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Full text of "Field Museum of Natural History bulletin"

FIELD MUSEUM OF NAT 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 



CONTENTS 

January, 1985 
Volume 56, Number 1 



Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



January Events at Field Museum 



Living Together 5 

by John E. Terrell, curator of Oceanic archaeology 
and ethnolo^ 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. MuUin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Mushroom Mania: Is It for You? 

byMartynJ. Dibben 



12 



Fieldiana: Titles Published in 1983 and 1984 



25 



Index to Volume 55 (1984) 



26 



Field Museum Tours 



27 



COVER 



The scene shown in this month's cover photo by Steven Ashe, 
assistant curator of Insects, might well be duplicated in the 
forest preserves of the Chicago area. Ashe's subject, however, 
was a mule deer in Canada'sjasper National Park. 



Field Museum of Natural Histonf Bulletin {USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/.'\ugust issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually, S3. 00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
s.irity reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and t)e sent to 
M''mbcrship Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
t..r,'. Rn.seN'eil Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. ISSN:OOI5-0703. Second class 
p;: '-t.'er p.i;d at Chicago. 11. 



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Events 



A Winter Day 
Film Series 

Films are screened on Saturdays. They are free with 
Museum admission and tickets are not required. 

January 12, Nanook of the North — 64 min. 

Lecture Hall I This is Robert Flaherty's first 
2:00 pm film, made in 1922. Through 

masterful attention to detail in 
photography and editing, 
Nanook, his wife, and children 
emerge as recognizable individ- 
uals. Scenes of traditional Eskimo 
culture are juxtaposed with scenes 
of an encroaching Western 
culture. 

January 19, Eskimo Artist Kenojuak — 19 min. 

Hall 18 We see Eskimo life through the 

2:30 pm eyes of Kenojuak, an Eskimo 

wife and mother who makes 
drawings and prints. "Many are 
the thoughts that rush over 
me," she says, "like the wings of 
birds out of darkness." Kenojuak 
transforms these thoughts into 
beautiful images which tell us 
much about the Eskimo's close 
relationship with nature. 

The Owl Who Married a Goose — 
8 min. 

In the solitude of the arctic, a 
goose captures an owl's fancy. 
This brief animated film recounts 
the poignant adventures of this 
unlikely pair Based on an Eskimo 
legend, the story is told using 
Eskimo voices to accompany 
beautiful, shadowlike images. 



January 19, Eskimo Children — 10 min. 

Hall 18 Depicts the search for food during 

the short summer of the Canadian 
Eskimos. This search is aided by 
beautifully decorated tools made 
from bear and seal bones. 

January 26, Eskimo Summer: People of the Seal 

Lecture Hall I — 52 min. 

2:00 pm In 1963-1965, an ethnographic 

film record was made of a Netsi- 
lik family following the tradi- 
tional migratory route used for 
centuries by their ancestors. Since 
that time the Netsilik have aban- 
doned their traditional way of life 
and moved into a permanent gov- 
ernment village. 




Eskimo Expeditions 

Saturday January i2&26, 3:00-4:00 pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

Arctic sunlight reflecting off snow is so strong that 
Eskimos have to be careful of snow blindness. They 
wear special snow goggles with tiny eye openings to 
cut down on the light entering the eyes. Make a pair 
of snow goggles for your own snow-bound 
expedition. 

These features are free with museum admission and 
no tickets are required. 



"Polar Potluck" — a participatory play 

Saturday, January 19, 1:00 pm 

Hall 18 

Your family is cordially invited to a farewell party for 
Karl and Katy Caribou, who are getting ready to mi- 
grate south. Pandora Polar Bear, Samantha Seal, and 
Walter Walrus are planning a big party to send them 
on their way. Participate in this play about arctic 
animals and bid the Caribou Bon Voyage! 

This feature is free with museum admission and no 
tickets are required. continued=o 



CONTINUED from p 3 



Events 



Family Feature 

Aztec Calendar Stone 

Sunday, January 13, 1:00-3:00pm 

January is the time for New Year's resolutions and 
new calendars. The Aztecs of Mexico used a round 
calendar, carved from a single stone; it measured 12 
feet across and weighed 57,000 pounds. The calendar 
was covered with symbols chiseled out of stone that 



named each day of the month. Find out how to read 
this ancient calendar. Make an Aztec-style calendar 
using symbols of your own design. 

Family features are free with museum admission and 
no tickets are required. 







January Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 



January 

5 2:00 pm. Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze 19 
(Slide lecture). Find out about the life and 

works of Malvina Hoffman, concentrating 
on the Portraits of Mankind collection 
commissioned by Field Museum. 20 

6 1 :00 pm. Welcome to the Field (Tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

12 11:30 am. /iMcienfE^y/jf (Tour). Explore the 26 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 

to myths and mummies. 

13 12:30 pm. Fireballs and Shooting Stars: Keys to the 
Universe (Tour) . Discover the origlris, types, 
sizes and importance of meteorites. 

1:00 pm. Museum Safari (Tour). Seek out big 

game from Africa and mummies from ancient 27 

Egypt as you travel through Field Museum 

exhibits. 

1:30 pm. The Brontosaurus Story (Tour). Look at 
some of the newest discoveries about the 
"thunder lizards" and other large dinosaurs. 



2:00 pm. Traditional China (Tour). Examine the 
imagery and craftsmanship represented by 
Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

1 :30 pm. Red Land/ Black Land (Tour). Focus on 
the geography of the Nile Valley and its effect 
on the Egyptians who lived and ruled during 
4,000 years of change in religion and cultures. 

12:30 pm. Treasures from the Totem Forest (Tour). 
A walk through Museum exhibits introduces 
the Indians of southeast Alaska and British 
Columbia, and their totem poles and masks. 

2:30 pm. Chinese Ceramic Traditions. A tour of 
masterworks in the permanent collection 
explores 6,000 years of Chinese ceramic art. 

12:30 pm. Museum Safari (Tour). Seek out big 
game from Africa and mummies from ancient 
Egypt as you travel through Field Museum 
exhibits. 

These public programs are free with museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 



warn 




View of Pitcairn Island, from engraving published in 1667 



Historical Pictures Service. Chicago 



Living Together 

How rapidly did human numbers increase on Pacific Islands 

during prehistoric times? How did these people cope with the 

problems of living together as their numbers increased? 

by JOHN E. TERRELL 

Curator of Oceanic Archaeology and Ethnology 



How can we account for the remar\able diversity of the 
Pacific Islanders in biology, language, and custom? 
Europeans and Americans for more than two hundred 
years have generally found it easy to loo\ at the modem 
world of the Pacific and see there a number of races of 
humankind allegedly differing in physical appearance, 
temperament, achievements, and possibly even in in' 
telligence. Conventional names for these supposed 
races are by now deeply ingrained in V/estem thought: 
Polynesians, Micronesians, Melanesians, Australians, 
Southeast Asians, and other labels for geographically 
more restricted groupings of people. 



In Prehistory and Human Diversity in the Pacif- 
ic Islands, forthcoming from Cambridge University 
Press, ]ohn Terrell argues that simple divisions of 
humanity such as these do not fit the facts, as we actw 
ally Mjiow them, of how people in the Pacific vary in 
biological heritage, traditions, and linguistic convene 
tions. However obvious racial, ethnic, or geographic 
divisions in the Pacific may seem to us today, dis' 

"Living Together" is adapted from ttie book Prehistory and 
Human Diversity in tine Pacific Islands, by John E. Terrell, and 
appears here courtesy of Cambridge University Press, which 
will publish the book in 1985. 



tinctions among people such as these add up to little 
more than a crude, static snapshot of human diversity: 
a picture that gives us little sense of time and a mislead^ 
ing sense of how variation among the Pacific Islanders 
came to be. 

How should a better picture of human diversity in 
the Pacific be put together? Prehistory and Human 
Diversity in the Pacific Islands is an invitation to a 
way ofthin\ing about the past and the causal pathways 
leading to the present that builds on the modem defini' 
tion of science as a continuous dialogue with J^ature 
(including the world of human artifice) joining human 



imagination with logical and empirical methods of 
evaluation. 

The following is an excerpt (somewhat con' 
densed) from the eighth chapter of Terrell's new boo}{. 
In this chapter, called "Living Together," he discusses 
the questions of how fast human numbers could have 
grown on the Pacific Islands in prehistoric times, and 
how people came to handle the problems of living 
together as population increased. He turns to the story 
of a famous mutiny on the high seas and the recorded 
history ofPitcaim Island in modem times to document 
the upper limits of how swiftly human populations can 
grow. — Ed. 



T 

J^ he: 



he story of the mutiny against Captain Wil- 
liam Bligh on board the Bounty in April 1789 has 
been told many times. Bligh had distinguished him- 
self a decade earlier as sailing master on H.M.S. 
Resolution during James Cook's third and last voyage 
to the Pacific. But fable and history alike say Bligh 
was a stem disciplinarian, strong-willed and prone to 
sudden bursts of anger, who was a master of foul, 
stinging rebuke. He finally paid for his quick temper 
by being cast adrift, along with eighteen other offi- 
cers and crew, in the Bounty's launch. Thereafter, he 
once more proved what an uncommonly fine seaman 
he was, for he navigated the small boat 5,822 kilome- 
ters from Tonga, where the mutiny had taken place, 
to Timor In all, twelve of the nineteen men reached 
England alive. 

The mutineers were twenty-five in number By 
the end of September 1789 they had divided into two 
separate parties. Sixteen sought refuge at Tahiti, 
where the islanders welcomed them warmly. Two 
years after the mutiny, H.M.S. Pandora arrived in the 
Society Islands to capture and return the mutineers 
to England to stand trial for their conduct against 
their commander By then there were fourteen. 

The second party, nine mutineers together with 
twelve Polynesian women, six men, and an infant 
girl, went off to Pitcaim, an uninhabited volcanic is- 
land roughly 6 square kilometers in area which had 
been discovered by the explorer Carteret in 1767. 
There they hid from the world until their colony, by 
then thirty-five in number, was found by Captain 
Mayhew Folger of Boston in 1808. 
6 We will never know precisely what happened 



on Pitcaim between the founding of the colony in 
1790 and Folger's arrival. Murder and rebellion had 
evidently so troubled the community that by 1808 
only one mutineer survived, and all six Polynesian 
men w^ere dead. It would be an understatement to say 
living together on Pitcaim had been more difficult 
than life on board the Bounty. 

The mutiny on the Bounty and the early years of 
settlement on Pitcaim are both celebrated examples 
of the difficulties of living together, of adapting not to 
impersonal forces in the environment such as drought 
or typhoons, but to the needs, demands, and even the 
physical presence of others. Since we are looking first 
of all at how fast or how slowly human numbers can 
grow, it is instructive to observe how much, or more 
accurately how little, the murderous early years on 
Pitcaim endangered the Bounty's small colony 
there. 

Some of the conflicts dealt with on Pitcaim in 
the years immediately following the establishment of 
the mutineer colony \vere, of course, more or less 
unique to that time and place. By the end of 1793, 
treachery had cut down the number of adult males in 
the community from fifteen to only four The reasons 
behind this early bloodshed apparently involved the 
shortage of women, highhanded treatment of the 
Polynesian men by the mutineers, lust for revenge, 
and possibly poor leadership as well. According to a 
naval captain who visited the island in 1814, the ring- 
leader of the mutiny and nominal head of the little 
colony, Fletcher Christian, committed so many acts 
of Avanton oppression after landing, he "very soon in- 
curred the hatred and detestation of his companions 



M^.V. am ' 



in crime, over \vhoin he practised the same overbear- 
ing conduct of which he accused his commander 
Bligh." 

Regardless of Christian's conduct as leader, the 
other reasons mentioned for the rapid decline in the 
number of adult males can hardly be generalized to fit 
other occasions of island colonization in the Pacific. 
Of broader interest, therefore, is how the survivors 
after 1793 handled growing human numbers follo\V' 
ing their self-induced and decidedly bloody ecological 
crunch — their sudden loss of so many men of repro- 
ductive age — at the very beginning of settlement. 

In spite of this loss, the colony survived and 
slowly increased in size. Between 1793 and 1800 
there were seventeen births and only one infant 
death. However, between 1801 and about 1805 — 
when Thursday October Christian, the first male 
child bom on the island, married Teraura, one of the 
Tahitian women who had arrived with the mutineers 
— the only adult male still living was the mutineer 
known to history both as Alexander Smith and as 
John Adams (the name Smith preferred). It is worth 
looking closer at his story, for it shows how custom 
and human values may influence the biological suc- 
cess of human groups. 



Thursday October Christian, son of mutiny leader Fletcher Christian 
and the first male born on Pitcairn Island. 
















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7 

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Bounty mutineer Alexander Smith, alias John Adams, sought to have 
Pitcairn Islanders transported to Tasmania or Australia, fearing that 
the island was in danger of overpopulation. 

According to some biologists today, human 
beings — and animals in general — seek to maximize 
their reproductive success. That is, people are pur- 
portedly driven by some sort of inner urge or instinct 
to produce as many children as they can. The case of 
Alexander Smith, alias John Adams, belies the 
generality of such thinking. Finding himself the pat- 
riarch of Pitcairn after the last other mutineer had 
died, apparently of asthma, around 1800, he turned to 
religion rather than to all the remaining Polynesian 
women. He and his wife Teio produced his last child, 
a boy, in 1804. That child was the only birth on Pit- 
cairn between 1801 and the latter half of that decade: 
when Thursday October Christian and his bride 
(who was twice his age) began to add to the popula- 
tion following their marriage. 

When Captain Folger discovered the Pitcairn 
colonists in 1808, their number comprised the two 
males we have just spoken of, their wives, seven 
other adult women who were not then bearing chil- 
dren, and a total of twenty-four children (thirteen 
males and eleven females, ranging in age from a few 
weeks to eighteen years). From 1810 onward, mar- 
riages among the young adults increased and the 
number of people on the island grew enormously at 
the swift rate of about 3.7 percent each year: a rate 
so high, numbers on Pitcairn were doubling every 
twenty years. 

Fear of overpopulation on Pitcairn troubled 
John Adams from an early date. In December 1825 he 
asked Captain F. W. Beechey of the warship H.M.S. 
Blossom for assistance in the possible transportation 



hhstorical Pictures Setvice, Chicago 




The church on Pitcairn Island. From a mid-nineteenth-century engraving. 



of the islanders to Australia or Tasmania. Where and 
when to take them were discussed by the British 
Admiralty and the Colonial Office. The islanders, 
however, were later found to be unwilling to aban' 
don Pitcairn. Thereafter, the British government was 
uncertain how best to proceed, partly from its reluc- 
tance to break up so happy, hospitable, and pious a 
community in the heathen Pacific. 

John Adams's fear of overpopulation did not go 
unchallenged. An estimate by Captain William Wal- 
degrave of H. M.S. Seringapatam, which called at Pit- 
cairn in March 1830, set the island's size as large 
enough to maintain 1,000 souls. Back in England, this 
generous estimate was greeted with skepticism. Sir 
John Barrow, second secretary to the Admiralty, 
agreed that the island's population was increasing 
rapidly. He accepted there was a limit to the number 
of people it could support, just as Malthus had 
warned in his Essay on the Principle of Population, 
first published in 1798. In fact, Barrow suspected the 
island's insufficiency to support large numbers might 
explain why its ancient population had sought asy- 



lum elsewhere. Even so, he concluded the Pitcairn 
Islanders would be safe from any want of food for half 
a century at least. 

These early calculations of Pitcaim's capacity to 
carry its growing human numbers neglected to allow 
for ecological crunches now and then: in particular, 
for shortages of water. Severe drought and crop fail- 
ure in 1830 finally moved public opinion on the island 
more in favor of emigration. In 1831 the entire colony 
was taken on board the Government Bark Lucy Ann 
and removed to Tahiti. There they remained scarcely 
five months before they went back to Pitcairn. Sick- 
ness had so ravaged them while they were away, their 
numbers were reduced by sixteen deaths through this 
brief misadventure. 

The dangers of overpopulation, water shortage, 
and crop failure once again became all too apparent 
by the 1850s. There was another severe drought in 
1853. Rosalind Amelia Young, a native of Pitcairn, 
related in 1894 that the people had been obliged back 
then to eat whatever they could find, unripe pump- 
kins forming their principal diet. Not long afterwards 



sickness plagued them, as it had on numerous earlier 
occasions. During the follow^ing twelve months, 
Young tells us, "life gradually assumed its ordinary, 
monotonous round; but every day was bringing near- 
er the day when everything -was to be changed." 

That change was the emigration of the islanders 
once again, not to Tahiti this time, but to Norfolk 
Island. On 2 May 1856 the entire population of 193 
people was removed on the vessel Morayshire. On the 
9th of May, there was a birth at sea, a male child, 
while they were in transit. Young records that the 
islanders found Norfolk on their arrival to be a land 
flowing with milk and honey: there were large num- 
bers of strong, healthy cattle and the honey of wild 
bees was free for the taking from hollow trees. But 
not all took to their new home. Two families, 16 peo- 
ple in all, went back to Pitcaim in 1858. There they 
were joined by 26 more in 1863. 

The number of people living on Pitcaim grew 
once again, reaching a high in 1937 of 23 3. During the 
present century, numbers have fluctuated signifi- 
cantly because of individual and family emigration — 
particularly after World War II. Although the total 
population in 1961 was 126, there were only 19 men 
under sixty. There were 74 people in 1976. And only 
44 in 1982. 

The story of increasing human numbers on Pit- 
caim and the threat there of overpopulation illus- 
trates one problem of living together that must have 
confronted prehistoric settlers on all but perhaps the 
largest islands in the Pacific. What happened on Pit- 
caim, in fact, may tell us about the most extreme rates 
of population growth that people any\vhere have 
ever had to deal with for very long. In the years be- 
tween 1810 and the disastrous migration to Tahiti — 
when the proportion of young adults was high — the 
average annual rate of increase was 3.9 percent. In 
comparison, growth rates for the Pacific as a whole 
since 1800 are thought to have gone from a low of 
0.9 percent between 1800 and 1850 to a high of 2.7 
percent during the decade 1950-60. The present 
estimated rate of growth in the Pacific is about 
2.0 percent. 

This one example dra-wn from the early history 
of modern colonization in the Pacific has helped us 
establish the upper limits to how fast human numbers 
could have grown in prehistoric times. Of course the 
one case of Pitcaim Island does not prove, or even 



Maria Christian. Ellen Quintal, and Sara McCoy — descendants of 
Bounty mutineers and residents of Pitcaim Island. From an 1888 
engraving. 



necessarily suggest, that ancient island colonies grew 
at such astonishingly high rates of increase. Given 
present knowledge, we can only guess what were the 
usual prehistoric rates of growth, and any estimates 
we make must try to take into account differing risks 
and possibilities from one island or archipelago to 
another. But knowing what the upper limits of 
growth are likely to have been should give us a clearer 
sense — as research on the prehistory of the Pacific 
continues — of how soon and how pressing the prob- 
lems of population growth might have affected island 
life in former times. 

In writing about the prehistory of the islanders 
we will also need to take into account that there is a 
limit, as well, to the number of w^ays in which anyone 
can respond to growing human numbers (if all we are 
talking about is controlling the natural rate of in- 
crease). So it is possible to say at least a little about 




how islanders might have tried to cope with the 
threat of overpopulation. Emigration is one possible 
mechanism of population control, a mechanism that 
stands out prominently in the nineteenth-century 
history of Pitcaim Island. Other mechanisms that 



least by present mores. Alternatively, John Adams's 
"failure" to wed all the adult women he was left with 
on Pitcaim after 1800 may be seen, at least superfi' 
cially, as a case of falling short of maximum repro' 
ductive effort. 



250 n 



CO 200- 

cc 

LU 

m 

ID 150- 



Q. 

o 



100- 



50- 



POPULATION ON PITCAIRN ISLAND 1790-1976 




RETURN FROM 
NORFOLK ISLAND 



—I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 r— T 1 1 I I 

1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 

TIME 



10 



could have been used to keep numbers down include 
birth control, marrying late, infanticide, suicide, 
and warfare. 

What about the reverse of overpopulation? 
What could people in the Pacific have done to avoid 
the "death," or extinction, of island colonies? In 
general it is more difficult for people to maximize 
births and minimize deaths. The human species is not 
one that produces a large number of offspring at every 
birth, and the period of time between human births is 
usually a year, or two, or even more. Thus, it is diffi- 
cult for our species to counterbalance high death 
rates with equally high birth rates. Yet here, too, Pit- 
caim illustrates one move that people could have 
made to increase the number of offspring being pro- 
duced: they could have loosened social constraints on 
marriage, or at least on sexual intercourse. The mar- 
riage on Pitcaim around 1805 between a boy of four- 
teen or fifteen and a woman twice his age would be 
an example of a loosening of social constraints, at 



Talk of "maximum reproductive effort" implies, 
however, that people may try, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, to produce as many babies as they can. We 
will never be able to know for certain how often peo- 
ple in the Pacific acted as if that was one of their goals 
in life, biologically speaking. So the best we may 
someday be able to achieve in telling the story of the 
islanders will be to determine where and under what 
circumstances it would have made a real difference to 
what happened in prehistory if people had, in fact, 
acted to maximize their colony's rate of population 
growth. 

While we have not looked at all possible facets 
of how fast human numbers could have grown since 
settlers had founded a new colony on some uninhab- 
ited island, let us assume that biological success as 
witnessed by growing human numbers was achieved 
there. How might people have come to handle the 
problems of living together as population mounted 
higher and higher? 



Continued on p. 19 



IF ... . Charity Begins at Home, . 
THE ULTIMATE GIFT 



Here is 



* It helps you while it helps the Museum . . . 

* It gives you a lifetime income . . . . 

* It gives you an immediate income tax deduction .... 
^ It gives you an estate tax deduction .... 

^ It unlocks capital gains, yet. . . . 

^ It relieves you of any capital gains tax . . . . 

* It perpetuates your name and your giving . . . . 

* It gives you great self-satisfaction . . . . 

^ It helps to ensure the future of Field Museum. 

THE ULTIMATE GIFT FIELD MUSEUM 

POOLED INCOME FUND 



IRS approved, the Pooled Income Fund 
is a trust in which the gifts of several 
donors are comingled. Your gift of 
$10,000 minimum mil credit you with 
"Units" in the Pooled Income Fund. 
Based on the number of "Units" your 
gift represents (and you can add in in- 
crements of $1,000 multiple), you are 
given a monthly income for life. You can 
even name a second beneficiary to follow 
you. 



After your life, or upon the death of the 
last beneficiary, the money represented by 
your "Units" is transferred to the Field 
Museum General Endowment Fund 
. . . where your gift perpetuates your 
giving and honors your name. Income 
from the Endoivment helps support each 
annual Operating Budget. Thus, your 
gift becomes ". . .as perpetual as nat- 
ural history itself. . . " 



CUP AND MAIL TODAY! 

TO: Planned Giving Office Field Museum of Natural History 
East Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

Gentlemen: 

Please send, without obligation, your free brochure on the Field Museum 

Pooled Income Fund. 

Also send information on other forms of giving other than cash. 



NAME (PUase Print) 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



I can be reached at: Bus. : (_ 



STATE 



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Home: ( }_ 



TELEPHONE 

Best time to call: (Day) 



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ANNOUNCING... 

12-inch replica of 

Field Museum's 

Big Beaver Totem Pole 

with lesend. 

$10.00 

($9.00 for Members) 




Now you can own the beauty and grace of 
Norman Tait's work of art and help support 
the Field Museum and its activities. 

An ideal gift! 

For telephone orders, call (312) 922-94D, 
ext. 236. 

For mail orders, send check or money order to 
Museum Store, Field Museum of Natural 
FHistory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II 60605. 

Please indude appropriate sales tax and $2.00 
for shipping. Visa, MasterCard, and American 
Express cards accepted. 



U 



Mushroom Mania: 
Is It for You? 



by Martyn J. Dibben 

Photos by the author 



A 



. decade or two ago the promotional line "myco' 
legists have more fungi " was a rallying call for the 
professional student. Today, the phrase is more broad' 
ly applicable as informed amateurs from all walks of 
life, interested in the edible qualities of wild mush' 
rooms, have discovered that the fungus among us is 
not necessarily so evil after all. The Great Lakes 
region is blessed with an excess of 2,000 fleshy fungi 
that might be called mUshroom, but of these, maybe 
only 50 to 100 (some 2.5 to 5.0 percent) are potential- 
ly edible. When one considers frequency of occurrence, 
quantity of production, and reliable identification in 
the field, the average mycophagist (mushroom eater) re- 
quires familiarity with only some half-dozen or fewer 
species unless he becomes an ardent lover of fungi. 

The United States is a melting pot of ethnic origins, 
yet today's generations are woefully ignorant of past 
practices in the use of wild mushrooms. While EurO' 



The Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, a choice, shelflike edible 
found on trunks or stumps of many deciduous trees. Two to eight 
inches broad, it may be found year-round. 




pean countries maintain the tradition of selling some 
30 different species in their local food markets, Amer- 
ica has gloried in the mass production of just the 
white form of Agancus bisporus — a hybrid cousin of 
the Field Mushroom, or Champion. Cultivation of 
this fungus began near Paris in the seventeenth cen' 
tury and today France's capital has hundreds of miles 
of mushroom beds in suburban caves, tunnels, and 
sheds. But more pounds are consumed each year in 
the United States than in any European nation, and 
what was once a cottage industry is today a major 
commercial enterprise. The largest mushroom opera' 
tion in the world is the Butler County Mushroom 
Farm, 30 miles northeast of Pittsburgh. It, and the 
famed Kennett Square area of Chester County, Penn' 
sylvania, account for half the USA's production. 
Pickers wearing miners' hats \vith lamps gather each 
month's harvest for transport by refrigerated van 
to canning and produce centers as far away as 
Milwaukee. 

Eating mushrooms was a common practice in Re 
man times, and dignitaries designated such fare cihus 
diorum, or "food of the gods." Yet, Emperor Claudius 
Caesar's favorite, Amanita caesaria, is a close relative 
of some of our most deadly fungi. Although slaves 
were employed to distinguish between different 
kinds, Claudius was finally dispatched by a plate of 
mushrooms supplementarily poisoned by his v/ife, 
Agrippina, with son Nero's help. Because of similar 
histories and a plethora of folklore, a goodly portion 
of today's Americans remain reluctant to eat edible 
fungi (including the commercial products), although 
personally they may not be allergic to mushrooms. 
And where this mycophobia is as strong as the fear of 
snakes or spiders in others, the concerned individuals 
resort to needlessly destroying each season's crop of 
short'lived fruit bodies. 

Mushroom lore actually matches a given nation's 
fear of or fervor for fungi. Mycophobia is as prevalent 
today among the Greek, Iberian, and Scandinavian 
cultures as it was among America's earliest colonists, 
whose unbridled terror of fungi overshadowed the 
native Indians' use of wild plants. The British, in par- 

"Mushroom Mania: Is It for You?" is reprinted from Lore, with 
minor emendations, courtesy the Milwaukee Public Museum. 

Martyn Dibben is a surviving mycophagist and head of the Mil' 
wau}{ee Public Museum's Section of Botany. He is a past president 
of both the Botanical Club ofWisconsin and the Wiicomin Myco' 
logical Society. A lichenologist by profession, he wor}{s on the Mid' 
west flora, the lichens of Central America, and selected taxafrom 
the tropics and southern hemisphere continents. 



ticular, considered nearly all mushrooms poisonous 
and derisively called them "toadstools," a misleading 
term that is best dropped in favor of "edible" versus 
"nonedible" species. Love of fungi is more typical of 
Far Eastern and Southeast Asian races and those 
mycophiles of Europe, the French, Italians, Poles, 
and Russians. These groups are no'w exerting their 
influence on the American market; but this is not to 
say that others are unaware of the virtue of truffles, 
the elegance of the King Bolete, or the call of spring 
morels. 

Sparked primarily by a renewed interest in natural 
foods, increasing numbers of "shroom hunters" are 
taking to the fields and forests. Stalking the wild 
mushroom has for some become a thriving American 
sport — mycology is mushrooming. It constitutes the 
perfect rainyday activity, with all the thrills of the 
chase, an open season, far better chance for success 
than any fishing trip, and more exercise than watch' 
ing one's favorite athletic event. However, even 
though armed with a diversity of current field guides 
and brimming with excitement from a recent ex- 
tension course, the modem enthusiast may still be 
courting disaster, for the dangers of mushrooming 
are atypical in that they follow you back home after 
the sport. Identification is the }{ey, but like all things 
biological, fungi are subject to variation and the 
vagaries of look-alikes. There are no shortcuts to 
determining edible versus poisonous species, and con- 







4 


■B: fl^*IV . 




_^M^ ^^^^Hk.. ..JOiS 'JBit^B^V 








^■SSi^^^lM^SdHBawKE^. fU 


"■--■^i-.. 


. . j%, ^S-'^.^s.-^-''^--Wl 


-% 







The Wolf's Milk, or Toothpaste, Slime Mold, Lycogala epidendrum, 
widely distributed throughout the world, commonly occurring on 
large, wet logs. No slime molds are considered edible, but most are 
beautiful. 



fidence comes only with knowledge built up over the 
years. A mycophagist must know his mushrooms (as a 
sportsman his prey) or seek the help of an expert or 
well-informed comrade. 

In the USA, professional mycologists traditionally 
join the Mycological Society of America, which pro- 
motes scientific meetings and publishes the technical 
journal Mycologia. But many now also belong to a 
growing amateur group, NAMA — North American 



For the Novice Mushrooni'Seeker: A Cautionary Note 



The native peoples of northeastern Afortfi America did not 
ma]{e extensive use of mushrooms in their diet, but many 
cultures of Europe have centuries'old traditions of mush' 
room use. There appears to be an underlying environmental 
reason for this difference: the poisonous mushrooms ofCen' 
tral Europe are fewer in number and easier to identify than 
those of eastern J^orth America. (A curious footnote to this 
phenomenon is the fact that the European form of one species 
is edible while the J^orth American form of the same species 
is poisonous!) Unfortunately, many Europeans who have 
settled in our area have been unaware of the fact that 
mushroom identification here is much more difficult. 
7<[ot unexpectedly, many mushroom'poisoning victims have 
been immigrants from those countries or members of their 
families. 

Mycologists at Field Museum are regularly asl{ed by 
local hospitals to identify the stomach contents of patients 
believed to have eaten poisonous fungi (the toxin, hence 
the treatment, differs for different species). ^ic\ action 
by physicians and new methods of treatment have greatly 



reduced mortalities due to mushroom poisoning — but the 
hazard remains a serious one. It is especially unfortunate 
that some deadly mushrooms may be very attractive to the 
palate: an additional problem is that the victim may not 
realize for several hours (after the toxin has passed from the 
gastrointestinal tract into the blood stream and vital organs) 
that he or she is acutely ill. 

A final argument against pic\ing wild mushrooms — or 
any other wild plants for that matter — is an ecological one. 
Our native forests have been radically contracted by agri- 
cultural development, industrial encroachment, road build' 
ing, and man's continual demand for more living space. If 
even a small percentage ofChicagoland's seven million resi- 
dents regularly collect wild mushrooms and plants in the few 
remaining areas of natural vegetation, we will see a serious 
decline and the likely extinction of those edible species in our 
area. V/itness the scarcity of the edible morel, or sponge 
mushroom — now far less common in our area than fifty years 
ago. — Ed. 



13 




The delicious Yellow Morel, Morchella esculenta, 3 to 5 inches tall, is 
the prize midseason find of the Great Lakes area's several sponge 
mushrooms. 



Mycological Association, which promotes both 
mycophagy and the scholarly pursuit of macrofungi 
and their medical implications. Affiliated with 
NAMA are some 30'plus regional groups, including 
the Illinois Mycological Society, which meets at Field 
Museum on the first Monday of each month. NAMA 
and its affiliates publish a series of monthly, bimonth- 
ly, or quarterly newsletters, which release informa- 
tion on popular mushroom activities across the na- 
tion. An irregular journal, Mdlvainea, contains more 



The False t\/lorel, Gyromitra esculenta, shown in face and sectioned 
views, is found only beneath conifers. Best avoided, it has a variable 
toxicity level for man. 




lengthy papers, keys, and critical reports on toxicity 
matters. It commemorates Charles Mcllvaine, the 
father of published accounts on the edibility of North 
American mushrooms. If you wish to learn more 
about fungi and are interested in nonedibles as well as 
gastronomic delights, then the recommendation is to 
join such a local group. 

To the Greek philosophers, mushrooms were cre- 
ated by lightning bolts and rain. Not so bad a guess 
considering today we know that macrofungus fruit- 
ing is effected by a triggered intake of water. Rapid 
absorption follows, engorging a preformed and fre- 
quently substrate-buried miniature version of the ma- 
ture fruit, transforming it overnight into the fleshy 
and recognizable carp characteristic for each species. 
In the Middle Ages such phenomena led toadstools to 
be relegated to the realm of the occult, and many folk- 
tales rose with regard to human diseases created by 
eating or touching them. Fairy rings were supposedly 
places where elves danced, toads met, deer rutted, or 
the devil set his chum at night. And many of these 
ideas became classic when incorporated into the writ- 
ings of Chaucer, Shakespeare, and their contemporar- 
ies, as seen more recently, \vhen Alice in Wonderland 
could grow or shrink according to which Amanita 
she nibbled on. 

Today we know that mushrooms are nothing more 
than the exposed spore-producing bodies of a sub- 
terranean or host-buried series of elongate fungal cells 
(hyphae) that mesh together to form an elaborate 
filamentous mycelium. This absorbs nutrient from 
within the substrate through which it spreads. From 
a central point of spore inoculation, the fiangal tissue 
moves out in all directions until restricted by barriers 
or increased biological competition. When con- 
ditions are physiologically correct a ring of fruit bod- 
ies is created near the outer border With time the 
ring relationship becomes indiscernible unless the 
habitat is open grassland. In such areas as Kansas's 
flatlands, Colorado's alpine meadows, or England's 
Salisbury Plain around the ruins of Stonehenge, ma- 
ture fairy rings 400 to 650 years old remain, having 
originated before Columbus's landing in America. 

Picking species of Agaricus, Clitocybe, and Maras' 
mius (the true Fairy Ring Mushroom) is not detri- 
mental to the mycelium so long as overripe and im- 
mature specimens are left intact. But overpicking 
with consequent or deliberate habitat damage is of 
serious concern. In Europe, seasonal quotas have had 
to be imposed on certain marketable species for fear of 
eradication, while in North America the biggest 



problems relate to trespass in search of "magic mush- 
rooms" for mind alteration. Hallucinogenic mush- 
rooms have long had religious significance in both 
Eurasia (the Fly Agaric — Amanita muscaria) and 
Mesoamerica (the psilocybin mushrooms — Paw 
aeolus, Psilocyhe, or Stropharia). But today's North 
American officiants are not shamans, and the experi- 
ence sought is personal "recreation," thanks to Blue 
Legs and Liberty Bells. Though the pharmaceutical 
industry's interest in these fungal groups is valid as a 
search for tranquilizers, many amateurs who seek re- 
lief by means of spotted agarics or ground-dwelling 
"little brown mushrooms" do not realize the dangers 
of confusing their targets with similar but deadly 
Amanita or Galerina mushrooms. 

Although mycologists are botanists, fungi are not 
plants but nongreen spore-producing organisms and 
members of their own biological kingdom. Their lack 
of chlorophyll to absorb sunlight and manufacture 
their own food via photosynthesis means they must 
invade already formed organic matter to obtain 
nourishment. Those that attack dead material are 
called saprophytes and play a major world role as 
decomposers. Those that attack living material, caus- 
ing disease and eventually killing it are called para^ 
sites. While some fungi release enzymes that can be 
deadly, others play an essential role in baking, brew- 
ing, the manufacture of organic acids, the production 
of medical drugs, and in the dairy industry. Fungi are 
thus the third planet's most valued converters, 
enrichers, and synthesizers. Yet, many mushroom 
mycelia form a symbiotic relationship with roots of 
their living host. This intimate interaction is known 
as a mycorrhizal (fungus-root) association, and 
through it a cyclic transfer of host organic products 
and fungal minerals occurs. Perhaps sixty percent of 
macrofungi occur this way and are limited not by sub- 
strate specificity but by the occurrence of a specific 
tree or forest type. And the mycorrhizal role may reach 
out to a third partner linking that and the tree, as, for 
example, with the chlorophyll-lacking Indian Pipes. 





Understanding the ecology and distribution of 
mushrooms is a complex matter, for not all species 
fruit regularly or in the same place. Seasonality may 
mean yearly or twice yearly for one species, periodi- 



The hard, pore-surfaced Artist's Conk, Ganoderma applanatum, 
grows up to 20 inches wide. Tliis specimen is providing a feast for tiny 
thrips insects: but the tough, tannin-loaded mushroom is not edible 
for humans. 



cally for another, and many years between fruitings 
for a third. Those woody conks found on tree trunks 
are perennial, but most fleshy fruit bodies last only a 
^veek or two, and mushroom and mycologist may not 
meet. Obviously those fiingi less frequently encoun- 
tered are the ones we know least about, but we do 
know that most carps are phenomenal producers of 
spores. A perennial conk like the Artist's Palette 
(Ganoderma applanatum) or a large specimen of the 
Giant Calvatia Puffball may produce yearly more 
than five trillion spores. Most eaten gilled or pored 
mushrooms produce many million to several billion 
spores. We must be thankful that most spores fail to 
germinate successfully, otherwise we would be over- 
endowed with fungi rather than the organic debris 
they so fortunately degenerate. 

Often highly resistant to drying and freezing, the 
various-shaped spores of fungi are nearly weightless 
and easily sw^ept into the atmosphere by air currents. 
Trapping records detect them floating five or more 
miles high, and they can travel for hundreds or thou- 
sands of miles before settling or being deposited by 
rain. Not all spores ride the wind, however, those of 
subterranean fungi (truffles and false truffles) and the 
stinkhorns requiring animal intervention for dis- 
persal; via ingestion and subsequent broadcast in 
droppings or by the adherence of gelatinous spore 
masses to body parts, respectively. Other fungi ex- 
hibit unique spore release methods, from the light- 
triggered firing of spores in the dung fungus, Pilobolus, 



15 




16 



The Sickener, Russula emetica, is a delight to the eye but will cause 
vomiting if eaten. 



through the ballistic firing of spore balls by the Can- 
non Fungus, Sphaerobolus stellatus, to the rain- 
splashed dispersal of peridioles ("eggs") from within 
the cups of Bird's Nest Fungi. 

Spring is morel season — a special time for mush- 
room hunters. Yet, more secrecy surrounds the hunt- 
ing and finding of these fungi than exists for the best 
fishing holes. Honeycomb, or sponge, mushrooms are 
a gourmet's delight, and in the Midwest, Boyne City, 
Michigan currently claims the title of "morel capital 
of the world," holding an annual National Mushroom 
Festival each May. The weekend affair may result in 
visitors collecting more than 20,000 specimens that 
nationally can fetch up to $8 per pound. The Michi- 
gan AAA reported that over a half-million people 
hunted the state during May of last year. But Chica- 
goans are as likely to join Wisconsinites in the Spring 
Green area and travel west to morel fairs at Muscoda 
and Richland Center 

Fungal diversity reaches its peak in the fall season, 
and this is when most mushroom societies are likely 
to hold their fairs and forays. Each year NAMA runs 
a national foray in a different North American loca- 
tion; 1984's September meeting was outside Toronto. 
This was the first time since the 1967 inception of the 
national society that a meeting has been held in 
Canada. Mushroom fairs have traditionally been run 
by the older societies of America's east and west 
coasts. But recently Colorado has become a popular 
site and developed a complementary series of amateur 
and professional summer mushroom conferences 
associated with the nation's central Rocky Mountain 



Poison Center. Wisconsin initiated in 1984 its first 
Fall Mushroom Fair, based on a liaison between the 
Milwaukee Public Museum and the Wisconsin 
Mycological Society. 

For the sake of simplicity, the fungal kingdom may 
be considered to have four major divisions — only the 
last two of which form edible mushrooms. One, the 
Myxomycetes, or Slime Molds, whose life cycle 
includes a stage with animal-like movement of cells; 
these multiply, aggregate together, and travel as a 
cellular ooze across substrates engulfing bacteria 
prior to forming each species' identifiable fruit bod- 
ies. Two, the Phycomycetes, or Thread Fungi, whose 
invading mycelia go unnoticed until decay or disease 
set in and fruiting occurs; included here are the bread 
molds, water molds, dow^ny mildews, and white rusts 
that in part were responsible for Ireland's potato crop 
failure of the 1840s and its subsequent wave of New 
World emigrants. Three, the Ascomycetes, or Sac 
Fungi, which produce their spores within a case 
(ascus) from which they are forcibly ejected at matur- 
ity; these embrace the powdery mildews (earth's 
most notorious crop ravagers), the commercially 
important blue and green molds, yeasts, truffles, and 
morels, as well as the highly successful alga-fungus 
symbioses known as lichens. Four, the Basidi- 
omycetes, or Club Fungi, that form their spores 
terminally on short stalks developed from a swollen 
basidium from which they drop; the agriculturally 
important rusts and smuts occur here, along with the 
majority of fleshy fungi whose form can vary from 
umbrella-shaped to shelflike, cup-shaped to clublike, 
and ball-shaped to matlike, with spores produced 
internally or externally on teeth, on flat surfaces with 
or without convolutions, or lining gills or tubes. 

Mushrooms lack the energy content of most food 
plants, but they are often higher in protein, produc- 
ing all of the amino acids essential to human growth. 
They are of course low in calories, a good source of 
mineral and trace elements (especially iron, copper, 
and phosphorus), and relatively rich in vitamins C 
and D and those of the B-complex. Although devoid 
of vitamin A and low in those essential amino acids 
found in meat, mushrooms are especially rich in those 
amino acids lacking in most staple cereal foods. The 
Glasshouse Crops Institute of England has estimated 
that whereas fish farming yields about nine times the 
dry protein per acre of beef farming, mushroom farm- 
ing can yield around 100 times as much, or approx- 
imately 7,000 pounds per acre annually. When one 
additionally considers the low cost of mycelium sub- 



strate, mushroom farming has much going for it. 

On a global scale, the White Button Mushroom is 
still the most commonly cultivated fungus, its 
laboratorygrown mycelium (spawn) being sown on a 
mixture of farm litter, hay, and crushed com cobs. But 
Asians are as familiar with the Rice Straw, or Paddy, 
Mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) of China and the 
Black Forest, or Shiitake, Mushroom (Lentinus 
edodes) of Japan, the latter farmed outdoors on hard- 
wood logs. Both of these are now grown as a cottage 
industry in the United States as well as strains of the 
Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus and relatives), 
which causes spore allergies among some Europeans, 
the Velvet Stem, or Enokotake (Flammulina velutipes), 
that in the wild will fruit even under snow; and 
the Wine Cup {Stropharia rugosoannulata). 

Other species that warrant attempted domestica- 
tion or half-culture include the Pine, or Matsutake, 
Mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake); selected chan- 
terelles including the GiroUe (Cantherellus spp.); the 
Milk Mushroom (Lactarius deliciosus); selected spe- 
cies of False Morels (Gyromitra spp.) — although this 
one is questionable; the Blewit (Clitocybe nuda); the 
porous mushroom {Boletus edulis), variously known 
as Borowiki, Cep, Porcini, or Steinpilz; species of 
Craterellus like the Horn of Plenty and Black Trum- 
pet; the jelly fungus Cloud Ears {Auricularia spp.); 
the Giant Puffball; the Choice Hedgehog, or Sweet 
Tooth (Dentinum repandum); the French truffle and 
alternatives, and the various morels. 

Many of these are already available on supermar- 
ket shelves as canned or dried wild collections, but 
only the truffles and morels currently show promise 
of commercial success. Cultivated seedlings of appro- 
priate hardwoods impregnated with Tuber melano' 
sporum are available in Texas and California, but 
whether such farming of the Perigord truffle (already 
successful in France after seven years) in the United 
States will outshine the Oregon White is not yet 
known. Developed for marketing, American truffles 
are more likely to compete with the Italian product 
and not drastically affect the gourmet price of the 
French (often more than $350 per pound fresh or $20 
dollars an ounce canned). Progress is being eagerly 
watched by world authority James Trappe and the 
North American Truffling Society. More difficult is 
the elusive cultivation of the morel, which until 1981 
had defied successful repetitive laboratory fruiting. 
Ronald Ower's pioneering work in San Francisco has 
now been repeated by scientists at Michigan State 
University, and the two have contracted to develop 




The Slippery Jack, Suillus luteus, is one of the many, mostly edible 
boletes. Found under spruce and pine stands, it grows 2 to 6 inches 
tall. The cap slime must be removed before eating. 



their still secret process to the point of commercial 
success. The world is waiting! 

One element of folklore that is for real is "foxfire," 
the colloquial name of the natural bioluminescence 
exhibited by an assemblage of gilled fijngi that invade 
wood. Most common among mushroom species from 
the tropics, the responsible photogen "luciferin" pro- 
duces light ranging in color from blue to green to yel- 
low. Rarely formed in freed spores, it can cause the 
ground beneath fruit bodies to glow at night. But 
more often it is the mushroom itself or its aggregated 
hyphal strands that luminesce. In North America 
two prevalent examples are (1) the rhizomorphs of 



The Hen of the Woods, Grifolia frondosa, is a choice, late fall edible 
weighing up to 20 pounds. Often found near oaks or other deciduous 
trees in mixed woods. 



J^  y)J^^y 






44,-' ' '^ ^ 


^ ^^ '^^1 





17 




The poisonous Pigskin Puffball, Scleroderma citrlnum, grows 2 to 4 
inches across. Readily identified, on sectioning, by the purple color 
of its mature spore mass. 



the virulent hardwood parasite Armillariella mellea 
that permeate downed trunks (its fruit body is the 
edible Honey Cap, or Banana, Mushroom responsible 
for aborting fructifications of the agaric Entoloma 
abortivum), and (2) the gills of the pumpkin-colored 
poisonous mushroom Omphalotus olearins, which is 
frequently mistaken for a chanterelle. (Known appro- 
priately as Old Stomachache, or Jack O'Lantem, its 
tissues have the distinction of turning green on cook- 
ing — a character not seen for any edible mushroom.) 
Space does not permit a discourse on the structural 
variances of the more common fleshy fungi, which 
are best learned in the laboratory or in the field 
accompanying others who are knowledgeable. But 
comments on how best to avoid being poisoned are 
pertinent, since there is no fool-proof way for a novice 
to separate edible from nonedible species: 

Collecting Tips 

• Know the deadly poisonous mushrooms of your 
area (Amanitas, Galerinas, certain false morels) and 
those likely to induce severe illness (some Clitocybes, 
most Inocybes and Entolomas, selected Inky Caps, 
also known as Coprinus, certain members of the 
genera Hebeloma, Lactarius, Russula, and Tricholo^ 
ma) or hallucinogenic effects (Gymnopilus, Van- 
aeolus, Fsilocybe, or Stropharia spp.). 

• Discard belief in folklore. Poisonous mushrooms 
do not darken onions, potatoes, or silver placed in the 
cooking pot. Parboiling, drying, or salting removes 
poisons from only some mushrooms — not all. Poi- 
sonous mushrooms do not grow only on Avood; they 
also occur on dung and on the the ground. You cannot 
be poisoned by touching a dangerous mushroom. 

18 • Do not eat any mushroom whose stalk arises 



from a fleshy cup buried in the ground or which has a 
bulbous base. Also avoid any white-capped species 
with white gills and any "little brown mushrooms" 
from the woods. This will eliminate many hard-to- 
identify species, including the deadly Amanita and 
Galerina mushrooms. 

• When collecting pored boletes avoid those with 
red pores or that stain blue on bruising, and remove 
the pored surface prior to cooking. When collecting 
milk mushrooms (Lactarius spp.) do not expect the 
color of the exuded gill latex to determine edibility. 
When collecting corals (C/avaria-like relatives or 
Ramaria spp.) do not eat those that stain on bruising 
or taste bitter in the field. 

• Do not use wild mushrooms in the button stage 
nor eat any puffball unless it is pure white inside and 
of marshmallow consistency. Half-section the puff- 
ball to ensure that (1) each is not a stinkhom or but- 
ton with outline of cap and stalk, (2) nothing is dis- 
colored yellow inside and therefore too old, and (3) 
the inside is neither hard and white nor purple 
(Scleroderma spp.). 

• Pick your own mushrooms and keep only the 
ones in excellent shape that you can identify. Sepa- 
rate each species within paper or wax bags that can 
breathe (plastic hastens spoilage). Do not accept oth- 
ers' gatherings at face value nor give wild mushrooms 
to the novice — you may be liable. Discard insect- 
riddled or decayed specimens (they may contain 
waste products or have bacterial invasions) and those 
gathered from roadside borders (exhaust and herbi- 
cide poisoning is possible); discard all unidentified 
material unless being taken to an expert. 

• Do not keep mushrooms in a refrigerator for 
more than 24 hours without preparing them for pres- 
ervation. Eat only a small amount of any species being 
tried for the first time (you may be allergic), and keep 
reserve material on hand for possible Poison Control 
Center identification. Do not drink alcohol with any 
meal made from noncommercial mushrooms (espe- 
cially Inky Cap, or Coprinus, spp.). 

• If you are going to become an ardent mycopha- 
gist, appreciate that Latin names, a unique parts ter- 
minology, and colored spore prints are all part of the 
game; learn them and how to use them. Buy as many 
mushroom guides as you can, for no one manual is 
up-to-date and covers it all. (See list of mushroom 
books available at the Field Museum Store, page 25.) 
If possible, join a local mushroom society or seek help 
from a museum or university expert in finding foray 
companions. You may indeed find some very worth- 
while friends. FM 



LIVING TOGETHER con'tfromp. 10 

Three Ways of Living Together 

Before his death on 5 March 1829, John Adams wop 
ried about more than overpopulation on Pitcaim. He 
worried, too, about the education of the young and 
about who would someday lead -what was then, in 



economy. But what if avoidance is not practical? 
Logically, at least, there are two alternatives left. 
When avoidance will not work, then coexistence 
calls for cooperation or conflict. 

If living together is done by working together, 
the cooperation achieved may be mutually coordi' 
nated or unintentional. If living together must, how 




Mid-nineteenth-century residents of Pitcaim, from contemporary 
engravings. 



effect, his one large family. What can we say about 
the ways in which people there and elsewhere in the 
Pacific have come to organize their numbers and 
hand down to younger generations their traditions, 
learning, and practical discoveries? 

Ecologists recognize that living things in general 
can live together in several different ways. Perhaps 
the easiest method of coexistence is simply to avoid 
potential enemies and rivals by living in a different 
place, or by coming out at a different time of day or 
night or season than they do, or by having a different 
way of making a living, a different role in Nature's 



ever, bring on conflict, the contest in the natural 
world may take the form of an open struggle for exis- 
tence — eating or being eaten, for instance. Or con- 
flict may be more subtle in character; not eat or be 
eaten, but domination, selfish exploitation, and clev- 
er extortion. One example from the natural world 
would be host-parasite interactions. Such a "parasit- 
ic" relationship between people has cropped up 
repeatedly over the course of history. Consider mod- 
ern urban racketeers, the Sicilian Mafia, and — 
according to some scholars — even Bronze Age chief- 
tains in ancient Europe. Living together under such 



19 



unsavory circumstances certainly entails conflicts of 
interest, if not the human equivalent of eat or be 
eaten. 

These several \vays of coexistence — avoidance, 
cooperation, and conflict — are not mutually exclu' 
sive. In fact, avoidance and conflict are both standard 
methods of living together Perhaps only cooperation 
is the more unusual means of getting along with oth- 
ers in the natural world. 

What about in the world of human affairs? Has 
coexistence among people in the Pacific more often 
than not been a matter of avoidance, conflict, or 
peaceful cooperation? In recent years there has been 
much discussion and argument about how effectively 
people in different parts of the Pacific have created 
ways of managing social and political conflict, and — 
more fundamentally — how strongly committed some 
island societies may have become to living together 
by conflict and competition rather than by the give- 
and-take of cooperation. 

In particular, it has been accepted anthropologi- 
cal wisdom for the last twenty years or so that domi- 
nation, extortion, and selfish exploitation of the 
many by the few are conventional ways by which 
people holding positions of authority and respect in 
Melanesia traditionally dealt with their underlings. 
If you open a book dealing with the anthropology of 
the Pacific Islanders, chances are good that you -will 
come across one version or another of the following 
standard portrait of the "typical Melanesian leader" 
First, unlike their peers of similar or higher rank in 
Polynesia who are said to inherit their authority, 
Melanesian leaders are reported to be only "big-men" 
rather than "chiefs" or "kings" — a label taken from 
the Melanesian expression bi}{pela man, which means 
"adult, headman of a village, man of influence and 
authority, etc." Big-men in Melanesia are said to be 
merely people who achieve or rise to power by com- 
peting fiercely with other neighboring big-men, or 
aspiring big-men. 

Second, the conventional portrait of the typical 
Melanesian leader also tells us that the competition 
for power on which his meager authority rests is 
played out with food and lavish gifts, and not with 
real weapons of war (not, at least, since peace came to 
Melanesia as a consequence of foreign domination by 
Europeans). In short, so the stereotype goes, leaders 
in Melanesia are merely persons who elevate 
themselves above the masses by giving their rivals 
great feasts — presentations so expensive and over- 
whelming that all contenders are shamed into 
20 subordination. 



This picture of Melanesian political life as a kind 
of competitive social climbing has been widely 
accepted in the scholarly world as true. It has also 
been blamed for contributing to popular notions 
about Melanesians as culturally and socially inferior 
to Polynesians. Epeli Hau'ofa, who is both an anthro- 
pologist and a Pacific Islander, has warned us in par- 
ticular about how damaging this stereotype can be 
when people see themselves thus categorized, dis- 
torted, and misrepresented. "Somehow or other," he 
says, "we have projected onto Melanesian leaders the 
caricature of the quintessential Western capitalist: 
grasping, manipulating, calculating, and without a 
stitch of morality." How did this distortion, if it is a 
distortion, come about? 

It can be difficult to trace the origins of a 
stereotype and the caricature of the Melanesian big- 
man as a thoughtless competitor is no exception. As 
Hau'ofa comments, however, the anthropological 
literature on the Pacific — going back for hundreds of 
years — has often romanticized Polynesians and deni- 
grated Melanesians. And lest we think the claim he 
makes that Melanesian leaders have been ridiculed as 
quintessential Western capitalists is a gross exaggera- 
tion, here is what one anthropologist, Marshall 
Sahlins, wrote in 1963 in an article titled "Poor Man, 
Rich Man, Big Man, Chief: Political Types in 
Melanesia and Polynesia," a scholarly paper cited and 
reprinted numerous times since then: 

The Melanesian big-man seems so thoroughly 
bourgeois, so reminiscent of the free enterprising rug- 
ged individual of our own heritage. He combines 
with an ostensible interest in the general welfare a 
more profound measure of self-interested cunning 
and economic calculation. His gaze ... is fixed un- 
swervingly to the main chance. His every public ac- 
tion is designed to make a competitive and invidious 
comparison with others, to show a standing above 
the masses that is [the] product of his own personal 
manufacture. 
If what these words tell us is true, then living 
together in Melanesia, at any rate in the political are- 
na, must be truly competitive and often vicious. 

Hau'ofa describes Sahlins 's celebrated paper on 
political types in Melanesia and Polynesia as a "clev- 
er, thoughtless and insulting piece of writing," an 
invidious comparison between — to use Sahlins 's ow^n 
words — the "developed" politics of Polynesia and the 
"underdeveloped" ways of Melanesia. These are 
strong words. But are they just? 

This last question is worth asking here for two 
reasons. Looking more closely at how Sahlins has de- 
scribed big-man politics in Melanesia will help us see 



more clearly some of the ways people in the Pacific 
have come to handle the problems of living together 
And, as Hau'ofa has remarked, the issue of Melane- 
sian big'men vs. Polynesian chiefs has biased not only 
ho'w foreigners view Pacific Islanders but also how 
islanders see themselves. If these stereotypes are 
wrong or just too inaccurate to be useful, then we 
must look for other ways to describe and model island 
patterns of diversity in social and political life. 

There is no denying that the picture of leader- 
ship in Melanesia sketched by Marshall Sahlins in 
"Poor Man, Rich Man, Big Man,Chief ' and in other 
scholarly papers is a surprisingly simple portrait of 
human affairs. A big'man, Sahlins tells us, is someone 
who has had ambition enough to build a personal fac- 
tion or in-group of loyal followers — initially drawn 
mostly from his own household and close kinsmen — 
whose productive energies and resources he can 
dominate and mobilize to finance public feasts. Why? 
Because, as previously mentioned, anyone striving to 
be called hi}{pela man must hold giveaways to shame 
competitors and thereby elevate one's social standing 
ever higher and higher. And elevate, too, the standing 
of one's followers through their close association 
with an outstanding individual. 

When reduced to essentials, such a portrait of 
politics in Melanesia rests on at least four main 
assumptions about how people have come to live 
together in the southwestern Pacific: 

1. Some people in the geographic region of the Paci- 
fie labeled Melanesia are unusually ambitious, driven 
to make themselves stand out from the crowd, to raise 
themselves above the common herd. 

2. Any ambitious person who is able to gather a per- 
sonal following can launch himself on the road to 
becoming a big-man. 

3 . People cooperate with an aspiring big-man by con- 
tributing their help and resources largely because 
they are attracted to ambitious personalities by the 
promise of reflected glory (and they are attracted also 
by the cunning and manipulative skills allegedly pos- 
sessed by such ambitious people). 

4. Lastly, Melanesia is evidently the kind of place 
where fame and at least a meager degree of political 
power can be generated by giving people bigger feasts 
than anyone else can give one in return; provided, 
Sahlins adds, the aspiring big-man keeps his gaze 
fixed unswervingly at the big chance: "towards 
amassing goods, most often pigs, shell monies 
and vegetable foods, and distributing them in ways 
which build a name for cavalier generosity, if not for 
compassion." 



Working from assumptions such as these, 
Sahlins concludes in "Poor Man, Rich Man, Big 
Man, Chief" that political accomplishments in 
Melanesia have suffered habitually from several 
"fundamental defects," or flaws, in their scale, struc- 
ture, and performance. And as a consequence, most 
Melanesian societies have been held back at 
"rudimentary levels" of evolutionary achievement 
"in the progress of primitive culture." 

What are these failings or flaws in how Melane- 
sians have come to conduct themselves in the polit- 
ical arena? The defects that Sahlins appears to have 
in mind are said to arise mostly because of the quality 
or character of the ties believed to link a big-man and 
his followers together into an organized political 
force. To be specific, personal loyalities between a 
big-man and his adherents — who help finance his 
career as a social climber — have to be carefully con- 
structed and periodically reinforced. And why is 
that? Because rank and authority in Melanesia — as 
we have already noted — are supposedly not inherited 
by right of birth the way they are in Polynesia. And 
so, "merely to create a faction takes time and effort, 
and to hold it, still more effort. The potential rupture 
of personal links in the factional chain is at the heart 
of two broad evolutionary shortcomings of western 
Melanesian political orders." 

These two shortcomings, Sahlins tells us, are 
first of all the comparative instability of Melanesian 
leadership positions, and second, the restrictions that 
this inherent instability puts on how successfully a 
big-man can force his followers to increase their eco- 
nomic productivity — a limitation which thereby 
holds back the development of wider and wider 
systems of political integration. "Evoking internal 
contradictions, the Melanesian big-man system thus 
defeats its own development. It sets a limit on 
the intensification of political authority, on the 
intensification of household production by socio- 
political means, and on the diversion of domestic out- 
put to the support of wider organization." 

The historian Bronwen Douglas has pointed out 
several ■weaknesses in the approach that Sahlins and 
others have taken in their efforts to produce theo- 
retical analyses of traditional systems of leadership in 
the Pacific. She finds, for instance, that the portraits 
drawn commonly rely on two stereotypes: "one 
Polynesian and based on hereditary rank (ascribed 
status) in a context of social hierarchy; the other 
Melanesian and based on achieved status in a context 
of egalitarianism and competition." These stereo- 
types, she says, have usually been created by studying 21 



only a few island societies in each geographic region 
and generalizing from those individual cases as if they 
were somehow typical of all "Polynesians" and all 
"Melanesians." 

Moreover, once such stereotypes have been 
erected, scholars and laymen alike have tended to 
force all Pacific societies into one category or the 
other and to underplay or simply ignore evidence say 
ing the fit cannot be made. In addition, and perhaps 
most telling of all, because such stereotypes do not 
convey a clear sense of hov/ social conventions and 
actual practice are related to each other in particular 
settings, the resulting portraits of "typical Polynesian 
society" and "typical Melanesian society" are invari- 
ably static and lifeless. 

Objections such as these raised by Bronwen 
Douglas can be leveled against any attempt at model 
building. The appropriate response to such criticism 
is not to condemn the efforts they are directed 
against; instead, the really useful thing to do is see if 
other kinds of models can be built as alternatives. 

It is especially useful to see how alternatives 
to Sahlins's characterization of the Melanesian big' 
man might be put together, for the alternative we 
will focus on here shows how the strategies that 
people use to get along with each other can look 
quite different, depending upon which side of 
things an observer happens to be looking from. 
With regard to big-man politics in Melanesia, to be 
specific, the costs and benefits of public feasting 
and aspiring to high social rank may seem quite dif- 
ferent, depending upon whether you are a big-man 
or a big-man's follower. 

Noblesse Oblige 

Bronwen Douglas has observed that Sahlins's picture 
of big-man politics in Melanesia relies heavily — too 
heavily, she suggests — on Douglas Oliver's descrip- 
tion of kinship and leadership among the Siwai (or 
Siuai) of southern Bougainville. How well does the 
characterization built by Sahlins fit the Siwai? Is it 
possible to model Siwai politics in a way that places 
less weight on conflict, competition, and human 
ambition as the organizing forces behind social and 
political cooperation in Melanesia? 

Reading the remarkably detailed account of 

Siwai life and politics given in Douglas Oliver's 

classic study A Solomon Island Society (1955) can 

leave one with the feeling that some individuals in 

22 southern Bougainville strive to become big-men 



(called mumi in Siwai) because of overwhelming per- 
sonal ambition. But Oliver does not say ambition 
alone is enough. Reaching the top also apparently 
takes skill, industriousness, and something the Siwai 
speak of as nommai mirahu, which Oliver translates 
as "goodness." All of these attributes, Oliver reports, 
are needed for a man to be successful in becoming a 
renowned big-man. That leaders in Siwai must be 
skillfijl and hard-working, judging from what Sahlins 
has said, makes sense. But where does "goodness" fit 
in? That trait of personality hardly sounds in keeping 
with the self-interested cunning and economic cal- 
culation that are allegedly typical features of a big- 
man's character. 

According to Oliver, the Siwai believe high- 
ranking leaders possess the personal quality of good- 
ness to a very marked degree, just as such outstanding 
individuals are also thought to have the other attri- 
butes mentioned in unusually fijll measure. A Siwai 
leader's goodness is held to manifest itself in several 
ways. As a "generous man," a mumi gives frequently 
and does not weigh too exactly what he gets back in 
return. He is "cooperative" in the sense that he really 
likes to work with others. He is "genial." Specifically, 
he does not easily get angry and he is usually friendly 
and responsive. Further, a mumi is "decent" and 
"trustworthy," especially in how he handles property 
transactions. A good mumi does not take what is not 
rightfully his own. He gives in full measure. 

Douglas Oliver says that all of these dimensions 
of "goodness" are interrelated. "A person cannot be 
deficient in one of these aspects without being de- 
ficient in all of them." And their opposites — "sel- 
fishness," "uncooperativeness," "immorality," and 
"uncongeniality" — are heartily disliked. 

One possible response to this talk of "goodness" 
might be to say that the Siwai were only telling Oli- 
ver how they wished their leaders would be, rather 
than how they truly were. It seems certain, however, 
that leaders in Siwai often lived up to the expecta- 
tions of those around them. "One has only to listen to 
the enthusiasm and reverence with which an adher- 
ent discusses his leader to realize that the latter con- 
stitutes for his neighbors an element of certainty and 
security which no other role of authority or set of 
beliefs has adequately provided." 

This last remark, in particular, suggests that 
however much we pay attention to ambition as a per- 
sonality trait explaining why some men — but not 
others — seek power and authority in Siwai, we must 
include the attribute of "goodness" as well when talk- 



ing about Siwai political life (and when talking about 
political life elsewhere in Melanesia, too). Even 
Sahlins, who has written that a big'inan's interest in 
public welfare is merely "ostensible," has also made 
the observation that a big-man's dealings help prO' 
mote society's interests: "In tribes normally seg- 
mented into small independent groups, he at least 
temporarily widens the sphere of economics, politics, 
and ceremony." 

If goodness as well as ambition must be included 
when modeling Melanesian ways of living together, 
then several other thoughts should be kept in mind, 
too. Maybe people who elect to become a would-be 
leader's loyal supporters are not simply attracted to 
him by his outstanding personality and by the prom- 
ise that they will eventually bask in his reflected 
glory. Or, alternatively, because they are obligated to 
him by his economic favors (as Sahlins has also infer- 
red). Or, alternatively again, because he happens to 
be one of their kinsmen and hence tradition tells them 
they must come to his aid. Maybe, in fact, what Oli- 
ver calls the feelings of certainty and security provid- 
ed by a big-man are not merely comforting but real 
and substantial. 

Reading through what Oliver has written about 
the Siwai reveals unmistakably that mumi are most 
decidedly leaders in more than name only. For 
instance, mumi formerly were the people who orga- 
nized war parties and conducted raids. Now that 
times are peaceful, they are still the ones to mobilize 
friends, relatives, and neighbors for public projects. 
Similarly, leaders in Siwai serve as arbitrators, judges, 
sometimes prosecutors, and in general as the people 
on whom other people can lean during crises, either 
domestic or civil. Siwai leaders are also the people 
who are in the best position to exercise considerable 
influence on affairs beyond their ow^n neighborhoods. 
"It is not unusual, for example," \vrites Oliver, "for a 
high-ranking leader to be requested to arbitrate dis- 
putes between leaders of neighboring settlements." 

Oliver also reports that leaders in Siwai help cre- 
ate and strengthen social relationships between 
neighboring communities, the evidence of which can 
be seen in political alliances, rivalries, commercial re- 
lationships, and of course attendance at feasts. "Not 
only are separate neighborhoods bound closer 
together in this manner, but social relationships be- 
come extended even to neighborhoods in other lan- 
guage areas." And, as Sahlins notes as ■well, Siwai 
leaders also function as important instruments of so- 
cial control. Oliver says that commendation by a 



mumi is for many Siwai males the sweetest of all re- 
wards; ridicule by a great leader may ultimately result 
in an offender's suicide in the face of such public 
humiliation. 

If ambition, goodness, and public service are 
therefore all involved in big-man politics in Siwai 
(and, by inference, elsewhere in Melanesia, too), 
then what kind of give-and-take goes on among ambi- 
tion, goodness, and public service? This seems a ques- 
tion worth asking, for certainly public service in 
Siwai, as elsewhere in the world, must at times de- 
mand putting the common good above personal gain. 
Perhaps more to the point, what in fact goes into the 
making of a big-man in Siwai? For instance, Oliver 
tells us that not all Siwai neighborhoods happen to be 
lucky enough to have mumi residing in them. Does 
that not seem peculiar if mumi actually are as helpful, 
perhaps vital, to the smooth working of Siwai society 
as it would appear? Do some places lack leaders 
because people with the requisite amounts of ambi- 
tion, skill, goodness, and industriousness merely hap- 
pen to be in scarce supply there? And consequently 
the presence or absence of a leader of renown in one 
neighborhood or another is just a matter of luck: some 
places happen to be blessed with at least one resident 
able to meet the stiff requirements of high rank but 
other places, sadly, are not so fortunate? 

Answers to these several questions about what 
goes into the making of a big-man in Siwai may lie in 
Oliver's remark, mentioned earlier, that Siwai men 
imagine themselves to be participants in a way of liv- 
ing together that draws all of Siwai (and sometimes 
more distant neighborhoods) into a social system 
comprising several "ranks" or "layers." Could it be 
that people gain positions of higher or lower rank in 
this hierarchic social world for reasons reaching 
beyond the fact that they are — to differing degrees — 
more or less ambitious, more or less skillful, more or 
less industrious, and more or less good by Siwai stan- 
dards of goodness? If so, what else might be involved? 

In the Right Place at the Right Time 

The anthropologist Jay Callen has noted that schol- 
ars often answer the question "What goes into the 
making of a big-man?" in a single-minded fashion. 
The usual reply given is, as \ve have seen, that some 
men achieve the status of big-man because of certain 
personal qualities they possess in full measure (ambi- 
tion, magnetism, charisma, cavalier generosity, and 
the like) and because they successfully cajole a small ^^ 



core of followers into giving them aid and needed eco' 
nomic resources. But, and this is the important point 
if what Oliver tells us is actually correct, big'men are 
also participants in a larger social scene, reportedly 
having a hierarchic structure, that reaches far and 
wide 

Big'men and aspiring big'men are part of a polit' 
ical world that reaches beyond their immediate vil' 
lages, even beyond their local neighborhoods. They 
participate, in other words, in a political system that 
displays a spatial as well as a social structure. "It is 
this spatial patterning of political phenomena," notes 
Callen, "which suggests that, in Siwai, leaders were 
as much a function of the central places they inha' 
bited as vice versa. In a certain sense, potential polit' 
ical centers may be said to have 'created' the big'men 
to occupy them." 

We have been considering here two funda' 
mental questions. How fast could human numbers 
have grown in the Pacific? How well did people learn 
to handle the problems of living together as popuk' 
tion increased? 

We have seen that limits of room and nourish' 
ment may affect human populations just as they can 
influence the biological success of other species. Pit' 
cairn Island gave us a chance to examine in historical 
detail what might have been the upper limits of long- 
term population growth among the islanders. We 
saw that the rate of growth on Pitcaim between 1790 
and 1856 became so rapid that population there was 
actually doubling every twenty years. Pitcaim does 
not prove that island populations in the past gre-w at 
such an extraordinary rate. But knowing what the 
upper limits of growth might possibly have been 
should help us make clearer sense — as research on the 



prehistory of the Pacific Islanders continues — of how 
soon and perhaps how pressing the problems of grow 
ing human numbers might have affected island life 
from one island or archipelago to another in pre 
historic times. 

We have also seen that living together, in sim- 
plest terms, can be accomplished in three ways. We 
can avoid each other; we can compete with each 
other; we can cooperate v/ith each other These three 
ways of coexistence are not mutually exclusive. In 
fact, as the Siwai of southern Bougainville have illus- 
trated for us, both competition and cooperation, for 
instance, are likely to be involved in how people come 
to align themselves around different leaders and di- 
vide up into separate groups as their numbers grow. 
Where individuals in Siwai have the opportunity to 
raise themselves above their neighbors is evidently 
not simply a matter of personality, motivation, and a 
driving will to compete. If what both Oliver and Cal- 
len have told us is correct, then also involved are all 
the reasons, real or imagined, why people in Siwai 
want or feel they must place themselves under the 
leadership of outstanding personalities. 

One of the particular lessons we have learned in 
this discussion is that it is far too elementary to por- 
tray big-man politics in Melanesia as personal social- 
climbing. We must also ask why on earth anyone 
would put up with having a big'man around. And as 
Callen's work suggests, the answer to this very hu' 
man question is likely to be far more complicated than 
saying simply that follo^vers become foUoAvers only to 
bask in the reflected glory of their leaders and thereby 
raise themselves, however indirectly, above their 
more distant neighbors.FII 



Further Reading 



Callen, J. S. 1976. Settlement patterns in prewar Siwai: An 
application of Central Place Theory to a horticultural society. 
Solomon Island Studies in Human Biogeography, no. 5. Chi- 
cago: Department of Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural 
History. 

Christian, G. 1982. Fragile paradise: The discovery of Fletcher 
Christian Bounty mutineer Boston: Little, Brown and Com- 
pany 

Douglas, B. 1979. Rank, power, authority: a reassessment of 
traditional leadership in South Pacific societies. Journal of 
Pacific History 14:2-27. 

Hau'ofa, E. 1975. Anthropology and Pacific Islanders. Oceania 
45:283-89. 

Hough, R. 1973. Captain Bligh & Mr. Christian: The men and 
24 the mutiny New York: E. P. Dutton 6? Co. 



Nicolson, R. B. 1965. The Pitcairners. Sydney: Angus and 
Robertson. 

Oliver, D. L. 1955. A Solomon Island society: Kinship and leader' 
ship among the Siuai of Bougainville. Cambridge, Mass.: Har- 
vard University Press. 

Sahlins, M. D. 1968a. Poor man, rich man, big man, chief: polit- 
ical types in Melanesia and Polynesia. In Peoples and cultures 
of the Pacific, ed. A. R Vayda, 157-76. Garden City, New York: 
Natural History Press. 

1968b. Tribesmen. Englewood Cliffs, New 

Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 

Shapiro, H. L. 1936. The heritage of the Bounty: The story of Pit' 
cairn through six generations. New York: Simon and Shuster. 

Silverman, D. 1967- Pitcaim Island. Cleveland and New York: 
World Publishing Company. 



Fieldiana: Titles Issued in 1983 and 1984 



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Depauperacy of the Red Sea Mesopelagic Fish 
Fauna," by Robert Karl Johnson and Ross M. 
Feltes. New Series No. 22; 35 pp., 12 illus., 

7 tables. $4.50. 

1355. "Systematics of Mice of the Subgenus 
Akodon (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Southern 
South America, with the Description of a New 
Species," by Bruce D. Patterson, Milton H. 
Gallardo, and Kathy E. Freas. New Series No. 
23; 16 pp., 6 illus., 1 table. $4.00. 



The Field Museum Store offers the following books on Mushrooms 



The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mushrooms, by 
Gary H. Lincoff; 926 pp. , 750 color plates. Knopf. $12.50.* 

Edible Mushrooms, by Clyde M. Christensen; 118 pp., 14 color plates. 
University of Minnesota Press. $6.95.* 

A Field Guide to Mushrooms and Their Relatives, by Booth Courtenay 
and Harold H. Burdsall, Jr. ; 144 pp. , more than 4(X) color plates. Van 
Nostrand Reinhold. Hard cover: $18.95*; paperback $11.50;* 

Fungi: Delight of Curiosity, by Harold J. Brodie; 131 pp. University of 
Toronto Press. $10.00* 



The Mushroom Hunter's Field Guide, by Alexander H. Smith and Nan- 
cy Smith Weber; 316 pp. , about 30 color plates. University of Michigan 
Press. $14.95.* 

VNR Color Dictionary of Mushrooms, edited by Colin Dickenson and 
John Lucas; 160 pp. , more than 350 color plates. Van Nostrand 
Reinhold. $12.95.* 



* Field Museum Members entitled to a 10% discount 



Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 55 (1984) 



Articles 

Adult Education Program, by R. Pickering: 

March 24 
Adult Education Update, by R. Pickering: 

Nov. 7 
African and Afro-American Art: Call and Re- 
sponse, by R. Powell: May 5 
Artist Floyd E. Job, Honored By Friends, Was 

Donor of His Own Painting, "Progress of 

Mind" (Field Briefs): April 26 
Black Folk Art in America: 1930-1980, by 

R. Powell: April 11 
Books, Business, and Buckskin, by E. 

Webber: J/A 5 
British Award for Peter Crane (Field Briefs): 

March 5 
Ceramics of the Song Dynasty, by Y. Mino: 

January 16 
Clark Fossil Collection Cataloged By Volun- 
teers (Field Briefs): April 26 
Cranes, by G. Archibald: March 20 
Dancing for the Dead, by D. Walsten: 

March 6 
Eskimo Art and Culture: Feb. 5 
Field Museum's Planned Giving Program, by 

C. Buzard: Oct. 24 
Fort Ancient: Citadel Or Coliseum?, by P. 

Essenpreis and M. Moseley: June 5 
Fossil Plant Collections at the Field Museum, 

by M. Bryant and P. Crane: April 5 
Images of Yap, by R. Pickering: Feb. 20 
In Pursuit of Amphibians and Reptiles in East 

Malaysia, by R. Inger: June 11 
Market Art from Northeastern Asia, by J. 

VanStone: April 19 
My Life, My Music, by Ravi Shankar: Nov. 20 
New Look for the Pacific Research Lab, A: 

Oct. 6 
New Women's Board Officers (Field Briefs): 

Sept. 11 
1992 Fair: Catalyst for Chicago's Future, 

The, by W. Boyd: Jan. 5 
On the Trait of the Finest Metallurgy of the 

Ancient New World, by D. Lathrap, 

J. Isaacson, andC. McEwan: Nov. 10 
Peter Crane Honored (Field Briefs): Sept. 11 
Pigeon Whistles, By B. Laufer: Oct. 22 
Pill Millipedes from the Coal Age, by J. 

Hannibal: Sept. 12 
President Boyd Honored (Field Briefs): 

March 5 
Ray A. Kroc (Field Briefs): March 5 
Right Gift at the Right Time, The: Jack C. 

Staehle Makes a Difference, by G. Pare: 

Nov. 24 



Sampson's Pearly Mussel (Our Environment): 

Jan. 26 
Sealskin Bags of Unusual Construction from 
the Bering Strait Region, by J. VanStone: 

Feb. 23 
Search for Paleontology's Most Elusive En- 
tity: The Conodont Animal, The, by D. 

Briggs:J/All 
Shadow Theatre in the Land of the Dragon, by 

J. Humphrey: Jan. 8 
Social and Unsocial Behavior in Dinosaurs, 

byJ.Ostrom:Oct. 10 
STici: A Training Program for Teachers, by C. 

Blackmon, M. Sedzielarz, and Helen Voris: 

June 14 
Study of Children' s Attitudes Toward Animals, 

Jan. 26 
Terrell Promoted to Curator (Field Briefs): 

March 5 
Tree, the King, and the Cosmos, The, by A. 

Kolata: March 10 
Volunteers Honored, June 18 
What Museums Are Good For, by R. Wein- 

gartner: Sept. 17 
William Duncan Strong and the Rawson- 

MacMillan Expedition of 1927 -1928, by 

J. VanStone: Sept. 5 
Wiliam G. Swartchild, Jr. , in Memoriam: 

June 13 
Why Are There So Many Kinds of Plants and 

Animals? by W. Burger, Jan. 20 



Authors 

Archibald, George: Cranes, March 20 

Boyd, Willard L.: The 1992 Fair: Catalyst for 
Chicago's Future, iaxi. 5 

Bryant, Martha S.: Fossil Plant Collections at 
the Field Museum, April 5 

Burger, William: Why Are There So Many 
Kinds of Plants and Animals?, Jan. 20 

Blackmon, Carolyn: STici: A Training Pro- 
gram for Teachers, June 14 

Briggs, Derek E.G.: The Search for Paleon- 
tology's Most Elusive Entity: The Conodont 
Animal, J/A 11 

Buzard, Clifford: Field Museum's Planned 
Giving Program, Oct. 24 

Crane, Peter R. : Fossil Plant Collections at 
the Field Museum, April 5 

Essenpreis, Patricia S.: Fort Ancient: Citadel 
Or Coliseum?, June 5 

Hannibal, Joe: Pill Millipedes from the Coal 
Age, Sept. 12 



Humphrey, Jo: Shadow Theatre in the Land of 

the Dragon Jan. 8 
Inger, Robert F.: In Pursuit of Amphibians and 

Reptiles in East Malaysia. June 11 
Isaacson , John S.: On the Trail of the Finest 

Metallurgy of the New World, Nov. 10 
Kolata, Alan: The Tree, the King, and the 

Cosmos, March 10 
Lathrap, Donald W.: On the Trail of the Finest 

Metallurgy of the New World, Nov. 10 
Laufer, Berthold: Pigeon Whistles, Oct. 22 
Mason, Keith: Environmental Field Trips, 

April 22 
McEwan, Colin: On the Trail of the Finest 

Metallurgy of the New World, Nov. 10 
Mino, Yutaka: Ceramics of the Song Dynasty, 

Jan. 16 
Moseley, Michael E.; Fort Ancient: Citadel 

Or Coliseum? June 5 
Ostrom, John H.: Social and Unsocial 

Behavior in Dinosaurs, Ocl. 10 
Par6, Glenn: The Right Gift at the Right Time: 

Jack C. Staehle Makes a Difference, 

Nov. 24 
Pickering, Robert B.: Images of Yap, Feb. 20 
: Adult Education Program, 



March 24 



: Adult Education Update, 



Nov. 7 
Powell, Richard: Black Folk Art in America 

1930-1980, April 11 
: African and Afro-American 

Art: Call and Response, May 5 
Sedzielarz, Maija: STici: A Training Program 

for Teachers, June 14 
Shankar, Ravi: My Life, My Music, Nov. 20 
VanStone, James W.: Sealskin Bags of Un- 
usual Construction from the Bering Strait 

Region, Feb. 23 
: Market Art from Northeastern 

Asia, Ap. 19 
: William Duncan Strong and 

the Rawson-MacMillan Expedition of 1927- 

1928, Sept. 5 
Voris, Helen: STici: A Training Program for 

Teachers, June 14 
Walsten, David M.: Dancing for the Dead, 

March 6 
Webber, E. Leiand: Books, Business, and 

Buckskin . J/A 5 
Weingartner, Rudolph H.: What Museums Are 

Good For, Sept. 17 



26 



Tours For Members 




Sailing the Lesser Antilles 

Aboard the Tall Ship 

Sea Cloud 

February 7-16, 1985 



Our itinerary offers a superb sampling 
of the Caribbean's best — Antigua, St. 
Barts, Saba, Martinique, and lies des 
Saints. With the professional leadership 
of Dr Robert K.Johnson, a Field 
Museum marine biologist, you will see 
and experience a great deal more than 
the conventional sightseer Dr Johnson 
is a topnotch tour lecturer, and your 
trip will be greatly enhanced by 
stimulating lectures and field trips. 
Price range (contingent on cabin se- 
lection): $3,455-55,755. per person 
(includes round-trip air fare from 
Chicago, hotel accommodations in 
St. John's, Antigua, and full board 
while on the Sea Cloud). 

The largest private ship ever built, 
the steel-hulled Sea Cloud is 316 feet in 
length and has four Diesel engines with 
total power of 6,000 B.H.P. The ship 
accommodates 75 guests in air- 



conditioned staterooms, each with two 
beds. The cuisine is in the best tradition 
of the great yachts of the past. Expert 
European chefs provide exquisitely 
prepared meals accompanied by vin- 
tage wines. A crew of 40 German offic- 
ers and men, plus 20 cadets sail the Sea 
Cloud. There is ample deck space for 
sunning and enjoying the spectacle of 
the sails. Life aboard is informal and re- 
laxed, and cruise participants may join 
in the operation of the sails. 

Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
Including 5-day Nile Cruise 

February 15-March 4, 1985 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharoahs, including a 5- 
day Nile cruise aboard the luxurious 
Hilton Steamer. An Egyptologist will 
accompany the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and person- 
ally conduct all lectures and sightsee- 
ing. Tour highlights will include the 
pyramids and Sphinx of Giza, little- 
visited monuments of Middle Egypt, 
King Tut's tomb, the holiday resort of 
Aswan, and a visit to Abu Simbel. 





Colonial South 

April 13-20, 1985 

Now you can be among the first 
passengers to visit the legendary Colo- 
nial South in the comfort of a relaxing, 
yacht-like cruise ship, with a friendly 
American staff to serve you. Our ports 
of call will be Savannah and St. Simon 
Island, Georgia; Beaufort, Charleston, 
and Hilton Head Island, South Caro- 
lina; with disembarkation at Savannah. 

Dr Lorin I. Nevling, director of 
Field Museum and a distinguished 
botanist, will accompany the tour, 
sharing his professional expertise on 
the flora of the exquisite gardens we'll 
visit. Our tour is planned to coincide 
with the spring explosion of color in 
daffodils, tulips, dogwoods, and 
azaleas — a welcome treat after Chi- 
cago's long winter Local historians 
will provide us with talks on historic 
buildings of the region and on Civil 
War history. The Nantucket Clipper will 
cruise through the peaceful waters of 
the intra-coastal waterways, allowing 
you to spend each evening in town 
enjoying the port experience to its full- 
est, and affording even greater variety 
in this delightful cruise experience. 

For fiirther informalioii or to he placed on our 
mailing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours 
Manafier, Field Museum , Roosei'elt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr.. Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



Additional Tour Highlights 
for 1985 



Galapagos Islands. China and Tibet. Alaska and Pribilof Islands. 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, II 60605 



"'^'«r?vr«««jirw^ -^^ 



0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenvieu 
Chicagoi IL 60626 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

February 1985 




"Echoes of Africa" 
Performance by the Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe 

Saturday, February 16, 3:00pm 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: F^mela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block IH 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Siearle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
WUUam V. Kahler 
WUUam H. MitcheU 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

February 1985 
Volume 56, Number 2 



February Events at Field Museum 



Field Briefs 



Field Museum Tburs for Members 



The Japanese Woodblock Print 

by David M. Walsten 



5 
6 

7 



A Respirator, Or Smoke Strainer: An 

Unusual Eskimo Artifact 23 

by James W. VatiStone, curator of North American 
archaeology and ethnolo^ 



Founders' Council Honors Stephen Jay Gould 26 

by Charles Buzek, assistant to the president 



COVER 

Woodblock print by Japanese artist Shunsho Katsukawa fl2%" X 
9'/z"). The print Ls the subject of a single volume, published in Thkyo 
in 1907, showing each oftlje 127 individual additions of color as 
well as the composite effect at each of the 1Z7 steps. This number of 
color additions (many of which required separate blocks) is un- 
usual, but as many as several hundred are known to have been 
used in creating a single print. 

The idea of using woodblock printing to produce low-cost, 
single-sheet illustrations is usually attributed to Japanese artist 
Hashikawa Moronobu (1625-1694), who is also regarded as founder 
of the ukiyo-e school of the woodblock print. Multicolor printing, by 
means of multiple wood blcxks, was first made practical by Suzuki 
Harunobu (1725-1770). 

The huge volume containing Katsukawa's work (2P/4" X H'/z" 
X 5'/4") was acquired by Berthold Laufer, then associate curator of 
Asiatic ethnolo^, during the Mrs. T. B. Blackstone Expedition to the 
Far East in 1908-1910. The book is now in the Mary W. Runnells 
Rare Book Room of the Field Museum Library. For more on the 
Japanese woodblock print see pages 7-22. N109571. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Sut>scriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opiiuons expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Meml>ership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:001S-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



Events 



Echoes of Africa 

Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe 

Saturday, Feb. 16, 3:00pm 
James Simpson Theatre, West Entrance 

From Africa to the West Indies, from the West Indies 
to America, the Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe 
traces the history of African dance movement. 
Traditional African dances continue to have a pro- 
found impact on dance of other cultures. In Echoes of 
Africa, the special relationship of African dance to 
jazz and American social dance is explored. 
Selections performed include: Maiden Dance, a tradi- 
tional piece from Cross River State; Nigeria Hamba, 
meaning "to shake the Earth," from the Congo; The 
Chase, a calypso piece from the West Indies; Raw 
Soul, a selection of American social dances; Ja^^ /5, 
American jazz technique as taught by Katheryn 
Dunham; Afrikan, a synthesis of African, West 
Indies, and American Dance. 

Darlene Blackburn has specialized in African dance as 
dancer, teacher, choreographer, and producer. Created 
in 1967, the Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe has 
performed to enthusiastic audiences in Ghana, Niger- 
ia, and throughout the Midwest. Ms. Blackburn and 
her troupe are dedicated to the presentation of Afri- 
can cultural history as a humanistic, creative, and 
vital influence on the lives of all Americans. 

Tickets: $5.00 (Members: S3. 00). 

Fee are nonrefundable. 

Please use coupon on page 4 to order tickets. 

Public Programs Information: (312)322-8854 



Chinese Shadow Puppet 
Theatre 

"Ah Wing Fu and the Golden Dragon" 

Sunday, February 24, 2:30pm 

Lecture Hall I, First Floor, West Entrance 

Shadow Puppet Theatre has been popular in China 
since the 10th century. Enjoy this ancient art form 
and attend the premiere performance o( Ah Wing Fu 
and the Golden Dragon. The delightful Chinese folk 
tale tells the story of a man who finds out that the 
carefree life may not be the best. 
This performance is followed by a repeat of a Field 
Museum favorite. The Story of Plum Blossom, which re- 
lates the adventures of a brave young girl and her dog. 
This program is free with museum admission and no 
tickets are required. 




Darlene Blackburn 
"Dancer of our time " 



Family Feature 

Birds in the Backyard 

Sunday, Feb. 10, 1:00-3:00pm 
Bird Hall, Second Floor 

Birds that survive the winter in Chicago are truly 
winged wonders. It can be hard to find food in the 
snow and frozen ground, but you can help. Using 
pine cones and peanut butter, make a special bird 
feeder that no winter resident can resist. A field guide 
helps you identify all of the different kinds of birds 
that come to visit you for a tasty winter snack. 
Family features are free with museum admission and 
no tickets are required. continueo? 



CONTINUED from p. 3 



Events 



February Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed 
are only a few of the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the 
complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Arts Council. 
These programs are free with museum admission and no tickets are required. 



February 

2 11:30 am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 
to myths and mummies. 

3 12:30 pm Museum Safari (tour). Trek through 
the four comers of the Museum to see the 
seven continents. See an Egyptian tomb, big 
game from Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 

9 1:30 pm Ancient Egyptians (tour). Focus on the 
lives of the pharaohs and the Egyptian people, 
from daily life to death and mummification. 

10 1:00 pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 

16 2:00 pm Traditional China (tour). Examine the 
imagery and craftsmanship represented by 
Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

17 2:00 pm Treasures From the Totem Forest (tour). 
A walk through Museum exhibits introduces 
the Indians of southeastern Alaska and British 
Columbia. 

23 12:30 pm Continents Adriji (Lecture/ 

Demonstration). Why have fossils of similar 
dinosaur species been found on continents 
separated by vast oceans? The concept of 



"moving" continents is illustrated with 
enormous puzzle pieces. 

24 12:30 pm Museum Safari (tour). Trek through 
the four corners of the Museum to see the 
seven continents. See an Egyptian tomb, big 
game from Africa, and seals from the Arctic. 
1:30 pm Red Land/Black LMnd (tour). Focus on 
the geography of the Nile Valley and its effect 
on the Egyptians who lived and ruled during 
4,000 years of change in religion and cultures. 

Hlnter Fun 1985 

Children's Workshops 

Ages 4-11 

Drive away the winter doldrums! Treat your children 
or grandchildren to weekend workshops at Field 
Museum during February. Register now! Young 
people ages 4 to 11 can participate in classes that range 
from "Volcanoes!" and "The Bear Brigade" to 
"Dinosaur Debate" and "Pawnee Pow Wow." 
Anthropologists, zoologists, botanists, geologists, 
and artists bring their talent and expertise to create 
new, informative, and creative experiences. See the 
Winter Fun brochure for a complete schedule. If you 
have not received one, call 322-8854, Monday 
through Friday, 9:00am-4:00pm for your free copy. 



Registration 



Please complete coupon tor your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on the applica- 
tion and include section number where appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets will be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 
one-half hour before event Please make 
checks payable to Field l\^useum Tickets will 
be mailed on receipt of check. Refunds will be 
made only if program is sold out 



Program Title 



Member 

Ticl<ets 

# Requested 



Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 



Total 

Tickets 

# Requested 



Please check appropriate box: N^ember: D Nonmember: D 
American ExpressWisa/MaslerCard number: 



Amount 
Enclosed 



Signature 



Expiration date 



Name 



Street 



For Office Use: 



:ity 



state 



Zip 



"> ;:r;phone Daytime Evening 

Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Date Received 



Date Returned 



Return complete ticket application with a self-addressed 
stamped envelope to: 

Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



FIELD BRIEFS 



StaffNotes 

Harold L. Voris, curator of Amphibians and 
Reptiles, has been appointed chairman of the 
Department of Zoology, succeeding Robert 
K. Johnson, curator of Fishes. Other recent 
appointments include Stephen Ashe, assis' 
tant curator of Insects, who has been named 
head of the Division of Insects, succeeding 
John Kethley; and Hymen Marx, curator of 
Amphibians and Reptiles, who has been 
named head of the Division of Amphibians 
and Reptiles. He succeeds Dr Voris in that 
post. 

Scott Lidgard, who obtained his Ph.D. 
at Johns Hopkins University, has joined the 
Department of Geology as assistant curator of 
fossil invertebrates. 



1,500 Guests at Christmas Gala 

More than 1,500 children, parents and grand- 
parents attended the "Family Christmas Tea" 
in Stanley Field Hall on December 13. Spon- 
sored by the Women's Board of Field 
Museum, the traditional gathering continues 
to be a very popular holiday activity among 
Chicagoans. 

Last December, partygoers enjoyed tea 
party fare amid beautiful decorations; lis- 
tened to holiday music by the Stu Hirsh 
Orchestra; and were entertained by the 
Westminster Bellringers of the Village Pres- 
byterian Church of Northbrook, Music and 
Dance from On Stage Chicago School for the 
Performing Arts, the Junior League "Mad 
Hatters," and Bozo the Clown and Cooky the 
Clown. Ronald McDonald, costumed story- 
book characters from the Chicago Public 
Library, the Field Museum dinosaur and, of 
course, Santa Claus were on hamd to greet the 
many young visitors. 

The Women's Board Christmas Tea 
Committee, co-chaired by Mrs. Stanton R. 
Cook and Mrs. Robert Lane Cruikshank, is 
extremely grateful to many individuals, orga- 



nizations, and corporations whose talents, 

time, contributions, and services made the 

occasion so special: 

Anonymous Angels 

Arthur Andersen &? Co. 

The Bureau of Art, Chicago Board of Educa- 
tion, and all the creative Chicago Public 
School children who designed ornaments 
for our children's Christmas tree 

The Chicago National League Ball Club, Inc. 

Chicago Park District 

Chicago Public Library 

The Chicago White Sox 

Ferree Florsheim Catering Ltd. 

Field Museum Staff 

Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. 

Illinois Tool Works 

The Kitchens of Sara Lee 

Marshall Field's 

McAdams Florist of Lake Forest 

McDonald's — Ernie Cochanis 

Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 

My n Pizzeria 

Salemo-Megowen Biscuit Company 

Santa Claus 

Sweetheart Products Group 

WGN Continental Broadcasting Company 

Warehouse Club, Inc. Niles, Illinois 

The Women's Board cookie bakers and all 
our generous Women's Board Members 

All the hostesses and young volunteers. 



Cameroon Art Exhibit 
Opens March 9 

About 120 art objects from Cameroon, on the 
coast of west-central Africa, will be on view 
in the special exhibit area, third floor (for- 
merly designated second floor), from March 9 
through June 16. The Members' preview is set 
for Friday, March 8. 

Sponsored by S.I.T.E.S. (Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service), 
"The Art of Cameroon" consists of pieces 
selected from U.S., European, and Cameroon 



collections. Included are prehistoric terra- 
cotta sculptures, objects in different media of 
ritual and secular use, and a large number of 
masks, figural sculptures, and other object 
types. 

Concurrent with the object exhibition 
will be a photographic exhibition (also from 
S.I.T.E.S.) which will relate topically and 
visually to the objects while constituting an 
exhibition component in its own right. 

The exhibit catalog. The Art of Came- 
roon, published by S.I.T.E.S., is now available 
at the Museum Store. ($15.00, 10% discount 
for Members). The 8 'A x 12 paperbound 
catalog was written by Tamara Northern, 
curator of ethnographic art. Hood Museum 
of Art, Dartmouth College, and is richly 
embellished with color photography. 



Kennicott Club Meets 

The February meeting of the Kennicott Club, 
a natural history society named for Chicago's 
first naturalist, Robert Kennicott, will be 
held at Lincoln Park Conservatory on Friday, 
February 22, at 7:30pm. 

Following dinner at R.J. Grunt's Restau- 
rant (6:00pm), the group will rejoin nearby at 
the conservatory (7:30pm), where Leonard 
Gayten, the conservatory's floriculture fore- 
man, will provide a tour The azalea and 
camellia show will then be running. 

The following month's meeting will be 
held on Monday, March 4, at Field Museum. 
The speaker at that time, following dinner at 
the Berghoff Restaurant, will be Dr Stephen 
Ashe, assistant curator and head, Division of 
Insects. His topic will be "Relationships and 
Evolution of Mushroom Feeding among 
Staphylinid Beetles." 

Any persons with an interest in natural 
history are invited to attend the Kennicott 
Club meetings. For further information, 
please call or write John Clay Bruner, Kenni- 
cott Club vice president (Department of 
Geology), at Field Museum, 922-9410. 




NOW AVAILABLE AT THE FIELD MUSEUM STORE: 

"Chicago Area Birds" 

by Steven MIodinow 

and sponsored by the Chicago Audubon Society 

Published by Chicago Review Press 

220 pages, $9.95 

(10% discount for Members) 



Just off the press! This comprehensive 
study provides an account of the rela- 
tive abundance and seasonal and seo- 
graphic distribution of the 413 bird 
species that have been reported at 
least once in the Chicago area (19 
counties in four states). Included are 
maps of dozens of the primary birding 
areas. No birdwatcher, casual or dedi- 
cated, should be without this handy, 
attractive guide. 



Tours For Members 



Ecuador and 
The Galapagos Islands 

May 27 -June 11 

The Galapagos Islands affect our imagination 
like no other place on earth. To set foot on 
these remote islands is to return to a primeval 
land isolated and protected for millions of 
years. A distance of 600 miles off the coast of 
Ecuador are these lost specks of volcanic land 
on which nature evolved a separate microcosm 
of animals and plants. 

Our tour will begin with a visit in the host 
country of Ecuador, which offers an opportu- 
nity to enjoy the charm of Old World ambi- 
ence, along with the color and distinction of 
the centuries-old Indian market villages of 
Lactacunga and Ambato. 

To enhance your learning experience on 
this tour. Dr. Glen E. Woolfenden, research 
associate at Field Museum, and professor of 
zoology at University of South Florida, will be 
our leader and will accompany the group from 
Miami and return. 

This is our exciting itinerary: 

May 27: Fly from Chicago O'Hare airport to 
Quito via Miami. 

May 28: Tour the city of Quito, visit the 
fabulous Archeological Museum, view the 
church of San Augustin and Museum of 
Colonial Art. 

May 29: Visit the art galleries of the painters 
Guayasamin and Viteri; tour the Olga Fish 
Folklore Gallery. In the afternoon visit the 
Equatorial Monument. Also, visit the Indi- 
an villages of Pomasqui and San Antonio 
and the crater of Pululahua. 

May 30: Full-day excursion over the Andes' 
western ridge, down into the coastal jung- 
les with their banana, cocoa, and coffee 
plantations and see the village of the Col- 
orado Indians, colorful in dress and 
custom. 

May 31: Full day of birding in the area of 
Papallacta. Ecuador is home to more than 
1,400 species of birds. 

Junel: Morning departure by bus to the 
Latacunga-Ambato Valley stopping at 
Latacunga Indian market and the Cotopaxi 
volcano, where we will visit a small 
museum at the base of the volcano, and on 
to Ambato with its huge market. 

June 2: Leave the frosty Andean heights, 
travel across a fertile plain and past high- 
land villages, via Riobamba and Devil's 
Nose pass to Guayaquil, Ecuador's chief 
port, where we'll stay overnight. 

June 3: A morning flight to Baltra, where we 
will board the MV Santa Cruz. Comfort is 
indeed the keynote for our life aboard ship 
in both clothes and atmosphere, with 
casual attire recommended. Tonight and 
each evening during the cruise we have a 
slide presentation and a lecture outlining 
the next day's highlights. 
June 4: The first island we see is Bartolome, 



site of Pinnacle Rock, the most widely rec- 
ognized landmark in the Galapagos. Later 
we cruise in Darwin Bay. Tower island is 
considered one of the most complete bird 
islands, with virtually millions of sea and 
land birds resident to its shores. 

June 5: Cruising Isabela and Femandina Is- 
lands, entering Tagus Cover in the mor- 
ning. 

June 6: Cruising Baltra and North Seymour 
Islands. After a brief stopover at Baltra, we 
cruise to North Seymour and will be trans- 
ported to the rocky shore via small craft. 
Our first encounter, as we walk on the is- 
land, is with dense colonies of blue-footed 
boobies. 

June 7: Cruising Hood and Floreana Islands. 
We follow the marked trails on Hood Is- 
land to search for its own species of mock- 
ingbird and its most spectacular part-time 
resident, the waved albatross. Along the 
way, we catch glimpses of masked boobies 
and several species of finch. We land at 
Punta Cormorant on Floreana Island and on 
an inland lagoon we'll see where multi- 
tudes of flamingos nest. Floreana's vegeta- 
tion is particularly interesting. 

June 8: Cruising Santa Cruz and Plaza Is- 
lands. Upon arrival at the village of Puerto 
Ayora on Santa Cruz we walk directly to 
the Darwin Research Station for a briefing. 
This afternoon, we call at tiny Plaza 
Island, where sea lions swim out to 
welcome us. 
June 9: We land early in the morning on a 
beach of black lava sand on James Island, 
then hike to a tranquil crater lake where fla- 
mingos feed. Next we can swim with (or 
just observe) the fur seals in one of the 
f)ools cut into the cliffs by surf erosion. 
After lunch we cruise past unusual cinder 
cones and lava formations along the coast 
en route to Buccaneer Cove, the former 
refuge of pirate ships. 
June 10: This morning we cruise to Baltra, 
disembarking in time to board our flight to 
Guayaquil. En route to the Oro Verde 
Hotel we will tour Guayaquil, seeing the 
Avenida Olmedo, city watchtower, govern- 
ment buildings, and the municipal 
museum. In the evening we'll enjoy a gala 
farewell dinner. 
June 11: Return to Chicago via Miami. Early 
evening arrival at O'Hare. 
Price per f)erson (double occupancy): 
$3,545 for main deck cabins. Upgrade to up- 
per deck: $150; upgrade to boat deck: $310. 
An extension to Peru is optional. The tour 
price includes land and cruise costs and round- 
trip economy air fare. The tour is limited to 25 
people, and early reservations are recom- 
mended. A $500 deposit per person should be 
sent to Field Museum Tours. 



Alaska and 
The Pribilof Islands 

June 5-19 

June 5: Fly from Chicago's O'Hare to Sitka. 

Welcome dinner. 
June 6: City tour of Sitka. Marine wildlife 

motor raft trip with dinner on board cruise 

vessel. 
June 7: Late morning flight to Juneau. Men- 

denhall River raft trip with lunch on board. 

Evening outdoor salmon bake. 
June 8: Morning flight to Glacier Bay. Gla- 
cier Bay cruise aboard the MV Glacier Bay 

Explorer Overnight on board ship. 
June 9: After completing Galcier Bay cruise, 

afternoon flight to Fairbanks via Juneau. 
June 10: Ride the Alaska Railroad to Denali 

National Park. Afternoon at leisure; 

salmon bake dinner and overnight at 

McKinley Chalets. 
June II: Full day tour to Kantisna. Return to 

McKinley Chalets for dinner and over- 
night. 
June 12: Morning at leisure. Afternoon 

motorcoach trip to Anchorage. 
June 13: Morning at leisure. Afternoon tour 

to Potter's Marsh Bird Refuge. 
June 14: Morning at leisure. Afternoon Float 

Trip on Eagle River with dinner on board. 
June 15: Flight to St. George Island. 
June 16-17: Two full days exploring St. 

George Island. 
June 18: Return flight to Anchorage. Farewell 

dinner. 
June 19: After breakfast transfer to airport for 

return flight to Chicago. 
Our leader will be Dr. John W. Fitzpat- 
rick, associate curator and head of the Divi- 
sion of Birds at the Field Museum, where he 
also serves as curator-in-charge of Scientific 
Services and chairman of the Science Advi- 
sory Council. He is an experienced tour lectur- 
er, most recently leading Field Museum tours 
to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands, and to 
the Lesser Antilles. 

Tour price: $4,625.00, based on double 
occupancy (includes round trip coach class air 
fare). We hope you can join us for this excep- 
tional tour. A deposit of $500.00 per person 
will confirm your reservation. 

Additional Tours for 1985 

Colonial South Yacht Cruise 
April 13-20 

Grand Canyon Rafting l^ip 

May 24-June 2 

China and Tibet 

August 10-September 1 

For further information or to be placed on our 
mailing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours 
Manager, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Dr. Chicago. IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



The Japanese Woodblock Print 

An Art Form Unique in Its 
Subtlety, Grace and Power 



by David M. Walsten 




M^ong before Toyotas and Datsuns were sending 
Detroit auto makers back to their drawing boards, 
a different kind of Japanese import, the woodblock 
print, was making historic inroads into the Western 
art world. In the latter ISOOs, artists as individual in 
their vision and technique as Toulouse-Lautrec, 
Whistler, and Beardsley acknowledged their 
indebtedness to Japanese printmakers for ne'wways 
of looking at and interpreting the world about them. 
The assertiveness of their compositions, sharply 
defined forms, pleasing decorative patterns, and sub- 



"An Eagle on a Cliff near a Kin Tree " 
(c. 1716). 22" X 11 'A", by Torii Kiyo- 
masu (fl. 1690S-C. 1720). possibly a 
brother of Torii Kiyonobu. founder of 
tfie Torii school of ukiyo-e. Kiyomasu 
is known chiefly for his depictions 
of women and actors: he frequently 
used landscape settings and also 
painted birds of prey All his work was 
done in black and white, with color 
sometimes added, as here, by hand. 
Clarence Buckingham Collection. © 
The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights 
reserved. 

tie coloration found appreciative viewers among 
Western critics and art collectors as well. The 



The author wishes to gratefully acknowledge the advice and counsel 
of}eanine Coupe Ryding and Osamu Veda in the preparation of 
this material. Mrs. Ryding is lecturer in the Studio Arts Center of 
Barat College, La}{e Forest, II, and is an instructor in Field 
Museum's Courses for Adults program. Mr Ueda is peeper of the 
Clarence Buckingham Collection of Japanese Prints, Art Institute 
of Chicago. Mr. Ueda also kindly provided the translation for the 
text in the center panel of "The Port of London, England, " by 
Toshitora, appearing on page 20. The author, however, assumes full 
responsibility for the accuracy of this article and for judgements 
rendered. 



"A Courtesan Walking" (c. 1715), 
21 Vb" X IV/2", byOkamura Masa- 
nobu (1686-1764). Masanobu is 
credited witti a number of inno- 
vations in woodblock print tech- 
nology, notably development of 
the two-color process and the pil- 
lar print orhashira-e, which was 
made lorjg and narrow so that it 
could fit on a house pillar He was 
among those responsible for the 
introduction of perspective and 
one of the earliest to use metallic 
dust. The print shown here was 
hand-colored. Clarence Bucking- 
ham Collection. © The Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. All rights 
reserved. 





"The Sugoroku 
Players " (c. 
1750). 11%" X 
S'/s". by Tori i 
Kiyohiro (fl. 
1750S-1760). a 
member of the 
Torii school. Par- 
ticularly scarce, 
his prints were 
most often of 
women: he also 
did theatrical 
subjects. Nearly 
all were benizuri- 
— prints done 
mainly in pink, 
often together 
with green. The 
Clarence Buck- 
ingham Collec- 
tion. © The Art 
Institute of Chi- 
cago. All rights 
reserved. 



"Catching Fireflies" (c. 
1767), 8" X WW. by 
Suzul<i l-tarunobu (1725- 
1770), one oftlie most 
original as well as most 
prolific of the ukiyo-e 
artists, l-larunobu's 
chief contribution was 
/A7enishiki-e, or poly- 
chrome print, made 
from multiple wood 
blocks. Though others 
had used the technique 
before him, he de- 
veloped it into a pro- 
cess that was both 
practical and effective, 
using as many as ten 
blocks for separate 
colors. The Clar- 
ence Buckingham 
Collection. © The Art 
Institute of Chicago. All 
rights reserved. 




10 



.<^ <d) 




"Herons and Boat in 
Snow"(c. 1766), 10%" 
X aVe". by Suzuki 
Harunobu. was done 
shortly after he began 
using multiple colors. 
Though not striking for 
its use of color note 
embossing (in the birds 
and snow), a technique 
introduced 30 years 
earlier by Yoshida 
Gyosen. The Clarence 
Buckingham Collec- 
tion. © The Art Institute 
of Chicago. All rights 
reserved. 



U 



12 





mounting enthusiasm culminated in an 1890 exhibi- 
tion in Paris in which more than 1,000 privately 
owned prints were displayed. 

Although this art form had been popular in 
Japan since the 1600s, the rest of the world knew 
little of it until trade relations between Japan 
and Western nations were first formalized in 
1854. Then, precisely because it was a print — 
a replication — the woodblock print came to be the 
principal medium through which Westerners 



C"Geisha and Attendant in the Night Rain" (c. 1798), 15'/a" x lOVs'.by 
Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806). Especially noted for his erotic views 
ot beautiful women, sensitive use of color, and design sense, Utama- 
ro's work was featured long after his death in an exhibition in Paris in 
1889. Edmond de Goncourt came away from the exhibition so in- 
spired by Utamaro 's genius that he wrote a biography of the artist: as 
a result. Utamaro gained a posthumous reputation in the West that 
was unmatched by any of his fellow Japanese: Mary Cassatt and 
Edouard Manet were among his most enthusiastic admirers. Within 
his own lifetime, however Utamaro's work was widely appreciated in 
Japan and had been exported by the Chinese and also by the Dutch, 
privileged at that early time to have a trading post at Nagasaki. Note 
the poor register in this print, which increases toward the left side. 
This effect was caused by swelling of the wood block which had 
gradually absorbed moisture with each successive impression. Gift 
of Gaylord Donnelley © The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights 
reserved. 



"Fuji with Lightning" (c. 1831), 9%" x 14%", by Katsushika Hokusai 
(1760-1849). Among Western art critics and art lovers, Hokusai prob- 
ably stands in higher esteem than any other Japanese artist. This 
scene is one of 46 comprising the landscape series "The Thirty-Six 
Views of Fuji, " the actual number of views notwithstanding. The series 
includes those prints generally regarded as Hokusai's finest Kate 
S Buckingham Collection. © The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights 
reserved. 



were able to visualize the appearance and life- 
style of these mysterious Asians. Thousands of 
copies of a single work of art, transferred by 
the engraver's knife to blocks of wood, then 
printed on inexpensive sheets of paper, could be 
sold (for a few sen) and disseminated in a 
very short period of time. 

While the effect of these prints on the 
European art community -was a significant one, 
Japanese artists, at the same time, came under 
influence from the West. They introduced harsh 
aniline dyes, replacing in some measure the 
vegetable dyes with which they had achieved 
such marvelous, subtle effects. They also made 
pitiable attempts to make use of European 
themes and stylistic devices, forsaking their own. 
Meanwhile, an increasing demand for prints at 



13 




14 



■•Climbing Mount Fuji" (c. 1831-33). 9¥e" x 14 "/w." by Katsushilo 
Hokusai. from the series "The Thirty-Six Views of Fuji." Following this 
initial series. Hokusai continued to do landscapes with Fuji as a motif. 
More often than not. the mountain's distinctive profile was merely pe- 
ripheral — even remote — to his central theme. The Clarence Bucking- 
ham Collection. © The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights reserved. 



home and abroad resulted in the mass production of 
inferior work; the golden age of the Japanese print 
had passed. 

This golden age was, in fact, a two-hundred- 
year span known formally as the period oiu\iyo'e — 
rather felicitously translated as "pictures from the 
floating world" — woodblock prints produced from 
about 1680 to about 1880. Although the translation 
variously suggests romance, indolence, poetry (the 
suffix e meaning simply "picture"), its Buddhist 
derivation is somewhat somber, referring to the 
ephemeral nature of the material world as opposed 
to the spiritual realities of Buddhism. In time, the 
term was applied to the heady pleasures of the 
Yoshiwara — Tokyo's red light district — and its par- 
ticipants: notably prostitutes and kabuki actors; the 
former, who enjoyed an elevated status that was 
never accorded their Western counterparts, set 



standards for physical beauty, elegance, and chic. 
And these were to be the subjects oiukyyo'c; land' 
scapes and travel scenes also came into vogue, as 
did natural history subjects: flowers, birds, fish, 
lugubrious insects — all rendered with a grace 
and subtlety that is unmatched in the art of any 
other culture. 

The common denominator of the seemingly 
eclectic ukjyo-e was the availability of these experi' 
ences, sights, and objects in the daily life of the aver- 
age Japanese. lJ\iyO'e was, in a word, art for the 
common man. 

The fifteen prints reproduced here are primari- 
ly of the u\iyo'e period; The journalistic triptychs 
on pages 19 and 20, though executed in the 1860s, 
prefigure its end, while Saito Kiyoshi's "Nostalgia, 
Boston" (1956) belongs to another era altogether. 
These several works, done by ten artists, provide 
views of developmental stages in this unique art 
form over a 250-year period. 

Xorii Kiyomasu, whose principal work was done 
between the late 1690s and the early 1720s, did all of 
his work in black and white, a type of print known 



as sumizuri'C, though color \vas sometimes added 
later by hand. This supplementary color was most 
often a shade of vermilion (which was highly 
variable, ranging from orange to dark red); prints 
done with this color additive are known as taire, or 
"vermilion prints." 

As a painter, Kiyomasu did posters for theatres, 
and as an engraver he did prints of actors, women, 
landscapes, and birds of prey. His work is often con- 
fused with that of his contemporary Torii Kiyonobu 
(1664-1729), founder of the Torii school. Especially 
noted for his careful draftmanship and exquisite 
design, Kiyomasu's most distinguished single 
work is thought to be a study of the actor Kanto 
Koroku, no-w in the collection of the Art Institute 
of Chicago. 



Ki 



Jtao Masanobu (1761-1816), the most outstand- 
ing member of the Kitao school, enjoyed a highly 
successful career as an artist, abandoning it ho'wever 
at the early age of 24 to become a writer As a novel- 



ist, under the name Santo Kyoden, he achieved even 
greater distinction. 

Masanobu's most distinguished prints are ele- 
gant studies of Yoshiwara courtesans, and some of 
his work so closely resembles that of his mentor, 
Kitao Shigemasa, that the two are virtually 
indistinguishable from one another Seven diptychs 
(two-panel prints) done for the book Celebrated 
Women of the Tea Houses and Their Handwritings is 
perhaps his best known work. Since his career as an 
artist was so brief, Masanobu's prints are quite 
scarce. 

J.orii Kiyohiro, whose life dates are not known 
with certainty, was most active from about 1737 to 
1768. Like most members of the Torii school, he 
tended to specialize in theatre posters and programs 



"Fishing Boats at Chostii in Soshu" (c. 1833). by Katsushil^a Hol<usai. 
This work appeared during the rvost fruitful decade ofHokusai's long, 
productive career KateS. Buckingham Collection. © The Art Institute 
of Chicago. All rights reserved 




15 



and in portraits of kabuki actors. He was the last 
artist of distinction to do prints in two colors, rose 
and green — prints kno^vn as henizurue — before the 
introduction of the polychrome technique in 1765. 
His work is today relatively scarce. The Torii school 
has survived to the present and there is still a mem- 
ber active today — Torii IX. 

lijuzuki Harunobu (17257-1770), one of the stellar 
figures in the history of the Japanese print, is also 
credited with introduction of the polychrome wood 
engraving. The first of these so'called "brocade piC' 
tures," or nishiki-e, were produced about 1765, just a 
fev/ years before his death. Although earlier artists 
had used the multi-block process to provide a range 
of color, Harunobu, whose print-making \vas funded 
by wealthy patrons, had the resources to perfect this 
technique and bring it to fruition; it was Haruno- 



"Snow on the Sumida River" (c. 1834). by Katsushika Hokusai. is one 
of Hokusai's countless evocations of ttie rural scene — brooding, 
peaceful, yet ctiargedv\/itfi a certain tension. Gift of Gaylord Donnelley. 
© The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights reserved. 



bu's work which revolutionized print-making and 
stimulated others to follow. 

Harunobu used as many as ten wood blocks for 
the polychrome effect; but in the decades to follow, 
as techniques were further refined and a greater 
range of pigments became available, the number of 
blocks was greatly increased. The print by Shunsho 
Katsukawa, appearing on the cover of this issue, was 
done (1907) with 127 separate additions of color; 
some woodblock prints have been done with as 
many as several hundred. 

The quality of Harunobu's work during his en- 
tire productive period is remarkable for its uniform- 
ity, with only a slight falling-off in his last years. He 
is especially noted for his charming portrayals of 
average, middle-class girls, and customarily depicted 
them in groups of two or three as they went about 
their daily routine. 



K 



k-itagaw^a Utamaro (1753-1806) was the most 
accomplished of all Japanese artists in the depiction 
of lovely women. Though some Utamaro prints 
reached Europe by way of the Dutch trading post at 



16 





Nagasaki in the 1790s, he did not acquire a follow 
ing in the West until almost a century later; Mary 
Cassatt and Edouard Manet were among those who 
expressed enthusiasm for his ^vork. 

Early in his career, Utamaro specialized in 
prints of kabuki actors — work w^hich gave little hint 
of the heights he was someday to achieve in his pro- 
trayals of \vomen of the Yoshiwara. The courtesans 
are shown in their various moods and daily activi' 
ties, including explicitly erotic scenes with custom- 
ers. In technical quality alone, the best of Utamaro's 
first editions are perhaps unmatched anywhere in 
the history of the wood engraving. 



K. 



Latsushika Hokusai (1760-1849). Seventy years 
ago Arthur Davison Ficke, the British authority on 
Japanese prints, wrote "Until rather recently Hoku- 
sai was, for European spectators, as isolated and 
commanding a figure in . . .Japanese art as Fuji is in 
the Japanese landscape." Fiske's observation is close 
to an accurate assessment of Hokusai's reputation 
today, and it may be that in the discipline of the 
landscape this extraordinary artist stands alone. 



"Ayu Fish" (late 1830s), M%" x 10" by Utagawa Hiroshige (1797- 
1858). This is a later edition of a print originally published c. 1832. 
During the period 1811 to 1830, Hiroshige followed his elders in 
choosing the theatre, women, and samurai for subject matter: then, 
breaking from tradition, he began doing landscapes, studies of birds, 
flowers, and fish, during his so-called landscape period (1830 to 
about 1834) — the time of his best work. Restricted gift of f^rs. Kenneth 
Bro. © The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights reserved. 



Hokusai was apprenticed to an engraver when 
he was still a small child and at 18 he became em- 
ployed in the studio of the well know^n print 
designer Katsukawa Shunsho, continuing to learn 
the craft and hone his skills for a number of years. 
The style of his early prints followed the tradition of 
his teachers; but a highly personal style, marked 
with vivacity and humor, emerges in the first of fif- 
teen volumes of his collected sketches. Manga, pub- 
lished in 1814. 

Hokusai's justly famed "Thirty-Six View^s of 
Fuji," showing the mountain in all its seasonal 
moods and guises and from imaginative vantage 
points, were executed between 1823 and 1830. One 
of these, "The Great Wave off Kanagawa," had a 



17 



"Camellia Flowers 
and Sparrows in Fall- 
ing Snow" (c. 1837). 
by Utagawa 
Hiroshige. This is a la- 
ter edition of the print 
originally published C- 
1832. Toulouse- 
Lautrec. Gauguin. 
Van Gogh, Cezanne, 
and Whistler were 
among those Western 
artists particularly in- 
debted to Hiroshige 
for a fresh vision of 
nature. The Clarence 
Buckingham Collec- 
tion. © The Art Insti- 
tute of Chicago. All 
rights reserved. 



18 





particularly strong influence on members of the art 
nouveau group in Europe in the latter 1890s. 

Though chiefly known for his landscapes, 
Hokusai excelled in the human figure and in birds 
and flowers as well. He also did a phantasmagorical 
series depicting tales of the supernatural, figured 
with grinning skulls and skeletons, and another 
series devoted to the celebrated poets of China and 
Japan. More than 30,000 original designs have been 
attributed to Hokusai. 

The modem creations of Christo and Olden- 
burg seem a little less daring when we consider that 
more than a century ago, the brash and colorful 
Hokusai executed pictures 120 feet high, using a 
broom for a brush — according to legend. Perhaps 
anticipating the recent spoof in which a painting by 
an ape was formally exhibited as a human work of 
abstract art, Hokusai allegedly coaxed a rooster, 
whose claws had been daubed with red paint, across 
a blue sheet of paper "Maple Leaves on the Tatta 
River" is the title he is said to have given the roost- 
er's creation. 

At 75 he wrote, "Up to the age of 50 1 made a 
great number of drawings; but I am dissatisfied w^ith 
anything that I created prior to my seventieth year 
At the age of 73 I, for the first time, began to grasp 
the true forms and nature of birds, fishes, and 
plants. It follows that at the age of 80 1 shall have 
made great progress," signing himself "The Old Man 
Mad with Painting." At 89 Hokusai's dying words 



"A Picture of Prosperity in America " (1861), by Utagawa IHirostiige II 
(1826-1869). son-in-law of Utagawa Hiroshige. Ttiis rattier sketchily 
rendered, cartoonlike triptycfi is of greater interest hiistorically than as 
a work of art. and it is apparent from the fanciful mountain peaks and 
palm trees embellishing the background that the artist had never set 
foot in America. The print was probably copied, in part, from a copper 
engraving of Fredencksborg Castle. Denmark. Gift of Mrs. £ C. 
Chadbourne. © The Art Institute of Chicago. All rights reserved. 



were "If the gods had given me only ten years more 
— only five years more — I could have become a 
really great painter." 



u, 



.tagawa Hiroshige (1797-1858), regarded in 
some quarters as Hokusai's rival in the landscape, is 
best known for his "Fifty-Three Stations on the 
Tokaido," published in 1833 or 1834. His early work 
was in the traditional vein, reflecting the influence 
of Chinese painters and a Japanese school of realism; 
and his subjects during this period were commonly 
actors, courtesans, and samurai. But around 1828, 
stimulated by the work of Hokusai, 37 years his 
senior, Hiroshige turned from the human figure to . 
the landscape. While formal design and human 
activity are of importance in Hokusai's work, 
Hiroshige was more concerned with seasonal effects 
upon the countryside. 

Sights along the Tokaido (the 300-mile high- 
way linking Tokyo with Kyoto) had long been a pop- 
ular theme for artists, including Hiroshige's teacher 
Hiroshige's series was published to immediate 



19 






^^i 




tit 






20 



acclaim, and for a time his renown as a landscape 
artist eclipsed even that of Hokusai. Fev/, if any, 
■woodblock prints have enjoyed such long press runs 
(as many as 10,000) or so many editions as those of 
the Tokaido series; the result has been that the qual' 
ity of prints is often greatly compromised. In 1842 a 
twelvcyear government ban on actor and courtesan 
prints went into effect, resulting in an increased de- 
mand for landscapes; Hiroshige, too, helped satisfy 
this market by increasing his own production. 



Among his total oeuvre of some 5,000 designs, 
Hiroshige also did a series of 119 views of famous 
sites in Tokyo, his final work. Van Gogh, in 1888, 
w^as so impressed with Hiroshige's genius that he 
painted fairly literal reproductions in oil of two 
prints from this series: "Plum Garden at Kameido" 
and "Sudden Shower at Ohashi," even signing them 
in Japanese. 

Hiroshige's life was cut short at age 61 by 
cholera, during an epidemic. 




"London with Bridge and Fleet" (1862), by Utagawa Yoshitora (fl. 
1836- 1880s). a pupil of Utagawa Kuniyoshi. Like l-liroshige II 's "A Pic- 
ture of Prosperity in America " (p. 19), this triptych print is chiefly of 
interest for its vision of a Western metropolis through Japanese eyes. 
Though the color has been applied with somewhat less than rigorous 
care and there are inadequacies of register, Yoshitora is 
clearly more faithful to details of dress than Hiroshige II. The horses' 
bridles and ships ' rigging are done with particular fidelity Note, how- 
ever, the Japanese-style bridge lanterns and that in the alcove to the 
right. The caption on the center panel reads: "London is on the 
Thames River and has a great number of large houses and buildings. 
People are rich on the whole. There is a long bridge on the river, which 



is about 180 feet long and about 40 feet wide. In the evening, three 
lamps are lit on the bridge to light the way There is a fortress by the 
bank to defend the city against the enemy In the city, there are sever- 
al market places opened for traders from all over the world. The pop- 
ulation is about 1.050.000 and the number of university students is 
more than several thousand. The women are affectionate and the 
men intelligent, with a high ambition to succeed in business. They 
have built more than 28.000 large ships for trading and there are 
about 185.000 workers on the ships. It is said that their naval ships 
number over 800 and are equipped with 40 to 120 cannon. " Gift of 
Mrs. E. C. Chadbourne. © The Art Institute of Chicago. Alt rights 
reserved. 



21 



u, 



Ltagawa Hiroshige II (1826'1869), also known as 
Ichiusai Shigenobu, was Hiroshige's adopted son as 
well as his son'in'law. It is believed that he assisted 



ijaito Kiyoshi (b. 1907), who is still living, has 
gained an international reputation, his work being 
particularly prized by American collectors. Kiyoshi 




"Nostalgia. Boston" (1956). by Saito Kiyoshi (b. 1907). Gift of Mr. and tVlrs. Albert 
L Arenberg. © Tfie Art Institute of Cfiicago. All rights reserved. 



in some of Hiroshige's last work or completed it 
after the senior's death. He was the first of 
Hiroshige's many followers, but his work is gener- 
ally considered flat, uninspired and, at best, work' 
manlike imitations of the master 



u. 



Ltagawa Yoshitora (fl. 1836'1880s), a minor artist 
whose real name was Nagashima Tatsugoro, was a 
pupil of the great Kuniyoshi (1797-1861). His work 
22 coincides with the end of the ukjyo'e period. 



began as an oil painter, achieving some distinction in 
this medium; while still young, however, he turned 
to the woodblock print, which seems to have offered 
better opportunities for his artistic expression. Typi- 
cal subjects of his mature years (the 1956 print of 
Boston, Massachusetts notwithstanding) have 
been Buddhist temples and statuary, rock gar- 
dens, and shoji screens. By Kiyoshi's o\vn account, 
the most important influences in his work have 
been European — Gauguin, Redon, Munch, and 
Mondrian. The chain of influence had come full 
circle.FH 



The Respirator 

Or Smoke Strainer 

— ^An Unusual 

Eskimo Artifact 



63; James W. VanStone 

Curator, 

North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



J\.n important diversion for Eskimo men in the 
villages of southwestern Alaska today is the steam 
bath, and in many villages a small bathhouse stands 
beside each dwelling. The custom of bathing in 
extreme heat is not new to the Eskimos of this area, 
but the use of a small bathhouse is quite recent. 
Before discussing certain items of material culture 
associated with bathing, it is necessary to consider 
the steam bath in historical perspective: 

In prehistoric times, and until as recently as 
1950 in a few Eskimo villages, the men took baths in 
the qasiq, or ceremonial house. These square, semi' 
subterranean structures were similar in construction 
to family dwellings, but much larger, sometimes as 
much as 25 feet (7-6 m) on a side, and had a single 
raised bench around the walls. The cribbed roof was 
open at the top and there was a large central fire pit 
and short entryway. 

Although the qasiq was found throughout 
much of Alaska, it was along the Yukon River and in 
adjacent areas of south-western Alaska that the lives 
of Eskimo men were more intensively focused on 
ceremonial houses (see map). From the age of 10 
onwards, males lived primarily in the qasiq; older 
boys learned craft skills there and listened to the 
myths and traditions recounted with enthusiasm by 
the oldest men. Ceremonies, particularly those in' 
tended to increase the supply of game animals as 
well as purely social events, were held in the qasiq, 
and male visitors from other communities were 
housed there, ^siq residents were usually brought 
meals by their mothers or wives; unmarried males al- 
ways slept there and married men usually did (see 
the Bulletin, November 1982, pp. 12-15). 



Often the men and boys would take a "fire 
bath" in the qasiq. Dry wood was stacked in the 
large central fire pit and ignited. The smoke escaped 
through the skylight and after the wood had burned 
down to a layer of glowing coals, a cover was placed 
on the skylight. The men and older boys sat naked 
on benches along the avails, while younger boys sat 
on the floor or near the entrance, where there were 
cool drafts from outside. Until the smoke cleared 
from the room, the bathers coughed sporadically; 
they then sat back and enjoyed the heat, chatting 
occasionally about family matters and daily activi' 
ties. Afterward they bathed in urine kept in a large 
Avooden tub in one corner of the qasiq. The urine, 
combined with body oils, served the same purpose 
as soap. Sometimes the bathers, on leaving the 
qasiq, poured water over their bodies or rolled in a 
snow bank. 

After 1830, with the arrival of Russian traders 
and missionaries in southwestern Alaska, the idea of 
the steam bath was introduced. The Russian-style 
bathhouse was usually a small, lowroofed, tightly 
fitted log structure covered with sod. Inside were 
wall benches and a fireplace covered with a grill on 
which stones were placed. The smoke from the wood 
fire passed from the building through an opening 
in the roof After the stones had heated and the fire 
had died down, the ashes w^ere removed from the 
fire pit. Then the roof opening was covered and 
w^ater was splashed on the hot rocks to produce 



St. Michael' 




BERING SEA 



ALASKA 




24 



/. From: Nelson, E. W., The Eskimo About Bering Strait. Smithsonian Institution 
Press. 1983 (fig. 96. p. 288). 



waves of steam. Later stoves were made from old oil 
drums, with a chimney pipe fitted to the drum. The 
oil'drum stove served to eliminate the irritating 
smoke, some of v/hich had al\vays remained in the 
bathhouse; as the result of this innovation, the pop- 
ularity of the steam bath greatly increased. It is this 
type of bathhouse and bathing arrangements that 
are found in the Eskimo villages of southwestern 
Alaska today. 

An interesting artifact associated with the 
traditional fire bath but also occasionally used later 
in the steam bath is a respirator, or smoke strainer, 
which the bather held in his mouth in order to pro- 
tect his lungs not only from smoke lingering in the 
room, but from the intense heat generated in the fire 
pit. These respirators, which covered the mouth, 
chin, and a portion of the cheeks, were usually make 
of fine shavings of willow or spruce wood that were 
shaped to form an oval pad. 

Edward William Nelson, a collector of ethno- 
graphic material in Alaska for the Smithsonian 
Institution in the early 1880s, obtained an extremely 
well-made respirator in the village of Shaktoolik on 
Norton Sound; it is now in the National Museum of 
Natural History in Washington. This respirator (fig. 
1) is slightly larger than 4x5 inches (10 X 13 cm) 
and constructed of a very fine wood shavings. The 
smooth, oval outline has been achieved by means of 
a ropelike band of shavings tightly v/ound w^ith a 
cord of the same material. Inside this oval ring is a 



soft mass of shavings held in place by a netting of 
loosely twisted cord. The respirator is convex on the 
outside and concave on the inner surface; the shav- 
ings are packed loosely on the inner side and held in 
position by a horizontal wooden rod which the 
wearer grips in his mouth. 

There are two interesting early illustrations 
^vhich sho^v men wejiring respirators made of wood 
shavings or of grass. The earlier is a drawing made in 
October, 1866, by William Healy Dall, a pioneer 
student of Alaskan natural history, at the village of 
Klikitarik on Norton Sound east of St. Michael. 
This drawing (fig. 2) from Dall's notebooks shows a 
man seated cross-legged and wearing a respirator 
very similar to the one described and illustrated by 
Nelson. He also wears a cap, which ^vas the only 
other item of apparel worn inside the bathhouse; the 
hair, if not covered or dampened, could become very 
hot and uncomfortable. Such a cap was usually 
made of the skin of some waterfowl, usually a loon. 
The bird's skin was cut open along the breast and 
removed complete, except for the neck, wings, and 



2 Courtesy Smithsonian Archives (SI neg. no. 80- 1377). 



] 














3. Courtesy Dept. of Anthropology. Denver Museum of Natural History (DM 
neg. no. 82-003). 



legs. The skin was then dried and softened so as to 
become pUable and the two ends were fastened 
together in such a way that it could be worn on the 
head. 

The man is show^n in this drawing dressed in a 
parka of animal or bird skins which, of course, he 
would not be wearing in the bathhouse. Obviously 
Dall asked someone to pose outside so that he could 
make a drawing sho-wing the cap and respirator. 

The second illustration (fig. 3) is a photograph 
taken at the village of Ikogmiut on the low^er Yukon 
River. The photographer and date are unknown, but 
presumably the picture was taken sometime during 
the last decade or two of the nineteenth century 



since a log cabin and a canvas tent may be seen in 
the background. A man is shown seated on the 
ground, cooling off after taking a steam bath. He is 
wearing a respirator that covers a large part of his 
face. In front of him is a basin, not of urine, but of 
water, with which bathers washed themselves in 
more recent times. 

Today, respirators of wood shavings or of grass 
are seldom used except by very old men, and the 
head is usually covered with a towel. FH 



YOU CAN LEAVE 

EVERYTHING 

TO YOUR SPOUSE, 

TAX-FREE, BUT 

SHOULD YOU? 



Under new estate tax laws, you can leave all your property to your 
spouse with no estate tax liability. But, that's true only at the death 
of the first spouse. What about taxes at the death of the surviving 
spouse? 

To reduce these taxes, the first spouse might want to leave a 
portion of his or her estate in trust to a final beneficiar/, such as 
Field Museum, one of the world's great museums. 

What's more, the income of that trust can go to the surviving 
spouse for life. Your spouse still gets the benefit of your total 
estate. Then, at death, the principal of that trust passes tax-free , 
outside his or her estate, to the Museum, perpetuating your 
family name. 

For more information about planning and v\/riting an effective 
will, send for the free booklet, using the coupon below. 



-CUP AND MAIL TOiyy • 



TO: Clifford Buzard 

Planned Givins Officer 
Field Museum of Natural Histor/ 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, Illinois 60605 

dl Please send me my free copy of "How To Make a Will That Worte.' 
NAME 



(Please print) 



ADDRESS. 
CIT/ 



.STATE. 



PHONE: 



BUS:( ) 



Res: ( ) 



.ZIP- 



BEST TIME TO QM.I: (Day of week): . 



.(Hour):. 



25 



Stephen Jay Gould Honored 




s, 



26 



tanley Field hall provided an awesome setting 
Avhen the Founders' Council gathered there on 
November 1 to honor the distinguished scientist 
Stephen Jay Gould. Dr. Gould, professor of geology 
at Harvard University, curator of vertebrate 
paleontology at the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, and a MacArthur Fellow, became the first 
recipient of the council's Award of Merit; the new 
award consists of a $1,000 prize and a plaque bearing 
a commemorative inscription and the Founders' 
Council emblem, designed by Skidmore Owings £s? 
Merrill. Dr Gould, who may be best known to 
Museum members for his recent book. The Mis- 
measure of Man, and for his monthly column in 
T^atural History, adds the award to an impressive 
array of honors for his contributions to science and 
for his advancement of scientific literacy, a goal he 
furthers so eloquently in his frequent essays. 

The evening began with a reception for Dr 
Gould beneath the glittering chandelier of the 



Founders' Room. Participants and honored guest 
then adjourned to the Great Hall, where a festive 
atmosphere had been artfully created by Dinner 
Co'chair Mrs. Byron C. Karzas. 

Founders' Council Chairman Thomas J. 
Eyerman and Dinner Co'chair William L. Searle 
welcomed the assemblage and set the evening's 
agenda. Chairman Eyerman reported that the coun' 
cil had grown to some 250 members and that in a 
year's time it had contributed almost $1 million to 
the Museum. He gave special thanks to the council's 
membership chairman, Harry I. Skilton, and paid 
tribute to Mrs. Donald C. Geaves and Mrs. John C. 
Meeker; Mesdames Greaves and Meeker had 
developed an innovative series of seminar/luncheons 
with curatorial staff, an activity which has given 
council members deeper insight into scientific work 
being done at Field Museum. 

Eyerman also announced plans for the council 
to initiate a special program called "Field Museum: 



At Founders Council Dinner 




Above: The evening 's guest of honor, 
Stephen Jay Gould, right, with Field 
Museum Director Lorin I. Nevling, 
Jr In other photos, Founders' Coun- 
cil members. Field Museum staff, and 
friends are shown during the eve- 
ning's activities. N83795 



Ambassador to the World." This is designed as an 
outreach program to garner pubUc attention and to 
promote understanding of the unique functions of 
Field Museum as well as its international scope. 

Dr. Willard L. Boyd, President of Field 
Museum, then addressed the group, articulating the 
purpose and meaning of the new award. In doing so, 
he observed the statuary ("Nature," "Research," 
"Record", and "The Dissemination of Knowledge") 
occupying the four corners of the hall and called 
attention to the considerable museum history that 
has transpired under the vigilant gaze of these heroic 
figures. The statues symbolize the mission that both 
the Museum and the award recipient endeavor to 
promote. After a brief revie^v of the accomplish- 
ments of the evening's guest of honor, Chairman 
Eyerman presented the award to Dr. Gould. 

In a recent essay Dr Gould noted that it was 
his purpose to inform and never to bore his 
audience. As a teacher and essayist, he has succeeded 



Photos by Ron Testa 

in this endeavor with uncommon distinction, and 
no^v as a speaker he further demonstrated that the 
art of communicating difficult ideas effectively and 
with wit is a special gift indeed. 

Dr. Gould chose as his evening's topic the 
current controversy over the causes of dinosaur 
extinction. Reviewing the various theories, he 
clarified the role of the element iridium in the most 
widely accepted theory, set his own position neatly 
within the framework of the controversy, and 
explained why. His capsulization of this complex 
issue gave further proof of Dr Gould's mettle. A 
"Death Star" (the media name for a theoretical com- 
panion sun to our o^vn which might explain the 
extinction cycles) and geologic anomalies may never 
be household topics, but under Dr. Gould's 
entertaining tuition, they became accessible to all. 

Field Museum is deeply grateful to Dr Gould 
for his participation and to the Founders' Council 
for their tireless efforts on the Museum's behalf 

— Charles Buze^ 
Assistant to the President 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, II 60605 



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0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Ore en view 
Chicagoi IL 60626 



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Members' Preview March 8 



Tamara Northern Lectures on 



A \ 



AMEROON SECRET SOCIETIES March 21 



Donald Johanson Lectures on 
LUCY AND OUR AFRICAN ANCESTORS March 23 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: I^mela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

March 1985 

Volume 5G, Number 3 



March Events at Field Museum 



Our Environment 



The Silver Lining of a Very Dark Cloud 

by Michael O. Dillon 

Assistant Curator of Vascular Plants 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. MuUin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H.Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



The Art of Cameroon 

by Tamara Northern 

Exhibit Opens March 9 (Members' Preview March 8) 



A Prayer of Ancient Egypt 

by Charles Buzek 
Assistant to the President 



Field Museum Tdufs for Members 



11 



23 



27 



COVER 

Zofoa lUfon ofBabungo, a kingdom in the grasslands of north- 
western Cameroon. Afon is the sacred representative of the found- 
ing dynasty of a kingdom in the Cameroon. He is the chief priestly 
leader as well as the cultural guardian and principal actor in cere- 
monies, rituals, and secular affairs of the kingdom. Zofoa II is 
shown here surrounded by some of his royal regalia. Art objects of 
the Cameroon, including pieces such as these, will be on view in the 
exhibit "The Art of Cameroon ,"at Field Museum March 9 throu^ 
June 16. See pages 11-ZZ. Photo by Tamara Northern, curator of the 
exhibit, courtesy sites. Copyri^t ® 1984 Smithsonian Institution. 

BACK COVER 

Nineteenth-century prestige cap from the Cameroon, 27cm hi^. 
This type of cap, made of cotton and adorned with glass beads, is 
typical of those worn by kings, princes, and royal retainers of the 
Bamum,a kingdom in the eastern grasslands of northwestern 
Cameroon. From the Museum fiir Volkerkunde, West Berlin. This 
cap and about 120 other pieces will be on view in the "The Art of 
Cameroon." Photo by Dietrich Graf. 



Field Museum of Natural History Butletiti (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum memtwrship 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, II. 



T 



Events 



Film as Document 

Cameroon Secret Societies 

Tamara Northern, Curator of Ethnographic Art, 

Dartmouth College, and Curator, 

the Art of Cameroon 
Thursday, March 21, 7:30 pm, James Simpson Theatre 

The activities of the men's secret societies of the south- 
western and coastal forest groups of the Cameroon are 
sparsely documented. A large part of the documenta- 
tion that exists was compiled by missionaries and, 
often, does not provide a culturally relative view. These 
groups formed a central institution serving ritual needs 
of the people, preserving forest art traditions, and 
instructing young males in social and moral behavior 
Membership in the men's secret societies was open to all 
men. In effect, however, fee requirements limited access 
to all but a few. Their meeting grounds and proceedings 
were not accessible to nonmembers or to women. 

Tamara Northern, curator of ethnographic art, 
Dartmouth CoUege, provides narration and personal 
commentary for a selection of five rare documentary 
films detailing the secret and unknown activities of 
these men's groups. The films form a central core 
to the field work of German ethnographer Dr. J. 
Koloss, and include private scenes of annual festivals, 
sacrifice, ritual purification, and a performance of the 
night masks. 

Tickets: $5.00 (Members: $3.00). Fees are nonrejundable. 
Please use attached coupon to order tickets. 
Public Programs « (312) 322-8854. 




^-t 













•i.>,s*i-^'4iJ3r'^^^ 



Palaeoanthropologist Donald Johanson 
lectures March 23 




m 



Lucy and Our African Ancestors: 
4 Million Years of Controversy 

Donald Johanson 

Saturday, March 23, 2:00 pm, James Simpson Theatre 

Bitter battles have frequently erupted in the search for 
our human ancestors. Beginning with the discovery of 
the Taung baby by Dn Raymond Dart in 1924 to the 
recent finds in East Africa, the field has been dominated 
by extraordinary differences of interpretation which 
have sometimes divided scholars so deeply that produc- 
tive discourse has become impossible. Dr. Johanson 
examines recent criticism of Lucy, a tiny lady three feet 
tall, who weighed 60 pounds and lived some 3.5 mil- 
lion years ago, and of other fossils which he has 
assigned to Australopithecus afarensis. He traces the 
discovery of our African ancestry, now dating back 
4 million years. 

One of the world's leading paleoanthropologists, 
Donald Johanson was bom in Chicago and received his 
M. A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. In 
1973, when Johanson was codirecting the International 
Afar Research Expedition, he discovered a perfectly 
preserved knee joint at the Hadar site in Ethiopia; this 
historic discovery represented the oldest anatomical 
evidence for human bipedal stature and locomotion 
— the hallmark of humankind. The following year, 
also at Hadar, he found Lucy; the year after that, the 
"First Family. " From 1974 to 1981 he was curator of 
physical anthropology and director of scientific research 
at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. In 1981 he 
became director of the Institute of Human Origins in 
Berkeley, California, where he is currently based. 

Tickets: $7.00 (Members: $5.00), Fees are nonrejundable. 
Please use coupon to order tickets. 

This program isjunded in part by the Ray A . Kroc Environmental 
Foundation. Public Programs Information: (312) 322-8854 



Edi^ard E. Ayer Film Series 

Thursdays in March and April, 1:30 pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

March 7: Great Railtvay Journeys of the World: Deccan 

March 14: Baobab: Portrait of a Tree 

March 21 : Great Railway Journeys of the World: 

Three Miles High 
March 28: Audubon 



CONTINUED from p, 3 



Events 



March Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. These public programs are free with museum admission, tickets not required. 

March 

2 11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday 
life to myths and mummies. 

1:30 pm. Tibet Today (slide lecture). See 
Lhasa and other towns now open to the 
public. 

9 1:30 pm. Tibetan Borderland (slide lecture) . 
Explore Bhutan, "Land of the Thunder 
Dragon," and important sites of Buddhism 
in Nepal. 

10 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out 
big game from Africa and mummies from 
ancient Egypt as you travel through Field 
Museum exhibits. 



16 12:30 pm. China's Wondrous Animals (slide 
lecture). Look at real and imagined beasts in 
Chinese art, lore, and social life. 

17 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out 
big game from Africa and mummies from 
ancient Egypt as you travel through Field 
Museum exhibits. 

23 1:30 pm. Treasures from the Totem Forest 
(tour). A walk through Museum exhibits 
introduces the Indians of southeast Alaska 
and British Columbia and their totem poles 
and masks. 

24 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy z 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

2:30 pm. Life in Ancient Egypt (tour). Focus 



on the objects and practices which illustrate 
ancient life in the Nile Valley. 

30 1:30 pm. Traditional China (touv) . Eximine 
the imagery and craftsmanship represented 
by Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

31 1:00 pm. Spring Wildflowers (slide lecture). 
View wildflowers you can see in the woods, 
meadows, and prairies of the Chicago area. 

Family Feature 

Masks of the Cameroons 

March 23 and 24, 1:00 pm- 3:00 pm 
Ancient China Hall, Third Floor 

People throughout the world use masks for holidays 
and festivals. The African people of the Cameroons use 
masks in reUgious and political dances and ceremonies. 
Some masks are made to be worn by a tribal king only. 
Cameroon masks are made to symbolize special things 
to the members of the tribe. White chalk around the 
eyes, ears and mouth identify the wearer as a carrier of 
bad news. If a mask is carved with a certain type of hat, 
it may mean the wearer is an official. Certain tribes are 
represented by different types of animal masks. Find 
out how these beautiful masks are made and make a 
symbolic mask of your own. Bring your mask back 
to Field Museum on Sunday, May 19 to wear in our 
Festival of Masks. 

Family Features are free with museum admission and 
no tickets are required. 



Registration 



Please complete coupon for your program 
selection and any other special events. Com- 
plete all requested information on tfie applica- 
tion and include section number wfiere appro- 
priate. If your request is received less than one 
week before program, tickets vKill be held in 
your name at West Entrance box office until 
one-half hour before event. Please make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 
be mailed on receipt of check Refunds will be 
made only if program is sold out. 



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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Field Museum of Natural History 
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Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



OUR ENVIRONMENT 



Endangered Species List Modified 



Fortysix more native and foreign animals and plants, rang- 
ing from China's giant panda to the diminutive bumblebee 
bat, thought to be the world's smallest bat, were added to 
the U.S. List of Endangered and Threatened Species dur- 
ing 1984. Among United States species, the Wyoming 
toad, the woodstork, and the woodland caribou are all 
now protected by the Endangered Species Act. 

With these additions, the number of endangered and 
threatened species on the list now stands at 828, of which 
331 species are found in the United States and 497 are 
found solely in other countries. The grand total includes 
297 mammals, 220 birds, 99 reptiles, 85 plants, 62 fishes, 
24 clams, 16 amphibians, 12 insects, nine snails, and four 
crustaceans. 

In addition to the new listings, 54 other species were 
proposed in 1984 for listing as endangered or threatened. 
Among these are the wide-ranging interior least tern and 
piping plover, plants as exotic-sounding as the Last Chance 
townsendia and the large-flowered fiddleneck, and the 
Perdido Key beach mouse, believed to be the nation's most 
critically endangered small mammal. 

There was good news for several species that appear 
headed toward eventual recovery. The arctic peregrine 
falcon and the Utah prairie dog were moved from "en- 
dangered" to "threatened" listings — reflecting an improve- 
ment in their status. The tiny snail darter — a southern 
Appalachian member of the perch family that sparked the 
most celebrated court test of the Endangered Species Act — 
was likewise reclassified to "threatened," thanks in part to 
the discovery of small numbers of the fish in additional 
locations. 

Other species on their way to a more secure future 
include the southeastern population of the brown pelican, 
whose removal from the endangered list has been pro- 
posed, and the Florida population of the American alliga- 



tor, whose numbers have increased sufficiently that 
limited harvests of the reptile may be permitted, similar to 
those already held in Texas and Louisiana. 

The Endangered Species Act entered its second dec- 
ade in 1984. It is considered the world's foremost law pro- 
tecting species faced with extinction. Among its major 
features are penalties for harming endangered animals, 
obligations placed on federal agencies and projects under 
federal license or sponsorship to protect endangered spe- 
cies, and the listing of threatened and endangered species 
eligible for protection under the act. 

"The addition of any new species to the endangered 
species list is no cause for celebration," says Robert Jant- 
zen, director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. "But 
such listings enable us to extend legal protections to these 
species and focus national and international attention on 
their plight. Our goal is eventual removal of all species 
from the list as recovery efforts for each of them are suc- 
cessfully concluded." 

Listing is only the first step toward bringing a species 
back from the brink of extinction. Using the goals estab- 
lished by recovery plans for formally designated en- 
dangered species, biologists, conservation organizations, 
and state and federal natural resource managers attempt to 
improve a species' status through research, habitat protec- 
tion, increased law enforcement, improved land manage- 
ment practices, captive breeding, relocations, and 
establishment of experimental populations. There are now 
164 approved recovery plans for endangered and 
threatened species — an increase of 54 plans over 1983. 

"Endangered" means that a species is in danger of 
extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its 
range. "Threatened" means that a species is likely to be- 
come endangered. 




NOW AVAILABLE AT THE FIELD MUSEUM STORE: 

"Chicago Area Birds" 

by Steven Mlodmow 

and sponsored by the Chicago Audubon Society 

Published by Chicago Review Press 

220 pages, $9.95 

(10% discount for Members) 



Just off the press! This comprehensive 
study provides an account of the rela- 
tive abundance and seasonal and geo- 
graphic distribution of the 413 bird 
species that have been reported at 
least once in the Chicago area (19 
counties in four states). Included are 
maps of dozens of the primary birding 
areas. No birdwatcher, casual or dedi- 
cated, should be without this handy, 
attractive guide. 



The Silver Lining 
Of a Very Dark Cloud 

Botanical Studies in Coastal Peru 
During the 1982-83 El Nino Event 



by Michael O. Dillon 

Assistant Curator, Vascular Plants 

Department of Botany 

Photos by the author 



. he 1982-83 El Nino-Southern Oscillation, by all 
standards, must rank among the most devastating 
acts of Nature to be recorded during this century. The 
term El Niiio ("little Christ Child") was coined long 
ago by Peruvian fishermen who annually witnessed 
the warming of the coastal waters just after Christ- 
mas. However, the 1982-83 reversal of the normally 
cold-running current off the western coast of South 
America created climatic conditions that were felt 
around the world (see September 1983 Bulletin). 



The southern coast of California had record 
rains, the mild 1983 winter throughout the northern 
states caused severe spring flooding, and on the other 
side of the world drought plagued Africa, Indonesia, 
and Australia. In similar fashion, as torrential rains 
fell on western South America, the high-elevation 
southern Andean Sierra of Peru and Bolivia contin- 
ued a seven-year drought. 

The worldwide combined loss of human life 
from floods, polluted water supplies, and drought has 



Fig.l. 

Schematic 
representation 
of El Nino cur- 
rent in the 
Pacific Ocean. 





been estimated at more than 10,000. Property damage 
has been estimated in excess of $10 billion, but 
rebuilding continues today in Ecuador and Peru, 
with ultimate costs unknown. However, along with 
all the adverse effects came a rare opportunity for the 
modern scientific community to study this age-old 
phenomenon. 

The last recorded El Nifio of major proportions 
was in 1925, when scientists had neither the tools nor 
the mobility to study the phenomenon on a global 
scale. Minor El Niiio events were recorded in 1957, 
1965, and 1972, but historical records indicate that El 
Nihos have been occurring at least since- 1541. The 
reasons for El Nino events continued to elude scien' 
tists; ho-wever, this time scientists w^ere poised to 
study the phenomenon as never before. 

By mid'1982, scientists monitoring climatic condi' 
tions predicted the coming event, but not its magnitude. 
As the normally strong westerly winds slackened, 
satellites equipped with infrared sensors and ships at 
sea began recording rising water temperatures off the 
west coasts of North and South America. The cur' 



Fig. 2. (above) Camp site in the barren desert east of Camand, Are- 
quipa in southern Peru. Fig. 3. (below) Distribution of lamas forma- 
tions within the coastal desert of Peru. 



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rent along the equator, normally east to west, was 
reversing itself and forcing warm water up and down 
the coast from Alaska to Chile, thus displacing the 
cold-running currents that normally flow from both 
poles (fig. 1). 

These oceanographic changes stimulated unpre' 
cedented rainfall. Hardest hit was coastal Ecuador 
and Peru where record rains fell, causing massive 
flooding that destroyed roads, agricultural irrigation 
systems, and disrupted drinkable water supplies. 
Many towns and villages were left isolated for up to 
two months, as bridges on primary and secondary 
roads were wiped out and swollen rivers could not be 
forded. Peru's offshore anchovy and sardine fishing 
industry was devastated as the cold, nutrient-rich 
waters were displaced by warm, nutrient-poor wa- 
ters. Central Pacific seabird populations experienced 
dramatic reductions in population levels because of 
the lack offish and squid, their primary food source. 
Some seabird colonies, notably those of the Christ- 
mas Islands, completely disappeared, abandoning 



F\g.4. A few trees persist in the lush hillsides of the lomas of Mejia, 
Arequipa. 






Fig. 5. The lomas of Atiquipa display a rich variety of annual herbs 
very near the Pacific Ocean (background). 




nest and young. Numbers of salmon returning to the 
rivers of Alaska and Canada were at unusually low 
levels. But, in the midst of this colossal disaster came 
an opportunity to study the effect of El Niiio on the 
unique South American coastal vegetational forma- 
tions known as "lomas." 

Lomas Formations 

The western coast of Peru and northern Chile is the 
■world's driest desert, where virtually no precipita- 
tion occurs below elevations of 1,500 meters. This se- 
vere aridity is due to a climatic regime dominated by a 
constant temperature inversion which is generated, 
in part, by the cold, north-flowing Peruvian (Hum- 
boldt) Current. At some localities, however, wet sea- 
fog drifts landward, settling on low coastal hills. 
Where this fine precipitation (garua) is heavy 
enough and lasts long enough, a remarkable seasonal 
flora develops: the lomas. These communities occur 
not as a continuous band along the western coast but 
rather as an "island archipelago" within the desert, 



separated by large expanses of unvegetated arid land 
(fig. 2). They contain high numbers of endemic 
genera and species, i.e., those occurring in only one 
ecological or geographical locality. Present data sug' 
gest that no less than 20 percent of the species found 
within the lomas formations are narrow endemics; 
higher figures are expected in certain localities. 

Within coastal Peru, significant desert rains 
occur only in association with rare, but recurrent. El 
Nirio perturbations of normal marine and meteoro' 
logical currents of the Tropical Pacific Basin. In 1983, 
the events previously outlined stimulated a uniquely 
rich bloom w^ithin these communities, and species 
numbers and density were at high levels. 

National Geographic Society and Field Museum 
(Jack C. Staehle) funding* was used to support 



*See J<iovember 1984 Bulletin: 
Time," pp. 24-26. 



"The Right Gift at the Right 



approximately eight months of field work during this 
rare meteorological period. The objectives of this 
study were: (1) to sample and catalog the flora of the 
Peruvian lomas throughout their range while species 
diversity and quantity were at peak levels; (2) to 
initiate investigations of the chemistry of selected 
endemic species as an aid in establishing phylogenetic 
relationships between lomas species and their extra' 
lomas relatives; (3) to establish and support a collect' 
ing program within the lomas by Peruvian students; 
and (4) to use the compiled data to construct hypoth' 
eses concerning the probable age, climatic dynamics, 
and floristic origins of these unique formations. 

The geographic distribution of plant species 
within lomas formations gives an indication of their 
origins and past events. Traditional views hold that 
true islands have derived their floras through inde' 
pendent dispersal events and thus tend to be in dis' 
harmony. They have a mixture of species different 
from those found in neighboring mainland communi' 



Fig. 6. Nolana adansoni is a member of the family Nolanaceae. a group of plants found exclusively in lomas formations of coastal Peru and Chile. 




ties. This also appears to be true for lomas "islands," 
where the flora appears to be derived from several 
sources and to be introduced during different periods. 
The composition of the present'day flora un' 
doubtedly reflects the past climatic and geologic 
events that have shaped the lomas archipelago. 

The dynamics of lomas endemism and of how 
plants came to colonize the fog-island archipelago is 
potentially related to rare episodes of El Nino rainfall; 
such episodes possibly provided "bridging con- 
ditions" by means of precipitation levels sufficient for 
populations to expand their normally restricted dis' 
tributions. Areas that had been lifeless desert for 
decades supported lush plant growth during the 
unusual 1982-83 El Nino. These sporadic episodes of 
unusual precipitation are responsible for dramatic in- 
creases in total numbers of reproducing individuals 
and, in turn, for high seed productivity; this activity 
allo'ws replenishment of seed banks, a necessity for 
plants within unpredictable environments. 

Preliminary Results 

No comprehensive data is available on species com- 
position and distribution within lomas communities 
of Peru. Several investigators have compiled species 
lists for individual lomas or regions; however, the 
nomenclature is often outdated and/or inconsistent, 
and species concepts vary widely. Therefore, initial 
efforts have focused on the collection of lomas plants 
throughout Peru during this period of exceptional 
moisture availability. Two collecting trips were made 
by the author during 1983, in January-February and 
in October-December. Collections and ecological 
observations were made throughout the Peruvian 
lomas from the department of La Libertad (8° S lati- 
tude) to the department of Tacna (18° S latitude). 
Unusually high levels of species diversity and popula- 
tion numbers w^ere present, and about 600 collections 
of flowering plants and ferns were made in sets with 6 
to 10 duplicates each. Species composition varied 
greatly but consisted as a rule of annual and perennial 
herbs, including tuber-bearing, bulbous, and 
rhizomatous elements. There were a few shrubs, and 
isolated relictual* stands of tree species persisted at a 
few localities. 



*r.e., relatively few survivors remaining from a once-thriving 
10 community. 



The majority of lomas plants are rare or poorly 
represented in North American herbaria (systemati- 
cally arranged plant collections). In many instances, 
the specimens made during this period marked the 
first or second collection for Field Museum's herbar- 
ium. Duplicates are now being distributed to special- 
ists for identification and additional duplicates are 
being distributed to Peruvian institutions and to the 
major herbaria of the world. 

At present, little is known about the fauna of 
lomas formations. Collections of insects and arach- 
nids (spiders) were made at each lomas location. 
Special attention was given to the collection and 
observation of pollinators. Identifications of these are 
still in progress. 

Future Objectives 

Continued sampling of the lomas communities is nec- 
essary in order to develop as complete a data base as 
possible. This data base will be used to construct a 
comprehensive inventory of the lomas formations. 
However, recent field studies in October-December 
1984 indicate that the effects of the 1982-83 El Niiio 
were quite ephemeral. The lushness of 1983 has once 
again been replaced by stark desert. In fact, in many 
lomas the contrast was dramatic (fig. 3). Areas that 
usually have some vegetation every year were devoid 
of plant life, and in others the species diversity was at 
extremely low levels. 

Additional collecting expeditions are planned 
by the author for the future and an in-depth survey of 
existing herbarium specimens in various South 
American and North American herbaria will con- 
tinue. In future field seasons carbon 14 dating of the 
lomas will be initiated by running C 14 assays on 
humus deposits created by the lomas plant communi- 
ties through time. This data will allow additional 
confirmation of the dynamic structure of the lomas 
and the evolutionary development of their floras. 

Ultimately, the results of this project will be 
made available to the Peruvian government in the 
hope that they will help to identify areas in need of 
preservation and conservation. At present, only one 
lomas formation has been set aside as a national re- 
serve: Lomas de Lachay, approximately two hours 
drive north of Lima. In the future, additional lomas 
formations should be set aside as reserves to ensure 
the survival of their unique plant and animal life, fm 




Prestige cap, 19th or early 20th century; knitted and crocheted cotton, 20 cm high. This especially elaborate cap was ceremoniously worn by the 
tons and title holders. Collection of Bryce Holcombe. Photo by Malcolm Varon. 

The Art of Cameroon 

by Tamara Northern 



JLT is the aim of this exhibition to acquaint a 
large and diverse public with the significance and 
splendor of the art of Cameroon. From the very 
inception of this project, the issue of what constitutes 
the art of Cameroon, a contemporary African nation- 
state, had to be addressed. An astonishing number of 
major African art traditions must be considered in 
any presentation of the arts from within the bounda- 
ries of the present United Republic of Cameroon. 
Ethics, politics, and exhibition philosophy have all 
had to be weighed. 



Nearly all contemporary African nations en- 
compass within their boundaries — which are the 
legacy of former European colonial policies — multi- 
ple and diverse ethnic groups with an attendant 



This article by Tamara J^orthem is from the introduction (with 
minor adaptations) to her boo\, The Art of Cameroon, © 1984 
Smithsonian Institution, and is reproduced here (as are the illus' 
trations) courtesy of the author and of sites. 

The exhibit. The Art of Cameroon, was organized and cir- 
culated by sites and made possible by a grant from Mobil 
Corporation. 



U 




Cameroon' 



AFRICA 



cultural pluralism. Cameroon is no exception. Cam- 
eroon, however, is rivaled by few other African 
nations in the range of extremes characterizing its 
ecological and cultural zones. Its southern and coastal 
regions are dense with tropical rainforest; the coastal 
volcano Mount Cameroon registers one of the 
world's highest annual rainfalls — more than 1,020 
centimeters per year. Toward the northeast extend 
the savanna plateau of the Grassfields and the Ada- 
mawa Highlands, \vhich are among the highest in- 
habited elevations in Africa, . . . while the extreme 
north is characterized by semiarid steppes bordering 
on the south shore of Laike Chad. 

In these widely differing natural environments 
developed the many culture patterns of Cameroon. 
We are still only at the fringes of an understanding of 



Royal flywhisk, early 20th century Wood, cloth foundation with glass beads and cowrie shells, horsetail: figures 20 cm high. Collection of Bryce 
Holcombe. Photo by Malcolm Varon. 



12 





Royal stool with symbiotic 
leopard-elephant caryatid, 
19th century Wood with 
overlay of tin, 43. 5 cm 
high. Collection of Museum 
fur Volkerkunde, West Ber- 
lin. Photo by Dietrich Graf 



Cameroon's prehistory, but we may assume that 
small-scale human populations of stone-age culture 
inhabited this area for several millennia. In the ex' 
treme north at Lake Chad there is archaeological evi' 
dence of developed traditions in terra cotta sculpture 
and bronze and copper artifacts from the Sudanic Sao 
culture dating to circa AD. 900-1500. Throughout the 
course of prehistory and history the populations of 
Cameroon developed distinct forms of culture as 
much in relation to their natural habitats as in re- 
sponse to contact with each other The history of 
Cameroon, whose course for the past three hundred 
years has only recently begun to emerge from 
archaeologic and linguistic evidence supported by 
oral traditions, presents a complex mosaic of rela- 
tionships among groups of people sometimes related 
and sometimes distant in origins. Contact between 
them was at times peaceful and integrative, at times 
forceful and violent, leaving the conquered and the 
victors to evolve a modus vivendi for cohabitation. 
As Cameroon's culture areas were constituted at the 
time of intensive European contact — the last two 
decades of the nineteenth century, which saw the 



beginning of both colonization and w^ritten history — 
they exhibited distinct features. 

The northern part of Cameroon, including the 
Adamawa Highlands, is inhabited by indigenous 
groups of sedentary agricultural people, including the 
cluster collectively known as Kirdi, and by nomadic 
Fulani cattle herders. . . . 

The Fulani, whose origin is in Senegal on Afri- 
ca's west coast, entered the region about three hun- 
dred years ago. They live dispersed throughout the 
northern regions of all West African countries. They 



Now Available at the Field Museum Store 
THE EXHIBIT CATALOG 

The Art of Cameroon 

by 
Tamara Northern 

Published 1984 by Smithsonian Institution 

8/4x12 inches, 207 pages 

Lavishly illustrated with color plates 

$15.00 

(Members: $13.50) 



13 



speak a language of the same Niger'Congo derivation 
as the Bantu languages of Cameroon. The Fulani 
lived in peaceful symbiosis with the indigenous farm' 
ing populations until the early nineteenth century, 
when most of them joined the Islamic crusades initi- 
ated by northern Nigeria's Islamic emirates. They 
adopted the Islamic faith and became militant mis- 
sionaries in its service. 

Some of these Islamized Fulani groups de- 
veloped powerful states, lamidates, in Cameroon, 
modeled after the Nigerian emirates, and comparable 
to medieval European city-states -with centralized 
political systems and administrative, judicial, and 
political institutions. As horse-mounted warriors, 
the Fulani became legendary and feared as raiders in 
search of slaves and tribute-paying subjects to sustain 
the elaborate organization of the lamidate courts. In 
the nineteenth century, until colonial intervention 
curtailed them, the raids were directed largely to the 
south, and the nineteenth-century history of the 
Grassfields is to a considerable degree shaped by the 
population displacements caused by these raids. 

Islam has remained the cultural denominator in 
the north of Cameroon. The material culture and 
artistic traditions of the non-Islamic farming groups 
are realized mainly in pottery, weaving, and the arts 
of personal adornment in metal and beads. In the Is- 
lamic culture context, the accoutrements of the horse- 
and-war complex and the garments worn by warriors 
have received material and visual elaboration. 



Elephant mask with leopard crest (detail of beadwork), 19th century. 
Collection of Field Museum #174145. Photo bv Rear Hales Testa. 



14 




The savanna plateau of the Grassfields, an inter- 
mediate environment between the northern semiarid 
steppes and the coastal and southern rainforest, is 
home to a multitude of chiefdoms, polities varying in 
size from a few hundred people to fully developed 
state formations with populations numbering in the 
tens of thousands. The population density, uncom- 
monly high for Africa, "was estimated even at the turn 
of the century at,an average of forty people per square 
kilometer — with a yet higher concentration in the 
southwestern Grassfields. The languages spoken are 
all classified as Semi-Bantu and derive from the 
Niger-Congo language family. Language density is 
also one of the highest on the African continent: In 
the western Grassfields (the present Northwest 
Province) alone, at least twenty-four languages are 
spoken by only 450,000 people. 

The Grassfields are a relatively homogeneous 
culture area, whose main features are political cen- 
tralization around a king or fon, palace admin- 
istration, social arbitration by men's secret societies, 
and an elaboration of material culture climaxing 
in one of the richest art and sculpture traditions of 
Black Africa. 

For the past three centuries, Grassfields history 
— including the genesis of chiefdom formation — has 
been determined by continuous small-scale popula- 
tion movements. The resultant contact dynamics 
were instrumental in the emergence of a social 
stratification differentiating between royals, com- 
moners, and slaves. In the early nineteenth century, 
these movements were occasioned largely by raids 
from the north by the Bali-Chamba groups and the 
Fulani. Populations escaping the pressure of the in- 
vaders would settle in another area, often dislodging 
its settled population in turn. But by the mid- 
nineteenth century most ethnic groups had estab- 
lished themselves as polities in their present 
locations. 

Located between the north and the coastal 
south, the Grassfields were open to the inroads of 
trade from both directions. Peaceful and profitable 
trade with the northern areas of the Benue Valley 



Royal memorial figures, carved of wood, from the kingdom of Kom, 
early 20th century. The figures are embellished with glass beads on 
cloth, with cowrie shells and facial sheaths of bronze. Heights 159 
cm, 163 cm, 155 cm. These figures are on view at the royal palace, 
Laikom, Cameroon. Photo by Tamara Northern, k 



16 



and the Adamawa Highlands was conducted prob' 
ably for centuries, although we have most evidence 
for the nineteenth century. Through a long-distance 
network of Hausa traders who encroached upon the 
Grassfields from their home base in northern Nigeria 
in the wake of the Fulani, ivory and kola nuts were 
traded against cotton cloth (Jukun cloth), embroidered 
robes, beads, brass bars, and salt from the north. 

For the Cameroon estuary at Douala there is 
some evidence of trade — including slaves — between 
coastal people and the Portuguese and Dutch traders 
of the early seventeenth century. For the time from 
the late eighteenth century until the mid-nineteenth, 
the evidence is complete for the Cameroon estuary as 
one of the active entrepots for the trans-Atlantic 
slave trade. Direct transactions with European trad- 
ers were conducted by merchant entrepreneurs, 
often the chiefs of the coastal groups, notably the 
Douala. But the long-distance network via inter- 
mediary traders extended into the Grassfields. 
Eventually, the coastal trade of slaves, and to a minor 
degree ivory, in exchange for European firearms, salt, 
and other foreign luxury goods supplanted to a con- 
siderable degree trade with the north. After abolition 
of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, the Grassfields con- 
tinued to supply the indigenous coastal palm oil 
plantations with slave labor to satisfy the Grassfields 
chiefdoms' demands for luxury goods. 

The vast area of Cameroon's w^estem and south- 
ern rainforest is inhabited by a multitude of ethnic 
groups whose culture patterns and art traditions 
manifest great diversity, while at the same time shar- 
ing certain features. The groups may be separated 
into western, coastal, and southern inland forest 
dwellers. People of the western groups speak Semi- 
Bantu languages, as do the Grassfields populations to 
the east and the Cross River groups in the west in 
adjacent Nigeria, while the coastal and southern pop- 
ulations belong linguistically to the large con- 
glomerate of Bantu speakers of Central Africa. 

Subsistence in the rainforest is based on agricul- 
ture, and the common framework for the social and 
political organization derives from the patrilineal 
lineage and village organization. In each ethnic 



Memorial figure of a royal titled wife, 19tti century. Wood, /4cmtiigh. 
Collection of Valerie Franklin. * 




group, the small'scale village communities whose 
members are commonly kin'related are autonomous 
units of egalitarian structure. Social and political 
stratification is absent, as is political centralization. 
Intervillage cooperation is realized in the defense of 
common interests and to some degree in the marriage 
exchange of women. 

The western and coastal provinces share the 
prominent institution of men's secret societies, which 
serve as supralineage organizations for social arbitra' 
tion and for intercourse with the supernatural (not 
unlike the West African Poro secret societies). These 
societies provide the context for masking traditions 
and for a tradition of complex and diverse figural 
sculpture. 

In the southern inland area, the distinct culture 
complex of the Beti-Pangwe groups and their north- 
em affiliates predominates. The core of this culture — 
which manifests one of Black Africa's best known art 
styles, that of the Fang — lies in the nations of Gabon 
and Equatorial Guinea, Cameroon's southern 
neighbors. 

The precolonial history of the southern and 
coastal Bantu peoples can be partially reconstructed 
from oral traditions and documented events of the 
nineteenth century, such as the Fulani expansion. 
We know that from the seventeenth century on' 
ward, group migrations, some of them over consider- 
able distances, led to successive shifts of population 
toward the coast and the southern inland region. The 
far-reaching consequences of northern Fulani expan- 
sion are seen in the early-nineteenth-century migra- 
tion of the Beti-Pangwe and related groups from a 
northeastern forest location into their present south- 
em forest settlements to escape the encroaching Fula- 
ni. Earlier population movements led the Douala 
from a southern locale to their present coastal site in 
that part of the Cameroon estuary formed by the 
Wouri River 

The geographic location of the coastal Bantu 
groups led to their direct and fateful exposure to a 
succession of European navigator-explorers and mer- 
chants who increasingly plied the African coast dur- 
ing the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in search 
of useful and exotic native goods and slaves. This 
long but intermittent contact through trade con- 
ducted on derelict and abandoned merchant ships in 
the Cameroon estuary w^as intensified during the lat- 




Elephant mask. 20th century. Hattia splints, cloth foundation for glass 
beads. 135 cm high. Collection of Bryce Holcombe/I^ark Rabun. 
Photo by Malcolm Varon. 



17 




Royal stool with double-headed elephant caryatid, 19th century Wood with glass beads on cloth foundation, 40 cm hiah Collection of Field 
fvluseum # 1 75558b. Photo by Fleur Hales Testa. 



18 



ter half of the nineteenth century by the permanent 
estabhshment of German commercial coastal sta- 
tions, and it was soon followed by the development of 
oil, rubber, and cocoa plantations. This economic 
appropriation by Germany resulted in the annexing 
of Cameroon as a German colony in 1884. The 
Douala assumed a prominent position in the direct 
transactions w^ith Europeans on the one hand and in 
the control of the hinterland trading networks on the 
other After the 1830s, this influential trading empire 
catapulted the Douala into the central role of nego' 
tiators \vith the British and later German commercial 
agents. The treaty of 1884, signed by the Douala 
kings Akwa and Bell, conceded Cameroon as pro- 
tectorate and colony to Germany. 

Centuries of contact between coastal peoples 
and Europeans initiated a slow but constant process 
of culture change, which, especially during the early 
exploitative colonial period, starkly modified tradi- 
tional culture patterns. One is tempted to speak of 
cultural erosion. However, ethnic pride and identi- 
ties, a shared sense of discrete history, beliefs, and 
some social institutions survived — testimony to the 
adaptability of human cultures — despite the inexor- 
able alteration of the fabric of society. Especially vul- 
nerable were the art traditions of these coastal 
groups. The figural sculpture and the masks used in 
their practices of secret society rituals -were soon deci- 
mated by early European curio hunters and by 
zealously righteous missionaries. At first it was under 
duress, but eventually the practical realities of 
changed lifeways asserted themselves and the forbid- 
den, clandestine need for those visual symbols suc- 
cumbed to diffidence. Virtually no art for indigenous 
purposes has been made by the coastal forest people 
since the very early part of this century, and none has 
survived in situ. 

Presenting the art of Cameroon in an exhibition 
required some difficult choices, given the area's his- 
torical and cultural diversity and its multiple ethnic 
art traditions in each of three broad culture regions. I 
felt strongly that this choice should be based on a 
viable exhibition concept that would honor the 
diversity without dissolving into mere enumeration. 
The exhibition is thus constituted with a focus on the 
Grassfields and its perimeters, while the northern 
and forest areas are selectively featured. The Grass- 
fields are a proportionately small geographic area of 




Royal pipe bowl, 19th century. Terra-cotta witti partial nickel overlay 
camwood residue, 24 cm high. Collection of Museum fur Volker- 
kunde. West Berlin. Photo by Dietrich Graf 



19 




Royal stool with leopard caryatid, 19th century. Wood, with glass 
beads on cloth foundation, 57 cm high. Collection of Field Museum 
#175560. Photo by Fleur Hales Testa. 



Cameroon, but their wealth of artistic tradition in 
various media and types surpasses that of any other, 
and Grassfields sculpture ranks among the most re 
nowned of African art. Also, the homogeneous cast 
of the Grassfields culture recommends itself in an 
exhibition seeking to explore the discourse between 
socio-political value and visual metaphor. 

The Grassfields are also representative, in that 
their populations share w^ith the western and coastal 
forest groups an ancient culture stratum, one element 
of which is the prominent institution of men's secret 
societies and their sacra in the form of masks and fig- 
ures. I therefore felt it appropriate to select some for- 
est art from this context. Such a selection explores 
and explicates a contextual continuum, while 
demonstrating the discrete cultural and visual per- 
mutations within specific ethnic groups. 

Two important styles of sculpture whose radius 
extends geographically into Cameroon have not been 
included because their cultural anchors lie in neigh- 
boring countries. These are the Cross River masking 
complex of Nigeria and the art forms related to the 
Beti-Pangwe, whose principal cultural sites are 
Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. This exclusion was 
made in deference to the inherent cohesion of culture 
areas whose manifestations should best be seen in 
relation to their core traditions. Additional curatorial 
considerations based on aesthetic preference, first- 
hand familiarity, and the very real logistic constraints 
of a loan exhibition will reveal themselves. 

Whenever possible, objects from the nine- 
teenth-century traditional context were sought, and 
many of those in the exhibition are among the very 
first to have been brought out of Cameroon. Others 
lack any documented collection history, but share the 
same traditional origin. "Traditional" here applies to 
viable cultural practices and conventions that are 
indigenously African; it does not imply an immu- 
table, fixed state. There is ample evidence of the con- 
tinuous processes of change affecting cultures over 
time. In an indigenous African frame of reference, the 
nineteenth-century cultures of Cameroon rep- 
resented a peak of development, to which the art 



20 



Male mask, 20th century. Wood, cowrie shells, glass beads, traces of 
camwood, 34 cm (without fringe). Collection of Valerie Franklin. > 



f ^. .  




-^:"\, 


^ 


^y < 


^Iv 




4. 






Prow ornament of canoe model, 19thcentury. Wood, paint, 200 cm long (entire model). Collection of Field Museum i(f 175469. Photo by Fleur Hales 
Testa. 



22 



works from this period, while not the only, are surely 
the most dramatic and persuasive remaining testi' 
mony. These works embody the fruition of a rich and 
complex cultural legacy. 

Cameroon's entry into the twentieth'century 
coincided with the imposition of colonial gov 
ernance. Traditions, including those of art, continued 
to change, but after colonization, the change was of a 
different quality and alien. It was a response to values 
and norms of the European industrialized world. It 



was fast and relentless for some groups, such as the 
coastal Bantu and the Grassfields kingdom of 
Bamum, gradual and less incisive for others. Many of 
the traditional art forms are as alive in the present as 
they have been in the past. Some are disappearing, 
and all have adapted to the changes of the late twen- 
tieth century. But the young nation Cameroon exer- 
cises prudent stewardship of its diverse cultural 
heritage and proudly supports its continuation in the 
frameAvork of a contemporary nation-state. 



An Ancient Egyptian Prayer 

A Beginner's Exercise 
For Those Who Would Learn Hieroglyphics 

by Charles Buzek 
Assistant to the President 



he most recent example of Egyptian hieroglyphic 
writing dates from AD. 394. These inscriptions were 
found on what was once the island of Philae, which 
now lies submerged in Nile waters held by the Aswan 
Dam. Leading backward into antiquity from that 
date, we have a 3,000'year continuum of hieroglyph 
use — a longer tradition of writing than anything we 
know from our European cultural antecedents. This 
three'millennium record has provided us with the 
rare opportunity to know the thoughts and share 
the dreams of men and women who lived when most 
of the world was still locked in barbarism and 
ignorance. 

When Jean Francois Champollion solved the 
mystery of these strange but beautiful inscriptions 
early in the nineteenth century, he opened a whole 
realm of research and scholarship that has continued 
to increase our understanding of the language and its 
grammar. Countless epigraphic (inscription) surveys 
have produced a flood of material that histories are 
made of Most of these inscriptions have been pray- 
ers, magical formulas, and spells, often so arcane that 
we can only speculate about their meanings; but it is 
unlikely that the ancient Egyptians understood these 
writings much better. The power of these symbols, 
after all, lay not in their content, but in actually recit- 
ing them. 

The best known among these prayers is the htp di 
nsw.These three words, taken from the prayer's open- 
ing, remain almost unchanged from the earliest 
dynasties to the latest. For the amateur Egyptologist 
stunned by textual difficulties of the written lan- 
guage and dismayed by the amount of time needed to 
develop a working vocabulary, this prayer, in particu- 
lar, can be a most useful tool. Understanding it can 
also enable one to translate some of the inscriptions 



one may see in Field Museum's Hall of Ancient 
Egypt. It is the purpose here to provide an introduc- 
tion to this prayer and to the study of monumental 
hieroglyphics — the written language of the ancient 
Egyptian monuments. Examples of text used here are 
all from inscriptions to be found in the hall. 

The prayer htp di nsw is easy to recognize when 
seen by itself, but may be less so within the context of 
other inscriptions. By examining monuments with 
such inscriptions, the viewer will come to know 
where the prayers are most apt to be found in any 
particular relief; with a little experience he will also 
be able to spot individual differences in ancient arti- 
sans' techniques of incising hieroglyphs. 

Beginning at the north end of the case along the 
east wall ("Casts of Egyptian Sculptures"), the first 
example of the prayer is on a section of the false door 
(an original, not a cast) from the tomb of Setjew, de- 
scribed as "overseer of the craftsmen." This spelling of 
the name, which differs from that given in the case 
label copy ("Sethau"), might be a good point at which 
to deliver a useful aside: The sounds of ancient Egyp- 
tian are a matter of conjecture among scholars, for the 
reason that vowels were not expressed in their writ- 
ing, just as they are not shown in the w^riting of 
present-day Nile dwellers. 

Educated guesses about how ancient Egyptian 
was spoken have been made on the basis of dialects 
which have evolved from the original tongue and also 
from the ways in ^vhich early Egyptian words were 
later blended into Greek and Latin; but none of these 
attempts to reconstruct the sounds of the bygone lan- 
guage are entirely satisfactory. According to current 
practice, the title of the prayer under discussion here 
■would be "hetep di nesw," but no pronunciation of 
this could be cited as more accurate than any other. 23 



Returning to the relief of Setjew, we see a bas' 
relief of him seated at a table. Directly below this 
scene is a box containing a number of hieroglyphs* 
This text is the earliest version of the prayer in the 
Museum's collection, probably coming from the 
Third or Fourth Dynasties (30th'28th century B.C.). 
Among the hieroglyphs in this box are some common, 
easily recognizable representational figures, such as 



Left of "king" is the recumbent figure of a dog- 
like figure, representing the jackal'headed god Inpu, 
also known as Anubis. The remainder of the glyphs in 
this inscription are much abbreviated and crudely 
cut. The quality of Egyptian inscriptions, it should be 
noted, varies not only with the artisan's skill, but 
with the amount that the candidate for eternity was 
willing to pay for his stone-cutting. Artisans usually 




The tomb of Setjew — a portion of the false door, nte 



24 



birds. The inscription reads in the direction opposite 
that in which these figures are facing — from right to 
left. The text is arranged, by and large, horizontally, 
as are the other versions of the prayer discussed here, 
though vertical arrangements are not unusual. 

Beginning at the right, the first words in the for- 
mula are ^ nsw (or nesw), which means "king," and 

htp (hetep), which means "boon" or "gift." A 
third -word, hardly recognizable, is a triangular shape 
just to the left of htp. This glyph is transliterated di, 
meaning "to give." It will be more legible in inscrip- 
tions discussed further on. 

As in Chinese writing, the pictographic element 
in a glyph is often a good clue to its meaning. Thus, 
the symbol \- is the sedge, a plant common in Up- 
per (southern) Egypt, where it became a symbol for 
kingship. In Lower (northern) Egypt, the bee became 
the symbol for kingship. The symbol . "-. , "boon" or 
"gift," is an offering stone — a flat slab seen from the 
side. The triangle-shaped glyph for "give," ^ , dis- 
cussed above, probably represents a cone of unguents 
or incense. Its representation in later times — an 
extended arm, with a cone in the palm — makes the 
meaning clearer 



*The terms "glyph" and "word" are used interchangeably here with 
"hieroglyph." 



were not scholars. They reproduced copy prepared by 
priests or scribes, but often did not know the meaning 
of what they carved. Some reliefs and stelae, with 
glyphs crudely cut and jumbled, appear to have been 
done in haste; portions of glyphs or entire symbols 
might be omitted. Other difficulties could be created 
by more artistically inclined stone-cutters, who 
would change the word order for aesthetic effect 
alone. Though sometimes frustrating for the transla- 
tor, these departures from convention can also lend a 
charming element to an otherwise sterile text. 

Setjew's relief has given us the prayer's first com- 
ponent, which we may no\v translate: "A boon 
which the king gives to Inpu " (Gods other than Inpu, 
especially in later times, might also be invoked.) The 
inscription reads ^ ^ .jt> htp di nsw. The trans- 
literation (which is in correct order grammatically) 
does not follow the order of the hieroglyphs. In writ- 
ing, as in life, it was the king's privilege and custom to 
precede all others; hence, the inverted arrangement — 
a departure from grammatical convention in defer- 
ence to his majesty. 

Immediately to the right of the Setjew inscrip- 
tion in this same exhibit case is the door frame of one 
Katepi, apparently one of the engineers who worked 
on the Great Pyramid of Khufu during the Fourth 
Dynasty (29th century, B.C.). His list of titles includes 
"Overseer of the Work," a fairly common title but in 



this case making it quite clear that he participated in 
some way in constructing one of the Seven Wonders 
of the World. 

The artisan has placed Katepi's prayer at the top 
of this door frame. Reasonably complete and con- 
siderably more complex than the example we have 
just examined, the Katepi inscription is in raised re- 
lief achieved by the laborious process of removing 
the mass of material surrounding the glyphs. The 
alternative to this technique — sunken relief — was far 
simpler to carve, but often less aesthetic. Either 
method, in any case, was so costly and time- 
consuming that even the wealthy came to recognize 
the advantages of painting over stone-cutting. 

Again, beginning from the right, the initial ele- 
ments of the prayer on Katepi's door frame are easily 
visible and the figures handsomely cut — nsw ("king") 
at the upper right, di ("to give") to the left of nsu;, and 
htp ("boon" or "gift") directly below the first two. 
Although inscriptions of the prayer for the next 2,000 
years may have individual differences, these three 
words w^ill be almost constant. 

Here the prayer is again directed to Inpu, and we 
find the gracefully rendered representation of this 
jackal-headed god immediately left of di. The three 
characters below Inpu, llWl 1 m , hnti sh ntr (\henti 
seh netjer), may be translated "(who is) in front of 
(his) divine booth." The "booth," M , may be the 
place where embalming was performed, with which 
Inpu had some connection in Egyptian mythol- 
ogy. I , ntr, a glyph frequently seen in inscrip- 
tions, loosely designates any god. Its position 
next to the noun £ indicates that here it is an 
adjective modifying ^ and translated accordingly 
as "divine." m\ , hnti, a representation of a temple 
utensil or ornament, functions in this text as a prep- 



ositional element: "in front of" The three-word 
phrase hnti sh ntr is specific for the god Inpu and used 
only w^hen he was being invoked. In later dynasties 
the god Wesir (Osiris) was more commonly invoked. 

The second major part of Katepi's prayer con- 
cerns one of the principal motives of the htp di nsw — 
a request to be buried in the necropolis. The vo- 
cabulary for this segment consists of the group 
^pT|3 , }{rst, "burial," and 1 , hrt'ntr, 
"necropolis." 

The next part of Katepi's prayer betrays the very 
human reluctance to reap his posthumous benefits 
prematurely; a good old age is requested for the en- 
gineer: (^ u ^ ^^^* '^fr ^^^ (y"'^ nefer wert), "[he 
having reached (implied in the text)] a very good old 
^g^" Ui ,i3w, obviously represents a bent old man 
leaning on a cane — personifying old age. | , nfr, 
meaning "good," "beautiful "- the cross-shaped top 
of which has been broken off here — appears with 
great frequency in inscriptions. <=. , wrt, means 
"great" or "large." For the sake of brevity, artisans 
often used 1^ just by itself to convey "having 
reached a very good, old age," or similar idea. 

The following phrase in Katepi's prayer 
expresses the worthiness of the deceased; he is the 
"possessor of blessedness," ==r^^^..^ s nb im3h (neb 
imac}{h), "before the great god" ^^ll hr ntr '3 
(\her netjer aa) — apparently a formula for establish- 
ing the candidate's moral and religious qualifications. 
In prayers of later times there appear phrases speaking 
of never having done anyone harm and of having 
clothed the naked. 



*T}ie Arabic numeral "3" within the transliteration "i3w" isacon' 
ventiona] phonetic device approximating a short "a." 



The tomb of Katepi — a portion of the door frame. n6839i 




25 



The tomb of Iry—a portion of ttie door frame, ueaaae 



Having established his worthiness in the eyes of 
the diety, Katepi no'w requests various provisions to 
sustain him in the afteriife. Consequently he requires 
an invocation-offering ^ pr hrw (per \herew), liter- 
ally "a going forth of the voice," — , n, "to"; ^^ , 
f, "him." This phrase is probably a magical formula 
which, by reciting it, will guarantee the deceased all 
his needs. This would be followed by a list of items, 
often abbreviated to the basics: "bread," t, and 
"beer," s hn}{t (hen\et). A more complete list 
would also include "beef," ^ , "fowl," 7 , 
"clothing," Jl , and "alabaster," (plates, cups, etc.), 
'^ . These offerings were to be made at "every fes- 
tival" f n ^1:7 , hb nb (of) "every day," o ^^ r' nb. 



26 





Vocabulary for the 




"hetep di nesw" 


^^ 


king 


^ <=. great, large 


cJ^. 


boon, offering 


<c:r Y^ lord, possessor 


k 


to give 


1 ^^ f> blessedness 


^ 


Anubis 


^ before 


tl 


in front of 


"1 1 Great God 


s 


bootfi 


q[^ going out of ttne voice 


J,n^ 


to bury 


m festival 


1 


cemetery 


'c:' every 


f?. 


old age 


© day 


r- 


good, beautify 





In many inscriptions, the major festivals are then 
listed, notably the Festival of the New Year \J f 
and the Festival of the First Day of the Year, J f 

Thus we have the basic text of an Old Kingdom 
htp di nsw prayer: "A boon which the king gives to 
Anubis, in front of his divine booth, that he (the de- 
ceased) may be buried in the necropolis, he having 
reached a very good, old age, possessor of blessedness 
before the great god, that invocation offerings con- 
sisting of bread and beer may come forth for him at 
every festival of every day." Individual prayers differ, 
however, because of local custom, theological affilia- 
tion, politics, or simply as the result of the stone- 
cutter's carelessness. 

To the right of Katepi's door frame in the same 
case is another bas-relief inscription, rendered in a 
quite different style, involving Iry, (or Irii), inspector 
of priests in the Fifth Dynasty (28th cent. B.C.). Addi- 
tional complexities of this particular text will be 
apparent to those who attempt to decipher it. In the 
opening, for example, the verb and object are doubled 
— a peculiarity of Fifth Dynasty inscriptions. The 
artisan also appears to have made an error midway in 
the text and, in order to cover himself, has taken the 
liberty of changing the word order. 

After the budding translator has negotiated the 
Iry text, many more inscriptions and even tomb walls 
in Field Museum's Hall of Ancient Egypt await him. 
To paraphrase our prayer: The boon that Egyptologic- 
al research has given is the ability to reach back 
through the centuries and read the aspirations of an 
ancient people. We may find them speaking to us on a 
subject that remains one of the great mysteries — our 
fate after death, m 



The author wishes to than\Dr. Janetjohnson, director of the Orieri' 
tal Institute, who graciously filled the lacunae in his knowledge of 
th is fascinating subject. 



Tours For Members 



^■f 




Sailing the Lesser Antilles 

Aboard the Tall Ship 

Sea Cloud 

February 7-16, 1985 



Our itinerary offers a superb sampling 
of the Caribbean's best — Antigua, St. 
Barts, Saba, Martinique, and lies des 
Saints. With the professional leadership 
of Dr Robert K. Johnson, a Field 
Museum marine biologist, you will see 
and experience a great deal more than 
the conventional sightseer. Dr. Johnson 
is a topnotch tour lecturer, and your 
trip will be greatly enhanced by 
stimulating lectures and field trips. 
Price range (contingent on cabin se- 
lection): $3,455-$5,755. per person 
(includes round-trip air fare from 
Chicago, hotel accommodations in 
St. John's, Antigua, and full board 
while on the Sea Cloud). 

The largest private ship ever built, 
the steel-hulled Sea Cloud is 316 feet in 
length and has four Diesel engines with 
total power of 6,000 B.H.P. The ship 
accommodates 75 guests in air- 



conditioned staterooms, each with two 
beds. The cuisine is in the best tradition 
of the great yachts of the past. Expert 
European chefs provide exquisitely 
prepared meals accompanied by vin- 
tage wines. A crew of 40 German offic- 
ers and men, plus 20 cadets sail the Sea 
Cloud. There is ample deck space for 
sunning and enjoying the spectacle of 
the sails. Life aboard is informal and re- 
laxed, and cruise participants may join 
in the operation of the sails. 

Archaeological Tour of Egypt 
Including 5-day Nile Cruise 

February 15-March 4, 1985 

An unforgettable in-depth visit to the 
Land of the Pharoahs, including a 5- 
day Nile cruise aboard the luxurious 
Hilton Steamer. An Egyptologist will 
accompany the tour throughout, 
including the Nile cruise, and person- 
ally conduct all lectures and sightsee- 
ing. Tour highlights will include the 
pyramids and Sphinx of Giza, little- 
visited monuments of Middle Egypt, 
King Tut's tomb, the holiday resort of 
Aswan, and a visit to Abu Simbel. 





Colonial South 

April 13-20, 1985 

Now you can be among the first 
passengers to visit the legendary Colo- 
nial South in the comfort of a relaxing, 
yacht-like cruise ship, with a friendly 
American staff to serve you. Our ports 
of call will be Savannah and St. Simon 
Island, Georgia; Beaufort, Charleston, 
and Hilton Head Island, South Caro- 
lina; with disembarkation at Savannah. 

Dr. Lorin I. Nevling, director of 
Field Museum and a distinguished 
botanist, will accompany the tour, 
sharing his professional expertise on 
the flora of the exquisite gardens we'll 
visit. Our tour is planned to coincide 
with the spring explosion of color in 
daffodils, tulips, dogwoods, and 
azaleas — a welcome treat after Chi- 
cago's long winter. Local historians 
will provide us with talks on historic 
buildings of the region and on Civil 
War history. The Nantucket Clipper will 
cruise through the peaceful waters of 
the intra-coastal waterways, allowing 
you to spend each evening in town 
enjoying the port experience to its full- 
est, and affording even greater variety 
in this delightful cruise experience. 

For further information or to be placed on our 
mailing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours 
Manager, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



27 



Additional Tour Highlights 
for 1985 



Galapagos Islands. China and Tibet. Alaska and Pribilof Islands. 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, II 60605 




The Art of Cameroon 

Opens March 9 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

April 1985 




The King's Dance: A Cameroon Celebration 

by the Muntu Dance Theatre 

April 20 

Talking Drums of Africa 
April 13. 14 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: f^mela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M.Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F MuUin 
Charles F Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. MitcheU 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin {USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
Julv/August issue, bv Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicagc>. 11. 60605. Subscriptions: S6.00 annually, S3. 00 tor schools. Museum meml>ership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address laljel and l>e sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, 11. 60605. 1SSN:0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, 11. 



CONTENTS 

April 1985 

Volume 56, Number 4 



April Events at Field Museum 



Members' Night, May 3 



Chilean Serendipity 

by Bruce D. Patterson, Associate Curator ofMammals 

Hawaiian Quilt-Making at Its Finest 

What Is Jade? 

by Edward J. Olsen, Curator of MineraloQf 

Field Museum Iburs for Members 



COVER 

Cotton quilt (about 83" square) from Hawaii, made probably befo 
1918. On temporary view on the First Floor (formerly designated 
the Ground Floor), near the Place for Wonder. Cat. 259778. Photo 
(109505), by Diane Alexander-White. For more on this quilt see 
page 23. 



Kennicott Club Meets 

The April meetins of the Kennicott Club, a natural history 
society named for Chicaso's first naturalist, Robert Kennicott, 
will be held at Field Museum on Monday, April 8, from 7:30 
to 9:00 pm. The evenins's suest speaker will be Dr. Kenneth 
Wilson, professor of bioiosy, Purdue University Calumet, 
whose topic will be "Sex and the Single Orchid." 

Any persons with an interest in natural history are in- 
vited to attend the Kennicott Club meetings. For further 
information, please call or v^ite John Clay Bruner, Kennicott 
Club vice president (Department of Geology), at Field 
Museum, 922-9410. 

Birders: Raise Your Binoculars! 

Join Field Museum's weekend birding excursion to Horicon 
Marsh, Wisconsin, on April 13 and 14. This famous area for 
observing birds is about 50 miles northwest of Milwaukee. 
Leader of the tour will be Dr. David Willard, custodian of 
Field Museum's bird collection. For additional information 
on this exciting event, please call Dorothy Roder, Field 
Museum Tours manager, at 322-8862, or write her at Field 
Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, II. 60605. 



T 



Events 



The King's Dance: 

A CamercMin Celebration 

Muntu Dance Theatre 
Saturday, April 20, 2:00 pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

One of Chicago's premiere dance companies, Muntu 
Dance Theatre, creates in music, dance, and song, a 
dramatization of Hfe in a Cameroon village. The 



story unfolds we learn of the plot of the selfish Waba 
who intends to marry his beautiful daughter, Shem- 
sun, to the fon. Shemsun, however, loves a young 
man from the village. The fon, who must set a good 
example for his villagers, is put to a test, and what- 
ever his decision, it will affect all in the village. 
Muntu Dance Theatre, founded in 1972, is a 




Muntu Dance Theatre performs Saturday, April 20 



King's Dance portrays three days in the life of a fon, 
the king of a Cameroon village. This dance drama 
opens with the fon in discussion with the newest of 
his 36 wives. The routine of a fon's wife proves to be 
less than exciting as she can no longer go to market — 
the village social center — and must be content to tend 
her fields in relative isolation from her family. As the 



group full of vitality, humor, music, and powerful 
dance movements. It has achieved an unequaled 
reputation throughout the Midwest and in Africa for 
making a consistent artistic statement of cultural and 
historical significance. 

This program is free with Museum admission 
and tickets are not required. continueiw 



CONTINUED from p. 3 



Events 



April Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed are only a few of the numerous activities available each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport 
upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a 
grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

April 

6 11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday 
life to myths and mummies. 

7 11:30 am. Traditional China (tour) . Examine 
the imagery and craftmanship represented 
by Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 

14 2:00 pm. Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in 
Bronze (slide lecture). Find out about the 
life and works of Malvina Hoffman, con- 
centrating on the Portraits of Mankind 
collection commissioned by Field Museum. 

20 12:00 noon. Dinosaur Lifestyles {tour). Tour 
contrasts old ideas about dinosaurs with 
new ones about their appearance, behavior, 
and environment. 

These public programs are free with museum admis- 
sion and no tickets are required. 



Talking Drums of Africa 

Saturday and Sunday, April 13 and 14 

1:00 pm 

African Cultures Hall, First Floor 

The voices of African instruments sing history as 
well as music. The drum is essential in Africa and its 
sounds are a language understood by all. Join with 
Chicago drummer Sabur-Abdul as he demonstrates 
a variety of drums. Help to create the sounds of 
Africa as you play the talking drums. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Series 

Thursdays in April 1985 
1:30 pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

April 4 The Mystery ofAnasazi 

April 11 Great Railway Journeys of the World: Changing Times 

April 18 Captain James Cook: South Pacific 1768 

April 25 Renaissance 




Muntu Dance Theatre performs Saturday, April 20 



'•^WM 




"Exploration '85" 



Friday, May 3 
5:00-10:00 pm 



Aren't you the least bit curious? Don't you wonder? Wouldn't you like to wander through some of those "off-limits" 
areas at Field Museum? 

We take great pleasure in announcing our annual Members' Night, and invite you, your family and guests to 
participate in one of our most popular events. 

Once a year we throw open the doors and invite our Members "behind the scenes" at Field Museum to do some 
exploring on their own. Of course, our staff of world-renowned scientists, curators, and preparators will be available to 
guide you on this exploration and share the wealth of their experience and expertise. There w^ill also be nonstop 
entertainment in Stanley Field Hall and an abundance of exciting special exhibits, events, and surprises designed to let 
your curiosity challenge our collections. This is our chance to salute Field Musuem and its members, and your chance to 
explore Field Museum — claim it, use it, and above all, enjoy it. 

If you are coming by car, you may park free in the Museum's North Lot as well as the Soldier Field Lot. Simply show 
your membership card or Members' Night invitation. Free charter bus service will be operating between the Loop and 
our south door These CTA buses, marked Field Musuem, will originate at the Canal Street entrance of Union Station 
(Canal at Jackson), and stop at the Canal Street entrance of Northwestern Station (Canal at Washington); Washington 
and State; Washington and Michigan; Adams and Michigan; and Balbo and Michigan. 

Buses will run beginning at 4:45 pm and continue at approximately 20'minute intervals until the Museum closes at 
10 pm. "Behind the Scenes" activites will stop at 9:00 pm. (Buses will travel to the train stations until the departure of 
the last train. Please check your train schedule for exact times.) You may board the free Field Museum CTA bus by 
showing your membership card or invitation. Members are invited to bring family and up to four guests at no additional 
charge. Arrangements for handicapped individuals can be made by calling (312) 922-9410, ext. 453, beginning April 22. 

5 



Members' Night 

Scenes of 
Previous Years 



•^f 





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Chilean Serendipity 

Records of a Fortuitous Field Season 
In Temperate Rain Forests 




Primary Valdivian rain forest at 505m. Little light readies tlie ground beneath canopies exceeding 100 feet in height. The ground is densely 
covered by ferns and bamboo. Photo by B. D. Patterson. 



B 



by Bruce D. Patterson 

Associate Curator of Mammals 



'ENEATH ITS ORDERLY VENEER, science is 
serendipitous. It would be interesting to know how 
much of our present body of kno\vledge took origin in 
chance, seemingly incidental discoveries. The father of 
modern genetics, Gregor Mendel, established basic 
laws of inheritance from the variations he observed in 
pea plants. Modem geneticists shake their heads with 



incredulity that, of all the characters that vary in peas, 
Mendel chose to look at a few encoded by single genes. 
Had he chosen characteristics such as leaf length or 
germination responses (properties controlled by many 
genes with complex interactions), he would have been 
unable to formulate his theory. 

Science abounds with stories like this. Darwin's 



observation of distinct variants among animal pop' 
ulations inhabiting the Galapagos Islands supposedly 
triggered the development of his comprehensive theory 
of evolution by natural selection. The universal laws of 
motion crystallized in the mind of Isaac Newton after 
he allegedly observed a falling apple. The point of these 
observations is that science as a body of \nowledge is 
neat, orderly, logical, and predictive, like a system of 
mathematical postulates and theorems. However, sci' 
ence as a system of gaining \nowledge is fraught with the 
chance, uncertainty, and luck that characterize all hu' 
man enterprise. 

"Luck" or uncertainty in the scientific process ex' 
tends to all levels, firom the discovery of the last bit of 
data needed to crystallize new theories (as in the previ' 
ous examples) to such mundane matters as the proper 
setting for complex scientific instruments. Nowhere in 
modem science is this fact more plain than in com' 
parisons of basic versus applied science. "Basic" science 
is knov/ledge for kno^vledge s sake. Questions posed by 
basic science have no known relation to technological 
or sociological problems: "Why is grass green?" "Why 
is the sky blue?" Answers to such questions are incorpo' 
rated into the evepgrowing body of scientific knowl' 
edge. "Applied" science, on the other hand, seeks to 
answer questions of pressing human concern: "What 
are the effects of DDT and industrial pollutants on 
birds in urban parks?" "How much com do natural pop' 
ulations of rodents consume each year?" 

It is noteworthy (and reassuring to basic scien- 
tists!) that, although 85 cents of every research dollar 
funds applied research, nearly all scientific break' 
throughs are critically based on basic research. We 
can't accurately say at the time of discovery what use 
a bit of basic knowledge might have. However, we 
can observe that applied science, which directly 
benefits man, is fundamentally dependent on basic 
research, and that the converse is not true." Basic 
research adds to the scientific tool box the nuts and 
bolts that are needed for applied science to work. 
While doing basic research might seem an "act of 
faith," a long and rich history documents its essential, 
fundamental importance. 



Volcin Osorno, rising 8, 700 feet above sea level, presents one of tfie 
most symmetric volcanic cones known. Photo taken at the Refugio. 
Photo byB.D. Patterson. 



So, scientific discoveries usually depend on oth' 
ers having discovered the right nuts and bolts for a 
given job, and having these at hand at the right time. 
The usual course of the scientific method is to: 1) 
begin with a question to be answered, 2) canvas pub' 
lished literature to determine what is known, 3) 
develop an approach likely to yield relevant con' 
elusions, 4) propose the question and approach to 
suitable governmental or private funding agencies, 
and 5) hope for a positive response (!) Only then can 
one proceed with the execution of the methodology. 
But, as previously discussed, serendipity plays a role 
in the conduct of science at all levels. Even if one has 
all the necessary nuts and bolts at hand and has 
secured adequate funding, and it only remains to con' 
duct the experiment and collect data, still one never 
knows until afterwards what the outcome might be. 

What follows is a description of scientific field' 
work conducted in Chile last year. As things turned 
out, it was a fortunate manifestation of scientific 
serendipity. 

Like virtually all Field Museum scientific pro' 
grams, mine concerns basic research. For the past two 
years, Milton Gallardo (of Universidad Austral de 
Chile) and I have worked among the countless is' 
lands comprising the coastal archipelago of Chile and 
Argentina, conducting basic scientific explorations. 
Our goals are quite humble (especially in view of the 
introductory remarks!), namely to ascertain what 
mammal species live on various islands in this 
archipelago and to determine the microhabitats they 
live in and the foods they eat. Assembling data on the 
animals themselves (including their anatomy, 
chromosomes, and genes), the habitats they live in 
(estimated from about 20 measurements of habitat 
structure), and the foods they eat (determined from 
stomach contents), we hope to address questions of 
more general interest. These include: 1) How regular 
are patterns of species distribution in the archipek' 
go? If we know how big, how high, or how diverse an 
island is, can we predict the number of mammal spe- 
cies it supports? (an important question, given that 
there are more than 3,000 islands). Do sea'level 
changes that occurred during the Ice Age influence 
patterns of island occupation? 2) How integrated are 
the small mammal communities on these islands? If 
other species are present on an island, does this 
change "the economy of nature" for a given species? 9 




10 



Is competition between species evident in food use or 
space use? Do species shift their "niches" in response 
to co'occurring competitors? If niche shifts occur, do 
they involve only ecological attributes or are they 
also products of deeper-seated evolutionary changes? 
3) How do patterns of geographic variation among 
island populations compare with those on the adja- 
cent mainland, where clinal (smoothly grading) var- 
iation seems the rule? 



While simple enough at face value, these ques- 
tions may be very difficult to answer. Some have 
important implications for biological science as a 
whole. For example, to answer question 3 above, one 
needs to sample sufficient island populations 
throughout an adequate latitudinal range, say 20 is' 
lands and 10 degrees of latitude (this is roughly equiv' 
alent to 4 years of work). Concomitantly, one needs 
samples from adjacent mainland localities; in our 



The valley at La Picada, taken from trap line at 1, 135 m. The transect 
followed the course of the Rio Blanco, seen here as a Tight patch of 
open vegetation. Clouds in the background cover the surface of 
Lago (Lake) Llanquihue. The roof of the Refugio is visible at4o 'clock. 
Photo by B. K. Lang. 




case, much of this work has already been done by 
Field Museum's W. H. Osgood (1875-1947), and his 
samples are part of the extensive mammal collections 
at Field Museum. Once collected, both data sets must 
be analyzed to see whether variation in, say, tail 
length or the frequency of certain enzymes, follows 
smooth latitudinal patterns. Finally, the agreement 
between the island and mainland patterns must be 
evaluated. 



Although this sequence of activities is laborious, 
the scientific payoff may be rich. There is much cur- 
rent debate over the relative roles of natural selection 
versus undirected, random change in the evolution of 
life. If we could demonstrate that strictly concordant 
patterns of variation exist on the mainland (where 
adjacent populations are linked by interbreeding and 
gene flow) and on the islands (where gene flow is 
absent and each population is fully independent) in 
response to common environment settings, the role of 
selection would be greatly substantiated. 

In 1983, Gallardo, Kathy Freas (of Brookfield 
Zoo), and I sampled islands and the adjacent main- 
land in southernmost Chile, on the Straits of Magel- 
lan (54° S latitude). In 1984, I returned to Chile 
where Gallardo, two of his graduate students (Eduar- 
do Palmas and Gonzalo Aguilar), and I sampled four 
islands at the northern end of the archipelago (ca. 42° 
S). At the end of six weeks of field work, the Chilean 
team returned to campus in Valdivia to begin labora- 
tory analyses. At this point, I set out to secure a main- 
land sample for comparison with the northern 
islands. 

Previous collections by Field Museum personnel 
at Volcan Osorno, in the Lake District of Chile, 
showed that a rich assemblage of small mammals in- 
habit temperate Andean rain forests there. As many 
as nine species of marsupials and rodents live in the 
same or closely adjacent habitats, which raises 
intriguing questions concerning their population 
ecologies and mechanisms of coexistence. These have 
recently become the subject of basic ecological 
research by Peter L. Meserve (Northern Illinois Uni- 
versity) and his Chilean associates Roberto Munia 
and Luz, Gonzales (also of Universidad Austral). 
Since 1979, this team of ecologists has studied the 
mammal fauna of Valdivian and North Patagonian 
rain forests using live-trapping techniques. During 
his 1983-84 sabbatical leave from NIU as a Fulbright 
Scholar, Meserve conducted an intensive census sur- 
vey of small mammal populations in two rain forest 
communities, one of which w^as at La Picada, a valley 
on the northern side of Volcan Osorno. 



11 




Collaborators in the La PIcada study at conclusion of the transect (I. tor): "Conejo" (nickname meaning "Rabbit"), B. K. Lang, and PL. Meserveof 
Northern Illinois University. Photo by B. D. Patterson. 



12 



The mammal species that occur at La Picada 
•were of great interest to Gallardo and me. All six of 
the species we found on the largest island studied 
thus far (Isla Chiloe) are also found there, with three 
additional species found only on the mainland. Given 
the detailed ecological information Meserve and 
associates have gathered for several common species 
over the past five years, samples from La Picada 
would greatly aid our efforts to understand ecological 
relationships among island populations. 

On short notice, Meserve invited me to accom- 
pany his group to the volcano. While he and assistant 
Brian Lang worked their census grids at 450 m and 
550 m elevation, I placed lines near the Refugio 
(about 820 m above sea level), where Field Museum 
curators W. H. Osgood and C. C. Sanborn had col' 
lected in 1939-40. During the week we worked on our 



respective projects, we were each impressed by the 
quantitatively different views we obtained on the 
forest's small mammal community: the most abun- 
dant small mammal on their grids (a vole-like rodent 
A^odon olivaceus) turned up in my lines at lo>ver 
frequencies. Conversely, a pouched marsupial named 
Dromiciops australis was far more abundant in my 
lines than in theirs. By week's end, both Meserve and 
I had collected all the data needed to answer the ques- 
tions Ave had set out to ansAver: Meserve had his 
monthly sample from La Picada and I had sufficient 
material from this mainland locality to compare with 
the northern islands. HoAvever, a new project, replete 
with new questions and requiring new data, had 
hatched. 

Meserve has followed the waxing and waning of 
small mammal populations at La Picada from season 



to season and year to year. However, his insight into 
the dynamics of these changes was limited to two 
nearby points in the valley floor Declining numbers 
of rice rats {Oryzomys) on his grids during the sum- 
mer, for example, could be due to uncompensated 
mortality or instead to their seasonal migration to 
higher or lower elevations. In addition, two of the 
most common rodents in the valley, A\odon \ongipi\is 
and A\odon sanhomi, either converge in color and 
size or else interbreed, making it difficult to reliably 
identify them in the field. To understand their ecol' 
ogy, it is imperative for Meserve to know whether 
they represent one species or two. 



On the other hand, Gallardo and I have studied 
mammal communities from place to place, with an 
orientation different from that of the ecologists. Like 
them, however, we had never studied how these com- 
munities change at refined spatial scales. The situa- 
tion at La Picada is excellent for such studies, because 
it presents an altitudinal gradient along which to 
study the mammal species. Altitude influences a host 
of biologically important physical variables, such as 
precipitation, temperature, and insolation (amount 
of sunlight), which in turn determine the plant com- 
munities that live there and the animal communities 
that depend on them. Refined studies along altitU' 



Forest's edge, 
near course of the 
Rio Blanco at 505 m. 
supported mammals 
that also occur at high- 
er elevations. Photo 
by B. D. Patterson. 




13 



dinal gradients can tell us much about ecological tol- 
erances and evolutionary capabilities of species. 
Samples taken at different altitudes usually present 
continously grading differences in temperature, 
precipitation, exposure to sunlight, soil type and tex' 
ture, and so forth, producing varying responses in the 
organisms that live there. By understanding how 
organisms respond to such an environmental gra- 
dient, we can learn how these environmental var- 
iables relate to the ecology and evolution of the 
species under study. Realizing, in the field, that a 
cooperative research program would greatly enhance 
each of our respective projects, we designed and 
executed the first altitudinal transect for small mam- 
mals in the southern Andes. 

The basic design of the study revolves around 
altitude, because altitude influences so many other 
variables. We sought to understand how the small 

The transect at La Picada. stiowing elevational contours (in meters). 
The road from the village of La Picada to the Refugio is shown by 
dotted lines: major water courses are indicated by bold lines. The 
location of each trap line is shown by dotted lines, o 



mammal species, individually and collectively, re- 
spond to gradually altered ecological conditions. We 
therefore decided to set trap lines in the valley from 
top to bottom at intervals of about 100 m. Each trap 
line was set and run by one of us (Meserve, Lang, or 
me) for a week. 

Forests at the foot of the valley begin at about 
400 m elevation, below which cleared farmland pre- 
dominates. The forests themselves are nothing short 
of spectacular, containing enormous trees that reach 
100 to 150 feet in height. In contrast to the coastal 
rain forests of Oregon, Washington, and British 
Columbia (which reach similar stature under virtu- 
ally identical regimens of temperature, sunlight, and 
rainfall), the vast majority of Chilean rain forest trees 
tire broad-leaved rather than coniferous. Most com- 
mon are the southern beeches Q<iothofagus), which 
also occur in Australia and (as fossils) in Antarctica. 



Elfin forest at the valley's upper end. Trees here rarely exceed 15 feet 
in height. Photo (by B K. Lang) taken at 1. 135 m.i) 



14 




Lago 
Llanquihu* 




15 



In fact, the peculiar distribution of these trees in areas 
now widely isolated from one another provided one 
of the first biological supports for the theory of plate 
tectonics, or "continental drift." At lower elevations 
in the valley at La Picada, Jipthofagus reach 100 feet 



The author (with 

Chicago Tribune 

news bag tor carrying 

traps) at 820 m. Photo 

by B.K.Lang. 



altitudinal effects in species diversity, stature, cover, 
and density are evident. 

The understory of these forests is equally di' 
verse, but is dominated by dense bamboo {Chusquea 
or "quila") rarely more than 6 to 8 feet tall but dense 




16 



in height and more than 6 feet in diameter, but in elfin 
forests on ridgetops at the valley's upper end, they 
rarely exceed 15 feet in height. Numerous other trees 
also make up the "Valdivian," "North Patagonian," 
and "Subantarctic" rain forest associations, including 
the Avintergreen (Drimys), "elm" {Eucryphia), laurel 
(J^aurelia), tineo (Weinmannid), luma (Amomyrtus), 
and the "southern pines" (Podocarptis). Pronounced 



enough to make foot passage difficult. Enormous 
ferns abound, some reaching 15 feet in diameter, 
others "tree ferns" (Blechnum) with 5-foot trunks. A 
number of forest shrubs produce red, trumpet'shaped 
"hummingbird flowers," including wild Fuschia. The 
ground here is mostly covered by fallen leaves, dense 
mats of Sphagnum and other mosses, and a variety 
of liverworts. 



We preserved as standard museum specimens all 
mammals taken in lines we set at each altitude. How 
ever, in contrast to "traditional" museum collecting, 
we also assembled a host of ancillary information 
taken to answer various ecological and evolutionary 
questions. These data included: the exact trap station 
where animals were trapped, preserved stomach con' 
tents for dietary studies, preserved organ tissues in 
liquid nitrogen for studies of genes, reproductive 
autopsies for studies of litter sizes and breeding sea- 
sons, and (where possible) their chromosomes. In 
addition, w^e conducted habitat measurements (20 
variables) at every sixth trap, so data on genetics, 
anatomy, and life history could be related to ecologi- 
cal parameters. At the conclusion of our three weeks' 
work there we had collected more than 500 speci- 
mens and taken ecological data at more than 
210 stations. 

These data are highly significant because they 
provide an integrated picture of the natural history of 
this poorly known group of animals. Analyses are just 



beginning and v/ill likely extend over the next several 
years. Some preliminary observations on these ani- 
mals and their scientific context follow: 

Rhyncholestes raphanurus. Discovered and 
named by a previous Field Museum expedition, the 
"Chilean shrew opossum" was previously knov/n by 
only four specimens. This family of American marsu- 
pials was widely distributed and diverse during the 
early "Age of Mammals" (15-50 million years ago), 
but is now represented by only three kinds restricted 
to temperate forests in the northern Andes of 
Ecuador and Columbia, in Peru, and in southern 
Chile. At La Picada we collected 24 of these animals, 
determining for the first time their chromosomal com- 
plement (now in press in Fieldiana: Zoology), their 
reproductive season, and their surprisingly broad eco- 
logical distribution (from 425 to 1,135 m elevation). 
They appear to be exclusively terrestrial, foraging on 
the ground, alongside logs, and in dense cover for 
insects and invertebrates. 

Dromiciops australis (monito del monte, or "little 



Rhyncholestes Osgood, a long-nosed, insect-eating marsupial, was surprisingly abundant in forests at La Picada. Short fur and reduced eyes 
and ears are adaptations to foraging on tfie ground and in leaf litter Its peculiar "smile " is formed by a pair of lip flaps wtiose function is unknown. 
PtiotobyB. D. Patterson. 




17 



18 




Mouth of small river near camp on Isia Gran Guaiteca. at northern end of the Guaitecas Archipelago, where collecting was done in 1984 
B. D. Patterson. 




19 



monkey of the forest"). This marsupial is also poorly 
known, and like the shrew opossum, is limited in 
distribution to the south temperate rain forests. Its 
evolutionary relationships are unclear, and there are 
persistent suggestions that it is more closely related to 
Australian forms (including kangaroos and wom- 
bats) than to other American opossums. Inter- 
estingly, the results of our chromosomal studies have 



cago's Brookfield Zoo, the only zoo outside Chile to 
have ever exhibited this family of mammals! Studies 
of these captives (especially of behavior and its possi- 
bly unique form of torpor/hibernation) may shed 
additional light on studies now underway at Field 
Museum on their anatomy, ecology, and evolutionary 
relationships. 

The remaining animals we captured are all ro- 




Adult female Dromiciops, showing pouch (lined by rusty fur) and four nipples. Our sample of the valley took place after the reproduction sea- 
son of this species. Photo by B. D. Patterson. 



uncovered a peculiar form of chromosome variation 
in Dromiciops known as "sex-chromosome mosa- 
icism." One of the 14 chromosomes in males (presum- 
ably the Y, or male-determining, chromosome) is lost 
in body cells but retained in the germ line that is used 
in reproduction. Unknown in other American marsu- 
pials, sex-chromosome mosaicism is widespread 
among Australian forms, including gliders and bandi- 
coots, providing additional support for its being "the 
Australian Connection." Five Dromiciops we cap- 
20 tured alive at La Picada have been donated to Chi- 



dents distantly related to deermice that probably col- 
onized South America no earlier than 8 to 10 million 
years ago. Since then this group has literally exploded 
into a vast number of ecological niches and named 
kinds. However, their mostly incipient adaptations 
(versus the older and better defined ones found in 
North American rodents, for example) have clouded 
our understanding of their relationships. 

The "mole mouse" {Geoxus valdivianxis) lives in 
forest litter, where it feeds chiefly on insects and 
other invertebrates. The reduced size of the eyes and 




Golfo Corcovado from our campsite on Isia Gunther in the Guaitecas Archipelago. Snow-capped Andes, 85 km distant, loom on the horizon. 
Photo by B.D. Patterson. 



ears, enlarged fore claws, and the sheen and texture 
of its pelage all suggest radical convergence on the 
true moles, a northern group of insectivores. How 
ever, the skull and teeth (which provide good "tax- 
onomic" characters because they are conservative) of 
Geoxus are scarcely modified from its less-derived 
ancestors. Another rodent restricted to temperate 
forests in this region, the Chilean tree mouse {IrC' 
nomys tarsalis) apparently lives in the canopies of 
gigantic trees on a diet that includes pollen and flow- 
ers. Although it has the enlarged eyes, tail, and feet 
that are often associated with arboreal life, it lacks 
many other specializations (such as a prehensile tail 
or toes). A terrestrial leaf-eating rodent {Auliscomys 
micropus) was taken in the five upper lines but was 
absent in the two lower ones, suggesting that, at this 
latitude at least, it is exclusively Andean or montane. 
T^vo other taxa, the rice rats {Oryzomys longi' 
caudatus) and the vole-like olive akodon (Akpdon 
olivaceus) were captured at more or less equal 
frequencies throughout our altitudinal transect. This 
is very interesting for it may explain the fact that, of 
all the species found at La Picada, these two have the 



broadest geographic distributions. In this case, broad 
ecological tolerances evident at La Picada (both were 
found at all elevations) may signify the same ecologi- 
cal amplitude that allows these species to live in drier 
scrub habitats in northern Chile and in colder, wetter 
habitats to the south. 

But in many ways, the most interesting situation 
we discovered at La Picada was that involving two 
other kinds of akodon, namely the long-haired ako- 
don (Akodon longipilis) and Sanborn's akodon (AJ(o- 
don sanbomi). When geographically isolated from 
one another, these two mice are grossly different, lon^ 
gipilis being a larger, red-backed mouse, sanbomi be- 
ing a small, uniformly blackish mouse. However, 
where the two come together, as at La Picada, mice of 
intermediate appearance are found, leading to the 
conclusion that the two interbreed and that these 
intermediate-appearing forms are hybrids. At La 
Picada, Sanborn's akodon was centered in the coastal 
rain forests at lower elevations and the long-haired 
akodon was found principally at higher elevations. 
The two overlapped at intermediate elevations, 
where we captured about 40 presumed hybrids. 



21 




Sunset at the Refugio. Cloud bank visible at lower elevations accounts for lushness of lower elevation forests. Photo by B. D. Patterson. 



22 



Interestingly, hybrids were taken in forest ecotones 
(that is, areas where two different habitat types grade 
into one another). If we can understand the tela- 
tionships between these two mice, using their 
genetic, ecological, and anatomical relationships to 
one another, it may be possible to attain a fuller 
understanding of speciation (species formation) in 
this diverse group of rodents. These studies are now 
underway, both at Field Museum and Universidad 
Austral. 

The majority of our data is not yet analyzed, but 
the preliminary results are now being used in a pro' 
posal to the National Science Foundation to fund 
two additional altitudinal transects in southern 
Chile. Together, the three transects should not only 
illuminate the microgeographic distributions of the 
species, the foods they eat, and their life-history 
parameters, but also indicate the spatial and temporal 



stability of the relationships we studied in 1984 at La 
Picada. The issue of stability is important to under- 
standing the generality of the results we obtained. 

The study we conducted at La Picada represents 
a carefully designed approach to the evolutionary 
ecology of a poorly understood group of mammals. It 
should yield a gold mine of information on genetic 
relationships, distributional patterns, food habits, 
and life histories, and should provide insight into the 
process of speciation in the diverse genus A\odon. 
Nevertheless, the design was "jury-rigged," with 
questions, approaches, and personnel borrowed from 
its immediate scientific context (i.e., Meserve's and 
my field programs). It therefore underscores the im- 
promptu nature of the scientific method and the 
serendipitous nature of its conduct. Most scientists 
recognize that, when walking through a dark forest, 
it's best to keep one's eyes (and options) open. FM 



Hawaiian 
Quilt-Making 
At Its Finest 



he superb cotton quilt (cat. 259778) on this 
issue's cover exhibits the finest skills of Ha^vaiian 
quilt'makers at the turn of this century. This piece 
was probably made before 1918. 

People in the South Pacific in ancient times 
made native cloth (tapa or }{apa) out of the inner bark 
of certain kinds of trees. By the end of the nineteenth 
century, however, both the art and the craft of mak' 
ing bark cloth had died out on many of the Pacific 
islands. 

During the last century, w^omen on the islands 
now included in the modem state of Ha\vaii gave up 
making their own fabric out of trees and began using 
imported cotton fabrics. They adopted foreign crafts, 
too. One of these was quilting, an art introduced by 
the w^ives of missionaries. 

Stitching that "follows the pattern," exempli' 
fied in this piece, is a hallmark of the finest quilts from 
our island state. The colors of this piece, purchased 
by Field Museum in 1984, are the royal colors of 
the former kingdom of Hawaii, and the design is pua 
miulana, "miulana flower." 

The engraving of the miulana shown here is re' 
produced from volume I of Hortus Malaharicus, a 12' 
volume work by Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede. The 
set, published in Amsterdam and completed in 1693, 
was purchased by Field Museum in 1942 and is now 
in the Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room. 

Miulana, a native of the forests of the eastern 
Himalayas, was named Michelia champaca by Lin' 
naeus in 1753. Also called champaca, or sampacca, it 
is known throughout the tropics only as a cultivated 
tree. The name champaca is derived from Ciampa, an 



Information for ttiis article was provided by William E. Grime, 
Department of Botany; Johin E. Terrell, Department of Anthiro- 
pology: and Benjamin W. Williams, Library 



island between Cambodia and South Vietnam, while 
Michelia honors Pietro Antonio Micheli, a 
Florentine botanist who died in 1737 

The Hawaiian name pua miulana melcmele 
(literally "flower, mulang tree, yellowyellow — or 
very yellow") refers to the Michelia that has orange 
or yellow flowers, about two inches in diameter, with 
15 to 20 sepals and petals. The flowers are exceeding' 
ly fragrant, especially at night. They bloom most of 
the year in the tropics and are often mentioned in 
East Indian poetry. The Hindus dedicate the plant to 
their god Vishnu, while Indian Buddhists esteem the 
tree and make images of Buddha and bead chains of 
the wood. The flowers are worn as garlands in the 
hair, are strung into necklaces, and are used in maiking 
perfume. The seeds, bark, and leaves are used in 
medicines.FM 




23 



What Is Jade? 

A Question for the Archaeologist 
As Well as the Mineralogist 



by Edward J. Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 



Wk 



hen questions regarding jade are presented to a 
mineralogist, a number of problems come up. Prob- 
ably the most common question is the one of 
authenticity. The truth is, whether a given piece of 
jade is truly jade is not a mineralogical question but a 
question of archaeological definition. Because the 
term jade is not a mineralogical word and does not 
have a precise mineralogical definition, the miner- 
alogist is willing to accept anything the archaeologist 



24 



Jade Seminar 

May17and18 

In this seminar, Jointly sponsored by Field Museum and 
the Gemolosical Institute of America, the semolosical 
properties of jade will be discussed as well as its 
lesend and lore. Factors important in evaluatins jade 
and in recognizing jade simulants will also be 
covered. The Hall of Chinese Jades will be open for 
study during the reception for instructors and partici- 
pants, on Friday, May 17, from 6 to 8 pm. The seminar, 
on Saturday, May 18, will begin at 9am and end at 5pm. 
Cost of the seminar, which includes reception, lunch, 
and a comprehensive notebook developed by GIA, is 
$95 (no member discount). 

Seminar instructors are Betty Parker Simpson, a 
silversmith and jewelry design instructor; and Jill W 
NX'&lker, a gemologist with the Gemological Institute 
of America. 

Registration for the seminar may be made by 
sending a check or money order (payable to Field 
Museum) for the seminar fee to Adult Education Pro- 
grams, Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Dr., Chicago, II 60605. Additional information may 
be obtained by writing the Museum or by phoning 
(312) 322-8855. 



defines as jade on the basis of whatever archaeolog- 
ical standards he chooses to use. Thus, as a Avhimsical 
example, if archaeological study were to turn up the 
heretofore unrecorded fact that the craftsmen of 
China have, for ten centuries, regarded carved green 
soap with the same high esteem as carved green rocks, 
and the Chinese refer to both with the same word yii, 
(jade), then by archaeological definition the green 
soap is jade also. To the mineralogist it doesn't matter 
what archaeologists accept as jade, but the fact that 
they accept a good deal of different mineralogical 
material as jade makes it hard for the mineralogist 
who is attempting to ferret out fakes. 

The materials accepted as jade are not minerals 
in the strict sense, but rocks. A rock is an aggregation 
of grains of one or more minerals. For tens of centuries 
the finest Chinese jade consisted of a type of rock that 
is made up almost entirely of grains of the mineral 
actinolite. Actinolite characteristically occurs in the 
form of needle-shaped grains. When these are 
microscopically small and tightly interlocked, then 
the actinolite rock is called jade. The mineral actino- 
lite varies somewhat in its chemical composition: 
when it contains a moderate amount of iron, its color 
is medium to dark green; \vhen it is completely free of 
iron, it is white. The special mineralogical name for 
iron-free actinolite is tremolite; the whole range is 
called the tremolite-actinolite series. Thus, this rock 
can range in color from dark green to white. 
Archaeologists accept this range of colors in these 
rocks as jade. 

It is rare for an actinolite rock to consist entirely 



This article is adapted from "Is It Really Jade Or Not?" by Dr Olsen, 
published several years ago in the Bulletin. 






ii. 




Photo taken in China in 
the early years of this 
century shows two jade 
cutters at the time- 
consuming process of 
slicing through a large 
block of this hard 
material. 



86441 



of grains of only the one mineral. It commonly has 
grains of black magnetite, white quartz, white feld- 
spar, white calcite, and even small amounts of green 
micalike minerals. Some of the finest jade carvings 
show black streaks of magnetite in them. The ques' 
tion arises, how^ much of w^hat impurities w^ill be 
tolerated and still permit a designation as jade? The 
answer to this is clearly an arbitrary matter of taste, 
esthetics, and tradition. 

Since this form of jade is comprised of micro- 
scopic interlocking needles of actinolite (or tremo- 
lite), what does one do when the needles are so large 
they are no longer microscopic? What does one call a 
pure actinolite rock in which the green needles are an 
eighth of an inch long and clearly visible? If a fine- 
grained actinolite rock is jade, why not a coarser- 
grained one? Again, it is a matter of tradition and 
aesthetics. In both these cases, impurities and grain- 
size, the mineralogist can't offer an answer 

About two centuries ago a new source of attrac- 
tive green rock (also sometimes gray, or even blue) 
was discovered close to China in Burma. It was hard 
like jade, usually green like jade, and could be worked 
into pleasing carvings. Archaeological usage caused it 
to enter the ranks as jade. Mineralogically, however, 



this material is an entirely different rock, one com- 
posed of interlocking microscopic grains of a different 
mineral called jadeite. In fact, the mineral got its 
name because of the use of the rock as jade. This rock 
also possesses problems about acceptable impurities 
and size of mineral grains. Thus, two materials are 
accepted, by archaeological definition, as jade. In the 
jade business these are usually distinguished by mod- 
ifying words. The original actinolite rock is referred 
to as nephrite jade, and the jadeite rock as jadeite jade. 
The buyer of an object advertised as jade does not usu- 
ally know which type he is getting. Both are jade; the 
value depends mostly on the age of the piece, 
craftsmanship, size, and archaeological factors. 
In general, the majority of pieces one sees sold are 
made from nephrite jade simply because it is a vastly 
more abundant rock type than jadeite rock in the 
earth's crust. 

If only these two kinds of rocks were ever 
worked as jade, mineralogical problems would be lim- 
ited to those mentioned earlier But native craftsmen 
over the centuries have, unfortunately, not always 
been discriminating in their choices of materials. A 
large variety of other rocks and minerals have also 
been utilized: such green rocks as serpentinite, meta- 



25 



morphosed basaltic lavas (called greenstone), soap' 
stone, hard clays; and actual single minerals as green 
chalcedony and uvarovite garnet have shown up in 
some old collections. In some cases the craftsmen may 
have had it in mind to defraud; however, in most in- 
stances lack of knowledge or lack of discrimination 
led to the use of any workable attractive green rock or 
mineral that would take a good polish. In more recent 
times dyed glass has been used to simulate jade in an 
obvious attempt to defraud. Frequently even the 
seller is unaware he is selling glass. A fairly common 
practice in costume jewelry is to mix the pieces with 
part of the object made of jade (usually nephrite) and 
part of it made from glass, soapstone, or serpentine 
chosen (or dyed) to provide closely matched color. 
Thus, such a piece can be sold as "jade" which lies 
just inside the border of the truth. 

For a mineralogist to pass on the authenticity of 
a particular piece, it comes dow^n to determining if it 
consists mainly of actinolite or of jadeite. The first 
simple test is to scratch it with a common steel needle. 
Neither material can be scratched; however, "look- 
alikes" such as serpentine, soapstone, and greenstone 
are readily scratched. Unfortunately, chalcedony and 
hard lead glass are not scratched. These can be distin- 
guished from jades by optical tests. A severe limi- 
tation in applying such a test is that it is usually not 
possible to obtain a chip of a specimen to work on. A 
valuable carving cannot be sampled in a cavalier man- 
ner with hammer and chisel. It is usually necessary to 
sample from down inside a carved hole or depression, 
or on some inconspicuous spot on the bottom of the 
object, if it has a bottom surface at all. Frequently, 
especially with small objects, the piece is fully 
polished on all sides and a sample removed from any- 
where v/ill ruin its appearance. 

As a general practice the quickest and safest 
method is X-ray diffraction. This method is based on 
the fact that each kind of mineral has a characteristic 
chemical composition and the atoms of the chemical 
elements are arranged in regular three-dimensional 
symmetrical patterns. X-rays passing through such a 
three-dimensional network are diverted into patterns 
of rays that reflect the characteristic arrangement of 
the atoms in the mineral. Each mineral has, in a sense, 
an X-ray "fingerprint" which permits its definite 
identification. For large objects, a minute amount can 
26 be scratched from an inconspicuous spot and 



mounted for X-raying. Small objects often can be fit- 
ted directly into the X-ray sample holder and X-rayed 
as a whole, unscathed. Thus the real jades and the 
"look alikes" can be readily distinguished. 

It would appear that the X-ray method solves 
many problems. Unfortunately, archaeological 
acceptance makes for other difficulties. Long ago 
Chinese noblemen frequently had nephrite jade ob- 
jects buried with them in their tombs. Soil acids and 
moisture acted slowly on these objects to gradually 
alter their composition and form different minerals of 
them. This alteration may form only over the outside 
as a coating, or it may completely work its way 
through an object, especially if it is small. When such 
pieces were dug up, centuries later, they were found 
to be quite pleasing in appearance. They had become 
an off-white color and resembled polished bone mate- 
rial. These objects became prized and it is logical that 
someone should experiment in an attempt to learn 
how to speed up this slow alteration process. It was 
soon discovered that nephrite jade could be con- 
verted to this appearance if it were subjected to in- 
tense heating. Today both of these forms of bone jade 
are accepted as jade; however, neither one is nephrite 
jade any longer. Depending on the process, long-term 
burial or short-term heating, two different rocks 
made of several entirely different minerals result. 
They are, nevertheless, considered to be jades also. 

These altered materials complicate matters. 
Both consist of mixtures of several minerals in vary- 
ing proportions depending on such factors as tem- 
perature and time. It is not possible to distinguish 
these rocks formed by the alteration of original jade 
from the same kind of rocks formed by other processes 
out of original material that was not jade at all. Thus, 
for these materials archaeological definition generally 
confounds mineralogical determination. 

The authentication of jade is clearly not as 
straightforward as one might imagine. For the major- 
ity of cases X-raying provides a simple and relatively 
nondestructive method. In a small number of cases 
the final decision will depend on what the archae- 
ologist is willing to accept. Probably the only other 
material that raises even more difficult minerological 
questions regarding authenticity is amber. It is 
regrettable that once man attaches monetary value to 
a mineral or rock, problems are created that go out- 
side the realm of the mineral kingdom. FM 



Tours For Members 



Ecuador and 
The Galapagos Islands 

May 27 -June 11 

The Galapagos Islands affect our imagination 
like no other place on earth. To set foot on 
these remote islands is to return to a primeval 
land isolated and protected for millions of 
years. A distance of 600 miles off the coast of 
Ecuador are these lost specks of volcanic land 
on which nature evolved a separate microcosm 
of animals and plants. 

Our tour will begin with a visit in the host 
country of Ecuador, which offers an opportu- 
nity to enjoy the charm of Old World ambi- 
ence, along with the color and distinction of 
the centuries-old Indian market villages of 
Lactacunga and Ambato. 

To enhance your learning experience on 
this tour. Dr. Glen E. Woolfenden, research 
associate at Field Museum, and professor of 
zoology at University of South Florida, will be 
our leader and will accompany the group from 
Miami and return. 

This is our exciting itinerary: 

May 27: Fly from Chicago O'Hare airport to 
Quito via Miami. 

May 28: Tour the city of Quito, visit the 
fabulous Archeological Museum, view the 
church of San Augustin and Museum of 
Colonial Art. 

May 29: Visit the art galleries of the painters 
Guayasamin and Viteri; tour the Olga Fish 
Folklore Gallery. In the afternoon visit the 
Equatorial Monument. Also, visit the Indi- 
an villages of Pomasqui and San Antonio 
and the crater of Pululahua. 

May 30: Full-day excursion over the Andes' 
western ridge, down into the coastal jung- 
les with their banana, cocoa, and coffee 
plantations and see the village of the Col- 
orado Indians, colorful in dress and 
custom. 

May 31: Full day of birding in the area of 
Papallacta. Ecuador is home to more than 
1,400 species of birds. 

June I: Morning departure by bus to the 
Latacunga-Ambato Valley stopping at 
Latacunga Indian market and the Cotopaxi 
volcano, where we will visit a small 
museum at the base of the volcano, and on 
to Ambato with its huge market. 

June 2: Leave the frosty Andean heights, 
travel across a fertile plain and past high- 
land villages, via Riobamba and Devil's 
Nose pass to Guayaquil, Ecuador's chief 
port, where we'll stay overnight. 

June 3: A morning flight to Baltra, where we 
will board the MV Santa Cruz. Comfort is 
indeed the keynote for our life aboard ship 
in both clothes and atmosphere, with 
casual attire recommended. Tonight and 
each evening during the cruise we have a 
slide presentation and a lecture outlining 
the next day's highlights. 
6 June 4: The first island we see is Bartolome, 



site of Pinnacle Rock, the most widely rec- 
ognized landmark in the Galapagos. Later 
we cruise in Darwin Bay. Tower island is 
considered one of the most complete bird 
islands, with virtually millions of sea and 
land birds resident to its shores. 

June 5: Cruising Isabela and Femandina Is- 
lands, entering Tagus Cover in the mor- 
ning. 

June 6: Cruising Baltra and North Seymour 
Islands. After a brief stopover at Baltra, we 
cruise to North Seymour and will be trans- 
ported to the rocky shore via small craft. 
Our first encounter, as we walk on the is- 
land, is with dense colonies of blue-footed 
boobies. 

June 7: Cruising Hood and Floreana Islands. 
We follow the marked trails on Hood Is- 
land to search for its own species of mock- 
ingbird and its most spectacular part-time 
resident, the waved albatross. Along the 
way, we catch glimpses of masked boobies 
and several species of finch. We land at 
Punta Cormorant on Floreana Island and on 
an inland lagoon we'll see where multi- 
tudes of flamingos nest. Floreana 's vegeta- 
tion is particularly interesting. 

June 8: Cruising Santa Cruz and Plaza Is- 
lands. Upon arrival at the village of Puerto 
Ayora on Santa Cruz we walk directly to 
the Darwin Research Station for a briefing. 
This afternoon, we call at tiny Plaza 
Island, where sea lions swim out to 
welcome us. 
June 9: We land early in the morning on a 
beach of black lava sand on James Island, 
then hike to a tranquil crater lake where fla- 
mingos feed. Next we can swim with (or 
just observe) the fur seals in one of the 
pools cut into the cliffs by surf erosion. 
After lunch we cruise past unusual cinder 
cones and lava formations along the coast 
en route to Buccaneer Cove, the former 
refuge of pirate ships. 
June JO: This morning we cruise to Baltra, 
disembarking in time to board our flight to 
Guayaquil. En route to the Oro Verde 
Hotel we will tour Guayaquil, seeing the 
AvenidaOlmedo, city watchtower, govern- 
ment buildings, and the municipal 
museum. In the evening we'll enjoy a gala 
farewell dinner. 
June II: Return to Chicago via Miami. Early 
evening arrival at O'Hare. 
Price per person (double occupancy); 
$3,545 for main deck cabins. Upgrade to up- 
per deck; $150; upgrade to boat deck; $310. 
An extension to Peru is optional. The tour 
price includes land and cruise costs and round- 
trip economy air fare. The tour is limited to 25 
people, and early reservations are recom- 
mended. A $500 deposit per person should be 
sent to Field Museum Tours. 



Alaska and 
The Pribilof Islands 

June 5-19 

June 5: Fly from Chicago's O'Hare to Sitka. 

Welcome dinner. 
June 6: City tour of Sitka. Marine wildlife 

motor raft trip with dinner on board cruise 

vessel. 
June 7: Late morning flight to Juneau. Men- 

denhall River raft trip with lunch on board. 

Evening outdoor salmon bake. 
June 8: Morning flight to Glacier Bay. Gla- 
cier Bay cruise aboard the MV Glacier Bay 

Explorer. Overnight on board ship. 
June 9: After completing Galcier Bay cruise, 

afternoon flight to Fairbanks via Juneau. 
June 10: Ride the Alaska Railroad to Denali 

National Park. Afternoon at leisure; 

salmon bake dinner and overnight at 

McKinley Chalets. 
June 11: Full day tour to Kantisna. Return to 

McKinley Chalets for dinner and over- 
night. 
June 12: Morning at leisure. Afternoon 

motorcoach trip to Anchorage. 
June 13: Morning at leisure. Afternoon tour 

to Potter's Marsh Bird Refuge. 
June 14: Morning at leisure. Afternoon Float 

Trip on Eagle River with dinner on board. 
June 15: Flight to St. George Island. 
June 16-17: Two full days exploring St. 

George Island. 
June 18: Return flight to Anchorage. Farewell 

dinner. 
June 19: After breakfast transfer to airport for 

return flight to Chicago. 
Our leader will be Dr. John W. Fitzpat- 
rick, associate curator and head of the Divi- 
sion of Birds at the Field Museum, where he 
also serves as curator-in-charge of Scientific 
Services and chairman of the Science Advi- 
sory Council. He is an experienced tour lectur- 
er, most recently leading Field Museum tours 
to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands, and to 
the Lesser Antilles. 

Tour price; $4,625.00, based on double 
occupancy (includes round trip coach class air 
fare). We hope you can join us for this excep- 
tional tour. A deposit of $500.00 per person 
will confirm your reservation. 

ADDITIONAL TOURS FOR 1985 

Grand Canyon Rafting Trip 

May 24-June 2 

China and Tibet 

August 10-September 1 

Kenya 

September 6-23 

For further information or to be placed on our mail- 27 
ing list, call or write Dorothy Roder. Tours Manag- 
er, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr , 
Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 322-8862. 



Mera Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, II 60605-2499 



0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenvieiu 
Chicago- IL 60626 



I 



1^ 




The Art of Cameroon 

March 9-June 16 






&«.*#. -. 




MUSEUM OF NATUR^M. HISTORY BUL|CET1N 



W:^\^" 



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J- 



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■i:o'^;T^>«i 




^ 







A Yican Heritage Dancers andJ)runiL 
Saturday, May 18 ; 

A Danice toJldbora^on: African Heritage D^^rs & h(rummers,% 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: I^mela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

May, 1985 

Volume 56, Number 5 



May Events at Field Museum 



African Art at Field Museum 

by Richard J. Powell 



Chicago's Parakeets 

fay David M. Walsten 



11 



Field Museum Tours for Members 



27 



Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
WUliam H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



COVER 

Monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) clustered about their largs 
communal nest in Chicago^s Hyde Park. Now in its fifth season, the 
colony of birds normally found in subtropical and temperate South 
America has preuailedy despite subzero weather and the nets cf par- 
akeet hunters. Photo by D. Walsten. For more on the monk parakeet 
see pp. 11-17. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined 
July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, 11. 60605. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. Museum membership 
includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not neces- 
sarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone; (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605. ISSN; 0015-0703. Second class 
postage paid at Chicago, H. 



Events 



Festival of Masks 



PERFORMANCES 

"Masquerade of Cameroon andAbang: 

Rites of Passage Suite" 

African Heritage Dancers and Drummers 

Saturday, May i8, 3:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor 

African Heritage Dancers and Drummers present an 
electrifying performance celebrating the ritual com- 
ing of age of a young Cameroon maiden, the cultural 
counterpart of the debutante's ball. In the traditional 
manner, a young maiden is shut away for a period of 
one year. There she is fattened — spiritually, mental- 
ly, and physically, in preparation for her future role 
as wife, mother, and productive member of her vil- 
lage. Our dance begins as the young girl is led out for 
the first time and the celebrations begin — a leopard, 
an idim ebok bird, and a turtle perform masquerades 
for the fon. Next, a group of dancing warriors 
appear, followed by the matriarchs. In a grand finale 
of explosive dance and music, a group of mirror- 
bearing amazon women accompany the maiden as 
she parades before her village, no longer a girl. 

African Heritage Dancers and Drummers is one 
of the first black performing arts companies originat- 
ing from the inner city of Washington, D.C. Begun 
in 1960 as a black community cultural awareness 
project and comprised of local people, it now 
includes performers from West Africa, the Carib- 
bean, and South America. 




m^i 



^" 




"A Dance Collaboration" 
African Heritage Dancers and Drummers 
Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe 
Muntu Dance Theatre 

Sunday, May 19, 1:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor 

As a finale to our Festival of Masks, three dance 
companies present a spectacular collaboration of 
masking, dance, and music. Join us as Washington's 
African Heritage Dancers and Drummers, Chicago's 
Darlene Blackburn Dance Troupe, and Muntu Dance 
Theatre collaborate in a breathtaking dance piece. 
Then, each group presents its own dance interpreta- 
tion. In "Mask Suite," the African Heritage Dancers 
and Drummers present a dogon funerary ceremony 
using a Serege mask to conduct prayers to the spirit 
world. Muntu Dance Theatre performs a piece from 
"The King's Dance" and the Darlene Blackburn 
Dancers present dances from West Africa. At the end 
of this celebration, the dancers invite the audience to 
participate in a dance from Ghana. Beginning in 
Stanley Field Hall, the dancers lead us through the 
Museum to our special exhibit of masks produced by 
children from Chicago area schools. Festival of 
Masks activities are free with museum admission. 

DEMONSTRATION 

"Masquerade and Mask Making" 

African Heritage Dancers and Drummers 

Saturday, May 18, 12:30-1:30 pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor 

The use of masks and costumes in the grassfields and 
forest areas of Cameroon is widespread. The making 
of these ceremonial objects forms part of the rich art 



CONTINUED Irom p. 3 



Events 



tradition of Cameroon. Using traditional methods, 
members of the African Heritage Dancers and 
Drummers exhibit costumes and explain the difficult 
and complex procedures used to create these beauti- 
ful objects. Masks and costumes on display include 
leopard, dogon, and stilt walker, each of which will 
be used in their dance performance later that day. 



Family Feature 

MASK MAKING 

Saturday and Sunday, May 18 and 19 

12:00 noon-2 :00 pm 

Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor 

Come to Field Museum's Festival of Masks in 
celebration of our exhibit, "The Art of Cameroon." 
When Africans from Cameroon wear masks in rituals 
and celebrations, they are only part of an entire cos- 
tume known as a masquerade. The mask itself holds 
no special power until it is combined with a symboUc 
gown, the rhythm of the drums, and the dance. The 
mask puts the finishing touch on creating a personal- 
ity or emotion for the dancer. After walking through 
the exhibit filled with Cameroon masks, find out 
how they are made. Make a mask that reflects your 
personality like the ones from Cameroon. Also, on 
Sunday, May 19, you can wear your mask and join in 
a dance celebration with the African Heritage Danc- 
ers and Drummers, the Darlene Blackburn Dance 
Troupe, and the Muntu Dance Theatre. 



May Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and 
adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 




May 



11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the traditions 
of ancient Egypt from everyday life to myths and 
mummies. 

1:30 pm. Tibet Today (slide lecture). See Lhasa and 
other towns now open to the public. 

2:30 pm. Tibetan Tour (tour). Take a trip through our 
Tibetan Hall. 




5 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out big game 
from Africa and mummies from ancient Egypt as 
you travel through Field Museum exhibits. 

12 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sampling 
of our most significant exhibits as you explore the 
scope of Field Museum. 

1:30 pm. A Walk With China's Animals (tour). Meet 
Su Lin the panda and other animals found in China, 
then meet imaginary and real beasts through Chinese 
art masterworks. 

19 12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out big game 
from Africa and mummies from ancient Egypt as 
you travel through Field Museum exhibits. 

26 1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sampling 
of our most significant exhibits as you explore the 
scope of Field Museum. 

These programs are free with museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 




African Art 
at 

The Field 

Museum 



by Richard J. Powell 



L 



1. Memorial figure, Kongo, Zaire. Wood, pigment, 60cm. Museum 
purchase. Photo by Ron Testa. N109451. 



(ike most natural history museums. Field Museum 
of Natural History features the ethnology of Native 
Americans, Pacific peoples, Asians, and Afilcans. Since 
the museum's inception in 1893, approximately 
500,000 items of prehistoric, archaeological, and ethno- 
logical import have entered the collection. Though Afri- 
can artifacts account for only a small part — roughly 
1 6,000 specimens — of the entire anthropological hold- 
ings at the Field Museum, this number represents sever- 
al world-class collections of African material culture, as 
well as many individual objects of artistic merit. 

With the tastes of African art cormoisseurs in con- 
stant flux, and access to information about African tradi- 
tions on a steady rise, African art coUertors, scholars, 
and enthusiasts are increasingly turning to institutions 
like the Field Museum, where relatively unknown, yet 
important Afiican objects have long been viewed from a 
largely anthropological, rather than aesthetic, perspec- 
tive. Serious scholars of Africa, especially those with an 
interest in the material culture of Nigeria, Cameroon, 
Congo, Zaire, Angola, Kenya, and the Malagasy Re- 
public, have usually found researching the Field's 
corresponding collection to be a worthwhile endeavor. 
What today's art-oriented visitors are discovering is that 
the museum offers a wealth of African artistry as well as 
anthropology, and that both work together in establish- 
ing a total setting for the coUeaion. 

The first African acquisition for the Field Museum's 



"African Art at the Field Museum" originally appeared in African 
Arts, Vol. XVIU. No. 2 (February 1985), copyright © 1985 by the 
Regents of the University of California. 5 



aJu 


h 


V^H "'vll 


i^L^ 



2. Fragment of a medicine staff (osum ematon). Benin, Nigeria. 
Iron. 67cm. Museum purchase. Cat. 89835. N99373. 



ethnological collection came about as a result of 
transferring objects from the World's Columbian Exposi- 
tion to the newly incorporated Columbian Museum of 
Chicago in 1893. Frederick W. Putnam, curator of the 
Peabody Museum and professor of anthropology at Har- 
vard University, was the primary catalyst in developing 
the anthropological exhibits for the World's Columbian 
Exposition. Putnam, along with assistants Franz Boas 
and George A. Dorsey, enlisted the help of several Amer- 
ican and European collectors in assembling materials for 
exhibition. One of their European contacts, collector 
Carl Hagenbeck of Hamburg, Germany, eventually sold 
his ethnographic collection to the newly formed 
museum. 'Among the many fine artifacts that the Col- 
umbian Museum purchased from Hagenbeck is a Kongo 
carving of a seated man (fig. 1). This cross-legged and 
tankard-carrying image subscribes to a category of com- 
memorative sculptures that remind the living of their 
still-influential ancestors. As with other sepulchral fi- 
gures by Kong artisans, the white pigment on this depic- 
tion of an important man refers to his place in the world 
of the dead, rather than to race (Laman 1957: 96, pi. 2). 
In a reorganization of the trustees in 1894, the 
museum was renamed the Field Columbian Museum, 



after Marshall Field, the head of a major retail business 
in Chicago and one of its leading citizens. Under the 
aegis of the trustees and George A. Dorsey, chief curator 
of anthropology from 1896 to 1915, several groups of 
objects from the court of Benin entered the collection of 
the Field Columbian Museum. Included in the first Be- 
nin acquisition is an elegant memorial head of a queen 
mother (fig. 3). Distinguishing traits like the four keloids 
above each eye, inlaid strips of iron on the forehead, a 
single coral cluster on each side of the head, and a 
flanged base decorated with a low-relief guilloche de- 
sign tentatively date this commemorative head and tusk 
stand to the first half of the eighteenth century. The head 
was purchased from H. O. Forbes, director of the City of 
Liverpool's PubUc Museums and one of the first scholars 



3. Memorial head of a queen mother Benin, Nigeria. Cast brass, 
42.5cm. Museum purchase. Cat. 8262. Photo by Diane Alexander- 
White. N109487. 




to make a serious study of Benin art. The 1899 acquisi- 
tion date for this Benin masterpiece makes the Field Col- 
umbian Museum one of the first American institutions 
to obtain art examples from this area following the high- 
ly publicized British punitive expedition into the king- 
dom of Benin in 1 897. 

This purchase was followed by other Benin ac- 
quisitions in the years 1902 through 1907. During this 
period, London-based dealer W. D. Webster was the 
source for several Chicago-destined Benin objects, 
among them the upper portion of a diviner's/healer's 
iron staff (fig. 2). Chameleons, ibislike birds, and minia- 
ture blacksmith's tools are the iconographic elements on 
this wrought-iron insignia. As with many of the iron 
staffs by the neighboring Yoruba peoples, this partial Be- 
nin staff features birds and iron implements in a larger 
statement on the complex relationship between 
righteous and malevolent forces in the universe 
(Thompson 1975: 56-59; Rebora 1983: 30-32). 

An oath-taking figure from the Chiloango River 
area of lower Zaire (fig. 5) was one of the more impor- 
tant purchases from W. D. Webster's sale of 1907. Of the 
dozen or so large, so-called Kongo nail fetishes in collec- 
tions throughout Europe and the United States, the Field 
Museum's nkisi nkondi is one of the most striking and 
well preserved. Beyond the figure's near-intact resin 
beard and raffia skirt, it is host to a large number of 
blades, nails, screws, and machine parts. Since each 
piece of metal represents an important matter that was 
resolved by hammering staves into its body, arms, and 
shoulders, the aggregate record of literally hundreds of 
legal and ethical disputes attests to this particular nkisi 
nkondi 's powerful role as arbitrator, notary, and law en- 
forcer among the Yombe people (Bassani 1977: 38-39; 
Thompson 1978: 214-16). These factors, combined with 
a tour-de-force conceptualization of this figure, make it 
certainly one of the finest examples of a sculpted Kongo 
charm in a museum collection today. 

Besides Benin and Kongo, other African cultures 
were represented in early acquisitions for the museum. 
In 1905, the newly renamed Field Museum of Natural 
History purchased a collection of approximately 200 ob- 
jects from the Togo hinterland. The former owner of 
these ethnological specimens was Otto Finsch, director 
of the Brunswick City Museum. Finsch had received the 
artifacts several years earlier from Captain Thierry, an 
administrative officer in the former German colony of 
Togo.^ A few of the textiles in this collection, especially 
an embroidered apron that was collected among the 
Moba people of northwest Togo (fig. 4), reflect the per- 
vasive stamp of Hausa design sensibilities on local 



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4. Apron. Moba (?), Togo. Dyed and embroidered cotton, 53cm x 
60cm. Museum purchase. Cat. 104865. Photo by Diane Alexander- 
White. N109450. 



artisans.' This region's position on the East-West trade 
route and the resultant cultural congress of various Vol- 
taic, Manding, and Sudanic peoples make an exact 
identification of this textile problematic, but its V-shaped 
opening on the centralized pocket, as well as its general 
form, link it to the more traditional genre of Voltaic fash- 
ion (Froelich 1963: 133-34). 

The African collection added 500-odd artifacts from 
the Kenya highlands in 1907. These objeas were the 
bounty of a successful expedition into that area by Field 
Museum taxidermist Carl E. Akeley. Figuring prom- 
inently in this acquisition are some strong examples of 
Kikuyu culture, represented here by two dance shields 
(fig. 7) for male initiates. As part of the initiate's cere- 
monial costume, these shields, or ndome, are worn on 
the left arm of the decorated boy and incorporated into a 
panoply of movement, sound, and visual expression. 
Painted designs in red, black, and white appear on the 
outer sides of the shields, with contrasting patterns usu- 
ally converging on a central, oval opening. The in- 
ner sides are equally graphic, consisting of engraved 
chevrons and zigzags that echo the op artlike body 
painting on the initiates (Routledge 1910: 154-57, pis. 
82-85, 104, 106a, 107-9; Leakey 1977: 335-36,406-10). 

Chief Curator George A. Dorsey was succeed- 
ed by Berthold Laufer, a University of Leipzig-trained 
anthropologist, whose expertise was Asiatic ethnology. 
Under Laufer's leadership ( 19 1 5-34), the Department of 
Anthropology continued a steady expansion of its Afri- 
can holdings through expeditions, purchases, ex- 
changes, and gifts. Although the receipt of gifts can often 
be an unpredictable transaction for a museum, one early 
8 gift- accession to the Field Museum proved to be espe- 



cially important to the coUertion. Included in this 1915 
gift is an outstanding example of Ibibio dance headgear 
(fig. 8). White, yellow, black, and red pigments cover the 
small, placid face and wooden "flaps" of this masked 
representation of a good ancestor, or mfon ekpo (Messen- 
ger 1973: 121-23). For many years listed as originating 
in Congo, this eastern Nigerian mask came to the Field 
via Jamaica, probably the memento of a tum-of-the- 
century British colonial administrator. 

The next major African acquisition took place ten 
years later, with the purchase of approximately 1 ,800 
ceremonial objects, household furnishings, weapons, 
tools, architeaural elements, clothing, and other items 
from New York dealer Jan Klegkamp. Klegkamp acted 
as an intermediary for the Museum Umlauff a distribu- 
tion house in Hamburg that supplied many German 
ethnographic museums with specimens.* The Field's 
purchase consisted predominantly of Cameroon arti- 
facts, covering the entire range of art-producing areas. 
An enormous helmet crest (fig. 11), depicting a human 
face wdth inflated cheeks and balancing six long-tailed 
serpents on its head, is one of many western Grassfields 
masquerade costumes that came to the museum in 
1925.' Acquired along with this helmet crest, but hailing 
from the coastal region of Cameroon, is the well-known 
Duala canoe model with prow ornament (fig. 9). Like 
similar works in other American and German collec- 
tions, the juxtaposing of regimented rowers with 
undulating water creatures poses some provocative 
questions concerning myth, narrative, and history 
among the Duala. Unfortunately, the actual use and 
symbolism of these fantastic configurations remain, at 
best, speculative (Northern 1984: 179). 

In addition to the art and material culture of south- 
em forests, grassfields, and northern Cameroon peoples, 
this 1925 purchase encompassed artifacts from such 
peripheral areas as the Cross River region and the south- 
em Cameroon/northem Gabon border. A spectacularly 
coiffured human head (fig. 16), conceived in the 
naturalistic style of Nigerian artists from the lower Cross 
River town of Calabar, is one of the many skin-covered 
headcrests accessioned that year. This particular crest, 
for a society of selected men in the community (Nicklin 
1974: 14- 1 5), is decorated with facial tattoos, raised cir- 
cles or "targets" on its temple, and unusual down- 
curved braids. 

Representing an altogether different part of Came- 



5. Oath-taking figure (nkisi nkondi). Yombe, Zaire. Wood, clay, fiber, 
metal, pigment, cowrie shell, 113cm. tt^useum purchase. Cat 91300. 
Photo by Diane Alexander-White. N109327. 



10 




roon's artistic heritage at the museum is a huge snake 
(fig. 12) carved out of a massive log and painted black 
and white. Leon Siroto, an authority on the art of west- 
em equatorial Africa and a former Field Museum cura- 
tor of African Ethnology, identifies this object as part of a 
larger initiatory sculpture grouping made by the Eton 
people, a subgroup within the Beti-Bulu cultural net- 
work of southern Cameroon (Siroto 1977: 40-41).' 
Parallels between this snake and one at the Museum fiir 
Volkerkunde in Munich again illustrate the Field's close 
connection to German collections and collectors. 

A Hemba-allied ancestor sculpture (fig. 10) and a 
woven Mende hammock (fig. 6) were two gifts that 
complemented existing Field Museum specimens dur- 
ing the 1920s. The three locks of hair on the beard, the 
uncharacteristic, open-eyed expression, and the flat, 
wide feet on the male ancestor stylistically place it be- 
tween the Songye territory and the area immediately 
west of Lake Tanganyika in southeastern Zaire.' John 
Quinn, the celebrated American collector of early 
twentieth-century modem art, once owned this figure. 
It was purchased from his estate auction in 1926 by the 
Arts Club of Chicago, which in turn gave it to the Field. 
The Mende hammock came into the collection in 1929 
as a gift from a Chicagoan who had received the textile 
from her collecting father at the tum of the century. The 
trademark of these prestigious. Sierra Leonean-made 
country cloths is the corresponding and contrasting pat- 
tern, manipulated by the weaver via natural and dyed 
yams, weft-faced weaves, and supplementary tapestry 
techniques (Easmon 1924: 16-24). 

The ever-growing African collection in the 1920s 
created a place on the museum staff for an African 
specialist. This curatorial vacancy was filled by Ralph 
Linton and Wilfred D. Hambly. Although Linton was a 
curator of Oceanic ethnology from 1926 until 1929, his 
interest in the Malaysian- influenced African island of 
Madagascar led him to become the first full-time curator 
of African Ethnology in 1926, specializing in the physic- 
al anthropology and ethnology of Angola and Nigeria. 

Both Linton and Hambly headed museum- 
sponsored expeditions in their respective parts of the 
world, bringing back with them a variety of objects that 
illuminate aspects of African society circa 1920. Ham- 
bly's 1929 expedition to Angola yielded for the museum 
one of the largest American-based collections of ethno- 
logical specimens from that country (Hambly 1934:86). 

Continued on page 18 



6. Hammock (kpokpoi). Mende. Sierra Leone. Natural and dyed 
cotton, 70cm x 234cm. Gift of Mrs. William G. Burt Cat. 175957. 
Pl^oto by Fleur Hales Testa. N109216. 




Chicago's monk parakeets at their communal nest. 



Chicago's Parakeets 

After Five Years ' Residence 

The Colony of South American Birds 

Is Still Hanging in There 



by David M. Walsten 

photos by the author 



W. 



hile golfing on Chicago's Jackson Park course 
in 1981 I heard for the first time of the city's resident 
parakeets. On that July afternoon my golfing partner 
mentioned having seen green parrots on several occa- 
sions swooping over the fairway. I may have been 
tempted to enquire if these bizarre sightings occurred as 
he was winding up 18 holes under a blistering sun; in 
any case, I forgot about his observation until two years 
later, when I happened to see the gigantic nest built by 
these birds in Hyde Park, about a mile north of the golf 



course. The nest was hard to miss, since it looked every 
bit like a miniature hay stack that had been flung into the 
green ash tree by some capricious tornado. Eight or ten 
of the stunningly beautiful birds were clustered about 
the communal nest, chattering and muttering con- 
tentedly to themselves and disporting their bright green 
plumage like fashion queens in the afternoon sun. For 
one who had been a nonbeliever until then, it was an 
unforgettable experience. 

The Hyde Park assemblage of monk parakeets 



u 



(Myiopsitta monachus), I learned, had first been sighted in 
the area in February 1 980, when they were reportedly 
trying to establish a nest on an apartment building fire 
escape.* Had these birds been of a quiet disposition they 
might have remained unmolested, but their strident 
chatter earned them an eviction even before settling in. 



the birds were imported into the U.S. in 1983; 10,807 
was the preliminary figure for 1984. Its occurrence in 
Chicago and other North American locations may be ex- 
plained by the occasional release of these birds, 
accidental and otherwise, from homes where they have 
been kept as pets or while in shipment. 




Skins of the monk parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus, in the Field Museum collection. These specimens were 
obtained in Argentina in the 1920s— long before the bird was seen in the wild in the United States. The 
Specimen at top is about 1 1 inches in length. The sexes are outwardly alike. 



It was then that they flew a few blocks north to build in 
the green ash tree. 

Known in the pet trade variously as the quaker, 
gray-headed, or gray-breasted parakeet, the species is 
native to the subtropical and temperate zones of South 
America, where it occurs in Bolivia, Uruguay, Paraguay, 
southern Brazil, and in Argentina as far south as 40° S 
latitude (the Southern Hemisphere equivalent of Phi- 
ladelphia, Denver, and Champagne-Urbana). In the 
United States it is favored as a cage bird, despite its noisy 
chatter (at least one Chicago pet dealer, however, refuses 
to carry the species because of its raucous nature). 
According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 9,308 of 



*In the early 1970s monk parakeets were reliably reported in the 
12 city 's southeast suburbs. 



Since first being reported in the wild in the United 
States about 18 years ago, the monk parakeet has some- 
times given the impression that it would settle into a per- 
manent, breeding status, only to disappear after a season 
or two. Some observers believe that it can and will fill 
that ecological void left by the closely related Carolina 
parakeet, now extinct, which occurred solely in the 
United States. 

(Another competitor for the Carolina's niche may 
be the evening grosbeak. Norman L. Brunswig, Stephen 
G. Winton, and Paul B. Hamel in a recent issue of Wilson 
Bulletin, speculate that the gradually expanding winter 
range of the evening grosbeak may be in part attribut- 
able to the disappearance of the Carolina parakeet. Only 
these two birds, they suggest, have or had the ability to 
crack open very hard items such as cones of the bald 
cypress and pond cypress, which occur in the Seaboard 



states and, in the case of the latter, westward to Texas 
and up the Mississippi Valley to Illinois — areas where 
the Carolina parakeet was prevalent.) 

The monk parakeet is about 1 1 V2 inches long, near- 
ly half of this being tail. The back is bright green or gray- 
green, the tail green and blue. The upper belly is a soft 
yellow, the head and breast grayish. (It is for this grayish 
pattern, presumably, that the sobriquet "monk" was ap- 
plied.) The wings are mostly blue. The mature bird 
weighs about five ounces; coloration and size appear 
identical for both sexes. 

Among all the known species in the parrot family, 
numbering well over 300, the monk parakeet is the only 
builder of such a nest: an irregular-shaped stack of twigs 
which may be as large as 1 5 to 20 cubic feet in mass and 
weigh several hundred pounds. In South America the 
birds seem to favor thorny trees (particularly the tala, 
Celtis spinosa) for the nest, but they are commonly con- 
structed on manmade structures such as telephone or 
utility poles, under eaves, or on window ledges. Eight of 
the nests have been found in a single tree. Some huge 
parakeet nests in Argentina have been used by continu- 
ing communities for decades. A dozen pairs may breed 
in a single nest, each with its own compartment. The 
nest is used all year round and damaged sections are re- 
paired at the approach of the breeding season. The 
entrances are generally protected by overhanging twig 
masses, thought to provide protection against oppo- 
sums, which sometimes live in the upper compartments. 
Other species that make this unusual type of nest are the 
palm chat of Haiti and Santo Domingo, the buffalo 
weaver of subsaharan Africa, and the sociable weaver of 
southwestern Africa. 

The individual nesting compartment is about 18 cm 
(about 7 inches) in diameter and the entire tunnel 34 to 
40 cm (about 14 to 16 inches) long. From five to nine 




glossy white eggs (relatively small for the bird's size) are 
customarily laid once or twice a year and hatch in 3 1 
days. 

In its native countries, the monk parakeet favors 
areas of low rainfall in savannah, thorn scrub, palm 
groves, open forest, fruit orchards, and crop lands, most 
commonly in lowlands, but ranging to altitudes of 3,000 
feet in the foothills of the Andes. Here the temperature 
may drop to as low as 20° F. 

The species feeds on a variety of seeds and fruits, 
including apples, cherries, grapes, and citrus. In South 
America, where it has been described by a U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service publication as "one of the worst pests of 
agricultural crops," the monk parakeet reportedly des- 
troys from 2 to 45 percent of those crops within its range, 
notably millet, sorghum, com, sunflower, and a variety 



Skin of the extinct Carolina parakeet, Conuropsis carolinensis, in the Field Museum collection, collected in Florida in the 1890s. The species 
occurred only in the United States, mainly in the Southeast, though at one time it ranged up the Mississippi Valley and was apparently not 
uncommon in the Chicago region. The last known member of the species died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1914, though there were unconfirmed 
reports of wild birds into the 1920s. 



^ 




■^^ 


^ 


- V '.^ 


FP 









13 



of fruit crops. The incentive of a bounty for the birds has 
not succeeded in alleviating the problem. 

The bird is gregarious as a rule, and in South Amer- 
ica flocks of up to 50 birds have been observed. The bird 
flies swiftly, with rapid wing beats, usually not far above 
treetop height, screeching loudly as it goes. Its cry is so 
typically parrotlike that the sound is immediately 
recognizable to anyone who has visited those tropical 
areas where parrots are common.* A recent visitor to 
Chicago — a native of the tropics — had a heated discus- 
sion with his Hyde Park hosts (who were unaware till 
then of the local parakeet colony), insisting that he heard 
parrots in the trees. Monk parakeets can leam to whistle 
and to mimic human words, but not as well as some 
other members of the parrot family. They are friendly, 
intelligent birds, which accounts for their popularity as 
pets. Prices for the bird in Chicago-area pet stores range 
from about $25 and up. 

Having first appeared in the New York area in 1 967, 
the monk parakeet became a not uncommon sight there 
within several years and its greater New York population 
was then estimated at around 2,500. In the Wilson Bulle- 
tin of December 1973, John Bull of the Department of 
Ornithology, American Museum of Natural History, 
wrote that "Multiple releases by design and by accident 
have resulted in a sizeable resident population in south- 
eastern New York, and the adjacent portions of Con- 
necticut and New Jersey. These releases, that is escaped 
birds, came from broken crates at Kennedy Airport, 
accidental escapes from pet shops, aviaries, and private 
owners, as well as intentional releases by persons tired of 
caring for these parrots." Bull also mentions that the bird 
has bred in the outdoors in the London and Paris zoos 
andintheparks of Amsterdam (52.4° N latitude 
— further north than Saskatoon, Saskatchewan!) 

At about the same time that the monk was trying to 
accommodate itself to the greater New York area, others 
of this species were reported to be taking up residence at 
various sites along the Atlantic Seaboard and as far west 
as around Pittsburgh. David B. Freeland reported at 
some length on the Pittsburgh community in the Sep- 
tember 1973 Wilson Bulletin, where he noted that "at 
least five rather bulky nests had been located — all within 
a quarter-mile-square area covering two rather urba- 
nized ridges and a partially wooded ravine. Two of the 
nests were on utility poles, three in trees, and all were 
the apparent work of one pair of parakeets .... On 12 



*The main distinction between parrots and parakeets is size; thefor- 
14 mer are generally larger. 



August 1972 I observed both adults and one well- 
fledged bird. Residents of the area later confirmed the 
existence of three young of the year .... The birds have 
had wide exposure in the [local] media, but nest dis- 
turbance has not visibly deterred the birds from begin- 
ning what may well become a small colony similar to 
those on the Atlantic Seaboard." 

Freeland's apparent hope that the parakeets would 
thrive in the Pittsburgh area was not to be fulfilled. 
According to Carnegie Museum ornithologist Keimeth 
Parks, there have been no reports of monk parakeets in 
that region for years. Much the same fate befell the New 
York city area population of wild monk parakeets. The 
Seventy-ninth Audubon Christmas Bird Count of 1978 
reported only six for the entire state of New York, all of 
these in Brooklyn. (The highest Christmas count in the 
country for that year was seven in Fort Lauderdale, Flor- 
ida.) According to Thomas Burke, of the Audubon Soci- 
ety's Rare Bird Alert team in New York City, none have 
been reported there for at least several months. 

An accurate count of the current population of the 
parakeets in Chicago's Hyde Park is clearly not possible, 
and even an approximation would prove difficult since 
the birds are in constant aaivity, do not maintain a sing- 
le, cohesive flock, and are not approachable; there may 
also be additional nests in the area that have escaped 
notice. (There are unconfirmed reports of a nest in Lin- 
coln Park, on the city's north side; another nest, later 
destroyed, was confirmed on the far north side. There 
were also unconfirmed reports of flocks in Chicago's 
southwestern suburbs as well as in Kenosha, Wisconsin, 
about 60 miles to the north.) Flocks of as many as 17 
individuals were observed at private feeders in Hyde 
Park during the winter of 1984-85 — even following 
January's record-breaking low temperatures ( -27° F). 
At least two smaller nests in Hyde Park, no larger than 
squirrel nests, in addition to the large communal nest 
near 53rd Street are known. Birds were active at one of 
these — 100 yards north of the larger nest — in the late 
autumn of 1 984. The other smaller nest, near the Jack- 
son Park lagoon, is believed to be no longer aaive. 

How have the birds managed to survive these five 
years in Chicago — through the coldest period in the ci- 
ty's history? The answer to this may be found in the 
largess of various Hyde Park residents who regard the 
monk parakeets as a cheerful, welcome addition to the 
neighborhood. 

Among these Hyde Parkers are Robert and Rita 
Picken and David and Sylvia Smith, next-door neigh- 
bors who live about a mile from the communal nest, 
and who play host to the parakeets twice a day with the 




Skins of the thick-billed parrot, Rhyncopsitta pachyrhyncha, in the Field Museum collection (top specimen about 15 inches long). These were 
collected in Mexico in 1918. Now rare, and apparently confined to the pine forests of the Sierra Madre, the bird formerly ranged across the Rio 
Grande into Arizona and New Mexico, where the last confirmed sighting occurred in 1936. Other than the Carolina parakeet (now extinct), it is the 
only member of the parrot family known to have occurred in the United States naturally. 



The parrot family (Psittacidae) is well represented in warm- 
er parts of the United States by a number of species in addi- 
tion to the monk parakeet, though most of these are rare 
here and occur only locally if not intermittently. Notable 
among these are the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), 
from Australia, found in Florida and southern California; 
green parakeet (Aratinga holochlora), from Mexico, found in 
Texas and Florida; Hispaniolan parakeet (Aratinga chlorop- 
tera), from the West Indies, found near Miami; orange- 
fronted parakeet (Aratinga canicularis), from Mexico, found 
in New Mexico and from Florida to New York; black- 
hooded conure (Nandayas nenday), from South America, 
found in southern California; canary-winged parakeet 
(Brotogeris versicolurus) , from South America, found in Flor- 
ida, southern California, and northeastern states; orange- 
chinned parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis), from South and 
Middle America, found in Florida; yellow-headed parrot 
(Amazona ochocephala), from Mexico, found from Florida to 



California; red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), 
from Mexico, found in southern California, Texas, and Flor- 
ida; rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri), from Asia, 
found in Florida, southern California, and northeastern 
states; and blossom-headed parakeet (Psittacula roseata), 
from Asia, found in northeastern states. The best estab- 
lished of the above are the budgerigar, which is also the 
most widely domesticated member of the parrot family; the 
orange-fronted and the rose-ringed parakeets. 

The thick-billed parrot (Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha), 
now found only in Mexico, is the only member of the 
group, other than the extinct Carolina parakeet, to natu- 
rally occur in the United States in historic times. This large, 
robust bird, measuring up to 1 6 '/a inches in length, was last 
reliably reported in the United States (Arizona) in 1936. A 
vicious biter, it seldom, if ever, was kept as a pet. The parrot 
would occasionally flock in from its main nesting area, the 
pine forests of Mexico's Sierra Madre, where it is now rare. 



15 




Part of the Hyae rdti\ pdraneei coionyin the back yard of Robert and 
Rita Picker). During the winter of 1984-85, the feeding flock some- 
times numbered as many as 17 — even after the January cold wave, 
the severest in the city's history. 



amply provisioned feeders in their back yards. Every 
morning and afternoon the birds arrive on schedule to 
feed on the sunflower seeds and mixed bird seed that 
have been set out for them. Now in their fourth season of 
providing for the birds, the Smiths and Pickens begin 
filling their feeders with the arrival of cold weather. 
Within a couple of days the parakeets have somehow 
come to know that the feeders have been reactivated. 

Although monk parakeets are commonly reported 
to be aggressive at feeding stations ("intimidating 
all other birds from approaching the food," according to 
one Eastern observer), Rita Picken remarks on the socia- 
bility of the parakeets that flock to their stations, feeding 
companiably there and on the ground with sparrows, 
blackbirds, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, pigeons, 
and other avian visitors. The birds are easily disturbed, 
however, and even the most cautious human movement 
will startie them into the branches of nearby trees or 
send them whirling off, out of the neighborhood. 

The parakeets' behavior, says Rita Picken, also pro- 
vides clues to impending weather conditions. Before the 
coming of a storm, she reports, the birds arrive at the 
feeders earlier than usual and consume more seed. 
When balmy weather is in store, their visits are more 
casual and occur later in the day. 

Until the 1 984 season it was not known for certain 
16 if the Hyde Park colony was a breeding community. But 




A monk parakeet shares a Hyde Park bird feeder with three house 
sparrows. This sociability of the Chicago parakeets disputes claims 
by Eastern observers that they "intimidate all other birds from 
approaching the food. " 



on Memorial Day last year a strong gale dislodged about 
a third of the communal nest; shattered eggs with four 
parakeet embryos were subsequently discovered on the 
ground among the nest debris by ornithologist Doug 
Anderson, vice president of the Chicago Chapter of the 
National Audubon Society and a close observer of the 
colony since its first appearance. 

How do the environmentalists look upon this new 
immigrant species? In the early 1 970s there was more 
than a littie apprehension about the possibility that the 
monk parakeet would wreak disaster for farmers of var- 
ious fruit and grain crops, that it might dislodge native 
species from their respective ecological niches (as the 
immigrant starling and house sparrow have done),* or 
that it might bring in diseases such as chlamydiosis (for- 
merly called parrot fever or psittacosis) or Newcasde's 



*In addition to the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and starling 
(Stumus vulgaris), other introductions of foreign birds to con- 
tinental U. S. that have been more or less successful include the black 
francolin (Francolinus francolinus), blue-gray tanager (Thraupis 
virens), cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), chukar (Aleaoris chukar), 
crested mynah (Acridotheres cristatellus), Eurasian skylark 
(Alauda arvensis), Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus), 
European goldfinch (Carduelis caiduelis) , gray partridge (Perdix 
perdix), hill mynah (Gracula religiosa), melodious grassquit 
(Tiaris canora), muscovy duck (Cairina moschata), mute swan 
(Cygnus olor), red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), riw^- 
necked pheasant (?\ias\3jaxsco\c):ac\is), ringed turtle dove (Stiti>- 
topelia risoria), rock dove or common pigeon (Columba livia), 
spot-breasted oriole (Icterus pectoralis), and spotted dove (Strep- 
topelia chinensis) . Many of the above are extremely local in range. 
Among the most "successful" introductions of foreign species 
have occurred in the state of Hawaii, where their success has often 
been achieved at the expense of native species. Eight of the 23 mem- 
bers of the Hawaiian honeycreeper family (Drepanididae) are now 
believed extinct, a phenomenon largely attributed to competition 
from introduced species. For discussion of introduced parrots in the 
continental U.S. see box, p. 15. 



disease. Oscar Owre, a University of Miami ornitholo- 
gist, came out strongly in 1973 about the "time bomb" 
posed by the presence of the monk and 1 1 other intro- 
duced parrot species; he remains apprehensive today. 
Owre is not alone in his convictions; other ornithologists 
and environmentalists fear that the monk may yet gain a 
foothold in this country and ravage crops as it has done 
in its native regions. 

The American Museum's John Bull, cited above, 
seemed less concerned than Professor Owre that year, 
having "heard of no protests about depredations from 
landowners, gardeners, or fruit growers." He feared, 
however, that the story would be different in the South 
and Southwest, "where these birds would be sure to 
thrive." Since Bull made his observation twelve years 
ago, the monk parakeet has yet to demonstrate that it is 
capable of "thriving" anywhere in North America, 
including the South and Southwest. Doug Anderson is 
among those who believe that the bird is filling an eco- 
logical niche — at least in the Chicago area. He also 
observes that the bird's behavior in other parts of the 
country, where it was formerly regarded with some con- 
cern, has "moderated" and has demonstrated that it 
poses no threat to the environment. William J. Beecher, 
director emeritus of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 
and a noted ornithologist, says that "now, nobody cares 
about the birds; nobody is very worried about them." 
Roger Tory Peterson, perhaps the nation's best known 
ornithologist and a student of the monk parakeet in its 
native, Argentine habitat, observes that the monk para- 
keet "probably will not become established here." 

What, then, are the chances for the Hyde Park col- 
ony? Will the birds build more nests in the community, 
breed successfully, and perhaps proliferate to other re- 
gions? The poor survival record for colonies elsewhere 
does not bode well for the future of the Hyde Park com- 
munity. Nor does the fact that the conspicuous nests pro- 
vide inviting targets for vandals or that the birds are a 
marketable commodity. 

In view of these salient disadvantages, the parakeets 
could not have been more discriminating in their choice 
of a nesting site: Their massive nest is in a tree directly 
across the street from the residence of Chicago's Mayor 
Harold Washington, who is said to regard the colony 
with particular affection; and police cars, by happy cir- 
cumstance, are parked around-the-clock within a few 
feet of the nest. Before Mayor Washington's incumben- 
cy, the nest was sometimes raided, but enough birds 
have evaded hunters' nets to keep the colony going. 
Should Mr. Washington change either his residence or 
his means of livelihood, the colony's future might again 
be in jeopardy. FM 




A possible key to the continued sun/ival of the Chicago parsKeers is 
the police car, always within a few yards of their main nest A clear 
deterrent to would-be vandals, the patrol car is parked there for the 
protection of Chicago tVlayor Harold Washington, who lives close by. 
A second, smaller nest, 100 yards north, may be seen slightly left of 
the picture 's center 



17 



AFRICAN ART con't from p. 10 




7. Dance shields (ndome). Kikuyu, Kenya. Wood, pigment, 68cm, 
66cm. Collected by Carl E. Akeley for the British East Africa Expedi- 
tion. Cat. 104445, 104444. Photo by Diane Alexander-White and Ron 
Testa. N109424. 



Ovimbundu, Chokwe, Songo, and other Angolan peo- 
ples are represented by scores of artifacts, most of them 
documented with field notes and photographs. A cere- 
monial staff, sporting a standing female figure and her- 
ringbone-patterned finial (fig. 14), was collected in the 
largely Ngangela town of Cuchi, as indicated in the fi- 
gure's characteristic hairstyle and body cicatrization 
(Delachaux 1936: 16-17, pi. 1). 

Following the 1929 stock-market crash, museum- 
sponsored expeditions and large-scale purchasing 
stopped. Instead, staff activity focused more on col- 
18 lection research and on WPA-supported renovation of 



exhibits. Other means of acquiring specimens, such as 
museum exchanges, took precedence in the 1930s, 
especially in regard to the African collection. In 1933, 
the Musee d'Ethnographie in Paris exchanged four 
Western Sudanic specimens for several Mexican pieces 
owned by the Field. These Sudanic objects came from 
the well-known Dakar-Djibouti Mission organized by 
Marcel Griaule in 1931. In the mid-1930s, an exchange 
also occurred between the Field Museum and the 
Musees Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire in Brussels. Seven- 
teen objeas from the Belgian Congo enlarged the Afri- 
can collection; of special note is a raffia-edged mask (fig. 
17) from the Pende people along the Kwilu River. Shar- 



8. IVIask (mfon ekpo). Ibibio, Nigeria. Wood, pigment, woven and 
raw fiber, width 51cm. Gift of Calvin S. Smith. Cat. 25038. Photo by 
Ron Testa. N109452. 




19 




20 




9. Canoe model with prow ornament. Duala, Cameroon. Wood, 
paint, length 200cm. Museum purchase. Cat. 175469. Photo by John 
Bayalis. N100850. 



ing many characteristics of the arts to the east and west, 
these small masks with heart-shaped faces belong to a 
corpus of initiatory, chieftaincy-related and theatrical 
masquerades (Lema Gwete 1982: 53). 

Although funds for purchasing were scarce in the 
years following the Depression, occasional gifts and ex- 
changes continued to account for new acquisitions. A 
shift in priorities — from collecting new specimens to 
gathering information about the museum's concurrent 
holdings — placed a greater emphasis on the Field 
Museum as a research institution. After World War II, 
visiting research associates like Mexican artist/anthro- 
pologist Miguel Covarrubias began to bridge the philo- 
sophical gap between anthropological research and art 
historical studies within the context of the natural his- 
tory museum.' With the incorporation of the curator- 
ship of primitive arts in 1957, the museum was taking 
concrete steps toward a new way of seeing non- 
European art and culture. An example of the ideological 
shift was the 1961 exhibition "Primitive Artists look at 
Civilization." This exhibition, organized by Phillip H. 
Lewis, curator of primitive art and Melanesian ethnol- 
ogy, presented a cross- section of African, Oceanic, and 



10. Ancestor figure. Hemba (?), Zaire. Wood, pigment, 49cm. Gift of 
the Arts Club of Chicago. Cat. 143954. Photo by Diane Alexander- 
White. N10923. 





11. Helmet crest. Babanki, Cameroon. Wood, pigment, 77cm. 
Museum purchase. Cat. 175595. Photo by Diane Alexander-White. 
N109453. 



12. Figure of a snake. Eton, Cameroon. Wood, pigment, length 
212cm. Museum purchase. Cat 175746. Photo by Diane Alexander- 
White and Ron Testa. N109420. 



21 




13. Plaque. Benin, Nigeria. Cast brass. 39.7cm. Gift of Mrs. A.W.F. 
Fuller Cat 210354. N99509. 

14. Ceremonial staff (detail). Ngangela, Angola, Wood, figure 
17.5cm, entire staff 129cm. Collected by Wilfred D. Hambly for ttie 
Frederick H. Rawson-Field Museum Ettinological Expedition to West 
Africa. Cat 206746. Phioto by Diane Alexander-White and Ron Testa. 
N109449. 



22 




American art objects that either portrayed or were con- 
ceptually conscious of "the exotic white man."' 

One of the museum's most important acquisitions 
during these years was the collection of a noted English 
collector of Oceanic, African, and North American arti- 
facts. Captain A. W. F. Fuller. Discussions between the 
Field and Captain Fuller resulted in his arranging for the 
museum to purchase his important Oceanic collection, 
numbering over 6,000 specimens. Following this 1958 
transaction. Captain Fuller and his wife most generously 
gave the Field Museum more than 230 major African 
pieces. Of the specimens in this 1963 Fuller gift, 190 are 
from the court of Benin, collected by Fuller through art 
auctions, dealers, and other private collectors. A kola- 
nut box (fig. 15), carved in the form of leopard's head, 
was once a part of the tum-of-the-century Benin hold- 
ings of dealer W. D. Webster.'" The subtractive rendering 
of anatomical features and the clever utilization of wood 
grain reveal the hand of an accomplished artist, as well 
as the inspiring powers of this feline totem. Animal 
imagery in Benin art is also present in several brass 
plaques from the Fuller collection. In one plaque (fig. 
13), a European is flanked on each side by a pair of 
mudfish, a Benin symbol for the supernatural powers of 
their ruler, the oba. 

Apart from the Benin objects, about forty pieces in 
this gift are from other African cultures. One of the finest 
objects in this group is an ivory bell/tapper (fig. 18) from 
the Yoruba people. This divination component incorpo- 
rates the classic elements of its genre: a kneeling woman 
holding a round fan in front of her genitals and support- 
ing a bittemlike bird on top of her head. Despite some 
expected ritual wear on this iro ifa, the lower bell still has 
its tiny ivory clapper, thus making it a prime implement 
for the divination ceremony." 




15. Kola-nut box. Benin, Nigeria. Wood, length 17.8cm. Gift of Mrs. 
A.W.F Fuller Cat. 210259. Photo by Diane Alexander-White. 
N109465. 



Another stunning piece from the Fuller gift is a Luba 
ceremonial spear (fig. 19). As with many Luba objects, 
this one includes a female figure, resplendent in beads, a 
red body wrap, intricate scarifications, and an elaborate 
coiffure. The female presence on status objects like this 
one alludes to the essential role of women in chieftaincy- 
related activities among the Luba.'^ 

Under the guidance of Leon Siroto, curator of Afri- 
can ethnology from 1965 until 1970, the African collec- 
tion began to expand its holdings to include objects from 
previously under- represented African peoples. Siroto's 
stature in African studies and his contaas with scholars 
in the field prompted African-based American students 
and senior researchers to collect with the Field Museum 
in mind. One of the fruits of this kind of arrangement is 
an Akan comb (fig. 20) collected by Roy Sieber in south- 
eastern Ghana. The framing of the akuaba head with 
engraved animals, a sacred heart, celestial bodies, and 
abstraa designs most certainly has a proverbial purpose. 
That combs like this one are intentionally cryptic and 
open to interpretation speaks to their encoded, love- 
letter- like use by Akan men and women." 

One of the more recent surges of collecting African 
objects for the museum revolved around the 1974 
exhibition "Contemporary African Arts." Maude Wahl- 
man, a consultant in African ethonology from 1971 un- 
til 1974, curated this exhibition and was instrumental in 
acquiring wood, stone, and calabash carvings; leather-. 




16. Head crest. Calabar area/Efik (?), Nigeria. Wood, s/c/n, basl<etry, 
69cm. Museum purchase. Cat. 175615. Photo by Diane Alexander- 
White and Ron Testa. N109446. 

17. Mask. Pende, Zaire. Wood, pigment, fiber, carved mask 16cm. 
Exchange with the Musses Royaux d'Art et d'Histoire, Brussels. Cat. 
175976. Photo by Diane Alexander-White. N109442. 




23 





18. Divination bell/tapper (iro ita). Yoruba, Nigeria. Ivory, 43.2cm. 
24 Gift of Mrs. A.W.F. Fuller Cat. 210424. Ptioto by Ron Testa. N109448. 



19. Ceremonial spear Luba, Zaire. Wood, metal, beads, clotti, cow- 
ries. Figure 29.2cm, entire spear 162cm. Gift offers. A.W.F Fuller Cat. 
210462. Ptioto by Ron Testa. N109443. 





metal-, and beadwork; textiles; pottery; as well as mod- 
em graphics and paintings. These examples of modem 
Africa indicated that the Field Museum is willing to ex- 
amine not only aspects of traditional African life, but 
those of its recent periods of independence, indus- 
trialization, nationalism, and Pan- Africanism. 

In recent years, the Field has again turned to the 
task of reexamining the nature of its commitment to the 
African collection. Because museum audiences have 
changed dramatically in the last twenty years, along 
with our perceptions and understanding of Africa, the 
need for a more effective presentation and utilization of 
African art and artifacts is a constant concern. Collection 
reassessment, measuring the degree of learning that 
actually takes place in permanent and temporary ex- 
hibits, and closer investigations into archival data are 
just a few of the many objectives that are on the 
museum's African agenda. It is hoped that collection 
surveys such as this article will introduce to unfamil- 
iar readers this important repository of African Art, as 
well as extend an open invitation to experience the 
Field Museum of Natural History's African collection 
firsthand. FH 



20. Comb (duafe) Akan, Ghana. Wood, beads, 32.3cm. Museum 
purchase. Cat. 221468. Photo by Ron Testa. N 109285, 109285A 



Notes 

This article, along with my tenure at the Field Museum of Natural 
History, were made possible, in part, by a grant from the Illinois 
Humanities Council. I am grateful to the entire staff at the Field 
Museum, especially the departments of Anthropology and Education, 
for allowing me to explore their vast and wonderful learning institu- 
tion. Special thanks go out to the following scholars who lent their 
collective expertise in surveying the African collection: Arthur 
Bourgeois, Kweku Embil, Marilyn Houlberg, Phillip H. Lewis, Roy 
Sieber, Leon Siroto, and Robert Farris Thompson. 

1. Accession File 81, Department of Anthropology, Field Museum 
of Natural History, contains correspondence between the Field Col- 
umbian Museum and Carl Hagenbeck's Zoological Arena and 
World's Museum. 

2. Accession File 941, Department of Anthropology, Field Museum of 
Natural History, includes a letter from Paul Gebauer, recounting events 
in and around Togo, circa 1903, as documented by Governor von Putt- 
kamerin Govemeur Jahre in Kamerun (Berlin, 1921). 

3. An early twentieth-century travel account describes a textile from 
Bafilo, Togo, that seems identical to the Field Museum's cloth: "Some 
of the native cloth work ... is exceedingly beautiful. I bought a number 
of specimens of it, among the best being a handsome toga-like garment 
of hand-woven blue stuff, elaborately embroidered, and which I am 
now wearing as an opera cloak in London, where it has been greatly 
admired. It is woven in narrow strips about two inches wide, and these 
are then sewn together by stitches so small, even, and regular, that they 
are practically invisible" (Gehrts 1915; 107). 



25 



4. The Museum Umlauff was apparently the source for German 
coUeaor Carl Hagenbeck as well, as stated In a letter from George A. 
Dorsey to Museum Direaor F.J.V. Skiff, dated July 22, 1905. Accession 
File 967, Department of Anthropology, Field Museum of Natural 
History. 

5. According to data received from Jan Klegkamp, this ceremonial 
helmet crest is from Bamendjo, a Bamileke town near the center of the 
Cameroon Grassfields. 

A similar mask form, reproduced in Geneva exhibition catalogue 
(Cameroun 1980: 56-57,fig. 41), also hails from "Bamendou." Accord- 
ing to Claude Savary, these large-cheeked masks, or tu-kah. are hand 
held and paraded every five years. But the style of the Field Museum 
mask crest, unlike the example reproduced in the Geneva catalogue, is 
unmistakable Babanki, as seen in its sensitively rendered eyes, nose, 
and mouth and in its overall finish. This crest, which was probably 
collected for the Museum Umlauff no later than 1 9 14, is an example of 
the cultural exchange that has occurred among different Cameroon 
Grassfields peoples. 

6. During a recent visit to the museum, Leon Siroto conununicated his 
discovery of several other njom sculptural components in various 
European and American museums, including another carved figure 
in the Field Museum's collection. Mr. Siroto has been enormously kind 
In sharing with me his knowledge of Western Equatorial African art 
and religion. 

7. For a related southeastern Zaire sculpture, see Lorene Heath Pot- 
ter's article on the African colleaion of the Buffalo Society of Natural 
Sciences (1973: 37, fig. 9). 

8. From a conversation with Donald Collier, Field Museum of Natural 
History Curator Emeritus of Middle and South American Archaeology 
and Ethnology, Chicago, Illinois, June 1984. Collier worked closely 
with Covarrubias. 

9. The first of many colonial-themed, non-Western exhibitions, 
"Primitive Artists . . ." attracted the attention of not only museum visi- 
tors but the national press, as evidenced in a 1961 Time magazine re- 
view ("The Colonial School," July 7: 50, 53). I thank Phillip H. Lewis, 
Curator of Primitive Art and Melanesian Ethnology, Field Museum 
of Natural History, for describing the circumstances surrounding 
this exhibition. 

10. Fuller's acquisition records state that he purchased this Benin box 
in 1917 and that it had formerly been part of the estate of Dr. J. G. 
Whittendale, late of Lime House, Bishop's Waltham. Benin label file 
(Captain A.W.F. Fuller), Department of Anthropology, Field Museum 
of Natural History. 

1 1 . Comparing the Field Museum iro ifa with other published exam- 
ples may shed additional light on their age, symbolism, and place of 
origin in Yorubaland. Two early twentieth-century references, a 
broken bell/tapper (Frobenius 1923: pi. 175) and a "Sonnette" from 
"Benin" (Chauvet 1929: fig. 56) suggest at least a late-nineteenth- 
century date and an eastern Yoruba (Owo?) provenance for many of 
these divination implements. 

12. In a forthcoming work by African art historian Arthur Bourgeois, 
these and other Luba objerts will be closely examined from the per- 
spective of prestige and leadership insignia. 

13. From a conversation with Roy Sieber, Chicago, Illinois, July 21, 
1984. A fascinating discussion with Ghanaian artist Kweku Embil, 
Chicago, April 1, 1984, elicited the following Akan axiom in regard to 
the chicken, sun, and moon imagery on the comb: "The hen knows 
daylight, but she leaves the crowing to the rooster." 

Bibliography 

Antiri, J.A. 1974. "Akan Combs," African Arts 8,1: 32-35. 

Bassani, E. 1977 "Kongo Nail Fetishes from the Chiloango River 

Area," African Arts 10, 3: 36-40, 88. 
Bastin, M.L. 1982. La sculpture Tshokwe. Meudon: Alain et Frangoise 

Chaffin. 
Cameroun: Arts et cultures ties peuptes de I'ouest. 1980. Geneva: Mus^e 

d'Ethnographie. 
Chauvet, S. 1929. Musique nigre. Paris: Soci^t^ d'Editions Gtegraphi- 

ques, Maritimes et Coloniales. 
Collier, D. 1969. "Chicago Comes of Age: The World's Columbian 

Exposition and the Birth of Field Museimi," Field Museum of Natural 

History Bulletin Vi, 5: 3-7." 
26 "The Colonial School," Time, July 7, 1961: 50,53. 



Comet, J. 1978. A Survey ofZairian Art: The Branson Collection. Raleigh: 

North Carolina Museum of Art. 
Dark, RJ.C. 1962. The Art of Benin. Chicago: Chicago Natiural History 

Museum. 
Dark, P.J.C. 1975. "Benin Bronze Heads: Styles and Chronology" in 

African Images: Essays in African Iconography, eds. D. McCall and E. 

Bay, pp. 25-103. New York: Afncana Publishing Co. 
Delachaux, T. 1936. "Ethnographie de la Region du Cun^ne" Bulletin 

de la SociM Neuchateloise de Giographie II 44: 5-108, pis. 1-88. 
Easmon, M.C.F. 1924. Sierra Leone Country Cloths. London: Dimstable 

& Watford. 
Fagg, W., J. Pemberton, and B. Holcombe. 1982. Yoruba Sculpture of 

West Africa. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 
Field Museum of Natural History. Unpublished notes and museum 

records. 
Frobenius, L. 1923. Das Unbekannte Afrika. Munich: C.H. Becksche 

Verlagsbuchhandlung Oskar Beck. 
Froelich, J. 1963. Les populations du Nord-lbgo. Paris: Presses Universi- 

tafres de France. 
Gebauer, P. 1979. Art of Cameroon. Portland: Portland Art Museimi in 

Association with the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Gehrts,M. 1915. A Camera Actress in the Wilds of Tbgoland. Philadelphia: 

J.B. Lippincott Co. 
Hambly, W. 1934. 'The Ovimbundu of Angola," Field Museum of Natu- 
ral History Anthropological Series! Publication 329 21,2: 86-362, pis. 

9-92. 
Heathcote, D. 1973. "Hausa Women's Dress in Light ofTVvo Recent 

Finds," Savanna 2,2: 201-17 
Heathcote, D. 1974. "Aspeas of Style in Hausa Embroidery," Savanna 

3,1: 15-40. 
Imperato, P.J. 1972. "Door Locks of the Bamana of Mali," African Arts 

5,2:52-56,84. 
Jacobson-Widding, A. 1979. Red-White-Black as a Mode of Thought. 

Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in Cultural Anthropology. 
Laman, K. 1957. The Kongo 2. Uppsala: Studia Ethnographica Up- 

saliensia Vin. 
Leakey, L.S.B. 1977. The Southern Kikuyu before 1903 1. London: 

Academic Press. 
Lema Gwete. 1982. "Art populafre du Bandundu," in Sura Dji Visage et 

Racines du Zaire, pp. 51-77. Paris: Mus^e des Arts D^oratifs. 
Linton, R. 1928. "Cultural Areas of Madagascai;" American Anthropo- 
logist 20.y. 363-90. 
Messenger, J. 1973. "The Carver in Anang Society" in The Traditional 

Artist in African Societies, ed. W d'Azevedo, pp. 101-27. Bloomington: 

Indiana University Press. 
Neyt, F. 1977. La grande statuaire Hemba du Zaire. Louvain-la-Nueve: 

Publications d'Histoire de I'Art et d'Archtologie de I'Universit^ 

Catholique de Louvain 12. 
Nicklin, K. 1974. "Nigerian Skin-Covered Masks," African Arts 7,3: 

8-15,67-68,92. 
Northern, T. 1984. The Art of Cameroon. Washington, D.C.: Smith- 
sonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service. 
Perrois, L. 1979. Arts du Gabon: Les arts plastiques du Bassin de I'Ogooui. 

Amouville: Arts d'Afrique Nofre. 
Pottet L.H. 1973. 'The African Collection of the Buffalo Society of 

Natural Sciences," African Arts 6,2: 34-41. 
Rebora, C. 1983. "fron" in The Art of Power/The Power of Art: Studies in 

Benin Iconography, eds. P. Ben-Amos and A. Rubin, pp. 27-32. Los 

Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, UCLA, Monograph Series 19. 
Routledge, W.S. 1910. With a Prehistoric People: The Akikuyu of British 

East Africa. London: Edward Arnold. 
Sfroto, L. 1977. "Njom: The Magical Bridge of the Beti and Bulu of 

Southern Cameroon," African Arts 10,2: 38-51, 90. 
Sousberghe, L. de. I960. L'art Pende. Brussels: Acad^mie Royale de 

Belgique. 
Thompson, R.F. 1975. "Icons of the Mind: Yoruba Herbalism Arts in 

Atlantic Perspective," African Arts 8,3: 52-59, 89-80. 
Thompson, R.F 1978. The Great Detroit N'Kondi," Bulletin of the De- 
troit Institute of Arts 56,4: 206-21. 
Uibain-Faubl^, M. 1963. L'art Malgache. Paris: Presses Universitaires 

de France. 
Wahlman, M. 1974. Contemporary African Arts. Chicago: Field 

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Wittmei; M. and W Amett. 1978. Three Rivers of Nigeria. Atlanta: The 

High Museum of Art. 



Tours For Members 



Ecuador and 
The Galapagos Islands 

May 27 -June 11 

The Galapagos Islands affect our imagination 
like no other place on earth. To set foot on 
these remote islands is to return to a primeval 
land isolated and protected for millions of 
years. A distance of 600 miles off the coast of 
Ecuador are these lost specks of volcanic land 
on which nature evolved a separate microcosm 
of animals and plants. 

Our tour will begin with a visit in the host 
country of Ecuador, which offers an opportu- 
nity to enjoy the charm of Old World ambi- 
ence, along with the color and distinction of 
the centuries-old Indian market villages of 
Lactacunga and Ambato. 

To enhance your learning experience on 
this tour, Dr. Glen E. Woolfenden, research 
associate at Field Museum, and professor of 
zoology at University of South Florida, will be 
our leader and will accompany the group from 
Miami and return. 

This is our exciting itinerary; 

May 27: Fly from Chicago O'Hare airport to 
Quito via Miami. 

May 28: Tour the city of Quito, visit the 
fabulous Archeological Museum, view the 
church of San Augustin and Museum of 
Colonial Art. 

May 29: Visit the art galleries of the painters 
Guayasamin and Viteri; tour the Olga Fish 
Folklore Gallery. In the afternoon visit the 
Equatorial Monument. Also, visit the Indi- 
an villages of Pomasqui and San Antonio 
and the crater of Puluiahua. 

May 30: Full-day excursion over the Andes' 
western ridge, down into the coastal jung- 
les with their banana, cocoa, and coffee 
plantations and see the village of the Col- 
orado Indians, colorful in dress and 
custom. 

May 31: Full day of birding in the area of 
Papallacta. Ecuador is home to more than 
1,400 species of birds. 

June 1: Morning departure by bus to the 
Latacunga-Ambato Valley stopping at 
Latacunga Indian market and the Cotopaxi 
volcano, where we will visit a small 
museum at the base of the volcano, and on 
to Ambato with its huge market. 

June 2: Leave the frosty Andean heights, 
travel across a fertile plain and past high- 
land villages, via Riobamba and Devil's 
Nose pass to Guayaquil, Ecuador's chief 
port, where we'll stay overnight. 

June 3: A morning flight to Baltra, where we 
will board the MV Santa Cruz. Comfort is 
indeed the keynote for our life aboard ship 
in both clothes and atmosphere, with 
casual attire recommended. Tonight and 
each evening during the cruise we have a 
slide presentation and a lecture outlining 
the next day's highlights. 
6 June 4: The first island we see is Bartolome, 



site of Pinnacle Rock, the most widely rec- 
ognized landmark in the Galapagos. Later 
we cruise in Darwin Bay. Tower island is 
considered one of the most complete bird 
islands, with virtually millions of sea and 
land birds resident to its shores. 

June 5: Cruising Isabela and Femandina Is- 
lands, entering Tagus Cover in the mor- 
ning. 

June 6: Cruising Baltra and North Seymour 
Islands. After a brief stopover at Baltra, we 
cruise to North Seymour and will be trans- 
ported to the rocky shore via small craft. 
Our first encounter, as we walk on the is- 
land, is with dense colonies of blue-footed 
boobies. 

June 7: Cruising Hood and Floreana Islands. 
We follow the marked trails on Hood Is- 
land to search for its own species of mock- 
ingbird and its most spectacular part-time 
resident, the waved albatross. Along the 
way, we catch glimpses of masked boobies 
and several species of finch. We land at 
Punta Cormorant on Floreana Island and on 
an inland lagoon we'll see where multi- 
tudes of flamingos nest. Floreana's vegeta- 
tion is particularly interesting. 

June 8: Cruising Santa Cruz and Plaza Is- 
lands. Upon arrival at the village of Puerto 
Ayora on Santa Cruz we walk directly to 
the Darwin Research Station for a briefing. 
This afternoon, we call at tiny Plaza 
Island, where sea lions swim out to 
welcome us. 
June 9: We land early in the morning on a 
beach of black lava sand on James Island, 
then hike to a tranquil crater lake where fla- 
mingos feed. Next we can swim with (or 
just observe) the fur seals in one of the 
pools cut into the cliffs by surf erosion. 
After lunch we cruise past unusual cinder 
cones and lava formations along the coast 
en route to Buccaneer Cove, the former 
refuge of pirate ships. 
June 10: This morning we cruise to Baltra, 
disembarking in time to board our flight to 
Guayaquil. En route to the Oro Verde 
Hotel we will tour Guayaquil, seeing the 
Avenida Olmedo, city watchtower, govern- 
ment buildings, and the municipal 
museum. In the evening we'll enjoy a gala 
farewell dinner. 
June II: Return to Chicago via Miami. Early 
evening arrival at O'Hare. 
Price per person (double occupancy): 
$3,545 for main deck cabins. Upgrade to up- 
per deck: $150; upgrade to boat deck: $310. 
An extension to Peru is optional. The tour 
price includes land and cruise costs and round- 
trip economy air fare. The tour is limited to 25 
people, and early reservations are recom- 
mended. A $500 deposit per person should be 
sent to Field Museum Tours. 



Alaska and 
The Pribilof Islands 

June 5-19 

June 5: Fly from Chicago's O'Hare to Sitka. 

Welcome dinner. 
June 6: City tour of Sitka. Marine wildlife 

motor raft trip with dinner on board cruise 

vessel. 
June 7: Late morning flight to Juneau. Men- 

denhall River raft trip with lunch on board. 

Evening outdoor salmon bake. 
June 8: Morning flight to Glacier Bay. Gla- 
cier Bay cruise aboard the MV Glacier Bay 

Explorer. Overnight on board ship. 
June 9: After completing Galcier Bay cruise, 

afternoon flight to Fairbanks via Juneau. 
June 10: Ride the Alaska Railroad to Denali 

National Park. Afternoon at leisure; 

salmon bake dinner and overnight at 

McKinley Chalets. 
June 11: Full day tour to Kantisna. Return to 

McKinley Chalets for dinner and over- 
night. 
June 12: Morning at leisure. Afternoon 

motorcoach trip to Anchorage. 
June 13: Morning at leisure. Afternoon tour 

to Potter's Marsh Bird Refuge. 
June 14: Morning at leisure. Afternoon Float 

Trip on Eagle River with dinner on board. 
June 15: Flight to St. George Island. 
June 16-17: Two full days exploring St. 

George Island. 
June 18: Return flight to Anchorage. Farewell 

dinner 
June 19: After breakfast transfer to airport for 

return flight to Chicago. 
Our leader will be Dr. John W. Fitzpat- 
rick, associate curator and head of the Divi- 
sion of Birds at the Field Museum, where he 
also serves as curator-in-charge of Scientific 
Services and chairman of the Science Advi- 
sory Council. He is an experienced tour lectur- 
er, most recently leading Field Museum tours 
to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands, and to 
the Lesser Antilles. 

Tour price: $4,625.00, based on double 
occupancy (includes round trip coach class air 
fare). We hope you can join us for this excep- 
tional tour A deposit of $500.00 per person 
will confirm your reservation. 

ADDITIONAL TOURS FOR 1985 

Grand Canyon Rafting Trip 

May 24 -June 2 

China and Tibet 

August 10-September 1 

Kenya 

September 6-23 

For further information or to be placed on our mail- 27 
ing list, call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours Manag- 
er, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr , 
Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 322-8862. 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, II 60605-2499 



0017195-00 
Mi«s Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenvieui 
Chicago! IL 60626 




The Art of Cameroon 

AAarch 9-June 16 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



June 1985 




''Garden in the City'' 

Horticulturist Virginia Beatty 

Tells How to Grow a Better Garden 

June 1 & 2 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF 'n«usTEES 

James J. O'Connor 

chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Joseph N. Field 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

June 1985 

Volume 56, Number 6 



June Events at Field Museum 



Field Briefs 



Ornamented Coats of the Koryalc 

by James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



Volunteers Honored 



16 



The Comet Cometh 

by Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 



18 



Two Evenings with Founders' Council 



26 



Tours for Members 



27 



COVER 

A mid-l9th century French artist visualizes how the earth is ripped 
asunder by a comet, from Le Ciel et L'Universe, by Theophile L 'Abbe 
Moreaux, published 1857. Curator Edward Olsen tells us more about 
the idosyncracies of comets, notably Halley's Comet, on pages 18-25. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, II. 60605-2496. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually, $3.00 for schools. 
Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited man- 
uscripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. NotiHcation of address change 
should include address label and be sent to Membership Department. Postmaster: Please 
send form 3 579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, 
Chicago, II. 60605-2496. lSSN:0015-0703. 



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Events 



GARDEN IIV THE CITY 



'^Garden of Eden,'' film 

June 8, 2:00-2:30 pm 
Ecology Hall, Second Floor 

The Garden of Eden explains — on film for the first 
time — why protecting the great variety of the 
world's plant and animal life, the gene pools of our 
planet, is critical to our future. Combining a series of 
compelling interviews with a mixture of animation, 
archival news reel clips, and feature film footage. The 
Garden of Eden reveals the reasons for conservation 
today. 





Color My World, 
Demonstration 

Saturday, June 15, 1:00-3:00 pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor. 

Add color to your life on a dull day. Centuries before 
commercial dyes were invented, you could have col- 
ored your T-shirts with things from your own kitchen. 
Find out what kinds of household and backyard items 
you can use for fabric dyes. Watch white wool be- 
come the colors of the rainbow. Then try your hand 
at spinning it into yarn and weaving it into a piece 
of cloth. 

This program is free with museum admission and no 
tickets are required. 



Children's Program 

June 22, 2:00-3:00 pm 
Ecology Hall, Second Floor 

WHAT DO PLANTS DO? 

While emphasizing the importance of plants in our 

daily lives, this film explores the many uses of plants 

and the ways plants adapt to life in a particular 

habitat. 

WILD GREEN THINGS IN THE CITY 
A young girl learns about plants that live in an urban 
environment. After reading about these plants in 
library books, she searches for plants in neglected 
comers and vacant lots, and transplants them into 
containers at home. 

GROWING, GROWING 

An impressionistic film about children and their 
gardens. This photomontage features flowers, vege- 
tables, and children to the accompaniment of light- 
hearted verse and song. 



At the conclusion of the children's film program, 
join us at the entry room to the Ecology Hall and 
view our display of woodland and prairie wild flow- 
ers, and vacant lot plants. Examine a whole gamut of 
seeds — from tiny dandelions to coconuts, which 
demonstrate how plants spread their seeds. 



June 22, 2:45 pm 

A GARDEN OF HERBS— POTPOURRI 
Herbs are known for their medicinal, savory, and 
aromatic qualities. Become familiar with these 
plants, many of which you can grow at home, and 
construct your own potpourri sachet from a fragrant 
bouquet of dried flower buds and petals. 

All Garden In the City programs are free with 
Museum admission, and tickets are not required. 

CONTINUEOcJ 



J 



CXJNTINUED (roni p 3 



Events 



Family Feature 

Growing Together 

June i and 2, 1:00-3:00 pm 
Stanley Field Hall, Second Floor. 

Grow a philodendron in an old tennis shoe or an 
asparagus fern in a Chinese bronze pot. The first 
weekend in June is a great time to plant that garden, 
and you don't need an acre of land to do it. Plants can 



grow in almost any kind of container, and can be a 
city gardener's best friend. Chicago horticulturalist 
Virginia Beatty is on hand to demonstrate and give 
tips on all aspects of city gardening. Get some ideas 
on how to make the most out of the space you have. 
Start a plant of your own to take home and watch it 
grow. 

This program is free with museum admission and no 
tickets are required. 



June Weekend Programs 

Each Samrday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history and Field Museum. Free tours, demon- 
strations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a 
few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and pro- 
gram locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



June 



15 



1:30 pm. Tibet Today (sUde lecture). See Lhasa 16 

and other towns now open to the public. 

2:30 pm. Tour of Tibet (tour). Take a closer 

look at the objects in our Tibetan hall. 22 

1:00 pm. Traditional China (tour). Examine the 

imagery and craftsmanship represented by 

Chinese masterworks in our permanent 

collection. 23 

12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out big 

game from Africa and mummies from ancient 

Egypt as you travel through Field Museum 30 

exhibits. 

11:30 am. Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 
to myths and mummies. 



1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

1:00 pm. Red Land/Black Land (tour). Focus on 
the geography of the Nile Valley and its effect 
on the Egyptians who lived and ruled during 
4,000 years of change in religion and cultures. 

1:00 pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

12:30 pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out big 
game from Africa and mummies from ancient 
Egypt as you travel through Field Museum 
exhibits. 

These public programs are free with museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 







FIELD BRIEFS 



Recent Visitors 

Friday, March 8, marked the Members' Preview of the tem- 
porary exhibit "The Art of Cameroon," at Field Museum. 
Among the evening's special guests were Mr. Harold Wash- 
ington, mayor of the City of Chicago, shown at right. With 
Mr. Washington is Dr. Tamara Northern, curator of ethno- 
graphic art at Dartmouth College, who is also curator of the 
exhibit. Mr. Washington holds a copy of the exhibit catalog, 
written by Dr Northern. 

"The Art of Cameroon," organized and circulated by 
Smithsonian Institution "n-aveling Exhibit Service (SITES), 
was made possible by a grant from Mobil Corporation. It 
continues on view at Field Museum through June 16. 

Earlier this season. Field Museum was visited by Peter 
Jennings (lower photo, at right), anchor and senior editor 
of ABC World News Tonight, who was particularly inter- 
ested in the exhibit "Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and 
Northwest Coast." With him are (1. to r.) Field Museum 
President Willard L. Boyd, Carolyn P. Blackmon, chairman 
of the Museum's Department of Education, and Gretchen 
Babarovic, Mr. Jenning's assistant. 





FIELD BRIEFS 




Col. Clifford Gregg (left) and William H. Mitchell (right), at January 24. 1949. fortieth anniversary celebration in honor of Stanley Field, then president of 
Field Museum. Others in the photo are (I. to r) Marshall Field III, George A Richardson, and Lester Armour Gregg was then in his twelfth year as 
director, Mitchell in his twenty-first as a trustee. Field, Richardson, and Armour were also trustees. 



Clifford C. Gregg 
and William H. Mitchell 
Celebrate 90th Birthdays 

Col. Clifford C. Gregg, who served for near- 
ly 2 5 years as director of Field Museum, and 
William H. Mitchell, who served on the 
Board of Ttustees for 52 years, have the spe- 
cial privilege in 1985 of celebrating their 
ninetieth birthdays. Mr Mitchell was bom 
on January 31, 1895; Col. Gregg was bom 
on July 9 of the same year Both men are 
now Field Museum life trustees. 

The fourth director in the Museum's 
history. Col. Gregg joined the staff in Febru- 
ary 1926 as assistant director, serving in that 
post under the directorships of David C. 
Davies (until 1928) and Stephen C. Simms. 
Upon the death of Simms in January of 
1937, Gregg was made acting director; the 
following June the Board of TVustees elected 
Gregg director as well as secretary of the 
Museum, both posts having been held by 
Simms. 

It was a particularly difficult period for 
the Field Museum, as indeed it was for all 
nonprofit institutions at the depths of the 
Depression. Revenues from endowment 
fund investments were at all-time lows, as 



were amounts received from taxes levied 
for the benefit of museums. But Gregg 
served with uncommon distinction. Among 
his notable achievements was the establish- 
ment of the Museum employees' pension 
plan, which contributed immeasurably to 
the betterment of staff relations, morale, 
and performance. 

Having served as a lieutenant with the 
infantry during World War I, Gregg had 
continued his association with the Army 
Reserve Corps, and in July 1942, then with 
the rank of major he was recalled for active 
duty in World War II. He remained on leave 
of absence from the Museum directorship 
until May 1945, when he was discharged 
from active duty with the rank of colonel. 
He continued as director until January 
1962, when he retired at age 66. As he re- 
signed the directorship, the Board of TVust- 
ees elected Gregg president of Field 
Museum. He remained active on the Board 
of TVustees until 1969, when he was made a 
life trustee. 

The son of a founder and incorporator 
of Field Museum, John J. Mitchell, William 
H. Mitchell carried on the tradition of family 
service to the Museum when he was elected 
to the Board of TVustees in January 1928. 



During his extraordinary period of tenure — 
52 years — he served on the Nominating 
Committee, the Finance Committee (later 
designated Investment Committee), Execu- 
tive Committee, Development Committee 
(later designated Resource Planning and 
Development Committee), and Capital Re- 
quirements Committee. 

Mitchell played a major role in Field 
Museum's first Capital Campaign — both as 
a solicitor of funds from others and as a 
pace-setting donor in his own right. In 
1974, mindful of the Museum's new situa- 
tion, William Mitchell made a decision 
which epitomizes the meaning of his Field 
Museum career. He determined to focus his 
attention on two things: investment and 
development of the Museum's resources. 
Because of this far-sighted stewardship, the 
Museum now is poised for its second cen- 
tury. Indeed, it has the vigor to go forward 
with a second Capital Campaign designed 
to strengthen the Museum. In 1974, the 
year when Mitchell turned especially to 
Museum investment and development 
work, he and his wife, Anne, were both 
eleaed Field Museum benefactors. 

Happy Birthday, Clifford C. Gregg and 
William H. Mitchell! 




Robert K. Johnson 

Robert K. Johnson Co-Convener for 

International Conference on 

Pelagic Biogeography 

The National Science Foundation (nsf) has 
awarded $17,661 to Field Museum in sup- 
port of the International Conference on 
Pelagic Biogeography being held in Amster- 
dam May 28 through June 6. Robert K. 
Johnson, curator of Fishes, a specialist on 
deepsea fishes, is conference co-convener 
and president of the Scientific Committee 
for the conference, nsf funds will be added 
to previously awarded grants from the 
Office of Naval Research, unesco, the 
Netherlands Ministry of Education and Sci- 
ence, the Netherlands Marine Research 
Council, and the Royal Dutch Academy of 
Sciences. 

This funding is paying the conference 
expenses of 60 participating marine scien- 
tists from 14 nations. The purpose of the 
conference is to bring together a diverse 
group of marine biogeographers, scientists 
who seldom interact outside their respec- 
tive disciplines. This permits extensive 
research presentations, review, and dis- 
cussion of modern concepts and advanced 
methodologies in studies of the origin and 
maintenance of pattern in the distributions 
of open-ocean organisms; it also assists in 
the development of research agendas for the 
future. In addition to its direct conference 
support, UNESCO has agreed to publish the 
volume of conference proceedings. 



Fitzpatrick Coauthors Monograph on 
Florida Scrub Jay 

The Florida Scrub Jay, coauthored by John 
W. Fitzpatrick and Glen E. Woolfenden, 
was published recently by Princeton Uni- 
versity Press. Fitzpatrick is associate curator 
of Birds and chairman of Field Museum's 
Department of Zoology. Woolfenden is pro- 
fessor of zoology at the University of South 
Florida, Tampa. 

Subtitled "Demography of a 
Cooperative-Breeding Bird," The Florida 
Scrub Jay (406 pp.) is the twentieth in a 
series of technical works entitled "Mono- 
graphs in Population Biology," edited by 
Robert M. May. 

Florida scrub jays are an excellent ex- 
ample of a cooperative-breeding species, in 
which adult birds often help raise offspring 
not their own. For more than a decade 
Woolfenden and Fitzpatrick have studied a 
marked population of these birds in an 
attempt to establish a demographic base for 
understanding the phenomenon of "help- 
ing at the nest." By studying both pop- 
ulation biology and behavior, the authors 
find that habitat restraints rather than kin 
selection are the main source of the be- 
havior of Florida scrub jays: the goal of in- 
creasing the number of close relatives other 
than descendants in future generations is 
of relatively minor importance in their 
cooperative-breeding behavior. 

Fitzpatrick and Woolfenden also 
coauthored an article on the Florida scrub 
jay "The Helpful Shall Inherit the Scrub," 
which appeared in the May 1984 issue of 
Natural History. 



Peter Crane Chosen One of Chicago's 
"Ten Outstanding Young Citizens" 

Peter Crane, associate curator in the De- 
partment of Geology, was chosen recently 
as one of Chicago's "Ten Outstanding 
Young Citizens for 1985." The prestigious 
award was conferred on Crane by the Chi- 
cago Junior Association of Commerce and 
Industry on April 10 at an awards dinner at 
the Drake Hotel. 

This was the third time in recent 
months that Crane has been the recipient of 
special honors. Early in 1984 he was given 
the British Paleontological Association's 
annual award for the best paper given by a 
research worker under the age of 30; late in 
the year he was recipient of the Bicentenary 
Medal of the Linnean Society of London. 
The Linnean Society is the premier society 
for professional biologists in the United 
Kingdom and makes the award annually in 
recognition of scientific work done by a 
biologist under the age of 40. More than a 
year ago he was appointed co-editor of the 
premier scientific journal Paleobiology, an 




Peter Crane 

honor which is unusual for someone his 
age. 

Field Museum, too, has given recent 
recognition to Crane by promoting him on 
April 20 to associate curator. 

Crane joined the Field Museum staff in 
September 1982 after a year of research at 
Indiana University and three years on the 
faculty of the University of Reading, En- 
gland, the institution where he earlier re- 
ceived both his bachelor's degree and Ph.D. 
Since his arrival at Field Museum he has 
chaired search, publications, and science 
advisory committees and has helped to re- 
surrect the Field Museum seminar series. 
His research activities focus on Cenozoic 
plant evolution, morphology, and phy- 
togeny. He has published his work as well as 
presented it at international meetings and 
university seminars. His work on angio- 
sperm evolution represents some of the 
most distinguished in that field. 

Kennicott Club Meets 

The June meeting of the Kennicott Club, a 
natural history society named for Chicago's 
first naturalist, Robert Kennicott, will be 
held on Monday, June 3, beginning at 7:30 
pm. The meeting place will be Sciences 
Building 130, Department of Earth Sci- 
ences, Northeastern Illinois University, 
located at 5500 N. St. Louis Avenue, in Chi- 
cago. The evening's speaker will be Prof 
Charles Shabica, of Northeastern Illinois 
University, whose topic will be "Richard- 
son's Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon 
Creek: Status of the Shaggy Dog Story." The 
June meeting will be preceded by 6 pm 
dinner at the Mongolian House, 6345 N. 
Western Ave. ^ 



Ornamented Coats 

of 
The Koryak 



by James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



O 



NE OF THE LARGEST and most important na- 
tive groups inhabiting northeastern Siberia are the 
Koryak, who occupy the northern part of the Kamchat- 
ka Peninsula, the Kamchatka Isthmus, and the adjacent 
continental area (see map). In the nineteenth century 
the Koryak were divided into nine territorial groups and 
their subsistence activities included reindeer herding, 
sea mammal hunting, land hunting, and fishing. The 
various groups differed in their economic emphasis. 
Those living in the interior were herders of reindeer and 
knew nothing of sea hunting, while groups living on the 
coast hunted sea mammals exclusively. In 1900 the total 
population of the Koryak was 7,530. 

Among all the Koryak, winter clothing was made 
primarily of reindeer skins. Koryak women were among 



y ^^ 



U.S.S.R 




.Okhotsk 



SEA OF 
OKHOTSK 



BERING SEA 



the best skin sewers in the far north, being particularly 
noted for their fine and elaborate needlework. The skins 
of the adult reindeer were never used for clothing, only 
those of fawns beginning with the newly bom and in- 
cluding animals up to seven months old. The warmest 
coats were made of the skins of fawns six or seven 
months old which were killed late in the fall. These skins 
consisted of fine, soft hair that was very thick but not 
long. Clothing made of fawn skins was warm and light 
in weight. 

Among the finest examples of reindeer skin winter 
clothing were the men's and women's traveling coats 
which usually, but not always, had hoods. The man's 
traveling coat was double, with one garment inside the 
other and so adjusted that the two could be put on and 
taken off together. The inner coat was worn with the hair 
facing the body, while the hair of the outer coat faced 
outward. 

Russianized Koryak, wealthy reindeer breeders, 
and those engaged in trade preferred outer coats made of 
dark skins. The inner coat was usually constructed from 
the skins of younger fawns, from one to three months 
old, so that the double coat would not be so thick as to 
hinder movement. The soft hair of young fawns was also 
more comfortable to wear next to the skin. 

All Koryak winter coats for both men and women 
were carefully constructed and skillfully sewn, but 
elaborate decoration occurred only on those garments 
known as dancing coats, which were worn at cere- 
monies honoring the spirits of whales killed by Koryak 
hunters. The ethnographic collections of Field Museum 
contain two such coats collected at the end of the nine- 
teenth century among the Alyutortsy, one of the nine 
Koryak subgroups. 

The Alyutortsy Koryak occupied a large area of the 

1. FM photo, N86147. 



upper Kamchatka Isthmus and their economy was un- 
usual in that it combined fishing and sea mammal hunt- 
ing with reindeer breeding. With rare exceptions, all the 
Alyutortsy hunted sea mammals, especially in spring 
when seals and whales were plentiful among the drifting 
ice floes. In summer during fish runs, those reindeer- 
breeding Alyutortsy who lived in the interior migrated to 
the mouths of rivers, where they lived with their seden- 
tary relatives while preparing a supply of fish for winter 
use. Hunting sea mammals was the principal occupation 
of those Alyutortsy living in permanent settlements on 
the Bering Sea coast. 

The first of the two Alyutortsy Koryak dancing coats 
(32009) in Field Museum's collections, the less elabo- 
rately decorated of the two, is made of dark brown fawn 
skin trinmied with sealskin and white deerskin (fig. I ) . 
Sewing throughout is with sinew. The irmer coat with 
the hair facing the body is constructed of a number of 
large rectangular pieces of skin filled out with numerous 
small pieces of irregular shape. Around the lower edge is 
a wide rectangular band also filled out with smaller 
pieces. At the cuffs and inside the hood this inner coat is 
stitched to the outer garment to hold it in place. The skin 
fragments which make up the inner hood are from an 
adult reindeer. 

The outer coat is made from pieces of very dark 
brown fawn skin. The pattern of the front and back con- 
sists primarily of large rectangular pieces which flare 
toward the lower edge. These are joined along the sides 
by narrower rectangular pieces. At either side in front 
and on the back are narrow, vertical strips of fur mosaic 
in brown and white deerskin, each small piece sepa- 
rately cut and stitched together in a pattern of zig zags. 

Each sleeve consists primarily of two rectangular 
pieces of skin sewn together along both sides of the arm. 
The cuffs are trimmed with narrow rectangular strips of 
beaver fur. The sleeves are very full at the shoulders and 
about the forearms so that the wearer can draw his or her 
arms out for extra warmth. The wrists are narrow to pre- 
vent access of cold air. 

Below the hood opening is sewn a large flap made 
of rectangular pieces of skin from reindeer legs. There 
are white strips on the sides of this flap, and between the 
brown sections are three separate vertical strips of fur 
mosaic consisting of paired white pieces with alternating 
brown and white squares between them. This flap, 
which when raised served to protect the wearer's face 
from cold winds, is edged with tanned, bleached seal- 
skin. Decoration of the flap is a particular feature of 
dancing coats. In funeral coats, which were made of 
white fawn skin and nearly covered with decoration, 
especially in front, this flap covered the face of the 
deceased. 

The hood consists of numerous separate pieces of 

irregular shape. At the top there is a fur mosaic pattern of 

10 large brown and white zigzags which does not show in 



the photograph. The opening of the hood is edged with 
tanned, bleached sealskin. 

Around the lower edge of the garment is a broad 
band of fur mosaic in brown and white, consisting of 
squares, rectangles, diamonds, and triangles. As in the 
other decoration, each small piece is separately cut and 
stitched to the others. Below this broad band is an edging 
of rectangular pieces of skin on which the hair is some- 
what longer than on the rest of the garment. 

The second dancing coat in the collection (32007) 
(fig. 2) is also double, the inner coat being constructed 
of scraps of fawn skin of various sizes. It is fastened to the 
outer coat at frequent intervals with braided sinew. On 
the inner surface of the hood and the insides of the 
sleeves, the inner coat consists of pieces of adult 
deerskin. 

Construction of the outer coat, which is sewn with 
sinew throughout, is similar to that of the previously de- 
scribed garment, with broad rectangular pieces of dark 
fawn skin on the front and back joined by narrower 
pieces of the same shape at the sides. The sleeves, each 
consisting essentially of two pieces, are edged with bea- 
ver fur. They are full but do not narrow at the cuffs. The 
hood consists of a number of small pieces of skin and a 
separate piece around the opening. The square flap be- 
low the hood is constructed of several pieces of reindeer 
leg skin on the underside with narrow, rectangular strips 
of brown fawn skin on the outer surface to form a sub- 
dued decorative pattern. There is a border of reindeer leg 
skin. In the photograph the flap is shown roughly in the 
position it would have when covering the face. 

An outstanding feature of this garment is the elabo- 
rate decorative band around the lower edge (fig. 5). At 
the top of this broad band are fur mosaic patterns featur- 
ing brown and white diamonds, squares, and rectangles. 
There are narrow strips of tanned, dark sealskin near the 
upper and lower edges of the decorative band which fea- 
ture designs made by a method called "slit embroidery" 
A series of narrow slits were made in the dark sealskin, 
and narrow pieces of bleached sealskin of the same 
width as the slits were laid under them. A small loop of 
this skin was pushed from underneath up through the 
slits, where it was caught by a sinew thread which lay on 
the surface of the skin. The thread was passed through 
the loops which were then drawn tight (fig. 4). The tech- 
nique of slit embroidery is such that the designs neces- 
sarily consist of a long series of cormected rectangles. 

Between the two strips of dark sealskin with slit 
embroidery is a wide band of embroidered rectangles, 
squares, and diamonds in red, blue, purple, and several 
shades of brown cotton thread; some of the colors have 
faded considerably. Along the lower edge of the decora- 
tive band is a narrow strip of tanned, bleached sealskin 



2. FM photo, N86150. 




u 




3. From W. Jochelson, The Koryak, pt. 2. pi. IV, tig. 1. 



into which, by the slit embroidery technique, a con- 
tinuous length of sinew has been inserted. Below that, 
by the same technique, tassels of the hair of young seals 
dyed red are doubled over and passed through the slits. 
Finally, the lower edge of the garment is trimmed with 
rectangular pieces of beaver fur. 




A characteristic feature of the ornamentation on 
these two garments, and, in fact, on all Koryak clothing, 
is that the designs are arranged throughout in horizontal 
or vertical bands. These decorative bands are made sepa- 
rately from the rest of the garment and, as they are con- 
structed, wound on reels. When a garment is worn out, 
the decorative elements may be detached and saved to 
use again on a newly made coat. 

Most of our knowledge concerning Koryak cloth- 
ing, and in fact all aspects of Koryak culture, is derived 
from the work of Waldemar Jochelson, a Russian 



*Jochelson, W. The Koryak. Memoirs of the American Museum of 
Natural History, vol. 1 1. Publications of the Jesup North Pacific 
12 Expedition, vol. 6. New York. 



ethnographer who worked among these people in the 
winter of 1900-01 as a member of the Jesup North Pacific 
Expedition sponsored by the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History in New York.* His collections are in that in- 
stitution; there are also sizeable Koryak collections in 
Soviet museums, particularly the Peter the Great Mu- 
seum of Anthropology and Ethnography and the Muse- 
um of the Peoples of the U.S.S.R., both in Leningrad. 

In his monograph on the Koryak, Jochelson de- 
scribed villages of the maritime peoples, especially their 
summer villages, as being located primarily on rocky 
shores rising to a considerable height above the sea. 
While the men of a village were out hunting, the women 
frequently went outside to sit on the roofs of the houses 
and await the return of the hunters' boats. When the 
women belonging to a certain house observed one of 
their boats returning and towing a whale, they put on 
their dancing coats and went down to the beach to meet 
the whale. If there was an old man in the house who 
stayed home and did not join the hunt, he also put on a 
dancing costume, which sometimes included elaborate- 
ly decorated reindeer skin boots. 

The women and old men were joined by women 
from other houses who also wore their festive coats. All 
welcomed the whale while dancing around a fire that 
was brought from the hearth and built up outside the 
house (fig. 3). This dance was designed to show great 
respect for the dead whale, which was believed to be 



5. FM ptioto, N86152. 



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14 




visiting the village. If treated kindly, the animal would 
repeat its visit the following year and persuade its rela- 
tives to come along. According to Koryak belief, whales, 
like all other animals, constitute a family of related indi- 
viduals who are grateful for any kindness and respect 
they receive. 

The collections also contain a third decorated coat 
( 32014) , which is identified in the catalog as a "woman's 
dress" (fig. 6). It is made of white fawn skin, is not dou- 
ble like the others, and lacks a hood. The front and back 
consist of large, rectangular pieces of skin which flare 
toward the lower edge. On each side there is a narrow 
single piece which joins the front and back; there are 
also occasional patches. The full sleeves consist of sever- 
al narrow rectangular pieces sewn horizontally. The 
cuffs and collar are separate pieces of dark brown fawn 
skin and there is a short opening in front below the col- 
lar which is edged with dark brown fawn skin along 
one side. 

Around the lower edge is a broad band of fur mosaic 
in brown and white skin, utilizing small squares to form 
a pattern of large diamonds. Along the upper and lower 
edges of the band is a row of alternating brown and 
white triangles. The diamond design has been empha- 
sized by fastening small tufts of red yarn to the small 
white squares with short lengths of sinew. Sewing 
throughout this garment is with single-strand sinew. 

Jochelson described funeral coats made of the skins 
of white fawns that were worn by deceased individuals 
when the body was prepared for cremation. However, 
such garments are said to have had hoods and were 
usually much more highly decorated than this coat. It is 
clear that this garment was not made for everyday wear 
and although its specific use cannot be determined with 
certainty, its decorative band is a fine example of the fur 
mosaic technique. 

The interesting methods of artificially processing 
skin that have been described here, particularly the tech- 
nique of slit embroidery, which is peculiar to the Koryak, 
are now almost forgotten. Museums and institutes in the 
Soviet Union interested in preserving native craft tech- 
niques are developing programs through which tradi- 
tional sewing techniques can be taught to a younger 
generation of native craftswomen so that the skills of 
their ancestors will not be forgotten. A recently pub- 
lished manual for teachers in the Soviet Far East de- 
scribes and illustrates a variety of traditional sewing 
techniques that can be taught in the local schools, some- 
times by the teachers but more often by older native 
skin sewers, and will, hopefully, ensure the survival of 
one of the most intricate skin-working traditions in 
the world. FH 



6. FM photo, N86149. 



you CAN LEAVE 
EVERYTHING 
TO YOUR SPOUSE, 
TAX-FREE, BUT 

SHOULD YOU? 

Under new estate tax laws, you can leave all 
your property to your spouse with no estate 
tax liability. But, that's true only at the death 
of the first spouse. NX^at about taxes at the 
death of the survivins spouse? 

To reduce these taxes, the first spouse 
misht want to leave a portion of his or her 
estate in trust to a final beneficiary, such as 
Field Museum, one of the world's sreat 
museums. 

What's more, the income of that trust 
can so to the survivins spouse for life. Your 
spouse still sets the benefit of your total 
estate. Then, at death, the principal of that 
trust passes tax-free, outside his or her 
estate, to the Museum, perpetuatins your 
family name. 

For more information about plannins 
and writins an effective will, send for the 
free booklet, usins the coupon below. 



-CUP AND MAIL TOD/»y- 



TO: Clifford Buzard 

Planned GIvlns Officer 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

I I Please send me my free copy of 'How To Make a Will That 
Works." 

NAME 







(Please print) 




AnnRF?;<; 








riTY 




STATF 


ZIP 


PHONE: B"s^( 


) 


Res;( 


) 



BEST TIME TO CALL: (Day Of W^ek); 



.(Hour): 



Volunteers Honored 



F 



ield Museum honored its 1984 volunteers with a 
special reception on February 14 in Stanley Field Hall. 
Together with their guests, volunteers had a chance to 
visit with staff members in a festive, relaxed atmosphere 
(brightened with balloons) away from the libraries, lab- 
oratories, and classrooms where they customarily per- 
form their volunteer work. 

In a brief ceremony, Willard L. Boyd, president, 
welcomed the volunteers and expressed the Museum's 
gratitude for their contributions during the preceding 
year. James J. O'Connor, chairman of the Board, spoke 
of the group's dedication. Of the current 282 volunteers, 
70 percent have been volunteering for over one year, 54 
percent for over 3 years, and 9 percent have been active 
volunteers for over 10 years. During 1984 the volunteer 
contribution of 36,579 hours was the equivalent of 22.6 
additional full-time staff members. 

The special honoree of the evening was Marie 
Louise Rosenthal, who has given 15 years of volunteer 
service to the Museum. William Fawcett, head librarian, 
who has been her supervisor during that time, spoke 
about Marie's many contributions as a Library volun- 
teer. Mrs. Rosenthal has primarily worked with the con- 
servation of bindings, an extremely important function 
in the library. Box-making for fragile items was another 



specialized job she has undertaken. Mrs. Rosenthal has 
also served the Museum in another volunteer role, as a 
member of the Women's Board. 

Lorin I. Nevling, Jr, director, also expressed his 
thanks to the 1984 volunteers, and presented those four 
volunteers who had contributed over 500 hours in ser- 
vice to the Museum, with gifts of appreciation. 

Joyce Matuszewich, volunteer coordinator, thank- 
ed both volunteers and staff for their cooperation during 
the year. "Although years of service and numbers of 
hours given are measurable indications of the value of 
volunteers to the Museum," said Mrs. Matuszewich, 
"the unmeasurables, like the pride volunteers take in 
their jobs and the satisfaction staff members take in the 
important work accomplished by volunteers — these re- 
flect the true value of a volunteer program." 

Volunteers work throughout the Museum — in sci- 
entific and administrative areas as well as in the public 
areas such as the Education Department and Mem- 
bership. Volunteers catalog, label, prepare specimens, 
prepare charts, maps, and scientific illustrations, do 
research, edit, type, and file. They also conduct school 
tours, give programs to the public, and assist on special 
events. 



16 



Volunteers Who Have Served 

500 Hours Or More 

Sophie Ann Brunner, Reptiles: skeleton preparation, orga- 
nization, and maintenance. 

Margaret Martling, Botany: worked with reprint collections, 
helped select negatives for type photograph program, up- 
dated nomenclatural indices, helped process plant col- 
lections from Latin America. 

David Matusik, Insects: preparation of butterflies and moths 
from backlogged material to condition suitable for research. 

Llois Stein, Anthropology: researched and cataloged Oceanic, 
Malaysian, and African collections, assisted in Pacific 
storeroom reorganization, assisted with cataloging the 
gamelan collection. 

Volunteers Who Have Served 
400 Hours Or More 

501 Century, Anthropology: cataloging, general projects in 
Asian Division. 

Patricia Dodson, Anthropology: manuscript editing and 
proofing, correspondence, and research. 
Ingrid Fauci, Reptiles: translated French into English for staff 



and a translation project organized by one of the pro- 
fessional herpetological societies. 

Connie Koch, Development and Public Relations: com- 
puterized funding searches and development of funding 
source files for Grants office; updating mailing lists, organiz- 
ing clipping files, special mailings for Public Relations. 

Dorothy Oliver, Library: filed new book cards; retrieved 
books for visitors and assisted in Reading Room; special 
projects. 



Volunteers Who Have Served 
300 Hours Or More 

Jackie Arnold, Education: weekend clerical assistance. Place 
for Wonder; assisted in special events and children's work- 
shops. 

Dennis Bara, Membership: weekend Membership represen- 
tative. 

Warren Batkiewicz, Insects: intern, prepared drawings of 
research material for use in scientific publications. 

Trace Clark-Petravick, Anthropology: textile conservation, 
worked with pre-Columbian textiles. 

Jeannette DeLaney, Anthropology: textile conservation, 
worked with pre-Columbian textiles. 



300 Hours (continued) 



Joseph Levin, Geology: finished cataloging John Clark Col- 
lection of Oligocene mammals, assisted in curating col- 
lection of Pleistocene mammals. 

Carolyn Moore, Anthropology: researched special projects in 
Asian Division. 

Forman Onderdonk, Education: conducted tours in the 
animal and Indian halls. Pawnee Earth Lodge and Place for 
Wonder; assisted with children's workshops and special 
events. 

Gary Ossewaarde, Education: researched and conducted 
weekend tours on Egypt and China; assisted on special 
events and workshops. 



Jean Seller, Geology: Research in variation of dental charac- 
teristics of neotropical primates, photography, measure- 
ments of teeth and jaws, statistical analysis of data. 

Harold Waterman, Education and Reptiles: Maintained 
reprint card catalog and performed other library duties, 
compiled information from catalog data in response to in- 
quiries in Reptiles; greeted school groups, gave "Museum 
Favorite" programs to groups in Education. 

David Weiss, Anthropology: Administrative assistant in Asian 
Division. 

Laury Zicari, Exhibition: fabrication and installation of ex- 
hibits. 



1984 Volunteers Bulletin 



Anthropology 

Dodie Baumgarten 
Charles Braner 
James E. Burd 
Louva Calhoun 
Sol Century 
TYace Clark-Petravick 
Connie Crane 
Jeannette DeLaney 
Patricia Dodson 
Nancy Fagin 
Peter Gayford 
Tamara Kaplan 
Withrow Meeker 
Lauren Michals 
Carolyn Moore 
George Morse 
Louise Neuert 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newton 
Susan Parker 
Christine Pavel 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 
Philip Pinsof 
Lolita Rogers 
William Rom 
Susan Saric 
Sara Scherberg 
Abraham Simon 
Llois Stein 
Cathy Tlapa 
Robbie Webber 
David Weiss 

Botany 

Virginia Beatty 
Jeyson Daniel 
Diane Dillon 
Elisabeth Farwell 
Jane Fulkerson 
Mary Lou Grein 
Nancy Harlan 
Patricia Klick 
Margaret Martling 
Naomi Pruchnik 
Elizabeth Rada 
Carol Schneider 
Daniel Snydacker 
Susan Stolze 
Lorraine Thauland 
Lillian Vanek 
Sarah Wilkinson 

Building Operations 

Helen Ruch 



Hermann Bowersox 

Development 

William Briggs 
Maria Fox 
Ann Gerber 
Connie Koch 
Lou Levine 
James Rakowsky 

Education 

Paul Adler 
Dolores Arbanas 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baker 
Jean Baldwin-Herbert 
Lucia Barba 
Gwen Bamett 
Winifred Batson 
Stuart Becher 
Elaine Bernstein 
Carol Briscoe 
Carolyn Bma 
Karen Bryze 
Teddy Buddington 
Mary Ann Bulanda 
Nancy Burke 
John Burnett 
Joseph Cablk 
Kathy Cagney 
Deborah Carey 
Linda Celesia 
Marilee Cole 
Eleanor DeKoven 
Carol Deutsch 
Violet Diacou 
Marianne Diekman 
Millicent Drower 
John Dunn 
Ruth Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Agatha Elmes 
Bormie Engel 
Jean Ettner 
Martha Farwell 
Ruth Fouche 
Gerda Frank 
Shirley Fuller 
Miriam Futransky 
Bemice Gardner 
Suzanne Garvin 
Patricia Georgouses 
Phyllis Ginardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
Halina Goldsmith 
Miriam Goldsmith 



Helen Gomstein 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Ann Grimes 
Karen Grupp 
Sylvia Haag 
Michael Hall 
Patricia Hansen 
Mattie Harris 
Shirley Hattis 
Audrey Hiller 
Clarissa Hinton 
Zelda Honor 
Scott Houtteman 
Ellen Hyndman 
Delores Irvin 
Connie Jacobs 
Malcolm Jones 
Carol Kacin 
Elizabeth Kaplan 
Mansura Karim 
Barbara Keune 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Glenda Kowalski 
Anita Landess 
Carol Landow 
Shun Lee 
James Lowers 
Mary Jo Lucas 
Gabby Margo 
Clifford Massoth 
Britta Mather 
Marita Maxey 
Melba Mayo 
Faye McCray 
Louise McEachran 
Carole McMahon 
Ixtaccihuatl Menchaca 
Beverly Meyer 
Barbara Milott 
Daniel Monteith 
Charlotte Morton 
Charlita Nachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
John B. Nelson 
Mary S. Nelson 
Natalie Newberger 
Elaine Olfson 
Forman Onderdonk 
Joan Opila 
Marianne 
O'Shaughnessy 

Gary Ossewaarde 

Anita Padnos 

Frank Paulo 

Mary Anne Peruchini 

Jacquelyn Prine 

Jean Pritzger 

Pamela Rahmann 

James Rakowsky 



Ann Ratajczyk 
Marie Rathslag 
Emest Reed 
Henry Rich 
Lucille Rich 
Elly Ripp 

Rhonda Rochambeau 
Barbara Roob 
Beverly Rosen 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Anne Ross 
Lenore Ruehr 
Janet Russell 
Gladys Ruzi'ch 
Vivian Sadow 
Linda Sandberg 
Marian Saska 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Marianne Schenker 
Florence Seiko 
Ttoyes Shaw 
Jessie Sherrod 
Judith Sherry 
Linda Skorodin 
Irene Spensley 
Mary Alice Sutton 
Beatrice Swartchild 
Jane Thain 
Alice TXilley 
Janet Ujvari 
Karen Umezis 
Barbara Vear 
Charles Vischulis 
Harold Waterman 
Mary Wenzel 
Cynthia Whalen 
James Wilber 
Char Wiss 
Zinette Yacker 
Ben Zajac 

Exhibition 

Audrey Bums 
Susan Walker-Waber 
Laury Zicari 

Fieldiana 

Donald Gemmel 



Geology 

Catherine Becker 
Hermann Bowersox 
Irene Broede 
Marie Cuevas 
Margaret DeJong 
Linda Egebrecht 
Dolores Fetes 
Marie Fischl 
Melanie Goldstine 
Cecily Gregory 
Catherine Handelsman 
Calvin Harris 
Clarissa Hinton 
Harold Honor 
Ellen Hyndman 
Doy Howland 
Joyce Kieffer 
Patricia Klick 
Susan Knoll 
Tom Ladshaw 
Joseph Levin 
Doris Nitecki 
China Oughton 
Ann Rubeck 
Susan Saric 
Jean Seller 
Joan Skager 
Patricia Thomas 
Gerda Watson 
Arm West 

Library 

Michael Chaneske 
Arden Frederick 
Claxton Howard 
Ruth Howard 
Mabel S. Johnson 
Dorothy Oliver 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 
James Skorcz 

Membership 

Dennis Bara 
Harold Honor 
Sylvia Rabinkoff 
Irnia Wetherton 



Photography 

Reeva Wolfson 

Public Relations 

Lisa Camillo 
Ollie Hartsfield 
Marianne Hermann 
Harold Honor 
Connie Koch 
Frank Leslie 
Nicholas Selch 
Tamara Spero 

Publications 

Loretta Green 

Tours 

William Roder 



Zoology 

Neal Abarbanell 
Paul Adler 
Warren Batkiewicz 
Lawrence Berman 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Barbara Clauson 
Stanley Dvorak 
Ingrid Fauci 
Richard Frank 
Andrea Gaski 
Bea Goo 

Henry Greenwald 
Dorothy Karall 
Julian Kerbis 
Joseph P. Levin 
Barbara Latondress 
Lucy Lyon 
Selwyn Mather 
David Matusik 
Rosanne Miezio 
Richard Moser 
Lorain Olsen 
Charies Plasil 
Martin Pryzdia 
Sheila Reynolds 
Stephen Robinet 
Diana Rudaitis 
Kregg Sal vino 
David Walker 
Maxine Walter 
Harold Waterman 
Mary Wenzel 
Roy Yanong 



17 



The C omet C ometh 



by Edward J. Olsen 

Curator of Mineralogy 




Sixteenth-century woodcut depicting the anival ol the comet of 1596. 



T 



18 



he Chinese called them "broom stars." 
Europeans called them "hairy stars." At the appearance 
of one, people's hearts were often filled with fear and 
foreboding. To King Harold of Britain the 1066 
appearance of Halley's Comet was a bad sign, and he 
was right — William of Normandy soon arrived to 
conquer him. Napoleon regarded the great comet of 
1 8 1 1 as a good sign — and he was wrong! During the next 
winter his troops met bitter defeat in Russia. For 
whenever a comet appears it cannot be ignored. It is 
such a weird object that humankind must make a big 
deal of it — one way or another. 

Comets will never be commonplace in human 
experience even though they are very commonplace in 
the antics of our solar system. Even experienced 



astronomers find comets of great interest, for in them are 
to be found implications about the birth of the solar 
system, the origin of life, and possibly the occasional 
catastrophic destruction of much life on our planet. 

By late November of this year, Halley's Comet will 
return to the vicinity of the earth from the far reaches of 
space, just beyond the orbit of planet Neptune. It will be 
the second time it has appeared this century; the last 
time was in 1910. In the twenty-first century it will 
appear only once — in 2061. 

The 1910 appearance was spectacular, but the 
1985-86 appearance is going to be one of the worst for 
viewing by eye in a thousand years. As you can see from 
the table (p.OO) the best time to see Halley's Comet with 
the naked eye will be only from the middle of this 



coming December to early January. From then until 
early March (1986) it will appear so close to the bright 
sun that it will be blotted out. Then again from early 
March until early May, naked-eye viewing will be 
possible if you are far out in the country, away from all 
lights, and the moon isn't up. 

The reason for the poor showing this time is the 
earth's position in its orbit around the sun, relative to 
Halley's orbit. The comet this time crosses the earth's 
orbit on the opposite side of the sun. In 1910 Halley 



ren't even sure whether comets were out in space or 
within the earth's atmosphere. The Greek philosopher 
Aristotle, for example, was convinced they were atmo- 
spheric aberrations. Halley had a friend at Cambridge 
University named Isaac Newton, who had recently cre- 
ated a mathematical method for describing the motions 
of objects in space, gravitationally attracted to one 
another. To do this Newton had to invent a new form of 
mathematics, which he called fluxions, but we today call 
the calculus. (This calculus was also invented at exactly 



HALLEY'S COMET VIEWING CONDITIONS 

Time Viewing 

1985, Jan-Oct. 15 Telescope only 

1985, Oct. 15-31 Very strong binoculars (7x50 or better) 

1985, Oct. 31-Dec. 15 Standard binoculars (7x35, 8x30, etc.) 

1985/1986, Dec. 15-Jan. 15 Eye (away from city lights) 

1986, Jan. 15-Feb. 28 Too close to sun — can't be seen 

1986, Mar 1-May 1 Eye (away from city lights) 

1986, May 1-31 Standard binoculars 

1986, June 1-July 1 Very strong binoculars 

July 1, 1986 — 1988 Telescope only — gradually fading 



crossed the earth's orbit close to the position of the earth 
at the time. Also in 1985-86, because of the 
winter/early-spring passage of the comet the best 
viewing (however poor) will be in the Southern 
Hemisphere — South Africa, South America, Australia, 
and the South Pacific. In spite of all the problems for 
good viewing, 1 985-86 is going to make comet watchers 
out of a lot of people — as this comet has done 28 times 
over the past 2,227 years since the first recording of its 
passage by the Chinese in 240 B.C.! 

Usually a comet is named after the first person to 
spot it. So there are comets with names like Bennett, 
Kahoutek, Morehouse, Enke, Biela and DeCheseaux. 
When more than one person reports a new comet at the 
same time it gets a hyphenated, and sometimes sort of 
funny-sounding name: Comet Mitchell-Jones-Gerber, 
Comet Ikeya-Seki, and Comet Schwassmann-Wach- 
mann, for example. Comet Halley (incidentally Halley 
rhymes with "valley," not with "daily," as you'll often 
hear) got its name a different way. Were it named for its 
finder it would have a Chinese name. 

Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was an English as- 
tronomer and mathematician. For part of his life he was 
a professor at Oxford University and Royal Astronomer. 
In 1 682 a comet appeared in the sky and he became fas- 
cinated with it. At the time there was a huge ignorance 
about comets. In ancient times some learned men we- 



the same time by the great German mathematician Leib- 
nitz, and there was, for some years, bad feeling between 
Newton and Leibnitz over who did it first — but back to 
our story.) Newton's methods were ideal for analyzing 
the (then) puzzling orbits of comets. These were times 
long before any kind of calculating machine, and all 
these tedious calculations had to be done by hand. Hal- 
ley undertook to learn Newton's methods and compute 
the orbits of three comets that had been measured tele- 
scopicallyin 1531, 1607, and 1682 — when he had sight- 
ed the comet himself. He concluded that the orbits of 
these three comets were almost identical and, further, 
that they were all really the same comet returning pe- 
riodically every 76 years from deep interplanetary space 
to make a swing around the sun. He wasn't the first to 
suggest that some comets were periodic (Robert Hooke, 
the British physicist, had already guessed that), but he 
was the first to prove the idea with calculations. He pre- 
dicted that the same comet would return late in 1758. 
Unhappily, he didn't live to see the event, but almost on 
schedule — in March of 1759 — it arrived and swung 
around the sun. This comet has been called Halley's 
Comet ever since. 

The fact that Halley didn't precisely calculate the 
passage time became a new puzzling feature. In fact, 
modem (computer-driven) analysis of this comet's pas- 
sages projected backwards over 30 centuries reveals that 



19 




20 



English astronomer-mathematician Edmond Halley (1656-1742) was 
the first to provide a mathematical basis for the periodic return of 
comets. Courtesy the Bettman Archive. 



the period varies from 68 to 79 years, and its orbital 
plane fluctuates a shade under 2°. These variations are 
due in part to the presence of the giant planets, Jupiter, 
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, which, if the comet passes 
near enough, can gravitationally tug it out of its old orbit 
causing it either to retard or speed up. With these small 
uncertainties, one might ask, how can we be so sure it's 
going to arrive on schedule this time? The answer is, it's 
been spotted already. On October 16, 1982 astronomers 
David Jewitt and G.E. Danielson of the California Insti- 
tute of Technology recorded its approach on a large tele- 
scope camera. It's on its way! 

Comets have always been a source of deep supersti- 
tion in the western world (not, however, in China). 
They've been regarded variously as good luck, bad luck, 
foretelling periods of rotten weather or personal illnes- 



ses, or as a portent of death for some person of royalty: 
"When beggars die, there are no comets seen. 
The heavens themselves blaze forth 
the death of princes." 

— W. Shakespeare, from Julius Caesar 

When one is used to looking at a sky that parades 
past a familiar family of objects — sun, moon, a variety of 
stars and planets, and the occasional "shooting star" 
{i.e., incoming meteorite) — the sudden appearance of a 
starlike object with an elongated tail that, for some un- 
usual comets, spans over 100° of arc, can make you jit- 
tery if you're superstitious, ignorant, or both. 

For a fact, the earth can be smacked by a comet 
traveling in a collision orbit, and the effect can be devas- 
tating depending on the size of the comet and where on 
earth it hits. In 1908, for example, a very small comet 
impacted the earth in, fortunately, a remote region of 
Siberia near the Tlinguska River. Trees were flattened 
over an area 40 miles across! It had an energy equivalent 
to 10 million tons of TNT! In a populated region it would 
have been the worst natural disaster in history. For Com- 
et Halley, however, we have no fear it will hit earth. Its 
orbit doesn't intersect the earth's orbit. At worst, it can 
only be a near miss! 

In 1910 Halley's Comet caused a fearful uproar 
when it was predicted (correctly) that the earth would 
pass within 5 million miles of its head and would be 
bathed partially in its tail. Some people prepared for the 
end of the world. Others sealed themselves into rooms 
and stuffed door sills and keyholes with rags to keep out 
the noxious gases they expected would fill the air. In- 
deed, one chemical that does come off comets is highly 
toxic cyanogen gas. However, our thick layer of atmo- 
sphere is more than enough to keep such gases from 
penetrating to the surface of the earth. Besides, the great 
bulk of the gas in comet tails is plain water. 

The 1910 passage of the comet (known officially as 
P/Halley — the P is for periodic — not all comets are) added 
some new facts to our knowledge about these strange 
objects. In 1910 P/Halley passed directly across the face 
of the sun from earth's point of view. Despite intense 
study, there was no black dot to be seen against the sun's 
disk. Conclusion: it isn't very big at all! Current esti- 
mates make Halley out to be only about 5.5 miles across. 
Its gaseous outpourings make it appear larger than it is. 
Also, earth's passage through part of the tail produced 
no observable or measurable result. As already sus- 
pected, the tail is very tenuous. 

To get some idea of what these things are made of 
and how they got to be the way they are, a lot of different 
comets had to have been studied. 

First off, it is known that comets begin to glow only 
when they approach to within about 500 million miles 
of the sun (over five times farther than the earth's dis- 
tance from the sun). The glow consists of gases — mainly 
water — that the sun's energy vaporizes off them. The 




.^^ORBiT oftAf Comet n-/iuA ^ 

SOLAL S Y S^T E M /C-/«v, /Af onA/Ow 
yet t/f/»rm^nei/ ant/Jr.in •» nt/u/Z^MaM. . 



Early diagram of the orbit 

ofHaliey's Comet, based 

on l-ialley's calculations. 

Courtesy the Bettman 

Archive. 



m^^ 



■7'^P 



ISTIMIRRNI 




Drawing based on sec- 
tion of the 11th-.century 
Bayeux Tapestry, show- 
ing Halley's Comet on the 
eve of the Battle of Has- 
tings (1066). The "cap- 
tion " at the top may be 
loosely rendered, "The 
men marvel at the star " 
Courtesy the Bettman 
Archive. 



21 



ultraviolet part of the sun's light is able to break up some 
of the gaseous molecules and the complex processes of 
recombinations of molecules causes light to be given off. 
Although some people have reported comets with differ- 
ent colors of light — red, blue, green — this appears to be 
due more to their imaginations or to effects from our 
own atmosphere. The light is white. 

The brightness of comets varies considerably. The 



solar wind) push the gases backward and the tail de- 
velops. When the comet swings around the sun the tail, 
of course, always points away from the sun, the direc- 
tion the solar wind is pushing it. So when the comet is 
heading back out into space, going away from the sun, it 
does so tail first. The Chinese astronomers realized this a 
couple of thousand years ago; Europeans didn't figure it 
out until the sixteenth century. 



Sixteenth- 
century en- 
graving of 
astronomer 
Peter 
Opianus 
observing 
comet of 
1532. Cour- 
tesy tt)e Bett- 
man Arcliive. 




22 



great majority are very faint and can be seen only with 
good telescopes. In fact, comets pass the earth every year, 
observed only by astronomers and not by the public. 
Comet P/Enke, for example, returns every 3.5 years! 
Many small comets go unnoticed by anyone, even astro- 
nomers. A couple have been accidentally discovered 
passing close to the sun during solar eclipses when the 
sky, next to the sun, is dark for a few minutes. Without 
the eclipses they would never have been seen. On the 
other hand, a few rare ones are so bright they can be seen 
in the daytime! Comet DeCheseaux, which has been 
seen only once — in 1 744, was like that. Several comets 
have been observed to vary rapidly in brightness over 
short periods of time — long tails forming, fading, and 
spurting out again. 

As the gases vaporize, a glowing envelope of light, 
known as the coma develops around a comet. Getting 
closer to the sun, the effect of the blast of radiation and 
atomic particles that stream from the sun's surface (the 



A lot of effort has been expended, using a variety of 
optical devices, to study the make-up of the coma and 
tail — all we can see of a comet when it gets into the 
vicinity of the earth. Besides gases, dust grains stream off 
all comets and, because of the complex nature of the 
sun's radiation, some comets have two tails, a straight 
one made mostly of dust grains and a separate, curved 
one made mostly of gas molecules. A few odd comets 
have four, six, or twelve tails radiating off like feathers. 
No one has a good explanation for the extra tails. 

Many comets have elongated orbits that take them 
out to the edge of the solar system over long periods of 
time. Halley is one of these. Others have orbits that are 
nearly circular and travel at about the same distance 
away from the sun all the time, continually glowing. 
About half of all known comets have motions about the 
sun revolving in the same direction as the planets. The 
other half travel in the opposite direction — called retro- 
grade (Halley again). A few have orbits that indicate they 



will make only one swing around the sun and then be 
flung out into interstellar space — out of the solar system, 
never to return. There are those that have orbits lying in 
the plane of the orbits of the planets (called the ecliptic 
plane). Others have orbits inclined to that plane, like 
Halley at 1 8° inclination. This means that when Halley is 
at its farthest point from the sun it is almost a billion 
miles out of the plane of the ecliptic. 




emerged that seems to fit the facts. It is the result of dec- 
ades of comet studies by American astronomer Fred 
Whipple. It's called "the dirty snowball" hypothesis. 

Think of a day after a light snowfall. The neighbor- 
hood kids get out in a gravel and dirt playground to 
romp around. The snow is only a few inches deep. Sud- 
denly one of them scoops up some snow, packs it into a 
snowball and flings it at you. Smack! Wow, that hurts! 



French carica- 
turist Honore 
Daumier 
(1808-79) has 
a spectator 
lamenting, 
"Oh, carv- 
els! . . . they're 
always a bad 
omen. No 
wonder that 
Madame 
Galuchet just 
took up and 
died last 
night! " 



J^ 








Certainly the most fascinating feature of comets is 
the reaction of some of them as they pass close to large 
bodies and suffer gravitational stresses. Halley appears to 
be pretty firm stuff and doesn't show any serious effects. 
Others, however, appear to come "unglued." Comet 
Ikeya-Seki appeared to break into two pieces as it passed 
the sun on October 2 1 , 1965. In 1846 Comet P/Biela was 
reported to have broken in two, one part fading rapidly 
in brightness. Comet Morehouse broke in two on Octo- 
ber 15, 1908 but the pieces stayed close together in 
space. Comet Brooks was observed to break apart as it 
passed between the planet Jupiter and one of Jupiter's 
many moons, Amalthea, in 1889. Apparently the gravi- 
tational pull of Amalthea on one side and giant Jupiter 
on the other was too much for it. The strength of the 
solid material of the comet wasn't enough to hold it 
together. 

Putting all observations together, a picture has 



Sure, the snowball is only part snow. The rest is gravel 
and dirt he scooped up with it. Well, according to Whip- 
ple, that's what a comet is. 

It's ice laced through with bits of rock, maybe even a 
huge hunk of rock in the middle, and lots of dust. The ice 
has frozen within it other "ices" — that is, other gases 
frozen by the intense cold of deep space. The "snowball" 
may be a few hundred feet to many miles across. In this 
game giant snowballs are easy to make. You make them 
the same way you make planets like the earth. 

Most people would expect an ice ball to melt com- 
pletely in passing the sun. A small enough one would, of 
course. Large ones, like Halley, lose over six or seven feet 
in their diameters each time they make a trip into the 
center of the solar system and around the sun. They get 
smaller and smaller and eventually disappear, except for 
any large masses of rock that were held in the ice. Some 
comets, in fact, give off little gas, glow feebly, and have 



23 




Halley's Comet seen in 1910 from Yerkes Observatory. Williams Bay. Wisconsin. Photo by F. E. Barnard. Courtesy the Bettman Arctiive. 



24 



only a faint coma and no tail. These have lost almost all 
their ices and gaseous matter and are reduced to rocky 
masses. A few of the rocky asteroids (minor planets that 
orbit the sun) give off no light at all have comet like 
orbits; they are suspected of being comets that long ago 
lost all their ices and gases. 

As comets melt, they release bits of rock and lots of 
dust. The dust and small rocks lag a little behind, form- 
ing a trail in the wake of the comet. Long after the comet 
is out of sight, the trail is still drifting along the orbital 
route. If the earth should pass through such a trail the 
bits of dust and rock are pulled by earth's gravity into the 
upper atmosphere where they bum up. These are called 
meteor showers. A number of annual meteor showers 
coincide with the orbits of known comets. Other annual 
meteor showers cannot be associated with any currently 
known comets and are suspected of being all that's left of 
periodic comets that wasted away long before the begin- 
ning of recorded history. 

A lot of our scientific "knowledge" about comets is 
obviously only educated hypothesis and speculation. 
Halley arrives for the first time in the Space Age that has 
given us a taste of space exploration: manned lunar 



landings, unmanned landings on Mars and Venus, 
probes past Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Clearly, means 
now exist to make close-up measurements of this 
famous comet. 

The most ambitious plan (which failed to be carried 
out) was that of the United States. A new type of space 
engine was to be developed, called the ion drive. 
Because of Halley's retrograde orbit it is difficult to get 
into synchrony with it. Any rocket launched from earth 
has, necessarily, as a large part of its initial motion the 
velocity of the earth in its orbit. This motion is, of course, 
opposite that of this retrograde comet. The ion drive 
vehicle was a nifty scheme. The vehicle would be launch- 
ed in the normal fashion and head out toward the direc- 
tion of approach of the comet. The ion drive would 
steadily retard the vehicle, slowly stopping it, then 
accelerating it back in the direction from which it came 
— that is, in a retrograde path. With everything timed 
properly, as Halley came along, the vehicle would be put 
into a nearby orbit with it, adjusting the velocity so it 
would "park" near the comet. Observations, measure- 
ments, probes, samplings of gases and solids would all be 
made at low relative velocity. Superb detailed measure- 



ments could have been made. The plan was scrapped, 
however, because of budget cuts to the space agency 
(NASA) early in Mr. Reagan's first administration. 

As it now stands, the U.S., once a leader in space, 
will have no major close-up study of this comet. Most of 
the significant studies will be made by ESA (the Euro- 
pean Space Agency), Japan, and (of course) the USSR. 

The Russians will, in fact, have the first close en- 
counter with Halley. They have two probes, Vega 1 and 
Vega 2. Vega I will pass about 6,000 miles away from the 
head ofthe comet on March 6, 1986. Ve^fliwillpassbyit 
three days later at about the same distance. These probes 
are designed to take TV pictures and measure dust, gas, 
and heat from the comet. 

The ESA probe has been named Giotto, after the Ital- 
ian painter, Giotto di Bondone (12767-1337), who de- 
picted Halley's Comet as the Star of Bethlehem in one of 
his frescoes, the Adoration ofthe Magi, in Padua. He had 
seen this comet when it appeared in 1 301 . The Giotto 
probe is very ambitious. A total often groups of meas- 
urements will be made on the chemical and physical 
make-up of the comet, including, of course, color im- 
ages of it with, it is hoped, resolution of about 30 feet. 
The experiments are being put together by laboratories 
in Germany, France, England, and Switzerland. Giotto is 
to be launched in July of 1985 and encounter the comet 
at close range in a four-hour period late on March 1 3 to 
early March 14, 1986. Because the comet and Giotto will 
be passing each other in opposite directions, the total 
encounter velocity will be about 152,000 miles per 
hour! Measurements will have to be made very fast. 

The aim of Giotto is to go through the tail and the 
coma, passing to within 600 miles ofthe solid body of it 
(the nucleus). Such a close pass creates big concern for 
the whole mission. Dust grains and bits of rock can hit 
the Giotto probe faster than rifle bullets and cause 
mechanical damage or rotate the vehicle, turning its data 
transmission antennae away from the earth (it will 
take 8 minutes for a bit of message sent from the probe to 
reach earth stations) . If all goes reasonably well even this 
fast grab at measuring Halley's properties should in- 
crease our real knowledge about this comet, and of com- 
ets in general. 

The Japanese probes. Planet A and MST-5, will 
make initial measurements at great distances from the 
comet from late January to mid-February, 1986. Then 
on March 8, Planet A will pass closer, about 125,000 
miles from the head ofthe comet. 

In order to get into the act, at least a little, the U.S. 
will aim a Pioneer vehicle, orbiting Venus, to snatch a few 
measurements on Halley as it passes by. In addition, a 
number of U.S. space scientists are involved with some 
of the experiments on the Giotto probe, and (sur- 
prisingly) a package of instrumentation from the Uni- 
versity of Chicago will be carried aboard the Soviet mis- 
sions. 




The 1956 book Wonders of the Heavens, by Kenneth Heuer, offered 
this artist's (/Vlatthew Kalmenoff) conception of IHalley's Comet as 
viewed 30 years hence, in 1986. Courtesy Dodd, t^ead, & Company. 



With even moderate success a lot will be learned 
this time. For those who are poets at heart, cool scientific 
measurements may threaten to diminish some of the 
mystery and romance of this comet. That, for certain, 
will not happen. We have only to remember that our first 
close-up views of objects seen previously as distant 
patches of light have increased the mystery and wonder 
of them: the unexpected huge dry watercourses that 
ramble across the now waterless planet Mars; the inex- 
plicable braided twists in the rings around Saturn; the 
lack of any similarity among the once-thought-similar 
moons of Saturn and Jupiter; the sodium-spouting vol- 
canoes on Jupiter's moon, lo. Each closer view answers 
ancient questions and piles up new ones. It's all part of a 
master plan to protect human scientists from com- 
placency and smugness. The mystery goes on, and that, 
surely, is the joy of it. 



25 



African Art, Paleoanthropology, and Fellowship: Themes of Two Founders' Council Affairs 



On March 8, prior to the public opening of the Art of Cameroon 
exhibit. Founders' Council members and their guests were treated 
to a special evening of fun, friendship, and education. Following a 
beautiful reception in the Founders' Room, Guest Curator Tamara 
Northern provided a brief introduction to the Cameroon exhibit. 
The group then toured the Cameroon hall, with Dr. Northern fur- 
nishing fascinating commentary on the history of this magnificent 
assemblage of African art. 

World renowned paleoanthropologist Dr. Donald Johanson 



delivered a compelling lecture to a standing-room crowd in Field 
Museum's Simpson Theatre on March 23. Following his presenta- 
tion. Dr. Johanson, who discovered the 3.5-million-year-old hu- 
man fossil "Lucy," joined Founders' Council members and other 
Museum contributors for a reception in the Founders' Room. The 
enjoyable Saturday afternoon function was highlighted by Dr. 
Johanson's inspiring remarks about his high regard for Field 
Museum, and the invaluable support the Founders' Council pro- 
vides toward strengthening the Museum. 




Tours For Members 




China and Tibet 

August 10-September I 
$5,975 (double occupancy) 

Field Museum's journey through the Orient pro- 
vides an evocative contrast of cultures. From the 
bustling streets of Hong Kong, where we find a 
mine of curios in its well-stocked shops, we 
travel into the serene beauty of traditional Chi- 
na, to Kunming. This mountain city rests on the 
shores of Lake Dianchi, which ten centuries of 
poets have likened to a pearl. The palace of San 
Qing has 1,333 steps climbing up to the Dragon 
Gate and on, to the splendid stone chamber 
called "Leading to Heaven." A day trip takes us 
to the Forest of Stone, 64,000 acres of up-thrust 
limestone pinnacles, where we may visit one of 
China's minority peoples, the Lu Nan Yi. 

Lhasa, the snow-shrouded capital of Tibet 
inspires awe in the visitor. Here, we see modern 
factories and communes contrasting sharply 
with the mystic retreats of monks. The Dalai 
Lama's palace, one of the architectural wonders 
of the world, is thirteen stories high, with 999 
rooms, 10,000 chapels, and 200,000 golden im- 
ages. An excursion by coach reveals a wild, 
steep, and rugged country of breathtaking beau- 
ty. Along the Tsampo river, past glaciers and 
■waterfalls, we travel through colorful villages, 
viewing the native crafts and precarious lifestyle 
of the Tibetan people. At last we find the glo- 
rious city of Shigatse, home of ancient art and 
history. Inside theTVashilunpo Monastery is the 
Goddess Palace, the colossal gold-plated Mait- 
reya Buddha, and the throne of the Panchen 
Lama, all worked in silk brocade. 

One of the trip's many highlights is a visit to 
Xian, where the vast life-size terra cotta army 
was discovered in 1974. We also see Ban Po vil- 
lage where the Neolithic site of Yan Shao (6,000 
B.C.) was discovered. Beijing (Peking) offers us 



the Forbidden City with its dynastic treasures on 
display. The Gate of Heavenly Peace rests on the 
square of monuments to the People's Heroes, 
and no one would want to miss the 4,000- 
mile-long Great Wall. Nearby, the Valley of the 
Thirteen Tombs, with its rows of crouching 
carved animals beckons us to the burial site of 
the Ming emperors. The Summer Palace and 
shopping conclude our visit to China. 

Finally, we enjoy a day of sightseeing in 
Narita, Japan, before boarding our homebound 
night. 

Mr. John Brzostoski, professor of Oriental 
art history at New School for Social Research in 
New York City, is our lecturer. A specialist on 
Tibet, he is fluent in Mandarin, has written 
numerous articles on the art of Asia, and lec- 
tures widely. He is founder and director of the 
Center of Oriental Studies in New York. 

Kenya 

September 6-23 
$3,695 (double occupancy) 
Rift Valley optional extension through October 1 
$1,085 per person (double occupancy) 

An exciting, adventurous experience awaits you 
in mysterious Kenya. Take a safari through some 
of the world's finest game reserves during the 
spring migration. Follow the steps of Ernest 
Hemingway, Theodore Roosevelt, and Robert 
Ruark to the foot of Africa's highest mountain, 
snow-capped Kilimanjaro. At its base lie five 
distinct habitats justly famous for such big game 
as lion, wildebeest, and rhino. In Tsavo National 
Park, East Africa's largest, great herds of 




elephant roam free, sometimes right up to the 
waterhole easily observed from Kilagumi Lodge. 
At Mzima Springs enjoy the aquatic ballet of 
hippo, fish, and crocodile from an underwater 
viewing tank. Aberdare Park boasts the giant 
forest hog, buffalo, and the rare bongo antelope. 

Around the rugged northern slopes of 
Mount Kenya through local villages where you 
can bargain for beautiful bracelets of twisted 
copper, you come to Samburu River Lodge 
whose terraces overlook the Uaso Nyiro River, 
its crocodile and elusive leopard. The nearby 
game reserve is a photographer's paradise and 
the specially equipped safari vehicles provide 
clear shots of zebra, giraffe, and gazelles, and of 
the vivid, contrasting colors of sky, bush, and 
sand. On to Mount Kenya Safari Club, made 
famous by actor William Holden, you can relax 
beside the mountain in magnificent gardens, 
fishing, golfing, playing tennis, swimming, or 
riding horseback. 

One of the safari's many highlights will be a 
visit to the Masai Mara Game Reserve of rolling 
savannah plains. This is the very best reserve in 
Kenya and from your luxury safari camp you 
can see far across vast grassland spotted with 
acacia woodlands and thickets of scrub. Impala, 
giraffe. Grant's and Thompson's gazelle make 
their home here. Lions move restlessly in search 
of a kill. 

In Narok, you may wish to buy Masai 
wares, such as belts, spears, wooden head-rests, 
and bead necklaces. In addition, Nairobi is a 
mine of souvenirs and many happy hours can be 
spent in the colorful African Market. 

As an option, bird lovers may wish to travel 
to Lake Nakuru in the Great Rift Valley, where 
thousands of flamingos make their home. Lake 
Naivasha with its papyrus fringe supports over 
500 species of exquisitely colored birds. 

Audrey Faden, a native of Kenya, will be 
your guide. She was Education Officer at the 
National Museum of Kenya and has been a Field 
Museum volunteer for many years, conducting 
field research and collecting plants in Kenya. 
She is a seasoned guide and lecturer and is well- 
versed in the wildlife, plant life, and ecology of 
Kenya. Ms. Faden is eager to share her home- 
land with you. 



If you have an interest in joining our Kenya 
Safari adventure, please call Dorothy S. Roder 
at 322-8862 for a detailed itinerary. Informa- 
tion about this and other tours may also be 
obtained by writing the Tours Department, 
Field Museum, Roosewll Road at Lake Shore 
Drive. Chicago, II. 60605. 



27 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



July/August 1985 




*^ 



X 



y 






Biennial Report 
1983-1984 






Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

July/ August 1985 
Volume 56, Number 7 



Board of TIjustees 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Slanlon Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon BenI 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson. Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling. Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



LlFElkUSTEES 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Biennial Report, 1983-1984 3 

COVER 

Natural history specimens — a tiny jar, a flower, a stone, and a 
butterfly — representing Field Museum 'sfour main scientific 
disciplines: anthropology, botany, geology, and zoology. Special 
thanks to Polly Breul, Gene Olson, Stefan Suchec, and Willy 
Watkins, who graciously provided their hands for the cover 
photos. Photography and design by David M. Walsten. 



Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except 
combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive. Chicago. 11. 60605-2495. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually S3. 00 for schools 
Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are 
their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited man- 
uscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (512) 922-9410. Notification of address change 
should include address label and be sent to Membership Department. Postmaster: Please 
send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. 
Chicago. 11. 60605-2496. ISSN:001 5-0703. Second class posuge paid at Chicago, Illinois. 



On Fridays 

Watch for Researchers 

At the Place for Wonder 

This summer get a glimpse of some activities 
which usually go on only behind-the-scenes. 
Meet and observe Field Museum staff work- 
ing with specimens from research collec- 
tions. Friday afternoons, 1:00-3:00, Place 
For Wonder. 

July 5 Observe bird specimens being 

prepared for research. 
12 Compare various saber-toothed 

skulls. 
19 Watch insect specimens being 

mounted for research collections. 

26 Explore mysterious plants we eat. 

August 2 Observe your name being written 

in Egyptian hieroglyphs. 
9 Learn techniques the Museum 

uses to maintain the books in its 

libraries. 
16 Study reptile skins and skulls. 
2 3 See a display of various weaving 

looms. 
30 Discover the process and art of 

decorating gourds. 



T 



Events 



^\ 



SUMMER FUN 1985 
Workshops for Young People 

Daily (except Monday) 
July 2 to August 4 

Beginning July 2, Field Museum offers more than 
90 summer workshops for young people ages 4 to 13. 
Museum halls come to life through tours, demon- 
strations, science projects, and art experiences. 
Explore the world of the dinosaurs Triceratops, 
Tyrannosaurus rex, and Dimetrodon — and unlock 
the secrets of the past. Travel the plains with a Sioux 
Indian and earn a sacred feather Learn the newest 
archaeological methods or reconstruct the fossil 
fish Cephalaspis. Anthropologists, zoologists, artists, 
dancers, and filmmakers bring their talent and 
expertise to create new, informative, and creative 
experiences. 

Workshops are held throughout the Museum. 
Enrollment is limited and children must be reg- 
istered in advance by mail. Call (312) 322-8854 for 
Suinmer Fun brochures, and up-to-date information 
about workshop availability. 



FAMILY FEATURES 

Tell a Story, Write a Play 

Saturday and Sunday, July 20, 21; W0-3:00pm 
Ecology Hall, second floor. 

Dr. Doolittle, the Ugly Duckling, and Rudyard 
Kipling's Just So Stories are a few examples of the 
animal stories we enjoy today. Take a look at Field 
Museum animals from a literary point of view. Talk 
about the kinds of characters we would see if the 
animals in our exhibits came to life at night. Put a 
story together as a group. At home, write your own 
animal story and send it to us for possible use in 
Animal Antics this December 1985. Child's Play Tour- 
ing Theatre plans to select a number of stories to per- 
form on December 28 and 29 in Stanley Field Hall. 

Volcanoes 

Saturday and Sunday, Aug. 10, 11; 1:00-3 :00pm 
Ecology Hall, second floor. 

Early people witnessed the eruption of Vesuvius in 
Italy, and thought it was the gods having a battle. 
When it erupted again in August, 79 a.d. the cities 
of Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried beneath 
layers of volcanic ash and lava for centuries. Today 
we know that many of our most useful rocks, such 
as granite and pumice originated from volcanic lava. 
Find out how and why volcanoes explode. Using 
magnets, compasses, and streak plates, test various 
rocks for their mineral content. Take home a piece 
of rock that may have started as lava beneath our 
earth's surface. 







WEEKEND PROGRAMS FOR JULY & AUGUST 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed 
below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend in July and August. Check the Weekend Passport upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the 
Illinois Arts Council. 



July 



Saturday, 2:00 p.m. Traditional China 
(tour). Delight in the timeless imagery 
and superb craftsmanship of Chinese 
masterworks in our collection. 



August 

4 Sunday, 2 :00 p.m. Wonderful World of 
Plants (tour). Take a botanical trip through 
jungles and deserts, mountains and 
seasides. 



7 Sunday, 1 :00 p.m. Welcome to the Field 
(tour). Explore the highways and byways 
of Field Museum while sampling some of 
its most significant exhibits. 

14 Sunday, 1 :00 p.m. Chinese Ceramic 
Traditions (tours.) Take a close look at 
6,000 years of Chinese ceramic art. 

20 Saturday, 1 2 : 00 noon. Life in Ancient Egypt 
(tours). Focus on the objects and practices 
which illustrate ancient life in the Nile 
Valley. 

21 Sunday, 1 :00 p.m. Welcome to the Field 
(tour). Explore the highways and byvvays 
of Field Museum while sampling some of 
its most significant exhibits. 

28 Sunday, 2: 30 p.m. China's Wondrous 
Animals (slide lecture). Look at real and 
imagined beasts in Chinese art, lore, and 
social life. 



10 Saturday, 12:00 noon. Continents Adrift 
(demonstration). Why have fossils of 
similar dinosaur species been found on 
continents separated by vast oceans? The 
concept of "moving" continents is 
illustrated with enormous puzzle pieces. 

17 Saturday, 11 :30 a.m. Ancient Egypt (tour). 
Experience the mystique of ancient Egypt 
from everyday life to mummification. 

18 Sunday, 1 :00 p.m. People of the Long House 
(slide lecture). A look at the Iroquois, once 
the most powerful and influential of the 
Northeastern woodland tribes. 

24 Saturday, 1 1 :00 a.m. Stories Around the 
World (story telling). Listen to the tales 
children around the world have loved 
through the centuries. 



These public programs are free with Museum admission and no tickets are required. 




FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

BIENNIAL REPORT 
1983-1984 



People, not structure, make a great 
museum. Through the years the number of 
people who commit their time and funds to 
advance the Museum has greatly multi- 
plied. This report is about the wonderful 
people who make Field Museum an excit- 
ing place to visit and learn. 



ENDINGS and BEGINNINGS 




Field Museum's two-man welcoming force at the North entrance were William Thompson (left) and James Hammond, of Security and Visitor Services. 



The Field Museum suffered the loss throughi death in 
1984 of two trustees, William G. Swartchild, Jr and John B. 
Wilkins. Mr Swartchild had served on the Board since 
1966, for four years as chairnnan; Mr Wilkins had been on 
the Board since 1969. Two life trustees also died during 
the bienniunn: Williann McCormick Blair, who had served 
on the Board from 1939 to 1972, and John M. Simpson, 
1961-74. 

Additions to the Board of Trustees were Mrs. Philip 
D. Block III, FrankW.Considine, Thomas J. Eyerman, 
LeoF Mullin, Earl L. Neal, Robert A. Pritzker, and 
Patrick G. Ryan. 

Eugenes. Richardson, Jr, curator of fossil inver- 
tebrates from 1946 to 1982, died on Jan. 21, 1983, only a 
few months after his retirement. Mary A. Hagberg, Field 
Museum registrar since 1967, died on August 16, 1984. 

Additions to the staff included the following: Jimmie 
W. Croft, vice president of Finance and Museum Ser- 
vices; David W. Booz, manager of Financial Services; 
Arlene Kiel, administrator of Human Resources; Sherry 
L. Isaac, manager of Public Relations; Barbara I. Stuark, 
manager of the Museum Store, and Barbara Blum, assis- 
tant manager; Obie M. Collins, executive housekeeper; 
and Thomas B. Dugan, manager of Security and Visitor 
Services. The Department of Development staff gained 



records coordinator Leonard Evans, Development man- 
ager David G. McCreery, grants officer Glenn S. Pare, 
and corporate development officer Thomas D. Wilson. 
R. Lance Grande joined the Department of Geology as 
assistant curator of fossil fishes; Scott H. Lidgard joined 
Geology as assistant curator of fossil invertebrates. 

Charles T Buzek, formerly with Security and Visitor 
Services, joined the Office of the President as project 
coordinator Centennial Directions. Promotions included 
Benjamin W. Williams's move to associate librarian and 
Rare Books librarian. Botany's Timothy C. Plowman was 
promoted to associate curator of vascular plants. Michael 
E. Moseley was promoted to curator of Middle and South 
American archaeology and ethnology; John E. Terrell was 
promoted to curator of oceanic archaeology and ethnol- 
ogy Dr Plowman was also appointed scientific editor of 
Field Museum Press (which produces Fieldiana), while 
James W. VanStone, curator of North American archae- 
ology and ethnology, was named assistant editor of 
the press. 

Bruce D. Patterson, assistant curator of Mammals, 
was named chairman of Scientific Support Services (for- 
merly designated Advanced Technologies Laboratory), 
while John J. Engel, associate curator of Bryology was 
named supervisor of that group's scientific illustrators. 



William G. Swartchild, Jr. 



The death of William G. Swartchild, Jr., former chairman of Field Museum's Board 
of Trustees, on March 15, 1984, was a loss beyond measure to Field Museum and 
its trustees, Women's Board, and staff. 

Mr Swartchild was born in Chicago in 1909. After graduating from Dartmouth, 
where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, he entered Swartchild & Company, a 
family business of which he was president at the time of its sale in 1 973. Although he 
devoted a great deal of his time to public service throughout his life, his retirement 
from active business responsibilities freed him to devote full time in service to 
others — service which continued until his death. 

He was elected a trustee of Field Museum in 1966. Typical of his sense of 
commitment to any institution with which he became associated, he quickly took an 
active leadership position among the trustees. In 1972-73 he was a member of a 
trustees' committee that developed a reorganized Board structure. Upon that 
reorganization he became vice chairman of the Board, heading the important Pro- 
gram Planning and Evaluation Committee. He was elected chairman of the Board of 
Trustees in 1978, serving in that capacity until 1982, at which time he was suc- 
ceeded by James J. O'Connor Following his chairmanship, Mr. Swartchild served 
as vice chairman. Internal Affairs, and as a member of the Nominating Committee. 

William Swartchild had an extraordinary understanding of the dynamics of 
nonprofit institutions and the various constituencies comprising them. At Field 
Museum this was evidenced by the complete confidence in him on the part of the 
staff, Women's Board, and trustees. 

He was active and equally respected in the American Association of 
Museums, serving as a vice chairman of the Trustees' Committee and as a member 
of the Commission on Museums for a New Century — a national planning effort for 
the years ahead. He was instrumental in preparing American Association of 
Museums' Museum Trusteeship and Museum Ethics. 

Active for many years in the field of health care, Mr. Swartchild served as Trus- 
tee of Michael Reese Hospital, Children's Memorial Hospital, and McGaw Medical 
Centers and he was chairman of Children's and McGaw, as well as the Council on 
Governance of the Illinois Hospital Association, at the time of his death. He had 
served as a director of Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Illinois and of HMO Illinois. Mr. 
Swartchild was also a trustee of the Brookfield Zoo. 

Beyond all of his achievement in business and philanthropy, he was a warm 
and thoughtful person who cared about people. He brought a quality of excellence 
and humanity to anything he touched. He was a model of dedication of personal 
energy for the public good. The City of Chicago is a better place because of William 
Swartchild's life. 



DEVELOPMENT 




Bowen Blair (center), first president of ttie newly organized Founders' Council, sfiown with Mr. and l^rs. Henry W. Meers, council members. 



Highlighting the Biennium in the area of support for 
ttie Museum was creation of the Founders' Council in 
1 983. In September of that year, an inaugural banquet 
launched the support club's program with a charter 
membership of approximately 250 of the principal 
donors to the Museum. The driving force behind estab- 
lishment and recruitment for the Founders' Council was 
Bowen Blair, partner, William Blair & Company, and a 
Museum trustee. Mr. Blair also during 1 983 served as the 
Council's first president. He was succeeded by Mr. Tho- 
mas J. Eyerman, partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Mr 
Eyerman continued to build upon the strong foundation 
established by Mr Blair, and the Founders' Council grew, 
not only in numbers, but in programmatic support. In 
1 984 the council initiated its Founders' Council Award of 
Merit program, through which a world-famous scientist is 
honored. The first award went to Stephen Jay Gould, 
Ph.D., distinguished scientist, educator and commenta- 
tor, currently professor of zoology at Harvard University 
and curator of Invertebrate Paleontology at the universi- 
ty's Museum of Comparative Zoology 

The challenge to and goal of Founders' Council 
members is to pass on to Chicagoans of the 21 st century 
a museum as vital and prestigious as original founders 
passed on to Chicagoans of this century (Persons inter- 
ested in joining this group should contact David G. 
McCreery, director of Development (31 2) 322-8877.) 

The years 1 983 and 1 984 also saw increases in and 
new records set in support from all areas of the private 
sector: corporations, foundations, and individuals. 1984 
was the final year of a second five-year support program 



entitled "Commitment to Distinction." At the end of the 
1 980-84 period, a total of more than $14,000,000 had 
been donated, including more than $3,000,000 in 
bequests. 

Changes were effected in the organizational struc- 
ture of the Development Office during the biennium, to 
enhance the capabilities, scope, and efficiency of the 
department: yet, with the expansion, fund-raising costs 
have been kept at a minimum in relation to annual operat- 
ing budgets. A grants office was created in 1 983, and 
Glenn S. Pare, who came from a similar post at Loyola 
University, was appointed grants officer The Grants 
Office coordinates proposals from the scientific and 
educational departments of the Museum, seeking funds 
from governmental agencies such as the National Sci- 
ence Foundation. Special proposals to foundations and 
individuals are also generated by the Grants Office. 

In order to carry out the departmental expansion ex- 
peditiously and efficiently, a "development audit" was 
conducted by an independent consultant firm, Donald A. 
Campbell & Company, Inc., in 1984. This study affirmed 
the direction the Museum and its Development Office 
had been taking, and made recommendations by which 
the department could "fine tune" the procedures. The 
internal audit by the Campbell Company was also made 
as part of a feasibility study looking toward a major 
capital campaign for endowment and for repair and 
improvements of the building and exhibits. 

Success of support efforts during the period was 
due in no small part to the vigorous leadership and self- 
less commitment of time and talent on the part of the 



DEVELOPMENT 



Board of Trustees, especially members of the Resource 
Planning and Development Committee of the Board. 
Robert O. Bass, retired vice-chairman of Borg-Warner 
Corporation and now chairman and president of the 
Borg-Warner Foundation, completed a term as chairman 
of this committee at the end of 1983. Richard M. Jones, 
vice chairman of the board and chief financial officer, 
Sears, Roebuck and Company, succeeded Mr Bass. 
Prior to that, both Mr. Jones and Mr Bass had each been 
chairman of the Corporations and Foundations Division 
of volunteer businessmen and executives; 1 984 Cor- 
porations and Foundations Division chairman was Gene 
L. Harmon, vice president for Corporate and Public 
Affairs, Sears, Roebuck and Company. Field Museum is 
particularly grateful to these persons and to the members 
of the Resource Planning and Development Committee 
for their efforts in recruiting exceptionally generous 
donors in all sectors: corporations, foundations, and indi- 
viduals. The Museum wishes to cite these donors: 

Benefactors elected during the biennium were: 
Amoco Foundation, Miss Virginia Billow (bequest). The 
Chicago Community Trust, Field Foundation of Illinois, 
Walter E. Heller Foundation, Mrs. Jean Butz James, The 
Joyce Foundation of Chicago, W. K. Kellogg Foundation, 
John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Robert 
R. McCormick Charitable Trust, and the Searle 
Family Trust. 

Major Donors (Corporate, Foundation, and Indi- 
viduals) were: The Allstate Foundation, Atlantic Richfield 
Foundation, Barker Welfare Foundation, Mr and Mrs. 
Gordon Bent, Mrs. G. E. (Katharine) Boone, Borg-Warner 
Foundation, Mr. and Mrs. Roger O. Brown, Buchanan 
Family Foundation, Commonwealth Edison Co., The Con- 
solidated Foods Corporation (now Sara Lee), Continental 



Bank Foundation, Mr and Mrs. Robert O. Delaney Mr. 
and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley, Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting, FMC 
Foundation, Mr and Mrs. Joseph N. Field, First National 
Bank of Chicago, Graham Foundation for Advanced 
Studies in the Fine Arts, Mrs. William A. Hark, Illinois Bell, 
Mr and Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer, Mr and Mrs. Kenneth 
Montgomery McMaster Carr Supply Co., Sterling Morton 
Charitable Trust, Naico Foundation, The Northern Trust 
Company, Frederick Henry Prince Charitable Trust, The 
Pritzker Foundation, Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman, Mr and 
Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal, S & C Electric Co., Dr. Scholl 
Foundation, Mr and Mrs. William L. Searle, Mrs. George 
T Spensley Mr. and Mrs. Jack Staehle, Mr and Mrs. Wil- 
liam Street, Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift, and Mr and Mrs. 
Roderick S. Webster 

The Planned Giving Office, organized within the 
Development Office in 1981, continued to conduct an 
aggressive "will approach" in its program to interest 
members, donors, and friends in deferred giving. The 
program increased the popularity of making gifts through 
bequests, to perpetuate one's name and one's annual 
giving. In the biennium, $806,554 was received by way of 
bequests and added to the Museum's endowment funds. 
The Planned Giving Program has also sparked interest in 
deferred gifts (giving through life income annuity trusts), 
and, during the biennium, received three such gifts of 
future interest that totaled more than $400,000. Since its 
inception, a trustee committee of W.R. Dickinson, Jr., 
partner, Wilson & Mcllvaine, and Hugo Melvoin, Hugo 
Melvoin, P.C., has given the Planned Giving Office cap- 
able leadership and wise guidance. All bequests and 
deferred gifts are placed in the Museum's endowment 
portfolio to ensure the Museum's future. D 




The dedicated service of Llois Stem, a Field Museum volunteer since 1972. was invaluable in Itie transformation and reorganization of Field Museum s 
Pacific Research Latxyratory. Shown with her are carvings of human figures from New Guinea. 



10 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH: ANTHROPOLOGY 



Bennet Bronson, associate curator of Asian archaeol- 
ogy and ethnology, continued researching preindustrial 
iron metallurgy of Asian cultures; History and Ethnology 
of Iron, coauthored with Professor William Rostoker of the 
University of Illinois at Chicago, was in progress. Bron- 
son spent two months in Thailand surveying archaeo- 
logical sites and consulting with the Thai Archaeology 
Division and with officials of the Fine Arts University. 
Related research has resulted in published articles 
on the casting of farm tools and hardware in China, the 
cast iron bells of China, and archaeological radiocarbon 
dates from Indonesia. 

Glen Cole, curator of prehistory and department 
chairman, continued work on the analysis of raw mater- 
ials used at the Isimilia prehistoric site in Tanzania. Cole 
also studied Upper Paleolithic artifacts and associated 
faunal material from several sites in the Pyrenees area in 
southern France, acquired by former curator Henry Field 
in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Cole and collaborator 
Dr Paul Bahn of Hull, England, a specialist in Pyrenean 
prehistory, worked toward publishing this material. 

Alan L. Kolata, visiting assistant curator of Andean 
archaeology, did research for a monograph entitled An 
Architectural History of Chan Chan. 

Phillip H. Lewis, curator of primitive art and Melane- 
sian ethnology, compared the tourist art of the Sepik, the 
traditional art in the social context of New Ireland memo- 
rial ceremonials, and the National Museum of Papua New 
Guinea both as patron and as repository of art in a paper 
presented at the Pacific Arts Association's 3rd Interna- 
tional Symposium on Oceanic Art. This research was 
based on field work done in New Ireland and on obser- 
vations made in New Guinea in 1981. 

Michael E. Moseley, curator of Middle and South 
American archaeology and ethnology, and Robert Feld- 
man, visiting assistant curator of Andean archaeology, 
directed the continuing field research of Programa Con- 
tisuyu, a bi-national archeological project in the Mo- 
quegua Valley of southern Peru. Sites under study range 
from a shell midden near the coastal port of llo, radiocar- 
bon dated at more than 10,500 years old, to sites around 
the city of Moquegua, ranging in age from Spanish Colo- 
nial (ca. AD 1650) to Tiwanaku (ca. ad 600-1000) and 
Pukara (ca. 300 BC). With the aid of students from the 
Universidad Catolica Santa Maria of Arequipa, Feldman 
directed excavation of a cemetery of the Chiribaya cul- 
ture {ca. AD 1200) and a Tiwanaku house site, both 
threatened by urban expansion and construction. 
Moseley took a leave of absence starting September, 
1984, to teach at the University of Florida, Gainesville. 

John Terrell, curator of Oceanic archaeology and 
ethnology, completed his book Prehistory in the Pacific 
Islands, to be published by Cambridge University Press. 
He extended this line of research to give an unconven- 
tional picture of Australian prehistory, presented in a lec- 
ture delivered at the Quarternary Research Center at 



the University of Washington in May 1984, entitled "Pre- 
historic Peoples of the Western Pacific." He also began 
work on an alternative biological model of the origin of 
Polynesian speakers and the evolution of human 
diversity in the Fijian archipelago. 

James VanStone, curator of North American 
archaeology and ethnology, completed studies of two 
collections of ethnographic material, one collected 
by William Duncan Strong in 1928 from the David Inlet 
Barren Ground Naskapi in Labrador, the other collected 
at the end of the nineteenth century from the Oroki and 
Nivkhi of Sakhalin Island, Work continued on two other 
studies, one of contemporary Athapaskan Indian eth- 
nographic objects from interior Alaska and another of 
Nunivak Eskimo material culture based on field notes 
of Dr Margaret Lantis in the 1930s. VanStone also con- 
tinued translating and editing the journals of nineteenth- 
century Russian explorers in southwest Alaska. 

A major advance in the storage of anthropological 
materials was achieved with the reorganization and 
renovation of the Pacific Research Laboratory, a facility 
with some 35,000 objects from Australia, Melanesia, 
Polynesia, Micronesia, Indonesia/Malaysia, and 
Madagascar. 

The project, initiated in 1981, was made possible by 
a $168,800 grant from the National Science Foundation. 
Codirectors of the project were Phillip Lewis and Phyllis 
Rabineau, custodian of collections. Staff members who 
worked on the project were Kathleen Christon, Christine 
Taterka Gross, E.B. O'Malley, Beth Koenen-Seelbach, 
Maryanne Schoch, and Col. Millard Rada. Volunteer 
Llois Stein also contributed invaluably to the project. 

Before reorganization, the Pacific Research Lab was 
equipped with 10,525 sq. ft. of shelving, an insufficient 
amount to properly accommodate the collection. During 
the grant-funded reorganization project, shelf area was 
increased by almost 70 percent. Three thousand sq. ft. 
of new shelving were purchased, and this was supple- 
mented with 4,000 sq. ft. of used shelving already on 
hand. Lighting throughout the storage area was im- 
proved by adding new fluorescent fixtures and installing 
ultraviolet filters. All objects in the prl were cleaned 
and their storage arrangement was shifted to a rational 
arrangement based on provenience data. 

In addition to the tasks funded by the nsf grant, 
several other improvements were carried out with 
museum resources: Interior walls of the storage area 
were painted; the concrete floor was sealed; the work 
area just outside the storage area of prl was redesigned 
to be used for processing accessions and loans, and as 
research space; the climate control system in prl was 
retrofitted to ensure an absolutely stable temperature 
and humidity (70°Fand 50% rh). The techniques used 
to stabilize climate control in prl will be used to help 
redesign other heating and airconditioning systems 
in the building. D 




12 



w 



Plants of the World Hall, viewed from the lounge. 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH: 

The work of the Department of Botany falls into several 
categories. The research activities of 1983-84 are best 
expressed by the published research of staff members 
(see page 31 ). The five staff curators in Botany cov- 
ered a wide range of research interests. William Burger 
continued his work on the Flora of Costa Rica project with 
a study of the Lauraceae family This family includes the 
avocado and sassafras and many important tropical 
timber trees, but is also marked by a very poorly devel- 
oped system of classification. Michael Dillon continued 
his work in the sunflower family (Compositae), especially 
those in Peru, where more than 1,400 species are found. 
He also began a major study of the lomas formations, 
unusual "islands of vegetation" within the deserts 
of Peru's arid Pacific coast. John Engel continued his 
work on liverworts (Hepaticae) of the southern end of 
the world, especially Tasmania and New Zealand. He 
continued his revision of several large and difficult 
groups well represented in this area as part of this pro- 
ject. Timothy Plowman's interest focused on the origin, 
history, and ethnobotany of the coca plant, as well as the 
taxonomy of the coca family (Erythroxylaceae). Another 
important research interest was the ethnobotany of the 
upper Amazon Basin, and Dr Plowman worked together 
with several anthropologists to produce documented 
treatments of how plants are used in this area. Patricio 
Ponce de Leon continued his studies in the puffball and 
earth stars fungi (Gastermycetes) and aided physicians 
in the identification of mushrooms in cases of suspected 
poisoning. 

Botany was fortunate in having a number of visiting 
assistant curators working in the department during the 
1 983-84 biennium. Kerry Barringer worked on the Flora 
of Costa Rica program; he prepared a treatment of 
the snapdragon family (Scrophulariaceae) and, with a 
colleague, a listing of Costa Rica's 1,130 species of 
orchids. Sylvia Feuer-Forster worked on her own pollen- 
study research in the mistletoes (Loranthaceae) and 
related families. Michael Huft participated in the Flora 
Mesoamericana project of the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, but he was stationed at Field Museum because of 
its very strong holdings from Central America. Michael 
Nee worked with the Flora of Veracruz, Mexico, program 
and collected intensively in the area of the flora. 

Closely related to research as well as to the 
Museum's collecting programs are the expeditions and 
field work. These usually are planned well in advance 
and are part of long-term projects. However with the 
unusual E/ /V/no weather perturbation of 1982-83, the 
coastal deserts of Peru burst into full flower and Michael 
Dillon initiated a series of three collecting trips (see "The 
Silver Lining of a Very Dark Cloud," by Dillon in the March 
1 985 Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin). Timothy 
Plowman participated in two important expeditions: the 
western Amazon of Brazil and to the Cerro de la Neblina 
in southernmost Venezuela. In addition, he visited sev- 



BOTANY 

eral other areas of Brazil to gather rarely collected 
species. John Engel spent five months collecting and 
working with colleagues in New Zealand's South Island 
and in Tasmania. Ourvisiting curators did field work in 
Veracruz and Chiapas, Mexico, and in Costa Rica during 
1983 and 1984. 

A major category of work in Botany deals with the 
collections themselves and our loan program. We sent 
53,1 66 specimens out on loan for study during 1983 and 
1 984. This loan program makes our material available to 
scholars all over the world. In this same period we took 
in about 42,000 specimens through expeditions, ex- 
changes, gifts and purchases. Many of the new collec- 
tions were not identified and require the efforts of our 
staff or outside specialists to identify. This work, together 
with providing loans, mounting of speciments, and main- 
tenance of collections, required the full-time effort of 
more than six staff members. Care of our 2.2 million plant 
specimens and the addition of high-quality new material 
were central responsibilities for the Museum's botanists. 

In September 1983 the Museum reopened its largest 
botanical exhibit, "Plants of the World." Used as a staging 
area for the "King Tut" exhibit of 1977 and having suf- 
fered minor damage during the building renovation, the 
hall was in need of a major face-lifting. Generous contri- 
butions from the Field Foundation of Illinois and the 
Women's Board made possible a reorganization of the 
hall and the reinstallation of nearly all the exhibits. Warm 
incandescent lights'were provided to highlight the plant 
models against a natural wood background. Color photo- 
graphs, diagrams, and a uniform format of easily read 
explanatory labels complement the life-like models. 
These models, more than 400 in number, were built in the 
Museum's plant reproduction laboratory (no longer in 
operation) over a period of sixty years and are notable for 
their natural appearance. The collection includes many 
tropical and economically important plants, providing a 
richly aesthetic experience as well as fulfilling an impor- 
tant educational role. D 



13 




Scott Lldgard (left) and Lance Grande were Field Museum 's new curators in 1983-84. Lidgard, wtio joined the Geology staff as assistant curator of 
Fossil Invertebrates in October 1984, is investigating evolutionary patterns ofgrowtti and form in fossil animal colonies. Grande, who arrived in October 
1983, is particularly interested in the relationships and comparative osteology of fossil teleost fishes. As assistant curator of Fossil Fishes, he oversees 
one of the world's finest collections of such material. 



14 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH: GEOLOGY 



The Department of Geology appointed two new staff 
members during the 1983-84 biennium. Published 
research addressed a broad spectrum of geological 
problems (see page 32) in the fields of paleontology, 
petrology, and meteoritics. Growth of the departmental 
collections continued in all areas but was especially 
strong in fossil fishes, mineralogy and fossil plants. In the 
sphere of public programs, Edward Olsen was heavily in- 
volved in the planning and design of the new Gem Hall. 

Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany. Scott 
Lidgard joined the staff from Johns Hopkins University in 
October 1984, as assistant curator, Fossil Invertebrates. 
He initiated several projects on the fossil history of 
.changing patterns of growth and form in animal 
colonies. Matthew Nitecki continued his research on the 
evolution, morphology and systematics of Lower 
Paleozoic problematic fossils and algae. He was co- 
organizer of the Third International Congress on Fossil 
Algae, and in conjunction with his research he spent six 
months during 1984 as an exchange scholar in the USSR, 
supported by the U.S. and Soviet Academies of Scien- 
ces. With the support of the National Science Founda- 
tion, Nitecki also continued to organize the Field Museum 
Spring Systematics Symposia, which dealt with the 
topics of Extinctions and The Evolution of Behavior dur- 
ing 1984 and 1985. Peter Crane completed studies of 
fossil plants from southern England and western North 
America that provided the first detailed information on 
several widespread and ecologically important early Ter- 
tiary species. He also continued his work (with D. L. Dil- 
cher) on the morphology systematics, and biology of 
some of the most ancient angiosperm flowers currently 
known. In May 1984 Crane was awarded the Bicentenary 
Medal of the Linnean Society of London in recognition of 
his paleobotanical work. 

Vertebrate Paleontology. John Bolt continued his 
research on Upper Paleozoic and Triassic reptiles and 
amphibians, with field work in Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Oklahoma. Studies of the origin of frogs, and patterns of 
jaw growth and tooth replacement in fossil amphibians 
and reptiles were completed, and new projects on larval 
amphibians from the Pennsylvanian "Mazon Creek" 
fauna were initiated. Lance Grande joined the staff in 
October 1983 from the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory as assistant curator. Fossil Fishes. His research 
interests focus on the systematics and biogeography of 
Mesozoic to Recent fossil fishes, particularly the rela- 
tionships and comparative osteology of fossil and Recent 
herring and herring-like fishes. Grande's 1984 field sea- 
son in the Green River Formation of Wyoming substanti- 
ally enhanced the fossil fish collections at Field Museum 
with numerous spectacular specimens. William Turnbull 
carried out field work on Eocene mammalian faunas in 
the Washakie Basin of Wyoming. He is currently studying 
the rodent Protoptychus and (with Research Associate 
Kubet Luchterhand) the primates from the Washakie 



fauna. Turnbull also continued his research on the func- 
tional morphology of the mammalian masticatory appar- 
atus and ear region. During 1984 he visited the Museum 
of Victoria (Australia) to complete several aspects of his 
work (with Research Associate Ernest Lundelius, Jr., Uni- 
versity of Texas, Austin) on Tertiary and Pleistocene- 
Holocene fossil faunas in Australia. 

Meteoritics, Mineralogy and Petrology. Edward 
Olsen continued his research in various aspects of 
meteoritics, and with George McGhee of Rutgers Univer- 
sity completed an initial study aimed at testing the 
hypothesis of asteroid impact in the Late Devonian. 
Collaborative research continued with colleagues at 
Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chi- 
cago, and several projects were completed dealing par- 
ticularly with carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites. 
Bertram Woodland continued studies on the origin of 
rock cleavage and mineral fabric development in very 
low-grade metamorphic rocks, and completed work on 
the growth and shape modifications of chlorite por- 
phyroblasts relating to cleavage in mudstone and con- 
cretions. These studies have now been extended to 
include biotite and chlorite porphyroblasts in slates 
from upper Michigan. D 



The outstanding work of Peter Crane, assistant curator of Paleobotany. 
was widely recognized. He received in 1984 ttie British Paleontological 
Association 's annual award for the best paper given by a research work- 
er under the age of 30. Later he received the Bicentenary Medal of the 
Linnean Society of London — an annual award to an outstanding biologist 
under the age of 40. In 1983 he was named co-editor of the distinguished 
journal Paleobiology. Crane joined the Field fvluseum staff in 1982. 




S 15 




Field Museum has a long tradition of hosting visiting scientists who wish to draw upon the Museum's vast collection resources and research facilities. 
Mr Yang Datong (left), curator of Herpetology at Kunming Institute of Zoology, the People's Republic of China, spent several months studying the 
taxonomy of the frog genus Amolops. Jack Fooden (right), a research associate in Zoology since 1969 and professor emeritus of Zoology at Chicago 
State University, continues his work at Field Museum on the evolution and biology of the Asian monkey genus Macaca (macaques), on which he is a 
world authority 



16 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH: ZOOLOGY 



The Department of Zoology, the largest of the Museum's 
four curatorial departments, consists of six divisions: 
Amphibians and Reptiles, Birds, Fishes, Insects, Inverte- 
brates, and Mammals, staffed by twelve curators, six 
collection managers, and support personnel in various 
technical and nontechnical positions. The range of their 
research activities was reflected in the publication of 
more than 60 papers and monographs during the 1 983- 
84 biennium (see pp. 33-35). 

Amphibians and Reptiles. Harold Voris studied sea 
snake populations in Malaya. He also studied aspects of 
the biology of sea snakes and developed procedures for 
marking the live snakes, thus solving a major problem in 
ecological studies of this group. With Research Associ- 
ate William Jeffries and Mrs. Yang Chang Man, Voris also 
worked on the growth and life history of two barnacle 
species that occur symbiotically with the crab Scylla 
serrata. Robert F. Inger continued an ecological analysis 
of frogs of southern India. He also completed a key to 
the frogs of Sarawak and studies on paternal care in a 
Sarawak frog species. Hymen Marx completed (with 
Research Associate Eric Lombard) studies of a highly 
variable skull bone in the feeding apparatus of snakes. 
Alan Resetar worked on revision of two genera of African 
snakes. Research Associate Sharon Emerson did re- 
search on the biomechanics and development of frog 
pectoral girdle morphology — work supported by a Na- 
tional Science Foundation grant. 

Birds. John Fitzpatrick completed a checklist of 
birds and mammals of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, 
Manu National Park, Peru. The list is the most complete 
inventory of these fauna for an Amazonian locality ever 
published. Fitzpatrick continued (with Research Associ- 
ate G. E. Woolfenden of the University of South Florida) 
life history and demography studies of the Florida scrub 
jay Their book. The Florida Scrub Jay, was published late 
in 1984. Fitzpatrick also completed (with Jurgen Haffer of 
West Germany) analysis of geographic variation of cer- 
tain Amazonian bird species. This was the first use of 
computer-generated "trend surface" maps to illustrate 
regional patterns of variation across the Amazon basin. 
David Willard continued to study mensural characteris- 
tics of spring versus winter migrants salvaged from the 
Chicago area. With J. Fitzpatrick he also studied winter 
distribution of birds in the western Great Lakes region. 
Willard and Research Associate Joel Cracraft con- 
tributed to a survey of Venezuela's Cerro de la Neblina. 
This highly publicized project is producing the first 
thorough scientific collection from this isolated massif. 

Fishes. Robert Johnson continued studies on the 
shore fishes of Belize and Honduras in Central America. 
He organized two collecting expeditions to Isia Roatan 
off the north coast of Honduras. In 10 years of collecting 
in Belize and Honduras he and colleagues have amas- 
sed the largest and most diverse (by habitat and by spe- 



cies) collection of Caribbean fishes from Central Amer- 
ica. Johnson was an invited speaker and contributed 3 
papers in the international symposium, "Ontogeny and 
the Systematics of Fishes," held in La Jolla, California. 
He was elected and is serving as managing editor of 
Copeia, the scientific journal of the American Society of 
Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. The work of Donald 
J. Stewart focused on neotropical freshwater fishes. 
His 1983 collecting expedition to Amazonian Ecuador 
yielded (together with materials from a similar expedition 
in 1981) the single most comprehensive set of fish sam- 
ples ever taken in the Upper Amazon, covering nearly 
all available habitats between altitudes of 200 and 
2,500 meters. 

Insects. Research focused on the systematics and 
evolution of staphylinid beetles and of soil and parasitic 
mites. John J. Kethley completed a study of relationships 
among harpypalpine mites, which are parasitic on birds. 
Larry Watrous continued study of the systematics and 
evolution of certain staphylinid beetles and worked with 
James S. Ashe on studies of descriptive features of im- 
mature staphylinids. Ashe continued work on mushroom- 
inhabiting staphylinids, including studies of the evolu- 
tionary relationships between structure and food-plant 
preference in these beetles. 

Invertebrates. Alan Solem completed 20 years of 
research with publication of a 336 quarto-page mono- 
graph, Endodontoid Land Snails from Pacific Islands. 
Part II. Families Punctidae and Charopidae, Zoogeogra- 
ptiy, which includes descriptions of 19 new genera and 
50 new species; carried out extensive fieldwork in central 
and northwestern Australia, collecting about 20,000 
specimens of land snails; published 500 pages of 
technical reports on Australian camaenid land snails; 
organized and chaired in September 1 983 a three-day 
symposium in Budapest, Hungary that resulted in a 
1 91 -page volume, World-wide Snails: Biogeographical 
Studies on Non-marine l^ollusca, published by E. J. 
Brill, Leiden, in late 1984. 

Mammals. Bruce Patterson, whose work focuses 
on morphological and genetic variation in mammals, 
conducted detailed studies of mammal populations 
along altitudinal transects of rain forest habitats in Chile 
and surveyed the fauna on six islands in the Chilean 
Archipelago. This work resulted in the discovery of a 
new mammal species and a valuable data base for addi- 
tional studies. Robert Timm, whose work focuses on the 
ecology and systematics of Neotropical bats and on 
host-parasite coevolution, made a mammal survey in 
Amazonian Ecuador This work included studies of tent- 
making bats, and a survey and report on the endangered 
Amazonian manatee. 



17 





FlEliMNA 



RELDIANA 
Geology 



Zoology 



„l i^ Sabgeam Akodmi 
.-..,. J tisidael in SoBthem Sooth Aawric* 

'.].,■'[ ■,- riptioD ot» New Speci« 



18 




Zbigniew T. Jastrzebski, senior 
scientific illustrator. Scientific 
Support Services, was the senior 
member of a team of four artists 
who provided a wide variety of 
illustrations for the scientific 
departments. 



THE MAMWUAN FMOU Of 

rA»T Vt MAOKKCODAt KiKmcmut 

nN0iL un^mMAm 

mUMMD TV«NtuU 



Fieldiana. Field Museum's research 
journal published since 1895, 
underwent a change of format in 
1984. The new format left, and the 
old format right. 



SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT SERVICES, FIELDIANA 



The Department of Scientific Support Services (former- 
ly the Advanced Technology Laboratories) had a busy 
tDienniunn. Rechristened in recognition of the expanded 
services it provides, the department was responsible for 
the scientific computer, the scanning electron micro- 
scope, and scientific illustration, as well as the histologic- 
al and biochemical laboratories. Major initiatives during 
the last two years included: full-fledged collection com- 
puterization efforts by several scientific departments; 
development of short-term and long-term plans for future 
computerization; expanded laboratory facilities for the 
scanning electron microscope; continued production of 
highest-quality scientific illustrations for publications by 
the Museum's curatorial staff; acquisition of photostat 
copier and label generator, enlarging the scope of 
illustration services; refurbishment of the histological 
laboratory; coordination of long-term plans for the 
biochemical labs. The range and quality of these essen- 
tial services are reflected in the quality and number of 
scientific articles published by the Museum's scientific 
staff (pp. 30-35). D 

Fieldiana, Field Museum's research journal, underwent 
a change in format in July, 1 984, increasing in page size 
from 6x9 inches to 7 x 10 inches, and changing in page 
design from one column to two. Of the 1 8 titles published 
during the biennium (Anthropology 1, Botany 5, Geology 
2, Zoology 10), three appeared in the new format. 
Timothy C. Plowman, associate curator of Botany and 
former chairman of the Publications Committee, suc- 
ceeded John R. Bolt as scientific editor. James W. 
VanStone, curator of North American archaeology and 
ethnology, was named assistant scientific editor. 




TanisseR. Bezin, managing editor of F\e\(i\ar[a. 



19 




A school teacher and students enjoy exhibit-viewing in field trip portion of the program "Student/Teacher Internship in a Cultural Institution, " or 
STtci STici is the Education Department's program of workshops and field trips designed to train Chicago teachers in the special object-based 
skills needed to teach effectively in museums. The two-year program was funded by the Joyce Foundation. 



20 



EDUCATION 



The Programs Offered by the Department of Education 
are as diverse as the many publics that are served. Field 
Museum provides a unique learning environment with its 
rich resource of real objects. The visitor may contemplate 
the meanings of these treasures at leisure or actively par- 
ticipate in a program or series of programs that builds on a 
special interest and/or personal experience. Museum 
"education" is interpretive and interactive. It is designed to 
lead the visitor to explore and discover the mysteries of the 
earth and its inhabitants at specific points in time together 
with the implications for the future. 

During 1983-84, the Museum hosted 9,041 school 
classes with 400,000 students and their teachers. Of these, 
6,582 classes received special programs designed to aug- 
ment their classroom studies. In addition, 3,246 teachers 
borrowed over 8,500 items from the department's free loan 
center, Harris Extension. Over 4,500 adult learners enrolled 
in 207 multi-session courses, and 4,222 visited 117 eco- 
logically important sites during Kroc field trips. Over 
244,000 parents and children shared the delight of touch- 
ing and exploring shells, meteorites, birds, and beaver 
among many other objects in the Place for Wonder, and 
104,000 experienced what life was like in the 1850s in the 
Pawnee Earth Lodge. Each weekend, visitors received a 
"Passport to Discovery," listing the events for the day when 
they entered the Museum. Free programs included the Chi- 
na Festival, Najwa Dance performance, paper-making, 
Japanese Tea Ceremony Dinosaur Days, Caribbean Con- 
nection, Gospel Choir, and the Darlene Blackburn Dancers. 
Theatre programs included Peking Opera, Ravi Shankar, 



Renowned composer- 
musician Ravi Shankar 
performed to capacity au- 
diences on November 16 
and 17, 1984, in James 
Simpson Tlieatre. The 
Shankar performances 
were among many by lead- 
ing singers, dancers, 
puppeteers, musicians, 
and opera groups offered 
by the Education Depart- 
ment during the biennium. 



Yueh Lung Shadow Theatre, John Paling lecturer, and the 
Anthropology Film Festivals. Summer and Winter Fun — ^two- 
hour workshops — attracted over 3,700 children, who par- 
ticipated in everything from making masks or clay pots, 
and bug-hunting to spending a night in the Field. 

In total, 11,516 programs were presented to 759,725 
individuals. Much of this would not have been possible 
without our 150 volunteers who assist and teach with the 
staff. Another 150 volunteers work in the scientific collec- 
tions, public relations, development, and so forth. Together, 
this volunteer support equalled 77,821 hours, or 42.75 man- 
years of work. In financial terms, this contribution was over 
$500,000. But even more important — volunteers bring 
a fresh perspective and the public's viewpoint to our work, 
and their enthusiasm bolsters our spirit. 

Outside support for the education program continued 
from other sources: a two-year extension by the Joyce 
Foundation for Student Teacher Internships 1984-1986; the 
national program "Museums: Agents for Public Education," 
W. K. Kellogg Foundation; "Science in Action," University of 
Illinois — Chicago and the Spensley Fund; "Museology for 
Gifted High School Students," Chicago Board of Education; 
"Ethnic and Folk Art Museum Survey," Illinois Arts Council; 
"African Insights: Sources for Afro-American Art and Cul- 
ture," Illinois Humanities Council; interpretive programs 
"Treasures from the Shanghai Museum, " National Endow- 
ment of the Humanities; interpretive programs "Black Folk 
Art in America 1 930-1 980," National Endowment for the 
Humanities and the Teacher Preview "Black Folk Art," 
Atlantic Richfield. D 




21 



22 




EXHIBITION 



The Halls of Field Museum provided venue for eight 
temporary, traveling exhibits in 1983-84. "Master Dyers to 
the World: Early Fabrics from India," made available by 
the Textile Museum of Washington, opened to the public 
on January 29 and closed on April 10, 1983. Selected 
from museums and private collections around the world, 
the exhibit consisted of more than 100 textile items pro- 
duced in India betv\/een the fifteenth and nineteenth 
centuries, illustrating India's supremacy in the dyer's art. 

The Scientific Illustration Exhibit, on view from Febru- 
ary 14 to April 15 and again from July 15 to December 15 
of 1983, was produced by the Field Museum staff. It uti- 
lized scientific illustrations (mostly by Field Museum staff 
illustrators, past and present) to explain the history, tech- 
niques, and rationale of this special discipline. Approx- 
imately 40 illustrations in a variety of sizes and rendered 
in a number of media were displayed. Photographs as 
well as actual specimens used as subjects were also 
shown. The show was mounted on individual frames and 
designed to "rotate" in exhibit areas at times when those 
spaces were to be othenwise vacant. 

"Louis Agassiz Fuertes: A Retrospective," organ- 
ized by the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
was on view April 30 through June 26, 1983. It was the 
first comprehensive display of works of this American 
artist, who lived from 1874 to 1927. The exhibit examined 
Fuertes' historical and stylistic antecedents, traced the 
particular artistic influences shaping his destinctive 
style, and analyzed the development of his techni- 
cal mastery 

"The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: A new 
Look at the Work of Edward Curtis," was on view from 
May 21 through July 21, 1983. One hundred twenty origi- 
nal prints from Smithsonian and Library of Congress 
collections provided insight into photography as doc- 
umentation vs. photography as art. Many of these 
previously unpublished photos gave "before" and "after" 
views of the same image, showing the effects of dark- 
room manipulation caused by Curtis' attempts to remove 
evidence of white influence on the Indians from his 
photos. The exhibit also included about 20 pieces of 
equipment of the type used by Curtis. 

"Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years 
of Chinese Art," organized by the Shanghai Museum of 
the People's Republic of China and by the Asian Art 
Museum of San Francisco, was on public view November 
5, 1983, through February 14, 1984. This unique exhibi- 
tion of 232 objects was selected entirely from the collec- 
tion of Shanghai's major museum. Spanning the period 
from Chinese prehistory through the twentieth century 
the exhibit reflected the varying techniques and styles of 
Chinese artists in a multitude of forms: sculpture, paint- 
ing, ceramics, bronzes, and jades. 

"Eskimo Art and Culture," on view from March 10 
through May 27, 1984, consisted of two separate shows: 
"Inua: Spirit World of the Bering Sea Eskimo" and "Grasp 



Tight the Old Ways: The Klamer Family Collection of Inuit 
Art." The former was circulated by Smithsonian Institution 
Traveling Exhibition Service (sites), the latter by the Art 
Gallery of Ontario. The sites exhibit was drawn from the 
extensive, never-before-exhibited Edward W. Nelson 
collection at the National Museum of Natural History 
"Grasp Tight the Old Ways"— about 175 pieces- 
consisted mostly of works by contemporary artists. 

"Black Folk Art in America 1930-1980," on view April 
14 through July 15, 1984, was circulated by the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art and consisted of works by twenty sculp- 
tors, painters, and other graphic artists. Partly concurrent 
with that show was "African Insights: Sources for Afro- 
American Art and Culture," on view April 29 through 
December 31 , and drawn largely from Field Museum's 
own collection. Guest curator for the exhibit was Richard 
J. Powell, who provided accompanying lectures. Mr 
Powell also wrote the text African and Afro-American Art: 
Call and Response, to accompany the exhibit. 

A major achievement of the Exhibition Department 
was the modernization of the Museum's signage system 
and its installation in 1984 — a radical improvement over 
the previous system of signs for guiding visitors about 
the building. The system included directory maps, a 
handout map, elevator directories, and temporary signs. 
All components were designed to be easily modified or 
changed, according to the dictates of future needs. 

The major permanent installation during the bien- 
nium was "Plants of the World," in what had formerly been 
designated Hall 29. The exhibit presents more than 600 
species of plants, fossil as well as living. (For more on 
this installation see page 13.) 

To improve the effectiveness of exhibit planning, the 
Controls Division of the Exhibition Department com- 
puterized the department's financial operation. As a re- 
sult, it was able to more accurately and rapidly develop 
exhibit budgets, monitor and control exhibit costs, and 
produce weekly or — on demand — project reports 
designed to fit special needs, on the financial status of 
any project or of the department as a whole. The ability to 
easily establish encumbered costs as incurred, made it 
possible to better anticipate deviations from the budget 
and to take corrective action. It also permitted the de- 
velopment of special cost analyses tailored to the 
department's needs. With the inception of a projected 
ten-year plan, this would enhance planning efficien- 
cy and make possible the maximum output for 
expenditures. D 



Opposite.- Display of polychrome pottery figurines from the Ming 
dynasty (ad 1368-1644). These, together with 200 other art objects and 
artifacts were on view November 5. 1983, to February 14, 1984. com- 
prising the exhibition "Treasures from the Shanghai Museum — 6, 000 
Years of Chinese Art. " The exhibit was organized by the Shanghai 
Museum of the People 's Republic of China and the Asian Art Museum 
of San Francisco. Principal funding was by Control Data Corp. , Sargent 
& Lundy and Consolidated Foods Corp 23 




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24 




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umtonulum mens fVoslnun rccuniim noiir.i^UiUiiii inori- iv J 
inAiriraK«.-uitfsJain Cormic fronic ciuscifUr^llNOCCK^TIi 
cornu non Uiuuniic «a infinc ircuAvm C^Mor msu^xn Jit A iiilmo 
" f^ ■macniiiiimf jia lulcm ul ma lynw liix.-d tnijr j oMiuit in- 



(Above left) Original pencil and ink and (below right) 
watercolor renderings by Christophe Paulin de Fremin- 
ville: from a collection of 28 original drawings, ttie gift of 
Albert G. Lowenthal. (Above right) One of 35 engraved 
plates from Michael Besler's Gazophylacium Rerum 
Naturalium (Leipzig, 1642), depicting objects in the au- 
thor's natural history "cabinet": and (left) Polydore Roux, 
Ornithologie Provencale ('Paris, 1825-1830), with 450 
hand-colored plates of the birds of southern France. 
Both the Besler and the Roux were the gifts of Mr and 
Mrs. John Runnells. 




A«y 



THE LIBRARY 



In 1983-84, The Library entered a period of self-evaluation, 
which has already resulted in improved processing 
routines and in more effective services to Museum staff 
and public patrons. Over 5,500 monographic volumes 
and as many volumes of journals were added to the Lib- 
rary collections through a variety of means, including the 
international publications exchange program, the U.S. 
Depository System, gifts and purchases. As in former 
years, regular acquisition funds were supplemented 
through endowed acquisition funds given by Louis A. 
and Frances B. Wagner, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Cherry, and 
Mrs. Chester Tripp. These funds have continued to 
strengthen the Library resources that are indispensable 
to the Museum's scientific research programs. With the 
end of the biennium, the volumes held in the general, 
departmental and divisional Libraries totaled 215,000. 

The Library extends its services to the public as a 
noncirculating research collection, and during this per- 
iod more than 2,000 visitors to the public Reading Room 
made use of over 12,000 volumes. The Library's highly 
specialized collections continued to be made available 
to the wider scholarly community through the Interlibrary 
Loan system, with over 1,400 loans of Library materials 
made to libraries throughout North America for use by 
their patrons. The majority of these loans were 
initiated through oclc (Online Computer Library Center), 
a computerized bibliographic service center with 5,000 
member libraries nationwide. A member of OCic since 
1977, the Library has acquired a second oclc terminal 
which operates both online and offline as a standalone 
computer. This tool has greatly improved many aspects 
of library processing and has enabled staff to collect 
and analyze large amounts of data, contributing to 
more effective planning and improved services to 
Museum staff. 

Among the many gifts received, mention should be 
made of a collection of chiefly botanical works donated 
by Mrs. Robert Van Tress of Chicago, and of a copy of 
William Nelson's limited edition portfolio of color litho- 
graphs. The Sun Dance, depicting the traditional Sioux 
ceremonial, donated by Connie G. Westenfelder of 
Glenview, Illinois. 

This has been a very active period in the Mary W. 
Runnells Rare Book Room. Through the continuing sup- 
port of Trustee and Mrs. John Runnells, several important 
works have been added to the Rare Book Collections. Of 
special note are three illustrated bird books that Edward 
E. Ayer, Field Museum's first president, was unable to ac- 
quire in the course of building his magnificent ornitholo- 
gical library: Captain Thomas Brown's Illustrations of the 
Genera of Birds (London, 1845-46); B. L. Du Bus 
de Gisignies, Esquisses Ornithologiques (Brussels, 
1845-48); and Polydore Roux, Ornithologie Provengale 
(Paris, 1825-30). 

Another acquisition was the rare and beautiful 
Gazophylacium Rerum Naturalium of Michael Besler, 



printed in Leipzig in 1642. Bound in gold-stamped vel- 
lum, this work consists of 35 exquisitely engraved illustra- 
tions of objects held in Besler's private natural history 
collection. This copy, printed on unusual fine blue paper, 
with remarkably fresh and clear impressions from the en- 
graved plates, may well be a proof copy or at the very 
least one of the first copies to be printed from the plates 
(see illustration). In recognition of the importance of the 
Rare Book Collections, the Runnells have also supported 
the restoration program for these materials. Two signifi- 
cant works have been completely restored: Pierre Belon, 
UHistoire de la Nature des Oyseaux (Paris, 1555), the 
first illustrated ornithological treatise; and Rosel von 
Rosenhof, Historia Naturalis Ranarum Nostratium (Nurn- 
berg, 1758), containing richly hand-colored illustrations 
of the anatomy and life cycles of frogs. 

Another important addition to the Rare Book Room 
was a collection of 28 unpublished original zoological 
drawings and watercolors by Christophe Paulin de Frem- 
inville, an early nineteenth-century French naturalist. Fre- 
minville's drawings blend precise detail with artistic sub- 
tlety and, had they been published, would have brought 
him renown as one of the finest natural history illustrators 
of his time. Apparently lost during his lifetime, his works 
were only recently rediscovered. Purchase of this collec- 
tion of Freminville originals was made possible by a 
generous donation from Mr. Albert G. Lowenthal 
of New York. D 



26 




William Grim6. manager of the 
Systematic Botanical Collec- 
tion, with the intriguing, 
instructive display he created 
as a Members' Night exhibit — 
"Legends of Luxury: Botanical 
Cosmetics " (detail belowl In 
the uniqueness of the learning 
experience offered. Grim&s 
remarkable exhibit was typical 
of many created for the annual 
occasion by Museum staff 



THE WOMEN'S BOARD, TOURS, MEMBERSHIP 



Founded in 1966 by the late Ellen Thorne (Mrs. Hermon 
Dunlap) Smith, the Women's Board continues its tradi- 
tion of leadership, support, and involvement at Field 
Museum. At the close of 1 984, three Women's Board 
members were serving on the Board of Trustees, fifteen 
on committees of that group, and many more as volun- 
teers in various Museum departments. Susan Vanden- 
Bosch served as Women's Board coordinator. 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour, a dedicated and inspired 
president, completed her term of office at the 1 984 
Women's Board annual meeting and was ably suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. Philip D. Block III, who continues to 
bring creative and dynamic leadership to the office. 

The Women's Board sponsored a number of major 
programs during these two years. In March 1 983, Mrs. 
Byron C. Karzas and Mrs. Edward F. Swift were co- 
chairmen of the Botany Ball and Botany Day — a formal 
dinner dance and a day of special botanic lectures — to 
raise funds for the renovation of the magnificent per- 
manent exhibit, "Plants of the World. " These activities and 
other Women's Board fund-raising projects enabled the 
Board to successfully meet its goal of $300,000 in sup- 
port of the renovation of the Hall to match a contribution 
from the Field Foundation of Illinois, in memory of its for- 
mer chairman, the late Hermon Dunlap Smith. In Septem- 
ber 1983, Museum trustees, staff, and special guests 
joined the Women's Board in welcoming members of the 
Smith family in celebration of the opening of the newly 
renovated hall. 

In November 1983, Women's Board member Mrs. 
Malcolm N. Smith served as chairman of a gala preview 
dinner to recognize the opening of the travelling exhibit 
"Treasures from the Shanghai Museum: 6,000 Years 
of Chinese Art." Over 600 guests attended the pre- 
view event. 

In December 1983 and 1984, the Women's Board 
sponsored the popular annual holiday gathering, "A 
Family Christmas Tea at Field Museum." Festive decor, 
special entertainment and activities, and music of the 
holiday season combined for an enjoyable family 
outing. D 



Field Museum Tours, under the direction of Dorothy S. 
Roder, offered itineraries involving each of the Museum's 
four scientific disciplines during 1983-84. These natural 
history tours went both years to Egypt, the People's Re- 
public of China, Kenya, and to the Grand Canyon. In 
addition, tours were offered to Alaska, Baja California, 
southern England, Peru and Bolivia, New Providence 
and Andros Islands, to the Lesser Antilles aboard the 
sailing ship "Sea Cloud," and to the Isia Roatan for a trop- 
ical marine biology exploration. Baraboo, Wisconsin was 
featured as a weekend trip, and in 1984 our first tour for 
Founders' Council members was offered — a trip to north- 
ern Michigan. All tours were led by scientists, most of 
them curators in the Field Museum departments of 
Anthropology, Botany Geology, and Zoology. D 



During the 1983-84 Biennium, the Membership Depart- 
ment encouraged Members to actively participate in ex- 
hibit previews and in the annual Members' Night. The 
reinstallation of the South Information booth, staffed by 
Membership representatives, encouraged current and 
prospective Members to take part in the "Treasures of the 
Shanghai Museum" Members' preview, on November 4, 
1983. The event drew 3,593 viewers. 

March 9, 1984, was the date of the "Inua: Eskimo Art 
and Culture" Members' preview. The 1,500 participating 
Members and guests took part in igloo-building, mask- 
making, and telling tall tales at the Northwest Coast 
totem poles. 

Members' Night for 1984, coordinated by the 
Membership Department, fell on October 12. For five 
hours, more than 5,000 visitors enjoyed special exhibits, 
activities, and entertainment throughout the Museum, 
with access to the research and preparation areas that 
are customarily not accessible to visitors. D 



Field Museum of natural history 

Financial Activity 
For the year ended December 31 , 1984 




Admissions 6.0% 

Membership 2.7% 

'Museum Store, food service, special events 



Revenues 



Capital Improvements 5.0% 




Development 3.0% 

Public Affairs 5.2% 



Expenses 



28 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Balance Sheet 

December 31, 1984 







Board Designated 




1984 


1983 




Unrestricted Funds 


Restricted Funds 


Endowment Funds 


Combined Total 


Combined Total 


Assets 












Cash 


$ 588,304 


$ 


$ 


$ 588,304 


$ 446,841 


Marketable Securities 


9,453,251 


— 


- 


9,453,251 


7,332,842 


Accounts Receivable 


378,209 


333,899 


- 


712,108 


930,620 


Museum Store Inventory 


479,442 


- 


— 


479,442 


402,215 


Prepaid Expenses 


10,840 


- 


- 


10,840 


19,255 


Deferred Charges 


40,436 


- 


- 


40,436 


55,644 


Investments 


- 


- 


42,181,448 


42,181,448 


45,593,700 


Collections 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 


Museum Property 


$ 7,136,866 
$18,087,349 


- 


- 


$ 7,136,866 
$60,602,696 


$ 7,136,866 


Total Assets 


$ 333,899 


$42,181,448 


$61,917,984 


Liabilities and Fund Balances 












Accounts Payable 


$ 705,412 


$ 


$ 


$ 705,412 


$ 552,509 


Accrued Liabilities 


294,91 7 


- 


- 


294,917 


285,236 


Accrued Pension Contribution 


165,496 


— 


- 


165,496 


202,810 


Deferred Revenue 












Contributions 


75,000 


— 


- 


75,000 


- 


Pension Gain 


213,057 


— 


— 


213,057 


158,234 


Restricted Contributions 


— 


5,790,401 


- 


5,790,401 


- 


Other 


58,887 


30,238 


- 


89,125 


153,485 


Due to (from) Other Funds 


$ 7,710,922 
$ 9,223,691 


$(6,930,047) 
$(1,109,408) 


$ (780,875) 
$ (780,875) 


- 


- 


Total Liabilities 


$ 7,333,408 


$ 1,352,274 


Museum Property Fund Balance 


$ 7,136,867 


$ 


$ 


$ 7,136,867 


$ 7,136,867 


Fund Balance 


1,726,791 


1,443,307 


42,962,323 


46,132,421 


53,428,843 




$ 8,863,658 


$ 1,443,307 


$ 42,962,323 


$53,269,288 


$60,565,710 


Total Fund Balance 


$18,087,349 


$ 333,899 


$42,181,448 


$60,602,696 


$61,917,984 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

Bronson. Bennet 

1983. (with K. Smith and K. Petersen) Using Remote CP/M Computer 
Systems. Microsystems July . pp. 5-9. 

(with W. Rostoker, J. Dvorak, and G. Shen) Casting farm imple- 
ments, comparable tools and hardware in Ancient China. World 
Archaeology ]5{2):196-2]0. 

1984. (with I. Glover) Archaelogical Radiocarbon Dates from Indonesia: 
A First List. Indonesia Circle 34:37-44. 

(with W. Rostoker and J. Dvorak) The Cast Iron Bells of China. 
Technology and Culture 25(4):750-67. 

(with W. Rostoker and J. Dvorak) Studies on an Ancient Chinese 
Object with a Bronze Coating. Journal of Historical Metallurgy 
Society ^a{2). 89-94. 

(with P. Charoenwongsa) Sites of the Highest Possible Priority: Tar- 
gets for Archaeological Research in Thailand. SPAFA Digest 
5(2):9-11 (Bangkok). 

(with I. Glover) A List of Southeast Asian Radiocarbon Dates, 
Part I: Indonesia. SPAFA Digest, 5(2):26-29. 

Feldman, Robert A. 

1983. El Nino: Recent Effects in Peru. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin 54{8):^6-^8. 

El Nino Strikes Again. El Chasqui (Journal of the Peruvian Arts 
Society Chicago), July pp. 4 & 14. 

From Maritime Chiefdom to Agricultural State in Formative Coastal 
Peru . In Civilization in the Ancient Americas: Essays in Honor of 
Gordon R. Willey eds. Richard M. Leventhal and Alan L. Kolata, 
pp. 289-31 0. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 
(with C. R. Ortloff and Michael E. Moseley) The Chicama-Moche 
Intervalley Canal: Social Explanations and Physical Paradigms. 
American Antiquity 48(2):375-389. 

(with Michael E. Moseley) The Northern Andes. In Ancient South 
Americans, ed. Jesse D. Jennings, pp. 139-178. San Francisco 
Freeman and Company 

(with Michael E. Moseley) Hydrological Dynamics and the Evolu- 
tion of Field Form and Use: Resolving the Knapp-Smith Con- 
troversy American Antiquity 49(2):403-408. 
(with Michael E. Moseley, Charles R. Ortloff, and Alfredo Narvaez) 
Principles of Agrarian Collapse in the Cordillera, Negra, Peru. 
Annals of Carnegie Museum 52(13):299-327. 

1984. (with Michael E. Moseley) Vivir con crisis: percepcion humana de 
proceso y tiempo. Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima) 46:267-287. 

Kolata, Alan 

1983. (ed., with Richard M. Leventhal) Civilization in the Ancient Amer- 
icas: Essays in Honor of Gordon R. Willey Albuquerque: University 
of New Mexico Press. 

Chan Chan and Cuzco: On the Nature of the Ancient Andean City 
In Civilization in the Ancient Americas: Essays in Honor of Gordon 
R. Willey eds. Richard M. Leventhal and Alan L. Kolata. pp. 345- 
371 . Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. 
The South Andes. \n Ancient South Americans, ed. Jesse D.Jen- 
nings, pp. 240-285. San Francisco: Freeman and Company 

Lewis. Phillip 

1984. (with Phyllis Rabineau) A New Look for the Pacific Research Lab. 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. October 1984. pp. 6-9. 

Moseley. Michael E. 
1983. Desert Empire and Art: Chimor, Chimu, and Chancay \ri Art of the 
Andes. Pre-Columbian Sculpted and Painted Ceramics from the 
Arthur M. Sackler Collections, ed. L. Katz, pp. 78-85. Washington 
D.C.: the Arthur M. Sackler Foundation. 

Patterns of Settlement and Preservation in the Viru and Moche Val- 
leys. In Prehistoric Settlement Patterns, Essays in Honor of Gordon 
R. Willey eds. E.S. Vogt and R. M. Leventhal, pp. 423-442. Albu- 
querque: University of New Mexico Press. 
3Q (with C. R. Ortloff and R. A. Feldman) The Chicama-Moche Inter- 



valley Canal: Social Explanations and Physical Paradigms. Amer- 
ican Antiquity 48(2):375-3a9. 

Central Andean Civilization. In Ancient South Americans, ed. 
Jesse D. Jennings, pp. 179-239. San Francisco: Freeman and 
Company 

(with Robert A. Feldman) The Northern Andes. In Ancient South 
Americans, ed. Jesse D. Jennings, pp. 139-178. San Francisco: 
Freeman and Company 

The Good Old Days Were Better: Agrarian Collapse and Tectonics. 
American Anthropologist 85(4):773-799. 
(with Robert A. Feldman) Hydrological Dynamics and the Evolu- 
tion of Field Form and Use: Resolving the Knapp-Smith Con- 
troversy American Antiquity A9{2):A03-408. 
(with Robert A. Feldman. Charles R. Ortloff. and Alfredo Narvaez) 
Principles of Agrarian Collapse in the Cordillera Negra. Peru. 
Annals of Carnegie Museum 52(13):299-327. 
1984. (with Robert A. Feldman) Vivir con crisis: percepcion humana de 
proceso y tiempo. Revista del Museo Nacional (Lima) 46:267-286. 

Rabineau. Phyllis 
1984. (with Phillip Lewis) A New Look for the Pacific Research Lab. Field 
Museum of Natural History Bulletin, October 1984, pp. 6-9. 



VanStone. James 

1983. The Simms Collection of Plains Cree Material Culture from South- 
eastern Saskatchewan. Fieldiana: Anthropology, new series, no. 6. 
57 pp. 

Athapaskan Indian Clothing in the Collections of Field Museum." 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 54. no. 4. pp. 22-27. 
(ed., with H. N. Michael) Cultures of the Bering Sea Region: Pap- 
ers from an International Symposium. New York: International 
Research and Exchange Board. 

Ethnohistorical Research in Alaska: A Review, In Cultures of the 
Bering Sea Region: Papers from an International Symposium, ed., 
H.N. Michael and James VanStone, pp. 289-31 0. New York: Inter- 
national Research and Exchanges Board, 
(with H. B. Collins, and D. J. Ray) Artifacts. In Grasp Tight the Old 
Ways: Selections from the Klamer Family Collection of Inuit Art, ed . 
Jean Blodgett. pp. 253-264. Art Gallery of Toronto. 
Sealskin Bags of Unusual Construction from the Bering Strait 
Region. Field Musuem of Natural History Bulletin, Vol. 55, No. 2, 
pp. 23-26. 

Eskimo/lnuit Culture Change: An Historical Perspective. In Arctic 
Life: Challenge to Survive, ed. M. M. Jacobs and J. B. Richardson, 
pp. 133-147 Carnegie Museum of Natural History Pittsburgh. 

1984. Protective Hide Body Armor of the Historic Chukchi and Siberian 
Eskimos. Etudes/lnuit/Studies 7(2):3, 24. 

Market Art from Northeastern Asia: A Nineteenth Century Siberian 
Souvenir Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, April 1984, pp. 
19-21. 

William Duncan Strong and the Rawson-MacMillan Subarctic Ex- 
pedition of 1927-28. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
Sept. 1984. pp. 5-10. 

Exploration and Contact History of Western Alaska. In Handbook 
of North American Indians, vol. 5. Arctic, pp. 149-160. 
Introduction of Southwest Alaska Eskimo: Introduction in Hand- 
book of North American Indians, vol. 5, Arctic, pp. 205-208. 
Mainland Southwest Alaska Eskimo. In Handbook of North Amer- 
ican Indians, vol. 5, Arctic, pp. 224-242. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 

Barringer. Kerry A. 
1983 Family No. 59, Aristolochiaceae In: W. C. Burger, Ed., Flora Costar- 

icensis, Fieldiana: Botany, N.S. No. 13, pp. 79-87. 

The identity of Gomara racemosa R. & P. Taxon 32(4): 627-629. 

Monopera, a new genus of Scrophulariaceae from South America. 

Bn/ton;a 35(2): 111-114. 

Notes on Central American Aristolochiaceae. Brittonia 35(2): 

171-174. 

Polygala dukei (Polygalaceae), a new species from Panama. Ann. 

Mo. Bot Gard 70(1): 203-204. 
1984. Aa (Orchidaceae) in Costa Rica. Phytologid 55(6): 443-446. 

Cubitanthus. a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Brazil. J. Arnold 

Arboretum 65: 145-147. 

Seed morphology and the classification of the Scrophulariaceae. 

Abstract. Amer. J. Bot. 71(5), Part2: 156. 

Burger William C. 
1 983. AInus acuminata, Piper auritum, and Ouercus costaricensis In: D. 
H. Janzen, Ed., Costa Rican Natural History, pp. 188-189, 304- 
305,318-319. 

Families 54-58, 62-70, 58 (with J. Kuijt), and 70 (with R. Baker), 
In: Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana: Botany, N.S. No. 13, pp. 1-78, 
99-255. 

Flora of Panama: a milestone in neotropical floristics. Taxon 32; 
515-516. 

Plants that lie and cheat (well, almost). Field Museum of Natural 
History Bulletin 54(2): 22-25. 

Dillon, Michael O. 

1983. A new species of Bidens (Heliantheae-Asteraceae) from Guate- 
mala. Phyto/og/a 54(4): 225-228. 

(with Beverly Serrell). The botanical world in replica. The story of 
Field Museum's astonishing collection of plant models. Field 
Museum of Natural History Bulletin 54(8): 5-10. 

1984. A systematic study of Flourensia (Asteraceae, Heliantheae). Field- 
iana: Botany N.S. No. 16, pp. 1-67. 

A new combination of Ambrosia (Heliantheae-Asteraceae). Phyto- 
tog/a 56(5): 337-338. 

Two new species of Vernonia (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) from Peru. 
Brittonia 36(4): 333-336. 

Engel, John J. 

1982. (with R. M. Schuster). Austral Hepaticae XVI. Gondwanalandlc 
Leptoscyphoideae (Geocalycaceae). LindbergiaS: 65-74. (not in- 
cluded in previous biennial report) 

1983. Austral Hepaticae XV. Brevianthaceae: A monotypic family ende- 
mic to Tasmania. Bryologist 85: 375-388. 

(with R.M. Schuster). Austral Hepaticae XVIII. Studies toward a 
revision of Telaranea Subg. Neolepidozia (Lepidoziaceae). Field- 
iana: Botany, N.S. No. 14, pp. 1-7. 

1984. Botanical exploration and collection of bryophytes in southern 
Chile. National Geographic Researcf} Reports\lo\. 16: 239-244. 
(with R. M. Schuster). An overview and evaluation of the genera of 
Geocalycaceae Subfamily Lophocoleoideae (Hepaticae). Nova 
Hedwigia 39: 385-463. 

Review of Karen S. Renzaglia, A comparative developmental in- 
vestigation of the gametophyte generation in the Metzgeriales 
(Hepatophyta). Bryophytorum Bibliotheca24: i-x, 1-253. Cramer, 
1982. Bryologist 87: 93-95. 
Index Hepaticarum Supplementum: 1978-1979. Taxon 33:761-779. 

Feuer Sylvia M. 

1983. (with C. Niezgoda and L. I. Nevling, Jr). Pollen ultrastructure of 
the tribe Ingeae (Mimosoideae: Legumiriosae). Amer. J. Bot. 70: 
650-667. 

1984. (with P. Crane). Pollen ultrastructure and evolution in the Betula- 
ceae. Abstract. International Palynological Conference Abstracts. 
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 



HUFT, Michael J. 

1983. The identity of Cunuria casiquiarensis (Euphorbiaceae) and a 
range extension. Phytologia 53: 449-450. 

1 984. A new combination in Dalechiampia (Euphorbiaceae). Ann. Mis- 
souri Bot. Gard. 71:341. 

Nee. Michael 

1 983. Flora de Veracruz #21 . Casuarinaceae. 6 pp. 

1984. Flora de Veracruz #34. Salicaceae. 24 pp. 
Niezgoda. Christine 

1983. (Sylvia Feuer and Lorin I. Nevling, Jr). Pollen ultrastructure of 
the tribe Ingeae (Mimosoideae: Leguminosae). Amer J. Bot. 70: 
650-667. 

Plowman. Timothy 

1982. (Not reported in previous biennial report.) 

(with M. J. Balick and L. Rivier). The effects of field preservation on 
alkaloid content in fresh coca leaves (Eryttiroxylum spp.) Journal 
of Etfinopharmacology^: 287-291. 

Three new species of Eryttiroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) from Vene- 
zuela. Srifton/a 34(4): 442-457. 

1 983. Collecting in the Upper Amazon. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin 54(3): 8-^3. 

(with L. Rivier). Cocaine and cinnamoylocaine content of thirty-one 
species of Eryttiroxylum (Erythroxylaceae). Annals of Botany (Lon- 
don) 51 (5): 641-659. 

(with M.J. Balick and L. Rivier). The effects of field presen/ation on 
alkaloid content in fresh coca leaves (Eryttiroxylum spp.) Re- 
printed in: Atti del II Seminario Internazionale suite Piante Medici- 
nali ed Aromatiche. Communita Montana. Citta de Castello. pp. 
81-86. 

New species of Eryttiroxylum from Brazil and Venezuela. Bot. Mus. 
Leaf I., Harvard Univ. 29(3): 279-290. 

Erythroxylaceae. In: S. A. Mori, B. M. Boom, A. M. de Carvalho 
and T S. dos Santos. Southern Bahian moist forests. Bot. Rev. 49: 
214-215. 

(with P. Rury). Morphological studies of archeological and recent 
coca leaves (Eryttiroxylum spp.) Bot. Mus. Leafi, Harvard Univ. 
29(4): 297-341. 

1 984. The ethnobotany of coca (Eryttiroxylum spp. , Erythroxylaceae) In: 
G. T Prance and J. A. Kallunki, Eds. Etfinobotany in ttie neotro- 
pics. New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY. pp. 62-111. 

(with W. Vickers). Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya Indians of 
eastern Ecuador Fieldiana: Botany, N.S. No. 15: 1-63. 
The origin, evolution and diffusion of coca (Eryttiroxylum spp.) in 
South and Central America. In: D. Stone, Ed., Precolumbian Plant 
Migration. Papers of tfie Peabody Museum of Arctiaeology and 
Ettinology 76: 125-163. 

Stolze. Robert G. 

1983. (with Benjamin 0llgaard and R. James Hickey). Ferns and fern 
allies of Guatemala. Part III. Marsileaceae, Salviniaceae, and the 
fern allies (including a comprehensive index to Parts 1,11, and III). 
Fieldiana: Botany N.S. No. 12. pp. 1-91. 

1984. Problems in Asplenium. with some new species from Ecuador. 
American Fern Journal 74(2): 40-50. 

Two new tree ferns from Panama. American Fern Journal 74(4): 
101-104. 



31 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY 

Bolt John R. 

1 983. (with R. E. Lombard) Evolution of thie amphibian tympanic ear 
and the origin of frogs. BlologicalJournal of the Linnean Society 
11:19-76. 

(with R. DeMar) Simultaneous tooth replacement in Euryodus and 
Card/ocepha/us (Amphibia: tvlicrosauria). Journal of Paleontology 
57:911-923. 

1984. (with A. RicqISs) Jaw growth and tooth replacement in Captor- 
filnus aguti (Reptilia: Captorhinomorpha): a morphological and 
histological analysis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 3(1 ):7-24 

Bryant. Martha 
1 984. (with Peter R. Crane) Fossil Plant Collections at the Field Museum. 
Field ivluseum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 55(4):5-10, 24-25. 

Crane. Peter R. 

1 983. (with S. R. Manchester) Attached leaves, inflorescences and fruits 
of Fagopsis, an extinct genus of fagaceous affinity from the Florris- 
sant Flora of Colorado, U.S.A. American Journal of Botany vol. 
70:1147-1164. 

(with R. A. Stockey) In situ Cercidiphiyllum-Wke seedlings from the 
Paleocene of Alberta, Canada. American Journal of Botany, vol. 
70:1564-1568. 

The earliest plants on land. Field l^useum of Natural History Bulle- 
tin, vol. 54 (9):20-25. 

The inside story on fossil plants. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin, vol. 54(10):10-12,18-19. 

1 984. Misplaced pessimism and misguided optimism: a reply to Mab- 
berley Taxon, vol. 33:79-82. 

(with D. L. Dilcher) Lesqueria: an early angiosperm fruiting axis 
from the mid-Cretaceous. Annals of the H/lissouri Botanical Gar- 
den, vo\. 7 ^ -.384-402. 

(with D. L. Dilcher) Archaeanthus: an early angiosperm from the 
Cenomanian of the western interior of North America. Annals of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, vol. 71 :351 -383. 
A re-evaluation of Cercidiphyllum-Wke plant fossils from the British 
Lower Tertiary. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society vol. 
89:199-230. 

(with D. L. Dilcher) In pursuit of the first flower. Natural History, vol. 
93(3):56-61. 

(with M. S. Bryant) Fossil plant collections at the Field Museum. 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 55(4):5-10, 24-25. 

Grande, R. LjAnce, 
1 984. The Paleontology of the Green River Formation with a Review of 
the Fish Fauna, 2nd Edition. Geological Survey Wyoming Bulletin, 
63:1-333. 

NiTECKi. Matthew H. 

1 983. Coevolution. University of Chicago Press, 392 pp. (editor). 
Third International Symposium of Fossil Algae. Lethaia. 16(1 ):50. 
(with D. C. Fisher) Status and Composition of Archaeata. 3rd Inter- 
national Symposium of Fossil Algae. Colorado School of Mines, 

p. 21. 

Life History of a Fossil. Paleogr. Paleoclimatol.. Paleoecol., 43: 
357-358. 

1984. Extinctions. University of Chicago Press, 354 pp. (editor). 
Fossils: the key to the past. Jour Geoi, 92:351 . 
Genetic takeover. Earth-Sci. Rev.. 20:177-179. 

(with S. Rietschel) Ordovician receptaculitid algae from Burma. 

Palaeontology 27:415-420. 

Precambrian and Paleozoic Algal Carbonates. Jour Geo!.. 92:492. 



Olsen. Edward J. 

1983. (with G. J. MacPherson, M. Bar-Matthews, T Tanaka, and L. 
Grossman) Refractory Inclusions in the Murchison Meteohte. Geo- 
chimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 47, pp. 823-839. 

(with P. S. Sipiera, D. Eatough, and B. D. Dod) Summary of Several 
Recent Chondrite Finds from the Texas Panhandle. Meteoritics, 
Vol. 18, pp. 63-75. 

(with R. Clayton, T Mayeda, and M. Prinz) Oxygen Isotope Rela- 
tionships in Iron Meteorites. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 
Vol. 65, pp. 229-232. 

Si02-bearings Chondrules in the Murchison (C2) Meteorite. In 
Chondrules and Their Origins, Lunar and Planetary Institute, 
Houston, TX, pp. 223-234. 

(with R. Clayton, N. Onuma, Y. Ikeda, T Mayeda, I. Hutcheon, and 
C. Molini-Velsko) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of Chondrules in 
Allende In Chondrules and Their Origins, Lunar and Planetary In- 
stitute, Houston, TX, 37-43. 

Thinsections: A Natural Art Form. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 4, pp. 19-21. 
1984: 1985: The Year of the Gemstone. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin, Vol. 55. No. 11, p. 3. 

(with G. R. McGhee, Jr, J. S. Gilmore, and C. J Orth) No Geo- 
chemical Evidence for an Asteroidal Impact at Late Devonian 
Mass Extinction Horizon. Nature, Vol 308, pp. 629-631. 
(with T Bunch) Equilibration Temperatures of the Ordinary Chon- 
drites: A New Evaluation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 
48, pp. 1,363-1,365. 

Review of Proceedings of the Eigth Symposium on Antarctic 
Meteorites (T Nagata, ed), in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 
Vol.48, p 2,773. 

TuRNBULL, William D. 

1984. Cenozoic Fossil Vertebrate Search: Australian Pilbara and Can- 
ning Basin areas. National Geographic Society Research Reports 
1 7:883-888. 

(with Walter Segall) The Ear Region of the Marsupial Sabretooth, 
Thylacosmilus. Journal of Morphology yo\. 181, No. 3, 239-270. 
(with E. L. Lundelius) The Mammalian Fauna of the Madura Cave, 
Western Australia Part IV. Fieldiana: Geology U.S. No. 14: i-ix, 
1-63. 

Woodland. Bertram G. 

1983 Fabric of the Clastic Component of Carboniferous Concretions 
and Their Enclosing Matrix in Part 3 of Atlantic Coast Basins, 
Paleogeography and Paleotectonics, Sedimentology and Geo- 
chemistry (eds. Belt, E S and Macqueen, R.W.). Compte Rendu 
Ninth International Congress on Carboniferous Stratigraphy and 
Geo/ogy Vol. 3: 694-701. 

(with R. M. Coveney and R. Zangerl) Metalliferous Shales of the 
Illinois Basin. Geol. Soc. of America Field Trips in Midwestern 
Geology Vol. 2. (eds R H. Shaver and J. Sunderman), 147-171. 



32 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 

Ashe, James S. 

1984, Generic revision of the subtribe Gyrophaenina (Coleoptera: 
Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) with a review of described sub- 
genera and major features of evolution. Questiones Entomologi- 
cae 20: 129-349, 

Description of the larva and pupa of Scaphisoma terminata Melsh. 
and the larva of Scaphium castanipes Kirby (Scaphidiidae) with 
notes on their natural history Coleoptehsts Bull., 38(4): 361-373. 
(with L.E. Watrous) Larval Chaetotaxy of Aleocharinae (Staphylini- 
dae) based on a description of Atheta coriaria Kr Coleoptehsts 
So//. 38(2): 165-179. 

FiTZPATRiCK. John W. 

1983. (with W.E. Lanyon) Behavior, morphology and systematic position 
of S/rystes s/tw/ator (Tyrannidae). Au/c100:98-104. 

Tropical Kingbird, Tyrannus melancholicus. In Janzen, D. (ed.), 

Costa Rican Natural History, pp. 611-613. University of Chicago 

Press, Chicago. 

(with N. Pierpont) Specific status and behavior of Cymbilaimus 

sanctaemahae, an antshrike from southwestern Amazonia. Auk 

100: 645-652. 

(with G.E Woolfenden) Staying Around the Nest. 1984 Science 

Year. Worldbook Childcraft Inc., Chicago, pp. 13-25, frontispiece 

1984. (with J.W. Terborgh and L. Emmons) Annotated checklist of bird 
and mammal species of Cocha Cashu Biological Station, Manu 
National Park, Peru. Fieldiana: Zoology New Series, no. 21:1-29. 
(with G.E. Woolfenden) The Florida Scrub Jay: Demography of a 
Cooperative-breeding Bird, xiv x 410 pp., Mongr Pop. Biol. No. 
20, Princeton University Press. 

(with G.E. Woolfenden) The helpful shall inherit the scrub. Natural 
History 93:55-63. 

(with R. Kiltie) Reproduction and social organization of the Black- 
capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) in Amazonian Peru. 
/Au/< 101:804-811. 

Gritis, PaulA, 
1983, (with R.F. Inger) Variation in Bornean frogs of the Amolops jerboa 
species group with descriptions of two new species. Fieldiana: 
Zoology (N.S.), no. 19, 13 pp. 

Hershkovitz, Philip 

1983, The staggered marsupial lower third incisor (I3). Geobios, 
Memoire Special, 6:191-200. 

Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, Platy- 
rrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy Amer. Jour Prima- 
toiogy 4:209-243. 

1984 On the validity of the family group-name Callitrichidae (Platyrrhini, 
Primates). Mammalia, 48(1): 153. 

Taxonomy of squirrel monkeys genus Saimiri (Cebidae, Platyrrhi- 
ni): A preliminary report with description of a hitherto unnamed 
form. Amer Jour Primatology 7(2): 151 -210. 
lyiore on the Homunculus Dpm4 and ml and comparisons with 
Aiouatta and Stirtonia (Primates, Platyrrhini, Cebidae). Amer Jour 
Primatology 7(3):261-283. 

Inger, Robert R 

1983, l^orphological and ecological variation in the flying lizards (genus 
Draco). Fieldiana: Zoology (N,S.), No, 18, 35 pp. 

Larvae of Southeast Asian species of Leptobrachium and Lepto- 
brachella (Anura: Pelobatidae). Advances in Herpetology and 
Evolutionary Biology pp. 13-32. 

(with Paul Gritis) Variation in Bornean frogs of the Amolops jerboa 
species group with descriptions of two new species. Fieldiana: 
Zoology (N.S.), no. 19, 13 pp. 

1984. (with Hymen Marx and Mammen Koshy) An undescribed species 
of gekkonid lizard (Cnemaspis) from India with comments on the 
status of C. tropidogaster Herpetologica, Vol. 40:149-154. 



IzoR. Robert J. 

1983. (with J. Fooden) Grovrth cun/es, dental emergence norms, and 
supplemental morphological observations in known-age captive 
Orangutans. Amer Jour Primatology 5(4):285-301 . 

1 984. (with T. J. McCarthy) Heteromys gaumeri (Rodentia: Hetero- 
myidae) in the Northern Plain of Belize. Mammalia, 48(3):465-467. 

Johnson, Robert K, 

1 983. (with David W. Greenfield) Clingfishes (Gobiesocidae) from Belize 
and Honduras, Central America, with a redescription of Gobiesox 
barbatuius Starks. Northeast Gulf Science, 6(1 ):33-49. 
(with Ross M. Feltes) A new species of Vinciguerria from the Red 
Sea and Gulf of Aqaba with Comments on the Depauperacy of the 
Red Sea Mesopelagic Fish Fauna. Fieldiana: Zoology New Series, 
no. 22, vi -I- 35 pp. 

Ontogeny and systematics of the Evermannellidae, the saber- 
toothed fishes, pp. 250-254, in: Ontogeny and Systematics of 
Fishes — A Symposium Held in Memory of E. H. Ahlstrom, La 
Jolla CA, August, 1983. American Society of Ichthyologists and 
Herpetologists. 

Ontogeny and systematics of the Scopelarchidae, the pearl-eyed 
fishes, pp. 245-250, in: Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes — A 
Symposium Held in Memory of E. H. Ahlstrom, La Jolla CA, Au- 
gust, 1 983. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists. 
Ontogeny and systematics of the Giganturidae, p. 199-201 , in: 
Ontogeny and Systematics of Fishes — A Symposium Held in 
Memory of E. H. Ahlstrom, La Jolla CA, August, 1983. American 
Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, 

Kethley, John B. 

1 983. Modifications of the deutonymph of Uropodella laciniata Berlese, 
1888, for phoretic dispersal (Acari: Parasitiformes). J. Ga. En- 
tomol.Soc. 18(2): 151 -155. 

The deutonymph of Epiphis rarior Berlese, 1916 (Epiphidinae n. 
subfam., Rhodacaridae, Rhodacaroidea). J. Can. Zool. 
61(11):2,598-2,611. 

(with W.T. Atyeo and T.M. Perez) Paedomorphosis in Metacheyletia 
(Acari: Cheyletidae), with the description of a new species. J. 
Med. Entomol. 21(2):125-131 

Marx. Hymen S. 

1983. (with Charles A. Reed) Lung disorder not necessarily respon- 
sible for non-swimming behavior in aquatic turtles Copeia, 1 983: 
571-573. 

1984, (with Robert F Inger and Mammen Koshy) An undescribed spe- 
cies of gekkonid lizard {Cnemaspis) from India with comments on 
the status of C, tropidogaster Herpetologica, Vol. 40: 1 49-1 54. 

Patterson. Bruce D. 

1983. Baculum-body size relationships as evidence for a selective 
continuum on bacular morphology. Jour of Mammalogy, 64(3): 
496-499 

Grasshopper mandibles and the niche variation hypothesis. 
Evolution, 37(2):375-388. 

On the phyletic weight of mensural cranial characters in chip- 
munks and their allies (Rodentia: Sciuridae). Fieldiana: Zoology 
(New Series), 20:1-24. 

The Joumal of Wilfred Osgood: The Marshall Field Chilean Expedi- 
tion of 1922-23. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 54(2): 
8-11,28-33. 

1 984. Mammalian extinction and biogeography in the Southern Rocky 
Mountains, pp. 247-293 In Nitecki, M H. (ed). Extinctions. 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 354 pp. 

Correlation between mandibular morphology and specific diet of 
some desert grassland Acrididae (Orthoptera). American Midland 
Naturalist, 111(2):296-303. 

Geographic variation and taxonomy of Colorado and Hop! chip- 
munks (Genus Eutamias). Jour of Mammalogy 65(3):442-456. 
(with M.H. Gallardo and K.E. Freas) Systematics of mice of the 
subgenus Al^odon in southern South America, with the description 33 
of a new species. Fieldiana: Zoology (New Series), 65(3): 1 -1 6. 




34 



Charles M. Johnson (left) and Chirkina I. Chirklna, 
members of the Security and Visitor Services staff, over- 
see the coming and going of all materials at the ship- 
ping dock: traveling exhibits, provisions, and mail. 



John P. Harris, fossil preparator Department of Geology, 
gently guides into position one of the largest known 
bones in the world of science: the femur of a Brach- 
iosaurus. The 675-pound bone was discovered by the 
late Elmer S Riggs. former Field l^useum paleontolog- 
ist, in Colorado, in 1900. fvluch of Harris's work involves 
the restoration and cleaning of fossil material, as well as 
the fabrication of copies of bones that are exact to the 
finest detail. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



SCHAFFER, H. Bradley 
1 983. Biosystematlcs of Ambystoma rosaceum and A. tighnum in north- 
western Mexico. Copeia, 1983(1):67-78. 
Review of Metamorphosis: A Problem in developmental biology. 
(Gilbert and Frleden, eds.) Herpetologica, 39(3):311-313. 

SOLEM, G. Alan 

1 983. Endodontoid Land Snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmo- 
nata: Sigmurethra). Part II. Families Punctidae and Charopidae. 
Zoogeography Field Museum Press, Cfiicago, 336 pp. 

First Record of Amphidromus from Australia, withi Anatomical 
Notes on Several Species (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). 
Rec. Aust. Mas.. 35:153-166. 

Lost or Kept Internal Whorls: Ordinal Differences in Land Snails. J. 
Moll. Studies. Suppl. 12A: 172-1 78. 

1984. Small Land Snails from Northern Australia. III. Species of Helico- 
discidae and Charopidae. J. Malac. Soc. Aust., 6(3-4):155-179. 
Camaenid Land Snails from Western and central Australia (Mollus- 
ca: Pulmonata: Camaenidae). IV. Taxa from the Kimberley, Wes- 
traltrachia Iredale, 1933 and Related Genera. Rec. West. Aust. 
Mas., Suppl. no. 17:427-705. 

(with Carl C. Christensen) Camaenid Land Snail Reproductive 
Cycle and Growth Patterns in Semi-Arid Areas of Northwestern 
Australia. Aust. J. Zooi, 32(4):471-491 . 

(with Simon Tillier and Peter B. Mordan) Pseudo-operculate Pul- 
monate Land Snails from New Caledonia. The Veliger, 27(2): 193- 
199. 

(with AC. van Bruggen) Preface in World-wide Snails: Biogeog- 
raphical studies on non-marine Mollusca, Alan Solem and AC. van 
Bruggen (eds.), E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp. vii-ix. 
Introduction in World-wide Snails: Biogeographical studies on non- 
marine Mollusca, Alan Solem and AC. van Bruggen (eds.) E.J. 
Brill, Leiden, pp. 1-5 

A World Model of Land Snail Diversity and Abundance in World- 
wide Snails: Biogeographical studies on non-marine Mollusca, 
Alan Solem and A.C. van Bruggen (eds.), E.J. Brill, Leiden, 
pp. 6-22. 

Simultaneous Character Convergence and Divergence in Western 
Australian Land Snails Biol. J. Linnean Soc. London, 23:(21 
printed pages). 

Stewart, Donald J. 

1983 (with R.M. Bailey) Bagrus Bosc, 1816 (Pisces, Siluriformes): pro- 
posal to place on the official list. Z.N. (S.) 2371 Bull. ofZool. 
Nomenclature, 40(3):167-172. 

(with E.K. Balon) Fish assemblages in a river with unusual gradient 
(Luongo, Africa-Zaire system), reflections on river zonation, and 
description of another new species. Environmental Biology of 
Fishes, 9(3/4): 225-252. 

(with D. Weininger, D.V. Rottiers, and T.A. Edsall) An energetics 
model for lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush. Application to the Lake 
Michigan system. Can. Jour Fish. Aquat. Sci., 40(6):681-698. 

1984 (with T. R. Roberts) A new species of dwarf cichlid fish with re- 
versed sexual dichromatism from Lac Mai-nadombe, Zaire. 
Cope/a, 1984(1 ):82-86. 

(with R. M. Bailey) Bagrid catfishes from Lake Tanganyika, with a 
key and descriptions of new taxa. Misc. Pub. Mus. Zooi, Univ. 
Mich. 168:1-410. 

Review of Man, Fishes, and the Amazon, by Nigel J. H. Smith 
(1981). F/sA7er/es, 9(5):44. 

TiMM. Robert M. 
1983 (with D.D. Baird and G.E. Nordquist) Reproduction in the arctic 
shrew, Sorex arcticus. Jour of Mammalogy, 64(2):298-301. 
(with L.R. Heaney) Relationships of pocket gophers of the genus 
Geomys from the Central and Northern Great Plains. Misc. Pub., 
Museum of Natural History University of Kansas, 74:1-59. 
(with L.R. Heaney) Systematics and distribution of shrews of the 
genus Crocidura (Mammalia: Insectivora) in Vietnam. Proc. of the 
Biol. Soc. of Washington, 96(1): 11 5-1 20. 



Fahrenholz's Rule and Resource Tracking: a study of host-parasite 
coevolution. Pp. 225-265, in Coevolution {M.H. Nitecki, ed.). Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
1984 (with B.L. Clausen) Ferrets, p. 78. In The World Book Encyclopedia, 
vol. 7. 

Tent construction by Vampyressa in Costa Rica. Jour of Mamma- 
fogy 65(1): 166-1 67. 

Traylor. Melvin a., Jr. 

1 983 (with A.L. Archer) Some Results of the Field Museum 1977 Expedi- 
tion to South Sudan. Scopus 6(1 ):5-12. 

(with J. V. Remsen, Jr.) Additions to the Avifauna of Bolivia, Part 2. 
Condo/- 85:95-98. 

(with L. Stephens) Ornithological Gazetteer of Peru. Harvard Uni- 
versity Cambridge, vi -i- 273 pp. 

VoRis, Harold K. 

1983 (with H.H. Voris) Feeding strategies in marine snakes: an analysis 
of evolutionary, morphological, behavioral and ecological rela- 
tionships. /Amer: Zoo/., 23:411-425. 

(with W.B. Jeffries) Some aspects of the distribution, size and re- 
production of the pedunculate barnacle, Octolasmis mulleri 
(Coker, 1902) on the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 
1896). Fieldiana: Zoology (N.S.), no. 16, 10 pp. 
Pelamis platurus (Culebra del Mar, Pelagic Sea Snake) in Costa 
Rican Natural History, ed. D. H. Janzen, pp. 411-412. 

1984 (with H.H. Vons and W.B Jeffries) Sea Snakes: Mark-Release- 
Recapture. Malayan Naturalist. 38(1):24-27. 

(with W.B. Jeffries and CM. Yang) Diversity and distribution of the 
pedunculate barnacle Octolasmis epizoic on the scyllarid lobster, 
Thenus orientalis (Lund, 1973). Crusfaceana 46(3):300-308. 

Watrous. Larry E. 
1984 (with J.S Ashe) Larval Chaetotaxy of Aleocharinae (Staphylinidae) 
based on a description of Atheta coriaria Kr Coleopterists Bulletin, 
38(2): 165-1 79. 

Wenzel, Rupert L. 
1 984 Two name changes for Neotropical Streblidae (Diptera). Proc. Ent. 
Soc. Wash., 86(3):647. 



SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT SERVICES 

Jastrzebskl Zbigniew T. 
1984. Technique of making fish illustration, introduction, parts land II. 
Environmental Biology of Fishes 1 1 (1 ): 1 5-20. Dr W. Junk Publish- 
ers, The Hague, The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration, parts III and IV. Environmental 
Biology of Fishes 1 1 (4):276, 300. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The 
Hague, The Netherlands. 



35 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES, December 31, 1384 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES 

Mrs.T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert 0. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank William Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F Mullin 
Charles F Murphy Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 
James J. O'Connor 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
Johns. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
William G.Swartchild.Jr* 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E, Leiand Webber 
Julian B. Wilkins* 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

LIFE TRUSTEES 

Harry 0. Bercher 
William McCormick Blair* 
Joseph N. Field 
Paul W. Goodrich* 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John M. Simpson* 
J. Howard Wood 



*Deceasecl 



OFFICERS 

James J. O'Connor, 

Board Chairman 
Frank William Considine, 

Vice Chairman 
Richard M. Jones, 

Vice Chairman 
James H. Ransom, 

Vice Chairman 
William L. Searle, 

Vice Chairman 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken, 

Vice Chairman 
Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Treasurer 
Johns. Runnells, 

Secretary 
Willard L.Boyd, 

President 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., 

Director 

Executive Committee 
James J. O'Connor, Board 

Chairman 
Frank William Considine, Vice 

Chairman 
Richard M. Jones, Vice 

Chairman 
James H. Ransom, Vice 

Chairman 
William L. Searle, Wee 

Chairman 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken, 

Vice Chairman 
Blaine J. Yarrington, 

Treasurer 
John S. Runnells, Secretary 
Willard L. Boyd, President 
Staff Liaison: 
Williard L. Boyd 

Vice Chairman — Program 

Planning & Evaluation 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Program Planning & 

Evaluation Committee 
Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Stanton R. Cook 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. John H. Leslie 
Theodore Van Zelst 
Staff Liaison: 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 



Wee Chairman— Facilities 

Planning 
Frank William Considine 

Facilities Planning 

Committee 
Harry O. Bercher 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Charles F Murphy Jr 
Johns. Runnells 
Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mrs. Stanton R, Cook 
Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mrs Wood-Prince 
Staff Liaison: 
J. W. Crott 

Wee Chairman — Internal 

Affairs 
William L. Searle 

Internal Affairs Committee 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
David Rewick 
Mrs. Edward F Swift 
Staff Liaison: 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
J. W. Croft 
Arlene Kiel 

Chairman — Retirement 
Subcommittee of the 
Internal Affairs Committee 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

Retirement Subcommittee of 

the Internal Affairs 

Committee 
George R. Baker 
William R. Dickinson, Jr 
Staff Liaison: 
J. W. Croft 

Chairman — A udit 
Subcommittee of the 
Internal Affairs Committee 

Hugo J. Melvoin 

Audit Subcommittee of the 

Internal Affairs Committee 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
David Rewick 
Staff Liaison: 
J. W. Croft 

Treasurer — Investment 

Committee 
Blaine J. Yarrington 

Investment Committee 
George R. Baker 
Frank William Considine 
Richard M.Jones 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
E. Leiand Webber 
Staff Liaison: 
J. W. Croft 



Chairman — Nominating 

Committee 
Marshall Field 

Nominating Committee 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Gordon Bent 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
Staff Liaison: 
Willard L. Boyd 

Vice Chairman — Resource 
Planning & Development 
Richard M. Jones 

Resource Planning & 

Development Committee 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Bowen Blair 
Marshall Field 
Mrs. Vernon Armour 
Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 
Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
John C. Meeker 
Staff Liaison: 
Thomas R. Sanders 

Wee Chairman — Public 

Affairs 
James H. Ransom 

Public Affairs Committee 
Charles F Murphy, Jr 
Blaine J. Yarrington 
Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Howard E. Johnson 
Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 
Mrs. Nevrton N. Minow 
James Riley 
Staff Liaison: 
Willard L, Boyd 



36 



WOMEN'S BOARD 



Mrs. Keene H. Addington 
Mrs. Edward King Aldworth 
Mrs. Richard I. Allen 
Mrs. James W. Alsdorf 
Mrs AngeloR. Arena 
Mrs. A. Watson Armour III 
Mrs. Laurance H. Armour, Jr 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Mrs. Vernon Armour 
Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 
Mrs. Thomas G. Ayers 
Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mrs. Claude A. Barnett 
Mrs. Roberto. Bass 
Mrs. George R. Beach 
Mrs. James H. Becker 
Mrs. Edward H. Bennett, Jr 
Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger 
Mrs. Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Richard Bentley 
Mrs. Harry 0. Bercher 
Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Mrs. Harrington Bischof 
Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Frank W.BIatchtord III 
Mrs. Joseph L. Block 
Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist 
Mrs. Arthur S. Bowes 
Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 
Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 
Mrs. Cameron Brown 
Mrs. Isidore Brown 
Mrs. Jennifer Martin Brown 
Mrs. Roger O. Brown 
Mrs. Evelyn M. Bryant 
Mrs. I von Donop Buddington 
Mrs. Robert A. Carr 
Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 
Mrs. Henry! Chandler 
Miss Nora F. Chandler 
Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mrs. John Coale 
Mrs. J. Nothhelfer Connor 
Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. Edward A. Cooper 
Mrs. James R. Coulter 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Mrs. Robert Lane Cruikshank 
Mrs. Herschel H. Cudd 
Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow 
Mrs. Orval C. Davis 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. Emmett Dedmon 
Mrs. Robert 0. Delaney 
Mrs. Charles S. DeLong 
Mrs. Charles Dennehy 
Mrs. Edison Dick 



Mrs. William R. Dickinson, Jr 

Mrs. Stewarts. Dixon 

Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 

Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 

Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley II 

Mrs. Maurice F Dunne, Jr. 

Mrs. Robert C. Edwards 

Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 

Mrs. Marjorie H. Elting 

Mrs. Victor Elting III 

Mrs. Winston Elting 

Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 

Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 

Mrs. Ralph Falk 

Mrs. Suzanne Clarke Falk 

Mrs. Calvin Fentress 

Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 

Mrs. Joseph N. Field 

Mrs. Marshall Field 

Mrs. Charles Robert Foltz 

Mrs. Peter B. Foreman 

Mrs. Francis G. Foster, Jr 

Mrs. Hubert D. Fox 

Mrs. Earl J. Frederick 

Mrs. Gaylord A. Freeman 

Mrs. William D. Frost 

Mrs. James C. E. Fuller 

Mrs. Maurice F Fulton 

Mrs. John S. Garvin 

Mrs. John S. Gates 

Mrs. Robert H. Gayner 

Mrs. IsakV. Gerson 

Mrs. Gerald S. Gidwitz 

Mrs. James J. Glasser 

Mrs. Julian R. Goldsmith 

Mrs. Paul W. Goodrich 

Mrs. David W. Grainger 

Mrs. Donald C. Greaves 

Mrs. Roger Griffin 

Mrs. Robert C. Gunness 

Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 

Mrs. Burton W. Hales 

Mrs. Corwith Hamill 

Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 

Mrs. Frederick Charles Hecht 

Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 

Mrs. William A. Hewitt 

Mrs. Stacy H.Hill 

Mrs. Edward Hines 

Mrs. John H. Hobart 

Mrs. Richard H. Hobbs 

Mrs. Thomas D. Hodgkins 

Mrs. Thomas J. Hoffmann 

Miss Frances Hooper 

Mrs. Janice S. Hunt 

Mrs. Chauncey Keep Hutchins 

Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman 

Mrs. Stanley O. Ikenberry 

Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll 

Mrs. Samuel InsutI, Jr 

Mrs. Frederick G. Jaicks 

Mrs. Richard M. Jones 

Mrs. John B. Judkins, Jr 

Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 



Mrs. Walter A. Krafft 

Mrs. Bertram D. Kribben 

Mrs. Gordon Leadbetter 

Mrs. John H. Leslie 

Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 

Mrs. Edward H. Levi 

Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 

Mrs. Chapin Litten 

Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 

Mrs. Donald G. Lubin 

Mrs. Franklin J. Lunding 

Mrs. Walter M. Mack 

Mrs. John W Madigan 

Mrs. James F Magin 

Mrs. Robert H. Malott 

Mrs. Philip C. Manker 

Mrs. Richard Marcus 

Mrs. David Mayer 

Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 

Mrs. Frank D. Mayer, Jr. 

Mrs. Franklin B. McCarty, Jr 

Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

Mrs. George Barr McCutcheon I 

Mrs. Eugene J. McVoy 

Mrs. John C. Meeker 

Mrs. Henry W. Meers 

Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 

Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 

Mrs. Newton N. Minow 

Mrs. William H. Mitchell 

Mrs. Kenneth F Montgomery 

Mrs. Evan G. Moore 

Mrs. Graham J. Morgan 

Mrs. Arthur T Moulding 

Mrs. Aidan I. Mullett 

Mrs. Leo F. Mullin 

Mrs. Elita Mailers Murphy 

Mrs. Patricia S. Murphy 

Mrs. Charles Fenger Nadler 

Mrs. Charles Fenger Nadler, Jr 

Mrs. Earl L. Neal 

Mrs. Edward FNeild III 

Mrs. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 

Mrs. John D. Nichols 

Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 

Miss Lucille Ann Nunes 

Mrs. John Nuveen 

Mrs. James J. O'Connor 

Mrs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil 

Mrs. Richard C. Oughton 

Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 

Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson 

Mrs. R. Marlin Perkins 

Mrs. Seth Low Pierrepont 

Mrs. Charles S. Potter 

Mrs. Frederick Childs Pullman 

Mrs. Howard C. Reeder 

Mrs. Robert W. Reneker 

Mrs. Peter A. Repenning 

Mrs. Don H. Reuben 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman 

Mrs. Frederick Roe 

Mrs. Edward M. Roob 



Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

Mrs. John S. Runpells 

Mrs. Patrick G. Ryan 

Mrs. George W. Ryerson 

Dr Muriel S. Savage 

Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 

Mrs. William L. Searle 

Mrs. C. William Sidwell 

Mrs. John R. Siragusa 

Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith, Jr 

Mrs. Gordon H. Smith 

Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 

Mrs. Lyie M. Spencer 

Mrs. Gatzert Spiegel 

Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 

Mrs, E. Norman Staub 

Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 

Mrs. Adiai E. Stevenson III 

Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

Mrs. William S. Street 

Mrs. Robert H. Strotz 

Mrs. Walter A. StuhrJr 

Mrs. Barry F Sullivan 

Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

Mrs. William P Sutter 

Mrs. James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr 

Mrs. Edward F Swift 

Mrs. Hampden M. Swift 

Mrs. Phelps H. Swift 

Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr 

Mrs. John W. Taylor III 

Mrs. Edward R. Telling 

Mrs. Richard L. Thomas 

Mrs. Bruce Thorne 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 

Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 

Mrs. Chester D. Tripp 

Mrs. C. Perin Tyler 

Mrs. Theodore W. Van Zelst 

Mrs. V L. D. von Schlegell 

Mrs. C. Armour Ward 

Mrs. Thomas M. Ware 

Mrs. Hempstead Washburne, Jr 

Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 

Mrs. John Paul Welling 

Mrs. John L.Welsh III 

Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 

Mrs. Julian B. Wilkins 

Mrs. Albert W. Williams 

Mrs. Philip C.Williams 

Mrs. Norman B. Williamson 

Mrs. Robert H.Wilson 

Mrs. Wallace C. Winter 

Mrs. Arthur W.Woelfle 

Mrs. Peter Wolkonsky 

Mrs. J. Howard Wood 

Mrs. William Wood-Prince 

Mrs. Frank H. Woods 

Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 

Mrs. George B. Young 



37 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCIL 



Individuals 

Mrs. Lester S. Abelson 

Mr & Mrs James W. Alsdorf 

Mr & Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mr & Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 

Mrs. Lester Armour 

Mr. & Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

Mrs. P. Kelly Armour 

Mr & Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 

Mr & Mrs. George R. Baker 

Mr. George Barr 

Mr. & Mrs Robert 0. Bass 

Mr & Mrs. George R Beach 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Bent 

Mr & Mrs. Harry O Bercher 

Mr & Mrs. James F. Bere 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward F. Blettner 

Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. Philip D. Block III 

Commander* & Mrs. G. E. Boone 

Mr. & Mrs. .William A. Boone 

Dr & Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 

Mrs. Harold S. Brady 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 

Mr & Mrs. Cameron Brown 

Mr & Mrs. Henry A. Brown 

Hon. & Mrs. Isidore Brown 

Ms. Jennifer Martin Brown 

Mr. & Mrs. Roger O. Brown 

Mr & Mrs. DeWitt Buchanan 

Mr & Mrs Donald P. Buchanan 

Mr. & Mrs. A. C. Bushier, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. James E. Burd 

Mr. & Mrs. Vincent J. Cannella 

Dr. & Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 

Mr & Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 

Mr & Mrs. Jerry Chambers 

Mr & Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 

Mr & Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 

Mrs. Jane Kuppenheimer Coale' 

Ms. MarciaS. Cohn 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank W. Considine 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 

Mr. & Mrs William S. Covington 

Mr. & Mrs. Mark Crane 

Mr. & Mrs. William F Crawford 

Mr & Mrs. Irving Crown 

Mr & Mrs. Lester Crown 

Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 

Mr. O. C. Davis 

Dr & Mrs Edwin J. DeCosta 

Mr. & Mrs. James A. Delaney Jr. 

Mr & Mrs Jay Delaney 

Mr & Mrs Robert O Delaney 

Mrs. Edison Dick 

Mrs. Clinton O. Dicken 

Mr. & Mrs. William R Dickinson, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon, Jr. 

Ms. Patricia Dodson 

Mr & Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 

Mr. James R Donnelley 



Mr & Mrs. Thomas E. Donnelley 11 

Mr & Mrs. George Dovenmuehle 

Mr. & Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 

Mrs. MarjorieH Elting 

Mr & Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas J Eyerman 

Mr. & Mrs. Melvin Fakter 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph N. Field 

Mr & Mrs. Marshall Field 

Mr Charles C. Fitzmorris 

Mrs. Robert L. Foote 

Mr. & Mrs Peter B Foreman 

Mr. & Mrs. Gaylord A. Freeman 

Mr & Mrs. William M. Freeman 

Mrs. Edmund W. Froehlich 

Mr. & Mrs. Maurice F Fulton 

Mr. & Mrs. Isak V Gerson 

Mr & Mrs. Gerald S. Gidwitz 

Mr Joseph L. Gidwitz 

Dr & Mrs. John G. Graham 

Mr. & Mrs. David W Grainger 

Mrs Donald C. Greaves 

Mr & Mrs. Roger Griffin 

Mr & Mrs. Paul Guenzel 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert P Gwinn 

Mr. Daniel R Haerther 

Mrs. Burton W Hales 

Mr & Mrs. Corwith Hamill 

Mrs. Anna Emery Hanson 

Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 

Mrs. William A Hark 

Mr. & Mrs. D. Foster Harland 

Mr & Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 

Mr. Joseph B. Hawkes 

Mr & Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 

Mr Charles K. Heath 

Mr. & Mrs Ben W Heineman 

Mr. & Mrs Scott Hodes 

Mr. & Mrs. John J. Hoellen 

Mr. Carl Holzheimer 

Mr. George R Hooper 

Mr & Mrs. H. Earl Hoover 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman 

Mr & Mrs. Robert S Ingersoll 

Mr. & Mrs. Reinhardt Jahn 

Mrs. Harold James 

Mr. & Mrs Richard M. Jones 

Mrs. John B. Judkins 

Mr. & Mrs Byron C Karzas 

Dr. Margaret Katzin 

Mr & Mrs. Robert D Kolar 

Mr. & Mrs. Gunnar Klarr 

Mrs. Bertram K. Kribben 

Mrs. Ray A. Kroc 

Mr & Mrs. Carl A. Kroch 

Mr Henry H. Kuehn 

Mrs. Richard W Leach 

Mr. & Mrs. Elliot Lehman 

Mr. & Mrs. John H. Leslie 

Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 



Mr Robert A. Lewis 

Mrs. Renee Logan 

Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 

Mrs. Robert L Lyon 

Mr & Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Malott 

Dr. & Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 

Mrs. Geraldine Martin 

Mr. & Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 

Mrs. Remick McDowell 

Mr & Mrs. John C. Meeker 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry W. Meers 

Dr. & Mrs. Steven Medgyesy 

Mr. & Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 

Mr & Mrs. Charles A Meyer 

Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 

Mr & Mrs. Newton N. Minow 

Mr. & Mrs. William H. Mitchell 

Mr & Mrs. Kenneth Montgomery 

Mr. Richard M. Morrow 

Mrs. Arthur T. Moulding 

Mr & Mrs. LeoMullin 

Mr. Charles F Murphy Jr 

Mr. & Mrs Timothy H. Murphy 

Miss Jeanne E. Murray 

Colonel & Mrs. John B. Naser 

Mr. & Mrs. Earl L Neal 

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 

Dr. & Mrs. Lorin I Nevling 

Mr. Bruce L. Newman 

Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 

Mr. & Mrs Karl F Nygren 

Mr. & Mrs. James J. O'Connor 

Mr. Wrigley Offield 

Mr. & Mrs James Otis, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 

Mr. & Mrs David D. Peterson 

Mr. & Mrs Marvin A. Pomerantz 

Mr. & Mrs Charles S Potter 

Mr. & Mrs A. N. Pritzker 

Mr. & Mrs Robert A. Pritzker 

Mr. James H. Ransom 

Mr. & Mrs. John Shedd Reed 

Miss Ruth Regenstein 

Mr. & Mrs Don H. Reuben 

Mr. & Mrs Thomas A. Reynolds, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Leo L Roberg 

Mrs T Clifford Rodman 

Mr. & Mrs Mark Rosenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard M Rosenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Rosenfield 

Mr. & Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowley 

Mr. & Mrs Arthur Rubloff 

Mr. & Mrs Charles G Rummel 

Mr. & Mrs John S. Runnells 

Mr. & Mrs. Norman J. Schlossman 

Mrs W. W. Scott 

Mr Charles E. Schroeder 



Mr & Mrs Arthur W. Schultz 

Dr. & Mrs. John S. Schweppe 

Mr & Mrs. John W. Seabury 

Mr. & Mrs. William L. Searle 

Mr. & Mrs. Roger M. Seitz 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Shapiro 

Mr. Jeffrey Shedd 

Dr Thomas W. Shields 

Mrs. John M. Simpson 

Mr & Mrs. Harry I. Skilton 

Mr & Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 

Mr & Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 

Mr Solomon B. Smith 

Mrs George T Spensley 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 

Mrs. Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

Mrs. David B. Stern, Jr. 

Dr & Mrs. David W. Stewart 

Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

Mr & Mrs. William S. Street 

Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Stuart, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Bolton Sullivan 

Mr & Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

Mrs James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift 

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Taylor III 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward R. Telling 

Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Thorne 

Mrs. Jean D. Thorne 

Mr. & Mrs. Reuben Thorson 

Mr. & Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Dr & Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs George S. Trees, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 

Mrs. Chester D. Tnpp 

Mr. & Mrs. Theodore W. Van Zelst 

Mr. Glen R. Verber 

Mr & Mrs. Robert E. Vernon 

Mr & Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 

Mr & Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 

Mr & Mrs. E Leiand Webber 

Mr & Mrs. Rodenck S. Webster 

Mr & Mrs. John L.Welsh III 

Mr & Mrs. Henry P Wheeler 

Mr Gordon Wildermuth 

Mr J Humphrey Wilkinson* 

Ms. Nicole Williams 

Dr & Mrs. Philip C. Williams 

Mrs. Benton J. Willner 

Mr John W. Winn 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur W. Woelfle 

Mr & Mrs. J. Howard Wood 

Mr & Mrs. Herbert N. Woodward 

Mr & Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 

Mr Richard W. Yeo 

Mr & Mrs. George B. Young 

Mrs. Claire Zeisler 



Honorary Members 

Their Royal Highnesses The Grand Duke and Duchess of Luxembourg 

Dr Stephen Jay Gould, Professor of Geology at Harvard University 

Dr. Donald C. Johanson, Paleoanthropologist at The Institute of Human Origins 

* Deceased 



38 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCIL 



Corporate 

Abbott Laboratories 
Mr Robert A, Schoellhorn, Chairman and CEO 
Mr Laurence R. Lee, Senior Vice President, Administration 

Allstate Insurance Company 
Mr. Donald F. Craib, Jr., Ctiairman of the Board 
Mr. Larry H. Williford, Vice President, Corporate Relations 

Amsted Industries, Inc. 
Mr. O. J. Sopranos, Vice President 
Mr. Eugene W.Anderson, Jr., Director, Public Affairs & Advertising 

Arthur Andersen & Co. 

Mr. Patrick J. Condon, Partner 
Atlantic Richfield Company 

Mr. J. Carlton Norris, Manager, Public Affairs 
Borg-Warner Corporation 

Mr Clarence E. Johnson, President and CEO 

Mr Dennis Grant, Retail Advertising Manager 
Combined International Corporation 

Mr Patrick G. Ryan, President and CEO 
Commonwealth Edison 

Mr James J. O'Connor, Chairman 
Continental Bank 

Mr Caren L. Reed, Executive Vice President 
DeSoto, Inc. 

Mr J. Barreiro, Vice President, Personnel & Industrial Relations 

Mr W. L. Lamey Vice President, Finance 
FMC Corporation 

Mrs. Robert H. Malott, Corporation Representative 
Fel-Pro/Mecklenburger Foundation 

Mr Paul Lehman, President 

Mr Harold Heft, Vice President 
First National Bank of Chicago 

Mr. Leo F Mullin, Executive Vice President 

Mr. Norman Ross, President, First National Bank Foundation 

Mr. Patrick T. Rossi, Assistant Vice President 
Harris Bank Foundation 

Mr. John L. Stephens, President 

Mr. H. Kris Ronnow, Secretary/Treasurer 
Household International, Inc. 

Mr Edward G. Harshfield, Senior Executive Vice President & COO 

Mr Norman Ridley, Director of Philanthropic Services 



Illinois Bell Telephone Company 

Mr Ormand J. Wade, President and CEO 

Mr John A. Koten, Vice President, Corporate Communications 
Interlake, Inc. 

Mr Harry Henderson, Vice President, Marketing & Public Affairs 
Kemper Educational and Charitable Fund 

Mr. Peter Van Cleave, Vice Chairman 

Mr. Maurice F Thunack, Secretary-Treasurer 
Kraft, Inc. 

Mrs. Richard P. Strubel, Vice President, Public Relations 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 

Mr Kevin Kasmar, Comptroller 

Mr Harry Zoberman, "A" Division Manager, Purchasing 
Midcon Corporation 

Mr Thomas E. McGough, Vice President 

Mr John L. Pelletier, Vice President 
The Northern Trust Company 

Mr. Robert F Reusche, Vice Chairman 
Peat, Manwick & Mitchell & Co. 

Mr Maurice J. DeWald, Managing Partner 

Ms. Andrea G. Bonnette, Controller 
The Quaker Oats Company 

Mr William D. Smithburg, Chairman and CEO 

Mr Frank J. Morgan, President and CEO 
S & C Electric Company 

Mr John R. Conrad, President 

Mr John W. Estey, Executive Vice President 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific Corporation 

Mr Frank N. Grossman, Vice President, Corporate Communications 

Mr George D. Scheckel, Director Community Relations 
Sara Lee Corporation 

Mr John H. Bryan, Jr., Chairman and CEO 

Mr. Robert E. Elberson, President and COO 
Sears Roebuck and Company 

Mr Gene L. Harmon, Vice President, Corporate Public Affairs 

Mr William Whitsitt, Director Contributions and Memberships 
USG Foundation, Inc. 

Mr Eugene Miller President & Director 

Mr Stanton Hadley Senior Vice President and Secretary 



39 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS* Total for 1983-84 



40 



The following roster lists those donors 
who generously contributed gifts of 
$100 or more during 1983-84. In addi- 
tion, we are grateful for the gifts of less 
than $100, which numbered almost 
4,000 for this biennium. 

INDIVIDUALS 

Donors of $5,000 or More 

Anonymous 

Mrs. Lester Armour 

Mrs, P, Kelly Armour 

Mr, & Mrs, T, Stanton Armour 

Estate of Abby K, Babcock 

Mr, & Mrs, George R, Baker 

Mr, & Mrs, Gordon Bent 

Estate of Miss Virginia Billow 

Mr, & Mrs, Bowen Blair 

Estate of William McCormick Blair 

Mr, Leigh Block 

Dr, & Mrs, Willard L, Boyd 

Mrs, Jennifer Martin Brown 

(Martin Foundation) . 
Mr, & Mrs, Roger O, Brown 
Mr, & Mrs, DeWitt Buchanan, Jr, 

(Buchanan Family Foundation) 
Dr, & Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mr, & Mrs, Jerry Chambers 
Patrick & Anna Cudahy Fund 
Dr, & Mrs, Edwin J, DeCosta 
Mr, & Mrs, James A, Delaney Jr, 
Mr, & Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr, & Mrs, Clinton 0, Dicken 
Mr, & Mrs, William R, Dickinson, Jr, 
Mr, & Mrs, Wesley M, Dixon, Jr, 
Mr, & Mrs, Gaylord Donnelley 
Mr, & Mrs, Thomas E, Donnelley II 
Mr, & Mrs, R.Winfield Ellis 
Mrs, Marjorie H, Elting 
Mr, & Mrs, Thomas J, Eyerman 
Mr, & Mrs, Joseph N. Field 
Mr, & Mrs, Marshall Field 

(Peterborough Foundation) 
Mr, & Mrs, William M, Freeman 
Mrs, Edmond W. Froehlich 
Mr, & Mrs, David W, Grainger 
Mr, & Mrs, Corwith Hamill 
Mrs, Anna Emery Hanson 
Mrs, William A, Hark 
Mr, & Mrs, Launn H, Healy 
Mr, & Mrs, Ben W, Heineman 
Estate of Floyd Job 
Mr, & Mrs, Gunnar Klarr 
Estate of Grace A. Kreck 
Mrs, Albert E, M, Louer Trust 
Mr, & Mrs, John H, Leslie 

(Leslie Fund) 
Mr. Albert G. Lowenthal 

Charitable Trust 
Mrs. Robert L. Lyon 
Dr. & Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 

(Marcus Family Foundation) 
Ms. Geraldine Martin 

(Martin Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs, Oscar G, Mayer 

(OscarG,&ElsaS, Mayer 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr, & Mrs, Charles A, Meyer 
Estate of Mildred Miller 
Mr, & Mrs, William H, Mitchell 
Mr, & Mrs, Kenneth Montgomery 
Mr, Richard M. Morrow 
Mrs, Arthur! Moulding 

(Arthur T& Mary B, 

Moulding Fund) 
Mable Green Myers Trust 



Mr, & Mrs, Charles S, Potter 
Mr, &Mrs, A, NPritzker 

(Pritzker Foundation) 
Mr, & Mrs, Robert A, Pritzker 

(Pritzker Foundation) 
Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Mr, Donald Richards 

(Richards Foundation) 
Mrs, T Clifford Rodman 
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

(D and R Fund) 
Mr. & Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Mr. & Mrs, William LSearle 
Estate of Sam Shapiro 
Mr, Frank E. Shevlin 

(Arthur J, Schmitt Foundation) 
Mrs, John M, Simpson 
Mrs, Phelps Hoyt Smith 

(Ruth & Vernon Taylor Foundation) 
Mrs, George T, Spensley 
Mr, &Mrs, JackC, Staehle 
Mrs, Donna Wolf Steigenwaldt 

(Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

Foundation) 
Dr, & Mrs, David W, Stewart 
Carolyn & Rush Taggert Trust 
Mr, & Mrs, John W, Taylor, Jr, 
Mr, & Mrs, Edward R, Telling 
Mr, & Mrs, Howard J, Trienens 
Mrs, Chester D, Tripp 
Mr, & Mrs, Louis A, Wagner 
Estate of Marguerite S, Walker 
Mr, & Mrs, Rodericks, Webster 
Mr, & Mrs, Blaine J, Yarrington 

$1,000-$4,999 

Mrs, Lester S, Abelson 

Mr, & Mrs, Lowell E, Ackman 

Mrs, Abra Prentice Anderson 

(Abra Prentice Anderson 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr, Robert S.Adler 

(Robert S, Adier Family Fund) 
Mr, & Mrs, Stanley N, Allan 
Mr, & Mrs, James W, Alsdorf 

(Alsdorf Foundation) 
Anonymous 

Mr, & Mrs, A, Watson Armour III 
Mr, & Mrs, Edwin A, Asmann 

(O, Paul Decker Memorial 

Foundation) 
Mr, Morton John Barnard 

(Lillian Molner Charitable Trust) 
Mr, George Barr 
Mr & Mrs, Robert O, Bass 
Mr & Mrs, George R, Beach, Jr 
Mrs, James H, Becker 
Mrs, Richard Bentley 
Mr & Mrs, Harry O. Bercher 
Mr & Mrs, Allen C, Berg 
Mr Edwin A, Bergman 
Mr & Mrs, James R Ber6 
Mr & Mrs, Carl G. Bjorkman 

(Bjorkman Foundation) 
Mrs, Carolyn Blackmon 
Mr Donald L, Blanke 

(H, B, Blanke Charitable Trust) 
Mr & Mrs, Edward F Blettner 
Mrs, Philip D, Block, Jr 

(Philip D, Block, Jr 

Family Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Philip D, Block III 

(J, B, Charitable Trust) 
Mrs, Gilbert R Bogert 



Mr & Mrs, William A, Boone 
Mrs, Bertram Z, Brodie 

(Edwin J, Brach Foundation) 
Mrs, Harold S, Brady 
Mrs, Elizabeth Bramsen 

(Svend & Elizabeth Bramsen 

Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Robert E. Brooker 
Mr & Mrs, Cameron Brown 

(Cameron Brown Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Henry A. Brown 
Hon, & Mrs, Isidore Brown 
Mr & Mrs, Donald P Buchanan 
Mr & Mrs, A, C, Buehler Jr 

(ACP Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, James E, Burd 
Mr & Mrs, Vincent J, Cannella 
Mr & Mrs, Henry T Chandler 
Mr & Mrs, Walter L, Cherry 
Mrs, Jane Kuppenheimer Coale" 
Mr John Coale 
Miss MarciaS, Cohn 
Mr & Mrs, Frank W, Considine 
Mr & Mrs, Stanton R, Cook 
Mr & Mrs. David R, Corbett 
Mr & Mrs, William S, Covington 
AG, Cox Charity Trust 
Mr & Mrs, Mark Crane 
Mr & Mrs, William F Crawford 

(Crawford Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Irving Crown 
Mr & Mrs, Lester B, Crown 

(Arie & Ida Crown Memorial) 
Ms, Sandra K, Crown 
Mr Michael Cudahy 
Mr & Mrs, George H Dapples 
Mr Ken M, Davee 

(Davee Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Leonard S, Davidow 
Mr O, C, Davis 
Mr & Mrs, Jay Delaney 
Mrs, Charles S, De Long 
Mr A, B, Dick 

(Dick Family Foundation) 
Mrs, Edison Dick 
Mrs, Arthur Dixon 
Mrs, Wesley M, Dixon, Sr 
Ms, Patricia Dodson 
Elliott & Ann Donnelley Foundation 
Mr James H, Douglas 
Mr & Mrs, George H, Dovenmuehle 
Mrs, Lyman M, Drake, Jr 
Mrs, Robert T Drake 
Mr & Mrs, Robert C, Edwards 

(Woodruff & Edwards Foundation) 
Miss Shirley M, Evans 
Mr & Mrs, Gordon R, Ewing 
Mr & Mrs. Melvin Fakter 
Mrs. Calvin Fentress, Jr 
Mrs, Robert C, Ferris 
Mr Charles C, Fitzmorris, Jr 
Mr & Mrs, Harold E, Foreman 

(Peroke Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs, Peter B, Foreman 
Mr & Mrs, Gaylord A, Freeman 
Mr & Mrs, Maurice F Fulton 
Mr & Mrs, Isak V, Gerson 
Mr & Mrs, James R. Getz 
Mr & Mrs, Gerald Gidwitz 
Mr Joseph L, Gidwitz 
Mrs, Paul W, Goodrich 
Dr & Mrs, John G, Graham 
Mrs, Donald C, Greaves 
Mr&Mrs, Rogers, Griffin 
Mrs, Rose B, Grosse 



Mr & Mrs, Paul W, Guenzel 
Mr & Mrs, William N. Guthrie 
Mr & Mrs, Robert P Gwinn 
Mr Daniel P Haerther 
Mrs, Charles C, Haffnerlll 
Mr William M, Hales 

(Hales Charitable Fund) 
Mrs, Charles L, Hardy 
Mr & Mrs, D, Foster Harland 
Mr & Mrs, Robert S, Hartman 
Mrs, William H, Hartz, Jr 
Mr & Mrs, Edward Hines 
Mr & Mrs, Scott Hodes 
Mr & Mrs, John J, Hoellen 

(Sulzer Family Foundation) 
Mr Gerald Hollins 
Dr Hellen Holt 
Mr & Mrs, Carl Holtzheimer 

(HoltzheimerFund) 
Mr & Mrs, H. Earl Hoover 

(H, Earl Hoover Foundation) 
Mr Howell H, Howard 
Mr & Mrs, Chauncey K, Hutchins 
Mr & Mrs, Robert C, Hyndman 
Mr & Mrs, Reinhardt Jahn 
Mr & Mrs, Thomas J, Johnson 
Mr & Mrs, Richard M, Jones 
Mr Emmett M, Joyce 
Mrs, John G, Judkins, Jr 
Mr & Mrs, Byron C, Karzas 
Dr Margaret Katzin 
Mrs, Spencer R, Keare 
Mr & Mrs, George R Kendall, Jr 
Mrs, E, Ogden Ketting 
Mr & Mrs, Robert D, Kolar 
Mrs, Bertram D, Kribben 
Mr & Mrs, Carl A, Kroch 
Mr Henry H, Kuehn 
Mrs, Allen B, Kuhlman 
Mrs, Richard W, Leach 
Mr & Mrs, Elliot Lehman 
Mr Robert L, Lehmann 

(Otto W, Lehmann Foundation) 
Mrs, John Woodworth Leslie 
Dr & Mrs, Edward H, Levi 
Mr & Mrs, Michael D, Levin 
Mr Robert A, Lewis 

(Robert A, Lewis Fund) 
Mrs, Renee Logan 
Mr & Mrs, Franklin J, Lunding 
Mr & Mrs, Robert H, Malott 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome W, Mandell 
Mrs. Frank D. Mayer 
Mr & Mrs. Brooks McCormick 
Mrs. Remick McDowell 
Mr Foster G, McGaw 

(Foster G, McGaw Foundation) 
Mrs, Frank McLoraine 
Mr & Mrs, Edwin E, Meader 
Mr & Mrs, John C, Meeker 
Mr & Mrs, Henry W, Meers 
Mr & Mrs, Hugo J, Melvoin 
Mrs, J, Roscoe Miller 
Mr & Mrs, Newton N, Minow 

(Minow Charitable Fund) 
Mr & Mrs, Frank J, Mooney 
Dr & Mrs, Evan Gregory Moore 
Mr & Mrs, Graham J, Morgan 
Mr & Mrs, Leo F Mullin 
Mr Charles R Murphy Jr 
Miss Jeanne E, Murray 
Mr Hisazo Nagatani 
Col, & Mrs, John B, Naser 
Mr & Mrs, Earl L. Neal 
Mr & Mrs, Stephen C. Neal 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS, Total for 1963-84 



Dr. & Mrs. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. John D. Nichols 

Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur Nolan, Jr. 

Mrs. John Nuveen 

Mr & Mrs. Karl F. Nygren 

Dr & Mrs. Eric Oldberg 

Mr & Mrs. Ralph T. O'Neil 

Mr & Mrs. James Otis, Jr 

Mrs. Richard C. Oughton 

Mr George A. Pagels, Jr 

Mr. Bryan Patterson 

Mr & Mrs. Donald W, Patterson 

Mr. & Mrs. David D. Peterson 

Mr Seymour Phillips 

Mr. & Mrs. Allen M. Pickus 

Mr & Mrs. James D. Polls 

Mr & Mrs. Marvin A. Pomerantz 

Mr. Richard J. Radebaugh 

Mr. & Mrs. L. W. Ramsey 

Mr James H. Ransom 

Ms. Helen Reed 

Mr. & Mrs. John Shedd Reed 

Mr Howard C. Reeder 

Mr & Mrs. Don H.Reuben 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas A. Reynolds, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Leo Roberg 

Mrs. Ward C. Rogers 

Mr William R. Rom 

Mrs. Annie May Rosenberg 

Mrs. Leona Rosenberg 

Mr & Mrs. Richard M. Rosenberg 

Mr & Mrs. Andrew M. Rosenfield 

Mr & Mrs. Harold R. Rosenson 

Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowley 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur Rubloff 

Mr & Mrs. Charles G. Rummel 

Mr Leonard B. Sax 

(Sax Family Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Norman J. Schlossman 

(Jocarno Fund) 
Mr Walter E, Schuessler 
Mr & Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Schweppe 
Mrs. W. W. Scott 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Seabury 

(Seabury Foundation) 
Mrs. Charles H. Seevers 
Mr & Mrs. Roger M.Seitz 
Mr & Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr John I. Shaw 

(Arch W. Shaw Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Jeffrey Shedd 
Dr Thomas W. Shields 

(Bessie Shields Foundation) 
Mrs. C. Sidamon-Eristoff 
Mr & Mrs. Richard W. Simmons 
Mr&Mrs. Harryl.Skilton 
Mr George D. Smith II 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
Mr & Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Mr Solomon B. Smith 
Mr Thomas J. Smith 
Mrs. Toni S. Smith 
Dr & Mrs. Daniel Snydacker 
Dr & Mrs. Jack D. Sparks 
Ms. Elizabeth Stein 
Mr Sydney Stein, Jr 
Mrs. David 8. Stern, Jr 
W. Clement & Jessie V. Stone 

Foundation 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

(Marjorie & Robert Straus 

Endowment Fund) 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Stuart, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Bolton Sullivan 

(Bolton Sullivan Foundation) 



Mr & Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

(Bolton Sullivan Foundation) 
Mrs. Harry B. Sutter* 
Mr William P Sutter 
Mrs. James Swartchild 

(Collier-Swartchild Foundation) 
Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mr&Mrs, John Taylor III 
Mr & Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Mrs. George A. Thornton 
Mr & Mrs. Rueben Thorson 

(Thorson Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Mr & Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 
Mr George S. Trees 
Mr & Mrs. George S. Trees, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Theodore Van Zelst 

(Minann, Inc. Foundation) 
Mr Glen R. Verber 
Mr & Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 
Mrs. Hempstead Washburne, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr&Mrs. John Welsh III 

(McCrea Foundation) 
Henry E. & Consuelo S. Wenger 

Foundation, Inc. 
Mr & Mrs. Henry P Wheeler 
Mrs. Jay N.Whipple 
Mr Harold A. White 
Mr Gordon Wildermuth 
Mr & Mrs. George F Wilhelm 
Mr J. Humphrey Wilkinson* 
Dr & Mrs. Philip C, Williams 
Mrs. Benton J. Willner 
Mr & Mrs. Robert H. Wilson 
Mr James R. Wimmer 
Mr & Mrs. Arthur W.Woelfle 
Mr & Mrs. J. Howard Wood 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert N. Woodward 
Mr & Mrs. George B. Young 
Mrs. Claire B. Zeisler 

(Claire B. Zeisler Foundation) 
Mr E. W. Zimmerman 



$100-$999 

Mr & Mrs. Charles Aaron 

Mr & Mrs. L. Meredith Ackley 

Mr Cyrus H. Adams III 

Mr & Mrs. Leiand C. Adams 

Mr & Mrs. R. J. Adelman 

Dr Robert Adier 

Mr Thomas W. AdIer 

Mr & Mrs. Edward K. Aldworth 

Mr John Alexander, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. John A. Alexander 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Alexander 

Mr Louis A. Allen 

Mr Brierly W. Anderson 

Mr & Mrs. Roger A. Anderson 

Mr & Mrs. Scott Anderson 

Mr Thomas W. Andrews 

Mr Donald Angus 

Mr Joseph P. Antonow 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur I. Appleton 
(Arthur I. Appleton Foundation) 

Mrs. E. A. Archer 

Mr & Mrs. Angelo Arena 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas Arthur 

Mr Frederick Asher 

Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 

Mr & Mrs. Wallis Austin 
(Oak Park-River Forest 
Community Foundation) 

Dr Orren D. Baab 

Mrs. William T Bacon 



Mr & Mrs. Eugene C. Bailey 

Mr E. M. Bakwin 

Mr & Mrs. Elmer Balaman 

Dr & Mrs. George E. Ball 

Mr & Mrs. James L. Ballard 

Mr & Mrs. Carl Balonick 

Mr George M. Bard 

Mr Ralph Austin Bard, Jr 

Mrs. Etta Moten Bamett 

Mrs. George Barnett 

Mrs. F Rose Barr 

Mrs. Warren Barr 

Mr William C. Bartholomay 

Mrs. Robert Bartlett 

Mrs. George A. Basta 

Mr James Bateman 

Mr Rex J. Bates 

Mr Michael Bayard 

Mrs. George W. Beadle 

Mr Ross J. Beatty 

Mrs. B. E. Bensinger 

(B. E. Bensinger Foundation, Inc.) 
Mr & Mrs. Edward M. Becht 
Mrs. Ethel G. Becker 
Miss Lucille Becker 
Mr Walter Belinky 
Mr Chauncey M. Bell 
Mr & Mrs. Edward H. Bennett, Jr 
R. Clay Bennett 
Mr & Mrs. John P Bent 
Mrs. Richard Bentley 
Mr Edwin A. Bergman 
Mr Robert Bergman 
Mr & Mrs. Richard N. Bergstrom 
Mr Richard C. Berliner 
Mrs. Edward J. Bermingham 
Mr John A. Bernauer 

(Bernauer Family Charitable Trust) 
Mr & Mrs. George L. Beslow 
Mrs. Harry J. Bettendorf 
Ms. Jacqueline Beu 
Mrs. Helen U, Bibas 
Mr Andrew P. Bieber 
Mr Lee F. Biedermann 
Mr & Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 
Mr & Mrs. Harrington Bischof 
Mr Einar L. Bjorklund 
Mr Stephen Blackmon 
Mr Ralph C. Blaha 
Mr Blake Blair 

Mr & Mrs. Edward McCormick Blair 
Mr Edward McCormick Blair, Jr 
Mrs. Frank W.BIatchford 
Mrs. W. R. Blew 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph L. Block 
Mrs. Samuel W. Block 
Mr & Mrs. Donald G. Bloom 
Mr & Mrs. Harold R, Blumberg 
Mr Joseph James BIy 
Mr Thomas Board 
Mr & Mrs. George H. Bodeen 
Mr W. S. Bodman 
Mr George T Bogert 
Mr & Mrs. Harlan G. Bogie 
Mr & Mrs. R. B. Bohnen 
Mrs. Daniel N. Boone 
Commander & Mrs. G. E. Boone 
Mr John Jay Borland II 
Mr Robert E. Bouma 
Mr & Mrs. Arthur S. Bowes 

(Bowes Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. William E. Bowman 
Mr & Mrs. William Beaty Boyd 
Mr Paul F. Boyer 
Mrs. Clarence G, Brack 
Mr & Mrs. Roscoe R, Braham, Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Joseph T. Branit 



Mrs. D. T. Braun 

Mr & Mrs. James L. Breeling 

Mr & Mrs, William E. Breitzke 

Mrs. Elmo F. Brennom 

Mrs. Paul K. Bresee 

Mr & Mrs. Derrick L. Brewster 

Mr James J. Brice 

Mr & Mrs. Gordon R. Briggs 

Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 

Mr & Mrs. Warren G. Brockmeier 

Mr Alan R. Brodie 

Mr Beckwith R. Bronson 

Mr Herbert C. Brook 

Mrs. Charles H. Brown 

Mr Charles L. Brown, Jr 

Mrs. Murray C. Brown 

Mr & Mrs. William M. Brown 

Mr & Mrs. Herbert A. Bruckner 

Robert & Sophie Anne Brunner 

Mr & Mrs. Edward A. Bruzewicz 

Mrs. Charles W. Bryan, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. C. Lawrence Buchanan 

Mr Henry Buchbinder 

Mr & Mrs. George Buckman 

Mrs. T Von Donop Buddington 

Mr Robert Buehler 

Mr & Mrs. Theodore H. Buenger 

Mr & Mrs. Gunnar Burgeson 

Mr & Mrs. Robert K. Burgess 

Mr Grinnell Burke 

Ms. Romana Burke 

Mrs. Thomas B. Burke 

Mr Homer A. Burnell 

Mrs. Joseph S, Burnham 

Ms, Marie Kraemer Burnside 

Mr Robert S, Burrows 

Mr George W, Butler 

Mr Robert B. Butz 

Mr James E. Byrne 

Mr Morton D. Cahn 

Mr John F Calmeyn 

Mr William T. Cameron 

Mr & Mrs. Donald A. Campbell, Jr 

Mr Hugh Campbell 

Mr Leo J. Carlin (Carlin Fund) 

Mr & Mrs. William Carmichael 

Mr Peter R. Carney 

Mr William J. Carney 

Dr & Mrs. Michael S. Carroll 

Mr Philip V Carter 

Mr Silas SCathcart 

Mrs. Jack Cavenaugh 

Mr Jac A. Cerney 

Mr & Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 

Mr & Mrs. Willard T. Chamberlain 

Mr Raymond M. Champion, Jr 

Mr Kent Chandler, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Douglas K. Chapman 

Mrs. George S. Chappel, Jr 

Mr Sidney Cheresh 

Mr Eugene J. Chesrow 

Mr & Mrs. Frank W. Chesrow 

Mr W. T Chester 

Mr F Newell Childs 

Mr & Mrs, Charles Chomsky 

Dr & Mrs, Cyril MChrabot 

Mr & Mrs, Weston R, 

Christopherson 
Mr & Mrs, Allen NCIapp 
Mr & Mrs. Donald C. Clark 
Ms. ZetaE. Clark 
Mr & Mrs. John Walter Clarke 

(Clarke Foundation) 
Mr S. P Clay Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Harry B. Clow, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Eric W. Cochrane 
Mr & Mrs. Charles W.Cole 



41 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS, Total for 1983-84 



42 



Mr. Franklin A. Cole 

Jane B. & John C. Coleman 

Philanthropic Fund 
Mrs. John Coleman 
Mr John E. Coleman 
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Coleman 
Ms. Angela Colletti 
Mr. Orell T. Collins 
Mr. & Mrs. EarleM Combs III 
Mr. John T. Concannon 
Dr. & Mrs. Raymond H. Conley 
Mr Louis J, Conti 
Mrs. Edward A Cooper 
Drs. Daniel & Marie! Cooperman 
Mr Donald C. Cottrell, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs, James R. Coulter 
Miss Marion E. Cowan 
Mrs. Norman L. Cram 
Mrs. Elisabeth M. Crow 
Ms. Marianne J. Cruikshank 
Mr. & Mrs. Herschel Cudd 
Mr. Tilden Cummings 
Mr. Edward A. Cushman 
Mr. Paul W. Cutler 
Mr. & Mrs. Loren Daily 
Mr. Bruce E. Dalton 
Dr. & Mrs. Tapas K. Das Gupta 
Mr. & Mrs. Louis E. Davidson 
Mr. & Mrs. W. Allen Davies 
Mrs. Louise F. Davis 
Mr. & Mrs. Orville M. Davis 
Mr. & Mrs. William R. Davis 
Mr. Cyrus C. De Coster 
Mr. & Mrs. Seymour S. De Koven 
Mr. Patrick A. De Moon 
Mr. R. J.DeMotte 
Mr Donald J. DePorter 
Mr. & Mrs. James R. De Stefano 
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert C. De Young 
Dr. Sam Decker 
Mrs. R. Emmett Dedmon 
William G. Demas 
Mr & Mrs. Jerry E Dempsey 
Mr David O. Denison 
Mrs. Charles Dennehy, Jr. 
Mr. Edison Dick 
Mr. & Mrs. Duane A. Diehl 
Mr. & Mrs Robert L. Dietmeier 
Mr. Stewart S. Dixon 
Nina B & James R. Donnelley 

Foundation 
Mrs. Robert D. Dooley 
Dr. & Mrs. Samuel R. Doughty 
Mr. Charles H. Douglas 
Mr. William C. Douglas 
Mr H. James Douglass 
Ms. Mary T. Drazba 
M. F DuChateau 
Mr & Mrs. Paul R. Duncan 
Mr & Mrs, M. F Dunne, Jr. 
Mr B. L. Durling 
Mr & Mrs. Peter L. Dyson 
Mrs Percy B. Eckhart 
Mr & Mrs. Sigmund E. Edelstone 

(Sigmund E. Edelstone 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Edwards 
Mr. Gerard J. Eger 
Mr. James G. Ek 
Mr William J. Elberson 
Mrs. Hannah B. Eldridge 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Ellas 
Mr David P. Eller 
Mr. & Mrs. F. Osborne Elliott 
Mr. & Mrs. Russell C. Ellis 



Miss Caryl L. Elsey 
Miss M. Caroline Emich 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Engler 
Mr E. Stanley Enlund 
Mr. Sidney Epstein 

(Epstein Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. E. J. Erick 
Mrs. William T. Erickson 
Mr Harry F Espenscheid 
Mrs. Bergen Evans 
Mr & Mrs. Clay Evans 
Mr Kenneth A. Evans 
Mr & Mrs. David L. Everhart 
Mrs, Crawford F. Failey 
Mrs. John J. Faissler 
Mr. & Mrs, Milton Falkofi 

(Frank & Leah Falkoff Memorial) 
Mrs, Robert E, Fanning 
Mr Richard J. Farrell 
Mr & Mrs. William E. Fay Jr 
Mr Frederick R. Fechtner 
Mrs. R. W. Ferguson 
Ms. Virginia Ferrell 
Mr Wade Fetzer 
Dr & Mrs. Robert E. Field 
Mr & Mrs. Steven D. Fifield 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Fink 
Ms. Marie FinkI 
Mr William FinkI 
Mr & Mrs. Russell W. Fisher 
Mr & Mrs. Walter Fisher 

(L-M-PFund) 
Mr Morgan L. Fitch 
Dr C. Larkin Flanagan 
Mrs. Mildred C. Fletcher 
Mr & Mrs. James G. Flood 
Mr & Mrs. Harold M. Florsheim 
Mrs. Leonard Florsheim 

(Enivar Charitable Fund) 
Mr & Mrs. C. Robert Foltz 
Mrs. Robert L. Foote 
Mr Edwin S. Ford 
Mrs. Zachary D. Ford 
Mr Harold E. Foreman, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Frank B. Foster 
Mrs. Herbert D. Fox 
Mr & Mrs. A. A, Frank, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Franke 
Mr & Mrs. Marshall I. Frankel 

(Marshall Frankel Foundation) 
Dr Christabel Frederick 
Mr Earl J. Frederick 
Mr William M. Frederick 
Mr & Mrs. Donald B, French 
Mrs. Herbert A. Fhedlich 
Mrs. Allan Friedman 
Mr & Mrs. Paul Frisch 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Fritz 
Mrs. William D. Frost 
Mr & Mrs. Carlos M. Frum 
Mr & Mrs. R. Neal Fulk 

(Fulk Family Charitable Trust) 
Mr Douglas R. Fuller 
Mr & Mrs. James C. E. Fuller 
Mr Rudolph R. Gabriel 
Mrs. Charles B. Gale 
Mrs, Nicholas Galitzine 
Mr & Mrs. George H. Galloway 
Mr Bruce M. Ganek 
Mr Henry K. Gardner 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Garvin 
Mr & Mrs. John S Gates 
Mr Alfred Gawthrop 
Mr Robert H. Gayner 
Dr John E. Gedo 



Mr & Mrs. Thomas A. Gelderman 

Mr&Mrs. J. B. Gelling 

Mr Calvin M. George 

Mr John B. Gerlach 

Mr William J. Gibbons 

Mrs. Mary Jane Gibbs 

Mrs. Willard Gidwitz 

Mr & Mrs. Harvey B. Gill 

Mr J. William Gimbel 

(Gimbel Foundation) 
Mr James J. Glasser 
Albert H. & lona D. Glos Foundation 
Mr Gordon T. Goethal 
Mr & Mrs. David F Goldberg 
Mr & Mrs. Milton D. Goldberg 

(Isgo Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Goldman 
Dr & Mrs. Julian R. Goldsmith 
Mr & Mrs. Michael Goodkin 
Mrs. Alexander Gorbunoff 
Mr Edward Gordon 
Mr. Jerome S. Gore 
Mr Robert R. Gowland 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Graettinger 
Mr Bruce J. Graham 
Dr & Mrs. John G. Graham 
Miss Mary E Graham 
Mr & Mrs. Gerard E. Grasshorn 
Mr William S. Gray 
Col. & Mrs. Clifford C. Gregg 
Mr & Mrs. Edward D. Greiner 
Mr G. P. Gneve 
Mr & Mrs. Kalvin M. Grove 
Mr & Mrs Carl A. Grunschel 
Dr & Mrs. Rolf M. Gunnar 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Gunness 
Dr & Mrs. Edwin L. Gustus 
Mrs, Irene Gustus 
Mr William N, Guthrie 
Mr Rudolph Guttosch 
Dr & Mrs. Vernon L. Guynn 
Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Haayen 
Mr John W. B Hadley 
Mr Arthur G.Hailand 
Mrs Burton W. Hales 
Mr Burton W. Hales, Jr 
Mr&Mrs. J Parker Hall III 
Dr Carol A .Haller 
Mr & Mrs. Andrew C. Hamilton 
Mr & Mrs Robert F Hanson 

(Dave Hokin Foundation) 
Mr Leon E. Hapke 
Miss Virginia Hardin 
Mr Jack R. Harlan 
Mr & Mrs. James D. Harper Jr 
Mr David J. Harris 
Mr Irving B. Harris 

(Harris Foundation) 
Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris 
Mr E. Houston Harsha 
Mrs. Augustin S Hart 
Mr Chester C.Hart 
Mr & Mrs. Irvin H. Hartman, Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Malcolm H. Hast 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome Hasterlick 
Mr & Mrs. Graham A. Hatfield 
Mr Lawrence Hattenbach 
Mr & Mrs. Marty Hauselman 
Mrs. William HHazlett 
Mr & Mrs. Reuben L. Hedlund 
Ms. Grace C. Hefner 
Mrs. Wilfred H. Heitmann 
Mr Frank X Henke, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Joel F. Henning 
Mr O. L. Henninger 



Mrs. John Heymann 

Mr & Mrs. Edward H. Hickey 

Ms. Roberta A. Hill 

Mr & Mrs. Stacey H. Hill 

Mr E. H. Hillman 

Mr John L. Hines 

Mr & Mrs. Harold H. Hines, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Donald M. Hintz 

Mr Edwin W. Hirsch 

Dr & Mrs. Jerome H. Hirschmann 

Mr & Mrs. John Hobart 

(J & M H Trust) 
Mrs. Richard H. Hobbs 
Ms. Josephine Hockenbeamer 
Mrs. William R. Hodgson 
Mr & Mrs. Edward N. Hoffman 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas J. Hoffman 
Mr & Mrs. Frank Hollingsworth 
Dr & Mrs. John A. Holmes 
Mr Stanley H. Holmes 
Mr Thomas Holmquest 
Edwin & Grace Hokin Foundation 
Mrs. William D. Home, Jr 
Mr Franklin Horwich 

(Franklin & Francis Horwich 

Family Foundation) 
Mr Leonard J. Horwich 

(Leonard J. Honwich 

Family Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Roger F. Howe 
Mr & Mrs. Lincoln B. Hubbard 
Mrs. Otis L. Hubbard, Sr 
Miss Katherine J. Hudson 
Mr & Mrs. Peter H. Huizenga 
Mr & Mrs. R. B. Hulsen 
Mr & Mrs. Peter D. Humleker 
Mr & Mrs. Reed E. Hunt 
Mr & Mrs. William 0. Hunt 
Mrs. C. K. Hunter 
Mrs. Harvey Huston 
Mr & Mrs. John B. Hutchins 
Mr & Mrs. Robert A. Hutchins 
Mr & Mrs. William Y. Hutchinson 
Mrs. Stanley O. Ikenberry 
Mr Charles Iker 
Mr George M. Illich, Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Robert F. Inger 
Miss Marion F. Inkster 
Mr Hans D. Isenberg 

(Hans D. Isenberg Foundation) 
Mr George S. Isham 
Dr & Mrs. Michael Jablon 
Mr & Mrs. Charles M. Jacobs 
Mr Charles Jahn 
Mr & Mrs. Frederick G. Jaicks 
Mr Kenneth J. James 
Mr & Mrs. Downing B. Jenks 
Mr Albert E. Jenner Jr 
Mr & Mrs. William R. Jentes 
Dr George N. Jessen 
Mr & Mrs. Charles R. Jewell 
Mr & Mrs. Edward C. Johnson 
Dr Frank R. Johnson 
Mr Henry A. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. James David Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. James E. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Richard L. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Robert L. Johnson 
Mr Robert L. Johnson 
Mr Frank J, Jonak 
Mrs. Robert V. Jones 
Mr Robert B. Joshel 
Mrs. Elizabeth Jung 
MissOlga Jurco 
Mr William V Kahler 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS, Total for 1983-84 



Dr. & Mrs. Jerome O. Kaltman 
Miss Patricia M. Kammerer 
Mr Ernest W. Kaps 
Dr & Mrs. Robert M. Kark 
Mr Bernard Karlin 
Virginia K. Karnes 

(William G. Karnes 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr & Mrs. David Karraker 
Mr Lawrence Kasakoff 
Mr Frederick M. Kasch 
Mr & Mrs. V. Kasmerchak 
Mr Frank Katkus 
Mr Fred R. Kaufman 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Keating 
Mr & Mrs. Lee B. Keating 

(Keating Family Foundation) 
Miss Catherine M. Keebler 
Mr Nelson H. Kehl 
Dr Algimantas Kelertas 
Mr & Mrs. C. J. Kelleher 
Mr Thomas H. Keller, Jr 
Mr. &Mrs. FrankJ. Kelleylll 
Mr Russell P. Kelley, Jr 
Mr Donald P Kelly 
Mr & Mrs. Frederick T. Kelsey 
Mr & Mrs. George P Kendall, Jr 
Mr Taylor L. Kennedy 
Dr & Mrs. William E. Kennell 
Mr William Kerr 
Mr Charles C. Kenwin 
Dr & Mrs. Merrill S. Kies 
Mr&Mrs. Charles W.King 
Mrs, Han/ey W. King 
Mr Harvey Kipen 
Mr & Mrs. Robert P. Kirchheimer 
Mr Clayton Kirkpatrick 
Mr & Mrs. John E. Kirkpatrick 
Mrs. Rose Tracy Kirschner 
Mr Glenn E. Kischel 
Herman & Gertrude Klafter 

Foundation 
Mr & Mrs. Jules Klapman 
Mr & Mrs. Stephen Klemen 
Mr James C. Klouda 
Mr Philip Klutznick 

(Ethel & Philip Klutznick 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr Arthur R. Kneibler 
Mrs. Robert G. Knight 

(R.G.&M.E. Knight Fund) 
Mr Maurice G. Knoy 
Dr Karl Koopman 
Mr Newton F. Korhumel 

(Korhumel Foundation) 
Mrs. Neal Kottke 
Mrs. Bertram Kribben 
Mrs. Maynard C. Krueger 
Mr&Mrs. Arthur H.Kruse 
Mr & Mrs. George C. Kuhlman, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph Kukenis 
Mrs. Louise B. Kuppenheimer 
Mrs. John F Kurfess 
Mrs. Charles La Bow 
Mr J. C. Laegeler Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Amrum Lakritz 
Mrs. Walter D. Larkin 
Mr Earl D. Larsen 
Mrs. Jack A. Larsh 
Mr Harry Lasch 

Mr & Mrs. Charles P. Laurenson 
Mr William J. Lawlor Jr 
Mr & Mrs. John K. Laws 
Mr & Mrs. Gordon Leadbetter 
Mr & Mrs. Marshall S. Leaf 



Dr & Mrs. Henry S. Lebioda 
Dr Bernard S. Lee 
Mr Richard Lee 
Mr & Mrs. Paul H. Leffman 
Mr &Mrs. WilberS. Legg 
Ms. Margie Lehman 
Mr John G. Leininger 
Mr Frederick K. Leisch 
Mr Richard A. Lenon 
Mr. Frederick R. Lent 
Mr Robert L. Leopold 

(Robert L. Leopold Family 

Foundation) 
Mr John R. Le Valley Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Daniel E. Levin 
Mr & Mrs. Lawrence R. Levin 
Mr Charles Levy 

(Charles & Ruth Levy Foundation) 
Dr & Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas M. Lillard 
Mr Harrison C. Lingle 
Mr David E. LTpson 
Mr Donald C. Lisle 
Mr & Mrs. Chapin Litten 
Dr W. C. Liu 

Mrs. Homer J. Livingston 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Dr Henry S. Loeb 

(Allen & Elizabeth Loeb Fund) 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Loeding 
Mr Philip W. Lotz 
Louis & Ruth Kahnweiler Family 

Foundation 
Dr Lloyd S. Lourie 
Mr H. Norris Love 
Mr M. R. Lowenstine, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Donald G. Lubin 
Mr & Mrs. Frank W. Luerssen 
Ms. Margaret Lundahl 
Miss. Louise Lutz 
Mrs. Florence Mabie 
Mrs. William D. Mabie 
Mr James W. MacDonald, Jr 
Mr David 0. MacKenzie 
Mr John A. MacLean, Jr. 
Mr & Mrs. Walter M. Mack 
Mr J. N. Macomb, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mr Bernard S. Madorin 

(Madorin-Sink Foundation) 
Mrs. Lorraine B. Madsen 
Mr & Mrs. Emil L. Makar 
Mr Phillips. Makin 
Mr James E. Mandler 
Mr & Mrs. Harold Manhoff 

(Harold & Edna Manhoff 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Philip C. Manker 
Mr & Mrs. Steven C. March 
Ms. Joyce Marcus 
Mr & Mrs. S. Edward Marder 
Mr R. Bailey Markham 
Mrs. IraG. Marks 
Mr McKim Marriott 
Mr Frank G. Marshall 
H. D. Marshall 
Mrs. Harold T. Martin 
Mrs. Jennifer L. Martin 
Dr & Mrs. Nester S. Martinez 
Mrs. Keith Masters 
Mr & Mrs. Bruce D. Mateer 
Mr Thomas N. Mathers 
Mr Paul Mavros 
Mr Augustus K. Maxwell, Jr 
Mr Harold M. Mayer 
Mrs. Robert B. Mayer 



Dr & Mrs. Samuel T. Mayo 

Mr & Mrs. Franklin McCarty Jr 

Mr Archibald McClure 

Mr & Mrs. David G. McCreery 

Mr Walter C.McCrone 

Mr & Mrs. G. Barr McCutcheon 

Mr & Mrs. Clement J. McDonald 

Mr & Mrs. Robert McDougal, Jr 

Mr Charles S.McGill 

Mr Arthurs. McGinn 

Mr John E. McGovern, Jr 

Mrs. John P. McHugh 

Mr William B. Mcllvaine 

Mr Neil McKay 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas McKay Jr 

Mr William W. McKitterick 

Mr James A. McMullen 

Mr James E. McNulty 

Mrs. Constance F. McVoy 

Dr L. Steven Medgyesy 

Elisabeth C. Meeker 

Mr & Mrs. Bernard D. Meltzer 

Mr & Mrs. Ronald McK. Melvin 

Mr Charles Melvoin 

(Melvoin Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Glenn E. Merritt 
Mr Matthew A. Meyer 
Mr Harry W. Michael 
Mr D. Daniel Michel 

(Greene-Michel Foundation) 
Mr Bert H. Michelsen 
Mr Andrew Michyeta 
Mr Paul E. Miessler 
Mr J. Patrick D.Miller 
Philip B. Millers Family 
Mrs. C.Phillip Miller 
Richard H. Miller 
Mr Robert E. Miller 
Mr Robert L. Milligan 
Mr Frank R. Milnor 
Mr Thomas M. Mints, Jr. 
Mr DominickW. Mirowski 
Mr Harry W. Mitchel 
Mr & Mrs. Ned E. Mitchell 
Mr B. John Mix, Jr 
Mr H. G. Mojonnier 
Mr J. D. Mollendorf 
Miss Marion Molyneaux 
Mr & Mrs. Graham J. Morgan 
Mr Jerrold L. Morris 
Mr & Mrs. Robert A. Morris 
Mr & Mrs. John H. Morrison 
Mr George L. Morrow 
Mrs. John Morrow, Jr 
Mr George Morse 
Mr Michael E. Moseley 
Mr Horace C. Moses, Jr 
Dr & Mrs. Gerald S. Moss 
Mr & Mrs. John D. Mueller 
Mr Aidan I. Mullett 
Richard J. Murphey 
Mr & Mrs. William E. Mussett 
Dr & Mrs. Charles F Nadler 
Mr Roscoe C. Nash 
Mr Stephen C. Neal 
Mr Kenneth Nebenzhal 
Mr Joseph B. Neiweem 
Mr & Mrs. William G. Neuert, Jr 
Mr J. Robert Newgard 
Dr & Mrs. Francis Newman 
Mr George Nicholas 
Mr Frank B. Nichols 
Mr & Mrs. John D.Nichols 
Mr & Mrs. Philip H. Niederman 
Mr & Mrs. Jon E Niehus 
Mr Charles F Nims 



Ms. Grace Nissman (Murray & Grace 

Nissman Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Ronald D. Niven 
Mr & Mrs. Ragnar W. Nordlof 
Mrs. Lawrence E. Norem 
Mr & Mrs. Harold W. Norman 
Ms. Lucille Ann Nunes 
Mr Francis X. G'Donnell 
Mr William P O'Keefe, Jr 
Mr Patnck L. G'Malley 
Mrs. Francis M. O'Neil 
Mr &Mrs. Milo E. Oliphant 
Rev. & Mrs. Alfred Raa Olson 

& Family 
Miss Mary Olson 
Mr & Mrs. Fred W. Opitz 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mr W. Irving Osborne, Jr 
Mrs. J. Sanford Otis 
Mrs. Fentress Ott 
Mr David B. Owen 
Mr & Mrs. Brian M. Owens 
Ms. NedraOyen 
Mrs. Walter Paepcke 
Mr & Mrs. Lloyd J. Palmer 
Mr Robert R. Palmer 
Mr George Parker 
Mr Norman S. Parker 
Mrs. J. W. Parson 
Mr Lloyd C. Partridge 
Dr Joan E. Patterson 
Mr & Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson 
Mr William Pavey 
Mr & Mrs. R. Marlin Perkins 
Mr & Mrs. Julian S. Perry 
Mr & Mrs. Donald Peters 

(Donald & Evelyn Peters 

Foundation) 
Mr Clifford T Peterson 
Mr Frank E. Pielsticker 
Mr Robert R. Pierson 
Mr Roy J. Pierson 
Dr Richard N. Pipia 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph B. Plauche 
Mrs. Bernard Pollack 
Mr Oren T Pollock 
Mr & Mrs. George A. Poole 
Mr Persius Pooley 
Mrs. William P. Pope 
Mr & Mrs. Sidney L. Port 
Mr Edward C. Porter 
Dr Edward Poser 
Mr & Mrs. Newell Pottorf 
Mr & Mrs. Eugene L. Powell 
Mr Robert C. Preble 
Mrs. George Preucil 
Mrs. Thomas Pritzker 
Mr Ralph E. Pro|ahn 
Mr & Mrs. John A. Prosser 
Mr Frederick C. Pullman 
Mr Jack Purcell 
Mr & Mrs. Allen L. Pusch 
Mr Jack A, Quigley 
Mr & Mrs. George G. Rabb 
Col. & Mrs. Millard E.Rada 
Miss Audree M. Ragan 
Mrs. M.G. Rahal 
Mr Norman X. RaidI 
Mr L. S. Raisch 
Mr & Mrs. Lon W. Ramsey 
Mr & Mrs. George A. Ranney 
Mr & Mrs, W. E. Rattner 
Mrs. Paul H. Rauhoff 
Dr Peter Raven 
Mr&Mrs. Frank S. Read 
Mr William M Redfield 



43 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS, Total for1983-84 



Miss Gertrude E. Reeb 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles A. Reed 
Mrs. Louise Reed 
Dr Clifton L. Reader 
Mr & Mrs. Gunther Reese 
Mrs. Robert G. Regan 
Mr Joseph Regenstein, Jr 
Dr. Stanton F. Reldberg 

(Stanmart Fund, Inc.) 
Miss Marie K. Remien 
Mrs. Robert W. Reneker 
Mr Robert F Reusche 
Mr David W. Rewick 
Mrs. Charles M. Rhodes 
Mr. George A. Rice 
Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 
Mr & Mrs. R. Norton Richards 
Mrs. Harold Richardson 
Mr & Mrs. Jerald F. Richman 
Mr H. C. Rickert 
Mr. Laurence M. Rieckhoff 
Mrs. Mary Riley 
Mr Michael D. Risser 
Mrs. John Ritchie 
Mr M. H. W. Ritchie 
Mr Charles Ritten 
Mrs. Jack L. Robbins 
Mr & Mrs. Charles C. Roberts 
Mr & Mrs. Harry V. Roberts 
Mr William J. Roberts 
Mr William R Roberts IV 
Mrs. Martha F. Robertson 
Mrs, Sanger P. Robinson 
Mrs, Ward C, Rodgers 
Mrs, Hugh Rodman 
Dr & Mrs. Arthur A. Rodriguez 
Mrs. Frederick Roe 

(Milius Roe Foundation) 
Alma R & Selma Roeder 
Mr Ottomar D. Roeder 
Mr Kenneth K. Roehler 
Mr & Mrs. Karl V. Rohlen 

(Rohlen Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Karl V. Rohlen, Jr 
Mr William R. Rom 
Mr & Mrs. Edward M. Roob 
Mr Harry A. Root, Jr 
Mrs, Philip Rootberg 
Mrs Leona Rosenberg 
Mr Mark Rosenberg 
Mr & Mrs Harold R Rosenson 
Mr Gerson M, Rosenthal, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Richard N. Rosett 
Hon, & Mrs. Dan Rostenkowski 
Miss Elizabeth B. Roth 
Mr A. Frank Rothschild 

(Mr & Mrs. A. Frank Rothschild 

Fund) 
Aid. Fred B. Roti 
Mr & Mrs. Wilbur Rowley 
Ms. Harriet Rozier 
Mr & Mrs. D. G. Ruegg 
Mr Charles T. Rufener 
Ms, Ruth Cain Ruggles 
Mr & Mrs, Thomas D. Rutherford 
Mr & Mrs. Robert M, Ruud 
Dr Vincent J, Sacchetti 
Mr & Mrs, Thomas R. Sanders 
Mr Norman L. Sandfield 
Miss Margaret H, Sanderson 
Mr Joram Sassower 
Mrs. Anna Saupe 
44 Dr Muriel Savage 



Mr Calvin P. Sawyier 

Mr Philip Schaff, Jr 

Mr Francis R. Schanck 

Mr & Mrs. William J, Schefle 

Mr & Mrs, John Scheid 

Mrs. Gerhart Schild 

A. Bruce Schimberg 

Mrs. Mary E. Schlageter 

Mr & Mrs. John Schlossman 

Mr & Mrs. Rudolph Schmidt 

Mrs. Barbara B. Schmitt 

Mr & Mrs. Lawrence K. Schnadig 

Mr. & Mrs. Barry Schrager 

Dr J. R Schweitzer 

Mr & Mrs. John Scott 

Mr Frank Sedlacek 

Mr & Mrs. Robert M, Seeley 

Mr & Mrs, William S. Seeley 

Mrs, Mary S. Seidler 

Mr & Mrs, Richard M, Seifert 

Mr Edwin A, Seipp, Jr 

Mr Calvin F Selfridge 

Miss Denise Selz 

Mr&Mrs. Charles W.Sena 

Mr & Mrs. C, Clin Sethness 

Mrs, Eileen G. Sexton 

DrSidJ.Shafer 

Mr James G. Shakman 

Mr & Mrs. Robert M. Shannon 

Mr Chester Shell 

Mr James G, Shennan 

Robert T Sherman, Jr 

Mr John W. Shields 

Mr De Ver Sholes 

Mrs. Mary Shrimplin 

Mr S. N, Shure 

(Sidney N Shure Fund) 
Herbert & Wilma Silberm 

Charitable Foundation 
Mr Stephan H, Sills 
Mr C. C. Simmons 
Mr & Mrs. Richard W. Simmons 
Mr Harold Simpson 
Mr Howard G. Simpson 
Mr & Mrs, John R. Siragusa 
Mrs. Gerald A Sivage 
Mr K. A. Skopec 
Mr Louis J. Slavin 
Dr & Mrs, Albert H, Slepyan 
Mr & Mrs, Robert W, Smick 
Mrs. C. Philip Smiley 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Byron Smith, Jr 
Mr Goff Smith 
Mr Gordon Smith 
Mr Harold Byron Smith 
Mr Matthew D Smith 
Mrs, Raymond F Smith 
Mr William S, Smith 
Mrs, S, R, Snider 
Dr Gary M. Sollars 
Mr & Mrs. Jack D. Sparks 
Mr & Mrs. Harold E. Spencer 
Mrs, William M, Spencer 
Mrs, Clara Spiegel 
Mr Charles R, Staley 
Ms, Zelda L. Star 
Mr John H. Stassen 
Mrs Pericles P. Stathas 
Mr E. Norman Staub 
Mrs. Henry L, Stein 
Mr Grundy Steiner 
Mrs. W. H. Stellner 
Mr & Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 



Mr Russell T. Stern, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. John C. Stetson 

Mr & Mrs. William R, Steur 

Mr Hal S, R. Stewart 

Mr & Mrs, Robert C, Stewart 

Mr Donald M. Stillwaugh 

Mr John W, Stimpson 

Mr Edwin H. Stone 

Mrs. James H, Stone 

Mr Lloyd Stone 

Mr & Mrs, Mark Stone 

Mr Marvin Stone (Marvin & Anita 

Stone Family Foundation) 
Mrs, Stanley Stone 
Mr & Mrs, Howard A. Stotler 
Mrs. Harold E, Strauss 
Mr & Mrs. Ivan G. Strauss 

(R.I. S. Foundation) 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Strauss 
Dr & Mrs Siegfried F, Strauss 

(MGS Charitable Fund) 
Mr Charles L, Strobeck 
Dr Robert HStrotz 
Mr Erwin A. Stuebner 
Mr & Mrs. Charles J. Sugrue 
Mrs, Audrey M, Sullivan 
Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger 
Mrs. James L. Surpless 
Mr William P Sutter 
Mr Philip W.K. Sweet 
Mr A. Dean Swift 
Mr & Mrs Edward F Swift III 
Mrs, Gustavus F Swift, Jr 
Mr J, R. Swihart 
Mr & Mrs James B, Tafel 
Mr & Mrs James M, Tait 
Mr & Mrs, Robert P Tallian 
Miss Mary Tamarri 
Mr Jordon M, Tark 
Mr Rodger M, Tauman 
Ms, Brenda J, Taylor 
M, J, Hall Taylor 
Mrs. Samuel G Taylor III 
Mr William L. Taylor, Jr 
Miss M. Evelyn Thomas 
Mr & Mrs. Paul A. Thomas III 
Mr & Mrs. Richard L. Thomas 
Mrs Thomas M Thomas 
Mr Henry M. Thullen 
Mr. & Mrs, Stanley E. Tierney 
Mr Richard E. Timler 
Mr Karl M. Tippet 
Mr Walter A. Tomlinson 
Mr Philip T Toomin 
Mr Norman Tucker 
Mrs, Robert Tullis 
Dr & Mrs. William D. Turnbull 
Mr & Mrs, Herbert G, Twaddle 
Mrs. C. P Tyler 
Ms. Marian Phelps Tyler 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Tyler 
Mr Edgar J, Uihiein, Jr 
Mr & Mrs, Bohus Ulicny 
Dr Victoria B. Vacha 
Mr & Mrs. Murray Vale 

(Murray & Virginia Vale 

Foundation) 
Mrs. R. D. Van Kirk 
Mrs. Errett Van Nice 
Mr & Mrs Herbert A. Vance 
Mr & Mrs, William C, Vance 
Mr Frank Peter Vander Ploeg 
Mr M. P, Venema 



Mr & Mrs. Richard A, Waichler 
Mr Edwin A, Walcher, Jr 
Mr & Mrs, C. Ives Waldo, Jr. 
Mr Charles R, Walgreen 

(MaryAnn & Charles R. 

Walgreen, Jr Fund) 



& Mrs, Harvey M, Walken 
;. Samuel J. Walker 
George M. Walker & Family 
& Mrs. Robert P. Wallace 
& Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 
& Mrs. John P. Walsh 
s. Cynthia Armour Ward 

Isabel B. Wasson 
s. Theron Wasson 
s. George W. Watts 
Morrison Waud 
Frances X. Wazeter 
William D. Weaver 
s. C. F Weber 
& Mrs. Norman R Wechter 
Morris S. Weeden 
& Mrs. Charles W. Wegener 
& Mrs. S. Sol Weiner 
(VogI Family Foundation) 
& Mrs. Jack Weinstein 
& Mrs. Paul J. Weir 
Jack Weisman 
& Mrs. William L, Weiss 
s, Paul A, Welbon 
s Donald P Welles 
Edward K, Welles 
s. John Paul Welling 



William D, Wells 
s, Louis Werner (Louis Werner Fund) 

&Mrs.B, Kenneth West 
s, Joseph B, Wharton 

& Mrs, Richard Wheatland 

E. Todd Wheeler 

& Mrs. Jay N. Whipple, Jr 

H.Blair White 

& Mrs. David E. Whiting 

A. D. Whitney 

& Mrs. George D. Wilbanks 

& Mrs, Lawrence G, Wilcox 

& Mrs, Lydon Wild 

& Mrs, George F. Wilhelm 

& Mrs, Louis O, Williams 

Albert D, Williams, Jr 

AmosG. Willis 

s. Benton J, Willner, Jr 

Robert M, Wilson 

James R, Wimmer 

s. Nancy Corwith Hamill Winter 

Michael Wirtz 

& Mrs, Richard M, Withrow 

& Mrs, William W. Wittie 

John C, Wolfe 

Arnold R, Wolff 

s, Peter Wolkonsky 

Arthur M, Wood 
• & Mrs. Henry C Wood 

Frank H. Woods 

William Wrigley 

& Mrs. David E. Wulf 

Theodore N, Yelich 

& Mrs, Bruce A, Young 

& Mrs. Hobart P Young 
Ms. Betty Yonker 
Ms Judy L. Zamb 
Mr & Mrs. Carl M. Zapffe 
Mr & Mrs. Carl A. Zehner 
Mr & Mrs. Howard B Zimmerman 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS, Total for 1983-84 



CORPORATIONS 
and PHILANTHROPIC 
FOUNDATIONS 

$5,000 or more 

Abbott Laboratories Fund 

Allen-Health Memorial Foundation 

The Allstate Foundation 

American National Bank Foundation 

Amoco Foundation, Inc. 

AMSTED Industries Foundation 

Arthur Andersen & Co. 

Atlantic Richfield Foundation 

The Barker Welfare Foundation 

Beatrice Companies, Inc. 

Borg-Warner Foundation, Inc. 

The Chicago Community Trust 

Chicago Tribune Foundation 

Coleman Foundation 

Combined International Corporation 

Commonwealth Edison 

Continental Bank Foundation 

The DeSoto Foundation 

R. R. Donnelley & Sons Company 

Ernst SWhinney 

Esmark Foundation 

FMC Foundation 

FRC Investment Corporation 

Fel-Pro/Mecklenburger Foundation 

The Field Foundation of Illinois, Inc. 

Marshall Field's 

First National Bank of Chicago Foundation 

Flair Communications Agency, Inc. 

Ford Motor Company Fund 

Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 

Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies 

in the Fine Arts 
H B B Foundation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Hartmarx Corporation 
Walter E. Heller Foundation 
Household International, Inc. 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
IC Industries, Inc. 
I. V. I. Travel, Inc. 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Illinois Tool Works Foundation 
Interlake Foundation 
International Minerals & Chemical 

Foundation 
Jewel Foundation 
The Joyce Foundation 
W. K. Kellogg Foundation 
Kemper Educational and Charitable Fund 
Kraft, Inc. 
John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur 

Foundation 
McGraw Foundation 
McGraw-Edison Company 
Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 
Magenta Corporation 
Midcon Corporation 
Montgomery Ward Foundation 
Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 
The Naico Foundation 
Northern Illinois Gas 
The Northern Trust Company 

Charitable Trust 
Northwest Industries Foundation, Inc. 
Peat, Manwick, Mitchell & Co. 
J. C. Penney Company Inc. 



The Peoples Energy Corporation 
The Albert Pick, Jr. Fund 
Pittway Corporation Charitable 

Foundation 
Frederick Henry Prince 

Testamentary Trust 
The Quaker Oats Foundation 
S&C Electric Company 
Sahara Coal Company 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Corporation 
Sargent & Lundy Engineers 
Arthur J. Schmitt Foundation 
Dr. Scholl Foundation 
John S. Swift Charitable Trust 
Tishman Midwest Management 

Corporation 
Torco Oil Company 
Touche Ross & Company 
UOP Foundation 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Urban Investment & Development 

Company 
Walgreen Benefit Fund 
Western Electric Fund 
Whirlpool Foundation 
W. P. & H. B. White Foundation 
Wilson & Mcllvaine 
E. W. Zimmerman Construction 

Products, Inc. 



$1,000-$4,999 

AT&T Communications 

AT&T Information Systems 

AXIA Inc. 

Aetna Life and Casualty Insurance 

Companies of Illinois 
Akzo Chemie America 
Alcoa Foundation 
Allied Corporation 

American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. 
American Hospital Supply Corporation 
Americana Hotels Corporation 
Aileen S. Andrew Foundation 

(Andrew Corporation) 
Anixter Brothers, Inc. 
Arco Metals Company 
Avon Products Foundation 
BankAmerica Foundation 
Bankers Trust Company 
Baxter Travenol Laboratories, Inc. 
A. G. Becker Paribas Foundation 
Blum-Kovler Foundation 
Bozell& Jacobs 
The Brand Companies Charitable 

Foundation 
Brown & Root Incorporated 
The Brunswick Foundation, Inc. 
Burlington Northern Foundation 
Leo Burnett Company Inc. 
Burson-Marsteller, Inc. 
CFS Continental Foundation, Inc. 
Carson Pirie Scott Foundation 
Centel Corporation 
Central Steel & Wire Company 
Chase Manhattan Bank, N.A. 

(Rose & Company Investment 

Brokers, Inc.) 
Cherry Electrical Products Company 
Chicago Bears Football Club, Inc. 



Chicago Bridge & Iron Company 
Chicago and North Western 

Transportation Company 
Chicago Title and Trust Company 

Foundation 
Citicorp (USA), Inc. 
Clark Foundation 

(J. L. Clark Manufacturing Co.) 
Comdisco, Inc. 

Consolidated Papers Foundation, Inc. 
Container Corporation of America 

Foundation 
John Crane-Houdaille, Inc. 
Crum & Forster Foundation 

(L. W. Beigler, Inc.) 
Helene Curtis Industries, Inc. 
Reuben H. Donnelley Corporation 
EPCO Services, Inc. 
Ehico Foundation 

(Edward Hines Lumber Co.) 
The Equitable Life Assurance Society 

of the United States 
Federal Signal Corporation 
The Florsheim Shoe Company 
The Fluor Foundation 
Foote, Cone & Belding Foundation 
GATX Corporation 
GenCorp 

General Motors Corporation 
Geraldi-Norton Memorial Corporation 
Max Goldenberg Foundation 
Goldman, Sachs & Co. 
Gould Inc. Foundation 
W. W. Grainger Inc. 
Guarantee Trust Life Insurance 

Company 
A. S. Hansen, Inc. 
Heller International 
James C. Hemphill Foundation 
Inland Steel-Ryerson Foundation 
Intermatic, Inc. 

Fred S. James & Co. of Illinois 
Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, Inc. 
K Mart Corporation 
Kemper Financial Services 
Ketone Automotive Inc. 
Kirkland & Ellis 
LaSalle National Bank 
Viola Aloe Laski Charitable Trust 
Latham & Watkins 
M & O Insulation Company 
McDonald's Corporation 
McKinsey & Company Inc. 
MacLean-Fogg Company 
Masonite Corporation 
William M. Mercer, Inc. 
Moore Business Forms, Inc. 
Philip Morris Incorporated 
Morton Thiokol Foundation 
Motorola Foundation 

Nash Brothers Construction Company Inc. 
National Boulevard Foundation 
National Can Corporation 
Needham Harper Worldwide 
Gust. K. Newberg Construction Co. 
New York Community Trust 
Ogiivy & Mather, Inc. 
Phelan, Pope & John, LTD 
George Pick & Company 
Power Systems, Inc. 
Price Waterhouse 

The Prudential Insurance Company 
of America 



45 




46 



Oath-taking and tiealing figure from the Chiloango River area of lower Zaire, one of the finest known examples of a sculpted Kongo charm. Late 
19th century. Made of wood, clay, fiber, metal, pigment, and cowrie shell, the figure was on view during the 1984 exhibit "African insights: 
Sources for Afro-American Art and Culture. " Cat. 91300, N109327. 



DONORS TO THE OPERATING FUNDS* Total for1983-84 



Reliable Sheet Metal Works, Inc. 

Rice Foundation 

Rockwell International Corporation 

Trust 
RyderTypes, Inc. 
Scott Foresman & Company 
Sealy Mattress Connpany 
G. D. Searle&Co. 
Seattle Foundation 
Security Pacific Foundation 
Seyfartti Shaw Fairweather & 

Geraldson 
Shell Companies Foundation, Inc. 
Signode Foundation, Inc. 
Sonnenschein Carlin Nath and 

Rosenthal 
Spiegel, Inc. 
Square D Foundation 
Stein Roe & Farnham 
Sunbeam Corporation 
Sweetheart Cup Corporation 
Texaco Philanthropic Foundation 
J. Walter Thompson Company Fund 
The Oakliegh L. Thorne Foundation 

(Commerce Clearing House) 
Time Incorporated 

The Travelers Companies Foundation Inc. 
Turner Construction Company 
UARCO Foundation 
UnibancTrust Foundation 
Union Oil Company of California 
United Conveyor Foundation 
United States Steel Foundation 
Waste Management, Inc. 
Wheelabrator Foundation, Inc. 

$100-$999 

ACME Mills Company 
Alberto Culver Company 
All-Types Office Supply 
Anderson Secretarial Service, Inc. 
Anthony and Company, Inc. 
Ashland Products Company 
The Baird Foundation 
Bernhard Woodv^ork Ltd. 
Beverick Corporation 
Bosler Supply Company 
Bronson & Brattson, Inc. 
Chemical Bank 

Champion Parts Rebullders Inc. 
Chicago Board of Trade 
The Chicago Corporation 
Chicago Mountaineering Club 
Chicago Rawhide Manufacturing 

Company 
Chicago Shell Club 
Chicago White Metal Charitable 

Foundation 
Cities Service Corporation 
Clow Corporation 
Colby's Home Furnishings 
Corey Charitable Foundation 
Coronado Publishers Inc. 



Crain Communications, Inc. 

DLM, Inc. 

Dale Maintenance Systems, Inc. 

Danly Machine Company 

Deloitte, Haskins and Sells 

Draper & Kramer, Inc. 

Electro-Kinetics, Inc. 

Elkay Manufacturing Company 

Erman Corporation Inc. 

Ethyl Molded Products 

Evans Products Company 

Faville-Levally Corporation 

Ferrara Pan Candy Company 

Follett Corporation 

Franklin Picture Company 

General Binding Corporation 

Edward Gray Corporation 

Gulf Oil Foundation 

The Russell Hampton Company 

Heco Envelope Company 

Heidrick and Struggles, Inc. 

Humboldt Manufacturing Company 

Hutchinson Fox, Inc. 

Jobbers Supply Company 

Johnson Kiddie Rides Inc. 

Keck, Mahin & Gate 

Kimberly Clark Inc. 

Kupferberg, Goldberg & Neimark 

Lake View Trust & Savings Bank 

Liquid Carbonic Corporation 

Magnetrol International, Inc. 

J. L. Manta, Inc. 

Marsh & McLennan Inc. 

Martin Marietta Corporation 

Matkov, Griffin, Parsons, Salzman & 

Madoff 
George S. May International 
Mid-City National Bank 
Monsanto Fund 
John Nuveen & Company 
Olsten's of Chicago 
P-K Tool and Manufactunng Company 
PPG Industries 

Packaging Corporation of America 
Pepper Construction Company 
Pepsi-Cola General Bottlers 
H. F. Philipsborn and Company 
Meryl Piatt, Inc. 
The Presidents Association 
Process Gear Company, Inc. 
Processed Plastic 
Productigear, Inc. 
R. J. Reynolds Industries 
Richardson Electronics, Ltd. 
Safety-Kleen Corporation 
Schal Associates 
Schuessler Knitting Foundation 
Scribner & Company 
Silvesth Paving Company 
Sleepeck Printing Company 
Standard Federal Savings and Loan 
Stepan Chemical Company 
Stocker Hinge Manufacturing Company 
Stouffer Corporation Fund 



David F. Swain and Company 

Tax Security, Inc. 

Trainer Glass Company 

Turtle Wax, Inc. 

United Technologies Corporation 

Universal Metal Hose Company 

Vance Publishing Corporation 

Ventfabrics 

Vienna Sausage Manufacturing Company 

Vogue Tyre and Rubber Company 

Wallace Computer Services, Inc. 

Harry Weese and Associates, Ltd. 

Westinghouse Electric Corporation 

Wisconsin Tool and Stamping Company 

Companies that Have Matched Their Employees' 
Contributions to Field Museum in 1983 and 1984 

AT&T Foundation 

Allied Corporation 

Ameritech 

Atlantic Richfield Foundation 

Beatrice Companies, Inc. 

Borg-Warner Foundation 

Brunswick Foundation 

CPC International, Inc. 

Chemical Bank 

Continental Bank Foundation 

Dart & Kraft, Inc. 

Digital Equipment Corporation 

Emerson Electric Company 

The Equitable Life Assurance 

Society of the United States 
Follett Corporation 
GATX Corporation 
Gulf Oil Corporation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Household International, Inc. 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Illinois Tool Works Foundation 
Kemper Group 
Kirkland& Ellis 
McDonald's Corporation 
Montgomery Ward Foundation 
Morton Thiokol Foundation 
The NCR Foundation 
The Northern Trust Company 

Charitable Trust 
Northwest Industries Foundation 
John Nuveen & Co., Inc. 
The Quaker Oats Foundation 
Peoples Energy Corporation 
Pittway Corporation Charitable 

Foundation 
R, J. Reynolds Industries 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Signode Foundation, Inc. 
Time, Inc. 

Transamerica Corporation 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
United Technologies 
Westinghouse Electric Fund 



47 



DONORS TO THE COLLECTIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 



Armour, Mr. and Mrs. T. Stanton 
Areen, Mr. and Mrs. G. E. 
Barclay, Harry 

Benton, Marjorie and Charles 
Bomberg, Fay 
Bowen, Jeff 
Branske, Ronald 
Brittingham, Irene 
Brown, Dr Victor 
Chicago Token Taikai Society 
Coppersmith, Sylvia 
(in memory of Leila Rosen) 



Dark, Dr. Philip J. C. 

Eliscu, Avery Z. 

Eliscu, Edvi^ard H. 

Fisher, Mr. and Mrs. Milton L. 

Freeman, Arthur 

Gelb, Mr and Mrs. Howard H. 

Gordon, Jerry 

Hodes, Mr and Mrs. Scott 

Lamey, Robert J. and Theresa 

Liebman, Mr and Mrs. Bob 

McDaniels, Dr Herbert E. 

McQuarrie, Catherine 



Mittel, Dr. Neuman S. 

Murphy Robert 

Nelson, Mr and Mrs. R. 

Nelson, Mrs. Lloyd E. 

Norman, Harold 

Oscar, Sheila 

Pinsof, Philip 

Rydell, Mr and Mrs. Allen G. 

Sandstrom, Dr Alan R. 

Seefeldt, Lyie 

Sievers, W. D. 

Sirritella, Vincent J. 



Siskin, Dr and Mrs. Edgar E. 
Slagle, Mr and Mrs. Paul 
Smith, Mr and Mrs. Malcolm 
Stevenson, Adiai 
Tarbet, Edythe 
Timeshevska, Olga 
VanStone, Dr James W. 
Van Zelst, Mr and Mrs. T. W. 
Weil, Mr and Mrs. Christopher 
Welsch, Dr Robert 
Wbolley, William 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 

University of Aarhus 
Thomas Ackerman 
University of Alabama 
University of Alberta 
Appalachian State 

University 
Auckland Institute and 

Museum 
Austin College 
Connie Bodner 
Universidad Simon Bolivar 
Herbario Nacional de Bolivia 
Brandeis University 
Universidade de Brasilia 
Republica Feduativa de Brazil 
California Academy of Sciences 
University of California, 

Berkeley 
University of California, 

Davis 
University of California, 

Riverside 
Institute Botanico, Caracas 
Herbario Alberto Castellanos 
Universidad Federal do Ceara 
Centro de Botanico, Chapingo 
Universidad de Chile 
Forest Research Institute, 

Christchurch 
University of Colorado, 

Boulder 
University of Connecticut, 

Storrs 
Cornell University 
Museo de Costa Rica 



Museu Botanico Municipal, 

Curitiba 
Jeyson Daniel 
Dr Michael Dillon 
Duke University 
Royal Botanic Gardens, 

Edinburgh 
Dr Robert Faden 
Fairchild Tropical Garden 
Herbario Ovalles Farmacio 
Florida International 

University 
Florida Tropical Garden 
University of Florida, 

Tampa 
Blanca Perez Garcia 
Dr Elizabeth Girardi 
University of Goteborg 
College of Great Falls 
Linda Greenberg 
Universidad de Guadalajara 
University of Guelph 
William Hahn 

Harvard University Herbarium 
Botanical Museum of Harvard 
University of Helsinki 
Hiroshima University 
Illinois Natural History 

Survey 
University of Illinois. 

Medical Center 
University of Illinois, 

Urbana 
Indiana University 
Peter Johnson 



Lagee's Greenhouse 

Dr Harvey LeRoy 

Los Angeles State and County 

Arboretum 
Andrew Lugden 
Luis Eduardo Luna 
Lyndon State College 
University of Maine, Orano 
University of Manitoba 
Jardin Botanico de Maracaibo 
Penny Matekaitis 
Colegio Superior de Agricultura 

Tropical Mexico 
Institute Politecnico Nacional, 

Mexico 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma 

de Mexico 
Missouri Botanical Garden 
University of Missouri 
Morton Arboretum 
University of Munchen 
National Botanical Gardens, 

Newlands (South Africa) 
New York Botanical Garden 
Northeast Louisiana University 
Ohio State University 
National Museum of Natural 

Sciences, Ottawa 
Museum National d'Histoire 

Naturelle. Paris 
Universidad Nacional de la 

Amazonia Peruana 
Centro Pesquisas do Cacau 
Institute Nacional de 

Pesquisas, Belem 



Jane Plowman 
Dr Timothy Plowman 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Poetter 
Projecto Radambrasil 
Miquel Ramirel Rengifro 
R. K. Roelter 
Dr Ursula Rowlatt 
Universidad de San Carlos 
Jose Schunke V. 
Franz Seidenschwarz 
David Smith 
Smithsonian Institution 
Southern Illinois University 
National Herbarium, 

Stellenbosch (South Africa) 
Robert G. Stoize 
Dimitri Sucre 
Dr Richard Taylor 
Texas A. & M. University 
U.S.D.A.,Beltsville 
University of Texas, Austin 
University of Texas, Dallas 
National Science Museum, 

Tokyo 
Universidad Nacional de 

Truijillo 
University of Utrecht 
Departmendo de Investigacion, 

Venezuela 
Wayne State University 
University of Wisconsin 
University of Wyoming 



DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY 



48 



Edward Bara Sr 

Dr Gordon Baird 

Dr. Peter Crane 

Edward Biba 

Dr Jose Bonaparte 

George E. Bryant 

John Chapman 

Earl Cornwell 

Raymond M. Coveney Jr 

Dr Mary R. Dawson 

Department of Education (FMNH) 

Dr James O. Farlow 

R.W. Flynn 

Ken Fraser 

Barry A. Frey 

Mrs, Jonathan Goldstine 



Dr Lance Grande 

Ms. Cecily Taylor Gregory 

Charles Grindele 

Paul Gritis 

Dr Tu Guangzhi 

Ms. Erika HartI 

Robert HartI 

Ms. Giselle Hartle 

Dr Ella Hoch 

Dr Bob Hunt 

Larry Jeffries 

Robert Klocek 

Mrs. John Woodward Leslie 

Phillip Lochman Company 

Heinz Lowenstam 

Dr Kubet Luchterhand 



B.G. MacNabb 

Dr Gary T Madden 

Dr Kenneth J. Maier 

Steven Manchester 

Bob Masek 

Paul C. Miller 

Dr Robert F. Marschner 

Tom Nicholson 

Ms. Kimberly Novaski 

Dr Edward J. Olsen 

Larry Osterberger 

Larry Passaro 

Dr Ronald H. Pine 

LeoPlas Jr 

Dr William Read 



Paul Rechten 

Dr T Rich 

Dr Eugene Richardson 

John Runnells 

Dr Paul Sipiera 

Gary P. Smith 

Dr Nils Spjeldnaes 

Gene Stanley 

Dr R.A. Stockey 

Paul Sunby 

Theodore W. Van Zelst 

Donald A. Weiss 

Fran and Terri Wolff 

Alan Woodland 

Dr Rainer Zangerl 



DONORS TO THE COLLECTIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 

Dr. T. Abe 

LAIbujaV. 

Dr. Rosario Alonso 

Dr. Peter Ames 

Anti-Cruelty Society, 

Chicago 
Jean Armour 
Dr. Stephen Ashe 
Mr and Mrs. Fred Aslin 
Kurt Autfenberg 
Dr James Bacon 
Dr R. M. Bailey 
Margaret Baker 
Karl Bartel 
Dr. R. Barriga 
Helen Becker 
Roy Behnke 
Kevin Bell 
Anthony Bogadek 
Dr M. Bradbury 
Brookfield Zoo 
Barbara Brown 
J. C. Bruner 
Dr. G. H. Burgess 
Carpenter Nature Center 
Dr J. Carter 
Dr Donald Chandler 
Chicago Zoological Society 
Barbara Clausen 
Paul Clyne 
Dr K. Cole 
R. Coleman, Indiana 
Dr Joel L. Cracraft 
G. Cruz 

L, A. Deutsch, Brazil 
Robert W. Dickerman 
Mary Ann Diekman 
Martha Drake 
Henry Dybas 
Mary Ela 

Dr John Fitzpatrick 
S. Friedman 
M.H. GallardoN. 
Andrea Gaski 
Dr R. H. Gibbs 
Dr M. L. Goff 
Daniel Gonzales 
Dr Lance Grande 
Dr David W. Greenfield 



Paul Gritis 

Mrs. M.J. Gustin 

E. R. Hall 

Nankins, World Museum 

of Natural History 
H. J. Harlan 
Harvard University Museum 

of Comparative Zoology 
Dr A. A. Hassan 
Craig Hendee 
Dr. Philip Hershkovitz 
Mrs. Harold Hines 
L. J. Hitz 
Peter Hocking 
Philip Hershkovitz 
Dr Harry Hoogstraal 
Dr. K. Hosoya 
Dr. Miquel Ibanez 
Dr Robert F Inger 

F. Ivkien 

Dr T. Iwomoto 

Robert Izor 

Connie Janousek 

Dr. Alan Jaslow 

M. Jenks 

Dr R. K. Johnson 

J, Karls 

Steve Karsen 

Jeff Kaufmann 

Julian Kerbin 

J. Kerbis 

Dr J. Kethley 

Dr Bong Heang Kiew 

Chong-Wha Kim 

Dr Ik-soo Kim 

Dr Kistner 

Dr L. W. Knapp 

H. L. H. Krauss 

Aagje Kroos 

Robin Lambert 

Dr W. W. Lamar 

B. K. Lang 

Dr Harry Lee 

Cliff Lemen 

Thomas O. Lemke 

V. Linares 

Lincoln Park Zoological 

Gardens 
Dr. P. Loiselle 



Dr F. S. Lukoschus 

Dr J. Lundberg 

Bart Lysy 

J. H. Makler 

Borys Malkin 

David Matusik 

Dianne Maurer 

Timothy J. McCarthy 

Ray McCraren 

Dr W. Medina 

Dr N. Menezees 

P. L. Meserve 

Dr Walter B. Miller 

Milwaukee Public Museum 

Gabriel Mitchell 

Dr H. Mok 

Debra Moskovitz 

Richard Moss 

Mrs. Arthur! Moulding 

John Murphy 

Wanda Murphy 

Mus. of Vert. Zoo., Univ. 

of Cal., Berkeley 
Pat Nacnic 

National Museum of Natural 
History 

Michael Nee 

Dr H. G. Nelson 

Kenneth Nemuras 

Doris Nitecki 

Northern Illinois 
University 

Dr. Roy A. Norton 

Mr. Michael O'Connor 

Elizabeth O'Hara 

Fernando Orces 

Dr Jacques Pasteels 

Dr. Bruce Patterson 

Ray Pawley 

Dr. Stewart Peck 

Luis Pena 

Dr Ronald Pine 

Dr Norman Platnick 

Dr Timothy Plowman 

Princeton University 

Claddia Putnam 

Norman P. Radtke 

Dr J. Randall 



Michael Reed 

J. Reichel 

Mr Alan Resetar 

Robin Restall 

Dr T Roberts 

Dr R. S. Rosenblatt 

Dr Barry Roth 

Dr J. Russo 

San Diego Zoo 

R. Schoknecht 

Beverly Scott 

Ken Schuiz 

Tony Silva 

Mrs. Clara Richardson 

Simpson 
James Sipiora 
Southern Illinois 

University 
William E. Southern 
H. R. Sleeves 
Dr D. J. Stewart 
John Stone 
D. Stotz 
Dr Walter Suter 
Dr D. Taphorn 
C. Thaeler 
Dr. J. Thrall 
Dr Robert Timm 
PriscillaTurnbull 
R. C. Tweit 
USNM, National Museum 

of Natural History 
Dr R. P. Vari 
Dr John Visser 
Dr Harold Voris 
Dr John Wagner 
VanWallach 
Dr Larry Watrous 
Hugh Watson 
A. Weisenheimer 
John S. Weske 
Dr A. Wiktor 
Dr David Willard 
Dr J. Williams 
Dr Louis Williams 
Dr R. S. S. Wu 
Mrs. Yang Chang Man 
Dr Frank N. Young 



THE LIBRARY 

Teresa Acedo 
Aegean Press 
Bolerium Books 
Willard L. Boyd 
Adelaide K. Bullen 
William C. Burger 
Grace Burkholder 
Colorado River Wildlife 

Council 
Dorothy L. Eatough 
W. Peyton Fawcett 
Eugene Pieter Feldman 
Henry Field 
Dian Fossey 
Joseph B. Gill 
Elizabeth-Louise Girardi 
Willis A. Gortner 
Kenneth J. Grabowski 
Raymond Graumlich 



buzanne Greub 
Paul Gritis 
Julian W. Harvey 
Hirohito, Emperor of Japan 
Hugh H. litis 
Robert F. Inger 
International Cultural 

Society of Korea 
Thor Janson 
Jens Kroger 
Molly Lee 
Anne W. Leonard 
Ernest A. Liner 
Mrs. Albert Louer 
Albert G. Lowenthal 
Kubet Luchterhand 
Maria Yolanda Manga 

Gonzcilez 
Margaret Martling 



Mr & Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mary Metzger 
Seymour Miller 
Scott Michael Moody 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Matthew H. Nitecki 
G. L. Nogr^dy 
ClaudioOchsenius 
Virgil L. Pederson 
Robert B. Pickering 
Georg Pilleri 
Mr & Mrs. Oscar Pinsof 
Mr & Mrs. Philip Pinsof 
Timothy Plowman 
Phyllis Rabineau 
Jose R^mirez-Pulido 
Charles A. Reed 
Alfreda C. Rogowski 
Joyce Saffir 



Pablo Enrique Sanchez Vindas 

Robert Jerome Schmitz 

Wayne Serven 

Joyce Shaw 

Farwell Smith 

Alan Solem 

Llois Stein 

Lorain Stevens 

John Terrell 

Robert Timm 

Edward Valauskas 

James W. VanStone 

Mrs. Robert T Van Tress 

Leigh Van Valen 

Theodore W. Van Zelst 

Connie G. Westenfelder 

Benjamin W. Williams 

Louis O. Williams 

Dennis Witsberger 



49 



Sfe 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Ph.D., 

Director 
E. Leiand Webber, B.B.Ad., 

C.PA.,LH.D., President 

Emeritus 

OFFICE of the 
PRESIDENT 

Charles T. Buzek, M.A., 

Project Coordinator, 

Centennial Directions 
Deborah Cooke, Secretary to 

tine President 
Deborah L. Towers, B.A., 

Secretary, President's 

Office 

OFFICE of the 
DIRECTOR 

Alice L. Lewis, Secretary 
to the Director 

VICE PRESIDENT, FINANCE 
& MUSEUM SERVICES 

JimmieVi/. Croft, M.S., 

VICE PRESIDENT, 
DEVELOPMENT 

Thomas R. Sanders, B.S. 

Archives 

Mary Ann Johnson, 
Archivist 

Public Relations 

Sherry L. Isaac, B.A., 

Manager 
OIlie M. Hartsfield, M.S., 

Assistant 
Shirlana S. Meander, 

Secretary 

Bulletin 

David M. Walsten, B.S., 
Editor 



Department of 
Anthropology 

Glen H. Cole, Ph.D., Chairnnan 

and Curator, Prehistory 
Donald Collier, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus, twiddle 

and South American 

Archaeoiogy and 

Ethnology 
Bennet Bronson, Ph.D. 

Associate Curator, Asian 

Archaeology and 

Ethnology 
Robert A. Feldman, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant Curator, 

Andean Archaeology 
Phillip H. Lewis, Ph.D., 

Curator, Primitive Art 

and Melanesian 

Ethnology 
Michael E. Moseley, Ph.D., 

Curator, Middle and 

South American 

Archaeology 
John E. Terrell, Ph.D., 

Curator, Oceanic 

Archaeology and 

Ethnology 
James W. VanStone, Ph.D., 

Curator, North American 

Archaeology and 

Ethnology 
Ruth I. Andris, Restorer 
Lucy Bukowski, B.S., 

Administrative Assistant 
Kathleen A. Christon, B.S., 

Technical Assistant 
Christine S. Danziger, M.S., 

Conservator 
Paul S. Goldstein, M.A., 

Special Project Assistant 
Christine T. Gross, B.A., 

Departmental Assistant 
Lillian Novak, B.A., 

Department Registrar 
Phyllis G. Rabineau, M.A., 

Collection Manager 
Millard E. Rada, B.S.. 

Collections Assistant 
Loran Schell Recchia, 

Technical Assistant 
Sylvia P. Schueppert 

Clerk-Typist 

Department 
of Botany 

William C. Burger, Ph.D., 

Chairman and Curator, 

Vascular Plants 
Louis O. Williams, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus, Vascular 

Plants 
JohnJ. Engel, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator, Bryology 



Patricio Ponce de Leon, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator 

Cryptogams 
Timothy C. Plowman, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator, 

Vascular Plants 
Michael O. Dillon, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator. 

Vascular Plants 
Sylvia M. Feuer-Forster, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant 

Curator Palynology 
Kerry Alan Barringer, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant 

Curator, Vascular Plants 
MichaeU. Huft, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant 

Curator Vascular Plants 
Robin B. Foster, Ph.D., Visiting 

Research Associate 
William Ed Grim6, B.A., 

Manager of Systematic 

Botanical Collection 
Christine J. Niezgoda.M.A., 

Research Assistant 
RobertG. Stoize, B.S., 

Collection Manager 

Pteridophyte Herbarium 
Herbarium Assistants 

Stephen P. Dercole, B.S. 

Peter E. Johnson, M.A. 

Penny A. Matekaitis, B.S. 

Alfreida Rehling 
Preparators: 

Birthel Atkinson 

Freddie Robinson 
Roberta C. Becker, B.A., 

Department Secretary 
Mary Lou Grein, B.A., 

Secretary 

Department 
of Geology 

John R. Bolt, Ph.D., 

Chairman, and 

Associate Curator, 

Fossil Reptiles 

and Amphibians 
Rainer Zangerl, Ph D., 

Curator Emeritus, 

Fossil Fishes 
Matthew H. Nitecki, Ph.D., . 

Curator Fossil 

Invertebrates 
EdwardJ. Olsen, Ph.D., 

Curator Mineralogy 
William D. Turnbull, Ph.D. 

Curator Fossil Mammals 
Bertram G. Woodland, Ph.D., 

Curator Petrology 
PeterR. Crane, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator 

Paleobotany 
R. Lance Grande, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator 

Fossil Fishes 



Scott H. Lidgard, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator 

Fossil Invertebrates 
John Clay Bruner, M.S., 

Collection Manager 

Vertebrate Paleontology 
Marthas. Bryant, B.S., 

Collection Manager 

Fossil Plants/ 

Invertebrates 
Dorothy L. Eatough, M.A., 

Technical Assistant. 

Mineralogy/Petrology 
Gary J. Galbreath, Ph.D., 

Curatorial and 

Technical Assistant 
William F. Simpson, B.S., 

Chief Preparator 

Fossil Vertebrates 
John P. Harris, 

Fossil Preparator 
Monica A. Mikulski, A.A., 

Departmental Secretary 
Elaine Zeiger, B.Mus., 

Secretary 

Department 
of Zoology 

Robert K. Johnson, Ph.D., 

Chairman, and 

Curator Fishes 
Emmet R. Blake, D.Sc., 

Curator Emeritus, Birds 
Philip Hershkovitz, M.S., 

Curator Emeritus 

Mammals 
Melvin A. Traylor, Jr., A.B., 

Curator Emeritus, Birds 
Rupert L Wenzel, Ph.D., 

Curator Emeritus. Insects 
Darlene Pederson, 

Department Secretary 

Division of 
Amphibians and Reptiles 

Robert F. Inger, Ph.D., 

Curator 
Hymen Marx, B.S., 

Curator 
Harold K. Vbris, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator and 

Division Head 
H. Bradley Schaffer, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 
Sharon B. Emerson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 
GaryMazurek, B.A., 

Collection Manager 
Molly Ozaki, 

Secretary 
Technical Assistants: 

Paul A. Gritis, B.S., 

Martin Pryzdia, 

Kregg Salvino, B.S., 



SO 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Division of Birds 

John W. Fitzpatrick, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator and 

Division Head. 
David E. Willard, Ph.D., 

Collection Manager, 
Jennifer M. Shopland, B.S., 

Technical Assistant,  
M. Dianne Maurer, B.A., 

Assistant 

Division of Fishes 

DonaldJ. Stewart, Ph.D., 

Associate Curator and 

Division Head, 
TerryC. Grande, M.S., 

Collection Ivlanager 
RobertJ.Schmltz, M.S., 

Technical Assistant, 

Division of Insects 

John B. Kethley, Ph.D., 
Associate Curator and 
Division Head, 

James S. Ashe, Ph.D., 
Assistant Curator, 

Daniel Summers, M.S., 
Collection Ivlanager, 

HarryG. Nelson, Ph.D., 
Summer Curator, 

Technical Assistants: 
Steve Holzmann, B.S., 
Bartholomew M. Lysy, B.S,, 
Cynthia L. Milkint, B.S., 
Thomas G. Mooney, B.S., 

Division of 
Invertebrates 

G. Alan Solem, Ph.D., 

Curator and 

Division Head, 
Kenneth C. Emberton, Ph.D., 

Visiting Assistant 

Curator, 
Margaret L. Baker, B.S., 

Collection Manager, 
Linnea M. Lahlum, B.A., 

Scientific Illustrator, 
Patricia H. Johnson, 

Secretary, 

Division of 
Mammals 

Robert M. Timm, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator and 

Division Head, 
Bruce D. Patterson, Ph.D., 

Assistant Curator, 
RobertJ. Izor, B.S., 

Collection Manager, 
Technical Assistants: 

Sophie Andris, 

Barbara E. Brown, B.S., 

LisaA. Dorn, M.S. 



Scientific Support 
Services 

Bruce D. Patterson, Ph.D., 

Chairman 
John J. Engel, Ph.D., 

Supen/isor, 

Scientific Illustrators 
Rosetta D. Arrigo, M.A. 

Computer Operations 

Specialist 
Zbigniew T. Jastrzebski, M.F.A., 

Senior Scientific 

Illustrator 
Zorica Dabich, B.F.A., 

Scientific Illustrator 
Marlene H. Werner, A.A., 

Scientific Illustrator 
Clara L. Simpson, M.S., 

Scientific Illustrator/ 

Technician 
Christine J. Niezgoda, M.A., 

SEM Coordinator 
Ronald G. Wibel, 

SEM Technician 

Fieid Museum Press 

Timothy C. Plowman, Ph.D., 

Scientific Editor 
James W. VanStone, Ph.D., 

Assistant Scientific 

Editor 
Tanisse R. Bezin, 

Managing Editor 

Museum Library 

W. Peyton Fawcett, B.A., 

Librarian 
Benjamin W. Williams, B.A., 

Associate Librarian and 

Librarian, Rare Books 
Michele Calhoun, M.S.L.S., 

Reference Librarian 
Chih-Wei Pan, M.S., 

Cataloger 
Alfreda Rogowski, 

Acquisitions 
Library Assistants: 

MarciaL. Carey, A.B.; 

Kenneth J. Grabowski, M.S., 

Raymond Graumlich, M.A., 

Florence Hales Testa, B.A. 



Department of 
Education 

Carolyn P. Blackmon, B.S., 

Chairman 
PhilipC. Hanson, M.S., 

Head, Group Programs 
Susan E. Stob, B.A., 

Head, Public Programs 
Instructors: 

Elizabeths. Deis, M.S., 

Marie S. Feltus, M.A., 

Edith Fleming, M.A. 
Janeen Schmidt, B.A., 

Assistant Instructor 



Teresa K. LaMaster, M.A., 

Program Coordinator, 

Kellogg Foundation 
Program Developers: 

Susan M. Curran, B.S., 

Nancy L. Evans, B.A., 

Keith Mason, B.A., (field trips) 

Robert B. Pickering, Ph.D. 

Jacqueline J. Tumolonis, M.S., 

MarciaZweig, B.A. 
Joyce Matuszewich, B.A., 

Volunteer Coordinator 
Maija L. Sedzielarz, B.A., 

Teacher Training 

Program Coordinator 
Mary Ann Bloom, B.S., 

Coordinator: Pawnee Lodge, 

Place for Wonder 
Vincent T. Davis, B.A., 

Loan Coordinator/ 

Harris Extension 
Helen H. Voris, M.S., 

Writer/Researcher, 

Kellogg Foundation 
Robert Cantu, Resource 

Coordinator 
Sue G. Rizzo, Resource 

Coordinator 
Norann C. Michaels 

Department Secretary 
Vickie S. Richards 

Secretary Public Programs 
Muluemebet Alemayehu, 

Secretary Adult Education/ 

Field Trips 

Department of 
Exhibition 

Donald R. Skinner, M.FA., 

Chairman 
Harvey M. Matthew, B.S.E.E., M.B.A., 

Head, Controls 
Richard T. Pearson, B.A., 

Head, Production 
Howard J. Bezin, B.F.A., 

Supervisor, 

Exhibit Services 
John K. Cannon, M.F.A., 

Supervisor, Production 
Daniel L. Weinstock, B.FA., 

Supervisor Production 
Jeff E. Hoke, B.F.A., 

Supervisor, 

Carpenter Shop 
Designers: Clifford L. 

Abrams, B.F.A.; Louise 

M. Belmont, B.A.; Paul 

L. Bluestone, B.A.; 

Catherine L. Chmura, B.F.A.; 

Donald P Emery, B.FA.; 

Lynn Burnett Hobbs, B.FA., 

Gail Rogoznica- 

McKernin, B.FA. 
Preparators: Tamara K. Biggs, 

B.A.; Mark Staff Brandl, 

B.FA.; Carol Brunk- 



Harnish, B.A.; Barbara 

A. Burkhardt, B.FA,; 

RaoulG. Deal, B.FA.; 

Richards. Faron, B.FA.; 

Calvin Gray B.A.; Kerry 

John Haulotte, B.FA.; 

John Thomas Judd, M.F.A.; 

David A. Lapaglia; Tom 

G. Lucas, B.A.; Michael 

E. Paha, B.FA.; Cameron 

A. Zebrun, M.FA. 
Jessica A. Newman, Secretary 
BeverlyC. Scott, B.S.C, 

Secretary 



FINANCE and 
MUSEUM SERVICES 

Jimmie W. Croft, M.S., 

Vice President 
Patricia N. Phillips, 

Secretary 

Department of 
Financial Operations 

David Wayne Booz, M.B.A., 

Manager 
Alexander R. Friesel, B.G.S., 

Senior Accountant 
Gloria T. Hardison, 

Data Processing 

Coordinator, Accounts 

Payable 
Sheryl L. Heidenreich, B.S., 

Payroll Coordinator, 

Grants Accountant 
Gregory J. Kotulski, 

Accountant 
Darlene Brox, 

Head Cashier 
Alix M. Alexandre, 

Accounting Clerk 
Admission Cashier/Accounting 

Clerks: Irma Sanchez, 

Nancy Thomas, Doris 8. 

Thompson, Dora G. Vallejo 
Maria Matos-Burns, Student 

Intern 

Department of 
Building Operations 

Norman P. Radtke, Physical 

Plant Administrator 
Gerald J. Struck, B.S., 

Project Engineer/ 

Construction Coordinator 
Andris Pavasars, M.S., 

Assistant 

Engineering Division 

Rudolph Dentino, 
Chief Engineer 

Robert J. Battaglia, 
Assistant Chief 
Engineer . 

Stationary Engineers: 
Earl W. Duncan, Joseph 
A. Nejasnic, Edward John 
Penciak, Harry Rayborn, 
Jr., Raymond D. Roberts, 
Timothy Tryba -» 



51 




Assistant engineers Kevin Kirby (left) and Phil Savio 
pose proudly with one of the l^useum 's giant boilers. 
Until the late 1960s, the boilers were fueled with coal: 
today the fuel is gas. The Engineering Division of 
Building Operations is comprised of a chief en- 
gineer an assistant chief engineer, six licensed sta- 
tionary engineers, and five assistant engineers. In 
addition to operating the high-pressure boilers, 
they maintain the entire heating-ventilating-air- 
conditioning environment for the IVIuseum. 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Assistant Engineers: 
Floyd W. Bluntson, 
Matthew Alan Covey, Kevin 
Kirby Donald K. Ross, 
Larry O'Neal Thompson 

Gerald C. Keene, Lead 
Audiovisual Technician 

Ronald R. Hall, Audiovisual 
Technician 

Edward D. Rick, Electrician 

Malntenanca Division 

Jacques L. Pulizzi, 

Supervisor 
Louis M. Hobe, Plasterer 
Painters: 

George Schneider, Jr., 

Robert D. Vinson 
Carpenters: 

Stanley B. Konopka, 

George C. Petrik, 

Dale S. Akin, 

Ernst P. Toussaint 

Housekeeping Division 

Obie M. Collins, B.C.S., 
Executive Housekeeper 

Ezell Holmes, Group 
Leader 

Juanita Wallace, Group 
Leader 

Lee Mister, Supervisor 

Housekeepers: Harold A. 
Anderson, Cleola Davis, 
Edward J. Jurzak, 
Juanita Wallace, Josef M. 
Duanah, William F. 
Dullen, Jr., Claudia 
Felix, Rodolfo Flores, 
Theodore J. Green, 
Kwan-Soo Han, B.S., 
Dewayne Jamison, Don E. 
Jones, Gerard 
Kernizan, Jose Mendez, 
Mary Monoz, Ermite Nazaire, 
Louis P. Phipps, Lucinda 
Pierre-Louis, Georgia 
Pullium, Michael L. Roache, 
Kettly Rodrigue, John A. 
Stahl, Leroy P. Thomas, 
Anthony D. Valentino, 
Dieudalde M. Victor, 
Alvin G. Webb 

Department of 
General Services 

Gustav A. Noren 

Administrator 
Susan M. Olson 

Coordinator 
Pamela Stearns, B.S., 

Print Production 

Coordinator 
Arline E. Sparacino 

Secretary 



Division of 
Photography 

Ronald Testa, M.F.A., 

Head 
Diane Alexander-White, 

B.A., Photographer 
Nina M. Cummings, B.A., 

Photo Researcher 



Department of 
Purchasing and 
Publications 

Thomas W Geary, B.S., 

Purchasing Agent 
Lorraine Petkus, 

Assistant 

Publications 

Roger L. Buelow, Head 

of Publications 
Frantz Eliacin, 

Assistant 
Kevin Swagel, B.S., 

l^essenger 
Lorraine H. Hobe, 

Secretary 

Department of 
Human Resources 

Arlene Kiel, M.S., 

Administrator 
Jill V Knudsen, B.A., 

Representative 
Margo Pecoulas, B.A., 

Benefits Assistant 

Department of 
Pubiic Merchandising 

Barbara I. Stuark, B.S., C.B.A., 
Manager 

Barbara Blum, B.S., 
Assistant t^anager 

Betty J. Green, Senior 
Sales Supervisor 

Dolores E. Marler, 
Weekend Supervisor 

Kathy Hardin, Secretary 

Robert T Chelmowski, 
Stock Clerk 

Sales Clerks: Kim Michelle 
Ambrose, Candy Chin, 
Gloria Clayton, 
Helen Cooper, Louis 
Douyon, Eleanor Fuentes, 
Dale R. Johnson, B.A., 
Fern E. Konyar, Marie 
Jose Perotte, Delisa V. 
Retrigue, Victor Sanchez, 
Levertia Short, Louise 
Waters, Elise Willoughby, 
Joe Wong 



Department of 
Security and 
Visitor Services 

Thomas B. Dugan, M.S., 

t^anager 
Senior Security Supervisors: 

Richard H. Leigh, Kathleen 

Q. McCollum, B.A. 
Security Supervisors: 

Arnold C. Barnes, Jr, B.A., 

Rudolph Gomez, Jose 

Preciado, Earl M. 

Singleton III, M.A., 

Will Washington 
Clifford Augustus, Senior 

Security Officer 
Security Officers: 

Larry J. Banaszak, 

Andrew J. Bluntson, 

Craig Bolton, Willie J. 

Brimage, Marcia Susan 

Carr,B.S., Elizabeth W. 

Castro, B.A., Chantal L. 

Charles, Chirkina I. 

Chirkina, Michael A. 

Croon, B.A., Lionel O. 

Dunn, Norval Glover, 

Jesse Gomez, Rosalie J. 

Gomez, Vanessa K. Goston, 

Steven A. Grissom, 

Richard D. Groh, A.A., 

Norman Hammond, Stanley 

Haynes, Roberto 

Hernandez, Michael C. 

Holt, imelda Jacob, 

Charles M. Johnson, 

Michael A. Jones, Eddy 

Joseph, Mirielle M. 

Laforest, Howard 

Langford, Jr, Charles 

Lozano, Derek 

McGlorthan, Antonio J. 

Martin, Francisco G. 

Mendoza, B.F.A., 

Cozzetta Morris, Karlyn 

Morris, Jose Pena, 

Jaime Piedra, Rosemarie 

Rhyne, Martlne Rousseau, 

Emanuel Russell, Jr, 

Elmer W. Sagehorn, Elkin 

B.Smith, Jr., Edmund L. 

Steward, Joe W Vallejo, 

Otto R. Vilimek, Keith 

Williams, Clifford 

Zigler, B.S. 
Geraldine Havranek, 

Telephone Receptionist 
Josie Poole, Coat Check 

Attendant 
William F Thompson, 

Information Booth 

Attendant 
Dolores M. Diaz, 

Secretary 



DEVELOPMENT 

Thomas R. Sanders, B.S., 

Vice President 
David G. McCreery, M.A., 

Director of 

Development 
Clifford Buzard, M.Div, 

Planned Giving Officer 
Thomas D. Wilson, B.M.E., 

Corporate Development 

Officer 
Glenn S. Par6, B.A., 

Grants Officer 
Leonard Evans, Records 

Coordinator 
Craig J. Byrum, B.A., 

Research Coordinator 
Elizabeth A. Moore, 

Secretary 
Veitrice L. Thompson, 

Office Coordinator 
Anita del Genio, 

Administrative Assistant 

Uembership Division 

Patricia M. Long, M.F.A., 

(Manager 
Marilyn E. Cahill, M.A., 

Assistant h/lanager 
Jean Stroup Miller, B.A., 

Special Events 

Coordinator 
James N. Davis, Secretary 
Robert Mijatov, B.S., 

Cash Processor 
Alice H. Crawford, CRT 

Coordinator 
Mary H. Millsap, Assistant 

CRT Coordinator 
Gregory K. Porter, B.A., 

Booth Coordinator 
Toby D. Rajput, B.A., 

Supervisor, Telephone 

Solicitors 
Pearl M. Delacoma, 

Telephone Solicitor 
Loretta Reyes, Ma;7 

Processor 

Women's Board 
Division 

Susan E. VandenBosch, 
B.A., Coordinator 

Tours Division 

Dorothy S. Roder, 

Ivlanager 
Pamela Sims, Secretary 



Division of 
Printing 

George C. Sebela, Head 
Edward D. Czenwin, Printer 



53 



54 



DEPARTMENT OF 
ANTHROPOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Robert J Braidwood, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
James A. Brown, Ph.D., 

North American Archaeology 
Jane E. Buikstra, PhD , 

Physical Anthropology 
WilliamJ. Conklin. M.A., 

Peruvian Architecture & 

Textiles 
PhillipJ.C. Dark, Ph.D., 

African Ethnology 
Richard D. DePuma, Ph.D., 

Etruscan Archaeology 
FredR. Eggan, Ph.D., 

Ethnology 
Patricia S. Essenpreis, Ph.D., 

North American Archaeology 
BillHolm, M.F. A., 

North American Native Art 
F.Clark Howell, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
Janet H. Johnson, Ph.D., 

Middle Eastern Archaeology 
Maxine R Kleindienst, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
AlanL. Kolata, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology & 

Ethnography 
W. Frederick Lange, Ph D., 

MesoAmerican Archaeology 
DonaldW. Lathrap. Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
Michael A. Malpass, Ph.D., 

Andean Archaeology 
Jorge Gabriel Marcos, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
Fred L. Nials, Ph.D., 

Archaeological Sediments 
Charles R. Ortloff, M.Ae.E., 

Peruvian Archaeology 
Jeffrey Quilter, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
George I. Quimby A B./A.M., 

North' American Archeology & 

Ethnography 
Susan Elizabeth Ramirez-Horton, Ph.D., 

South American Ethnohistory 
Donalds. Rice, Ph.D., 

Latin American Prehistory & 

Ethnohistory 
Prudence Ellen MacDermod Rice, Ph.D. 

MesoAmerican Archaeology 
William Rostoker, Ph.D., 

Metallurgy 
RonaldL. Weber, Ph.D., 
Amazon Basin, Northwest Coast 
Archaeology and Ethnology 
RobertL. Welsch, Ph.D., 
New Guinean/lndonesian Ethnology 

Field Associate 

James R. Getz, B A., 
North American Archaeology 

Associate 

Louva Calhoun, B.F.A.. 
Prehistory 



DEPARTMENT OF 
BOTANY 

Research Associates 

RobertF. Betz, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Margery C. Carlson, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
RobinB. Foster, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Sidney F., Glassman, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Arturo Gomez-Pompa, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Carol Henry, Ph.D., 

Cryptogamic Botany 
Rogers McVaugh, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Luis D.Gomez P., Ph.D., 
RichardW. Pohl, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Ursula Rowlatt, DM., 
Abundio Sag^stegui A., Ph.D., 
RudolfM. Schuster, Ph.D., 
RolfSinger PhD , 

Cryptogamic Botany 
Djaja doel Soejarto, Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
Tod F. Stuessy Ph.D., 

Phanerogamic Botany 
James Arthur Teeri, Ph.D., 

Field Associates 

Marko Lewis, 

Botany 
ing. Agr Antonio Molina R., 

Botany 

DEPARTMENT OF 
GEOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Edgar F.AIIin,M.D., 

Research Associate 

Fossil Vertebrates 
David Bardack, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Herbert R. Barghusen, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Frank M. Carpenter, Sc.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Albert Dahlberg,D.D.S., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Robert DeMar, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Robert Dennison, Ph.D.. 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Daniel Fisher, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Arnold Friedman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Geology 



Lawrence Grossman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Meteoritics 
Antoni Hoffman, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
James A. Hopson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Riccardo Levi-Setti, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Kubet Luchterhand, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr., Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Frank K. McKinney Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
EverettC. Olson, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Leonard B. Radinsky Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
DavidM. Raup, Ph.D., 

Research Associate. 

Fossil Invertebrates 
J. John Sepkoski, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Paul Sipiera, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Meteorites 
Joseph V Smith, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Mineralogy 
PriscillaTurnbull, M.S., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Leigh Van Valen, Ph.D., 

Research Associate, 

Fossil Vertebrates 

DEPARTMENT OF 
ZOOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Arthur Allyn.B.S., 

Insects 
David R. Cook, Ph.D.. 

Insects 
Joel Cracraft, Ph.D., 

Birds 
Gustavo A. Cruz, M.Sc, 

Fishes 
Sharon Emerson, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Jack Fooden, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
KarlJ. Frogner, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Elizabeth-Louise Girardi, Ph.D., 

Invertebrates 
David Greenfield, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
Harry Hoogstraal. Ph.D., 

Insects 
WilliamB. Jeffries, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 



A. RossKeister, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
David H. Kistner, Ph.D., 

Insects 
George Lauder, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
R.Eric Lombard, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Fritzs. Lukoschus, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Robert E. Martin, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Lee Miller, Ph.D., 

Insects 
W. Vfeiyne Moss, Ph.D., 

Insects 
RoyA. Norton, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Ronald Pine, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
George Rabb, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Charles Reed. Ph.D.. 

Mammals 
Howard B. Shaffer, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Jamie Thomerson, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
Robert Traub, Ph.D., 

Insects 
John Wagner, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Richard Wassersug, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Glen Woolfenden, Ph.D., 

Birds 

Field Associates 

James P. Bacon, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Kiew Bong Heang, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Thomas O. Lemke, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
EdwardO. Moll, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Laurie Price 
Invertebrates 

Janice K. Street 

Mammals 
Williams S. Street 

Mammals 
Walter R.Suter, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Donald Taphorn, M.A., 

Fishes 
Chang Man Yang 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Associates 

Sophie Ann Brunner 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Teresa Arambula Greenfield, M.A., 

Fishes 
Dorothy T Karall 

Invertebrates 
HarryG. Nelson, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Lorain Stephens 

Birds 




Last Call! 
Kenya Safari 

September 6 -23, 1985 

This Adventurous Tour will take you through diverse 
habitats featuring rolling savannah plains, and the 
breathtaking slopes of Mounts Kenya and Kilimanjaro. 
From safari lodge to luxury camps, this tour makes acces- 
sible the land of lion, elephant, rhino, and giraffe. It is 
especially exciting for the photographer since our safari 
vehicles will provide clear shots of gazelle and zebra as 
they race across the grassland. Bird lovers will relish the 
optional extension to the Great Rift Valley (through Octo- 
ber 1), where over 500 species of birds make their homes 
around Lake Naivasha alone. Visits to Nairobi and the 
Masai village of Narok provide a view of Kenyan life 
as well as an opportunity to collect souvenirs. Depar- 
ture time is not far distant, so call the Tours Depart- 
ment now. 

Egypt 

February, 1986 

Explore Egypt, the land of ancient mysteries. Journey 
from bustling Cairo, with its renowned Egyptian 
Museum, its mosques, minarets, and markets, into the 
ghostly silence of ruined cities, splendrous temples, and 
noble tombs. The 5,000-year-old Step Pyramid, the mas- 
sive stone ruins of Kamak, and the Colossi of Memnon all 
beckon the curious and inspire respect for a culture as 
old as Western civilization itself As you cruise the Nile, 
observe age-old scenes along the shore, for life in the fer- 
tile Nile Valley has changed but little. We encourage early 
enrollment, since spaces fill quickly for this breathtaking 
journey into the past. 



Baja California 

March 9-23, 1986 

Less Than 50 Miles South of the U.S. -Mexico border 
begins a peaceful world of subtropical beauty — the Sea of 
Cortez (Gulf of California). Over 600 miles long, this gulf 
is a paradise for marine vertebrate and invertebrate life — 
and for those of us who enjoy its study. Field Museum 
members will have the opportunity to know this sea of 




The Pacific Northwest Explorer 



wonders in a voyage that will all but complete the 
circumnavigation of the peninsula of Baja California. 

Until 1973 road travel in Baja California required rug- 
ged vehicles and rugged souls. Even now less than 5 per- 
cent of the coast is accessible by road. And although for 
decades fishermen and scientists have found the region a 
treasure house of riches, it has escaped popular attention. 
In the 1970s world interest in whales grew. At the same 
time there was a dramatic increase in the numbers of Cali- 
fornia gray whales, and today each year from December 
through April, 15,000 gray whales visit Baja's Pacific 
lagoons to breed, give birth, and nurture their young. 

It was our desire to organize a Field Museum tour to 
this area. All that was needed was a small, maneuverable, 
comfortable ship. We found it — the Pacific Northwest 
Explorer — and in January 1981 our first Field Museum 
circumnavigation from San Felipe to San Diego began. 
There were pelicans and hummingbirds, strange endemic 
plants, lovely scenery, and whales and dolphins beyond 
expectation. During this and the next two voyages we 
encountered not only many gray whales, but also fin, 
humpback, sei, and, the largest of all — blue whales. At 
San Benitos we walked among huge "hauled-out" colo- 
nies of northern elephant seals. And we saw more than 
130 different birds and 120 fish species. -> 



.»♦»•.♦« — - *«.*#< 




Now is your chance to experience the solemnity and 
the life, the aridness and the wealth, the starkness and the 
beauty that is Baja California. Now is your chance to join 
Field Museum's 1986 tour to Baja California, to be led by 
Dr. Robert K. Johnson, curator of Fishes at Field Museum. 
Dr. Johnson is a highly experienced tour leader. This will 
be his fourth trip around Baja California. Special Expedi- 
tions, a division of Lindblad TVavel, operators of the ship to 
be used, will provide several additional naturalists whose 
expertise will further enrich our experience. Our home 
for the voyage is the one-class, fully air-conditioned 
143.5-foot MV Pacific Northwest Explorer, built in 1980. 
Early expression of interest and reservations are advisable. 

For tour prices, itineraries, or other tour information, 
please write the Tours Office, at Field Museum, or call: 
322-8862. We would be pleased to put your name on our 
special mailing list. 



The Island World 
of Indonesia 

March 21 - April 8, 1986 

Composed of Thousands of islands forming a vast archi- 
pelago, Indonesia is an ancient land of gentle peoples, rich 
and varied cultural traditions, and tropical landscapes of 
unsurpassed beauty. With its panoply of religions, art 
forms, rituals, and dances found nowhere else in the 
world, Indonesia confronts the visitor with a fascinating 
past; its history, myth, and legend are often inseparable. 
On an itinerary which has been carefully planned to in- 
clude well-known sites as well as remote, verdant isles, 
we will travel aboard the ship Illira to destinations of 
immense beauty. 

The Great Silk Route 
of China 

May 21 -June 15, 1986 

Our Flight from Chicago is direct to Tokyo. Then on to 
Beijing. After several days there, viewing such marvels as 
the Forbidden City and the 98-acre Tien An Men Square, 
we go on to Urumqi, Dunhuang, Lanzhou, Xian, Shang- 
hai, and Guilin. Xian is of particular interest to archaeol- 
ogy buffs for here we find the vast life-size terra cotta army 
discovered as recently as 1974. We return to the U.S. 
via Hong Kong. 




China's lamed Great Wall 

Alaska 

June 1986 

Visit Alaska in Summer! Explore magnificent waterways 
and vast parklands abundant with many species of birds. 
At Sitka, a marine wildlife rafting trip gets you started on 
this spectacular ornithological tour. From Juneau, a trip 
on the Mendenhall River offers unusual wetland viewing. 
From Anchorage one easily reaches Potter Marsh Bird Re- 
fuge and the Eagle River. Denali National Park (formerly 
called McKinley National Park) and the Glacier Bay cruise 
are special highlights. We conclude our trip with three 
days on St. George Island. Few people have visited this is- 
land, which boasts spectacular birding. For more informa- 
tion contact the Tours Department. 

Grand Canyon/Colorado River 
Rafting Trip 

August 22 -31 1986 

Well Traverse the entire 300-mile length of the Grand 
Canyon by two motorized rubber rafts. Nearly 200 rapids, 
both large and small, make the journey thrilling, but you 
needn't be a "rough rider" to join in the fun. We will sleep 
on sandy beaches, swim in Colorado tributaries, hike to 
places of unusual geologic and anthropologic interest, 
sometimes through the most pleasant and enchanting 
stream beds and valleys, at times along waterfalls. Dr. 
Matthew H. Nitecki, curator of fossil invertebrates, will be 
our tour leader. Participants may eru-oU now with a de- 
posit of $50 per person. 

For further information or to be placed on our mailing list, call or write 
Dorothy Roder. Tours Manager, Field Museum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., 
Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 322-8862. 



VOLUNTEERS 



Neil Abarbanell 
Paul Adier 
Gretchen Ainley 
Cathy Ag none 
Dolores Arbanas 
Arden Frederick 
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Peggy Hoberg 



Harold Honor 
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IxtaccihuatI Menchaca 
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Eileen Morrow 
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Elaine Olfson 
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Joan Opila 

Marianne O'Shaughnessy 
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EllyRipp 
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William Rom 
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Sarah Rosenbloom 
Marie Louise Rosenthal 
Anne Ross 
Ann Rubeck 
Helen Ruch 
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Gladys Ruzich 
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Jean Seller 
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Jessie Sherrod 
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Joan Skager 
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Linda Skorodin 
Daniel Snydacker 
Beth Spencer 
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Robyn Strauss 
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Mary Alice Sutton 
Beatrice Swartchild 
Gloria Taborn 
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JaneThain 
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OsaTheus 
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Vasquez-Wasserman 
Rita Veal 
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Charles Vischulis 
David Walker 
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Maxine Walter 
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CharWiss 
Norma Witherbee 
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Zinette Yacker 
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Ben Zajac 
Larry Zicari 



55 




:iTi of Natural History 
rship Department 
It Road at Lake Shore Drive 
, II 60605-2499 



0017195-00 
Miss Marita Maxey 
7411 North Greenview 
Chicago* IL 60626 








FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

September 1985 








y 



y 




The Arts of Mexico: September 21 
Fiesta de Mexico: September 22 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board OF ■R^usTEES 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Annour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Blocl< HI 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jr. 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 



James H. Ransom 
Johns. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life TRUSTEES 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bovven Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosla 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CORRECTION 

The July/August issue of the Bulletin (biennial report) 
gave an incorrect first name for the late Julian B. Wilkins, 
former trustee of Field Museum who died in 1984. The 
editor deeply regrets this mistake and tenders his apologies 
to Mr. Wilkins 's family, to the Board of Trustees, and to 
readers of the Bulletin. 



CONTENTS 

September 1985 
Volume 56, Number 8 



September Events at Field Museum 



Founders' Council — Serving and Learning 

by Charles T. Buzek 
Assistant to the President 



The World of Agustin Victor Casasola, 
Mexico 1900-1938 

Exhibit Opens September 12 



The Beginning of Life 

by Matthew H. Nitecki 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates 



In Quest of Starlings 

by William J. Beecher 



16 



Founders' Council Member Honored 24 

by Alan Solem 
Curator of Invertebrates 



Field Museum Tours 



27 



COVER 

Reconstruction ofradiocyathid, from the Lower Cambrian period 
(about 550, 000, 000 years old) . The primitive organism, ranging from 
about two to six inches in length, was representative of an extinct group 
of earliest skeletal organisms, possibly belonging to the calcareous 
algae: it may also represent a failed evolutionary experiment. See "The 
Beginning of Life. " page 7. Drawing by Zbigniew Jastrzebski, senior 
scientific illustrator 



Open Letter to Field Museum Members 



Field Museum is fortunate indeed for the many thou- 
sands of Members who have continued to support it 
through the years. Thanks to these devoted friends, 
the institution has been able to vigorously pursue its 
primary goals of preserving, increasing, and dis- 
seminating knowledge of natural history. 

Since 1979, the Museum has striven to keep 
membership fees at the same level. Rising costs, how- 
ever, now make it necessary for the Museum to raise 
those fees. Asof September 1, 1985, individual member- 
ships will be offered at $30, family memberships at $35. 

In appreciation for their loyal support, the 



Museum is offering current Members the opportunity 
to renew at the prior rate ($20 for individual, $25 for 
family memberships) through December 31. Mem- 
berships that expire after this date may be "pre- 
renewed" at the old rate through December 31. 

The benefits gained through Field Museum 
membership are numerous and lasting: from dis- 
counts on classes, tours, and purchases to the opportu- 
nity to discover — or rediscover — the exciting world of 
natural history. We cherish your continued interest and 
look forward to having you with us in the years to come. 



Field Museum cfSatural History Bulleiirt (USPS 898-940I is published monihly, except combined July August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. 
$3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessanly reflect the policy of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 
922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent lo Membership Depanmeni. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 lo Field Museum of Natural Hisior>', Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. 
]SSN:001 5-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago. Illinois 



T 



Events 



Family Feature 
The Arts of Mexico 

Saturday, September 21, 1:00pm. 
Ecology Hall, second floor. 

Bursts of colored flame lighting the Mexican night 
sky explode on film to delight the whole family. 
Follow Marcelo Ramos and his family as they 
prepare the firework display for a fiesta in Marcelo 
Ramos — the Firework Maker's Art. Delight in Pedro 
Linares — Papier-Mache Artist and understand the 
traditions this maestro's art serves. Explore the art 
and architecture of the Aztecs, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, 
and Toltecs, combined with murals of the 20th- 
century Mexican artist Diego Rivera. Develop your 
own picture of the life of America's original inhabi- 
tants by viewing the film Mexico Before Cortez. 

This program is free with museum admission 
and no tickets are required. 



Mexican Folklohc 

Dance Company of 

Chicago performs 

Sunday, Sept. 22. 



Fiesta de Mexico 

Sunday, September 22, 12:00 noon-4 :00pm 

An afternoon of festive dancing, artists at work, 
and activities for the whole family. In celebration of 
Mexican Independence Day and the opening of the 
special exhibit "Agustin Victor Casasola, Mexico, 
1900- 1938," Field Museum presents Fiesta de Mex- 
ico. Come hear the music and dance of Mexico. The 
lively rhythms of "El Mariachi Guadalajara" will 
accompany the colorful ballet folkloric by "The 
Mexican Folkloric Dance Company of Chicago, 
Inc." Selections include dances from northern 
Mexico, Veracruz, and Jalisco. 

All activities are free with Museum admission. 




s. 



CONTINUEDO 



J 



CONTINUED FROM PAGE 3 



Events 



Edivard E. Ayer Film Series 

Thursdays in September, 1:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

September 5: Great Railway Journeys: The Long Straight 
September 12: /« the Sweat of the Sun 
September 19: Hawaii Revisited 
September 26: Margaret Mead: Taking Note 





Mexican dancers will be accom- 
panied by El t^ahachi Guadala- 
jara on Sunday, September 22. 



.'' %-\^ 



I 



B> 









ikn^mm 




September Weeicend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed, 
below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the 
complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts 
Council. 



September 

1 2 :00pm. China 's Wondrous Animals (slide 
lecture). Meet the real and imaginary ani- 
mals of China and the lore and significance 
attached to them. 

8 12:30pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out 
big game from Africa and mummies from 
ancient Egypt as you travel through Field 
Museum exhibits. 

14 1 : 30pm. Tibet Today (slide lecture) . Visit 
Lhasa and other towns now open to 
tourists. 

2:00pm. Traditional China (tour). Examine 
the imagery and craftsmanship represented 
by Chinese masterworks in our permanent 
collection. 



15 



21 



22 



29 



1 :00pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

2:00pm. Chinese Ceramic Traditions (tour). 
Explore 6,000 years of ceramic art from our 
permanent exhibit. 

12:30pm. Museum Safari (tour). Seek out 
big game from Africa and mummies from 
ancient Egypt as you travel through Field 
Museum exhibits. 



1 :00pm. Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as 
you explore the scope of Field Museum. 

These public programs are free with museum 
admission and tickets are not required. 



The Founders' Council 

Serving and Learning 



by Charles T. Buzek 
Assistant to the President 




ield Museum thrives because many people give. Time, 
money, expertise are generously given by a devoted few to 
move this great Museum along in its day-to-day tasks. 

In the spirit of the old Chinese proverb that opines "it 
is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness," the 
Founders' Council of the Field Museum stands annually 
with a very timely "match." The most overt expression of 
this "match" is the annual gift 
each member makes to the 
Museum. A more subtle aspect 
comes from the support and 
advocacy that results as the 
Council introduces its members 
to the varied and complicated 
tasks of the institution. Through 
lectures, dinners, and tours, 
members have a chance to meet 
and hear the people who are 
"keepers of the flame." Recently, 

Above: Thomas Eyerman makes in- 
troductory remarks in advance of 
ttie lecture whiclt was among the 
highlights of the Founders' Council 
Egyptian Night. Right: Founders' Coun- 
cil members en/oying the luncheon 
break which linked the talks given by 
Dr Michael Dillon and Dr John Fitz- 
patrick. Photos by Ron Testa. 



members met for a luncheon in 
the curatorial offices of Dr. Wil- 
liam Burger, chairman of the 
Botany Department, after hear- 
ing Dr. Michael Dillon of that 
department recount his work 
in Peru. They then adjourned 
to a meeting with Dr. John 
Fitzpatrick, Chairman of 
the Department of Zoology, 
who had co-authored a re- 
cently published, highly 
acclaimed work on the Florida 
scrub-jay. On another occa- 
sion, Frank Yurco, a lecturer 
at the Museum, gave a fasci- 
nating talk on Ancient Egypt. 
As a special amenity, the 
evening offered members the 
opportunity to dine among the splendors of our Egyptian 
collection. They enjoyed an excellent meal while flanked 
by mummies, statuary, and tomb facades. Future Council 
plans involve a trip to Starved Rock and a dinner sym- 
posium, "Field Museum: Ambassador to the World," spot- 
lighting the importance of Peru with respect to our 
collections. 




?/A\♦.^v:VAV*%*.'A^^\♦.v/:v/\*-^v7/.^\**^vV'AV^%^v^^^^^ 




The World of 

Agustin Victor Casasola, 

Mexico, 1900-1938 

Thursday, September 12 
through Sunday, November 3 

One of the most important documentary 
photographers of the early 20th century, 
Agustin Victor Casasola, was a Mexican jour- 
nalist who used photography as the most 
effective means of communicating with the 
largely illiterate Mexican populace. His life's 
work coincided with a period of turbulent 
social, political, and economic change in his 
country (1900-38), spanning the era between 
the government of Porfirio Diaz through the 
revolution to the creation of the modern 
Mexican nation. 

This exhibit of his photographic works 
offers a unique opportunity to better under- 
stand the cultural mythology and political 
realities involved in the heritage of today's 
Mexico. The importance of Casasola to the 
visual documentation of Mexican history is 
comparable to that of Matthew Brady with re- 
spect to the American Civil War. This exhibi- 
tion is the first major retrospective of Casasola 
with prints supplied through the Archive 
Casasola, an official institution of the 
Mexican government. 

Complementing the exhibit are two days 
of activities featuring the living, contemporary 
arts of Mexico: "The Arts of Mexico," on Sat- 
urday, September 21, and "Fiesta de Mexico," 
on Sunday, September 22. For details of these 
activities, free with Museum admission, see 
page 3. 



General of the federal army. Rodrigo Paliza, March 1914 (detail). 



'/,* » 4 4 \*»'. V 4 . • I \V»V > • 4 4 \V.»i ^ • 4 » \***.V ^ 4 . V*k».»/,^ 



.XV»*V* A 4 4 *^»».*# 4/- . •."•^•A •/a %'»*«4#* •/-*. %♦-•.#- 



[ i^^^^B President of the Mex- 
ican republic, Alvaro 
Obregon, Hortensia, 
?^»-"3; Mexico City 1921. 




Sanitary and 
transportation workers ^ 

kv/f/i f/ie Mexican 
Regional Confederation ' ^ 
of IVorters, 
Mexico City. 1922. 




Music hall dancers. Mexico Cily. ca. 1928. 



Federal soldier with wile and child. 1913- 14. 




'Archive Casasola. Mexico 



The Beginning of Life 



by Matthew H. Nitecki 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates 

Photos Courtesy of the Author 



T 

JLh( 



.here is a word the meaning of which has always 
eluded man: life. The understanding of the nature of life 
has been the most serious dilemma in the long history 
of human inquiry into the abyss of the unknown. 
When a creature not quite yet a man crawled from 
the cave of his unconsciousness, he faced the eternal 
tyranny of death, a cessation of his individual life. 

The first deliberate effort to defy nature must have 
been caused by the discovery of the omnipotence of 
death. Man learned that there was no freedom, that his 
short sojourn on Earth was clearly defined, and that 
forces he could not control — the inhuman, the hostile, 
blind fury of the unconscious universe — will over- 
power every man and forever banish him to eternal 
darkness and nothingness. 

In his fear, man turned to the examination of the 
past. The past appears motionless, unchanging — there- 
fore secure and hence beautiful. Man began to see life 
as part of a larger condition of oneness with nature, 
and with life that appeared to him eternal and divine. 
Thus, man began to think of life's origin. 

The problems of the origin of life have been the 
most unyielding stumbling blocks in the intellectual 
growth of man. Political, religious, and philosophical 
systems have been built upon the various hypotheses of 
life's origin in general, and of man's in particular Wars, 
atrocities, pain, savage and brutal deeds were inflicted 
upon fellow men in the name of different doctrines of 
life and human origin. It is only quite recently that man 
has attempted analytical and rational studies of life. 

Perhaps it is only in our era, possibly because of 
Charles Darwin, that such inquiries are possible. Per- 
haps only our revolutionary time, with changing mor- 
als, art, patterns of behavior, a whole gamut of social 
change and scientific adventure, could foster a suitable 
atmosphere for such studies. 



Origin of Life 

All studies, including the study of life's origins, change 
continuously, sometimes sweepingly. Medieval 
philosophers knew that life was created in the days of 



Methuselah. The eighteenth- and nineteenth-century 
geologists believed that life was eternal, perhaps begin- 
ning when the world itself was created. Darwin had life 
evolve. Twentieth-century postulates considered life 
on Earth to have originated from inorganic matter 
via electric discharge, ultraviolet radiation, or other 
magical sparks. 

All human activity, including scientific beliefs and 
works, reflects the larger system of beliefs of a particu- 
lar culture. For this reason no scientific or religious 
world views are permanent, and today's dogmas be- 
come tomorrow's cobwebs of antiquity. One such mid- 
twentieth century subculture is the study of the origin 
of life, which occupies, as ever, the finest intellects 
among the biological, geological, biochemical, and 
astronomical disciplines. 

Why did man begin rational investigations of 
nature and origin of life so late in his development? 
Because the problems were too difficult, the chemistry 
of living processes unknown, and no information on 
the early condition of the Earth was available. Nor were 
studies of other planets made for comparison with early 
Earth. Thus, it was not until the mid-twentieth century 
that we began the experimentation and the buildup of 
rational models of life's origin. And we do not yet know 
much about it. It is remarkable that the origin of life, 
known to pious men with such rock-solid certainty for 
ages, is the least understood phenomenon in biology. 

Whether defined in terms of molecular biology, 
biochemistry, or paleontology, life is not only qualities, 
states, or experiences, but processes that because of 
their complexities defy our comprehension. Whether 
these processes define chemical interaction, genetic in- 
heritance, or evolutionary change, they are still pro- 
cesses. At what state of complexity a process should be 
referred to as living cannot be easily answered. It also 
cannot be answered whether a molecule, a protein, or a 
gene is living or not. 

There are, moreover, other uncertainties about the 
definition of life. It is believed that life is an end result 
of a series of events that, when understood, will make 
life understood. Without ever questioning that life in 
general follows the same laws that control the arrange- 



TO 
VACUUM 



ELECTRICAL 
DISCHARGE 




COOLING 
CONDENSER 



Stanley L. Miller's 1953 apparatus for producing amino acids under 

possible primitive Earth conditions. 



10 



merits of these events, what is generally implied is that 
once these laws of events are understood, life will be 
ultimately understood. But these claims may not be 
correct, because of the entirely different levels of com- 
plexity, elements of chance, unpredictability, and acci- 
dents that may require altogether different models and 
different statistics to comprehend. 

We know possible pathways through which life 
could have proceeded. We think that life, once started, 
has been continuous, without interruption. We know 
that the individual organism dies, but that the germ cell 
continues on and is eternal. Life itself appears immor- 
tal, continuous, continually changing. We have gained 
a realization that life is a process, and that this process 
takes place when conditions are right. Life is a process 
that has capacities to reproduce, to change, and to re- 
produce these changes. However, what is passed from 
one generation to another is information. Organisms 
do not change; information does. 

It has been generally assumed that organic 
compounds formed after the Earth formed — more 
accurately, after the crust was formed. However, the 
discovery of amino acids in meteorites offers an 
alternative explanation that the complex organic com- 
pounds on Earth may have accreted at low temperature 
and at the time prior to, or simultaneous with, the 
formation of the Earth. 

Astronomical calculations suggest that the lumi- 
nosity of the sun four billion years ago was only 60 
percent of what it is now. Such low luminosity would 
produce less heat for the early Earth, and unless some 
greenhouse effects were operating, the temperatures at 
the beginning of the Earth were below the freezing 
point of water. It is possible that the Earth during its 
early history lay under mile-thick ice. 

It follows that the "higher" forms of life capable 
of synthesizing from simple compounds all of their 
needed materials (autotrophs) evolved before the 
depletion of available organic matter. These organisms, 
through their metabolic activities, produced the oxygen 
in the atmosphere, which in turn controlled the evolu- 
tion of organisms capable of living in an oxygenated 
environment (aerobic forms). However, solar radiation 
could also cause the atmosphere to be oxygenated by 
decomposing water and carbon dioxide. 

From geologic and biologic considerations it is 
assumed that the first organisms did not require free 
oxygen to maintain life (they were anaerobic) and that 
they obtained their nourishment from the available 
organic compounds (they were heterotrophs). 

It is safe to say that great revolutions (which may 
have lasted for vast periods of time and appear revolu- 
tionary only from a distance) — the origin of life, self- 
nourishment, and synthesis of chemical compounds 
with the aid of radiant energy (autotrophism and 
photosynthesis) — all occurred long before the first fos- 



sil record, some 3.5 billion years ago. The other major 
events — the emergence of sexuality, respiration, and 
the formation of multicellularity — all occurred later, yet 
before the appearance of the abundant fossil record of 
plants and animals. The final inventions of animals, 
invasion of land, and great complexities of social evolu- 
tion occurred at an accelerated tempo in the later part 
of Earth's history. 

The First Organism 

What was the first organism? We can of course specu- 
late, but we will probably never know exactly. The dif- 
ference between living and nonliving may be semantic 
where the earliest organisms are concerned, and it may 
be impossible to decide whether the fossil represents a 
living or nonliving entity. The exact date of the origin of 
life cannot be known. Since life cannot be defined with 
mathematical rigor, the time at which it first started de- 
pends upon our definition of life, and that date may 
therefore include a considerable period of time. 

The assumption made that all living organisms are 
truly related to one another by common ancestry can- 
not any longer be accepted literally. It surely seems 
reasonable to assume that if life development was grad- 
ual, more than one molecule or assemblage "evolved" 
to be living. If this was the case, there could have been 
many "first" organisms. There is no reason to doubt 
that early organic molecules were also subject to 
change and experimentation, and many systems under 
suitable conditions crossed the boundary of "living." 
The early organisms were unlikely to possess com- 
plicated anatomical, biochemical, physiological, 
enzymatic, and other tools to deal with fluctuating 
environments. 

We generally assume that the first organism was 
small, uncomplicated, and without any special organs 
or apparatuses. It had no powers of locomotion, no 
abilities to perform complex biochemical or physiolog- 
ical functions. Hence, it could not have been an auto- 
troph, which is capable of combining simple, inert 
matter into complex, living, high-energy matter. There- 
fore, early life could not have flourished in soil, on ex- 
posed surfaces of crystal faces, or even in protected 
shallow marine pools. Early life appears to have been 
necessarily restricted to more protected, less changing, 
less fluctuating, stabler areas of the surface of the Earth. 

The ability to cope with a changing, unstable, or 
fluctuating environment requires a mechanism for 
adjustment to these changes. In order for an organism 
to live in fresh water, it must be able to control diffusion 
and interchange with the environment; in order to 
withstand effects of drying in the air, protection of 
water content has to be assured. There is no need to cite 
many examples of locomotion, control of temperature 
change, gas pressure, radiation, daily changes. 




Generalized scheme of Earth's history ("b.y. " = billion years). Draw- 
ing by Zbigniew Jastrzebski. 



II 




Reconstruction of Precambrian shoreline some two billion years ago The structures are stromatolites that reached several feet In height. Similar 
stromatolltic heads are known from certain Isolated areas of today s oceans. Drawing by Zblgniew Jastrzebskl. 



12 



illumination, and so on; suffice it to say that organisms 
require abilities (or apparatuses) for control of these 
changes in the environment. 

The rate of evolution is greatly influenced by pop- 
ulation size, geographic dispersal, isolation, and the 
complexities of organisms. The simplicity of early life 
was its built-in conservatism. Little dispersal was pos- 
sible at the early period of life; hence, slow rates of 
evolutionary innovations in a great part of the Pre- 
cambrian resulted. 



Over the Hill? 

The possibility, however, exists that early organisms on 
Earth had more abilities. Andre Lwoff, the great French 
biologist, suggested that evolution is a downhill race. 
He visualized the first life as capable of total synthesis, 
and he saw living organisms as having lost most of 
their synthetic abilities. Although it is true that animals 
are dependent upon plants, the idea that the proto- 
organisms were superstars, capable of all synthesis, has 
been discarded by most investigators for the reason that 
such organisms would have to originate outside of the 
solar system or at least somewhere other than Earth. 
Yet the fossil organisms are either the autotrophic blue- 
green algae or bacteria (the blue-greens appear to differ 
from bacteria only in their photosynthetic activities; 



hence, they are now known as cyanobacteria); their 
living representatives today certainly possess these 
biochemical powers. 

How was food provided for the first organisms? 
Was the sea indeed full of the diluted soup of organic 
molecules, and did the organism move to a new area as 
it depleted its immediate surroundings of nutrients? Or 
was there movement of water that carried "food" to the 
organism? Were there convection cells, changes in 
pressure and water current; and how did organisms be- 
have in them? Or perhaps there is no need for nor any 
evidence of hot dilute soup of organic matter. Perhaps 
the inorganic molecules became the first "organisms" 
that learned survival and propagation, and perhaps the 
inorganic molecules became the "first" life. Maybe all 
the early organic matter was made by and from inor- 
ganic molecules, just as organic matter must be made 
outside of the solar system. Finally, the first inorganic 
organisms may have had an altogether different bio- 
chemistry from the later organic organisms. Clays with- 
out carbon, living organisms without organic matter! 

Precambrian 

Geologic time is commonly divided into Precambrian 
and Phanerozoic. Phanerozoic is the time of evident 
life. Cambrian, the first Phanerozoic period, began 
about 600 million years ago. The Earth is considered 



to be about 4.5 billion years old; therefore, the Pre- 
cambrian encompasses approximately four billion 
years, or nine-tenths of all the Earth's history — 
an unbelievably long period of time! 

There are two reasons for a distinct Cambrian- 
Precambrian boundary. One is that fossil animals 
with hard skeletal elements are found above and 
slightly below this separation line. A second is that 
Cambrian rocks often rest upon Precambrian with great 
unconformity or hiatus of the record. Generally, Pre- 
cambrian rocks are either remnants of old worn down 
mountains or continental shields. Precambrian rocks 
are generally more twisted, deformed, and upturned 
than younger rocks. In many parts of the world the 
Precambrian consists of granites, deformed crystalline 
metamorphics, and other igneous rocks. In other places 
there is a great thickness of sedimentary and volcanic 
rocks and, except for the absence of fossil animals, 
they are not substantially different from rocks of 
later periods. 

The oldest fossils so far known are 3.5 billion years 
old. Therefore, life has been present on Earth for at 
least the last seven-ninths of the Earth's existence; only 
one-fourth of the Earth's history appears to have been 
lifeless. It is, however, possible that eventually we will 
find life in still older rocks. The older the rocks, the 
more rarely they appear at the surface. 

But what we know now is that major events in the 
history of life took place prior to the Cambrian period. 
It was an immeasurably long time, representing the first 
six-sevenths of the known history of life. The tempo of 
biological inventiveness and change was incredibly 
sluggish, yet all major developments of multicellularity 
of plants and animals, origin of sexuality and social 
organization, and all the complexities of life known to- 
day took place in the Precambrian. 

Ironically, individual death also originated in the 
Precambrian. Individual nonaccidental death is un- 
known among one-celled organisms, since they con- 
tinuously divide. (It may be that the first organisms 
continue to live today! ) Such death is known only to 
those larger organisms that are differentiated into body 
cells and sex cells; the wages of sex are death! 

In such forms the sex cells, when put to use, are 
eternal, as all microbes and blue-green algae are, and 
only the vehicle of genetic continuity, the organism it- 
self — the body — dies. Death thus is a necessity of life, a 
part of growth of the sex cell, which discards its bodily 
"booster" after its journey has been completed. 

All of the Precambrian rocks are immersed in the 
sea of time, the sea that is almost opaque to examina- 
tion, with most traces of life permanently obliterated. 
Rocks yield but a few of their mysteries. Occasionally 
"windows" are found that allow us a closer examina- 
tion of Precambrian seas. We have five such major win- 
dows into the Precambrian life. 



The oldest fossils, representing actual anatomical 
entities 3.5 billion years old, appear in the Warrawoona 
Group of Western Australia. The second are simple 
spheroids and stromatolites from the Fig Ttee Forma- 
tion in South Africa. The next significant record of 
Precambrian fossils is the much younger Gunflint For- 
mation of Ontario, about two billion years old. From 
this time on a number of other, more or less important 
finds are scattered through the Precambrian; algal 
megafossils are found in Montana; diverse cyanobac- 
teria and possibly the first eukaryotes in California. But 
the best studied is the Bitter Springs flora of Australia, 
only about one billion years old. The animals from 
Ediacara Hills in Australia are the youngest group; in 
fact they are just below the Cambrian. 

The Oldest Record of Life 

The oldest rocks found on the surface of the Earth are 
meteorites, almost all of which are 4.6 billion years old. 
When we assume that meteorites and the Earth formed 
at the same time, and that the time was always uni- 
form, then 4.6 b.y. must also be the highest limit of the 
age of the Earth. The oldest terrestrial rocks from the 
shores of West Greenland and from Zimbabwe, in 
Africa, are around 3.8 b.y. old. These, particularly the 
Isua supracrustal samples from Greenland, are now 
well known, though their interpretation is still con- 
troversial. The Isua rocks contain banded iron forma- 
tions and an isotopically light form of carbon. This has 
suggested to some researchers that by the Isua time, 
photosynthesis was already occurring, implying the 
presence of microbes. However, such interpretations 
are dependent on a particular model of banded iron 
formation and on an assumed absence of other than a 
biological dissociation of water, and a subsequent re- 
lease of oxygen. Thus, while the Isua rocks attest to the 
antiquity of the Earth's crust, they tell us little about the 
earliest life. 

The first unquestioned evidence of life comes from 
the Warrawoona Group in North Point Barite Mine in 
Western Australia. This consists of at least five different 
kinds of cells, but all appear to be cyanobacteria. These 
microbes were extracted from certain kinds of silica and 
have a distinct filamentous habit with a possible pres- 
ence of cell membranes. They are extremely rare, not 
well preserved, and difficult to assign to any group; this 
is about all that can be said about them. 

The Fig Ti-ee Formation 

The second oldest known microscopic fossil organisms, 
found in the Fig Tree Formation, come from black 
cherty rocks (types of silica) that are about three billion 
years old. They already consist of cells and were almost 
certainly photosynthetic; they are therefore already on 



13 




a "higher" rung of life! One of these is the bacterium- 
like Eobacterium isolaium: a second is a spheroid, 
aquatic, most probably photosynthetic alga-like 
Archaeospheroidesbarbertonensis. 

These fossil forms, together with recent bacteria 
and cyanobacteria, are placed in a great group of orga- 
nisms called prokaryotes. The living world is divided 
into organisms whose cells contain a nucleus (eukary- 
otes, meaning truly nucleated) and those devoid of a 
nucleus — prokaryotes. The prokaryotes reproduce only 
asexually, without the union of specialized sex cells. 
Because they have no organized nucleus and are 
sexless, they are considered more primitive than 
eukaryoles. Caution must be exercised not to consider 
blue-greens and bacteria as simple or primitive forms. 
They are simple only in structure, in lack of nuclear 
membrane and cell organelles. In their synthetic vigor 
.md in their chemistry, they are as complex as many 
living organisms. 

Primitive or not, prokaryotes have a complex 
internal morphology, as seen under the electron micro- 
scope, and are ecologically highly adapted. Today's 
blue-green algae and some bacteria manufacture their 
iood by means of photosynthesis. Their photosynthetic 
pigments differ from those of "higher" plants in that 
they are in lamellae, or layers, located peripherally 
around the body. 

Nevertheless, photosynthesis, the build-up of 
highly complex, high-energy, organic molecules from 
the simple, nonliving, low-energy molecules, is a most 
complex process. 

The blue-greens, as a group and as individual spe- 
cies, are uniquely varied in their ecologic adaptations. 
They live in fresh, salt, or brackish waters; they are 
successful on glaciers; in hot springs, and in soil, both 
as parasites and as free-living organisms. They man- 



14 



This page; Pre- 
cambrian fossils 
from Great Slave 
Lake, Canada. 
Opposite page: liv- 
ing stromatolites 
in Sliark Bay. 
Australia. 





ufacture their food by means of photosynthesis and are 
capable of efficient utilization of various light frequen- 
cies. Certain of these algae require oxygen; others do 
well without it. All possess gliding locomotion, and 
some filamentous forms can move relatively fast 
through water. Certain species can prosper where no 
others can survive; hence, they thrive in rich pastures 
of highly polluted waters and in human cesspools. 
Thus, cyanobacteria are highly adapted and appear 
primitive only in their lack of some anatomical 
organelles. 

This is one of our great difficulties: if the first 
organisms were blue-green algae or bacteria, then they 
possessed very specialized cell walls capable of control- 
ling the inflow and outflow of salts, they were able to 
control their internal environment, and they must have 
had a very long life history prior to the time of deposi- 
tion of the Warrawoona sediments. 



The intriguing question then is, was Andre Lwoff 
right? Was the protoorganism really capable of total 
synthesis; hence, is evolution going downhill? Were 
the blue-greens or bacteria the first organisms? Were 
they already so advanced? Was there enough time in 
the Precambrian before the Warrawoona to make life? 
Could life have come from another planet? 

The Gunflint Formation 

The Gunflint Formation, our third major window, is 
approximately two billion years old, and because it 
contains iron ore, it has been extensively studied for a 
long time in the field and in detail under the micro- 
scope. For many years some geologists believed that the 
Precambrian iron was formed by microorganisms. The 
Gunflint iron formation is now a very famous geologic 
formation because well-documented Precambrian 

Continued on p. 22 




15 



In Quest 

OF 

Starlings 



by William J. Beecher 

Photos by the Author 



Quite possibly the long episode at Field 
Museum was the best time of my life — 
when I was at the same moment the poorest and richest 
I have ever been. I owned nothing more valuable than 
a camera and binocular but was at the height of my sci- 
entific creativity. At the famous "lunch club," which 
convened daily in Karl Schmidt's herpetology lab, I 
bubbled with enthusiasm over my latest discoveries. 
Karl, who was mother hen to all the young zoologists, 
was indulgent. Curator of Paleontology, Bryan Patter- 
son, observed tolerantly that I was experiencing the 
euphoria that comes to every young scientist when 
he is opening the mother lode of a new field of 
investigation. 



I mined that mother lode for seven years, day and 
night, as though I were reading a marvelous book and 
could not wait to see what was on the next page. I was 
locked in a study of the evolutionary relationships of 
the 60 families of songbirds, which make up more than 
half the 9,000 species of birds in the world. After 30 
months of war in the South Pacific, I was back in the 
Field Museum bird range on a University of Chicago 
Ph.D. project. In the alcove farthest from the office I 
dissected birds through a binocular microscope far into 
the night. Rules required that I use only one light after 
dark and, when leaving, I found my way along pitch- 
black corridors the entire length of the building to the 
one lighted stairwell that led from the third floor to the 



16 




Common starling 



front door exit. When I was not drawing my dissections 
I was typing notes with an old typewriter on a large 
specimen drawer set on end, which I could straddle 
with my long legs. I chose this over a table because I 
could tilt my chair back to reflect from time to time! 

It was now 1946 and I had begun my rich experi- 
ence in the bird range in 1935 as a volunteer. In those 
days spent labelling bird skins laid row on row in 
drawer on drawer a deep curiosity possessed me about 
the relationship of songbird families to each other. I 
never doubted the species placement in the finch family 
or tanager family or warbler family by such ancient 
(and even extinct!) taxonomists as Hellmayr and Ridg- 
way, but I knew that the family groupings had been 
made by ornithologists who used only study skins and 
intuition. Most of the bird had been thrown away! 

Fortunately, Rudyerd Boulton had built up the 
"spirit collection" of birds (those preserved in alcohol) 
while curator of the Bird Division in the 1930s — and 
now Dwight Davis, curator of Anatomy, encouraged 
me to dissect these specimens in a study of the func- 
tional anatomy of the feeding mechanism in birds. It 
was after I began to realize that the jaw muscles of a 
warbler had a diagnostic pattern different from that of a 
tanager or a vireo that I could see how my dream of 
showing the relationships of families to each other 
might come true. It was suddenly clear that songbirds 
differed little from each other in the anatomy of the 
body as a whole but differed a great deal in the head 
region, as the emerging families adapted to specialized 
feeding on insects or nectar or fruit or seeds. In time it 
began to seem that the seed-eating finches formed the 
terminal twigs, as the latest innovations, in this tree of 
relationships I was building. The insect-eating vireos 
and warblers seemed to be simpler, more primitive, so I 
was inclined to place them in the trunk, with the fruit- 
and nectar-eating tanagers in the larger branches be- 
tween the two. It was not lost on me that this agreed 
with the fossil record of the flowering plants to which 
the songbirds were obviously adapting. The plants with 
numerous seeds were last to evolve, and so were the 
finches that eat them. It made evolutionary sense and it 
was elegant! 

At the end of seven years I had dissected all of 
the spirit-preserved specimens of songbirds in Field 
Museum, as well as in New York's American Museum 
and Washington's Smithsonian. I had also had speci- 
mens sent to me from Europe and had visited New York 
and Washington — but I shall leave that. All of the 
above is merely stage-setting for the story at hand, with 
which I now proceed. 

Quite early in the game I dissected a European star- 
ling and found its jaw musculature and accompanying 



Dr. Beecher is director emeritus of This Chicago Academy of 
Sciences. 




Bank myna 



Chinese starling 




17 




Jaw Musculature 




-^^ 




Eye position in myna species 




skull — side view 



Mynas 



skull — view from lower side 





Protractor Muscles (red) 
open the bill 




Adductor Muscles (blue) 
close ttie bill 



Jaw musculature and skull adaptations in prying 
and nonprying birds (starlings and mynas 
respectively)^ Note in particular the size of the 
protractor muscles (red) in the starling relative to 
that of the mynas, and the relative narrowness of 
the starling skull. Drawings by the author 



Jaw Musculature 




sl<ull wilh upper beak 




skull — side view 




18 



Eye position while feeding. 
Note eye position relative to beak o+orlinnc 
as the latter is opened. OiarMrigS 



skull — view from lower side 




Initial speciation may have begun with dispersal of ancestral forms throughout the islands and mainlands of the Indian Ocean, the primi- 
tive Aplonis of the Pacific and Lamprotornis of Africa at extreme east and west limits. As genera disperse, north through Asia into Europe, the 
role of tropical, arboreal fruit-eater tends to give way to that of temperate, terrestrial insect-eater with a complete restructuring of skull and 
jaw musculature. 

1: Aplonis, 2: Basilornis, 3: Mino, 4: Sarcops, 5. Streptocitta, 6: Ampeliceps, 7: Saraglossa. 8: Cinnyricinclus, 9: Lamprotornis, 10: Neocichia, 
7 ;. Pastor, J2. Sturnia, 73; Acridotheres, 74;Sturnus, 75. Creatophora, 76, Gracuia, 77. Buphagus, 78. Scissirostrunn. 



skull adaptations quite the strangest I would ever see in 
a songbird. It was little suspected before my investiga- 
tion that the bird skull and its seven muscles function 
like a well-oiled machine — one of the simple machines 
of classical physics, a frame of rodlike bone levers hing- 
ing bill to cranium. One function of this machine is to 
raise the tip of the upper bill, hinged to the skull, when 
a pair of contracting pterygoid muscles thrust the frame 
forward against the base of the bill. Another function is 
to open the lower bill by means of a pair of muscles 
originating on the back of the cranium and attaching to 
the blades of the lowerbill just back of the fulcrum, 
hinging them to the base of the skull. These muscles for 
opening the bill, called protractors, are generally small 
and weak. The adductor muscles, which close the bill, 
are expectedly large and powerful. Only the European 
starling had it all on backwards! 

I looked at my dissection in amazement, then dis- 
sected another specimen. In a few minutes there was 
no doubt. The protractors and their leverage were enor- 
mous, while the adductors were reduced. A blind man 



Emmet R. Blake is now curator emeritus of Birds. 



could see that the starling must pry powerfully! At the 
same time there was the most extreme narrowing of the 
skull in front of the eyes to be found in any songbird. 
So the pryer also looked forward between the widely- 
spread upper and lower bills to search for his food. But 
no bird observer had ever noted this! The next morn- 
ing, crouched behind the marble balustrade that over- 
looks the south lawn of Field Museum, I watched a 
flock of starlings for fifteen minutes and confirmed that 
what I had predicted in a laboratory happens in nature. 
It was March and the dry grass mat hid its insects well. 
All the starlings were opening their bills repeatedly to 
the extreme and peering between them! 

But the problem was only in its beginning phase. 
I had already dissected mynas and other Asiatic star- 
lings and found the jaw musculature and skull to be 
normal, with no evidence of prying at all. I deter- 
mined that sometime, when my seven-year thesis 
was finished, I would have a pleasant time running 
the mystery of the European starling down. Associate 
Curator Bob Blake,* my first mentor and best friend 
in the Bird Division, had early acquainted me 
with R. Bowdler Sharpe's "Handlist of the genera and 
species of birds," published in the British Museum at 
the turn of the century. In this work, which probably 



19 



20 



Still occupies a shelf in the division office, Sharpe had 
broken the 1 11 starling species into two families. He 
was a notorious "splitter," taxonomically-speaking, 
but maybe the old boy had been onto something. 
Would I find when I examined all the species that 
there was a family of "pryers" and one of "normal" 
starlings? The answer must wait and the project was 
set aside. 

It was not until 16 years later, in 1962, that I could 
pick up the trail again. Like a detective seeking clues, I 
visited the American Museum in New York and the 
National Museum in Washington in quick succession, 
also observing the behavior of living starlings in the col- 
lections of the Bronx and National Zoos. I was looking 
for ritual "gaping," when posturing starlings threaten 
each other. The Austrian psychologist and animal 
behaviorist Konrad Lorenz had discovered this in Euro- 
pean starlings and we had exchanged papers and 
congratulated each other on discovering the same trait 
independently from different avenues of approach. 

My life had changed and now I seldom worked less 
than 12 to 15 hours a day on exhibits and education 
programs as director of the Chicago Academy of Sci- 
ences. Seventeen years passed before I could find time 
to complete the investigation, mainly because a suitable 
paper was needed in that institution's Bulletin series. 

The story as it has emerged in completed form has 
elements of evolutionary plausibility and elegance that 
persuade me I have most of the truth now about the 
starling family, Sturnidae. I have been able to dissect 
nearly all of the 1 1 1 species, and, no — Sharpe was not 
right. There is only one family, and the gradation from 
"normal" to prying species is a smooth one. 

The family appears to have originated in the is- 
lands and on surrounding continental shores of the In- 
dian Ocean, where a veritable whirlpool of currents, 
coupled with abundant typhoons and the millions of 
years available, might account for the relatively large 
number of species. The origin of new species requires 
the interrupted gene flow that comes only with geo-- 
graphic isolation and there was ample opportunity for 
that. When a tropical deluge rages in the mountains of 
such tropical islands, whole logjams made up of living 
jungle emerge from the mouths of streams and put to 
sea on ocean currents. Given the time and the abun- 
dance of islands in the Malaysian-Indonesian areas, 
numerous colonizations were made. Given luck, some 
of them survived fierce competition in new homes to 
become viable populations of the small size needed to 
fix favorable mutations and form new species. 

Most of these Indian Ocean starlings, particularly 
at the eastern, or Malaysian end, are mynas. TVee- 
dwelling fruit-eaters, they have the typical broad- 
headed, broad-billed, wall-eyed look of fruit-eaters and 
have little ability to turn the eyes forward. Another 
group is made up of the incredibly shiny and iridescent 



glossy starlings, which change from purple to green, 
depending on the light. I studied them in Africa and the 
Solomon Islands, where they have been pushed to the 
periphery of the tropical portion of the family's range, 
though there is good reason to think that these are rel- 
atively primitive starlings, from which the rest may 
have specialized. There are, of course, the woodpecker 
starling of Celebes and the oxpeckers of Africa, both 
with feet modified, the former for clinging to trees, the 
latter for clinging to the game animals with which they 
are customarily associated. 

But it is on the Eurasian continent north of the 
Indian Ocean that there began the specialization of 
the prying adaptation that would recast the whole 
skull architecture in a major group of starling species, 
changing them from arboreal fruit-eaters into ground- 
dwelling insect-eaters. Working northward, this group 
would culminate in the European starling which, 
forsaking the tropics, penetrated for good into temper- 
ate climes to beat primary insect-eaters (which never 
had a fruit-eating background) at their own game. 

The prying adaptation is already seen in the tropi- 
cal Indian myna, widely colonized as associates of hu- 
mans throughout the Pacific Islands to Hawaii. The 
adaptation is only partial in that the curved culmen, or 
ridge, of the upper bill (in contrast to the straighter cul- 
men of the European starling) is the hallmark of a 
primary fruit-eater. Still, this yellow-billed brown bird 
with its white wing patches, whose cheerful chatter 
was constantly in my ears during 30 months in the 
Solomons, could be seen occasionally prying the grass 
mat under coconut trees in army bivouac areas. The 
prying apparatus was already there, but there was very 
little pinching-in of the the skull before the eyes for 
forward vision. 

So it remained for the European starling to make 
the full adaptation with its beautifully slender, straight 
and narrow bill, with its skull deeply pinched in before 
the eyes, with its enorrnous protractor muscles acting 
on special bony levers for added power. One feels that 
prying power when a pet starling tries to open the 
closed fist for a special treat. This is the adaptation that 
permitted this remarkable species to succeed in the 
temperate zone of Europe and, upon introduction into 
New York in 1890, to spread entirely across the United 
States from east to west in the next 50 to 60 years. The 
Chinese starling, lacking this full prying adaptation, 
was introduced into British Columbia in 1897, but has 
not spread at all. Its food is about 60 percent fruit and 
30 percent insects, whereas the European starling's diet 
reverses this. 

But the real key to starling success is how it gets the 
60 percent of its food that is insects by probing the 
grass mat and earth. When our native insect-eaters are 
driven south in fall by descending temperatures, it is 
because their insect food is unavailable to them. But 




"When presented with a small wooden matchbox, he Instantly pried it open in one movement like a child performing a trick and quickly threw all the 
matches out. " 



Starlings, probing the grass mat, still find dormant in- 
sects, eggs, and cocoons aplenty. Some clue to the suc- 
cess with which they ply their prying may be seen if 
we look at the latitude in which they reach optimum 
numbers — our nation's capital, where they breed and 
roost on public buildings. We may guess at the reason. 
Whereas New York and Chicago have 90 to 120 snow- 
covered days a year, Washington has only 10 to 30; 
thus, far more days for starlings to probe the grass mat. 

The common starling has been a menace to native 
birds because of its aggressiveness in taking over nat- 
ural nesting holes in trees and nest boxes, especially 
those once occupied in rural areas by bluebirds. How- 
ever, cities have been long abandoned by most of our 
native birds, and starlings have some fetching traits that 
help to make a Chicago winter more bearable. As 
pointed out to me by my friend, C. H. Channing of 
Clear Lake, Washington, who loves to make tape re- 
cordings, starlings are great imitators. A starling singing 
to himself on a sunny, cold, winter afternoon atop a 
tree is imitating all the sounds in the neighborhood — 
barking dogs, other birds, boys at their games — all 
rather quietly. If there is another starling nearby — and 
there always is — they are having a contest. Too many 
starlings and it becomes a caterwauling jumble. 

Starlings are also comical. A foraging starling, 
glossy plumage reflecting purple and green, his erratic 
gait throwing his body this way and that at every step, 
head bobbing back and forth in his rapid-peering tech- 
nique of feeding, is really funny. In his greediness, one 
locomotion cycle overtakes another and he may aban- 
don technique altogether and run ahead a yard for an 
insect he has spotted or he may jump into the air The 
spasmodic prying, however, punctuates every feeding 
mode. Starlings are always trying and, when native 



aerial insect-eaters like martins and swifts fly south, the 
starlings try their hand at flycatching, since aerial in- 
sects are still abundant. They totally lack the grace and 
ease at this displayed by kingbirds and swallows and, 
after a protracted zigzag flight of half a minute, they 
perch and rest awhile. 

A starling may make an amusing pet. One of my 
colleagues at Field Museum in the late 1940s was Lloyd 
DuBrul, professor of Oral Anatomy at the University of 
Illinois, who loved to make studies of the biomechanics 
of the skulls of wild species. When he expressed a 
desire to raise a wild bird, I suggested a starling because 
I wanted to know how early in development the prying 
begins. Raised and fed by DuBrul's wife, Florence, a 
concert pianist, when he was still an almost formless 
blob of protoplasm. Pic (his French name) did not 
know he was a bird. He was, in fact, a person in his 
own right, much like a small boy, and a spoiled one! He 
became the joy of the household, flying through all the 
rooms freely, teasing the dog, who never demurred. He 
began to pry immediately, sipping Lloyd's cocktail, 
probing in his beard, under his shirt cuff. When pre- 
sented with a small wooden matchbox, he instantly 
pried it open in one movement like a child performing 
a trick and quickly threw all the matches out. When a 
finger was poked at him, he stretched himself tall, 
raised his hackles and opened his bill to the maximum 
in response to this threat, his forward-turned eyes glar- 
ing at the finger tip through the gape of the bill. Pic 
learned to whistle a little French tune very accurately 
and used to perch on the shoulder of his mistress dur- 
ing her long hours of practice on the piano, accom- 
panying the arpeggios with his own original version. 
He entertained that household and its lucky visitors for 
many years. FM 



21 



22 



LIFE continued from p. 15 

organisms were first discovered in it. There were other 
earlier claims of Precambrian fossils that, however, 
have been later discarded or simply put aside and for- 
gotten. The modern study of Precambrian paleobiology 
began in the 1950s with the pioneering work on the 
Gunflint by Prof. Elso S. Barghoorn, Stanley A. Taylor, 
and their colleagues. 

A wealth of material, in comparison with the War- 
rawoona and Fig TYee formations, is obtained from the 
Gunflint. Organic compounds strongly suggestive of 
the breakdown of chlorophyll are present. The free- 
floating organisms of the surface of the sea and the bot- 
tom dwellers are represented. All the Gunflint fossils 
appear, however, to have lacked nuclei and to have 
been prokaryotic. 

Stromatolites 

Stromatolites, sometimes called cryptozoans, are 
calcareous, finely laminated sedimentary structures 
produced by algae, bacteria, and so forth, mostly blue- 
greens. Although they are organic in origin they do not 
represent the actual body of the organism. Stromato- 
lites of the present time, particularly from Shark Bay, 
Western Australia, allow for comparison with the Pre- 
cambrian fossils. The Australian forms are similar in 
appearance to some of the Precambrian fossils and con- 
sist of large bodies made of algal film that trapped the 
fine sediments into distinct headlike structures. Well- 
formed, distinct Precambrian stromatolites can be seen 
in Upper Michigan along the shores of Lake Superior. 

The ancient stromatolites from the area around 
Canada's Great Slave Lake represent one of the most 
fossiliferous formations known. They consist of col- 
umns that may be fifty feet high, and beds of these 
mounds hundreds of feet thick have been traced for 
more than 150 miles! The recent stromatolites are 
found only in the very restricted shallow areas of the 
sea floor devoid of animals. The Precambrian stromato- 
lites on the other hand are very common, abundant, 
and cosmopolitan. They may owe their luxuriant 
growth to the absence of grazing animals, particularly 
marine snails. 

The Bitter Springs Formation 

The Bitter Springs Formation in central Australia is 
about one billion years old. Prof. J. William Schopf 
and his students at the University of California at Los 
Angeles in a series of very important publications, de- 
scribed the flora of the Bitter Springs Formation. These 
fossils, like other Precambrian floras, are preserved in 
chert. Originally formed around still-living organisms 
as a gel, chert preserves the living morphological struc- 
tures with most unusual fidelity. Today chert sometimes 
forms on the sea bottom. The preservation of fossils in 



chert is such that the remnants of actual cell division, 
interpreted as various stages of mitosis, have been 
observed. The Bitter Springs flora consists not only of 
numerous prokaryotic bacteria and cyanobacteria, but 
also, for the first time, of well-documented nucleus- 
containing organisms, the eukaryotes. 

All living things other than bacteria, blue-greens, 
and viruses (viruses consist of only nucleic acids and 
proteins, and no one knows where to put them) are 
eukaryotes. The eukaryotic cells are generally larger 
than the prokaryotic. One-celled eukaryotic algae have, 
in addition to a nucleus, the food-manufacturing chlo- 
roplasts and cytoplasm which sustain growth, and con- 
trol through a very complex cell wall the exchange of 
materials with the environment. Many living eukary- 
otes are microscopic, but the best known eukaryotes — 
mammals, insects, worms, trees, grasses, roses, mush- 
rooms, and so on — are large, many-celled, highly 
specialized individuals with many organs. 

All life is capable of self-reproduction, but only 
eukaryotes have great variability in this respect. There 
are many reasons why organisms reproduce. The most 
apparent reason is to increase the number of cells that 
can specialize and increase their efficiency. The reason 
always given in textbooks is preservation of the species. 

There Is nevertheless a necessity to reproduce 
which is a result of growth. We can geometrically 
resolve a spherical cell into three properties, — diameter, 
mass and surface. When diameter doubles, surface 
quadruples, but mass increases eight times! Therefore 
an imbalance is created, and the surface which pro- 
vides for entrance of nutrients and removal of wastes 
becomes inefficient, and cell division is triggered. 

Cell division, though a disruption of growth, is a 
necessity of life. All prokaryotic organisms, bacteria, 
and blue-green algae reproduce this way. They pinch in 
the middle and form two new cells. This process con- 
tinues forever, and even if cells remain attached to one 
another as in filamentous blue-greens, the resulting 
"colonies" are with little or no differentiation of cells. 

The eukaryotic organisms differ from the pro- 
karyotic in having a nucleus, which controls reproduc- 
tion and coordinates general activities. When, because 
of growth, a small eukaryotic organism divides, the 
nucleic material divides in a precise and complex way. 
In this process the content of the nucleus divides into 
chromosomes, which possess genes, the primary carri- 
ers of genetic material. The genetic material is divided 
into pairs, and the germ cells, gametes, and eggs form. 
In eukaryotes the new individuals originate from the 
union of two germ cells that are sexually different. 

Among prokaryotes "like begets like." Among 
eukaryotes like does not exactly beget like; but each 
time there is a minute change, which has given rise to 
the great spectrum of fossil forms and great diversity 
and blossoming of life. Sexual reproduction allows 



for the genetic system, in which the variable charac- 
ters of plants and animals, as seen appearing from 
generation to generation, are due to paired units of 
heredity — the genes. This, in turn, generates the great 
genetic diversity. 

The combination and recombination of ancestral 
traits, and introduction of new trails offer new charac- 
ters, from which nature selects the best adapted or re- 
jects the less fit. The great revolution of the invention of 
sex offered more varieties of life and was only possible 
among eukaryotes. A great thing is sex, and great are its 
advantages! It first happened some time before the Bit- 
ter Springs lime, for among Bitter Springs fossils we 
already have eukaryotic organisms! 

The Ediacara Fauna: A Biologically Failed Experiment? 

The first fossil animals have been described from the 
Pound Sandstone in the Ediacara Hills of South Austra- 
lia. Fossils found there consist of an unusual and rich 
assemblage referred lo as the Ediacara fauna, and are 
known through the work of Prof. Martin F. Glaessnerat 
the University of Adelaide. The Ediacara animals are 
interpreted as various well-preserved jellyfish, related 
organisms very similar to living sea pens, varieties 
of segmented worms, a very primitive arthropod 
possibly related to irilobites, and some unknown 
extinct organisms. 

What is also unusual about these fossils is that 
their preservation is in the form of an impression in 
sand, and that ihey are "naked" organisms without 
skeletons. The preservation of soft-bodied organisms is 
indeed rare in the fossil record. 

Lately, however, Prof. Adolf Seilacher of the Uni- 
versity of Tubingen offered a radically different inter- 
pretation of the Ediacara fauna. He claims that the 
idenlification of about 70 percent of all Ediacaran spe- 
cies as coelenterates was wrong; that instead, most of 
these "medusoids" represent trace fossils (tracks and 
burrows in soft sediments). The nature of the enclosing 
sediments, and the mode of preservation of the remain- 
der of the fossil species suggest to Seilacher that they 
cannot be assigned to any known phyla. He believes 
that these forms had a cuticle that was not subject to 
bacterial breakdown, and more importantly, that these 
"animals" were most strange in their unusual way of 
nutrition. He sees their nutrition as a sort of autotrophy, 
and the organisms themselves as gutless and mouthless 
creatures feeding through the entire body surface in- 
stead of through inner digestive organs. Thus, their 
supportive cuticle may have been biomechanically 
hydraulic, somewhat in the manner of an air mattress! 

The Ediacara fauna is found just below the transi- 
tion of Cambrian and Precambrian, and may be almost 
100 million years older than the youngest Cambrian 
remains. Similar faunas, also consisting of impres- 



sions, have been described from other Precambrian 
localities in England, many parts of the Soviet Union, 
and South Africa; in North America they are known 
in Newfoundland. 

Although these fossils are extremely fascinating lo 
paleontologists and are important for the study of the 
early history of life, they nevertheless are neither the 
first nor the most primitive animals. They are already of 
very large size, and some of them have a distinct sym- 
metry, thus representing complex animals. The first 
animals were most probably naked (as the Ediacara 
forms were), small, and without muscular locomotion. 
They probably evolved only after the floating (pelagic) 
algae became numerous. The "first" animal remains 
still hidden in sediments. 

The Phanerozoic 

Life in the abyss of time has learned to utilize the inert 
matter and the seemingly unlimited solar energy and 
convert it into a complexity of organisms. Life has 
learned to use this vast energy for the sole purpose of 
living. Life has become interdependent upon other life 
and has become symbiotic internally, socially, and in 
the totality of living. 

Into this stage entered yesterday, so to speak, man, 
a perfect eukaryote, with little ability to synthesize any- 
thing himself, but with the faculty to alter the synthetic 
pathways of other life to suit his own aims — a eukary- 
ote organism with skills lo use energy not only lo build 
but also lo destroy, a eukaryote angel of frightful 
destruction. This eukaryote organism has reached the 
greatest power of reproduction — a sexual superstar 
that outsexed all other eukaryotes and covered the 
Earth with its own kin. 

But even from man's viewpoint, all life has but one 
aim; to live. Living is sacred to every organism. 

It is curious that although all life has one aim, it is 
not united. Life conflicts with life, with nonlife, and 
with death. Life feeds upon other life, and finds ene- 
mies everywhere. But man brought the conflict of liv- 
ing with living, the conflict of man with all life, to new 
heights. One species feeds on all other life and on all 
nonlife. Man made all life, including his own, profane. 
Man kills bacteria and bald eagles, and lacks inhibition 
to slay fellow man. He gives Nobel prizes for an overkill 
and holocaust of the microbial world, bounty for dead 
eagles, and medals for war atrocities. 

To man the life of fellow man is defiled and a con- 
flict. Only his own individual life is holy. The Earth be- 
came a planet of a strange eukaryotic organism, the 
Earth became a human planet! And one day the re- 
mains of fossil man and his doings will be studied and a 
supreme magistrate shall judge man, the only judgeable 
eukaryote. And only the future knows what the leaves 
of the judgment book will unfold. FH 



23 




Top and side views <7/Mouldingia orienialis (left) and Mouldingia occidentalis, shown about eight times life size. Drawings by 
Linnea Lahlutn. 



26 



this intent. Study of the material and then writing the 
description of the genus and species, with Illustrator Lin- 
nea Lahlum told to "go all out" on the shell drawings. 
These details are far too fine for optical photographs, and 
the many subtle differences between the species in shape 
and contour, all are exquisitely revealed by Linnea's skill 
and dedication. At last the manuscript on these and re- 
lated species was completed. Drawings of shell and anat- 
omy had been mounted and labeled, figure and plate 
numbers assigned and entered into the text. The final 
manuscript had been composed on a micro-computer, 
printed, proofed, corrected, reprinted, and copies dupli- 
cated, then assembled for mailing to Australia. Late in 
1982, the manuscript and illustrations were submitted 
for publication to the Western Australian Museum. Af- 
ter being reviewed by other scientists, it was accepted for 
publication on July 22, 1983. Galley proof arrived in 
Chicago late in February 1984, then quickly corrected 
and returned to Perth. In one frantic week early in May 
1984 1 read the page proof in Perth while simultaneously 
assembling supplies for another field trip to the Kimber- 
ley. One last look at the silverprints on my return from 



the field work, and the monograph went to the printers 
and binder. However, by coincidence, I left Perth for field 
work in Namibia on the very day the book was finally 
published, June 30, 1984. 

Thus, I did not see a printed copy until I returned to 
Chicago in mid-August. It was late November 1984 be- 
fore the boxes of reprints, shipped ocean freight, arrived 
in Chicago from Perth. Illustrator Linnea Lahlum and I 
could then drive out to Mrs. Moulding's home, present 
her with autographed copies of the book, and have Lin- 
nea sign a copy of her magnificent drawing that will be 
framed and hung in Mrs. Moulding's home. 

This all started with a note about a shell exhibit 
bringing people with common interests together, and 
sharing dreams. 

My work on Australian snails continues. Areas 
needed to be visited in the future require helicopter hire, 
as no roads or tracks exist. Our collection of mollusks 
must continue to grow, and there still are many books 
that we lack. The help provided by the Mouldings con- 
tinues to be essential to, and deeply appreciated by. Field 
Museum of Natural History. FM 



Tours For Members 



Egypt 

January 29-February 15, 1986 

Explore egypt, the land of ancient mysteries. Journey 
from bustling Cairo, with its renowned Egyptian 
Museum, its mosques, minarets, and markets, into the 
ghostly silence of ruined cities, splendrous temples, and 
noble tombs. The 5,000-year-old Step Pyramid, the mas- 
sive stone ruins of Karnak, and the Colossi of Memnon all 
beckon the curious and inspire respect for a culture as old 
as Western civilization itself. As you cruise the Nile, 
observe age-old scenes along the shore, for life in the fer- 
tile Nile Valley has changed but little. We encourage early 
enrollment, since spaces fill quickly for this breathtaking 
journey into the past. 

Baja California 

March 8-23, 1986 

Circumnavigating the Baja peninsula aboard the Pacific 
Northwest Explorer is an experience you won't want to 
miss. Dr. Robert K. Johnson, curator of Fishes at Field 
Museum and other naturalists will enrich your visit to the 
breeding lagoons of gray whales, fin, humpback, sei, and 
the largest of all — blue whales. In addition to some of the 
best whale-spotting in the world, you'll get a close-up 
view of colonies of northern elephant seal, schools of dol- 
phins, myriad birds and fish, strange endemic plants, and 
very lovely scenery. 



The Great Silk Route 
of China 

May 21 -June 15, 1986 

Our Flight from Chicago is direct to Tokyo. Then on to 
Beijing. After several days there, viewing such marvels as 
the Forbidden City and the 98-acre Tien An Men Square, 
we go on to Urumqi, Dunhuang, Lanzhou, Xian, Shan- 
ghai, and Guilin. Xian is of particular interest to archaeol- 
ogy buffs for here we find the vast life-size terra cotta army 
discovered as recently as 1974. We return to the U.S. via 
Hong Kong. 

Alaska 

July 2-16, 1986 

Visit Alaska in Summer! Explore magnificent waterways 
and vast parklands abundant with many species of birds. 
At Sitka, a marine wildlife rafting trip gets you started on 
this spectacular ornithological tour. From Juneau, a trip 
on the Mendenhall River offers unusual wetland viewing. 
From Anchorage one easily reaches Potter Marsh Bird 
Refuge and the Eagle River. Denali National Park (for- 
merly called McKinley National Park) and the Glacier Bay 
cruise are special highlights. We conclude our trip with 
three days on St. George Island. Few people have visited 
this island, which boasts spectacular birding. For more 
information contact the Tours Department. 



The Art and Culture of Indonesia — 
A Voyage to the Islands of the Java Sea 

March 21 -April 8, 1986 

Composed of Thousands of islands forming a vast archi- 
pelago, Indonesia is an ancient land of gentle peoples, 
rich and varied cultural traditions, and tropical landscapes 
of unsurpassed beauty. With its panoply of religions, 
art forms, rituals, and dances found nowhere else in the 
world, Indonesia confronts the visitor with a fascinat- 
ing past; its history, myth, and legend are often insepar- 
able. On an itinerary which has been carefully planned to 
include well-known sites as well as remote, verdant isles, 
we will travel aboard the ship Illiria to destinations of 
immense beauty. 



Field Museum Tours is offering two trips to the Grand 
Canyon in 1986. The first, August 13-22, is a geology 
study trip hiking down the north rim of the canyon, raft- 
ing for four days along the bottom and hiking back up the 
south rim. The second, August 22-31, is a rafting trip 
along the entire 300-mile length of the canyon by two 
motorized rubber rafts. Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, curator of 
fossil invertebrates, leads both. A deposit of $50 per per- 
son will hold your space. 



For further information or to be placed on our mailing list, call or write 

Dorothy Roder. Tours Manager, Field Museum. Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 

Shore Dr.. Chicago. IL 60605. Phone: 322-8862. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, II 60605-2499 



0017195-00 

5^11 North or sen vxeu. 

Chicago. IL ^Oo«^o 



USEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

'^ — -i*,^ October 1985 _ 



'.F^* 




"^*\ 



f^r^gi. 




^^> 



,^^ 



Dinosaur Days 

October 5 8-6 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 
October 1985 
Volume 56, Number 9 



October Events at Field Museum 



Margery Carlson, A TVibute 5 

by William Burger, chairman of the Department of Botany 



Field Briefs 



Board OF T1«usTEES 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Richard M. Jones 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Charles F. Murphy, Jn 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 



James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Edward Byron Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



[JFEIIIUSTEES 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
John W Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Chicago's Lost Marsh 

by William J. Beecher 



8 



Doab, July 31 to August 10, 1962 

The First Days in the Field 12 

by William S. and Janice K. Street with Richard Sawyer 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

Field Museum 's most recent permanent exhibit is this representation of a 
botany field trip to the coastal deserts of Peru. Based on the field work 
there of Assistant Curator Michael O. Dillon, the exhibit features a 4- 
wheel-drive vehicle such as Dillon uses, and all the trappings and equip- 
ment customarily to be found on such a venture. A narrated filmstrip 
supplements the exhibit, which is in the "Past, Present, and Future" 
hall, on the 2nd floor, east of the Museum Store. Photo by Ron Testa. 



Open Letter to Field Museum Members 



Field Museum is fortunate indeed for the many thou- 
sands of Members who have continued to support it 
through the years. Thanks to these devoted friends, 
the institution has been able to vigorously pursue its 
primary goals of preserving, increasing, and dis- 
seminating knowledge of natural history. 

Since 1979, the Museum has striven to keep 
membership fees at the same level. Rising costs, how- 
ever, now make it necessary for the Museum to raise 
those fees. As of September 1, 1985, individual member- 
ships will be offered at $30, family memberships at $35. 

In appreciation for their loyal support, the 



Museum is offering current Members the opportunity 
to renew at the prior rate ($20 for individual, $25 for 
family memberships) through December 31. Mem- 
berships that expire after this date may be "pre- 
renewed" at the old rate through December 31. 

The benefits gained through Field Museum 
membership are numerous and lasting: from dis- 
counts on classes, tours, and purchases to the opportu- 
nity to discover — or rediscover — the exciting world of 
natural history. We cherish your continued interest and 
look forward to having you with us in the years to come. 



Field Muitum cfSa:ural Huror.- Bulletin lUSPS 8<»8-940t is published monihly. f xcf p» combined July Augusi issue, by Field Museum of Natural Histor>-. Roosocli Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chica([o. IL 60605-2496. Subscnplioni; t6-00 annually. 
SJ 00 (oi sihwiK Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not nccessanly reflea the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are vvelcome Museum phone: (3121 
922 9410 Notifitaiuini'f address thaiific should imlude address label and be sent to Membership Depanrneni.PmtmasieriHease send fomt 3579 loFieWMusnim of Natural Hisior>\Roosew 
ISSN-O015-07OV Sotiiinicia';', p(>sta)ic paid at Chicago. Illinois. 



Events 



"X 




The Multigravitational Aerodance Group extends choreography to airy realms. 



Dinosaur Days 

Saturday and Sunday, October 5 and 6 
ll:00am-4 :00pm 



Join us for a day of fun devoted to the incredible 
world of dinosaurs. Adults as well as children learn 
the facts and find out what is fiction about some of 
the most fascinating creatures that ever lived. Local 
scholars and Field Museum staff conduct demon- 
strations and activities throughout the Museum. 

The very word dinosaur conjures up visions of 
lumbering giants grazing on exotic foliage and 
huge bird-like animals gliding through the air — the 
largest living things ever to fly. Featured this year is 
the Multigravitational Aerodance Group whose 
choreographic explorations extend the language of 
dance into the realm of the air. Aerodance's newest 
piece is choreographed around the theme of ptero- 
dactyls — flying reptiles. A new concept in the field 
of dance, Aerodance has been received by audi- 
ences with great interest and enthusiasm. The com- 
pany moves freely through an assortment of struc- 
tures such as tightropes, trapezes, slides, swings. 



hoops, and loops. Collaborating with Aerodance is 
William Harper, who is composing the score for 
this spectacular performance. Mr. Harper is the 
artistic director of American Ritual Theatre 
Company, artco. 

Donald Glut, who provided the screenplay for 
The Empire Strikes Back and is author of The New 
Dinosaur Dictionary, joins us this year with film clips 
and commentary in "Dinosaurs from Hollywood." 

Museum staff help you discover what dino- 
saurs looked like. Make a Triceratops mask, a Stego- 
saurus hat, or a Dimetrodon puppet. Whatever dino- 
saur you choose, you'll be properly attired for a 
special puppet performance based on the story. The 
Little Blue Brontosaurus. Join the Dinosaur Olym- 
pics team and see if you can jump as far as Tyranno- 
saurus or high enough to look Brachiosaurus in the 
eye. 

Dinosaur Days promise to be exciting and 
information-packed for all ages. All programs are 
free with Museum admission — no tickets required. 
A complete schedule of activities is available at the 
Museum entrances on Dinosaur Days. For more 
information call (312) 322-8854. 



CONTINUED Iron p 3 



Events 



October Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed 
below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the 
complete schedule and program locations. These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois 
Arts Council. 



October 

13 12 : 30pm. Museum Safari (tour) . Seek out big 
game from Africa and mummies from an- 
cient Egypt as you travel through Field 
Museum exhibits. 

20 1 :00pm. The Wonderful World of Plants (tour) . 
See the amazing plants of ocean, jungle, and 
desert, as well as the ones in your back yard. 



26 



27 



1:30pm. Traditional China (tour). Examine 
the imagery, history, and lifestyles represent- 
ed by Chinese jades and other masterworks. 

12:00 noon. Life in Ancient Egypt (tour). 
Focus on the objects and practices which 
illustrate ancient life in the Nile Valley. 



These programs are free with museum admission and no tickets are required. 



Pinhole Cameras 

Saturday and Sunday, October 12 and 13 
1:00- 3:00pm 

After viewing the photographs of Agustin Victor 
Casasola, develop your own photographic skills. 
You don't have to buy a camera to do it — you can 
make one! Discover how simple it is to make a pin- 
hole camera, and how easy it is to use. Create the 
perfect setting to take a family portrait or a beauti- 
ful still-life (we supply the props). Then enter the 
darkroom and develop your photographic 
masterpiece. 
This program is free with museum admission. 

Edward E. Ayer Film Series 

Thursdays in October, 1:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

October 3: Israel: Search for Faith, 58 min. 
October 10: Poland: The Will to Be, 58 min. 
October 17: Great Railway Journeys: 

Zambezi Express, 60 min. 
October 24: Spain: The Land and the Legend, 

58 min. 
October 31 : South Pacific: End of Eden?, 58 min. 



The World of Agustin 
Victor Casasola — 
Mexico: 1900-1938 

Film Program 

Saturdays, October 12, 19, and 26, 

and November 2, 2:00pm 

Cinema has had a long and fascinating history in 
Latin America. Most of the films made during and 
after the Mexican Revolution were recreations of 
historic events. Movie images made history acces- 
sible to the mass population that was largely illiter- 
ate. As a result, and with financing from govern- 
ment and other sources, the extraordinary events 
of Mexico's national agony, the shattering revolu- 
tion, were brought to the public by many Mexican 
filmmakers. The following film series documents 
this period of time: 

October 12: "Banda Del Automovil Gris," 90m. 1917 
Oaober 19: "La Rosa Blanca,' 75m. 1946 
October 26: "Vamonos Con Pancho Villa," 90m. 1931 
November 2: "Que Viva Mexico," 90m. 1931 
These films are free with museum admission. 



Margery Carlson 

1892-1985 

by William C. Burger 
Chairman, Department of Botany 



Margery Carlson, former professor of botany at 
Northwestern University and a research associate of 
Field Museum for many years, died in early July at the 
age of 92. An energetic and adventurous woman. Dr. 
Carlson's primary interaction with Field Museum was 
through her plant collecting program in Mexico and 
Central America in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Us- 
ing a station wagon or truck-camper as both vehicle 
and motel, Margery, together with her companion Kate 
Staley, was able to reach remote areas in southern Mex- 
ico, El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Each 
expedition took several months and came close to or 
exceeded 10,000 miles of travel. 

What was especially remarkable about Margery's 
field work was that both she and her companion were 
gray-haired ladies embarking on trips that would chal- 
lenge someone half their age. The trips were not with- 
out adventures and minor mishaps. One expedition en- 
ded with the truck smashed at the bottom of a canyon 
but with the two women only slightly injured. Another 
adventure Margery loved to recount was the time she 
and Kate were eating lunch along the side of the road 
in northern Mexico, when they found themselves face- 
to-face with two men brandishing machetes and 
demanding money. Sizing up the situation quickly 
(these were two poor farmers and not dangerous ban- 
dits), Margery proceeded to admonish them in Span- 
ish: "Don't you realize you could have scared us to 
death? And if that had happened you would never go 
to heaven!" Whereupon she invited them to have some 
lunch — which they did. 

Dr. Carlson's collections are a significant part of 
Field Museum's premier holdings from Central Amer- 
ica. Margery's research on the genus Russelia, in the 
snapdragon family, was published in our scientific 
journal Fieldiana: Botany, in 1957. 

After retiring from teaching. Dr. Carlson played 
another important role as an advocate of conservation. 
She was the first secretary of the Illinois chapter of the 
Nature Conservancy and was especially active in the 
preservation of Volo Bog, the nature preserve at the 
southern part of Illinois Beach State Park, and a sec- 
tion of land along the Vermillion River, now part of 



Matthiessen State Park. The latter area boasts hundreds 
of yellow lady's-slippers and has been designated the 
Margery Carlson Preserve. It is not far from her home 
town of LaSalle, Illinois. 

Margery brought more than her knowledge of 
botany to the battle for conservation. With an imposing 
physical presence, a clear voice, precisely focused 
energy and the authority of seventy years, she became 
an effective champion for the preservation of natural 
areas in Illinois. 

Margery once remarked that she held the record 
for number of years served as an assistant professor at 
Northwestern University, her male colleagues having 
moved up the ladder at a more accelerated pace. But 
that remark was expressed more in humor than in 
bitterness, reflecting the very positive way in which she 
approached her work and her life. 

Dr. Carlson's visits to the Field Museum over the 
last two decades were few and brief, but they always 
were special events. The same energy and enthusiasm 
that had sent her into Central America always were in 
evidence. We have greatly benefited from the many 
collections that were the product of her field work, 
and we admired her active role in conservation; but 
more importantly, we cherish the memory of a 
strong and enthusiastic colleague who lived a rich 
and active life. FM 



Margery Carlson in the early 1950s with bundles of dried plants as 
well as living orchids, bromellads. and cacti she brought back from 
southeastern f^exico., b sosss 




FIELD BRIEFS 



Ponce de Leon Retires 

Dr. Patricio Ponce de Leon retired in August 
after 25 years with the Museum's Depart- 
ment of Botany. At that time he held the 
position of associate curator of cryptogamic 
botany, speciahzing in the study of fungi. 
Cryptogamic plants cover a wide diversity 
of life, including, in addition to fungi, algae, 
lichens, mosses, ferns, and other allies. 
When Dr. Pat (as he is known informally to 
the staff) first arrived, he found that the 
Museum's collections of many of these 
plant groups were poorly organized and lit- 
tle cared for. It was the reorganization and 
proper curation of this part of the herbar- 
ium that has been one of Dr. Pat's most 
important accomplishments. 

Because of his knowledge of fungi, he 
was frequently called upon to help in cases 
of suspected mushroom poisoning. While 
physicians have already emptied the pa- 
tient's stomach, identification of the specific 
kind of mushroom is often essential for 
proper treatment. The identification of such 
ingested mushrooms has been an important 
service provided by Dr. Pat over the years. 

Dr. Pat's research has dealt with several 
groups of fungi, including representatives of 
the puffballs and earthstars. These studies 
have been published in Fieldiana: Botany 
and in other scientific journals. His collect- 
ing has been done in the Rocky Mountains, 
the Great Smokies, Alaska, and in Puerto 
Rico. He intends to continue his studies at 
the Museum during his retirement years, 
but spend part of each year in Florida. 

Dr. Pat was born in Cuba, where he 
spent his first 45 years. He received his 
Ph.D. from the University of Havana and 
subsequently served on that university's 
faculty as professor of botany and later of 
biology. His father was also a botanist, hav- 
ing served for many years as director of 
Havana's Botanical Garden. This long and 
intimate experience in a Caribbean envi- 
ronment has made Dr. Pat a valued resource 
among his Field Museum colleagues for in- 
formation about the biology of that part of 
the world. In a department with much re- 
search focused on the tropics. Dr. Pat's 
knowledge has been a particular asset. 

Mycologists use a variety of chemical 
tests in their work, and these procedures 
often make it possible for them to determine 
the nature of certain materials. Anthropol- 
ogists, in documenting the nature of arti- 
facts, frequently ask: Is it animal, vegetable, 
or mineral? Using a few simple tests. Dr. Pat 
has often been able to distinguish the nature 
of materials being investigated and thus 



provide assistance to colleagues in other de- 
partments. Likewise, his natural fluency in 
Spanish has been often helpful in the prep- 
aration of carefully phrased translations. 

While all these attributes have con- 
tributed to Dr. Pat's position as a respected 
and important member of the Botany staff, 
there is another quality that has made him 
special to all of us: His gracious manner and 
friendly nature have always given him a 
distinctive gentlemanly presence. This is 
what we will miss most of all while he is 
spending his winters in Florida, and look 
forward to when he returns. — William 
Burger, chairman. Department of Botany. 



Kennicott Club Meets 

The 583rd meeting of the Kennicott Club, a 
natural history society named for Chicago's 
first naturalist, Robert Kennicott, will be 
held at Field Museum on Monday, October 
7, at 7: 30pm. The evening's speaker will be 
Gary Galbreath, of the Department of Geol- 
ogy, who will discuss "Speciation in the 
World's Only Nocturnal Monkey (Aotus)." 
Dr. Galbreath's presentation will be pre- 
ceded by a 5:30 dinner at the Three Happi- 
ness Restaurant, 2130 S. Wentworth. 

Any person with an interest in natural 
history is invited to attend the Kennicott 
Club meetings. For further information, 
please write John Clay Bruner, vice presi- 
dent. The Kennicott Club, PO. Box 4812, 
Chicago, 1160680-4812. 



Mycologist Joins Botany Staff 

Gregory M. Mueller joined the Department 
of Botany on August 1 as assistant curator 
of Botany. A native of Belleville, Illinois, 
Mueller earned his B.A. and M.S. at South- 
ern Illinois University and received his 
Ph.D. ( 1982) from the University of Tennes- 
see. A mycologist (specialist in fungi), he 
has already published extensively on the 
mushroom genus Laccaria. He was a post- 
doctoral research fellow at Mountain Lake 
Biological Station, Pembroke, Virginia, in 
1983, working largely on the Laccaria and 
related genera. Dr. Mueller worked for a 
year at the Institute of Physiological Botany 
at the University of Uppsala, Sweden. Fol- 
lowing this he continued working on North 
American Laccaria as a postdoctoral 
research associate at the University of 
Washington. 



Curators John Fitzpatrick and 
Robert Timm Promoted 

John W Fitzpatrick, who joined the Divi- 
sion of Birds in 1978, has been appointed 
curator of that division. This appointment 
follows by a few months his appointment to 
the chairmanship of the Department of 
Zoology, which includes, in addition to 
Birds, the divisions of Insects, Invertebrates, 
Mammals, Amphibians and Reptiles, and 
Fishes. 

Fitzpatrick's research activities have 
focused on systematics, morphology, popu- 
lation biology, behavior, and community 
ecology; and he has published an impres- 
sive body of work in these areas, notably 
the highly acclaimed The Florida Scrub Jay: 
Demography of a Cooperative- Breeding Bird, " 
which he co-authored with Research Asso- 
ciate Glen Woolfenden. His contributions 
to the museum include service as head of 
the Advanced Technology Laboratories and 
chairmanship of the Science Advisory Coun- 
cil. Dr. Fitzpatrick also organized and hosted 
the much praised 100th annual meeting 
of the American Ornithologist's Union, held 
at Field Museum. 

Mammalogist Robert M. Timm, who 
joined the Department of Zoology in 1980, 
has been promoted to associate curator of 
Mammals. He also serves as head of the 
Division of Mammals. Timm's research 
activities have focused on host-parasitic 
coevolution and behavioral ecology of 
neotropical bats. His work has been pub- 
lished in a variety of scholarly journals and 
has been presented at national and interna- 
tional meetings and university seminars. 
His work on host-parasite coevolution as 
exemplified by his presentation at the 1983 
Spring Systematics Symposium (held at 
Field Museum) is particularly well known 
and highly respected. 



Manual on Scientific Illustration 
by Zbigniew Jastrzebski 

Scientific Illustration: A Guide for the Begin- 
ning Artist is the title of a handsome, 319- 
page manual by Zbigniew Jastrzebski, Field 
Museum senior scientific illustrator. The 
comprehensive, copiously illustrated work, 
published by Prentice Hall, introduces the 
reader to the technical aspects of drawing 
and painting any subject, whether it be 
pottery shards or a pollen grain. 

Emphasizing that scientific illustration 
is an art in the service of science, the book 



directly involves the reader in both observa- 
tion and the transposition of the subject to 
paper. Every phase of drawing for a specific, 
professional purpose is covered. Included 
are: clear explanations of the drawing and 
painting process, descriptions of basic tools 
and techniques, detailed discussion of the 
precise steps leading to a finished rendering, 
projects to feature in one's professional 
portfolio, drawing exercises, and tips on 
subject areas in which the artist can 
specialize. 

The book contains 150 illustrations, 
including ten color plates, many by the 
author. More than, sixty other artists from 
countries around the world are also 
represented. 

Jastrzebski has been a Field Museum 
artist since 1969. His new book is available 
at the Field Museum Store for $24.95 ( 10% 
discount for Members). 



Illustration by Zbigniew 
Jastrzebski from his new 
book. Scientific 
Illustration. Shown is 
ventral view of skull of 
Potorous platyops, 
Australian marsupial. 
The pencil drawing 
originally appeared in 
"The Mammalian Fauna 
of Madura Cave, Western 
Australia, Part VI," by 
V/illiam D. TUrnbull, 
published in Fieldiana, 
Geology, New Series 
No. 14(1984). 





The author {right) and ureg Neise view bird life at Lake Calumet. Beecher's camera is fitted with 1250mm (25x) lens. 

by William J. Beecher 

photos by the author 



I 



t was still a good marsh when I first saw it in the 
1930s. Broad, low stretches of buUrushes, cattails, 
and sedges reached out into the open waters of Lake 
Calumet. The strangled song of the now rare yellow- 
headed blackbird, the grating trill of the long-billed 
marsh wren, and the whinny of rail and gallinule were 
the dominant sounds of that low-flung, watery morass. 
To know how it appeared originally, one must look at 
my huge diorama in the Chicago Academy of Sciences, 
depicting a morning aggregation of water birds on the 
sandy ridge overlooking Lake Calumet. Eight thousand 
years ago that ridge was the shoreline of a Lake Michi- 
gan, twenty feet deeper than now. It was the shrinking 
of Lake Michigan away from that shore into its present 
smaller basin in southeastern Chicago and neighboring 



Indiana that left behind the immense marsh surround- 
ing Lake Calumet, Lake George, and Wolf Lake. 

There is a certain grandeur about a big marsh with 
its reedy vegetation billowing out to a flat horizon. 
Even in a tamed countryside, it still holds itself aloof 
as a symbol of wilderness. Land-going creatures are 
unwilling to flounder in its mud and gassy water — 
except for those restless members of the human hunt- 
ing clan who appeared as the city arose. For, spring and 
fall, the great flocks of waterfowl and waders continued 
to fill the skies over the quaggy wasteland, despite the 



Dr. Beecher is director emeritus of the Chicago Academy of Sciences. 



smoking factories that were beginning to flank it. They 
were drawn by the same compelling geography that 
preordained the site of the city here. Lake Michigan 
was a barrier across all lines of travel. 

I first heard the human history of the marsh from 
Malcolm Mecartney over lunch in the Standard Club 
deep in one of the canyons of the great city. His lawyer 
grandfather came to Chicago in 1870 from Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, to become counsel for the Illinois Land 
and Loan Company. In 1865 there had been a land 
boom in Lake Calumet that had all the earmarks of the 
Florida land swindle much later. Lots were being sold 
on marshland once owned by Stephen A. Douglas 
without the buyers being informed that the land was 
under water. Envisioning a future port there, Mecart- 
ney advised Illinois Land and Loan to occupy the aban- 
doned land under the Illinois Adverse Claims Act, 
buying out owners where necessary. When the com- 
pany went out of business in 1913, it settled its debt 
with Mecartney's father by deeding over all its Lake 
Calumet holdings. 

Malcolm Mecartney III, my informant, was a prac- 
ticing lawyer in New Hampshire when the sudden 
death of his father forced him to come to Chicago to 
setde the Calumet property. It was messy. There were 
other owners and land parcels were scattered. He man- 
aged to work out a friendly solution with the lawyer 
representing the other landowners, fortunately secur- 
ing that part of the Calumet shore underlain by eight 
feet of beach sand, which Mecartney mined. That min- 
ing laid the way for the era of the sanitary landfill, 
which has continued since about 1930. The city 
apparently began filling in the north edge of the marsh 
at 103rd Street about 1930, and 103rd was extended 
eastward across the north end in 1933. It was at this 
time that the Nickel Plate Railroad dumped slag over 
the landfill, creating the area later used as a marshalling 
yard for its piggyback trailer trucks. This landfill opera- 
tion should have killed the marsh. It did not. In a way it 
ushered in its finest hour. 



<-■ r'SW: -'<!««-■»^;'J'»i2Sl!S»i.kiI«'Si..:^•; »«•■*- ■'.;/'. 




Northern phalarope 



Sanderlings 




Karl E.Bartel of Blue Island, a Chicago suburb, is 
one of that volunteer group licensed by the United 
States Fish and Wildlife Service to put numbered alu- 
minum bands on the legs of wild birds for scientific 
study. He began his work as a young man on the cinder 
flats at 103rd and Doty in the summer of 1937. Using 
traps of wire mesh that he designed and paid for him- 
self, he caught 16 semipalmated sandpipers, 2 spotted 
sandpipers and 1 Wilson's snipe the first day. In August 
of the following year he and his friend Alfred Reuss 
sighted a banded semipalmated sandpiper which, with 
skill and some luck, they succeeded in trapping. The 
number on the worn band proved that the bird was 
among those Karl had trapped only yards away the 
year before. As he reconstruaed the story, the bird had 
escaped four hunters who bagged most of the original 
16 sandpipers the next day, migrated south to Patago- 
nia for the winter, then migrated to the Arctic islands of 
Canada to nest, before returning to Lake Calumet — a 
minimum distance of 14,000 miles. For 48 years Karl 
Bartel has continued to pursue thrills like this and is 
still banding birds. My brother Jim and I operated a 
banding station at Fox Lake, Illinois, for many years, 
lured by this strange excitement, and we knew Karl 
well. 

The cinder flats became very popular and bird 
watchers came by hundreds and from considerable dis- 
tances. Pete Peterson drove in from Davenport, Iowa, 
weekly to spread his mist nets for a Saturday and Sun- 
day of banding. Twenty- five years ago you could drive 
your car so conveniently on the hard cinder surface 
right up to the shorebirds voraciously feeding at the 
water's edge. As in East Africa, your car was your blind. 
Afoot, you could never get near them. I filmed birds 
there for the Academy film library to my heart's 
content. 



It was a strange time. The dying marsh was too 
vast, too vital to die. The cattails and sedges kept com- 
ing up through the cinders while the leachate from the 
adjacent garbage dump and from beneath the cinders 
so enriched the waters wdth nitrogen that shorebirds 
had a superabundance of tiny aquatic animals to feed 
on. We found eleven nests of Wilson's phalaropes in 
1962 within that small area, more than could have 
been found in all the rest of the state of Illinois. In small 
patches and tufts of grass, homed larks and spotted 
sandpipers also nested. Bill Jarvis, my friend and field 
companion of many years, found that one of the lark 
nests had been lined entirely with dog hair. Not twenty 
feet away was the dried- up carcass of the unfortunate 
dog, which had been run over by a car. There were 
nests of shoveller ducks, green- winged teal, redwings. 
For the bird-watchers it was the best of times. Jarvis 
struck up a conversation with some youngsters one day 
while wandering across the flats. Upon learning that he 
was watching birds, they told him of seeing a group of 
fifty people with binoculars the day before. "And do 
you know what they was doin'? They was all lookin' at 
one itty bitty bird!" 

Then, in the summer of 1954, tragedy struck. 
Shorebirds all over the cinder flats were turning sick. 
First a stricken bird lost the strength to stand on its feet. 
Then it could not even hold its head up. The poor crea- 
tures invariably died and there was nobody expert 
enough in bird diseases on hand to offer help, though 
state officials suspected the deadly botulism, caused by 
the anaerobic botulinus organism that sometimes 
breeds in polluted water. 

Into this hopeless situation plunged an unlikely 
team of ministering angels. Amy Baldwin and Helen 
Lane, both nurses who worked nights, were out on the 
Calumet flats watching birds each dawn. When they 



10 




Long-billed dowitchers 




Green heron 

began to find sick birds, they rusiied them to Dorothy 
and Dick Hoger, bird watchers known to have had suc- 
cess in helping sick or injured birds. With Harold Fetter, 
who also worked nights, the two nurses gathered birds 
each morning until noon, when they delivered them to 
the Hoger home in nearby Westmont. Without a 
thought, the Hogers turned their home into a hospital, 
handling as many as 200 birds a day, volunteering full 
time. With the unofficial help of a biologist at Argonne 
National Laboratory and state biologists, they learned 
that the disease laying the birds low was water-soluble 
lead poisoning, which attacked the liver and was stored 
in body fat. 

With only the most practical medical advice to go 
on, their attack was simple, direct, and fast. A bird has a 
relatively short, straight gut. So — you flush the poison 
through! The birds were too weak to resist the treatment 
and it was the only action that could have saved them. 
The nurses showed the Hogers how to insert a gavage 
tube into the stomach and they simply pumped a sulfa 
solution loaded with Pablum right through each bird 
eight times a day. The Pablum was to give the bird a lit- 
de nourishment, but the central idea was to starve 
away the poisoned fat. Dorothy was splendid through 
it all and Dick tells us how they used to release the rec- 
overed birds in Orland Slough at Southwest Highway 
and LaGrange Road because it had clean water. But first 
he banded them. That is how he learned that one pec- 
toral sandpiper flew from Orland right back to the 
Calumet cinder flats and got sick all over again! 
Cleaned out once more, it was taken this time 100 
miles away to Ottawa, Illinois. From there it joined the 
migration down the Mississippi, south to Louisiana, 
where it was shot a month or two later by a hunter. 
Sometimes the trials of wild birds trying to survive in a 
world dominated by people would make the angels 
weep! 



From 1954 to 1958 the nurses and the Hogers 
made war against the lead poisoning, earning the Illi- 
nois Audubon Society's Conservation Award. An arti- 
cle by Isabel Wasson in the society's magazine details 
how they received a total of 1,971 birds, curing and 
releasing (once they got the hang of it) up to 40 per- 
cent. The species treated were: semipalmated sandpip- 
er, pectoral sandpiper, stilt sandpiper, least sandpiper, 
solitary sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, Baird's sandpiper, 
buff-breasted sandpiper, western sandpiper, dunlin, 
killdeer, piping plover, semipalmated plover, golden 
plover, black-bellied plover, ruddy turnstone, greater 
yellow legs,lesser yellowlegs, sanderling, dowager, 
knot, northern phalarope, Wilson's phalarope, marbled 
godwit, mallard duck, green-winged teal, blue-winged 
teal, herring gull, ring-billed gull, homed lark, yellow- 
headed blackbird, and assorted tern species. 

The list, together with the similar lists of Bartel 
and Reuss, documents the importance of the Calumet 
marsh. Some of the above are rare and seldom seen to- 
day. Add bald eagles and a flock of 500 sandhill cranes 
seen by Helen Lane, stilts, avocets, and the gull-billed 
tern of South America! But the original marsh boasted 
many a rare plant, too. In addition to all the common 
marsh plants, there was the rare Thismia americana, 
found nowhere else in North America, whose nearest 
relatives are in New Zealand. There were also certain 
disjunct species of sedges that belong to the Atlantic 
coastal marshes. These suggested some lost pieces in 
the history jigsaw of Chicago. Did the weight of the 
retreating glacial ice so depress the Great Lakes basin 
that an arm of the Atlantic Ocean reached here briefly? 

Nature dies hard. The Calumet still lives and it is 

unlikely that a repeat of the lead poisoning episode 

could occur today with the Environmental Protection 

Agency around and with so much public attention. 

There is not much time and a great city that arose out 

of a quagmire should not erase its history and cut itself 

off from its past. Besides, it is entirely proper that the 

Earth's most powerful and successful species should 

assume some responsibility for the survival of other 

forms of life. FM 

Virginia rail 




II 



DOAB July 31 to August 10, 1962 

The First Days in the Field 



by William S. Street and Jamce K. Street 
with Richard Sawyer 





"/ saw our quarry, all right — and could scarcely contain my excitement. It was a small herd ofmouflon, or red sheep, of the sort that the Field 
Museum most wanted to collect. " 



12 



JLt was about noon on July 31 when our caravan 
made its way out of the crowded thoroughfares of Teh- 
ran and into the countryside. Nicola Haroutounian, 
our driver- interpreter, was at the wheel of one of the 
TVavelalls; Doug Lay drove the second; and Khosrow 
Sarari' led the procession in one of the Game Council's 
all-terrain vehicles. 

"I can't believe that we're finally under way and 
on our own," Jan rejoiced. "It's as though a great 
weight has been lifted from our shoulders. Suddenly, 
I feel a great sense of freedom! " I had to agree. 

We drove toward Chalus until about 5 o'clock, 
then turned off the main highway at Gach-i-Sar and 



* Khosrow Sarari was representative of the Game Council of Iran 
who acted as "chief of staff"' for the expedition. 



"Doab, July 31 to August 10. 1962" is Chapter 4 of a forthcoming 
book, Before Khomeini; Adventure in Iran, 1962-63, to be 
published by Field Museum. 

Copyright © 1985 by Field Museum of Natural History. 



drove to the Game Council's wardens' camp on the 
Varang Rud (river) where we were to spend the night. 
There, Khosrow introduced us to Abbas and Mammat, 



William S. Street, now retired, was formerly president of 
Frederick & Nelson (Seattle, Washington), a division of Mar- 
shall Field & Co. of Chicago. He was also executive vice presi- 
dent of Marshall Field & Co., general manager of the Chicago 
stores for three years, and a director of the parent company. 
Together with his wife, Janice, William Street organized and 
led five field expeditions for the Field Museum: two to Iran 
(1962-63 and 1968), one to Afghanistan (1965), one to Peru 
(1975-76), and one to Australia (1976-77). Mr. and Mrs. 
Street are members of the Field Museum's Founders' Council. 
The 1962-63 Iran expedition, recounted in Street's forth- 
coming book. Before Khomeini, succeeded in collecting near- 
ly 3,500 specimens of mammals, several hundred specimens 
of birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes, and literally thousands 
of specimens of parasitic arthropods. The Field Museum now 
houses one of the finest collections of these groups in existence 
anywhere. The Streets were accompanied by Douglas Lay, 
then a doctoral candidate in zoology and now on the faculty 
of the University of North Carolina. 



The very word "expedition "generates a sense of excitement, of 
far places, of disappointments and triumphs, of tiredness and 
exaltation, of temporary misery and discomfort followed by 
the simple luxuries of a hot bath, comfortable bed, and a meal 
cooked by somebody else. Above all, an "expedition " thrusts 
you into a world different from your own — with people of 
other cultures, upon whom you are dependent for cooperation 
and, at times, survival. 

All these emotions and experiences, and more, are part of 
the tapestry woven by Bill and Jan Street in their account of 
their own scientific expedition to Iran in 1962-1963. Their 
love of the outdoors and their previous experiences in the Paci- 
fic Northwest, Alaska, Kenya, and Tanzania had prepared 
them in part for the Iran Expedition. 

Staff at Field Museum, Curator of Mammals J. C. 
Moore, Chief Curator of Zoology Austin L. Rand, and Director 
Clifford C. Gregg, gave focus and direction to the Iranian field 
collection trip. As plans developed, the Streets decided to sup- 
port a graduate student as expedition scientist, to participate 



themselves in the field work, and then to support the student to 
work at Field Museum for several months after the expedition 
was over. Not only was the student to help prepare the speci- 
mens for detailed study but also to use at least part of the 
expedition material in a Ph.D. thesis project. 

It was a fortuitous meeting of lay and experienced people 
through a great institution — Bill and Jan Street with their 
interest in the world of nature, experience in organizing and 
directing, eagerness to expand their horizons at a time of life 
when many of us look towards the rocking chair; and — Field 
Museum with its staff who search the world on behalf of sci- 
ence. Field Museum is a major research institution committed 
to the study of evolutionary biology and ecology. 

We hope that Bill and Jan have set a precedent for others 
to follow. The science of mammalogy has benefitted greatly 
from their efforts, the collections of Field Museum have grown 
significantly, and a generation of young scientists have been 
helped by the Streets 'farsightedness. 

— Willard L. Boyd 



two game wardens who would accompany us into the 
mountains. The men at the camp insisted on treating us 
deferentially, moving out of their tent so that Jan and I 
could use it for the night. We protested that we could 
easily set up our own tent and were quite prepared to 
do so, but to no avail. To avoid seeming ungracious, we 
accepted their hospitality. 

The altitude of the camp was about 6,000 feet, and 
it was a relief to have gained so much elevation while 
still driving our vehicles. We knew that we had another 
4,000 to 5,000 feet to climb to the high valley, and for 



this last assault on the summit, we would depend on 
pack and riding animals. We slept only fitfully that 
night, alternating between sound sleep and full wake- 
fulness, wondering what we had forgotten and trying 
to anticipate what the morrow held for us. 

The next morning we wakened early and crawled 
out of our sleeping bags. Not long after, three villagers 
— Ezat, another Mammat, and Chabon — walked into 
camp with the pack animals. They brought with them 
sixteen mules and three horses. And the horses, praise 
be, were fitted with saddles! 



w 






Tlvo of our skilled hunters 
— Mammat 2 and Ezat. 




13 



On to the High Elburz Mountains 

We began to load the pack animals almost immediate- 
ly and were amazed at how much those sturdy little 
mountain mules were expected to carry. It was not at 
all unusual for an animal to be laden with 200 pounds 
of equipment — then, when the march got under way, 
for one of the men to climb atop the load. All of our 
gear was loaded on fifteen of the animals, leaving the 
three horses and one mule as transportation for mem- 
bers of our party. 

Doug Lay and Khosrow Sariri seemed to have the 
loading procedure for the pack animals well in hand, so 
Jan and I went ahead, walking up the trail alone. We 
left camp at 6:00 a.m. and Doug soon caught up with 
us. We all shared a sense of great excitement, and we 
delighted in the rocky, mountainous terrain. Every- 
thing was new and each unfamiliar bird we spotted and 
every scurrying lizard captured our full attention. After 
about two hours, the pack animals caught up with us. 

We walked through one tiny village tucked snugly 
into the hillside. The flat-roofed houses were built of 
stone and clay. Few of the houses had windows, and 



the doorways served both as passageways for people 
and as openings for light and fresh air. Dried cow dung, 
like the buffalo chips of our own western history, was 
neatly stacked to a height of about four feet on every 
roof The villagers stored these chips (their reserve fuel 
supply) much as we would stack cordwood. 

Houses were situated above and below the road 
we traversed, and we noted narrow walkways that led 
to houses on the lower level of the village. Like birds on 
a tree branch, little children and their mothers perched 
on the stone fences and rooftops to watch our proces- 
sion make its way through the village. Our greetings of 
"Salaam" were met with formal bows and timid waves 
of the hand. 

The land was green and fertile. Being in a river val- 
ley, the land was quite productive, greatly in contrast 
with the semi-arid wastes that we had driven through 
the previous day. Plots of diversified truck crops — pota- 
toes, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers — interspersed with 
fields of hay and grain, made a patchwork pattern from 
the valley floor to midway up the slopes. We saw one 
man harvesting a small field of hay. Rather than cutting 
it close to the ground with a sickle or a scythe, he was 



Dried cow dung, like the buffalo chips of our own western history, was neatly stacked on every roof. 



14 





Doug Lay and Janice Street survey the land from ancient fortification. Mt. Demavend (18, 606 feet), Iran 's highest, looms on horizon. 



pulling up each clump by the roots so that none of the 
small crop was wasted. 

After the pack train caught up with us, Jan and I 
alternately rode and walked, knowing that we would 
have to build up our wind and legs. When we walked, 
Nicola, Bahram, or one of the others would ride our 
horses. Doug, however, steadfastly refused to ride and 
walked the entire distance. Our enthusiastic young 
manmialogist was already scouring the countryside for 
game trails, burrows, and other signs of small animals. 

As we gained the heights on the way into the 
mountains, we looked back to admire the patterns of 
rice fields (surprising at such an altitude) alternating 
with truck crops and grains. On the lower reaches of 
the terrain, great walnut and oak trees grew in profu- 
sion, all looking carefully pruned and tended. At the 
higher elevations (we were to camp at about 10,000 
feet), we began running into scrub oak and heavy 
brush. Amidst the brush were some of the largest net- 
tles I have ever seen — some taller than five feet. The 
wounds that such a plant could inflict would be crip- 
pling, and we gave them wide berth. Thornbush also 
grew rampant, but instead of allowing it to become an 
unpleasant nuisance, the farmers used it for fencing. 



thus avoiding the cost of conventional materials and 
utilizing a natural resource. 

When we finally reached the long valley where we 
would establish our first camp, we paused long enough 
to survey our surroundings. On three sides were moun- 
tain ranges reaching another 3,000 or more feet above 
us. Two rivers, the Kharsang Rud and the Harde Rud, 
joined to form the Varang. We had been on the trail for 
nearly ten hours, and the time was four o'clock. We 
three Americans were thoroughly tired. The combina- 
tion of the exertions of the climb, insufficient sleep the 
night before, and the altitude had taken their toll. Had 
the facilities been available, my mood called for a long, 
hot bath and a long, cool drink. The Iranians, however, 
looked as though they might have just returned from a 
stroll around the block. Indefatigable, they apparently 
could have gone on forever. Even the pack animals 
looked in good shape — they didn't even seem winded. 

I had no more than given instructions about the 
placement of tents when Khosrow appeared. 

"Still early, Mr Street," he said. "Still plenty light. 
Why not take Abbas, Ezat, and Chabon and the horses 
and ride up into the valley to see if there are any mouf- 
lon — the wild sheep? The men will put up your camp." 



15 




William Street with one of 3, 500 mammal specimens collected on the expedition. 



16 



I was either too tired or too taken aback by Khos- 
row's suggestion to protest. And within a half-hour, 
Ezat and Chabon (two splendidly bronzed and elegant- 
ly moustached villagers). Abbas, Khosrow, and I were 
heading into the hills. 

The First Effort 

With every bone in my body protesting, I remounted 
one of the sturdy little mountain ponies, and we set off 
to explore some of the high ridges beyond camp. Khos- 
row's hunting instincts were all in tune that day, be- 
cause within an hour Abbas pointed excitedly up the 
face of one of the ridges. He spoke to me in Farsi, which 
I did not understand, but the jabbing of his finger con- 
veyed the message. Sheep! 

I saw our quarry, all right — and could scarcely 
contain my excitement. It was a small herd of mouflon, 
or red sheep (Ovis orientalis), of the sort that the Field 
Museum and Yale University most wanted to collect. 
We urged our horses forward, and I was grateful for the 
strong hearts and lungs of those tough little animals. 
When we reached an altitude of about 1 1,500 feet, 
however, we had to tether the horses and go it on foot. 
The rock formations had become truly precipitous, and 
there were patches of shale to cross that would have 



left the horses helpless. On the shale, it seemed that I 
was going back one step for every two forward. 

I had thought I was in pretty good shape, but the 
exertions of that first afternoon's hunt nearly got the 
better of me. Hot red spots pulsed behind my eyes, my 
legs trembled, and I fought for every breath. At one 
point, Ezat took my rifle; then he relieved me of my 
camera — which at the moment I would have gladly 
chucked into the abyss below. Several times when we 
were attempting to scramble up and across the shale in- 
clines, Ezat reached out his hand to steady me when I 
faltered. I felt as if my participation in the expedition 
was about to end before it started. 

After an eternity we reached the spot where Abbas 
was crouched, waiting for us. I crawled over, lay beside 
him, and looked in the direction he was pointing. 
There, about 150 yards distant — and up the slope — 
stood a splendid mouflon ram outlined against the sky. 
Abbas motioned me to shoot. 

Ezat handed me my rifle, and as I settled into the 
sling I cursed the altitude and the laborious climb we 
had just completed. My arms trembled from oxygen 
starvation and my recent exertions, and the center- 
dot reticle on my 'scope was bouncing all over north- 
central Iran. I lowered the rifle to catch my breath, and 
prayed that my pulse would slow enough for me to get 



off a shot. And, during that moment when I was trying 
to compose myself for the shot, the ram ambled off, out 
of sight. 

I groaned inwardly at having missed a splendid 
opportunity and at the thought of losing face before the 
men. Just as I was cursing my luck, however, I looked 
up to see another fine ram silhouetted against the sky. 
The dot sight finally settled down and I squeezed off the 
round. How I dropped that sheep I'll never know, but 
with the shot, rams seemed to explode out of every 
crevice and from behind every rock. I fired again 
and missed, but Abbas managed to collect two of the 
hard-running animals before the herd disappeared 
from view. 

At that moment my emotions were so confused 
that I had trouble sorting them out. My resources were 
so spent that I could have closed my eyes where I lay 
and slept the clock around. Yet I was elated that we 
had three fine mouflon specimens to ship back to the 
Museum — and at the same instant I was wondering 
just how we were going to pack those heavy carcasses 
down the mountainside and get them into camp 
undamaged. 

When all the excitement was over, I glanced at my 
pocket altimeter. It registered 12,000 feet. No wonder 
my heart had stuttered like a telegraph key and my 
lungs had nearly burst. I was some 3,000 feet higher 
than either Jannie or I had ever been in either the 
Rockies or in Alaska. No wonder I was exhausted. 

"Abbas," I said to the game warden, "I certainly 
hope that you and Ezat can climb up there and roll 
those three sheep down the slope. I'll try to help you 
back to camp with them, but right now, I couldn't 
climb another step. I'm all through!" 

Of course, they couldn't understand the words I 
spoke, but they had no difficulty in interpreting their 
meaning. With sympathetic smiles and jaunty waves of 
their hands, they were on their way to the heights 
where our specimens lay. As I watched them scramble 
up the steep slope, I envied their endurance, agility, and 
climbing skill — all typical, I was to learn, of Elburz 
mountain men. 

As they labored, I took stock of the terrain. It was 
dusk, and the view was fabulous. Sharp mountain 
ridges stretched on and on, one after another, outlined 
darkly against the sky seemingly without end. Our 
camp, which should have been set up by then, lay be- 
hind one of those ridges not too far distant. At the mo- 
ment I could think of nothing more inviting than that 
camp, with its promise of a hot meal, my cot, and sleep- 
ing bag. This was one night when I was sure I wouldn't 
have to be rocked to sleep. 

My reveries were interrupted by shouts and the 
sounds of rolling rock from above. Abbas and Ezat 
were pulling, rolling, and muscling our prizes down the 
mountain. And from below, one of the muleteers, Cha- 



bon, was leading the mules up the slope to be loaded. 
The sheep were packed aboard the mules in short order 
and we headed back toward camp. I climbed on my 
horse and let it pick its way down the faint trail over the 
rocks. When we arrived in camp about nine, only the 
faintest afterglow remained in the sky. I had a roaring 
headache from the altitude, was dead tired — and was 
hungry as a lumberjack. 

As we sat down to supper that night, I felt certain 
that we would succeed in our quest. The expedition 
had begun on an optimistic note — we had collected 
three fine specimens and we had camp meat on hand. 

Our after-dinner conversation was short that 
night. I just fell into bed and slept the sleep of the just. 



Our Merry Company 

To accommodate a group the size of ours, we had to 
establish a rather large compound. There were five 
tents: one large one in which Doug Lay did his work 
and kept all of the necessary scientific equipment; our 
own large tent for Jan and me; the cook tent; a tent 
shared by Nicola and Bahram, which also served as our 
community tent and dining room; and Khosrow 
Sarin's small private tent. Others who were temporarily 
with our party elected to sleep on cots in sheltered 
areas under the trees. 

Before our ten-day stay at the camp at Resht-i- 
Elburz (or Doab) ended, we found that we were some- 
times feeding as many as fourteen at meals. This did not 
include the drop-in trade we had from the occasional 
villager or shepherd who smelled the meat kebabs 
broiling on our fires. We were really pleased that none 
of the meat from the sheep and other large edible 
animals went to waste. It was a good arrangement: 
not only did we have our skeletal specimens for the 
museum, but also we fed ourselves and our neighbors 
handsomely. 

Those who could have been considered more or 
less as permanent party were Khosrow Sariri, Abbas, 
and Mammat no. I from the Game Council of Iran; 
local muleteers, guides, and hunters Mammat no. 2, 
Yasdan, Chabon, and Ezat; our cook, Bahram; driver, 
Nicola; mammalogist Doug Lay; Jan and me. We had 
fielded quite a team. 

One cold evening — it was 48° F. outside — most of 
our group were gathered in the big cook tent, drinking 
tea and trying to stay warm. To amuse ourselves, we 
decided to tape-record samples of the polyglot babble 
in which we communicated. The resulting tape bore 
conversational fragments dealing with the weather, 
planned hunts, the fresh vegetables and Iranian butter 
purchased that day from a nearby village, and Nicola's 
toothache — all expressed in a wonderfully inter- 
mingled gibberish of Farsi, English, Armenian, and 



17 



heaven-knows-what. It would have taken a battery of 
multilingual stenographers to sort out and transcribe 
the information. 

Topography and the Lay of the Land 

As I have noted, our first 10,900-foot campsite on the 
Karsang River was surrounded by much higher peaks. 
Iran is extremely mountainous. The Elburz stretch 
across most of the northern part of the country to meet 
the Kopet Dagh in the northeast. In the northwest, the 
Zagros Mountains (with peaks above 12,000 feet) run 
southeast from Mt. Ararat in Tlirkey to the Gulf of 
Oman. There was no dearth of mountain scenery. 

In that first camp we had a breathtaking view of 
the Lars Valley far below, and for contrast, Mt. Dema- 
vend towering in the distance, its cloud-piercing peak 
reaching 18,606 feet. Mountain slopes splashed with 
turquoise, brown, and orange rock strata swept up to 
jagged ridges etched against the sky. This rugged beauty 
was softened by acres upon acres of alpine flowers such 
as Indian paint brush, forget-me-nots, sweet peas, 
buttercups, yellow daisies, violets, sweet mint, and oth- 
ers not known to us. We picked some of the blossoms 



and pressed them in a book. The flowers were inter- 
mingled with the wild grasses, clover, and gevan, a 
plant much used locally for fuel. Along our river valley 
the vegetation was lush and full. 

We learned a few of the place names, and one day 
we ate our lunch at a place well known to hunters — 
Gsazekon-Chall, "the place of the hunters." The ridge 
of the Harsang mountain range that dominated the area 
had been dubbed "the Donkey" by local people, an 
allusion to something big and strong. One of the nearby 
valleys was known as Chalse-Chall, "the place of 
the birds." 

One afternoon while our hunting party was away, 
Jan decided to explore the high rolling hill behind the 
camp. She left the compound a few minutes before five 
in the afternoon and scrambled up the jagged rock 
formation until she could look over the ridge, like the 
bear, to "see what she could see." She was treated to a 
magnificent view of mountains, crags, and distant val- 
leys; but she also managed to attract the attention of 
three enormous sheep dogs that were on the far side of 
the draw. They immediately decided to investigate the 
strange creature that had invaded their territory, charg- 
ing down into the ravine and scrambling up toward 



William and Janice Street and Doug Lay with freshly caught specimens. 




18 



.a.-. 



where Jan was perched. She froze and outwaited them. 
The dogs, apparently discouraged by the steepness of 
the ascent, turned back. Jan, instead of taking the grad- 
ual slope back to camp, decided to seek the quickest 
way out of there, so hunkered down and descended 
ingloriously. She trudged back into camp about eight 
o'clock only moments before our hunting party ar- 
rived. She had seen some glorious terrain and had 
learned a valuable lesson about the protectiveness of 
Iranian sheep dogs. 

We remained in that first camp at Doab from 
August 1 until August 12. We became rather well ac- 
quainted with the place, and Doug Lay, our mammalo- 
gist and chief specimen preparator and botanist, made 
detailed observations. He noted that several plant com- 
munities existed in the 3,320- to 4,000-meter elevation 
immediately surrounding our campsite. There was a 
streambed community of plants; carpets of grass kept 
short by constant grazing and cropping by the sheep; 
and a community of taller plants that included the great 
nettles, Canna, Campanula, Cousinia, Ligularia, Tragopo- 
gon, and Bromus. A number of springs fed into the river 
valley, and around the springs we found thick mosses 
and delicate plants such as Polygonum, well adapted 
to wet soil. The runs and burrows of small rodents 
abounded. 

Higher up the slopes where the ground began to 
become rocky and arid, the lush river-bottom plants 
gave way to thistle. Salvia, Thymus, and Stragulus, and 
to plants of a quite different nature. From the river bot- 
tom to rocks to clay and shale — each had plant com- 
munities suited to the soil — everywhere was evidence 
of small-animal traffic. Above the 3,650-meter eleva- 
tion, the situation became quite complex because of the 
clay soil, rock-strewn cirques, and bare rocky outcrop- 
pings. Jan discovered a typical alpine community of 
plants among the scattered snowfields at approx- 
imately 4,000 meters— 1 3, 120 feet! 



The Shepherds and the Villagers 

The great flocks of sheep and goats fascinated us end- 
lessly. Both sheep and goats seemed to come in every 
imaginable shade of black, brown, gray, and white and 
in every combination of these basic colors. Herds of 
several hundred sheep and goats were by no means un- 
usual. The herdsmen had an unusual custom of adorn- 
ing some of their favorite animals with strings of blue 
beads, and the first time we saw such an animal all 
decked out as if to go to a party, we didn't know what 
to make of it. The sight was really quite fetching. Some 
scholars say that the blue beads are charms to ward 
off evil. 

The shepherds did not have an easy time of it. We 
learned that they earned only about 6,000 rials a month 



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- CLIP AND MAIL TODAY 

To: Clifford Buzard 

Planned Giving Officer 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

n Please send me a complimentary copy of "How to Pro- 
tect Your Rights with a Will." 



Name . 



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(approximately $90) at work that kept them from their 
homes and families all summer long. And there were 
constraints on them that would not have occurred to 
us. If an animal was killed in an accident, or fell ill and 
died, the shepherds had to send the head and the meat 
down the mountain to the owner of the flock to avoid 
suspicion of unlawfully killing the animal for their 
own use. 



19 




20 



Shepherd making goat cheese. 



Two shepherds could handle an immense number 
of animals. One in front of the flock and one behind, 
helped by their great dogs, they kept the animals in 
control. Like many of the farmers, muleteers, and other 
workers on the land, the shepherds seemed to have no 
affinity for soap and water — they were an earthy 
bunch. One of them, suffering from some sort of stom- 
ach discomfort, came into our camp one night. He 
seemed to know that we would have medicines of one 
kind or another, and we obliged as best we could. We 
gave him a bit of sulfa and some green APC tablets that 
were expressly for stomach distress and sent him on his 
way, hoping that we had done him no harm. 

Food was so plentiful for the herds that nowhere 
had the sheep and goats been allowed to remain in one 
area long enough to damage the grasses by short crop- 
ping. The shepherds kept the flocks moving, ensuring 
that the grasses could come back for another season 
of grazing. 

Not far from our camp at Doab, three shepherding 
families lived in homes that were little more than dug- 
outs in the steep hillside. We estimated that these three 
families cared for about 3,500 sheep and goats, many of 
the goats having to be regularly milked. At one of these 



stone-and-mud dwellings, we saw how the milking 
was done. 

We were invited into this home, stepping down a 
short flight of stairs into a large unpartitioned room 
with a fireplace at one end. Near the fireplace was a 
supply of the thornbush that was used as fuel. Next to 
the fireplace was a stone bench on which four men 
were seated, each with a copper cauldron on the floor 
between his feet — and each was milking a goat. Goats 
are milked from the back, and when the milkers had 
extracted the small yield of milk — perhaps a cup from 
each nanny — the goat would be pushed away and 
another would take its place. The milker would seize 
the fresh goat by the hind legs, position its udder over 
the copper vessel, and begin the milking — a task that 
took only three or four minutes for each animal. The 
goats were apparently accustomed to the ritual, be- 
cause they entered the room almost as if on cue, then 
departed just as promptly through a small opening in 
the wall of the building. 

The shepherds (and our cook, Bahram) made a 
kind of yogurt from the goats' milk, and once one of the 
shepherds came into camp with a large pail of this typi- 
cal Eastern food. He presented the yogurt to us and we 
thanked him profusely. We ate it willingly enough but 
found that unpasteurized, raw goatmilk yogurt is a 
bit wild for the Western palate unless doctored up a 
bit with seasonings or used with other ingredients 
in cooking. 

We were visited often by the villagers and the 
shepherds. Fresh meat and curiosity were the main 
attractions, I am sure. When we had taken one or more 
of the large game animals, such as the mouflon, char- 
coal fires were kept kebabing all day long. We made 
everyone welcome, and not one scrap of meat removed 
from the skeletons of our larger specimens was wasted. 
We found ourselves conducting what amounted to a 
marathon public barbecue. 

During our stay at Camp Doab, we saw only one 
small herd of cattle. Surprisingly, we also came across a 
herd of twenty camels, serenely grazing at an altitude of 
nearly 13,000 feet. The camels, we assumed, were used 
for transportation during the necessary periodic trips 
up and down the mountain between the village and the 
flocks. The shepherds made butter and cheese from 
much of the milk produced by their herds, and it was 
occasionally necessary for them to take the surplus but- 
ter and cheese down the mountain to storage cellars in 
their camps. Their churns, primitive but effective, were 
contrived from hollowed-out logs with plungers fitted 
into the top openings. 

The shepherds and villagers visited us almost daily, 
and we could never get over how easily the Iranian 
mountain people negotiated the steep slopes. Iranians 
are great walkers, and when they were born in the 
mountains, amazing endurance was part of their 



adaptation to their environment. It astounded us when 
villagers who had walked all day up the mountain just 
to visit us, strolled into our camp seemingly fresh and 
unwinded. They had just climbed a steep mountainside 
as though it were the village green! From their unper- 
turbed appearance, they might as well have been out 
for a stroll in the park. 



Camp Life 

As I have mentioned, we pitched our camp at the 
10,900-foot level on a small flat area near the Varang 
Rud. It was reasonably dry at our campsite, although 
the ground was sometimes damp from rain showers. 
Indeed, the weather kept us entertained with its variety. 
We had warm days and cool nights, and in the twelve 
days of our stay we experienced rain, hail, thunder, and 
lightning. There are few experiences more likely to 
convince one of one's insignificance and perishable na- 
ture than to be in the midst of a great weather system 
that produces a high-altitude electrical storm. Brrr! 

But our experiences in that first camp were great 
conditioners. We were regularly getting the kind of ex- 
ercise we needed and were pleased to note that we 
toughened up within the first few days. The weather 
was cool, the water good, and for the most part, we felt 
well and happy. About the only recurring health prob- 
lem was a dysentery-like ailment that plagued one or 
the other of our party off and on during a great part of 
our first two months in Iran. It usually responded to 
medications that we carried with us. To reduce the inci- 
dence of this kind of malady, we always boiled our 
drinking and cooking water or treated suspect water 
with Halazone tablets. 

Right from the start we were careful to maintain 
a clean and sanitary campsite. At Doab, and at fevery 
other location where we made camp, the first order 
of business was the digging of two pits — one for our 
"Chic Sale," the other for the burial of all camp gar- 
bage and trash. Around the Chic Sale we erected a 
privacy screen by draping burlap around saplings or 
tall stakes driven into the ground. We also rigged a 
red-bandana semaphore signal — up if in use, down 
if vacant. 

If an army marches on its stomach, so does any 
field expedition. Our cook Bahram may have been an 
incipient tyrant, but he was undisputed maestro of the 
cook tent. He was resourceful, inventive, and skilled 
in his craft. We would have been in a sorry plight 
without him. 

We had purchased several small one-burner Swed- 
ish kerosene stoves. Even in the most remote villages, 
kerosene could be found because of its general use 
throughout Iran for cooking and lighting. Then too, 
Bahram had had more experience with the small 



kerosene stoves and felt more at home working on 
them than on the complicated gasoline stoves that we 
might have chosen. 

Some of the staples in our diet were established 
early on by our cook. He had insisted that we bring a 
hundred pounds of lavashe with us on this first leg of 
our journey. Lavashe is a paper-thin, crisp, unleavened 
bread that is more like a wafer than anything else and 
made from only flour, water, and salt. We quickly be- 
came rice eaters, because it was served at every meal. 
And the amount of oil Bahram used in his cooking 
amazed us, but we quickly learned that in the Mid- 
and Near-East, oil is considered to be a part of the dish 
rather than just a necessary accessory to its preparation. 

The first night in camp at Doab we were intro- 
duced to one of Bahram's rice dishes. He cooked his 
rice in the usual manner and then placed quite a bit of 
oil into another pan. Into this he broke fifteen to eigh- 
teen eggs and dolloped some tomato paste over them. 
Without scrambling the eggs, he cooked the.mixture 
(he called it "poaching") just until the whole eggs 
reached a certain degree of doneness. He placed the 
cooked eggs (which he called an omelet) in a serving 
bowl and suggested that we pour some of the egg toma- 



Young Iranian demonstrates most practical way to hold hedgehog. 




21 



to paste mixture over our rice. Unusual as it sounds, it 
was flavorful and satisfying. 

Not all of Bahram's experiments were received 
with such acclaim, however I remember one concoc- 
tion he put together that Jan could not force down. 
Diplomatically, she waited until the cook's attention 
was diverted, then deftly slipped the offending portion 
under a nearby rock. 

Our breakfast fare quickly became routine. It had 
to be something easy to prepare; nourishing, but not 
too heavy; and appealing to the palate. We settled on 
lavashe , cheese, jam, tea or instant coffee, and a glass 
of Tang. This got us off to a good start, yet didn't take 
hours to prepare or load our systems down with heavy 
food, hard to digest while on the move. 

We Begin to Take Specimens 

The taking of the three mouflon rams on our first night 
in camp had got us off to a good start. It was exhilarat- 
ing to know that we could function and shoot straight 
at an altitude of 12,400 feet and that collecting was pos- 
sible at such elevations. We were plunged into the real- 
ity of collecting, preparing, and preserving biological 
specimens within hours of our arrival. 

Each day, we hunted — the weather permitting. 
Jan went with one group and I with another Jan usu- 
ally hunted with Abbas and Ezat, while I was most 
often in the company of Khosrow Sariri and Mammats 
1 and 2. 

On our second day, August 2, 1962, Khosrow left 
camp early with Abbas and one of the villagers to see 
what game herds they could find. That afternoon Nico- 



la and I accompanied Doug Lay into the higher areas 
where we set out nearly a hundred small animal traps. 
Specially designed Field Museum snap traps, rat-size 
snap traps, mole traps, various sizes of steel traps, and 
Sherman live traps were routinely used. Khosrow and 
Abbas returned to camp at about 8:30 p.m., having 
collected one mouflon ewe. We needed at least one 
more ewe and a couple of lambs to complete our 
mouflon group. 

On the morning of August 3, we left camp at about 
eight o'clock on horseback and started up the river for 
the higher country where we might again encounter 
mouflon. Jan and her party finally reached an altitude 
of 13,300 feet, and we were at a similar height — the 
highest either of us had ever been on foot. We were 
earnestly looking for ewes and lambs on this hunt but 
were unable to get close enough for a shot. Khosrow 
finally shot another fine ram, and we settled for that. 
We managed to get the sheep loaded on one of our 
pack mules and dropped down to about 13,000 feet 
for a breather 

Ezat took a blanket from one of the horses, the 
men built a fire to heat water for tea, and we sprawled 
gratefully to rest and wait for refreshment. After all our 
exertion and the effects of the altitude, an hour's rest 
and a repast of cold mutton, cheese, cantaloupe, and 
scalding tea was as welcome as a banquet at Maxim's. 

After an hour or so, we again formed separate par- 
ties to return to camp. When we arrived, we all found 
that it had been less terrifying riding up a steep incline 
on horseback than it was coming down. Gazing down 
from those dizzying heights from atop a none-too-sure- 
footed horse was enough to give anyone pause. The 



Camp consisted of five tents. Temporary party members slept in sheltered areas under the trees. 




-^ ^mJp 





VM*!* , 



22 





"Both sheep and goats seemed to come in every imaginable shade of black, brown, gray, and white and in every combination of these basic 
colors. " 



jagged rocks thousands of feet below looked particu- 
larly threatening, especially just as a mount made a 
misstep or stumbled. At some point everyone who had 
been riding horseback dismounted and led their ani- 
mals down the mountain. 

We were all back in camp by six o'clock, tired, 
hungry, and immensely pleased with our success. 

That evening Khosrow said to us, "If we want 
to get the mouflon ewes and lambs, and the ibex, we 
must leave camp early in the morning — say at five. The 
sheep and the goats are early risers and are out feed- 
ing even before daylight. In the heat of the day they 
are smart — they bed down and are not often seen 
in numbers." 

"If that's what we have to do," I told him, "we'll 
do it." Then, wondering if my aching muscles and 
bruised old bones could be made to live up to my brave 
words, I announced, "Somebody be sure to wake me 
in time." 

There must have been a sympathetic deity some- 
where in the Iranian heavens, because the wind blew 
all night long, and when Jan woke me on the morning 
of the fourth, fog hung heavily over our mountains and 
not another soul was stirring. The visibility was so poor 
that the launching of any kind of hunting party would 
have been foolhardy. It was almost with relief that I 



crawled back into my still-warm sleeping bag and 
pounded my ear until late that morning. 

That afternoon after the fog lifted, we tried again, 
but the game eluded us. 

On August 5 we hunted again, with no luck at all. 

The expedition collected hundreds of bird specimens as well as mam- 
mals, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and arthropods. Doug Lay holds 

small owl. 




23 



The weather was cold and rainy. On this day, Jan and I 
found ourselves on the way to the highest point seen 
from the valley — some 14,300 feet. I suggested that we 
keep going to see if we could make it. Just as we started 
a sloping walk of about 100 yards to the highest point, 
we were diverted by the sounds of shots coming from 
below. We turned around and retraced our steps in 
order to be in a position to intercept any sheep driven 
our way. But nothing. We had to be satisfied with hav- 
ing climbed to an altitude of 14,000 feet — an all-time 
record for us both. 

After our return to camp, we all gathered in the 
cook tent to drink tea and get warm. The weather out- 
side was a soggy 48°F, and we were trying to be opti- 
mistic and develop a game plan for the following day. 

On the morning of August 6, we launched a real 
campaign to complete our collection of mouflon and to 
find the ibex necessary for the Museum's needs. We left 
camp in two parties at 6:30. One went downriver in 
search of mouflon and ibex and my party went upriver 
along the now-familiar trail. Speaking only half in jest. 



Junior collectors 



24 




we all vowed not to return to camp empty handed. Our 
time at Doab was getting short, and we had not col- 
lected the number of large animals required. 

On this day Jan remained in camp. The hunt was 
to be a highly concentrated effort and the going would 
be difficult and dangerous. Before that day was over, 
most of us would have gladly changed places with her, 
because the Iranian weather threw the book at us. It 
was cold and windy, and at one time or another we 
were treated to rain, hail, thunder, lightning, and high 
winds. Snow fell in the higher elevations. 

Our group struggled into camp at about seven that 
evening, and I was pleased to say that we had been able 
to collect two really superior mouflon rams. We were 
so high in the mountains (13,300 feet) that 1 assumed 
we were seeking ibex, but it was the ram mouflon 
we found at this elevation, and we managed to bag 
the two. 

TVue to his word. Abbas and his group of downriv- 
er hunters did not return to camp empty handed. They 
didn't return to camp at all that night! But about eleven 
o'clock the following morning, August 7, he and his 
men came into camp with two mouflon ewes and two 
young of the same species. The mouflon group had 
been completed. As soon as we could collect represen- 
tative ibex specimens, we would be able to break camp 
and leave the high altitudes for the lower-elevation 
habitat of the forest. 

Another game warden, Isa, proclaimed by Khos- 
row Sariri to be the most accomplished warden in all of 
Iran, came into our camp on the seventh. He was 
younger than Abbas, vigorous and full of energy. 1 had 
no doubt that he would lead us a merry chase when we 
arrived in the area of his specialty, the forested regions 
where we would next concentrate our activities. 

So far in this narrative, I have dwelt disproportion- 
ately on the pursuit and taking of large game animals. 
There is no doubt that they were more challenging to 
locate and more exciting to collect than the smaller 
mammals; but from a scientific point of view — the 
focus we dared not lose sight of — the tiny animals 
were every bit as important as the larger, more 
dramatic fauna. 

Douglas Lay had been very busy. At Doab he set, 
relocated, and reset hundreds of traps. Although he did 
not collect as many specimens as he had hoped from 
this location, the discoveries he made were important 
for the scientific community. 

For example, in the clay-slope community of 
ground -dwellers above our camp, little Microtus nivalis, 
the snow vole, was found in abundance. Doug was the 
first zoologist to discover this animal in this particular 
habitat. Also in this same clay-slope community were 
Microtus arvalis, the common vole; Apodemus sylvaticus, 
the common field mouse; and Cricetulus migratorius, the 
gray hamster. 




skinning, measuring, and stuffing small rodents were essential 
expedition chores that Doug Lay (shown here) taught the Streets. 

Discovering the snow vole in a new habitat was 
especially exciting for Doug, and for that matter, for all 
of us. One of the principal aims of our field work was to 
determine the range and habitat of animals known or 
suspected to be in Iran. To find one of our target ani- 
mals in a hitherto unknown habitat at our first camp- 
site made us feel that our expedition was off to a 
promising start. 

On Doug's first full day of collecting, he brought in 
ten animals; two snow voles; two Apodemus; one gray 
hamster, and five Microtus. The second day yielded only 
two common voles and four Apodemus. Almost every 
day we were in camp, Doug set out his traps in different 
localities, wherever there was promise of colonies of 
small mammals. On August 7, Doug and Nicola, our 
driver, set out with a hundred traps. It was Doug's first 
long trip out of camp, and the two men climbed to an 
altitude of 12,500 feet, setting out traps all along their 
route. According to Doug, it was wonderful country 
for trapping. 



Rigors of the Hunt 

Old Mother Nature is the world's greatest leveler of 
people. In the out-of-doors, all are subjected to the 
same elements, dangers, vexations, and frustrations. 
Station in life is of absolutely no importance: the only 
things that matter are strength, savvy, and the breaks of 
the game. 

One afternoon at the 12,000-foot level on a 
mountainside in Iran, I thought of the last board-of- 
di rectors' meeting I had attended before leaving the 
United States. A picture of the walnut-paneled board 
room, deeply carpeted and appointed with elegant 
flair, flashed before my eyes. I thought of well-dressed 
men, talking earnestly of serious matters in sober 
surroundings. 



At the moment these thoughts came to me, I was 
on my hands and knees, cursing and covered with dust, 
having just pounced at — and missed — a fleet-footed 
little mouse about two inches long! 

"Missed the little bastard!" I shouted. 

"There he goes!" shouted one of the game wardens 
to the other. "He's coming your way! Get heem!" 

A voluble burst of Farsi exploded out of a cloud of 
dust as the second game warden scrambled after the 
evasive rodent. Then in English, the cry: "Got 'eem!" 

Ah! What people will do in the name of science! 

We Prepare Specimens 

I believe that it was on the second day in camp at Doab 
when Jan and I began thinking like zoologists. As the 
specimens began coming into camp, we could see that 
Doug Lay was going to be swamped. There was just no 
way he could handle his trapping and recording and do 
all the specimen preparation as well. He needed help — 
immediately. If the specimens could not be properly 
recorded, prepared, and preserved, there would be 
no point to the expedition. It was as straightforward 
as that. 

Right then and there, Doug sat down with Jan and 
I and taught us how to skin, measure, and stuff small 
rodents with cotton. And from that time forward, Jan 
and I had all the work we could handle, helping in 
the preparation of the unceasing influx of specimen 
material. 

Jan wrote in her journal: 

"My children would never believe it if they could see me skin- 
ning mice. I am very adept now. I don 't hurt the eyes and I 
can get the ears out and can even get the lower fangs that you 
never would know a mouse had until you got into this skin- 
ning process. I don't like stuffing, though; getting them 
stuffed with cotton in the right shape is hard. You have to put 
wires in their legs and a wire in the tail wrapped with cotton, 
and it is quite a job. I don 't mind sewing them up, but I would 
rather skin than stuff them. 

The first two mice I worked on provided me with quite an 
adventure. One skull ended up minus a tooth, but the other 
skull was perfect! But as 1 stuffed the second one (the one about 
which I was so pleased), I managed to cut his tail off, so had to 
sew that back on. 

Our first ten days in the field had provided us 
with the shake-down cruise that we needed. Even in 
that short time, our bodies had slimmed down and 
toughened, our wind had improved, and we had estab- 
lished that we could take the rigors of hunting and 
functioning at high altitude. We learned how to handle 
the specimens from the point of collection to their ship- 
ment to the Museum. We learned what to expect from 
our equipment, the natives of the countryside, and 
more importantly, from ourselves. 

It was a good start. FM 



25 



Tours For Members 





26 



The Prealumbian observatory at Chkhen llza. Yucatan 

Yucatan Discovery Cruise 

January 10-26, 1986 

A team of specialists will take you through the incred- 
ible ruins of the Yucatan, built by the highly cultured 
Mayan peoples between the 3rd and 13th centuries a.d. 
Cruising aboard the Greek-staffed Stella Solaris, we will 
visit Playa Del Carmen, Uxmal, Tlilum, the famed cere- 
monial city of Chichen Itza, and the newly excavated 
Coba. There will be plenty of swimming, snorkeling, 
and sunbathing in Xel-Ha, Akumal Beach, and 
Cozumel. In addition, we will visit the modern resort 
of Cancun, the island of Grand Cayman and Montego 
Bay. Dr. William Burger, chairman of Field Museum's 
Department of Botany, will be tour leader. 

Egypt 

January 29-February 75, 1986 

Explore Egypt, the land of ancient mysteries. Journey 
from bustling Cairo, with its renowned Egyptian 
Museum, its mosques, minarets, and markets, into the 
ghostly silence of ruined cities, splendrous temples, and 
noble tombs. The 5,000-year-old Step Pyramid, the 
massive stone ruins of Karnak, and the Colossi of 
Memnon all beckon the curious and inspire respect for 
a culture as old as Western civilization itself. As you 
cruise the Nile, observe age-old scenes along the shore, 
for life in the fertile Nile Valley has changed but little. 
We encourage early enrollment, since spaces fill quickly 
for this breathtaking journey into the past. 



Baja California 

March 8-23, 1986 

Less than 50 miles south of the U.S. -Mexico border 
begins a peaceful world of subtropical beauty — the Sea 
of Cortez (Gulf of California). Over 600 miles long, this 
gulf is a paradise for marine vertebrate and invertebrate 
life — and for those of us who enjoy its study. Field 
Museum members will have the opportunity to 
know this sea of wonders in a voyage that will all but 
complete the circumnavigation of the peninsula of 
Baja California. 

Until 1973 road travel in Baja California required 
rugged vehicles and rugged souls. Even now less than 5 
percent of the coast is accessible by road. And although 
for decades fishermen and scientists have found the 
region a treasure house of riches, it has escaped popular 
attention. In the 1970s world interest in whales grew. 
At the same time there was a dramatic increase in the 
numbers of California gray whales, and today each year 
from December through April, 15,000 gray whales visit 
Baja's Pacific lagoons to breed, give birth, and nurture 
their young. 

It was our desire to organize a Field Museum tour 
to this area. All that was needed was a small, maneu- 
verable, comfortable ship. We found it — the Pacific 
Northwest Explorer — and in January 1981 our first Field 
Museum circumnavigation from San Felipe to San 
Diego began. There were pelicans and hummingbirds, 
strange endemic plants, lovely scenery, and whales and 
dolphins beyond expectation. During this and the next 
two voyages we encountered not only many gray 
whales, but also fin, humpback, sei, and, the largest of 
all — blue whales. At San Benitos we walked among 
huge "hauled out" colonies of northern elephant seals. 
And we saw more than 130 different birds and 120 
fish species. 

Now is your chance to experience the solemnity 
and the life, the aridness and the wealth, the starkness 
and the beauty that is Baja California. Now is your 
chance to join Field Museum's 1986 tour to Baja Cali- 
fornia, to be led by Dr. Robert K. Johnson, curator of 
Fishes at Field Museum. Dr Johnson is a highly experi- 
enced tour leader. This will be his fourth trip arqund 
Baja California. Special Expeditions, a division of Lind- 
blad TYavel, operators of the ship to be used, will pro- 
vide several additional naturalists whose expertise will 
further enrich our experience. Our home for the voyage 
is the one-class, fully air-conditioned 143. 5 -foot MV 




Pacific Northwest Explorer, built in 1980. Early expres- 
sion of interest and reservations are advisable. 
Land and cruise arrangements per person: 

Lower deck double cabin $3,250 

Upper deck (U201-215) $3,950 

Main deck $4,090 

Upper & bridge deck name cabins $4,280 

Lower deck single cabins $4,890 

(Air transportation to and from San Diego not included 
in above prices) 

The Art and Culture of Indonesia — 
A Voyage to the Islands of the Java Sea 

March 21- April 8, 1986 

Composed of thousands of islands forming a vast 
archipelago, Indonesia is an ancient land of gentle peo- 
ples, rich and varied cultural traditions, and tropical 
landscapes of unsurpassed beauty. With its panoply of 
religions, art forms, rituals, and dances found nowhere 
else in the world, Indonesia confronts the visitor with a 
fascinating past; its history, myth, and legend are often 
inseparable. On an itinerary which has been carefully 
planned to include well-known sites as well as remote, 
verdant isles, we will travel aboard the ship Illiria to 
destinations of immense beauty. 




The Great Silk Route of China 

May 21- June 15. 1986 

Field Museum is offering an exciting new itinerary for 
The People's Republic of China, featuring some new 
areas of interest to the world traveller and to those who 
have visited China previously. Our flight from Chicago 
is direct to Tokyo then on to Beijing. After several days 
there, viewing such marvels as the Forbidden City and 
the 98-acre Tien An Men Square, we go on to Urumqi, 
Dunhuang, Lanzhou, Xian, Shanghai, and Guilin. Xian 
is of particular interest to archaeology buffs for here we 
find the vast life-size terra cotta army discovered as 
recently as 1974. We return to the U.S. via Hong Kong. 

Alaska 

July 2-16, 1986 
$4,885 

Visit Alaska in summer! Explore magnificent water- 
ways and vast parklands abundant with many species 
of birds. At Sitka, a marine wildlife rafting trip gets you 
started on this spectacular ornithological tour. From 
Juneau, a trip on the Mendenhall River offers unusual 
wetland viewing. From Anchorage one easily reaches 
Potter Marsh Bird Refuge and the Eagle River. Denali 
National Park (formerly called McKinley National 
Park) and the Glacier Bay cruise are special highlights. 
We conclude our trip with three days on St. George Is- 
land. Few people have visited this island, which boasts 
spectacular birding. Early enrollment is suggested. 
$50 will secure your reservation. 

Grand Canyon Adventures 

Field Museum Tours is offering two trips to the Grand 
Canyon in 1986. The first, August 13-22, is a geology 
study trip hiking down the north rim of the canyon, 
rafting for four days along the bottom and hiking back 
up the south rim. The second, August 22-31, is a rafting 
trip along the entire 300-mile length of the canyon by 
two motorized rubber rafts. Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, 
curator of fossil invertebrates leads both. A deposit of 
$50 per person will hold your space. 

For further information or to be placed on our mailing list, 
call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



27 



China's Great Wall 



Stanton Coolt, courtesy the Chicago Tribune 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, II 60605-2499 



*!001F288 
'Edith Fleming 
^946 Pleasant 
lOak Pk , XL 60306 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



November 1985 






r^.-3«® 



^:* 




NewGeiTi. 

November 5 
Members' Preview Nov. 3 &4 

Magical Circus from the Orient 

November 23. 2:00pm & 8:00pm 

Joan Embery: "Conserving the Wild' 

December 7, 2:30pm 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

November 1985 
Volume 56, Number 10 



November Events at Field Museum 3 

December Events at Field Museum 5 

A New Jewel in Field Museum's Crown 

Grainger Hall of Gems Opens November 5 8 

by David M. Walsten and Edward Olsen 



Board OF Trustees 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanion Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bern 
Mrs. Philip D. Bloclc III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. "Red" Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Mclvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Earl L. Neal 



Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Prilzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



The Northwest Coast Collections 
at the Columbian Exposition 

by Douglas Cole 



10 



Founders' Council Marks Second Anniversary 2 1 

Year-End Giving 22 

by Clifford Buzard, Planned Giving Officer 

Viewing Opportunities for Halley's Comet 25 

by Paul Sipiera, Research Associate, Department of Geology 
and Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

View of citrine quartz display in Grainger Hall of Gems, opening 
November 5. Photo by Ron Testa and Sonia Fonseca. 



Open Letter to Field Museum Members 



Field Museum is fortunate indeed for the many thou- 
sands of Members who have continued to support it 
through the years. Thanks to these devoted friends, 
the institution has been able to vigorously pursue its 
primary goals of preserving, increasing, and dis- 
seminating knowledge of natural history. 

Since 1979, the Museum has striven to keep 
membership fees at the same level. Rising costs, how- 
ever, now make it necessary for the Museum to raise 
those fees. Asof September 1, 1985, individual member- 
ships will be ojfered at $30, family memberships at $35. 

In appreciation for their loyal support, the 



Museum is offering current Members the opportunity 
to renew at the prior rate ($20 for individual, $25 for 
family memberships) through December 31. Mem- 
berships that expire after this date may be "pre- 
renewed" at the old rate through December 31. 

The benefits gained through Field Museum 
membership are numerous and lasting: from dis- 
counts on classes, tours, and purchases to the opportu- 
nity to discover — or rediscover — the exciting world of 
natural history. We cherish your continued interest and 
look forward to having you with us in the years to come. 



Field Musf urn of Natural Hatorv Bultfiin {VSPS 89S-940t ispublishcdmonlhly, exccpi combined July/Augusl issue, by Fif id Museum of Namral Hisiory. Rooscvcll Road ai Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. Subsciipliflns: J6.00 annually. 
$3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 
922-94 10, Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership Depanment. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
1SSN:00I 5-0703, Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



November 1985 , 



lYBU^^mN 



it 



li 



BLS^ 






ST* 











t;,'- -^ 



>4- 




New Ge 

November 5 
Members' Preview Nov. 3 &4 

Magical Circus from the Orient 

November 23, 2:00pm & 8:00pm 

Joan Embery: "Conserving the Wild' 

December Z 2:30pm 



w:^.^-" 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin 1. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

November 1985 
Volume 56, Number 10 



November Events at Field Museum 
December Events at Field Museum 

A New Jewel in Field Museum's Crown 

Grainger Hall of Gems Opens November 5 
by David M. Walsten and Edward Olsen 



Board OF Trustees 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. "Red" Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Earl L. Neal 



Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Slrotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



The Northwest Coast Collections 
at the Columbian Exposition 

by Douglas Cole 



10 



Founders' Council Marks Second Anniversary 21 

Year-End Giving 22 

by Clifford Buzard, Planned Giving Officer 

Viewing Opportunities for Halley's Comet 25 

by Paul Sipiera. Research Associate, Department of Geology 
and Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

View of citrine quartz display in Grainger Hall of Gems, opening 
November 5. Photo by Ron Testa and Sonia Fonseca. 



Open Letter to Field Museum Members 



Field Museum is fortunate indeed for the many thou- 
sands of Members who have continued to support it 
through the years. Thanks to these devoted friends, 
the institution has been able to vigorously pursue its 
primary goals of preserving, increasing, and dis- 
seminating knowledge of natural history. 

Since 1979, the Museum has striven to keep 
membership fees at the same level. Rising costs, how- 
ever, now make it necessary for the Museum to raise 
those fees. Asof September 1, 1985, individual member- 
ships will be offered at $30, family memberships at $35. 

In appreciation for their loyal support, the 



Museum is offering current Members the opportunity 
to renew at the prior rate ($20 for individual, $25 for 
family memberships) through December 31. Mem- 
berships that expire after this date may be "pre- 
renewed" at the old rate through December 31. 

The benefits gained through Field Museum 
membership are numerous and lasting: from dis- 
counts on classes, tours, and purchases to the opportu- 
nity to discover — or rediscover — the exciting world of 
natural history. We cherish your continued interest and 
look forward to having you with us in the years to come. 



FieU Museum <■( Saiural HiUi3r\ BulUsm (USPS 8y8-940) is published monthly, except combinttUuly August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Ro<iseveli Road aiLake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496 Subscripiiijns: $6.00 annually. 
SJ.OO for schools Museum membership mtludes Bulletin subscnplion Opinions expressed by authors arc their own and do not necessarily refletl the polic>- of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts arc welcome. Museum phone: (J12) 
922-94)0. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership Depanmem, Postmaster; Please send fomi J579 lo Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496, 
[SSN:00 1 5-0701 Sevond class (>osiage(>aKl at Chicago, Illinois 



November 



Events 



^ 



November 




Magical Circus from tlie Orient 



Saturday, November 23 
Performances at 2:00 pm and 8:00 pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Bursts of Flame, amazing magic, graceful dance, and total 
defiance of gravity are the trademarks of this Magical Circus 
from the Orient — the Chinese Magic Revue. Acrobats in the 
Orient have been perfecting their art for 2,000 years, and the 
Chinese Magic Revue is the pinnacle of that art. These as- 
tounding acrobats, dancers, and magicians begin training at 
the age of four. By fourteen years old, balancing in a 16- 
person human pyramid is virtually second nature. 

Mind over matter is the only way to believe what you are 
seeing. Imagine an acrobat climbing a ladder with another 
performing acrobat upside down on the first acrobat's head. A 
sledgehammer smashing four bricks atop one troupe mem- 
ber's head demonstrates the amazing concentration used in 
the Chinese martial art, kung fu. Sword-swallowing reaches 
new heights, when a fluorescent tube is swallowed, turning 
the performer into a human torch. Combine all these incred- 
ible feats with the beauty and grace of Chinese, Korean, and 
Thai dance. Add to this the impossibility of Japanese magic 



and the ageless humor of the Chinese action opera, and the 
performance is complete. 

Magical Circus Performers include: 

^ Chinese Acrobats featuring juggling cyclists, sword- 
swallowing, kung fu, balancing fantasies, and leaps 
through flaming, knife-lined hoops 

Ifr Korean Dancers performing the village chopstick dance 

■#• Japanese Magicians featuring human levitation 

■Hit Thai Dancers performing intricate classical dance 
movements 

^ And the entire company featuring ribbon dancing, preci- 
sion balancing, and a human pyramid 
The Magical Circus from the Orient is an unforgettable 

and unbelievable treat for adults and children of all ages. 

Come one, come all to the most magical circus on earth. 

Tickets: $10.00 (Members: $8.00). 

Seating is general admission. Theatre doors open one hour 
prior to performance. Be sure to indicate performance time 
preferred when ordering tickets. 

CONTINUED -♦ 



IMovember 



Events 



Movember 



Family Feature 

A Gem of an Event 

Saturday and Sunday, November 16 & 17 

l:00-3:00pm 

Diamonds, Rubies, and Emeralds Are Yours — at least to see, 
in our new Gem Hall. Investigate the mytiis and realities of 
your birthstone and find it in the Gem Hall. Using baubles, 
bangles, and beads, design your own jeweled creation to take 
home. All materials are provided. 

Family features are free with museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



A Trip up the ^ile 
A Festival of Egypt 

Saturday, November 30 
l:00-3:00pm 

Sail up the Nile to Ancient Egypt. Remember the glories of 
Tlitankhamun in a special slide lecture on the exhibit 
'"Dreasures of TUtankhamun." Build a pyramid of your own, 
with hieroglyphs on the walls and hidden entryways. Films, 
tours of our Egyptian Hall, and other activities are featured 
throughout the day. Visit Ancient Egypt at Field Museum this 
Thanksgiving Holiday. 

This feature is free with museum admission and tickets are 
not required. 



I\oveniber Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. 
These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



November 



10 



1:00pm. Ancient Egyptians (tour). Examine ancient 
Egyptian artifacts from Predynastic times to 
Cleopatra. 

1 : 30pm. Himalayan Journey: Tibet Today and Bhutan 
(slide lecture). Experience a Himalayan journey as 
you explore Tibet and Bhutan, "Land of the Thunder 
Dragon." 

12:30pm. The Brontosaurus Story (tour). A fascinating 
look at some of the newest discoveries about the 
"thunder lizard" and other large dinosaurs. 



17 12:00 noon. Fireballs and Shooting Stars: Keys to the 

Universe (tour). Explains the origins, types, sizes, and 
importance of meteorites. 

1:00pm. Red Land/Black Land (tour). Examine the 
geography of the Nile Valley and its effect on the 
Egyptians who lived and ruled during 4,000 years of 
change in religion and culture. 

24 1:00pm. China through the Ages (tour). Look at 

traditional China: its inventions, court life, and school 
of thought. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are not required. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete ail requested information on the 
ticket application. If your request is received less than 
one week before a program, tickets will be held in 
your name at the West Entrance box office. Please 

n Member D Nonmember 

American Express/Visa/MasterCard 

Card Number 



make checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 
be mailed upon receipt of check. Refunds will be 
made only if the program is sold out. 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Evening 



Signature Expiration Date 

Return complete ticket application with 
a self- addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Programs 


# Tickets 
Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 


Magical Circus 
Nov 23, 2:00 pm 






Magical Circus 
Nov 23, 8:00 pm 








Total 





December 



Events 



December 




Snake in the Grass Moving Theatre performs Dec. 14, 15 

Animal Antics 

December 1985 

Bring Your Family to Field Museum and join our celebration 
of the animal kingdom. Discover the habits and habitats of 
the creatures of the earth, sky, and sea during this month- 
long festival. Animals of fantasy and fact are featured in a 
multitude of performances, plays, craft activities, and demon- 
strations. These programs are free with museum admission. 
Tickets are not required. 

Animal Antics is funded in part by the Illinois Arts Council. 



Polar Confusion 

A participatory play 

Saturdays, December 7 and 14 
12:30pm 

Last Year, You Delighted at the antics of Karl and Katie 
Caribou and their friends in the arctic tundra. Join us this 
year for the continuing story of these zany creatures' arctic 
antics. 

On their annual trek to the North Pole, Karl Caribou falls 
victim to misfortune and breaks his leg. Unable to keep up 
with the herd, he decides to fly ahead by plane. A singularly 
hilarious twist of fate determines that Karl's aircraft lands, not 
at the North, but at the South Pole. Follow Karl's tale as he 
meets new and very different friends and begins a lonely 
correspondence with his Northern pals. 

Be prepared for lots of surprises, and plan on joining our 
colorful cast of characters. This program is free with museum 
admission. Tickets are not required. 



Snake In the Grass 
Moving Theatre 

. Saturday and Sunday, December 14 and 15 
2:00pm, Stanley Field Hall 

Join Fantasy Makers Extraordinaire, Koko and Garbanzo, 
in an exploration of myth and magic, mime, dance, masks, 
and a little technical wizardry. 

Snake In the Grass relates the mythical themes of the 
Northwest Coast Indians using giant puppets, over-size 
masks, stilt-walking figures, and the familiar "trans-cultural" 
figure of the clown, fool, or trickster Join the Raven, 
mischievous friend of the Old Ones, and his companion, a 
rather dolefully painted clown, as they reveal the fortunes 
and misfortunes of the Haida, TSimshian, Kwakuitl, Bella 
Coola, Coast Salish, and Nootka. 

This program is free with museum admission. Tickets are not 
required. 

Carousel Animals 

Carving Demonstration and Display 

Saturday and Sunday, December 14 and 15 
12:00 noon-2:00pm 

Return to the Warm Days of Summer and the fun of the 
amusement park merry-go-round. Pat and Patricia Tanner of 
Tanner Carousel display some of their hand carved and 
painted wooden carousel animals. Discover how these works 
of arts are produced, from the original animal sketches to the 
application of the paint and gold leaf. Make a hat resembling 
one of the spirited animals of the merry-go-round. 

This program is free with museum admission. Tickets are not 

'■^'l"'^^'*- CONTINUED-. 



December 



Events 



Deeember 



''Conserving the Wild" 

with Joan Embery, of the San Diego 
Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal Park 

Saturday, December 7, 2:30pm 
James Simpson Theatre 

Our Zoos Are Playing a Major Role in the conservation of 
animals in the wild and saving endangered animals from 
extinction. The San Diego Zoo and the San Diego Wild 
Animal Park are dedicated to these endeavors. The San Diego 
Zoo is world famous for its animal diversity and extraordinary 
botanical collection. The Zoo's work in conserving animals in 
the wild, its successful breeding programs, and research in 
animal behavior, nutrition, and disease control are known 
throughout the Held. The San Diego Wild Animal Park, an 
1,800-acre breeding preserve founded in 1972, is devoted to 
preserving endangered exotic species. 

Joan Embery, of the San Diego Zoo and frequent guest of 
"The Tonight Show" and "Good Morning America," joined 
the Zoo in 1968 while a pre-veterinary student at San Diego 
State University In 1970 she was appointed to the position of 
official Zoo representative. She is also the author of three 
books about animals and her experiences at the Zoo: My Wild 
World, Amazing Animal Facts, and On Horses. Join Ms. Embery, 
and some local zoo residents, as she relates the fascinating 
story of this world famous zoo and animal preserve. 
Tickets: $5.00 (Members: $3.00) Fees are nonrefundable. 
This program is funded in part by the Ray A. Kroc 
Environmental Foundation. 




Joan Embery of the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Wild Animal 
Park, coming December 7. 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on 
the ticket application. If your ticket request is 
received less than one week before a program, 
tickets will be held in your name at the West 



Entrance box office. Please make checks payable 
to Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon 
receipt of check. Refunds will be made only if the 
program is sold out. 



American Express/Visa/MasterCard 



Card Number 



Signature 



Expiration Date 



Return completed ticket application with a 
self-addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2497 



D Member 



D Nonmember 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone: Daytime 
Conserving the Wild 



Evening 



Member 

Tickets 

# Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
# Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

Requested 


Amount 
Enclosed 











s. 



December 



Events 



December 



Family Feature 

Animals on Parade 

Sundays, December 15, 22, and 29 

l:00-3:00pm 

Stanley Field Hall 

Animals in a circus, 
Animals in a zoo. 
Animals in a museum. 
It 's all up to you! 

Celebrate Animal Antics throughout December by adding 
your artistic touches to our Animal Murals. Paint something 
you have seen in the Museum halls, at the zoo, or only in 
your imagination. Help decorate Stanley Field Hall with a 
whole parade of animals. 

This program is free with museum admission. Tickets are not 
required. 

Talk to the Animals 

Saturday and Sunday, December 21 and 22 

3:00pm 

Stanley Field Hall 

When Was the Last Time you looked a vulture in the eye? 
Why are a rabbit's eyes on the sides of its head and a 
monkey's in front? While they are looking at you from all 
sides, you can look back at some live animals and then study 
them in our exhibits. Observe the differences between the 
horn-bill bird from Bangladesh and a North American 
vulture, and learn how animal survival depends on these 
differences. 

This program is free with museum admission. Tickets are not 
required. 



The Touring Children's 
Theatre of the Second City 

Thursday and Friday, December 26 and 27 

2:00pm 

Stanley Field Hall 

Families Have Been Joining in the fun with the Touring 
Children's Theatre of the Second City since 1965. Go with 
them on a Lion Hunt to deepest Africa, play in a Barnyard 
Symphony, and take a journey with Perry the Peacock. 
Directed by Eric Forsberg, The Children's Theatre of the 
Second City proves that fun and entertainment can break all 
age barriers. 

Performances are free with museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 

Everything Under 
the Rainbow 

Saturday, Sunday, andMonday, December 28, 29, &30 

2:00pm 

Stanley Field Hall 

Exercise Your Imagination with Child's Play Touring Theatre. 
Brought to life are creative writings from children of all ages. 
A second grader's poem becomes a song. A 10-year-old's 
space fantasy story turns into a wild audience participation 
play, complete with 8-foot rocket. A delicate fairy tale 
becomes a dance with soft music. Every piece is as unique as 
a child's imagination. Enjoy a collection of performances 
based upon works by children throughout the Chicago area. 
Come over and play with Child's Play Touring Theatre. 

These performances are free with museum admission. Tickets 
are not required. 



December Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Passport upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. 
These programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

December 14 1:00pm. Ancient Egyptians (tour). Examine ancient 

1 1:00pm. On the Wing (tour). Explore the realm of flight Egyptian artifacts from Predynastic times to Cleopatra. 

and bird adaptations. J5 ii:00am. The Big Hunt Game (tour). Tl-ack down the 

7 1:30pm. Himalayan Journey: Tibet Today and Bhutan answers in this wild animal quiz, and win a prize. 

(slide lecture). Experience a Himalayan journey as you 

explore Tibet and Bhutan, "Land of the Thunder 

Dragon." 

14 10:30am. Highlights of the Museum Collection (tour). 

TYavel through the halls and hear of lions in the wild, 
the secrets of mummies, Bushman the gorilla, and 
more of the wonders in the Field. 



These programs are free with Museum admission and tickets are not required. 



A New Jewel in Field Museum's Crown 

Grainger Hall of Gems Opens November 5 

by David M. Walsten and Edward Olsen 



Jlhe newest addition to Field Museum's expanding 
list of renovated halls is the Grainger Hall of Gems, 
opening to the public after two years of total updating 
— of the gem collection on exhibit as well as of the 
exhibit facility. 

The new hall is a revolutionary departure from the 
one it succeeds; only the basic area — on the third floor 
to the west of the South Lounge — remains the same. 
Within the ageless splendor of the Museum's Greco- 
Roman facade, visitors to the Gem Hall will be awed 
and delighted by its contemporary freshness — a jewel 
in itself. The gemstones within represent but a fraction 
of the number on view in the old hall; but these have 
been chosen with painstaking consideration. Many 
appear to glow or sparkle with inner light, a tribute to 
skillful engineering: slender light beams from seeming- 
ly invisible sources reflect from jewel facets with laser- 
like intensity. Some gemstones rotate perpetually on 
miniature carousels. The entire effect is dazzling. 

— And informative. The gems are in "family" 
groupings. Label copy for each group describes rela- 
tionships between gem types. One section provides 
basic information: the most popular cuts of stones, 
cutting and polishing, heat treatment, fraudulent prac- 
tices, factors influencing monetary worth, the distinc- 
tion between karat and carat, and a great deal more. 
Another section deals with superstitions about gems 
and how they have been used in sorcery, witchcraft, 
and folk medicine. This educative aspect of the new 
hall (absent from its predecessor) is largely due to the 
great number of inquiries that the Geology Department 
has received from the public through the years. Most 
people, it has been realized, have little understanding 
of gems; yet, the subject is endlessly intriguing for all. 
Now, any visitor who pauses long enough to absorb the 
modest amount of label copy in Grainger Hall will 
come away with at least a basic knowledge of gemol- 
ogy; and such a visitor may put this knowledge to use 
in the future when considering gem purchases. 

While the old exhibit, with its 4,000 specimens, 
reflected the old-fashioned view that quantity was 
paramount, the new display clearly reflects the more 
contemporary stance that "more is less." Only 500 



David M. Walsten is editor of the Bulletin; Edward Olsen is curator 
8 of mineralogy at Field Museum. 



pieces make up the present exhibit, but these represent 
the cream of Field Museum's entire gem collection. 
Each gem or artifact is truly one of a kind. 

Jewelry items are few, but these are uniformly ex- 
cellent. While the former exhibit had a large number of 
jewelry pieces, often with rare-metal settings of excep- 
tional workmanship, the stones themselves were sel- 
dom first-rate. 

The old exhibit also featured a plethora of lapidary 
art: vases, boxes, candlesticks, letter-openers, figurines, 
even dishes, fashioned from rocks and minerals — an 
unseemly variety in an exhibit that was ostensibly of 
gems. A modest section of the new exhibit features a 
small number of such pieces. 

The old exhibit also had many examples of gem- 
bearing rocks, and the gems contained in them were 
run-of-the-mill. Nor was their educative value great. 
The new hall features only a sampling of gem-bearing 
rocks, and these have been selected from many thou- 
sands of specimens for their particular interest. 

The new Gem Hall owes much of its drama and 
splendor to the state-of-the-art lighting — in its entirety 
an engineering marvel. The lighting arrangement 
accomplishes that most difficult feat: providing ex- 
quisite illumination for the 500 stars of the per- 
formance without drawing attention to itself. At the 
time of the hall's last renovation — nearly half a century 
ago — fluorescent tubes were the dernier cri. Such lights 
became popular because they threw off little heat and 
they lasted longer than the incandescent bulbs of that 
time. But they also had a serious shortcoming: fluores- 
cent light is spectrally poor — it lacks the full range of 
color that is present in "white" daylight. The daylight 
that is visible to the human eye is really a blend of 
many colors — a fact easily demonstrated by viewing 
sunlight through a glass prism. This may be observed in 
nature when sunlight passes through a rain-filled sky, 
creating a rainbow. When light passes through a gem- 
stone, the gem may also act as a prism. But since 
fluorescent lights contain fewer colors than daylight, 
the colors that are brought out in gems under fluoresc- 
ence are often a poor representation of the stone's in- 
trinsic colors. For example, aquamarine, which is com- 
monly blue under natural light, may be mistaken for 
green beryl if seen under fluorescence. Star sapphires 
also suffer under fluorescence — the star is nowhere to 
be seen. 




Portion of new Gem Hall, with tiger-eyes, jaspers, agates, and other stones. Photo by Ron Testa and Sonia Fonseca. Num 



The new lighting system utilizes high-intensity 
light bulbs whose color components are very close to 
those of sunlight. Under them, faceted stones sparkle as 
we expect them to and stones with stars reveal those 
stars in full brilliance. Such bulbs, however, generate a 
great deal of heat. This difficulty has been neatly dealt 
with by ducting off the heat into the Museum's ambi- 
ent air system during the cooler seasons, resulting in 
savings of $600 to $1000 a year. This is one of many 
energy-saving devices that Field Museum has put into 
use in recent years. 

All the gems are displayed in a single large, rather 
oval case, with an aisle through it that provides viewer- 
access to the case's inner side. The case might be re- 
garded as an enormous necklace, whose setting is afire 
with 500 stunning jewels. At the base of this necklace is 
its famed centerpiece, the fist-sized Chalmers Topaz 
(5,890 carats), to dazzle if not to overwhelm visitors as 
they first enter the hall. The new Grainger Hall of Gems 
is a gem in itself. Visitors will concur that it should rank 
among the visual treasures of the museum world. 



When the hall opens to the public on November 5 a 
portion of the new permanent exhibit will not yet be 



installed. This area will temporarily accommodate five 
spectacular gemstones on loan from the National 
Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution). 
These are the 127-carat Portuguese Diamond, the 
Chalk Emerald (37.82 carats), the Eugenie Blue Di- 
amond (31 carats), the Star of India Sapphire (329.7 
carats), and a pair of diamond earrings that once be- 
longed to France's Queen Marie Antoinette. These will 
be on view for six weeks until December 19, after 
which Field Museum gems will take their place. FH 



Grainger Hall of Gems Preview 
for Members 

November 3 and 4, 9:00 am to 5:00 pm 

To gain admission to the exhibit, please present your 
membership card or preview announcement (mailed 
separately to Members) at the preview booth in Stanley 
Field Hall. A special pass to the gem exhibit will then be 
issued to you. Because of the small size of the Gem Hall 
and its limited capacity, Members are requested not to 
bring guests. Special arrangements for handicapped per- 
sons may be made by calling 922-9410, ext. 453. 



10 




Portion of new Gem Hall, with spodumenes (left) and kunzites. Photo by Ron Testa and Sonia Fonseca. nmho 



The Northwest Coast Collections 

ATTHE 

Columbian Exposition 

The Field Museum's world-renowned collection of anthropological 

materials from the Pacific Northwest had its beginnings in the 

artifacts assembled for Chicago's 1893 World's Fair 

by Douglas Cole 



JLjarly in 1891 Franz Boas, a young German anthro- 
pologist, accepted an assignment to work on the 
anthropological exhibits planned for the 1893 Chicago 
World's Fair, the exposition to be held in honor of the 
400th anniversary of the discovery of America by Col- 
umbus. In charge of "Department M," somewhat mis- 
labeled as the Department of Ethnology, was Frederic 
Ward Putnam, director of the Peabody Museum at 
Harvard. Putnam [who knew Boas from professional 
meetings] asked the young irrmiigrant scientist to serve 
as assistant in charge of physical anthropology and to 
supervise a special display of Northwest Coast tribes. As 
part of his duties. Boas entered into correspondence 
with hundreds of schoolteachers, missionaries, and 
administrators to arrange the measurement of over 
90,000 North American school children and 17,000 In- 
dians. Simultaneously, he set in motion a scheme for a 
comprehensive Northwest Coast Indian exhibition 
that would focus on the Kwakiutl of Fort Rupert, a 
Vancouver Island village. 

A trip west in the summer was largely consumed 
by ethnological work for the Bureau of Ethnology 
along the Columbia and Yakima rivers, but Boas also 
made arrangements for World's Fair collections with a 
number of coastal acquaintances and particularly with 
George Hunt, a Fort Rupert Kwakiutl. Upon his return 
east in September, the outlines of the fair display were 
firm. 



The Fort Rupert Indians would be the "standard 
tribe," with additional collections from the Haida, 
T^imshian, Nootka, and other neighboring tribes. The 
Kwakiutl were made the pivot of the display because. 
Boas wrote, they were central to the region's culture, 
which had its origin among these Fort Rupert tribes 
whose influence had been exerted over the other tribes 
on the coast. The evidence of this was in the borrowed 
Kwakiutl names given to all those ceremonies which 
played so important a part in the customs of their 
neighbors. Boas had arranged with Hunt for a collec- 
tion of the necessary specimens to illustrate Kwakiutl 
life and culture and, moreover, had arranged that Hunt 
bring to Chicago a group of Kwakiutl "to show what- 
ever is asked of them in relation to their customs and 
mode of life particularly the ceremonies connected with 
their secret religious societies." Hunt would bring a 
large house, canoes, the outfits of daily life, and all that 
was necessary for the performance of ceremonials. 

For his collections Boas enlisted the assistance of 
experienced people he knew on the coast. James 
Deans, the old Hudson's Bay Company man from Vic- 
toria who had assisted Alphonse Pinart' in his shell- 
heap collecting in 1876 and had toured the Queen 
Charlottes-^ with James G. Swan' in 1883, and who 
was a frequent contributor of ethnological miscellanea 
to the American Antiquarian and other journals, he 
commissioned to make a Haida collection. Fillip 
Jacobsen,'' who had stayed on the coast after bringing 



This article is excerpted from chapter five. "Museums, Expositions, 
and Their Specimens, " of the book Captured Heritage: The Scram- 
ble for Northwest Coast Artifacts, by Douglas Cole, copyright © 
1985 by Douglas Cole, and published 1985 by University of Wash- 
ington Press, Seattle and London. 



1 . Alphonse Pinart was a wealthy Frenchman who collected antiquities and 
anthropological materials. 

2. An island group on the coast of British Columbia, 
i. A pioneer resident of Washington Territory. 

4. A young Norwegian who had experience collecting ethnological materials 

on the Northwest Coast. 1 1 




Northwest Coast Indian houses at Chicago World's Fair, 1893. House at left is Haida; at center, Kwakiutl. Third totem pole from left is on 
permanent exhibit in Stanley Field Hall. Remainder are in the permanent exhibit Maritime Peoples of the Arctic and Northwest Coast. 
Courtesy American Museum of Natural History. 



home the Hagenbeck' Bella Coolas, was to make a Bel- 
la Coola collection. Mrs. O. Morrison, native wife of 
Charles Morrison, the Fort Simpson trader so helpful to 
Swan, was to collect at Port Essington and on the 
Skeena. Swan himself, now seventy-three years old 
and already working for Washington State's exhibit, 
was to collect from Cape Flattery. Myron Eells, a Con- 
gregational minister also engaged in the state display, 
was charged with gathering a representative collection 
of the Puget Sound Salish, while others were asked to 
collect at Shoalwater Bay and in the British Columbia 
interior. 

The Boas team began their work in earnest in the 
spring of 1892. Their collections began arriving in Chi- 
cago in the fall, stored in the acres of warehouses spe- 
cially erected for the exposition. From Deans came 
three boxcarloads of Haida material. "The wide world 
will stand in amazement" was his confident assessment 
of the beauty of Haida art as revealed by his collection. 
Ceremonial and shamanistic material was included. 



5. Carl Hagenbeck was best known as a trainer and exhibitor of wild 
animals: he was also an impressario who produced tours of "live" ethnic 
12 exhibits featuring small groups of people from exotic regions. 



along with an entire Skidegate house and its forty-two- 
foot pole. It was, he admitted, "a rather poor specimen 
of a Haida house but then, as so few of the old houses 
were left & I could do no better." At least as unusual 
was a set of models which accurately reconstructed 
Skidegate village at its 1864 prime: twenty-five houses 
and poles, ten memorial columns, six grave posts, and 
two burial houses. 

Jacobsen sent a Bella Coola collection costing 
$554 and particularly strong in clan and secret society 
material and in stone implements. From Mrs. Morrison 
came almost $500 worth of Nass and Skeena pieces, 
some of which, including two large poles, had been 
bought through merchant Robert Cunningham. Swan 
sent a small collection of sixty-five articles from Neah 
Bay, and Eells a good sampling of everyday articles 
from Puget Sound, as well as a collection of models 
illustrating every canoe type to be found between the 
Columbia River and Cape Flattery. 

Last to arrive — delayed by storms at Fort Rupert 
and Alert Bay — was Hunt's collection. It was easily the 
largest: in addition to a whole house, it had some 365 
pieces heavily emphasizing the winter ceremonials. 
Hamatsa, Grizzly Bear, Nutlamatla — virtually all 



Kwakiutl (and some Bella Coola) secret societies — 
were represented. 

Boas felt that his collaborators' efforts had resulted 
in the most systematic collection ever presented. Put- 
nam judged the collections as "the most complete and 
important ever brought together from this, ethno- 
logically, most interesting region." The assessments 
were exaggerated, but qualifiedly true. On the other 
hand, items were frequently poorly labeled since 
Boas had put aside his usual concern with stories 
and explanations. 

To this collection was added the loaned Tlingit 
collection of Edward E. Ayer, a Chicagoan who had 
made his fortune supplying railway ties, first to the 
Northwestern, then to the Union Pacific roads.* "A nat- 
ural bom collector," his accumulation of ethnological 
artifacts became his chief recreation and delight. He 
had begun as a young man on a trip to California and 
continued while on army service in Arizona and New 
Mexico. Once in business, he collected as he travelled 
across the Plains, realizing that native life would soon 
be a thing of the past. With his wealth he bought every- 
thing he could lay his hands on, almost entirely from 
Indian traders in all parts of North America. His North- 
west Coast collection came largely from an 1887 Alaska 
trip on the Ancona, which called at every cannery. At 
each stop he bought what he could, "and I had good 
luck, for I had two cabins full of Indian stuff." As usual 
it came indirectly: "I very rarely purchased relics 
through chiefs, though; mostly through dealers." Carl 
Spuhn, the Northwest Trading Company's agent at 
Killisnoo, was on board the ship and, observing Ayer's 
purchases, told him that "up in our loft we have any 
quantity of these things, and you can have all you 

6. Edward Ayer was president of Field Museum 1893 to 1899. For more on 
Ayer, see "Books, Business, and Buckskin, " by E. Leland Webber, in the 
July/August 1984 Field Museum Bulletin, pp. 5-10, 19-25. 



want." At Killisnoo he "got all that three or four men 
could carry." Spuhn would take nothing for it. Ayer lat- 
er reflected that the loft collection "would be worth 
several thousand dollars now. He was a very fine 
chap." Before taking it to the World's Fair, Ayer had 
displayed the collection at his Lake Geneva, Wisconsin, 
summer home — in a converted bowling alley. The 
poles were piled up against the bam. 

The Northwest Coast exhibit, along with hundreds 
of others brought to Chicago by Putnam's assistants, by 
private collectors, by states and foreign governments, 
was intended for installation in the gigantic Man- 
ufacturers and Liberal Arts Building. The clamor of 
numerous exhibitors for additional space, however, 
pushed Department M out of that centrally located 
building and into a special one, belatedly begun for 
Putnam's department and a Liberal Arts spillover. 
Inevitably, construction was delayed and the Anthro- 
pological Building was finished a full month after the 
opening of Chicago's Great White City. Despite efficient 
installation by department staff, the exhibits were open 
to the public only on July 4, nine weeks late. Even then 
visitors had difficulty finding the building. 

The Anthropological Building, shoved into the ne- 
glected and badly treated southeast corner of the 
grounds, inaccessible and distant from the central 
buildings, and hemmed in by the lake, the dairy bams, 
powerhouse, and train lines — "by what might be called 
the kitchen and back yard of the exhibition" — was 
"likely to be overlooked by nine out of every ten visi- 
tors." A plain and unpretentious structure whose only 
asset was that it contained the necessary space, "the 
Anthropological Building is the furthest in the rear, 
the most forlorn in its exterior and interior, and pre- 
eminently the one with the most promise of being a 
failure." The sorrowful fact was that Putnam had been 
squeezed out — " buffeted about by more worldly and 



NOW AVAILABLE AT THE FIELD MUSEUM STORE 

CAPTURED HERITAGE 

The Scramble for Northwest Coast Artifacts 

by Douglas Cole 

Published by University of Washington Press 

390 pages 

$17.50 

CI 0% discount for Field Museum Members) 

"Captured Heritage will, in my opinion, appeal to all those with a general . . . interest in the Pacific Northwest as 

well as to those with a more special interest in history and anthropology. It is extremely well written and I truly 

was unable to put it down once I had started reading it." — James W. VanStone, curator of North American 

archaeology and ethnology at Field Museumi. 



13 



self-assertive chiefs of departments" and disliked by 
Director Harlow N. Higinbotham7 

The department's outdoor exhibits were not ham- 
pered by building problems and were ready for the 
opening. Putnam had arranged reproductions of Yuca- 
tan ruins in front of the building and the portal from 
Labna and the Serpent House of Uxmal shared pride of 
place with a Southwest cliff dwelling replicated to nat- 
ural size. On the ethnic grounds north of the building, 
along the shores of South Pond, were the habitations of 
the native groups, most particularly two Northwest 
Coast houses occupied by the Kwakiutl. 

Reminiscent of the unfulfilled ambition of Swan 
and Baird for the 1876 Philadelphia exhibition, and fol- 
lowing a direct precedent established at Paris in 1889, 
the Chicago exhibition would display native groups liv- 
ing in their own habitations and demonstrating their 
crafts, customs, and ceremonies. The thrust of the 
Columbian Exposition was to honor America's pio- 
neers and to celebrate the accomplishments of four 
hundred years of American progress. Putnam's aim 
was even more retrospective: to show the inhabitants 
of pre-Columbian America. The government's office 
of Indian Affairs would exhibit civilization's work upon 
the American aborigines in model schools. 

Boas arranged for Hunt to bring as many as four- 
teen adults (of which four should be married couples). 
The consent of the Canadian Indian Affairs department 
was secured and early in April 1893, fifteen adults and 
two children, led by George Hunt and escorted by 
James Deans, arrived in Chicago. William Hunt and his 
Koskimo wife, the only longhead of the party, were 
with the group. They were all housed temporarily in 
three small rooms in the stock pavilion, with mattresses 
and bed-clothing, six chairs, and two stoves being re- 
quisitioned for their comfort until they moved into the 
traditional beam-and-plank houses on the ethnological 
grounds. The construction of these, threatened by de- 
lays in the confusion of the last days before the fair's 
opening, was completed when Boas himself procured 
some missing timbers. 

The Haida house, standing behind its immense 
pole, was small but impressive. The Kwakiutl house, 
formerly belonging to the Nakumgilisala of Nuwitti, 
was typically painted with a Thunderbird over the door 
and moon crests to each side. Arranged nearby were 
canoes, poles, and posts, most gathered by Boas's col- 
lectors, but several loaned by Ayer. The beach in front 
of the houses was eventually graded for easy canoe 
access. The actual occupation of the houses in May 
became the occasion for "the first of a series of cere- 
monials" since the Indians "never enter any home 
without elaborate ceremonies." A requisition went in 

14 7. Harlow N. Higinbotham was president of Field Museum 1899-1909. 



on the next to the last day before the fair's opening for 
39 yards of blue and scarlet flannel, 232-dozen pearl 
buttons, and other material needed at once to complete 
the outfit of the Fort Rupert Indians. 

Despite the effort at systematic and authentic 
representation, the expeditions to Mexico and South 
America, and Boas's indefatigable anthropometrics and 
Northwest Coast work, the fair's anthropology exhibit 
was something of a failure. It was significant enough in 
its own right (though probably not matching the im- 
pressive Paris display of four years earlier), but when 
pushed to the remote edge of Jackson Park, literally at 
the end of the railway track, it became marginal to the 
exposition. Moreover, the sheer size and diversity of the 
fair overwhelmed the department. 

Chicago's was by far the largest world exposition 
yet undertaken, with more exhibits in an incomparably 
larger area than Paris and well over the Philadelphia 
Centennial's area, number of exhibitions, and atten- 
dance.^ Even the Kwakiutl made very little impression. 
It was not merely that they shared the ethnological 
grounds with an Apache craftsman and a Navaho fam- 
ily in their hogan, with four families of Penobscots in 
their birch bark wigwams, with representatives of the 
Six Nations in a traditional Iroquois bark house, and 
with British Guianese Arawaks in a thatched hut; the 
exoticism of these official exhibitions simply could not 
match the enormous color and panache of the ethno- 
logical exhibition "run riot" on the Midway Plaisance. 
This mile-long "open mart and caravansary of nations" 
was a free-wheeling entrepreneurial sideshow which 
almost overshadowed the exposition itself. Nominally 
the Midway was under the administration of Putnam's 
department of ethnology — appropriate enough, wrote 
the fair's official historian, for here the ethnologist 
could study the actual daily life and customs of "peo- 
ples of every clime and continent, typical representa- 
tives of all the varieties and races of mankind." 
Crowded under G. W. G. Ferris's 250-foot-high wheel 
were 280 Egyptians and Sudanese in a Cairo street, 147 
Indonesians in a Javanese village, 58 Eskimos from 
Labrador, a party of bare-breasted Dahomans in a West 
African setting, Malays, Samoans, Fijians, Japanese, 
Chinese, as well as an Irish village with both Donegal 
and Blarney castles, and a reconstructed old Vienna 
street. The official ethnological exhibition with its 
handful of Kwakiutl, Navaho, and Arawak was 
reduced to insignificance. Only the most unusual or 
bloodcurdling Kwakiutl demonstrations could match 
the erotic Egyptian dancers and other succes de scandale 
of the Midway. 

On May 24 the queen's birthday was officially 
celebrated at the Canadian Building with an afternoon 

8. The area of the Chicago Exposition grounds was 633 acres, compared to 
160 acres for the Paris Exposition of 1889. 




Totem exhibit (including Mesoamerican) in early years of Field Museum, shortly after the Museum was formed out of the collections at the 
Columbian Exhibition, mm 



15 



16 



reception for all British subjects. At the same time a 
Kwakiutl canoe pushed off from the South Pond beach 
and, propelled by a dozen paddles, came round the 
canal and entered the Grand Basin through the classical 
peristyle. As it passed under the arch, the eritire boat- 
load stood up and "howled and danced to the jingle of 
the tamborine." The noise quickly drew several thou- 
sand spectators to the colonnaded waters, there to puz- 
zle over "why the British flag should be floating over 
such a fierce, savage-looking lot."^ 

A far more horrible scene reportedly transpired 
one sweltering mid-August evening. In a gruesome 
enactment of what a journalist called the "Sun Dance," 
George Hunt cut two pairs of gashes through the skin of 
the backs of two Indians. While the two stood motion- 
less. Hunt raised the flesh and passed heavy twine be- 
neath the loose strips and tied the ends firmly together. 
The low monotone chant and the dull drum beats of 
the other Indians now became wilder and more violent 
as the two Indians, rivulets of blood trickling down 
from the cuts in their backs, raced round the platform 
driven like steeds by two more natives who seemed to 
take a wild pleasure in the act. "Around and around 
they ran, leaping, twisting, and diving till it seemed to 
the horror-stricken spectators that each instant would 
see the flesh torn from their bodies." The other Indians 
became frenzied and then, with eyes like wild animals 
and faces like famished wolves, the two tore the ropes 
from their fleshy fastenings, each "snapping and snarl- 
ing like a mad dog" at the other Indians on the plat- 
form. Hunt walked over to one and extended a bare 
arm which was fastened upon with teeth that met in 
the flesh. When finally released, a piece the size of a sil- 
ver dollar was missing from his arm, but he merely 
smiled, showing no signs of pain. In the hour or more 
that had elapsed a large part of their audience of five 
thousand had left, "sickened by the horrible sight."'" 

The Rev. Alfred J. Hall learned of the atrocious per- 
formance from the lurid Sunday Times account. He had 
only just arrived in London from Alert Bay and what he 
read of the pagan behavior of his Kwakiutl flock out- 
raged him. He protested to Ottawa and demanded the 
cancellation of the Kwakiutl's engagement if that were 
at all possible. Before leaving Alert Bay he had, he said, 
done all he could to persuade the Indians not to go to 
Chicago and he confessed to having had some influ- 
ence so that those who went had been gathered almost 
wholly from other villages. At Chicago on his way to 
London, he had personally observed that the U.S. gov- 
ernment was proudly exhibiting civilized bands from 
their industrial schools, while from Canada came "only 

9. New York Times. Ma>' 25, ;S93, 2. 

10. "A Brutal Exhibition." New York Times, August 19. 1893, 5; 
"Horrible Scene at the Fair. " The Sunday Times (London). August 20, 
1893, 3. 





17 



Model ofKwakiutl village originally on view at Columbian Exposition. Shown here, shortly after, in the Field Museum (Jackson Park), ww* 



this display of paganism, chosen by Dr. Boaz [sic] 
because the most degraded he could find in the 
Dominion."" 

Lawrence Vankoughnet, the deputy superinten- 
dent general of Indian Affairs and the recipient of Hall's 
outraged letter, responded immediately. He asked the 
Canadian commissioner at Chicago to have such 
exhibitions stopped at the earliest possible moment. A. 
W. Vowell, Powell's successor in Victoria, was told to 
ascertain from Kwakiutl agent R. H. Pidcock if he had 
known of Hunt's object in asking the Indians to appear 
at the fair and, if so, what measure he had taken to 
frustrate the endeavor. Pidcock replied that he knew 
Hunt had been commissioned by Boas to make a 
collection of curios and to persuade about a dozen Indi- 
ans to go to Chicago to illustrate their mode of life, but 
he had had no idea that Hunt contemplated any such 
dance as reported. He had discouraged any Indians 
who had asked his advice. He had been led to believe, 
he wrote, "that the party were in [the] charge of Dr 
Boaz or his agent and that Hunt was only employed as 
Interpreter, as I should not consider that he was at all a 
fit and proper person to have charge of a party of Indi- 
ans." From Chicago J. S. Larke confirmed the event. 
Although "the barbarism I think was not as great as 
described," some of the cruel and revolting scenes as 
reported in the Sunday Times had occurred. So much 
repugnance had been created that exposition authori- 
ties promised to halt any repeat performance. 

Like the Bella Coola's performance of an "Eagle 
Dance," it is difficult to determine how much of this 
"Sun Dance" was real and how much hokum. Boas de- 

;;. Letter from Rev. A. J. HalltoL. Vankoughnet, August 24. 1893. 



18 



Marketplace for the Arts 

Loop Facility Features Wares 
of Chicago Cultural Institutions 

September 27 was opening day for Marketplace for the 
Arts, in the lobby at 150 N. Michigan Avenue. The new 
facility, open 10am through 6pm each weekday, is a 
fresh concept in marketing and promoting the wares and 
the activities of five major cultural institutions in Chi- 
cago: the Field Museum, the Chicago Historical Society, 
Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Lyric Opera, and the 
Museum of Contemporary Art. 

Dolls in costumes of the 1920s and 30s are sold 
alongside limited-edition silk scarves, Hopi pottery, 
chocolates from Long Grove Confectionery, Alessi tea- 
kettles, and other distinctive items. The interior design 
of Marketplace for the Arts, created by A. Epstein and 
Sons, is an eclectic mix representing the structures that 
house the five institutions. Commonwealth Edison is 
sponsor of the new facility. 



scribed a similar dance, the hawi'nalaL, a few years la- 
ter and, though he usually was careful to mention the 
special effects used to simulate bloody scenes, his 
account contains no mention of theatrical devices. 
Charles Nowell described a similar ceremony, which he 
called the "Warrior Dance," in which there was no fak- 
ery — it "hurted a little bit" when the flesh was pierced, 
but during the dance "I didn't hardly feel any pain at 
all." Larke's letter, too, seems testimony that the news- 
paper reports, though exaggerated, had a basis in fact. 
Another incident involving apparently vicious and 
bloody beatings turned out to be pure folly: the clubs 
were made of kelp and filled with red paint. 

While the presence of fifteen Kwakiutl in Jackson 
Park for the better part of six months occasioned diffi- 
culties (there were, for example, some liquor prob- 
lems), the group did not in other ways produce as 
much interest as Boas might have liked. Moreover, he 
found himself too busy with administrative work to 
advance greatly his own Kv>'akiutl studies. He was able, 
however, to teach Hunt to record linguistic texts in 
phonetic script, preliminary to the thousands of pages 
of myths, descriptions, and other texts that Hunt would 
send to New York in the following years. 

In one respect the fair was a reunion. Capt. J. 
Adrian Jacobsen was at Hagenbeck's Arena on the 
Midway where he exhibited the unsold portion of the 
British Columbia collection which he and Fillip had 
made in 1885-86. George Hunt, Jacobsen's very useful 
assistant back in 1881-82, and his brother William and 
his wife were, of course, in Chicago. All three had in- 
tended to go with the Jacobsens to Germany eleven 
years before. Boas discovered that almost all the Kwa- 
kiutl material in Berlin had been bought from members 
of the Chicago troupe and that he could get full descrip- 
tions of the specimens for Bastian. '-^ Jacobsen even 
claimed partial credit for the Kwakiutls' presence in 
Chicago: the favorable reports made by the returned 
Bella Coolas of their trip to Europe had helped Hunt in 
convincing his Kwakiutl friends to make the Chicago 
visit. 

Jacobsen's collection, inappropriately displayed 
among Hagenbeck's trained animals, was only one of a 
number of Northwest Coast collections which sup- 
plemented the Boas-supervised material in Department 
M. In the Anthropology Building itself, not far from 
Boas's display, was a large collection gathered and 
exhibited by Captain Newton H. Chittenden, "the pic- 
turesque explorer and investigator" who held official 
appointment as a British Columbia special com- 
missioner to the exposition. Next to Chittenden's arti- 
facts were "collections of ethnological material from 
British Columbia and Baffin Land" exhibited by Mrs. 

12. Adolf Bastion was a German ethnologist who served as director of the 
Prussian Museum for Volkerkunde. 



Franz Boas, material collected by Boas, perhaps largely 
in 1886, and not sold to Berlin or elsewhere. Not far 
away was Ayer's large North American collection, 
including a considerable selection of Tlingit basketry, 
and the Alaska collection of E. O. Stafford that had 
been gathered by A. P. Swineford while governor of the 
territory. In the physical anthropology section, located 
in the building's north gallery, were Boas's Vancouver 
Island skulls, systematically displayed in glass cases 
among other cranial examples. 

Northwest Coast displays could be found else- 
where on the grounds. The British Columbia room of 
the Canadian Building, itself guarded at its main 
entrance by two Haida bear sculptures, contained "a 
handsome collection of curios" gathered by Indian 
agents under the supervision of A. W. Vowell. Superin- 
tendent Vowell had made the collection reluctantly, 
feeling that the $4,000 he understood Boas to be 
spending was enough to "carry out the object desired." 
The $500 advanced him by the Department of Indian 
Affairs could fetch "but little of interest" since "all the 
best things that were available are pretty well ex- 
hausted by the drains constantly made upon them by 
tourists and by the said agents of the World's Fair." 



Ottawa would hear of no such thing and, learning that 
the fair's collection would not be "exhaustive," insisted 
that every effort had to be made to see that the Indians 
and their manufactures were fairly represented. Vowell 
shipped material costing $495.40, mostly minor items 
like mats and spoons, but certainly enough to prove 
to British Columbia's own commissioner in Chicago 
that his province's aborigines were "of higher artistic 
development than any of the Indians to the east of 
the Rockies."'^ 

Washington State's pavilion contained an 
Eells-Swan collection. In the U. S. Government 
Building, about a thousand yards from the 
Anthropology Building and much more central, Lt. G. 
T. Emmons displayed his huge collection of Alaskan 
Indian material, some 2,474 items supplemented by 
another 500 collected by Sheldon Jackson from Point 
Barrow Eskimos. Gathered since his 1888 sale of 1,350 
pieces to the American Museum, the size, quality, and 
careful cataloguing of this collection established 
Emmons in first place as a Northwest Coast collector. 



13. Letter from A. W. Vowel! to L. Vankoughnet, October 19, 1892. 





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— «»— ^S^'**^^-^^^^^- 



Members of Snake in the Grass 
Moving Theatre perform myth- 
ical themes of the Northwest Coast 
Indians on Saturday and Sunday, 
December 14 and 15, 2:00pm, in 
Stanley Field Hall. For addition- 
al information, seep. 5. 



19 



More comprehensive was the Smithsonian exhibition, 
jointly organized by the National Museum and the 
Bureau of Ethnology and based on Powell's linguistic 
map. 

Among the language stocks selected to explore the 
relationship of language, ethnicity, and environment 
were the Koloschan (Tlingit), the Salishan (Bella Coola 
and Salish), the Skittigetan (Haida), and the Wakashan 
(Kwakiutl, Nootka, and Makah), each represented by 
costumed figures and wall cases of artifacts. Unlike 
Putnam's exhibit, the Smithsonian's was ready for the 
opening of the fair. It was, wrote a visiting French 
anthropologist, "extremement belle dans toutes ses 
parties." 

The Columbian World's Fair closed in October and 
the process of winding down this largest of expositions 
began. The Kwakiutl troupe went back by Canadian 
Pacific rail. Putnam carried on a long argument with 
the railway company that they "be returned free like 
other exhibits, as they were exhibits in every sense of 
the term." Boas was glad to see them go. Nothing had 
ever caused him more worry and trouble; he swore 
"never again to play circus impressario." Deans, left 
behind at a dinner stop on the Prairies, wired ahead 
that the Indians be put off at the next stop, there to 
await him on the next day's train. Thereafter, according 
to Hunt, Deans "acted Bad to us. I did not like his way 
at all." The old Scotsman apparently lorded over his 
charges, not letting Hunt know what he was doing and 
telling everyone that Hunt was "one of his Indians." 
Indeed, Hunt felt that Deans "was wors than Indian." 
Putnam had arranged for $2,100 to be placed on 
deposit at the Bank of British North America in Victoria 
in Hunt's name. Hunt paid off "the boys," $150 to each, 
then returned to Fort Rupert to suffer from a serious 
measles epidemic that laid him low and, to his great 
sorrow, brought the death of his youngest son. 

The collection in Chicago went various ways. 
Captain Chittenden packed up his "Collection of Relics 
and Antiquities" for shipment to the California 
Mid- Winter Exposition. The explorer and guide had 
given it to the Province of British Columbia in I89I, but 
took it on the exhibition circuit (he had already been to 
London for the Colonial and Imperial Exposition and to 
Antwerp) before depositing it in Victoria in 1894 after 
the close of the California fair. The Washington State 
collection returned to become part of a state museum 
in Seattle. The Canadian Department of Indian Affairs 
intended to sell its collection, but, finding that Indian 
curios were a glut on the market, decided to send it 
back to Ottawa where it might form the nucleus of a 
museum at the department offices. Eventually it ended 
up at the Geological Survey's museum. 

Department M's collections were kept in Chicago. 
Partly as a result of Putnam's prodding, the leaders of 
20 the fair and the city decided to make exhibits from the 



exposition the basis of a permanent museum on the 
grounds. The collection of Hunt, Morrison, F. Jacobsen, 
et al. were moved to the Palace of Fine Arts, the build- 
ing chosen to house the new Columbian Museum. 
To those collections were added, by gift, the Ayer 
collection, and, by purchase, Hagenbeck's Jacobsen 
collection, the Stafford- Swineford collection, and, at 
least provisionally, Boas's skull and skeleton collection. 

Boas intended to stay with the collections. He 
expected to be placed in charge of the anthropological 
department of the new museum. That was certainly 
Putnam's recommendation. As he wrote to Ayer, the 
moving force behind the new museum, "Dr. Boas is the 
only person besides myself who is qualified to take 
charge of the anthropological material" and the only 
one left in Chicago who could bring order from the 
chaos of stacked boxes at the former Fine Arts Building. 
Putnam wanted very much that Boas be kept so that 
the "vast amount of exceptionally important and 
valuable material I have brought together should be 
placed in the proper charge of one who not only knows 
all about it, but who is the best man the museum can 
get to take charge of it." 

It did not happen so. Putnam, never popular with 
the dominant forces of the exposition's administration 
and no more so with their successors in the Columbian 
Museum, found his influence thin and his advice ig- 
nored. Boas was kept on temporarily, but when the 
trustees found they could secure. W. H. Holmes of the 
Bureau of Ethnology as curator, they hired him. Boas 
properly felt himself the victim of an "unsurpassed 
insult" and departed Chicago on April 15, as soon as 
his installations were in place. 

He had long left his position at Clark University, 
part of a general revolt of the faculty against President 
G. Stanley Hall. Virtually all the others had been 
snapped up by the University of Chicago's W. R. 
Harper, but Boas had been passed over. The increasing 
demands of Putnam's department at the fair had turned 
his assistantship into full-time work and seemed to 
promise permanency at the successor museum. Now 
that had suddenly disappeared. He was too proud 
to accept an inferior position and his professional 
standing demanded that he should not. He was again 
unemployed and dependent upon contract work. 

In the meanwhile he would spend the summer in 
Germany, then travel again to British Columbia to 
work toward the completion of the British Associa- 
tion's Northwest Tribes Committee research that had 
been left in abeyance because of his duties for Chicago. 
He could combine this with special assignments from 
Putnam for the American Museum and from Otis T. 
Mason for the U.S. National Museum. Both wanted to 
have Northwest Coast figure groups for their displays 
and no one was better qualified to supervise their 
construction than Boas.FH 



Field Museum Founders' Council 
Marks Second Anniversary 



JLt is commonplace to think of a museum's growth in 
terms of increment — the increase in size and scope of 
the collections, in particular. But we experience growth 
in additional ways — types of growth that are responses 
to the constantly evolving cultural climate in which 
we live. 

This is especially true in the present age, when it is 
neither accurate nor fashionable to view museums as 
exotic showcases. Within the most recent half of Field 
Museum's history, a kind of symbiotic relationship be- 
tween the Museum and its community has become in- 
creasingly apparent: The Volunteer Program had its 
inception during the years of World War II. Members of 
the community who had an interest in participating as 
part-time volunteers filled a critical need when the war 
effort drew away staff members. The arrangement was 
so successful that it was perpetuated in peacetime. In 
the sixties the Women's Board was formed by local wom- 
en who also felt a need to contribute in a very personal 
way to the promotion and support of Field Museum. 

In 1983 the community's involvement with Field 
Museum was further broadened when TUistee Bowen 
Blair and other Museum friends created the Founders' 
Council, enabling the Museum's constituency to enter 
into an equally important relationship with it. Mr. 
Blair, a prime mover in organizing the Council, had 
been a TVustee since 1961 (he was elected Life TVustee 
in 1984), continuing a family commitment to the 
Museum that dated back for several decades. His father, 
William McCormick Blair, had served as TY^istee or Life 
lYiistee for 42 years. In addition to Bowen Blair's ser- 
vice on the Board, he and Mrs. Blair were Museum 
Benefactors, as was his father before him. Fittingly, 
Bowen Blair served as the Council's first chairman. 
Thomas J. Eyerman, named a Trustee in 1984, suc- 
ceeded Blair as Council chairman, inaugurating during 
his tenure a broad range of innovative participatory 
programs for Council members. 

The new Council gave Museum Members the 
opportunity to help provide leadership in advancing 
the natural sciences through collections, research, 
exhibits, and teaching. Like the Museum's founding 
fathers, they were able to contribute directly to a 
greater understanding of the world's cultural and 
physical environment. 

Membership in the Founders' Council became 
available to individuals or couples who provided an 
annual gift of $1,500, a single or accumulated gift of 



$25,000 or more, or a deferred gift of $50,000 or more. 
Corporations, businesses, or foundations qualified 
through an annual gift of $5,000 or a single or accu- 
mulated gift of $50,000. 

The stated purposes of the Council, now entering 
its third year under the chairmanship of Thistee Henry 
T. Chandler, are to enhance public understanding and 
support of the Museum's programs, to stimulate public 
participation in Museum affairs, to establish an exem- 
plary pattern of giving to the Museum, and to discuss 
the plans, problems, and objectives of the Museum. 
Membership in the Council now stands at near 300, 
including 40 corporations, companies, and founda- 
tions. Six honorary members complete the present 
membership list. 

In special recognition of the continuing role of 
founders in the Museum's future, the Founders' Room 
was created out of the offices of former Field Museum 
President Stanley Field. The attractive new facility 
was made possible through the generosity of Council 
members Dr. and Mrs. Edwin DeCosta and the Walter 
E. Heller Foundation. 

Notable activities since the Council's founding 
have included diimers and luncheons featuring distin- 
guished scientists as guests, highlighted by lectures 
on their research activities; natural history tours to 
Upper Michigan (botany and geology) and Texas 
(ornithology); and a special award reception for 
world-renowned Stephen Jay Gould, recipient of the 
Council's Award of Merit. The award, which included 
a cash prize of $ 1,000, was in recognition of Dr. Gould's 
contributions to science and for his advancement of 
scientific literacy. 

The Council's most recent event was a September 
28 black-tie dinner and symposium, "Field Museum: 
Ambassador to the World," at which His Excellency 
Fernando Belaunde Terry, past president of Peru, and 
Mrs. Belaunde were honored. The theme of the eve- 
ning's program was Field Museum's research in Peru. 
Participating in the symposium were Museum cura- 
tors Michael O. Dillon (Botany), Robert A. Feldman 
(Anthropology), and John W. Fitzpatrick (Birds). The 
Belaundes were made honorary members of the Coun- 
cil (joining in that special category the Grand Duke 
and Duchess of Luxembourg, Stephen Jay Gould, and 
paleoanthropologist Donald C. Johanson). The Mid- 
America Committee co-hosted the evening affair. Fli 



21 



Year-End Giving 



by Clifford Buzard 
Planned Giving Officer 



Thanksgiving Day, Hanukkah, and Christmas Day 
crowd themselves into less than a month of days and 
create a holiday spirit unmatched by any other season 
of the year. It is a season of joy, thanksgiving, giving, 
and sharing. The annual ritual of newspaper advertise- 
ments warning, "(number) Days Left for Shopping," 
creates a frenetic countdown as people from all walks 
of life plan their gifts to loved ones, friends, and favorite 
charities. 

Another countdown takes place at the same time, 
a countdown that forces virtually everyone to get 
organized and plan. This is the year-end countdown, 
to midnight December 31, after which income, deduc- 
tions, profits and losses for the year must be toted to 
determine that Tax Man's due. 



For more than a year. Field Museum has encountered a 
countdown of its own, looking to its Centennial Year 
1993. To prepare the Museum for the people of the 
Museum 's second century, many visitor areas, includ- 
ing older exhibits, are being remodeled and even recon- 
structed. A new Gem Hall — to be named after a 
Museum friend and major donor — /5 opening in this 
month of November 

Other halls on each of the three floors of exhibit 
space are temporarily closed,- as they, too, are being re- 
mounted, using modern techniques of lighting and 
exhibition, and incorporating new scientific knowl- 
edge. For donors wishing to make a significantly large 
gift, there are various visitor areas and portions of these 
halls, as well as the halls themselves, that can be named 
for or by the donor 



The person who enjoys the Holidays is the person 
who planned ahead and was not caught in the last- 
minute rush in either shopping or tax-planning. 

The astute person enjoys the best of two worlds: as 
he plans his charitable giving to take the greatest 
advantage allowed by tax regulations, he also derives 
pleasure and satisfaction through his giving during this 
season. Year-end giving has this double advantage. 

The manner in which the gift is given and the type 
of gift can be extremely important to the person who 
plans ahead. Thus, "year-end giving," so called, does 
22 take on a variety of forms. Some of these forms follow: 



Gifts of Cash 

It has been said that there are only two kinds of gifts, 
"planned," and "unplarmed," and gifts of cash are 
usually thought of as impulse, or unplanned, gifts. 
However, the donor who wishes to derive the most sa- 
tisfaction from his giving, will take as much time in 
thoughtful consideration concerning a cash gift as he 
would if involved in the most complicated type of gift 
of property other than cash. 

Cash giving, nevertheless, is the most popular and 
simplest form of giving. For the person who itemizes 
the federal tax return, cash gifts up to 50 percent of 
one's adjusted gross income may be deducted in any 
given year. 

For those who do not itemize deductions, but pay 
income tax through the "short form," 1985 may be the 
best year ever to give a substantial cash gift. Last year's 
allowable deduction for "non-itemizers" was only $75. 
For 1985, for the first time, one-half of the "non- 
itemizer's" gift may be deducted, up to 50 percent of 
adjusted gross income. Tax proposals currently pending 
would eliminate the deduction fo. "non-itemizers" 
completely. 

Gifts of Securities 

A popular form of giving over the years on the part of 
many friends of the Museum has been gifts of stock and 
other securities. Under the proper circumstances, giving 
of securities is less costly than giving the equivalent 
amount in cash. A person's own situation will deter- 
mine whether this applies, and, before any such gift is 
given, it is wise to check with a tax adviser or attorney. 
Essentially, there are three ways in which to give 
securities: 

1 . Giving stock that has increased in value. When 
selling a stock that has increased in value, there is a 
capital gains tax to pay, even if the proceeds are given 
to the Museum. However, if the appreciated stock cer- 
tificate itself is given to the Museum, a person can take 
a charitable deduction for the total value, including the 
appreciation, without realizing any capital gains tax 
liability. 

2. "The Bargain Sale," giving only the apprecia- 
tion: On occasion a donor wishes to give only the gains 
reflected in an appreciated security. He can do this by 
selling the stock to the Museum at his original cost. He 



is, in effect, giving away the capital gain, while he pre- 
serves his original worth. While this is a gift of capital 
gains, the donor in such a circumstance is liable for a 
portion of capital gains tax, and should be well advised 
by his attorney or tax accountant. 

3. If a donor has a "poor performer" (a stock that 
has gone down in value), he can eliminate it from his 
portfolio and make a gift to the Museum at the same 
time. This is the only circumstance where the donor 
would actually sell the security and give the proceeds 
to the Museum. In that way, the donor realizes a chari- 
table deduction, but also can declare the loss as a 
deduction. 

Giving appreciated stock — giving the certificates 
themselves — can be done in two ways. One, the donor 
can instruct his brokerage firm to have the shares trans- 
ferred into the name of Field Museum of Natural His- 
tory, and have the firm mail the certificate to the 
Museum. Upon receipt of the certificate, the Museum 
will issue a receipt. Ttansferring stock into another 
name can take several weeks; if the donor is trying to 
meet the December 31 deadline for tax purposes, there 
is a quicker method of giving the certificates: 

The donor should send the certificate (unen- 
dorsed) by Registered Mail to the Development Office 
of Field Museum. At the same time, but in a separate 
envelope, the donor should send to the Museum an 
assignment form (or "stock power") that has been filled 
out and signed in the presence of a broker or national 
bank officer (who will stamp it "signature guaran- 
teed"). Upon receipt of both, the Development Office 
will send a receipt to the donor. 

Stocks, bonds, mutual funds, money market funds, 
certificates of deposit — all offer several alternatives for 
giving. In general, the donor will want to give only 
those securities that he has owned for the legally 
required long-term holding period. 

Gifts of Real Estate 

The varied types of real estate — homes, farms, condo- 
miniums, interests in buildings, undeveloped property, 
or a summer cottage — make welcome gifts to the 
Museum. In many cases, the same benefits accrue to 
the donor as in the giving of securities. Under a "life 
estate" agreement, a person may give the very home he 
lives in, take an income tax deduction for a portion of 
the home's fair market value, yet, live in the home for 
life. 



How Things Change 

Do you hold the same opinions today 
that you held 10 years ago? Do you 
have greater income now than when 
you first started work? As a result, are 
you more secure financially, or in 
other ways? 

Times change, and, in many 
ways, most of us change, too. 
Shouldn't your will reflect the 
changes in your life, which can affect 
your loved ones and allow you to 
provide better for them? 

Send for the complimentary 
booklet offered below, and learn more 
about how your will can change to 
work for you. 



CLIP AND MAIL TODAY 

To: Clifford Buzaid 

Planned Giving Officer 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at L.ake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605 

n Please send me a complimentary copy of "How to Pro- 
tect Your Rights with a Will." 



Name . 



(please print) 
Address 



City . 



. State . 



Phone: (home) 



. (office) . 



. Zip . 



Best time to call: (day) . 



. (hour) . 



Gifts of Life Insureince 

While life insurance policies do not have to go through 
the probate process, they are counted in a decedent's 
gross estate for federal estate tax purposes. For this rea- 
son, some persons fmd it advantageous to give the 



23 



Museum life insurance policies. There are immediate 
advantages as well: 

By giving a policy irrevocably to the Museum, the 
donor may take an immediate income tax deduction 
for the cash surrender value of the policy. Even if it is 
not a paid-up policy, this can be done; the annual pre- 
miums the donor continues to pay create charitable 
contribution deductions each year. 

A person may change the beneficiary of a policy to 
Field Museum. If he does this irrevocably, he, too, can 
take advantage of the tax deduction. 

Field Museum urges Members also to consider 
naming the Museum as beneficiary — or even, con- 
tingent beneficiary — not only of life insurance policies, 
but also of pension plans and individual retirement 
accounts (iras), tax-sheltered annuities, and certificates 
of deposit, even U.S. savings bonds. 



Giving Other Personal Property 

Forms of personal property other than cash, securities, 
and life insurance, fall in a huge category of "gifts-in- 
kind." Any asset can be considered "giveable," and 
some of these items, not usually thought of in terms of 
charitable gifts, are greatly appreciated by the Museum. 
Examples of property that may be given to the Museum 
are: automobiles, trucks, boats, art, jewelry, furniture, 
antiques, artifacts, collections of stamps, coins, or gems, 
and books. 

Making a "gift-in-kind" can be complicated, due 
to IRS regulations. Generally, the fair market value can 
be taken as a tax deduction. However, the onus lies 
with the donor to "prove up" the value satisfactorily 
with the government agency. The iRS regulations call 
for filing a special form for such gifts valued at $5,000 
or more. Furthermore, the tax law makes a distinction 
between gifts "to" an institution and "for the use of an 
institution. It is, therefore, wise to consult an attorney 
or tax adviser, when considering making a "gift-in- 
kind." 



Receiving Income From One's Gift 

Museum Members are discovering the advantages to 
them of giving large amounts through trust agree- 
ments. Through such agreements, income generated by 
the gift is obtained by the donor for life. 

Basically, these agreements are in the form of one 
of three types of trusts: the Pooled Income Fund, and 
the charitable remainder annuity and charitable re- 
mainder unitrust. 



These forms of life income trusts have several 
benefits and advantages: 

!> A person can make a substantial and self-satisfying 
gift during lifetime, yet retain the security of a life in- 
come from that gift. 

i> By including long-term, highly appreciated stock 
into the trust, capital gains are unlocked for possible 
greater income. 

O As with any outright gift of securities, capital gains 
are not recognized, and, therefore, no capital gains tax 
is accrued. 

(O The donor receives an immediate income tax 
deduction on a portion of the entire amount of the gift. 
This portion is governed by irs actuarial tables, and the 
deductible factor depends on the donor's age and the 
yieldof the trust. 

c?- Charitable life income trusts provide professional 
money and investment management. This is often the 
greatest advantage of such trusts established by will: it 
protects the principal from the spendthrift heir, and it 
can protect the heir from cunning relatives or 
unscrupulous salesmen. 

Both the charitable remainder annuity trust and 
charitable remainder unitrust are trusts set up for an 
individual donor. The Pooled Income Fund is a trust 
established for the benefit of several donors. The Pooled 
Income Fund has the same benefits and advantages as 
the individual charitable life income trusts; only the in- 
come interest (amount of the gift) is smaller. Generally, 
the Pooled Income Fund accepts participation with a 
minimum gift of $10,000; for the donor's best advan- 
tage, individual life income trusts should be established 
with a minimum of $100,000. Any Member interested 
in these vehicles of so-called "deferred" giving, is wel- 
come to call the Planned Giving Office (312) 322-8858 
— for detailed information. 

Setting aside all the income tax deductions possi- 
ble, all the lifetime incomes possible, and all the mone- 
tary advantages and benefits of giving to Field 
Museum, the greatest benefit of a gift is still there. That 
benefit is the donor's great satisfaction derived from 
giving. This satisfaction is all the more enhanced when 
the donor realizes the importance of the gift to the 
charitable institution. The donor to Field Museum of 
Natural History knows that he is helping one of the 
world's great museums; he is helping an educational 
and research institution of national and international 
renown. During this decade's countdown to the 
Museum Centennial of 1993, the donor's greatest satis- 
faction will come from the knowledge that he has 
helped assure the Museum for the people of its second 
century. FH 



24 



viewing Halley's Comet 

by Paul R Sipiera and Edward Olsen 



Halley's Comet is now just weeks away. As de- 
scribed in the June Bulletin ("The Comet Com- 
eth," pp. 18-25), by early December we will have our 
first chance to see it. As noted there, the visual sight- 
ing of this famous comet is, unfortunately, going to 
be the worst in a thousand years, but the 1985-86 
passage will be studied in great detail by space probes 
from the ussR, Japan, and the European Space Agen- 
cy (ESA). The ESA probe, Giotto, will pass within 400 
miles of the comet's nucleus after penetrating the 
gaseous, dusty, bright envelope, or coma, surrounding 
the nucleus. 

The recent successful passage of a U.S. satel- 
lite, ICE, through the dense part of another comet, 
Giacobini-Zinner, suggests that the much-feared dam- 
age a probe could suffer by the outpouring of high- 
speed dust particles from the comet's nucleus, may 
not be so great after all. If this is true of Comet Hal- 
ley, then Giotto might send back an extraordinary 
amount of information, undiminished by dust impact. 

Viewing is going to be best in the Southern 
Hemisphere because the comet will pass higher in the 
sky there when it is brightest. Unfortunely for view- 
ers in that hemisphere, Halley will then be positioned 
against the Milky Way, diminishing contrast. Bright 



moonlight at this time will also tend to wash out de- 
tail of the comet's tail. In the Northern Hemisphere 
the comet will appear relatively low in the sky, which 
means you have to be out in open country, away 
from structures and trees, and definitely away 
from lights. 

To view the comet it is desirable to have a fairly 
strong pair of wide-field binoculars. Such binoculars 
are 7x50, 7x35, 8x40 — wide field. A small telescope 
with a wide field is also fine; however, many small 
telescopes have high magnification and narrow fields 
of view. This means that it is difficult to locate the 
comet because you see only a tiny bit of the sky at a 
time. If you are lucky enough to lock onto it with 
such a telescope, the motion of the earth will cause 
the comet to move rapidly out of view unless your 
telescope is driven by a clockwork mechanism to 
synchronize it with the earth's motion. Unless you 
have such a telescope and considerable experience, 
photographing the comet is difficult. 

In the accompanying table are summarized the 
best viewing times (Central Standard Time) for 
Chicago-area viewers. 

Paul P. Sipiera is a research associate in the Department of Geology; 
Edward Olsen is curator of mineralogy. 



Comet Halley's Positions as Viewed from Chicago's Latitude 



Date 


Time 


Angle 
above horizon 


Direction 


Brightness 


Constellation 


12/1/85 


5:35pm 


46° 




ESE 


Weak 


Pisces 


12/15/85 


5:35pm 


51° 




ssw 


Weak 


Pisces 


12/30/85 


5:43pm 


35° 




sw 


Brighter 


Aquarius 


1/4/86 


6:00pm 


29° 




wsw 


Brighter 


Aquarius 


1/15/86 


6:00pm 


16° 




wsw 


Brighter 


Aquarius 


1/30/86 


Too close to the sun; lost in 


the glare 








3/5/86 


5:15pm 


4° 




ESE 


Bright 


Capricorn 


3/15/86 


5:00am 


6° 




ESE 


Bright 


Sagittarius 


3/30/86 


4:35am 


6° 




SSE 


Bright 


Sagittarius 


4/2/86 


4:35am 


5° 




SSE 


Bright 


Scorpio 


4/8/86 


4:20am 


At horizon 


SSE 


Brightest 


Scorpio 



To estimate the angle above the horizon you can hold your flattened hand palm sideways at arm's length. The angle it makes 
is approximately 7°. Thus, 5 hands edge to edge is about 35°. The brightness is given in relative terms, rather than in 
astronomical brightness units, which defy brief explanation. "Weak" means the comet will be about as bright as an average 
weak star. "Brightest" means it will be about as bright as a fairly bright star It will never be as bright as such objects as Venus 
or the Moon. Constellation refers to the zodiac constellation in the background behind the comet's position. 



25 



Tours For Members 




26 



The Precolumbian observatory at Chicken Itza, Yucatan 

Yucatan Discovery Cruise 

January 10-26, 1986 

A team of specialists will take you through the incred- 
ible ruins of the Yucatan, built by the highly cultured 
Mayan peoples between the 3rd and 13th centuries a.d. 
Cruising aboard the Greek-staffed Stella Solaris, we will 
visit Playa Del Carmen, Uxmal, Tlilum, the famed cere- 
monial city of Chichen Itza, and the newly excavated 
Coba. There will be plenty of swimming, snorkeling, 
and sunbathing in Xel-Ha, Akumal Beach, and 
Cozumel. In addition, we will visit the modern resort 
of Cancun, the island of Grand Cayman and Montego 
Bay 

Egypt 

January 29-February 15, 1986 
$3,715 

Explore Egypt, the land of ancient mysteries. Journey 
from bustling Cairo, with its renowned Egyptian 
Museum, its mosques, minarets, and markets, into the 
ghostly silence of ruined cities, splendrous temples, and 
noble tombs. The 5,000-year-old Step Pyramid, the 
massive stone ruins of Karnak, and the Colossi of 
Memnon all beckon the curious and inspire respect for 
a culture as old as Western civilization itself. As you 
cruise the Nile, observe age-old scenes along the shore, 
for life in the fertile Nile Valley has changed but little. 
We encourage early enrollment, since spaces fill quickly 
for this breathtaking journey into the past. 



Baja California 

March 8-23, 1986 

Less than 50 miles south of the U.S. -Mexico border 
begins a peaceful world of subtropical beauty — the Sea 
of Cortez (Gulf of California). Over 600 miles long, this 
gulf is a paradise for marine vertebrate and invertebrate 
life — and for those of us who enjoy its study. Field 
Museum members will have the opportunity to 
know this sea of wonders in a voyage that will all but 
complete the circumnavigation of the peninsula of 
Baja California. 

Until 1973 road travel in Baja California required 
rugged vehicles and rugged souls. Even now less than 5 
percent of the coast is accessible by road. And although 
for decades fishermen and scientists have found the 
region a treasure house of riches, it has escaped popular 
attention. In the 1970s world interest in whales grew. 
At the same time there was a dramatic increase in the 
numbers of California gray whales, and today each year 
from December through April, 15,000 gray whales visit 
Baja's Pacific lagoons to breed, give birth, and nurture 
their young. 

It was our desire to organize a Field Museum tour 
to this area. All that was needed was a small, maneu- 
verable, comfortable ship. We found it — the Pacific 
Northwest Explorer — and in January 1981 our first Field 
Museum circumnavigation from San Felipe to San 
Diego began. There were pelicans and huiimiingbirds, 
strange endemic plants, lovely scenery, and whales and 
dolphins beyond expectation. During this and the next 
two voyages we encountered not only many gray 
whales, but also fin, humpback, sei, and, the largest of 
all — blue whales. At San Benitos we walked among 
huge "hauled out" colonies of northern elephant seals. 
And we saw more than 130 different birds and 120 
fish species. 

Now is your chance to experience the solemnity 
and the life, the aridness and the wealth, the starkness 
and the beauty that is Baja California. Now is your 
chance to join Field Museum's 1986 tour to Baja Cafi- 
fornia, to be led by Dr. Robert K. Johnson, curator of 
Fishes at Field Museum. Dr. Johnson is a highly experi- 
enced tour leader This will be his fourth trip around 
Baja California. Special Expeditions, a division of Lind- 
blad TVavel, operators of the ship to be used, will pro- 
vide several additional naturalists whose expertise will 
further enrich our experience. Our home for the voyage 
is the one-class, fully air-conditioned 143.5-foot MV 



Tours For Members 



Pacific Northwest Explorer, built in 1980. Early expres- 
sion of interest and reservations are advisable. 
Land and cruise arrangements per person: 

Lower deck double cabin $3,250 

Upper deck (U201-215) $3,950 

Main deck $4,090 

Upper & bridge deck name cabins $4,280 

Lower deck single cabins $4,890 

(Air transportation to and from San Diego not included 
in above prices) 

The Art and Culture of Indonesia — 
A Voyage to the Islands of the Java Sea 

March 21- April 8, 1986 

Composed of thousands of islands forming a vast 
archipelago, Indonesia is an ancient land of gentle peo- 
ples, rich and varied cultural traditions, and tropical 
landscapes of unsurpassed beauty. With its panoply of 
religions, art forms, rituals, and dances found nowhere 
else in the world, Indonesia confronts the visitor with a 
fascinating past; its history, myth, and legend are often 
inseparable. On an itinerary which has been carefully 
planned to include well-known sites as well as remote, 
verdant isles, we will travel aboard the ship Illiria to 
destinations of immense beauty. 




The Great Silk Route of China 

May21-June 15, 1986 
$4,550 
Field Museum is offering an exciting new itinerary for 
The People's Republic of China, featuring some new 
areas of interest to the world traveller and to those who 
have visited China previously. Our flight from Chicago 
is direct to Tokyo then on to Beijing. After several days 
there, viewing such marvels as the Forbidden City and 
the 98-acre Tien An Men Square, we go on to Urumqi, 
Dunhuang, Lanzhou, Xian, Shanghai, and Guilin. Xian 
is of particular interest to archaeology buffs for here we 
find the vast life-size terra cotta army discovered as 
recently as 1974. We return to the U.S. via Hong Kong. 

Alaska 

July 2-16, 1986 
$4,885 

Visit Alaska in summer! Explore magnificent water- 
ways and vast parklands abundant with many species 
of birds. At Sitka, a marine wildlife rafting trip gets you 
started on this spectacular ornithological tour From 
Juneau, a trip on the Mendenhall River offers unusual 
wetland viewing. From Anchorage one easily reaches 
Potter Marsh Bird Refuge and the Eagle River Denali 
National Park (formerly called McKinley National 
Park) and the Glacier Bay cruise are special highlights. 
We conclude our trip with three days on St. George Is- 
land. Few people have visited this island, which boasts 
spectacular birding. Early enrollment is suggested. 
$50 will secure your reservation. 

Grand Canyon Adventures 

Field Museum Tours is offering two trips to the Grand 
Canyon in 1986. The first, August 13-22, is a geology 
study trip hiking down the north rim of the canyon, 
rafting for four days along the bottom and hiking back 
up the south rim. The second, August 22-31, is a rafting 
trip along the entire 300-mile length of the canyon by 
two motorized rubber rafts. Dr Matthew H. Nitecki, 
curator of fossil invertebrates leads both. A deposit of 
$50 per person will hold your space. 

For further information or to be placed on our mailing list, 
call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



27 



China's Great Wall 



Stanton Cook, courtesy the Chicago Tribune 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, I L 60605-2499 



Tours For Members 



Pacific Northwest Explorer, built in 1980. Early expres- 
sion of interest and reservations are advisable. 
Land and cruise arrangements per person: 

Lower deck double cabin $3,250 

Upper deck (U201-215) $3,950 

Main deck $4,090 

Upper & bridge deck name cabins $4,280 

Lower deck single cabins $4,890 

(Air transportation to and from San Diego not included 
in above prices) 

The Art and Culture of Indonesia — 
A Voyage to the Islands of the Java Sea 

Marchll-April 8, 1986 

Composed of thousands of islands forming a vast 
archipelago, Indonesia is an ancient land of gentle peo- 
ples, rich and varied cultural traditions, and tropical 
landscapes of unsurpassed beauty. With its panoply of 
religions, art forms, rituals, and dances found nowhere 
else in the world, Indonesia confronts the visitor with a 
fascinating past; its history, myth, and legend are often 
inseparable. On an itinerary which has been carefully 
planned to include well-known sites as well as remote, 
verdant isles, we will travel aboard the ship Illiria to 
destinations of immense beauty. 




The Great Silk Route of China 

May 21- June 15, 1986 
$4,550 
Field Museum is offering an exciting new itinerary for 
The People's Republic of China, featuring some new 
areas of interest to the world traveller and to those who 
have visited China previously. Our flight from Chicago 
is direct to Tokyo then on to Beijing. After several days 
there, viewing such marvels as the Forbidden City and 
the 98-acre Tien An Men Square, we go on to Urumqi, 
Dunhuang, Lanzhou, Xian, Shanghai, and Guilin. Xian 
is of particular interest to archaeology buffs for here we 
find the vast life-size terra cotta army discovered as 
recently as 1974. We return to the U.S. via Hong Kong. 

Alaska 

July 2-16, 1986 
$4,885 

Visit Alaska in summer! Explore magnificent water- 
ways and vast parklands abundant with many species 
of birds. At Sitka, a marine wildlife rafting trip gets you 
started on this spectacular ornithological tour From 
Juneau, a trip on the Mendenhall River offers unusual 
wetland viewing. From Anchorage one easily reaches 
Potter Marsh Bird Refuge and the Eagle River Denali 
National Park (formerly called McKinley National 
Park) and the Glacier Bay cruise are special highlights. 
We conclude our trip with three days on St. George Is- 
land. Few people have visited this island, which boasts 
spectacular birding. Early enrollment is suggested. 
$50 will secure your reservation. 

Grand Canyon Adventures 

Field Museum Tours is offering two trips to the Grand 
Canyon in 1986. The first, August 13-22, is a geology 
study trip hiking down the north rim of the canyon, 
rafting for four days along the bottom and hiking back 
up the south rim. The second, August 22-31, is a rafting 
trip along the entire 300-mile length of the canyon by 
two motorized rubber rafts. Dr. Matthew H. Nitecki, 
curator of fossil invertebrates leads both. A deposit of 
$50 per person will hold your space. 

For further information or to be placed on our mailing list, 
call or write Dorothy Roder, Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: 
322-8862. 



27 



China's Great Wall 



Stanton Cook, courtesy the Chicago Tribune 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



001F288 

Edith Fleming 

946 Pleasant 

Oak Pk , IL 60302 







►*v 



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v« 






Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

I*ublished by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 
Director: Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 

Editor: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

December 1985 
Volume 56, Number 11 



Typography by Tele/iypography, Inc. 



African Waterhole. N771 1 1 



Diorama Masterpieces: The 1986 calendar, featuring 
selections from Field Museum's famed lifelike exhibits 



COVER 

African Waterhole (detail). This diorama, possibly Field 
Museum 's best known, is in the African Mammals Hall and 
was completed in 1932. The Museum 's largest diorama, it is 
45 feet wide, 22 feet deep and 22 feet high. Six mammal 
species are represented: reticulated giraffe, eland, oryx. 
Grant's gazelle, and Grant's zebra, with a total of 23 
animals. All were acquired by the Harold A. White- John 
Coats Abyssinian Expedition of 1929. Museum taxidermist 
C. J. Albrecht designed the diorama and staff artist Charles 
A. Corwin painted the background. The diorama was two 
years in preparation. Photo by Ron Testa. 




Board of Trustees 

James J. O'Connor, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanlon Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considinc 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. "Red " Johnson 



Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
Earl L. Neal 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Slrolz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosla 
Clifford C.Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Ownership, Management and Circulation 

Filing dair: S«pt 15. 1985 lii\e Fitld Musrum nf Saiurat HiiUjry BuUtiin Publication no. 898940. Frequency of publitauon: 
Monihly cxccpi for combined July/Augusi issue. Number of issues published annually: 1 1. Annual subscripdon pnce: S6 00. 
Office: Rooseyeli Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicafto. IL. 60605-2496, 

Publisher: Field Museum of Natural History, Editor: David M, Walsten, Known bondholders, mortgages, and other security 
holders none. Nonprofit status has not changed dunng the pteceding 1 2 months, 

Avtragt number Actual number 

cfttypin tach of^^ei 

aiutprrtedms iing!e isiuf neamt 

12 months to filing date 

Toulcopies printed 28.292 27,700 

Paid circulation (sales through dealers, vendors, carriers) None None 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptions) 25.077 24.741 

Toul paid ciiculation 25.077 24.741 

Free distribuUon 710 858 

Total distribution 25.787 25,599 

Office use, left over J.105 2. 101 

TiJUl 28,892 27.700 

I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete Jimmie w. Croft, vice presideni for Finance and 
Museum Services, 



^ieW.VfMjcfrm.'/.v.r(Mrij/mjfi7rTSir//cti«(USPS898-940llspublishedmonthly.cxceptcombincclJuly/Augustissue. by Field Museum Of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago. lL60605-2496,Sub^ 

$1,00 for schocils Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription Opinions expressed by authors arc their otvn and do not necessarily reflect the polic->' of Field Museum Unsolicited manuscripts are tvelcome. Museum phone: (JI2) 
92294 1 0, Ntitification ol address change should include address label and be sent to Membership Depanment, Postmaster: Please send fomi i579 to Field Mtrseum of Natural Histoty. RooseveU Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
ISSN 0015-0711) Second class postage paid at Chicago, lUiriois 



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Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 56 (1985) 



cles 



Authors 



Field Briefs 



kVo 



kV4V' 



m Art at Field Musuem, by Richard 
Powell: May 5 
'Cameroon, The, by Tamara 
jrthem: March 11 
ning of Life, The, by Matthew H. 
tecki: Sept. 9 

w Serendipity, by Bruce Patterson: 
ml 7 

go's Lost Marsh, by William J. 
;echer: Oct. 8 
go's Parakeets, by David M. 
alsten: May 11 

f Cometh, The, by Edward Olsen: 
lie 18 

July 31 to August 10, 1962 — The 
rst Days in the Field, by Janice K. 
id William S. Street: Oct. 12 
Museum Founders ' Council Marks 
cond Anniversary: Nov. 21 
iers ' Council Honors Stephen Jay 
mid, by Charles T. Buzek: Feb. 26 
iers ' Council Member Honored, by 
an Solem: Sept. 24 
iers ' Council, The — Serving and 
anting, by Charles T. Buzek: 
pt.5 

est of Starlings, by William J. 
;echer: Sept. 16 

lese Woodblock Print, The, by David 
. Walsten: Feb. 7 
J Together, by John Terrell: Jan. 5 
?ry Carlson, A Tribute, by William 
irger: Oct. 5 

room Mania: Is It for You?, by 
artyn J. Dibben: Jan. 12 
Jewel in Field Museum 's Crown, A, 
 David M. Walsten And Edward 
sen: Nov. 8 

'.west Coast Collections at the 
iumbian Exposition, The, by 
juglas Cole: Nov. 10 
mented Coats of the Koryak, by James 
. VanStone: June 8 
r of Ancient Egypt, A., by Charles T. 
izek: March 23 
rator. Or Smoke Strainer, A: An 
nusual Eskimo Artifact, by James W. 
mStone: Feb. 23 
Lining of a Very Dark Cloud, A, by 
ichael O. Dillon: March 6 
ng Opportunities for Halley's Comet, 
' Paul Sipiera and Edward J. Olsen: 
3v. 25 

Is Jade?, by Edward J. Olsen: 
pril24 

End Giving, by Clifford Buzard: 
3v. 22 



Beecher, William J.: In Quest of Starlings, 

Sept. 16 
: Chicago 's Lost Marsh, 

Oct. 8 
Burger, William: Margery Carlson, A 

TYibute, Oct. 5 
Buzard, Clifford: Year-End Giving, 

Nov. 22 
Buzek, Charles T.; Founders' Council 

Honors Stephen Jay Gould, Feb. 26 
: A Prayer of Ancient Egypt, 

March 23 
: The Founders ' Council — 

Serving and Learning, Sept. 5 
Cole, Douglas: The Northwest Coast 

Collections at the Columbian Exposition, 

Nov. 10 

Dibben, Martyn J.: Mushroom Mania: Is 

It for You?, Jan. 12 
Dillon, Michael O.: The Silver Lining of a 

Very Dark Cloud, March 6 
Nitecki, Matthew H.: The Beginning of 

Life, Sept. 9 
Northern, Tamara: The Art of Cameroon, 

March 1 1 
Olsen, Edward J.: What Is Jade?, 

April 24 
: The Comet Cometh, 



June 18 



: A New Jewel in Field 



Museum 's Crown, Nov. 8 

: Viewing Opportunities for 



Halley's Comet, Nov. 25 
Patterson, Bruce D.: Chilean Serendipity, 

April 7 
Powell, Richard J.: African Art at Field 

Museum, May 5 
Sipiera, Paul: Viewing Opportunities for 

Halley's Comet, Nov. 25 
Solem, Alan: Founders' Council Member 

Honored, Sept. 24 
Street, Janice K.: Doab, July 31 to August 

10, 1962— The First Days in the Field, 

Oct. 12 
Street, William S.: Doab, July 31 to 

August 10, 1962 — The First Days in the 

Field, Oct. 12 
Terrell, John E.: Living Together, Jan. 5 
VanStone, James W.: A Respirator, Or 

Smoke Strainer: An Unusual Eskimo 

Artifact, Feb. 23 
: Ornamented Coats of the 

Koryak, June 8 
Walsten, David M.: The Japanese 

Woodblock Print, Feb. 7 
: Chicago 's Parakeets, 



May 11 



Art of Cameroon, The: Feb. 5 
Ashe, Stephen: Feb. 5 
Babarovic, Gretchen: June 5 
Blackmon, Carolyn: June 5 
Boyd, Willard L.: June 5 
Burger, William (author): Oct. 6 
Cook, Mrs. Stanton R.: Feb. 5 
Crane, Peter: June 7 
Cruikshank, Mrs. Robert L.: Feb. 5 
Fitzpatrick, John W.: June 7, Oct. 6 
Galbreath, Gary: Oct. 6 
Gregg, Clifford C: June 6 
Jastrzebski, Zbigniew: Oct. 6 
Jennings, Peter: June 5 
Johnson, Robert K.: Feb. 5, June 7 
Kennicott Club: Feb. 5, June 7, Oct. 6 
Kethley, John: Feb. 5 
Lidgard, Scott: Feb. 5 
Marx, Hyman: Feb. 5 
Mitchell, William H.: June 6 
Mueller, Gregory M.: Oct. 6 
Northern, Tamara: Feb. 5, June 5 
Shabica, Charles: June 7 
Scientific Illustration: Oct. 6 
Timm, Robert M.: Oct. 6 
Voris, Harold L.: Feb. 5 
Washington, Harold: June 5 
Women's Board: Feb. 5 



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Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, I L 60605-2499 



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