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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



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January - 1984 



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■AMILY FEATURE: Make your oy*ti Chinese Shadow Puppets, Jan. 14 and 15 

E H17MAA T FACE OF CHINA— Film Series Coming Feb. 5: Famous YUEH LUNG SHADOW THEATRE 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor : David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Allen Ambrosini 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

January 1984 
Volume 55, Number 1 



January Events at Field Museum 



The 1992 Fair: Catalyst for Chicago's Future 5 

by Willard L. Boyd, president of Field Museum 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Shadow Theatre in the Land of the Dragon 

by Jo Humphrey 



Ceramics of the Song Dynasty 16 

by Yutaka Miuo 



Why Are There So Many Kinds of Plants and 
Animals? 20 

by William Burger, chairman, Department of Botany 



Tours for Members 



25 



Our Environment 



26 



Index to Volume 54 (1983) 



27 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. 



COVER 

Procession of honor guard figurines. Polychrome pottery, Ming 
dynasty (1368-1644 a.d.). These and more than ZOO other art objects 
and artifacts are on view througli February 14 in the exhibition 
'"Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6j000 Years of Chinese 
Art." 

Organized by the Shanghai Museum of the Peoples Republic of 
China, and the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco. Principally 
funded by Control Data Corp., Sargent & Lundy, and Consolidated 
Foods Corp. 

Photo by Ron Tteta. Cover design by Allen Ambrosini. 



EVEKTS 



Winter Fun 1984 

Drive away the winter doldrums! Treat 
your children (or grandchildren) to weekend 
workshops at Field Museum during January 
and February. Young people ages 4 to 14 can 
participate in classes that range from "Dinosaurs 
— the Terrible Lizards" and "Chocolate Chip 
Geology" to "Gorillas High and Low" and "Fos- 
sil Coal Forest of Illinois." 

Special classes highlighting our current exhibit. 
'Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 
Years of Chinese Art," include "Spirits and 
Demons in Chinese Opera," "Chinese Dragon 
Robes," and "Crickets: Chinese Music Boxes." 

Anthropologists, zoologists, archaeologists, 
paleontologists, botanists, artists, and writers 
bring their talent and expertise to create new, 
informative, and creative experiences. See the 
Winter Fun brochure for a complete schedule 
or call 322-8854, Monday-Friday, 9:00am- 
4:00pm. 





Family Feature 

Chinese Shadow Puppets 

Saturday and Sunday, 
January 14 and 15, 1:30pm 
Hall 32, South, Second Floor 

Shadow puppet figures have been used in pop- 
ular Chinese theatre for over 2,000 years. 
Chinese Shadow Theatre was brought to Amer- 
ica in the 1850s by the Chinese immigrants 
who helped build the railroads and work the 
gold fields. Discover this ancient folk art by 
watching a play designed to enhance children's 
understanding of our special exhibit, 'Treasures 
from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 years of 
Chinese Art." Children can make shadow fig- 
ures from Chinese legends and join together to 
invent their own shadow play. 

This program is supported by the National En- 
dowment for the Humanities, a federal agency. 
Family Features are free with Museum admis- 
sion and tickets are not required. 

Plants of the World photo 
contest winners are on view 
in Hall 25, Second Floor. 



The Human Face of China 
Film Series 



These films explore the many faces of China — 
from acrobats in the Shensi Provincial 
Acrobatic Troupe to members of the People's 
Commune in Guangdong Province. 

January 14 and 15, 1:30pm 
One Hundred 
Entertainments 

A behind-the-scenes look at the Shensi Pro- 
vincial Acrobatic Troupe training, performing, 
and explaining their 2,000-year-old art form. 

Mind, Body and Spirit 

East and West, old and new come together in 
this exciting portrayal of China's health care 
system in action. 



January 21 and 22, 1:30pm 
It's Always So in the World 

An intimate view of urban life in China's largest 
city, Shanghai, portrays communal society in 
China today. 

Something for Everyone 

A fascinating mosaic of a People's Commune in 
Guangdong Province, pieced together from the 
daily activities of the people who share in this 
lifestyle. 

These films are free ■with Museum admission 
and tickets are not required. This program is 
supported by the National Endowment for the 
Humanities, a federal agency. 



January Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the 
world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at 
the Museum are designed for families and adults. Check 
the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete 
schedule and program locations. The programs are par- 
tially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

January 

7 11:30am Ancient Egypt. Investigate the traditions 
of ancient Egyptian civilization from everyday life to 
mummification and the promise of an afterlife. 

8 12:30pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken heads 
from the Amazon, mummies from ancient Egypt, and 
big game from Africa. 

14 1:00pm Red Land/Black Land. Focus on the geog- 
raphy of the Nile Valley and its effects upon the Egyp- 
tian people during 4,000 years of change in religion 
and culture. Examine the pharaoh's lifestyle and the 
religious practices of priests. 

2 1 2:30pm Discoveries from the Bronze Age. 
Splendid bronzes and recent tomb discoveries illu- 
minate the making of a great civilization in this slide 
lecture of Chinese treasures. 

22 12:30pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken heads 
from the Amazon, mummies from ancient Egypt, and 
big game from Africa. 

2:30pm China 's Great Wall and the Silk Road. 

Slide lecture takes you on a journey, west along the 
Great Wall and the caravan roads. Travel back to Chi- 
na's ancient capitals and follow the course of 
empires, arts, and faiths. 

29 12:30pm Journey Through China. Enjoy the sce- 
nic beauty and romance of today's China in this slide 
lecture which carries you from the modern cities of 
Shanghai and Suzhou to the ancient imperial capital, 
Xian. 

2:30pm Arts and Inventions of China. Explore 
the cultural and technological achievements of class- 
ical China in a slide lecture of magnificent art forms 
and ingenious inventions. 

These weekend programs are free with Museum admis- 
sion and tickets are not required. 




Coming Next Month 

Yuch Lung 
Shadow Theatre 

Sunday, February 5 
1:00pm and 2:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 



Shadow, theatre is a performing art more than 2,000 
years old. The Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre is the only 
one of its kind in the United States. The company uses 
Beijing-type figures constructed by troupe members. 
These are exact replicas of those collected in China by 
former Field Museum anthropologist Berthold Laufer in 
1902 and 1904. 

The performances feature Chinese shadow puppets ma- 
nipulated by professionals and illuminated on a screen. 
The puppets recreate stories of Chinese life and legend. 
The puppet theatre was originally designed as a com- 
munication system to convey messages to remote Chinese 
villages. In many cases this was the only connection vil- 
lage people had with the outside world. By the mid 1930s 
this traditional Chinese art form had all but disappeared. 
Ouring performances, the stories and the use of the pup- 
pets are explained. 

Because the number of seats available for each perform- 
ance is limited, advance purchase of tickets is recom- 
mended. These performances are partially funded by a 
grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, 
a federal agency. 

Members: $3.00 
Nonmembers: $5.00 

Use coupon below to order tickets. 
Fees are nonrefundable. 



Graphics by Allen Ambrosm 




Registration 


Program Title 


Member 

Tickets 

♦Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Amount 

Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 






















week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 












one-half hour before event. Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 












made only if program is sold out. 








Total 





Nai"e 



Street 



For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



City 



State 



Zip 



4 Telephone Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



The 1992 Fair: 
Catalyst for Chicago's Future 



try WillardL. Boyd 
President of Field Museum 



The following text is from an address given by Dr. Boyd 
before the Chicago Central Area Committee at the 
1992 Chicago World 's Fair Seminar on November 3 at 
the University of Illinois at Chicago. The text of an 
earlier address by Boyd on the Fair, "1992 and Be- 
yond," appeared in the March 1983 Bulletin (pp. 6-7). 

As Mr. Ayers* has repeatedly pointed out, the 1992 
Fair was conceived as a means to a greater end. That 
end is a more vigorous Chicago and Illinois; more 
vigorous economically, socially and culturally. Too 
many people are writing Chicago off as the declining 
capitol of America's frostbelt. Like the Columbian 
Exposition of 1893, the 1992 Fair is a response to a 
basic problem. The Columbian Exposition was the 
major stimulus in rebuilding Chicago after the 1871 
fire into a city of national and international con- 
sequence. Nineteen-eightythree again finds Chicago 
and Illinois facing a basic challenge. How can we re- 
tain and increase our role as a major world center? If 
that cannot be accomplished, the heyday of this city 
and this state is over. 

Our vision of this Fair must not be limited only 
to the exposition itself. Our vision must also be con- 
cerned with the future of Chicago and Illinois. We 
must build a more vigorous and humane climate in 
which people can work and live and serve the entire 
world. A universal world's fair can be a crucial factor 
in developing that vigorous and humane climate. 

The key to developing that climate is the process 
itself. As the discussion groups stressed in the April 
meeting [of the Chicago Central Area Seminar], the 
process before, during and after the Fair could be the 
greater end of which Tom Ayers speaks. 

Equality of opportunity is the foremost goal of 
our times. American democracy is becoming more 
and more participatory. We take pride in our plural- 
ism. As more diverse persons with more diverse 
points of view become effectively involved in our 
society, consensus will be more difficult to achieve. 



We must understand that challenge and argumenta- 
tion will be the norm. We must accept the fact that 
there may be more than one right solution to any eco- 
nomic or social problem. Each of us must have the 
opportunity to present his or her case in an open and 
fair forum. Given that opportunity, we must be pre- 
pared to support a resulting decision even though it 
does not initially command a cohesive majority. 

While we must, of necessity, fix Fair responsibil- 
ity on a managing board of limited size, we must also 
have a participatory process which is open-minded, 
open-ended, open to all. In doing so, we must recog- 
nize that today's eccentric ideas are tomorrow's prac- 
tical solutions. Too often, planning is a straight line 
projection of the present without regard for unfore- 
seen and ever-changing circumstances. It is a con- 
servative process which defends the present. Econo- 
mic and social vitality require new ways and new 
ideas which involve risks. We must be venturesome 
even though we are captives of our own experiences. 

As we look to the Fair and its residuals, we must 
be concerned with the development process. The De- 
partment of Commerce environmental scoping hear- 
ing and the ultimate impact statement are one means. 
The Mayor's Committee hearings have been another. 
As the city and state governments now move to the 
forefront of the planning process, the Fair Authority 
must be designed to encourage participation and at 
the same time recognize that there must be closure on 
issues after a reasonable period of time. 

Much of the process discussion currently focuses 
on creating and financing the Fair. Of greater impor- 
tance is the process needed to address the impact of 
the Fair and the site on nearby neighborhoods and the 
entire city and state. 

The Fair offers the opportunity to create an 



*Thomas G. Avers is chairman of the Executive Committee of 
Commonwealth Edison Company and chairman of the Chicago 
World's Fair— 1992 Authority. 5 



urban planning process which reflects the needs of 
diverse citizens. In planning for diverse uses, new 
patterns can be developed so that urban planning mis- 
takes are not repeated. More importantly, a planning 
and implementation process must be designed to 
assure that there are no losers. Development must not 
mean displacement. We have the opportunity to 
show that Chicago and Illinois can lead in the next 
century in humane concerns as well as commerce. 

In recent years, Chicago's Center City Planning 
has focused on the north Loop and the near-north 
side. The Fair will focus attention on the south Loop 
and the near south and west communities. The resi' 
dents of these areas reflect the many circumstances 
and aspirations of all Chicagoans. The apprehension 
of these neighborhood residents was reflected in the 
hearings before the Mayor's Committee. On the one 
hand, they are supportive of the Fair. On the other 
hand, they are concerned about what the con- 
sequences will be for them before, during, and after 
the Fair. 

City government, the private sector, both profit 
and not-for-profit organizations, and neighborhood 
residents must now formulate a planning process so 
that the citizens of these neighborhoods will be ben- 
eficiaries, not victims, of the Fair. Diverse commercial 
and housing requirements must be met. In doing so, 
we can imaginatively pursue energy conservation, 
efficient transportation systems, and other urban 
needs. A planning process should emerge which 
could set a pattern for other neighborhoods to use in 
meeting other needs. 

There must also be a planning process which 
looks to the use of the south lakefront site after the 
Fair. How can the site be designed to achieve the most 
significant permanent residuals. Only San Francisco 
and Rio de Janeiro can rival the beauty of our lake- 
front. But even they cannot rival Chicago in public 
access and public use of the waterfront. And yet since 
1933, we have destroyed Daniel Burnham's* concept 
of a great south lakefront: (a) we have built an air- 
port; (b) we have built an outer drive which chops up 
the park from Field Museum south to McCormick 
Place and further isolates the south lakefront from 
the Loop and the neighborhoods to the west; and (c) 
we have increased the use of Soldier Field and 
McCormick Place without regard for the impact on 
other lakefront uses. 



*Daniel H. Burnham (J846-1912) was an architect and city plan- 
6 ner and chief planner of the World's Columbian Exposition. 



The 1992 Fair gives us the opportunity to recre- 
ate Daniel Burnham's park. It can become a neighbor- 
hood park. To make it a neighborhood park, we must 
physically tie the south lakefront to the south and 
west neighborhoods. Our south lakefront can also be 
a park for the entire city, state, and indeed, the nation, 
in much the same way as Ontario Place on the To- 
ronto waterfront has become the pride of all Canada. 

The 1992 World's Fair affords us the opportun- 
ity to redesign the south lakefront, to make it into a 
pedestrian park, and to provide expansion space for 
existing and future cultural institutions and to give 
us a central gathering place for all Chicagoans. This 
area can become Chicago's front yard and the state- 
wide gateway for increasing visitors and con- 
ventioneers. Residents and tourists alike will be able 
to bring their families for the day to the south lake- 
front as they now go to Lincoln and other parks. This 
site can be both a neighborhood and a national park 
unrivaled in beauty and public access. 

And yet, there is no process now in place to 
accomplish these ends. To do so requires the joint 
planning of the Chicago Park District, the World's 
Fair Authority, the affected institutions, the nearby 
neighborhoods, and include the over-all city and state 
point of view. Coordinated planning can be under- 
taken which will assure mutually harmonious de- 
velopment for park district sports, McCormick Place, 
and the cultural institutions. We must develop 
pedestrian campuses for the cultural and sports areas, 
provide adequate parking, and assure the space for 
the Park District, McCormick Place, and the cultural 
institutions to develop in support of each other rather 
than to the detriment of each other as they are now 
developing. 

A redesigned lakefront resulting from the Fair 
must also be oriented to the west as well as to the 
north and south. It must be integrated into the city. In 
addition to good public transportation to the Loop, 
there must be direct east/west access. Access from 
the west must encompass automobiles, public trans- 
portation, and pedestrian needs. Over time we must 
build community land bridges across the Illinois Cen- 
tral tracts. 

An east/west access is vital to the success of the 
Fair. It is essential to the long-term future of the near 
south and west communities and the lakefront. 

Too often we think of the lakefront on a north/ 
south axis. If we look at it on an east/west axis, we see 
a major corridor of vital neighborhoods, and of educa- 
tional, research, and cultural institutions. Starting in 



Grant Park with what has been described by histo- 
rian Carl Condit as "the largest, oldest and arch- 
itecturally most-impressive cultural center in the 
United States," we move to the south Loop where 
within four blocks of the Goldblatt Building there are 
27,000 students enrolled in institutions of higher 
education, further west lies the University of Illinois 
at Chicago, beyond it the health center of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical 
Center and Cook County, on to Brookfield Zoo, the 
Naperville research route, and Fermi Laboratory. 
The areas involved are important and diverse neigh- 
borhoods with additional educational and cultural 
institutions. Our vision of the next century must in- 
clude this east/west strength. Our vision will be lim- 
ited by today's experiences and finances, yet our 
vision must allow for future generations. 

The physical legacies of the 1992 Fair, while 
tangible, must be based on intangibles. These under- 
lying intangibles should be those you espoused as the 
theme of the Fair: interdependence, the inter- 
relatedness of people and nature, the recovery and 
rediscovery of our city and of our neighborhoods. 
How can these fundamental themes be exemplified in 
a Fair? 

What is the "Age of Discovery?" To what ex- 
tent are we going to celebrate the Columbian Quin- 
centennial in 1992? Are we tied to Columbus and to 
the times between 1492 and now? To what extent is 
the Fair a means to our future? 

In 1992, the state of Florida will commemorate 
"the discovery." Already they are involved in 
archeological digs at St. Augustine and in the Carib- 
bean to ascertain the impact of Columbus's arrival 
and with it the Spanish influence in the New World. 
Ironically, the influence of the discovery of the New 
World commenced in 1492 but not until 1493 for the 
Old World when it learned of the discovery. We 
need also to remember that the first people to come to 
North America came across the Bering land bridge 
and were here to welcome Columbus. Will we exam- 
ine how the 1492 discoverers treated the residents of 
this New World? Indiana University has organized a 
major center for the Columbian Quincentennial 
which will serve as a clearing house for observances 
throughout the country. That center suggests that the 
Columbian focus might well be on life in the New 
World between 1492 and 1776, since we have only 
recently marked the bicentennial of the United States 



and will soon do the same for the United States Con- 
stitution. 

We should join with the Spanish to look for- 
ward to a new age of discovery. Our Fair must serve 
as a world marketplace of ideas and ideals for the 
twenty-first century. It must be more than a showcase 
for high tech and space exploration, more than a 
financial success. The Fair must deal with our lives as 
we live them in the neighborhoods of the world. 
Theme pavilions can complement national pavilions 
as they do now at Epcot. Yet, too often Epcot resorts 
to psychodelic lights to depict the future rather than 
thoughtfully; Kraft, on the other hand, addresses the 
future with its land pavilion and its experimental 
greenhouse. In 1992, we must get beyond the episodic 
nature of "Future Shock." The Fair itself can have a 
lasting impact on all who attend. As in the case of the 
earlier two fairs, it can educate and entertain for a 
lifetime. 

The Fair can be a time for cerebration as well as 
celebration. During the next century, human initia- 
tive and human creativity must be fostered. The 1992 
World's Fair needs to tap the talents and aspirations 
of people everywhere. This can be done sim- 
ultaneously on the Fair site and in the neighborhoods 
of the world. It can be done in Fair buildings; it can be 
done in neighborhood halls; it can be done at home by 
television and computer and we can be linked across 
the planet by satellite. 

Chicago, Illinois, and the Middle West are 
second to no place in the world of talent. For exam- 
ple, the greatest concentration of the nation's 
research universities is in the Middle West, not on 
Route 128 or in Silicon Valley. It is up to us to demon- 
strate that Chicago, Illinois, and the Middle West are 
an international center of human talent second to 
none. During 1992, a series of discovery seminars and 
congresses is being planned which will bring together 
the talent of the world under the auspices of Chicago 
and Illinois host institutions. We can rivet the atten- 
tion of the world on Chicago as a place of creativity, 
as a place concerned with the future. 

Only eight and one-half years remain before the 
Fair. We have much to do within that brief time. We 
have the opportunity to demonstrate to the world 
through the Fair, the discovery congresses and 
through the tangible and intangible residuals that we 
are still pioneers and that discovery is our never- 
ending frontier. □ 



Shadow Theatre 

In the Land of the Dragon 



by Jo Humphrey 




HoHsien-ku, one of eight immortals; from Sichuan. Collection 
of Field Museum. Photo by Jo Humphrey. 



Shadow theatre is an exotic performing 
art that reflects its mysterious Asian heri' 
tage. Its animated figures have universal 
appeal as they act out age-old legends on 
a back'lit screen. 

The exact origin of this art form is impossible to 
pinpoint, but it probably began with simple hand 
8 shadows cast on a cave wall by the light of a flicker' 



ing fire. Because of its popularity in many Asian and 
Mideastern countries, from the Pacific to the 
Mediterranean, shadow theatre may very well have 
begun independently and concurrently in a number 
of regions. 



Jo Humphrey is director ofThe Tueh Lung Shadow Tlieatre, }ac\- 
son Heights, A[eu' Tor\. 



Some scholars believe that shadow theatre had 
its beginnings in the area where the most intricate 
style of figures are to be found; the longer history, 
they propose, would have allowed for greater de- 
velopment. According to such reasoning, China 
may well have been the country of origin. 

The first written reference in China to such use 
of shadow images was in the second century B.C. 
The Emperor Wu Ti is said to have been so grief- 
stricken over the loss of his favorite concubine that 
he could no longer carry out his imperial duties. To 
ease the emperor's sorrow, a court magician created 
a shadow figure of the deceased, projecting it on the 
wall of the imperial garden pavilion. The shadow 
was so lifelike, according to the account, that the 
emperor's grief was assuaged. 

Like other Asian shadow traditions, those of 
China were originally associated with religious 
rituals. The shadow was thought to be one's soul 
and shadow figures were supposedly inhabited by 
departed spirits. Even today there is an aura of mys- 
ticism in shadow theatre, and as those experienced 
in this art form will attest, the figures sometimes 
seem to have a will of their own. 

According to Chinese scholars, the first sha- 
dow figures were an outgrowth of papercutting, 
paper having been invented in China long before it 
was known in the West, and decorative papercut- 
ting having predated the development of shadow 
theatre. Silhouettes made of paper performed at 
night on a wall or side of a tent, illuminated by a 
torch. In time, figures moved behind a screen where 
their shadows were cast by an oil lamp. Jointed fi- 
gures were created, making possible more action, 
though the figures remained black silhouettes. 

By the twelfth century, the figures were being 
made of translucent animal skins — from sheep, 
donkeys, cows, even fish — that seemed to glow 
against the light. Further color was provided by 
means of vegetable dyes; modern figures are colored 
with ink. 

For the Chinese there was a clear distinction 
between puppetry and shadow theatre. The two art 
forms did, in fact, originate independently, the 
former from three-dimensional sculpture, the latter 
from two-dimensional graphics. Shadow theatre is a 
ritualistic event as well as an educational and enter- 
taining experience. Even in modern-day shadow 




Figure of deer, possibly from Southwest China, 18th century. 
Collected by C.F. Bieber in the 1930s and donated to the 
Field Museum collection. Photo by Diane Alexander White 
and David Rundell. 



theatre we can see remnants of ancient ritual, such 
as greetings from gods and immortals as intro- 
ductions to performances. 

The hips, arms, and legs of all figures are 
jointed, and the limbs moveable. The head is detach' 
able so that costumes may be changed; but in 
accordance with ancient supersitition, heads must 
be joined with bodies only during performances so 
that a character does not come alive except in the 
hands of the man or woman who manipulates it. 
The same superstition prevails in China's puppet 
and marionette theatres. 

This forerunner of modern audiovisual media 
spread over the length and breadth of China. Some 
general features of the art form were to be found in 
all regions. Unlike Western drama, characters in 
Chinese shadow theatre were, for the most part, 
types rather than realistic figures endowed with 
individual personalities. But there are exceptions to 
this, which include certain supernatural such as the 
Monkey King, a common character in traditional 
dramas. 

Stylized, idealized facial characteristics were 
provided only in the carved profile. Comic charac- 
ters had white circles around their eyes. Characters 
with complex personalities or supernatural powers 
had painted faces. Those who dwelt in heaven had 



Backstage of 

shadow theatre. 

Photo by Evelyn 

Mei-huang. 


AJfl 












A. \. 



uncarved features. Audiences could readily disthv 
guish between almond-eyed heroes and round-eyed 
villains. 

Costumes and headdresses represented specific 
periods, the most common being of the Ming 
and Qing dynasties; these were carved in 
three-quarters view. Perforations accented design 
details. Officials wore so-called "jade belts" — large 
hoops about their waists. Generals had four flags on 



Left to right: Mo Li-hai, one of the four heavenly kings. Wang Chi-chen, female figure in "The White Snake. " Ts ing She. the Black Snake in 
"The White Snake. " Chung-li Ch 'uan, one of the eight immortals. All in the collection of Field Museum. Photos by Diane Alexander White 
and David Rundell. 




**m 





Four generals of heaven. East-city type figures (painted face characters). Gest Collection of Princeton University. Photo by Jo 
Humphrey. 



their backs. Southern warriors wore pheasant 
plumes in their helmets. Proper ladies had small, 
bound feet while those of peasant women remained 
unbound. 

Performances were invariably accompanied by 
music. Each region of the country developed its par- 
ticular style of music as well as its own distinctive 
type of figure and performing tradition. Three basic 
traditions of shadow theatre are still being per- 
formed: Western, Southern, and Eastern. 



The Western tradition (Yueh Qing) is close- 
ly allied to operatic forms of the Western regions of 
China, and the music is the same as that of local 
operas. Shadow theatre of these Western regions, in 
fact, is known as the "little opera." The 26-inch-high 
figures from the western province of Sichuan 
(Szechuan) are some of the largest, while those of 
Shaanxi (Shensi) and Shanxi (Shansi) Provinces, 
just northeast of Sichuan, include some of the small- 
est. Western figures consist of 14 or 15 separate 



YUEH LUNG 
SHADOW THEATRE 

Sunday, February 5 

Two Performances: 1:00pm and 2:30pm 

James Simpson Theatre 

Members: $3.00 

Nonmembers: $5.00 

To order tickets use coupon on pase 4 



11 




The White Snake. West-city type figure, carved by Yu Dze-an 
in 1850s. Collection of Field Museum. Photo by Jo Humphrey. 



parts, including jointed hands, removeable hats, and 
beards of real hair; the faces have very rounded fea- 
tures and the outlines remain uncolored. 

Three rods are used to manipulate these figures. 
A central control rod is attached across the shoul' 
ders, with the handle coming off the back. The other 
two rods are attached to the first joint of each hand. 



The Field Museum has an extensive collection of 
Sichuan and other Western'Style figures, collected 
for the most part by former Field Museum curator 
Berthold Laufer during his 1910-12 expedition to 
China. Some of these are on permanent view in 
Hall 32. 

The Southern, or Chien Chao, tradition was 
centered mainly in the coastal provinces of Fujian 
(Fukien) and Guangdong (Kwangtung) and in the 
inland province of Hubei (Hupeh). In the beginning, 
Chien Chao was used only for religious rituals, in- 
cluding funerals and exorcisms. In use until about 
1900, Fujian shadow figures were supplanted then 
by so-called "shadows in the round," represented by 
an exquisite form of horizontal rod puppet. Fujian 
culture came to what is now the island of Taiwan 
(formerly Formosa) over 400 years ago, and the Fu- 
jian shadow tradition has continued to survive in 
the city of Tainan, in the southern part of the island. 

Southern figures are controlled by two rods, 
have fewer parts than most others, and only one 
moveable arm. There are various methods of rod 
attachment in these figures, the most common being 
the so-called "Fujian style," in which the rods are 
horizontal. One rod is attached through the top of 
the arm and shoulder, the other through the hand 
and wrist. 

The Eastern, or Beijing, shadow theatre 
tradition was centered in the cities of Luanchou 



Spotted deer. 

Collection of 

Field Museum. 

Photo by Diane 

Alexander White 

and David 

1 2 Rundell. 









^Mgf Jjifli Egfej 








 7 

m • 






Scene from "Romance of Three Kingdoms. " Photo by Jo Humphrey. 

and Laoting in Hebei (Hopei) Province. In these 
cities guilds of craftsmen made shadow figures for 
many troupes. Possibly the oldest of the three tradi' 
tions, the Eastern developed out of storytelling. 

Figures of the so-called east-city type, formerly 
made in Luanchou but now made primarily in Tang' 
shan, are 10 to 12 inches high. The black outline of 
the face emphasizes the long, sloping forehead and 
oval nostril. The eyebrow sweeps in a large arc that 
joins the outside corner of the eye with the fore- 
head. 

One of the largest collections of the east-city 
type is at the American Museum of Natural History, 
in New York City. This set was collected by Bert' 



Emperor and concubine; West-city type figures carved by 
Yu Dze-an in 1850s. Collection of Field Museum. Photo by Jo 
Humphrey. 

hold Laufer between 1902 and 1904 before taking up 
his curatorial post at Field Museum, which also has 
a good representation of this type in its collection. 
Laoting was the home of the west-city type, 
which is slightly larger than that from Luanchou — 
14 to 16 inches high. The eyebrows arch sharply into 
the straight forehead. Nostrils are not joined with 
the uncolored outline of the face. Perforations are 
more rounded than those of the east'city figures. 
The Lederschaft Museum in Offenbach, West Gep 
many, has one of the largest collections of west'city 
figures, but in the Field Museum collection are 
several rare figures of this type made by Yu Dze'an, 
a craftsman of the mid'1800s. In east-city as well as 



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Lion figure. 
Collection of 
Field Museum. 
Photo by Diane 
Alexander White 
and David 
Rundell. 1 3 




Left to right: Tu Ti, a local god disguised as a comic old man; East-city type figure made by Liu Chi Lin. Hsu Hsien (White Snake s 
husband) made by Hsien Yang Arts and Crafts Factory Shaanxi Province in 1982. Fan Li-hua, female general, with her husband. 
Shi Ting-shan; East-city type figures made by Liu Chi Lin of Beijing Arts Factory. All figures from the collection of Jo Humphrey. 
Photos by Jo Humphrey. 



west-city type figures the control rod is attached 
to the front of the collar and additional rods are 
attached to each hand. 

Modern techniques in the Eastern shadow 
tradition were developed in Changsha, Hunan 
Province, in the 1940s. New figures with modern 
clothes 'were created to represent contemporary 
themes. Folk tales were rewritten to express Maoist 



ideology. Then, during the Cultural Revolution of 
the 1960s and 1970s, shadow theatre was virtually 
annihilated. After the Cultural Revolution the 
theatre flourished anew and a number of shadow 
players began rebuilding their troupes. They pat- 
terned figures and stages after the Hunan style, 
which was the only one to survive the turbulent 60s 
and 70s. Figures and shadow screens were enlarged 



Scene from "The 

Mountain of 

Fiery Tongues. " 

Photo by 

4 Jo Humphrey. 




to accommodate larger audiences. Older traditions 
were also revived, thanks to surviving shadow mas' 
ters (those in charge of troupes or who operated 
their own one-man theatres) and craftsmen. 

Today there are at least 15 professional troupes 
that tour China, using newer-size figures illumin- 
ated by banks of fluorescent lights. Hundreds more 
semiprofessional and amateur troupes perform in 
almost every province. Only Xizang (Tibet) and the 
predominantly Moslem province of Xinjiang (Sin- 
kiang) in extreme Western China have no shadow 
theatre. 

Until recently, shadow theatre was the only 
Chinese performing art to use realistic scenery. Part 
of the enjoyment of watching a performance is to see 
the stories unfold in beautiful settings. Lovers meet 
in moonlit gardens, battle strategies are planned in 
elegant war tents, and plots are hatched behind red 
pillars carved with dragon motifs. 

Shadow dramas reflect the whole scope of 
Chinese literature — folk tales, religious epics, and 
historic sagas. The typical shadow troupe had a rep- 
ertoire of several hundred plays. Each shadow mas- 
ter interprets the literature in his or her own unique 
way, whether operatic or spoken. Audiences could 
often request their favorite plays. In The Legend of 
the 'White Sna\e a couple meet their fate in a drama 
illustrating Buddhist and Taoist principles. Dashing 
knights pit their military skills against invaders from 
other kingdoms in episodes from the great historical 
novel A Romance of the Three Kingdoms. During the 



The 

mischievous 

Monkey King, 

rendered in 

modern 

Changsha style. 

Collection of 

Jo Humphrey. 

Photo by 

Jo Humphrey. 




Yuan dynasty (1271-1368) plays such as The Orphan 
ofChao and Autumn in the Han Palace were 
adapted for the shadow stage. Authors of other dra- 
mas of the same period wrote specifically for the sha- 
dow theatre. These plays often deal with social 
issues. A Ming dynasty novel, Journey to the 'West, 
provided numerous plots involving the mischievous 
Monkey King. His free spirit is symbolic of the 
unlimited potential for education and entertainment 
that Chinese shadow theatre offers. □ 



Scene from "The Fisherman's Revenge." Photo by Jo Humphrey 





Ceramics of the Song Dynasty 

(A.D. 960-1179) 



by Yutaka Mino 

Photos courtesy of the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco 
except where noted 




Stoneware bowl, jun ware. Jin dynasty (1115-1234 ad). Height 8.9cm. Collection of the Shanghai Museum. 



16 



Oong ceramics represent a culmination in the his- 
cJtory of China's ceramic tradition, and in them we 
see a coming together of technical mastery and artistic 
sensitivity. The ceramics of this time cannot be re- 
garded as a discreet body of material which appeared 
suddenly in full perfection, but rather as a high point 
in a continuum of development and as an expres- 
sion of accumulated knowledge in the working of clay 
and glazes. 

Song ceramic bodies are generally thinly thrown. 
Shape and thickness of rim and foot and detail work 
are carefully finished. The shapes of vessels, while 
widely varied and reflecting a willingness to experi- 
ment, are controlled throughout by a highly sophisti- 
cated aesthetic sense. In contrast to the abruptly turn- 



ing and vigorously swelling outlines of Tang vessels, 
those of the Song for the most part seem quieter, more 
gently curvilinear and more stable. 

The glazes of this period are of a subtlety never 
since matched. The serene colors and textures of the 
glazes and the restrained decorations used together 
with the simple, elegant forms produce a harmonious 
and graceful entity. 

Many different methods of decoration were em- 
ployed. Carving, engraving, combing (decorating the 



Yutaka Mino is curator of Oriental Art at the Indianapolis 
Xluseum of Art and is serving as Field Museum's visiting 
curator for the exhibition Treasures from the Shanghai 
Museum: 6,000 Years of Chinese Art. 




Jizhou ware vase. Jin dynasty (1115-1234 A.D.). Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Donald 
Heller. Photo by Robert Wallace, courtesy Indianapolis Museum of Art. 



semidry clay with a comb), moulding, painting under 
and over the glaze and sgraffiato techniques (cutting 
away surfaces areas to reveal other color) including 
curving and scraping, were all used. 

The Song dynasty saw a tremendous expansion 
in production of ceramics, a phenomenon which can 



be explained by a number of developments in China 
during this period. With the reunification of China 
under the Northern Song (960-1126), government 
sponsorship of mining and metalwork spurred the 
growth of industries. Coal was exploited as an impor- 
tant fuel in the North. The demand for high-quality 



17 




Vase, porcellaneous guan ware. Southern Song dynasty 
(1127-1279 ad). Height 13.9cm. Collection of the Shanghai 
Museum. 

ceramics in the imperial court served as an impetus to 
the production of ever finer wares. Many kilns 
flourished around the area of the capital at Bianliang 
(modern Kaifeng). 

As the country increased in wealth, more people 
were able to afford fine ceramic vessels for their own 
use. Patronage spread to the landowners and scholar- 
officials and also to the growing merchant class. 
Widely varied tastes can be seen in the numerous 
types of decorations used. Shape became more fluid 
and more functional and drew away from the forms 
of ceremonial wares used for funerary or tributary 
purposes. 

The fame of Song wares spread and increasingly 
large numbers of ceramics were exported. These wares 
were produced primarily in southern China within 
reach of the seaports on the southern and southeast- 
ern coast. Many kilns were established in Fujian, 
Zhejiang, and Guangdong Provinces to supply the 
foreign trade. Port cities of Hangzhou, Ningbo, and 
Wenzhou in Zhejiang; Chuanzhou in Fujian; and 
1 8 Canton in Guangdong were lively ports which provided 



the government with sizable revenues in the form of 
customs duties. 

The porcelaneous stoneware which predomi- 
nated in the first years of the Song dynasty was Yue 
ware, produced in the state of Wuyue in southern 
China. When the King of Wuyue, Qian Shu, surren- 
dered to the Northern Song dynasty in A.D. 978, Yue 
ware was at a peak in the history of its manufacture. In 
that year many objects were made in commemoration 
of the event, and these were to have a profound influ- 
ence on the decoration of early Northern Song wares. 
Made for tribute and for the personal use of the 
Wuyue ruler, Yue ware waned in importance and 
deteriorated in quality after his abdication; but it con- 
tinued to be produced well into the Song dynasty, as 
evidenced by a piece in the Percival David collection 
in London, dated the third year of Yuefeng (ad. 1081). 
The rise of Longquan kilns in the South further con- 
tributed to the decline of Yue ware and can be traced 
in the decoration of Northern Song ceramics. In the 
early period of the dynasty, deeply carved relief 
decoration can be seen on celadons (ceramic ware 
notable for pale blue to pale greenish color) from 
Yaozhou, Shaanxi Province, and Cizhou-type ware 
found at Dengfeng Xian and Jiaozuo, Xiuwu Xian in 
Henan. Slightly later pieces of Yaozhou ware were not 
as deeply caned. Another important northern celadon 
ware, produced at Linru Xian, Henan Province, con- 
sisted mostly of moulded and stamped pieces. Ding 
ware, which originated in the late Tang, was essential- 
ly a plain white ware w ith bluish-white glaze. In the 
early Song it, too, was carved, at first quite deeply and 
later more lightly. Moulded and stamped decorations 
also appear on later Ding ware. This interesting paral- 
lel in the development of the different types of ware 
shows that their development was not altogether dis- 
tinct one from another, as might easily be inferred 
from the fact that they came from separate kilns. 

The development of other ceramic wares pro- 
duced in the North was not influenced by Yue ware. 
For instance, Jim ware, first manufactured in the 
Northern Song period, was produced at a number of 
kilns, notably that at Yu Xian in Henan Province, and 
reflects no southern influence. 

In the South many kilns grew up to feed the for- 
eign market. After the court moved south to Linan 
(modern Hangzhou), ceramic production received an 
added stimulus. Just before the withdrawal from the 



North, during the reign of Huizong (1101-25), the 
manufacture of ceramics had flourished along with 
other areas of artistic and cultural achievement. 
Under Huizong the highly acclaimed Ru and North- 
ern Guan wares were perfected. After being driven 
south by the Jurchens and reestablishing the capital at 
Hangzhou in 1127, the Emperor Gaozong ordered the 
construction of new Guan kilns on the outskirts of the 
capital at Xiuneisi and later at Jiaotanxia. 

Potters from the North were also imported to the 
South. The influence of northern shies is apparent at 
Jizhou kilns in southern Jiangxi.* Feng Xianming, of 
the Palace Museum of Beijing, has pointed out the 
possibility that porters from the kilns producing 
Cizhou type ware went to Jizhou potteries. The latter, 
in turn, influenced the decoration of early blue and 
white ware of nearby Jingdczhen later in the Yuan 
period. Ceramic production of both white wares 
and celadon at Jingdezhen is known to have begun 
in the late Tang period. In the Song dynasty Jing- 
dezhen was the center of production of Qingbai, or 
Yingqing, ware. 

Celadons were produced in large quantities in 
the Longquan area in southern Zhejiang Province and 
also around Chuanzhou and Dongan in Fujian Prov- 
ince. Countless thousands of pieces were exported 
to Japan, Southeast Asia, and the Near East during 
the Song dynasty and through the Ming period 
(1368-1644). 

So-called black Jian ware was made in Fujian 
Province, and developed especially in connection 
with the growing emphasis on tea bowls. It is dis- 
tinctive for its purplish brown, nearly black, body and 
the uncanny glaze effects, known as "oil spot" and 
"liare's fur," induced during firing. Large numbers of 
Jian tea bowls were sent to Japan. 

After 1127, as the center shifted to the South, the 
North saw a decline in the previously high standards 
of ceramic craftsmanship. Kilns continued to operate 
but their products were cruder, appealing more to pop- 
ular tastes and needs. This trend continued into the 
Yuan dynasty (1171-1378), when ornament of a more 
forceful and naturalistic character appeared. 

In many areas of artistic and cultural activity, the 
Song dynash' was a highly productive period with ele- 



"The finest assemblage of Jizhou ware outside of China is to 
be found in the collection of Field Museum. 




Porcelain plate with molded design of dragon and clouds; 
ding ware. Northern Song dynasty (960-1127 ad). Diameter 
23.3cm. Collection of the Shanghai Museum. 

vated artistic standards and sophisticated tastes. The 
ceramics of this period embody those qualities in their 
simple, elegant shapes and luminous monochrome 
glazes. Technique, though highly developed, was sub- 
ordinated and controlled by a restrained sense of 
beauty. Virtuousity was never displayed for its own 
sake, as is often the case in later Chinese ceramics. D 

Porcellaneous vase with pierced ears; ge ware. Southern 
Song dynasty (1127-1279 ad.) Height 10. 1cm. Collection of the 
Shanghai Museum. 




19 



Why Are there So Many Kinc 



by William Burger 

Chairman, Department of Botany 

Photos by the author 



In 1959 G. Evelyn Hutchinson, noted authority on 
freshwater life, published a scientific paper titled 
"Homage to Santa Rosalia, or why are there so many 
kinds of animals?" Hutchinson had visited Sicily, where 
he had come upon the shrine of Santa Rosalia. Below the 
shrine in a small pool he found and collected two species 
of water beetles, one somewhat smaller than the other. 

The discovery of these beetles coexisting in the 
same small body of water set him to thinking and even- 
tually led to his writing the article. Few scientific papers 
ask the really big questions (fewer still are dedicated to 
saints), but Hutchinson's article proved to be especially 
stimulating and has been followed by a great number of 
studies and articles devoted to aspects of the question he 
raised. No matter where one looks, whether in a midwest- 
ern prairie, a deciduous forest, or a tropical rain forest, 
the world seems incredibly rich with different kinds of 
plants and animals. 

How can we approach such a broad subject as spe- 
cies diversity or. to be a bit more precise, species richness? 
Perhaps the simplest way is to divide the broad question 
into two that are more narrowly phrased: (1) how do a 
great many species manage to live together in the same 
biological community, and (2) what factors caused such 
diverse communities to come into being? The following 
discussion concentrates on the first question; we can leave 
the second question for another time. 

Among the many points made by Hutchinson in his 
article was that life on land far outnumbers the species of 
plants and animals living in the oceans. Despite the fact 
that our planet's surface is only about 30 percent land, 
perhaps 80 percent of all species are terrestrial. Beetles 
alone number over a quarter-million named kinds, and 
since the vast majority of these and other insects are 
terrestrial, it is easy to account for the relatively large size 

A prairie meadow at Illinois Beach State Park. Many prairie 
plants flower for only a few weeks over the May-to-September 
flowering season, thus reducing competition for pollinating 
20 insects. 



mf^:'^ 






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4. Wry' : &. ' 



1:* 



. 



'*W 



of Plants and Animals? 




. » M . . . 




of the land biota. A more fundamental reason for this dis- 
parity is that the land surface has a far greater variety of 
habitats than does the ocean. Within the medium of 
ocean water, there is nothing equivalent to the seasonally 
dry habitats or the great variety of temperature and rain- 
fall patterns that prevail on land. The ocean, further- 
more, is continuous; there are no totally separate parts. 
The land, on the other hand, is fragmented and dis- 
continuous. There is no marine biota as distinctive as the 
land biota of Australia. In any event, we do no injustice to 
the topic of diversity by confining ourselves to life on 
land; that is where the greatest numbers occur. 

Even confining the discussion to land communities 
22 gives us a multifaceted problem. The late plant ecologist 



Robert Whittaker suggested that we keep separate the di- 
versity we find in a particular woods or prairie or moun- 
taintop from the diversity we encounter as we move from 
one kind of habitat into another. It seems easy to under- 
stand that different species will inhabit only swamp, or 
woodland, or open field. It is the local diversity of a single 
habitat, which he called 'alpha diversity,' that merits our 
attention. How is it that a great many species seem able 
to live together in the same habitat at the same time? 

Careful studies by numerous biologists have given 
us a partial answer to this question: many species may be 
living together, but they are not utilizing the same re- 
sources in the same way. The disparity in size of the two 
water beetles found by Hutchinson in the little pool indi- 



^■WtV 





cated that they were utilizing the resources of that pool in 
different ways. Similarly, lions, leopards, cheetahs, and 
the smaller cats of the African plains tend to hunt differ- 
ent classes of prey and hunt in different ways. Also, many 
species are specialists. The chemical defenses of the 
monarch butterfly's caterpillar can detoxify the chemical 
defenses of its food plant, the milkweed; one rarely finds 
the monarch caterpillar feeding elsewhere and one rarely 
finds other kinds of caterpillars chewing on milkweeds. 
Though it is often difficult to see, many plants are best 
adapted to a particular soil type, type of exposure or 
climatic zone. 

In addition to utilizing different resources or differ- 
ent microhabitats, plants and animals can also divide the 



Open grasslands in East Africa support a great variety of 
large mammals. Different ways of utilizing the vegetation and 
different ways of hunting allow diverse herbivores and 
carnivores to share the same habitat. 

year amongst themselves. Plants of our prairies avoid 
competition for pollinators by dividing the flowering sea- 
son. One cannot appreciate the flowers of the prairie in a 
single visit; every few weeks new species come into 
bloom as others finish their period of flowering. In the 
evergreen tropics such flowering periodicity can occur 
throughout the year or take place in very irregular inter- 
vals over a number of years. But the message is the same: 
it is the division of resources, in time as in space, that 
allows many plants and animals to share the same 
environment. 

Little animals provide many fine examples of divid- 
ing the habitat. We ourselves are sometimes inhabited 
by two species of lice; their names tell us where to look 
for them: the head louse and the body louse. Many 
insects feed exclusively on certain plant parts with the 
same selectivity as animal parasites. It has been estimated 
that two common species of oak trees in England are 
essential to the completion of the life histories of 128 
different species of insects, each of which utilizes a 
particular part or parts of the oak plant in its individual 
way. 

But can we explain local diversity entirely on the 
basis of each coexisting species having slightly different 
requirements? Probably not, especially in plants which 
are passively dispersed and cannot move once they are 
rooted. As one walks through a forest rich in species of 
trees, one has the impression that most trees are not site- 
specific and that a given site, if cleared, might support 
any number of species. This is especially true in some 
tropical rain forests where as many as 300 different kinds 
of trees coexist within a few acres on similar soil and 
slope. One explanation offered to explain this richness of 
trees is that insect predators, specializing on the seeds of 
particular species of trees, destroy the seeds that have 
fallen near the parent tree, resulting in a widely scattered 
pattern of species occurrence. A few researchers have 
found support for this view; most analyses, however, 
report clumped patterns of tree species occurrence, 
contradicting the seed-predation hypothesis. In fact many 
studies have found irregular, almost random patterns of 
species distributions within these tropical forests. These 
nearly random patterns suggest that chance events may 
play an important role in the success of these tropical 23 
trees. 




Milkweed plants 
are protected by 
chemical toxins in 
their milky sap. The 
caterpillar of the 
Monarch butterfly 
is able to sequester 
these toxins; few 
other insects have 
this ability. 



Why should chance play an important role in the 
life of a giant tropical tree? It appears that in many 
instances the success of a small seedling or sapling on the 
floor of the rain forest will be determined by whether or 
not a nearby forest giant comes crashing to the ground. 
These canopy trees create light gaps when they fall, and 
being near the source of bright light may be the most 
important factor in the further growth of rain forest 
seedlings and saplings. The tree falls, which are largely 
unpredictable, may be a major reason why so many large 
trees can coexist; you don't have to be a specialist or a 
superior competitor when success is largely a matter of 
chance. A similar argument has been made for the 
diversity of some fishes on coral reefs. Unpredictable 
tropical storms can break up parts of the reef, and being 
the first to recolonize may be largely a matter of chance. 
On land, larger scale disruption, such as that caused by 
landslides or major floods, also promotes diversity by 
ripping apart mature vegetation and beginning the 
process of revegetation all over again. 

Chance disruption and unpredictable variations in 
temperature and rainfall may help explain why "superior 
competitors" haven't taken over more of the landscape. 
Without disruptive fires, many of our midwestern 
prairies would revert to woodland. Without storm and 
flood, fewer open sites would be available for pioneer 
species. We may grumble about our weather and how it 
varies, but such variation is essential to maintaining the 
diversity of life around us. If it were not for the year that 
was unusually cold, unusually wet, unusually dry, or 
unusually changeable, we might not have so many species 
24 of plants and animals living in the same environments. 



Too much disruption, however, can cause drastic 
declines in the number of species. Africa is relatively poor 
in the number of plant species, a condition that may be 
the result of a severe dry period in the past. Areas in 
Southeast Asia subject to recurrent seasonal typhoons 
(which are very similar to our hurricanes) have forests 
poorer in species than areas outside the typhoon zone. 
Likewise, excessive predation or overgrazing can cause 
severe reduction in species numbers. But smaller 
amounts of predation and light grazing activity seem 
to enhance species richness. Careful observations in 
England showed that fields decreased in plant diversity 
when rabbits were removed or reduced by disease. The 
rabbits apparently browsed some of the more vigorous 
and dominant plant species, thus allowing other plants 
to maintain themselves. The conclusion from these and 
many other similar observations is that too little 
disruption reduces diversity (the top competitors take 
over) and too much disruption also reduces diversity 
(a majority of species cannot survive). 

To sum up, the answer to our question seems to be a 
multifaceted one. Different specializations and different 
requirements allow many species to live together. In addi- 
tion, predation, disease, and minor disturbance keep the 
superior competitors in check, providing openings for 
others. All this takes place in an environment in which 
rainfall and temperature also vary, often unpredictably. 
Taken together, these many factors result in a highly 
dynamic biota, and it is these dynamic, often 
unpredictable, components that support the great 
richness of plants and animals we find in many 
environments. \Z\ 



TOURS FOR MEMBERS 



Egypt 

Wonders of the Nile 

January 31 -February 16 

' $3,375 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the Land 
of the Pharaohs, including an 8-day Nile 
cruise aboard the luxurious Sheraton Nile 
Steamer. The tour leader is Dr. Bruce Wil- 
liams, a distinguished U.S. Egyptologist. 
Dr. Williams is an expert in archaeology and 
ancient history. He will travel with the tour 
throughout, including the Nile cruise, and 
personallv conduct all lectures and sight- 
seeing. Highlights of our tour will be the 
pvramids and Sphinx of Giza, little-visited 
monuments of Middle Egypt, KingTut's 
tomb, the holiday resort of Aswan, and a 
visit to Abu Simbel. 



Alaska Natural History Tour 

June 1984 
$4,185 

Experience the Great Land. Descriptions of 
Alaska are tilled with superlatives — a state 
more than twice the size of Texas with a 
population less than that of Denver, 33,000 
miles of coastline, 119 million acres of forest, 
14 of the highest peaks in the United States 
culminating in Mt. Denali (formerly Mt. 
McKinley), at 20,320 feet. Alaska is equally 
a land of wildlife superlatives, from her great 
herds of caribou to swarming seabird 
rookeries to surging salmon in migration. 
When one thinks of Alaska one thinks of 
wilderness, of nature still fresh and un- 
domesticated, of experiences dreamed of but 
mostlv unavailable to us of the lower 48. 
Join us in June 1984 for an Alaskan 



odvssev through a wide range of habitats 
from the rockbound fur seal and sea bird 
colonies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping for- 
est and calving glaciers of the southeast, to 
the grandeur of the Alaskan Range, to the 
Fjordlike quiet and bcautv of the inland 
passage. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, bus, 
boat, horseback, and foot — whatever best 
enhances our experience. Emphasis will be 
on the land, its history, its wildlife. Inter- 
pretation combined with direct observation 
will provide an enjoyment and quality of 
experience unavailable to the casual visitor. 
Whatever vour interest in natural history — 
marine mammals, birding, mountains, 
photography, flowers, forests, glaciers, rivers 
— this tour will show vou Alaska in all its di- 
versity and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert Karl 
Johnson, Chairman of the Department of 
Zoology of Field Museum. 



Tropical Marine Biology 

Exploration of Isla Roatan 

February 15-24 

$1,450 

Crystal clear water, magnificent coral reefs, 
and a fantastic diversity of marine life are 
characteristics of the coast of Roatan, the 
largest of the Bav Islands in the Gulf of 
Honduras and some 30 miles off the Central 
American coast. Field Museum will conduct 
a 10-day tour to Roatan especially for divers 
that will combine superlative diving, expert 
instruction in marine natural history, and an 
opportunity to observe or actively partici- 
pate in the scientific collecting of fishes. 

An outstanding attraction for divers 
is spectacular "drop-offs" whose tops ex- 
tend into depths as shallow as 25 feet. 



Leading the tour will be two ichthvolo- 
gists with more than 10 years experience 
in the Caribbean as teachers, divers, and 
researchers: Dr. Robert Karl Johnson, 
curator of fishes and chairman of Field 
Museum's Department of Zoology; and Dr. 
David W. Greenfield, professor of biological 
sciences and associate dean of the Graduate 
School at Northern Illinois University. Illus- 
trated talks about marine ecosystems will be 
combined with field trips to observe habitat 
types. 

Accommodations will be at the Reef 
House diving resort on Roatan. The price of 
S 1,450 covers all travel, lodging, and meals 
at the Reef House, and two or three tank 
dives per day. 



Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 25 -June 3 

An exciting 280-mile cruise down the Col- 
orado River bv motorized rubber raft, 
camping outdoors under the stars. Dr. Ber- 
tram G. Woodland, curator of petrology, 

will lead the tour. Group limited to 25. For 
additional information call (322-8862) or 
write the Tours Office. 



Additional Tour Gems 
Slated for 1984 

• China and Tibet 

• Kenva 

• Peru 

• England's Old Inns, Old Homes, Old 
Castles, and Old Gardens. Please ask to be 
on our mailing list if any of these tours is 
of interest vou. 



For additional information on any tour, please call 
Tours Manager Dorothy Roder at 322-8862 or mite 
Field Museum Tours, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, IL 60605. 



25 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Study of Children's Attitudes 
Toward Animals 

If you think kids and wild creatures natur- 
ally go together, think again. A recent 
study among school children in Con- 
necticut suggests that, like many a love 
affair, the one between children and ani- 
mals is bittersweet, at best. The pioneer- 
ing study, sponsored by the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service and Yale University, did 
not attempt to analyze the attitudes of 
children nationally, but provides a pro- 
vocative glimpse into how our per- 
ceptions of wildlife may evolve through 
the childhood years. 

The study of "Children's Attitudes, 
Knowledge, and Behaviors Toward Ani- 
mals" was conducted by Stephen R. 
Kellert of Yale's School of Forestry and 
Environmental Studies and Miriam O. Wes- 
tervelt of the Fish and Wildlife Service. It 
included nearly 300 second, fifth, eighth, 
and eleventh grade students who repre- 
sented all major demographic and geo- 
graphic divisions within Connecticut. The 
survey was the final phase of a large, five- 
part study of Americans' knowledge and 
attitudes toward wildlife commissioned 
by the Interior Department agency. 

The survey found: 

• Like adults, the most common attitude 
among children was a "humanistic" one — 
that is, a strong affection for individual 
animals, mainly pets; 

• The "naturalistic" appreciation for wild- 
life and the outdoors was much more com- 
mon in children, especially eleventh grad- 
ers, than in adults. For example, 59 percent 
of eleventh graders indicated a preference 
for being near wild animals while camp- 
ing, against only 36 percent of adults sur- 
veyed by Kellert in an earlier study; 

• Children were just as likely to express a 
general dislike or fear of animals as that 
"naturalistic" appreciation, however. 
Younger children feared wild animals to a 
much greater degree than did older class- 
mates. 

• Children, particularly those in the up- 
per grade levels, disapproved of sport 
hunting. Like adults, they approved of 
hunting for meat, however. Fully 81 per- 
cent of eleventh graders (and 62 percent of 
adults) opposed sport hunting, while 60 
percent of all children (and 85 percent of 
adults) approved of hunting for meat; 

• Although children's knowledge of 
animals was relatively limited, in certain 
specialized areas, like insects, children 
knew more than adults. Seventy-eight 
percent of children knew that spiders are 
not 10-legged creatures, as against 50 per- 
cent of adults, for example. 

26 • There are distinct stages through which 



children's attitudes toward animals 
evolve, the authors suggest. Between 
second and fifth grades, children showed 
a dramatic increase in their concern, sym- 
pathy, and affection for animals. Interests 
in animals became less narrow and early 
childhood fears began to disappear. Be- 
tween fifth and eighth grades, factual 
knowledge about animals showed its 
greatest increase. From eighth to eleventh 
grades, children gained a deepening con- 
cern for wildlife protection, a greater 
understanding of ecological concepts, and 
a relatively high moral concern for animal 
rights and cruelty issues. 

• Girls expressed a greater emotional 
affection for animals than did boys, and 
whites had a greater general interest in 
animals, particularly wildlife, than did 
nonwhites. Boys, whites, and rural resi- 
dents possessed far greater factual know- 
ledge about animals than did groups of 
other children. 

• Most children said they go to the zoo (93 
percent), own a pet (87 percent), go fish- 
ing (87 percent), learn about animals in 
school (83 percent), feed birds (82 per- 
cent), and read about animals (76 per- 
cent). Whites were more likely than non- 
whites to participate in activities involving 
animals, in general. Rural children en- 
gaged in more domestic animal activities, 
as well a hunting, fishing, and trapping. 
Girls exceeded boys in their participation 
in onlv one activity — birdwatching. 



Sampson's Pearly Mussel 

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) 
has proposed that the Sampson's pearly 
mussel be removed from the endangered 
species list in the face of overwhelming 
evidence that the creature no longer 
exists. Originally identified and described 
in 1861, the mussel inhabited the lower 
reaches of the Wabash River in Illinois and 
Indiana, and possibly parts of the Ohio 
River in the general vicinity of the Wabash 
and Ohio confluence. It was placed on the 
U.S. list of Endangered and Threatened 
species on June 14, 1976. 

Extensive searches have failed to turn 
up a living specimen during the past 50 
years, leading to the conclusion that it is 
extinct. The mussel apparently occupied 
only gravel and sand bars, which were 
destroyed over the years by siltation that 
resulted from dredging and the con- 
struction of dams. A decline in water qual- 
ity as a result of an inflow of chemicals 
from industry and agriculture is also be- 
lieved to have contributed to the mussel's 
extinction. 



Stephen didn't think 
he needed a will. 
He was only 51.... 

Stephen intended to have his will drawn 
up someday; first, there were things to 
get done. He had no idea he would need 
a will anytime soon — before he got 
those "things" done. A will is like life 
insurance; when you need it, it's too 
late to do anything about it. 

Now, Stephen's family is facing 
unnecessary delays, confusion, and 
extra expenses in settling his estate. 

Don't make the same mistake. 
Send for our complimentary booklet 
giving all the reasons why a will is 
important and how you can plan an 
effective will. 



CLIP AND MAIL TODAY  



To: Planned Giving Office 

Field Museum of Natural History 
E. Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. 
Chicago. Illinois 60605 

( ) Please send me my free copy of "Seven 
Reasons Why Your Will is Still Important." 

NAME 



ADDRESS- 
CITY 



_STATE_ 



_ZIP_ 



I can be reached at: 
Phone: Bus. * 1 



. Res.'_J_ 



Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 54 (1983) 



Articles 



Authors 



Archaeological Reconnaisance in Southern Peru, by Charles Stanish 

and Irene Pritzker: Je 6 
Archaeology around the Shores, bv Kevin McGowan and Thomas J. 

Riley: My 20 
Athapaskan Indian Clothing in the Collections of Field Museum, by 

James VanStone: A 22 
Biennial Report for 1981-82: J/A 5 
Botanical World in Replica, The, by Michael O. Dillon and Beverly 

Serrell: S5 
Bryophyte Collecting in the Bolivian Andes, by Marko Lewis: S 11 
Clean-up for the Mediterranean, by Norman Myers: F 34 
Collecting in the Upper Amazon, by Timothy Plowman: Mr 8 
Earliest Plants on Land, The, by Peter R. Crane: O 20 
Eastern and Western Traditions in Hand Papermaking, by Timothy 

Barrett: My 10 
Ecological Studies of Tropical Cicadas, by Allen M. Young: Je 20 
El Nino: Recent Effects in Peru, by Robert Feldman: S 16 
Fuertes in Abyssinia, by R. M. Peck: A 6 
Geology and Creationism, by David M. Raup: Mr 16 
Industrial Miracle in a Golden Age, An: the 17th Century Cloth 

Exports of India, by Bennett Bronson: Ja 12 
Inside Story on Fossil Plants, The, by Peter R. Crane: N 10 
journal of Wilfred Osgood, The; intro. by Bruce Patterson: F 8 
Layman's Guide to Resources, Reserves, and Recovery, by Edward 

Olsen: Ja 8 
Patronage of Tz'u Chou Type Wares, by Yutaka Mino: My 16 
Plants of the World Photography Competition: Oil 
Plants that Lie and Cheat (Well Almost), by William Burger: F 23 
Precolumbian Murals in a Mexican Church, by Terry Stocker and 

Barbara Jackson: F 14 
Remarkable Maguey, The: Myth and Reality, by Terry Stocker and 

Barbara Jackson: S 19 
Sea Snakes: Mark, Release, Recapture, by Harold Voris, Helen Voris, 

and William B. Jeffries: O 5 
Sixth Annual Anthropology Film Festival: N 13 
Thinsections: A Natural Art Form, by Edward Olsen: A 19 
Tradition of Chado — The Way of Tea: My 8 
Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6,000 Years of Chinese Art, by 

Yutaka Mino and Katherine R. Tsiang: N 5 



Barrett, T: Eastern and Western Traditions in Hand Papermaking, 

My 10 
Bronson, B.: An Industrial Miracle in a Golden Age: the 17th Century 

Cloth Exports of India, Ja 12 
Burger, W. : Plants that Lie and Cheat (Well Almost), F 23 
Crane, P.R.: The Earliest Plants on Land, O 20 

: The Inside Story on Fossil Plants, N 10 

Dillon, M.O.: The Botanical World in Replica, S 5 
Feldman, R.: El Nino: Recent Effects in Peru, S 16 
Jackson, B.: Precolumbian Murals in a Mexican Church, F 14 

: The Remarkable Maguey: Myth and Reality, S 19 

Jeffries, W.B.: Sea Snakes: Mark, Release, Recapture, O 5 
Lewis, M.: Bryophyte Collecting in the Bolivian Andes, S 11 
McGowan, K.: Archaeology around the Shores, My 20 
Mino, Y: Patronage of Tz'u Chou Type Wares, My 16 
: Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6,000 Years of 

Chinese Art, N 5 
Myers, N.: Clean-up for the Mediterranean, F 34 
Olsen, E.: A Layman's Guide to Resources, Reserves, and Recovery, 

Ja8 

: Thinsections: A Natural Art Form, A 19 

Patterson, B. : The journal of Wilfred Osgood (intro.)/ F 8 

Peck, R.M.: Fuertes in Abyssinia, A 6 

Plowman, T : Collecting in the Upper Amazon, Mr 8 

Pritzker, I.: Archaeological Reconnaisance in Southern Peru, Je 6 

Raup, D.M.: Geology and Creationism, Mr 16 

Riley, T.J.: Archaeology around the Shores, My 20 

Serrell, B.: The Botanical World in Replica, S 5 

Stanish, C: Archaeological Reconnaisance in Southern Peru, Je 6 

Stocker, T: Precolumbian Murals in a Mexican Church, F 14 

: The Remarkable Maguey: Myth and Reality, S 19 

Tsiang, K.R.: Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6,000 Yearsof 

Chinese Art, N 5 
VanStone, J.: Athapaskan Indian Clothing in the Collections of 

Field Museum, A 22 
Voris, Harold: Sea Snakes: Mark, Release, Recapture, O 5 
Voris, Helen: Sea Snakes: Mark, Release, Recapture, O 5 
Young, A.M. : Ecological Studies of Tropical Cicadas, Je 20 



27 



s 



'HOP 

Among 

6 t ooo 

Years 

of 

Chinese 

Art 




Field Museum Stores 

offer a selection of 

quality reproductions 

and other items related to 

the outstanding exhibit 

"Treasures from the 



Shanghai Museum. 



»» 



Magnificent registered 
reproductions created in 

China by the workshop 
of the Shanghai Museum 



Official exhibit 
catalogs and posters 



I 




A wide selection of other 

fine items, including 

jewelry , antique pieces, 

and wall hangings 




Field Museum 
(312)922-9410 
Telephone orders accepted 
VISA, MasterCard 






■:,&Tr^^2&%SM 




r ifcLuiviusEUM of Natural History Bulletin 

February 1984 



\ 





^>V 






^0>V 



'•VS* 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bovven Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harrv O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



CONTENTS 

February 1984 
Volume 55, Number 2 



February Events at Field Museum 



Eskimo Art and Culture 

Coming March 10: Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea 
Eskimo and Grasp Tight the Old Ways: The Klamer 
Family Collection oflnuit Art 



Images of Yap 20 

by Robert B. Pickering 

Program Developer, Department of Education 



Sealskin Bags of Unusual Construction from the 
Bering Strait Region 23 

byjames W. VanStone 

Curator of North American archaeology and ethnology 



Field Museum Tours 



27 



Coyer 

Spirit with Young, green stone and ivory sculpture by Short}' 
Killiktee. 24.5 x 14.3 x 14.4cm. This sculpture is among 175 
contemporar}' prints, drawings, wall hangings, and other sculpture 
that will he on view at Field Museum March 10 tlirough May 27. 
Entitled "Grasp Tight the Old Ways: The Klamer Collection oflnuit 
Art," the exhibit comes from the Art Galleiy of Ontario and will be 
shown concurrently with "Spirit World of tlie Bering Sea Eskimo," 
organized by SITES, Smitfisonian Institution Ti-aveling Exhibition 
Service. See pages 5-19. 

Photo courtesy Art Gallen> of Ontario, gift of the Klamer Family, 
1978. Reproduction restricted. Copyright lield by sculptor and 
protected by Canadian Eskimo Arts Council, Ottawa, Canada. 



VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES: If you have a 
good mind for detail and can give one day a week, 
there may be a volunteer job for you in our Zoolo- 
gy or Geology department. Other volunteer oppor- 
tunities include jobs in Membership, Building 
Operations and departmental libraries. Clerical 
skills are needed in almost every area of the 
Museum. 



T 



Events 



"T 




Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre 

Sunday, February 5 
1:00pm and 2:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Shadow theatre is a performing art more than 2,000 
years old. The Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre is the only 
one of its kind in the United States. The company uses 
Peking-type figures which are constructed by members 
of the troupe. The performances feature Chinese shad- 
ow puppets maneuvered by professionals and illumin- 
ated on a screen. The puppets recreate stories of Chinese 
life and legend. During the performance, the stories and 
the use of the puppets are explained. 

Because the number of seats for each performance is 
limited, advance purchase of tickets is recommended. 
These performances are partially funded by a grant 
from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a 
federal agency. 

Members: $3.00 
Nonmembers: S5.00 
Use coupon to order tickets. 
Fees are nonrefundable. 




"African Lifestyles" — Film Series 

Africa is a land whose population has more distinct cultures than any other continent. These free films focus upon the 

diversity of African lifestyles. 



February 11, 1:00pm 

Masai: Warrior Between Two Worlds (30m) 

Traditional culture clashes with the modern world in 

this documentary ot life among the Masai of East 

Africa. 

Nawi (22m) 

During the dry season, thejie of Uganda leave their 
homesteads and take their cattle to temporary camps, 
the nawi. 

February 18, 1:00pm 

Talking Drums (17m) 

An intimate view of a master drum-carver examines the 

significance drums hold for the Ashanti of West Africa. 



Celede: A Yoruba Masquerade (24m) 
An impressive, colorful Nigerian mask dance-drama is 
enacted to combat the forces ot witches and to reinforce 
definitions of men's and women's roles. 

February 25, 1:00pm 

The Nuer (60m) 

Lite among these East African herders revolves largely 

around their cattle, supplying their basic material and 

spiritual needs. Portrayed are a bride price dispute, a 

ghost marriage, a revivalistic ceremony to combat 

smallpox, and a young man's initiation. 

These films are free with Museum admission and tickets are 
not required. Use West Entrance. 



Dance of West Africa 

Najwa Dance Corps 

Sunday, February 19, 2:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

In an exciting mixture of dance, music, drama, and his- 
tory, Najwa Dance Corps brings to you a performance 
which preserves the styles and techniques of different 
eras in African history. Najwa 1 is an internationally 
acclaimed dancer who has continued a tradition of 



teaching, performing, and artistic endeavors through 
the Najwa Dance Corps. The Corps performs the fol- 
lowing suite of dances: "Diolli" and "Saba" from Sene- 
gal; "Liendien" from Gambia; "Manjaani," a social dance 
of West Africa; and "Wolofsodun," a slave dance from 
Mali. 

Members: S3.00 

Nonmembers: $5.00 

For further information call (312) 322-8854. 



CONTINUED^ 



Events 



CONTINIKIUROMPACK:) 



February Weekend 

Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore 
the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing 
exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous 
activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend 
Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and pro- 
gram locations. The programs are partially supported 
by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

February 

5 12:00noon Traditional China. Examine the 
timeless imagery and superb craftsmanship 
represented by Chinese mastcrworks in our 
permanent collection. 

11 1:00pm Tibet Today. Slide lecture shows 
Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists, 
as well as Tibetan refugees who have carried 
their religion into the mountainous areas 
surrounding this ancient religious center. 

12 12:00pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken 
heads from the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

18 11:30am Ancient Egypt. Investigate the tradi- 
tions of ancient Egyptian civilization from 
everyday life to mummification and the pro- 
mise of an afterlife. 

25 1:30pm Himalayan Journey: A Faith in 
Exile. Slide lecture focuses upon the strong- 
holds of Tibetan refugees in India: Dharamasla 
(home of the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and 
Sikkim. 

26 12:30pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken 
heads trom the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

These weekend programs are free with Museum admission and 
tickets arc not required. 



Family Feature 

African Rhythms: A Living History 

Balm Atiha, Musician 
Saturday and Sunday, 
February 4 and 5 
12:00 noon, Hall E, 
Cultures of Africa 

The voices of African instruments sing history as well as 
music. The drum is considered essential throughout 
Africa and its sounds are often said to "talk." Babu Atiba 
is a well-known Chicago drummer who specializes in 
the music of West Africa. Join us as he shares his music 
and demonstrates such drums as the djimbc and the djun 
djun Examine the variety of horns, harps, flutes, lutes, 
and drums in our collection and learn some of the 
rhythms that are the heartbeat of West Africa's music. 

Family features are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 




Registration 


Program Title 


Member 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 






















week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 












one-half hour before event. Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum, Tickets will 












made only if program is sold out. 








Total. 





Name 



Street 



For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



dty 
4 Telephone 



State 



Zip 



Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Eskimo Art and Culture 




Bear man transformation 

Ivory 

3.81cm x 8.83cm 

Smithsonian Institution 



Two major exhibits 
On view march 10 through May 27 

INUA: SPIRIT WORLD OF THE BERING SEA ESKIMO 

from The Smithsonian Institution 



GRASP TIGHT THE OLD WAYS: THEKLAMER FAMILY COLLECTION OFlNUlTART 

from the Art Gallery of Ontario 



PHOTO BY JOEL BREGER 




Visitors to Field Museum this spring will have an oppor- 
tunity to view two interesting exhibitions of Eskimo art 
and culture which open on March 10 and close on May 27. 
They encompass a wide area of the North American arctic 
and a period extending from the late nineteenth century to 
the present. 

The first of these exhibits, curated by William Fitz- 
hugh and Susan Kaplan, originated at the Smithsonian 
Institution. It is devoted to a collection of ethnographic 
material from the coast of western Alaska made for the 
National Museum of Natural History between 1877 and 
1881 by Edward William Nelson. 

Nelson went to Alaska as a weather observer and was 
assigned to the village of St. Michael on the coast north of 
the mouth of the Yukon River. During his tour of duty he 
traveled extensively and made a superb collection of 
ethnographic specimens numbering more than 10,000 
items. These he described and illustrated in an important 
publication entitled The Eskimo About Bering Strait, pub- 
lished by the Bureau of American Ethnology of the 
Smithsonian in 1899. 

Most of the artifacts collected by Nelson have never 
before been exhibited to the public. They include exam- 
ples of the elaborate sea mammal hunting equipment 
characteristic of Eskimo culture, carefully constructed 
bentwood boxes painted with intricate designs having 
ceremonial significance, beautifully woven grass bags 
and baskets, carved ivory ornaments worn as personal 
adornment, and, most spectacular of all, the elaborate 
face masks of infinite variety which were an important 
part of the enactment of myths and stories and ceremo- 
nial presentations held in the qasig, or ceremonial house. 

The Nelson collection is the largest and most com- 
plete assemblage of nineteenth century ethnographic 
material ever made in Alaska. The exhibit includes a repre- 
sentative sample of more than 250 specimens, many of 
which are among the finest examples of nineteenth- 
century Alaskan Eskimo art. 

The second exhibit, entitled "Grasp Tight the Old 
Ways," was curated by Jean Blodgett and originated at the 
Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto. It consists of selections 
from the Klamer family collection of contemporary Cana- 



Wedge for slitting feather quills 

Ivory 

19cm 



PHOTO BY JOEL BREGEH 




Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo 

from the Edward W. Nelson Collection of 

The National Museum of Natural History/National Museum of Man 

Smithsonian Institution 

Photos courtesy Smithsonian Institution 



Float plugs 

Ivory 

6cm, 5cm 



dian Eskimo (Inuit) art. Mr. and Mrs. Harry Klamer were 
first attracted to Eskimo art more than twenty years ago 
and became enthusiastic patrons. They not only acquired 
pieces of contemporary sculpture and graphics at exhibi- 
tions, but traveled to the north to meet native artists. Their 
desire to document the accomplishments of Eskimo artists 
and to make their works known to a wider audience led 
them to donate a portion of their collection to the Art 
Gallery of Ontario in 1978. 

Most of the 175 pieces in the Klamer collection are 
contemporary prints, drawings, wall hangings, and sculp- 
tures made for sale by artists from some twenty Canadian 
Eskimo communities. Since the late 1940s and early 1950s, 
when Canadian Eskimos were first encouraged to produce 



sculpture and graphic art for a commercial market, there 
has been a tremendous increase in the interest in this 
unique art on the part of collectors, galleries, and museums 
all over the world. The Klamer collection is an excellent 
introduction to exciting art forms in which the artist's 
interpretation, although intensely personal, is rooted in the 
cultural traditions of the past. 

The Inua and Klamer exhibits can be viewed in Hall 
26 on the second floor. Authoritative and beautifully pro- 
duced catalogs are available for both exhibits. The visitor 
may wish to compare the fine examples of Eskimo art and 
material culture exhibited in Hall 26 with those in the 
museum's new permanent exhibit "Maritime Peoples of 
the Arctic and Northwest Coast" in Hall 10. FH 7 




^ 




>Q 



v 



%^\ 



t 




Food tray and ladle 
Wood with stone inlay 
35.5cm (tray), 26.5cm (ladle) 



Mask 

Wood, feathers, root lashing 

50cm 





Flying bird effigy 
Wood and feathers 
53cm 



Snuffbox 
Wood, ivory inlay 
10cm 



Male and female dolls 

Bone, skin, and fur 

17cm, 15cm 



i. \ 




Mask 

Wood, feathers, and quills 

48cm 



Seal inua (spirit I mask 

Wood, reindeer skin, fur 

29cm 



Bear inua (spirit) mask 

Wood 

30cm 





'•R*-* 



J* 





Ifl 




d 



S 



.?£& 




Caribou Head 
Green stone and antler 
bv Osuitok Ipeelee 
54.7x31.5x45. 6cm 




( hasp Tight the Old Ways: 

The K lamer Family Collection oflnuitArt 

from the Art Gallery of Ontario 

1 to* (pp. 14-19) courtesy Art Gallery of Ontario, 
Sift ol the K. lamer Family, 1978. 
leproductton restricted. Copyrights held by artists 
i protected by Canadian Eskimo Arts Council, Ottawa, Canada. 



Sea Goddess 

Dark green stone, ivory, and baleen 

by Nuveeya Ipellie 

22.5 x 26.0 x 10.9cm 




Mother and Child with Kudlik 

Dark green stone, ivory, light green stone, black stone, bone, and blacking 

by Elijassiapik 

14.0 x 21.5 x 24.7cm 



Qiviuq's Journey 

Stonecut and stencil 

by William Noah and Martha Noah 

64.0 x 94.0cm 





Hn,l with ( 'iA>'/i lul I lumage 



by Kenojuak 
50.7 - 66.3cm 




Six Birds 

Felt-tip pen and graphite 

by Kingmeata 

50.7 x 66.5cm 





Imagfes or Yap 



by Robert B. Pickering 
Program Developer, Department of Education 

Photos by the author, courtesy Nawrocki Stock Photo 



Above: Figrag, high chief of Lamaer, one of three high-cast 
villages on the island. Yap is one of the few communities out- 
side of India where a rigid caste structure remains intact. Left: 
Gravestone of Japanese soldier is silent reminder of the early 
1940s, when the island was occupied by Japanese forces. 



Yap is a 28'square'mile island in the Pacific's 
Western Caroline group and located about 
800 miles due north of New Guinea. It recently 
became a member of the Federated States of 
Micronesia. The population is about 5,000. 

In 1980, when Yap was still a U.N. Trust Terri' 
tory, I had the opportunity to visit the island for five 
months, directing a federally funded mortuary site 
archaeology project. This was part of an environ- 
mental impact study prior to the construction of a 
proposed airstrip. In the course of my research there, 
I interviewed a large number of older Yap residents 
about mortuary customs. I also came to learn a great 
deal about their life in general — ceremonial activi- 
ties, politics, and social structure, their economy, 
crafts, and other aspects of daily life that have re- 
mained little affected by inroads from developed 
parts of the world. 

The photos reproduced here offer a glimpse 
of the beauty and character of this proud island 
community. 





The girl above and the boy at left are participants in a gamel, 
or bamboo dance. A standing dance adapted from the outer 
islands in the Yap district, it is unusually vigorous and done to 
the accompaniment of bamboo sticks struck together. 



Enormous carved "wheels" of ray ni ngocol, or stone money — 
Yap 's principal claim to world renown. This form of currency is 
used, for example, to buy a wife or to compensate the family 
of someone the payer has killed. The stone is quarried in 
Palau, some 300 miles to the southwest. 





Left: Man and wife: 70-year-old Falanug and 58-year-old 
Mangayog before their neatly thatched sleeping house. 
Lower left: Basket-making can be done almost anytime, any- 
where. Using palm fronds, these men fashion carrying bas- 
kets as they wait for a dance to begin. Their nimble fingers 
can create a large basket in 15 minutes. Below: Everyone 
comes to the dance — to perform or just to watch. 




22 



Sealskin Bags of Unusual Construction 
From the Bering Strait Region 

by James W. VanStone 
Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



Traditional Alaskan Eskimo bags and baskets were 
generally made from the skins of land and sea mam- 
mals or of dried grass. North of Norton Sound (see map) 
oblong, flat bags or satchels made of caribou or sealskin, 
usually with the hair on, were designed for holding tools 
and implements of all kinds. They had slightly arched 
handles of bone, ivory, or antler stretched lengthwise 
across the open mouth of the container. 

From Norton Sound to the mouth of the Kuskokwim 
River, Eskimo women, using a simple twining technique, 
made mats and bags of dried grass. Large mats served as 
curtains to partition off part of a room or sleeping area 
while smaller ones were placed as seats in the manholes of 



kayaks. Most baskets fashioned by the Eskimos of western 
and southwestern Alaska were made by the coiling tech- 
nique and intended to contain small household items. The 
technique of coiling appears to have developed relatively 
late since coiled baskets were not offered for sale to early 
explorers. In the early twentieth century, however, Eskimo 
women made them by the hundreds in response to a grow- 
ing demand for souvenirs. 

Four sealskin bags in the collections of Field Museum 
are of special interest because of their unusual con- 
struction. These bags do not resemble any of the forms just 
mentioned nor are similar containers described or illus- 
trated in the existing literature on the material culture of 




k^A^ 



ST LAWRENCE ISLANDlV . ,«~~„ 

V~> NORTON SOUND 



BERING SEA 






.0* 



cog 





Fig. 1 



PHOTO BY RON TESTA N108076 



Alaskan Eskimos or the Eskimos and Chukchi of adjacent 
northeastern Siberia. Three of these bags were collected at 
Nome between 1900 and 1913 and purchased by the 
Museum in 1917. They are described in the catalog of the 
Department of Anthropology as "work or trinket boxes of 
skin." It is possible that they were containers for sewing 
equipment or jewelry. 

Narrow strips of tanned bleached and unbleached seal- 
skin, with the hair removed, were used in these containers. 
A detailed description of one of them will serve to make 
clear the unusual method of construction. This bag (cata- 
log No. 27727, approx. 18cm high) has a flat bottom made 
from a single piece of unbleached sealskin (fig. 1). The 
sides flare evenly and constrict near the neck with an addi- 
tional outward flare at the rim. The round sealskin lid is 
flat at the edges, raised and rounded toward the center, and 
has a vertical round knob at the top. 

The bag is constructed of 24 narrow, folded strips of 
bleached and unbleached skin with the two colors alternat- 
ing. Between each strip is a narrow welt of unbleached skin 
and the pairs of strips with intervening welts are sewn with 
sinew as shown in figure 2. The lid is similarly constructed 
of seven strips of skin separated by welts. A recessed eighth 
strip extends below the lid and fits into the bag opening. 
Figure 3 illustrates how the center section of the lid is built 
24 up to a round piece at the top. The knob consists of five 



short strips of skin, the top one being wide and the others 
narrow and separated by welts. 

Decoration on this container consists of appliqued 
pieces of tanned sealskin (fig. 1). Unbleached pieces are 
used on the bleached strips and bleached pieces on the 
unbleached strips. Some of the decorative elements are 
sewn on with a running stitch, in several places with red 
thread rather than sinew although the color is hardly visi- 
ble. Others are woven into strips in an over-under pattern. 
On some of the very narrow strips, decorative pieces, 
usually simple rectangles or squares, are simply held in 
place by the welts on either side. The lid is decorated in the 




Fig. 2 DRAWING BY ZBIGNIEWJASTRZEBSKIN109057-A 

same manner except that a very narrow strip of bleached 
skin around the rim is cut in a zigzag pattern and held in 
place by the sinew stitching (fig. 3). 

The other two bags in this group are constructed in 
much the same manner and are approximately the same 
size. The first (catalog No. 27726, approx. 18cm high) con- 
sists of a flat bottom piece of unbleached skin and 28 alter- 
nating strips of bleached and unbleached skin with inter- 
vening welts of the same material (fig. 4). The lid is made 
of nine strips which shorten toward an ivory knob at the 
top. A recessed strip extending below the lid fits into the 
bag opening. Most of the decorative pieces are held in 
place by the welts, but a few are woven into the strips in an 
over-under pattern. All sewing is with sinew. 

The third bag (catalog No. 27728, approx. 13.5cm 




DRAWING BY ZBIGNIEWJASTRZEBSK! N109056-A 



Fig. 3 



high) has a flat bottom and is constructed of 24 narrow 
strips of skin separated by welts (fig. 5). A slightly flaring 
rim is a single piece of unbleached skin folded over at the 
edge and sewn with a running stitch. All sewing is with 
sinew. There is a broken carrying strap of unbleached skin. 
The nearly flat lid consists of two pieces separated by a 
welt, with a narrow loop of unbleached skin in the center. 
All appliqued decoration on this container is held in place 
by the welts. There are also five beaded decorative ele- 
ments, spot-stitched and sinew-sewn, at intervals on a 
wide unbleached strip just below the rim of this bag. The 
bead colors are pink, white, blue, and green. 





Fig. 5 



PHOTO BY RON TESTA N1 08077 



It is interesting to speculate on the provenience of the 
three bags in this group. The fact that they were collected 
at Nome does not provide any reliable clues as to where 
they were made and used. The village of Nome was estab- 
lished by gold miners in 1898 and quickly became an eco- 
nomic center for a large area of northwest Alaska, particu- 
larly following the discovery of gold on the beaches in front 
of the community in 1902. Native peoples from Alaskan 
settlements were attracted to Nome by opportunities to 
trade with gold miners and other visitors. Handicrafts 
from even more distant areas, including northeastern 
Siberia, reached Nome through native and nonnative trad- 
ing patterns and routes. 

The style of decoration on the bags described sug- 
gests that they were made either by Eskimos on St. Law- 
rence Island or the coast of Siberia, or by the Chukchi of 
coastal Siberia. In all three areas, the use of alternating light 
and dark tanned sealskin was characteristic, as were appli- 
qued designs similar to those on the Field Museum bags. It 
would not have been difficult for a collector at Nome to 
obtain examples of St. Lawrence Island or Siberian crafts 
either directly from native visitors or as a result of trade 
networks. 

The fourth bag was collected by the Borden-Field 
Museum Alaska Arctic Expedition in 1927. It is identified 
in the catalog as a "woman's bag" and was obtained at Cape 
Prince of Wales on Seward Peninsula. Like the other three 25 



Fig. 4 



PHOTO BY RON TESTA N 1 08075 



containers, this one was probably also intended to hold 
sewing equipment, jewelry, or small household items. 

This bag (catalog No. 177780, approx. 23cm high, 
excluding strap) has a flat bottom of tanned unbleached 
sealskin and sides that flare evenly toward a slightly con- 
stricted neck (fig. 6). It is constructed from 24 narrow 
strips of bleached skin with welts of the same material be- 
tween every other strip (fig. 7). Two strips near the opening 
and the rim are of unbleached skin. Six of the strips and 
every other welt are dyed red. Additional decoration in- 
cludes three vertical strands of light blue, dark blue, and 
translucent yellow beads, spot-stitched and thread-sewn, 
which are attached at intervals around the bag; and dangles 
of blue beads toward the center of the bag between the 
vertical strands. The bag has a loop carrying strap of 
bleached skin. Sewing throughout, with the exception of 
the beaded strands and dangles, is with sinew; the bottom 
piece is attached to the lowest strip by means of a whip 
stitch. 





Fig. 7 



DRAWING BY ZBIGNIEW JASTRZEBSKI N109056-B 



Although all four bags are now stiff and inflexible, 
the strips of sealskin would have been soft and pliable 
when the containers were being sewn. After the strips and 
welts were sewn, the finished bag was turned inside out so 
that the sewing and untrimmed edges were on the inside. 
Thus, most of the appliqued decoration had to be in place 
before the bag was turned. 

Since the construction of the bags described here is 
perhaps unique, or at least extremely rare, it is difficult to 
draw any specific conclusions concerning the significance 
of these particular specimens. Although apparently rare as 
a bag-making technique, welting was used frequently by 
Eskimo women in the construction of footgear. Regardless 
of rarity, however, it would not be surprising to find bags of 
the same design on both sides of Bering Strait since hand- 
icrafts in the two areas were derived from a common heri- 
tage and a long period of cultural exchange. FM 



PHOTO BY RON TESTA N 106691 



TOURS FOR MEMBERS 



Grand Canyon Adventure 
May 25 -June 3 

Many of us have beheld the Grand 
Canyon from the rim or while flying 
overhead, and some of us have hiked 
partway down to the Colorado River. 
But there is another Grand Canyon that 
relatively few have experienced: Field 
Museum is offering you the opportunity 
to see and experience the canyon from 
the river. 

The 280-mile trip will be by two 
motorized rubber rafts. We'll sleep on 
sandy beaches under the stars and our 
meals will be excellent. Along the way, 
we'll hike to places of unusual geologic 
and anthropologic interest, sometimes 
through the most pleasant and enchant- 
ing stream beds and valleys, at times 
along the waterfalls. We'll see and 
study more geology in this one brief 
period than can be seen anywhere else 
in comparable time. Dr. Bertram Wood- 
land, curator of petrology, will be our 
tour leader. 

The trip will begin on Friday, May 25, 
with a flight to Las Vegas, where we 
will remain overnight. The evening of 
our arrival, we'll have a briefing about 
the river trip and will receive our river 
equipment. Saturday morning we'll 
leave by deluxe bus for Lees Ferry, 
where we'll board the rafts. The trip 
will end 9 days later, at Pierce Ferry, 
near the head of Lake Mead. We'll re- 
turn to Chicago, via Las Vegas, Sunday, 
June 3. 

You needn't be a "rough rider" to join 
this expedition — you needn't even 
know how to swim. Persons of any age 
can enjoy the river with equanimity, 
and come out proud and happy to have 
experienced this extraordinary adven- 
ture. 

The cost (to be announced) per per- 
son covers all expenses (including air 
fare, board fees, waterproof bags for 
gear, sleeping bags, etc.), and all meals. 
The trip is limited to 25 participants. 



Alaska Natural History 
Tour 

June 1984 
$4,185 

Experience the Great Land. Descrip- 
tions of Alaska are filled with superla- 
tives — a state more than twice the size 
of Texas with a population less than 
that of Denver, 33,000 miles of coast- 
line, 119 million acres of forest, 14 of the 
highest peaks in the United States cul- 
minating in Mt. Denali (formerly Mt. 
McKinley), at 20,320 feet. Alaska is 
equally a land of wildlife superlatives, 
from her great herds of caribou to 
swarming seabird rookeries to surging 
salmon in migration. When one thinks 
of Alaska one thinks of wilderness, of 
nature still fresh and undomesticated, of 
experiences dreamed of but mostly un- 
available to us of the lower 48. 

Join us for an Alaskan odyssey 
through a wide range of habitats from 
the rockbound fur seal and sea bird col- 
onies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping 
forest and calving glaciers of the south- 
east, to the grandeur of the Alaskan 
Range, to the Fjordlike quiet and beauty 
of the inland passage. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, 
bus, boat, horseback, and foot — what- 
ever best enhances our experience. 
Emphasis will be on the land, its history, 
its wildlife. Interpretation combined 
with direct observation will provide an 
enjoyment and quality of experience un- 
available to the casual visitor. Whatever 
your interest in natural history — marine 
mammals, birding, mountains, photogra- 
phy, flowers, forests, glaciers, rivers — 
this tour will show you Alaska in all its 
diversity and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of Field Museum. 



For additional information on any tour, 
please call Tours Manager Dorothy Roder at 
322*8862 or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at La\e Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 1L 60605. 



Tropical Marine Biology 

Exploration of Isla Roatan 

February 15-24 
$1,450 

Crystal clear water, magnificent coral 
reefs, and a fantastic diversity of marine 
life are characteristics of the coast of 
Roatan, the largest of the Bay Islands in 
the Gulf of Honduras and some 30 miles 
off the Central American coast. Field 
Museum will conduct a 10-day tour to 
Roatan especially for divers that will 
combine superlative diving, expert 
instruction in marine natural history, 
and an opportunity to observe or 
actively participate in the scientific 
collecting of fishes. 

An outstanding attraction for divers 
is spectacular "drop-offs" whose tops 
extend into depths as shallow as 25 feet. 
Leading the tour will be two ichthy- 
ologists with more than 10 years 
experience in the Caribbean as teachers, 
divers, and researchers: Dr. Robert Karl 
Johnson, curator of fishes and chairman 
of Field Museum's Department of 
Zoology; and Dr. David W Greenfield, 
professor of biological sciences and 
associate dean of the Graduate School at 
Northern Illinois University. Illustrated 
talks about marine ecosystems will be 
combined with field trips to observe 
habitat types. 

Accommodations will be at the Reef 
House diving resort on Roatan. The 
price of $1,450 covers all travel, lodging, 
and meals at the Reef House, and two or 
three tank dives per day. 



Additional Tour Gems 
Slated for 1984 

US' China and Tibet 

cs- Kenya 

is* Peru 

cs" England's Old Inns, Old Homes, 

Old Castles, and Old Gardens. Please 

ask to be on our mailing list if any of 

these tours is of interest to you. 

27 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
411 N GRtENVIEW 
HICAGO XL 60626 







YUEH LUNG 
SHADOW THEATRE 

Sunday, February 5 

Two Performances: l:OOpm and 2:30pm 

James Simpson Theatre 

Members: $3.00 

Nonmembers: $5 00 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 



larch 1984 



Mi i 




iV. 




*. C 




msmm 



Lecture by George Archibald, March 24 



ESKIMO ART 6> CULTURE LECTURE SERIE 
"Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo^ 

by William W. Fitzhugh, March 10 

"The Elegance and Drama of Eskimo Art: Notable Achievements' 

by Dorothy Jean Ray, March 17 



C0NT1NI EI> FROM PAGE 3 



Events 



March Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits are designed for families and adults. Check the Weekend 
Passport upon arrival for complete schedules and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a 
grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



March 
10 



11 



17 



12:00noon Continents Adrift, (lecture/ 
demonstration) Why have fossils of similar 
dinosaur species been found on continents 
separated by vast oceans? The concept of 
"moving" continents is illustrated with 
enormous puzzle pieces. 

1 :30pm. Tibetan Borderland: Bhutan and 
Nepal, (slide lecture) Experience a Hima- 
layanjourney as you explore Bhutan, "Land 
of the Thunder Dragon," and important 
sites of Buddhism in Nepal. 

12:30pm Museum Safari, (tour) Seek out 
shrunken heads from the Amazon, mum- 
mies from ancient Egypt, and big game 
from Africa. 

2:30pm. Treasures From the Totem Forest. 

(tour) A walk through Museum exhibits 
introduces the Indians of southeast Alaska 
and British Columbia, whose totem poles 
and masks proclaim their pride of rank and 
mystical ties to animals and spirits. 

2:30pm. Eskimo Art and Life, (tour) The 
hunters of the arctic fashion beautiful objects 
to honor spirits and the animals upon which 
their lives depend. This tour of our per- 



manent Eskimo collection serves to heighten 
understanding of our current special exhibit 
"Eskimo Art & Culture." 

24 1:30pm. Tibetan Borderlands: Ladakh. 

(slide lecture) Examine the religious ritual, 
folk music, and daily lives of the people of 
Ladakh, "Land of Many Passes." 

3:00pm. China's Great Wall and the Silk 
Road, (slide lecture) Travel west, along the 
Great Wall and caravan roads, to China's 
ancient capitals. Follow the course of 
Chinese empires, arts, and faiths. 

25 12:30pm. Museum Safari, (tour) Seek out 
shrunken heads from the Amazon, mum- 
mies from ancient Egypt, and big game 
from Africa. 

2:00pm. Life in Ancient Egypt, (tour) In- 
vestigate the objects and practices, including 
mummification, which illustrate ancient life 
in the Nile Valley. 

31 1:00pm. Traditional China, (tour) Exam- 

ine the timeless imagery and superb crafts- 
manship represented by Chinese master- 
works in our permanent collection. 



These weekend programs free with Museum admission; tickets not required. 



Registration 


Program Title 


Member 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 
































one-half hour before event. Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 












made only if program is sold out. 








Total 





Name 



Street 



For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



City 
4 Telephone 



State 



Zip 



Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



FIELD BRIEFS 




Ray A. Kroc 



Ray A. Kroc 
1902-1984 



Ray A. Kroc, a generous donor to Field Mu- 
seum, died on January 14 in San Diego, CA at 
the age of 81. Mr. Kroc had distinguished him- 
self in the business world as founder of 
McDonald's Corporation, which he served as 
senior chairman of the board at the time of his 
death. He was also owner of the San Diego 
Ridres baseball team. 

In 1972 Mr. and Mrs. Kroc made a gift to 
Field Museum — one of several made in Chi- 
cago in observance of his seventieth birthday. 
The gift was to provide major funding for 
"Man in His Environment," a new hall opened 
in 1975 calling attention to man's effect on 
the biota. 

Another gift followed in 1975 to establish 
the Joan and Ray Kroc Environmental Educa- 
tion Fund. A major thrust of the fund was to 




Peter R. Crane 



initiate an adult education program at Field 
Museum. (See pages 24-26.) It is of interest 
that from that small beginning has grown a 
broad-based adult course and field trip pro- 
gram that served 4,900 registrants in 1983. 
Further, the program is largely self- 
supporting. The growth and success of the 
adult segment of Field Museum's educational 
program is in keeping with Mr. Kroc's own 
entrepreneurial spirit. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kroc's gifts to Field Museum 
totalled well over $1 million. They are among 
those generous donors who have helped to 
shape the Museum's course in the last quarter 
century. Ray Kroc's memory will be per- 
petuated in the Joan B. and Ray A. Kroc 
fu nd at Field Museum, which will ensure 
continued support of the Museum that he 
helped to build. 



British Award for Peter Crane 

Assistant Curator Peter R. Crane of the 
Department of Geology was honored in 
December by the British Palaeontological 
Association. At its annual meeting, the 
association awarded Crane the President's 
Prize for the best paper given by a research 
worker under the age of 30. Crane's presenta- 
tion concerned his research on fossils of some 
of the earliest known flowering plants. 

Crane joined the Field Museum staff in 
September 1982. His paleobotanical research 
is directed towards clarifying the evolution of 
flowering plants (angiosperms), which today 
dominate the world vegetation with more 
than a quarter of a million extant species. In 
particular, his studies have focused on the 
reproductive structure and biology of the 
earliest flowering plants, and the enigmas sur- 
rounding the origin and early diversification 
of the group. Later phases in angiosperm 
evolution are being examined through 
National Science Foundation-supported 
research on the early fossil history and evolu- 
tion of selected flowering plant families. 

President Boyd Honored 

The Law School Admission Council pre- 
sented awards in January to five law school 
graduates who have used their legal educa- 
tion in a variety of ways; among the five was 
Willard L. Boyd, president of Field Museum. 
The award was for "accomplishment and 
achievements as an inspiration to others at 
the threshold of a career choice." Boyd's 
outstanding accomplishments have been 
in higher education, the arts, and cultural 
institutions. 

Boyd received his law degree from the 







Willard L. Boyd 

University of Minnesota and LL.M. and 
S.J.D degrees from the University of Michi- 
gan. Before coming to Field Museum in 1981 
he was at the University of Iowa since 1954, 
serving the university as president for his 
final twelve years there. 

Terrell Promoted to Curator 

John Terrell, who joined Field Museum's 
Department of Anthropology in September 
1971, has been promoted from the rank of 
associate curator to that of full curator. A 
specialist in human biogeography and Pacific 
Islands archaeology and ethnology, Terrell's 
scholarly contributions focus on the study of 
human diversity and on innovating ways of 
explaining scientifically the peopling of the 
Pacific. In announcing this promotion, Lorin 
I. Nevling, Jr., director, noted also Terrell's in- 
strumental role in bringing the first main- 
frame mini-computer to the Museum, his 
leadership of the Center for Advanced Stud- 
ies during one of its most active priods, and 
his leadership also in the production of Field 
Museum's popular traveling exhibition "Pat- 
terns of Paradise." 




John Terrell 




DANCING 
for the 
DEAD 

by David M. Walsten 



Their body dynamics and de' 
lightful expressions catch 
our attention as we stroll through 
the Hall of Ancient China. The 
style of these terra-cotta figurines 
bears an astonishing similarity to 
the uninhibited choreographies of 
our own contemporary youth. 
Yet, these pieces of inspired mod' 
elling were fashioned more than 
1,000 years ago, during the Tang 
dynasty. 

The function of the statu- 
ettes — averaging about 14 inches 
in height — was not to decorate 
the precincts of the living, but to 
provide perpetual entertainment 
for the dead, and we see them 
now much as their reahlife coun' 
terparts must have appeared dur- 
ing the sumptuous festivals that 
accompanied the funerals of Tang 
gentry. 

Through eternity, the mis' 
sion of these effigies was to 
accommodate the spirit of the 
man or woman in whose tomb 
they had been placed. In addition 
to performers of assorted types 
(actors, mimes, singers, jugglers, 
tumblers, boxers), figures of soh 
diers and servants also were 



Figurine of mime, hit 34.5 cm. Collected by 
Curator Berthold Laufer 1908-10. #1 18020. 
N98626. 



placed in burial chambers, as well 
as those serving spiritual needs — 
exorcists, shamans, and sorcerers. 
But it is these performers, 
seemingly modelled from life, 
who project so effectively from 
their modern glass case. 

Before the interring of effigies 
as attendants for the dead 
was generally practiced, humans 
were sacrificed for this purpose. 
As early as the Shang dynasty 
(I6th-llth centuries B.C.), the 
fidelity of servants as well as 
wives was rewarded by permit- 
ting them to join their masters in 
eternity. The Duke of Qin, who 
died in 678 B.C., is reported to 
have invited 66 of his henchmen 
to accompany him as servants in 
the other world; it is improbable 
that his invitations were declined. 
In 588 B.C., real horses and real 
chariots as well as flesh-and-blood 
servants accompanied the Duke 
of Song into the tomb. As late as 
the Han dynasty, which ended 
(Eastern Han) in AD. 220, the 
bodies of male and female ser- 
vants were said to have been 
secured with nails to tomb walls 
— before or after death is not 
made clear. 

Much earlier, however, dur- 
ing the time of Confucius (551- 
479 B.C.), crude effigies of straw 
had sometimes been buried with 
the dead. Confucius disapproved 
of more exact replicas, believing 
that faithful representation made 
it easy to lapse into the barbarism 
of human sacrifice. The custom of 
placing clay figures in tombs be- 
gan in the Zhou, increased greatly 
in the Qin and Han, and reached 
a climax during the Tang (A.D. 



Figurine of mime. Ht. 36.2 cm. Collected by 
Curator Berthold Laufer 1908-10. 01 18021. 
N98639. 





618-907)- By then, the sacrificing 
of humans had long since been 
discontinued. 

The rank of the deceased, 
not unexpectedly, determined the 
number of human effigies to 
accompany him in the afterlife. 
An official above the fourth rank 
(a relatively high station), for ex- 
ample, could have a platoon of 90; 
above the sixth rank, 60 pieces; 
above the tenth rank, 40. Com- 
mon folk had to be content with 
no more than 15, and the height of 
these could not exceed 8 inches. 
The higher one's rank, the taller 
his clay attendants, the maximum 
being life-size. Field Museum visi- 
tors who viewed the 1980 exhibit 
"The Great Bronze Age of China" 
will recall the spectacular life-size 
clay cavalrymen and horses that 
had been disinterred from the 
stadium-size excavations in the 
precincts of the tomb of the 
Emperor Qin Shihaungdi 
(221-210 B.C.). 

If small, the clay figures were 
arranged in a niche made for 
the purpose in a wall of the tomb, 
or they were placed on shelves 
along the walls. If large, they 
were commonly stood on the 
tomb floor at the head of the cof- 
fin. The graves of the wealthy 
sometimes had a special ante- 
room entirely filled with clay 
images of animals as well as men. 
There were also models of utili- 
tarian objects such as kitchen 
utensils, strong boxes, storage 
bins for grain, and even pig sties. 

It is not known just when 
the placing of effigies in tombs 
was no longer "in," but the 
Emperor Dai Zi (AD. 951-960), 



Figurine of mime. Ht. 35.8 cm. Collected by 
Curator Berthold Laufer 1908-10. #1 18022. 
N98638. 



who most certainly was aware of 
tomb depredations, ordered only 
his body and coffin occupy his. To 
make his tomb less attractive to 
thieves, he gave instructions that 
all the customary tomb furniture 
— statuettes of men, horses, and 
tigers as well as weapons — be left 
on the outside of the grave. 

But not everyone followed 
Dai Zi's suit; graves as 
recent as the Ming dynasty (1368- 
1644) have yielded statuettes. 
Notable among these are the 66 
polychrome glazed pottery figu- 
rines, representing an honor 
guard, that were recently on view 
as part of the exhibit "Treasures 
from the Shanghai Museum: 
6,000 Years of Chinese Art," and 
featured on the cover of the Jan- 
uary Bulletin. These pieces, it has 
been determined, were made 
sometime after 1516. FH 

Below: Dwarves, popular with Tang royalty, 
were also represented in tombs. This 
figurine is of a female dwarf. Ht. 10.9cm. 
#117949. N98643. Right: Figurine of mime. 
Ht. 33.6cm. #118023. N98627. These 
figurines were collected by Curator Berthold 
tauter 1908-10. 






10 



Fig. 1 . The massive ceiba tree. Widely cultivated in the American tropics, the ceiba was a prime symbol of the 
universe for the ancient inhabitants of Mexico and Central America. Photo by William Burger. 



The Tree, the King and the Cosmos 

Aspects of Tree Symbolism in Ancient Mesoamerica 



by Alan L. Kolata 
Research Associate, Department of Anthropology- 
Fine line drawings, except where noted, by Sara Scherberg 



On November 8, 1519, a Spanish expeditionary 
force led by Hernan Cortes crossed over an 
ancient lake bed on a magnificent elevated cause- 
way into Tenochtitlan, the great native capital of the Mex- 
ica, or Aztec nation. The Spanish were astonished by that 
splendid city's vast marketplace burgeoning with exotic 
commodities from throughout the Mexica realm, by its 
sumptuous, exuberantly ornamented palaces and temples, 
and by the broad, regular avenues and waterways that inte- 
grated the entire metropolitan zone. These adventurers 
found themselves submerged in an alien world where even 
the most fundamental natural, social, and religious notions 
of the structure of man's universe were radically different 
from those that the Europeans held certain and sacred. 

In many respects, the Aztecs inhabited a cosmos with 
an architecture that, to the European, was inchoate and 
almost entirely incomprehensible. It is not surprising, 
then, that the Spanish, upon completing their political con- 
quest, quickly embarked upon a systematic program of 
cultural conquest as well, dismantling the temples of the 
Aztec state religion and destroying the monumental art 
that visually embodied the "barbaric" cosmological doc- 
trines which they perceived as subversive and threatening 
to the Christian world view. 

Today, those of us who are products of modern in- 
dustrial culture feel perhaps even more estranged from the 
ancient Mexica frame of reference than the Spanish. The 
Aztecs' philosophical and religious conceptions were born 
of and firmly rooted in a rich agrarian heritage and in a 
palpable sensitivity to the agricultural cycle of the seasons 

Portions of this article are excerpted from Dr. Kolata's forthcoming mono- 
graph, Tree Symbolism in Ancient Mesoamerica. Research for this work 
teas conducted while the author was a senior fellow at Dumbarton Oaks 
Research Library of Harvard University in Washington, DC. 



that to us is little more than a fading memory embedded in 
a nostalgic, rural mystique. We can spontaneously appreci- 
ate the monumentality and vigor of Aztec art, but in order 
to truly understand the nature and meaning of that art, 
together with the social information it conveyed, we must 
learn to perceive it in its own terms: as the product of an 
ancient, persevering cultural landscape of which the tech- 
nology, sociology, and ritual of farming was the pivot. 

Analyzing the symbolism encoded in the iconogra- 
phy of Aztec art furnishes us with a touchstone for com- 
prehending the multiple and even more ancient cultural 
and artistic streams that together make up a general Pre- 
Columbian Mesoamerican tradition. For the Aztec period 
alone are we provided with an abundance of literary and 
pictorial documents (first-hand descriptions of indigenous 
cultures by Europeans and native codices, or screenfolds) 
that elaborate and comment upon the meaning of native 
Mexican religion, ritual, and custom. In attempting to 
grasp the fundamental meaning of ancient Mesoamerican 
art, our point of departure then is this final and most ac- 
cessible period of Pre-Columbian cultural expression. 

One of the primary notions concerning the spatial 
structure of the cosmos held by the Mexica (and, as we 
shall see, by other Mesoamerican peoples as well) was a 
heirarchical arrangement in which the earth was seen as a 
vast, thin disc floating in the primeval ocean. Growing 
through the center of the earth-disc was a giant tree, the 
roots of which ran deep into the surrounding sea while its 
uppermost branches reached the highest layers of the 
heavens. This cosmic tree was the axis mundi, supporting 
and defining both the vertical and horizontal framework of 
the multilayered universe. 

A particularly graphic representation of this cosmic 
view appears on a beautiful Mexica ceremonial mosaic 



11 



shield housed in the collections of the British Museum (fig. 
2). The iconography of this shield has been decoded 
recently in some detail by the art historian Richard 
Townsend.* 

In brief, the circular shape of the shield itself would have 
immediately evoked in the viewer the image of the earth- 
disc. Portrayed in wonderfully compressed fashion on the 
surface of the shield are images of the celestial and infernal 



Fig. 2 The image of 
the sacred tree as 
cosmogram rendered 
in a brilliant turquoise 
and shell mosaic on 
the surface of an 
Aztec ceremonial 
shield. Once the 
property of an impor- 
tant Aztec dignitary, 
this shield is now 
housed in the collec- 
tions of the 
British Museum. 



SUN DISC WITH RAYS AT 
THE CARDINAL DIRECTIONS 




of the shield). Viewed in this way, the shield becomes a 
remarkably compact, yet complex rendering of the tree 
as cosmogram. 

We know that shields as splendid as this were 
designed expressly for the most exalted rulers of the Mex- 
ica nation who used them for display on occasions of state 
ceremony. Frequently the mosaic designs on these shields 
were emblematic of both the individual and his office. In 



FLOWERING BRANCHES 
OF THE COSMIC TREE 



SKY-BEARERS 



CHTHONIC SERPENT CONNECTING 
THE COSMIC REALMS 



realms, connected by a giant flowering tree. The heavens 
are represented by the disc of the sun with red coral rays 
pointing to the cardinal directions, by the four ritually 
attired sky-bearers with arms held aloft and, at the summit 
of the cosmos, by the flowering branches of the tree. The 
underworld is represented by an immense chthonic ser- 
pent rising from the base of the cosmic tree and looping 
around its trunk to the heavens. Townsend suggests that 
the four toothlike elements pendant from the lower body 
of the serpent represent an abbreviated Tlaltecuhtli 
mouthmask, symbolic both of the earth and of the 
entrance to the underworld. Finally, at the base of the 
shield is a downward projecting bifid element that Town- 
send believes is a serpent's tongue, but that I believe may 
also represent the roots of the cosmic tree sunk in the 
underworld abyss. 

This whole ensemble of images on the surface of the 
shield was meant to be conceptualized spatially as the 
vertical component of a three-dimensional array (that 
is, rotated 90 degrees to form an axis through the center 

'Townsend, Richard F. 1979. State and Cosmos in the Art of Tenochtitlan. 
Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, No. 20. Dumbarton 
] 2 Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University, Washington, D.C. 



ROOTS OF THE 
COSMIC TREE 



wearing the shield with the world-tree cosmogram, a Mex- 
ica lord was making an implicit comparison between him- 
self as the ruler of his nation and the great tree as the order- 
ing principle of the cosmos. The political message of the 
shield is clear: the king is to the state as the great tree is to 
the cosmos. Both provide order, one to the politi- 
cal chaos of earth, the other to the physical chaos of 
the universe. 

This important metaphorical association of kings and 
trees is confirmed and extended by traditional Nahuatl 
(the Aztec language) discourses that were delivered on the 
occasion of important events in the lives of the Mexica 
royal household. These discourses were preserved and re- 
corded in the original by the Spanish clerics Duran and, 
more importantly, Sahagun. 

One such discourse was made by Nezahualcoytl, king 
of Texcoco, to the Mexica king Moctezuma the Elder upon 
the latter's accession to the throne of Tenochtitlan in 
1440: 

I have come here, O Lord, to tell you of the misery, the 
affliction that reigns in your province of Texcoco. In your 
greatness deign to lift it and enable it and shelter it from 
other nations. You well know, great prince, that all your 
vassals, nobles as well as common people are under your 



shade and you have been planted here like a great cedar 

under which men wish to rest. 1 

Another discourse, likewise addressed to a new 
monarch upon his installation, again compares the ruler 
metaphorically to a great tree and further charges him with 
the care of his subjects: 

May thou perform thy office, may thou do thy work. Be 
diligent with that which is heavy, the burden, the uncon- 
frontable, the insupportable. And extend thy wings, thy 
tail feathers. May thy common folk those whom thou gov- 
ernest, enter into thee. May they enter into thy shade, into 
thy shadow, for our lord hath made thee to be the great, 
the circular shade, the silk cotton tree, 2 the cypress. May 
the governed be rich, be prosperous. 3 

This passage stresses that the ruler must be prepared to 
bear an almost unsupportable burden. The nature of that 
burden is clarified in a second formal admonition to the 
new ruler: 

Thou Hast Undertaken To Shoulder A Bundle Of 
People, A Carrying-Frame Load Of People. 

This saying was said of him who had been installed as 
ruler or set up as a lord. Thus he was told: "Thou has 
undertaken to shoulder a bundle of people, a carrying 
frame load of people. Thou wilt find heavy, thou wilt find 
tiring the common folk, for great is the burden which thou 
has shouldered, which thou has undertaken. 4 

Taken together, these passages define the primary 
duty of the Mexica king: the protection, care and nurturing 
of the governed. Metaphorically, they describe the king 
who has successfully discharged this office as a great ceiba 
tree and as a carrying frame of the common people. These 
passages state clearly that there is a symbolic identity be- 
tween the king who supports his subjects and the great tree 
that supports the unimaginable burden of the cosmos, the 
central world tree that was most often conceptualized as a 
ceiba. Just as that great tree, to avoid physical chaos in the 
universe, must not fail in its task as the carrying frame of 
the cosmos, so too the king must not fail to support his 
subjects if he is to avoid political chaos in the state (and, by 
implication, precipitous loss of his office). 

Other Nahuatl adages extend the metaphor of the 
king as world tree in an important direction. Among the 
Mexica not only was the ruler seen as the framework and 
core of the state, providing political protection for his sub- 
jects, but also, quite literally, as the provider of daily suste- 
nance for the common people: 

(The silk cotton tree) shades, it gives shadow, it shades 
one. Hence, for this reason, it is called the "governor," for 
he becomes as a silk cotton tree, a cypress. It bears fruit, it 
produces fruit. 5 



Some passages directly compare the ruler and his family to 
the plants that sustained the common people: "the maguey, 
the nopal, the (fruit) trees." 6 During the Feast of Tlaloc, the 
king impersonating the "god" Tlaloc, personification of the 
life-giving rains, is described as, 

that which fresheneth, that which is tender, that which 
sprouteth, that which blossometh; the plants, those 
which come from thee; thy flesh, thy freshness . . . the 
nourishment whereby the world remaineth alive, . . . 
the sustenance. 7 

What these proverbs, adages, and discourses are 
referring to in metaphoric fashion is the role of the Mexica 
king as the ultimate guarantor of agricultural success. One 
of the primary cult obligations of the royal household was 
to perform a continuing, seasonally regulated set of agri- 
cultural rituals that were, in effect, increase ceremonies for 
food crops, especially maize. The feast of Tlacaxipe- 
hualiztli (the "Skinning of Men") and the aforementioned 
Feast of Tlaloc, for example, were presided over by rulers 
of the Mexica nation and were explicitly conducted for the 
purpose of securing agricultural fertility. The rituals of 
these feasts express all of the metaphorical associations of 
kings, trees, and agricultural fertility discussed here: blood 
sacrifices for agricultural success were made by the "chief 
dignitaries and sovereigns" to "Tota, 'Our Father,'" whose 
image was represented by a huge tree specially erected for 
the ceremony. 8 

Returning to our mosaic shield for a moment, the 
carefully depicted flowering branches of the cosmic tree 
towering above the brilliantly colored disc of the sun 
evoke this same extended metaphor. In this aspect, the 
cosmic tree on the shield is seen as the tree of life with its 
roots drawing water from the primeval ocean to nourish 
and sustain the cosmos. Therefore, when worn by one of 
the lords of Tenochtitlan, to the political message of the 
shield (the king, like the cosmic tree, gives order and 
stability) can be added the economic message that, like the 



J. Duran, Fray Diego. 1971. Book of the Gods and Rites and the 
Ancient Calendar. Translated by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden, 
88. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 

2. The silk cotton tree is a ceiba fC. pentandraj. 

3. Sahagun, Fray Bernardino de. 1951-70. Florentine Codex: 
General History of the Things of New Spain. Translated by Arthur J. O. 
Anderson and Charles Dibble, Book 6:58. Monographs of The School of 
American Research, The School of American Research and the University of 
Utah, Santa Fe. 

4. Sahagun 1951-70, Book 6:258 

5. Sahagun 1951-70, Book 11:109 

6. Sahagun 1951-70, Book 6:91 

7. Sahagun 1951-70, Book 6:36 

8. Duran 1971:161 and plate 14 13 



tree of life, the king nourishes and sustains the common 
people: through direct intercession and indentity with the 
divine forces of nature he will guarantee agricultural suc- 
cess for the nation. 

It is clear, even from so brief an overview, that there 
was among the peoples of the Valley of Mexico in Pre- 
Hispanic times a metaphorical association of rulers and 
trees, one most specifically expressed in terms of a sym- 
bolic identity between the king and the world tree. Two 
trees in particular, the ceiba (pochotl) and the cypress 
{aueuetl), were explicitly referred to as "father, mother, lord, 
capitan, or governor." Conversely the Mexica kings and 
great magnates were ritually described and addressed as 
the ceiba that towers above all else. According to Duran, 9 
the sovereign of the city-state Amecameca even took the 
name Cuauhteotl, "Divine Tree." 

By adopting a symbolic association with trees, and 
more specifically with the world tree/tree of life, these 
sovereigns were claiming a ritual identity with the ordering 
principle of the cosmos, the principle that nourishes and 
sustains all life. The Mexica kings were consciously using 
the generally acknowledged image of the tree as cosmo- 
gram as an emblem of their right to rule. The tangible 
interplay between religious symbolism and secular politics 
could not be more clear. 



Was this particular set of cosmological symbols an 
invention of the Aztec state, or can we trace its roots even 
deeper in other Mesoamerican political and cultural tradi- 
tions? I believe that we can, in fact, discern the same con- 
ceptual association of rulers, trees, and agricultural rites of 
intercession in other places, at other times, and among 
other peoples in Mesoamerica. I would argue that this 
association was a recurring central metaphor in the 
ideological structure of Mesoamerican civilization, and 
therefore a principal leitmotiv of public art commissioned 
by royal households to commemorate their government. 
Although in this brief essay it is not practical to document 
the entire range of occurrence of this symbolic set, or the 
various political, social, and ideological meanings with 
which it was imbued, a few well-chosen examples of the 
same ruler-tree-agricultural ritual association from non- 
Aztec Mesoamerica will serve to clarify and emphasize the 
pervasive nature of this concept which, in the native mind, 
intimately bound the world of nature with the social order. 

An extraordinary rendering of this symbolic set 
appears in one of the precious native-style manuscripts, or 
codices, that remain to us from Pre-Hispanic times (the 



9. Duran 1971:97 



14 



Fig. 3. Simplified drawing of 

the image on page 53 of the 

Borgia Codex, a native-style 

manuscript from the Mixtec 

region of western Mexico. 




folded pages of these manuscripts were usually strips of 
deer hide that were cut to size, sewed together, coated with 
gesso, and painted in multiple colors). The image in ques- 
tion was painted on what scholars have designated as page 
53 of the Borgia Codex (fig. 3). This manuscript comes to 
us from the Mexican state of Oaxaca, center of the ancient 
Mixtec region. Here elaborately dressed rulers, apparently 
personifying deities of natural forces, are engaged in auto- 
mutilation, drawing blood from their own bodies with 
sharp bone awls in order to fertilize the roots of a great tree 
from which spring enormous, marvelously exaggerated 
cobs of corn. This tree, emerging from the belly of a skele- 
tal figure reclining on the plane of the earth's surface, 
graphically evokes a sense of agricultural fertility: it is the 
archetype of vegetal abundance, the Tree of Life. The pro- 
found role of the ruler in assuring the continuing regenera- 
tion and vigor of this tree of life, which was emblematic of 
the agricultural abundance that sustained the common 
folk, is portrayed with uncommon frankness. The 
monarch must sacrifice some of his own life-giving blood 



to ritually nourish the earth and thereby coax from it a 
bountiful harvest for his people. 

The truly intimate symbolic connections between 
rulers and trees finds its ultimate expression in an ancient 
tradition from this same Mixtec region which relates that 
the old Pre-Hispanic kings and their ruling lineages were 
originally born from trees growing in the Mixtec high- 
lands. A Mixtec origin myth recorded during early Spanish 
Colonial times explicitly states that the Mixtec people 
emerged from the center of the earth, but that the Mixtec 
kings and gods were born from trees. The anthropologist 
Jill Furst* has documented many vivid visual representa- 
tions of this oral myth in Mixtec manuscripts. Frequently 
in these manuscripts a royal couple, attended by two elab- 
orately garbed deities, is portrayed emerging from a cleft 
in the swollen trunk of a tree (fig. 4). In some illustrations 
of tree birth, the emergent royal figure is still attached to 



*Furst, Jill Leslie. 1 977. The Tree Birth Tradition in the Mixteca, Mexico. 
Journal of Latin American Lore 3:2, 183-226. 




Fig. 4. The birth of a royal cou- 
ple from a sacred tree as por- 
trayed on page 37b of the 
Vienna Codex, a Pre-Hispanic 
manuscript from the Mixtec 
region. 



15 



the sacred tree by a kind of umbilical cord (fig. 5). The 
birth of an entire royal lineage from a lush tree appears in 
startling detail on the intricately carved surface of a bone 
discovered in an elite tomb at the ruins of Monte Alban, 
the ancient paramount city of the Mixtec region (fig. 6). 
This remarkable carving not only confirms the pre- 
sumptive antiquity of the tree birth myth, but further gives 
richer meaning to the term "genealogical tree." 



Fig. 5. An elabo- 
rately masked male, 
identified by his 
calendrical name as 
"2 Grass Skull. " 
emerges from the 
crown of a magical 
tree entwined with 
serpents. Note the 
umbilical cord 
which still connects 
"2 Grass Skuir to 
the tree of his birth. 
Page 2-1 of the 
Selden Codex. 



century AD. The lid of Pacal's sarcophagus is carved elab- 
orately with heiroglyphic texts along the border and with 
the image of the dead Pacal himself, seated on a throne 
within the jaws of the mythical chthonic serpent, symbol of 
the earth and the underworld (fig. 9) Rising behind Pacal 
(or perhaps emerging from his body) is a stunning render- 
ing of a tree surmounted by a fantastic masked bird, most 
likely a quetzal or eagle, symbolically associated with the 




In death, as in birth, the image of the cosmic tree, as 
axis mundi and as tree of life, remained an emblem of cen- 
tral importance to the Pre-Hispanic kings of Mesoamerica. 
At the Classic Maya site of Palenque in Yucatan, there is a 
tomb hidden deep within an elegant pyramidal structure 
called the Temple of the Inscriptions. Within that tomb 
lies a massive stone sarcophagus which holds the remains 
of a Mayan king named Pacal, who died in the seventh 



celestial realm. The entire ensemble of images on the sar- 
cophagus strongly suggests that the intended message of 
the sculpture was to exemplify the elevation of the dead 
king to divine status, and that this apotheosis of Pacal was 
to be visually expressed and confirmed by identifying the 
king with the World tree. 

Although the sarcophagus of Pacal is perhaps the 
most striking example, other key commemorative monu- 




Fig. 6. The birth of a royal lineage from a sacred tree as carved on the surface of a bone discovered in tomb 7 at the ancient ritual center of Monte 
16 Aiban in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The first of seven figures is attached to the tree by an umbilical cord. 



ments at Palenque, placed within temple precincts, ritually 
associate sacred images of the world tree/tree of life with 
the secular status, power, authority, and obligations of 
these regional Maya rulers. Like the Axtec nobility, then, 
the Maya kings used the image of the cosmic tree as an 
emblem legitimizing their right to rule. 

Even in the centuries before Christ, we can identify 
this seemingly obsessive concern of native Mesoamerican 
rulers to ritually associate themselves with prominent and 
visually impressive images of trees as cosmograms and as 
symbols of agricultural abundance. The corpus of art 
referred to as the Izapa style, consisting most notably of 
carved stone sculptures and stelae from the Pacific coastal 
regions of Guatemala and the Mexican state of Chiapas, 
contains multiple and repeated images of trees, many of 
which are clear iconic references to our two primary sym- 
bolic manifestations: the world tree and the tree of life. 

One sculpture at the site of Izapa itself, Stela 25, dat- 
ing between about 300 B.C. to AD. 250, combines all of the 
convergent metaphorical associations of kings and trees 
that we have seen embodied in the Aztec shield. The 
design on this stela illustrates the two interrelated sym- 
bolic representations of the sacred tree: in its aspect as the 
axis mundi or world tree, and in its aspect as the archetype 
of vegetal abundance or tree of life (fig. 7). At the left is the 
image of fertility and abundance, an upended cayman 
whose vertically oriented body becomes the trunk of a tree, 
while its tail is transformed into the luxuriant branches and 
leaves of the tree's crown. A small bird with plumed head 
perches on this cayman-tree, and a conch shell is placed 
behind the snout of the cayman. The conch shell associates 
the cayman-tree with the underworld and the watered 
earth, while the bird associates it with the heavens — both 
essential elements in the symbolic representation of the 
tree of life. On the right side of the design field is an image 
of the world-tree as a pillar, or more precisely a staff with 
three crosspieces, probably intended as a symbol of the 
multilayered universe. A human figure, clearly of elite sta- 
tus, and, significantly enough, adorned with a headdress of 
sprouting vegetation, holds the staff which emerges from a 
globular vessel. Surmounting this tree-as-staff is a spec- 
tacular masked bird which gazes toward its counterpart on 
the cayman-tree. To complete and interweave the two im- 
ages, a snake winds down from the crosspieces of the staff, 
loops around the body of the cayman-tree and hangs freely 
with its head at the base of the staff-tree. 

Viewed in this way, Stela 25 becomes a sculptural 
statement by the sovereign at Izapa who commissioned it 




Fig. 7. Stela 25 from the site of Izapa. Drawing by Genaro Barr 

that reads: "this place is sacred because it is the center of 
the universe; my staff is the symbol of the center and I am 
its ruler. Because I am its ruler, I can provide for the suste- 
nance of my people." This is the exact statement made 
by the kings of Tenochtitlan some 1,500 years later when 
on state occasions they mounted the great temples of 
the capital, resplendent in their royal garments and 
armed with ritual shields displaying the emblem of the 
world-tree. 

How can we account for the remarkable continuity 
and coherence of this conceptual association of rulers- 
trees-agricultural ritual over wide expanses of space, time, 
and cultural tradition? The choice of the tree as the central 
symbol of this association is neither fortuitous nor particu- 
larly surprising. Trees, by their very nature, are impressive 
features of the natural landscape. Trees like the ceiba 
possess towering size, strength, and longevity; they have 
substantial root systems that reach deep into the earth and 
magnificent crowns that seem to form a canopy against the 
sky. What better symbol could there be for the metaphor of 
the axis mundi, the pillar that sustains the universe? These 
natural and symbolic qualities of trees were of prime inter- 
est to the sovereigns of ancient Mesoamerica who wished 
to ritually appropriate and publicly identify themselves 
with these same qualities. 1 7 



But, for these native kings and ruling households, 
there was an even more compelling reason to seize upon 
the tree as an emblem of legitimate power. The states that 
these elite classes governed were economically dependent 
upon systems of intensive agriculture. Often the fate of 
central government in these preindustrial states was linked 
to its agricultural success. Accordingly, the ruling house- 
holds of these states invested heavily in the construction 
and maintenance of large-scale reclamation projects de- 
signed to intensify agricultural production. However, 
building and sustaining these agricultural systems was not 
simply an economic proposition, requiring merely appro- 
priate technology and a coordinated labor force. In the 
Mesoamerican worldview, to ensure agricultural success 
and thereby economic survival, these food producing sys- 
tems had to be ritually sanctioned and maintained at key 
intervals in the agricultural calendar as well. 

It is precisely here that the metaphor of the king as 
the cosmic tree reveals its full symbolic force. The yearly 
transformational cycle of trees, lying dormant in the winter 
(or dry season), surging to life in the spring (or onset of the 
rainy season), and gradually returning to dormancy in the 
fall, shedding their leaves, seeds, and fruits, closely mimics 
the agricultural cycle of the seasons exploited by man (the 
fields lie fallow, they are prepared and planted; the plants 



flourish and mature and finally they are gathered in the 
autumn harvest). 

By identifying themselves metaphorically with the 
natural qualities of trees, these kings of ancient Mesoamer- 
ica, who were charged with the obligation of ensuring the 
agricultural success of their nations, were ritually assuring 
the people they governed that, like the perpetual yearly 
regeneration of the great trees of nature, the vast fields of 
the realm would not fail to produce an abundant harvest. 
In this way, the world tree/tree of life became an emblem of 
both political authority and economic prosperity: the king 
was at the center, governing and sustaining the state. But 
most importantly, through ritual intercession, he con- 
tinually guaranteed the agricultural health of his nation. 

To the mind of the ancient Mesoamerican, then, the 
tree and the cosmos, the king and the nation were 
metaphorically one. Their qualities were merged and their 
functions identical: they were simply different reflections 
of the same order that was expressed in both the natural 
and social worlds. It is by understanding the fundamental 
principle of the unity of these worlds that underlies the 
religious philosophy of ancient Mesoamerica, a principle 
anchored firmly in the bedrock of agrarian tradition, that 
we can seek to reconstruct the worldview of peoples now 
lost to us. FH 




18 



Fig. 8. The great trunk and crown of the ceiba tree silhouetted against the evening sky. The ancient rulers of 
Mesoamerica ritually and symbolically appropriated the impressive natural qualities of this tree, employing it as an 
emblem of their authority. Photo by William Burger. 




Fig. 9. The sarcophagus cover of the Maya king "Pacal," who ruled from the city of Palenque in the 
seventh century ad. Photo by Merle Greene Robertson and Lee Hooker. Courtesy Princeton University 
Press, which published the photo in The Sculpture of Palenque, Vol. I: The Temple of the Inscriptions 
(1983). 



19 




Common cranes over the Himalayas 



These awesome giants of the bird kingdom are being aided by the 
International Crane Foundation in their struggle to survive 

by George Archibald 

photos courtesy the International Crane Foundation 



Try to imagine that you are nearing the summit of 
Mount Everest, oxygen mask intact, layers of insula- 
tion protecting you from the intense cold. Suddenly you 
hear trumpetlike noises overhead. Gazing up, you see a 
V formation of large, dazzling white birds with black 
necks and flight feathers. Cranes! They must be flying at 
over 30,000 feet above sea level, over the formidable 
Himalayas. 



George Archibald was a cofounder and is a director of the International 
20 Crane Foundation, Baraboo, Wisconsin. 



At dawn, these common cranes might have been 
nesting in the shallows of a Tibetan lake. As mid-morning 
sunshine bathed the plains, columns of rising warm air, or 
thermals, began to form. Using them to gain altitude, the 
cranes began the last stage of their long migration from the 
Siberian tundra to the Gangetic plain of India. With their 
wings fixed, the cranes spiralled up in loosely organized 
groups, effortlessly riding the thermals to breathtaking 
altitudes. High above the Tibetan plateau, they formed 
broad V's and began a fixed-wing glide to the south. They 
gradually lost altitude, covering scores of miles in a shallow 



dive. When they had descended to a few hundred feet 
above land, they began their first flapping flight. Their 
great eight-foot wingspans thrust them forward, until they 
found another thermal to carry them up for yet another 
gliding advance. 

Soon the great Himalayan peaks were beneath them. 
The bright reflection from the snow reflected back off their 
light-gray body feathers, making them appear blinding 
white from below. By late afternoon the peaks were behind 
them, and the flock was over green foothills. Finally, the 
lakes and rivers of the northern Gangetic plain came into 
view. Parachuting downward, they alighted in the shallows 
of a broad wetland, and began a welcomed refueling. The 
cranes had returned to a landscape visited by some older 
birds for decades — a home to the ancestors of this flock for 
millions of years. When cranes pass overhead, people be- 
low realize a new season has come. From Tibet to India 
and beyond, cranes are considered auspicious birds. Good 
fortune rides on the sweeping strength of their wings. 
Their graceful postures, fidelity to mates, size, and wild- 
ness have endeared the crane to Cro-Magnon cave painters 
as well as to modern man. 

How, then, is it possible that half of the world's 
fifteen crane species are now endangered? The wetlands 
on which the cranes nest and rear their young have 
been drained — destroyed to produce more farmland. 
Cranes have been hunted for food and sport. Egg collec- 
tors took a toll in the early decades of this century. By 1941 
the whooping cranes of North America were reduced to 
14 individuals. 

A decade ago a nonprofit organization called the 
International Crane Foundation (ICF) was established near 
Baraboo, Wisconsin, with the sole aim of helping the 
cranes. Two graduate students from Cornell University, 
George Archibald and Ronald Sauey, were cofounders. Mr. 
Sauey's parents, Norman and Claire Sauey, donated the use 
of their farm as headquarters for ICF's captive breeding 
center. Baraboo became ICF's thermal — a place to gain 
altitude and fly. 

ICF has had an eventful 10-year history. Zoos and gov- 
ernments sent rare cranes to ICF With careful manage- 
ment, pairs formed and started to breed — several species 
for the first time in captivity. Today, ICF owns a place of its 
own, supports a staff of 10 and a collection of 78 cranes of 
14 species, and has a membership of several thousand 
enthusiastic supporters. 

ICF's most noteworthy achievements, however, have 
not been in aviculture or public education programs head- 



"Shuttle Diplomacy: Aiding the Cranes of Asia" 

Dr. Georse Archibald, director 

International Crane Foundation, 

will deliver this lecture on Saturday, March 24, 2:00 pm, in James 
Simpson Theatre. Members $3.00, nonmembers $5.00. Tickets 
may be ordered with coupon on page 4. This lecture is supported 
in part by the Ray A. Kroc Environmental Fund. 



Red-crowned crane, adult 




21 



quartered in the Midwest, but in promoting crane con- 
servation overseas. Cranes are found in North America, 
Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. ICFs cofounders have been 
busy in a spectrum of nations on these continents. For 
example, it is icf which conveys ornithological news be- 
tween China and the USSR. Despite recent political 
traumas in Iran, ICF still keeps in close contact with col- 
leagues there. Cranes are a common interest — a bond 
across borders. 

For example, ICF is now involved in a long-term, 
ambitious attempt to establish a new and more secure flock 
of Siberian cranes in west Asia. There are fewer than 300 of 
these snow-white cranes alive. In winter they feed on plant 
tubers found in shallow wetlands in Iran, India, and China. 
These wetlands are as endangered as the cranes. If the last 
habitats are lost to development, the cranes will probably 
starve. 

But on the vast uplands of those same countries, com- 
mon cranes feed on abundant agricultural wastes. Because 
of their adaptability, they number in the tens of thousands. 
If Siberian cranes could learn to feed with the common 
cranes, their wintering range could expand enormously. 
Foraging behavior is learned in cranes. Crane chicks stay 



George Archibald with red-crowned crane chick 





Red-crowned crane, juvenile 



with their parents for ten months, and are often offered 
food by the adults. ICF wants to capitalize on this aspect of 
crane behavior through a cooperative venture with the 
USSR. Siberian crane eggs, produced in captivity at ICF and 
sister centers, are being substituted into the nests of wild 
common cranes in the boreal forests of the USSR. The com- 
mon cranes will raise the Siberian chicks, lead them on 
their migration route, and teach them to feed in agricultu- 
ral fields on the wintering grounds. Through restocking 
programs of this kind, a captive-breeding program can 
restore crane populations in the wild. 

In an era when war could destroy life on earth as it is 
known, it is critical that men from divided camps cooper- 
ate on projects of mutual interest. Cranes have proven to 
be a vehicle for such cooperation. As we help these 
mysterious, majestic birds continue their pilgrimages over 
the mountains, perhaps they may, in turn, help us under- 
stand and trust each other. FH 




Red-crowned crane over Korea 's demilitarized zone 



Common cranes in Iran 





r 



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V- 




Wi 



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Participants enjoyed the class on Lake Michigan limnology which took place on board the Research Vessel Rachel Carson. 

Adult Education Program 

by Robert B. Pickering 
Program Deueloper, Department of Education 

photos by the author 



As an educational institution, Field 
Museum possesses certain special 
advantages. It has no football 
team. It gives no course credits or course 
examinations and awards no degrees — 
Formal education, moreover, in schools, 
colleges and universities is something you 
finish. It is lil{e the mumps, measles, 
whooping' cough or chic\en'pox. Having 
had education once, you need not, indeed 
you cannot, have it again. . . . The Museum 
is free from this regrettable tradition. . . . 
The Museum is seductive. Perhaps be' 
cause it does not employ compulsion, but 
woos the learner with artful wiles, it con' 
tinues to deceive him into educating him' 
24 self as long as he lives. (From an address 



by Robert Maynard Hutchins, president 
of the University of Chicago, September 
15, 1943.) 

Field Museums Adult Education Pro- 
gram began in 1975, with 134 partici- 
pants enrolled in 5 classes. By 1983 four 
terms were in place and the number of 
courses had jumped from 5 per term to 
over 30, with a total of 3,000 persons en- 
rolled. During seven years the program 
has grown rapidly, and the participants 
have learned that Field Museum is a 
place to find unique opportunities that 
are both informative and fun. The great- 
er appeal is the ambience offered for self- 
directed adult learners. 

The 1970s saw increasing interest in 



adult education and in life-long learning 
opportunities. People began taking 
courses in subjects as diverse as wine 
tasting and fly-tying. Previously, adults 
had favored courses designed for pro- 
fessional advancement, then interests 
shifted to courses for enjoyment and self 
improvement. The communication 
explosion, rapid transportation, televi- 
sion, and computers have opened vistas 
never before explored. People want to 
know about the Mayas, myths of origin, 
animal behavior, reproductive strategies 
— subjects that reveal the mysteries of life 
and people. 

Field Museum's Adult Education pro- 
gram sets high standards for teaching. 



Subject mastery is the minimum require 
merit; but beyond that, the instructor 
must be able to communicate with en' 
thusiasm and quickly assess group ex- 
perience and interests. Each course fo- 
cuses on an aspect of natural history or 
anthropology — the strengths of the col- 
lections. The courses present topics that 



base resource for courses. People are 
amazed at how much more they can ob- 
serve when they have the chance to dis- 
cuss specimens or artifacts with a 
specialist. Each object takes on a new 
importance. 

Many instructors are Museum scien- 
tists or are specialists recommended by 




Top: An intimate look at fishes includes viewing them in their natural habitat and examining pre- 
served specimens in research collections. Bottom: Dave Willard, collection manager of birds, 
discusses fine points of identification with students. 



cannot be addressed in programs offered 
by other institutions. The Museum's ex- 
hibits and research collections are the 



the Museums scientific staff. They are 
well informed about the latest develop- 
ments in their respective fields. Informa- 



tion discussed in class is often more 
recent than the material found in the 
popular press or in the latest textbooks. 
Participants often examine specimens 
which are not on exhibit and are able to 
use facilities that the public has limited 
access to. 

Where else can one learn about the 
evolution of various life forms and have 
such a wealth of specimens to examine? 
Courses focus on the diversity and beau- 
ty of the world around us. They provide 
new ways to view natural and human 
history. Clusters of related courses are 
offered to provide a wide range of experi- 
ence on specific subjects. For example, 
the subject of textiles — from fiber pro- 
perties to kinds of dyes — may be covered. 
Weaving equipment from different re- 
gions is compared, while courses on tex- 
tile conservation develop skills for the 
proper storage and care of one's own pre- 
cious fabrics. 

Why do people take courses at Field 
Museum? Past participants say that they 
try to stay current with developments in 
their field of academic interest. Many are 
graduates in anthropology, history, or the 
social sciences, but do not work in these 
fields. They may instead be brokers, 
lawyers, or in business. Courses help 
people stay in touch with interests, new 
and old. Meeting new people who have 
similar interests and wish to exchange 
information is another advantage. Tak- 
ing a class is often an introduction to a 
network of involved people. 

"Field Museum courses are as special 
as Field Museum itself." This is the main 
standard of the Adult Education pro- 
gram, and one that program participants 
should expect. 

In order to continually improve our 
program, we ask you to complete and 
send in the questionnaire on the follow- 
ing page. Your answers will help us to 
know whether we are providing the kind 
of program that Museum members want. 
Your cooperation is important. Please 
send the completed form to: Adult 
Education, Department of Education, 
Field Museum of Natural History, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605. For more informa- 
tion, please call 322-8855. The spring 
courses begin the week of April 9. * 25 



Adult Education Member Survey 



Mail to: Adult Education, Dep't ot Education, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 

Age Sex Occupation Zip Code 

How long have you been a member of Field Museum? 

Less than 2 years Two to 5 years More than 5 years 

Were you aware that Field Museum offers courses for adults? Yes No 

When you receive the courses for adults brochure in the mail do you: 

Look for a subject that is of interest to you 

Flip through the brochure and look at the illustrations 

Discard the brochure 

Pass the brochure on to a friend who might be interested 

Other (explain): 

Have you ever taken an adult class at Field Museum? Yes No 

Which statement best describes how often you take classes? 

Never At least twice a year When a subject of interest to me is offered 

Once Almost every term When the weather is good 

When I can persuade a friend or spouse to take a class also 

I have never taken a class at Field Museum because: 

Inconvenient class times Transportation difficulties 

Tuition cost Subjects 

Other (explain) 

Have you taken classes elsewhere in the Chicago area? Yes No 

If yes, where? 

Why do you take classes here or elsewhere? 

Long-term interest in a particular subject General enjoyment 

Just for something to do Occupational advancement 

Opportunity to meet others with similar interests 

What courses would you like to see offered in Field Museum's program? 



26 



When would it be most convenient for you to attend classes? 

Once a week on a weekday evening Once a week on a weekday afternoon 

Once a week on a weekend during the day All day Saturday and/or Sunday 



Tours For Members 




Alaska Natural History 
Tour 

June 1984 
$4,185 

Experience the Great Land. Descrip- 
tions of Alaska are filled with superla- 
tives — a state more than twice the size 
of Texas with a population less than 
that of Denver, 33,000 miles of coast- 
line, 119 million acres of forest, 14 of the 
highest peaks in the United States cul- 
minating in Mt. Denali (formerly Mt. 
McKinley), at 20,320 feet. Alaska is 
equally a land of wildlife superlatives, 
from her great herds of caribou to 
swarming seabird rookeries to surging 
salmon in migration. When one thinks 
of Alaska one thinks of wilderness, of 
nature still fresh and undomesticated, of 
experiences dreamed of but mostly un- 
available to us of the lower 48. 

Join us for an Alaskan odyssey 
through a wide range of habitats from 
the rockbound fur seal and sea bird col- 
onies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping 
forest and calving glaciers of the south- 
east, to the grandeur of the Alaskan 
Range, to the Fjordlike quiet and beauty 
of the inland passage. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, 
bus, boat, horseback, and foot — what- 
ever best enhances our experience. 



Emphasis will be on the land, its history, 
its wildlife. Interpretation combined 
with direct observation will provide an 
enjoyment and quality of experience un- 
available to the casual visitor. Whatever 
your interest in natural history — marine 
mammals, birding, mountains, photogra- 
phy, flowers, forests, glaciers, rivers — 
this tour will show you Alaska in all its 
diversity and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of Field Museum. 



Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 25 'June 3 

Many of us have beheld the Grand 
Canyon from the rim or while flying 
overhead, and some of us have hiked 
partway down to the Colorado River. 
But there is another Grand Canyon that 
relatively few have experienced: Field 
Museum is offering you the opportunity 
to see and experience the canyon from 
the river. 

The 280-mile trip will be by two 
motorized rubber rafts. We'll sleep on 
sandy beaches under the stars and our 
meals will be excellent. Along the way, 
we'll hike to places of unusual geologic 
and anthropologic interest, sometimes 
through the most pleasant and enchant- 
ing stream beds and valleys, at times 
along the waterfalls. We'll see and 
study more geology in this one brief 
period than can be seen anywhere else 



in comparable time. Dr. Bertram Wood- 
land, curator of petrology, will be our 
tour leader. 

The trip will begin on Friday, May 25, 
with a flight to Las Vegas, where we 
will remain overnight. Saturday we'll 
leave by deluxe bus for Lees Ferry, 
where we'll board the rafts. The trip 
will end 9 days later, at Pierce Ferry, 
near the head of Lake Mead. We'll re- 
turn to Chicago, via Las Vegas, Sunday, 
June 3. 

You needn't be a "rough rider" to join 
this expedition — you needn't even 
know how to swim. Persons of any age 
can enjoy the river with equanimity, 
and come out proud and happy to have 
experienced this extraordinary adven- 
ture. 

The cost (to be announced) per per- 
son covers all expenses (including air 
fare, board fees, waterproof bags for 
gear, sleeping bags, etc.), and all meals. 
The trip is limited to 25 participants. 

Additional Tour Gems 
Slated for 1984 

i®= China and Tibet 

ns= Kenya 

US' Peru 

ts- England's Old Inns, Old Homes, 

Old Castles, and Old Gardens. 

For additional information on any tour, 
please call Tours Manager Dorothy Roder at 
322*8862 or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 1L 60605. 




27 



DITri FLEMING 

<*6 PLEASANT 

A * PARK ILL 60 30 2 




At Field Museum March 10 through May 27 

Comprising two superb exhibits: 

"Grasp Tight the Old Ways: 

The Klamer Family Collection oflnuitArt," 

Featuring 20th-century Eskimo Art 

and 

"Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo," 

Featuring Eskimo art and artifacts collected a century ago 

Special lectures on Eskimo Art and culture March 10 and 17 
(see pages 3 and 4) 

Members Preview 

Friday March 9, 5 30-8:00 pm 
With special events for children 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

April 1984 




Exhibit: "Black Folk Art in America: 1930-1980" April 14-July 15 

"What is Folk Art? Symposium" April 14 

Black Folk Art Lectures: April 28, May 5, 19 

Family Feature: "Flights of Fancy" — Birds, Kites & Kids April 1 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
O.C. Davis 

William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnellev II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphv, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Bvron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G. Swartchild, Jr. 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harrv O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

April 1984 

Volume 55, Number 4 



April Events At Field Museum 



Fossil Plant Collections at the Field Museum 

by Martlia S. Bryant, collection manager of fossil invertebrates 5 
and fossil plants, and Peter R. Crane, assistant curator 
of paleobotany 

Black Folk Art in America 1930-1980 

by Richard Powell, guest curator and consultant 11 

Market Art from Northeastern Asia 

A 19th-century Siberian Souvenir 19 

by James W. VanStone, curator of Worth American archaeology 
and Ethnologi> 

Environmental Field Trips 

by Keith Mason, program deivloper. Department of Education 22 



Field Briefs 



26 



Field Museum Tours for Members 



27 



COVER 

Crucifixion. 1940. by Elijah Pierce. Carved and painted nxxxi on painted wood 
panel, 47x30' _>." From tlie Elijah Pierce Art Gallen', Columbus. Ohio. Tlie work of 
Pierce is among that of 19 other painters, sculptors, and graphic artists in the neiv 
exhibition. "Black Folk Art in America 1930-1980." on view at Field Museum April 
14 througlijuly 15. See pages 11-18 and. for schedules of related events, the back 
cover. 

This exhibition was organized by the Corcoran Gallery of Art. Washington. 
D.C.. and sponsored by grants from Atlantic Richfield Foundation and the Xational 
Endowment for the Arts. Washington. D.C. The Chicago showing of this exhibit was 
made possible by a grant from the Atlantic Richfield Foundation. 

Coivr photo courtesy Corcoran Gallen' of Art. 



Field Museum of Satural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago. II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually. S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed bv authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policv of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9430. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
toid Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, II 60605 ISSN':OOL5-0703 



Eskimo Art and Culture 

comprisins two exhibits: 

"Inua: Spirit World of the Berins Sea Eskimo" 

and 

"Grasp Tight the Old Ways: 

The Klamer Family Collection of Inuit Art" 

continues on view through May 27 



Events 



^\ 



Black Folk Art Symposium 
and Lecture Series 

This scries is designed to complement the special exhibit "Black 
Folk Art in America: 1930-1980." The lectures are funded by a 
grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal 
agency. 

"What is Folk Art?: Symposium" 

Saturday, April 14, 2:00-5 :00pm, James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance 

This symposium explores the varied and often contradictory 
viewpoints of a social historian, a museum curator responsible for 
an institution's collections, a contemporary gallery owner, and a 
private collector. 

Each member or the panel presents his or her own view of 
"What is Folk Art?" Alter a brief question-and-answer period 
from the audience, the symposium continues with the panel 
members discussing their opposing viewpoints. 

Symposium Panel: Sterling Stuckey, professor of history, 
Northwestern University; Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, assistant cura- 
tor, 20th century painting and sculpture, National Museum of 
American Art, Smithsonian Institution; Phyllis Kind, Phyllis Kind 
Galleries, Chicago and New York; James T. Parker, private collec- 
tor. Moderator: Richard Powell, guest curator, "Black Folk Art in 
America: 1930-1980," Field Museum. 

"Indelible Icons: The Black Atlantic Visual Tradition" 

Robert Farris Thompson, professor, history of art, 
Yale University 

Saturday, April 28, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance 

Following the slave trade routes from the west coast of Africa to 
Brazil north to the United States. Robert Thompson describes 
various cultural phenomena — dance, music, street festivals. 
Emphasizing religion and performance, he illustrates how these 
same phenomena reemerge in the Americas. Though a serious 
scholar, Dr. Thompson's classroom persona is part preacher, part 
dance-hall leader and performer. His research is concentrated on 
cultures from the west coast of Africa. 

"Origins and Development of Black American 

Folk Art" 

Regenia A. Perry, professor of art history, Virginia 

Commonwealth University 

Saturday, May 5, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre, 

West Entrance 

I he earliest surviving examples of black American folk art include 
pottery, quilts, wood carving, basketry, iron work, and painting. 
Dr. Perry traces the development of this art through the 18th, 19th, 
and 20th centuries, explaining the remarkable persistence of cer- 
tain "Africanisms" throughout the course of black American folk 
art history. Dr. Perry is an avid collector of black folk art and is 
responsible for the essay "Origins and Development of Black 
American Folk Art," in the exhibit catalog Black Folk Art in Amer- 
ica: 1930-19X0. 



"Memory and Sense of Place in Black Folk Art" 

William Ferris, director, Center for the Study of 
Southern Culture 

Saturday, May 19, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance 

Family, region, and place influenced traditional African artists and 
continues to influence the black American folk artist today. Wil- 
liam Ferris looks at the contributions of black culture to the Amer- 
ican experience, focusing on folk artists of the rural south. The 
Center for the Study of Southern Culture is located on the campus 
ot the University ot Mississippi and is a clearinghouse for informa- 
tion on regional studies of southern culture. As a folklorist who 
talks to the folk as well as studying their artifacts. Dr. Ferris has 
found Mississippi a vital research area. 

Series Tickets — Symposium and Individual Lectures: $17.00 (Members: 
SI0.00). Individual Tickets for each program: S5.00 (Members: S3.IX)). 
Fees are nonrefundable. Please use coupon to order tickets. For further 
information please call (312) 322-SH54. 



Drinker with Hat and Bottle. 1939-42 Compressed charcoal penal on paper. 13'4?x 
7$/b" Collection of Mr and Mrs Joseph H Wilkinson On view in "Black Folk Art in 
America 1930-1980 "April 14-July 15 




CONTINI Kll > 



C0NT1NLED KROM PAGE 3 



Events 



Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

Travel the world on Thursdays in April, at 1:30pm in James 
Simpson Theatre. Admission is free. Doors open at 12:45pm. 
Members please bring membership card for priority seating 
privilege. 

April 5 "Colorado — Where the West Comes Alive" 

with Frank Nichols 

12 "Superior" 

with Tom Sterling 

19 "Peru" 

with Alan Hubbard 

26 "Israel - The Holy Land - Past and Present" 

with Clav Francisco 



Family Feature 

"Flights of Fancy" 
Sunday, April 1; Hall 21, Birds 

Kites have been used in weather watching, boat towing, bridge 
building, and even military spying since 1000 B.C. Yet their flight 
patterns only compare to one of the many forms used by birds. 
Join us tor a tour of the bird halls to find out about the different 
kinds of bird flight. Then with the help of the Chicagoland Skylin- 
ers Kite Club, make a kite of your own and decorate it like your 
favorite bird. Participants should bring a large #20 brown paper 
bag. After making your own kite, watch Stanley Field Hall fill 
with (lying colors as the Skyliners demonstrate their special indoor 
kites. 

Family Features are free with Museum admission; tickets not required. 



April Weekend 
Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of 
natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for 
families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous 
activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. These 
weekend programs are free with Museum admission and tickets 
are not required. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 



April 



14 



15 



29 



1 1:30am. Ancient Egypt. Tour the Museum's Egyp- 
tian exhibit and investigate the traditions of ancient 
Egyptian civilization from everyday life to 
mummification and the promise of an afterlife. 

12:30pm. Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken heads 
from the Amazon, mummies from ancient Egypt, 
and big game from Africa. 

2:(X)pm Spring Wild/lowers. A slide lecture featur- 
ing the wildflowers found in Chicago's woods, 
meadows, and prairies. 

12:30pm. Highlights of Field Museum. Tour some 
of Field Museum's most famous exhibits, from an 
African watering hole to the tombs of the Egyptians. 

1:00pm. Spring Wildflowers. A slide lecture featur- 
ing the wildflowers found in Chicago's woods, 
meadows, and prairies. 

2:00pm Red Land/Black Land. Tour the Egyptian 
exhibit focusing on the geography of the Nile Valley 
and the ettect it had on the Egyptian's lifestyle. 

12:30pm. Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken heads 
trom the Amazon, mummies from ancient Egypt, 
and big game from Africa. 




Walking Slick, by William Rogers. 1939 Wood 33 W high Collection of Or and Mrs William Bascom On view in Slack Folk Art in America 1930- 1980 April 14-July 15 



Registration 


Program Title 


Member 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 
































one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 












made only if program is sold out. 








Total 





Name 



Street 



For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



City 



State 



Zip 



4 Telephone Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 




Carboniferous forest reconstruction in the Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38) of the Field Museum. 75400 



The definition of a museum, in almost any dictionary, 
will simply refer to a building with exhibits. As far as it 
goes, this is a definition within which the Field Museum is 
certainly included, but it is inadequate for effectively con- 
veying the diversity of educational, exhibit, and research 
activities in which the Field Museum is engaged. The Field 
Museum of Natural History is fundamentally different 
from most other museums in its concern not only with the 
dissemination of knowledge, but also with basic research 
by which our understanding of Man, and the world in 
which he lives, is increased. Our exhibits represent a mi- 
nute fraction of the Museum's total collection, which pri- 
marily serves as a major resource for original research by 
Museum staff and the international scientific and scholarly 
community. 

The exhibits of fossil plants which can be found in the 
Plants of the World Hall (Hall 29) and the Hall of Inverte- 
brate Paleontology (Hall 37) are merely a tiny sample of 
the 50,000 specimens comprising the paleobotanical col- 
lections. The collection is curated and administered by the 
Department of Geology and occupies 125 steel cabinets in 
a storage facility constructed in 1965 with the support of 
the National Science Foundation. Although no precise 
inventory of paleobotanical resources has ever been taken 
in the United States, the collection at the Field Museum is 
certainly among the five largest in the country. 



Martha S. Bryant is collection manager oj fossil invertebrates and fossil 
plants; Peter R. Crane is assistant curator of paleobotany. 



Unlike collections in other areas of the Museum, the 
fossil plants are not arranged according to a classification 
of different groups of organisms, but in a stratigraphic 
sequence, that is, according to their geologic age. This is 
preferred because of the difficulties of precisely classifying 
many of the plant remains and the importance of retaining 
as much information as possible about which plants were 
associated in the same fossiliferous sediments. The collec- 
tion begins with the remains of simple algae from the Pre- 
Cambrian Era over 1,000 million years ago, and ends with 
plants of the Pleistocene Ice Ages only a few thousand 
years before the present. A short walk through the collec- 
tion is a walk through time, and a casual glance in occasion- 
al drawers is enough to graphically illustrate most of the 
major events in the evolution of plant life on this planet. 

The fossil plant collection is the single common 
denominator at the center of paleobotanical activity at the 
Field Museum, providing specimens for professional sci- 
entific research as well as materials for exhibits and teach- 
ing. These activities also extend beyond our own Museum. 
We have material on display, for example, at the Smithso- 
nian Institution and the Milwaukee Public Museum, and 
specimens are regularly used for courses taught at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

The collection is a resource which has grown steadily 
for over ninety years, as specimens have gradually been 
accumulated by staff, amateurs, and other professionals 
associated with the Museum. In 1965 its size was almost 
doubled, and its scientific importance substantially en- 




Adolph C Noe. 82saa 



Theodor K. Just, box 



George Langford, Sr. aorr- 



hanced, by the incorporation of the classic Walker 
Museum collections from the University of Chicago. Since 
the late 1960s the collection has remained almost dormant, 
but in the last eighteen months, the level of activity has 
risen dramatically, with a renewed commitment to 
paleobotany at the Field Museum. A full-time professional 
paleobotanist has been appointed to the scientific staff and 
the number of specimens acquired, the number of visitors 
to the collections, the number of loans made to other in- 
stitutions, and the number of scientific studies using Field 
Museum specimens have all begun to increase. A start has 
also been made on computerizing information about parts 
of the collection. Keeping track of 50,000 specimens is not 
always a straightforward proposition! 

It is perhaps not surprising that a major strength of 
the paleobotanical collection is plants of the Pennsylvanian 
period (310-280 million years ago). At that time much of 
Illinois was covered by shallow seas, fetid deltas, and 
swampy luxuriant forests. The remains of these forests 
formed the coals on which much of the industrial strength 
of the central and eastern United States has traditionally 
been based. About sixty percent of the paleobotanical 
collection is from the Pennsylvanian, and the full spectrum 
of "Coal-Age" plants is represented by specimens which 
are often spectacular and unusually well preserved. About 
half are from the world-famous nodule localities of Will, 
Grundy. Livingstone, and Kankakee counties in northeast- 
ern Illinois. The best known of these are along the banks of 
Mazon Creek, and the fossil plants from this whole area 
have come to be known as the "Mazon Creek flora." 
6 The nodules which contain the plants are concretions 



of fine mud and silt cemented together by various iron 
minerals. They formed quickly as muddy deltas gradually 
expanded over areas once covered by swamp forest, and 
they contain a variety of plant fragments such as seeds, 
leaves, cones, bark, and roots. The rapidity of preservation 
has prevented many of the fossils from being compressed, 
and they are beautifully preserved in three dimensions. In 
many cases minerals have been deposited in the cavities 
left as the plant tissues rotted; but occasionally, the tissues 
themselves are impregnated with calcium carbonate or 
iron pyrite and fine details of internal structure are preserved. 

Specimens preserved in calcium carbonate can be 
easily studied using the coal ball peel technique (see "The 
Inside Story on Fossil Plants," November, 1983 Bulletin), 
but it is only recently that new methods of preparation 
have revolutionized research on pyrite plant fossils. As 
many of the Mazon Creek plants are pyritic, this has done 
much to enhance the scientific importance of the Field 
Museum collection. Several other large collections of these 
nodules are housed in museums and universities through- 
out the country, including Harvard University, the Illinois 
State Geological Survey, and the Illinois State Museum; 
but the outstanding collection at the Field Museum num- 
bers over 15,000 specimens and is probably the most exten- 
sive and most important in the world. 

The very earliest studies of Pennsylvanian plants 
from Illinois were made by the pioneering North Amer- 
ican paleobotanist Leo Lesquereux (1806-89), between 
1866 and 1884. Much of his original material came from 
Mazon Creek itself, but in the first two decades of this 
century increased coal-mining activity provided the stimu- 



lus for more intensive investigations of these fossils and 
their use in tracing and correlating coal deposits. Some of 
the most important early research was carried out in con- 
junction with the newly formed Illinois State Geological 
Survey between 1906 and 1909 by Charles David White, 
then curator of paleobotany at the United States National 
Museum; but during the 1920s White's work was con- 
tinued by Adolph C. Noe at the University of Chicago. 

Noe (1873-1939) gained his paleobotanical training at 
the University of Graz, Austria under the eminent Euro- 
pean paleobotanist Constantin von Ettingshausen, but in 
1899 he emigrated to the United States and obtained his 
doctorate in Germanic languages at the University of Chi- 
cago. He remained on the language faculty until 1923, 
when he was appointed assistant professor of paleobotany 
in the Botany and Geology Departments. In the following 
year he took on additional responsibilities as curator of 
fossil plants in the Walker Museum, and most of the speci- 
mens he curated, as well as those used in his research, are 
now part of the Field Museum collection. 

Noe had an engaging personality and developed a 
close association with his scientific colleagues at the Field 
Museum. In 1933 he was appointed a research associate on 
the staff of the Botany Department. Noes link with the 



Field Museum provides a perfect example of the kind of 
close relationship between research, education, and exhibi- 
tion which is rarely possible at most universities and 
museums. His expertise and familiarity with Pennsylva- 
nian plants derived from his scientific work on Mazon 
Creek and other collections was expressed directly in the 
magnificent Carboniferous forest reconstruction in the 
Ernest R. Graham Hall (Hall 38). This outstanding diora- 
ma was constructed by the same team of expert craftsmen 
responsible for the models in the Plants of the World Hall 
(see "The Botanical World in Replica," September 1983 
Bulletin), and with Noe providing the essential paleobota- 
nical advice and encouragement. The result is an irreplace- 
able masterpiece of scientific illustration which remains as 
one of the most realistic representations of what coal forest 
plants may have looked like. Although we have learned a 
great deal about Pennsylvanian plants and their paleoecol- 
ogy since the diorama was completed in 1931, and might 
wish to alter some interpretations, this extraordinary 
achievement is still the most meticulous and atmospheric 
rendering of Pennsylvanian vegetation in existence. It has 
been illustrated in countless articles and textbooks and has 
perhaps contributed more than anything else to the pop- 
ular image of what a coal swamp might have looked like. 



Left: Lepidostrobus. A complete cone of an extinct club-moss tree 
still attached to two shoots bearing leaves. Middle Pennsylvanian, 
Vermilion County, Illinois. The cone is about 60 mm long. Field 
Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 23918. Center: Alethopteris. 
Leaf from an extinct "seed-fern. " Middle Pennsylvanian, northeastern 



Illinois. The leaf is about 20cm long. Field Museum Paleobotanical 
Collections, PP 30099. Right: Calamostachys. A complete cone of an 
extinct horsetail tree from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Illinois. The 
cone is 1 10mm long. Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 
2604. 




B^&fa 




Triphyllopteris. Leaves of an extinct fernlike plant from the Early Mis- 
sissippian; Price Formation, Virginia. Specimen recently obtained on 
exchange. Each leaf is about 10mm long. Field Museum Paleobota- 
nical Collections, PP 33643. 

Perhaps Noes major contribution to paleobotany was 
his recognition during the early 1920s that coal balls pre- 
viously known only from Europe also occurred in North 
America. Some of his many students went on to pioneer 
the study of North American coal ball plants and laid open 
the way for many of the major paleobotanical advances of 
the last fifty years. Some of the specimens used in these 
classic investigations at the University of Chicago are now 
housed at the Field Museum. 

Other students of Noe devoted their energies to 
Mazon Creek plants, and one of these, Richard E. Janssen, 
did much to stimulate the interest of local amateur collec- 
tors. Janssen first met Noe while employed as a preparator 
at the Field Museum, working on the Carboniferous forest 
reconstruction. As his interest in fossil plants developed, 
he studied under Noe for a Ph.D. at the University of Chi- 
cago, before going on to establish his own academic career. 
With Noes encouragement, Janssen utilized specimens 
now in the Illinois State Museum and Field Museum in 
providing the first popular guide for collectors to Penn- 
sylvanian plant fossils. George Langford, Sr. (1876-1964) 
was one of the most avid of these amateurs and went on to 
accumulate the bulk of the Field Museum Mazon Creek 
8 collection. 




Sphenophyllum. Whorled leaves from an extinct horsetail. Penn- 
sylvanian, "Mazon Creek flora " of northeastern Illinois. Each whorl is 
about 12mm wide. Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 
25083. 

Langford had worked intermittently, as an amateur, at 
the Field Museum for many years, but did not join the staff 
until 1947 at the age of 71. With the same energy and 
vitality which had sustained him through a spectacular 
career in engineering involving over 75 U.S. patents, he 
applied himself tirelessly to the collection, curation, and 
study of Mazon Creek fossil plants. In total, Langford esti- 
mated that he must have collected about one quarter of a 
million specimens, of which he only kept the best, about 
one tenth — a mere 25,000! In addition to his truly pro- 
digious collecting activities, Langford also found time to 
write two popular books on the flora and fauna of the 
Mazon Creek area. These were published by the Earth 
Science Club of Northern Illinois and in conjunction with 
that of Janssen have served as the indispensable handbooks 
of local collectors for the last twenty years. 

Eugene S. Richardson, Jr. (1916-83), a curator of in- 
vertebrate paleontology at the Field Museum for over 30 
years, collected closely with Langford. Although his 
Mazon Creek research focused on the uniquely preserved 
animal fossils, Richardson also made important additions 
to the fossil plant collections. Perhaps his greatest influ- 
ence, however, was indirect, through his unrivalled rapport 
with the many highly motivated amateurs of northern Illi- 



nois. Richardson gave freely of his time and expertise, and 
his friendships ultimately led the late Jerry Herdina and 
many others too numerous to mention by name to gener- 
ously contribute significant personal collections of fossil 
plants. 

The Field Museum's Mazon Creek collection built up 
by Noe, Langford, Richardson, and others has provided 
material for a wide range of scientific studies. William C. 
Darrah (formerly of Harvard University and Gettysburg 
College) used the collection in a major review of Penn- 
sylvanian floras in eastern North America which empha- 
sized the use of the plants in geological correlation. Her- 
mann W. Pfefferkorn (University of Pennsylvania), Tom 
L. Phillips (University of Illinois), Russell A. Peppers (Illi- 
nois State Geological Survey), and William A. DiMichele 
(University of Washington) have described specimens 
which are either totally new to science or preserved in an 
unusual and botanically informative way. Andrew C. Scott 
(University of London) and Thomas N. Taylor (Ohio State 
University) have used the collection to draw some fascinat- 
ing inferences on the interactions between plants and 
animals during the Pennsylvanian, and Langford and Jans- 
sen have described and illustrated Field Museum speci- 
mens in compiling their guides for amateurs. These few 
examples illustrate something of the diversity of research 
which the Field Museum Mazon Creek collection has sup- 
ported and will continue to support for many years to 
come. 

As well as the collection of Illinois nodule floras, 
there are also Pennsylvanian plants from a large number of 
other localities in eastern North America and Europe. 
Although only a small proportion of these are spectacular 
"exhibit quality" specimens, many are of considerable sci- 
entific interest. For example, those collected by Ralph D. 
Lacoe (1824-1901) were identified by Charles David White 
and Leo Lesquereux, and provide a rare and important 
insight into the ideas of two of the major figures in the 
early days of North American paleobotany. 

About half of the Field Museum collection of fossil 
plants consists of specimens which are younger than Penn- 
sylvanian in age. Some of the most spectacular of these are 
specimens from the Cerro Cuadrado Petrified Forest in 
Argentina, collected by Elmer S. Riggs (1869-1963) on 
Field Museum expeditions to Patagonia. Riggs came to the 
Museum from Princeton University in 1898 to become the 
first curator of vertebrate paleontology. The South Amer- 
ican adventures during the 1920s were just two of sixteen 
collecting expeditions which he conducted for the 




Lepidodendron. Three-dimensionally preserved leaf-cushions of an 
extinct club-moss tree. Middle Pennsylvanian, Grundy County, Illi- 
nois. Each leaf-cushion is about 5mm long. Field Museum Paleobota- 
nical Collections, PP 16432. 

Museum, the primary goal of which was to collect large 
fossil vertebrates. Some of these are now on display in the 
Ernest R. Graham Hall. Almost as an incidental interest, 
Riggs and his party accumulated a very large collection of 
petrified "pine cones" which, along with a similar collec- 
tion in the British Museum of Natural History, is the most 
important of its kind in the world. 

The specimens which Riggs brought back included 
cones, fragments of wood, and even seedlings which had 
been petrified under the influence of volcanic activity. 
Beautifully preserved in silica, the specimens were first 
studied by George R. Wieland of Yale University and 
Bertha S. Darrow, a student of Noe, during the 1920s and 
1930s. They were originally thought to be of early Tertiary 

Araucaria mirabilis. Silicified cone very similar to the living bunya nut 
tree of Queensland, Australia. Jurassic of Sierra Madre y Higa, 
Argentina: collected by E. S. Riggs, 1924. The cone is about 75 mm 
long. Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 33688. 





v& 






ks& 




S5 



'♦v.' 



fe* 




i 

Neuropteris rarinervis. Leaf from an extinct "seed-fern" figured by 
Noe in his "Pennsylvanian Flora of Northern Illinois." Pennsylvanian, 
Bureau County, Illinois. The leaf is about 20 cm long. Field Museum 
Paleobotanical Collections, PP 33685 

age (approximately 60 million years old), but are now 
thought to be much older and probably Jurassic (approx- 
imately 170 million years old). 

The collection contains two different kinds of cones. 
The most recent research by Ruth Stockey of the Univer- 
sity of Alberta has revealed that they contain extremely fine 
details of embryos and other reproductive structures which 
are very rarely preserved in most fossil plants. Stockey has 
also shown that the two cones represent quite different 
evolutionary situations in relation to the living families of 
conifers. One (Pararaucaria patagonica) shows a peculiar 
mixture of features found today in a range of different 
living families, and exactly how it is related to modern 
forms is unknown. However, the other (Araucaria mirabi- 
lis) is very clearly related to the living conifer family 
Araucariaceae, which includes the kauri pines, monkey 
puzzles, and other trees sometimes grown as ornamentals 
in the northern hemisphere. Today the family occurs only 
in the southern hemisphere, and the fossil is closely similar 
to the living species Araucaria bidwillii (the bunya nut), 
native to southern Queensland, Australia. 
1 The Patagonian material provides a good example of 




Annularia. Whorls of leaves from an extinct horsetail tree. Middle 
Pennsylvanian. "Mazon Creek flora " of northeastern Illinois. Each 
whorl is about 45mm in diameter. Field Museum Paleobotanical Col- 
lections. PP 16935. 



the international coverage of the paleobotanical collection, 
which also includes specimens from the Devonian of West 
Germany, the Permian of China, the Jurassic of Mexico, 
the Eocene of Australia, the Cretaceous of Czechoslovakia, 
and the early Tertiary of England. Among the treasures of 
the collection is a small but fascinating suite of Jurassic 
plants from the Rajmahal Hills of India obtained during 
the late 1940s by Theodor K. Just (1904-60), then chief 
curator of the Botany Department. Although Just was not 
a practical paleobotanist in the sense of routinely working 
with fossil specimens, he was intensely interested in the 
fossil record of plant evolution. As an early stalwart in the 
Paleobotanical Section of the Botanical Society of America, 
he did much to influence the growth of North American 
paleobotany as well as encourage the development of the 
Field Museum collections. 

The Upper Cretaceous and early Tertian,- plants at 
the Museum (approximately 100 to 40 million years ago) 
together account for over a quarter of the total number of 



Continued on p. 24 




Pregnant Woman, by Steve Ashby, 1970s. Painted wood 
and mixed media. 25 x 13 x 8". Collection of Herbert W. 
Hemphill, Jr. 



"Black Folk Art in America 1930-1980" will be 
on view at Field Museum April 14 through July 
15. For schedules of lectures on Black Folk Art 
and other related programs see back cover 
and "Events," page 3. 

"Black Folk Art in America 1930-1980" was organized 
by the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. and 
sponsored by grants from Atlantic Richfield Founda- 
tion and the National Endowment for the Arts, 
Washington, D.C. The Chicago showing of this exhibit 
was made possible by a grant from Atlantic Richfield 
Foundation. 

Photos courtesy the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 



Black Folk Art 
in America 

1930-1980 

by Richard Powell 

Guest Curator and Consultant 



William Dawson, a soft spoken retiring 
senior citizen of Chicago, carves the most 
amazing things out of wood. His human figures 
come in a rainbow of complexions and tempera' 
ments, and are always dressed to a "T" in colorful 
outfits. Bears, pigs, elephants, birds, and an occa' 
sional anteater make up the menagerie in his living 
room, and stand as testaments to his Lincoln Park 
Zoo "Adopt-an-Animal" certificate on the wall. 
Carved "totems" of smiling and frowning faces, 



William Dawson 




capped with a single bird feather, a shock of hu' 
man hair, or a carved animal head, are especially 
dramatic. 

Often forsaking anatomical precision for an ex- 
pressive artistic license, Dawson's work represents a 
tradition of visually oriented Americans who have 
worked and continue to work in communities across 
the United States despite critical disdain or neglect. 
This body, generically referred to as "folk" artists, 
are represented in an extraordinary exhibition, 
Blac\Fol\Art in America: 1930-1980, organized 
by the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. 

Following record'breaking viewings in Wash' 
ington, D.C, Brooklyn, Los Angeles, Houston, De 
troit, and Birmingham, B\ac\ Fol\Art in America 




Bulldog, by Jesse Aaron, 1969. Cedar, fiber- 
glass and bone, 25V? x 72'/? x 26", Stuart and 
1 2 Mary Purser Collection. 





William Edmondson 



G. H. McNeal in Year 1929, by Leslie Payne, 1970s. Painted wood and 
mixed media, 33'/2x52x 10" Collection of Herbert W. Hemphill, Jr. 



completes its U.S. tour at Field Museum. William 
Dawson, along with 19 other painters, sculptors, 
and graphic artists literally transforms a Field 
Museum exhibition hall into an environmental art 
space. Individual in life experience, yet collective in 
this society's perception of them, these artists add 
another dimension to American art, and expand 
that prevailing picture to include other visions and 
agendas. 

Despite the range of techniques, subjects, and 
visual objectives in Blac\ Fol\Art in America, cer- 
tain characteristics stand out that bring these 
artworks together. For instance, the reliance on 
"found" materials suggests a common outlook 
among the three'dimensional artists in this show. 
Jesse Aaron's selection of zoomorphically shaped 
wood for his animal carvings is similar to William 
Edmondson's choice of limestone blocks for religious 
subjects. The first black artist to have a solo exhibi' 
tion in New York's Museum of Modern Art (1937), 
Edmondson conceived of his sculpture as the 
"Lord's work." Certainly his monolithic "Preachers" 




13 



Emancipation House, by George White, 1964. 
Painted wood and mixed media construction, 
19'/>x23'/4X 18 1 /?". National Museum of Amer- 
ican Art, Smithsonian Institution. 




Sister Gertrude Morgan 



14 




and "Angels" speak to this idea. Sister Gertrude 
Morgan's creations on discarded window shades 
and cardboard are in fact art and evangelism. Her 
conception of God, angelic choirs, and herself are al- 
ways clothed in saintly white robes and didactically 
overlayed with scriptural text. Interestingly, her 
self-imposed separation in later years from the secu- 
lar world coincided with her calling to paint. 

Perhaps the most important work on view in 
Blac\ Foll{Art in America is a portion of James 
Hampton's Throne of the Third Heaven of the T^fl' 
tions Millenium General Assembly. Discovered in a 
garage in Washington, D.C. after Hampton's death 
in 1964, this 180'piece assemblage of furniture parts, 
cardboard, lightbulbs, and silver and gold foil was 
conceived by Hampton as a monument to Jesus. 
Hampton's Throne is a classic example of a "collage 
sensibility" in Afro-American art — a style-current 




 

James Hampton 



Farmhouse with Air- 
planes, by Ulysses 
Davis, 1943. Carved 
and painted relief, 
13 x 15%". Collec- 
tion of Ulysses 
Davis.  



that runs through quilts, outdoor environmental art, 
and in more obvious "art" examples as done by 
Romare Bearden, Benny Andrews, and others. 
The greater part of the Throne is on permanent dis' 
play at the National Museum of American Art, 
Smithsonian Institution, where pilgrims of both 
artistic and spiritual persuasion experience Hamp- 
ton's profound vision. 

Aside from featuring 20 men and women with 
exceptional talents, Blac\ Fol\Art in America 
addresses some other issues. In grouping these artists 
under the rubrics of "black" and "folk," curators 
Jane Livingston and John Beardsley open up a Pan- 
dora's box of aesthetic discourse. One might ask 
"What are the criteria, besides race and the absence 




Yellow Chicken, 

by Bill Traylor, 

1939-42 Pencil, 

crayon and 

gouache on 

paper, 13Vsx8'A" 

Collection of 

Charles Shannon. 




of so-called formal art instruction on the part of each 
artist, that qualifies their work as Black Folk Art?" 
One part of the answer might dwell in recurring 
1 6 motifs and themes that also exist among various 



West and Central African peoples. Reptiles, specif- 
ically snakes, appear in a number of pieces, and like 
their African antecedents, they often communicate 
mediation between spheres of existence (land/water, 




Bill Traylor 

the world of the living/the world of the dead). Bill 
Traylor's drawings of snakes and serpentine people 
capture a West African feeling for nature and man's 
ever-changing relationship with it. On the "folk" 
side of this categorizing, the many artists in this 
exhibition who knowingly embrace sensibilities 
which their communities maintain as the aesthetic 
ideal merit a "folk" heading as well. Inez Nathaniel' 
Walker's eloquent drawings of coiffed, bejeweled, 
and assertive women cognate with real life por- 
trayals. In spite of her tendency to exaggerate 
certain features, Nathaniel-Walker is in tune with 
community or "folk" sentiments concerning fem- 
inine style and comportment. 

Another accomplishment for this exhibition is 
its celebration of creativity in one's old age. Com- 
prised of works by artists predominantly sixty and 
older, Blac\ Folk, Art in America throws a wrench 
into the wunderkind complex that possesses so much 
of the contemporary art scene. That these elders are 
capable of exerting an influence on younger genera- 
tions of artists is witnessed in the careers of several 
Black, Folk, Art in America exhibitors. One such 
artist, Joseph Yoakum, created elegant pen and pas- 
tel drawings of landscapes (real and imagined) while 
living on Chicago's South Side in the 1960s. Yoakum 
and his drawings eventually caught the attention of 
Chicago's most promising painters in the sixties, 
artists like Roger Brown, Jim Nutt, Christina Ram- 
berg, and others. These artists befriended Yoakum, 
purchased his drawings, and helped to promote him 
among serious art collectors. Yoakum's almost sur- 
real approach to nature and his intuitive sense of 




Two Figures, (red and brown) by Inez Nathaniel- 
1976. Crayon and colored pencil on paper, 29% 
and Parsons Gallery, New Canaan, Connecticut 



Walker (detail), 
x41 7 /w". Webb 



Inez Nathaniel-Walker 





Mt. Thousand Lakes in Bryce Canyon National 
Ffeirk Near Hanksville Utah, by Joseph Yoakum, 
1968. Pen and pastel on paper, 12 x 19". Collec- 
tion of Christina Bamberg and Philip Hanson. 



Joseph Yoakum 




fegjj^^^ 



18 



color captivated his "discoverers" and furnished 
visual data for what is now internationally known 
as the "Chicago school of painters." 

The 320 art works and the accompanying 
artist's biographies in Blac\ Fol\Art in America not 
only please the artistic palate and educate the 
mind's eye, but raise the audience's level of con- 
sciousness about cultural resiliency. It is nothing less 
than the pure power of the spirit that those so-called 
"deprived" members of our society — the poor and 
the elderly — would prove their inner strength and 
aesthetic tenacity through art. Of course, the artists 
in this exhibition have no need of critical approval, 
since their reasons for creating art have less to do 
with art markets than with personal-spiritual assur- 
ances. Students of all ages, artists, academics, art en- 
thusiasts, and the average museum visitor can and 
will gain much from Blac\ Fol\Art in America. Au- 
diences will gain because the canon that the artists 
live by is generosity, and that sense of giving per- 
meates the breadth of their lives as well as their 
visual contributions. FM 



Market Art From Northeastern Asia 

A 19th-century Siberian Souvenir 

By James W. VanStone 
Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



In frontier areas of the world it was explorers, 
traders, missionaries, and government adminis- 
trators who created the first demand for native 
crafts as souvenirs. At first these travelers to remote 
lands purchased, as mementos of their experiences 
among exotic peoples, items of material culture 
made by natives for their own use. As the demand 
increased, however, native craftsmen produced 
items specifically for trade. New materials, foreign 
to the native environment, sometimes made their 
appearance, but for the most part the form of these 
souvenirs was firmly rooted in native cultural 
tradition. 

In the early twentieth century, Alaskan Eskimo 
women manufactured excellent coiled grass baskets 



v^r 



U.S.S.R 




.Okhotsk 



SEA OF 
OKHOTSK 



BERING SEA 



by the hundreds, while men engraved ivory pipes, 
carved animal and human figures from the same 
material, and made models of traditional artifacts 
in response to the demand of gold miners, commer' 
cial whalers, and members of exploring and scientific 
expeditions for souvenirs (see the Bulletin, Novem- 
ber 1982, pp. 1245). 

Along the frontiers of northeastern Asia in the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries a demand for 
souvenirs was created by members of the elaborate 
bureaucracy which administered Russia's far-flung 
Siberian empire and collected tribute from the na- 
tive peoples. Field Museum's ethnographic collec- 
tions contain an unusual example of Siberian market 
art dating from the late nineteenth century and per- 
haps made to be sold to one of the czar's represen- 
tatives in the city of Okhotsk, an important trading 
and administrative center on the Sea of Okhotsk 
opposite the Kamchatka Peninsula (see map). 

In the catalog of the Department of Anthropol- 
ogy, this interesting artifact is described as a "table 
covering." It was purchased by the Museum in the 
late 1890s as part of a large ethnographic collection 
from various locations in northeastern Siberia, par- 
ticularly from the area around the city of Okhotsk 
and the island of Sakhalin. 

This table covering was made by an Evenk 
craftsperson, probably a woman. In the nineteenth 
century the Evenks, formerly known as the Tungus, 
were the largest and most widely scattered language 
family in northeastern Asia. They were divided into 
two large groups separated from each other ter- 
ritorially and practicing different forms of subsist- 
ence. The reindeer-breeding and hunting Evenks, 
makers of this covering, occupied an enormous terri- 
tory stretching from the Yenisey River in north- 



19 



central Siberia to the Sea of Okhotsk, while pastoral 
and farming Evenks lived much further south in the 
Transbaikal as well as in neighboring areas of north- 
eastern China and Mongolia. 

This Evenk covering (cat. no. 32140) is virtual- 
ly square, measuring 51cm by 68cm, and made from 
numerous pieces of brown and -white reindeer skin 
sewn together in an overcast stitch with sinew. It is 
very fragile, the irregularly shaped light areas in the 
photograph (fig. 1 , front) indicating where the hair 
has fallen off. The center panel consists of two 
pieces of brown skin of approximately equal size 



be appliqued but actually are cut out and sewn into 
holes of corresponding size and shape in the cover- 
ing. Presumably the figures were first cut out and 
then their outlines traced onto the previously sewn 
center panel and surrounding bands. In the four cor- 
ners of the center panel there are floral and leaf 
ornaments. Veins in the leaves are sewn in a chain 
stitch with brown perle cotton thread. In the middle 
of the center panel is a chum, the Evenk skin- 
covered tent, with smoke ascending through an 
opening in the roof. On one side of the tent is the 
figure of a man chopping wood and on the other a 



Fig. 1. 




sewn together vertically down the middle. A 13 cm 
tear in the upper left hand corner has been carefully 
repaired (fig. 2, back). This center panel is bordered 
by a narrow band consisting of triangular pieces of 
alternating brown and white skin. Around this is a 
much wider band consisting of numerous pieces of 
brown skin sewn together. At the edges are two nar- 
row borders. The inner one is similar to the band 
around the center panel, consisting of a pattern of 
alternating triangular pieces of brown and white 
skin. According to information in the catalog, the 
edges were trimmed with short pieces of squirrel, 
gray fox, ermine, and otter skin. However, only frag- 
ments of squirrel and otter skin remain. 

The decorative figures on the covering are 
20 made of white reindeer skin which at first appear to 



reindeer tethered to a tree. Sections of the tent 
covering are outlined with black thread sewn in a 
chain stitch. The smoke rising from the tent, the 
reindeer's tether, and needles on the tree are tan 
thread, while the wood chopper's clothing and fea- 
tures are indicated with black and badly faded red 
thread. 

Above the roof of the tent the words okhots- 
kago okruga ("from the Okhotsk District") have 
been stitched in Cyrillic letters with perle cotton 
thread sewn with a filling stitch. In the late nine- 
teenth century the Okhotsk District included an area 
around the city of Okhotsk, whose population 
was primarily Evenk reindeer herders and hunters. 

In the wide band around the center panel are 
depicted two sleds of the east Siberian type, each 



drawn by six dogs. There is a man on one sled and a 
woman on the other. Parts of the outlines of the hu- 
man figures are delineated with black thread and the 
sides of the sleds are decorated with triangle pat' 
terns in red thread. Dog harnesses are also shown in 
red, while the traces are tan thread. All the thread 
sewing on this band is in chain stitch. 

Two noted authorities on the cultures of north' 
eastern Asia, Dr. I. S. Gurvich of the Institute of 
Ethnography, Moscow, and Dr. I. S. Vdovin of the 
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography, 
Leningrad, have examined photographs of this 



al ornamentation which was also characteristic of 
Koryak, Chukchi, Siberian Eskimo, and other north' 
eastern Siberian skin workers. 

The traditional reindeer skin pack bag cover 
was easily converted to a wall hanging, rug, or table 
covering when Russian administrators and travelers 
to northeastern Siberia created a demand for native 
crafts as souvenirs. In a recent Russian publication 
devoted to the decorative arts of northern Siberian 
peoples, there is an illustration of a rectangular rein- 
deer skin rug which has an elaborate fur mosaic bor- 
der and on which, in white reindeer skin, are de- 



Fig.2. 

Evenk covering and both are agreed that its pro- 
totype was the small, square cover for pack bags 
worn by reindeer as the herds were moved by the 
herders in search of better grazing areas. When not 
protecting reindeer pack bags, such coverings were 
sometimes used to sit on. Traditionally they were 
made of white skin taken from the legs of reindeer 
and brown skin from elsewhere on the body. 

The traditional reindeer pack bag cover was 
undecorated except for a unique ornamental pattern 
which the Russians call "fur mosaic," achieved by 
selecting small pieces of skin of contrasting colors to 
form a dark design on a light background or vice ver- 
sa. The narrow bands of alternating triangles of 
white and brown reindeer skin on the Museum's 
covering are good examples of this form of tradition- 




picted scenes of native life similar to those on Field 
Museum's table covering. Along the lower edge, 
also in white reindeer skin, is the date 1904. This rug 
was made by the Koryak, northeastern neighbors of 
the Okhotsk District Evenks. 

Fur rugs and wall hangings in a great variety of 
shapes and sizes are made today by many northern 
peoples in the Soviet Union. The craftsmanship of 
skin sewers that impressed the early Siberian travel- 
ers, explorers, and administrators, has continued to 
attract the interest of European Russians who, since 
the end of World War II, have sought employment 
in northeastern Siberia in ever-increasing numbers. 
Decorative skin working is truly a contemporary art 
form which has its roots in the traditional cultures 
of the past, fh 21 




Above: Tall dune grasses capture the attention and imagina- 
tion of a participant in search of hidden flora and fauna. 
Opposite, above: Environmental field trips provide the oppor- 
tunity to pause and reflect, examine and enjoy. Opposite, be- 
low: A hike through a local marsh transforms a simple spring 
day into a memorable adventure. 



Environmental 
Field Trips 

by Keith Mason 
Program Developer, 
Department of Education 



22 



While trying to rationalize his dissent for man's 
assault on America's wilderness in the name 
of "recreation," Aldo Leopold wrote, "The only true 
development in American recreational resources is 
the development of the perceptive faculty in Amer- 
icans." Leopold, author of A Sand County Almanac 
and a leading conservationist of the 1930s, was not 
the first to note the value of promoting an ecological 
awareness among us — he was only pleasantly ahead 
of his time. In the 1960s and '70s, his concerns be- 
came real concerns for a growing majority of Amer- 
icans who realized that our use of land and its re- 
sources might indeed contain some misuses and mis- 
takes. From the first "Earth Day" in 1970 and the 
"Keep America Beautiful" campaign of that same 
era, environmental education has seen substantial 
development. Field Museum has been a strong parti' 
cipant in that development. 

Beginning in 1973, Field Museum established a 
program of environmental field trips designed to fos- 
ter an awareness of the environment in which we 
live. As part of a larger educational context that in- 
eluded lectures, film series, teacher workshops, and 
the installation of a major permanent exhibit, "Man 
In His Environment," the environmental field trip 
program initially helped participants in understand- 
ing how their complex industrial society could coex- 
ist with fragile surrounding landscapes such as the 
Indiana Dunes. 

Interest in environmental education soon ma- 
tured. The public desired to explore intricate en- 
vironmental relationships in more detail and Field 



Museum's environmental field trip program ex' 
panded to meet these interests. Since 1973, some 
10,000 people have enjoyed a day in the out-of-doors 
with old friends or meeting new ones. Designed for 
family or adult groups, the field trips have some 
thing for everyone. One need not be interested in 
freshwater aquatic succession to enjoy walking 
down a cool creek on a colorful autumn afternoon. 
A person does not have to be able to differentiate a 
viceroy from a monarch butterfly to stroll through 
one of the many remnants of Illinois' namesake — the 
virgin prairie. But, if you would like to discover how 
a tiny marine shrimp came to be imbedded in the fos- 
silized rock you are holding in your hand or why a 
tamarack tree, usually found in Canada, is growing 
right here in northeastern Illinois, Field Museum 
field trips are just for you. Field trip leaders all pos- 
sess a special knowledge about the trip destinations 
and are enthusiastic about sharing that knowledge 
with you. The active interests of Field Museum 
scholars and others with appropriate expertise are 
an integral part of the program. 

Field trips depart from Field Museum's West 





Entrance on Saturdays and Sundays in the spring 
and fall. The trips designed for families are activity 
oriented and participatory learning experiences are 
used extensively. The adult trips are designed for 
those with a casual interest in nature and also for 
the serious student of the environment. They pro- 
vide the perfect opportunity to get away for a day, 
learn something new and arrive home with a re- 
newed sense of awareness. 

This spring marks the tenth year of the field 
trip program. The schedule provides exciting and 
new opportunities for all who participate. You can 
hike through the canyons of Starved Rock State 
Park or explore the glacial geology of Lake County. 
Your whole family can enjoy a collecting trip for 
wild foods or take part in a scientific sampling of fos- 
sils collected at Chowder Flats. If Chicago's cultural 
history is of interest to you, join us for a tour of our 
unique ethnic communities. These and many other 
trips are planned for the spring session which begins 
the weekend of May 5. For further information con- 
sult the Spring Field Trip brochure or call 922-9410, 
ext. 362. FN 



23 



FOSSIL PLANTS con't from p. 10 




Asterotheca. Fern leaf showing spore producing areas (sori) from the 
Middle Pennsylvanian, "Mazon Creek flora " of northeastern Illinois. 
The leaf is about 80mm long. Field Museum Paleobotanical Collec- 
tions. PP 28530. 



paleobotanical specimens, and consist mainly of leaves and 
other remains of flowering plants. Today, flowering plants 
dominate the world's vegetation, but we understand very 
little about how they arose and evolved. They appear to 
have undergone a major radiation during the mid- 
Cretaceous (about 120-90 million years ago), then sub- 
sequently diversified throughout the Upper Cretaceous 
and Tertiary. In conjunction with an understanding of liv- 
ing plants, research on Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary fos- 
24 sils is beginning to clarify exactly how the quarter of a 



million living species of flowering plants may have arisen. 
Large collections from the Eocene clay pits of Ken- 
tucky and Tennessee were accumulated by George Lang- 
ford, his son, and Eugene Richardson. In addition to the 
ubiquitous leaves, there are also fruits, catkins, and even 
flowers, many of them from localities that are no longer 
available for collecting. These specimens have been used 
extensively by David L. Dilcher of Indiana University in 
some of the most detailed studies of Eocene fossil plants 
ever carried out. In the last fifteen years Dilcher has estab- 
lished his laboratory as a major center for the study of early 
Tertiary fossil plants and has drawn freely on the Field 
Museum collections. Steven R. Manchester, a former stu- 
dent of Dilcher's, has produced a classic synthesis of the 
evolution of the walnut family (Juglandaceae) which is cur- 
rently the most detailed account available of the fossil his- 
tory and evolution of a single flowering plant family. 
Throughout his work, Manchester has benefitted con- 
siderably from the extensive coverage of early Tertiary 
material in our collections. 

Other Tertiary plant fossils come from many differ- 
ent areas, but the western United States is particularly well 
represented. Among the collections from Colorado, Mon- 
tana, Wyoming, and elsewhere is a large series of speci- 
mens from the Eagle Creek Formation (Oligocene, 30 mil- 
lion years ago) of the Columbia River Gorge. These are 
part of the first paleobotanical collections made by Ralph 
W. Chaney. 

Chaney was a native of the Chicago suburb of 
Brainerd, and following his keen interest in natural history, 
went to study at the University of Chicago where he met 
Noe and many other prominent geologists and biologists 
of the day. Chaney had a particular fascination with ecol- 
ogy, and introduced an ecological dimension into the study 
of Tertiary fossil floras. He carefully compared fossil com- 
munities with their living counterparts and, by extrapola- 
tion, began to assemble a picture of the ecological condi- 
tions under which the fossil plants may have been growing. 

The work on the Eagle Creek Formation was carried 
out at the University of Chicago, and Chaney went on to 
teach first at the University of Iowa and later at the 
University of California. As professor of paleontology at 
Berkeley, Chaney and his students extended their ecologic- 
al approach and applied it to a range of fossil floras in 
western North America. They were remarkably successful 
in constructing a broad overview of the vegetational and 
climatic changes in western North America over the last 50 
million years. Our understanding of the long-term vegeta- 



tional history in this region is now more detailed than for 
any other area in the world. Although some of Chaney's 
concepts have come under increasing criticism in recent 
years, he was the major force in broadening the scope of 
Tertiary paleobotany to address ecological questions. 

The reexamination of Chaney's ideas is just one small 
example of a basic reorientation which has begun to occur 
throughout paleontology in the last decade. Much of what 
has been traditional is being challenged; but whatever 
changes new methods, new concepts, and new dogma bring, 
the fundamental importance of specimens and the value of 
collections will not diminish. In 1973 Tom Phillips, Her- 
mann Pfefferkorn, and Russell Peppers provided an excel- 
lent review of the "Development of Paleobotany in the Illi- 
nois Basin" (published by Illinois State Geological Survey). 
They showed very clearly how Illinois, and the Midwest in 



general, has always been in the forefront of the historical 
development of North American paleobotany. The collec- 
tions at the Field Museum are an integral part of this his- 
torical legacy and are an important part of the paleobota- 
nical resources in the United States. 

The collections are now undergoing their most rapid 
expansion in over two decades through a broadening pro- 
gram of exchanges with other institutions and active 
collecting. In the last eighteen months, Cretaceous mate- 
rial from Alabama and Georgia, as well as early Tertiary 
material from Oregon, Idaho, North Dakota, Wyoming, 
British Columbia, and Europe has all been incorporated. 
Most of these specimens will never go on public display. 
Their purpose is to enhance the primary role of our collec- 
tion as a continuing resource for original research by Field 
Museum staff and other scientists. FH 



Leaves of Glossopteris from the Permian of New South Wales, Austra- 
lia. Each leaf is about 100mm long. Field Museum Paleobotanical 
Collections, PP 33686. 



Quercus clamensis. Oak leaf from the Oligocene Bridge Creek 
Formation, Oregon. The leaf is about 60mm long. Collected by R. W. 
Chaney. Field Museum Paleobotanical Collections, PP 33687. 





FIELD BRIEFS 




Assembled before Progress of Mind, now hanging in Field Museum, are friends of the late artist, 
Floyd E. Job: (I. to r.) Clifford Buzard. the Museum's Planned Giving officer, Thomas F. Croke, Rita 
Coyle, Golden M. Walser, MarkRosner. Beatrice L. Pness. Sophia Nelson, Kathy Marie Garness, Don 
Llanuza, Larry Lubeck. Pauline Blair, and Mary Hein. 



Artist Floyd E. Job 

Honored by Friends, 

Was Donor of His Own Painting, 

Progress of Mind 

Friends of the late Chicago artist Floyd E. Job 
recently gathered on the first anniversary of 
his death to view his painting, Progress of 
Mind, which he bequeathed to Field 
Museum in addition to a generous gift to the 
Museum's Endownment Fund. Mr. Job, a 
member of Chicago's Palette and Chisel Aca- 
demy of Fine Art, for more than 30 years was 
concurrently head designer at both Marshall 
Field ii Co. and at the Merchandise Mart. 

The story of man's thoughts — conscious, 
unconscious, subconscious, past, present, and 
future — and their effects on man's life and 
actions — all has been captured in Job's 5VS x 
8-foot oil painting, now hanging in the recep- 
tion area of Field Museum's ground floor 
administrative suites. 

Ironically, Progress of Mind is just about 
the only painting of his extant, for the hun- 
dreds of Job's paintings that have hung in 
exhibitions were burned by him. "They were 
mere extensions or reflections of this one 
work," Job remarked. "For 35 years, I carry 
'Progress of Mind' in my soul, my body, my 
own mind. This is all I wanted to do, but I 
was too busy. This painting was the only 
thing I ever wanted to do, for through it, I felt 
I could give a child to the world. 

"I have always loved the mind. While I 

know thousands of people, I never care who 

the person is, or what he is; initially, I have 

loved his mind. So, likewise, I have loved the 

26 mind of mankind, and felt that the story of the 



mind of man should be captured in a single 
painting." 

It is a heroic painting, containing hun- 
dreds of human figures. Each figure is a vig- 
nette of man's life; each tells its own story. 
Progress ofMind is basically simple: while the 
hundreds of scenes incorporate biology, phy- 
sics, psychiatry, chemistry, religion, inherited 
memory, and cultural and educational aspects 
of life, the picture as a whole starkly reveals 
that man yet does not understand himself and 
that his basic nature has not changed since 
the beginning of human life itself. 



Clark Fossil Collection 
Cataloged by Volunteers 

When John Clark, former curator of 
sedimentary petrology, retired in 1973 from 
the Department of Geology, he left a legacy of 
13,154 paleontological specimens waiting to 
be cataloged. Now. thanks to the efforts of 16 
volunteers, the collection of fossil mammals 
(mainly Oligocene — 38 million to 22.5 mil- 
lion years old), as well as fossil plants, fishes, 
birds, and reptiles, has been entirely cata- 
loged and curated — a task of four years, two 
months that required 2.124 actual hours of 
volunteer time. 

Volunteers who participated in the 
project included Joseph Levin (who alone 
contributed nearly 796 hours), Cathy 
Agnone. Turpin Ballard. Susan Boynton, 
Benny Daniel Dombeck, Carol Hallow, 
Wally Hastings. Ellen Hyndman, Paul Jen- 
sen, Susan Knoll. Gary M. Kocanda, Joan 
Maynard, Holly Morgan, Steffi Postol, Bar- 
bara Roob. and Thelma Schwartz. 

The Department of Geology recently 
hosted a reception for these volunteers in 
recognition of their achievement. Dr. Clark, 
who now resides near Rockford. Illinois, was 
also present to view the volunteers' impres- 
sive achievement. 

The project was so successful that the 
department is now planning the cataloging of 
several tens of thousands of fossil mammals 
from the Australian latest Tertian' and Pleis- 
tocene (5 million to 10.000 years ago), again 
utilizing volunteer help. Persons interested in 
this project should call Joyce Matuszewich, 
volunteer coordinator, for further details. 



Retired Curator of Sedimentary Petrology John Clark (2nd from rt ) inspects some of the 13. 154 fossil 
specimens that were cataloged and curated by volunteers, and with him are volunteers who assisted 
in the project (I. to r): Mrs. Susan Knoll, Joseph Levin. Clark . and Benny Dombeck. 






Alaska Natural History 
Tour 

June 1984 
$4,185 

Experience the Great Land. Descrip- 
tions of Alaska are filled with superla- 
tives — a state more than twice the size 
of Texas with a population less than 
that of Denver, 33,000 miles of coast- 
line, 119 million acres of forest, 14 of the 
highest peaks in the United States cul- 
minating in Mt. Denali (formerly Mt. 
McKinley), at 20,320 feet. Alaska is 
equally a land of wildlife superlatives, 
from her great herds of caribou to 
swarming seabird rookeries to surging 
salmon in migration. When one thinks 
of Alaska one thinks of wilderness, of 
nature still fresh and undomesticated, of 
experiences dreamed of but mostly un- 
available to us of the lower 48. 

Join us for an Alaskan odyssey 
through a wide range of habitats from 
the rockbound fur seal and sea bird col- 
onies of the Pribilofs, to the dripping 
forest and calving glaciers of the south- 
east, to the grandeur of the Alaskan 
Range, to the Fjordlike quiet and beauty 
of the inland passage. 

Our travels will be by plane, train, 
bus, boat, horseback, and foot — what- 
ever best enhances our experience. 



Emphasis will be on the land, its history, 
its wildlife. Interpretation combined 
with direct observation will provide an 
enjoyment and quality of experience un- 
available to the casual visitor. Whatever 
your interest in natural history — marine 
mammals, birding, mountains, photogra- 
phy, flowers, forests, glaciers, rivers — 
this tour will show you Alaska in all its 
diversity and splendor. 

The tour will be led by Dr. Robert 
Karl Johnson, Chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology of Field Museum. 



Grand Canyon Adventure 

May 25 'June 3 

Many of us have beheld the Grand 
Canyon from the rim or while flying 
overhead, and some of us have hiked 
partway down to the Colorado River. 
But there is another Grand Canyon that 
relatively few have experienced: Field 
Museum is offering you the opportunity 
to see and experience the canyon from 
the river. 

The 280-mile trip will be by two 
motorized rubber rafts. We'll sleep on 
sandy beaches under the stars and our 
meals will be excellent. Along the way, 
we'll hike to places of unusual geologic 
and anthropologic interest, sometimes 
through the most pleasant and enchant- 
ing stream beds and valleys, at times 
along the waterfalls. We'll see and 
study more geology in this one brief 
period than can be seen anywhere else 



in comparable time. Dr. Bertram Wood- 
land, curator of petrology, will be our 
tour leader. 

The trip will begin on Friday, May 25, 
with a flight to Las Vegas, where we 
will remain overnight. Saturday we'll 
leave by deluxe bus for Lees Ferry, 
where we'll board the rafts. The trip 
will end 9 days later, at Pierce Ferry, 
near the head of Lake Mead. We'll re- 
turn to Chicago, via Las Vegas, Sunday, 
June 3. 

You needn't be a "rough rider" to join 
this expedition — you needn't even 
know how to swim. Persons of any age 
can enjoy the river with equanimity, 
and come out proud and happy to have 
experienced this extraordinary adven- 
ture. 

The cost (to be announced) per per- 
son covers all expenses (including air 
fare, board fees, waterproof bags for 
gear, sleeping bags, etc.), and all meals. 
The trip is limited to 25 participants. 

Additional Tour Gems 
Slated for 1984 

is* China and Tibet 

ts- Kenya 

is" Peru 

vs- England's Old Inns, Old Homes, 

Old Castles, and Old Gardens. 

For additional information on any tour, 
please call Tours Manager Dorothy Roder at 
322-8862 or write Field Museum Tours, 
Roosevelt Road at La\e Shore Drive, 
Chicago, IL 60605. 




201 

EDITH FLEMING 



Black Folk Art in America: 1930-1980 

April 14-July 15 



April 

14, Saturday, 200pm: 



28, Saturday, 20Opm : 

May 

5, Saturday, 200pm: 

6, Sunday, 200pm: 
13, Sunday, 20Opm : 

19, Saturday, 200pm : 

20, Sunday, 200pm : 

June 

3, Sunday, 200pm: 

17, Sunday, 20Opm : 
23, Saturday, 200pm: 



"What Is Fofc Art?: Symposium" 

Panel. Lynda Roscoe Hartigan, Phyllis Kind, James ferker, 
Sterlms Stuckey moderator: Richard towell 

Lecture: "Indelible tons: The Back Atlantic Visual Tradition" 
by Robert Fams Thompson, professor of art hstory. Vale University 



Lecture: "The Origins and Development of Blade American Fofc Art" 

by Regene ftzrry professor of art history, Virginia Commonwealth University 

Performance: "Gospel Music: Spirit of the People" 

by 180 choir members of Trinity United Church of Chnst of Chicago 

Performance: "A Teler of Tal Tales, Jack Tales and Ghost Tales" 

by Jadoe Tbrrence, Granite Quarry, N.C 

Lecture "Memory and Sense of Place in Black Fofc Art" 

by William Ferns, deector, Center for the Study of Southern Culture, 
University of Mississippi 

Performance. "Blues Chicago Style" 

by Chicago musicians; moderators: Amy and Jim ONeai, editors of 
LMng Bites, journal of the black American blues tradition. 



Performance:" West African Rhythms" 

by Mandmgo Gnot Society of Chicago 

Performance: "Adventures in Rhythm and Song," 

a Jenkns, Chicago fc* singer 

Performance: "Africa* Gift to the World," 

by Dariene Btackburn Dance Troupe, Chicago 




I :i'r:^::i':-ri ;:.:'/e:..K;":.'e 13x45 •> :' f 1970s) on view m exhibit "Back FolK Art in America 
■>930-l980 ' Ajy V4tt t 



FIELD 



IM CNF NATURAL 




May 1984 




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BULLETIN 






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xhibit opens April 29 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Famela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



CONTENTS 

May, 1984 

Volume 55, Number 5 



Mav Events at Field Museum 



African and Afro-American Art: 
Call and Response 

by Richard J. Powell, guest curator, Department of 
Anthropology 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

Hammock (detail), made by the Sherbro orMende people of 
Sierra Leone and woven of dyed and natural cotton. Late 
19th or early 20th century. Tlie piece was collected in Sierra 
Leone in 1901 and acquired by Field Museum in 1929. Cat. 
175957. A photo of the entire piece may be seen on page 5. It 
will aho be on view in Hall 9 from April 29 through Decem- 
ber 31 as part of the exhibit "African Insights: Sources for 
Afro-American Art and Culture!' See pages 5-25. Photo by 
Diane Alexander-White. N109326. 



Life Trustees 

Harrv O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard VVood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
Julv'August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Historv, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago. II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually, S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



Eskimo Art and Culture 

comprising two exhibits: 

"Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo" 

and 

"Grasp Tight the Old Ways: 

The Klamer Family Collection of Inuit Art" 

continues on view through May 27 



T 



Events 



Black Folk Art Programs 

These programs are designed to complement the 
special exhibit "Black Folk Art in America 1930- 
1980" and are funded in part by a grant from the 
National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal 
agency. 

Fees are nonrefundable. Please use coupon to order 
tickets. For further information please call 
(312) 322-8854. 

Black Folk Art Lectures 

"Origins and Development of Black American 

Folk Art" 

RegeniaA. Perry, Professor of Art History, 

Virginia Commonwealth University 

Saturday, May 5, 2:00pm; James Simpson Theatre, 

West Entrance 

The earliest surviving examples of black American folk art 
include pottery, quilts, wood carving, basketry, iron work, 
and painting. Dr. Perry traces the development of this art 
through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, explaining the 
remarkable persistence of certain "Africanisms" through- 
out the course of black American folk art history. Dr. Perry 
is an avid collector ot black folk art and is author of the 
essay "Origins and Development of Black American Folk 
Art," in the exhibit catalog Black Folk Art in America 
1930-1980. 

Tickets: $5.00 (Members: S3.00). 

"Memory and Sense of Place in Black Folk Art" 
William Ferris, director, 
Center for the Study of Southern Culture 
Saturday, May 19, 2:00pm; James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance 

Family, region, and place influenced traditional African 
artists, and continue to influence the black American folk 
artist today. William Ferris looks at the contributions of 
black culture to the American experience, focusing on folk 
artists of the rural South. Located on the campus of the 
University of Mississippi, The Center for the Study of 
Southern Culture is a clearinghouse for information on re- 
gional studies of southern culture. As a folklorist who talks 
to the folk as well as studying their artifacts, Dr. Ferris has 
found Mississippi a vital research area. 

Tickets: $5.00 (Members: S3. 00). 

Please use coupon to order tickets. For further information 

please call (312) 322-8854. 

Gospel Music: Spirit of the People 

Sanctuary Choir of Trinity United Church of Christ and 
members of the Jewel McLaurin Dance Company 
Sunday, May 6, 2:00pm; Stanley Field Hall 

"The spiritual is the community in rhythm, swinging to 
the movement of life." Over 150 members of the Sanctuary 
Choir of Trinity United Church of Christ present a musical 



program that explores the origins and evolution of black 
religious music. This performance illustrates with song and 
dance the slave hunt, capture, and ultimate departure of 
ships to the Americas, life working the fields of the South, 
and the celebration of religion in black churches today. The 
choir performs African chants, spirituals composed while 
working in the fields, and traditional and contemporary 
gospel songs, including calypso, samba, and reggae 
rhythms. The children's choir of Trinity United Church of 
Christ accompanies the Sanctuary Choir on selected pieces. 
This performance is free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 

Blues: Chicago Style 

Moderated by Jim and Amy O'Neal, editors of 
Living Blues 

Sunday, May 20, 2:00pm; James Simpson Theatre, 
West Entrance 

"Well the blues ain't nothing but a good man feeling bad 
just sitting down thinking about the good times he once 
had," from "Coin' Away Baby," by Jim Brewer. 

It is generally agreed that Chicago is the blues capital 
of the world. No other city has so much blues activity or so 
many hot players on the local scene. Join us for an after- 
noon of blues that traces the history of this Chicago 
phenomenon. 
With: Jim Brewer, acoustic blues guitarist 

Eddie Taylor Blues Band, traditional blues 
Jimmy Johnson Band, contemporary blues 

Tickets: S5.00 (Members: S3. 00) 

Black Folk Art: Film Series 

A special program of film has been designed to accompany 
the exhibition "Black Folk Art in America: 1930-1980." 
Films are screened on Saturdays in May and June, begin- 
ning at 1:00pm. Film notes are available. These films are 
free with Museum admission, and tickets are not required. 

May 5: "Sermon's in Wood" (27m) 

"Nellie's Playhouse" (14m) 
May 12: "Always for Pleasure" (58m) 
May 19: "Two Black Churches" (20m) 

"Possum O Possum" (28m) 
May 26: "The Performed Word" (58m) 

Family Feature 

"Jack Tales, Ghost Tales, and Tall Tales" 
with Jackie Torrence, the Story Lady, 

Granite Quarry, North Carolina. 

Sunday, May 13, 2:00pm, Stanley Field Hall 

Young and old alike are held spellbound as Jackie Torrence 
spins her Jack Tales, Ghost Tales, and Till Tales. The telling 
of tall tales and legends was formerly a dying folk tradition, 
but today it is experiencing a revival all over the country, 
thanks to storytellers like Jackie Torrence. Jackie is saving 
an important part of our heritage. . . and the result is a good 
time for all! 

Her stories transfix the audience, immobilizing them 
as it they were frozen under a magician's wand. With ex- 

CONTIM ED > 



CONTINUED FROM PACE 3 



Events 



pressive hands and a rich resonant voice she becomes in Settle down to hear an afternoon of stories told by one 

turn, a young girl, a croaking frog, and a demon snake. who loves them all — the story, the people, and the charac- 

When her tale is told, spellbound listeners shake themselves ters she shares. This program is free with Museum admis- 

and discover they are breathless. sion, and tickets are not required. 

May Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demon- 
strations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a 
few of the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule 
and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



May 5 1 :00pm Ancient Egyptians. Examine the lives of 
the pharaohs and the Egyptian people, from 
Predynastic times to Cleopatra. Explore their 
culture and beliefs, from daily life to death and 
mummification. 

1 :30pm Tibet Today. Slide lecture shows Lhasa 
and other cities and towns now open to tour- 
ists, as well as Tibetan refugees who have car- 
ried their religion into the mountainous areas 
surrounding this ancient religious center. 

2:30pm Himalayan Journey: A Faith in Exile. 
Slide lecture focuses upon the strongholds of 
Tibetan refugees in India: Dharamasla (home 
of the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and Sikkim. 

6 12:30pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken 
heads from the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and African animals. 

12 1 1 :30am Ancient Egypt. Explore the traditions 
of ancient Egypt from everyday life to myths 
and mummies. 

13 12:30pm Welcome to the Field. Enjoy a sam- 
pling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore Field Museum. 

19 2:00pm Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze. 
Discover the origins of the magnificent bronze 
works lining the halls of Field Museum. Film 



and slide lecture examines the life and works of 
Malvina Hoffman, concentrating on the Por- 
traits of Mankind collection. 

20 12:30pm Museum Safari. Seek out shrunken 
heads trom the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and African animals. 

26 1 :00pm Red Land/Black Land. Examine the 
geography of the Nile Valley, and its effect on 
the life style of the pharaohs, religious prac- 
tices of the priests, and the reason for 
mummification. 

27 12:30 Welcome to the Field. Enjoy a sampling of 
our most significant exhibits as you explore 
Field Museum. 

These weekend programs are free with Museum admission 
and tickets are not required. 

Coming Next Month 

"West African Rhythms" 

The Mandingo Griot Society and Foday Musa Suso 

Sunday, June 3, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Join us for an afternoon of West African music blending 
Mandingo traditional songs and original compositions. 

Tickets: S6.00 (Members: S4.00) 




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selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested Information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. II your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 




Fig. 1. Hammock Sherbro or Mende, Sierra Leone. Cotton, dyed 
and natural. Late 19th/early 20th century. Field Museum collection, 
cat. 175957, N109326. Photo by Diane Alexander White. 



African and 
Afro-American 
Art: Call and 
Response 

by Richard J. Powell 
guest curator, 

African Insights: Sources for 
Afro-American Art and Culture 



I was astonished to see women ...do a sort of weaving, 
circular motion with their bodies, a \ind of queer 
shuffling dance which expressed their joy in a quiet, 
physical manner. It was as if they were talking with the 
movements of their legs, arms, nec\s, and torsos; as if 
words were no longer adequate as a means of com- 
munication; as if sounds could no longer approximate 
their feelings; as if only the total movement of their 
entire bodies could indicate in some measure their ac- 
quiescence, their surrender, their approval. 

And then I remembered: I'd seen these same, 
sna\eli\e, veering dances before ... V/here? Oh, God, 
yes; in America, in storefront churches, in Holy Roller 
Tabernacles, in God's Temples, in unpainted wooden 
prayer-meeting houses on the plantations of the Deep 
South . . . How could that be 1 

—Richard Wright' 

Following a 1953 tour of Ghana, Afrc 
American novelist and essayist Richard 
Wright described his first impressions of his 
"ancestral homeland" in the book Blac\ Power. 

This essay was written as an accompanying text tor the exhibi- 
tion, African Insights: Sources for Afro- American Art and Cul- 
ture, on view at the Field Museum of Natural History from April 
29 until December 31, 1984. I heartily thank the many organiza- 
tions and individuals who helped to realize this project, and who 
guided an inquiring scholar through the storerooms, archives, 
and mindsets of black creativity: the staff at the Field Museum of 
Natural History, especially the Anthropology, Education, and 
Exhibition Departments; the Illinois Humanities Council; the 
Dusable Museum of African American History; Richard Hunt; 
and Robert Farris Thompson. — R.J.R 

© 1984 Field Museum of Natural History 




Fig. 2. Lewis Miller, Virginia Sketchbook, 1853: "Spinning wool" and "Lynchburg-negro dance, ca. 1853. 
Watercolor, ink, and pencil on paper. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, Williamsburg, Va. 



Wright was taken aback by the differences and sim' 
ilarities between Africans and black Americans. The 
shared characteristics were particularly puzzling for 
Wright, since he had long assumed that the centuries 
which had transpired and the traumatic experience 
of slavery obliterated any possibilities for African 
"survivals" in America. However, his face-to-face 
encounter with West African dance, gestures, and 
cultural patterns recalled similar traditions in the 
United States. 

Wright's acknowledgement of "some kind of 
link," along with the same realization by anthropol' 
ogists and historians form the ideological core for the 
Field Museum of Natural History's exhibition Afri- 
can Insights: Sources for Afro- American Art and 
Culture: The connections between various African 
peoples and their Afro-American descendants are 
often not immediately apparent. Layers of time, as 
well as cross'cultural influences, refashion African 
expressions into American statements. But the indel' 
ible mark of several West African civilizations con- 
tinues through time and over the dominant culture, 
expressing itself in an outlook and style that is 
essentially "Black Atlantic." The arts and cultures 
that exist along Africa's west coast — from Senegal's 
Cape Verde to just below the mouth of the Congo 
River — are reinvented among black populations in 
South America, the Caribbean, and the United 
States with striking results. 

This art survey, drawn largely from the Field 
Museum's African collection, closely examines the 
African cultures that contributed to a black presence 
in the Americas, especially in the United States. The 
major cultural areas of Africa represented in North 
America-bound slave ships include Kongo and Ango- 
lan peoples; Africans from the Niger Delta area (pre- 
dominantly Igbo and Cross River groups); Akan cap- 
tives from the "Gold Coast" (present day Ghana); 
peoples from the West Atlantic and Mande- 
influenced regions of Senegambia, Guinea, Sierra 
Leone, and parts of Mali; and "Slave Coast" inhabi- 
tants: Ewe from Togo, Fon from the Republic of Be- 
nin (formerly Dahomey) and Yoruba from South- 
western Nigeria? These ethnic groups, as represented 
in the assembled artworks and cultural artifacts, car- 
ried genetic and aesthetic information across the 
Atlantic into the sewing rooms, plantations, and 
ateliers of black America. 



One vivid example of aesthetic information 
from West Africa stands out in a Mande- 
influenced textile from the Mende or Sher- 
bro people (cover photo and figure 1). Collected in 
Sierra Leone in 1901 and acquired by the Field 
Museum in 1929, this hammock consists of five long 
strips of hand-spun cotton, woven and sewn together 
with a subtle, staggered design. The trademark of 
these heavyweight "country cloths," is the conscious 
manipulation of corresponding and contrasting pat- 
terns, via the use of natural or dyed yarns, weft-faced 
weaves, and supplementary tapestry techniques. 
Though a "broad-loom" width is the objective in sew- 
ing the strips together, "breaks" in the prevailing de- 
sign suggest that accentuation and occasional suspen- 
sion of the design "beat" is equally important. 4 

That African-born and African-descended 
slaves were encouraged in textile-related crafts is 
attested to in countless slave narratives and surviving 
visual documents. An 1853 drawing from the sketch- 
book of Lewis Miller, a German-American artist (fig. 
2), illustrates, among other things, the spinning of 
wool by one of Virginia's slave population. Although 
black American artisans had access to Western Euro- 
pean looms and weaving techniques, they frequently 
chose West African design units and color com- 
binations in the manufacturing of cloth for home use. 5 
Very few slave-era textiles have survived to the 
present day, but modern examples of traditional, 
Afro-American cloth art demonstrate the persistence 
of an African approach to textiles. Black American 
"patchwork" artistry — borne out of economic necess- 
ity and visual ingenuity — is represented in a classic, 
"Spider Leg" quilt (fig. 3) by Mississippi artist Pecolia 
Warner. 6 The narrow (i.e., "spider leg" -width) strips 
of cloth are sewn together in alternating (dark/light 
and patterned/solid) schemes that hearken back to 
visual ancestors like the Sierra Leonean "country 
cloth." 

Perhaps the most well-known African ancestor 
to traditional black American arts and crafts is the 
coiled-grass basket. On both sides of the Atlantic 
these baskets serve in many capacities, functioning as 
food containers, storage bins, and even head gear. But 
it is in the role of agricultural tool that African and 
Afro-American coiled-grass baskets especially show a 
shared form and function. 7 

When British settlers discovered that colonial 7 




Fig. 3. Pecolia Warner, "Spider Leg" Quilt ca. 1970. Cotton. Center for Southern Folklore, Memphis, Tenn. Photo by Diane Alexander White. 



South Carolina and Georgia had the climate, terrain, 
and natural vegetation to sustain large scale rice 
cultivation, it wasn't very long before the Atlantic 
slave trade was escalated, and thousands of West 
Africans were being shipped into North America as 
cheap labor. These African slaves, many of whom 
were already knowledgeable about growing rice, also 
brought to America the know-how for making the 
wide and shallow "rice fanner" (fig. 4), an essential 
tool for the tropical and semitropical farmer? 

Wilfred Hambly, former curator of ethnography 
at the Field Museum, collected several coiled'grass 
baskets during an expedition to Angola in 1929. 9 In 
one of the photographs from that expedition (fig. 5), 
an Ovimbundu woman is shown making one of these 
8 baskets. Her low-to-the-ground, seated position, and 



her obvious dexterity in coiling the varied lengths of 
grass mirror the work procedures and woven pro- 
ducts of her South Carolina Sea Island sister (fig. 4), 
shown here in a turn-of-the-century photograph. 

Of course, other New World countries that 
developed under plantation economies also 
reflect the cultural legacies of Africa. In 
contrast to the statistics for the United States, the 
overall numbers for slave importations into Cuba, 
Haiti, Dominican Republic, Suriname, and Brazil are 
much higher, and extend over a longer period of time. 
These combined factors result in aspects of Carib- 
bean and South American life that are much closer to 
West African societies than the cultural patterns of 
blacks in the United States. 10 



A classic example of this cultural fidelity to Afri' 
ca is witnessed in the art and culture of Suriname. 
During the 17th and 18th centuries, this small area on 
the northeastern coast of South America was con' 
sidered one of the most profitable sugar-producing 
colonies in the Western Hemisphere. Consequently, 
5.5 percent of all African slaves imported into the 
Americas were shipped into the "Guianas" (present' 
day Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana). 11 Slaves 
frequently escaped from the coastal plantations and 
sought refuge (and companionship with other 
escapees, or "Maroons") in the heavily forested and 
water-coursed interior. These bands of self-liberated 
men and women, armed with the traditions of their 
African past, developed communities, religious 
activities, languages, culinary arts, and other folk' 
ways that relied strongly on selected African 
correspondents. 12 

A comb attributed to the Saramaka people of 
Suriname (fig. 6) features a central floral pattern, an 
overlapping and joined ribbon design, engraved 
areas, and "owl" and "jaguar" eye openings. 13 These 
motifs and the carved openwork convey symbolic elc 
ments and illustrate the use of visual metaphors in 
Maroon abstract design. One might correlate the 
aesthetic sensibilities that govern this Saramaka 
comb with those that operate in the combs of South' 
eastern Ghana (figs. 7 and 8). Also utilizing intersect' 
ing bands, engraved patterns, and symbolic animal 
forms, combs by the Akan peoples of Ghana are vir' 
tual lexicons of illustrated proverbs and traditional 
beliefs. Engraved on one side of the Akan comb are a 
rooster, a hen, the sun, a crescent moon, and a "sacred 
heart" (borrowed from Christian iconography): all 
symbols of love. 14 The meaning of the engraved fish on 
the opposite side of the lower handle defies immedi' 
ate interpretation, but it possibly refers to a local say 
ing, or to a personal symbol of either the carver or the 
recipient of the comb. 

As gifts from men to their wives, fiancees, sis- 
ters, or mothers, the Akan and Saramaka combs are 
tokens of esteem out of two societies that are singular- 
ly preoccupied with aesthetic issues. From the 
sensuous, organic forms of the Saramaka comb, to the 
round'headed symbol of fecundity and beauty on the 
Akan comb, the visual ideal centers on life-giving 
forces. 




Fig. 4. South Carolina woman fanning rice, from Outlook magazine, 
Oct. 24, 1908. N83619A. 



Fig. 5 Ovimbundu woman making coiled-grass basket, ca. 1929-30. 
N67871. 




For many New World blacks the only African 
traditions that could be maintained without 
chastisement from their white owners -were 
conceptual ones — closely-held beliefs, community 
mores, and the manner in which work and recreation 
were performed. 15 Unknown to the master, the "mis- 
sus," and the plantation overseer were those inherent- 



ly African ways that slaves prayed among their own, 
conducted their own systems of social interaction, 
mourned their own dead, dressed, cooked, made 
music, and danced. That the canons of an African 
aesthetic could be called upon across the boundaries 
of a specific medium, via these deep-seated concepts, 
is attested to in numerous examples of recent black 



Fig. 6. (left). Comb. Afro-American, Suriname (Saramaka). Wood. 20th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 191682, N109323. Figs. 7, 8 (center 
and right, representing front and back). Comb. Akan, Ghana. Wood, beads. 20th century. Field Museum collection cat 221468 N109285 and 
N109285A. Photos by Diane Alexander White. 




10 



F . f t * 






American choreography, music, literature, and visual 
art. 

A concept that addresses this cultural extension 
is the important standing that women maintain in 
society. Notwithstanding a system of rigidly defined 
sex roles, many West African women enjoy economic 
independence from their husbands, and the related 
decision-making powers, social prestige, and influ' 
ence over fellow community members. 16 A standing 
female figure (fig. 9), collected in southwestern 
Nigeria before 1893, embodies much of this West 
African-based "feminism" in its realistically-designed 
head tie, frozen facial expression, erect posture, and 
overall characterization. Although it is difficult to de- 
termine which cult this shrine image was used for by 
the Yoruba, its confidence and physical presence 
loudly proclaims female assertiveness. In a different 
vein, the Ibibio of southeastern Nigeria portray a 
youthful and physically striking woman (fig. 10), on a 
carved headdress from the turn of the century. Possi- 
bly depicting one of the candidates for female initia- 
tion rites, headdresses like this one were used in 
marionette-like performances by troupes of dancers 
and actors. 17 The Yoruba and Ibibio representations of 
vital, power-wielding women both have a distant, 
though conceptually close counterpart in con- 
temporary, Afro- American images of womanhood. 
For instance, artist Inez Nathaniel-Walker's draw- 
ings of black women (fig. 1 1) unconsciously pick up 
on these West African traits of female dynamism. 
Nathaniel-Walker's emphasis on surface activity, an 
elaborate hairstyle, and a searing expression in 
V/oman and Purple Curtain transforms her subject 
into aggression itself, but like the Yoruba and Ibibio 
sculptures, she tempers this aggression with beauty 
and potentiality. 18 

Another concept that crossed the Atlantic is the 
metaphoric use of snakes. The Fon people of the Re- 
public of Benin (formerly the Kingdom of Dahomey) 
encorporate the benevolent snake, or Dan, in many of 
their religious ceremonies, believing that the python's 
ability to traverse land and watery realm entitles it to 
special deference." Among several categories of Fon 
charms, or gbo, is a hammered piece of iron shaped 
like a snake (fig. 12) and used by travelers as a por- 
table altar. 20 Dan 's capacity for ensuring health, pro- 
sperity, and good will is harnessed both ritually and 
sculpturally in this concrete desire for mediation. At 




Fig. 9. Female Figure Yoruba, Awori area, Nigeria. Wood, pigment. 
Late 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 28545, N109325. 
Photo by Diane Alexander White. 



11 




Fig. 10. Headdress. Ibibio, Nigeria. Wood, basketry, pigment, mirrors. 
1 2 Late 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 25036, N98087. 



least fifty years later and across the Atlantic Ocean in 
World War Il'era Alabama, artist Bill Traylor uti' 
lizes snake imagery in a similar fashion. In an enigmat- 
ic drawing by Traylor (fig. 13), the undulating move- 
ments of a snake are doubled, and fixed to a central 
horizontal line. A gesturing man, a woman supported 
by a walking stick, and a gravity-defying cat (all ren- 
dered in silhouettes) flank this snake construction. 
This collection of seemingly disparate elements, like 
other works by Bill Traylor, suggest observed and im- 
agined phenomena. Possibly referring to an old Afro- 
Alabaman belief about encountering snakes along the 
road, 21 Traylor 's drawing dialogues with the Daho- 
mean image with an allegiance, and proffers that Fon 
influences may have entered the United States via 
the Caribbean-Louisiana migration route. 22 

In regard to specific African influences in the 
United States, an overwhelming amount of evidence 
points towards Kongo and Kongo-related peoples as a 
major cultural factor. Although historians differ on 
the approximate number of Kongo peoples imported 
in total, there is a consensus that in the final "boom" 
years of the legal U.S. slave trade (ca. 1783 through 
1807), the slavers received most of their human cargo 
from the southernmost part of the trading region: 
present day People's Republic of the Congo, Zaire, 
and Angola. The large number of imported Kongo 
peoples (estimated between one-third and one-fourth 
of all Africans imported into the U.S.) 24 and their sta- 
tus as the last, en-masse, cultural group of Africans to 
enter the United States in these genesis years for 
Afro-America, warrant a close consideration of Kon- 
go culture in this study. 

Also central to any discussion about traditional 
Afro-America is the acknowledging of social prac- 
tices and beliefs that sustained black Americans in 
the midst of an oppressive system. Self-assurance dur- 
ing those years of enslavement, reconstruction, and 
disenfranchisement came about as a result of an in- 
creased awareness of one's history and of one's 
spirituality. This double-barreled source for inner 
freedom and power expresses itself in slave testimon- 
ies, statements concerning Afro-American religious 
vocation, and descriptions of various leaders (minis- 
ters, midwives, and other community therapists). 

The famous Afro-American walking cane (fig. 
14) by the mid-nineteenth-century carver Henry 
Gudgell epitomizes this Kongo-influenced will to- 




Fig. 11. Inez Nathaniel-Walker, Woman in Purple Curtain, 1975. Pencil and colored pencil on paper. Phyllis Kind Gallery, New York and 
Chicago. 



13 



Fig. 12. Snake charm (gbo). Fon, Republic of Benin. Iron. Late 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 28539, N109324. Photo by Diane 
Alexander White. 



wards self-confidence and knowledge. Carved reptil' 
ian motifs, along with plant, human (fig. 15), and ab- 
stract elements of decoration, join forces in com- 
municating a message to the owner of the cane and to 



the larger world. What this message generally 
addresses is the idea of prestige and power (as repre- 
sented in the swirling finial) being a God-given state, 
and that the healing potential (i.e., the medicinal leaf) 



Fig. 13. Bill Traylor, Snake at the Crossroads, ca. 1939-42. Drawing. Private collection, courtesy Carl Hammer Gallery, Chicago. Photo by 
CheriEisenberg. 



14 






Fig. 14. (left). Henry Gudgell, Carved Cane with Figural Reliefs, ca. 
1863. Wood, pigment. Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn. 
Fig. 15. (right). Detail of cane. Both photos by Joseph Szaszfai. 



Fig. 16. Standing Male Figure with Staff. Kongo, Zaire. Wood, pig- 
ment, glass. Late 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 43906, 
N1 02999. 15 





16 



Fig. 17. Staff with Figurated Top. Coastal Kongo, Congo or Cabinda. 
Wood, pigment. Late 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 
28229, negative N102996 (detail). 



Fig. 18. (left). Carved Cane. Afro-American, United States (Cherry Val- 
ley, Ark.). Wood, rhinestone inlay, cloth. Ca. 1916. Lent by Dr. Adell 
Patton, Jr., Courtesy Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Conn. 
Fig. 19. (right). Detail of cane. Photos by Joseph Szaszfai. 




Fig. 20. Figurated Pipe. Coastal Kongo, Congo or Cabinda. Wood, leather. 19th century. Field Museum collection, cat. 210465, N109214. Photo by 
Fleur Hales Testa. 



of such an appointment is contingent with com' 
munication between this world (symbolized by the 
man) and the spirit world (symbolized by the snake, 
turtle, and lizard). 24 This panoply of carved symbol' 
ism, envisioned by a black American artisan who was 
probably no more than several generations removed 
from Africa, recalls its Kongo ancestors with remark' 
able visual recollection. In a Kongo sculpture of a 
man balancing a walking cane with both hands (fig. 
16), the same concept of high-ranking status and 
mediation are encoded in the cane's serpentine carv 
ing and in the sculpture's air of ritual readiness. 25 

The moral height that this 19th-century Kongo 



figure ascends to has a Machiavellian counterpart in 
another Kongo figure (fig. 17), carved on top of a 
wooden staff, and also dating from the 19th century. 
Depicting a Dutch seafarer, the figure sports a marin- 
er's cap, moustache, jacket, trousers, and wooden 
shoes. In much of the Kongo art that hails from the 
colonial period, or from the coastal regions where 
contacts with European traders were frequent, carv' 
ers use the image of the European as a symbol of mate 
rial wealth and influence. 26 

A figure also crowns an early 20th-century 
walking stick from Cherry Valley, Arkansas (fig. 18). 
Standing stoically over a carved, winding staff, the 



17 




1 8 Fig. 21. Figure Holding Bowl. Afro-American, United States (Fayetteville, NY.). Carved Pine. Ca. 1860. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Center, 
Williamsburg, Va. 




Fig. 22. Simon Sparrow, Untitled, 1983. Mixed media assemblage on wood. Carl Hammer Gallery, Chicago. Photo by Cheri Eisenberg. 



19 




20 Fig. 23. Oath-Taking and Healing Figure (Nkisi N'Kondi). Yombe, tury. Field Museum collection, cat. 91300, N109327. Fig. 24 (opposite) 

Zaire. Wood, clay, fiber, metal, pigment, cowrie shell. Late 19th cen- shows detail N109329. Photos by Diane Alexander White. 




21 




Fig. 25. Doris Ulmann, Decorated Grave in the Carolina Sea Islands, 
ca. 1930. Photo courtesy William Clift. 



22 



suited male figure incarnates his own version of emi' 
nence. Holding a book (possibly a bible) in his right 
hand, while his left hand is hidden in his jacket pock- 
et (fig. 19), he recalls the contained gestures of the 
Kongo "Dutchman." But unlike the representation of 
the Dutchman-as-economic/political might, this 
AfrcAmerican walking stick equates the authority 
of its upper figure with secular and/or spiritual in- 
sight. 

The Kongo walking stick came to Chicago in 
1893, when collector and dealer Carl Hagenbeck sold 
a large number of artifacts to the Columbian Museum 
of Chicago, now known as the Field Museum of 
Natural History. 27 Subsequent acquisitions of Kongo 
art have expanded the museum's holdings from this 
region of Africa, making extensive museum-based 



research into Kongo aesthetics and material culture 
possible. One of those subsequent Kongo acquisitions 
is a carved wooden pipe (fig. 20), a gift to the Field 
Museum from the celebrated, London collection of 
Captain A. W. F. Fuller. 28 In addition to classic, Kon- 
go designs encircling the pipe, a rapacious bird 
appears on the stem, and a male figure straddles and 
clutches the drumlike bowl. Though essentially con- 
ceived in the proportions of a Western-style smoking 
pipe, the figurative elements and implied gestures of 
generosity and contemplation push this implement 
into the parameters of Kongo ethics and cosmology. 25 
The same sense of meditative giving filters through 
the placid expression of an Afro-American carving 
from Fayetteville, New York, circa 1860 (fig. 21). Pur- 
portedly done as a token of appreciation by a fugitive 



slave enroute to freedom, this carving of a seated man 
holding a vessel conveys a reciprocity that is also very 
much a part of the Kongo pipe's directive — that man 
must ultimately give of himself in this world. 

Aspects of African religions, such as the pre 
sence of vital forces throughout the universe, an inti- 
mate and personal Supreme Being, or the inevitable 
retribution for actions both good and bad, 30 gave Afri' 
can captives a basis for embracing those aspects of 
Christianity that also promoted these ideals. The syn- 
cretic nature of traditional black religion also allowed 
for African symbols to become Christian ones — a fact 
of creolization that explicitly shows itself in the Afro- 
Catholic shrines of Brazil, Haiti, and Cuba. But this 
conversion was not limited to the Catholic Americas, 
as evidenced in the ritual and style of older black Pro- 
testant churches in the American South. 31 

Afro-U.S. religion reveals its more expressive 
side in a recent mixed media assemblage by Wiscon- 
sin artist Simon Sparrow (fig. 22). Consisting of old 
costume jewelry, buttons, beads, and various bric-a- 
brac, all glued on a wooden board in a carefully- 
conceived format, Sparrow's creation indulges in 
visual swoops and collaged shouts that rival the gos- 
pel artistry of an Alex Bradford or Clara Ward. 32 
Sparrow's particular attention to symbolic accretions 
— as seen in a cross and "spirit hound" rendered in 
glitter and pearls, or in the strategic placement of a 
huge shell — is an aesthetic impulse that most likely 
draws on his New Bern, North Carolina roots, and 
on that region's cultural debt to Kongo-influenced 
cemetery ornamentation and charm-making. 33 

One of the finest examples of a sculpted Kongo 
charm, or Ttyisi H'Kondi (fig. 23), illustrates the 
visual ancestor for Sparrow's meaningful but elusive 
assemblage. Collected in Bas-Zaire and acquired for 
the Field Museum in 1907, this oath-taking and heal- 
ing figure carries in its whole being the basic tenets of 
Kongo beliefs and judiciary law. 34 Clients present 
their arguments, illnesses, and various problems be- 
fore a ritual expert, who in turn, addresses the solu- 
tions, remedies, and oaths to the T^kisi WKondi. 
Each nail, blade, and screw represents an important 
matter that was resolved by hammering the iron 
staves into the figure. The massive swelling in the 
abdomen symbolizes a negative force that can only be 
brought under control with the moral righteousness 
and entree of a shell or piece of glass: metaphors for an 



African Insights: 

Sources for Afro-American 

Art and Culture 

will be on view in Gallery 9 
April 29 through December 31, 1984 



eternal, parallel world. The shimmering bits of jewel- 
ry and large white seashell in Simon Sparrow's work 
is echoed on the shell- and tinsel-decorated graves 
from cemeteries in coastal Carolina and Georgia com- 
munities (fig. 25). From a related use of shells, porce- 
lain, and/or reflecting glass in Kongo charms and 
graveyards, to an overall Black Atlantic "collage 
sensibility," Simon Sparrow's untitled opus to creativ- 
ity and the Creator displays all of the necessary 
accumulative powers through what Robert Farris 
Thompson calls the "Flash of the Spirit." 35 Just as the 
J^kisi 7^'Kondi is a glorification of the judge, healer, 
and policing agent, so too is Sparrow's assemblage an 
homage to the previous owners (and ultimate Own- 
er) of the rings, chains, necklaces, and other gems of 
the universe. 



The African and Afro- American objects dis- 
cussed in this essay, and the rest of the visual 
statements from African Insights: Sources for 
Afro'American Art and Culture can be viewed as a 
gathering of past and present lives, carved in history, 
and based on the needs of village associations, royal 
artisans, uprooted slaves, inspired freedmen, and 
ingenious men and women. This exhibition not only 
represents an art historical case of aesthetic giving 
and taking, but also the timeless phenomenon of turn- 
ing idea, act, and impulse into concrete philosophy: 
concepts that are held up, displayed, worn, danced, 
and passed down from generation to generation. 
Though the context for singling out selected, Bb.ck 
Atlantic images is intentionally didactic, the objects 
and the accompanying stories of cultural transmis- 
sion make the looking and learning process a gratify- 
ing, trans- Atlantic sojourn: a rite -de passage avail- 
able to one and all. FM 23 



NOTES 

1 . Richard Wright, Black Power (New York: Harper and Broth- 
ers, 1954), p.56. 

2. Of course, Richard Wright's statement is a persona! observa- 
tion on African and Afro- American linkages. One of the earliest, 
and perhaps the most controversial scholarly investigation into 
this subject is Melville J. Herskovits, The Myth of the Negro Past 
(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1941). Though debated at the 
time of its publication, Herskovits 's study of African influences 
in the New World has had reverberations on subsequent writers, 
most notably James A. Porter, "The Trans-Cultural Affinities of 
African Negro Art," in Africa Seen by American J^egroes, ed. 
John A. Davis (Paris: Presense Africaine, 1958), pp. 119-130, and 
Robert Farris Thompson, "African Influences on the Art of the 
United States," in Black Studies in the University, eds. Armstead 
L. Robinson, Craig Foster, and Donald H. Ogilvie (New Haven: 
Yale University Press, 1969), pp. 122-170. Thompson's most re- 
cent book on trans-Atlantic art and culture, Flash of the Spirit: 
African and Afro- American Art and Philosophy (New York: Ran- 
dom House, 1983) provides contemporary readers with addi- 
tional data that traces specific African traditions (Yoruba, Kongo, 
Dahomean, Mande, and Ejagham) to various New World 
communities. 

3. The best source for the percentages and origins of African 
slaves in the Americas are Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave 
Trade: A Census (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 
1969), and James A. Rawley, The Trans- Atlantic Slave Trade: A 
History (New York: WW Norton and Company, 1981). 

4. The "reading" of West African textiles as woven and dyed 
discourses on rhythm occurs in Roy Sieber, African Textiles and 
Decorative Arts (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1972), 
p. 190, and Robert Farris Thompson, African Art in Motion (Ber- 
keley: University of California Press, 1974), pp. 10-13. Jules 
Staub discusses the looms, weaving techniques, and types of 
cloth among the Mende in Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Materiellen 
Kultur der Mendi in der Sierra Leone (Solothurn: Buchdruckerei 
Vogt-Schild AC, 1936), pp. 28-35. Still, another fine analysis of 
Mende textiles appears in John Picton and John Mack, African 
Textiles (London: The Trustees of The British Museum, 1979), 
pp. 103-106. 

5. Dominic Parisi conducted a series of interviews with older 
black quilters in Eastern Kentucky during the summer of 1979. 
Among the many conclusion that were drawn from that study 
was the overwhelming preference among the quilters for a high 
contrast of colors: a basic canon for Western Sudanic textiles as 
well. Conversations with Black Women who live and quilt in East- 
ern Kentucky, unpublished manuscript by Dominic Parisi, 1979. 
Also see Pascal James Imperato, "Bamana and Malinke Covers 
and Blankets," African Arts, vol. 7, no. 3 (1974), pp.56-67, 91. 

6. William Ferris, "Pecolia Warner, Quilt Maker," in Afro- 
American Foll{ Art an d Crafts, ed. William Ferris (Boston: G.K. 
Hall and Company, 1982), pp. 98-108, and Maude Southwell 
Wahlman and Ella King Torrey, Ten Afro-American Quilters 
(University: The Center of the Study of Southern Culture/ 
University of Mississippi, 1983) discuss Pecolia Warner's artis- 
try in the context of classic, Afro-American quilt making. I am 
especially indebted to Maude Wahlman for bringing to my atten- 
tion the ex ' ^otional Warner quilt (figure 3) presently in the 
collection c V Center for Southern Folklore, Memphis, 
Tennessee. 

7. Mary Twin i.]... "Harvesting and Heritage: A Comparison of 
Afro-American and African Basketry," Southern Folklore Quar- 
terly, vol. 42 (1978), pp. 159-174. 

8. The cultural impact of Senegambian, Windward coast, and 
Kongo/ Angolan peoples on colonial South Carolina is addressed 

24 in Peter Wood's landmark book BlackMajority: Jiegroes in Colo- 



nial South Carolina from 1650 through the Stono Rebellion (New 
York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1974). 

9. Wilfred Hambly, The Ovimbundu of Angola/ Frederick H. 
Rawson Field Museum Ethnological Expedition to West Africa 
(Chicago: Field Museum ofNatural History, 1934), pp. 169-172. 

10. Herskovits, op. cit. and Pierre Verger, Notes sur le culte des 
Orisa et Vodun a Bahia, la Baie de tous les saints, au Bresil et a 
Vancienne Cote des esclaves enAfrique (Dakar: IFAN, 1957). 

11. Curtin, op. cit., pp. 89-91. 

12. Discussing the juncture between West African civilizations 
and an emerging Afro-American culture in Suriname, two 
anthropologists hold the opinion that the early Maroons "did 
share certain general cultural orientations that, from a broad 
comparative perspective, characterized West and Central Afri- 
can societies as a whole." Sally and Richard Price, Afro-American 
Arts of the Suriname Rain Forest (Berkeley: University of Cali- 
fornia Press, 1980), p. 196. 

13. I thank Christopher Healy, who specializes in the art and 
culture of Suriname's Maroon populations, for sharing his exper- 
tise on this Saramaka comb. 

14. The objects of much creative energy in Ghana, combs like 
this one are appreciated for their formal beauty and power to 
communicate, as discussed by Janet Adwoa Antiri in "Akan 
Combs," African Arts, vol. 8, no. 1 (Autumn 1974), pp. 32-35, and 
Herbert M. Cole and Doran H. Ross in The Arts of Ghana (Los 
Angeles: Museum of Cultural History/University of California, 
1977), pp. 48-53. 

15. Daniel J. Crowley, "Negro Folklore, An Africanist's View," 
The Texas Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 3 (Autumn 1962), p. 67 

16. For an in-depth study of the multiple roles that women play 
in traditional societies, see Judith Hoch-Smith and Anita Spring, 
eds. Women in Ritual and Symbolic Roles (New York: Plenum 
Press, 1978). The novels of two outstanding Nigerian writers, 
Flora Nwapa and Buchi Emecheta, also explore women's issues. 
Flora Nwapa, Idu (London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 
1970) and Buchi Emecheta, TTie Slave Girl (New York: G. Brazil- 
ler, 1977). 

17 John C. Messenger, "Ibibio Drama," Africa, vol. 41, no. 3 
(1971), pp. 208-222. 

18. A major area of research for art historian Sylvia A. Boone 
has been the perception of beauty in Africa and Afro-America. 
Conversations with Professor Boone, 1981-82, and the exhibition 
catalog by Roslyn A. Walker, African Women/ African Art (New 
York: The African-American Institute, 1976) have greatly con- 
tributed to my understanding of this area. 

19. For a thorough interpretation of Fon religion and society, 
see Melville J. Herskovits, Dahomey, an Ancient West African 
Kingdom, vols. I and II (Evanston: Northwestern University 
press, 1967). Discussions of snake imagery also appear in P. Mer- 
cier, "The Fon of Dahomey," in African Worlds, ed. Daryll Forde 
(London: Oxford University Press, 1954), pp. 220-222, and 
Robert Farris Thompson, Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro- 
American Art and Philosophy (New York: Random House, 1983), 
pp. 176-179. 

20. This small piece of iron, shaped like a snake and decorated 
with a brown feather, is inserted into the ground by the traveler. 
Libations of palm-oil, alcohol, red kola, and drinking water are 
made to it, and the ritual is completed with a prayer. Herskovits, 
ibid., vol. II, p. 282. The iron snake and the related rituals of the 
Fon were brought to Haiti during the slave trade, as seen in the 
worship of snake deities throughout Haiti, and in the use of iron 
snakes in Vodun ceremonies. Alfred Metraux, Voodoo in Haiti 
(New York: Schocken Books, 1972). 

21. "... crossing the road where a snake has crossed will give 
you a backache unless you turn around and walk backwards over 
the spot." — Newbell Niles Puckett, Folk Beliefs of the Southern 



A[egro (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 
1926), p. 436. The connections between snakes, traveling, and 
one's physical state of well'being are not only observed in this old 
saying from Alabama, Bill Traylor's drawing, and in various Fon 
rituals, but among the Angolan peoples as well. Wilfred Hambly 
mentions carved snakes in divination, serpents as either good or 
bad omens, and the wearing of snake vertebrae as a cure for 
rheumatism. Hambly, op. cit., pp. 138, 275, and 298. 

22. Bill Traylor and Inez Nathaniel-Walker are discussed at 
length in Jane Livingston and John Beardsley, Blac\ Folk, Art in 
America: 1930'1980 (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi/ 
Center for the Study of Southern Culture, 1982), pp. 138-145, 
104-109. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, thousands 
of Cuban and Haitian immigrants poured into Louisiana. 
Though differing in race, caste, and class, these immigrants 
brought to North America their Caribbean traditions, many 
which were the products of strong, African influences. Samuel 
Wilson, N[ew Orleans Architecture, vol. IV: The Creole 
Faubourgs (Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company, 1974), pp. 25- 
36, and H.E. Sterkx, The Free Tsjegro in Ante'Bellum Louisiana 
(Rutherford: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1972). 

23. Philip Curtin, op. cit., pp. 156-158, and Robert Farris 
Thompson and Joseph Cornet, The Four Moments of the Sun: 
Kongo Art in Two Worlds (Washington, D.C: National Gallery 
of Art, 1981), pp. 147-151. 

24. In a forthcoming work by Ramona Austin, the aesthetic 
effects of Kongo staffs are convincingly traced to figurated walk- 
ing sticks and "conjuring" canes in the black United States. I am 
grateful to Ms. Austin for sharing her ideas about these canes 
during a conversation, 6 February 1984. The Gudgell cane was 
first mentioned and illustrated in James A. Porter, Modern J^egro 
Art (New York: Dryden Press. 1943), pp. 27, 201. Robert Farris 
Thompson, "African Influences on the Art of the United States," 
op. cit., discusses the Gudgell cane in the context of other early, 
Afro- American masterpieces. 

25. A close comparison between this Kongo figure and a Kongo 
figure illustrated in Kurt Krieger, 'Westafrikanische Plasti\, I 
(Berlin: Museum Fur Volkerkunde, 1969), PI. 187 and p. 91, sugg- 
est that one school, or even one carver created both works. This is 
very likely, since the collectors for the Berlin and Chicago figures 
traveled in the same area of Central Africa at about the same 
time. 

26. For a discussion about depictions of Europeans in African 
art, see Phillip H. Lewis, "Primitive Artists look at Civilization," 
Chicago Jiatural History Museum Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 7 (July 
1961), pp. 2-3, 8, and Roslyn A. Walker, The Stranger Among Us 
(Washington, D.C: National Museum of African Art/ 
Smithsonian Institution, 1982). 

27 The details concerning this transaction are found in the cor- 
respondence from Carl Hagenbeck's Zoological Arena and 
World's Museum, to the Columbian Museum of Chicago, Au- 
tumn 1893, Accession File 81, Anthropology Department, Field 
Museum of Natural History. 

28. For a brief synopsis of Captain A.W F Fuller's career as a 
collector, see Philip J. C. Dark, The Art of Benin: A Catalogue of 
an Exhibition of the A.WT. Fuller and Chicago Natural History 
Museum Collections of Antiquities from Benin, Nigeria (Chicago: 
Chicago Natural History Museum, 1962), pp. 1-2, 17-18. 

29. Smoking in many African societies is looked upon as both 
recreational pasttime and ritual act. Wilfred Hambly recounts a 
legend on the origins of smoking from the Bushongo, a people 
who live to the east of the Bakongo: 

"A man . . . astonished his tribesmen by producing a pipe from 
the trade goods brought from distant places. While smoking in the 
center of a curious circle, he proceeded to explain the value of 
tobacco by saying, "When you have had a quarrel with your 
brother, you may wish to kill him; sit down and smoke a pipe. By the 



time this is finished you will think that death is too great a punish' 
ment for your brother's offence, and you will decide to let him off 
with a thrashing. Relight your pipe and smoke on. As the smoJ^e 
curls upward, you will think t ' lat a f ew harsh words would serve 
instead of blows. Light your pipe once more and, when the bowl is 
empty, you will ready to go to your brother and forgive him" 
Berthold Laufer, Wilfred D. Hambly, and Ralph Linton, Tobacco 
and its Use in Africa, Leaflet 29 (Chicago: Field Museum of 
Natural History, 1930), p. 23. While one might consider the Field 
Museum pipe to be an aberrant, tourist item, based on its West- 
ern form and unusual figuration, other pipes from the Kongo area 
raise the spectre of an indigenous, figurated pipe tradition. For a 
similar pipe form from the Kongo area, see a Teke pipe from the 
Goteborg Museum, illustrated in Raoul Lehuard, Statuaire du 
Stanley-pool (Villier-le-Bel: Arts d'Afrique Noire, 1974), p. 171. 

30. John S. Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy (New York: 
Praeger, 1969), and Dominique Zahan, The Religion, Spirituality, 
and Thought of Traditional Africa (Chicago: The University of 
Chicago Press, 1979). 

31. Rev. Joseph A. Brown brilliantly assesses the "Africaniz- 
ing" process in "Voices Stirring the Waters: Reflections on the 
Religious Impulse of Afro-American Art" (M.A. thesis, Yale 
University, May 1983). 

32. Concerning the seemingly excessive decoration of a Mobile, 
Alabama home, one anthropologist concluded that "... the feel- 
ing in back of such an act is that there can never be enough beau- 
ty, let alone too much." This point-of-view is also quite applicable 
to the art of Simon Sparrow. Zora Neale Hurston, "Characteris- 
tics of Negro Expression," in A[egro Anthology, ed. Nancy Cunard 
(London: Wishart and Company, 1934), p. 40. Ken Hodorowski, 
Director of Carl Hammer Gallery, generously brought to my 
attention the talents of Simon Sparrow. 

33. Elizabeth A. Fenn, "Grave Decorations in Coastal North 
Carolina," unpublished paper delivered in the graduate seminar, 
Space and Architecture of the Black Atlantic World, Yale Uni- 
versity, April 1983. In addition to Ms. Fenn's excellent survey of 
decorated graveyards in North Carolina, there are literally scores 
of studies that examine this largely southern phenomenon. Of 
special note are: Puckett, op. cit., pp. 104-108; Samuel Miller 
Lawton, The Religious Life of South Carolina Coastal and Sea 
Island A[egroes (Ph.D. dissertation, George Peabody College for 
Teachers, 1939); John M. Vlach, The Afro- American Tradition in 
Decorative Arts (Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 
1978), pp. 139-147; and Robert Farris Thompson and Joseph Cor- 
net, op. cit., pp. 181-203. 

34. Specific references to the Field Museum Jtyisi N'Kondi 
appear in Ezio Bassani, "Kongo Nail Fetishes from the Chiloango 
River Area," African Arts, vol. 10, no. 3 (April 1977), pp. 36-40, 
88, and Robert Farris Thompson, "The Grand Detroit N'Kondi," 
Bulletin of the Detroit Institute of Arts, vol. 56, no. 4 (1978), pp. 
206-221. 

35. Thompson, Flash of the Spirit/op. cit. A discussion of the 
"collage sensibility" and other aspects of Afro- American art are 
addressed in Richard J. Powell, "The Blues Aesthetic: Afro- 
American Culture as an Instrument of Style in Modern Amer- 
ican Painting" (M.A. thesis, Yale University, May 1982). 



25 



Tours For Members 



An exciting, adventurous and in- 
depth safari carefully planned under 
the expert guidance of our leader, 
Audrey Faden. She served on the 
Field Museum Volunteer staff and 
has done field research and general 
collecting of plants in Kenya. A na- 
tive of Kenya, Audrey is a former 
staffer of the National Museum of 
Kenya, and her keen interest in 
wildlife, conservation, and plant life 
makes her a natural to lead our tour. 
If you have an inquisitive mind and 
would like to learn about the wild' 
life, ecology, and plant life, this 
safari should be your choice. Photog- 
raphy will be a major objective on 
this tour and our specially equipped 
safari vehicles will provide clear 
visibility for all tour participants. 

Our itinerary will include a day 
stop-over in London on both the 
outbound and return flights. We'll 
fly direct from London to Nairobi, 
Kenya. During our stay in Kenya 
we'll visit Amboseli National Park 
(justly famous for its big game and 



KENYA 

September 8-27, 1984 

$3,595 

(per person, double occupancy) 



superb views of Mount Kili- 
manjaro), Tsavo National Park, 
Aberdare National Park, Samburu 
game reserve, and the Northern 
Frontier district, spending two 
nights at the famous Mount Kenya 
Safari Club. We'll visit Lake 
Naivasha, where the birdlife is spec- 
tacular. It is estimated that there are 
over 500 bird species on this Rift 
Valley lake. We'll spend two nights 
at Kichwa Tembo Safari Camp, 
where we'll enjoy two full days of 
game viewing in Maasai Mara Game 
Reserve. 

The tour price includes hotel 
and camp accommodations, three 
meals each day, except in Nairobi 




Audrey Faden 

where full breakfast only is in- 
cluded, plus a special cocktail party 
and welcome and farewell dinners. 
No meals in London. Air transporta- 
tion via British Airways, plus all 
transfers, baggage handling, safari 
vehicles, entrance fees, hotel taxes 
and all gratuities. An advance de- 
posit of $50.00 per person will en- 
sure your reservation on this East 
African Safari. Please make checks 
payable to Field Museum. For fur- 
ther information, please call or write 
Dorothy Roder: (312)322-8862. 




Audrey Faden 



COMING 

ir> Peru Tour (October), with an overnight 
stay at Machu-Picchu. 
<&■ China Tour, which will include Beijing 
(Peking) and Sian. 



Last call for Field Museum's June tour to 
Alaska. If interested, please call 
Dorothy Roder now (322-8862). 



001F288 
EDITH FLEMING 
946 PLEASANT 
OAK PK, IL 60302 






Black 



April 

14, Saturday, 2:00pm : 



28, Saturday, 2:00pm: 

May 

5, Saturday, 2:00pm: 

6, Sunday, 2:00pm: 
13, Sunday, 2:00pm : 

19, Saturday, 2:00pm: 

20, Sunday, 2A0pm: 
June 

3, Sunday, 2KX)pm : 
17, Sunday, 2:00pm: 
23, Saturday, 2:00pm-. 



Folk Art in America: 1930-1980 

April 14-July 15 



"What Is Folk Art?: Symposium" 

Panel: Lynda Roscoe Hartisan, Phyllis Kind, James Parker, 
Sterling Stuckey moderator: Richard Powell 

Lecture: "Indelible Icons: The Black Atlantic Visual Tradition" 

by Robert Farris Thompson, professor of art history, Yale University 



Lecture: "The Origins and Development of Black American Folk Art" 

by Regenia Perry professor of art history, Virginia Commonwealth University 

Performance: "Gospel Music: Spirit of the People" 

by 180 choir members of Trinity United Church of Christ of Chicago 

Performance: "A Teller of Tall Tales, Jack Tales and Ghost Tales" 

by Jackie Torrence, Granite Quarry N.C. 

Lecture: "Memory and Sense of Place in Black Folk Art" 

by William Ferris, director, Center for the Study of Southern Culture, 
University of Mississippi 

Performance: "Blues Chicago Style" 

by Chicago musicians,- moderators: Amy and Jim O'Neal, editors of 
Living Blues, journal of the black American blues tradition. 



Performance:" West African Rhythms" 

by Mandingo Griot Society of Chicago 

Performance: "Adventures in Rhythm and Song," 

by Ella Jenkins, Chicago folk singer 

Performance: "Africa's Gift to the World," 

by Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe, Chicago 




"Fish," painted wood and metal sculpture by Leslie Payne, 13 x 45% x 7Vb" (1970s), on view in exhibit "Black Folk Art in America 
1930-1980," April 14 through July 15. 



■>.:• ?:r*ss, r:r:w,,r*\\sW';y*\rw^^ 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



June 1984 



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IVest African Rhythms by The Mandingo Criot Society: June 3 

Adventures in Rhythm and Song by Ella Jenkins: June 17 

Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe: June 23 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H.Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

June 1984 

Volume 55, Number 6 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U 60605. ISSN:0015-O703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



June Events at Field Museum 



Fort Ancient: Citadel Or Coliseum? 

by Patricia S. Essenpreis, research associate in 
Anthropology, and Michael E. Moseley, curator of Middle 
and South American archaeology and ethnology 



In Pursuit of Amphibians and Reptiles in East Malaysia 

A report from the field by Robert F. Inger, curator, 11 

Division of Amphibians and Reptiles 



William G. S\\ art chile 1, Jr., in Memoriam 



13 



STICI: A Training Program for Teachers 

by Carolyn Blackrnon, chairman, Department of Education, 14 
Maija Sedzielarz, coordinator of the Joyce Foundation Teacher 
Training Program, and Helen H. Voris, special projects writer, 
Department of Education 



Volunteers Honored 



18 



Tours for Members 



27 



COVER 

Chinese snuff bottles: 32 representath , es (front and back cover) from Field Museums extensive 
collection. A large selection oftfiese beautiful objects have recently been placed on permanent 
exhibit in Hall 24 ("Ancient China"). 

The art of fashioning snuff Ixtt ties in China came about as the result of a gift from Louis 
XIV of France in 1692 to the Emperor K'ang Hsi (1662-1722): a set of striking, gold -enameled 
boxes for holding snuff. The emperor was more intrigued by the gemlike boxes than their con- 
tents, and he invitedjesuit artists to Peking to demonstrate how to reproduce certain colors 
used on the boxes. Howeivr. it remained for Kang Hsi's grandson, the Emperor Ch'ien Lung 
(1735-95), to bring about a i"ogue for snuff and snuff bottles. 

A large number of the Museum s snuff bottle collection were the gift* in 1936, of Mrs. 
Frances Gaylord Smith, and all of those shown liere nvregiivn by her, except one (top row, front 
coi>er, second from left — the gift of Mr. Sidney Teller). 

Front cover, row bv row. from top left: C232447: porcelain, stopper of imitation coral. 
C233421a: lacquer-cowed brass. C232420: porcelain, stopper of coral. C2324Z4: blue glass 
painted with enamel, stopper of rose quartz. C232193: glass, quartz stopper C232403: glass 
painted on inside, stopper of jade. C232154: glass, jade stopper. C232266: brown onyx, stopper 
of jade. C232339: chalcedony, stopper of glass. C232324: stone, stopper of quartz. C232291: 
agate, stopfer of jade. C232371: agate, stopper of glass. C232034: porcelain, coral stopper. 
C232238: quartz, stopper of coral and turquoise. C232480: ivory (made injapan. probably for 
the Chinese market). C232221: cinnabar lacquer, stopper of lacquer. 

Back cover: C232206: glass, stopper qfglass. C232175: glass, stopper of quartz. C232165: 
gtassfade stopper. C232178: glass, glass stopper. C232410: brown stone, jade stopper. C232092: 
glass, coral stopper. C232400: agate, stopper of coral and turquoise. C232478: porcelain, stop- 
fer of imitation coral. C232134: porcelain, glass stopper. C232110: glass, stopper of jade. 
C232469: porcelain , stopper of quartz. C232043: glass, stopper of coral and glass. C232259: 
rock crystal, jade stopper. C232429: porcelain, stopper of lapis lazuli. C232217: walrus tusk 
(stained), quartz stopper. C232054: glass, stopper ofgfass. 

Photos of snuff bottles by William C. Bent ley, a iolunteer. 



T 



Events 



T 



Black Folk Art Programs 

These programs are designed to complement the special exhibit "Blac\ Fol\Art in America 1930-1980" The 
programs are funded by a grant from the 'National Endowment for the Humanities, a federal agency. 



West African Rhythms 

The ~Mandingo Griot Society and Foday Musa Suso 

Sunday, June 3, 2:00pm 

]ames Simpson Theatre, West Entrance 

In Western Africa, griots form a special group of master 
musicians, oral historians, praise singers, poets, and keepers 
of tradition. Since its formation in 1977, the Mandingo Griot 
Society has captivated audiences throughout Europe and the 
United States with its unique blending of African and West- 
ern musical styles. In addition to bass, tap drums, and guitar, 
the society uses a wide range of ethnic instruments, includ- 
ing the kfira, the 21-string harp played exclusively by the 
Mandingo griots. Join us for this performance, which blends 
Mandingo traditional songs and original compositions. 

Tickets: $6.00 (Members: $4.00) 

Please use coupon on p. 4 to order tickets. 

Adventures in Rhythm and Song 
Ella Jenkins, singer and songwriter 

Sunday, ]une 17, 2:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

Ella Jenkins would like to teach the world to sing — and per- 
fect harmony doesn't matter! Ella Jenkins is a magician with 
children of all ages and devotes her life to demonstrating her 
extraordinary musical talents to people all over the world. 
Along with her harmonica and ukulele she encourages every- 
one to snap fingers, clap hands, stomp feet, hum, and whis- 
tle, creating a spontaneous and impromptu sing-along con- 
cert. Join us for this high-spirited concert as Ella sings and 
gets folks a-singing! 

This program is free with Museum admission, and 
tickets are not required. 



Africa's Gift to the World 
Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe 

Saturday, June 23, 2:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

Since 1967, the Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe has per- 
formed to enthusiastic audiences the world over. In this two- 
part program the troupe performs numerous West African 
Dances, includingju Ju Social Dance, the Fetish Priest 
Dance, and Adowa, a funeral dance done by the Ashanti 
people. The second part highlights Darlene Blackburn's ori- 
ginal choreography and features Raw Soul, From Africa to 
America, Female Ritual, and the St. Thomas Calypso. 

This performance is free with Museum admission, and 
tickets are not required. 




The Mandingo Griot Society 

Black Folk Art: Film Series 

Films are screened on Saturdays in June, beginning at 
1:00pm. On Saturday, June 23 children's films are featured. 
Film notes are available. These films are free with Museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 

June 2: "Maxwell Street Blues" (56m) 
June 9: "Du Cote de Memphis" (58m) 

"Hush Hoggies Hush" (4m) 
June 16: "Bottle Up and Go" (18m) 

"The Blues According to Lightnin' Hopkins" 

(28m) 
June 23: "A Boy Creates" (10m) 

"Legend of John Henry" (11m) 

"George Dumpson's Place" (8m) 

"A Story, A Story" (10m) 
June 30: "Sermons in Wood" (27m) 

"Nellie's Playhouse" (14m) 



CONTIMIKIKO 



c.dM'IMKn FROM PAGES 



Events 



June Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstra- 
tions, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of 
the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and 
program locations. These weekend programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are not required. The programs are 
partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

June 9 2:30pm Traditional China (tour). Examine the as you explore Bhutan, "Land of the Thunder 

timeless imagery and superb craftsmanship rep- Dragon." 

resented by Chinese masterworks in our per- 3:30pm Tibet (tour). A closer look at Field 

manent collection. Museum's Tibetan exhibit. 



June 10 12:00 noon We/come to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 

2:30pm Treasures From the Totem Forest (tour). 
A walk through Museum exhibits introduces 
the Indians of southeast Alaska and British Col- 
umbia, whose totem poles and masks proclaim 
their pride of rank and mystical ties to animals 
and spirits. 

June 16 2:30pm China: The Golden Age (slide lecture). 
Look at the achievements of several early dynas- 
ties of traditional Chinese civilization. 

June 17 2:30pm Life in Ancient Egypt (tour). Focuses on 
the objects and practices, including mummifica- 
tion, which illustrate ancient life in the Nile 
Valley. 

June 23 11:30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Tour the 

Museum's Egyptian exhibit and investigate the 

traditions of ancient Egyptian civilization from 

everyday life to mummification and the promise 

of an afterlife. 

1:30pm Tibet Today (slide lecture). See Lhasa 

and other towns now open to tourists, as well as 

Tibetan refugees who have carried their religion 

into the mountainous areas surrounding this 

ancient religious center. 

2:30pm Bhutan: Land of the Thunder Dragon 

(slide lecture). Experience a Himalayan journey 



June 24 12:00 noon Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 

sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 
2:30pm Chinese Ceramic Traditions (tour). This 
45-minute tour of masterworks in the per- 
manent collection explores 6,000 years of 
Chinese ceramic art. 

June 30 2:30pm China and the Silk, Roads (slide lec- 
ture). Travel the ancient caravan routes and fol- 
low the course of empires, arts, and faiths. 



Ella Jenkins, 
Sunday, June 17 




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selection and any other special events Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 




















week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 












one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets will 
be mailed on receipt of check Refunds will be 
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Fort Ancient: Citadel or Coliseum? 

Past and Present Field Museum Explorations 
Of a Major American Monument 

by Patricias. Essenpreis and Michael e. Moseley 




Fig. 1. Warren K. Moorehead (center, white suspenders) with his crew of excavators in Ohio during explorations for the World's Columbian 
Exposition in 1891. Although a self-taught archaeologist, Moorehead discovered more about Fort Ancient than any other investigator, past or 
present. Photo courtesy Ohio Historical Society. 



The Monument 

Fort Ancient is a vast, remarkable earthwork erected more 
than 2,000 years ago by Hopewell inhabitants of south- 
western Ohio. It encloses the spacious summit of a mesa 
towering 80 m above the Little Miami River, where it flows 
through a deep, narrow canyon. Monumental construction 



Patricia S. Essenpreis isa research associate, Department of Anthro- 
pology; Michael E. Moseley is curator, Middle and South American 
archaeology and ethnology. 



entailed the building of linear earthen embankments up to 
7 m high and 21 m wide, over a distance of 5.7 km. These 
walls run strategically along the crest of a figure 8-shaped 
mesa to form large northern and southern enclosures con- 
nected by a narrow, elongated middle or central enclosure 
(figs. 2 and 3). 

At the time the great embankments were constructed 
and for almost a millennium thereafter, Fort Ancient was 
one of the largest monuments in North America. The nat- 
ural topography is interrupted on such a vast and forceful 







«1 t /l* -fl frr jftfi 




Fig. 2. (left). Map of Fort Ancient drawn in 1891 for the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition under Moorehead 's supervision (5 72 feet per inch). A 
parallel-walled enclosure (not shown) once extended '/& mile to the 
northeast from the two mounds by the road in the upper right. Fig. 3 
(above). Recent topographic map of Fort Ancient State Memorial 
(3,280 feet per inch). The site and museum are open to the public 
Wednesdays through Sundays, Memorial Day through Labor Day 



scale that the earthwork has long commanded admiration. 
Interest began when the youthful United States Congress 
opened Ohio to settlement by awarding land grants to 
Revolutionary War veterans and political supporters. 

When the main stage road between Cincinnati and 
Chillicothe, Ohio, was built at the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, it ran through the north enclosure of 
Fort Ancient and descended to the river along an ancient 
graded way. By straddling a major thoroughfare the co- 
lossal earthwork attracted wide public attention. In 1809 
the Philadelphia Port Folio printed a story and sketch map 
of the monument. Thereafter, many of the nation's most 
distinguished scholars and institutions became involved in 
the nineteenth-century explorations of Fort Ancient. 
These early explorations account for much of what is pres- 
ently known about this imposing architectural complex 
and led to the ruins being protected as Ohio's first state 
park in 1891. Appropriately, the World's Columbian 
Exposition of 1893, which led to the founding of Field 
Museum, played a significant role in the exploration of 



Ohio earthworks, including the mapping of Fort Ancient. 
Mapping a monument the size of Fort Ancient is not 
an easy task. The earthworks follow a tortuous path and 
encircle an area of 51 hectares (about 30 city blocks, or 1/5 
square mile). There are at least 72 passages through the 
embankments, including 3 so-called "great gateway" com- 
plexes with causeways and attendant mounds. Within the 
three enclosures there are moatlike ditches adjacent to the 
embankments, flagstone pavings that probably served as 
roadways, a few small flagstone circles and several col- 
lapsed rock structures of unknown use, as well as 11 small 
free-standing mounds of oval and crescent form. However, 
the vast interior areas are basically vacant and lack evi- 
dence of Hopewell houses or remains of a resident popula- 
tion. Exterior to the embankments, artificial terraces were 
cut into the mesa sides, and below the south enclosure 
there are several "great terraces," each 4 m wide and up- 
wards of 500 m long. Seven small mounds dot the plateau 
to the east, while a small circular earthwork sits atop the 
bluff across the river. 



Fig. 4. After bending and pounding more than 50 copper breast- 
plates, earspools, and other ornaments out of shape, the Hopewell 
covered them with sheets of mica and buried them as a ceremonial 
offering in a small hole. This object was an embossed breastplate. 
Ohio Historical Society Cat. 23989. 





Fig. 5. Aerial view of the south, or "old," fort, looking northeast. The embankment can be seen as a faint light line following the bluff edges. The 
arrow points to the great gateway, the main entry connecting the middle to the south enclosure. 



The Mound Builder-Red Man War 

During the nineteenth century and at the time the Co- 
lumbian Exposition was organized, scholars generally rec- 
ognized three great New World civilizations: the Inca, the 
Aztec, and the more ancient and mysterious "Mound 
Builders," whose many great earthworks confronted the 
nineteenth century public. Mound Builder monuments 
fascinated the nation's greatest minds. Thomas Jefferson 
ranks as the first naturalist to systematically excavate and 
record an ancient earthwork when he supervised the open- 
ing of a mound on his Virginia estate prior to 1781. Europe 
was equally intrigued by the engineering and architectural 
achievements of the "lost civilization"; and two of the earli- 
est ground plans of Fort Ancient were published in Ger- 
many and in France during the first decades of the 1800s. 
Fort Ancient and other monuments attributed to the 
Mound Builders were correctly viewed as the works of a 
truly great civilization. Yet, this civilization was incorrectly 
thought to have been sacked and exterminated by the "bar- 



baric Red Man," and thus was not ancestral to the Amer- 
ican Indian. This interpretation was a product of the polit- 
ical climate of the times. 

Following the Revolutionary War the greatest "for- 
eign" foes of the United States were not European powers, 
but native societies battling colonization and expropriation 
of their territory by the new nation. The states rationalized 
westward expansion by espousing the notion that the na- 
tives were rude savages unworthy of occupying the terri- 
tory they held. The prevalent sentiment was succinctly 
expressed in the simple motto, "The only Good Indian is a 
Dead Indian." 

In driving the Red Man from the land, yet finding the 
land occupied by imposing works of a great civilization, the 
idea of the earthworks as evidence of Indian accomplish- 
ment was intellectually untenable. However, they could 
easily be accepted as the ruins of a vanished civilization 
that had been destroyed by the Indians. This explanation 
did two things. First, it separated ancient civilization from 
Indian ancestry. Second, it "proved" that Indians were sav- 




age interlopers who did not deserve the lands they occu- 
pied because they had acquired them by annihilating a 
great civilization. 

Permeating nineteenth-century thinking, this inter- 
pretation — known today as the "Mound Builder myth" — 
carried with it notions of a protracted war between Mound 
Builders and Red Men. This fabled war shaped early 
explorations and explanations of Fort Ancient. In essence, 
by portraying the earthwork as a great citadel of van- 
quished civilization, the fictitious war with the nihilist Red 
Man was demonstrated, and the Mound Builder myth thus 
substantiated. 

The tenor of nineteenth-century interpretation was 
set by Caleb Atwater in the Transactions of the American 
Antiquarian Society of 1820. As a forefather of American 
archaeology, Atwater visited, described, and classified a 
variety of significant Mound Builder monuments. These 
included a number of flat hilltops enclosed by linear 
embankments about which he concluded: "On the whole, I 
have ventured to class them among Ancient Fortifica- 
tions,' to which they appear to have higher claim than most 
any other, for reasons too apparent to require recital." Dis- 
missing the many entrances and gateways as gaps left by 
incomplete construction, Atwater's assertion that Fort 
Ancient represented a defensive structure was based en- 
tirely upon its strategic castlelike setting and upon his con- 
viction that "I have always doubted whether any people of 
sane minds would ever have performed quite so much 
labour in mere sport." 

The setting of the monument is indeed dramatic and 
impressive. The earthwork has a commanding view of the 
Little Miami River, where it has cut a deep, narrow canyon 
through a wide plain flattened by Pleistocene glaciers. The 




Fig. 6 (drawing). Fig. 7 (photo). The great gateway even today funnels 
traffic into the south enclosure. A prehistoric stone pavement now 
buried beneath the sod connects the small mound left of the road to a 
deep ditch next to the wall and continues to the point from which the 
photographer took this photo. 



mesa enclosed by artificial walls is a remnant of this wide 
plateau, isolated by two streams, Randall and Cowen 
Runs. These streams arise less than 200 m apart at two 
springs some 100 m east of the north enclosure. Fort 
Ancient's builders treated the springs as very important, 
erecting a high, circular mound near each to create so- 
called "twin mounds." Although Randall and Cowen Runs 
have cut deep valleys along most of their courses, they are 
not deeply incised near the springs, leaving a wide natural 
land bridge between the mesa and the plateau to the east. 
At the time of Atwater's observations, a very distinc- 
tive geometric structure still survived on the plateau. 
Beginning at the base of the twin mounds, two long, low 
earthen embankments extended inland in parallel for more 
than one-half mile to enclose a single small mound. The 
embankments were approximately 1 m high, 4 m wide, 
and 20 m apart with a flagstone pavement between them. 




10 



Fig. 8. Moorehead excavated a number of stone graves in the valley 
below Fort Ancient. He assumed that these villagers built Fort 
Ancient and fled there for refuge during enemy attacks. We now 
know, however, that these burials belong to a later culture. Photo 
courtesy Ohio Historical Society. 



Although structurally unlike the rest of Fort Ancient, sim- 
ilar parallel-walled structures were built at other monu- 
ments. Atwater advanced the interpretation that these 
were roadways for playing ceremonial games: "If the roads 
were for footraces, the mounds were the goals from 
whence the pedestrians started, or around which they ran." 

This ceremonial explanation did not suggest to 
Atwater that other structures at the monument might be of 
similar character, or at least nondefensive in nature. The 
great terraces below the south enclosure are massive fea- 
tures noted on the earliest site maps. Yet, seeing Fort 
Ancient as akin to a Rhineland castle, Atwater felt the ter- 
races were of a military nature, having been "designed for 
persons to stand on, who wished to annoy those who were 
passing up and down the river." 

Subsequent to Atwater's observations, Professor John 
Locke of Cincinnati and a party of a dozen engineers spent 
two days surveying and measuring the monument. Pub- 
lished in 1843 and reissued in 1848 in Volume I of the 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, the resulting map 
and short accompanying article remained the most 
authoritative statement about the earthwork for decades. 

Locke also interpreted Fort Ancient as a defensive 
work, even though his survey demonstrated many facts 
that today make the site untenable as a fort. There are no 
interior quarters that might have garrisoned troops. Yet, 
the multitudes of troops needed to defend the 5 + km 
perimeter of earthworks would number in the tens of thou- 



sands. Moats are located inside embankments rather than 
defensively outside. The steep sides of the mesa are cut by 
deep narrow gulleys that alternate with gently sloping 
ridges and spurs (fig. 17). The embankments were placed so 
as to block and close off the heads of the gulleys, yet pro- 
vide passages opening onto the ridges. In turn, the ridges 
were often graded and partly paved, and probably served 
as routes of access from valley bottom to the principal 
enclosures. With more than 70 passages opening on access 
routes, the architecture is hardly defensive in design. 

Locke correctly identified this multitude of passages; 
yet, by asserting that each passage held a wooden block- 
house or bastion, he supported the prevailing notion that 
only a great fort could command such a strategic setting. 
However, while the embankments may have supported 
wooden structures atop their wide summits, excavations in 

Continued on p. 20 



Fig. 9. Exotic artifacts, such as this mica cutout of a human hand from 
the Hopewell group, are common at geometric enclosures, but rare 
at hilltop enclosures like Fort Ancient. Cat. 110132. N90925. 




REPORT FROM THE FIELD: 



In Pursuit of Amphibians 
And Reptiles in East Malaysia 

A letter from Curator Robert E Inger, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, 
to Field Museum President WillardL. "Sandy" Boyd 




Traveling by motorized canoe on the Mengiong River; Paul Walker at 
left, 

Nanga Tekalit 
Sarawak 
March 18, 1984 
Dear Sandy: 

It has been raining continually but lightly since late 
yesterday evening, forcing us to postpone work in the for- 
est this morning and giving me a chance to write some 
letters. We haven't had much time for that activity. 

Nanga Tekalit isn't on many maps — and for a good 
reason. There's nothing here, so far as cartographers are 
concerned, except the junction of a large creek with a riv- 
er, and that is what gives this spot its name: Nanga is an 
Iban word meaning "stream mouth!' and Tekalit is the 
name of this treacherous creek, though it is lovely. We are 
about as far from the coast of Sarawak (the west coast of 
Borneo) as one can be without falling out of the country 
into Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. This is 
not the first time I've worked at Nanga Tekalit. I set up a 
camp here in 1962 and left a small party here for a year. I 
returned again in 1970 for a short while. And now once 
more. I'm beginning to think of making a homesteading 
claim. 

The reasons for coming here in the first place were 
the existence of a large area of primary rain forest (the 
main reason) and the existence of the last longhouse 
about 30 miles downriver, a source of good, essential 
labor. No one lives upriver on the Mengiong (which the 
Tekalit meets here). After that first year, I had enough 



data to answer a few questions, such as how many species 
of amphibians and reptiles live in one place (approx- 
imately 150). More importantly, additional questions 
cropped up and I became aware of the potential of this 
place as a site for investigating the structure and organi- 
zation of a rain forest community of amphibians and 
reptiles. 

One of the issues we hope to get reasonably con- 
clusive data for is fluctuation in population size of lizard 
species in these forests. We already have good samples 
from three rain forest sites in Sarawak, including this one 
Simply comparing these three samples tells us that pop- 
ulation size varies from place to place. By obtaining a 
good sample from here, we hope to obtain an estimate of 
variation over time (a 20-year interval) at one place. 

Curator Inger at camp site. 




11 




12 



Above: Associate Curator Harold Voris processes specimens in 
camp. The artfully tattooed back belongs to an I ban tribesman, one of 
six local helpers. Right: Frog specimen collected on forest floor 
(about lifesize). 

We also hope to learn something about changes 
over time in the frog populations living along creeks here. 
I published a paper on these populations in 1969. Collect- 
ing frogs, which we do by wading up streams at night 
using headlamps and our hands, is tiring but rewarding. 
We see and collect so much, and the creeks are beautiful, 
crystal-clear water (except after rain), with rocky bottoms 
over-arched by the forest. On moonlit nights, the scene is 
spectacular. But after a heavy rain, these streams are not 
so nice; in fact, it could be worth your life to step into 
one. When we work on them, however, we are able to 
concentrate on frogs — several of the smaller species form 
large aggregations of calling males and ripe females, and 
most of the larger species spread out along the banks. 
One of the observations that intrigues me is finding that 
the same species use the very same pools for breeding 
sites as in 1962. Although that is in a sense not surprising, 
it establishes a sort of stability and predictability that I 
find satisfying. But why these particular pools and not 
others on the same creeks? And how far do these particu- 
lar species move away from these pools in the interval be- 
tween breeding bouts? We did learn, by marking frogs 




and toads in 1962-63, that individuals return to the same 
pool where they were first marked. 

Another general topic we are working on is the 
density of amphibians and reptiles on the forest floor. 
Most people have the notion that rain forests are filled 
with these creatures, that one must watch out for fear of 
stepping on a snake or frog. Not here! We've seen only 
four snakes in ten days and it isn't because we haven't 
been looking. 

The procedure we are using for estimating density 
is to lay out a square 25 feet on a side marked by twine 
and, then, working inward from all sides, to remove care- 
fully all the dead leaves and debris, capturing all the 
frogs, lizards and snakes we uncover. We've been very 
lucky so far and have found one animal per quadrat (as 
these square plots are known in ecology). By scattering 
the location of quadrats in random fashion and doing a 
large number of them, we will be able to estimate dens- 
ity. I've done this kind of work before at this site, in 
northeastern Thailand, and in south India. Repeating the 
process here provides a check on our earlier results. Then 

Walker (left) and Voris process the night's catch. 




William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

1909-1984 



The death of William G. Swartchild, Jr., 
former chairman of Field Museum's 
Board of Trustees, on March 15, was a 
loss beyond measure to Field Museum 
and its trustees, Women's Board, and 
staff. 

Mr. Swartchild was born in Chica- 
go in 1909. After graduating from Dart- 
mouth, where he was elected to Phi 
Beta Kappa, he entered Swartchild & 
Company, a family business of which 
he was president at the time of its sale 
in 1973. Although he devoted a great 
deal of his time to public service 
throughout his life, his retirement from 
active business responsibilities freed 
him to devote full time in service to oth- 
ers — service which continued until his 
death. 

He was elected a trustee of Field 
Museum in 1966. Typical of his sense of 
commitment to any institution with 
which he became associated, he quick- 
ly took an active leadership position 
among the trustees. In 1972-73 he was a 
member of a trustees' committee that 
developed a reorganized Board struc- 
ture. Upon that reorganization he be- 
came vice chairman of the Board, head- 
ing the important Program Planning 
and Evaluation Committee. He was 
elected chairman of the Board of Trust- 
ees in 1978, serving in that capacity until 
1982. Following his chairmanship, Mr. 



Swartchild served as vice chairman, 
Internal Affairs, and as a member of the 
Nominating Committee. 

William Swartchild had an ex- 
traordinary understanding of the 
dynamics of nonprofit institutions and 
the various constituencies comprising 
the institution. At Field Museum this 
was evidenced by the complete con- 
fidence in him on the part of the staff, 
Women's Board, and trustees. 

He was active and equally re- 
spected in the American Association of 
Museums, serving as a vice chairman 
of the Trustees' Committee and as a 
member of the Commission on 
Museums for a New Century — a na- 
tional planning effort for the years 
ahead. He was instrumental in prepar- 
ing American Association of Museums' 
Museum Trusteeship and Museum Ethics. 

Active for many years in the field 
of health care, Mr. Swartchild served as 
Trustee of Michael Reese Hospital, 
Children's Memorial Hospital, and 
McGaw Medical Centers and he was 
chairman of Children's and McGaw, as 
well as the Council on Governance of 
the Illinois Hospital Association, at the 
time of his death. He had served as a 
director of Blue Cross and Blue Shield 
of Illinois and of HMO Illinois. Mr. 
Swartchild was also a trustee of the 
Brookfield Zoo. 




William G. Swartchild, Jr. 



Beyond all of his achievements in 
business and philanthropy, he was a 
warm and thoughtful person who 
cared about people. He brought a qual- 
ity of excellence and humanity to any- 
thing he touched. He was a model of 
dedication of personal energy for the 
public good. The City of Chicago is a 
better place because of William Swart- 
child's life. 



we will feel better about comparing results from forests 
all over tropical Asia. 

Maybe I should explain use of the plural pronoun. 
As you know, Harold Voris [associate curator of amphib- 
ians and reptiles], is here, having joined me in Singapore 
after his work on sea snakes in west Malasia. The other 
"Westerner" is Paul Walker, a graduate student at Leeds 
University, in England. The Sarawak Museum in Kuch- 
ing (by the way, that institution is slightly older than the 
Field Museum) has an interest in this project and has 
attached one of its collectors, Bidai, to our party. Bidai 
worked with me in 1956. (Heavens! I've known him 
most of his life.) Our labor force consists of 6 Ibans from 
"our" longhouse. Good people, strong, hard working, 
knowledgeable in the forest, and pleasant to be with. 



Our living accommodations, if I may dignify them 
that way, consist of an open-walled shack made of poles 
lashed together with vines and topped by red-white-and- 
blue striped plastic and a detached cook stand. We've 
used nails almost exclusively for hooks to hang clothing 
and miscellany, which seems to be a very large category. 

The camp clearing is, perhaps, 100 x 50 feet and on 
a steep 25 x 50 foot bank. The forest surrounds us except 
for the river front. That steep bank is essential to a good 
camp site here— though the Mengiong is about 200 feet 
wide at this point, it can rise 20 feet in 4-6 hours. Our 
food, like our dwelling, is simple and a bit monotonous, 
but we didn't come for gourmet food. We hope things are 
well at the Museum. Harold will see you early in April 
and I in early June. My best to everyone. — Bob 



13 



STICI: 

A Training Program for Teachers 

by Carolyn Blackmon, Moija Sedzielarz, and Helen H. Voris 



A Museum biology 

instructor introduces 

program participants to 

new aspects of public 

exhibits. 




What's wobbly as an egg? . . . silvery as fish 
scales? . . . heavy as a pancake at mid- 
night? If you answered, "a wok," you may 
have been talking to one of the participants in Field 
Museum's "Student/Teacher Internship in a Cultural 
Institution." 

"STICI," as it's known for short, is the Education 
1 4 Department's program of workshops and field trips 



designed to train Chicago teachers in the special 
object-based skills needed to teach effectively in 
museums. The two-year program, funded by The 
Joyce Foundation, offers groups of teachers the 
opportunity to participate in a two-week workshop 
at Field Museum followed by a field trip to the 
Museum with their classes. 

The goal of the STICI program is to develop 




A stici teacher brings her class to the Museum for the field trip portion of the program. 



Diane Alexander White 



teachers' confidence and competence in using 
museums as extensions of their classrooms. To bring 
excitement and life to subjects that students can 
otherwise only read about, the program stresses the 
importance of "getting students inside the exhibits" 
and of fully integrating museum experiences with 
classroom studies. To accomplish these goals, the pre 
gram trains teachers to develop focused field-trip ex- 
periences that require students to interact with the 
exhibits by observing, questioning, hypothesizing, 
comparing and contrasting, drawing conclusions, 
and creating verbal, written, or artistic expressions of 
their experiences. 

The workshops begin with behind'thescenes 



Carolyn Blackrnon is chairman of the Education Department, 
Maija Sedzielarz is coordinator of The Joyce Foundation Teacher 
Training Program, and Helen Voris is writer for special projects in 
the Education Department. 



tours of the Museum to enable the participants to 
learn about its extensive research collections and the 
work of its scientist'scholars. The participants have 
the opportunity to see how scientific specimens — 
from clay pots to nuthatches — are documented, pre 
pared, and stored, forming a "library" of reference 
material used by.scholars throughout the world. 

In the Exhibition Department they see how ex- 
hibits are developed, prepared, and mounted. They 
also learn how to analyze exhibits to determine how 
they communicate, and how to develop field'trip 
themes and exhibit 'based experiences to teach almost 
any subject. Math concepts of size and proportion, for 
example, take on reality for elementary school chib 
dren who try to see how many can fit inside the out' 
line of the whale skeleton on the floor of the skeletal 
structure hall, or how much of the Apatosaurus, in 
the fossil vertebrate hall, is tail! 

The participants receive special introductions to 
the Education Department, where they meet key 15 




stici teachers learn how to use museums to help their students develop life-long learning skills. 



16 



staff members and learn of the many programs and 
materials provided for teachers and their classes. 
They visit special teaching facilities in the Museum — 
the Place for Wonder and the Pawnee Earth Lodge — 
and they explore offerings in the Museum's free loan 
program, including portable exhibit cases, experience 
boxes ("hands-on" specimens and artifacts), and au- 
diovisual and printed materials — slide sets, film' 
strips, videotapes, discovery units, posters, and 
curriculum coordination guides. 

"Getting to Know You," a self-guided tour 
developed especially for the STICI teachers, enhances 
their familiarity with the public areas of the Museum 
as they explore its furthest corners to find clues in 
answer to such questions as "What is the design on 
the Indian Mic-Mac dice?" or "What skeletal struc- 
ture is unique to all marsupials?" In this process they 
learn how to ask effective questions to get students to 



look closely at the objects in the exhibits, and they 
learn about practical matters important to any 
teacher with a large group of small children — such as 
how to get to the nearest restroom from any point in 
the Museum! Participants also take trips to other 
museums to learn about additional resources avail- 
able to teachers and students in Chicago's other 
cultural institutions. 

Getting back to the observation that a wok is as 
wobbly as an egg — how does that fit in? Teachers 
participate in a variety of exercises designed to help 
them (and eventually their students) develop abilities 
to observe and question; these abilities, in turn, will 
enable them to learn from objects — anthropological 
artifacts, biological and geological specimens, and 
works of art. In one exercise, teachers are asked to 
devise food similes for describing a wok, which is one 
of ten objects set up around a classroom. Observa- 



tional as well as language skills are involved in the 
responses, but there is more to it than that. For stU' 
dents, the observations and interest generated by the 
exercise could serve as the basis for further questions 
and investigation about the wok: its materials, con' 
struction and function, and the significance of its 
fuel-conserving design in Chinese culture. 

During the sessions, teachers develop and try 
out activities to use with their classes before and after 
a field trip to the Museum. Subsequently they plan 
and carry out their class field trips, using free bus 
transportation provided by the STICI program. The 
teachers have been delighted and often surprised at 
the results of their STICI training: the absence of prob' 
lems on their class field trips, their own confidence 
and ease in the Museum, and, most of all, the chil- 
dren's responses. 

Many teachers have found that shy children 
open up with the excitement of learning in the 
museum and that this continues later in the class- 
room; that children who can be discipline problems in 
the classroom often adopt different attitudes in the 
museum; and that children who have trouble reading 
and writing develop new confidence in themselves by 
using observational and verbal skills at the museum. 

STICI teachers acknowledge that they put more 
time and planning into their field trips than before, 
but they overwhelmingly feel it is worth it. "I never 
knew a field trip could be relaxed," "Even the parent 
chaperones enjoyed the trip," and "Many children 
who had been to the Museum before had such a dif- 
ferent experience this time that they wanted to bring 
their parents back" are typical comments made in 
follow-up sessions. 

Teachers often remark that children remember 
details of their field trip experiences and bring them 
up in class discussions long after the trip is over. One 
first grader, after studying plants and animals from 
Hawaii and Alaska on an early fall field trip to Field 
Museum, asked his teacher as Christmas approached, 
"Do you think Rudolf the Red-Nosed Reindeer might 
really be a caribou?" One teacher summed it up best: 
"Children never forget what they really enjoy, and at 
the Museum they can both learn and enjoy." 

Field Museum will be offering four more ses- 
sions of the STICI program this summer to Chicago 
teachers. Interested teachers should contact the 
Education Department, 922-9410, extension 365. FM 




Program participants learn a variety of ways to use objects in their 
teaching, such as the wok, shown here. 



Stephen didn't think 
he needed a will. 
He was only 51 ... 

Stephen intended to have his will drawn up someday; 
first, there were things to get done. He had no idea he 
would need a will anytime soon — before he got those 
"things" done. A will is like life insurance: when you 
need it, it's too late to do anything about it. 
Now, Stephen's family is facing unnecessary de- 
lays, confusion, and extra expenses in settling his 
estate. 

Don't make the same mistake. Send for our com- 
plimentary booklet giving all the reasons why a will is 
important and how you can plan an effective will. 



CLIP AND MAIL TODAY 

To: Planned Giving Office 

Field Museum of Natural History 
E. Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

( ) Please send me my free copy of "How to Protect Your 
Rights with a Will" 

NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY- 



STATE 



ZIP 



I can be reached at: 

Phone Bus. J ) Res.J_ 



17 



Volunteers Honored 



Field Museum's 321 volunteers were honored for their 
1983 service at a reception on February 14, held in Stan- 
ley Field Hall. Collectively, the volunteers had given 
41,454 hours of dedicated service to the Museum dur- 
ing the calendar year, including 2,252 hours in connec- 
tion with the special exhibit, "Treasures from the 
Shanghai Museum," which opened November 5. 

Field Museum Director Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. gave 
an introductory welcome to the volunteers, and James 
J. O'Connor, chairman of the Board of Trustees, spoke 
of the great diversity of specialized talents brought to 
the institution by volunteers. Dr. Nevling then pre- 
sented a special award to Lorain Stephens Olsen, who 
had given fifteen years of continuous service. Carolyn 
Blackmon, chairman of the Education Department, 
and Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., curator emeritus of Birds, 
whose departments were primary beneficiaries of 
Mrs. Olsen's service, spoke of her dedication and par- 
ticular projects. 

Mrs. Olsen first came to Field Museum as a staff 
member, serving as a biology instructor on the Educa- 
tion Department, where she developed and presented 
programs to school classes. Although she relin- 
quished this position to raise a family, Field Museum 
had become an important part of her life, and she re- 



turned in 1968 as an Education volunteer. Hired in 
1974 again as a staff member to organize the Kroc Field 
Trip program, Mrs. Olsen continued her volunteer 
activities. 

In 1975 she began assisting Mr. Traylor, who, in 
partnership with the Bird Department of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard, was preparing 
bird locality gazetteers of South American countries. 
She assisted in completing the gazetteer for Columbia, 
then became involved in that for Peru as her special 
concern. After many years of research and writing, 
she completed the manuscript as coauthor with Mr. 
Traylor. Currently she is assisting in preparing the 
Guyanas gazetteer. In 1977 Mrs. Olsen was made an 
associate of Field Museum's Bird Division, to which 
she has given a minimum of 250 hours annually since 
1976. 

Following the special presentation to Mrs. Olsen, 
Dr. Nelving presented gifts to volunteers who had 
contributed more than 500 hours during 1983. Con- 
cluding remarks were made by Joyce Matuszewich, 
volunteer coordinator, who expressed gratitude to 
volunteers as well as to staff supervisors for their joint 
achievements during the year. 



18 



Volunteers Who Served 500 Hours or More 

Sophie Ann Brunner, Zoology, Reptiles Division: skeleton 
preparation, organization, and maintenance. 
Pat Dodson, Anthropology: manuscript editing and proof- 
ing, correspondence and research. 

Margaret Martling, Botany: worked with reprint collection, 
helped select negatives for type photograph program, de- 
veloped indices for museum publication, maintained 
nomenclature reference files. 

Gary Ossewaarde, Education: researched and-conducted 
weekend tours on Egypt and China, "Treasures From the 
Shanghai Museum" volunteer, assisted in special events 
and workshops. 

Llois Stein, Anthropology: researched and cataloged 
Oceanic, Malaysian, and African collections; assisted in 
Pacific storeroom reorganization; assisted with cataloging 
the gamelan collection. 

Susan Saric, Anthropology: assisted in cataloging Oliphant 
collection of artifacts from Cameroun; Geology: worked on 
mammalian biogeography project; Planning and Develop- 
ment: researched foundations and corporate prospects. 

Over 400 hours 

Sol Century, Anthropology: cataloging, general projects in 
Asian Division. 

Nancy Evans, Education: helped plan and implement Sum- 
mer Fun Children's workshops, developed weekend Fami- 
ly Feature. 
Peter Gayford, Anthropology: research and cataloging of 



the Egyptian and sub-Saharan material in the McCormick 
collection. 

Dorothy Oliver, Library: indexed Museum's annual re- 
ports, assisted with interlibrary loan requests, filed new 
book cards, retrieved books for visitors; special projects. 
Forman Onderdonk, Education: conducted programs for 
school groups and public for the "Treasures From the 
Shanghai Museum" exhibit and in the Indian halls and 
Pawnee earth lodge, assisted with children's workshops 
and special events. 

Jean Seiler, Geology: research in variation of dental charac- 
teristics of neotropical primates, photography, measure- 
ments of teeth and jaws, statistical analysis of data. 

Over 300 hours 

Jackie Arnold, Education: clerical assistance for several de- 
partments, "Treasures From the Shanghai Museum" volun- 
teer; assisted in special events and children's workshops. 
Margaret Axelrod, Education: conducted programs for 
school groups and public for the "Treasures From the 
Shanghai Museum" exhibit and in the Place for Wonder, 
designed puppets for shadow puppet theatre program. 
Dennis Bara, Membership: weekend membership 
representative. 

Audrey Burns, Exhibition: assisted as exhibit preparator, 
fabricating and installing exhibits. 

Louva Calhoun, Anthropology: assisted in cataloging of 
specimens from Isimilia prehistoric site in Tanzania, a pro- 
ject involving 7,500 specimens which she began in 1977 and 
finished in December 1983. 



Connie Crane, Anthropology: assisted in correspondence 
regarding Maritime Peoples of the Northwest Coast ex- 
hibit, research assistant. 

Jeannette DeLaney, Anthropology: textile conservation, 
worked with pre-Columbian Peruvian textiles; Education: 
"Treasures From the Shanghai Museum" volunteer. 
Jeyson Daniel, Botany: worked on taxonomic revision of 
the Agaricales mushroom in Cryptogamic Herbarium. 
Halina Goldsmith, Education: conducted programs for 
school groups and public for the "Treasures From the 
Shanghai Museum" exhibit, Maritime Peoples Hall and in 
Place for Wonder; assisted with special events. 
Evelyn Gottlieb, Education: gave programs to school 
groups and public in Egyptian halls, gave Highlight tours, 
assisted with special events and children's workshops. 
Carol Landow, Education: conducted programs for school 
groups and public in Place for Wonder; assisted with spe- 
cial events, "Treasures From the Shanghai Museum" 
volunteer. 

Carolyn Moore, Anthropology: researched special projects 
in Asian Division. 



Jennifer Newman, Public Relations: newsclip compilation 
and research, media liaison, updated mailing and contact 
lists, filled media requests, typed, helped with mailings. 
Eddie Nodzenski, Zoology, Division of Amphibians and 
Reptiles: collection management, cataloging of specimens 
and scanning electron microscope work. 
Dagmar Persson, Botany: research on Costa Rican species 
of the mint family. 

Florence Seiko, Education: gave programs for school 
groups and public in Egyptian halls and Maritime Peoples 
Hall, "Treasures From the Shanghai Museum" volunteer, 
assisted in children's workshop and special events. 
James Skorcz, Library: worked in reading room, filled inter- 
library loan requests, filed cards in card catalog, retrieved 
books for visitors, compiled statistics, special projects. 
Osa Theus, Public Relations: promotion research, media 
liaison, writing, typing, and mailings. 
Mary Wenzel, Education: conducted programs for school 
groups and public in the Place for Wonder, "Treasures From 
the Shanghai Museum" volunteer, assisted with special 
events; Zoology, Insects Division: handled correspondence, 
typed field notes and loan invoices, other office duties. 



50 hours 
or more 

Neal Abarbanell 
Paul Adler 
Gretchen Ainley 
Cathy H. Agnone 
Dolores Arbanas 
Arden Frederick 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Terry Asher 
Margaret Axelrod 
Gail Bahl 
Beverly Baker 
Dennis M. Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Gwen Barnett 
Winifred Batson 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Virginia Beatty 
William C. Bentley 
Lawrence Berman 
Elaine K. Bernstein 
Blanche Blumenthal 
Sandra Boots 
William Borth 
Hermann C. Bowersox 
Charles Braner 
Carol Briscoe 
Linda Brown 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Janet Bry 

Teddy Buddington 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
Laurel Bunce 
James Burd 
Audrey Burns 
Eleanor Byman 
Joseph Cablk 
Kathy Cagney 
Louva Calhoun 
Donna Compeol 
Deborah Carey 
Sol Century 
Margaret Chung 
Barbara Clauson 
Charlotte Cram 
Connie Crane 



Jeyson Daniel 
Margaret Davis 
Margaret Dejong 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Carol Deutsch 
Violet Diacou 
Marianne Diekman 
Phyllis Dix 
Patricia Dodson 
John E. Dunn 
Stanley Dvorak 
Lynn Dyer 
Carolyn Eastwood 
Linda Egebrecht 
Ruth Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Agatha Elmes 
Bonnie Engel 
Sara Erve 
Jean Ettner 
Nancy Evans 
Nancy Fagin 
Martha Farwell 
Dolores Fetes 
Louise Fields 
Marie Fischl 
Michael Fisher 
Ruth Fouche 
Brad Foxen 
Gerda Frank 
Richard Frank 
Arden Frederick 
Ruth Fritz 
Janina Fuerst 
Shirley Fuller 
Miriam Futransky 
Bernice Gardner 
Suzanne Garvin 
Andrea Gaski 
Peter Gayford 
Donald Gemmel 
Marty Germann 
Audrey Gilman 
Elizabeth Louise 

Girardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
Carla Goldsmith 



Halina Goldsmith 
Paul Goldstein 
Melanie Goldstine 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Julie Gray 
Loretta Green 
Henry Greenwald 
Cecily Gregory 
Mary Lou Grein 
Ann B. Grimes 
Karen Grupp 
Michael J. Hall 
Patricia Hansen 
Nancy Harlan 
Curtis M. Harrell 
Calvin Harris 
Mattie Harris 
Nancy Hartnett 
Ollie Hartsfield 
Noreen Haslinger 
Shirley Hattis 
Margaret Helbing 
Audrey Hiller 
Clarissa Hinton 
James Hitz 
Peggy Hoberg 
Harold L. Honor 
Zelda Honor 
Scott Houtteman 
Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Ellen Hyndman 
Delores A. Irvin 
Doug Jacobs 
Paul Jensen 
Micki Johns 
Mabel S. Johnson 
Nancy Jonathan 
John Jones 
Malcolm Jones 
Carol Kacin 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Dorothy Karall 
Mansura Karim 
Dorothy Kathan 
Shirley Kennedy 
Barbara Keune 
Joyce Kieffer 



Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Susan Knoll 
Glenda Kowalski 
Anita Landess 
Carol Landow 
Barbara Latondress 
Marion Lehuta 
Anne Leonard 
Frank Leslie 
Joseph F. Levin 
Laura Lewis 
James Lowers 
Ruth Luthringer 
Susan Lynch 
Gabby Margo 
Barbara Marion 
James A. Marshall 
Margaret Martling 
David Marusik 
Marita Maxey 
Melba Mayo 
Faye McCray 
Carole McMahon 
Withrow Meeker 
Ixtaccihuatl 
Menchaca 
Beverly Meyer 
Jerry Meyer 
Robyn Michaels 
Micki Johns 
Rosanne Miezio 
Lenore Miller 
Alice S. Mills 
Star Mitcheff 
Carolyn Moore 
Holly Morgan 
Eileen Morrow 
George Morse 
Charlotte Morton 
Anne Murphy 
Charlita A. Nachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
Jean Nelson 
John Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Jennifer Newman 



Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Edwardine Nodzenski 
Sandra Nuckolls 
Dorothy Oliver 
Lorain Stephens 

Olsen 
Forman Onderdonk 
Joan Opila 
Marianne 

O'Shaughnessy 
Gary M. Ossewaarde 
China Oughton 
Anita Padnos 
Michelle Parker 
Raymond Parker 
Frank M. Paulo 
Christine Pavel 
Dagmar Persson 
Mary Anne Peruchini 
Trace Petravick 
Dorothea 

Phipps-Cruz 
Philip Pinsof 
Steffi Postol 
Georgianne Prather 
Jacquelyn Prine 
Martin Pryzdia 
Sylvia Rabinkoff 
Elizabeth Rada 
Lee Rapp 
Ann Ratajczyk 
Ernest Reed 
Sheila Reynolds 
Lucille Rich 
Elly Ripp 
William E. Roder 
Mary Anne Rogers 
William Rom 
Barbara Roob 
Beverly R. Rosen 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Marie Louise 

Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 
Ann Rubeck 
Helen Ruch 
Lenore Ruehr 



Linda Sandberg 
Susan Saric 
Marian Saska 
Everett 

Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Sara Scherberg 
Sylvia Schueppert 
Thelma Schwartz 
Jean Seiler 
Florence Seiko 
Jessie Sherrod 
Judith Sherry 
James Skorcz 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spensely 
Christopher 

Spurrier 
Llois Stein 
Robyn Strauss 
Mary Alice Sutton 
Gloria Taborn 
Elisabeth Taylor 
Jane Thain 
Lorraine Thauland 
Osa Theus 
Cathy Tlapa 
Mark Tokarz 
Ann C. Underriner 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Dalia Varanka 
Rita Veal 
Barbara Vear 
Virginia Vergara 
Charles A. Vischulis 
David Walker 
Harold Waterman 
Alice Wei 
David Weiss 
Mary Wenzel 
Ann West 
Lisa Wibel 
James Wilber 
Char Wiss 
Reeva Wolfson 
Zinette Yacker 
Laury Zicari 



19 



FORT ANCIENT, con 't from p. 10 



the openings have produced absolutely no evidence of 
structures closing off the passages. 

Many early observers noted the numerous embank- 
ment openings and other features that would make Fort 
Ancient very difficult to defend. Yet the presumably defen- 
sive nature of the architecture was never seriously ques- 
tioned because it was vital to nineteenth-century intel- 
ligentsia that the monument be a great bastion of the 
Mound Builders. When interpreted as a fort, the mesa top 
earthwork provided tangible proof of the Mound Builder- 
Red Man wars. This, in turn, confirmed the notion that the 
noble Mound Builder had been defeated and driven from 
the land by the savage Indian, who was thus the true 
scourge of all civilizations, both past and present. "Fort 
Ancient, which would have held a garrison of 60,000 men, 
with their families and provisions, was one of a line of 




fortifications which extended across this state, and served 
to check the incursions of the savages of the North in their 
descent on the Moundbuilder's country," is how Professor 
John T. Short viewed Fort Ancient in his North Americans 
of Antiquity in 1879. 

Explorations for the World's 
Columbian Exposition 

In 1887 Warren K. Moorehead, a precocious young man of 
21 with a passion for archaeology, began excavating at Fort 
Ancient. Largely self-taught, Moorehead sold antiquities 
to support his great passions, which were field work and 
collecting artifacts. He argued that although many authors 
had poured out copious thoughts about the great hilltop 
enclosures, few had ever sunk spade to earth to produce 
the facts necessary for making sound interpretations. With 
youthful ardor, Moorhead, set about correcting the 
situation, and. in the course of four years, spent a total of 
43 weeks exploring the monument and digging, both alone 
and with crews. Although similar to other great enclosures 
of irregular form built upon high ground, Fort Ancient 
produced few artifacts of commercial value; but the 
destitute Moorehead carried out more work at the 
monument and learned more about it than has any other 
scholar. 

The World's Columbian Exposition was a centennial 

Fig. 10 (left). Partially excavated, stone-faced embankment. 

Fig. 11 (below). In this drawing of a cross-section through an 
embankment wall, differential shading shows successive construc- 
tion stages. Stone was used in several ways: as a rock core, to face 
the outer slope, and to build short walls for retarding erosion and 
slumping. 



20 





Fig. 1 2. The purpose of stone circles such as this one, excavated by William C. Mills in 1908, is unknown, but they are one of the few features 
discovered in the 126-acre interior of Fort Ancient. Photo courtesy Ohio Historical Society. 



celebration of exploration and development in the 
Western Hemisphere. To acquire objects, specimens, and 
materials for public exhibition, the fair occasioned and 
supported scientific expeditions to explore the ancient 
civilizations of the Americas. Professor Frederic Ward 
Putnam of Harvard University was retained to organize 
and coordinate these expeditionary programs. His 
long-term vision was singularly important in transforming 
the exposition into the Field Museum, the enduring 
world-class museum that Chicago now enjoys. Director of 
the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Putnam was a distinguished scholar with wide research 
experience that included directing field projects at various 
monuments in Ohio and adjacent states. Because there 
were no academically trained archaeologists at the time, he 
retained Moorehead to carry out Mound Builder 
explorations in Ohio for the exposition. However, the 
eastern professor was suspicious of the "country boy's" 
excavation techniques, and demanded both improved 
note-taking and an end to Moorehead's selling of artifacts. 
For the purposes of the 1893 exposition, and central 
to laying foundations for a great museum, Putnam was 
concerned with collection building. From his own experi- 
ence with Mound Builder excavations this insightful scien- 



tist knew that the so-called forts, such as Fort Ancient, 
while architecturally impressive, produced few objects of 
note. Experience demonstrated that artifacts were more 
abundant at valley-bottom settlements and at geometric 
earthworks laid out as complexes of circular and square 
embankments. Putnam therefore encouraged his young 
Ohio correspondent to excavate sites producing graves and 
artifacts. 

With this prompting, Moorehead turned his atten- 
tion to an ancient settlement located on the banks of the 
Little Miami River immediately below the north enclosure 
of Fort Ancient. Although artifact accompaniments were 
neither rich nor common, digging yielded numerous 
graves, lined and covered with limestone stabs. Moore- 
head also excavated on the North Fork of Paint Creek, in a 
complex of geometric enclosures and mounds. He encoun- 
tered elite burials with truly spectacular accompaniments, 
ranging from stone pipes sculpted in the form of animals 
and birds, through fine artifacts chipped from obsidian 
imported from Yellowstone Park, to elaborate headgear 
and ornaments fashioned from copper. These magnificent 
discoveries rank among the finest pieces in the Museum's 
New World archaeological collections. 

The high-yielding complex of geometric enclosures, 



21 




Fig. 1 3. William C. Mills (left) excavated a number of small mounds at Fort Ancient in 1908 but failed to find the elaborate burials that are typical of 
geometric Hopewell sites. Here Mills and helpers are investigating a small stone mound near the great crescent. Photo courtesy Ohio Historical 
Society. 



22 



named Hopewell after the local landowner, became the 
archaeological type site for an early phase of monument 
building and occupation in Ohio. The settlement in the 
valley below Fort Ancient, now known as Anderson Vil- 
lage, became the archaeological type site for the late 
occupation of the Little Miami region. This occupation, 
however, is called the "Fort Ancient tradition" because 
Moorehead and later William C. Mills, who named the 
archaeological cultures and traditions, wrongly thought 
that the village was contemporaneous with and a satellite 
of the great hilltop enclosure. Thus, Fort Ancient the 
earthwork was built at an early Hopewell date, but mis- 
takenly supplied the name for a late archaeological phase, 
found at Anderson Village. 

Although collections were important to the 1893 
Exposition, Putnam was a scholar of perception who also 
recognized the architectural significance of Fort Ancient 
and the importance of having an accurate map of the 
monument. Although Moorehead had previously hired 
surveyors to plot the ruins, Putnam placed little trust in the 
accuracy of the measurements and demanded that the 
monument be professionally resurveyed. Upon comple- 
tion of his excavations Moorehead turned his notes, col- 
lections, and the new map over to the Exposition. Unfortu- 
nately, this very important document has been overlooked 
for decades, and is here published for the first time (fig. 2). 



Field studies of the earthworks initiated by Patricia 
Essenpreis in 1980 have involved systematic "ground 
truth" checking of the Field Museum's Fort Ancient 
ground plan. This has entailed confirmation of structural 
identifications, such as accurately locating openings and 
assessing their origin: constructed by Hopewell or eroded 
by nature. The accuracy of the 1891 map and the instru- 
ment readings upon which it is based have also been field 
checked with the assistance of engineer James Marshall. 
Erosion and poor preservation make measurements on 
embankment width questionable. In other respects, how- 
ever, the 1891 survey notes are quite accurate and, as yet, 
there is no better ground plan of the monument. In the 
following effort to interpret the monumental architecture, 
we draw upon the map and its field checking, as well as 
upon early excavations, to describe the construction and 
positioning of the embankments and the passages. 



The Embankments 

There are two distinct classes of embankments. Massive 
linear "mounds," segmented by passages, define the prin- 
cipal mesa-top enclosures. In contrast, an extremely low, 
wide, continuous embankment defines the parallel-walled 
enclosure of geometric form which begins at the Twin 



Mounds and extends for nearly one-half mile to the north- 
east. The segmented embankments of the large enclosures 
have a total length of 5.7 km, today stand from 2 to 7 m 
high, have wide, flat summits, and comprise a total volume 
of construction material variously estimated at 117,500 to 
480,000 cubic yards of earth and stone. There are two 
types of segmented earthworks: contour embankments 
and straight embankments. The former type contours 
along the sinuous edge of the mesa and, statistically speak- 
ing, comprises the longest embankments with the fewest 
passage segments. With the most passage segments, 
straight embankments are wider, higher, shorter, and in 
layout only roughly approximate the sinuous mesa edge by 
making sharp, angular bends near ridges and gulleys. The 
first embankment type was used to build the south and 
middle enclosures, and sections of the north enclosure, 
while the second type was employed in constructing the 
northernmost portion of the monument. 

The contour embankments are more eroded and less 
well preserved than the straight structures. This supports 
Moorehead's observation that the southern enclosure, 
which he called "the old fort," was built and used before 
construction of the northern "new fort." From its layout 
and outlying positioning, it is evident that the parallel- 
walled enclosure was erected after the north enclosure. 
Thus, Fort Ancient encapsulates three stages of an 
architectural history in which the layout of enclosures pro- 
gressed from irregular contour embankments, through 
straight angular embankments, to linear geometric forms. 

The differences between contour and straight 
embankments may include not just preservation and 

Fig. 1 5. The northeast gateway, with its twin mounds and parallel-walled enclosure, was Fort Ancient's most elaborate gateway. Ditches up to 
two meters deep connected each twin mound to a stream, tunneling traffic along a paved stone walkway between the parallel walls. 




Fig. 1 4. At the Hopewell group, this mica cutout of an eagle claw was 
found with an elaborate burial over which a mound was later built. 
Moorehead also investigated the Hopewell group for the Columbian 
Exposition; many exotic artifacts from this site are on view at the Field 
Museum. Cat. 110131. 




23 



ZBIGNIEWJASTRZEBSKI 



structural form, but construction technique as well, with a 
rock core present in the latter but not the former. Moore- 
head trenched a straight embankment at the north end of 
the north enclosure, where the earthworks have their long- 
est straightline course. He encountered evidence of multi- 
ple construction stages that began with a "core" of large 
blocks of limestone and sandstone (each weighing 70 kg) 
that had been "heaped in" with the earth to form the wall 
base. 

In transecting the embankment he also encountered 
areas of small limestone slabs that had been laid upon or 
fitted over the exterior face of the earthwork, presumably 
to stabilize the earthen face which had a slope of 52 de- 
grees. Guarding the inclined earthwork faces against ero- 
sion and slumping was, no doubt, a conscious architectural 
concern. Erosion has largely stripped the original exterior 
surfaces of the earthworks. Yet, remnants of flagstone fac- 
ing, in the form of low, masonry walls that were apparently 
stepped one above another, are not uncommon at Fort 
Ancient. Structurally, these acted as retaining walls for the 
earth fill, which had slopes of 35 to 43 degrees on the 
embankment exteriors. Architecturally, the stone facing 
and masonry terraces no doubt cast a very impressive if not 
imposing facade. 

A trench through the interior half of a contour 
embankment in the south enclosure cut in 1940 by Richard 
G. Morgan of the Ohio Historical Society did not reveal a 
stone core of the type Moorehead found in the northern 
straight embankment. Instead the contour earthwork was 
found to consist of several distinct layers of clay, with clear 
evidence that these had been deposited there from baskets. 
The surfaces of some layers appeared weathered, with a 
thin band of humus capped by clay layers of later construc- 
tion. During early phases of construction and use, faces of 
the lower interior embankment faces were nearly vertical 
and extended down to connect with adjoining moats or 
ditches. This transect combines with that excavated by 
Moorehead in indicating that the earthworks assumed 
their final form through cycles of construction and use. 

Ditches, termed moats by early explorers, parallel the 
interior faces of the large enclosures. Excavation has 
shown that ditches were often paved with flagstone or 
gravel Morgan's 1940 cut revealed substantial infilling 
with sediments eroded from the adjacent contour embank- 
ment. Interestingly, moat fill has produced more artifacts 
than have larger excavations in the open interior of the 
enclosure. This suggests that a great deal of past activity 
24 went on atop the flat embankment summits. 



Passages and Gateways 

Our recent field studies indicate 72 embankment openings 
at Fort Ancient that can be securely identified as 
architectural features constructed by the prehistoric build- 
ers. They average 3 to 5 m wide, and tend to be slightly 
elevated above adjacent interior surfaces. Topography in- 
fluenced the placement of both embankments and their 
openings. The steep sides of the Fort Ancient mesa are cut 
by deep ravines that alternate with gently sloping ridges. 
Embankments were erected across the heads of the ravines 
and systematically block access from the gulleys. In con- 
trast, a majority (45) of the embankment passages were 
built adjacent to ridges or opened onto terraces and gently 
sloping land. Moorehead was the first to observe that the 
ridges served as routes of access, and his excavations 
showed that some spurs adjacent to passages had been arti- 
ficially graded and paved with stone slabs. In most cases, 
openings were not blocked by an interior ditch or moat, 
and thus they provided passage to the enclosure interiors 
as well as to the embankment summits. 

Although most passages are simply lower sections of 
the embankment wall, 10 percent are more elaborate. They 
include complex structures that early explorers called 
"gateways," although there is no evidence that they were 
ever closed by gates. The distinguishing feature of gate- 
ways is that each side of the passage is demarcated by a 
mound or by an unusually high section of embankment. 
The basic pattern is eloquently, but simply, expressed by 
the twin mounds that form the entrance to the parallel- 
walled enclosure (fig. 15). 

In the main enclosures, the gateway pattern is most 
often expressed as elevated embankment sections bracket- 
ing each side of a major entrance. Significantly, the greatest 
architectural elaboration occurs in the small middle enclo- 
sure that forms the narrow, elongated passage between the 
large north and south enclosures. Here Moorehead investi- 
gated two interrelated complexes that he named the "cres- 
cent gateway" and "the great gateway." 

The former consists of two low crescent-shaped 
mounds, each about 10 m long and 1.5 m high, erected a 
few meters apart, and more or less end-to-end per- 
pendicularly across the narrow isthmus linking the prin- 
cipal enclosures (fig. 17). The convex sides of the crescents 
face north, and in layout they were apparently designed to 
funnel traffic moving from north to south through the pas- 
sage between the mounds. A small circular mound was set 
within the curve of the east crescent. 




Fig. 1 6. Passages opened onto spurs and ridges which were sometimes paved, providing ready access to the valleys below. 



The funneling effect of the crescent gateway brought 
traffic into alignment with the great gateway, which con- 
stituted the principal entrance to the south enclosure. The 
gateway is formed by two circular mounds, 6 m tall and 3 
m apart, that are connected to the adjacent elevated 
embankments. Passage between the mounds and embank- 
ments was across a low platform, 1.2 m. high. On the inte- 
rior, immediately southwest of the entrance there was a 
small circular mound connected by stone paving to the 



nearby embankment ditch (fig. 6, 7). In overview, the great 
gateway, the crescent gateway and the narrow middle 
enclosure apparently functioned in concert as an elaborate 
passageway leading to the southern enclosure. The cres- 
cents and mounds are neither high nor suggest that they 
supported defensive parapets. Rather, as at other early 
earthworks, they serve to embellish major passageways 
and distinguish these from the smaller, more numerous 
entries. 



Fig. 17. The crescent gateway restricted access to the middle enclosure and, with the great gateway, regulated entry into the south, or "old," 
enclosure. 





Fig. 1 8. These three flint blades (14-16cm long) were part of a ceremonial deposit discovered in a field near the parallel wails. The reason for 
deliberate burial of exotic goods by Hopewell peoples is not known. 



26 



Conclusions 

Commanding a strategic and imposing mesa, Fort Ancient 
derived its name and its general interpretation as a great 
bastion from early explorers who explained the vast earth- 
works in terms of Mound Builder-Red Man wars. 
Although the Mound Builder Myth fell into disrepute 
around the turn of the century, the impression that the 
monument was a fort has been more persistent. This 
romantic notion, however, is simply not compatible with 
the architecture of the great ruins. The 5.7 km length of the 
earthworks creates an enormous and very impractical pe- 
rimeter that would require tens of thousands of defenders 
to secure and hold. Yet, there is no evidence of large pop- 
ulations residing within the enclosures. 

In publishing the Fort Ancient map commissioned 
for the Columbian Exposition and in commenting upon its 
field checking, we have noted that multiple entries and 
interior moats or ditches are not compatible with 
achitecture of defensive design. We stress, however, that 
both multiple embankment openings and interior ditches 
are found as an interrelated complex of architectural forms 
at other Hopewell earthworks laid out in the form of 
geometric circles and squares. The geometric earthworks 
are interpreted as centers of pageantry and ceremony, and 
are frequently associated with magnificent ritual artifacts 
fashioned from exotic materials imported over great 
distances. 

Two caches of such exotic objects have been dis- 



covered in the vicinity of the parallel-walled enclosure. 
One cache contained more than 100 cut sheets of Appa- 
lachian mica lying atop 54 ritually destroyed objects of na- 
tive copper imported from the Upper Peninsula of Michi- 
gan. The copper imports include 35 breastplates, 16 ear- 
spool fragments, 2 celts (ax heads), 1 reel-shaped gorget 
(throat guard), and 1 bracelet. A second cache was recently 
discovered by a local landowner while plowing fields that 
now overlie the parallel-walled enclosure. It comprised 
ritual artifacts flaked from exotic stone, including 17 spear 
points and curved knives of obsidian procured from Yel- 
lowstone Park, Wyoming; 11 large ceremonial blades, each 
approximately 20 cm long, of finely crafted Wyandotte 
chert acquired from southern Indiana; and 5 magnificent 
blades, each some 7 cm long, of clear quartz crystal secured 
from an unknown locality. 

We conclude that the exotic caches complement the 
embankment architecture in removing Fort Ancient from 
classification as a fort and placing the monument securely 
within the mainstream of early ceremonial construction. 
That the vast earthwork served not as a great citadel, but as 
a colossal coliseum detracts neither from the splendor nor 
the importance of the monument. It simply indicates that 
the Hopewell erected one of America's largest monu- 
ments, not under duress of war, but in pursuit of religious 
and ceremonial beliefs similar to those that motivated the 
major architectural works erected by other great civiliza- 
tions of antiquity. Exploration of these early Hopewell be- 
liefs and practices forms the current focus of the Field 
Museum's research at Fort Ancient. Ffi 




Archaeological Tour of Peru 
And of La Paz, Bolivia 

October 7 to 24 
$3,195 

Discover the cultural and natural 
diversity of Peru (and a little 
bit of Bolivia too), under the 
guidance of a Field Museum 
archaeologist/anthropologist who 
has lived and worked in that 
country. Tour participants will 
be drawn into the fascinating, 
seemingly alien world of the orig- 
inal inhabitants of the South 
American continent by walking 
among the ruins of their once- 
great cities. Our leader will help 
you experience much more than 
what is encountered by the con- 
ventional sightseer as you view 
the incredible wonders of ancient 
Cuzco, Colonial Lima, and the 
Inca ruins of Puruchuco. An over- 
night excursion to the famous 
"lost city" of Machu Picchu, as 
well as a visit to the Chinchero 
Sunday market will be a memor- 
able weekend. 

An added bonus will be our 
pioneering two-day stop at the 
recently discovered archaeological 
site in the Moquegua Valley in 
which Field Museum will play 
a major research role. We'll com- 
plete our tour with a visit to Boli- 
via, a hydrofoil ride across Lake 
Titicaca, and a visit to the city of 
La Paz. Here we'll tour the near- 
by ruins of the Tiahuanaco 
civilization. We invite you to join 
us and to get an insider's view of 
the past and present. 

Our tour leader will be Dr. 



Bobert A. Feldman, research 
archaeologist for the Field 
Museum Ancient Irrigation 
Project and currently director of 
"Programa Contisuyu." He has 
done field work in the U. S. and 
Peru. Before joining the Field 
Museum project, Dr. Feldman 
conducted excavations at a 4,000- 
year-old fishing village on the 
Peru coast, uncovering some of 
the earliest monumental archi- 
tecture in South America. 

Ancient Capitals 
Of China 

September 22 to October 13 
$3,550 

We are pleased to again offer our 
unique itinerary for China, with 
the addition of a two-day visit to 
Wuxi and Nanjing and a Grand 
Canal cruise from Wuxi to 
Suzhou. This program also 
includes the most significant sites 
of early Imperial China and will 
provide an opportunity to 
explore in depth the civilization 
which characterized one of the 
oldest and longest-lived societies 
on earth. 

Following our direct flight 
from Chicago to Tokyo, where we 
will spend the night, we will visit 
Beijing for three days, then to 
Xian for three days. Successive 
points in the itinerary then 
include Luoyang, Zhengzhou, 
Kaifeng, Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, 
and Shanghai. 

Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, 
Ph.D. candidate in Chinese his- 
tory at the University of Chicago, 



will be our guest lecturer. Mr. 
Woodruff has recently returned 
to Chicago after two years of 
research at Beijing University. 
His experience of living in China, 
his fluency in Chinese, and excel- 
lent rapport with the Chinese 
guides are a superb supplement 
to his leadership skills. This is the 
fifth China tour he has led for 
Field Museum. 

Kenya 

September 8 to 27 
$3,595 

You are invited to join us for an 
exciting 19-day safari to East Afri- 
ca accompanied throughout by 
Audrey Faden, experienced lec- 
turer and tour guide, plus local 
guides. Game is still plentiful and 
this tour is scheduled to coincide 
with the animal migration. It will 
be Spring in Kenya. The time to 
go is now! A trip to Kenya is a 
vacation that never ends. We 
hope you will make your reserva- 
tion now. 

Start planning, now for . . . 
Tour of Egypt 
February, 1985 

If you wish to be placed on the 
mailing list for this perennially 
popular tour, or if you have ques- 
tions about any of the other 
tours, please write or call Tours 
Manager Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr. , Chicago, ll 60605. 
Phone: 322-8862. 



27 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

July/August 1984 
Volume 55, Number 7 



July and August Events at Field Museum 



Books, Business, and Buckskin 5 

the life of Edward E. Aver, Field Museum's first president 
by E. Leland Webber, president emeritus of Field Museum 



The Search for Paleontology's Most Elusive Animal: 11 
The Conodont Animal 

by Derek E. G. Briggs 



Tours for Field Museum Members 



26 



COVER 

Scene at Illinois' Starved Rock State Park. 
Photo by John Kolar. 



VOLUNTEER OPPORTUNITIES: Do you like to work 
with children and can give one day a week during the school 
year? Field Museum's Education volunteers give programs to 
school groups on everything from dinosaurs to Indians. A 
background in education or natural history is preferred; a fall 
training program is required. Year-round Education volunteers 
are also needed to staff the Place for Wonder and Pawnee 
earth lodge, weekdays as well as weekends. Weekday 
volunteers with typing skills are needed in many departments 
Interested persons should contact Joyce Matuszewich, 
volunteer coordinator, at 922-9410, extension 360. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, U. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II 



PICNIC PLUS THREE 

Earth, Sky and Sea 

Saturday, August 11, 3:00-8:00pm 

Field Museum, Shedd Aquarium, and Adler 

Planetarium invite you to a summer picnic 

celebration. 

Bring your own food or buy it here — Eat on the lawns — 
Enjoy special evening hours at each institution. On this occa- 
sion your Field Museum membership card admits you free to 
the aquarium and the planetarium as well. 
For additional information please call (312) 322-8859 



Events 



Family Features — July 

African Clay Pots 

Saturday and Sunday, July 14, 15 
1:00-3:00 pm 

Cultures of Africa and Madagascar, 
Ground Floor 

Clay pots are found in African market places 
in a variety of shapes and sizes. By examining 
those like the tiny ink pots from Nigeria and 
the enormous water jugs used in all the Afri- 
can villages, we can learn a lot about the peo- 
ple who made them. Explore the different 
techniques used to make these African pots 
and create your own clay pot to take home. 

Dahomey Applique 

Saturday and Sunday, July 28, 29 
1:00-3:00 pm 

Cultures of Africa and Madagascar, 
Ground Floor 

The Dahomey men of Africa cut symbols 
from pieces of brightly colored cloth. The 
symbols were arranged to tell stories about 
their kings and then appliqued on cloth. 
Learn the meanings behind some of these 
ancient symbols and then create your own 
story picture. 

Family Features are free with Museum 
admission; tickets not required. 



Berry baskets made of red cedar by Tlingit Indians (NW coast). 




Family Features — August 

Painting with Bone 

Saturday and Sunday, August 4, 5 

1:00-3:00 pm 

Pawnee Earth Lodge, Main Floor 

Historical events of the Plains Indians were 
often recorded in colorfully painted picto- 
graphic scenes on animal skins. Printed 
geometric and symbolic designs richly deco- 
rated their clothing, containers, war shields, 
and drums. Experiment with the traditional 
painting techniques of the Plains Indians 
using a real animal bone as your brush for 
decorating an animal skin robe. 

Native American Baskets 

Saturday and Sunday, August 11, 12 
1:00-3:00 pm 

Indians of Western North America Hall, 
Main Floor 

Baskets made by Native Americans are 
among the most beautiful in the world. Take a 
look at some Porno Indian baskets that are 
big enough to hide in and some that are as 
tiny as the tip of your smallest finger. Watch 
demonstrations of different weaving tech- 
niques, then try your hand at weaving a 
basket of your own. 

Plains Indian Parfleches 

Saturday and Sunday, August 18, 19 
1:00-3:00 pm 

Indians of Western North America Hall, 
Main Floor 

Plains Indians relied on the buffalo for their 
subsistence, and travelled constantly to keep 
up with the herds. Pottery was too breakable 
to be used for food storage, so they made 
folded leather containers called parfleches. 
Look at some of these bags used by the 
Cheyenne, Pawnee, Sioux, and Crow. Make a 
parfleche to keep your own travel supplies in, 
decorating it with the beautiful geometric 
designs used by these tribes. 

These features are free with Museum admis- 
sion; tickets not required. continued^ 



CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3 



Events 



July/ August Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to 
explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and 
films related to ongoing exhibits at the 
Museum are designed for families and adults. 
Listed are only a few of the numerous activi- 



ties available each weekend. Check the 
Weekend Passport upon arrival for the com- 
plete schedule and program locations. The 
programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 



July 

7 1 1:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Investigate 
the traditions of ancient Egyptian civiliza- 
tion from everyday life to mummification 
and the promise of an afterlife. 

12:30 pm. African Mammals (tour). Exam- 
ine the lifestyles of various African mam- 
mals and the adaptations they have made to 
survive in their harsh environment. 

1:30 pm. Disaster at Pompeii (slide lecture/ 
tour). Explore the civilization of Pompeii be- 
fore its devastation by Mt. Vesuvius. 

15 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy 
a sampling of our most significant exhibits 
as you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

21 11:00 am. African Mammals (tour). Examine 
the lifestyles of various African mammals 
and the adaptations they have made to sur- 
vive in their harsh environment. 

1:30 pm. Red Land/Black Land (tour). 
Tour the Egyptian exhibit focusing on the 
geography of the Nile Valley and the effect it 
had on Egypt. 

28 12 noon. Disaster at Pompeii (slide lecture/ 
tour). Explore the civilization of Pompeii be- 
fore its devastation bv Mt. Vesuvius. 



August 

4 11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Investigate 
the traditions of ancient Egyptian civiliza- 
tion from everyday life to mummification 
and the promise of an afterlife. 

5 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy 
a sampling of our most significant exhibits 
as you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

12 2:30 pm. China and the Silk Roads (tour). 
Travel the great caravan routes and follow 
the course of empires, arts, and faiths. 

18 1:30 pm. Treasures from the Totem Forest 
(tour). An introduction to the Indians of 
British Columbia and southeastern Alaska, 
and the totem poles and masks so important 
to their cultures. 

19 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy 
a sampling of our most significant exhibits 
as you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

26 1:00 pm. Traditional China (tour). Examine 
the timeless imagery and superb craftsman- 
ship represented by Chinese masterworks 
in our permanent collection. 







Books, Business, and Buckskin 



by E. Leland Webber 
President Emeritus of Field Museum 




Painting (detail) by 
unknown artist of 
Edward Ayer in liv- 
ing room of his Lake 
Geneva home, sur- 
rounded by memor- 
abilia of his travels 
and his beloved 
books. Most of his 
books are now in 
the Newberry 
Library. The thou- 
sands of archaeo- 
logical and ethno- 
logical artifacts he 
collected in his 
world travels are 
now for the most 
part in the collection 
of the Field 
Museum. 



-ny great American city is the result of the work 
of generations of committed visionaries. Some build 
only in the industrial and commercial realm. Others 
contribute in the nonprofit sector. But the great 
builders we usually recall are those who make their 



"Boohs, Business, and Buch.sh.in" is adapted from an address 
recently given try E. Leland Webber before Chicago's Fortnightly 
Club. 



money in the business world and then through con- 
tribution of time or money, or both, work to build the 
city outside of their day-to-day business life. In Chi- 
cago we quickly think of the University of Chicago 

The author and the editor are particularly grateful to the staff of the 
J\[ewberry Library for assistance in researching the life of Edward 
E. Ayer and for making available previously unpublished photos. 
A main source of information on Ayer's life was The Life of Edward 
E. Ayer, by Frank C. Lockwood, published by A. C. McClurg & 
Company, 1929. 



and John D. Rockefeller, Walter Newberry of the 
Newberry Library, the Field Museum and Marshall 
Field, the Museum of Science and Industry and Julius 
Rosenwald, and so on across the rich fabric that 
makes Chicago one of the world's great cities. 



collectors. Even during his lifetime, the Field 
Museum was a principal beneficiary of Edward Ayer's 
zealous collecting — an activity that served to in- 
spire many of his contemporaries to do likewise. He is 
also to be remembered as a generous donor of funds to 



Ayer, left, as a 
young man, pos- 
sibly in the Utah 
quartz mine where 
he worked briefly in 
1860. Photo cour- 
tesy Newberry 
Library 




There are also those who don't leave their name 
on an institution, but in some respects have had a 
more profound effect on the city than some whose 
names have been institutionally perpetuated. So it is 
with Edward Everett Ayer, one of the really remark' 
able men in our city's history. A trustee and builder of 
the Field Museum, Ayer was one of the -world's great 



the Museum. Other Chicago institutions that be- 
nefitted from Ayer's largesse as well as his guidance 
include the Newberry Library, the Art Institute of 
Chicago, and the Chicago Historical Society. 

Ayer was born in Southport, now Kenosha, 
Wisconsin in 1841. In 1846 his father, Elbridge Gerry 
Ayer, bought 200 acres of land 30 miles west of 



Kenosha, and established a combination general store 
and blacksmith shop. By the mid-1850s the Chicago 
and Northwestern Railroad was building a line 
northwest out of Chicago, eventually to reach Wil- 
Hams Bay, Wisconsin, and beyond. Elbridge Ayer, 



pocket, and obtained work sawing wood with a 
bucksaw. 

Meanwhile, the Civil War had broken out. Cali- 
fornia joined the Union and young Ayer enlisted in 
August 1861 in the first California unit — a cavalry 




Early engraving of Cerro Colorado Mine, near the Mexican border, where Edward Ayer was stationed for several months 
during the Civil War 



seeing an opportunity, sold his store and land, bought 
400 acres five miles south and in 1856 laid out the 
town of Harvard, Illinois. The railroad soon came, 
Ayer prospered, and he became a leading citizen of 
that rural part of Illinois south of Lake Geneva. 

His son, Edward, in the meantime, lived a typi- 
cal rural life. He was no student, apparently loathing 
the "3 R's" that were the curriculum of the day; he 
attended school only three months or so a year until 
he was eleven or twelve. He then worked on the 
farm, took wagon trains of grains to Kenosha, and 
generally helped his father in business. At 18 he 
caught the wanderlust and in April 1860 with his 
father's permission, set out for California. He joined a 
wagon train, but left it in Utah to work in a quartz 
mine, 11 hours a day for $4, staying only long enough 
to save the fare to San Francisco. He arrived there 
five months after leaving Illinois, with only 25<t in his 



company — to be sworn into service. By the following 
spring, Ayer's company was assigned to southern Ari- 
zona, and Ayer was put in charge of a detail to protect 
a mine near the Mexican border. How often fate, or 
chance, intervenes in a small incident that may liter- 
ally change our lives. This is what happened to Ayer 
at the mine. In the small library set up for the use of 
mine employees, Ayer came upon William H. Pre- 
scott's The Conquest of Mexico. Until this time, Ayer 
had never read a book in his life. He later wrote, "I 
read those three volumes of Prescott's through twice 
while I was at the mine. They seemed to open an 
absolutely new world to me." What they did was 
nothing less than change the course of Ayer's life — 
gave him a love of books, an opening of the intellect, 
and coupled with his war travels a life-long love of 
the American West and its history. 

To emphasize this incident, I shall move the nar- 



rative forward about two years: A month after Ayer's 
discharge from the Army, he walked into a Chicago 
bookstore and asked for The Conquest of Mexico. 
(Ayer had still read no other work.) The bookseller 
brought out an 1864 edition in five volumes, contain' 
ing not only The Conquest of Mexico but also Pre 



volumes remained his greatest personal treasure. 

Now back to the Southwest and the war. Ayer 
spent the next two years in Arizona, New Mexico, 
and northern Mexico, and he saw much of the region 
from northern Mexico to Santa Fe and Indian pueb' 
los. It was life in the saddle, often requiring rides of 




The adobe building at Cerro Colorado Mine, where Ayer was introduced to Prescott's The Conquest of Mexico. The first book 
Ayer ever read, he later credited it with radically influencing his life. 



scott's The Conquest of Peru. "How much are they?" 
"$1750." "What?" Ayer responded. "$1750," came 
the reply. "I'm so disappointed. I didn't think they 
could be more than 50<t a volume." Ayer was desper- 
ate; he wanted those books more than he had ever 
wanted anything in his life. Finally he said, "My 
name is Edward Ayer. I have been four and a half 
years on the Plains and in the war three years. I just 
got back a month ago after four years among the Indi- 
ans. My father has given me a $1,000 interest in his 
store at Harvard Junction. I want that first volume 
on Mexico awfully bad, and if you will let me have it, 
I will pledge myself as a gentleman and economize 
and save $3.50 a month, and in five months I will 
have paid for the rest." The bookseller looked at Ayer 
a moment and replied "Young man, you can take the 
whole set right home with you. Give me $3.50 now 
and $3.50 each month until they are paid for." Of all 
the things Ayer later owned in life, those five 



several hundred miles, and was one of those periods 
in life that was certain either to enchant or repel. En- 
chant young Ayer it did; he acquired a life-long 
absorption with the West and a passion for travel. 

A commission came in 1863, discharge the next 
year. The $400 fare back to Chicago, new clothes, 
and unexpected delays en route combined to leave 
Ayer with $1.80 in his pocket as he arrived in Chi- 
cago. A friendly railroad man gave him a pass to Har- 
vard, and on July 1, 1864, Lt. Ayer returned home. 

Ayer, Sr. gave a one-third interest in his store to 
his son, but storekeeping was too confining, and 
Edward soon began buying timber lots to supply 
cordwood for the wood-burning locomotives of the 
Chicago and Northwestern. In a year or two he was 
employing 60 or 70 woodchoppers. In 1867 he con- 
tracted with the Chicago and Northwestern to sup- 
ply 60,000 railroad ties and obtained another con- 
tract with the Union Pacific, which was pushing for 



a transcontinental tie-up (achieved in 1869). His life's 
work was set and his fortune ensured. By 1871, at the 
age of 30, young Ayer was selling almost a million ties 
a year, travelling almost incessantly, and spending 
nearly half of the nights a year on Pullman sleepers. 
Fortunately, Ayer had time for some romance be' 




and even Alaska. He also began buying books about 
Indians, an interest that expanded to include original 
source material — manuscripts, maps, paintings, 
drawings, and pamphlets — about the early history of 
America. The Indian collection later went to the 
Field Museum and the books and associated materials 



Edward E. Ayer in about 1880. He 
was already a successful busi- 
nessman. Photo courtesy the 
Newberry Library 



fore he got into the railway tie business and began his 
travels. In September 1865 he married Emma Bur- 
bank, a young lady who had been brought up in the 
East and was well educated for a woman of that time. 
The marriage -was of two people with remarkably 
similar interests and abilities, and was to last more 
than 60 years. Within five years of his marriage, Ayer 
was well established in his career and, while not rich, 
was well enough off to pay attention to matters other 
than railroad ties. About 1871 he went to Denver and 
Omaha, where he bought a great deal of Indian bead- 
work and garments. In 1880 he again visited the 
Plains, saw the striking changes in Indian life and be- 
gan urgent collecting of Indian material — from Mex- 
ico, the Southwest, the Plains, the Northwest Coast, 



to the Newberry Library. 

But Ayer was not just a collector of things. 
He read his books and he read broadly. While travel- 
ling on the Pullman he read omnivorously, seemingly 
frantic to make up for the education he had missed. 
Shakespeare, Burns, Scott, Thackeray, Dickens, 
Cooper, Holmes, Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Ro- 
man Empire and The Conquest of Granada; Alison's 
History of England in 31 volumes; the Iliad and the 
Odyssey; Plutarch's Lives — all of these acquired be- 
fore he was 40 and read as he travelled the rails. 

Ayer made a lot of money, but apparently he did 
not aspire to immense wealth. He had opportunities 
to branch out, to speculate, but he seems to have been 
one of those who prefer to do a few things superbly 




Sawmill built by 
Ayer at Flagstaff, 
Arizona, in 1882. 



10 



rather than many things well, regardless of the finan- 
cial opportunities lost. The following vignettes may 
further illuminate the character of the man: 

The Mexican Central Railroad, begun in 1881, 
was laying track simultaneously southward from El 
Paso, Texas and northward from Mexico City, and 
for this project Ayer secured a contract for 70,000 
ties. He delivered, the ties were selected and 
approved by a railroad company representative. But 
subsequently the railroad's chief owner wrote from 
Boston to complain of the quality and performance of 
the contract. Ayer responded, sending a copy of the 
contract and pointing out that the railroad's own 
inspector had approved the ties delivered. He felt 
blameless and under no legal obligation, but wrote 
that he would honor any draft in adjustment drawn 
against him. The draft came through and Ayer paid. 
Thereafter, every tie used in the building of the Mex- 
ican Central, some six or seven million, was supplied 
by Ayer, in addition to lumber for bridge construc- 
tion, depots, and other purposes. 

In 1882 the Santa Fe Railroad gave Ayer an op- 
tion on 87 square miles of land south and west of 
Flagstaff, Arizona. He went out to look. The railroad 
had stopped at Winslow until a bridge across Canyon 
Diablo — an open truss structure 541 feet long and 
223 feet high — could be completed. Ayer surveyed 



the area on horseback and determined that he had to 
build a sawmill on the other side of the canyon to 
supply ties and telephone poles for completion of the 
Mexican Central and the extension of the Santa Fe to 
California. Forty-five years later, A.G. Wells, a Santa 
Fe vice president wrote: 

The erection of the steel (for the bridge over 
Canyon Diablo) delayed track laying for six months. 
This delay to his operations did not harmonize with 
Ed Ayer's conception or the fitness of things. There 
was timber waiting to be cut, and the machinery for 
the sawmill on cars at Canyon Diablo. With 
characteristic energy Mr. Ayer imported men, teams, 
wagons, and commissary, brought his mill stuff 
across the canyon, and installed it, and put it into 
operation long before the first locomotive whistled 
into Flagstaff, and this through a country uninha- 
bited and which did not afford a drop of water for 
men or mules. 
As his drive and integrity increased his wealth, 
Edward Ayer had more time to travel, visiting Mex- 
ico more than twenty times and travelling constantly 
through the Southwest. In the mid-eighties he made 
his first trip to Europe, and for the next quarter- 
century spent about three months a year abroad. 
Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and eventu- 
ally around the world Ayer and his wife went, often 
with their friends, the Martin Ryersons, the Charles 
Hutchinsons, the Daniel Burnhams, the Wells, 



Continued on p. 19 



THE SEARCH 

For Paleontology's 

Most Elusive Entity: 

The Conodont Animal 

By Derek E. G. Briggs 



Much of the excitement of paleontology lies in 
collecting fossils. It is akin to searching for buried 
treasure; the bounty beautiful to look at, and 
highly coveted by other collectors. Even more exciting is 
the possibility of discovering something rare or unusual — 
perhaps even new to science. If you take your prize speci- 
men to the museum for identification, more often than not 
the curator will show you a drawer full of them — or at least 
produce an illustration in some scientific monograph. 
Occasionally, however, you hit the jackpot — like the many 
collectors of Mazon Creek* fossils who have generously 
donated specimens for scientific study over the years. But 
did it ever occur to you that collecting in the field is not the 
only way to find fossils new to science? Sometimes, already 
found and stored away in museum collections, they may 
remain for years before being recognized as previously un- 
known. This happens even in the best curated collections 
of museums and other research institutions, until some- 
body stumbles upon them almost by accident. 

Museum collections are not only repositories for 
"type" material, those specimens upon which the original 
description of a fossil was based, nor are they just reference 
collections to aid in the identification of fossils brought in 
by collectors. They are also warehouses, storing important 
material until the day when it is needed to test a new idea 
or theory, or to yield new information to a different 
approach or more advanced technique, or simply until the 
manpower is available to go through the time-consuming 
processes of preparation, description, and interpretation. 



*Mazon Creek is a world- famous fossil occurrence an hour's drive southwest 
of Chicago. 



Two unique specimens, central to the development of our 
understanding of an important group of microfossils called 
conodonts, were discovered in collections in this way. 

The origin of these toothlike microfossils has been 
one of the longest standing puzzles in paleontology since 
they were first reported over 125 years ago. Conodonts 
occur in rocks ranging in age from Cambrian (about 520 
million years ago) to Triassic, a total span of about 300 
million years; they became extinct about 200 million years 
ago. They are usually extracted by dissolving limestones 
which contain them in acetic acid. The conodonts are 
composed of a phosphatic mineral which is more acid- 
resistant than the rock and they are picked from the resi- 
due by means of a fine brush. During the last 25 years 
detailed sampling and documentation have shown that 
conodonts evolved relatively rapidly; therefore, they are 
good index fossils for correlating rock sequences in differ- 
ent areas. That is, they are useful in biostratigraphy. Until 
very recently, however, the soft parts of the animal to 
which conodonts belonged were unknown. Indeed, Klaus 
Miiller of the University of Bonn noted in the revision of 
the conodont section of the Treatise on Invertebrate 
Paleontology published in 1981 that "The origin of con- 
odonts is considered by many paleontologists to be one of 
the most fundamental unanswered questions in systematic 
paleontology." 

A lack of information regarding the nature of the con- 
odont animal has been little hindrance to using conodonts 
in correlating rock sequences. For the most part, they 
might as well be nuts and bolts, provided each type is con- 
fined to a different segment of time as represented in the 
rock record. A knowledge of the biology of fossils used in 
correlation is useful, however, to provide some indication 
of likely controls on their distribution and occurrence in 
different sedimentary rocks. In addition, the majority of 
paleontologists are interested in evolutionary biology as 
well as in biostratigraphy so, as conodonts have become 
more useful, speculation about their affinities has in- 
creased. 

Conodonts were discovered, and documented for 
years, as isolated individuals — or elements, as they are 
now called. Each type of element was described as a sepa- 



Derek Briggs is a principal lecturer in geology and deputy dean of 
science and mathematics at Goldsmiths' College, University of Lon- 
don. He recently spent several months at Field Museum under the 
Department of Geology's Visiting Scientist Program, investigating 
exceptionally preserved fossil faunas and giant extinct arthropods. ] -| 




12 



A selection of conodonts, showing diversity of form. About 1 7X. 



rate species, and a system of classifying these species into 
genera, families, and orders was developed. A major 
breakthrough in our understanding of conodonts came in 
the 1930s with the independent discovery by H. W. 
Schmidt in Germany, and Harold Scott at the University of 
Illinois, Urbana, of groups of different conodont elements 
preserved in a bilaterally symmetrical arrangement. It then 
became clear that each conodont animal included an 
assemblage of several different elements making up an 
apparatus — a number of different conodont species and 
genera, as previously defined, actually belonged to the 
same organism. These groups were found in black shales — 
fine-grained sedimentary rocks laid down in very quiet 
water — so that decay of the soft tissues had taken place, 
leaving the conodonts in their original position and undis- 
turbed by water currents. 

This discovery, fifty years ago, that individual con- 
odonts were arranged in an apparatus, was the first mile- 
stone in the search for the conodont animal and ultimately 
led to a change in the method of classifying conodonts; 
conodont species are now based on apparatuses rather 
than individual elements. The reconstruction of conodont 
apparatuses did not, however, provide any clue to the na- 
ture of the animal to which they belonged. Conodonts 
have been variously attributed to a whole variety of groups, 
from plants through a range of minor invertebrate phyla to 



the molluscs, annelid worms, lophophorates, arrowworms 
(chaetognaths) and vertebrates (including the gill supports 
or teeth of different kinds offish). The difficulty paleontol- 
ogists have experienced in finding a taxonomic "home" for 
the conodonts emphasizes their uniqueness. Structures 
similar to the conodonts are unknown in any living group 
of animals. 

A second milestone in the search for the conodont 
animal seemed at first to confirm that conodonts are a 
unique group. In the late 1960s Bill Melton of the Univer- 
sity of Montana discovered an extraordinary animal in the 
Carboniferous (about 320 million years old) Bear Gulch 
Limestone of Montana. The specimens show a long, 
flattened, cigar-shaped body with a finlike structure at the 
posterior end; in the central part of the animal conodonts 
were found. Melton brought his fossil to the first North 
American Paleontological Convention (N.A.P.C.), which 
was held at the Field Museum in 1969. There it was shown 
to Harold Scott who 35 years earlier had described the first 
conodont assemblages discovered in North America. Scott 
considered that the elusive conodont animal had at last 
been found, and his informal announcement was surely 
the sensation of the meeting. Believers and skeptics alike 
stood in long lines for a view of the fossil under a micro- 
scope. One evening during the convention the event was 



A Carboniferous conodont apparatus. The comblike elements at the 
front are followed by a pair of flat, 'arched blade ' elements, then a pair 
of stout platform elements. About 17X. 




immortalized in a song composed by Tom Dutro and 
Mackenzie Gordon, Jr., of the U.S. Geological Survey: 

Ah, sweet mystery of conodonts, I've solved thee! 

So you really had a body after all. 

It was firm and roly-poly, flat and flabby; 

'Twas like a worm, echinoderm, or jelly ball. 

Now the guessing game is over and we're certain 

You were sexless, winged, six-sided, more or less. 

Did a notocord support your velum curtain? 

Yes, we're certain you were just a mess!! 
Melton and Scott cooperated in studying the Bear Gulch 
discovery, but their full description was not published un- 
til 1973. They were impressed by linear structures at the 



had discovered a new extinct phylum! There is now good 
evidence that the major radiation of life in the seas during 
late Precambrian and early Cambrian time (around 590 
million years ago) gave rise to a great many more phyla 
than are present today. Their number was gradually 
reduced by extinction through geologic time. Many of 
these now extinct early phyla are preserved at a world- 
famous fossil locality of middle Cambrian age (ca. 540 mil- 
lion years), the Burgess Shale in«southern British Colum- 
bia. The locality was discovered by Charles Walcott, secre- 
tary of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C, in 
1909. Walcott's unrivalled collection of more than 60,000 



erve.cord 




The conodonto-chordate from the Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana. About 2X. Photo by S. Conway Morris. University of 
Montana collections, UM 6027. 



front of the animal which they interpreted as a nerve cord 
and notostyle, characteristic features of a chordate. They 
therefore called the animal a conodontochordate. 

Unfortunately the reign of the conodontochordate as 
conodont animal was short-lived. Although an alternative 
interpretation was suggested by some paleontologists from 
the outset, it was left to Simon Conway Morris of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge to restudy the specimens and 
demonstrate the true nature of the conodontochordate. 
The gut of some of the specimens contained a mixture of 
different conodont apparatuses, others included structures 
such as possible worm jaws, still others revealed no con- 
odonts at all. The conodontochordates had clearly been 
feeding- on conodont animals — surely one of the 
most unfortunate examples of carnivory in the annals of 
paleontology. 

Although the Bear Gulch fossils are not the elusive 
conodont animal, their discovery is of outstanding import- 
ance nonetheless. They are representatives of a totally dis- 
tinct body plan with no living relatives. Melton and Scott 



specimens, which was amassed over a period of several 
years, is held by the National Museum of Natural History 
in Washington. It was while working through Walcott's 
collections that Simon Conway Morris discovered a 
unique fossil which was to prove a third milestone in the 
hunt for the conodont animal. 

The specimen discovered by Conway Morris is a 
wide, flat animal about 6 cm long with an annulated, or 
ringed, trunk. In the head region a small central horseshoe- 
shaped outline around the mouth is defined by cone- 
shaped structures which resemble some Cambrian con- 
odonts and conodontlike microfossils. Conway Morris 
named the animal Odontogriphus, "toothed riddle," and 
suggested that it is an example of a conodont animal. Un- 
fortunately no skeletal material has survived and the cones 
are preserved only as impressions — their true nature can- 
not be determined. Conway Morris interpreted the cone- 
shaped structures in Odontogriphus as supports for the soft 
tentacles of a feeding device, or lophophore, around the 
mouth. Odontogriphus may belong with other groups 



13 



which have a lophophore such as the bryozoans (moss- 
animals) and brachiopods (lampshells). 

True conodonts, or euconodonts, do not appear in 
the fossil record until the upper Cambrian (about 520 mil- 
lion years ago), after Odontogriphus. Two similar groups of 



mouth of Odontogriphus remained uncertain the possibility 
of a relationship to true conodonts could not be verified. 
The search for the true conodont animal was still on, and 
the likelihood was that it would look different from 
Odontogriphus. 




Walcott Quarry, the world-famous Cambrian fossil locality in Yoho National Park, 
British Columbia. Mt. Wapta (2, 779 m) in background. Photo by D. Briggs. 



14 



microfossils, protoconodonts, and paraconodonts, appear 
earlier than Odontogriphus in the late Precambrian (about 
600 million years ago). Both are essentially simple cones, 
but Stefan Bengtson of the University of Uppsala has 
shown that they can be distinguished from each other and 
from true conodonts by their microstructure and the way 
they grow. Paraconodonts may be ancestral to true cono- 
donts, but protocondonts are different. Thus, as long as 
the nature of the cone-shaped structures around the 



The fourth and most recent milestone in the search 
for the conodont animal was the discovery of a specimen in 
the collections of the Institute of Geological Sciences in 
Edinburgh, Scotland. The Scottish animal, like Odonotog- 
riphus, awaited discovery in an existing collection, and 
both are known only from single specimens, but there the 
similarity ends. Euan Clarkson of the University of Edin- 
burgh and I have been working for several years on well 
preserved fossil shrimps from the Carboniferous (about 



340 million years old) of southern Scotland. One of our 
localities is actually within the boundaries of the city of 
Edinburgh, along the Firth of Forth at Granton. Here a 
thin unit of laminated limestone yields a variety of 
shrimps, one of which, Water stonella, is abundant and 



pair of flat 'arched-blade' elements and finally a group of 
eight to ten comblike elements which were normally con- 
sidered to lie at the rear. In our animal the sequence is 
reversed, the comblike elements are first, followed by a 
pair of arched-blade elements, one on each of the opposing 



lophophore 



annulations 




Reconstruction by S. Conway Morris of Odontogriphus from Walcott Quarry, Yoho National 
Park, British Columbia, showing lophophore around mouth, with tentacles supported by 
about 25 cone-shaped structures. About 1.7X. 



known only from this immediate area. In addition to the 
shrimps we have found branching organisms (which are 
probably hydroids), worms, and rare nautiloids and fish. 
The conodont animal specimen came to light while Clark- 
son was searching the collections from the same locality in 
the Institute of Geological Sciences for well preserved 
shrimps and examples of the other animals which occur 
with them. It wasn't immediately obvious what had been 
found, but the wormlike fossil which had probably been 
collected by a survey geologist, D. Tait, in the 1920s, clear- 
ly was not a shrimp. 

Although the specimen is 40 mm (1.6") long, it is 
only 2 mm wide, so the details only became apparent 
under a microscope. It is easy to distinguish front from 
rear, however, as along the margin at one end are a row of 
parallel lines which clearly must have been some kind of 
rays that supported fins. At the anterior end are the con- 
odont elements, just behind two lobes flanking the mouth. 

Complete assemblages of conodont elements of 
about this age were well known long before the Edinburgh 
discovery. Was the arrangement in the soft-bodied fossil 
the same? Most Carboniferous apparatuses are made up of 
a pair of stout elements known as platforms, followed by a 



slabs (part and counterpart) which separated to reveal the 
fossil. The platforms were not obvious, however, although 
the broken ends of two structures were evident in about 
the expected position. Could we demonstrate that a nor- 
mal apparatus was present? Very early one spring morning 
in 1982, shortly after I first saw the specimen, I trimmed a 
fine paint brush down to one or two bristles and, working 
with a microscope, applied a tiny drop of weak acid around 
the poorly exposed conodont elements, painstakingly 
removing grains of the surrounding matrix with a needle. 
It proved possible to expose sufficient of the conodont to 
show, without doubt, that they were indeed the expected 
platforms, although precisely which species they belong to 
remains uncertain. Clarkson and I had an apparatus in the 
expected position at the front of the specimen! 

The evidence was good, but two other possibilities 
had to be eliminated before we could be confident that we 
had indeed found the long-sought conodont animal. 
Could the presence of the conodonts be simply the result 
of an accidental superimposition — a conodont animal ly- 
ing on top of some other wormlike fossil? This seems un- 
likely; there is no sign of the outline of another creature, 
and the apparatus is complete and in the expected position 



15 



at the front of the animal. If the conodonts have not been 
superimposed could they perhaps have been eaten? (That, 
after all, was the fate of the conodonts found in the 'con- 
odontochordate' animal from Montana. ) Specimens offish 
choking on their prey are known from the fossil record, 
although such examples of terminal gluttony are very rare. 



with the detailed study of the apparatus. Paleontologists 
like Aldridge who work on conodonts (conodontologists as 
they are sometimes called), have long suffered a kind of 
identity crisis when faced with the question of what they 
work on! Would the Edinburgh specimen provide any 
solution to their problem? The conodont animal is clearly 




The Edinburgh conodont animal About 5X Photo byJ.K. Ingham. 



16 



There is, in addition, no sign of prey projecting out of the 
mouth of the Scottish tossil and the chances of such an 
occurrence getting preserved must be remote. The 
possibility that the Edinburgh fossil represents either a 
chance association or a predator eating prey is therefore 
minimal, but only the discovery of a second specimen can 
completely rule out either. 

Euan Clarkson and I asked Dick Aldridge of the Uni- 
versity of Nottingham, an expert on conodonts. to help us 



not related to either Melton and Scott's conodon- 
tochordate or to Odontogriphus. It shows striking similari- 
ties to the classic primitive chordate, a little animal called 
the lancelet, or amphioxus: the flattened elongate body, the 
trunk divisions, a median line which might be a nerve cord 
or notochord (characteristic chordate features), and the 
fins. But chordates are not the only animals with a similar 
suite of characters. A group of small swimming marine 
invertebrates, the chaetognaths, or arrowworms, are also 



elongate and flattened and have fins. Arrowworms even 
have a median mesentery which divides the body into two 
halves and might be represented by the axial line in the 
conodont animal. And arrowworms have an array of 
grasping spines in the head region which are very similar to 
those in Cambrian protoconodonts (although, as already 
pointed out, protoconodonts may not be related to true 
conodonts). 

Is it possible to decide between a chordate or 
chaetognath affinity for the conodont animal? Primitive 
chordates are eellike, laterally flattened with vertical fins, 
whereas arrowworms are dorso-ventrally flattened with 
lateral fins. But it is impossible to reconstruct an extinct 
animal in three-dimensions on the basis of a single com- 
pacted specimen. As a swimming creature with fins, the 
conodont animal was almost certainly flattened in life, but 
laterally or dorso-ventrally? — we cannot be sure. The 
biggest problem of all in determining the relationship of 
the conodont animal is the conodont elements themselves. 
Conodonts are unique — if there were any obviously sim- 
ilar structure in a living group there would not have been 
the wide-ranging debate about conodont affinities, a de- 
bate which reached no satisfactory conclusion in over 100 
years. Since our work on the Edinburgh specimen was 
published, early in 1983, the commentators (in print) have 
fallen into two groups — Stefan Bengtson of the University 
of Uppsala considers arguments for an affinity to the 
chaetognaths strengthened; Phillippe Janvier of the Uni- 
versity of Paris and Keith Rigby Jr. of Notre Dame Univer- 




Head of the conodont animal, showing the conodont apparatus as 
preserved on the slab opposing that shown in photo on page 16 be- 
fore preparation in order to reveal the platform elements more clearly. 
About 23 X. Photo by J. K. Ingham. 

sity independently favor a chordate relationship. The evi- 
dence for either assignment is inconclusive. Conodont ele- 
ments remain unique to the conodont animal, and we pre- 
fer until we have evidence to the contrary, to place the 



grasping 
spines 



posterior lateral fins 



trunk anterior lateral fins gonads 



median mesentery 




tail fin 



head 



trunk divisions 
(myomeres) gonad 



nerve cord 
medial dorsal fin | notochord gut 



caudal fin 




ventral fin 



Diagrams illustrating features of two groups which show similarities to the conodont animal. Top: The arrowworm 
Sagitta, ventral view. About 2.6X. Bottom: The chordate amphioxus, left anterior view, with a central portion cut 
away to reveal internal features. About 5X. 



U 



conodont animal in its own separate phylum. Others also 
favor our interpretation: David Clark of the University of 
Wisconsin preferred phylum Conodonta in the 1981 revi- 
sion of the conodont section of the Treatise on Invertebrate 
Paleontology which predated our discovery, and Stephen 
Jay Gould of Harvard University has endorsed our view in 



and alternative functions cannot be ruled out. What we 
need are more specimens. 

Study of the microscopic structure of the laminated 
limestones in which the conodont animal was found has 
revealed that they were formed as stromatolites, layers of 
sediment-trapping algae, probably in a highly saline inter- 




Thin-section of limestone from Granton, Edinburgh, which yielded the conodont animal. The rock was formed as a 
stromatolite: the dark bands are organic rich and represent layers of algae, which helped to bind the intervening 
layers of lime-rich mud. The light-colored speckles,' most frequent in a central band, were created by voids caused 
by trapped gas bubbles, which formed as some of the organic material decayed. About 5. 7X. Photo by T Easter. 



18 



a recent article in Natural History (July 1983). 

Harold Scott, as already noted, announced the Mon- 
tana 'conodontochordate' at the first N.A.P.C. in 1969 at 
the Field Museum. I made the first announcement of the 
Edinburgh conodont animal on the American side of the 
Atlantic at the third N.A.P.C. in 1982 in Montreal. My talk 
was a last-minute addition to an appropriate symposium 
on problematic fossils which, coincidentally, was orga- 
nized by Matthew Nitecki, curator of fossil invertebrates at 
Field Museum. The wheel had turned almost full circle. 
More evidence is required to allow a full restoration of the 
conodont animal and confirm its biological position. We 
interpret the conodont elements as teeth — the comblike 
elements for grasping, the arched-blade elements for 
shearing or cutting, the platforms for grinding — but the 
details of food capture and processing need clarification 



tidal environment. Although this has provided conditions 
suitable for the preservation of the soft parts of the animal, 
it is an unusual place to find conodonts. They normally 
occur in rocks of more open marine origin. A search of 
existing collections from the locality has failed to turn up 
any more specimens of the conodont animal. Dissolving 
the limestone in acid yields relatively few isolated con- 
odont elements. Dick Aldridge has a grant from the British 
Natural Environment Research Council to investigate the 
conodonts from the Edinburgh locality further. His 
research includes collecting from what little outcrop re- 
mains in the original area and splitting layer by layer in 
search of more specimens. Up to this time none has come 
to light, and until one does, either in Edinburgh or else- 
where, many of our conclusions regarding the elusive con- 
odont animal will remain unproven. FM 



AYER continued from p. 10 



Wheelers, and Blairs. And gradually, the trips be- 
came the vehicle for collecting, collecting, collecting. 
By 1893 the Columbian Exposition had come to 
Chicago. One of the features of the exposition was 
great collections — ethnology, natural history, miner- 
als, gems — probably finer collections than had ever 




Finally it was only a month until the fair's clos- 
ing and the group decided to give up, raise what 
money and buy what they could, and distribute the 
material to the new University of Chicago, North- 
western University, the University of Illinois, and 
Beloit College. A friend wrote Ayer, asking if he 



Edward E. Ayer in his fifties. 
Photo courtesy the Newberry 
Library. 



before been brought together for a fair. Included was 
Ayer's Indian collection. Ayer and others began to 
talk of securing the exhibited material for a new 
museum of natural history — an opportunity that 
would never again present itself and must not be 
allowed to pass. Ayer wrote: 

Of course Marshall Field was the richest man 
we had among us in those days, so during our fishing 
trips and on social occasions when I would meet Mr. 
Field, I began to talk to him (and others did, too) 
about giving a million dollars to start with. He al- 
ways responded, 'I don't know anything about a 
museum and I don't care to know anything about a 
museum. I'm not going to give you a million dollars.' 



would not see Marshall Field once more. To return to 
Ayer's words: 

I wrote back that I would do so, but that I did 
not believe it would do an atom of good. 

The next morning I was in Mr. Field's office 
when he arrived at about half past nine. I said: 

"Marshall Field, I want to see you tonight after 
dinner." 

"You can't do it," he replied, "I have a dinner 
party and shall be late." 

"Well, the next night." 

"No, I have another engagement then." 

"Well I have to see you right away; it is 
important." 

"You want to talk to me about that darned 
museum," was his reply to this. 



19 



"Yes," I admitted. 

"How much time do you want?" 
I replied, "If I can't talk you out of a million 
dollars in fifteen minutes, I'm no good, nor you 
either." 

He got up, closed the door, came back, and said, 
"Fire ahead." 



people who will follow us in the Mississippi Valley. 

I talked fast and steady. Finally, he took out his 
watch and said, "You have been here fortyfive min- 
utes — you get out of here." 

I replied, "Marshall Field, you have been better 
to me than you ever have been before; you have al- 
ways said No, and you haven't this time — yet. Now I 

Mrs. Edward E. Ayer 




20 



I commenced in this way, "Marshall Field, how 
many men or women twenty-five years of age or 
younger know that A.T. Stewart ever lived?" 

"Not one," he replied. 

I continued, "Marshall Field, he was a greater 
merchant than you, or Claflin, or Wanamaker, 
because he originated and worked out the scheme 
that made you all rich; and he is forgotten in twenty 
five years. Now, Marshall Field, you can sell dry 
goods until Hell freezes over; you can sell it on the ice 
until that melts; and in twenty-five years you will be 
just the figure A.T. Stewart is — absolutely forgotten. 
You have an opportunity here that has been vouch- 
safed to very few people on earth. From the point of 
view of natural history you have the privilege of be- 
ing the educational host to the untold millions of 



want you to do me a personal favor: I want you to go 
through this World's Fair with me and let me show 
you the amount of material that is there — I mean 
exactly what there is that can be used in a natural 
history museum; for the collections can be gotten 
very cheap, much of the material for nothing. I want 
you to go through the World's Fair with me before 
you say No." 

"Well, Ed," he replied, "I should like to go 
through with you. George Pullman told me you had 
shown him through and that he had been astounded 
himself at the quantity of material that was there. 
My brother Joe is here and I should like to have you 
go with us. We will do it tomorrow morning at ten 
o'clock ." 

We went through the whole exhibition. When 



we came out a little before one o'clock, I said, "Can 
Norman Ream and I come to your office tomorrow 
morning at half-past nine and see you about this 
matter?" 

"Yes," he answered. 

We were there promptly, and he gave the mil- 
lion dollars with which to start the Museum. 



— a practice which continued for decades. The Ayer 
ornithological library at Field Museum is today one 
of the finest in the country. 

In 1894 Mr. and Mrs. Ayer booked a trip to the 
Near East, travelling with the Lyman Gages, neigh- 
bors of the Ayers, and the Daniel Burnhams. A stop- 



fer's Chicago home at 
the corner of State and 
Banks streets. The exterior 
was constructed of granite 
boulders from the fields 
where he had roamed as a 
boy. The photo was taken 
in 1918, but the house 
remains there today. 




Ayer was elected the first president of Field 
Museum, beginning a devotion to the institution that 
continued until his death in 1927- He collected con- 
stantly in his travels. The first of more than 100 acces- 
sions of the Museum, secured by or as the gift of Ayer, 
was his Indian collection, one of the finest of that 
time. The next gift was his ornithological library, 
containing nearly all of the great volumes of colored 
bird plates. And joy of a librarian's joy, he ordered 
that anything necessary be bought and charged to him 



over in Cairo captivated Ayer and he promptly 

dropped out of the party to spend several weeks 

collecting in Egypt for the Museum. 

March 26, 1894. Shebheards Hotel, Cairo. "Dear 
Skiff (the Director), I have purchased about 20 
mummies, all the mummy shoes, 25 canopic jars, a lot 
of wooden and stone images . . . and the best lot of 
Greek and Roman bronzes that I believe ever left 
Egypt." 
The curator of the Anthropology Department, 

George A. Dorsey, did not welcome the material, or 



21 




Excavating the tomb chapel of Unis-ankh. one of two acquired for Field Museum by Ayer during his 1908 trip to Egypt. 
(See photo opposite.) 48660 



22 



Ayer, when they returned. He had no interest in 
building an Egyptian collection. But Ayer, as pre- 
sident, thought differently. On through the years he 
bought. He must have converted Dorsey 

February 9, 1908. The Egyptian Hotel, Cairo. 
"Dear Mr. Skiff: Dorsey made connections here all 
right and is having the time of his life. We have 
bought about $2,500 worth and, of course, have got 
good things. This thing is drawing to a close fast and 
every year things get scarcer and higher, and it is very 
necessary that I have at least $3,000 more. I believe I 
can get a very fine tomb from the government now 
for about that money and in a very short time no 
money could buy one. I expect they will thoroughly 
excavate one we saw yesterday, while we are up the 
Nile, so we can see it all and I feel, and so, of course, 
does Dorsey, that it is imperative that we buy it. I 



wish you would please see the trustees personally, or 
a majority of them, and get permission and if they 
consent, that is, a majority of them, cable me here, . . . 
saying simply 'Yes!" 
The answer was "Yes" and today two fine tomb 
chapels are on exhibition in Field Museum. There is 
nothing like them in this country outside the Metro- 
politan Museum of Art and probably nowhere else in 
this hemisphere. Through all these years, Ayer did 
the buying of Egyptian material himself, by his own 
admission totally untrained. Yet it is a superb collec- 
tion — one of the finest in the country. "He had a 
great eye. He knew what was good," commented 
Ruth Butler, the former curator of the collection of 
the Newberry Library. 

In 1899 Ayer resigned as president of the Field 




The tomb chapel of Unis-ankh as it may be seen today in Hall J. 



Museum because of an unexplained "difference in 
policy with one of my fellow trustees." But the mea- 
sure of the man comes through in his letter of resigna- 
tion in which he stated, "I hope that you will not for 
one moment imagine that I have lost faith or interest 
in our beloved museum. Individuals and their actions 
are unimportant. The Museum is one of the very 

great ones of the world, and is here to stay I love 

the Museum from A to Z and always shall be as inter- 
ested in its growth and as gratified at its prosperity as 
Mr. Field himself, and shall always do all I can to 
improve it and further its interests." 

And he was true to his word. His loyalty and 
generosity to the Museum continued until his death. 

Meanwhile, Ayer had continued to build his 
collection of source material on Indians and Western 
Americana. He became a trustee of the Newberry 
Library in the 1890s. In 1898 the Ayers were in 
Venice when the Spanish American War and news of 
the Battle of Manila broke out. He immediately 
wrote to his agents in Europe, South America, and 
North America, asking for lists of everything they 
had on the Philippines, whether printed or in manu- 
script. Within weeks after his return to Chicago he 
was possessor of the largest private collection of 
material on the Philippines in North America. He 
added through the years. Today the Ayer Philippine 



books and manuscripts are at the Newberry. The 
incredible thing about it is that Ayer was frank that 
he knew next to nothing about the Philippines until 
Dewey took Manila. But if it was important to the 
United States it was important enough for Edward 
E. Ayer. 

Mr. Ayer later became a member of the U.S. 
Board of Indian Commissioners. 

I had some fear, as I read and looked through 
letters and manuscripts of what I would find, because 
the board and other federal agencies dealing with na- 
tive Americans have not earned themselves high re- 
gard in the minds of many, including most Indians. 
But my fears were unfounded. His sensitivity to the 
Indians and the moral questions of our treatment of 
them are clear and unequivocal. In 1892 he wrote, 
"Our government's treatment of its Indian wards 
have (sic) been almost as bad as any; treaty after 
treaty made only to be broken; scarcely an agreement 
left in 400 years; certainly very few in our day. ... I 
served during the war of the rebellion in New Mex- 
ico and Arizona for three years. Every Indian was 
hostile from California to Mississippi; or nearly so, 
and we had a hard time of it. Of course, I came in 
contact with tribes of Indians that every man's hand 
had been against for over 300 years and they hated us. 
I don't think any one hated an Indian worse than I or 23 



knew less of the subject. Since I have commenced to 
read about him, and put myself in his place, my views 
have changed very materially. We have simply 
destroyed a great race of human beings, in many of 
the virtues our superiors " 

In 1915 he wrote to Mrs. Edwin Winter of New 
York City when sending her a report on the Meno- 
minee Reservation in Wisconsin, "An island has 
been described as a body of land surrounded by water. 
An Indian reservation has been described as a body of 
land owned and occupied by Indians and surrounded 
by thieves." To outwit the thieves he established a 
sawmill on the Menominee Reservation so that the 
Indians could profit from their own resource. It is 
hard for us today, familiar as we are with the cause of 
Indian rights, to realize what extraordinary senti- 
ments these were in Ayer's time. 

With all of his travels, Ayer was first and last a 
Chicagoan. He lived for years at State and Banks 
Streets, but early in his career he bought 12 acres of 
land on Lake Geneva's south shore. He had spent 
much time at the lake as a boy, swimming and fishing 
in it and hiking the surrounding forests. He later 
added about 1,000 acres. On the shore he built a cot- 
tage and in the woodlands a series of roads and paths. 
It was on Lake Geneva that he spent the happiest 
days of his life, with his family and friends and the 
accumulated memorabilia of a lifetime of travel. 

The Ayers' closest friends seem to have been the 
Charles Hutchinsons — he -was president of the Art 
Institute for 41 years, the Martin Ryersons — he 
served on the University of Chicago Board for 30 
years, and the Daniel Burnhams. I've looked at the 
correspondence to and from these friends. The 
warmth and sentiment expressed in these letters is of 
a nature almost unknown today. And it extended 
beyond his immediate close circle. Stanley Field 
wrote, "You of all the men I know, have learned how 
to get the most out of life." 

To Julius Rosenwald Ayer wrote, "If I had 10 
sons and each of them had 10 sons my greatest wish 
would be that each of them would be like you." 
Rosenwald's response, "It makes life worth living to 
have bestowed upon one such cordial and whole 
souled friendship as I receive from you. If I merit one 
half of it, I shall feel like patting myself on the back." 
At one of Mr. Ayer's birthday celebrations Rosen- 
24 wald appeared at the door, threw his arm around his 



friend and said, "Edward, I love you. I want to give 
you a birthday gift — $25,000 which I want you to 
spend for what you think best for the Field Museum." 
That fund still remains one of the Field Museum 
endowment funds. 

The record shows that Ayer in turn made major 
gifts to the University of Chicago in honor of Martin 
Ryerson, to the Art Institute in honor of Charles 
Hutchinson. 

The character of Edward Ayer was best summed 
up in a fiftieth wedding anniversary note from Emma 
Ayer to her husband on September 7, 1915. One might 
hold a wife's writings suspect, but they reflect the 
writings of others that I read many times over. She 
wrote, "Each year lived with you has deepened my 
love and increased my respect and admiration for 
you. I have discovered in these years in you qualities 
of mind and heart I did not know you possessed when 
we set out to travel life's path together. In you I have 
found tenderness to those you love, loyal devotion to 
friends, strict uprightness in your business relations, a 
fine and correct artistic taste for all that is beautiful, 
courage and patience in bearing pain " 

What do we make of a life such as Edward 
Everett Ayer's? What does it mean to us today, 57 
years after his death? To put it into perspective, I 
think that we have to go back in time. 

The city was smaller and concentrated. There 
was no green belt of corporate headquarters around 
Chicago. Luncheon at the Chicago Club con- 
centrated the business and professional power of the 
city in one building. Living was less dispersed. Sum- 
mer at Lake Geneva brought most of the well known 
names of the city together year after year. Travel by 
train and by ship was slow and companionable. 

These people loved their city and its institu- 
tions. In April 1903 Mr. Ayer wrote Director Skiff 
from Venice about some Etruscan frescoes and other 
objects he had purchased: "... nothing of the kind 
ever found before and it makes them very fine for our 

dear museum " Now imagine anyone talking about 

a "dear museum" today! In 1911 he wrote Stanley 
Field from Algiers, "I have your somewhat dis- 
couraged letter of April 21. You certainly have had 
many trials in connection with our city. But you also 
have the love, confidence, and gratitude of all your 
associates in the grand work and of course the final 
outcome will be one of the great museums of the 




An ardent conservationist, Edward Ayer was instrumental in saving large tracts of California redwood trees from destruction. Mrs. Ayer took this 
photo of her husband in 1919, when he was particularly active with the Save-the-Redwoods League. He is shown with the largest redwood tree in 
the Bull Creek Forest, Mendocino County, California. Photo courtesy the Newberry Library. 



world and all of the untold millions that come after us 
will be provided with a chance to become conversant 
with the sciences. So you can readily see how much 
you are coming out ahead." 

Three years later Martin Ryerson wrote Stanley 
Field from Rome that Ayer had left photos of some 
bronzes with him when Ayer left for Sicily and had 
asked Ryerson to follow through. Ryerson wrote 
"The bronzes look to me like important pieces which 
we should have in our collection. I think Mr. Ayer 
counts on being able to pay for them by subscription 
without burdening the budget of the Museum." 

In Chicago, in Lake Geneva, in North Africa, 
and Rome, on the train to New York, their thoughts 
and their conversation was on the Field Museum, the 
Art Institute, the Newberry, and the University of 
Chicago. Their enthusiasm might today be thought a 
bit provincial or naive. Today, even families spend lit- 



tle time together, much less friends. If friends travel 
together the couples sit across the aisle from each 
other on a 747, not in deck chairs or Pullman cars. 
Our corporate offices are spread from Oakbrook to 
Waukegan and corporate leaders move from job to 
job and from city to city like members of the consular 
corps. 

No exercise in nostalgia will bring back the past, 
but the past and those who lived it can teach us what 
it is that builds great and liveable cities — and what 
keeps them great. We have a Chicago today that 
needs thoughtful and considered dedication. 

A look at the life of Edward Everett Ayer and his 
friends who built Chicago may give us pause and may 
move us to commit just a bit of our time and our trea- 
sure to Chicago. As Ayer wrote to Stanley Field in 
1911, you can readily see how much we will come 
out ahead. FH 25 



Tours For Members 




26 



Peru's fabled "lost city" of Machu Picchu. 

Archaeological Tour of Peru 
And of La Paz, Bolivia 

October 7 to 24 
$3,195 

Discover the cultural and natural 
diversity of Peru (and a little 
bit of Bolivia too), under the 
guidance of a Field Museum 
archaeologist/anthropologist who 
has lived and worked in that 
country. Tour participants will 
be drawn into the fascinating, 
seemingly alien world of the orig- 
inal inhabitants of the South 
American continent by walking 
among the ruins of their once- 
great cities. Our leader will help 
you experience much more than 
what is encountered by the con- . 
ventional sightseer as you view 
the incredible wonders of ancient 
Cuzco, Colonial Lima, and the 



Inca ruins of Puruchuco. An over- 
night excursion to the famous 
"lost city" of Machu Picchu, as 
well as a visit to the Chinchero 
Sunday market will be a memor- 
able weekend. 

An added bonus will be our 
pioneering two-day stop at the 
recently discovered archaeological 
site in the Moquegua Valley in 
which Field Museum will play 
a major research role. We'll com- 
plete our tour with a visit to Boli- 
via, a hydrofoil ride across Lake 
Titicaca, and a visit to the city of 
La Paz. Here we'll tour the near- 
by ruins of the Tiahuanaco 
civilization. We invite you to join 
us and to get an insider's view of 
the past and present. 

Our tour leader will be Dr. 
Robert A. Feldman, research 
archaeologist for the Field 



Hermann C Bowersox 

Museum Ancient Irrigation 
Project and currently director of 
"Programa Contisuyu." He has 
done field work in the U.S. and 
Peru. Before joining the Field 
Museum project, Dr. Feldman 
conducted excavations at a 4,000- 
year-old fishing village on the 
Peru coast, uncovering some of 
the earliest monumental archi- 
tecture in South America. 

Ancient Capitals 
Of China 

September 22 to October 13 
$3,550 

We are pleased to again offer our 
unique itinerary for China, with 
the addition of a two-day visit to 
Wuxi and Nanjing and a Grand 
Canal cruise from Wuxi to 
Suzhou. This program also 



Tours For Members 



includes the most significant sites 
of early Imperial China and will 
provide an opportunity to 
explore in depth the civilization 
which characterized one of the 
oldest and longest-lived societies 
on earth. 

Following our direct flight 
from Chicago to Tokyo, where we 
will spend the night, we will visit 
Beijing for three days, then to 
Xian for three days. Successive 
points in the itinerary then 
include Luoyang, Zhengzhou-, 
Kaifeng, Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, 
and Shanghai. 

Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, 
Ph. D. candidate in Chinese his- 
tory at the University of Chicago, 
will he our guest lecturer. Mr. 
Woodruff has recently returned 



to Chicago after two years of 
research at Beijing University. 
His experience of living in China, 
his fluency in Chinese, and excel- 
lent rapport with the Chinese 
guides are a superb supplement 
to his leadership skills. This is the 
fifth China tour he has led for 
Field Museum. 



Kenya 

September 8 to 27 

$3,595 

You are invited to join us for an 
exciting 19-day safari to East Afri- 
ca accompanied throughout by 
Audrey Faden, experienced lec- 
turer and tour guide, plus local 
guides. Game is still plentiful and 




Kenya Tour, September 8-27. 



this tour is scheduled to coincide 
with the animal migration. It will 
be Spring in Kenya. The time to 
go is now! A trip to Kenya is a 
vacation that never ends. We 
hope you will make your reserva- 
tion now. 




China Tour, Sept. 22 to October 13. 



Start planning now for . . . 
Tour of Egypt 
February, 1985 

If you wish to be placed on the 
mailing list for this perennially 
popular tour, or if you have ques- 
tions about any of the other 
tours, please write or call Tours 
Manager Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr. , Chicago, II 60605. 
Phone: 322-8862. 



Stanton R Cook, courtesy Chicago Tribune 



0017195-00 
if. Miss liarita Maxey 

7411 N Greenview 



Chicago* IL 60626 | 

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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 

Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
RobertO. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H.Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

September 1984 
Volume 55, Number 8 



September Events at Field Museum 



William Duncan Strong and the Rawson-MacMillan 
Subarctic Expedition of 1927-1928 5 

by James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



Field Briefs 



11 



Pill Millipedes from the Coal Age 

by Joe Hannibal 



12 



What Museums Are Good For 

by Rudolph H. Weingartner 



17 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

Scene in Warren Woods, Michigan. Photo by William Burger. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 11. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sanlv reflect the policv of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, [I. 



Events 



The Caribbean Connection 

with Clemente Steel Band, 

The Rafo International Combo, and 

Take One Reggae Band 

Saturday, September 29 

l:00-4:00pm 

Stanley Field Hall 

The cultural lure of African music has had 
a pervasive effect in America — from the 
founding of jazz and blues to laying the 
groundwork for rock and roll. There is a pur- 
ity and durability in this music that proudly 
carries its heritage, paying homage to time- 
honored values. The Caribbean Connection 
is a celebration of West African musical 
traditions that have reemerged in the Carib- 
bean Islands — Trinidad, Haiti, Jamaica, 
Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican 
Republic. 

Listen to the pulsating rhythms of the 
Clemente Steel Band, a truly unique group 
that performs with instruments made' 
from 55-gallon oil drums. Steel drum 
bands originated in Trinidad and are now 
common throughout the Caribbean. 

Dance to the music of Haitian musician 
Rafael St. Vil and his group The Rafo Interna- 
tional Combo. This group performs a variety 
of material including calypso, salsa, cumbias, 
compa (the traditional music of Haiti), and 
mambo. Rafo seeks out the connection be- 
tween Brazilian salsa, American jazz, and 
Haitian compa. 

Share the experience of "a people's 
music" with Chicago's Take One Reggae 
Band. Reggae music plays a central role in 
Jamaica's history, religion, and politics. It 
evolved from Caribbean calypso and ska 
music from the 60s. 

These performances are offered in con- 
junction with Field Museum's special exhibit, 
African Insights: Sources for Afro- American 




The Rafo International Combo, with The Caribbean Connection, 
September 29 

Art and Culture. This exhibit presents over 
70 pieces from the Museum's major African 
collection. These pieces help the viewer 
understand the influence of African culture 
as it moved through the slave trade into the 
Americas. 

African Insights is partially supported by 
the Illinois Humanities Council. This program 
is free with Museum admission, tickets are 
not required. 

Family Feature 
September 

Fall Foliage: A Pressing Matter 

Saturday and Sunday, Sept. 15, 16 

1:00 to 3:00pm 

Plants of the World Hall, 2nd Floor 

This program is free with Museum admis- 
sion, tickets are not required. Illinois is home 
to a wide variety of trees and at no time are 
they more beautiful than in the fall. Examine 
leaves from many different kinds of local 
trees. Find out how to identify trees using 
their leaves. See how leaf samples from 
around the world are pressed by the botan- 
ists at Field Museum. Finally, press some 
leaves and make a leaf-identification note- 
book of your own. 



Events 



CONTINUED EROM PACE :i 



September Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum 
are designed for families and adults. Listed are only a few of the numerous activities available 
each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and pro- 
gram locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



September 

1 12:00 noon. Continents Adrift (lecture/ 
demonstration). Discover why fossils of 
similar dinosaur species have been 
found on continents separated by vast 
oceans. 

2 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). 
Enjoy a sampling of our most significant 
exhibits as you explore the scope of 
Field Museum. 

8 1:00 pm. Red Land/Black Land (tour). 
Tour the Egyptian exhibit , focusing on 
the geography of the Nile Valley and the 
effect it had on Egypt. 

1:30 pm. People of the Long House (slide 
lecture). Examine the Iroquois: the con- 
tinuity of their culture, their rela- 
tionships with Europeans, and their 
survival with both adaptability and 
grace. 

9 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek 
out shrunken heads from the Amazon, 
mummies from ancient Egypt, and big 
game from Africa. 

15 11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Investi- 
gate the traditions of ancient Egyptian 
civilization from everyday life to 
mummification and the promise of an 
afterlife. 

16 1:00 pm. The Brontosaurus Story (tour). 
Look at some of the newest discoveries 
about the "thunder lizard" and other 
larger dinosaurs. 

1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). 
Enjoy a sampling of our most significant 
exhibits as you explore the scope of 
Field Museum. 

22 1:00 pm. Ancient Egyptians (tour). View 
ancient Egyptian artifacts from Pre- 
dynastic times to Cleopatra. 



23 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek 
out shrunken heads from the Amazon, 
mummies from ancient Egypt, and big 
game from Africa. 

29 12:00 noon. Treasures from the Totem 
Forest (tour). An introduction to the In- 
dians of British Columbia and south- 
eastern Alaska, and the totem poles and 
masks so important to their cultures. 

23 2:00 pm. Traditional China (tour). 
Examine the timeless imagery and 
superb craftsmanship represented by 
Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

These weekend programs are free with 
Museum admission and tickets are not 
required. 



Edward E. Ayer Eilm Lectures 

Travel the world on Thursdays in September 
at 1:30 p.m. in James Simpson Theatre. 
Admission is free. Doors open at 12:45 p.m. 
Members please bring membership card for 
priority seating privilege. 

September 6 "Bavaria — Magnificent 
World of the Mountain 
King," 

with Howard and Lucia 
Meyers 

"China," 

with Ray Green 

"Black Hills . . . Mystic 
Mountains of the Plains," 
with Allen King 

"Wales and the Lakes of 

England," 

with Ken Lawrence 



September 13 
September 20 

September 27 



William Duncan Strong 

and 

the Raxvson-MacMillan 

Subarctic Expedition 

ofl927-1928 



by James W. VanStone 

Curator of 

North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



A 



lthough Field Museum maintained an interest in 
the natural history of the arctic and subartic from its 
earliest years, it was not until 1926 that Museum staff 
members were actively involved in a northern 
expedition. In that year, Commander Donald Baxter 
MacMillan, a noted arctic explorer, proposed an 
expedition to Labrador and Greenland with scientific 
research as the sole purpose, and he approached Field 
Museum to secure a sponsor. Stanley Field, then pres- 
ident of the Museum, persuaded Frederick H. Raw- 
son, a Chicago banker, to underwrite the expedition. 
As a result of Rawson's support, the Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of 1926 sailed from 
Wiscasset, Maine on June 19 with stops along the 
coast of Labrador, the west coast of Greenland as far 
north as Disko Island, and Baffin Island before 
returning to Wiscasset 11 weeks later. Field 
Museum's representatives on the expedition were a 
bird taxidermist, an assistant curator of fishes, and a 
geologist from Cornell University who went along to 
collect geological specimens for the Museum (see the 
Bulletin, August 1982, pp. 4-11). 

At the conclusion of the expedition, which was 
declared a success because of the large number of 
specimens obtained for the Museum's collections, 
Commander MacMillan persuaded the Museum and 
Frederick Rawson to sponsor a second expedition. 
This much more ambitious undertaking, beginning 




Fig. 1 . William Duncan Strong in 1928. Neg. 108960. 



the following summer, was to last for 15 months. It 
was planned that a representative of each of the 
Museum's four scientific departments would accom- 
pany the expedition and it was for this purpose that 
William Duncan Strong, who had recently com- 
pleted his graduate studies at the University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley, joined the staff of the Department of 
Anthropology as an assistant curator (fig. 1). 

With the idea in mind that a winter camp for 
Field Museum scientists would be established on the 
coast of Labrador, the various scientific departments 
made plans for their participation in the Rawson- 
MacMillan Subarctic Expedition of 1927-1928. In a 
memorandum to Museum Director D.C. Davies, 
Berthold Laufer, Chief Curator in the Department of 
Anthropology, recommended two seasons of 
archaeological work at Eskimo sites on the coast and 
went on to present a plan for ethnological research: 

But in addition, special efforts would be made to 
study the nomadic Naskapi [Indians]. These people 
are almost unknown to science, and it is highly 
important that they be fully studied, as they still fol- 
low the old customs and live largely on the caribou 
herds that are veiy numerous in the interior of Lab- 
rador. During the summer friendly relations with 




those coming to the coast to trade would be estab- 
lished, and a good interpreter and guide secured. In 
the autumn a trip would be taken into the interior in 
their company, living and hunting with some 
selected group. Thus it would be possible to obtain a 
good account of their mode of life, their social organi- 
zation, shamanistic practices, folk-lore, language, 
and religious beliefs . . . Whenever the opportunity 
offered, good specimens of their weapons, clothing 
and religious equipment would be secured, and in 



addition typical plant and animal species collected so 
that their culture and close relationship to their 
environment might be more vividly exhibited in the 
museum's collections. 

To a very large degree, but not without overcoming 
considerable difficulties, Strong was able to carry out 
successfully the research proposals outlined by 
Laufer. 

Commander MacMillan's schooner, the Bow- 




Fig. 2. Davis Inlet band and Barren Ground band Indians at Davis Inlet, 1928. Neg 79906 (Geology). 



doin, along with the schooner Radio and the power 
boat See}{0, left Wiscasset, Maine on June 25, 1927 
reaching Hopedale on July 18 where Strong was able 
to undertake some brief archaeological investiga- 
tions. From there the expedition proceeded to Nain, 
where a winter station was to be constructed about 
20 miles northwest of that community (see map). All 
members of the expedition, including the scientific 
staff, were immediately put to work unloading sup- 
plies. Strong estimated that about three months of 
house-building, wood-cutting, and other labors 
would be necessary before the scientific work of the 
expedition could begin. But he 'was already con- 
cerned, as he wrote Laufer, about the problem of 
obtaining specimens: 

As for getting a collection I don't know where the 
funds will come from. MacMillan has some trade 
goods, but apparently no actual cash to pay for speci- 
mens. It is hard to get a representative collection un- 
less one has direct control of funds to purchase it with 
— however, I trust that our trade goods will suffice, 
or that later Capt. MacMillan can let me have two or 
three hundred dollars in cash to purchase direct from 



the Indians. This winter I hope to get an interpreter 
and go in and stay with the Naskapi for several 
months but now all is manual labor and scientific 
work must wait. 

Strong also looked forward to collecting a large 
amount of skeletal material from old Eskimo graves to 
augment the "scanty phys. anthrop. collections in the 
Museum." In the same letter to Laufer he shows 
signs of anxiety about the future success of his 
research, feelings with which all ethnographers will 
sympathize: 

I am well aside from a few bad boils caused by in- 
fected mosquito bites, and enjoy the hard work. All 
our supplies had to be landed from the ships in dories 
— including 29,000 feet of lumber, 40 tons of coal, a 
great bulk of food and house supplies, etc., but that is 
mostly finished at present and now we must build 
the big station; as there are only twelve of us to do all 
the work, no one is excepted and our other interests 
are in abeyance. Can't say I think much of Labrador 
either as a collecting field or as a senic [sic] location 
— the black flies, gnats and mosquitos are terrible, 
and the country unbelievably lifeless and desolate. I 



only hope that the winter may yield material worthy 
of the effort, time and expense. At present I am not 
overly optimistic. 
On August 7, without having completed the 
winter station, the Bowdoin left on a three-week 
cruise around Frobisher Bay on Baffin Island. During 
the course of the trip, Strong met a camp of Eskimos 
who were living in "quite primitive style" but he was 
frustrated in his attempts to obtain specimens by the 
absence of an interpreter and a lack of trade goods. In 
a letter to Stanley Field, he complained about the lack 
of trade goods and purchase funds, indicating that he 
had not yet discussed the matter with Commander 
MacMillan. "... as I really know nothing concerning 
what we have to trade and have no funds to purchase 
material I feel rather helpless, for without money one 
cannot get collections." 

Although Strong collected some archaeological 
material on the Frobisher Bay trip, he considered 
these collections severely limited not only because of 
the paucity of sites, but because the Bowdoin moved 
frequently and there was no opportunity to work at 
any site for more than a day. Having experienced this 
frustration, it is no wonder that, in a letter to Field, he 
looked forward to winter when 

I hope to receive trade goods from Captain MacMil- 
lan and acquire a representative collection . . . This 
winter's work seems entirely a gamble, but if I can 
acquire a good interpreter and dog driver combined, 
the chances for interesting material and data should 
be good. 
On the basis of having met a few Naskapi at the win- 
ter station (fig. 2), he considered them "a rather surly 
and untrustworthy group so I anticipate several 
thrills this winter." 

The Bowdoin returned to the site of the winter 
camp on August 29 and the next month was spent in 
constructing houses, cutting a winter's supply of fire- 
wood, and preparing the boats for wintering. As he 
contemplated a month of hard work unrelated to 
anthropology, Strong's initial pessimism returned. He 
wrote Field that 

I hate to seem entirely pessimistic but must admit 

that there is not much of promise in sight as regards 

either the acquisition of anthropological collections 

or scientific data. The country is unbelievably deso- 

lute, the Labrador Eskimo thoroughly civilized and 

the Naskapi culturally poverty striken. 

The ethnographer was looking forward impatiently 

to the time when freeze-up would make interior 

travel possible and he would have an opportunity to 

meet Indians. 



Strong was also extremely dissatisfied with his 
archaeological accomplishments so far and, in the let- 
ter to Field just quoted, attributed his lack of success 
to being tied to a permanent base and preordained 
cruise where "most of the time is spent cruising in 
barren places instead of working steadily in the pro- 
ductive regions." In any event, his concern about hav- 
ing funds to purchase specimens must have been 
relieved when, in early September, he received a let- 
ter from Laufer informing him that Commander Mac- 
Millan had set aside $1,000 for the purchase of spec- 
imens. It is not clear why the obvious mis- 
understanding with regard to trade goods and pur- 
chase funds was allowed to continue as long as it did. 
Certainly it would seem that Strong could have set- 
tled the matter by simply making direct inquiries of 
MacMillan. 

On September 29 Strong left on a trip south to 
Big Bay and up Hunt River in the hope of locating a 
band of Naskapi reported to be in that area. On this 
trip he had with him an eighteen-year-old interpreter 
who, as it turned out, had never been in the area be- 
fore and could not locate the Indians. The trip of 
nearly 100 miles was made by canoe and although the 
main purpose was not achieved, old camps were vi- 
sited and photographed and the ethnographer 
learned a great deal about interior travel. Before 
returning to the winter station on October 15, the 
travelers encountered severe snowstorms and ice in 
the lakes. Strong felt that he had returned to the coast 
just in time. This experience convinced him that the 
Indians might be difficult to locate since they were 
always on the move following the irregularly migrat- 
ing caribou. Winter clearly would be the best time to 
intercept the Naskapi since rapid travel by dog team 
in the interior would be possible. 

It was apparently at this time that Strong 
learned about Joe Rich (Shushebish) with whom he 
was to live during his stay with the Davis Inlet band 
and who was to be his chief informant (fig. 3). 
Although he did not meet Rich until later, he began 
to make definite plans for work after freeze-up. It was 
probably this activity rather than any definite accom- 
plishments that encouraged the ethnographer and 
brightened his frame of mind when he wrote Laufer 
that "on the whole I feel that prospects for valuable 
work, both as regards specimens and acquisition of 
scientific data, are much improved." During his 
travels along the coast on the way to the Hunt River, 
Strong reported a number of interesting archaeologic- 
al sites and also made a collection of Eskimo skeletal 



material. He planned further investigations and ex' 
cavations for the following summer. 

From mid'October until early January, 1928 
was, for the most part, a period of inactivity for 
Strong and other members of the expedition. Since 
ice was forming, travel was virtually impossible and 
most of the time was spent working on the houses at 



he was not able to accomplish a great deal. The Indi' 
ans were apparently members of the Davis Inlet band 
but Joe Rich was not among them. 

On Tuesday, January 17, 1928 Strong left for the 
interior with members of the Davis Inlet band, hav 
ing arranged room and board with Joe Rich for $1.00 
per day. On that day he exclaimed enthusiastically, 




Fig. 3. Joe Rich (Shushebish), Strong's chief informant. Neg. 61680. 



the winter station and performing other chores. Be 
tween December 11 and 14, however, Strong, accom' 
panied by one man and a dog team, was able to visit a 
Naskapi camp about 15 miles northwest of the winter 
station. Some photographs and specimens were 
obtained but the visit was prematurely terminated 
when the Indians decided to move their camp to a 
new site near the station. From December 15 to mid- 
January Strong had some contact with these Indians 
at their new camp, but since there was no interpreter 



"My work has begun!" Among his companions were 
men who were to become his best informants, includ- 
ing Edward (Mistanapish), and Tommy (Shinabest). 
Crowded in a small tent with as many as ten Indians, 
eating what they ate, helping haul toboggans and 
hunting with the men, Strong's introduction to field 
ethnography was an arduous one. His diaries clearly 
show the periods of encouragement and discourage- 
ment, depression and exhilaration, certain to occur 
under such circumstances, which are familiar to 




Fig. 4. Edward Rich demonstrating use of the single-headed drum as 
Strong and Shinabest observe. Neg 61538 



ethnographers who have worked in the arctic and 

subarctic in winter. 

After approximately one month with the Davis 

Inlet band, Strong, Joe Rich, and other Indians made 

a brief trip to Davis Inlet for supplies. He was thus 

able to send a radiogram to Davies: 

Just back from month with Indians living in country 
good specimens photographs and considerable 
information secured. They are living in tents and eat- 
ing caribou and trout in old Indian style making 

snowshoes, tanning skins etc Will probably live 

with them all through spring and early summer. If I 
am able to stay with them for a long period my stud- 
ies should be unique and valuable (fig. 4). 

Strong -went on to note that since game was scarce 
during the winter, the Indians were more willing 



than usual to have a white man join the band. He 
apparently brought with him some food as well as 
cash and trade goods with which to pay for specimens 
and information. After resting up at the winter sta- 
tion for about a week working with his interpreter, he 
returned to the camp of the Davis Inlet band which, 
at that time, was located about 120 miles southwest 
of the winter station. 

Strong's sojourn with the band ended sooner 
than he had anticipated. Because of the scarcity of 
caribou, the Indians returned to the coast and the 
vicinity of the trading post April 5. Nevertheless, the 
ethnographer had spent nearly three months with the 
band collecting more than 500 ethnographic speci- 
mens and taking a large number of photographs. 

The months of April, May, and most of June 
were devoted to collecting anthropometric data from 
Eskimos at Hopedale, Nain, Okak, and Hebron. 
With the return of navigation in late June, archaeolo- 
gical surveys and excavations were undertaken on 
Hunt River, Big Bay, at Hopedale, and on the islands 
east of Nain. The expedition left the Labrador coast 
on August 23 and arrived at Wiscasset on September 
8, 1928 after an absence of almost exactly 15 months. 
Although Strong frequently found it difficult 
and frustrating to work within an expedition 
framework, and although MacMillan was apparently 
somewhat authoritarian at times, both were eventu- 
ally pleased with the anthropological results of the 
second Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Expedition. 
Strong expressed his satisfications, as well as his frus- 
trations, in his diaries, field notes, and letters to 
Museum personnel. MacMillan's opinions were 
offered in a letter to Stanley Field which constituted 
a final report on the expedition: 
The principal reason for locating our headquarters . . . 
no farther north than Nain was to establish and 
maintain constant communication with the little 
known Nascopie Indian tribe. In this we were 
eminently successful and Dr. Strong's report and 
ethnological collection will speak for themselves. I 
feel that the Expedition has brought back more than 
all other expeditions or anthropologists combined; 
that is, something really authentic and of real value. 

In August, 1929 William Duncan Strong 
resigned his curatorial position and for the next three 
years taught at the University of Nebraska, where he 
developed a life-long interest in Plains archaeology. 
In 1931 he became senior anthropologist at the 
Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. He moved to Columbia University in 1937, 
where he remained until his death in 1962. FM 



FIELD BRIEFS 




Women's Board Presidents, Past and Present. Shown at the May 9 Women 's Board Annual Meeting 
are (I. to r.) Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson (president 1974-76), Mrs. Joseph E. Rich (1976-78), Mrs. Philip 
D. Block III (newly-elected president), Mrs. T. Stanton Armour (1982-84), and Mrs. Edward F. Swift 
(1978-80). Not shown are Mrs. Edward Byron Smith (1970-72), Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger (1972-74), 
and Mrs. Robert Wells Carton (1980-82). The Women's Board was founded by the late Mrs. Hermon 
Dunlap Smith, who served as first president, 1966 to 1970. 



New Women's Board Officers 

The new president of Field Museum's 
Women's Board is Mrs. Philip D. Block III, 
elected at the board's annual meeting, 
May 9. Mrs. Block succeeds Mrs. T. Stan- 
ton Armour, elected in 1982. Other new 
officers elected at the meeting were Mrs. 
Charles S. Potter, vice president; Mrs. 
Howard J. Trienens, vice president; Mrs. 
Edward Hines, recording secretary; Mrs. 
James J. Glasser, corresponding secretary; 
Mrs. John H. Leslie, board member-at- 
large; and Mrs. E. Norman Staub, board 
member-at-large . 

Continuing in their respective offices 
are Mrs. James J. O'Connor, vice pre- 
sident; Mrs. William D. Frost, treasurer; 
and Mrs. Frederick G. Jaicks, board 
member-at-large . 

Peter Crane Honored 

Peter R. Crane, assistant curator in the 
Department of Geology, was recently 
awarded the Bicentenary Medal of the 
Linnean Society of London. The Linnean 
Society is the premier society for pro- 
fessional biologists in the United King- 
dom and makes the award annually in 
recognition of scientific work done by a 
biologist under the age of 40. The silver 
medal was first struck in 1978 in com- 
memoration of the 200th anniversary of 
the death of Carolus Linnaeus, the 
eighteenth-century naturalist who first 



proposed the system of naming plants 
and animals that is still in use today. 

Crane, 30, joined the Field Museum 
staff in September of 1982 after a year of 
research at Indiana University and three 
years on the faculty of the University of 
Reading, England. His research is current- 
ly supported by the National Science 
Foundation and involves paleobotanical 
studies of fossil flowering plants from 
southern England and North America. 
Crane is a member of the Committee on 
Evolutionary Biology at the University of 
Chicago and is coeditor of the paleontolo- 
gical journal Paleobiology. 




Diane Alexander White 



Reverse side of Bicentenary Medal of the Lin- 
nean Society of London, awarded to Peter 
Crane. 



Who's Responsible 



Do you want the state to be 
responsible for distributes your 
estate? 

It will be, if you do not have a 
will. 

Do you want your loved ones to 
settle your estate in the midst of 
unnecessary cost and confusion? 

They will, if you do not have a 

will. 

Do you want to be responsible 
for distributing your own prop- 
erty in a caring and efficient man- 
ner, and distributed to where and 
to whom you want it to go? 

you can be, if you have a properly 
prepared will. 



For further information on the im- 
portance of having a will, send 
for the complimentary booklet 
offered below. 



CUP AND MAIL 



TO: Clifford Buzard 

Planned Givins Officer 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lakeshore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605 

( ) Please send my free copy of 
"How to 
Protect Your Rishts with a Will. 



Name 

Address . 
City 



Phone: (Bus.) 



_State . 



_Zip_ 
(Res.) 



Best time to call (day) 



(hour) 



11 



PILL MILLIPEDES 
From The Coal Age 



fay Joe Hannibal 





2 V^xXW 




% /x \ \ \ 




1 / \ \ \ \ 


\\\\\\X\ 1 3 


k Mi \ \ 


I " 



One of the larger modem pill millipedes. Sphaerotherium, from Afri- 
ca. The small first tergum. the large second tergum. and the thir- 
teenth tergum. a rounded terminal plate, are labeled 1. 2. and 13. 
(Modified from R.F.Lawrence. 1953. The Biology of the Cryptic Fauna 
of Forests, fig. 26A.) 



D 



uring much of the Carboniferous Period (360- 
285 million years ago), lush tropical forests and 
swamplands covered a large part of what is now 
temperate North America and Europe. Extraordi- 
narily well-preserved fossils from the Mazon Creek 
area, an hour's drive south of Chicago, provide us 
with a glimpse of the animal life which inhabited 
these regions at that time. 

A host of different animals, some familiar to us, 
some very strange, are preserved in concretions 
(sometimes called ironstone nodules) found in rock 
outcrops along Mazon Creek and in the nearby spoil 
piles of strip mine*. This fauna is justifiably world 
famous, and several of the terrestrial animals in the 
Mazon Creek fauna are the earliest, or among the 
earliest, of these types in the entire fossil record. 

Among the more fascinating of these animals is 
the pill millipede, so-named for its remarkable ability 
to curl into a tight ball when threatened. Pill mil- 
lipedes (also known as oniscomorphs) share this tal- 
ent with a variety of other animals, including the pill- 
bug, and the armadillo, a mammal. Though they bear 
some similarities, the pill millipede and the pillbug 
belong to separate classes (Diplopoda and Crustacea, 
respectively), and can most readily be distinguished 
from one another by the number of legs — pillbugs 
have only seven pair, pill millipedes many more. 



In addition to Mazon Creek, only a handful of 
Coal Age sites in North America and Europe have 
yielded fossil pill millipedes. Outside of these early 
occurrences (except for a possible pill millipede re- 
ported from the Cretaceous — 135 to 65 million years 




Pill millipedes are so named because of their ability to coil into a tight 
sphere. The head and small first tergum are tucked inside, while the 
rest of the terga interlock This is a photo (side view) of Arthro 
sphaera. a modern pill millipede of moderate size from Sri Lanka. 



joe Hannibal is associate curator of invertebrate paleontology for 
the Cleveland Museum ofJJatural History. 




■*■ One of the specimens of Amynilyspes from Bohemia as illustrated 
by Anton Fritsch in his Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalksteine der 
Permformation Bohmens. Above is the entire specimen. Below is a 
more detailed look at the front of the fossil, including what Fritsch 
interpreted as a "head," complete with an "eye." (The original speci- 
men is in the National Museum, Prague.) 



ago) they are not again encountered as fossils until 
the Oligocene, in the 30 million-year-old Baltic am' 
ber deposits. 

Today the pill millipede occurs almost world- 
wide, though it is no longer found in Illinois. The 
Coal Age forms differ from their modern counter' 
parts, but not as much as some scientists formerly 
believed. In order to interpret the fossil evidence for 
these animals, we must first look at the living forms. 

Modern pill millipedes belong to two major 
groups, the glomerids and the sphaerotheriids. Gener- 
ally smaller than the sphaerotheriids, the glomerids 
have 11 or 12 dorsal body plates known as terga. The 
first tergum is small, the second very large, and the 
last is prominent and rounded. Usually less than an 
inch long, glomerids are common in parts of Europe 
and Asia, and they occur as well in Mexico, Califor- 
nia, North Carolina, and in adjacent Eastern states. 

The body plan of sphaerotheriids is generally 
similar to that of glomerids, but the former are distin- 
guished by having 13 terga. Some sphaerotheriid spe- 
cies, known as giant pills, when coiled are the size of a 
golf ball. Largely tropical to subtropical in distribu- 
tion, this group is found in Asia, Australia, southern 
Africa, and on islands near these continents. 

The first Coal Age pill millipede to be described 
was discovered over a century ago in a concretion 
from Mazon Creek. Samuel Scudder (1837-1911), an 
American scientist best known for his work on 
butterflies, described this millipede in 1882, ascribing 



Amynilyspes, a spinous pill millipede from Mazon Creek. This speci- 
men is about an inch long; the head area is at the right. This photo of a 
three-dimensional specimen was taken by the late Eugene Richard- 
son, former curator of invertebrate fossils at the Field Museum. (Field 
Museum Invertebrate Paleontology Collections, PE 13947.) -w- 




13 




14 



Another specimen of Amynilyspes from Mazon Creek. This specimen 
is a bit more than an inch long. Though the fossil is flattened, most of 
the spines and body segmentation of the animal are visible. The small 
first tergum of the millipede is at the right. This photo is of a latex cast 
made of a Field Museum specimen. Photo by Bruce Frumker, Cleve- 
land Museum of Natural History. (Field Museum Invertebrate 
Paleontology Collections, PE 12802) 



to it 10 or 11 segments, then believed to represent the 
anterior, or front part, of the animal. The name Scud' 
der chose for it was Amynilyspes wortheni, Amynily 
spes being loosely translated as "spiny creeper," and 
wortheni, the species name, honoring a nineteenth- 
century paleontologist, Amos Worthen. Scudder la- 
ter wrote that the animal was rather broad and had 
spines, features that seemed to separate it from mod- 
ern pill millipedes; he therefore did not classify it 
with pill millipedes (the oniscomorphs), but with 
another group. Scudder noted, however, that Amy 
nilyspes might eventually prove to be a pill millipede, 
a prediction which later proved accurate. 

Anton Fritsch (1832-1913), a prominent Euro- 
pean zoologist and paleontologist, described two 



additional species of Amynilyspes at the turn of the 
century. Fritsch's specimens were from the Gaskohle, 
of Nyrany, Bohemia, now in Czechoslovakia. Basing 
his classification on the study of more complete speci- 
mens, Fritsch assigned Amynilyspes to the onisco- 
morphs. Fritsch also described several types of 
nonspinous fossil pill millipedes, placing these in two 
new genera, Archiscudderia and Glomeropsis. The 
first he named for Scudder, the second for the modern 
pill millipede Glomeris. 

Fritsch made great strides in the interpretation 
of fossil pill millipedes, describing features such as 
pleura (rectangular ventral plates) that clearly re- 
vealed their affinity with modern forms. But some of 
Fritsch's interpretations were incorrect. He found for 
instance, that Amynilyspes had a very large "head," 
complete with an "eye," even though such a large 
head could never have been tucked under when the 
animal coiled, as modern pill millipedes are able to do. 
So until quite recently, Amynilyspes had generally 
been thought to lack the ability to completely roll up 
when threatened. 

It has now been shown that Fritsch's "head" is 



not the actual head of the fossil, but the millipede's 
large second tergum, a segment 'which, furthermore, 
bears no eye. 




Modem reconstruction of the spiny Amynilyspes, primarily based 
upon specimens from Mazon Creek. 



We know by examining the shape and structure 
of their body parts that Amynilyspes and other pill 
millipedes had the ability to coil. A Mazon Creek 
specimen bears segments which, as in modern forms, 
are shaped in a way that would permit coiling. 
Another Mazon Creek specimen shows the small first 
segment of the millipede clearly. Occasional sped' 
mens from Mazon Creek also show parts of the ven' 
tral surface of the millipede, including pleura. 

Fritsch overestimated the number of segments 
on some of the fossil pill millipedes from the Gas- 
kohle. He found some, including Amynilyspes, to 
have 15 terga, although most specimens of fossil pill 
millipedes from the Gaskohle — and from other 




One of Fritsch 's illustrations of the nonspinous fossil pill millipede, 
Archiscudderia. This specimen is incorrectly shown with 15 terga, 
though it actually has 14, as do most Carboniferous pill millipedes. 
(The original specimen is in the National Museum, Prague.) 



Hypothetical view of a completely coiled Amynilyspes. This recon- 
struction is based upon study of the morphology of the millipede, 
which indicates that it could coil. 




Carboniferous Age rocks — actually have 14. Some 
Mazon Creek fossils of nonspiny pill millipedes seem 
to have 13; but being incompletely preserved, the 
actual number cannot be established with certainty. 
These, too, might have had 14 terga. 

Since the pioneering work of Scudder and 
Fritsch, a few investigators have reported additional 
well-preserved specimens of fossil pill millipedes from 
the same general period. Dietrich von Schlechtendal, 
in a 1912 study of Coal Age arthropods, illustrated 
two specimens of fossil pill millipedes, which he 
assigned to the genus Paraglomeris. B.N. Peach, a 
British paleontologist, reported a fairly well pre' 
served pill millipede from Great Britain in 1914, nam- 
ing this nonspinous specimen Palaeosphaeridium. A 
specimen of Amynilyspes was reported from Ger- 
many's Saar region by paleontologist Reinhard Fors- 
ter in the 1970s. In 1981 Rodney Feldmann, of Kent 



15 




Placement of the continents during the Upper Carboniferous Out- 
lines show approximate boundaries at that time of present-day con- 
tinents. The stippled area represents seas: the white areas represent 
land masses. Labeled localities at which fossil pill millipedes have 
been found (Mazon Creek. Illinois; Nyrany, Czechoslovakia) are indi- 
cated by black dots. The unlabeled dots represent localities in Ohio. 
Great Britain, and Germany. (Modified from Scotese et al.. 7979, 
Paleozoic base maps. J. Geol., figs. 32-33.) 



State University, and I redescribed Scudder's original 
specimen of Amynilyspes as well as described new 
specimens from Mazon Creek. 

More recently, John Almond, a doctoral candi- 
date at the University of Cambridge, England, has 
located both spinous and nonspinous varieties of fos- 
sil pill millipedes in British museum collections. And 
last year David Hamilla of Youngstown, Ohio, dis- 
covered fossil pill millipedes in that state. 

According to modern reconstructions of the con- 
tinents during the Carboniferous, all of the above- 
mentioned localities from which fossil pill millipedes 
have been reported belonged to the same land mass 
during that period. These localities were also tropi- 
cal, within 10 degrees or so of the equator. 

Roaming these same equatorial forests and 
swamplands were a host of predators: giant scor- 
pions, primitive spiders, and a good number of amphi- 
bians (one of the chief predators of millipedes today). 

Coiling seems to have been the first line of de- 
fense for pill millipedes against their predators, a de- 
fense tactic that is still remarkably effective. Some pill 
millipedes, the glomerids, have another defense 
mechanism — an offensive fluid exuded from pores on 
certain segments. There is no evidence of such pores 
on any of the fossil pill millipedes, though these struc- 
tures could well have been present. 

Amynilyspes had an important additional means 
of defense — its large, stout spines. These spines have 



no counterpart in modern pill millipedes, though 
some living species do bear tubercles, ridges, or very 
small spines on their terga. Since many modern forms 
of pill millipedes burrow in leaf litter and soil, spines 
of any size would greatly interfere with such activity. 
Perhaps the spiny Amynilyspes lived in more open 
habitats than most of its modern relatives. It may 
have found the spines useful in situations where it 
could not coil, as when crawling on plants. 

It is only by careful study of additional well- 
preserved specimens, such as those from Mazon 
Creek, that we can begin to better understand the 
nature of prehistoric animals such as Amynilyspes 
and other fossil pill millipedes. Only then can we 
begin to unravel the relationships of the fossil forms 
with the modern fauna. FM 



A nonspinous pill millipede from Mazon Creek, preserved with fronds 
ofPecopteris. a Coal Age fern. This specimen from the Field Museum 
collection has been regarded as a possible sphaerotheriid because 
it seems to have 13 terga. The fossil millipede is about 16 inch long. 
(Field Museum Invertebrate Paleontology Collections. PE 29386.) 




What Museums 
Are Good For 



by Rudolph H. Weingartner 



A 



Boy Scout troop can meet conveniently under 
the sponsorship of the town's historical museum; the 
lecture hall of its art museum might readily house a 
stimulating course on Hindu thought. But is that 
what museums are for? One can poke holes into the 
soil passably well with a Phillips screwdriver and 
thus plant seeds at the right depth; that tool will also 
do if one lacks an icepick. It is fairly difficult, though, 
to find a substitute when a Phillips screwdriver is 
needed to do what only it can do. Many implements 
can be put to numerous uses, but most have charac' 
teristics that make them especially capable of per' 
forming functions that are distinctively theirs. That 
distinctiveness confers a special value on an object. 

Museums are vastly more complex than man- 
ufactured tools. Still, a look at the characteristics and 
functions that are peculiarly theirs will yield a better 
understanding of what museums are good for. 

What do museums in fact have in common, con- 
sidering the immense differences among the great 
palaces that are devoted to works of art, the modest 
rooms occasionally set aside for displays of the history 
of brewing or printing, rooms that exhibit skeletons 
of prehistoric animals and rooms that display regional 
costumes of 19th-century Croatia? All such museums 
house objects, collections of real things, pertaining to 
some given domain or theme. Principles of coherence 
of collections may be numerous and tenuous; but it al- 
ways matters to museums that their holdings are as 



Reprinted with permission. Copyright 1984, American Associc 
tion ofMuseums. Museum News, August 1984. 

Editorial conventions followed in this article are those of the 
original, as it appeared in Museum News, and do not necessarily 
reflect those of the Bulletin. — Ed. 



Rudolph H. Weingartner is dean of the College of Arts and Sci' 
ences and professor of philosophy at J^orthwestem University. 




"The Artist in His Museum " (detail), self-portrait by Charles Willson 
Peale (1 74 1- 1827). As well as being one of the nation s great early 
portraitists. Peale distinguished himself by establishing the first 
important public museum in the United States, opening it in Phila- 
delphia in 1 786. First named for himself, the museum was later re- 
named the Philadelphia Museum. "The Artist in His Museum " is in 
the Joseph and Sarah Harrison Collection of the Pennsylvania Aca- 
demy of Fine Arts. Philadelphia. 



17 





Three Early Fathers of the Modern Museum. Swiss physician Philip- 
pus Paracelsus (1493-1541). above left; German mineralogist Geor- 
giusAgricola (1494-1555), above right; and Elector Augustus I of 
Saxony (1526-86), below, were collectors of natural history speci- 
mens who sought to arrange their material according to some kind 
of scientific order. The Dresden palace of Augustus I had seven 
rooms occupied by his museum material. Illustrations courtesy His- 
torical Pictures Service — Chicago. 



real as the physical things in one's own home. The inv 
itations one finds in some museums, the reproduc 
tions, the models, prove this rule, since immense care 
is taken to create verisimilitude.* The common dis' 
tinctive characteristic of museums, then, is their role 
as keepers of actual physical objects — not of descrip- 
tions or depictions of objects — that prior to their 
imprisonment had careers outside museum walls. 

With this in mind, we will learn more about 
what museums are good for if we imagine a world in 
which one would not expect to find them. The 16th' 
century French village to which Martin Guerre re- 



*A museum of scale models of railroads is not a railroad museum; it 
is l{nown as a museum of model railroads: a museum of real models, 
not of surrogate locomotives and cars. 





Typical of seventeenth-century natural history museums was this 
"wonder room " of Olaf Worm, a Copenhagen physician and famous 
student of natural history. From a woodcut made for the frontispiece 
of Worms s 1655 catalog. 



turned surely is such a place. Every painting known 
to the villagers looked more or less like a Breughel; 
one person's experience with natural objects and arti- 
facts was hardly distinguishable from another's; 
every villager had essentially equal access to the 
mysteries of the crafts and trades. Distant lands with 
different dress, weapons, implements, houses, flora 
and fauna, and customs were at best dimly known to 
exist. Nor was there genuine access to a past different 
from the 16th-century present. What point, then, 
would there have been to single out a set of special ob- 
jects for contemplation by the villagers? No more 
than converting one's own living room, today, 
indistinguishable from one's neighbor's, into a 
museum. There may have been an exception 



in the village of Martin Guerre, but it, too, would 
prove the rule: a cabinet of curios in the richest man's 
house; the hairs and bones of a local saint in the 
church's reliquary. 

In the world in which there are museums, life 
experiences differ from each other, depending on 
where and when people live, on their occupations, 
roles and stations. Museums, in this familiar world, 
bring us into the presence of objects that belong to 
lives different from ours and give us an opportunity 
to become directly acquainted with them. 

When we read accounts or see depictions of 
other times and places, our knowledge is extended 
beyond our own experience. The words we read and 
the pictures we see convey to us something of what 
those places, distant in time and space, are like. But 
when we are brought into the presence of actual ob- 
jects, our own experience is extended more directly 
than it is by description or picturing. Hence the im- 



19 




Seventeenth-century painting of the South Lambeth (England) home 
of the Tradescant family, popularly known as "Tradescant's Ark," 
which served as a repository for natural history specimens as well as 
for coins, objects of historic interest, and sundry manufactured 



goods. Acquired by Oxford University in 1682. the Tradescant collec- 
tion formed the foundation of the Ashmolean Museum A copy of the 
Tradescant 1656 catalog is in the Field Museum collection. 



20 



portance of authenticity. Only real things will really 
stretch our experience. Authenticity, therefore, be- 
comes more important, not less, in a world that has 
become ever better at simulating and reproducing 
with remarkable verisimilitude natural objects, arti' 
facts and even works of art. 

On this account, the distinctive trait of a 
museum is to be a repository of authentic objects from 
different times, places and domains. But what, then, 
is the function of museums? What is the point of our 
direct encounter with the things they house? Three 
broad, interrelated functions seem to me distinctive 
of museums, granted that there is as much variety 
within them as there are different types of museums. I 
distinguish a scholarly mission, an entertainment 
function, and an educative one. 

To get a sense of the scholarly importance of 
museum collections requires understanding the role 
of firsthand experience in scholarship generally. 
Anthropological inquiry', to take an example, rests on 



direct observation. Typically, anthropologists live 
with the people they study and write about. Histo- 
rians, who cannot travel in time, must work with 
reports about the past, especially accounts con- 
temporary with their subject matter. More important 
still are primary sources — the actual traces left by the 
past, whether in the form of documents, artifacts or 
buildings. Art historians are notoriously dependent 
in their work on the physical survival of the objects of 
their concern, with copies or reproductions largely 
unavailable until the invention of photography and 
related techniques and still inadequate for serious 
scholarship. 

How museum collections support scholarly pur- 
suits like these is quite obvious. Archeological and 
anthropological collections extend the range of a field 
worker's experience. Museums of many different 
kinds offer precisely the repositories of different kinds 
of spoors of the past that constitute the primary evi- 
dence for the constructing of historical inference 



chains. Without art museums art history, as that dis- 
cipline is conducted, would be unthinkable. 

A visit to a museum, with magnifying glass, 
measuring devices and other instruments of examina- 
tion, is in many ways not as good as being on the scene 
itself. On the other hand, a museum also improves on 
original situations because it offers to a scholar a 
coherent collection of objects otherwise temporally 
and spatially scattered. But in any case, direct 
encounters with authentic objects belonging to the 
experience of other lives are a powerful and neces- 
sary supplement to the paler evidence of reports. 

Entertainment of a certain kind is a quite differ- 
ent function of museums. While I hesitate to use that 
word (for fear of being thought frivolous), it is surely 
justified, assuming Mozart divertimenti are properly 
so-called and that we are entertained when we see 
A Midsummer T^ight's Dream. In a similar way, a 
visit to a museum can be amusement, an occasion of 
pleasure. 

We want to be sure about two characteristics of 
this entertainment associated with museums. First, 
like any real entertainment, it must be enjoyable in 
itself. Whatever we may learn from a visit to a 
museum (or whatever other desirable consequences 
that occasion may have), we are talking about the 
experience of looking at a museum display insofar as 
it is itself pleasurable. Second, we must insist that the 
only pleasure which is here relevant is one that has its 
source in the collections of museums; only entertain- 
ment with roots in what properly belongs to 
museums is distinctive of those institutions. 

Many different kinds of enjoyment may of 
course be derived from the objects exhibited in 
museums. Esthetic pleasure having its origin in look- 
ing at the paintings and sculptures of an art museum 
is a clear example, though such pleasure need not 
only stem from what is conventionally referred to as 
"art." Esthetic pleasure, or something very akin to it, 
also has its source in works of craft. Take beautiful 
Indian baskets or gorgeous ceremonial robes but also 
vintage automobiles or gleaming models of 
nineteenth-century steam engines. Very similar re- 
sponses may be evoked by objects of nature, such as in 
displays of the plumage of tropical birds or collections 
of semiprecious stones. 

Indeed, things need not be beautiful or even 
pretty to be ingredients in an experience that is val- 



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Lio * Tiir-rt. I.«-i>j><<r<!.«, &nd ot*»r Afri an Anm»!« 

NUMBERING OVER 3000 SPECIMENS, 

15 Years Hunting in Africa 

Miller's National Bronze Portrait Gallery 

1*5 Portraits of 

NORTH AMERICAN INDIAN CHIEFS. 

"""^ "SOUTH AMEKTCAN SL'JTH. Very Rare.' 
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Newspaper ad for Phineas T. Barnum 's "American Museum " in Man- 
hattan in the 1850s. More carnival than museum. Barnum s enter- 
prise devoted itseif to satisfying public demand for entertainment, 
which remains a primary mission of museums today 



21 



22 



ued for its own sake. (Is King Lear beautiful? Picas- 
so's Guernica?) We prize the interestingness of 
things, for example, their startling differentness from 
the familiar; we enjoy quaintness. Perhaps such val- 
ues are not near the top of the moralist's scale, but 
they certainly play an important role in our lives and 
they are an ingredient in the entertainment function 
of museums. 

The third function of a museum is educative. 
With it, that institution has its broadest social im- 
pact. I want briefly to look at some different ways in 
which museums educate, while remembering 
throughout that all museum learning must be char- 
acterized by the presence of authentic objects. 

Visits to museums teach us quite specific things. 
We say about this unproblematic sense of "educa- 
tion" that, as we peruse an exhibit, we acquire 
information about some segment of the past: about an 
industrial process, about the art of medieval Siena or 
about the festive dresses of Scottish Highlanders. But 
that repeated "about" is misleading. Books give 
information about their subject matter; discourse ref- 
ers, is about, things. Museums, instead, make us ac 
quainted with things, so that we get to know those 
objects, rather than just learn about them. While we 
infer information from our viewings and derive it 
directly from labels and explanatory materials, the 
special quality of this learning resides in the direct- 
ness of our experience. 

Museums also educate in a broader sense, 
although that sense assumes and includes the specific 
function just mentioned. Because in museums we are 
confronted by objects that are especially collected 
and selected for display, the direct experience of 
which I spoke is not readily found outside museum 
walls. A visit to a museum, when it works well, is like 
a voyage into different times or places, or even like a 
trip into regions that are subdivisions of a conceptual 
map rather than a geographic one. Like real travel, 
such experiences can stretch the mind and enlarge 
the imagination by acquainting us with possibilities 
that lie beyond our own time- and place-bound expe- 
riences. If travel is educational, so are visits to 
museums. 

The educative function of museums can help 
combat two all-too-familiar responses to the percep- 
tion of real differences in the world, whether in dress 
or custom, moral values or ways of conducting daily 




"Museums . . . make us acquainted with things, so that we get to 
know those objects, rather than just learn about them." 



life, or artistic styles. One such response is provincial: 
supposing that what is different from the familiar is to 
be dismissed or even scorned. Museums can help, 
literally, to open our eyes and give us a bit of precisely 
that direct experience which creates familiarity and 
thus contributes to that understanding of differences 
which leads to appreciation. 

Museums can help in combating a second, more 
modern, conventional response to differences: call it 
mindless cosmopolitanism. This attitude takes every- 
thing to be equally good and finds no differences of 
value in the immense variety of customs, modes of 
life, and styles that have been generated by a world 
that never stays the same. 



Our discussion has moved us into the broader 
aspect of education that we might call the inculcation 
of taste. Because managing successfully in a post' 
industrial society calls for a great deal of information 
and for a goodly number of complex intellectual 
skills, we think that all education must produce such 
results. But in the daily choices we make in moral, 
political esthetic matters, we reflect both the values 
we have acquired and our ability to discriminate, 
judge and evaluate. Making judgments and evalua- 
tions, too, is something that is learned, so that educa- 
tion is relevant to this formation of taste in the broad 



sense. 



Here again, museums are relevant. Taste is ac 
quired in the experiencing of objects, whether wines 
or paintings, and not simply by means of discourse 
about things and situations. The role of art museums 
is obvious in a person's acquisition of taste in works of 
art; but the numerous other worlds that are opened 
up to the museum visitor can play a similar role in our 
ability to discriminate, assess and judge. The museum 
helps to form taste, because it is only once-removed 
from an unfettered world and can thus play a signifi' 
cant role in the shaping of our evaluative faculties. 

The distinctive role of museums, I have said, 
consists of the interrelated functions of particular 
kinds of scholarship, entertainment and education. A 
number of things follow about what museums should 
be doing if they are to play their roles well. 

First, they should undertake those things that 
will support an appropriate form of scholarship. Here 
the most fundamental task is to collect in a systematic 
way the objects that belong to the museum's domain 
— paintings, fossils, printing presses or whatever. 
Without collections, a museum is nothing. But pack 
rats are not yet curators. To build a collection requires 
a viewpoint as to what does and does not matter. 
Collecting itself is a scholarly activity. Astute selec 
tion of objects belonging to a domain can itself make 
important contributions to knowledge and insight. 
What is collected must be preserved. The main- 
tenance, repair, restoration and housing of collections 
call for more care and feeding than are needed by 
thoroughbred horses. There is no point in collecting, 
if these jobs are not well done. 

If a museum's collection is to be of use to scholars 
within or outside the museum, yet another set of 
handmaidenly activities (that are themselves schol- 



arly) are required. The notion of a collection not only 
implies principles of coherence; access to it pre- 
supposes order. A heap, however well its components 
were selected, does not support scholarship, and 
shrewd juxtaposition provides more insight than 
mere mechanical exposition. But even an ordered 
collection can be more or less intelligible. This is 
where the complex job of identifying, labeling and 
cataloging comes in: the basic and necessary scholarly 
activities of museums. If museums do not perform 
them, they are not likely to be performed at all. 

The second function of museums I have singled 
out is entertainment, with the pleasure provided by 
the museum's collections. The basic museum activity 
relevant here is exhibiting. Well-designed exhibits 
make a museum's objects attractive to the public — 
the notion of design covering everything from the 
very conception of an exhibit and the selection of the 
objects to be displayed, to placement, lighting and 
labeling. Without attractive packaging, the public — 
which lavishes only short spurts of time on museum 
collections — will not be entertained. 

Museums, I believe, are right to cater to the pub- 
lic and to mount pleasantly or even dramatically 
designed exhibits of their wares. They should remem- 
ber, however, that the functions of entertaining and 
educating overlap. It is far better to amuse with a 
display that also fulfills a higher teaching role than by 
means of one whose educational role is trivial. 

The entertainment function of museums can be 
a trap, because it is all too easy to forget the museum 
in that formula. Then, as elsewhere in the entertain- 
ment industry, the clicks of the turnstile become the 
measure of success: magicians, comedians or chefs for 
the eye or tongue become the magnet that makes 
those turnstiles move. When this happens, museums 
find themselves in futile competition with entertain- 
ers who are much more skilled and far better paid, 
while at the same time they arouse expectations in 
the public that make it ever harder for them to return 
to their own mission. 

The educational function of museums is the 
broadest, since it encompasses the other two. It is also 
the primary concern of many of the professionals who 
staff museums, as well as of the institutions, public 
and private, which support them. That educative 
function, I have said, consists of informing and 
enlightening by means of the museum collections. 23 




24 



Another quick look is needed at the special character 
of this transaction, if we are to see what needs to be 
done to have the educative function performed well. 

The objects themselves, I repeat, should educate 
by having the learner become directly acquainted 
with them. This special character of education in the 
museum is also the source of a weakness. Things do 
not speak for themselves; they must have a spokes' 
man, they must be referred to in discourse. Two poles 
of a continuum might thus be characterized, neither 
pole describing the educational activity of a museum. 
One end consists of a heap of objects that, however 
well collected, remains unintelligible and therefore 
cannot educate. At the opposite pole is pure dis' 
course. It is intelligible and thus informs and teaches, 
but because it does not provide direct experience of 
objects, such discourse is not an education that is dis' 
tinctive of museums. 

The educational activities of museums lie be 
tween these two poles. We move away from the pole 
of incomprehensibility by introducing not only 
coherent ordering of objects, but also labeling and 
explanatory phrases — the guideposts that permit us 



"The [museum 's] most fundamental task is to collect in a systematic 
way. ..." Melvin A. Traylor, curator emeritus of Birds, shown in earlier 
photo while unpacking shipment of bird skins. 



to derive understanding from objects. Things don't 
mean; discourse does. An exhibit that educates uses 
words to release the power of things by having us 
come to know just what we are becoming acquainted 
with. 

As we move further towards the pole of dis- 
course, we reach the exhibition catalog, on the one 
hand, and the docent's lecture, on the other. Both are 
discourse that refers to, and is illustrated by, the real 
objects that are part of the basic world of the 
museum. 

But this way of looking at the educational func- 
tions of museums suggests an entire area that at this 
time remains sadly underdeveloped. Our museums 
reverberate -with the noise made by crowds of chil- 
dren from primary schools, led from display to display 
by their teachers or members of the museum's staff. 
These goings-on can readily be located on our con- 
tinuum: words illustrated by objects; objects 



informed by a meaning provided by a discourse that 
explains and links them. But why is this valuable 
activity arrested barely above the level of sixth grade? 
It would seem that the educative activity most cen- 
tral to museums is to have their collections play a role 
in all of education, but especially in learning in secon- 
dary school and undergraduate study, as well as in the 
specialized pursuits of graduate work. What we take 
for granted about libraries — that they must be inte- 
grated into all facets and levels of education — is 
equally appropriate for museums, or at least for many 
of them. 

The educational programs of museums all too 
often ignore the distinctiveness of their role. Fre- 
quently, their lectures and courses are merely more or 
less adequate imitations of those properly developed 
in educational institutions of various levels. To the 
extent that museums mount educational programs 
that are indistinguishable from those of other institu- 
tions, they divert energies and resources from their 
proper educational mission, and to that degree leave 
this distinctive function unperformed. 

Conventional education is very word- 
dependent, and conventional educators seldom have 
the ability and training to break far out of the web of 
discourse. It is in the world of museums that we find 



persons who have the knack of teasing information 
out of things, 'who know how to marry discourse and 
direct experience of physical objects. We are depen- 
dent on the staffs of museums to take the initiative in 
making acquaintance with objects of nature and arti- 
facts a more important part of education at all of its 
levels. Such integration is at the center of the distinc- 
tive educative function of museums. 

Museums are not as unitary in their distinctive 
mission as Phillips screwdrivers: there are many 
things that only museums can do or that only 
museums can do reasonably well. Nevertheless, there 
are limits to the proper function of museums, and 
straying beyond them exacts its price. Chopping ice 
with that screwdriver mars its blades. The pursuit of 
irrelevant goals hampers the effectiveness of 
museums. The issue of resource allocation is clear: 
what is devoted to the peripheral is not there to be 
spent on the central, and an important function re- 
mains unperformed. More subtly, confusion within 
the museum infects a broader public outside it and 
fosters the belief that nothing of value is distinctive of 
that institution, that others can readily do what it 
does. What museums are good for is important. 
Reflecting on that mission may help the better to ful- 
fill it. FM 



"Direct encounters with authentic objects belonging to the experience of other lives are a powerful and necessary supplement to the paler 
evidence of reports. " 




25 



Tours For Members 




26 



Peru 's fabled "lost city "otMachu Picchu. 

Archaeological Tour of Peru 
And of La Paz, Bolivia 

October 7 to 24 
$3,195 

Discover the cultural and natural 
diversity of Peru (and a little 
bit of Bolivia too), under the 
guidance of a Field Museum 
archaeologist/anthropologist who 
has lived and worked in that 
country. Tour participants will 
be drawn into the fascinating, 
seemingly alien world of the orig- 
inal inhabitants of the South 
American continent by walking 
among the ruins of their once- 
great cities. Our leader will help 
you experience much more than 
what is encountered by the con- 
ventional sightseer as you view 
the incredible wonders of ancient 
Cuzco, Colonial Lima, and the 



Hermann C Bowersox 



Inca ruins of Puruchuco. An over- 
night excursion to the famous 
"lost city" of Machu Picchu, as 
well as a visit to the Chinchero 
Sunday market will be a memor- 
able weekend. 

An added bonus will be our 
pioneering two-day stop at the 
recently discovered archaeological 
site in the Moquegua Valley in 
which Field Museum will play 
a major research role. We'll com- 
plete our tour with a visit to Boli- 
via, a hydrofoil ride across Lake 
Titicaca, and a visit to the city of 
La Paz. Here we'll tour the near- 
by ruins of the Tiahuanaco 
civilization. We invite you to join 
us and to get an insider's view of 
the past and present. 

Our tour leader will be Dr. 
Robert A. Feldman, research 
archaeologist for the Field 



Museum Ancient Irrigation 
Project and currently director of 
"Programa Contisuyu. He has 
done field work in the U.S. and 
Peru. Before joining the Field 
Museum project, Dr. Feldman 
conducted excavations at a 4,000- 
year-old fishing village on the 
Peru coast, uncovering some of 
the earliest monumental archi- 
tecture in South America. 

Ancient Capitals 
Of China 

September 22 to October 13 
$3,550 

We are pleased to again offer our 
unique itinerary for China, with 
the addition of a two-day visit to 
Wuxi and Nanjing and a Grand 
Canal cruise from Wuxi to 
Suzhou. This program also 



Tours For Members 



includes the most significant sites 
of early Imperial China and will 
provide an opportunity to 
explore in depth the civilization 
which characterized one of the 
oldest and longest-lived societies 
on earth. 

Following our direct flight 
from Chicago to Tokyo, where we 
will spend the night, we will visit 
Beijing for three days, then to 
Xian for three days. Successive 
points in the itinerary then 
include Luoyang, Zhengzhou, 
Kaifeng, Nanjing, Wuxi, Suzhou, 
and Shanghai. 

Mr. Phillip H. Woodruff, 
Ph.D. candidate in Chinese his- 
tory at the University of Chicago, 
will be our guest lecturer. Mr. 
Woodruff has recently returned 



to Chicago after two years of 
research at Beijing University. 
His experience of living in China, 
his fluency in Chinese, and excel- 
lent rapport with the Chinese 
guides are a superb supplement 
to his leadership skills. This is the 
fifth China tour he has led for 
Field Museum. 



Kenya 

September 8 to 27 

$3,595 

You are invited to join us for an 
exciting 19-day safari to East Afri- 
ca accompanied throughout by 
Audrey Faden, experienced lec- 
turer and tour guide, plus local 
guides. Game is still plentiful and 




Kenya Tour, September 8-27. 



this tour is scheduled to coincide 
with the animal migration. It will 
be Spring in Kenya. The time to 
go is now! A trip to Kenya is a 
vacation that never ends. We 
hope you will make your reserva- 
tion now. 




Start planning now for . . . 
Tour of Egypt 
February, 1985 

If you wish to be placed on the 
mailing list for this perennially 
popular tour, or if you have ques- 
tions about any of the other 
tours, please write or call Tours 
Manager Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr. , Chicago, II 60605. 
Phone: 322-8862. 



China Tour, Sept. 22 to October 13. 



Stanton R Cook, courtesy Chicago Tribune 






001F288 
Edith Fleming 
946 Pleasant „ 
Oak Pk > IL 60302 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



October 1984 



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Members 9 Night October I 
Dinosaur Days October 









Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



CONTENTS 

October 1985 
Volume 55, Number 9 



Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 



October Events at Field Museum 



Member s' Nights 



Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Pacific Research Lab: A New Look, Thanks to NSF G 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Everman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Bvron Smith 
Robert H.Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Social and Unsocial Behavior in Dinosaurs 

byjohn H. Ostrom 



Pigeon Whistles 

by Berthold Laufer 



10 



22 



Field Museum's Planned Giving Program 24 

by Clifford Buzard, Planned Giving Officer 



Field Museum Tours 



27 



COVER 

Fossilized skeleton of dinosaur Protoceratops andrewsi, on view in 
Hall 38. October is "Dinosaur Month" at Field Museum. Check 
"Dinosaur Days" (Oct. 20, 21) activities in "Events" section, pp. 3,4. 



Field Museum of Saturj! History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
)uly August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago. II. 60605. Subscriptions: 56.00 annually, S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed bv authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, II. 60605. ISS\:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



Ownership. Management and Circulation 

Filing dale Sept 14. 1984 Title Field Museum of Saiural History Bulletin Publication no 898940 Frequency of 
publication Monthly except lot combined July August issue Number of issues published annually: II Annual subscrip- 
tion price So 00 Office Roosevelt Rd at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. 1L 60605:41*6 

Publisher Field Museum ol Natural Hisiory Editor David M Walsten Known bondholders, mortgages, and other 
security holders none Nonpmfit status has not changed during the preceding 12 months 



Frtal copies printed 

Paid Circulation (sales ttuough 

dealers vendors, carnersi 

Paid circulation : mail subscripts 

Total paid circulation 

r:cz c stnbution 

loial distribution 

Office use. lefl.iset 

Toul 



 no. copies each 

issue preceding 

12 mos 

33.070 



Actual no copies 

single issue nearest 

to filine date 

30.500 



None None 

28.889 26.454 

28.889 26.454 

578 578 

29.467 27.032 

3.603 3.468 

33.070 30.500 



1 scriifv ihji ihe sijien: 



s nuJc bv me above are correct and complete Jimm\ w Crofi. vice president for Finance and 



Invitation for Volunteers 

Field Museum needs people with special skills who 
can volunteer one day a week with a minimum com- 
mitment of one year. If you are interested in sharins 
your love of natural history with younssters, you might 
become a "Place for Wonder" volunteer. The Pawnee 
earth lodge needs volunteers with public speaking 
ability and a special interest in Native American 
culture. 

Zoology needs weekday volunteers who can 
type or who are willing to work with alcohol speci- 
mens in the Fishes or Reptiles Divisions. Weekday 
volunteers are also needed in Membership, Public 
Relations, and Planning and Development. 

For more information please contact the Volun- 
teer Coordinator at 922-9410, extension 360. 



Events 



Dinosaur Days — Feature Lectures 

"Dinosaurs: An Alternate Evolutionary Experiment" 
Dr. Dale Russell, Chief, Paleobiology Division 
National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Ontario 

Saturday, Oct. 20, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Dinosaurs may have vanished abruptly approxi- 
mately 65 million years ago. What brought about 
their demise? There are numerous theories. Accord- 
ing to one viewpoint, this mass extinction may have 
been aided by a huge asteroid hitting the earth's sur- 
face. The great extinction of reptiles prevented them 
from further evolution. It can be speculated that they 
would have achieved human levels of brain complex- 
ity had they survived extinction. Join us as paleo- 
biologist Dr. Dale Russell presents his provocative 
theories of the process of evolution — what dinosaurs 
would look like today and whether or not life evolves 
in the exotic biospheres of distant stellar systems. 

$5.00 (Members: $3.00) 

This program is funded in part by the Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Foundation. Fees are nonrefundable. 



"New Fossils — New Evidence" 
A Conversation with the Curators 

Sunday, Oct. 21, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Recently new dinosaur fossils have been discovered 
that give us clues and information about how these 
creatures behaved. Nests, eggs, skin impressions and 
the fossils of juvenile dinosaurs are providing evi- 
dence about the everyday lives of dinosaurs. In an 
informal conversation, leading scientists discuss these 
new discoveries and present current theories about 
life during the "Age of Reptiles". 

This program is free with Museum admission. 




Moderator: 



Panel: 



Jim Gary 

Dr. Dale Russell 
National Museum of Natural 
Sciences, Ottawa 



Dr. John R. Bolt 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Dr. James O. Farlow 
Indiana-Purdue at Fort Wayne 

Dr. James A. Hopson 
University of Chicago 

Dr. Jack Sepkowski 
University of Chicago 

(For more on Dinosaur Days programs — Oct. 20, 21 
— see page 17) 



Family Feature 

Halloween Legends and Masks 

Saturday and Sunday, October 27 and 28, 1:00-3:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Main Floor 

Halloween celebrations began more than 2,000 years 
ago, in what is now Great Britain. The Celtic people 
held a festival in honor of Samhain, the Celtic lord of 
Death. During their celebration, people wore cos- 
tumes made of animal skins and told fortunes of the 
coming year. This celebration of Halloween has 
changed tremendously over the years. Listen to the 



legends and customs that have accompanied the 
celebration of this holiday throughout the centuries. 
Make a mask of a character that you can trace to these 
ancient legends for your own Halloween celebration. 

Family Features are free with Museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 

CONTINI KIl > 



CONTINl KIlKKCIMPACKl 



Events 



October Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 



October 

6 11:30 am. Ancient Egypt. (Tour) Explore the tradi- 
tion of ancient Egypt from everyday life to myths 
and mummies. 

7 12:30 pm. Museum Safari. (Tour) Seek out shrunk- 
en heads from the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

13 1:30 pm. Red Land/Black Land. (Tour) Examine 
the geography of the Nile Valley and its effect on 
the lifestyle of the pharaohs. the religious prac- 
tices of the priests, and the reason for 
mummification. 

2:00 pm. Traditional China. (Tour) Examine the 
timeless imagery and craftsmanship represented 
by Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

14 12:00 noon. World of Dinosaurs. (Tour) Focus on 
the Museum's public dinosaur collection and cov- 
er the basic facts plus some speculation about 
these ancient reptiles. 

1:00 pm. People of the Long House. (Slide lecture) 
Look at Iroquois culture, relationships with 
Europeans and other native groups and their sur- 
vival with both adaptability and grace. 



21 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field! (Tour) Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 

28 12:30 pm. Museum Safari. (Tour) Seek out shrunk- 
en heads from the Amazon, mummies from 
ancient Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

These weekend programs are free with Museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Lectures 

Travel the world on Thursdays in October at 1:30 pm 
in James Simpson Theatre. Admission is free. Doors 
open at 12:45 pm. Members please bring membership 
card for priority seating privilege. 

October 4 "South American Venture," 
with Rudy Thuran 

October 1 1 "Timbuktu and Beyond," 

with William Stockdale 

October 18 "Argentina," 

with Clay Francisco 

October 25 "Switzerland and the Alps," 
with Andre de la Varre 



Registration 


Program Title 


Member 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 






















week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 












one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum Tickets will 
be mailed on receipt of check Refunds will be 
made only if program is sold out 


















Total 







Name 


Street 


City 


State 


Zip 



For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



4 Telephone Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago. IL 60605-2497 




"Night of the Living Field" 

Friday, October 12 
5:00 to 10:00pm 



Come and unearth the wonders of a night in the living field. We'll be 
turning over the timeless treasures buried in our "Back 40" (a.k.a. 
Stanley Field Hall), especially for you. They'll be dinosaurs and 
daguerrotypes, curators, and cocktails, mummies and music, appealing 
activities, and acres and acres more. 

And if that's not enough, you come prepared to dig a little, and 
we'll plant some good seeds of our own with the annual Behind-the- 
Scenes activities (from 5:00 to 9:00pm). You'll meet our scientific and 
creative teams and visit those staff only areas the general public never 
sees, as you begin to cultivate your own ideas abut how natural history 
can really work for you. 

So, put this Members' Night on your calendar: Night of the Living 
Field — it might just be food for thought. 

Added Attractions: 

vs- Live music will be provided in Stanley Field Hall by the Franz 
Benteler Orchestra under the baton of Ted Knight. 
P3= The Museum Stores will be open 5:00 to 9:00pm, with an exclusive 
Mark McMahon poster of Field Museum available in the main shop. 



us* Enjoy fully catered dinners or short-order meals and snacks in our 
specially prepared Ground Floor dining areas. Full food service will be 
available 5:00 to 9:00pm. 

ts- Members wishing to bring a guest may do so for the general admis- 
sion fee, payable at the north or south entrance. 
«3" Special arrangements for the disabled can be made by calling: 
922-9410, ext. 454, October 1 to 9. 

ss- Free parking is available in the Museum's north lot and the Soldier 
Field lot: Just show your member card and the parking is on us. 
ts* For those not arriving by car. we suggest our free round trip charter 
bus service operating between The Loop and our south door. CTA 
busses marked "FIELD MUSEUM" originate at the Canal Street entr- 
ance of Union Station (Canal at Jackson), and stop at the Canal Street 
entrance of Northwestern Station (Canal at Washington); Washington 
and State; Washington and Michigan; Adams and Michigan; and Balbo 
and Michigan. Buses will run circuits beginning at 4:45 PM and con- 
tinue at 20-minute intervals until the Museum closes at 10:00 PM 
(Buses will travel to the train stations until the departure of the last 
train.) You may board the free "Field Museum" CTA bus by showing 
your membership card. 



A New Look 

for the 

Pacific Research Lab 



A 



.major advance in the storage of anthropolog' 
ical materials at the Field Museum has now been 
achieved with the reorganization and renovation of 
the Pacific Research Laboratory, a facility with some 
35,000 objects from Australia, Melanesia, Polynesia, 



National Science Foundation Grant 

Underwrites the Improvement 

Of an Important Research Facility 

Photos by Ron Testa 



Micronesia, Indonesia/Malaysia, and Madagascar. 

The important project, initiated in 1981, was 
made possible by a $168,800 grant from the National 
Science Foundation. Codirectors of the project were 
Phillip Lewis, curator of primitive art and Melanc 



Phillip Lewis examines barkcloth headdress-mask from the Baining of the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain. Large, unwieldy objects are sus- 
pended from lightweight conduit and chains with cotton gauze and cheesecloth slings. 





Tapa storage, showing barkcloth strips from the Pacific rolled around acid-free cardboard tubes, wrapped in plastic, hung on conduit. Flat tapas 
are stored below. 



sian ethnology, and Phyllis Rabineau, custodian of 
collections, Department of Anthropology. Staff mem' 
bers -who worked on the project were Kathleen 
Christon, Christine Gross-Taterka, E.B. O'Malley, 
Beth Koenen'Seelbach, Maryanne Schoch, and Col. 
Millard Rada. 

Before reorganization the Pacific Research Lab 
was equipped with 10,525 sq. ft. of shelving, an in- 
sufficient amount to properly accommodate the 
collection. In many cases fragile objects were stacked 
up in layers, resulting in abrasion to wood, fibre, and 
delicately painted surfaces. Other objects were given 
insufficient support to maintain their structural sta- 
bility. Plaited mats were folded in several places, 
causing breakage of their constituent fibres. Oversize 
tapa cloths were draped over rods and in danger of 



stretching. Feather ornaments were crushed in in- 
sufficient drawer space. 

During the grant-funded reorganization project, 
shelf area was increased by almost 70 percent. Three 
thousand sq. ft. of new shelving were purchased, and 
this was supplemented with 4,000 sq. ft. of used 
shelving already on hand, interleaving the additional 
shelves within the old arrangement. This increase in 
shelf area virtually eliminated the need to stack ob- 
jects. Specialized storage equipment was also pur- 
chased or manufactured to accommodate objects that 
could not be placed on shelves: drawers for small ob- 
jects, racks for vertical storage of spears and shields, 
horizontal racks for storage of rolled mats and tapa 
cloth. These units were fitted into the shelving sys- 
tem. Such equipment enables the museum to store 




Collections Assistant Christine Gross-Taterka with New Guinea 
shields in special wooden racks. Horizontal steel angle iron is wrap- 
ped with bubblepak. 



each object in a manner that best suits its physical 
needs, and in addition makes it easily accessible for 
research. 

Additional specialized storage mounts were 
made to support fragile objects; polyethylene sheet' 
ing and foam, museum board, and bubblepak were 
used to protect some of these. The existing shelf 
uprights have fairly sharp edges and these were 
wrapped with bubblepak in areas where large items 
are stored, thereby reducing chances of damage 
through abrasion. 

Many items within the Museum's Pacific collec 
tion are bulky or oddly-shaped. These include 
monumental house posts, very wide tapa cloths, large 
and delicate costumes made from tapa or bast, 
feather-trimmed flax cloaks, wooden feast bowls, and 
many other types. It was found that the proportion of 
8 such large and unwieldy objects was much higher for 



the Pacific collection than for any other segment of 
the Museum's holdings. Unusual storage methods 
were required for these items, challenging the exper- 
tise and ingenuity of the Museum's seasoned staff, 
but these problems were successfully solved during 
the project. In the most extreme example, delicate 
items were placed in muslin slings and suspended 
from the ceiling because there was no other way to 
properly distribute their weight. Very large racks 
were built in carefully chosen locations not only to 
accommodate large items but also to ensure that they 
could be removed from the room as needed. 

Lighting throughout the storage area was 
improved by adding new fluorescent fixtures and 
installing ultraviolet filters. 

All objects in the prl were cleaned and their 
storage arrrangement was shifted to a rational 
arrangement based on provenience data. During the 
process of reorganization, recent acquisitions, which 
had been squeezed into unrelated spaces, were inte- 
grated in the proper sequence. A shelf numbering sys- 
tem was initiated and every object assigned a num- 
bered location. When an object is removed from a 



Phillip Lewis examines custom-built drawers built into shelving up- 
rights. The drawers contain small items from Micronesia and 
Melanesia. 





Christine Gross-Taterka inspects New Guinea spears in custom-built 
racks. Spear bundles are secured with cotton twill ties. 



shelf its storage number can now be noted on a special 
form; a copy of the form is left in place of the object. 
This procedure facilitates the return of objects to 
their proper location. When data entry is completed 
on the computerized catalog, storage location num- 
bers will be a part of each item entry. 

The departmental computerized catalog is not 
yet in service, so automated data retrieval and sorting 
is not yet possible. However, work is progressing on 
this important process. Data entry and location 
updating have resumed, and the museum is planning 
an expansion of its computer facility. The PRL 
reorganization project, like the earlier storeroom ren- 
ovations, used the results of work on a computerized 
catalog. The work teams used a computer printout 
containing all the contents of the storeroom in 
numerical order. As each artifact was handled, its 
catalog number was located in the printout, descrip- 
tive data checked, and its numbered storage location 
was entered. Thus, the new storage numbers are 
ready for input into the computer, and when updat- 



ing is completed the computer will be able to generate 
shelf lists and other useful data sorts about the 
collection. 

In addition to the tasks funded by the NSF grant, 
several other improvements were carried out 'with 
museum resources: 

• Interior walls of the storage area were painted. 

• The concrete floor was sealed. 

• The 'work area just outside the storage area of PRL 
was redesigned to be used for processing accessions 
and loans, and as research space. 

• The climate control system in PRL was retrofitted 
to assure an absolutely stable temperature and 
humidity (70°F and 50% RH). The techniques used to 
stabilize climate control in PRL will be used to help 
redesign other heating and airconditioning systems in 
the building. 

The reorganized PRL is now much easier to work 
in. Objects are accessible, and can easily be located 
for research or exhibition. The staff is confident that 
the results of the grant will be of benefit to the collec- 
tion for many years. Beyond supplying the actual cost 
of the tasks proposed in the original grant proposal, 
the NSF grant has stimulated additional efforts to 
improve conditions for this important collection. 



Storage bay for oversize specimens such as canoe prows and 
carved posts from New Guinea. 




Social and Unsocial Behavior in Dinosaurs 



by John H. Ostrom 



. o speculate about behavior among extinct animal spe- 
cies is dangerous business. Speculation about dinosaur be- 
havior is even more hazardous, since paleoethologists are 
condemned to indirect evidence: the usually fragmentary 
skeletal remains, the sometimes conflicting taphonomic 
data (fossil associations and conditions of burial and pre- 
servation) and trace fossils (footprints and trails). Like 
beauty, the resulting interpretations are in the eyes of the 
beholder. Some dinosaurian carnivores seem to have been 
solitary hunters, while others apparently hunted in packs. 
A few, it is suspected, were limited to scavenging. Parental 
care of hatchlings may have been common practice, and 
group and herding behavior seems to have been wide- 
spread. Whether warm- or cold-blooded, there is even 
some evidence of rutting behavior in a few kinds, and both 
visual and acoustical display activity may have prevailed 
in others. As we intuitively suspected, dinosaurs seem to 
have behaved in ways not unlike those of many modem 



Pity the poor paleoethologist who has no observational 
data — no record of time budgets: no record of time spent 
in foraging versus resting; in hunting versus courting; 
guarding of territory and clan — or just hanging around. 

At first glance, speculating about behavior of any 
kind — in any kind of extinct animal — would seem futile. 
A pure ethologist no doubt would categorize speculations 
on dinosaur behavior as absurd — just fantasies. The safest 
conclusion that I can come to is that dinosaur behavior 
must have been as diverse as the dinosaurs themselves, 
which came in many shapes and sizes. Included were car- 
nivores and herbivores, quadrupeds and bipeds, terrestrial 
kinds and others that are thought by some to have been at 
least amphibious, if not fully aquatic. Most were huge, as 
we all know, but some (although perhaps juveniles — or 
even hatchlings) were small — the smallest were perhaps 
the size of a robin. So we should anticipate a correspond- 
ing diversity of behavior. 



'**uzi£ia&--'s^ ->.'<ri:'~.< 



species, relying on behavioral adaptations that promoted 
feeding, survival, and propagation. 

Ethology, the study of animal behavior, is a respected, 
albeit complex discipline that is securely based on direct 
observation and measurement. Of course that does not 
mean that the conclusions reached by all observers are in 
full agreement, but at least direct observation is possible. 



John H. Ostrom is professor of geology and curator of vertebrate 
paleontology at Tale University. 



10 



"Social and Unsocial Behavior in Dinosaurs" is adapted from a 
paper of that title presented at Field Museum's 1984 Spring Sys- 
tematics Symposium on the Evolution of Behavior. The papers of 
the symposium are to be published in 1985 (ry the University of 
Chicago Press. 




->;»-,>>;: .<~i.!' v '* ; <' V; •••«rvv-> 



Approximately 300 genera of dinosaurs have been 
named (not all of them wisely) and placed in one of two 
orders, the Saurischia and the Omithischia. Traditionally, 
the saurischians are further divided into three suborders: 
the prosauropods, the sauropods, and the theropods. The 
prosauropods were largely, if not exclusively, herbivorous 
and capable of standing or walking on their hind legs as 
well as on all fours (facultative bipeds); the sauropods, 
which includes the largest known dinosaurs, such as 
Brachiosaurus, were herbivorous and obligate quadrupeds 
(i.e., confined to four-legged stance or locomotion); the 
theropods were carnivorous, obligate bipeds (i.e., unable 
to stand or walk on all fours). 

The order Omithischia consists exclusively of 
herbivorous kinds allocated to four or five subcategories: 
the facultative bipedal omithopods — and sometimes sepa- 
rated near-relatives, the pachycephalosaurs; the plated ste- 
gosaurs; the armored ankylosaurs; and the homed ceratop- 
sians. The stegosaurs, ankylosaurs, and ceratopsians were 
all obligate quadrupeds. Within this array, we can draw 




Reconstruction by ft T. Bakker of 

the pack-hunting theropod 

Deinonychus. Noteworthy are the 

long claw-bearing hands and 

arms and the large sicklelike claw 

on each foot. 



inferences about a few kinds of behavior for some, and 
other behavior in others — depending upon the quality of 
the available evidence. 

Exactly what is the nature of the evidence that per' 
tains to dinosaurian behavior? Briefly, it falls into three 
categories: anatomic — the fossilized skeletal remains (usu- 
ally very incomplete), taphonomic, and trace fossils. All of 
these are indirect evidence only. No behavior patterns or 
time budgets can be observed. From these indirect data we 
can only infer — and what inferences any two observers 
will draw from these data may not be the same. 

Behavioral Categories 

Behavior may be a solitary activity or it may involve 
other members of the same species or others of differ' 
ent species. Both types of behavior can be categorized 
into several distinct kinds, such as feeding, defense, 
movement (pursuit, escape, migration, etc.), mating 
and courting, nursery maintenance, and so on. 
Because evidence is not available for all possible 
activities of all the main dinosaurian varieties, the fob 
lowing exercise is organized in terms of behavioral 
activities rather than by taxonomic groups. 

Feeding Behavior 

As Edwin H. Colbert has observed, "there is a defi' 
nite relationship between the morphology of an ani' 
mal and its behavior," and "Much of the behavior of 
animals is determined to a considerable degree by 
their physical adaptations." 1 Consequently, most of 
our inferences about dinosaur behavior derive from 
their skeletal remains and inferred functional 
morphology. That is nowhere more evident than in 
the dentition and is why we can say more about feed- 
ing behavior than any other activity. As is evidenced 
by tooth morphology, there were both flesh-eating 
and plant-eating dinosaurs. There is nothing new in 
this observation, but the figure on page 12 illustrates 
the obvious reasons for that conclusion. 

The omithischians all appear to have been herbi- 
vores, although recently discovered fragments which 
may be referrable to the genus Troodon might be an 
exception. 2 Nearly all omithischian teeth were blunt 
without serrations and many show distinct grinding 
surfaces. Among the omithischians, stegosaurs and 
ankylosaurs are enigmas as far as feeding habits or 



ll 




Comparison between teeth of plant-eating and flesh-eating dinosaurs. The three above are the blunt, grinding teeth of the herbivorous omithopod 
Iguanodon. Below are the right lower jaw and serrated, steak knife-like teeth of the carnivorous theropod Megalosaurus. 



12 



preferences are concerned. Both were bulky quad- 
rupeds that carried their heads low — presumably for 
browsing on low shrublike vegetation. Their jaws 
bore broad horny bills most likely used for plucking 
foliage, but the teeth behind -were few in number and 
surprisingly small for such bulky animals. Whatever 
kind of vegetation they ate, it could not have been 
well chewed. Beyond this, -we can deduce little about 
their feeding activity. 

The bipedal ornithopods, on the other hand, 
were quite different. Their bipedal stance and pro- 
gression could have increased their vertical foraging 
range, and may also have increased their running 
speeds. But it is their dentition that attracts atten- 
tion. Early ornithopods of the Late Triassic and Earli- 
est Jurassic — heterodontosaurs — featured surprising 
tooth differentiation: small nipping incisorlike front 
teeth, followed by prominent caninelike tusks, in 
turn followed by batteries of special grinding teeth 
behind. 3 The larger ornithopods of Early to Late 
Jurassic times had many robust teeth that commonly 
display distinct wear facets indicative of some degree 



of mastication. The Late Cretaceous ornithopod vari- 
eties ("duckbills," or hadrosaurs) featured highly spe- 
cialized dental equipment and jaw mechanics. The 
dentitions show a high degree of occlusal wear and 
efficient tooth replacement, clear evidence of a soph- 
isticated method of chewing food. 4 This is surprising 
in a reptile — by comparison with living reptiles. Some 
of the hadrosaurs reached large sizes, up to 5 m (near- 
ly 17 feet) in bipedal height, and well designed for 
browsing on high conifers that 'were abundant in 
Late Cretaceous forests. Footprint evidence suggests 
they may have browsed in groups 5 . 

By contrast, the related ceratopsians, or horned 
dinosaurs, were heavy quadrupeds with very large 
heads carried close to the ground. Here too, the jaws 
featured specialized dental batteries located behind 
cutting, parrotlike beaks. The tooth batteries, though 
similar to those of the duckbills, display vertical 
occlusal wear facets that clearly indicate the denti- 
tion was for shearing or slicing, rather than for 
grinding. 6 We can only speculate about the preferred 
food, but it most probably was highly fibrous plant 



tissue — perhaps low-growing cycads or palms. That 
image of a cycad'browsing Triceratops may be en- 
hanced by noting the "enlarged" size of the skull with 
its posterior bony extension or frill. In some ceratop- 
sians, this frill is more than half the total skull length. 



more in Brachiosaurus, they must have been pro- 
digious consumers — even if they were not endother- 
mic, or warm-blooded. Paradoxically, they possessed 
no obvious dental specializations or other adapta- 
tions that might have enhanced their feeding 

Dental battery of a 
hadrosaur (Anato- 
saurus breviceps, 
Y.P.M. #1779), 
showing the dis- 
tinct occlusal sur- 
face (above) and 
the remarkable 
supply of replace- 
ment teeth (below) 
beneath the worn 
functional teeth. 




Commonly the frill has been interpreted as a protec- 
tive shield covering the vital neck region. 7 It has also 
been interpreted as an expanded muscle attachment 
site, allowing space for larger jaw muscles and adding 
power to the shearing mechanism. 8 The frill may well 
have served both roles, but some investigators have 
suggested that it had a display function. 9 

The most demanding vegetarians among the 
dinosaurs must have been the giant sauropods. With 
weights ranging from perhaps 10 tons up to 60 tons or 



efficiency. 10 Their elongated necks have traditionally 
(but not universally) been explained as an adaptation 
to permit breathing from a deep underwater position. 
A more realistic interpretation is that the long neck 
permitted browsing on high foliage. 11 That would 
seem to be an appropriate adaptation in the Jurassic- 
Early Cretaceous world, where nearly all other herbi- 
vores (stegosaurs, ankylosaurs, and most ornitho- 
pods) were low-level feeders. 

The carnivorous dinosaurs, or theropods, have 



13 



formally been categorized (I think incorrectly) as 
large or small animals in two separate infra-orders, 
Carnosauria and Coelurosauria. That they both fed 
on flesh is evident from their teeth, which are slightly 



cies recovered there were also carnivorous types. By 
contrast, the Cleveland'Lloyd Quarry of Utah has 
produced vast numbers of bones of Allosaurus of all 
size classes associated with several kinds of herbi' 



Skeleton of the chicken- 
size theropod Comp- 
sognathus containing the 
articulated skeleton of a 
lizard (Bavarisaurus). 
The skeletal proportions 
of the consumed lizard 
skeleton compare most 
closely with modern fast- 
running ground-dwelling 
lizards such as 
Cnemidophorus. 




14 



recurved, laterally compressed, and bladelike with 
serrated edges. With very few exceptions, there is no 
hard evidence that any particular species was a pred' 
ator or a scavenger. Likewise, for most kinds there is 
no evidence about hunting strategy or killing tech- 
niques. 

J.O. Farlow has speculated about the diet and 
foraging behavior of theropods, relying on analogies 
of Recent predators (crocodilians, the Komodo moni- 
tor, and several other lizards, mammals, and birds). 12 
The actual fossil evidence, though, is sparse. Tapho- 
nomic evidence suggests that some theropods may 
have foraged in groups. For example, the famed 
Coelophysis Quarry at Ghost Ranch, New Mexico 
contained numerous skeletons of the small carnivore 
Coelophysis, but very little else. The few other spe- 



vores. The Allosaurus remains greatly outnumbered 
bones of the herbivorous kinds (Camptosaurus and 
Stegosaurus). W.L. Stokes has explained the dis- 
proportionate abundance of carnivore remains in the 
Cleveland-Lloyd Quarry as a Rancho La Brea-type 
"predator trap," where Allosaurus was attracted in 
numbers to feed on mired-down dying or dead 
herbivores. 13 The Coelophysis Quarry, however, is 
not so easily explained. There, only carnivores are 
preserved and they are almost exclusively the re- 
mains of Coelop/rysz's, at a ratio of about 30 to 1. The 
remains of Coelophysis include both young and adults 
and are preserved as articulated skeletons that are 
partial or complete. This suggests the expiration of a 
clan, perhaps at a drying-up water hole, but does pre- 
clude their demise by flood at a clan scavenging feast. 



The taphonomic evidence is inconclusive. 

While these two sites may appear ambiguous, 
there is persuasive evidence at another site that at 
least one kind of theropod, Deinonychus, probably 
hunted in packs. At the Yale Deinonychus Quarry in 
Montana, were recovered remains of at least four 
individuals of Deinonychus associated with frag' 
ments of a single much larger herbivore, 
Tenontosaurus. 14 The unabraded condition of the del' 
icate Deinonychus remains argues that these were 
preserved at or very close to the site of death. A 
tempting conclusion is that these several 70'kg (154 
lb.) predators were killed during an attack on the 
much larger prey animal (ca. 600-700 kg), Tenonto- 
saurus. Isolated, presumably shed, teeth of Deinony- 
chus have been found associated with a number of 
other Tenontosaurus skeletons, suggesting that this 
particular omithopod was favorite prey for the much 
smaller Deinonychus. 15 The multiple remains at the 
Yale site and the pronounced size disparity between 
the two animals strongly indicate pack-hunting in 
Deinonychus. 

In contrast to group predation, there are at least 
two theropod specimens that could be interpreted as 
evidence of solitary predation, Compsognathus and 
Coelophysis. The classic specimen of the chicken-size 
Compsognathus in the Bavarian State Collections in 
Munich clearly reveals the skeleton of a much smaller 
animal within its rib cage. Amazingly, this partial but 
still articulated skeleton is identifiable as that of an 
apparently cursorial (adapted for running) lizard, 
Bavarisaurus. 16 Although this lizard may have been 



flushed by group foraging, it obviously was caught 
and consumed by just one predator. (It appears to 
have caused fatal indigestion.) The evidence in 
Coelophysis, on the other hand, is not so clear. Within 
the body cavity of one adult skeleton is a mass of dis- 
articulated small bones that appear to be those of a 
very young Coelophysis, although that is not certain. 
It is not even clear whether these belong to one indi- 
vidual or include parts of several. This could be a case 
of group cannibalism, or perhaps scavenging, with 
these consumed incomplete remains evidence of more 
than one consumer. 

The only convincing evidence of solitary preda- 
tion among dinosaurs is footprint evidence reported 
from Texas, 17 Queensland, Australia, 18 and possibly 
Colorado. 19 In these reports, the authors note the 
occurrence of one or two trackways of large ther- 
opods paralleling trackways of various herbivorous 




Theskullof Corythosaurus casuarius (A.M.N.H. #5240), with its 
prom inent nasal crest. The dental batteries are of special interest 



15 



dinosaurs. There is no way to establish whether these 
different trackways were made at the same time, but 
the fact that the predator trackway, in some in- 
stances, parallels a herbivore's trackway strongly sug- 
gests that one was stalking the other. 

Concerning the killing tactics of the various 
theropods, there is very little evidence. But the bizar- 
re anatomy of Deinonychus provides us with remark- 
able clues about a peculiarly aggressive predator. 
Hunting in packs, as noted earlier, these animals 
apparently grasped the prey with clawed forelimbs 
and slashed at vulnerable regions with large, sharp, 
sickle-like hind claws. This hypothesized tactic was 
confirmed by a remarkable discovery in Mongolia of a 
near relative of Deinonychus — Velociraptor. 20 It was 
preserved in fatal combat with its intended prey 
(Protoceratops), the lethal pedal claw imbedded in 
the midsection and the hands grasping the head of 
Protoceratops. To my knowledge, this is the only 
direct evidence available that clearly documents the 



method of kill by any theropod, and thus the only 
certifiable evidence of theropod predation, as 
opposed to scavenging. 

Speculations abound concerning the feeding 
habits of giant theropods such as Tyrannosaurus and 
Tarbosaurus. Their sheer size alone, together with 
their miniscule and seemingly useless forelimbs, sug- 
gests a scavenging mode, but we don't know. Yet it is 
difficult to visualize a five-ton Tyrannosaurus suc- 
ceeding in pursuit of any prey. 

Mating Behavior 

Not surprisingly, there is no evidence at all for most 
dinosaur kinds concerning mating behavior other 
than the obvious fact that all kinds did succeed in 
mating. Clutches of eggs of several varieties have 
been found, notably the Mongolian ceratopsian Pro- 
toceratops, 21 the French sauropod Hypselosaurus, 22 
and most recently the duckbill Maiasaura from 



The skull of Triceratops brevicornus (B.S.P Munich), illustrating the frill extension and facial horns. The dental batteries are also of special interest. 



16 




Montana, 23 plus several other unidentifiable kinds. 24 
John Horner's discoveries are among the most impor- 
tant and exciting dinosaur finds in decades. Not only 
has he recovered several different kinds of eggs in 
clutches, he has also found multiple nests of what 
appear to be the same kind in a single horizon, 
suggesting "colonial nesting." The same kind has also 
been found in different horizons. Horner interprets 
the latter as evidence of "site fidelity" — the gravid 
females returning to the same nesting site year after 
year. 25 Even more important is Horner's discovery of 
nests of very young duckbills apparently huddled 
together like bird hatchlings in a nest. But these 
young are too large to be very recent hatchlings. 
Moreover, their teeth show sign of wear. The ques- 
tion that cannot be answered: Did these young forage 
for food on their own and return to the shelter of their 
nest, or is there a suggestion here of parental care 
with the parents bringing food to the nestlings? 
Horner's discovery of this multi-species dinosaur 
nesting ground in Montana gives us a new window 
on dinosaurian biology. 

The duckbill dinosaurs have prompted the most 
speculation about dinosaur mating or courting be- 
havior, chiefly because of their peculiar nasal appara- 
tus and the variety of cranial crests in some. J. A. Hop- 
son presented a convincing hypothesis (first sug- 
gested by C. Wiman in 1931) that the cranial crests of 
certain hadrosaurs were visual cues and that the hol- 
low crests containing loops of the nasal passages were 
vocal resonating structures — all of which presum- 
ably promoted successful intraspecies identification, 
thus serving as a premating genetic isolating mech- 
anism. 26 He argued further that the large depressions 
enclosing the external nares in the crestless hadro- 
saurs housed "inflatable" diverticulae of the nasal 
passages that similarly served as display organs. Had- 
rosaurs had well developed eyes, 27 and ears 28 ; en- 
hanced olfaction 29 perhaps provided by the expanded 
nasal tracts, may also have played a role in hadrosau- 
rian species recognition (or approaching predators), 
but D.B. Weishampel has reinforced the resonating 
hypothesis, arguing that vocalization in the hollow- 
crested duckbills was for parent-offspring com- 
munication, rather than mate signalling. 30 If one, 
why not both? 

Turning to the horned dinosaurs, J.O. Farlow 
and P. Dodson pondered the variety of frill shapes and 



DINOSAUR 
DAYS 

Saturday and Sunday, Oct. 20, 21 
11:00am to 4:00pm 



inosaurs have "come into their own" in 
recent years. Join us for two days of fun 
devoted to these astounding behemoths 
of the past. 

ew Jersey artist Jim Gary will be on 
hand with his "Twentieth Century Dino- 
saurs," including a 37- foot Apatosaurus 
ingeniously constructed from more than 
500 recycled auto parts, and a low-slung, 
lumbering Ankylosaurus built to scale 
and sporting a 25-year-old VolKswagen 
roof for its shell, two oil pans for its head, 
leaf springs for its ribs, and countless 
other discarded parts to complete the 
astonishing resemblance. 

mamilies can learn the story of dinosaurs 
through activities in the Museum's halls, 
illustrated lectures and demonstrations. 
Giant puzzle pieces illustrate continental 
drift, the enormous size of some dino- 
saurs, and their estimated speeds. Mahe 
your own prehistoric puppets, participate 
in a play, and design a Stegosaurus or 
Dimetrodon. "Dinosaur Days" promises to 
be an exciting and information-packed 
time for all ages. 

hese programs are free with Museum 
admission — no tickets required. A com- 
plete schedule of activities is available on 
the days of the events. For more informa- 
tion, call (312) 322-8854. 




17 



sizes together with variations in the nasal and brow 
horns. 31 They concluded that these differences in era' 
nial morphology reflect differences in intraspecific 
agonistic and courtship behavior, somewhat 
analogous to behavior in modern horned ungulates 
and some horned lizards. The earliest ceratopsians 
featured short frills and only a single nasal horn, or 
none at all. Farlow and Dodson suggested that the 
frill served as a "visual dominance rank symbol" and 
that the nasal horn was used in intraspecific combat 
with the snout and horn being swung against the 
competitor's flanks. According to these authors, later 
ceratopsians had larger frills that enhanced the dis- 
play function, and the more complex arrays of multi- 
ple facial horns were used in frontal combat with 
adversaries of their own kind. The possibility of a pair 
of rutting Triceratops bulls squaring off against each 
other to win potential mates or to achieve dominance 
of the group makes much more sense than the usual 
explanation of a threatened Triceratops fencing off a 
hungry Tyrannosaurus. 

Rutting behavior seems to have been true of 
another group of dinosaurs, the bipedal pachycepha- 
losaurs, or "dome heads." Members of this group of 
ornithopods are characterized by massively thick- 
ened bony skull caps. P.M. Galton has argued per- 
suasively that this thickened bony dome was used in 
intraspecific contests in frontal head-butting 
analagous to that of American bighorn sheep. 32 Pre- 
sumably, this activity was by rutting males in compe- 
tition for mates or to establish dominance over the 
herd. 

R.E. Molnar has given an interesting review of 
the analogies in modern ungulate mammals and the 
various ornithischian dinosaurs to test some of the 
above inferences about structure and inferred 
behavior. 33 

Defensive Behavior 

Defensive strategy among dinosaurs undoubtedly 
was as varied as the size and appearance of the ani- 
mals themselves. While the use of some structures 
seems obvious, the evidence is sometimes ambiguous. 
The horned dinosaurs, for instance: were their nasal 
and brow horns for active defense against predators, 
as frequently claimed, or were they for intraspecific 
sparring to establish dominance within the herd, as 
18 Farlow and Dodson maintained? 34 Among the 



armored dinosaurs, defense seems to have been chief- 
ly passive, the animals being well shielded beneath 
thick bony scutes and spikes. Yet some, like Ankyh' 
saurus, carried spikes or macelike clubs at the end of 
the tail, suggesting a more active mode of defense. 

The large erect bony plates along the back of the 
Stegosaurus have long been interpreted as defensive 
structures which made the animal appear larger in 
profile. Recent examination by Farlow et a\ of the 
internal structure of these plates, combined with 
experimental studies, indicates that these bony struc- 
tures probably served as thermal regulating devices 
rather than for protection. 35 They were highly vas- 
cularized and likely to have been heavily perfused 
with blood — probably to dissipate excess body heat. 
But Stegosaurus was also armed with large bony 
spikes at the end of the tail, suggesting an aggressive 
or active mode of defense. 

Despite these apparently active defense adapta- 
tions, the predominant defensive behavior must have 
been by fleeing. Or perhaps safety in numbers was the 
dominant defensive strategy. Roland Bird reported 
and illustrated a most informative series of dinosaur 
trackways preserved in Early Cretaceous strata in 
Bandera County, Texas. 36 Here were parallel track- 
ways of 23 sauropods all heading in the same direc- 
tion or, as Bird remarked, "all were headed toward a 
common objective. "Bird stated that these animals 
passed as a single herd. Except for von Huene's 
suggestion of migrating behavior in the prosauropod 
Plateosaurus, this is the first explicit statement 
known to me of group activity (social or otherwise) 
to be founded on substantial evidence. 37 In 1968, R.T. 
Bakker expanded on Bird's report, claiming that 
Bird's herd actually was a "structured" herd that 
included young as well as adult sauropods, with the 
young surrounded by the adults, as though for pro- 
tection. 38 Bakker did not document his claim, 
though, and no one has yet re-analyzed Bird's track- 
ways at Davenport Ranch. Despite these notices, the 
idea of group activity in dinosaurs has received little 
published attention until recently, possibly because 
few believed that any evidence could document this. 
In 1972, the idea came to life again, resurrrected by 
this author in a description of a long-known site in 
Massachusetts, where several dozen trackways are 
preserved. I will return to that evidence later. But the 
evidence at Davenport Ranch must be carefully 




w 



<s?\ 






<$ 



ft 





Map of Roland Bird's sauropod trackway field at Davenport Ranch, Texas, Of special interest is the mix of large and small footprints and the fact that 
they are all headed in approximately parallel traverses. Although it has been claimed (by R. T Bakker 1968) that the small footprints occur only in the 
center of the "herd " and the large ones only on the periphery, that is not entirely evident even in the right-hand cluster, where large and small animals 
occurred together near the center. In the left-hand cluster the evidence of herd structure is even more ambiguous. 



examined to test Bakker's interpretation of group de- 
fensive behavior in that passing herd. 

It is obvious in living animals that flight from 
danger is the most common form of defense. To the 
best of my knowlege, there is only one clear paleonto- 
logical example of this in dinosaurs: a footprint site in 
Queensland, Australia reported by Thulborn and 
Wade. 39 They describe a series of trackways record' 
ing a "stampede" of more than 150 bipedal dinosaurs, 
identified as both ornithopods and coelurosaurs, that 
ran at speeds of up to 16 km per hour. Associated with 
the stampede tracks is the trackway of a much larger 
theropod — an animal perhaps the size of Tyranno- 
saurus. Thulborn and Wade suggest that it was the 
presence of this large predator that triggered the 



flight of so many smaller animals — whose trackways 
are all closely parallel. 

The 16 krri'per'hour estimated speed of the flee- 
ing Australian dinosaurs is not particularly impress- 
ive, but perhaps it was sufficient to avoid the grasp of 
the much larger and less fleet theropod that sent them 
running. More importantly, that is significantly faster 
than the velocities estimated by Alexander, 40 Tucker 
and Burchette, 41 Kool, 42 Mossman and Sarjeant, 43 
and Currie, 44 using Alexander's formula on trackway 
data at various sites, all of which indicate slow walk- 
ing speeds of usually less than 10 km per hour. Such 
evidence of slow speeds is not surprising, since anim- 
als walk much more than they run, and the probabil- 
ity of preservation of the trackway of a running ani- 



19 



mal is far less than that recording a casual stroll. 
Coombs, 45 on anatomical evidence, and Thulborn, 46 
on anatomical and trackway evidence, have theo' 
rized about cursorial speeds and gaits in a variety of 
dinosaurs and conclude that maximum running 
speeds in dinosaurs ranged from 6 to 7 km per hour in 
ankylosaurs and stegosaurs to 43 km per hour in the 
ornithopod Dryosaurus and 56 km per hour in the 
coelurosaur Gallimimus. A recent report by Farlow 
of trackways at a site in Kimble County, Texas 
appears to substantiate their conclusions. 47 He docu- 
ments trackways of three medium-size theropods that 
indicate velocities of nearly 30, 40, and 43 km per 
hour. While not as fleet as a race horse, here is good 
evidence that some dinosaurs, as we all suspected, 
were capable of respectable speeds of pursuit or 
escape. 

Group Or Social Behavior 

Although instances of multiple dinosaur remains 
have been reported from a number of sites (for exam' 
pie, the Cleveland'Lloyd Quarry of Utah, the Carne- 
gie Quarry at Dinosaur National Monument, the 
Yale Quarry #1 at Garden Park, Colorado, and the 
famed Brachiosaurus Quarries in Tanzania), these 
contained a variety of dinosaur kinds and appear to 
be postmortem accumulations. There are, however, 
several mass assemblages that are intriguing because 
they are mono-specific. There is the mass burial of 
more than three dozen skeletons of the ornithopod 
Iguanodon recovered from a coal mine near Bernis- 
sart, Belgium in 1878, 48 as well as the several dozen or 
more individuals of the prosauropod Plateosaurus 
recovered at Trossingen, West Germany 49 The 
Coelophysis Quarry of New Mexico may be another 
example, except that it is not quite mono-specific. 
The two European sites have long been tacitly 
accepted as evidence of group congregation in those 
two varieties of dinosaurs. Von Huene even ventured 
to explain the concentration of Plateosaurus 
skeletons at Trossingen as mass mortality of a herd 
during migration. Convincing as these several 
assemblages may seem, indicating that social con- 
gregation occurred in at least some dinosaur species, 
it is still possible that these concentrations resulted 
from factors other than social assembly. 
20 However one chooses to assess those mass 



mortalities, the best evidence in support of gregarious 
habits among dinosaurs is found in the fossil footprint 
record — trace fossil data that have often been 
maligned. Many occurences of multiple dinosaur 
tracks have been reported from around the world, but 
with the exception of Bird, until recently, no infer- 
ences had been drawn about possible gregariousness 
from such footprints evidence. 50 Bird, as noted 
above, reported and illustrated a remarkable site on 
Davenport Ranch in Bandera County, Texas, that re- 
vealed trackways of several dozen sauropods with 
nearly parallel orientation. In 1968, as also noted 
above, Bakker went one step further, commenting 
that "these animals were not merely a disorganized 
mob of reptiles [which Bird had neither stated or 
implied], but rather they were socially arranged in 
what appears to have been a true herd. The very larg- 
est footprints were made only at the periphery of the 
herd; the very smallest were made only in the center 
of the herd." While there may be some truth to Bak- 
ker's structured herd interpretation of the Davenport 
Ranch evidence, that evidence is not as free of 
ambiguity as Bakker's statements assert. Bird's map of 
the Davenport site clearly shows that. 

Structured or not, the herding behavior of dino- 
saurs was first shown and recognized by Bird at 
Davenport Ranch and substantiated by the remark- 
able record preserved at Holyoke, Massachusetts, 
which shows the traverses of 28 individuals, 20 of 
which are nearly parallel-trending in a generally 
westerly direction. 51 All of the nearly parallel track- 
ways appear to have been made by the same kind of 
bipedal animal, to which the footprint name Ew 
brontes has been applied. Of the eight other track- 
ways that do not parallel the group, half appear to 
have been made by a different kind of dinosaur. The 
conclusion seems inescapable: here is clear evidence 
of a herd of one species of dinosaur strolling together 
across the Connecticut Valley landscape. 

Since the Holyoke site was reported, several sim- 
ilar records have been recognized and previously re- 
ported sites have been reexamined. These multiple 
records of near-parallel traverses by numerous indi- 
viduals provide the most convincing evidence avail- 
able that several kinds of dinosaurs did in fact 
congregate and move in groups. But there are some 
question marks. For example, a few sites record 
noticeably "symmetrical" traverses, with most track- 



ways oriented in opposing directions with either nw 
or se bearings. There is no evidence that any barriers 
existed confining those travelers to a "sidewalk" 
pathway, but that possibility cannot be ruled out. Yet, 
the number of trackway sites around the world that 



show preferred trackway orientation is surprising. 
We can only speculate on these intriguing sites and 
what they portray about social behavior and how 
structured dinosaurian community life may have 
been. fm 



NOTES 



1. Colbert, E.H. 1958. Morphology and Behavior. In Roe and 
Simpson, eds. Behavior and Evolution, 27-47 

2. Baird, D. 1980. Personal communication. 

3. Crompton, A.W. and A.J. Charig. 1962. A new ornithischian 
from the Upper Triassic of South Africa. Nature, 196: 1074-1077 

4. Edmund, A.G. 1960. Tooth replacement phenomena in the 
lower vertebrates. Contrib. Roy. Ontario Mus. 52: 1-190; Ostrom, 
J.H. 1961. Cranial morphology of the hadrosaurian dinosaurs of 
North America. Bull. Amer. Mus. X.at. Hist. 122: 33-186. 

5. Currie, P.J. 1983. Hadrosaur trackways from the Lower 
Cretaceous of Canada. Acta Palaeo.Polonica 28: 63-73; Lockley, 
M.G., B.H. Young and K. Carpenter. 1983. The Mountain Geol. 
20: 5-14. 

6. Ostrom, J.H. 1964. A functional analysis of jaw mechanics in 
the dinosaur Triceratops. Tale Peabody Mus. Postilla 88: 1-35. 

7 Lull, R. S. 1908. The cranial musculature and the origin of the 
frill in the ceratopsian dinosaurs. Amer. Jour. Sci. (4) 25: 387-399. 

8. Haas, G. 1955. The jaw musculature in Protoceratops and in 
other ceratopsians. Amer. Mus. 7\[at. Hist. Jiqvitates 1729: 1-24; 
Ostrom, op. cit. 

9. Farlow, J.O. and P. Dodson. 1975. The behavioral significance 
of frill and horn morphology in ceratopsian dinosaurs. Evolution 
29: 353-361. 

10. Colbert, E.H. 1962. The weights of dinosaurs. Atner. Mus. 
A[at. Hist. Jiovitates 2076: 1-16. 

11. Bakker, R.T. 1968. The superiority of dinosaurs. Discovery, 
(New Haven) 3:2: 11-22. 

12. Farlow, J.O. 1976. Speculations about the diet and foraging 
behavior of large carnivorous dinosaurs. Amer. Mid!. A[at. 95: 
186-191. 

13. Stokes, W.L. 1961. Dinosaur Quarry near Cleveland, Utah. 
Proc. Utah Acad. Sci. 38: 132-133. 

14. Ostrom,J.H. 1969. Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an 
unusual theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana. Bull. 
Tale Peabody Mus. 30: 1-165. 

15 1970. Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cloverly 

Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Bighorn Basin area, 
Wyoming and Montana. Bull. Tale Peabody Mus. 35: 1-234. 
16 1978. The osteology of Compsognathus longipes Wag- 
ner. Zitteliana, 4: 73-118. 

17 Bird, R.T. 1941. A dinosaur walks into the museum. Natural 
History 47(2): 74-81. 

18. Thulborn, RA. and M. Wade 1979. Dinosaur stampede in 
the Cretaceous of Queensland. Lethaia 12: 275-279; 1984. Dino- 
saur Trackways in the Winton Formation (Mid Cretaceous) of 
Queensland. Mem. Queensland Mus. (In Press). 

19. Lockley, M.G., B.H. Young and K. Carpenter. Op cit.; Prince, 
N.K. 1983. Late Jurassic dinosaur trackways from S.E. Colorado. 
Univ. Colo, at Denver Geol. Dept. Mag. 2: 15-19. 

20. Ostrom, J.H. 1969. Op. cit. 

21. Brown, B. and E.M. Schlaikjer. 1940. The structure and rela- 
tionships of Protoceratops. Ann. 7<[.T. Acad. Sci. 40: 133-266. 

22. Matheron, P. 1869. Note sur les reptiles fossiles des depots 
fluvio-lacustres cretaces du bassin a lignite de Fuveau. Bull. Soc. 
geol. France (2) 26: 781-795. 

23. Horner, J. R. 1982. Evidence of colonial nesting and site fidel- 
ity among Ornithischian dinosaurs. Afature 297: 675-676; Hor- 



ner, J. R. and R. Makela. 1979. Nest of juveniles provides evidence 
of family structure among dinosaurs. AJdture 282: 296-298. 

24. Horner, J.R. 1984. The nesting behavior of dinosaurs. Sci. 
Amer. 241(4): 130-137 

25. Horner, J.R 1982. Op cit.; 1984. Op Cit. 

26. Hopson, J. A. 1975. The evolution of cranial display struc- 
tures in hadrosaurian dinosaurs. Paleobiology, 1: 21-43. 

27 Ostrom, J.H. 1961. Op cit. 

28. Colbert, E.H. and J.H. Ostrom. 1958. Dinosaur stapes. Amer. 
Mus. Jiat. Hist. Kovitates 1900: 1-20. 

29. Colbert, E.H. 1962. Op cit.; Ostrom, J.H. 1962. The cranial 
crests of hadrosaurian dinosaurs. Tale Peabody Mus. Postilla 62: 
1-29. 

30. Weishampel, D.B. 1981. Acoustic analyses of potential 
vocalization in lambeosaurine dinosaurs (Reptilia: Ornithischia). 
Paleobiology 7: 252-261. 

31. Farlow, J.O. and P. Dodson. 1975. Op. cit. 

32. Galton, P.M. 1970. Pachycephalosaurids — dinosaurian 
battering rams. Discovery (New Haven) 6(1): 23-32. 

33. Molnar, R.E. 1977 Analogies in the evolution of combat and 
display structures in ornithopods and ungulates. Evol. Theory 3: 
165-190. 

34. Farlow, J.O. and P. Dodson. Op. cit. 

35. Farlow, J.O, C.V Thompson, and D.E. Rosner. 1977 Plates 
of the dinosaur Stegosaurus; forced convection heat loss fins? 
Science 192: 1123-1125. 

36. Bird, R.T. 1944. Did Brontosaurus ever walk on land? Natural 
History 52(2): 60-67 

37 Huene, F. von. 1928. Lebensbild der Saurischer-Vorkommens 
im obersten KeupervonTrossingen in Wurttemberg.PelaeobioIo- 
gie 1: 103-116. 

38. Bakker, R.T. 1968. Op. cit. 

39. Thulburn, RA. and M. Wade. 1979. Op cit.: 1984. Op. cit. 

40. Alexander, R. McN. 1976. Estimates of speeds of dinosaurs. 
Nature, 1961: 129-130. 

41. Tucker, M.E. and T.P. Burchette. 1977 Triassic dinosaur foot- 
prints from South Wales: their context preservation. Paleo., 
Paleo., Paleo., 22: 286-291. 

42. Kool, R. 1981. The walking speed of dinosaurs from the Peace 
River Canyon, British Columbia, Canada. Can. Jour. Earth Sci. 
18: 823-825. 

43. Mossman, D.J. and W.A.S. Sarjeant. 1983. The footprints of 
extinct animals. Scientific American 248: 74-85. 

44. Currie, P.J. Op. cit. 

45. Coombs, WP. 1978. Theoretical aspects of cursorial adapta- 
tions in dinosaurs. The Quart. Rev. Biol. 53: 393-418. 

46. Thulborn, RA. 1982. Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs. Paleo., 
Paleo., Paleo., 38: 227-256; 1984. Preferred gaits of bipedal dino- 
saurs. Alcheringa 8: (In Press). 

47. Farlow, J.O. 1981. Estimates of dinosaur speeds from a new 
trackway site in Texas. Jiature 294: 747-748. 

48. Dollo, L. 1882. Premiere note sur les dinosauriens de Bernis- 
sart. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Belgique 1: 161-180. 

49. Huene, F. von. Op. cit. 

50. Bird, R.T. 1944. Op. cit. 

51. Ostrom, J.H. 1972. Were some dinosaurs gregarious? Paleo., 
Paleo., Paleo., 11: 287-301. 



21 



Pigeon Whistles 



by Berthold Laufer 



This article originally appeared in the September 1934 
Field Museum News, as the Bulletin was then called. 
The author, Berthold Laufer (1874-1934), then curator 
of the Department of Anthropology, was a world re- 
nowned authority on cultures of the Far East. The pi- 
geon whistles he describes ma\ be seen today in Hall 32. 
—Ed. 

The Chinese have trained carrier pigeons for 



more than a thousand years, but never on a large scale 
or intensively. However, they have added to the art of 
pigeon-training an attractive means of amusement. 
As they were the first who communed with the air by 
means of kites, they also were the first who created 
"music on the air," long before anyone ever dreamed 
of such a thing as radio. This was accomplished by 
means of whistles, extremely light in weight, 
attached to the pigeon's tail feathers. These whistles 




22 




Pigeon whistles on view in Hall 32 



consist two, three, or five reed tubes of graded length 
in the shape of a Pandean pipe, varnished yellow, 
brown, or black; or of a small gourd into which reed 
pipes are inserted. 

A complete collection of these whistles, some 
engraved with the names of the makers, is on view in 
a case illustrating the musical instruments of China 
in Hall 32 on the West Gallery. 

The whistles are fastened to the tail feathers of 
the birds while they are still young. Then a flock of 
pigeons flies up, the wind strikes the apertures of the 
instruments, sets them to vibrating, and produces a 
not unpleasing open-air concert the charms of which 
are heightened by the fact that the whistles used in 
the same flock are tuned differently. 

The Chinese explain that the sounds of the 
whistles are intended to keep the flocks together, and 
to protect the birds from onslaughts of hawks and 
other birds of prey. This rationalistic interpretation, 



however, is not convincing. It is not known, and 
seems at least doubtful, whether such music makes an 
impression on either pigeon or hawk, and whether it 
would really prevent famished pirates of the air from 
making a swoop at their quarry. Even supposing that 
this might happen once in a while, we must consider 
that this music constantly fills the atmosphere year 
by year, and the unrelenting foes of the pigeon would 
gradually become accustomed to it and disregard it. 

It seems more plausible that this quaint custom 
has no rational origin, but is rather the outcome of 
purely emotional and artistic tendencies. It is not the 
pigeon that profits from the aerial music, but the hu- 
man ear that feasts on the wind-blown tunes and de- 
rives esthetic enjoyment from them. On a serene day 
one can hear this concert in Peking all day even in 
one's house. The pigeons which fly about with whis- 
tles attached to them are termed poetically "mid-sky 
beauties." 



2.3 



Planned Giving Program Enhances 
Museum's Endowment 

Both Planned Giving and Year-End Giving 
Work to the Donor's Benefit, Too. 

By Clifford Buzard 
Planned Giving Officer 



T, 



hree years ago this fall, Field Museum launched 
its Planned Giving Program as a division within the 
Office of Development that would devote its energies 
to building up the Museum's endowment funds 
through bequests and other types of "deferred" gifts 
such as charitable remainder life income trusts. 

When starting the program, the Museum knew 
of 36 Members who had remembered the Museum in 
their wills. Today, the Museum has been informed of 
110 such "bequest expectancies." Further, the 
Museum now has an active Pooled Income Fund for 
donors that has approximately $250,000 in assets; it 
also knows of several charitable remainder annuity 
trusts that total $800,000 — all assets that eventually 
will go into the Museum's endowment funds. 

Only this past January, a charitable annuity 
trust with a principal of $250,000 was successfully 
negotiated and executed between the Planned Giv- 
ing Office and a donor. The donor received an im- 
mediate income tax deduction (with the five-year 
roll-over privilege) and now receives a quarterly in- 
come from the trust for life. Bequests can take many 
forms, and charitable life income trusts can take var- 
ious forms. 

The idea of "planned giving," however, has put a 
different perspective on the entire field of philan- 
thropy, in that through it, many persons have dis- 
covered the fact that there are numerous ways to give 
n the Museum in forms other than cash, and that 
other forms often can be to their better 

his ' )ctober issue of the Bulletin, it is not 



too early to begin planning a year-end-giving pro- 
gram, in order to get the highest possible benefits of 
income tax deductions for 1984. While it is true that 
year-end gifts most often are in the form of cash, 
because they are unplanned, impulse gifts, consider 
the number of other possibilities for ways of giving, 
some of which can be substantial, and very much to 
the donor's benefit. 

Gifts of Stock 

Over the years, many friends of the Museum have 
found it to their advantage to give stock and other 
securities to the Museum instead of cash. One reason 
for this is that in the proper circumstances the tax 
laws may make it less costly to give stock or securities 
than an equivalent amount of cash. One's own partic- 
ular situation will determine whether this applies. 
But, here's how it works: 

1. Giving stock that has increased in value: 
When you sell a security that has increased in value, 
there is a capital gains tax to pay, even if all the pro- 
ceeds are given to Field Museum. On the other hand, 
you can give the appreciated securities themselves to 
the Museum, and take a charitable deduction for the 
total value, including the appreciation, without 
recognizing any capital gain for tax purposes. 

2. Giving only the appreciation: The "bargain 
sale." Sometimes a person wishes to retain his original 
investment, but wants to give his "gain" to the 
Museum. Such a person can sell the stock to the 
Museum at its original cost; the person is, in effect, 



making a gift of the capital gain and retaining his orig- 
inal investment. A person doing this does incur a par- 
tial capital gains tax, and should be well advised by 
an accoutant or tax attorney. 

3. Giving stock that has decreased in value. It is 
not always better to give securities to the Museum; 
sometimes it is better to sell the security and make a 
gift of the proceeds. If a person owns a "poor per- 
former" (a stock that has gone down in value) and 
wants to eliminate it from his portfolio and make a 
gift to the Museum as well, that person should sell 
the stock and give the proceeds to the Museum. By 
doing that, a claim for a charitable deduction for the 
total amount of the proceeds and a claim for a capital 
loss can be made on the tax return at the same time — 
a kind of "double deduction." 

A donor interested in giving stock as a year-end 
gift should contact the Development Office; and, in 
all cases, particularly the "bargain sale" situation, he 
should check first with his accountant or financial 
adviser. 

Gifts of Real Estate 

Most any type of real estate can be a fine and advanta- 
geous form of charitable gift: a building, an interest in 
a building, a farm, summer cottage, or one's own 
home. A person can make arrangements to give his 
home and retain a life interest in it; that is, although 
giving the home, he can live in it, rent-free, for life 
(although he would be responsible for upkeep and 
any property assessments or taxes), yet take an im- 
mediate income tax deduction. 



Gifts of Life Insurance 

Many persons are unaware that under today's federal 
estate tax law, life insurance policies, while they do 
not have to go through probate, are counted into the 
gross amount of the estate for estate tax purposes. 
Many persons let life insurance policies lie fallow 
long past the early years of their family when such 
protection was more greatly needed. 

You can remove life insurance from your taxable 
estate by giving the policy to Field Museum or nam- 
ing Field Museum as the beneficiary. 

Besides the advantage of removing the face 
value from your estate, by giving the policy to the 



Museum now, you can receive an immediate income 
tax deduction for the cash surrender value. 

Even if you are still paying premiums, if you 
assign the policy to Field Museum irrevocably, you 
may deduct from your income tax the annual pre- 
miums you pay each year as well as the cash surrender 
value. 

Field Museum urges Members also to consider 
naming the Museum as contingent beneficiary on 
their life insurance policies. Field Museum also 
appreciates being named the contingent beneficiary 
to pension plans and to individual retirement 
accounts (iras). 

Gifts-in-Kind: Other Property 

Any asset, anything a person owns, can be considered 
"giveable." Some items, not usually thought of in 
terms of charitable gifts, however, can make valuable 
gifts to Field Museum: automobiles, trucks, boats, 
furniture, art, jewelry, antiques, artifacts, and collec- 
tions of stamps, coins, or gems, to mention only a few 
possibilities. Often Field Museum is the recipient of 
valuable additions to its Library through gifts of rare 
books on various aspects of natural history. The tax 
deductions on gifts-in-kind can be tricky; for exam- 
ple, the tax laws make distinctions between a gift 
"to" an institution and a gift "for the use of an 
institution. Therefore, a person wanting to make 
such a gift should seek advice from his attorney or tax 
consultant. 

Giving Gifts for Income 

Giving gifts that return a life income to the donor 
take the form of trusts. Basically, there are three forms 
of life income trusts: the Pooled Income Fund, the 
Charitable Remainder Unitrust, and the Charitable 
Remainder Annuity Trust. 

A great beauty of these forms of life income 
trusts is that a person can make a substantial and very 
self-satisfying gift during lifetime, yet retain the 
security of a life income from that gift. 

Charitable life income trusts also unlock and 
free up capital gains, on which the donor can still 
receive income. But, being part of the gift, just as in a 
outright gift of stock, the capital gain is not recog- 
nized and, therefore, is not taxable. 

Charitable life income trusts also provide pro- 25 



fessional money management. This is often the very 
great advantage of setting up such a trust in a will: it 
protects the spendthrift heir from himself or herself; 
it can also can protect an heir from cunning relatives 
and unscrupulous businessmen. 

The two major types of charitable remainder 
trusts are the annuity trust and the unitrust. An 
annuity trust pays the donor/beneficiary a fixed dol- 
lar amount quarterly; the unitrust pays out quarterly 
a fixed percentage of the fair market value of the 
trust, based on an annual evaluation. By law, neither 
trust can pay out less than 5 percent. The annuity 
trust is a fixed instrument, in that principal cannot be 
added to it; the principal of a unitrust may be added 
to at any time. 

The Pooled Income Fund pays to a donor/ 
beneficiary only the income of his share of the Fund. 
A person may participate with a minimum gift of 
$10,000, and he may add to it in $1,000 increments at 
any time. At the time of the gift, the value is trans- 
lated into numbers of "units" in the Fund. Payments 
are made on a pro-rata basis of the number of "units" 
in the Fund in which he has an interest. 

The Pooled Income Fund is inclined to grow, 
since only income is paid out; capital gains are 
reinvested for the Fund. Conceivably, the donor/ 
beneficiary could continue receiving a higher 
income. While the annuity trust payout is a fixed dol- 
lar amount, the payout of both the Pooled Income 
Fund and the unitrust can vary, up or down; but, 
generally, the two types of trust arrangements are 
considered to be hedges against inflation. 

In all such life income trusts, at the death of the 
donor/beneficiary, what is left in the trust — the 
"remainder" — reverts to the Museum and its Endow- 
ment Fund. On the death of the donor/beneficiary in 
a Pooled Income Fund, only the underlying principal 
representing that person's income interest reverts to 
the Museum; the Pooled Income Fund continues to 
provide income for the surviving donors/ 
beneficiaries. 

Members interested in either of these forms of 
trusts should consult with the Field Museum's 
Planned Giving Office and their own attorneys. 
Working with the attorney, the Planned Giving 
Office will be happy to help by providing suggested 
26 forms to follow. 



Gifts By Bequest 

Just as there are several forms of life income trusts, 
there are many ways in which a person can give to the 
Museum by will. He can make a general bequest of a 
specific dollar amount or percentage of his estate; he 
can give a specific bequest, such as a collection, arti- 
cle, or artifact; or he can give real estate through a 
bequest. A person can also set up any of the forms of 
life income trusts for the benefit of a heir, with the 
residual going to the Museum's endowment fund 
upon the heir's death. There are several other tech- 
nical types of bequests that are possible. Any inter- 
ested Member is welcome to call the Planned Giving 
Office for information, (312) 322-8858, and ask for a 
copy of a brochure on "How to Remember Field 
Museum in Your Will." 



Tax Deductions for 1984 

Even persons who use the "short form" of income tax 
return can now take deductions for charitable gifts. 
For 1984, a person not itemizing may deduct 25 per- 
cent of the first $300 of a gift, deducting up to a max- 
imum of $75. Persons itemizing their tax returns may 
deduct up to 50 percent of their adjusted gross in- 
come, if giving cash; up to 30 percent of their adjusted 
gross income if giving appreciated stock or other 
appreciated property such as real estate or gifts-in- 
kind. In all cases, if the gift exceeds the maximum 
percentage allowed, the person has a five-year carry- 
over privilege; in other words, he may deduct 
amounts of that gift each year for five years that he 
has not already deducted — actually a total of six 
years to take the deduction. By all means, a donor to 
the Museum should consult with his tax accountant 
or attorney, for neither the Museum nor its employees 
can give legal advice nor guarantee its accuracy and 
currency. 

Regardless of tax deductions, the greatest bene- 
fit from giving to the Museum is the self-satisfaction 
of having helped a great institution. The Museum 
began its "count-down" to its 1993 centennial this 
year, and all gifts — immediate or deferred — will be 
appreciated all the more, as every little bit will help 
ensure the future of Field Museum for the people of 
the Museum's second century. 



Tours For Members 



, -f 




Sailing the Lesser Antilles 

Aboard the Tall Ship 

Sea Cloud 

February 7-16, 1985 



Our itinerary offers a superb sampling 
of the Caribbean's best — Antigua, St. 
Barts, Saba, Martinique, and lies des 
Saints. With the professional leadership 
of Dr. Robert K.Johnson, a Field 
Museum marine biologist, you will see 
and experience a great deal more than 
the conventional sightseer. Dr. Johnson 
is a topnotch tour lecturer, and your 
trip will be greatly enhanced by 
stimulating lectures and field trips. 
Price range (contingent on cabin se- 
lection): $3,455-$5,755. per person 
(includes round-trip air fare from 
Chicago, hotel accommodations in 
St. John's, Antigua, and full board 
while on the Sea Cloud). 

The largest private ship ever built, 
the steel-hulled Sea Cloud is 316 feet in 
length and has four Diesel engines with 
total power of 6,000 B.H.P. The ship 
accommodates 75 guests in air- 



conditioned staterooms, each with two 
beds. The cuisine is in the best tradition 
of the great yachts of the past. Expert 
European chefs provide exquisitely 
prepared meals accompanied by vin- 
tage wines. A crew of 40 German offic- 
ers and men, plus 20 cadets sail the Sea 
Cloud. There is ample deck space for 
sunning and enjoying the spectacle of 
the sails. Life aboard is informal and re- 
laxed, and cruise participants may join 
in the operation of the sails. 

Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
Including 5-day Nile Cruise 

February 15-March 4, 1985 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharoahs, including a 5- 
day Nile cruise aboard the luxurious 
Hilton Steamer. An Egyptologist will 
accompany the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and person- 
ally conduct all lectures and sightsee- 
ing. Tour highlights will include the 
pyramids and Sphinx of Giza, little- 
visited monuments of Middle Egypt, 
King Tut's tomb, the holiday resort of 
Aswan, and a visit to Abu Simbel. 





Colonial South 

April 13-20, 1985 

Now you can be among the first 
passengers to visit the legendary Colo- 
nial South in the comfort of a relaxing, 
yacht-like cruise ship, with a friendly 
American staff to serve you. Our ports 
of call will be Savannah and St. Simon 
Island, Georgia; Beaufort, Charleston, 
and Hilton Head Island, South Caro- 
lina; with disembarkation at Savannah. 

Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, director of 
Field Museum and a distinguished 
botanist, will accompany the tour, 
sharing his professional expertise on 
the flora of the exquisite gardens we'll 
visit. Our tour is planned to coincide 
with the spring explosion of color in 
daffodils, tulips, dogwoods, and 
azaleas — a welcome treat after Chi- 
cago's long winter. Local historians 
will provide us with talks on historic 
buildings of the region and on Civil 
War history. The Nantucket Clipper will 
cruise through the peaceful waters of 
the intra-coastal waterways, allowing 
you to spend each evening in town 
enjoying the port experience to its full- 
est, and affording even greater variety 
in this delightful cruise experience. 

For further information or to be placed on our 
mailing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours 
Manager, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



27 



Additional Tour Highlights 
for 1985 



Galapagos Islands. China and Tibet. Alaska and Pribilof Islands. 



0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenview 
Chicago, IL 60626 



c. /> . 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULL 



November 1984 



va A:., 




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RAVI SHANKAR 
Performs Nov. 16, 17 

INDRANI and SUKANYA 

Perform Classical Indian Dance 

Nov. 24 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

November 1984 
Volume 55, Number 10 



November Events at Field Museum 



December Events at Field Museum 



Adult Education Update 

by Robert B. Pickering, program developer. 
Department of Education 



On the Trail of the Finest Metallurgy of the 10 

Ancient New World: How Old Is the Classic 
Quimbaya Style? 

by Donald W. Lathrapjohn S. Isaacson, and Colin McEwan 



My Life, My Music 

by Ravi Shankar 



20 



The Right Gift at the Right Time: 24 

Jack C. Staehle Makes a Difference 

by Glenn Pare, grants officer. Planning and Development 



Field Museum Tours 



27 



COVER 



World renowtied Indian composer-musician Ravi Shankar 
performs at Field Museum with Alia Rakha, Nov. 16, 17. Photo 
by Steven E. Gross. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 11. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410 Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



A special invitation for Museum Members to 

V^ A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA AT FIELD MUSEUM ^V 



Thursday. December 13 




V^ A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA AT FIELD MUSEUM ^^ 

Thursday, December 13, 1984 
5:00 to 7:00 p.m. 



The Junior League "Mad Hatters" 
On Stage Chicago 

The Westminster Bellringers 

Village Presbyterian Church of .Northbrook Detach 

here 

RSYP Wizzo the Magician and Cooky the Clown f° r 

^ThiXd" 8 Chicago Public Library Storybook Characters in Person ^^ °' 

Museum Games and Activities for Children on 

inside 

Santa Claus back 

The Stu Hirsh Orchestra 

An Assortment of Christmas Treats 
Hobday Libations 

^&% ^^^ 

Illustration from St. Nicholas. December. 1906. 
Courtesy of the Newberry Library, Chicago. 



November 



Events 



^\ 



November 



Classical Arts of India: 
A Renaissance 

Renaissance and Tradition 
in Dance and Music 

Saturday, Nov. 10, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 
Dr. Joan L. Erdman 
South Asia Language and Area Center 
University of Chicago 

The discovery and rebirth of Indian classical per- 
forming arts began in the early 20th century, when 
Ted Shawn and Ruth St. Denis brought Indian 
themes into their dances. In the early 1930s famed 
ballerina Anna Pavlova brought dancer Uday Shan- 
kar to the public stage. It was Uday's younger 
brother, Ravi, who became the bearer of India's per- 
forming arts tradition. Dr. Joan Erdman discusses 
these major artists and their work. 
This lecture is free with Museum admission; 
no tickets required. 

Ravi Shankar 

Friday, Nov. 16, 8:00pm 
Saturday, Nov. 17, 2:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Performing on the sitar: Ravi Shankar; 
on the tabla: special guest Alia Rakha 

Ravi Shankar is a singular phenomenon in the clas- 
sical music world of the East and West. His impact 
on American music in the last decade has been more 
profound than that of any other non- Western musi- 
cian. As a composer, Ravi Shankar has written exten- 
sively for ballet, film, and the concert hall in the 
United States, Canada, Europe, and India. His poign- 
antly moving score for Satyajit Ray's celebrated film 
trilogy, Pather Panchali, Aparajito and The World of 
Apu, raised film music to a new standard of excell- 
ence. The score for the film Gandhi, which premiered 
in 1983, has won him critical acclaim. He is a figure 
much beloved of young people throughout the world 
today, just as he was to the generation of the 1960s 
who sustained their hope for world peace through 
the inspiration of his music. 

India's great master of sitar and his brilliant 
associate on the tabla, Alia Rakha, join together for 
two stunning performances of their country's music- 
al heritage. 

Tickets: $12.00 (Members: $10.00). Fees are 
nonrefundable. 




Indian dancer Indrani performs with daughter Sukanya in 
James Simpson Theatre, Sunday, November 24 

Classical Dance of India 
with Indrani and Sukanya 

Saturday, Nov. 24, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Indrani and Sukanya have delighted international 
audiences with their performance of Indian classical 
dance. Indrani, one of India's most distinguished and 
vibrant dancers, is the daughter of the famous dancer 
Ragini Devi, who pioneered India's dance revival. 
Sukanya, the daughter of Indrani, carries on her 
family tradition of dancing. She dances with a won- 
derful suppleness and joy — at one moment flinging 
her flexed feet out with abandon, at the next, assum- 
ing the tight-lipped expression of the God Rama. 
Indrani and Sukanya perform classical dances 
based on traditions 3,000 years old. Dance has always 
been an important part of religious ceremonies in 
India. Body movement, symbolic hand gestures, 
and mime accompany incantations and songs. 
Drawn from the great Indian epics Ramayana and 
Mahabharata, these dances are essentially love songs 
to the gods. Together, Indrani and Sukanya have 
done much to captivate American audiences with the 
beauty and refined sensuousness of classical dance. 
Their subtlety of expression and arresting move- 
ments make this performance an unforgettable intro- 
duction to Indian dance. 

Tickets: $8.00 (Members: $6.00). Fees are 
nonrefundable. continued^ 



November 



CONTINUED from p. 3 



Events 



~x 



November 



November Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed 
are only a few of the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the 
complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts 
Council. 



November 

3 11:30 am Ancient Egypt (tour). Investigate the tradi- 
tions of ancient Egyptian civilization from everyday 
life to mummification and the promise of an afterlife. 

4 1:00 pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sampling 
of our most significant exhibits as you explore the 
scope of Field Museum. 

11 1:00 pm Red Land I Black Land (tour). Tour the 

Egyptian exhibit, focusing on the geography of the 
Nile Valley and the effect it had on Egypt. 

24 12:00 noon. Traditional China (tour). Examine the 
timeless imagery and superb craftsmanship rep- 
resented by Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

25 1:00 pm Ancient Egyptians (tour). Explore artifacts 
from predynastic times to Cleopatra, focusing on 
the lives of the pharaohs and the Egyptian people. 



Family Feature 

Egypt Festival 

Sunday, Nov. 25, 11 :00am-4 :00pm 

The civilization of ancient Egypt was in its glory 
5,000 years ago. Field Museum's Egypt Festival 
explores this extraordinary culture. Find out about 
the latest archaeological discoveries by touring our 
Egyptian Hall. Watch demonstrations of papyrus 
making. Enjoy the film classic The Mummy and laugh 
at the old myths of the cursed tombs. 

Family features are free with Museum admission; 
no tickets required. 



Registration 



Please complete all requested information on 
the application. If your request is received less 
than one week before program, tickets will be 
held in your name at West Entrance box office. 
Please make checks payable to Field Museum. 
Tickets will be mailed on receipt of check. Re- 
funds will be made only if program is sold out. 



Program 



Ravi Shankar, Nov. 16, 8:00 pm 



Ravi Shankar, Nov. 17, 2:00 pm 



Classical Indian Dance: Indrani and Sukanya 



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Public Programs: Department of Education 
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December 



Events 



December 



Seventh Annual Anthropology Film Festival 

Field Museum, West Entrance 

Saturday, Dec. 1, 10:00 am-5:00pm 
Sunday, Dec. 2, 10:00 am-5 :00pm 



A special invitation to explore the rich diversity of world 
culture on film. This year's festival consists of more than 50 
films grouped into seven subject areas — The Film Fare of 
Les Blank, The Aboriginal Film Studies of David and 
Judith MacDougall, Northwest Coast Indians and Eski- 
mos, Central and South America — The Past Ten Years, 
The Caribbean: Dreams and Realities, Back in the U.S.A., 
and Through Native American Eyes. 

On Saturday, filmmaker Les Blank introduces his lat- 
est release, "In Heaven There Is No Beer." This, as with 
other Blank films — "Always For Pleasure" and "God 
Respects Us When We Work— But He Loves Us When 
We Dance," conveys the imperative of life over death 
and a recognition that pleasure is a human necessity. 

On Sunday, the recent works of David and Judith 
MacDougall are featured. The Australian Institute for 
Aboriginal Studies was established 20 years ago. Its pur- 
pose has been to create enduring records of the ways that 



different groups of aboriginal people live, think, and act in 
this important period of their history. A selection of these 
film include "Takeover," "A Walbiri Fire Ceremony: 
Ngatjakula," and the newly released "Stockman's Strategy" 
and "Collum Calling Canberra." 

Additional festival highlights include "Dream of a Free 
Country: A Message from Nicaraguan Women" and "I'd 
Rather Be Pow Wowing," a story of a Northern Plains In- 
dian whose life in the modern world has not kept him away 
from his origins in the Native American world. A special 
series of Northwest Coast Indian films document these 
people from the first footage shot by Edward F. Curtis to 
the recent cultural and artistic renaissance. 

Films are screened by subject area in three theatres 
located at the West Entrance of Field Museum — James 
Simpson Theatre, Lecture Hall One, and Lecture Hall 
Two. Tickets may be purchased for a single-day screening 
or the two-day series. The festival schedule is subject to 
change. A final film schedule and complete film descrip- 
tions are available on the days of the festival. Call (312) 
322-8854 for details. 

Tickets: One day: $7.00 (Members: $6.00) 
Series: $12.00 (Members: $10.00) 



Animal Antics 

Through stories, films, cartoons, and a play, parents 
and children can discover how a multitude of creatures 
live in the wild and in the world of fantasy. These pro- 
grams are free with Museum admission; tickets not 
required. 

Animal Stories 

Saturdays and Sundays, Dec. 8, 15, 16, 22, and 23, 

at 11:00am 

Hall 17, Asian Animals 

How did the leopard get his spots? Why does the camel 
have a hump? How did the elephant get a trunk? Story- 
tellers relate some of these famous animal tales for the 
delight of young and old. 

The Rabbit Who Wished for Red Wings 
The National Marionette Company 

Saturday and Sunday, Dec. 29 and 30; 2:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

With a flick of his wrist and a gentle wave of the hand, 
puppeteer Ralph Kipness controls the taut strings that 
bring life to a delightful cast of animal creatures. 
Little Rabbit is always wishing for things. When his 
wishes start to come true, he is, at first, elated. All too 
soon, he is in for a big surprise. Join us at the "Story 



Shop" as this southern folk tale, written by Carol 
Cerwin Baily, unfolds. 

"Polar Potluck" — a participatory play 

Saturdays, Dec. 8 and 15, at 1:00pm 
Hall 18 

Your family is cordially invited to a farewell party for 
Karl and Katy Caribou, who are getting ready to mi- 
grate south. Pandora Polar Bear, Samantha Seal, and 
Walter Walrus are planning a big party to send them 
on their way. Participate in this play about arctic 
animals and bid the Caribou bon voyage] 

Animals on Film: Fantasy and Fact 

Saturdays, Dec. 8, 15, &22; 2:00-4:00pm 
Hall 18 

December 8 "Donald Duck" selected cartoons 

"Konrad Lorenz: Science of Animal 
Behavior," "Wings of an Eagle" 

December 15 "Chilly Willy" selected cartoons 

"White Wilderness" 

December 22 "Sylvester" and "Felix the Cat" selected 
cartoons, "Born Free" 



I)<>ct>mb«>r 



Events 



December 



COWTWUED trom p 5 



December Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed are only a few of the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport 
upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a 
grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



December 

2 12:30 pm Museum Safari (tour). Seek out shrunken 
heads from the Amazon, mummies from ancient 
Egypt, and big game from Africa. 

8 12:00 noon Continents Adrift (lecture). Why have 
fossils of similar dinosaur species been found on 
continents separated by vast oceans? The concept 
of "moving" continents is illustrated with enor- 
mous puzzle pieces. 

1:30 pm Tibet Today (slide lecture). See Lhasa and 
other cities now open to tourists. 
2:45 pm .4 Faith in Exile: Darjeeling, Sikkim, Dharam- 
asla (Home of the Dalai Lama) (slide lecture). Focus 
upon Tibetan refugees in India. 
3:45 pm Bhutan (slide lecture). Explore the land of 
the Thunder Dragon. 

15 1:00 pm Red Land/Black Land (tour). Tour the 
Egyptian exhibit focusing on the geography of 
the Nile Valley and the effect it had on Egypt. 

16 12:30 pm Museum Safari (tour). Seek out shrunken 
heads from the Amazon, mummies from ancient 
Egypt, and big game from Africa. 



1:00 pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sam- 
pling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 

29 1:30 pm Ancient Egyptians (tour). Explore artifacts 
from Predynastic times to Cleopatra, focusing on 
the lives of the pharaohs and the Egyptian people. 



Family Feature 

Active Animals 

Thursday and Friday, Dec. 21, 28; 1:00-3:00 pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Main Floor 

Some animals run, others crawl. Some animals fly, 
and others swim. How would the animal of your 
dreams move? Design an animal of your own, based 
on fact or fantasy, and make it do what you want it to 
. . . roll, hop, slither, or fly. 

Family features are free with museum admission and 
no tickets are required. 



Registration 


Seventh Annual Anthropology 
Rim Festival 


Member 

Tickets 

 Requested 


Tickets 
# Requested 


Tool 

Tickets 
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Amount 
Enclosed 


Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 


Saturday & Sunday Series 








plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 


Saturday only 








priate If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 
one-hatf hour before event: Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 
be mailed on receipt of check. Refunds will be 


Sunday only 


















Tctal 




made only rf program is sold out 







Name 


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Please check appropriate box: Member: _ Nonmember: 
American Express Visa MasterCard number: 



Signature 



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For Office Use: 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 




In the "Textile Conservation " course, workmanship of a fine old quilt (ca. 1870) is examined and methods for preserving its beauty are discussed. 



Adult Education Update 



by Robert B. Pickering 
Program Deueloper, Department of Education 

photos by the author 



Th 



he March 1984 Bulletin included an article on 
Field Museum's Adult Course program together 
with a questionnaire requesting comments from 
readers about the program. Returned questionnaires 
have been tabulated and analyzed, and some 
changes are being made in the program as the result 
of the suggestions. Many of those who responded 
had complimentary things to say about the program 
and appreciated the variety and quality of the 
courses offered. People also told us why they do or 
do not take courses at Field Museum. 



Two'thirds of the people responding were en- 
rolled in or had taken courses at Field Museum. 
Almost 75 percent have taken courses at other in- 
stitutions in or around Chicago. Field Museum 
members are an education-oriented group and have 
an interest in a wide variety of subjects, from Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics to real estate to dog training. 
Over 55 other Chicago-area institutions were men- 
tioned as offering courses taken by members. Institu- 
tions in the greater Chicago area offer a vast assort- 
ment of opportunities for adult continuing educa- 




A student in "The Art of Papermaking" uses a portable press to 
remove excess water from a sheet of paper that he has just made. 



the first of March, when most of the extreme winter 
weather is over for the year. The second quarter will 
be in May and June, the third in September and 
October, with the final quarter of the year occurring 
in November and December. 

Thirtyseven percent of the respondents wrote 
that they did not take courses here because public 
transportation was unreliable. Some commented 
that they had to wait too long for buses. While this 
is a situation that the Museum cannot correct by 
itself, we have initiated escort service for partici- 
pants to the nearby bus stop following evening clas- 
ses. We informed the CTA of our new service and 
told them that a museum guard would remain with 
the students until the arrival of the bus, and would 
record the arrival time. With this new monitoring 
system, the buses have been much more faithful to 
their schedules. 

A small number of respondents, ten percent, 
cited the cost of tuition as an obstacle. The typical 
program course includes 12 hours of instruction and 
costs $40.00 for members, or $3.33 per instruction 



tion experiences, providing thereby tremendous 
competition for Field Museum's own program. Com- 
petition puts pressure on our program to continually 
improve the quality of the courses and make them 
more appealing. 

The many complimentary statements about the 
course program are appreciated, but the comments 
of those who do not take courses at Field Museum 
also provided valuable insights into how our pro- 
gram could be improved. For example, 45 percent 
reported that 7:00-9:00pm was an inconvenient 
time to attend courses. As a result of this response, 
we are now offering more daytime courses on 
weekends. Weekend courses are usually intensive 
courses with all of the instruction given in one or 
two days rather than over a six-week period. For 
those who prefer early evening courses, we have 
added an earlier time to our schedule. Courses are 
now offered on weekday evenings between 5:30 and 
7:00pm as well as at 7:00-9:00pm. 

Another major change in scheduling accommo- 
dates those who do not like to take courses during 
the winter months of January and February or dur- 
ing the summer vacation period. The first quarter of 
the year will now begin at the end of February or 



Watercolorist Chuck Schenk compares the different techniques 
used in two paintings. In-class demonstration and critique of 
student's work improve their ability. 





The study skin of a large fruit bat and a much smaller relative are 
compared by instructor Barb Clauson (left) and students. 



Lance Grande, assistant curator of fossil fishes, demonstrates the 
proper technique for exposing a fossil fish from a 50-million-year-old 
limestone deposit. 

hour, a cost which has not increased since 1980. 
When compared with fourteen other institutions in 
the Chicago area that offer noncredit adult courses, 
Field Museum's charge is less than ten of the others. 
Many of the other institutions offer shorter courses. 
Although our rates are lower, the longer courses 
mean the tuition rates appear higher. 

We continue to work on improving the quality 
of our offering and on remaining sensitive to the 
needs of our participants. Those who are currently 
participating in our program are already aware of 
many of these changes and the response has been 
very positive. For those of you who have wanted to 
take a course here but have not, we hope to see you 
in the near future in an adult course at Field Museum! 







,. 



10 




Excavation at the Nueva Era site on the western Andean slopes 
of northern Ecuador clearly shows two meters of volcanic ash 
between separate prehistoric occupations. The most recent occupa- 
tion, the Tulipe Phase, dates between A.D. 800 and 1600; the earliest 



occupation, the Nueva Era Phase, dates between 1500 and 500 B. C. 
Volcanic activity rendered the area uninhabitable for 500 to 1.000 
years and radically affected the course of cultural evolution in the 
New World. 



On the Trail of the Finest Metallurgy 

Of the Ancient New World: 

How Old Is the Classic Quimbaya Style? 

by Donald W. Lathrap, John S. Isaacson, and Colin McEwan 



Ls Chicago plans to host yet another World's Fair, it is 
well to look back at the amazing heritage that the city 
received from the World's Columbian Exposition, 1893. 
The fascinating biography of Edward Ayers, which 
recently appeared in the Bulletin, described how the very 
existence of the Field Museum resulted from this Exposi- 
tion. So vast is this heritage that it still contains surprises 
for the diligent researcher. 



100 £ 
98 * 



98 £ 
98* 






-25 
-27 
— 29 



20 
23 



w » tea rate a 



NUEVA ERA 
UNIT I SOUTH FACE 



100 

I 



By the beginning of the last decade of the last century, 
planning was already well underway for two major inter- 
national expositions with worldwide involvement 
celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of the 
New World. One of these expositions was to be in Madrid, 
Spain, and the other in Chicago. Planning, however, ran 
somewhat behind schedule, and nothing opened until 
1893. 

In Colombia a single commission was appointed to 
assemble the exhibit that would travel to both of these 
expositions. The head of this commission was Vicente Res- 
trepo, Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint 
Gregory the Great, a wealthy aristocrat and devoted schol- 
ar. At a time when archaeology was only starting to emerge 
as a distinct discipline, he was Colombia's leading 
archaeologist. Evidently he used professional tomb looters 
to assemble a very large collection of artifacts of 
unquestionable authenticity. Restrepo had a handwritten 
catalog prepared, the original of which exists in English in 
the archives of the Field Museum. The catalog detailed all 
of the specimens in the travelling exhibit. Presumably, 
there still exists a version in Spanish in Bogota and Mad- 
rid, and a comprehensive set of photographs covering all 
specimens was also prepared. Several photographs of this 
set are in the negative file in the Field Museum and it is 
hoped that the full set can still be found in Bogota or 
Madrid. 

At some point after this catalog was prepared to be 
used with the travelling exhibit in both cities, there was a 
change of plans, and the most spectacular gold pieces were 
presented as a gift from the government of Colombia to the 
queen of Spain. Presumably this was a symbolic repayment 

Profile (sidewall) of Isaacson 's excavation at Nueva Era site (photo at 
left), showing stratigraphic relationship between the two prehistoric 
occupations and the deep fall of volcanic ash. 



Donald W. Lathrap is professor of anthropology at the University 
of Illinois, Urbana, and a Field Museum research associate, 
Department of Anthropology. John S. Isaacson and Colin 
McEwan are doctoral candidates in anthropology at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Urbana. 



11 



of the gold Isabella gave to Columbus. Since the Chibcha' 
Muisca gold style was by far the most common, a large 
number of specimens in this style ultimately arrived at the 
Field Museum and are still in the collections, but all the 
larger gold pieces in the style which has come to be known 



as Classic Quimbaya remained in the Museo de America, 
Madrid. This treasure presently represents more than 75 
percent of all specimens known in this style. It would 
appear that Spain kept very few of the ceramic pieces, com- 
prising some 1,300 items, so that the full collection, minus 



Lime flasks of tumba- 
ga, gold-copper alloy, 
cast in the lost-wax 
technique with gold- 
enriched surface. 
These exemplify 
Classic Quimbaya 
style. They form part 
of the Restrepo 
exhibition given to the 
queen of Spain and 
now in the Museo de 
America, Madrid. 
Lime was used in 
conjunction with the 
sacrimental chewing 
of coca leaves. The 
print is duplicated 
from one in the origi- 
nal Restrepo catalog. 




12 



Tunjos, votive offerings, of 
gold-copper alloy, with gold- 
enriched surface, cast by 
means of the lost-wax tech- 
nique. These are typical of the 
rather rustic, state-enforced 
style of the Chibcha kingdoms 
encountered by the Spanish. 




the most spectacular gold pieces, arrived in Chicago and 
was installed in the Colombian Pavilion at the Chicago's 
World Colombian Exposition. That collection never left 
Chicago and, like much of the other ethnographic and 
archaeological materials assembled for the exposition, 



of the Colombian gold styles on internal evidence and 
which uses an operationally sound method as exemplified 
by the qualitative seriation first applied by G.M.A. Rich' 
ter to Attic Red Figured vases. Charles Bolian, of the Uni- 
versity of New Hampshire, using qualitative seriation, has 




Specimens of "In- 
cised Brownware." 
The beer mug (right) 
in the shape of a cai- 
man, the South Amer- 
ican crocodilian, is of 
great importance in 
demonstrating the 
time depth of South 
American Indian 
cosmologies. It is 
analogous to the 
sacred beer mugs of 
the Inca empire. 



remained to become the permanent collections of the 
Field Museum. 

In the early 1930s, the then curator of Middle Amer- 
ican and South American archaeology (1927-1935), the late 
Sir J. Eric Thompson (later to become the outstanding 
Maya scholar of his generation) reorganized the South 
American archaeological exhibits (Halls 8 and 9), and pre- 
pared an illustrated guide. With his eye, well trained to 
the nuances of Mesoamerican archaeology, Thompson rec- 
ognized the stylistic unity of a small number of ceramics 
from the Quimbaya area, correctly pinpointed their 
Formative or Proto-Classic nature and segregated them in 
the exhibit cases. Striking confirmation of Thompson's 
intuition is now made possible by piecing together a veri- 
table jigsaw of different pieces of evidence. 

The great stylistic diversity of Colombian gold work 
has long claimed the attention of New World scholars and 
given rise to a very large literature. All of these studies 
have recognized the distinctive nature of "Classic Quim- 
baya." There has been much speculation concerning its 
relationship either as an antecedent to, or outgrowth of, 
various other styles. The late William Root reasoned that, 
since Peru was always more advanced than Colombia, and 
since gold working does not appear in northern Peru until 
about 400 B.C., all Colombian gold working, especially 
styles with the technological sophistication of Quimbaya, 
must be considerably later. He assigned the guesstimate of 
AD. 400-800 for the span of Classic Quimbaya. This guess 
has since been repeated frequently and uncritically over 
the years. 

Given the volume of the literature and the superb 
quality of the illustrations, it is surprising that there is, to 
date, only one study which attempts to build a chronology 



presented a chronology of the Darien gold style which 
must not be ignored, and has given temporal direction to 
his seriated sequence by such securely dated points as its 
appearance in the sacred cenote at Chichen Itza, the May- 



Sketch of ceramic urn in "Incised Brownware " in the collection of the 
Museo Nacional, Bogota (after Bruhns, 1969-70). Note the stylistic 
identity between the modelled human figure on this burial urn and the 
female figures on the Classic Quimbaya lime flasks (p. 12, top). Note 
also the distinctive convex, arcaded bosses shared by the urn and 
the cast tumbaga vessels. 





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Cast tumbaga figurine in the collection of the Cleveland Museum of 
Art. The characteristics of this unique piece link the beginnings of the 
Darien style to Classic Quimbaya style. Photo courtesy the Cleveland 
Museum of Art, giftofMr. and Mrs. Raymond Henry Norweb. 



an sacrificial site in Yucatan. His suggestion for the begin- 
ning of the Darien style at around 200 B.C. appears to us to 
be well motivated. A unique specimen in the Cleveland 
Museum of Art firmly links the Quimbaya style to the be- 
ginnings of the Darien style, an observation which antic- 
ipates our own conclusions and which should have ren- 
dered them less startling. Had the range of Colombian gold 
styles been studied by an artistic genius such as the late 
Miguel Covarrubias, we believe that he would have 
instinctively identified the Quimbaya style as the "mother 
style" comparable to the position of the Olmec in 
Mesoamerican artistic evolution. Thus, he would have 
placed Quimbaya at the base of a branching evolutionary 
tree. The Vicus gold style of northern Peru, though 
executed in a less sophisticated hammered and soldered 
technology, is stylistically derivative of Classic Quimbaya. 
Vicus dates to around the time of Christ, a further 
indication that Root's guess was far too conservative. 

At the Society for American Archaeology meetings in 
Milwaukee in 1969, Karen Bruhns presented a paper 
describing a particular style of pottery which she, follow- 
ing a summary paper by Wendell C Bennett, designated 
Brownware Incised (we prefer, and will continue to use, 
the term "Incised Brownware" until an appropriate geo- 
graphical designation is agreed on). Most importantly she 
demonstrated that the "high relief human figures that 
occurred on some Incised Brownware urns were identical 
to the human figures on Classic Quimbaya gold. She illus- 
trated a number of pieces mainly from collections in Co- 
lombia, but made no mention of the Field Museum's mate- 



rials, the largest collection of these ceramics outside of Co- 
lombia. We equate the Field Museum series with "Incised 
Brownware," although it also includes white-slipped 
polychromes and zoned-red pieces. Shared identities in the 
execution of modelling and incision on both slipped and 
unslipped examples make this equation secure. 

The logic of Bruhns 's argument is impeccable. There 
can be no doubt that Classic Quimbaya gold and Incised 
Brownware come from the same cultural matrix. She dis- 
cusses the difficult problems raised by the dating of Incised 
Brownware: 

. . . the Brownware Incised pottery cannot belong to the 
historic Quimbaya. Because the places where these urns 
have been found often fall well within the known Quim- 
baya territory, it seems likely, then, that they predate the 

Quimbaya [as they are known ethnohistorically] How 

much before this date is anybody's guess. Sometime before 

500 AD. but perhaps after the turn of the millenium [sic] 

would be reasonable. This date corresponds to Root's 

guess dates of 400-700 AD. [sic] for what he calls 'Classic 

Quimbaya' in metal. 

Though she equivocates, it is to Bruhns 's credit that her 

estimate of AD. 1-500 is the first to place in question Root's 

conservative guess of A.D. 400-800. Her thinking was in 

the right direction. 

During his many trips to the Field Museum while 
assisting in the preparation of the exhibit Ancient Ecuador, 
1972-74, coauthor Donald W. Lathrap looked at the speci- 
mens that had been segregated by Thompson and noted 
both the identity of spout form between these vessels and 
his Late Tutishcainyo ceramics from the Central Ucayali 
River in Eastern Peru, and the identity of rim treatment 
between the Chicago materials and the Cave of the Owls 
fine ware from the famous oil bird cave near Tingo Maria 
in eastern Peru. As Lathrap remembers: 

It was clear to me that this pottery ought to date as early as 
1500 B.C. in terms of its close relationships to well-dated 
styles in the tropical lowlands east of the Andes. Each time 
I passed the cases, I said to myself that I must check the 
accession records and find precisely where this pottery 
came from; but I never allocated the time. 
Starting in 1980 and continuing through 1983, 
archaeological excavations at the Nueva Era site in the 
western Andean foothills of northern Ecuador were con- 
ducted by coauthor John S. Isaacson. He remembers that 
his thinking about the project had an interesting evolution: 
I had originally gotten involved in the Tulipe Project to 
study the large, Late Period settlements in the Tulipe Val- 
ley, first discovered by Frank Salomon [1978]. After a test 
excavation of a small house platform in 1980, I realized 
that a large scale project focused on the Late Prehistoric 
occupation of the valley was feasible. The major drawback 
was that the Late Period ceramics from Tulipe were gener- 
ally plainwares which exhibit very little change over long 
periods of time. As I was preparing to return to the U.S. 
after the 1980 field season, my Ecuadorean coinvestigator, 
Holguer Jara, who was reconstructing a number of large 
stone structures for the Museo Arqueologico del Banco 



WW 



Caribbean Sea 



Major Volcanoes of the Northern Andes 

of South America in Relation to Important 

Early Formative Settlements 



major volcano with recorded eruption 

zone where previous finds of Incised Brownware 
and Classic Quimbaya gold are concentrated 




r ,'J*V' •'* Antisana 
'U-/.' "":'; 5705m 
U--..,"^' ad 1801 



Detail Showing Major 

Volcanoes of 
Ecuador's Quito Basin 



Cubillan 
4300m 



2b 



15 




16 



Donald W. Lathrap "rediscovering" "Incised Brownware" in a Field 
Museum storeroom. This vessel shows the rim treatment typical of the 
early Amazonian style "Cave of the Owls Fineware" and the distinc- 
tive arcaded bosses, which link "Incised Brownware" not only to the 
cast tumbaga flasks of Classic Quimbaya, but also to the earliest 
Formative pottery of Southeastern Mesoamerica. Barra and Ocos 



Central del Ecuador, discovered a buried soil surface some 
3 meters below the present ground surface. His interests 
were in the reconstruction of the Late Period structures 
and so he sent me the few ceramic sherds which he 
recovered from the buried surface. I analyzed these at the 
University of Illinois and quickly saw the importance of 
this material, relating it to Formative Period ceramics 
recovered from sites in the highlands of Ecuador. I felt that 
the problems presented by the earlier material and its stra- 
tigraphic context under such a deep column of volcanic ash 
presented more challenging archaeological problems than 
the Late Prehistoric Period. 

It was while I was back in the field in 1981 that I 
decided to direct my energies to an expanded excavation of 
these earlier materials. I was fortunate to stay, while in 
Tulipe, with Teniente Eustorgio Rosero Arturo and his 
family on Hacienda Nueva Era, and I have named the site 
Nueva Era after the Hacienda as an expression of my eter- 
nal gratitude for the warmth and hospitality of Eustorgio 
and his family. I have defined two prehistoric occupations 
at the Nueva Era site separated by more than 2 meters of 
sterile volcanic ash. The most recent occupation dates be- 
tween A.D. 800-1600, and I have named it the Tulipe 
Phase. This is a component of the numerous Late Period 
sites which dot the Tulipe Valley landscape. Below this 
occupation and the deep column of volcanic ash, is the 



much older archaeological component, Nueva Era Phase, 
which dates between 1500-500 B.C. 

The Nueva Era stratum produced a number of domes- 
tic structures with associated hearths and floor refuse, pro- 
ducing a surprisingly wide range of Middle Formative 
pottery. Even more startling are the differences between 
this material and the Middle Formative pottery buried 
under a much thinner layer of the same volcanic ash at the 
site of Cotocollao, 40 km to the southeast, in what is today 
suburban Quito. Ongoing ceramic analysis in the South 
American laboratory at the University of Illinois is clarify- 
ing this difference. While the Middle Formative of the 
Quito basin is most closely related to the Tutishcainyo 
traditions of the Amazon, the Nueva Era ceramics are 
clearly an extension of the very early Colombian Forma- 
tive of Momil I on the Sinu floodplain in northern 
Colombia. 

In consultation with Lathrap, Isaacson recognized 
several sherds made of what appear to be exotic clays, and 
with a style of decoration otherwise absent at the Nueva 
Era village. These exotic sherds, they now realize, are none 
other than Karen Bruhns's "Incised Brownware." Isaac- 
son's careful excavations make it clear that these materials 
date in the 1500-600 B.C. time range, demonstrating for the 
first time a clear chronological placement for "Incised 
Brownware," and, by extension, Quimbaya gold. 

These excavations, those of Petersen and Porras at 
Cotocollao and the well-published surveys of Bray and 
associates covering several segments of the Cauca Valley 
have. all revealed stratigraphic profiles with deep ash lenses 
frequently superimposed over cultural strata. From this we 
conclude that the entire zone of recent volcanic activity 
extending from well south of Quito to the lower Cauca 
Valley was in violent eruption. The dating of all the indi- 
vidual eruptions remains to be determined, but we can 
safely infer that most of these clustered in the period 600 
B.C. to AD. 1. 

In retrospect, we can note that students of Colombian 
archaeology showed a remarkable lack of curiosity about 
what might lie under the blanket of volcanic ash upon 
which all of the Late Period sites rest. Again, as was the 
case with Root's dating of Quimbaya, there seems to have 
been a misplaced reliance on authority — on the sanctity of 
what had been published only as opinion. In 1942 the late 
James A. Ford made a moderately detailed survey of the 
Upper Cauca Valley, finding only Late Period sites, and 
relatively few of those. Ford made the suggestion that the 
rich valley bottom of the Cauca could not have been ex- 
ploited without labor intensive agricultural techniques, a 
suggestion which is correct when applied to the pampas 
around Buenos Aires, and even the Sabana de Bogota, a 
waterlogged grassland. The ghost of that brilliant and iron- 
ic archaeologist is probably both amused and angered that 
his modest suggestion became a charter for casual thinking 
and a lack of curiosity about the paleoecology of the Cauca 
on the part of his followers. 



The few tombs which have produced Classic Quim- 
baya must be buried beneath this heavy volcanic mantle. 
As we take this as an hypothesis and turn to Bruhns's map 
of the sites which have produced Incised Brownware, we 
find that, as would have been predicted, all such sites are 
located uniquely on the downwind slope of the greatest 
concentration of recently active volcanoes in Colombia. 
From all these bits of information it follows that the most 
sophisticated lost-wax casting of gold-copper alloy in the 
New World was being practiced in the Cauca Valley of 
Colombia and predates 600 B.C. The people responsible for 
this civilization were wiped out or driven away by an 
immense outburst of volcanic activity which involved 
not one but a series of Pompeii'like volcanic disasters. 

For the first time we have an explanation why, since 
the time of the Restrepo collection, so few further exam- 
ples of Classic Quimbaya gold have appeared. In 1910 
the British Museum acquired 17 fine pieces. A modest 
collection is on exhibit in Berlin. There are two frequently 
illustrated specimens in the museum of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and single specimens are scattered in a few 



Cast tumbaga beads from the Restrepo exhibition, now in the collec- 
tion of Field Museum. These beads are from the same necklace as 
examples in the Museo de America, Madrid. 

Human effigy vessel with red-on-white painting. The orange unslip- 
ped ceramic adds a third color to the decorative scheme. This 
remarkable specimen was illustrated in the catalog prepared some 
50 years ago by Field Museum curator J. Eric Thompson, but was not 
subsequently exhibited. 





17 



18 




other museums. But in its extensive collecting of gold, the 
Museo del Oro, Banco de la Repiiblica, Bogota, Colombia, 
has obtained few further large examples in the Classic 
Quimbaya style. It cannot be accidental that Restrepo's 
campaign of excavations in the 1880s produced the only 
collection that contains both large numbers of Classic 
Quimbaya gold objects and a major assemblage of Incised 
Brownware vessels. 

Isaacson is presently analyzing volcanic ash samples 
from the ash column at the Nueva Era site in Ecuador and 
comparing these to source material from the numerous vol- 
canoes in the vicinity of that site provided by Minard Hall 
of the Escuela Politecnica Nacional in Quito. These cor- 
relations of volcanic ash will represent the first attempt 
at constructing a tephrochronology (mineralogical 
"fingerprinting" of volcanic ash) of the northern Andes. 

On May 31, 1984, Lathrap made a trip to Chicago 
with coauthor Colin McEwan, a long-time fieldworker 
and colleague of Warwick Bray (Institute of Archaeology, 
London), the world's foremost expert on Colombian gold. 
Their immediate purpose was to verify the orientation and 
size of certain Chavin and pre-Chavin temples in consulta- 
tion with the Museum's curator of Mesoamerican and 
South American archaeology, Michael E. Moseley This 
task was quickly finished, and on a hunch, stimulated by 
Isaacson's discoveries, Lathrap insisted on examining the 
South American storage area. In the course of this search, 
Lathrap, McEwan, and Field Museum Research Associate 
Ronald Weber stumbled across approximately fifteen 
more pieces of "Incised Brownware." Recalled McEwan 
afterwards: "Lathrap was as excited as if we had broken 
into a previously undisturbed tomb." Among these pieces 
was a spectacular polychrome example illustrated by 
Thompson but thereafter placed in storage. 

A ceremonial beer mug in the shape of an alligator 
was particularly intriguing to Lathrap, who has long been 
fascinated with the mythological importance of the giant 
South American crocodilian, the black caiman. Ronald 
Weber assisted Lathrap and McEwan in recording both 
the specimens in storage and those on exhibit that had been 
correctly segregated by Thompson as early and quite dis- 
tinct from the other ceramics from the Cauca Valley. With 
these catalog numbers they then returned to the accession 
records and archives and examined the minutely detailed 
catalog prepared by Restrepo in 1893 — the first time these 
materials had been examined in several decades. From this 
catalog it becomes almost certain that the "Incised Brown- 



Top and center: Cast tumbaga rattles from the Restrepo exhibition, 
now in the collection of Field Museum. The human representations 
are diagnostic of Classic Quimbaya style. 



Bottom: Cast tumbaga seashell with gold-enriched surface from the 
Restrepo exhibition, now in the collection of the Field Museum. 



ware" pottery at the Field Museum comes from the same 
tombs (probably numbering not more than five or six) that 
produced the Classic Quimbaya gold pieces now in 
Madrid. 

Expanding the search within the Field Museum, the 
few negatives from the full "photographic record" of the 
Restrepo catalog were located, and several small but ex' 
quisite examples of classsic Quimbaya gold work from Res- 



itself and the ritual immediately bring to mind the sacred 
cenote at Chichen Itza, where both gold and virgins were 
periodically offered for the health and stability of the com- 
munity. We now suggest that Lake Guatavita offers the 
legitimate historic antecedent from which the Maya ritual 
at Chichen Itza developed. 

Dense occupations of the Sabana de Bogota and the 
Chibchan States, as such, are relatively late, but some of 




Guatavita, the most awesome of the five sacred lakes of the Chibcha States. Votive offerings were dumped here at 
the coronation of each Chibcha ruler. The crater was formed by the collapse of a dissolved salt dome. Photo cour- 
tesy Warwick Bray. 



trepo's tombs rediscovered. Beads in the form of human 
heads are identical to specimens in Madrid and probably 
come from the same necklace. Two small rattles have the 
same distinctive human representations. A gold seashell 
effigy is small, but is as stunning an example of lost-wax 
casting as can be found anywhere. In short, the area of the 
New World which had attained the most sophisticated 
metalworking techniques, and was certainly highly 
advanced in other aspects of culture, was rendered 
uninhabitable for a period of between 500 to 1,000 years. 
In the future, archaeologists must reckon with the far- 
reaching effects of this catastrophe on the course of cultu- 
ral evolution in the New World. 

There are a number of fascinating implications that 
immediately come to mind once the above scenario has 
been accepted. One of the most colorful of these concerns 
the great round crater lake, Guatavita, in the highlands 
near Bogota, where the coronation of the Chibchan ruler 
was consecrated by offerings of vast quantities of gold. The 
Spanish chroniclers give details of this ritual in which val- 
uable items of all kinds were thrown in the lake. The lake 



the ceramics recovered from the dredging of Guatavita are 
clearly in the Incised Brownware tradition; and a carbon 
14 assay on carbon from the core of a cast gold specimen 
from the lake is AD. 645 ± 95, far earlier than the origin of 
the Chibchan States. The sanctity of Guatavita dates back 
to the Middle Formative. This observation should be cou- 
pled with Reichel-Dolmatoffs excavations at Monsu. 
Here on the Magdalena flood plain we find communities 
with intensive agriculture and fancy pottery fully 1,500 
years before similar developments in either Mexico or 
Peru. Indeed, stylistically the pottery is a plausible antece- 
dent for the earliest pottery in both Mexico and Peru. That 
the basic structure of the religions of Mexico and Peru was 
already fully formulated in Colombia by 3500 B.C. is now 
moved from the realm of science fiction and into the realm 
of probability. Examples of gold work in the Darien style, a 
clear outgrowth of the Quimbaya style, have been 
recovered from both sacred lakes, showing that both were 
"Meccas" in the same overarching religious system. This 
network of religious pilgrimage underscores the essential 
unity of New World high civilizations. FM 



19 



My Life, My Music 



by Ravi Shankar 



erforming in the Field Museum brings back 
my first visit to Chicago in January 1933 with 
my late brother Uday Shankar's Troupe of Hin- 
du Dancers and Musicians. We made a brave 
effort to walk from the Congress Hotel to 
Orchestra Hall in a blizzard at 10 degrees 
above zero. 



In looking back on these 52 years of experi- 
ence with American audiences, I can say that 
their appreciation and understanding of the arts 
of India has grown enormously. My brother, 
Uday, was the first pioneer to bring dance and 
music from India to the West from 1930 to 1938. 
I was more of a dancer in his troupe, but I also 
played several instruments for background 
music to the dance numbers. 

In 1935 Uday brought one of our greatest 
musicians from India — Ustad Allauddin Khan 
— as soloist, playing sarod. He toured with us for 
only about ten months, mainly in Europe. While 
touring, I started learning music from him — 
mainly vocal music and sitar. After that, he went 
back to India and I was torn between choosing 
dance and music. Should I go back to India with 
Baba Allauddin Khan and devote many years of 
orthodox and rigorous musical training, or 




should I spend more time in the West as a 
dancer, touring and enjoying all the glitter, 
glamour, and freedom it offered? But I guess the 
advent of World War II changed my brother's 
plan; it also helped me to choose my career and 
to take music as my main course in life. 

After many years of studying Indian classi- 
cal music on sitar under Baba Allauddin Khan 
and becoming quite well known in India (as a 
composer and performer of ballet, film, and 
orchestral music), I thought of bringing our 
serious form of classical music to the West. I did 
my own pioneering work, beginning in 1956. 



There wasn't a large audience initially, but it 
gradually grew with each visit. I performed, 
gave lecture-demonstrations and interviews, 
and cut many albums, including an anthology of 
Indian music. By the late 1950s I was performing 
in all the major concert halls in Europe, the 
U.S.A., and Canada — a first, indeed, for any In- 
dian musician. It was a thrilling experience for 
me, and I was elated that I could transmit the 
spirit and depth of 



•»/*. 



.. * '*■ 



X- 



•,'.'V 



• v 



X. 



t 



/ -* 




22 




Overleaf: Ravi Shankar (center) playing the sitar, with Alia Rakha 
(left) playing tabla; the performer at right is a student. 



The charismatic Ravi Shankar first performed in Chicago more than 
50 years ago. 



our music to the people of the West. For most of 
them, our music had been like a museum piece — 
bracketed in the "ethnic" group of art form — and to 
others merely "esoteric" and "exciting." 

In the early 1960s my association with my dear 
and esteemed friend Yehudi Menuhin had wonder- 
ful results. In particular, I wrote a few pieces based 
on pure ragas and talas, which we first performed at 
festivals in England; later our recording of this 
received the Grammy award. In the following years 
I made two more albums and performed all over the 
world with the great Menuhin. Another favorite 
musician with whom I composed and recorded was 
Jean Pierre Rampal, the renowned flutist. 

Then there came the big phase in the mid' 
sixties. I was catapulted into Superstardom in the 
"pop" sense when George Harrison of the Beatles 
became my student. This lasted five or six years. 
Unfortunately, it was such a mixed-up period of 
hippies, drugs, Vietnam, Yoga, Tantra, and 
Kamasutra. But despite the fact that the approach of 
the young and immature was superficial, it was also 
true that millions of these young people all over the 
world came to know for the first time about sitar 
and Indian music in general. The fad died gradually, 
and the innumerable listeners dwindled away — but 
the very few that remained (quite a large number 
actually) are still there today and are devoted 
listeners to Indian music. 

The two sitar concertos with symphony orches' 
tra that I wrote (1970, 1981) also introduced to our 
music a large number of people who usually go to 
hear only Western classical music. There are various 
universities in the West where Indian music is 
taught in "world music studies." Unfortunately, 
however, some schools continue to offer it under the 
category of "ethnic" music ("ethnomusicology"), 
along with Chinese, Indonesian, Vietnamese, and 
African music. I would like to clarify my objection 
to this. I strongly believe that these others are tradi- 
tional music; some are folk music. Their develop- 
ment stopped quite some time ago. There are only 
two types of classical music that exist today. They 
are the Western classical and Indian classical music 
— the latter started from hymns of Vedas about 
2,500 years ago from a religious basis. Indian clas- 
sical music has gradually developed into the per- 
forming arts, being influenced to some extent by folk 



Ravi Shankar, together with Alia Rakha, per- 
forms November 16 and 17 in James Simp- 
son Theatre. See pp. 3, 4 for details. 



and regional music that existed in earlier periods. 
Being an oral tradition, it was passed down from 
guru to disciple — at times from father to son. And it 
has been enriched through innovations and develop- 
ments that are still going on. But Indian classical 
music has always maintained a very sound and 
scientific basis. The two main elements are the 
ragas ("melody" forms) and talas ("rhythmic" cy- 
cles). The most important thing is the amount of 
improvisation one does while performing, keeping to 
the strict rules. It is a music that is alive and still 
growing, without influence by alien music. 

Western classical music also started from a 
religious base — the church, Gregorian chants. The 
only difference is that instead of relying solely on 
oral tradition, it developed a written notation 
system, and great composers through the last few 
centuries have been able to create music consisting 
of fixed compositions for solo, duo, trio, quartet, 
chamber, or symphony orchestra. These immortal 
compositions will endure, though they may vary 
slightly because of the individual musician's or 
conductor's interpretation. Western music is also 
enriched by chords, harmony, counterpoint, 
modulation dynamics, and so forth. The highlights 
of Indian music are in its melodic richness and high- 
ly sophisticated, intricate application of rhythm. It is 
also said that the notes used in Indian music are in 
curved lines (-%_/-\_^), whereas in Western music 
the notes are cornered ( x W rx ^), which means that 
instead of staccato or legato we use meend and 
gama\ — where one note slides or merges into the 
other note in a special manner that is different from 
the Western glissando. 

To be able to understand and appreciate Indian 
music one must listen to it with all these things in 
mind, letting one's heart and emotion take over in 
the beginning — before going into mere technicali- 
ties. The spiritual aspect of our music, especially in 
the first part of a concert, is also something that can 
be very relaxing and meditative. This is why the 
Indian sages have always emphasized nada Brahma 
— an old saying meaning "sound is God."FM 



23 



The Right Gift at the Right Time 

Jack C. Staehle Makes a Difference 



by Glenn Pare 
Grants Officer, Planning and Development 



"To give away money is an easy matter and in any man 's power. But, to decide to whom to give it, and how much and when, and 
for what purpose and how, is neither in every man's power nor an easy matter. Hence it is that such excellence is rare, praise 
worthy and noble." — Aristotle 



.he activities Field Museum undertakes are as 
varied, diverse, and important as the collections we 
house, the exhibits we display, and the audiences we 
serve. Field Museum exists to preserve, increase, 
and disseminate knowledge of natural history; and 
attempting to fulfill this mission is an expensive en' 
deavor. In large part, much of who we are and what 
we do is dependent upon the many gifts and grants 
we receive in support of research, collection main- 
tenance, educational programs, and special projects. 
Aristotle foresaw this support when he called such 
inspired giving "praiseworthy and noble." Because 
this giving is integral to our operation, we intend to 
overview grant-supported activities on a somewhat 
regular basis here in the Bulletin. 

Enumerating these noble efforts by individuals, 
foundations, corporations, and other public and pri- 
vate agencies illustrates the vast scope of Field 
Museum while underscoring the important differ- 
ence the right grant at the right time can make. Per- 
haps a good place to begin, and a prime example of 
this kind of support, is Jack C. Staehle's two recent 
grants to the Department of Botany totalling 
$32,754. Through the years, Staehle has been a close 
friend and strong supporter of Field Museum. Now, 
because he is interested in South America and is 
concerned about preserving and enhancing our 
knowledge of ourselves and the world, he is support- 
ing the work in Botany, helping to ensure that 
important collecting and cataloging is complete be- 
fore time and nature make these tasks impossible. 
24 That he would be concerned enough to support the 



department's collecting and research at this level is 
not surprising when one has the good fortune to 
know Staehle. 

Staehle's interests in scientific collecting began 
at an early age and were specifically enhanced in 
high school when he studied zoology and botany, 
among other subjects, under E.E. Hand. Professor 
Hand, whose extensive shell collection today is 
housed at Field Museum, encouraged the collecting 
interests of his students by promising better grades 
for those who could collect quotas of assigned spe- 
cies. Staehle recalls his own youthful passion for 
collecting and smiles when he talks about the jars 
full of insects and other specimens he and his class- 
mates collected. 

Later in life, Staehle also began to develop a 
personal interest in South America. As a vice presi- 
dent for Aldens, one of the nation's largest mail 
order catalog firms, he was recruited by the U.S. 
State Department to conduct management seminars 
for corporate executives in many developing coun- 
tries such as Argentina, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, and 
Venezuela. In all, he has made some eleven trips to 
South America and has enjoyed the experience, 
especially in trying to understand better the cultural 
differences and similarities between us and our 
neighbors to the South. Along these lines, he has de- 
voted considerable time to studying the Aztec and 
Inca civilizations, only to be impressed by their cul- 
ture, craftsmanship, and their technical knowledge 
evidenced by elaborate buildings and extensive 
highway systems. Drawing comparisons, according 



?W(tt 




to Staehle, is the key to understanding the present 
cultures and peoples of South America; hence, bet' 
ter understanding their interrelationship with us. 

His combined interests in collecting and in 
South America, however, may go back still further; 
perhaps they are in his blood. In 1817, Staehle's 
great-grandfather collected live specimens of "rare 
and curious Creatures from the Four Corners of the 
Globe," and took the menagerie to South America 
on a money-making tour. When he later returned to 
this country and settled into farming in southern 
Wisconsin, he brought with him animals no more 
exotic than a small flock of merino sheep. 

Today, Staehle still spends time on the family 
farm, but several years ago, in an airport in Are- 
quipa, Peru he made an unusual and pleasant dis- 
covery. When he stopped to purchase souvenirs for 
his wife and daughter the shopkeeper offered him 
two gold medallions. Pictured on one was a llama, 



Jack C. Staehle (rt.) with Timothy Plowman, associate curator of 
Botany, in Plowman 's laboratory. 



native to the area; on the other, surprisingly, was an 
elephant. According to local legend, an American 
had once brought a circus through the area and don- 
ated his elephant to the local people to start a zoo. 
The elephant, a big hit, lived a good number of years 
and became such a local favorite that his popularity 
long outlived him. Haunted by the coincidence and 
familiar ring to some of the tale, Staehle pieced 
through family documents and the original pass- 
ports, and discovered that the elephant's donor was 
none other than his great-grandfather. 

Like his ancestor, Staehle thinks big. His cur- 
rent concern is with putting natural history and the 
entire world into proper perspective. He is, and has 
been for some time, engaged in compiling and writ- 
ing a "Chronology of the Earth" covering the past 



25 



20 billion years, from formation of the earth and 
moon to the present day; parallel to this, he is 
attempting to complete and maintain an encyc- 
lopedic indexing of "Patterns: Peoples, Places and 
Diseases." His grant to the Department of Botany is 
a natural extension of his interests and concerns and 
the support is an important resource for the depart- 
ment's study and work relative to South America. 

The department holds more than 2.5 million 
plant specimens widely representative of the earth's 
vegetation; the collection is particularly strong in 
the flora of Central and South America. For more 
than fifty years, Field Museum botanists have been 
committed to taking a census of and cataloging the 
flora of this region, especially the countries of Peru 
and Costa Rica. This massive undertaking, now 
nearing completion, has earned the Department of 
Botany a well-respected reputation worldwide. 
Staehle's grant support is assisting Museum botan- 
ists in their collecting and fieldwork as well as aid- 
ing and improving their productivity back in their 
Museum laboratories. 

Importantly, Staehle's grant will help Botany 
develop a comprehensive study of the ethnobotany 
of the Amazon tribes in eastern Peru and the adja- 
cent areas of Ecuador, Bolivia, and Brazil before the 
natural areas are destroyed and the native cultures 
dissolved. The jungles of the Amazon basin contain 
perhaps 60,000 species of plants. Native Indians 
have a profound knowledge of this flora and, over 
thousands of years, have discovered a myriad of uses 
for the local plants, including plant medicines. The 
rapid absorption of the native groups into modern 
culture and the development and deforestation of 
land areas, however, threaten to eradicate this un- 
tapped knowledge and the very plants themselves. 

Associate Curator Timothy Plowman is utiliz- 
ing some of the funding for his ongoing studies in 
the coca family. This work includes research on the 
evolutionary relationships and geographical distri- 
butions of the tropical American species and the 
ethnobotany, chemistry, and medicinal uses of culti- 
vated varieties of coca. His research is important not 
only for organizations attempting to control illegal 
cocaine production in South America, but also for 
governmental agencies in Peru, Bolivia, and else- 
where that are attempting to find legitimate medi- 
26 cinal uses for the coca plant. 



The support from Staehle's grants will allow 
Plowman to continue work such as that just com- 
pleted with William Vickers, of Florida Interna- 
tional University — a comprehensive study of the 
useful plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of 
Amazonian Ecuador, based on plant collections 
made by anthropologist Vickers in 1973. This de- 
tailed study of the plants used by a single cultural 
group in the western Amazon will serve as a model 
for similar studies among the numerous disappearing 
tribes throughout Amazonia. Plowman's work will 
also provide a unique opportunity to compare plant 
uses among linguistically unrelated tribes living in 
the same habitats containing many of the plant spe- 
cies. Plowman and Vickers have recently published 
their research findings in Fieldiana, Field Museum's 
continuing series of scientific monographs. 

Assistant Curator Michael O. Dillon, with sup- 
port from Staehle's grants, is studying isolated plant 
communities in the coastal desert of western Peru 
and northern Chile. While the desert is considered 
one of the world's driest, fog drifts in from the Pacif- 
ic and settles on low coastal hills forming islands of 
vegetation called lomas. When the fog or dew is of 
sufficient quantity and remains long enough, plants 
remarkably bloom and flourish. Many plant species, 
several genera, and at least one entire family, are 
found nowhere else. 

Dillon is conducting research to provide a thor- 
ough survey of these "islands" in an attempt to 
answer several biological and evolutionary ques- 
tions relating to the origin of loma plants and the 
formations themselves. In 1982 and 1983 the un- 
usual weather pattern of "El T^iiio " brought heavy 
rains to the lomas causing rare plants, perhaps never 
before seen by man, to flower. Dillon is currently in 
Peru collecting and conducting fieldwork to study 
the long-term dynamics of these unusual formations. 

Jack C. Staehle is making a difference. With his 
grant support, Museum botanists are working on 
projects and carrying out tasks to a greater extent 
than would be possible during these times of limited 
research funding. With his support, Field Museum 
is answering Staehle's concerns for preserving and 
enhancing our knowledge of ourselves and the 
world in which we live. His strong continued sup- 
port and the recent grants of $32,754 are what we 
consider "praiseworthy and noble."FM 



Tours For Members 



- -f 




Sailing the Lesser Antilles 

Aboard the Tall Ship 

Sea Cloud 

February 7-16, 1985 



Our itinerary offers a superb sampling 
of the Caribbean's best — Antigua, St. 
Barts, Saba, Martinique, and lies des 
Saints. With the professional leadership 
of Dr. Robert K.Johnson, a Field 
Museum marine biologist, you will see 
and experience a great deal more than 
the conventional sightseer. Dr. Johnson 
is a topnotch tour lecturer, and your 
trip will be greatly enhanced by 
stimulating lectures and field trips. 
Price range (contingent on cabin se- 
lection): $3,455-$5,755. per person 
(includes round-trip air fare from 
Chicago, hotel accommodations in 
St. John's, Antigua, and full board 
while on the Sea Cloud). 

The largest private ship ever built, 
the steel-hulled Sea Cloud is 316 feet in 
length and has four Diesel engines with 
total power of 6,000 B.H.P. The ship 
accommodates 75 guests in air- 



conditioned staterooms, each with two 
beds. The cuisine is in the best tradition 
of the great yachts of the past. Expert 
European chefs provide exquisitely 
prepared meals accompanied by vin- 
tage wines. A crew of 40 German offic- 
ers and men, plus 20 cadets sail the Sea 
Cloud. There is ample deck space for 
sunning and enjoying the spectacle of 
the sails. Life aboard is informal and re- 
laxed, and cruise participants may join 
in the operation of the sails. 

Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
Including 5-day Nile Cruise 

February 15-March 4, 1985 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharoahs, including a 5- 
day Nile cruise aboard the luxurious 
Hilton Steamer. An Egyptologist will 
accompany the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and person- 
ally conduct all lectures and sightsee- 
ing. Tour highlights will include the 
pyramids and Sphinx of Giza, little- 
visited monuments of Middle Egypt, 
King Tut's tomb, the holiday resort of 
Aswan, and a visit to Abu Simbel. 





Colonial South 

April 13-20, 1985 

Now you can be among the first 
passengers to visit the legendary Colo- 
nial South in the comfort of a relaxing, 
yacht-like cruise ship, with a friendly 
American staff to serve you. Our ports 
of call will be Savannah and St. Simon 
Island, Georgia; Beaufort, Charleston, 
and Hilton Head Island, South Caro- 
lina; with disembarkation at Savannah. 

Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, director of 
Field Museum and a distinguished 
botanist, will accompany the tour, 
sharing his professional expertise on 
the flora of the exquisite gardens we'll 
visit. Our tour is planned to coincide 
with the spring explosion of color in 
daffodils, tulips, dogwoods, and 
azaleas — a welcome treat after Chi- 
cago's long winter. Local historians 
will provide us with talks on historic 
buildings of the region and on Civil 
War history. The Nantucket Clipper will 
cruise through the peaceful waters of 
the intra-coastal waterways, allowing 
you to spend each evening in town 
enjoying the port experience to its full- 
est, and affording even greater variety 
in this delightful cruise experience. 

For farther information or to be placed on our 
mailing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours 
Manager, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



Additional Tour Highlights 
for 1985 



/^-l — „.. 



_-j- /"•■-: 



_j t»;i * 



. j n _•«- • i _ r w _ 



0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenview 
Chicago. IL 60626 



I* 

a 



Indrani performs classical Indian dance Nov. 24 



Ravi Shankar performs Nov. 16, 17 




Alia Rakha performs with Ravi Shankar Nov. 16, 17 



Sukanya performs classical Indian dance Nov. 24 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



December 1984 





V 



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hp 




1985 CALENDAR 
"The Year of the Gemstone' 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

December 1984 
Volume 55, Number 11 



1985: The Year of the Gemstone 

Appointment calendar featuring specimens from Field 
Museum's gemstone collection. 



COVER 

The Chalmers Topaz (5,890 carats) will be on view in the 
new Gem Hall. Photo bv Ron Testa. 84618 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mu Hi n 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. RunneUs 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. MitcheU 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing dale: Sept 14. 1994. Title Tufa Museum of Natural History Bulletin Publication no, 898940. Frequency of publication: 
Monthly except for combined July August issue Number of issues published annually: 11 Annual subscription price: 
S6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. IL 60605-2496 

Publisher Field Museum of Natural History Editor David M. Walsten Known bondholders, mortgages, and other 
security holders: none. Nonprofit status has not changed during the preceding 12 months. 

Ao. no. copies radt Actual no. copies 

issue preceding single issue nearest 

12mos lofilingaate 

Total copies printed 33.070 30.500 

Paid Circulation (sales through 

dealers, vendors, carriers) None None 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptions) 28,889 26,454 

Total paid circulation 28,889 26,454 

Free distribution 578 578 

Total distribution 29,467 27,032 

Office use. leftover 3,603 3,468 

Total 33,070 30,500 

I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete Jimmie W Croft, vice president for Finance and 
Museum Services 



Typesetting by Tele/Typography Inc. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, S3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-O703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, LI. 



1985 
The Year of the Gemstone 



A. he Gem Hall is one of the most popular exhibits at the Field Museum. Soon- 
er or later, virtually every adult who enters the Museum gravitates to the gems. 
Installed in its present location in 1921, the Gem Room has been renovated on 
two occasions. Since the last renovation there have been significant advances in 
lighting methods that bring out the full richness of color and internal "fire" in 
gemstones. Late in 1983 it was decided to completely redesign the gemstone 
exhibit in order to take advantage of these state-of-the-art exhibition tech- 
niques. The new design is a radical departure from the one it replaces. Lights, 
rich in the colors of the spectrum, are combined with attractive groupings; dis- 
plays slowly rotated on turntables add movement and glitter to the room. 

Traditionally, museums exhibit gems as things of beauty unto themselves. 
Little or no information is provided about them other than their names — it is 
thus in every major museum in the world. Yet, it has been our experience at 
Field Museum, based on decades of inquiries by the public, that people are 
eager for basic information about the gems they own, have inherited, or plan to '. 

buy. Departing from tradition, the new exhibit will add a fresh dimension to the 
viewing of gems. Each grouping of gemstones will have a modest amount of 
label copy describing those aspects that experience has shown us are of particu- 
lar interest to the public. In addition, one section of the exhibit will be devoted 
to a general explanation of the gem-cutting art, display popular styles of cut 
stones, and provide a few basics about gem terms. 

From ancient times to the present, certain gems have been regarded as 
endowed with magical or curative powers. One portion of the new exhibit will 
show examples of stones associated with such myths and superstitions. 

The Field Museum calendar for 1985 offers on the following pages a brief 
sampling of gemstones to be seen in this newly designed exhibit. 

— Edward Olsen, curator of mineralogy. 






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