lil(e the Shang, the Zhou made ceremonial bronze 
objects. Early in the dynasty, the style of these objects imitates that of their predecessors. The fangyi, or 
square yi, above, is a wine vessel made during the reign of Emperor Yi, who ruled during the ninth 
century B.C. Though relatively small, the piece is monumental in design, its square form emphasized 
by thicl{, jutting flanges and the heavy knob repeating the shape of the cover. Two large curving hand- 
les resembling elephants' trunks extend upward on either side. The ornament of this piece bears ele- 
ments of Shang style, such as the curvilinear bands, the clawli^e hooks, and the eyes; the original 
animal motifs, however, have now disintegrated into abstract patterns. The only recognizable animal 
forms, the trunklik^ handles, are never seen on Shang bronzes. A 66-character inscription appearing on 
both the cover and the vessel records a banquet given by Emperor Yi at which he was presented gifts 
and he bestowed articles of jade. 

and crafts. Some of these treasures, unearthed in the Shanghai 
area in recent decades, bear witness to the Shanghai Museum's 
involvement in and sponsorship of archaeological activity in 
and around Shanghai. 

The exhibition catalog*, prepared by the Shanghai 
Museum staff and translated into English, includes illustra- 
tions of every piece in the show and a brief discussion of each. 
Selected outstanding items in the exhibition are described 

The study of Chinese art begins with the Neolithic 
period, when ceramic making began and continued to develop 
to a remarkably high level. The hu, a tyf)e of jar, shown on the 
previous page, is a striking example of painted Neolithic pot- 
tery. The vigorous curvilinear pattern executed in black on the 
red body shows skillful brushwork. The lines sweep rhyth- 

mically around the surface of the vase and converge on a num- 
ber of dots and circles that appear to be the eyes and bodies of 
stylized birds. This hu, believed to have been made about S,000 
years ago, has been identified as of the Shilingxia type, a cultur- 
al phase generally associated with the Majiayao stage of the 
Yangshao Neolithic development in CJansu Province. 

Yutaka Mino is curator of Oriental Art at the Indianapolis Museum of Art 
and is serving as Field Museum's visiting curator for the exhibition Trea- 
sures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art 
Kalherine R. Tsiang is a lecturer in Oriental art history at the Herron 
School of Art, Indiana University at Indianapolis. 

"On sale at the Field Museum Store. $9.95 (10% discount for Members). 7 

After the Zhou period, bronze objects ceased to carry their former 
political and ceremonial weight. With the advent of iron weapons 
and tools in the late Zhou, bronze was no longer regarded as the 
source of power and imperial authority. In later centuries, when 
bronze came to be used in the manufacture of Buddhist sculp- 
tures, the art of bronze casting received renewed impetus and in- 
spiration. Introduced from China during the Han dynasty (206 
H.C.-.A.D. 220), Buddhism too^firm hold in the Six Dynasties 
Period, an era of several centuries of political disunion and social 
instability that followed the collapse of the Han empire. Buddh- 
ism became the dominant theme of Chinese art in the Six Dynas- 
ties Period, and remained dominant in the Sui dynasty (589-618), 
when China was reunited. The gilt bronze altar group of the Sui 
dynasty shoum at right is a beautiful example of Chinese sculpture 
on the eve of its fully mature stage. The figures are slender and 
natural looking, their expressions gentle and their poses graceful 
and relaxed. The central Buddha figure sits on a lotus pedestal, his 
right hand raised in the gesture of teaching. His monk's robe is 
worn over the left shoulder alone. The openwor^ halo behind his 
head has an outer ring of flames that encloses scrolling lotus plants 
among which sit seven miniature Buddha images. The two atten- 
dant bodhisattvas (beings who forego nirvana to save others) 
standing on either side are resplendent in elaborate crowns, long 
strings of jewels, and flowing scarves. In font of them are two lay 
persons, a man and a woman, probably donors. Two lions crouch 
at the front corners of the altar. The platform appears rather 
empty and, as evidenced by the holes pierced at either side of the 
Buddha, originally had more pieces attached. Comparison with 
the Sui bronze altar group in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 
(ace. no. 47.1407-1412) suggests that the Shanghai group, too, is 
lively to have been a representation of the Amitabha Buddha in 
his Western Paradise. 

Continued on p. 20 


Coal ball peel through the stem of an extinct fern (Psaronius). The grew along the sides of the stem. Middle Pennsylvanian, West 
small circles in a flattetied ring are sections through roots which Mineral, Kansas. (Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 


The Inside Story on Fossil Plants 

by Peter R. Crane 

Assistant Curator of Paleobotany 

Department of Geology 

. he seventeenth-century English scientist Robert 
Hooke is generally credited with the invention of the 
microscope and the first use of the term "cells" to 
describe the tiny compartments he observed in a thin 
sliver of cork. Hooke's observations w^ere at a very 
cursory level, but to him goes the distinction of not 
only awakening an interest in the internal structures 
of plants and animals, but also of providing the most 
basic of tools by which they could be studied. 

Using Hooke's microscopes, his contemporaries 
Marcello Malpighi and Nehemiah Grew laid the 
foundations of the science of plant anatomy. Three 
hundred years later the study of plant cells and the 
Hssues they comprise has taken its place as an inte- 
gral part of modem botanical science. The informa- 
tion these studies provide is crucial to understanding 
plant architecture and design, plant growth and de- 
velopment, and botanical systematics and evolution. 
In short, knowledge of plant anatomy is fundamental 
to understanding how plants work. The internal 
structures of plants of the past are equally important 
for paleobotanists in their attempts to develop a "fos- 
1 sil botany," and help us to understand not only how 


Fossil seedlings from the Paleocene of Alberta. These seedlings 
were produced by an extinct plant closely related to the living kat - 
sura ("CercidiphyllumX which grows today in Japan and central 
Chirm. The specimens show pairs of seed leaves (cotyledons) about 
3 mm long. The seedlings are preserved in fine mud exactly where 
they were growing almost 60 million years ago. (Photograph cour- 
tesy R. A. Stockey, University of Alberta.) 

Scanning electron micrograph of a pollen grain isolated from a 
Middle Eocene fossil catkin. The pollen is about 0.025 mm in 
diameter and is extremely similar to that of modern birch (Betula). 
Approximately 50 million years old. Princeton, British Columbia. 
(Photography by Ron Wibel and the author.) 

fossil plants are interrelated, but also something of 
the way that they functioned and grew as living 

One of the common fallacies of paleontology is 
that plants do not generally "make good fossils." It is 
an idea that comes easily to those whose mental im- 
age of fossils is one of snails, clams, and trilobites, but 

nothing could be further from the truth. It is true that 
plants lack the obvious hard internal or external 
skeletons of many animals, but some plant parts may 
be extremely resistant to degradation. For example, 
the complex polymer which forms the outer wall of 
pollen and spores is one of the most indestructible 
and chemically inert of all biologically produced sub- 
stances. Pollen and spores can be extracted from fos- 
sil flowers or cones, and the cells of leaf and stem 
surfaces can often be observed on fragments of the 
waxy plant covering, the cuticle. Fossil cuticles can 
be isolated from even some of the more uninspiring 
of plant fossils. 

Under the most favorable circumstances, howev- 

An aggregate of coal balls encased in a matrix of coal. Middle 
Pennsylvanian, approximately 300 million years old. West Miner- 
al, Kansas. (Photo courtesy R. W. Baxendale.) 

Scanning electron micrograph of the inner surface of a cuticle iso- 
lated from a Paleocene fossil leaf (approximately 60 million years 
old). The specimen shows the cells around a pore (stoma) which 
regulated the exchange of gases between the leaf tissues and the air. 
(Photography by Ron Wibel and the author) 

er, much more of the anatomy of fossil plants can be 
studied, particularly if the plants became embedded 
in minerals before they were substantially decom- 
posed or crushed. These types of fossils are termed 
"petrifactions," or "permineralizations." They can 
faithfully preserve the plant and all its anatomical de- 
tails in three dimensions. The most common minerals 
which preserve fossil plants are calcium carbonate, 
silica, and iron pyrite. Each of these minerals pene- 
trates the plant cells in solution and subsequently 
precipitates due to subtle changes in chemical con- 
ditions. The detailed chemistry of the petrifaction 
process is complex and not fully understood, but the 
result is analogous to embedding parts of living 
plants in wax or artificial resin before preparing thin ] i 

\ / 

Peel made horn a silicified Middle Eocene peat using hydrofluoric 
acid to etcn away the rock matrix. The specimen shoivs a section 
through a cone, and twigs of a fossil pine tree (Pinus). The tiny 
triangles are sections through pine needles. Princeton, British 
Columbia. (Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 33258) 

sections for microscopic examination. Thin sections 
of wax and resin can be cut with a sharp blade, but for 
fossil plants that are almost literally "turned to 
stone," paleobotanists have to rely on alternative but 
equally straightforward techniques. 

One of the most common types of plant fossil 
petrifactions is the "coal ball." This consists of masses 
of fragmentary plant debris embedded in a matrix of 
calcium carbonate. These calcareous nodules typical- 
ly occur in coal seams that were deposited in an area 
influenced by the sea or adjacent to marine deposits; 
the ultimate source of the calcium carbonate is gener- 
ally thought to be the shells of molluscs and other 
marine animals. The mineral dissolves from these 
shells into the groundwater and later is precipitated 
in and around plant debris. 

Coal balls were first described from the Lan- 
cashire coal field in 1855 by two pioneers of paleobo- 
tany, Edward Binney and Joseph Hooker. In North 
America they were discovered much later, in 1923, 
when Adolph C. Noe, a faculty member at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago and a Field Museum research asso- 
ciate, recognized them in some of the coals from 

The preparation technique used by Binney, 
Hooker, Noe, and everyone who studied coal balls 

Coal ball peel through the pollen producing structure (Dolerothe- 
ca) of an extinct seed-fern. Each tiny circle is a section through a 
single pollen sac. Middle Pennsylvanian, Berryinlle, Illinois. 
1 2 (Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 23470) 

Longitudirml section through the Middle Pennsylvanian fossil 
seed Lagenostoma ovoides. The specimen is about 5 mm long 
and was prepared from a coal ball around the turn of the century 
using the thin-section technique. Lancashire coal field, Englatul. 
(Photo courtesy R. W. Baxendale.) 

Continued on p. 18 


Field Museum of Natural History 
West Entrance 

Saturday, November 19, 10:00am-5:00pm 
Sunday, November 20, 10 :00am- 5 :00pm 

Gomis, a Ceylonese doctor. Featurea n r^^e * 'rn. The Work of Gomis. 

A special invitation to 
L explore the rich diversity 
of world culture on film. This 
year's festival consists of 
almost 50 films grouped by 
twelve subject areas: I. Papua 
New Guinea; II. A Woman's 
Place; III. We Call It Home; 
IV. Art and Expression; V. 

Uniquely U.S.; VI. Irish 
Peasantry — Yesterday and 
Today; VII. Possession and 
Curing; VIII. Yanomamo — 
The Fierce People; IX. 
Balinese Healing; X. Native 
Americans; XI. All In a Day's 
Work; XII. Cultural Ecology. 

Filmmaker Timothy Asch 
introduces his new releases A 
Balinese Trance Seance, Jero on 
Jero — A Balinese Trance Seance 
Observed, The Medium is the 
Masseuse: A Balinese Massage, 
and Jero Tapakan — Stories in 
the Life of a Balinese Healer. 
Each film deals with the life 
and work of a female spirit 
healer in central Bali. On 
Sunday, Timothy Asch and 
Napoleon Chagnon, chairman, 
Department oiAnthropology, 
Northwestern University, 
discuss the relationship 
between filmmaker and 
anthropologist that must 
occur in order to produce 
ethnographic documentation. 
A Father Washes His Children, 
Children's Magical Death, The 
Ax Fight, and /I Man Called 
Bee were all produced by 
Chagnon and Asch while they 
were studying the rich and 
complex lives of the Yanoma- 
mo people in southern Vene- 

Films are screened by subject 
area in James Simpson 
Theatre, Lecture Hall I, and 
Lecture Hall II. Selected films 
may be requested for a second 
screening on Sunday, in Lec- 
ture Hallll, fi-om 1:30 to 
5:00pm. The festival schedule 
is suDJect to change. The cou- 
pon on page 16 should be 
used to order tickets. A film 
schedule accompanies the 
tickets mailed to purchasers. 
Complete film notes will be 
available at the festival. Call 
(312)322-8854 for details. 


Saturday, Novemberl9 

James Simpson Theatre 

I. Papua New Guinea 

Go<(odala: A Cultural Revival 
(58m) Chris Owen, 1982, DER. 
This film examines the implications 
of the Australian colonial era for the 
Gogodala people of the Fly River 
Delta, western Papua New Guinea. 

To Find the Baruya Story: Maurice 
Godetier's Work with a New Guinea 
Tribe (58m) Allison and Mark 
Jablonko, 1982, Cultural and 
Educational Media. 
Portrays the work of Maurice Gode- 
lier among the Baruya — a tribe 
famous for its salt-making economy. 

Angels of War (54m) Andrew 
Pike, Hank Nelson, Gavan 
Daws, 1982, Filmakers Library, 
New York. 

The horror of World War II is 
recalled by the peaceful people of 
Papua New Guinea. (Not recom- 
mended for children.) 

1:30-4: 30pm, 

James Simpson Theatre 

II. A Woman's Place 

Yes Ma'am (48m) Gary Goldman, 
1980, Filmakers Library. 
A fascinating study of sociology, 
southern culture, and labor and race 
relations portrayed by black domes- 
tics employed in the stately old 
houses of New Orleans. 

Women in China (27m) Betty 
McAfee, 1978, Educational 
Development Center. 
Betty McAfee explores a worker's 
villa in Shanghai where ninety per- 
cent of the women work and every 
type of job is available to them. 

The Veiled Revolution (25m) 
Marilyn Gaunt, 1982, 
Icarus Films. 

Egypt was the first Arab country 
where women marched to take off 
the veil. Today the granddaughters of 
these original feminists are returning 
to traditional Islamic dress. 

Wliere Did You Get That Woman 
(28m) Loretta Smith. 

An affectionate portrait of an aging 
washroom attendant who thrives on 
the social stimulation atTordcd by 
her job. 

Great Grandmother (29m) Anne 
Wheeler and Lorna Rasmussen, 
New Day Films. 
A story of the courageous women 
who settled the western plains, with 
reenactments of records left in di- 
aries, archival photographs, and 
interviews with frontier women. 

Lecture Hall I 

III. We Call It Home 

Finnish-American Lives (47m) 
Michael Loukinen, 1982, 
Northern Michigan University. 
Within the context of Finnish- 
American social history, this documen- 
tary explores the personal meanings of 
ethnicity, intergenerational relation- 
ships, and family farm life. 

Shannon County: Home (A Portrait of 

the Ozarks) (67m) Robert Moore, 

1982, Veriation Films. 

The first of two films about life in a 

remote Ozarks county in southern 


American Chinatown (28m) 
Todd Carrel, 1981, UCEMC. 
A story of conflicting values, a tale of 
tourism, commercialization, historic 
preservation, and the struggle of a 
powerless people to retain their sense 
of community. 

Lecture Hall I 

IV. Art and Expression 

The Art of Haiti (26m) 
Mark Mamalakis, 1982. 
Haiti, the poorest country in the West- 
ern hemisphere, was the setting for a 
dynamic art movement created by 
unschooled painters which has 
attracted international attention. 

The Performed Word (58m) 
Gerald Davis, 1981, Center for 
Southern Folklore. 
A view of black religion in a cultural 
context. From teens on skates to blues- 
men in clubs, the film examines a wide 
variety of performance situations and 

relates them to Afro-American religious 

Anatomy of a Mural (15m) 

Rick Goldsmith, 1982. 

Documents the creation and completion 

of a large mural painted on the face of a 

Latino community cultural center in San 


Cave of the Painted Hands (14m) 
Jorge Preloran, 1981, 
New Dimensions Films. 
The film traces the "discovery" of the 
southern Argentine native cultures by 
Magellan to the rich, diverse cave paint- 
ings in Patagonia. 

Nellie's Playhouse (14m) 
Linda Armstrong, 1981, 
Center for Southern Folklore. 
She turned her house into a playhouse 
and her yard into a sculpture garden 
filled with giant purple cloth hands, 
huge dolls, and a host of found objects 
transformed into art. 

Lecture Hall I 

V. Uniquely U.S. 

Garlic Is as Good as Ten Mothers 
(30m) Les Blank, 1983, 
Flower Films. 

"Three nickels will get you on the sub- 
way, but garlic will get you a seat." — 
Yiddish slogan from New York. A thor- 
oughly delightful film on the history, 
consummation, culture, curative pow- 
ers, and culinary art of eating garlic. 

Hush Hoggies Hush: Tom Johnson's 
Praying Pigs (4m) 
Bill Ferris and Judy Reiser, 1979, 
Center for Southern Folklore. 
Tom Johnson of Bentonia, Mississippi, 
has spent 35 years training numerous lit- 
ters of pigs to "pray" before they eat. 

Possum Opossum (12m) 
Greg Kilmaster, 1981, 
Center for Southern Folklore. 
From poetic praise to outlandish tales, 
the town of Clanton, Alabama has 
created an entirely hilarious possum 

Hole in the Rock (12m) Pastor, 1982, 
Direct Cinema. 

A visit with a unique, cavern-like tourist 
attraction in Utah which has served as 
home, restaurant, and novelty shop. 


Salamander: A Night in the Phi Dell 
House (12m) George Hornbein and 
Ken Thigpen, 1982, Picture Start. 
Details of an annual event at a frater- 
nity on the Penn State campus are 
documented: cleaning and preparing the 
fraternity house, the ritual capture of 
hve salamanders, and concluding with a 
very unusual contest between two coeds. 

Where Oh Where Has My Little Dog 
Gone (14m) Daw-Ming Lee, 1982, 
Picture Start. 

Documents the variety of relationships 
between animal pets and their owners. 

Lecture Hall II 

VI. Irish Peasantry: Yesterday 
and Today 

Man of Aran (77m) Robert Flaherty, 
1934, UCEMC. 

The third of Flaherty's film classics is the 
account of a family's struggle for sur- 
vival on the Aran Islands off Ireland's 
west coast. 

How the Myth was Made: A Story of 
Robert Flaherty's Man of Aran (56m) 
George Stoney, 1978, Films Inc. 
George Stoney, descended from Aran- 
men. returns to the islands some 40 
years after Flaherty left, to interview 
survivors from the cast of Man of Aran. 

The Village (70m) Mark McCarty/ 
Paul Hockings, 1969, UCEMC. 
Human nature may be the same from 
China to Peru, but the life of a place is 
powerfully influenced by the shape of 
the landscape, the color of the sky, the 
sun and the rain, the history of the 

A Connemara Family (55m) Hugh 
Brody/Melissa Llewelyn-Davies, 
1983, Films Inc. 

Kate Nee is a widow of nearly 80. She 
lives on her own small farm in the west 
of Ireland. She had nine children, and 
eight emigrated to Britain or America. 
This film documents her life and the 
changes she has seen occur in the Irish 

Lecture Hall II 

VII. Possession and Curing 

Tourou et Bitti (8m) Jean Rouch, 
1967, Centre National de la Recher- 
che Scientifique. 
Possession dance orchestras which 
accompanied traditional possession 
dances in the Songhay Zarma are be- 
coming more and more rare. An inter- 
esting aspect of this film is that it was 
shot in a single sequence. 

The Work ofGomis (48m) Yvonne 
Hanneman, 1972. 
Gomis, a doctor in southern 
Ceylon, practices methods of heal- 
ing thousands of years old. This 
film documents a 30-hour series of 
ceremonies in which Gomis, with 
dancers and artists, attempts to ex- 
orcise a man's illness. 

Eze Nwata: The Little King (30m) 
Sabine Jell-Bahlsen, 1983.' 
Eze Nwata is a personal documentary of 
the life of a young Igbo man, about his 
journey to the Nigerian capital, Lagos, 
and his clash with the modern world, his 
mental breakdown, and ultimate return 
to a traditional life-style. 

Sunday, Novem 

James Simpson Theatre 

VIII. Yanomamo: 
The Fierce People 

The Yanomamo Myth ofNaro as Told 

by Kaobawa (22m) 

Napoleon Chagnon/ 

Timothy Asch, 

1975, DER. 

Yanomamo headman Kaobawa related 

his version of a creation story. In the 

myth, jealousy and treachery among 

brothers leads to the creation ot Hekura 

spirits and the origin of harmful magic. 

A Father Washes His Children (13m) 
Napoleon Chagnon/ 
Timothy Asch, 1974, DER. 
Dedeheiwa, a shaman and headman in 
his village, takes nine of his children to 
the river where he washes them careful- 
ly and patiently. 

Children's Magical Death (8m) Napo- 
leon Chagnon/Timothy Asch, 
1974, DER. 

A group of Yanomamo Indian boys 
emulate their fathers by pretending to be 
shamans, blowing ashes (make-believe 
drugs) into one another's nostrils, danc- 

ing, chanting, and falling "unconscious" 
from their etTorts. 

The Ax Fight (30m) Napoleon 
Chagnon/Timothy Asch, 1975, 

The Ax Fight records a fight which 
breaks out in the village of Mishimishi- 
mabowei-teri atter a conflict between a 
man and a woman, but is really con- 
cerned with interlineage tension. 

A Man Called 'Bee': Studying the 
Yanomamo (40m) Napoleon 
Chagnon/Timothy Asch, 1974, 

Documents the field work as an anthro- 
pologist studies the Yanomamo tribes of 
Venezuela and Brazil over an 8-year 
period, concentrating on the growth and 
classification of tribes, individual mem- 
bers, and the layout of the villages. 

James Simpson Theatre 

Napoleon Chagnon, Timothy Asch dis- 
cuss the relationship between anthropo- 
logist and filmmaker 

1:30-5:00 pm, 

James Simpson Theatre 

IX. Balinese Healing 

Filmmaker Timothy Asch introduces a 
four-part series of films about Jero Tapa- 
kan, whose personal accounts of pover- 
ty, mysticism, madness, and humility 
toward her calling share a commonality 
with accounts of many Balinese healers. 

A Balinese Trance Seance (30m) 
Timothy Asch, 1982, DER. 
Bringing offerings of rice, flowers, and 
woven coconut leaves, clients visit Jero 
in her household shrine to determine the 
cause of their son's death. 

Jero on Jero: A Balinese Trance Seance 

Observed (17m) Timothy Ash, 1982, 


The anthropologist and filmmakers of 

"A Balinese Trance Seance" return to 

Bali with a videotaped copy of the film 

and record Jero's reactions to it. 

The Medium is the Masseuse: A 
Balinese Massage (30m) Timothy 
Asch, 1982, DER. 

Balinese spirit mediums often have spe- 
cialties in addition to their abilities to 
contact ancestral spirits. Jero practices 
every third day as a masseuse. 


Jero Tapakan Stories in the Life of a 
Balinesf Healer (25m) Timothy 
Asch, 1982, DER. 
Jero recollects her earlier poverty and 
despair as a tarmer, and how she fled her 
home and wandered for years as a ped- 
dler in the countryside. 

The Water of Words (30m) Timothy 
Asch, 1983, DER. 

This film explores the poetry and ecolo- 
gy of the lontar (Borassus) palm on the 
eastern Indonesian island of Roti, a tree 
that provides the mainstay of the 
Rotinese diet. 

Lecture Hall I 

X. Native Americans 

Sun Dagger (59m) Albert Ihde, 1983, 
Bullfrog Films. 

One of the most important early Indian 
discoveries in North America, "the dag- 
ger," a celestial calendar, is made by 
artist Anna Sofaer. 

Summer of the Loucheux (28m) Linda 
Rasmussen, 1983, Tamarack Films. 
Four generations of the Andre family of 
the Yukon and Northwest Territories 
provide vivid recollections of life at the 
turn of the century. 

Cave of the Painted Hands (14m) Jorge 

Preloran, 1981, New Dimensions 


See Art and Expression, section IV. 

Corn of Life (19m) Donald Coughlin, 
1983, UCEME. 

Documents the traditional actions asso- 
ciated with corn, which is still a part of 
Hopi Indian family and community life. 

Haudenosaunee: Way of the Longhouse 
(13m) Robert Stiles, 1982, Icarus. 
Haudenosaunee describes the detailed 
and interrelated code of principles and 
concepts, known as the Great Law of 
Peace, which underlies the traditional 
Haudenosaunee culture and way of life. 

1:00-5:00 pm. 
Lecture Hall I 

XI. All In a Day's Work 

Yes Ma'am (48m) Gary Goldman, 
1982, Filmakers Library 
See A Woman's Place, section II 

Japan Inc: Lessons for North America 
(28m) Kaole Lasn, 1981, National 
Film Board of Canada 
Organization, discipline, and produc- 
tion in Japan are on a scale not known in 
any other country in the world. How 
this was achieved and how it is main- 
tained are documented in this absorbing 
study ofjapanese government, business, 
and industry. 

Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle 
(55m) Paul Wagner, 1982, Bench- 
mark Films 

The history of the pullman porters and 
the growth of the black pullman porters' 
union as told by the porters themselves. 

Coalmining Women (40m) Elizabeth 
Barret, 1982, Appalshop Films 
Coalmining Women traces women's sig- 
nificant contribution to coal field strug- 
gles, and the importance of their new 
position as working miners. 

Lecture Hall II 

XII. Cultural Ecology 

Water of Words: Cultural Ecology of a 
Small Island (30m) Timothy Asch, 
1983, DER. 
See Balinese Healing, section IX. 

The Turtle People (26m) Brian 
Weiss/James Ward, 1973, B & C 

The coastal Miskito of eastern Nicara- 
gua were sustained for over 350 years 
by the green sea turtle. Today they pur- 
sue the turtle not for food but for the 
cash it will bring them. Soon, the drasti- 
cally depleted turtle population will 
provide the people with neither cash 
nor food. 

The Fragile Mountain (55m) Sandra 
Nichols, 1982. 

The Himalayas are the highest moun- 
tains on earth; they are the lands of eter- 
nal snows, the home of the gods, the site 
of Shangri-la. They are crumbling away 
due to overpopulation and deforestation. 
Whatever action is taken will affect half 
a billion people of the wide Gangetic 
plain of India and Bangladesh. 

To Find the Baruya Story: Maurice 
Godelier's Work With a New Guinea 
Tribe (59m) Allison and Mark 
Jablonko, 1982, Cultural and 
Educational Media. 
See Papua New Guinea, section I. 

Lecture Hall II 

Selected films will be screened a second 
time by special request. 

Sixth Annual Festival of Anthropology on Film 



I'honc: Daytime 

n Member 


n Nonmctnber 

Members: one day: S6.00; series: SIO.OO 

Nonmembers: one day: SV.OO; series: $12.00 

Students with current college I.D. are admitted at Members' prices. 

Saturday only D Sunday only D Entire Series D 

Number of Tickets Requested 

Member Nonmember 

Amount enclosed _ 

. (check payable 
to Field Museum) 

Please use West Entrance for free admission to Museum. Confirmations are 
mailed upon receipt of check. If coupon and check are received one week or less 
before the program, reservations are held in your name at the West door. Please 
include self-addressed, stamped envelope. Mail to: 

Film Festival/Education Department 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Field Museum Calendar for 1984, 
now available, features natural 
history photos from Antarctica to 
the Canadian Rockies. SV-/ x 11", 
spiralbound. Order now for im- 
mediate delivery: $4.95, postpaid 
(10% discount on 25 copies or 
more). Please make check payable 
to Field Museum. Send to: 
Calendar, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. 



Continued from p. 12 

PrqMiration of a leaf fragment from the fossil moss Proto- 
sphagnum showing the complex arrangement of cells. The darker 
cells were about 0.05 mm long and probably involved in photo- 
synthesis. The lighter cells were probably filled with water in life. 
Permian, approximately 250 million years old, Kouznetsk Basin, 
U.S.S.R. (University College London Collection, photo by the 

for nearly seventy-five years, involved preparing ex- 
tremely thin rock sections. The method consisted of 
cutting a very thin sliver of rock, gluing this to a glass 
microscope slide, and then carefully grinding the sec- 
tion until it was sufficiently thin and transparent to be 
examined under the microscope. It was an extremely 
laborious technique that required considerable skill, 
but it produced extremely fine results. 

The information from such preparations dramati- 
cally increased our knowledge of coal forest plants. 

Coal ball peel through two sporangia of a Middle Pennsylvanian 
fern, showing the sporangium wall and spores inside. Each spore 
is about 0.03 mm long. Middle Pennsylvanian, Mahaska County, 
Iowa. (Photo courtesy R. W. Baxendale.) 

18 . 

Coal ball peel through the leaf of Cordaites, an extinct relative of 
living conifers showing extremely fine preservation of the internal 
tissues. The leaf would have been about 1 mm thick. Middle Penn- 
sylvanian, Lovilia, Iowa. (Photo courtesy R. W. Baxendale.) 

but perhaps had an even more fundamental effect on 
the "nitty-gritty" of how paleobotany was done. The 
subject was transformed from one of arms-length 
contemplation to one which came to grips with fossil 
plants and sought to extract information from even 
the scruffiest and most unpromising material. The 
technique did however have a major weakness: sim- 
ply that much of the fossil plant and much critical in- 
formation was lost during the cutting and grinding of 
preparation. It was totally impossible to prepare a 
series of closely spaced "serial" sections through a 
single specimen. Such series are crucial to an accurate 
three-dimensional reconstruction of the fossil plant. 

These problems were solved by James Walton, 
who developed a new and elegant technique which 
he first described in a brief paper in Nature in 1928. 
Walton was the first to recognize the importance of a 
simple fact: if a smooth surface of a petrifaction is 
etched with dilute add, then the acid preferentially 
dissolves only the rock matrix, leaving tiny ridges of 
the plant cell walls protruding from the surface. For 
calcareous coal balls, dilute hydrochloric add is used 
for etching, and the plant cell walls are almost un- 
affected by this treatment. Walton then poured a thin 
layer of a cellulose-based liquid onto the etched sur- 
face. This dried into a thin, flexible film to which the 
cell walls projecting from the etched surface became 
attached. The film could then be "peeled" from the 
rock surface, bringing with it the cell walls, and pre- 
serving the fine details of the tissues, cells, and occa- 
sionally even subcellular details of the petrified fossil 

Walton's technique was based on the simplest of 
observations, but it was a major advance in paleobo- 
tanical technique, which revolutionized the study of 

plant petrifactions. The "peel technique," as it came 
to be called, was further modified in 1956 by the intro- 
duction of cellulose-acetate sheet. Instead of pouring 
the peels in liquid form, the etched surface is flooded 
with acetone, and the cellulose-acetate sheet is care- 
fully lowered into position. The acetone dissolves the 
lower surface of the sheet and allows it to become 
attached to the projecting cell walls before being 
peeled in the customary way. The effect of this mod- 
ification was to permit a peel to be taken from the 
same spedmen every twenty minutes, rather than 
once a day with the poured method. 

The modified peel technique is the basis for our 
detailed understanding of many fossil plants, and has 
been adapted and refined to allow the extraction of 
spores and other plant parts for scanning or transmis- 
sion electron microscopy. It has also been used to 
study petrifactions in silica and iron pyrite where 
hydrofluoric or nitric acids are used for etching. 
Whatever the matrix, the peel technique is uniformly 
straightforward, and its elegant simplidty has a fas- 
dnation all its own. From the botanical perspective it 
gives us the inside story on ancient fossil plants, pro- 
viding some of our most useful insights into the life 
and times of plants of the past. D 

Fossil spore CElaterites triferens) extracted from a Middle Penn- 
sylvanian coal ball by R. W. Baxter, University of Kansas. This 
spore was produced by a plant similar to living horsetails (scour- 
ing rushes, Equisetum). In living spores the construction of the 
appendages (elaters) makes them curl and uncurl in response to 
changes in humidity. This may contribute to efficient dispersal. 
The three elaters on this fossil spore were still capable of this re- 
sponse after fossilization for over 300 million years. What Cheer, 
Iowa. (Photo courtesy R. W. Baxendale.) 



Continued from p. 9 

High -fired glazed ceramics were first made by the Chinese in the 
early Bronze Age. By the Song dynasty (960-1279) the long, con- 
tinuous development of ceramics culminated in some of the finest 
u>orl(s of art ever produced in this medium. The union ofrefmed 
glaze and body material, highly skilled craftsmanship, and a 
sophisticated and serene aesthetic sensibility can be seen at left in 
the unusual Yaozhou vase ivith three feet. Yaozhou, in Shaanxi 
Province, ivas an important center of ceramic production in the 
north. During the Song dynasty, Yaozhou was l{nown chiefly for 
the manufacture of celadons (ceramic ware notable for pale blue 
to pale greenish color) with carved decoration. The vase has a 
round body tapering gradually upward toward the nearly cylin- 
drical necl{. The nec/( is decorated with two rows of carved petals, 
the lower part of the body with a large leaf scroll. The soft 
greyish-green glaze, pooling into the carved recesses, enhances the 
decoration. The vase is supported on three aninwlfeet that issue 
from the mouth of three leonine heads attached to the lower part 
of the body. 



The square ding, right, was carved from a single rhinoceros horn 
during the Oing dynasty (1644-191 1 A.D.). It was modelled after 
bronze prototypes of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, has straight 
ears, a deep belly, and rests on four flattened legs. FrettwrJ^ sur- 
rounds the rim; dragons and animal mas/(s ornament the body, 
while dragon designs decorate the foot. The magnificent decora- 
tion is distinguished for its virtuosity Height: 18.4 cm. (7'A in.). 

The rectangular pillow at left, with polychrome decoration of a 
phoenix inflight, is an example ofCizhou type ware, a popular 
ceramic ware manufactured at numerous l(ilru in northern China 
from the Northern Song dynasty (960-1127) on. The distin- 
guishing characteristic of this large group of ceramics is the use of 
a dressing of white slip on the clay body. Many different methods 
were employed in the decoration ofCizhou type ware. On this 
pillow, the outlines of the decoration have been incised into the 
white slip, and the areas within the lines have been filled with 
green, red, and yellow lead glaze. Ceramic pillows were quite 
widely used from the Song through the Yuan dynasties. This one, 
dating from the Jin dynasty (1115-1234), is impressive for its bril- 
liant coloring and unusual size. 



The manufacture ofblue-and-white porcelain — porcelain 
painted under the glaze with cobalt blue pigment — is believed to 
have begun in the Song dynasty (960-1127) . The Yuan dynasty 
meiping, a type of vase (left), has a high, rounded shoulder and 
nearly straight sides that taper totvard the foot. The ornament is 
arranged in three principal bands. In the upper band, four "cloud 
collar" windows enclose egrets and mandarin ductus among lotuses 
on a ground of overlapping waves. In the middle band are large 
peony blossoms among scrolling branches and leaves, and around 
the lower part of the vase is a row of lotus petal panels. Such fine 
porcelains are Ifpown to be the product ofl{ilns in Jingdezhen, 
Jiangxi Province. The jingdezhen /(ilns emerged as the foremost 
center of porcelain manufacture in China during the Yuan dynas- 
ty and continued to hold this position until modem times. 


Tif Shanghai Museum's outstanding collection of paintings is 
represented in the exhibition by thirty-eight masterpieces from the 
Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) dynasties. This ts the first 
time that master paintings fivm the People's Republic of China 
have been exhibited in the United States. Cf these, the painting 
"Chrysanthemums and Rocl{s," by Yun Shouping, is a fascinating 
study in contrasting techniques and styles of Chinese painting. A 
highly accomplished artist, Yun Shouping was acclaimed as the 
greatest flower painter of his generation. He is considered one of 
the six Orthodox Masters of the early Qing dynasty. The chrysan- 
themums in this worl(^ are painted in bright colors without the use 
ofin^ outlines, a method l^nown in China as "boneless." Close 
attention is given to detailed, accurate representation and subtle 
shadings of color. The roc/(s, on the other hand, are painted in inl( 
only their crumbly forms depicted with sparsely applied short 
strol(es and dabs of the brush. Their rough, stretchy quality malfes 
the polished elegance of the chrysanthemums all the more striding. 
At the top of the painting, the artist has irucribed a poem of his 
own composition: 

Confronting these yellow flowers, I am silent and speech- 

The flowers' branches reach toward me as though with 

Each leaf of the lean stalk carries the breath of frost. 

Each petal of the numerous flowers holds the brightness 
of autumn. 



Alaska Natural History Tour 

June 1984 

Experience the Great Land. Descriptions 
of Alaska are filled with superlarives — a 
state more than twice the size of Texas 
with a popularion less than that of Den- 
ver, 3 3,000 miles of coastline, 119 million 
acres of forest, 14 of the highest peaks in 
the United States culminating in Mt. De- 
nah (formerly Mt. McKinley), at 20,320 
feet, the highest in North America. Alaska 
is equally a land of wildlife superlarives, 
from her great herds of caribou to swarm- 
ing seabird rookeries to surging salmon in 
migrarion. When one thinks of Alaska one 
thinks of wilderness, of nature still fresh 
and undomesricated, of experiences 
dreamed of but mostly unavailable to us 
of the lower 48. 

Join us in June 1984 for an Alaskan 
odyssey through a wide range of habitats 
from the rockbound fur seal and sea bird 
colonies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping 
forest and calving glaciers of the south- 
east, to the grandeur of the Alaskan 
Range, to the fjordlike quiet and beauty 
of the inland passage. Experience Alaska 
as few have. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, 
bus, boat, horseback, and foot — whatever 
best enhances our experience. Emphasis 
will be on the land, its history, its wildlife. 
Interpretarion combined with direct ob- 
servarion will provide an enjoyment and 
quality of experience unavailable to the 
casual visitor. Whatever your interest in 
natural history — marine mammals, bird- 
ing, mountains, photography, flowers, for- 
ests, glaciers, icebergs, rivers — this tour 
will show you Alaska in all its diversity 
and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of Field Museum. 

Exact dates and rate will be 
announced. Please call or write to be 
placed on mailing list. 


January 14-27 

Visit San Jose, Cartago, Port Limon, Puer- 
to Viego, Port of Puntarenas, Monteverde 
Forest Preserve and Cloud Forest, and 
more. This tour will give you an oppor- 
tunity to explore in depth the plants and 
edible fruits of this country plus many op- 
portunities for photographing. 

Dr. William C. Burger, curator and 
chairman of Field Museum's Botany De- 
partment, has been on nine coUecring 
trips to Costa Rica, and visited many areas 
of the country. In addition to his interests 
in flowers and floras, Dr. Burger has been 
an avid amateur photographer for more 
than 30 years. Tom Economou, horticul- 
turist and botanical plant explorer will 
also join our group as co-leader. 

Tropical Marine Biology 

Exploration of Isla Roatan 

February 15-24 

Crystal clear water, magnificent coral 
reefs, and a fantasric diversity of marine 
life are characterisrics of the coast of 
Roatan, the largest of the Bay Islands in 
the Gulf of Honduras and some 30 miles 
off the Central American coast. Field 
Museum will conduct a 10-day tour to 
Roatan especially for divers that will com- 
bine superlarive diving, expert instrucrion 
in marine natural history, and an oppor- 
tunity to observe or actively participate in 
the scientific coUecring of fishes. 

An outstanding attracrion for divers 
is spectacular "drop-offs" whose tops ex- 
tend into depths as shallow as 2 5 feet. 
Leading the tour will be two ichthyolog- 
ists with more than 10 year? experience in 
the Caribbean as teachers, divers, and re- 
searchers: Dr. Robert Karl Johnson, cura- 

tor of fishes and chairman of Field 
Museum's Department of Zoology; and 
Dr. David W. Greenfield, professor of 
biological sciences and associate dean of 
the Graduate School at Northern Illinois 
University. Illustrated talks about marine 
ecosystems will be combined with field 
trips to observe habitat types. 

Accommodarions will be at the Reef 
House diving resort on Roatan. The 
all-inclusive price of $1,450 covers all 
travel, lodging, and meals at the Reef 
House, and two or three tank dives per 
day. An early indicarion of interest is sug- 


Wonders of the Nile 

January 31-February 16, 1984 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharaohs, including an 8-day 
Nile cruise aboard the luxurious Sheraton 
Nile Steamer. The tour leader is Dr. Bruce 
Williams, a disringuished U.S. Egyptolo- 
gist. Dr. WiUiams is an expert in archaeology 
and ancient history, and has recently 
helped develop a fascinaring new theory 
on the origins of the Egyprian state. He 
will travel with the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and personally 
conduct all lectures and sightseeing. High- 
lights of our tour will be the pyramids and 
Sphinx of Giza, little-visited monuments 
of Middle Egypt, KingTut's tomb, the 
holiday resort of Aswan, and a visit to 
Abu Simbel. 

For additional iMfomiatiOH on any tour, please call 
Tours MaMger Dorothy Roder at 322-8862 or write 
Field Museum Tours. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago. IL 60605. 


Shop Among 6,000 Years of CmNESE Art 

Field Museum Stores offer a selection 

of quality reproductions and other items 
related to the outstanding exhibit 

Treasures from the 
Shanghai Museum!' 

® Magnificent registered reproductions created in 
China by the workshop of the Shanghai Museum 

© Official exhibit catalogs and posters 

® A wide selection of other fine items, including 
jewelry, jmtique pieces, and wall hangings 

Field Museum 
(312) 922-9410 
Telephone orders accepted 
\aSA, MasterCard 




Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 

December 1983 

Field Museum 
of Natural History 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 


December 1983 
Volume 54, Number 11 

Board of 'Riustees 

James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
I Leo F. MuUin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Uland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 

The Scientist as Photographer 

Appointment Calendar Featuring the Photographic Art of 
Field Museum Curators Steven Ashe, William Burger, and 
Edward Olsen 


Mt. Athabaska from ridge north of icefields, Jasper National 
Park, Alberta, Canada. Photo by Steven Ashe, assistant cura- 
tor of insects. 

FieU Mianm of Natural Hittory Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. 






.he one indispensable tool of the natural history curator in the field, 
whatever his discipline, may well be the camera, a basically simple, but 
increasingly sophisticated device that provides a refinement, an exten- 
sion, an enhancement of his already considerable powers of vision and 

The camera may also be unique, among the tools of science, as an 
instrument of pleastire; for the art of picture-taking is surely as gratifying, 
for those with aesthetic ends in view, as the technology of photography is 
intriguing to the engineer or the scientist 

The photos featured in this year's calendar are a pleasurable mix of 
science and art — all the work of Field Museum curators while going about 
their various appointed tasks in the field. They were chosen for their suc- 
cess in pleasing the eye as much as for their intrinsic scientific merit 

WUliam Burger, chairman of Field Museum's Department of 
Botany, took the photos accompanying the months of March and October 
Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy, took the January, July, and Septem- 
ber photos. The remaining seven — for February, April, May, June, August, 
November, and December — were taken by Steven Ashe, assistant curator 
of insects, who also took the cover photo. D 












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