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FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



January 1987 




Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/ Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worlcy H.Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mull in 
Earl L. Neal 
James J. O'Connor 
Robert A. Fritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore 0. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



CONTENTS 

January, 1987 
Volume 58, Number 1 



January Events at Field Museum 



Scenes of the Women's Board's Treasures Ball 

Road to Paris 

by William S. Street and Janice K. Street 



Gods, Spirits, and People: 

The Human Image in Traditional Art 10 

by Robert A. Feldman, Exhibit Developer and 
Research Associate in Anthropology 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

Headdress figure from Western Cameroon or Eastern Nigeria, late 19th 
century It may currently be seen in the exhibit "Gods, Spirits, and Peo- 
ple, " which went on view at Field Museum November 22. This skin- 
covered wooden figure was worn on top of the head as part of a cloth face 
mask. The skin is antelope, but it is said that in the past human skin was 
used. Although the figure represents a uioman with an elaborate haircio, it 
was worn by men of the Ekpo Society, who exercised social control and 
supervised the viUage's sanitary corxditions. The figure symbohzes a female 
ancestor and the vital forces of the commuruty. Made b^i the Ekoi tribe of 
the Cross River area. Schroeder collector, cat. 175615. height 28". Photo 
by Ron Testa and Diane Alexander White. J 09446. 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Clifford C.Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Field Museum of Naatral History Bullean (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except cotnbined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natuiai Hisloty, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 
60605-2496. Copyright © 1987 Field Museum of Natural History SuhscriptioriS: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for scho^ils. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster:Pleasesendfotm3579toFieldMuseumofNaturalHistory, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shote Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN; 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at 
(Dhicago, Illinois. 



Stents 



The perfect couch, these boys will tell you, 
is a dinosaur kg bone in Stanley Field Hall. 

79329 




Winter Fun 1987 

Drive away Doldrums! Treat your children 
(or grandchildren) to weekend workshops at Field 
Museum. Workshops begin January 17 through Febru- 
ary 15. Children ages 4-13 can participate in classes 
that range in topics from alligators, birds and artic 
whales, to the fascinating cultures of the Pawnee and 
Hopi Indians. 

Highlights of workshops being offered this year 
are: "Sharks Teeth, Crab Claws, and Sea Shells"; 



"Nests, Roosts, Hollows, and Holes," for 4- and 5- 
year-olds; "Earthq-q-u-u-ake!" for 6-7 and 8-9-year- 
olds; and "Fossils" for 10-13-year-olds. 

Anthropologists, paleontologists, artists, and 
writers bring their creative energies and expertise to 
this winter's workshops. Advance registration re- 
quired. See the Winter Fun brochure for a complete 
schedule and registration form or call 322-8854, 
Monday-Friday, 9:00am-4:00pm for further 
information. 



January Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore 

demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the 
are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend, 
complete schedule and program locations. The programs 
Council. 



January 



10 



1 1:30am Geology of the Chicago Area (tour). Dis- 
cover what's beneath the surface of the Chicago 



the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours. 
Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below 
Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival for the 
are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts 

1 1 2 :00pm Malvina Hoffman-Portraits in Bronze 
(slide lecture). Explore the life and works of 
famed sculptor Malvina Hoffman, concentrating 
on the "Portraits of Mankind" Collection 



area. 



11:30am Ar\cient Egypt (tour). Explore the tradi- 
tions of ancient Egypt from everyday life to 
myths and mummies. 



18 



25 



1:00pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a 
sampling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum 

Il:30am Geology of the Chicago Area (tour). Dis- 
cover what's beneath the surface of the Chicago 
area. 



s. 





THE 



Treasures Ball 



A 

JLX One-Night Exhibit in Grainger Gallery of some of 
Field Museum's most treasured specimens was also the occa- 
sion for a gala black tie dinner dance in Stanley Field Hall. 
Sponsored by the Museum's Women's Board, the memorable 
event took place on Friday, November 7. Mrs. Robert C. 
Ferris was chairman of the gala; vice-chairmen were Mrs. 
Donald C. Greaves and Mrs. John L. Hines. Music was 
provided by the Bob Hardwicke Orchestra and the affair was 
underwritten by Sara Lee Corporation. 

Shown here are some of the evening's guests as they 
viewed the exhibit. 



Photos by Diane Alexander White. 




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Road to Paris 

Chapter 22 of 

Iranian Adventure 

The First Street Expedition 

by William S. Street ^Wjanice K. Street 
with Richard Sawyer 



Many couples approaching sixty and planning retirement 
might buy a camper arui think about a little serious fishing. 
Bill and Jan Street bought two Travelalls, hired Doug Lay, a 
young mammalogist, and took off to scour the mountains, 
deserts, and river valleys of Iran for wildlife specimens to 
enrich Field Museum's collections. They started by hunting 
red sheep two miles high in the Elburz Mountains and went on 
from there. During the next six months, they travelled nearly 
15,000 miles and collected nearly 3,500 mammals, from 
bears to bats. They also collected hundreds of birds, reptiles, 
amphibians, arvifish, complete with thousands of fleas, ticks, 
ar\d mites — all equally valuable for study. Thanks to their 
efforts. Field Museum now houses one of the world's finest 
collections of Iranian faurui. 

But as history moved on, the Streets found that they had 
also captured a last view of an ancient culture on the brink of 
change. Their notes and photographs illumiruite the vast polit- 
ical eruption that followed. This, ar\d the lengthening roll of 
research papers based on their collections, gives lasting value 
to the Iranian adventures of three Americans who learned the 
scientific expedition business by doing it. 

Chapter 4, "Doab, " of Iranian Adventure appeared 
in the October 1985 Bulletin. "Road to Paris," on the 
following pages, concerns the firw.1 leg of the Street's seven- 
month adventure. 

After pitching our tents, we slept soundly that 
night. The weather turned cold, and we were reluctant 
to abandon the warmth of our sleeping bags the follow- 
ing morning. But we struck the tents, had a quick light 
breakfast, and were on our way. We wanted to get as 



6 Copyrigixt © J 985 by Field Museum of Natural History 



close to Maku and the Turkish border as possible that 
day. 

We reached Maku about six that evening and 
paused to pay our respects to Col. Pouremaglessi and his 
wife who had been extraordinarily kind to us on our first 
visit. Our memory of the ebullient Colonel had dimmed 
somewhat, and we had forgotten how complicated the 
most mundane arrangements could become under his 
enthusiastic direction. 

When we stopped at the Pouremaglessis to say 
good-bye, they were preparing to join the Governor at a 
friend's house for a small gathering. The Colonel 
promptly informed us that he would call his friends to 
tell them to expect additional guests. 

"Many thanks for asking us to join you," I told 
Pouremaglessi, "but it is really quite out of the question. " 

"But it is to be a party!" Pouremaglessi protested. 
"Just wait a few minutes until the Governor arrives, then 
we can all go together. No one will mind how you 
are dressed. They will understand. " 

Just then the Governor came bounding in, display- 
ing his usual high spirits. He was delighted to see us. 
Between the Governor and Pouremaglessi we were, if 
not outnumbered, at least out-talked. We would not go 
to the party, but they would telephone ahead to the 
hotel at Bazergan, where we planned to spend the night, 
make our room reservations for us, then join us at the 
hotel for a late supper. Bazergan was at the border, only 
sixteen kilometers from Maku. 

Even arrangements at the supper got very involved. 
We were fighting for the check before the meal had been 
served. I insisted that they were to be our guests; they 
insisted just as strongly that we were their guests. And all 
the while, the compliments were flying thick and fast 



between Pouremaglessi and me. The Colonel was deter- 
mined not to be bested in vying for the role of host. 

When I had been so insistent about their being our 
guests at a late supper, I did not know that the only hotel 
in Bazergan able to accommodate such an affair served 
only sandwiches, snacks, Pepsi-Cola, Canada Orange, 
and tea! As we parted we told the Governor and the 
Colonel that we would go on to the hotel, freshen up, 
and expect them to join us later. The Colonel sent a 
lieutenant with us to show us the way. Once there, Jan 
dug a not-too-wrinkled dress out of her luggage. Doug, 
Nicola, and I wore what we had on our backs. 

Dinner was to have been at eight o' clock, but the 
Colonel, the Governor, and their party didn't arrive un- 
til nearly ten. Knowing the shortcomings of the hotel, 
they had brought dinner with them. And what a feast it 
was! Soldiers appeared bearing platters, baskets, and 
hampers of food that they laid before us on a table in a 
private room reserved by the Colonel. The party had 
expanded, too. Instead of just the Colonel, his wife and 
the Governor, about six other men joined us — including 
customs officials whom we would see again the next day 
as we crossed the border into Turkey. 

We sat down to tea and oranges, which were fol- 
lowed by rice and lamb kabobs, an omelette, a moun- 
tainous salad, and plates of vegetables and bread. It was 
all delicious, and we topped it all off with more oranges, 
tea, and Pepsi-Cola. Mrs. Pouremaglessi was quite ani- 
mated that night and wanted to know if we had film for 
our Polaroid camera. She wanted to add more pictures to 
her memory book. Her disappointment was almost pal- 
pable when we told her that we'd been unable to buy 
Polaroid film in Tehran. Her depression was short-lived, 
however, as the festive spirit of the evening reasserted 
itself. 

Just when I'd given up hope of ever seeing a bed 
again, the Colonel asked if we were tired. We admitted 
that we had had two long days of driving and faced the 
prospect of a tough drive the following day. 

"We should like to stay all night and talk with you 
and be with you because we love you so dearly," he told 
us. "But perhaps we should let you go to bed." Mrs. 
Pouremaglessi came over to Jan, embraced her, and they 
kissed one another on both cheeks. Thus we parted with 
kind and generous people who will always be associated 







Earlier, in northwestern Iran, expedition mamnui/ogist Doug Lay bagged 
specimens of the tomb bat, a species new to Iran. 



'Jan: Janice K. Street; Doug: Douglas M. Lay, the expedition's mamma- 
logist, then a doctoral car\didate in zoology, now on the Faculty of the 
University of North Carolirux; Nicola: Nicola Haroutounian, the expedi- 
tion's driver-interpreter. 



in our memories with some of the high points of our trip 
to Iran. 

At the last minute, there was a flurry of Turkish 
bank notes in an exchange involving the Colonel, the 
Governor, the customs man, and one of the young 
lieutenants. 1 found myself holding Turkish money that 
had been given me in exchange for travelers' cheques. I 
am certain that the ease with which we crossed from Iran 
into Turkey the next day was somehow related to the 



The gloss lizard that got 

away. An Iranian 

university student, the 

owner of this unusual 

specimen, was unwilling 

to relinquish it to the 

Americans. 



miles of unbroken snow made a picture unmatched for 
primitive beauty. Douglas, reared in the American 
South, had never seen so much snow, and every time we 
stopped to take pictures, he and Nicola had a snowball 
fight. 

In Turkey we were conscious of an all-pervasive 
military presence. Everywhere we looked we saw sol- 
diers, military vehicles, or army encampments. Our first 
major city in Turkey, Erzurum, seemed to be just one big 




small transaction of the night before. The Colonel, bless 
him, even instructed one of his lieutenants to remain in 
Bazergan to escort us over the border. 

When we passed through customs the following 
morning, our luggage wasn't even inspected. The only 
item questioned was a small rug that Douglas had 
bought, and this had to be properly tagged. They exam- 
ined our passports and processed us through Iranian cus- 
toms as quickly as possible. 

On the Turkish side of the boundary, life progressed 
at a more leisurely pace. It was 10:00 a.m. before the 
Turkish customs man was up and about. An English 
youth, who had been away from home a year and was 
eager to return, had been banging on the door of the 
customs house for an hour or more, and not a soul paid 
any attention to him. The more he pounded, the more 
relaxed the customs officials became. When the customs 
men finally came to life and let us through, we gave the 
young Englishman a ride for a hundred or so miles, be- 
fore dropping him off at his request. 

It was a beautiful day for driving. We hadn't gone 
more than thirty miles from the border when it began to 
snow. Mt. Ararat and the smaller surrounding moun- 
tains were so striking that we took a number of photo- 
graphs. The country was rolling and bare of trees, but the 



military installation. Soldiers were directing traffic and 
just before driving into town, we had seen other troop 
units undergoing special training, wearing snowshoes 
and white uniforms. They were holding what appeared 
to be winter maneuvers. We wondered how much of that 
costly military hardware had been purchased with U.S. 
aid. 

That first night in Turkey we stayed in a so-so hotel 
and sought out a restaurant that served real Turkish 
meals, not food designed to please the palates of tourists. 
Finding an open restaurant was a bit of a task in itself, 
because we arrived during the Muhammadan month of 
Ramadan, in which the faithful fast each day from dawn 
until sunset. It was during this sacred period that we ran 
into a strange and frightening situation. 

Driving through a small village a day or so later, we 
had to stop the car because the roadway was blocked by 
men and boys. In the middle of the road stood a man on a 
chair, leading a chant which was answered by the all- 
male crowd. They were members of a sect known as 
flagellants, people who scourge themselves as a public 
penance. These men and boys were in a frenzy of 
religious fervor, beating themselves about their backs 
and shoulders with chains attached to short wooden 
handles. Others were beating on their chests with closed 



fists. Some with the chains had blood running freely 
down their bodies. 

Our white-skinned faces and our foreign vehicle 
must have seemed to them an intrusion by infidels. It 
was a mean-looking crowd, and they viewed us with no 
kindness whatever. 

"Nicola," I said, "just keep driving. Don't drive too 
slowly, and don't drive too fast. And don't look to the 
right or the left. Just keep driving. But don't stop for 
anything. " 



suffered such great water shortages in so vnar\y areas. And we also 
began to see orchards — some new and some obviously very old. 

A strange thing happened on the road between 
Erzurum and Trabzon, on the coast of the Black Sea. 
During the planning stage of our expedition in Chicago, 
Dr. Reed had mentioned wolves and the Kurdish mastiff 
— immense dogs that guarded flocks of sheep. Dr. Reed 
had asked that we try to secure a skull of one of the mas- 
tiffs as well as specimens of the wolf. We had collected 
the wolf and seen the great mastiffs — in fact, we had 



Bill and }an Street in 
night hunting position 
atop the TravehU. 




Safely past that encounter, we continued to be 
aware of the pervasive military presence in Turkey. We 
saw soldiers practicing driving trucks over hilly, rocky, 
muddy terrain and wondered what sort of duty they were 
preparing for. At times our road took us to elevations of 
9,000 feet and there was lots of snow. The hills and 
mountains were treeless, and the expanse of seemingly 
endless white cover was almost unbelievable. It seemed 
to go on forever and ever. 

From Jan's notes: 

Wildflowers were in evidence at quite a hi^ elevadon. There 
were primroses growing all over — yellow, ivory, and purple. There 
were Christmas roses, and by the time we got throwg/i Turkey I had 
seen more Christmas roses than ever before in my life. Whole banks 
were covered with a tiny wild azalea and some violets. Closer to 
the Black Sea were rhododervirons, and some hillsides were solid 
masses of them. We saw only one in bloom that was like our wild 
lavender rhododendron, but it must be a ^xmous sight to drive 
through this area about six weeks later than this — it would be ablaze 
with color. 

There were great bushes of white and sky-blue heather, some 
four or more feet in height. Iris were blooming, and we saw hazelnut 
trees. There was an abundance of water here, and it made us think 
how nice it would be to serxd some of the surplus back to Iran, which 



come close to tangling with these fierce dogs a time or 
two. Frightened as we were at our several encounters 
with them, they were not the kind of animal that could 
be shot in the wild. To do so would destroy an important 
partner of the shepherds, and such an act would have 
been unthinkable unless a human life were in immediate 
danger. Moreover, in Iran or Turkey, it would have been 
literally worth your life to have killed one of those ani- 
mals belonging to the Kurds. 

We were driving along the road between villages 
when we came on two of these great mastiffs lying dead 
on the highway. We quickly stopped the car and backed 
up to examine these immense beasts more carefully. 
Although they had been struck by some vehicle, their 
skulls were intact and would make valuable specimens. 
We paused long enough to sever the two heads — and 
then wonder how on earth we were going to transport 
them. With four of us in the vehicle, the top racks were 
loaded with all the extra luggage we could carry and were 
tightly covered with tarpaulins to boot. The only thing 
we could do with those bloody heads was to tie them on 
top of the load, and pray that we didn't run into a cara- 
van of Kurdish tribesmen. Continued on p. 19 



Gods, Spirits and People 

The Human Image in Traditional Art 

by Robert A. Feldman 
Exhibit Developer and Research Associate in Anthropology 



he Exhibit "Gods, Spirits, and People," which went 
on view on November 22, presents a small sampling of 
human images from Field Museum's collections of the 
traditional art of non-Western cultures. Images of peo- 
ple can be decorative or entertaining, but in traditional 
cultures these images more often carry important social 
meaning. They can teach children in the ways of their 
culture, heal or make one sick, honor the dead, control 
or police the actions of the living, and worship the gods. 

A key aspect of any form of art is its communicative 
content. Art carries a meaning beyond (or even at odds 
with) its use in everyday activities. In many respects, art 
takes the place of a written language in nonliterate 
societies; thus, traditional art can serve to make mani- 
fest ideals or beliefs and "fix" them for transmission. 

The human form is one of the most common im- 
ages in art world-wide — if not the most common. Why is 
this so? Foremost must be that the artist is a human be- 
ing, and shows his or her own kind. Beyond simply 
mirroring the body, however, the human form in art 
mirrors the society (the "body" politic). As a reflection 
of society, art expresses the concerns, desires, and fears 
of the people who made it. 

A depiction of a human being can be invested 
with special symbolic content, but at times it remains 
merely decorative. Even decorative images, though, can 
convey information about the person represented, such 
as his age and status, or if he is a member of one's own 
group or is a foreigner. This information is coded in 
regular ways, both in the physical features depicted and 
with special symbols. 

The distinctions that we make between appearance 
and content, between a decorative figure and one filled 
with symbolism or power, are recent in human history. 
Early art was magic. An image can be so powerful that 
one of God's commandments to Moses was "Thou shall 
not make graven images." In the Paleolithic carvings 
and cave paintings, wild game predominates, but we 
also see the hunter as well as the hunted. The pregnant 
horses on the cave wall and the sexually exaggerated 
10 "Venus" figures probably were made to increase the 



fertility of the world around the artist. 

The human image often ties the living to their 
ancestors. Representations of the dead serve as 
memorials; homes, guardians, protectors, or placaters 
for the spirit of the deceased; channels through which 
the living can communicate with the spirit world and 
the dead; and actual physical embodiments of the ances- 
tors. The images establish ties with the ancestors, and 
through these ties, the group's claim to authority, rights, 
or territory is created and validated and the proper order 
of the world is maintained. 

The gods and spirits which a group sees in the world 
around itself are often given human qualities and rep- 
resented in human form. The degree of anthropomor- 
phization differs from group to group and deity to deity, 
but the projection of human aspirations and foibles onto 
the supernatural is common. As with the human group, 
the cultural and personal identity of each god is coded in 
symbols used in its image. 

"Gods, Spirits, and People" does not include pieces 
that were primarily decorative, but focuses on human 
images that were used to symbolize or maintain a group's 
social cohesion. Some of the ways images do this are 
through ties to ancestors or deities in human form, 
through assertions of rank or authority, and through 
initiation/inculturation into the society. 

The artifacts in this exhibit are clustered in seven 
main groupings: funeral and memorial figures, ancestor 
figures, spirit and deity representations, authority and 
rank figures, figures that emphasize the social group 
through characteristics of costume or body decoration, 
masks of humans, and figures that illustrate different 
ways of looking at the human image. 

Within the layout of the exhibit, the last subgroup 
is separated from the rest. It covers the additional theme 
of "Looking at People," which asks the viewers to con- 
sider the artifacts from a visual perspective and invites 
them to look at the rest of the exhibit in ways they other- 
wise might not have. Five topics illustrate this theme: 
realism versus stylization, variations and similarities, 
body decoration, costumes and hats, and foreigners. FM 



ANCESTRAL SKULL 

This human skull served as a memo- 
rial to the deceased. It has a carved 
wooden face and is covered with a 
black gum {tita nut). The inlay of 
mother-of-pearl shells is set in de- 
signs which simulate face painting or 
scarification. 
Solomon Islands. 
Early 20th Century. 
Fuller Collection. 
Cat. 276594 
Height: 7" 

Photo by Diane Alexander White 
109978 







EMACIATED FIGURE 

(detail) 

Oral tradition states that this figure 
represents a starving man of an ear- 
ly Easter Island population that had 
fled into the interior of the island 
when the present people arrived. 
Easter Island. 
19th Century. 
Fuller Collection. 
Cat. 273234 
Height: 17" 

Photo by Ron Testa 
109930 



HEADDRESS MASK 

Masks and figures were used in Vanuatu 
(formerly the New Hebrides) in cere- 
monies that marked a man's pro- 
gression from one graded social 
level to the next. The pieces con- 
formed to the designs established 
for each level, but varied in quality, 
as they were made by each man's 
sponsors, not by an "artist." The 
boars' tusks in it, which symbolize 
wealth and prestige, are from pigs 
that were sacrificed as part of the 
ceremony. 
S. W. Bay, Malekula, Vanuatu. 
Early 20th Century. 
A. B. Lewis, collector, 
Joseph N. Field Expedition. 
Cat. 133080 
Height: 14" 



12 



Photo by Diane Alexander White 
109986 



KACHINA DOLL 



jm 


This doll represents the Kawaika 
kachina spirit. Kachina dolls were 
made for children and helped them 
learn about the different sacred 


11 
• 11 


kachina spirits. During the annual 

cycle of dances, masked dancers 

impersonated the kachinas. 

Hopi Indians, 

Shungopavy Pueblo, AZ. 1951. 

Gift of Byron Harvey III. 

Cat. 82863 


^J^IP 


Height: 12^2" 


l^v 


Photo by Diane Alexander White 
109975 



.\V 



\N 



r 



■6'AI 



LEDGER BOOK DRAWING 

Native American artists made draw- 
ings on paper from ledgers or note- 
bool<s supplied them by whites. 
These drawings illustrated Indian life 
or events in the life of the artist. This 
Cheyenne drawing shows 10 war- 
nors on horseback in full regalia. 
Cheyenne Indian, Darlington, OK. 
Late 19th Century. 
H. R. Voth, collector. Cat. 48213 
Height: 8" 

Photo by Ron Testa 
107546 




'U 





EKPO SOCIETY MASK 

The Ekpo society was a secret soci- 
ety to which Ibibio males belonged. 
It was concerned with maintenance 
of the social order and propitiation of 
the spirits of the ancestors. This 
mask, like many Ibibio Ekpo masks, 
has a movable lower jaw. 
Ibibio tribe, Nigeria. 
Late 19th Century 
Gift of Calvin S. Smith. Cat. 25038 
Height: 20" 

Photo by Ron Testa 

and Diane Alexander White 

109452 



CEREMONIAL BOW STAND 

near hght 
(detail) 

Fine carvings could serve as sym- 
bols of rank. This bow stand was an 
emblem bestowed upon the guard of 
a chief's primary wife. 
Baluba tribe, Zaire. 
Early 20th Century. 
Gift of Mrs. A. W. F. Fuller. 
CaL 221072 
Height: 32y2" 




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MAtnuMMamUIMw 



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m.y 



FIGURE 

far right 

Jarved wooden u// were found 
nly in a limited area of central 
lew Ireland. They were set up 
in special houses during the 
ceremonies held in honor of 
deceased heads of totemic 
clans. After the ceremonies, 
the figures were carefully 
wrapped and kept in the men's 
house, to be used at some la- 
ter date in a similar memorial 
ceremony. 
The uli represents a male 
ancestor. The small figures 
• represent his offspring. The 
' 'easts of the figures probably 
' symbolize the female ances- 
tors and importance of women 
in the tracing of descent 
through matrilineal clans. 
New Ireland Province, 
"'^'' Papua New Guinea. 
Early 20th Century. 
I A. B. Lewis, collector, 
Joseph N. Field Expedition. 
Cat, 138791 
'• Height: 4'6" 

by Diane Alexander White 
'L 109989 









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WOODEN FIGUR 

OF TWO EUROPEANS 

These figures represent a judge and 
a sea captain as seen by the Haida 
carver. While the figures are both 
very similar in dress, Judge Pember- 



ton has a top hat and sea captain 

George Smith has a cap. 

Haida Indians, 

Queen Charlotte Island, B.C., 

Canada, ca. 1890. 

J. Deans, collector. Cat. 17990 

Height of Judge ; 1 1 " 1 09609 



Continued from p. 9 

It was getting late when we reached the seacoast 
town of Trabzon, but we stopped only long enough to 
pick up some eggs and oranges. The weather had turned 
much warmer, and we were glad to be able to camp out 
again. We detoured to the shores of the Black Sea, re- 
moved our gory supercargo, and took the heads down to 
the water to skin them and remove the brains. Only 
when we had them thoroughly cleaned and repacked did 
we begin a search for a campsite. We found a place with a 
running stream nearby and set up our tents. 

We woke to a perfectly beautiful day. Not too far 



to get some pictures of the countryside. We saw ahead a 
group of Turkish women digging in the soil on both sides 
of the road. We stopped the car, and Jan raised her 
camera to compose her picture and focus on the group of 
women to the right of the car. Just then we were spotted 
— and all hell broke loose! The women began shrieking 
at us, and this attracted the attention of the women on 
the other side of the road. In a body, they all began 
advancing threateningly toward the car holding their 
sturdy spades high, apparently bent on some kind of 
mayhem. Simultaneously, some boys who had been 



Morning, after sleeping 
in the open. 




from our campsite was a small village tucked into the side 
of the mountain; on the other side, the Black Sea was 
visible under the span of a little bridge. We were in a 
fertile, cultivated area, and the riches of water after arid 
Iran was refreshing. Even the architecture was different. 
Where Iran had walls around everything — even the 
most humble dwellings — in Turkey each house was a 
separate unit set quite apart from the others. The roofs of 
most houses were flat — some of tile, some of heavy 
shingles. A series of small square houses walking up the 
hillside gave the appearance of being in Europe rather 
than the Mideast. 

The following morning we followed the highway 
along the shores of the Black Sea toward Samsun. The 
road was narrow, winding, and under repair. We weren't 
making good time at all, but the scenery was spectacular, 
so we really didn't object to the slow drive along the 
seashore. For lunch, we picnicked by the sea. No sooner 
had we set out our things than eight little boys and three 
men clustered around us, asking what we were doing and 
where we were going. It was just like Iran. 

Later, Jan was riding in front with Nicola and trying 



working with the women started throwing rocks and 
clods of dirt at our vehicle. 

It was no time for a parley, so 1 told Nicola, "Shut 
the window and let's get out of here!" 

No windows were broken and none of the women 
got close enough to us — or the car — to do any real dam- 
age. Only after we were out of range of their screams and 

missiles did we calm down a bit. 

. 1_ 

Available Now at the Field Museum Store 

IRANIAN ADVENTURE 

The First Street Expedition 

by William S. and Janice K. Street 
with Richard Sawyer 

$14.95 

10% discount for Field Museum members 

softcover 

320 pages, with color plates 

and black-and-white illustrations 

PUBLISHED BY FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



19 




««.ii. 




"Nicola," I asked, "what were they screaming at 



us; 



« 



t^msi. ^PHiMgwKxj.*^' ^ 



Jan Street with labeled bat specimens on dryir^ board. 



BiUStreet in camp; Explorers' Cbih flag flutters from tent pole. 




"They were caUing us 'infidels,' " he replied 
somberly. 

"Just because Jan wanted to take a picture of them?" 

When I thought of the millions of dollars in Point 
Four aid that the United States had poured into Turkey 
for agricultural development, I begun to get downright 
mad. 

"When I think of all our country has done for the 
Turks," 1 told Nicola, "I've got a good mind to go back 
there and tell those people a thing or two." 

Nicola became deadly serious. "Don't do it, Mr. 
Street. They will kill you if you do." 

Unbelieving, I looked at Nicola and saw that he 
meant every word he had said. And I realized that he was 
right — they probably would have tried to kill us. 1 simply 
had not taken account of the great differences in culture 
and values between us and the people by the road. To us 
a snapshot was a small thing; to them it was an unforgiv- 
able violation of privacy — perhaps even a breach of their 
religion's prohibition of graven images. If we had been 
able to meet on a personal basis, the situation might 
have been different. But the crowd reacted emotionally 
to our strangeness and foreignness and there was no 
opportunity to reach out across the barrier of our differ- 
ent beliefs. 

We didn't reach Samsun until nine o'clock that 
night; there we stopped at Otel Vidinle and engaged two 
rooms. We had our supper at the hotel, complete with 
two aperitifs and two beers. When we checked out the 
following morning, our bill for lodgings and for meals for 
four people was $11.17! There are many places today 
where you could spend that for just one round of drinks. 

When we stopped for fuel and asked about the road 
to Ankara, the attendant said, "Part of the road it is 
asphalt; part of the road is good." We again headed in- 
land on a southwesterly tack and made good time 
through rolling hills. The land showed signs of a great 
deal of cultivation, and we saw many fine flocks of sheep 
and goats. Farming methods were primitive, and we 
noted that oxen and water buffalo were drawing the 
plows, harrows, and farm wagons. 

Ankara (Angora) was a large and bustling city, and 
we had some difficulty in finding a place to stay. We 
finally landed at the Balin Oteli and were glad to have 
found shelter, because the weather had again turned 
overcast and drizzly. When we awakened in the morn- 
ing, it was pouring rain, but we decided to see some of 
the ancient city anyway. We had been told that break- 
fast was served at 7:00 a. m. , but there was no sign of it or 
of anyone who might have served it. We had a glass of 



Tang, which we always carried with us, then went down- 
stairs and rooted around in the refrigerators until we 
found something that suited our fancy! Jan and 1 both 
had bananas, and I also had a bowl of rice pudding. Very 
satisfying; not your usual breakfast fare, but, all in all, 
more than adequate for a self-service meal. 

After a too brief stay in Ankara, we continued our 
journey. Driving in a slight overcast, we made our way to 
Istanbul and settled into the Otel Park. The hotel was a 



About eleven o'clock the next morning, we set out 
for Alexandroupolis, Greece, by a new road touted as 
being shorter and faster than the old. 

We thought little of it when a few flakes began to 
fall, but as we drove on, the snow became heavier and 
heavier. We began to encounter drifts across the road. 
Suddenly, we came on a stalled car blocking much of the 
road. The hapless driver was attempting to install his 
chains and having an awful time of it. Nicola tried to 



Selected specimens from 
the first two months in 
the field, on view at the 
Streets' hotel in Tehran. 




rather good one, and we felt the management must have 
taken one look at us and put us as far out of sight as 
possible. They relegated us to the catacombs. The hotel 
was built into the side of a hill, and our rooms were down 
three flights of stairs in one of the less desirable sections. 
After the hotel accommodations we had seen in the last 
seven months, being slighted at the Otel Park bothered 
us not one whit. 

Although we were to have little time in Istanbul, 
there were a number of things we simply could not leave 
without seeing. In the afternoon we took a sightseeing 
bus for a tour of the city, visiting the Blue Mosque, the 
old palace (now a museum) , St. Sophia Mosque, and the 
bazaar. Amid the incredible crush of people and the 
rumble of commerce, we could still catch glimpses of the 
ancient city that had gone by at least three names. From 
more than five centuries before the birth of Christ until 
approximately A.D. 330 it was known as Byzantium; 
from 330 to 1453 it wasContantinople; and since 1453 it 
has been Istanbul. We walked through miles of jewelry 
shops, rug shops, and the stores of brass merchants in the 
sprawling bazaar. It has been estimated that the bazaar 
alone holds some four thousand shops. 



inch around cautiously on the right side of the other 
vehicle, but we hadn't gone five feet before we too were 
in a snowbank. Fortunately, a snowplow came along and 
pulled us out. When the driver tried to pull out the first 
car that was in trouble, the tire of the big machine simply 
spun. Finally, we attached our rig to the first car, and the 
snowplow put a line on us, and all of us managed to get 
onto a cleared part of the highway. 

Three snowplows were working in the area, and the 
only safe course was to fall in behind one of the slow- 
moving giants and keep our wheels turning. Every once 
in a while one of the snowplows got stuck, and the other 
had to rescue it. With all the slipping and sliding and 
creeping along in low gears, it took us five hours to get 
through that area. 

We started to stay in one of the small towns on the 
Turkish side of the border, but the hotels there looked 
grimmer than any we had seen in all our journeys. On 
inquiry, however, we learned that the roads were clear to 
the Greek border, so we decided to attempt it, late as it 
was. We picked up a hitchhiker who was going to Kesan, 
dropped him off there, and paused long enough to have 
supper. The weather had become sharper, colder, and 



21 



we again hesitated about pressing on. In the restaurant 
we asked if the border was open. A young man heard our 
question; he told us that he worked at the border and 
assured us that the customs station was open all night 
long. He even volunteered to take us there and help us 
through. We felt that Lady Luck was again smiling on us. 

When we reached the last town on the Turkish side 
of the line, our young man took us to the local gendar- 
merie where we were again told that the border was open 
all night. The young man who had accompanied us, 
however, left us at this point. It seemed that he didn't 
work at the border at all — he just told us that so we would 
give him a ride. 

Armed with the best information obtainable, we 

Col. Gaksorke, Iranian 

manager offish and 

wildlife (second from 

right) , joins Doug Lay, 

]an and Bill Street (from 

left) during specimen 

viewing at Tehran hotel. 



pajamas and slippers. But the Greeks, too, were pleasant 
to us and told us that regardless of the hour, we were sure 
to find a hotel room in Alexandroupolis. 

They were right. At one o'clock in the morning we 
took rooms at the old-but-clean Metropole Hotel in 
Alexandroupolis and tumbled into bed for a wonderful 
night's sleep. We had left Asia and were once again back 
in Europe. Our journey was truly nearing its end. The 
following day we would arrive inThessaloniki, then take 
the boat from Greece to Italy, and then make our way on 
to Paris. 

Beyond Paris, we looked forward to the cooling fogs 
and soft rain of the Pacific Northwest of the United 
States. We were ready to go home. And we would return 




22 



decided to proceed to the border. It was only a few miles 
further on, but the wind was blowing a gale, and we 
hoped to clear the boundary quickly and get into Alex- 
androupolis and a hotel. When we arrived at the border 
crossing we discovered, to our dismay, that all the border 
guards had gone to bed. The gates would not officially 
open again until morning. But our luck had not run out. 
The border guards roused themselves and were very 
accommodating; they invited us into the guard house 
while they dressed and, after courteously looking over 
our passports, they opened the gates and allowed us to 
cross the bridge into Greece. 

In the middle of the bridge were two sentry boxes — 
one manned by a Turk, the other by a Greek. Past those, 
on the Greek side, we pulled three more sleepy guards 
out of bed. They didn't stand on formality, not even 
bothering to put their robes on over their pajamas. It was 
the only time in many years of world travel that I remem- 
ber conducting official business with a man dressed in 



to Seattle comfortable in the knowledge that we had 
done something worthwhile. 

Our expedition to Iran had brought immediate as 
well as long-lasting rewards to Jan and me. We were at a 
time in our life when many of our contemporaries were 
beginning to redefine their goals, beginning to be less 
adventuresome rather than more so. If there is a lesson 
here, it is that one can resist the encroachments of age, 
can expand personal horizons, and can not only seek 
adventure but bring it off decisively. 

In Iran, with good help, we had learned to live on 
the land and on the terms the land laid down. The land 
was uncompromising, and surviving and working on its 
terms required resiliency and flexibility of a couple of 
candidates for the rocking chair. Nevertheless, we did a 
job of work and quite boldly, I thought, took the oppor- 
tunity to explore and work in a land now so transformed 
politically that what we did may never again be possible. 
We got in just under the wire. 



As we look back on our experience we found no 
way to compare it with our earlier African safaris or 
many hunting trips. Those had been personal quests, 
and the decision to take or not to take a trophy was ours 
alone to make. Now we were charged with finding each 
specimen as a museum trophy. Not one was kept by us. 



Our reward has been the relationship with our 
associates and overseas friends as well as the continuing 
flow of new knowledge brought forth by the publications 
arising from the studies. 

We treasure our experience. We liked it very 
much. FM 



Afterword A 
The Streets and Their Expeditions 

by Alan Solem 
Curator and Head, Division of Invertebrates 



As a very new assistant curator at Field Museum of 
Natural History in the 1950s, 1 first heard of Bill and Jan 
Street when they contemplated an expedition to Iran 
and wanted to know whether somebody from Field 
Museum who could skin and prepare mammals might be 
available to participate. Although very eager to travel, I 
was a land snail specialist and completely lacked the 
necessary qualifications. 

When their field program expanded in the mid- 
1960s, more and more of Field Museum staff were con- 
sulted by them before their trips. I thus made a special 
plea that they try to collect land snails in Afghanistan 
during their 1965 expedition. They found thirty-seven 
species, four new to science, including Subzebrinus streeti 
Solem (1979, Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, 1:33-36), 
and another ten new to Afghanistan, thus making a sig- 
nificant addition to our knowledge of the Afghan snail 
fauna. 

By the early 1970s, we were well acquainted. When 
they indicated a desire to sponsor another expedition, 
and I was energetically trying to develop a multi- 
disciplinary field program in Western Australia, it was 
easy to combine planning efforts with the added 
cooperation of the Western Australian Museum, Perth. 
Sparked by the initial offer of mammal survey support by 
the Streets, the largest inland scientific expedition in 
Australian history converged on the Mitchell Plateau in 
the northwest during October 1976. 

Bill and Jan Street, I, and assistants shared the red 
dust, fought the packs of flies, changed one another's flat 
tires, made similar and different wrong turns off tracks, 
contrasted and learned from the divergent Australian 
and American camping styles, and felt the same sense of 
fulfillment and joy during even the hottest of Kimberley 
days. 

On reading their Iran account, I became impatient 
with the piles of papers, ringing telephone, and sched- 



uled meetings in Chicago. I was — no, am — ready to 
depart for another place from which we have too little 
material for effective study. Be it North America, Afri- 
ca, Asia, or Pacific Islands, no place in the world has had 
its living secrets adequately revealed. 

Who are these special people? 

William Sherman Street was bom September 30, 
1904, in Oakland, California. After receiving his col- 
lege education at the University of California, Berkeley, 
he began a merchandising career at Hale Brothers' Store 
in Oakland. He eventually became president of 
Frederick &. Nelson department stores, Seattle; served as 
executive vice president of its parent store Marshall 
Field & Company of Chicago; was general, manager of 
the Chicago stores for three years; and served as director 
of the parent company. During these career years. Bill 
also took on numerous civic, community, and national 
responsibilities. He is also a member of the Commercial 
Club of Chicago. 

He served eight years as a director of the U.S. 
Chamber of Commerce during the Eisenhower 
administration — six of these years as chairman of the 
Committee for Economic Policy and one as chairman of 
the Canadian- American Committee. From 1957 until 
its opening in 1962, Bill Street was deeply involved in 
the organization of the very successful Seattle World's 
Fair — the Century 21 Exposition. In 1961-1962 he was 
chairman of the operating organization. Century 21 
Exposition, Inc. 

After taking early retirement from Frederick &. 
Nelson and mounting the first Iran expedition, Bill 
Street assumed the presidency of United Pacific 
Corporation, an investment banking firm now known as 
Univar Corporation; he was later chairman of the board 
until his next retirement in 1974. He also held direc- 
torships in several corporate and civic organizations. 

Jan Kergan was born in Oakland in 1902. She 23 



graduated from the University of California in 1924 and 
married Bill Street the next year. Her busy life has 
woven together a great many interests. She has worked 
extensively with the Red Cross and in the fields of com- 
munity and children's health. She has been active in 
Children's Orthopedic Hospital, the Arboretum 
Foundation, and the National Society of Colonial 
Dames; she has been president of the Seattle Children's 
Home and a fellow of the Explorers' Club. After her ex- 
perience as co-leader of Field Museum expeditions, she 
lectured extensively before schools and clubs in Oregon 
and Washington. She is an involved and resourceful 
person. 

Bill and Jan have seen their three children go on to 
successful careers. Georgann Street Evans is a painter 



and sculptor who has been on the faculty of the Univers- 
ity of California; William K. Street is president of 
Ostrom Company of Lacey, Washington; and John S. 
Street is former president of Germaine Monteil, New 
York City. 

Today, nearly twenty-four years after the realiza- 
tion of the 1962-1963 Iran Expedition, Bill and Jan 
Street continue to enjoy their home near Oso, Wash- 
ington, keep up with the many friends made on their 
journeys, watch with quiet pride the stream of published 
results from their expeditions, follow the careers of the 
many students who worked with them, and observe the 
progress of their twelve grandchildren and seven great- 
grandsons. 



Afterword C 
Fruits of Their Labors 

by Robert M. Timm 

Curator-in-Charge of Mammals 

Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 

(recently Head of Field Museum's Division 

of Mammals) 



William and Janice Street organized and led five differ- 
ent foreign expeditions for Field Museum: two to Iran 
(1962-1963 and 1968), one to Afghanistan (1965), one 
to Peru (1975-76), and one to western Australia (1976- 
77). This book reviews just the first of these — each was a 
unique adventure of its own. The logistics of organizing 
an international scientific expedition are truly phe- 
nomenal. It takes special people with the right combina- 
tion of patience, drive, political savvy, sensitivity, and 
intestinal fortitude to pull it off. For those special few 
who have led a successful expedition, there is probably 
no greater thrill. It remains a highlight of their lives. 
The inner satisfaction of successfully tackling formidable 
odds, accomplishing goals, and producing a valuable 
collection to be studied by generations of scientists is an 
indescribable feeling. Often the people who work 
together on such an expedition develop lifelong 
friendships far stronger than bonds developed under 
more normal circumstances. 

Over two decades have passed since the Streets' 

first Iranian Expedition. It is appropriate to ask what was 

gained, what was learned, what was the long-term legacy 

of their effort. What happened to the specimens, the 

24 people ? What were the products ? 



The most tangible products of an expedition are the 
specimens brought back for study. The Street expedition 
to Iran collected nearly thirty-five hundred specimens of 
mammals; several hundred specimens of birds, reptiles, 
amphibians, and fishes; and thousands of specimens of 
parasitic arthropods — the fleas, lice, ticks, and mites. To 
put this world in perspective. Field Museum's collections 
now house one of the finest collections of these groups in 
existence anywhere. 

Preparation of specimens in the field requires a tre- 
mendous amount of work; however, it is just the begin- 
ning. Upon completion of the field work, all specimens 
must be carefully labeled, fumigated to prevent damage 
by insect pests, and packed for shipment home. Scien- 
tific specimens must be packed well enough to withstand 
the worst possible treatment at the hands of the shippers, 
and often that seems to be just what they receive! Once 
everything has arrived safely at the Museum, the 
pleasurable but extremely laborious process of sorting, 
labeling, and final preparation begins. Specimens that 
have been improperly labeled or prepared are worthless; 
thus these final steps are as critical as those that origi- 
nally obtained the material. For the mammal specimens, 
skeletons of the smaller species such as shrews and bats 



are cleaned with the aid of dermestid beetles. Larger 
skeletons such as the wild sheep are cleaned in huge 
steam kettles. The result of both processes is beautiful 
white clean bone that will be resistant to decomposition 
when stored properly and will present scientists with 
material that is easy to study with accuracy. For the Iran- 
ian collections ten years were required for all specimens 
to be completely processed and finally incorporated into 
the research collections. They are now curated and 
actively being studied by a wide array of investigators. 

The Street expeditions were especially valuable in 
that bright, young, enthusiastic, budding scientists were 
full participants. They were carefully chosen, then given 
full support both in direction by Museum staff and free- 
dom to devote their energies totally to the project for 
several months. The Street expeditions were distin- 
guished by the financial support provided to the young 
investigators afterward to prepare and study the collec- 
tions in Chicago. This contributed significantly to the 
overall success of the enterprises. Training of future sci- 
entists, both in the United States and in the host coun- 
tries, is one of the major roles of expeditions. 

Doug Lay, the young mammalogist, went on to 
complete his Ph.D. studies, relying heavily on materials 
collected in Iran. He is now an active professional mam- 
malogist, well respected as the world's foremost author- 
ity on the Mideastem gerbillinae rodents that he first 
met in Iran. 

In addition, another Ph.D. dissertation study was 
based entirely on the Iranian collections. Anthony F. 
DeBlase's dissertation, a 424-page monograph entitled 
"The bats of Iran: Systematics, distribution, and ecol- 
ogy," was published in Field Museum's scientific series, 
Fieldiana: Zoology. It is considered the most authoritative 
work of its kind for all of Asia. 

Fortuitously, Charles Reed, the Yale archaeologist, 
moved to Chicago and has utilized the Iran collections 
extensively in his studies to unravel the unknowns in 
how, when, and where man first domesticated animals 
such as goats, sheep, pigs, and dogs. With the aid of this 
material, techniques have been developed to distinguish 
bone fragments from archaeological sites that represent 
man's earliest domesticated animals. Additionally, age, 
sex, weight, and season of death can often be obtained 
now from mere fragments of bone, thus providing insight 
into the lives of ancient peoples and how they utilized 
and modified their world — insights into how civilization 
developed. 

Carolyn RenzuUi, a doctoral candidate at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, currently is studying the wild sheep 
collected by the Streets. Her dissertation will be a study 
of the functional craniology of these sheep, and a test of 



a biomechanical model that she has developed for skull 
function in homed bovids. Her studies are possible only 
because of the depth and strength of Field Museum's col- 
lections. The current and future value of the specimens 
is greatly enhanced because of the care taken in the field 
to obtain the maximum data for each and to preserve 
each specimen properly. 

We are frequently asked, "Do scientists really study 
all these things?" The answer is a resounding "Yes." 

In addition to staff scientists at Field Museum, visit- 
ing mammalogists, anatomists, archaeologists, paleon- 
tologists, anthropologists, veterinarians, forensic scien- 
tists, and an array of government agencies interested in 
conservation, customs, and enforcement of wildlife laws 
utilize Field Museum's collection of over 127,000 mam- 
mals. During a recent twelve-month period, scientists 
from twenty-eight states and eleven foreign countries 
spent some eight hundred visitor-days examining our 
mammal collections. In addition, we send out nearly a 
hundred loans of specimens each year to other institu- 
tions throughout the world. The loan and visitor use of 
Field Museum's scientific collections is one of the most 
extensive in the scientific world. And all of this goes on 
behind-the-scenes, outside of public view on the 
Museum's fourth and fifth floors. 

The value of such an expedition is only partially 
realized when the specimens are safely tucked away in 
the Museum's collections. Their true value to science 
can only be measured over time, after the scientists study 
them. In recent years, an annual average of more than 
fifty technical papers and scholarly books have involved 
research in the mammal collections. 

Tragically, Iran has been torn by war in recent 
years. The few reports we have concerning the current 
state of science and scientific collections in the country 
are disheartening. Apparently all scientific study collec- 
tions, once a rich reflection of the region's history, are 
now destroyed and scattered. Additionally, many of the 
areas studied by the Street expedition have been ravaged 
by recent fighting. We must assume that the fighting and 
political turmoil in Iran has taken as significant a toll on 
wildlife and habitats necessary for wildlife as it has on 
human lives. Thus, the collections made by the Streets 
are truly irreplaceable. 

Habitat destruction and the associated loss of wild- 
life is not a problem unique to Iran but is a global prob- 
lem. It has been estimated that 60 percent of all species 
on the earth today will be extinct before scientist have a 
chance to study them. Time is running out. Will there 
be future people as farsighted as William and Janice 
Street assisting tomorrow's scientists? 



25 




HELD 
MUSEUM 
TOURS^ 



Sailing to the Land of the Maya 
Aboard the Tall Ship "Sea Cloud" 
February 14-24 




Itinerary 

Dayl 

Miami/Georgetown, Grand Cayman 

Depart Miami on a regularly scheduled flight to George- 
town, the principal town of Grand Cayman, largest of the 
three Cayman Islands. Columbus named the island Las 
Tortugas ("The Turtles") in 1503, for the giant sea turtles 
that inhabit the region. The flat, sandy island is peopled by 
descendants of Cromwell's soldiers, buccaneers, and ship- 
wrecked sailors. 

Upon arrival, transfer to the Sea Cloud and sail late 
afternoon. 

Day 2 

At Sea 

Sailing due southwest in the Western Caribbean. 

Day 3 

Swan Island 

Morning arrival at tiny Swan Island, a yachtsman's para- 
dise. The coral limestone island is only 1 Vi miles long and 
60 feet high. Formerly the site of a plantation, today only 
about 20 people inhabit the island. 

Day 4 

Roatan, Bay Islands 

Morning at sea with afternoon arrival at Roatan, the larg- 
est of the Bay Islands in the Gulf of Honduras. Roatan was 
first settled by buccaneers who found the reef-locked har- 
bors and lagoons perfect hideouts for raiding treasure 
ships. 

Swim or snorkel in the blue-green reefs and explore 
the beautiful island on your own, enjoying the densely 
wooded hills, mountainous terrain, and quiet unspoiled 
atmosphere. 

Day 5 

Cochino Grande 

Morning arrival at Cayos Cochinos, of Hog Cays. This 
delightful archipelago between Roatan and the Honduran 
mainland is an exotic tropical paradise reminiscent of the 
South Pacific. Time at leisure for swimming off the mag- 
nificent tranquil beaches and for snorkeling. Enjoy the 
afternoon at sea. 

Day 6 

Puerto Barrios/Tikal/Puerto Barrios 

Early morning arrival in the Guatemalan port of Puerto 
Barrios for an optional full-day excursion by air to Tikal, 



26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, 1160605 



one of the oldest and most beautiful of all Mayan sites. Lo- 
cated deep in the Peten Jungle, Tikal was occupied from 
at least 600 B.C. through the ninth century A.D. It is 
thought to have been the most important Mayan center 
of the Classic period. 

A tour of the site includes the Great Plaza and several 
of the flat-topped pyramids towering above the rain forest. 
The structures support beautifully decorated temples 
where the priest-astronomers charted the motion of the 
stars. 



built to represent the Mayan calendar; the Temple of the 
Warriors, scene of sacrificial rites; the ceremonial ball 
court; and the astronomical observatory. Lunch is in- 
cluded. In the evening attend a farewell cocktail reception. 

Day 10 

Chichen Itza/Cancun or Merida/Miami 

Transfer to the airport for the regularly scheduled return 
flight to Miami via Cancun or Merida. 



Day? 

Half Moon Cay, Lighthouse Reef, Barrier Reef of Belize 

Morning arrival in Belize's barrier reef, the world's second 
largest, stretching for more than 120 miles. Undiscovered 
by the cruise liners and mass tourism, the area is a paradise 
for sailors, snorkelers, and nature lovers. The reef com- 
munity constitutes the earth's oldest and most complex 
ecosystem, dating back two billion years. The inner man- 
grove cays are covered with impenetrable growth, and on 
the outer sandy cays tall palm trees fringe sandy beaches. 

Spend the day at Lighthouse Reef exploring the 
Blue Hole, a remarkable phenomenon that is part of an 
underwater national park. More than 15 miles long, the 
hole is surrounded by coral that rises to the surface of the 
lagoon. 

Also visit several atolls of Lighthouse Reef, including 
Half Moon Cay, which has a large colony of red-footed 
boobies. 

Day 8 

At Sea 

Enjoy a magnificent full day at sea on board the Sea Cloud. 

Day 9 

Playa Del Carmen/Tulum/Coba/Chichen Itza 

Disembark in the morning at Playa Del Carmen, a small 
port on the Yucatan. Continue to Tulum, the City of 
Dawn. This isolated city overlooking the Caribbean is the 
only known Mayan shore-side settlement. Of the 50-plus 
structures within the walls, the Watchtower, Temple of the 
Frescoes, and Temple of the Descending God are the most 
fascinating. 

After lunch depart for the majestic site of Coba, 
meaning "wind ruffled water." Situated amid five lakes, 
Coba was one of the largest Late Classic centers and resem- 
bles the site of Tikal in Guatemala in its numerous baffling 
causeways. Visit the pyramids of El Castillo and Nohoch 
Mai. Continue to Chichen Itza with accommodations at 
the Hotel Mayaland. 

Morning and afternoon tours explore Chichen Itza, 
the magnificent metropolis and principal religious center 
of ancient Yucatan. Evidence of Toltec influence is obvious 
throughout the complex in motifs of feathered serpents, 
warriors, eagles, and jaguars. Visit the Great Pyramid, 




Guest Lecturer: John W. 
Fitzpatrick is curator of Birds 
and chairman of the Depart- 
ment of Zoology at the Field 
Museum. He received his 
Ph.D. in biology from Prince- 
ton in 1978. Fluent in Spanish, 
Dr. Fitzpatrick has extensive 
experience in Central and 
South America and in the 
Caribbean. He has lectured 
on numerous Field Museum 
tours, including a previous 
tour of the Lesser Antilles 
aboard the Sea Cloud. He is 
the author of more than 50 
articles on birds and recently 
co-authored a prize-winning 
book on Florida scrub jays, 
published by Princeton 
University Press. 



Stateroom 

Category Description 


One 
Person 


Each of 2 
Persons 


Type C — Outside stateroom with one 
lower bed and an upper berth, shower. 
Staterooms 15, 17, 18, 20 




$3,595 



Type B — Outside stateroom with two lower beds, 
shower. Staterooms 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30 

Single Type B — Outside stateroom with lower bed, 
shower. Stateroom 29, 32 



$3,995 



$5,495 



Type A — Outside stateroom with two lower beds, 
shower. Staterooms 19, 22, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
38, 39, 40, 41 



$4,395 



Superior — Original outside stateroom with double 
bed, shower. Staterooms 5 (bathtub), 6, 10, 14 

Single Superior — Original outside stateroom with 
lower bed, shower. Stateroom 1 1 



$5,095 



$6,595 



Deluxe — Original outside stateroom with double 
bed or two lower beds, private bathtub, shower. 
Staterooms 3, 4, 7 

Single Deluxe — Original outside stateroom with 
lower bed, shower. Stateroom 8 



$5,495 



$6,995 



Suite — Original owners' suite. Outside with double 
bed, private bathtub, shower. Suites 1 , 2 



$6,895 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



->;- 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7A11 NORTH GREENVIEW 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



February 1987 




"Families: A Celebration of Love, Diversity and Commitment'* 
Photographic Exhibit Now on View in Gallery 9 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

February 1987 
Volume 58, Number 2 



February Events at Field Museum 



Bushman: A Sprucing Up 

With a Memoir, "Bushman and the Presbyterian 

Missionaries," 

by Marion Faulkner Miller 



BOAKO OF TkuSTElS 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
WilUam R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas R. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. MuUin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
WiUiam L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Chfford C. Gregg 
WUliamV. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Owls of Chicago 

by Jerry Sullivan 



Absorbed in Sponges 22 

by Mary R. Carmen and Susan Brotwi Roop 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

"Families: A Celebration of Love, Diversity, and Com- 
mitment" is a new photographic exhibit on view in Gallery 
9 through April 15. Featuring 13 family groupings, the ex- 
hibit affirms and celebrates the diversity of family life in 
America today. Each photo grouping is illuminated by 
comments from a child member of the family, with atten- 
tion to differences and similarities between families. A 
child from a racially mixed family, a child who just lost a 
parent, an adopted child with a single parent — all have 
much to share about the concept of a family. "Families" 
explores issues of support, responsibility, affection, and 
love, as well as some of the struggles shared by all family 
groupings. 

The exhibit space for "Families" includes an activity 
center where parents and children can sit and talk about 
the exhibit. Children (and adults) can add their comments 
and family "portraits" to the exhibit, using the writing 
materials provided. 

"Families" is an example of Field Museum's com- 
mitment to create more interaction between visitor and ex- 
hibit subject matter. It is one of the many exciting new ex- 
hibits and programs comprising Field Museum's "new look" 
in 1987. 

"Families" was conceived and designed by the Boston 
Children's Museum. Photo by Aylette Jenness, Courtesy 
Boston Children's Museum. 



Fidd Museum of Natural Hislor, Builebn (USPS 898-9«) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Uke Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 
60605-2496 Copyright © 1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schooU. Museum membership includes Bulletin subscription. Opmions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 00I5-O703. 



Events 



ApUca^ ^i^knita^ Ceie^^uitum 



Weekends in February 

7he Extraordinary Richness and vitality 
of African culture is explored in a series of week- 
end performances and demonstrations at Field 
Museum. Discover the often "secret" craft of creat- 
ing vivid batik or tie-dye patterns on fabric. Watch 
as Chicago artist Derrick Webster creates fantastic 
and colorful caricatures of people from "found" 
scraps of wood. Listen to Harvey Duckworth relate 
the history of "Bow Tie" and "Trip around the 
World" — two of the traditional quilt patterns 
he uses. 

Storytelling figures prominently in African 
culture. Trace the history of "story cloths" tradi- 
tionally made by the men of Dahomey. Against a 
backdrop of American rhythm instruments, listen 
to tales from Africa and the Caribbean, or add 
your signature to one of Marva Jolly's ceramic 
story pots. 

All family activities are free with Museum 
admission. 



Saturday and Sunday, 
February 7 and 8 

Noon to 2:00pm: African Batik and Tie- 
dye, withjahmila Kago 
Norkware. 

Folk Art, with Derrick 
Webster. 

Mandingo Griot Society, 
with Foday Musa Suso. 
Traditional African instru- 
ments combine with elec- 
tric bass and percussion to 
produce this unique form 
of "fusion" music. Foday 
Musa Suso, a praise singer 
and oral historian, is a 
Griot from Gambia who 
traces his ancestry back 
4,000 years. 



2:00pm: 



Saturday and Sunday, 
February 14 and 15 

Noon to 2:00pm: 
2:00pm: 



Dahomy Applique, with 
Lucille Graham. 

Rhythms and Songs of 
Childhood, with Ella 
Jenkins. 

The legendary Ella Jenkins 
encourages you to snap 
fingers, clap hands, stomp 
feet, hum, and whistle in 
this spontaneous and 
impromptu sing-along 
concert. 



Saturday and Sunday, 
February 21 and 22 

Noon to 2:00pm: 



2:00pm: 



Stories and Songs of Afri- 
can People, with Shanta 
Nurullah. 

Storytelling Pots, with 
Marva Jolly. 

Quilt and See, with 
Harvey Duckworth. 

Sounds In the Forest and 
the New Yam Festival, 
with Darlene Blackburn 
Dance Troupe. 

Sounds In the Forest uses 
story, song, and dance in 
telling this special chil- 
dren's tale of Lion, Mon- 
key, Rabbit and Bird. The 
New Yam Festival presents 
an exciting celebration just 
before a new harvest. 



CONTINUED -» 



Svents 



■X 



^eSnuan^ ^ee^eW ^^lo^i^n^cuH^ 

^ACH Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free 
tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. 
Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon 
arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant 
from the Illinois Arts Council. 



February 

1 1:00pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sam- 
pling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 

7 11:30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 
to myths and mummies. 

22 1:00pm Welcome to the Field (tour). Enjoy a sam- 
pling of our most significant exhibits as you 
explore the scope of Field Museum. 



Weekends in February 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Encounter Music from around the world as 
you travel through the great halls of Field Museum. 
Experience the sounds and textures of India, China, 
and Egypt through live musical demonstrations 
and informal discussions. For further information, 
S (312) 322-8854. 



Chinese four-stringed guitar. Four 
strings represent the four seasons. 
Cat. 127541. 




\ 



Events 



'i^eHtie, CommcMcccUwe 7CiMe% TV^cUe^ 



tt 



John Ford, Research Zoologist, 

West Coast Whale Research Foundation, 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Saturday, February 21, 2:00pm 



Sleek, powerful, and fearless, they rule the seas. 
With swift thrusts of their tails, they leap from the 
water or chase down their prey. Once creatures of 
mystery seen as blood thirsty man-eaters, killer 
whales have been found to be highly social, intelli- 
gent, even gentle animals. 

The Orinus orca (commonly call the killer 
whale) has shed its aura of mystery and menace. 
Extensive research has revealed not a single docu- 
mented case of orca attacking or killing human 
beings. During the mid-1960s popular press did 
much to endear the orca to the general public and 
fade their dreaded image. 

Zoologist John Ford and his research col- 
leagues have studied the behavior, population dy- 
namics, and communication sounds of the whales 
found off the coast of British Columbia. These 14 
years of extensive research have contributed greatly 
to increased knowledge of orcas. They have found 
that these whales form "families," or pods, that are 



remarkably stable units. It appears that the only 
way a pod member arrives or leaves is by birth or 
death. Pod communities are divided into residents — 
orcas who do not actually migrate — and transients 
who travel a much broader range and behave quite 
differently. 

One of the most striking differences between 
individual whale pods is the variation in their com- 
munication sounds. Dr. Ford has studied com- 
munication sounds among orcas for the last eight 
years. Through the use of hydrophone recordings, 
he is able to demonstrate that each whale pod has its 
own distinctive dialect. Dr. Ford discusses his most 
recent research, documents his extensive observa- 
tion with slides and tape, and shares with us some 
of his incredible experiences with the orca whales. 

Tickets: $6.00 ($4.00 members). This program 
is funded in part by the Ray A. Kroc Environmental 
Fund. 



^ 



Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on the 
ticket application. If your request is received less than 
one week before a program, tickets will be held in 
your name at the West Entrance box office. Please 

n Member D Nonmember 

American Express/Visa/MasterCard 

Card Number 



Expiration Date 



Signature 

Return complete ticket application with 
a self-addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



make checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 
be mailed upon receipt of check. Refunds will be 
made only if the program is sold out. 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone: Daytime 



"Centle, Communicative Killer Whales" 
Members: $4.00 ea., nonmembers: $6.00 ea. 



Evening 



Member 

Tickets 

#Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
#Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

Requested 


Amount 











Bushman 

A Sprucing Up 



I 



.n life, Bushman was once voted as "the most out- 
standing and most valuable single animal of its kind in 
any zoo in the world." Indeed, the tall, powerful gorilla 
(6'2" tall, 565 lbs. in his prime) had a charisma all his 
own. Among the memorable events in the lives of many 
Chicago-area children was first seeing this awesome 
creature in Lincoln Park Zoo, where he lived from 1930 
until New Year's Day, 195 1 , when death came to him at 
age 23. 

The Field Museum then acquired the body of the 
world-renowned ape, and for 35 years he has continued 
as one of the Museum's star attractions. 

But 35 years of posing in a glass case can take its toll 
— skin dries out, hair and eyes lose their lustre. So re- 
cently, taxidermist Paul Brunsvold gave Bushman a 
sprucing up. Brunsvold's treatment consisted of applying 
a lanolin solution to soften and condition the skin, re- 
painting certain skin areas, reglazing the eyes, and 
brushing and combing his fur. 

And to better show off his handsome new look, 
Bushman has ambled down to the ground floor, not far 
from the Children's Store, ready to greet more genera- 
tions of admiring visitors. 



The following anecdote concerning Bushman's infancy in 

Africa and hou) he u/as adopted by missionaries was luritten 

6 by Marion Faulkr\er MiUer, whose late sister, Annie Mary 




Cosmetics for the male are heartily endorsed by Bushman, who 
patiently submits to the meticulous handiwork of taxidermist Paul 
Brunsvold. Photo by Ron Testa mtn 

Mien, told her the story some years ago. Mrs. Allen was one 
of those who found and took care of the infant gorilla when 
fourxd in 1928. Mrs. Miller is now a resident of the Presbyte- 
rian Home in Evanston, Illinois. 



Bushman and the 
Presbyterian Missionaries 

by Marion Faulkner Miller 

A baby gorilla toddled into the Presbyterian Missionary 
compound in Cameroon, West Africa one afternoon 
early in 1928. This little fellow proved to be the way to a 
beautiful stained glass church window for the mis- 
sionaries, James and Annie Mary Allen, stationed there 
from the Fourth Presbyterian Church in Chicago. 

The missionaries and native Africans took turns 
cuddling and comforting this small gorilla while several 
of the Africans set out into the jungle in search of its 
mother. When darkness approached, they returned, 
having found no trace of the adult gorilla. It was obvious 
that the little fellow was hungry. Since he could not yet 
eat solid food, what could he be fed? The missionary. 
Dr. Johnson, prepared a baby formula as he would for a 
human baby, and the gorilla devoured it with gusto. 
Thereafter, Annie Mary Allen, the wife of James Allen, 
continued to prepare the same formula for the infant 
gorilla. Continued on p. 25 




A Field Museum Feature 
On Local Natural History 

by JERRY SULLIVAN 



We 



'hen I was a volunteer at Lincoln Park Zoo, I used 
to take owls to fifth grade classrooms around the city. We 
were docents working in two-person teams, and we ar- 
rived at each school with two cages and a bag. The cages 
held a bird and a mammal. There was a snake in the bag, 
usually a boa constrictor. 

Boas were ideal for our purposes. They are big and 
powerful looking. They are beautifully patterned. They 
are creepy as the devil, flicking their forked tongues at 
the kids. And they are docile enough to let the children 
lightly stroke their smooth dry skin. 

We used to do a 45-minute presentation, 15 min- 
utes per animal, and experience quickly taught us to save 
the snake for last. Nobody could follow his act. Nobody, 
that is, except an owl. Bring out any other bird — and we 
used parrots, sparrow hawks, crows, and even a toucan 
— and we'd lose a third of the class. Bring out an owl and 
you can reduce the most blase fifth grader to open- 
mouthed wonder. 

We used three different owls at various times, a red 
phase screech owl, a great homed owl, and a barn owl, 
but the reaction was the same no matter what owl we 
showed them. 



Our fifth graders were not the first humans to react 
that way to members of the order Strigiformes. Owls 
have been making strong impressions on people for as 
long as people have been recording their impressions. 
The ancient Egyptians identified one of the human souls 
— they believed we have three — with the bam owl. This 
particular soul stayed near the tomb after death, and we 
can guess that bam owls did the same thing. The birds 
got their common name from their habit of nesting in 
buildings. Apparently they got the habit almost as soon 
as there were any buildings to nest in. 

In the Old Testament, owls were part of a standard- 
ized curse the prophets would pronounce on rich and 
powerful cities that had departed from the paths of 
righteousness. Said Isaiah, speakingof thecity of Edom, 
"And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and 



Chicago writer Jerry Sullivan writes frequently on birds for the Bul- 
letin. He does a column, "Field and Street, " for the Chicago 
Reader and has done features on birds for Audubon magazine and 
other national publications. He was also editor of Chicago Area 
Birds, published in 1985 by Chicago Review Press. 



brambles in the fortresses thereof, and it shall be an 
habitation of dragons and a court for owls." 

Owls became wise birds in Greece. Athena, god- 
dess of wisdom, was usually pictured with a small, earless 
owl — perhaps a European little owl — sitting on her 
shoulder. Athens, her city, stamped a picture of an owl 
onto its coins. 

Of course, owls have a dark side, a slightly creepy 
edge that simultaneously attracts and repells us, just as 
the boa constrictor does. They are birds of the darkness, 
haunters of graveyards, screamers in the night. Their 
calls are an augury of death. An owl is the familiar of one 
of Macbeth's witches, and it is the "obscure bird" that 
cries out when Macbeth kills the king. 

I think their faces have a lot to do with the intensity 
of our reactions to owls. Hawks and eagles, the hunters 
of daylight, have birds' faces. Their foreheads slope 
sharply back from the tops of their beaks. Their eyes are 
set on the sides of their heads, and their throats recede 
directly from their lower mandibles. 

But put a pair of glasses or a hat on an owl, and you 
have a human being with a big round face, a forehead at 
the top, a chin at the bottom, two big eyes that look 
directly at you, and, set below them, a hooked beak that 
could stand for a nose. 

That distinctive, almost human, face has been 
shaped by natural selection, and many of the secrets of 
owls' success as nocturnal hunters are hidden in it. Start 
with the facial disk, a thin line of specialized feathers 
that outlines the cheeks of that humanoid face. Facial 
disk feathers grow very close together. They are roughly 
paddle-shaped, narrow at the base and wide at the top. 
The central quill of each feather is thickened and the 
webbing is quite dense. 

This dense wall of feathers serves as a barrier to 
sound waves. Sounds hitting the disk bounce off and are 
fiinneled inward toward the bird's ear. What we have 
here, in other words, is a parabolic reflector just exactly 
like the ones we use to pick up faint and distant sounds. 



The only difference is that our reflectors concentrate the 
sound toward a microphone rather than an ear. 

And then there are the ears themselves. We can't 
see them. They are completely hidden under the owl's 
soft body plumage (the so-called ears of long-eared owls 
are actually feather tufts). The external openings of the 
ears are quite large, and, most remarkably, they are, in 
various ways, asymmetrical. Bam owls have flaps of skin 
along the edges of their ear openings, and the flaps are at 
slightly different positions on each side of the skull. 
Long-eared and short-eared owls go even further. The 
external openings of their ears are of different shapes and 
they are differently positioned on the sides of the skull. 
The internal structures are also quite different. 

All this variation provides the owl with an excel- 
lent means of determining where a sound is coming 
from. Any animal with two ears can do a certain amount 
of direction finding. We can detect tiny differences in 
the time of arrival of sound waves at our ears. If they get 
to the left ear first, the sound is to the left; if they get to 
the right ear first, it is to the right. 

But as anyone who has ever tried to find a singing 
bird in a tree can tell you, this system is considerably less 
than foolproof. 

An owl's system is much more sophisticated. The 
variations in ear structure cause different frequencies to 
be heard at different levels of intensity in one ear than in 
the other. Experiments involving the planting of mi- 
crophones in the ears of dead barn owls suggest that 
these differences vanish when the bird is looking directly 
at the source of the sound. 

The effectiveness of this method of locating prey 
was demonstrated several years ago at Cornell Univer- 
sity when barn owls proved they could hunt very well by 
ear. The birds were confined one at a time in a room as 
close to absolute darkness as the researchers could man- 
age. As a test for darkness, they exposed high speed film 
in the room for one hour. It did not fog (fogging would 
have indicated the presence of light) . 



Chicago-Area Wildlife Series 

This article is part of a continuing series on the wildlife of Chicago and the surrounding region. Previous articles 
have included "Chicago's Parakeets," "Lake Renwick: Unlikely Haven for the Endangered," "The Wooded Island: 
Chicago's Premier Birding Area," "Spring Wildflowers of the Chicago Area," and "Late Summer and Fall Flowers of 
the Chicago Region." Articles scheduled to appear in the coming months cover the subjects of local water snakes, 
spring bird migration, raising moths and butterflies, and a feature on one of our local native prairies. 

Arrangements for additional copies or reprints, past or future (including bulk quantities for classroom use), 
may be made by writing or calling (922-9410) the Bulletin editor at the Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, II 60605. 



Copyright © 1984 Tom McHugtvPhoto Researchers Inc 




The northern saw-uihet owl, Aegolius acadicus, is the only tiny, tuftless owl apt to be seen in the Chicago area. It nests most often in a hole 
in a tree or stump and sometimes in an abandoned woodpecker's nest. Its usual call is a long series of short whistles. 



With the bird in place on a perch at one end of the 
room, the researchers scattered dead leaves on the floor 
at the other end and released a mouse into the room. 
The rustling of the mouse immediately attracted the 
owl's attention, and when the bird left its perch to strike 
at the mouse, it was successful 17 out of 21 times. 

And then there are those eyes. They are quite large. 



A snowy owl, which weighs three or four pounds, has 
eyes as big as a grown man's, and those eyes are put 
together in ways that make them especially efficient 
when there is very little light. Like humans, owls have 
two types of visual receptor cells in their eyes. Rods, 
which are sensitive to changes in the intensity of light, 
and cones, which are sensitive to different frequencies of 




The Eastern screech-owl, Otus asio, red and gray phase. Frequents wooded areas, where mice and small birds such as the house sparrow 
are favored food items. Its call is a soft, trilling note and sometimes a harsh cat'Uke screech. The two color phases seem to have no relation to 
age or sex, both red and gray birds sometimes being found in the same nest. 



10 



light, which is to say, colors. 

Diurnal creatures like us get our ability to see colors 
and our visual acuity from cones. Owls, which have 
enormous numbers of rods densely packed together, de- 
rive their ability to see in low light from these. They do, 
however, have enough cones to be able to see well in 
daylight. 

The forward look of those eyes matters too. Owls 
have binocular vision over about 70 percent of their 
visual field, so they can make very accurate judgements 
about how far they are from anything they see. They 
supplement their binocular vision by bobbing their 
heads up and down or from side to side to get a good 
angle on what they are looking at. 

Those eyes cause some problems too. They are so 
large that there doesn't seem to be any room for muscles 



to move them, so they are fixed in their sockets. An owl 
has a visual field of about 1 10 degrees, and to see to the 
right or left, it must turn its head. 

Our demonstration of silent flight was one of the 
highlights of our owl show for the fifth graders. The bam 
owl was the best for this. Our great homed owl had been 
donated to the zoo after some idiot with a shotgun nearly 
destroyed one wing, so it could not fly at all, silently or 
otherwise. 

The bam owl sat on my hand. I would wear a heavy 
falconer's glove, and the bird was secured by jesses, or 
straps. 1 would raise my arm high over my head, ask all 
the kids to be silent, and then drop my hand almost to 
the floor. The bird, to keep its balance would flap its 
wings, and the fifth graders would hear only the merest 
whisper. 



Two characteristics of owl feathers are involved in 
dampening the sound of flapping wings. The barbules, 
the slender filaments attached to the central quills of the 
flight feathers, are tipped with hairlike projections that 
give the feathers a cushiony pile like velvet that effec- 
tively dampens the sound of feathers striking each other. 
One or more of the primary flight feathers at the tip of 
the wing have edges like the teeth of a comb, a feature 
that deadens the sound of air passing over the feather. 

We used to ask the fifth graders what help silent 



The world's smallest owl is the elf owl of the Amer- 
ican Southwest. It is six inches long, about the size of a 
house sparrow, and weighs less than two ounces. Decid- 
ing on the biggest owl is a bit more difficult. The great 
gray owl, two and a half feet long with a wingspan of five 
feet, is the longest and widest North American owl, but 
under all those feathers, the great gray is really a bit on 
the spindly side. The stockier snowy owl outweighs it by 
a pound. 

The diets of these birds are just as varied as their 



The bam owl, Tyto 
alba, is nocturnal 
and feeds largely on 
rodents. Its call is a 
soft, rising, wheeze- 




flight would be to an animal that hunts in the dark and 
they would usually figure out that a stealthy approach 
would capture more prey, to which we might add that 
silent flight would also be a big help to an animal that 
hunts by ear. You can't hear a mouse if you are making 
too much racket yourself. 

Put together the keen eyes, the sharp ears, the 
hooked beak, all the attributes of that face, add soft si- 
lent plumage and talons as the major weapons for captur- 
ing and killing prey and you have a sort of generic owl. 
Real owls are, of course, quite specific, about 134 spe- 
cies, and they have developed a number of variations on 
this basic theme of owlness. 



dimensions. The elf owl goes after grasshoppers and 
other insects, which it captures owl-fashion with its feet, 
sometimes while on the wing. Some tropical owls have 
specialized in catching fish. The undersides of their toes 
have developed corrugations, a tread for gripping slip- 
pery fish. Most owls concentrate mainly on small mam- 
mals, from mice and shrews up to rabbits, squirrels, and 
even skunks. 

Owls have occupied all the world's land areas ex- 
cept Antarctica and some isolated oceanic islands. They 
live in swampy river bottoms in the tropical forest and 
on Arctic tundra. We have 19 species in North America 
and 12 of them have been recorded in the Chicago area. 



11 



12 




With some luck, and persistence, you might see seven or 
eight in the course of a year, but several of those belong 
to common and widespread genera, so looking at them 
will give you a good introduction to the whole order. 

The bam owl is likely to be the hardest of those 
local possibilities to find. The genus Tyto is cosmopoli- 
tan. Antarctica and New Zealand are the only signifi- 
cant land masses without bam owls. However, the birds 
stay out of the higher latitudes both here and in Eurasia, 
and in the Midwest the northern edge of their range is 
central Wisconsin, so we can guess that they were never 
common here. They were present as resident birds as 
recently as 30 years ago, but the last nest was discovered 
15 years ago, and even sightings of vagrant birds have 
declined. 

Barn owls belong to a family of owls called the 
Tytonidae which includes them, the closely related grass 
owls, and the Asian bay owls. The only tytonid in North 
America, the bam owl differs from all the rest of our owls 
(the Strigidae family) chiefly in some points of skeletal 
anatomy such as the shape of the sternum and the thick- 
ness of the bones in the eye sockets. There are two visi- 
ble differences between the bam owls and the rest of our 
owls. The bam owl's thicker eye sockets produce corre- 
spondingly smaller eyes, and the facial disk of the bam 
owl is heart-shaped rather than round. 

Bam owls hunt over open ground. Their wings are 
long and broad and they can glide quite slowly without 
stalling. They stay low, rarely rising as high as 15 feet, 
searching the ground below as they go. This low, slow 
method of hunting works quite well. One bird in Eng- 
land was seen to capture nine small rodents in 55 min- 
utes of hunting. That's just a bit over six minutes a 
mouse, an amazing rate, especially when you consider 
that the bird ate only one and brought the other eight 
back to its nest. So there were eight flights from hunting 
ground to nest and back included in that 55-minute 
span. 

When a bam owl sees a mouse scurrying through 
the grass it dives toward it. Just before striking, the bird 
swings its feet forward and pulls its head back so that the 
talons hit the mouse and the head stays away from trou- 
ble. As a further protection, the nictitating membrane 
closes down over the eyes. The membrane is a sort of 
second eyelid. In most birds, it is thin and transparent, 
but in owls it is thick and opaque, so at the instant it 
strikes its prey, the owl is blind. 

The only wild bam owl 1 have ever seen around 

Above: Burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia, seen only on rare 
occasions in the Chicago area. Below: Long-eared owl, Asio otus, 
recognizable by its large ear tufts, an inch long or more. 



t 




^^■>'^- 



Barred owl, Strix varia, nearly as large as the great homed owl, but distinguishable by its lack of ear tufts and its dark eyes, a characteristic 
it shares locally only with the bam owl. 



Chicago was a very cooperative bird that showed up in 
Lincoln Park Zoo, of all places, in December of 1982. It 
hung around for a couple of weeks, roosting in the rafters 
of the shed that shelters the Viking ship, and birders 
came from all over to see it. 

It is depressingly easy to assign causes to the decline 
of the barn owl. We don't have as many bams as we used 
to, and those we do have are probably too spruce and tidy 
to have a hole in the wall big enough for a bam owl to get 
through. We also don't have as many pastures and hay 
fields as we used to for the birds to hunt over. The Illinois 
Department of Conservation has begun putting out nest 
boxes for barn owls, but with so few birds left, it is hard to 



see where the breeding stock is going to come from. 

The easiest owl to see around Chicago is Bubo virgi- 
nianus, the undisputed king of the woods, the great 
homed owl. This voracious hunter nests in every county 
in the Chicago area. It is possible that it breeds in every 
county in the U.S. outside of Hawaii. It regularly nests 
within the city limits of Chicago. 

A large female great homed owl — as in hawks and 
eagles, female owls are generally larger and heavier than 
males — might measure two feet from top of feather tufts 
to tip of tail and its wingspan could reach five feet. 
Pound for pound, it is the fiercest predator in North 
America. Only the wolves, bears, and pumas regularly 



13 



14 




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CO 

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2 
-5 

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3 
o 
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15 




Great homed owl, Bubo virginianus, found throu^ut the con- 
tinental U. S. except northernmost Alaska. Its call is commonly a 
hud hoo-hoo, hoo-hcx), hoo, but it also utters a variety of un- 
earthly screams. 



take prey larger than this mighty owl. Just naming the 
animals it is known to eat would take half this page. The 
roster includes skunks, possums, snowshoe hares, large 
snakes — including poisonous species — and a long list of 
birds ranging in size up to the Canada goose. Like most 
owls, the great homed is not much for nest building. It 
often takes over the old nests of red-tailed hawks. If the 
hawks try to protest this usurpation they are likely to lose 
the contest. Red-tailed hawk is one of the birds on that 
long list of food items for the great homed owl. 

Great homed owls begin nesting as early as the end 
of January around Chicago. They are most vocal during 
the breeding season, so late winter is a good time to look 
for them. The sheer arrogance, if I may anthropomor- 
phize for a moment, of nesting in January, seems to fit a 
bird as mighty as the great homed owl. Just when most 
animals are pressed to the limit to survive, the owl de- 
cides to start a family. 

The female lays her clutch — usually two or three 
eggs — and then sits on them for a month or more. She 
has to stay on the nest, because even a short absence on a 
cold February night could kill the developing embryos. 
So the male hunts for two, somehow finding enough for 
both his mate and himself through the most miserable 
and difficult time of year. 

After the young hatch, the parents combine their 
efforts, delivering rabbits, squirrels, woodchucks, ducks, 
skunks and almost anything else that moves. The young 
birds stay with their parents through the summer, follow- 
ing them through the woods, often screaming loudly to 
be fed. They don't become fully independent until fall, 
which may offer a more reasonable explanation than 
arrogance for that early nesting date. 

Great homed owls nest from Hudson Bay to Tierra 
del Fuego at South America's tip. Other members of the 
genus Bubo live in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Most of the 
Old World species are called eagle owls in recognition of 
their size and strength. 

Barred owls are almost as big as great homed owls, 
but their feet are noticeably smaller and weaker. In an 
owl, small feet mean small prey Barred owls live mainly 
in low, swampy woodlands, and much of their food is 
frogs, salamanders, and small snakes. In the Chicago 



16 



Shcrrt-eared owl, Asio flammeus, is most often seen during sprir^ 
aruifall migrations, particularly in prcdrie or marshlarvi. 



Copyright© 1962 AlvinE. Slatfan/Ptioto Researchers Inc. 




Boreal owl, Aegolius fiinereus 



area, they can usually be found along the Des Plaines 
River in Lake County and at the Indiana Dunes, but not 
in between those two places. 
18 The barred owl is the classic hoot owl. You can 



learn to imitate its standard nine-note hoot, and if you 
get halfway decent at it, you can call a bird right out of 
the woods. 

Common screech owls are our most common local 



owl. They are really misnamed. Their usual call is a sort 
of eerie whinny rather than a screech. This is another 
one you can learn to imitate without too much difficulty. 
Screech owls will come when they are called, and many 



for smaller prey than the great homed; but their tastes 
are just as catholic. Among the food items they are 
known to take are other screech owls. 

Our screech owls belong to the genus Otus, a group 




species of small songbirds will also respond. Many birds 
mob predators such as owls. They don't dare attack an 
owl, but they will crowd around it and holler at it as 
loudly as they can. It seems an effective way to neutralize 
a hunter that depends on stealth. 

Screech owls are our smallest resident owls. They 
are typically robin-sized — 8 to 10 inches long, with a 
wingspan of 18 to 24 inches — or even smaller, so they go 



Great gray owl, 
Strix nebulosa 

whose many species are distributed world-wide. Among 
the screech owl's relatives is Otus petersoni, recently dis- 
covered in South America by John Fitzpatrick of the 
Field Museum and John P. O'Neill of Louisiana State 
University. 

Long-eared and short-eared owls, both of the genus 
Asio are also quite cosmopolitan species. The long-eared 
lives in mid-latitudes in both eastern and western hemi- 19 



spheres. The short-eared is even more widespread. It 
lives in North and South America and in Europe and 
Asia and on several isolated islands, among them Hawaii 
and the Galapagos. 

The two birds are approximately the same size, 
averaging about 15 inches long with wingspans of three 
to three-and-a-half feet. Both of these birds used to be 
regular nesters in the Chicago area, but they have grown 
scarce in recent years and now we see them mainly dur- 
ing migration and in winter. Short-eared owls are some- 
times seen migrating along the lakefront, and in suitable 
habitat — marsh or grassland — you may see one hunting 
during the day. Like the barn owl, they fly low across the 
fields looking for movement in the grass. 

Snowy and saw-whet owls are northern species that 
we see here fairly regularly in the winter. The giant 
snowy owl is an irruptive species. Some years we see very 
few; but from time to time, the lemmings that are one of 
the owl's major food sources suffer a population crash, 
and large numbers of owls then come south in search of 
food. In peak years, they have been known to reach the 
Gulf Coast. 

The saw-whet, the smallest of our owls, measures 7 
to 8 inches end-to-end and its wingspan is only 17 to 20 
inches. Saw-whets are very tame birds, so if you can find 
one you may be able to get quite close to it. 

If you have real faith in long shots, you might hope 
to see a burrowing owl. This is a species with a disjunct 
population. Most of them live in the Southwest, but 
there is also an isolated population in Florida. We don't 
know where our local sightings came from, but we have 
only about 10 records of the bird in the past 60 years, so if 
you see one, you should think about the fact that you are 
probably having a once-in-a-lifetime experience. 

However, neat though it would be to see a burrow- 
ing owl, there are even rarer experiences possible for the 
lucky and assiduous owl-seeker. 

Perhaps you will see a boreal owl, a species that has 
been reported only four times in the Chicago area. Or a 
hawk owl, seen four times for certain, most recently in 
1914, and once, possibly, in 1977. That presumed sight- 
ing often years ago was enjoyed by only one person. You 
might even see a great gray owl, a bird listed by Chicago's 
early naturalist, Robert Kennicott, in a compilation of 
birds found in Cook County that he published in 1855. 
It hasn't been seen since. 

These extreme longshots carry a bigger charge of 

excitement, not just because they are rare in these parts 

but because they live in inaccessible places and they 

aren't all that easy to see even there. If you really want to 

20 see burrowing owls, you can fly to Florida, Texas, Arizo- 



na, or various other states, and see lots of them. You 
might not even have to get off the plane. They nest in 
the artificial short-grass environments of airports. 

But great grays and hawk and boreal owls are birds 
of the northern forests. With the exception of a few 
southern extensions in the western mountains — great 
grays breed in Yosemite National Park in the Sierra 
Nevada — their breeding range in the New World is en- 
tirely in Canada and Alaska. They are likely to be un- 
common even on their home ground, so you could travel 
for days through the wilderness of, say, northern Ontar- 
io, and never see one. 

These three woodland owls are also much more 
sedentary than the semi-migratory snowies, staying put 
in winter; or, if they do come south, they don't venture 
far. The winter of 1978-79 saw a great invasion of great 
gray owls into the U.S., but few of them got south of 
Duluth, Minnesota. 

The giant great gray owl has one of the most highly 
developed facial disks. Its fluffy feathers cover even its 
toes, a useful trait in an animal that routinely winters in 
northern Saskatchewan. 

The boreal owl is the smallest of this trio. It is 
screech owl-size, about 10 inches long. Like the saw- 
whet, it is extremely tame. People have actually cap- 
tured boreal owls by hand. 

Hawk owls are a special case. They have gone diur- 
nal, left the night to hunt during the day, and their way 
of life has pushed them in some hawkish directions. 
Their wings — the average span is a few inches under 
three feet— are slender and pointed like a falcon's and 
their flight is fast and direct. They use their eyes more 
than their ears, and their ears are smaller and more sym- 
metrical than those of more nocturnal owls. Their feath- 
ers are also noisier; they have lost the velvety cushioning 
typical of the rest of their family. FH 



Northern hawk-owl, Sumia ulula 




21 



Copyright © 1976 G.C Kelly/Photo Researchers Inc. 




Volunteers Bette Jarz (left) and Trace Clark-Petravick process the Schrammen fossil sponge collection, unpacking and catalo^ng speci- 
mens, preserving accompanying documents, and translating labels from the German. Volunteer colleagues in this valuable work are Susan 
Brcmm Roop and Lord Welsh. »i«d2 



Absorbed in Sponges 

by MAFY R. CARMAN and SUSAN BROWN ROOP 



s. 



'ponges, simple and primitive though they may seem, 
have proven to be remarkably successful animals, sur- 
viving all of the major extinctions that are part of the 
earth's history since they first appeared nearly 600 mil- 
lion years ago. 

These interesting animals have succeeded in space 
22 as well as time, occurring in every major ocean basin, 



from abyssal depths to the tidal zone, as well as in fresh- 
water lakes and streams. In some environments they are 
the dominant organism. 



Mary R. Connan is manc^er of the paleontology collectior\s; Susan 
Brown Roop is a volunteer in the Department of Geology. 



Fossil sponges are of particular interest to geolo- 
gists, who have used them to interpret ancient environ- 
ments. Among the most important collections of fossil 
sponges is that acquired over a period of more than fifty 
years by the Germsin collector Anton Schrammen 
(1869-1953). During the last 18 years of his life, Schram- 
men gradually sold off the collection to Princeton Uni- 
versity, from which it was recently acquired by the Field 
Museum. 

A dentist by profession, Schrammen's greatest con- 
tribution to science was through his avocation: the study 
of fossil sponges, particularly those of the Jurassic and 
Cretaceous periods (215-145 million years ago and 145- 
65 million years ago, respectively). His collection is par- 
ticularly rich in Cretaceous type specimens (those indi- 
viduals on which original descriptions of species are 
based). 

As a young man, Schrammen collected specimens 
from fossil beds within a ten-mile radius of his hometown 
of Hildesheim, about 100 miles south of Hamburg. In 
the 1890s he intensified his paleontological work, grad- 
ually going further afield to collecting areas near Braun- 
schweig, Miinsterland, and Oberschlesein — areas par- 
ticularly well known to invertebrate paleontologists. By 
chance or good fortune, Schrammen was living in the 
heart of prolific fossil country. 

Schrammen prepared his own sponge specimens 
and perfected methods of cleaning them, etching with 
acid and using needles to painstakingly scrape away the 
matrix, grain by grain. He did independent research at 
the Roemer Museum in Hildesheim, with the advice and 
encouragement of Professor Karl A. von Zittel, then the 
world's leading authority on fossil sponges and chairman 
of paleontology at the University of Munich. For his sci- 
entific contributions, Schrammen was awarded an hon- 
orary Ph.D. in natural science from Tiibingen Univer- 
sity in 1912, during what has been called die Bliitezeit der 
deutschen Paldontologie — "the flowering time of German 
paleontology." He wrote 18 scientific papers on fossil 
sponges between 1899 and 1948. 

Schrammen's remarkable collection first came to 
this country as an addition to the paleontological hold- 
ings of Princeton University, thanks to the guidance and 
perseverance of Professor Benjamin Franklin Howell 
(1890-1976), Curator of Paleontology at the Princeton 
Museum. Between 1937 and 1955 Princeton acquired 
the collection in installments. Although the two men 
never met, they corresponded from 1935 until Schram- 
men's death, 18 years later, except for the World War 11 
years when their communication was interrupted. The 
letters, which have been kept for their archival value. 




Anton Schrammen (18694953). 



provide interesting historical footnotes to those turbu- 
lent years. 

Howell's first contact with Schrammen came in 
1935 when he sent a fossil sponge for identification, as 
Schrammen had long been recognized as an expert in 
this field. Along with Schrammen's response came an 
offer to sell some of his Upper Cretaceous fossil speci- 
mens. Howell jumped at the chance to acquire the val- 
uable material, and the purchase was negotiated two 
years later with funds provided by Princeton University 
and the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Schrammen followed this sale with an offer to sell the 
other major part of his collection, the Upper Jurassic 
material. 

Following the war, Schrammen was again in touch 
with Howell, seeking food goods as partial payment for 
his specimens, since many basic food items were still 
hard to come by in war-ravaged Germany. In a letter 
dated April 1946, Schrammen specifically requests tea, 
coffee, cocoa, lard, or sausage; but since Hildesheim lay 
within the British Zone of Occupation, food parcels 
could not be sent to him from the United States. Five 
months later, as restrictions eased, the embargo on such 
goods was lifted, and Howell was able to send CARE 
packages to Schrammen. 



23 




Princeton Curator Benjamin F. 
Howell, who first wrote Anton 
Schrammen in 1935. Their corres' 
por\dence continued (except for the 
war years) until Schrammen s death 
in 1953. Photo courtesy Princeton 
University Department ofGeologi' 
col and Geophysical Sciences. 



Every kir\d of container from anchovy tins to photographic plate boxes was used to package the Schrammen nuiterial. These were then 
packed into crates, such as the one in back, for transatlantic shipment. Photo by Ron Testa, avv 



24 




Food and money were, in fact, continual requests of 
Schrammen's, but Howell's ability to respond as he 
would like to the German's needs was limited by budget 
cuts at Princeton; in any case, because of federal regula- 
tions, no money could be sent. Howell found the means, 
nonetheless, to send Schrammen food parcels through 
U.S. government channels, and twice a month, from 
September 1946 through October 1948, packages were 
sent, though a constant problem was the disappearance 
of parcels en route. Schrammen's letters, in turn delayed 
by the Office of Censorship, revealed that his crowded 
household included his wife, his daughter, a sister-in- 
law, a granddaughter, and a great-grandchild. 

In July 1947, the U.S. military government ap- 
proved Schrammen's request to send paleontologic 
specimens to Howell as a commercial transaction. Two 
years before that, the same office had issued a declara- 
tion that the "very fine paleontologic collection that 
occupies two or three rooms in Dr. Schrammen's house is 
free from any impositions, ... his house will not be req- 
uisitioned." Among the 1948 food parcels, Howell in- 
cluded four new pairs of shoes for the family members, 
one pair per parcel, in the hope that some might find 
their way to the Schrammen family. In due course, and 
despite all difficulties, the fossils arrived at Princeton 
and food and shoes arrived at Schrammen's home. 

Schrammen had also reported that his financial re- 
serves were wiped out by the Wdhrungreform — "currency 
reform." So a letter from Howell in the fall of 1948 was 
especially welcome: money could now be sent to Ger- 
man citizens. Accordingly, Princeton initiated pay- 



ments, at first small, in order to test the reliability of 
transmitting funds via the American Express Company 
— the procedure advised by UNESCO. By the time of 
Schrammen's death in 1953, some of the specimens were 
still in Hildesheim. By 1955 Princeton had received the 
entire collection, with payments to his widow contin- 
uing until 1963. 

In 1985, when Princeton's Department of Geology 
divested itself of most of its paleontological collections, 
the Schrammen material was offered to the Field 
Museum, and Scott Lidgard, Field Museum's Assistant 
Curator of Fossil Invertebrates, arranged for its acquisi- 
tion. That summer, some 6,000 specimens were trucked 
from New Jersey to Chicago. A portion of the collection 
was still in ten original crates that had arrived from Hil- 
desheim three decades earlier — crates that had never 
been opened. The whole collection, then, had never 
been formally processed. 

Under the direction of Paleontology Collection 
Manager Mary R. Carman, volunteers Susan Brown 
Roop, Trace Clark-Petravick, Bette Jarz, and Lori Welsh 
have been involved in the long-term project of unpack- 
ing and repairing the material, translating the German 
script labels, preserving the accompanying journals, un- 
completed manuscripts, the Schrammen-Howell corre- 
spondence and other letters and documents, and cata- 
loging the specimens. It is expected that the entire 
project will be completed by the end of this year. The 
specimens acquired by Anton Schrammen comprise a 
rare and valuable addition to Field Museum's paleonto- 
logical collections. 



Bushman continued from p. 6 

Now that the feeding problem was solved, how 
would the missionaries keep the baby warm during the 
long, cold African night? A mother gorilla holds her in- 
fant during each night. James Allen finally located a 
young African woman who volunteered to hold it close 
to her as it slept. 

The young gorilla grew rapidly. The personnel in 
the Presbyterian Mission compound loved him and 
taught him little tricks, such as how to ride a kiddy car 
and how to comb and brush his hair while holding a 
mirror. 

One day a visitor from the United States stopped at 
the compound and bought the little animal for $500. 
Back in the United States, he sold him for $3,500 to 
Chicago's Lincoln Park Zoo, where he was given the 
name "Bushman. " 



Dr. Johnson passed the $500 check on to Allen, a 
professional architect doing missionary work, who used 
it to commission a stained glass window for the Presby- 
terian church he had just built in Yaounde. After a long 
and careful search, James and Annie Mary found the 
stained glass window maker they were looking for in 
Wheaton, Illinois. During this trip, Allen also visited 
Bushman at Lincoln Park Zoo, and the animal re- 
sponded excitedly as he heard Allen speaking the famil- 
iar Cameroon dialect. Allen stayed in the primate house 
that evening until after closing hours as the two romped 
and played together. 

Allen's career was to be short-lived. About two 
years later he died in Africa from an infected insect bite. 
Annie Mary returned to the United States with their 
infant son and daughter. 25 




HELD 
MUSEUM 
TDUKS^ 

Explore the 
primeval splendor 
of the Canadian 
Northwest. 

Field Museum Tours invites you on an expedition 
to the stunning Northwest, including Seattle, Prince 
Rupert, Queen Charlotte Islands, Fitzhugh Sound, 
Alert Bay, Princess Louisa Inlet and Victoria aboard 
the Society Explorer. 



PROJECT 
CANADIAN 
FJORDS & INSIDE 
PASSAGE 

Departing: 

August 16, 9 Days 

August 16, Seattle. Arrive and transfer to our deluxe 
hotel. After a reception at the University of Washing- 
ton's Burke Museum, enjoy dinner and Seattle's 
nightlife. 

August 17, Prince Rupert. Depart Seattle on morning 
flight to Prince Rupert. After a ferry crossing to Prince 
Rupert, board the Society Explorer for an evening depar- 
ture. Enjoy the captain's welcome dinner as we set sail 
at sunset for the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

August 18-19, Queen Charlotte Islands. Journeying 
south, we arrive at the unspoiled home of the Haida In- 
dian Nation where braves erected countless totem poles, 
each carved to tell its special story. Today these moss- 
encrusted monuments testify to the centuries-old Haida 
way of life. We explore these islands with their brood- 
ing forests harboring ancient villages. Bald eagles, sea- 
birds. Stellar sea lions and whales provide opportunities 
for rewarding walks and beach hikes. 




Society Explorer 



26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr , Chicago, 1160605 



August 20, Fitzhugh Sound. This morning we sail into 
the upper Fraser Reach and Grenville Channel for a day 
of exploration among the magnificent wave-sculpted 
canyons and craggy inlets of the Canadian ^ords. At 
Kwakshua Inlet, an area rich in abalone and other 
Northwest sea hfe, hikers will enjoy exploring the 
coastal woods of 100-foot stands of red cedar, Sitka 
spruce, western hemlock and Douglas fir. Our ship sails 
south into a region of towering cliffs, and rushing 
waterfalls. 

August 21, Alert Bay. Following an afternoon cruising 
the Inside Passage, our ship puts in at Alert Bay, ances- 
tral island home of the Nimpkish, largest tribe of the 
powerful Kwakiutl Indian Nation. According to 
anthropologist Franz Boas, the word Kwakiutl means 
Smokes of the World, which alludes to their ability to 
attract huge throngs of people to their firelit potlatches 
and ceremonials. We'll visit the U'mista Cultural 
Center/ Alert Bay Museum. Here we see fine examples 
of the distinctive ceremonial masks, utensils and bent- 
wood boxes — important elements of the rich Kwakiutl 
lifestyle — and have the opportunity to purchase native 
handicrafts, jewelry and artwork. 

After lunch, we'll move into the Queen Charlotte 
Strait, the summer gathering place for close to 300 killer 
whales, uncontested top predators of Canada's northern 
waters. Roaming the protected waters of the Inside Pas- 
sage in clearly defined pods, males, females and young 
cooperate in hunting their prey. Killer whales have no 
natural enemies other than man. 



August 22, Princess Louisa Inlet. Passengers experi- 
ence a realm of snowmelt cascades and 6,000-foot 
mountains ringing this spectacular horseshoe-shaped 
fjord. Overhead, bald eagles soar, slicing through the 
coastal mists with their six-foot wing-spans. At the 
tumultuous Chatterbox Falls, we'll go ashore to walk 
alpine meadows full of lupine, dwarf dogwood and 
chocolate lily. Others may follow the trail which ends 
at the long abandoned Trapper's Cabin, built in the 
shadow of scenic Mt. Albert. 

August 23, Victoria. Midday arrival in Victoria, British 
Columbia. Victoria's distinct English flavor is reflected 
in the copper-domed Parliament buildings heralding 
our entry into the harbor. This afternoon we tour the 
Provincial Museum with its comprehensive collection 
of coastal Indian art and artifacts and its life-sized replica 
of a 19th-century frontier town. Stroll the cobbled 
streets, perhaps stopping to sip tea at the ivy-covered 
Empress Hotel. The captain hosts a farewell dinner 
tonight as we sail for Seattle. 

August 24, Seattle. Morning arrival and connection 
with homeward flights. 



This tour will be enhanced by a team of expert lecturers 
in the region's natural history, native cultures, and wild- 
life, including Dr. Scott M. Lanyon, Field Museum's assis- 
tant curator and head of the Division of Birds. 



CRUISE COST PER PERSON 



Explorer 


$1,790 


Explorer Deluxe 


$1,950 


Yacht 


$2,320 



Boat Deluxe 


$2,690 


Suite 


$3,190 


Owner's Suite 


$3,590 



Yacht Deluxe 



$2,490 Airfare (not incl. in rates) 



$190 



Rates are per person, double occupancy, and include group transfers, cruise accommoda- 
tions, all meals including a welcome cocktail and dinner party and farewell dinner, lectures 
by accompanying or visiting speakers, and all off-ship excursions. Amenities include travel 
bag, backpack, documentation wallet, comprehensive guide book and daily log. Single 
cabins are available at 1.5 times the above rates, except single suites which are 1.9 times the 
above rates. Airfare is approximate and subject to change. 



Deposit $500,000 per person 




People's Republic of China 

18 Days 
September 16 - October 3, 1987 

Customized Tour exclusively for Field Museum 

Organized and accompanied by 

Katharine Lee 




X he itinerary for this exceptionally well conceived tour 
covers the highlights of this fascinating country. We de- 
part Chicago via Japan Air Lines. Our first stop will be 
Tokyo, where we will enjoy a city tour. Chinese cities 
to be visited include Shanghai, Wuxi, Beijing, Luoyang, 



Xi'an, and Guilin, plus a boat ride on the Li River. We'll 
exit through Hong Kong, a city full of Oriental trea- 
sures and cultural heritage. This is a "not to be missed" 
opportunity. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2499 



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FIELD MUSEUM O 




March 1987 






 






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Stories AND MYtHS 

FROM AROUND THE WORLD 

performed by 

The Young People's Company 

of the Piven Theatre Workshop 

Saturday, March 14 
see page 3 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Stearns 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

March 1987 

Volume 58, Number 3 



March Events at Field Museum 



The Athapaskan Hunting Canoe 6 

by James W. VanStone, Curator ofNorth American Archaeology 
and Ethnology 



Board of TIiustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
WilUatn R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
ThomasJ. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
HugoJ. Melvoin 
Leo F MuUin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
BlaineJ. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. EdwinJ. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
CHfford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Water Snakes 

by John C. Murphy 



11 



Featherwing Beetles and the 

Remarkable Discoveries of Henry Dybas 1 7 

from Dinosaurs in the Attic, fry Doughs]. Preston 



Featherwing Beetles 

by Henry S. Dybas 



19 



Henry Dybas: A Eulogy 22 

by Rupert L. Wenzel, Curator Emeritus of Insects 



COVER 

Water SNAKES, that's right, water snakes are the subject of this 
March view of the big pond in Indiana Dunes State Park, an 
hour's drive southeast of Chicago. For with the first suggestions 
of spring, these creatures, nestled in protected nooks along the 
pond's edge, may already have urges to stir, as may the turtles, 
frogs, fish, and other aquatic and semiaquatic creatures that call 
the bog their home. Nine water snake species, some common, 
some rare, occur in the Chicago area. For more on these elusive 
(and harmless) reptiles, see John Murphy's article, pages 1 1-16. 
Photo by D. Walsten. 



Field Museum of Natural History Buiican {USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright © 1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3. 00 for schools. Museum membership includes BuUelin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN : 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 



Events 




Stonier cutdTKcft^^to^Anou^ 

The Young People's Company of the Piven Theatre Workshop 

Saturday, March 14, 2:00pm, James Simpson Theatre 



Watch the Young People's Company 
weave a spell of Magic with "Stories and Myths 
from Around the World." This delightful col- 
lection takes you to the four corners of the earth. 
The afternoon begins with a tale about a mythi- 
cal Indian maiden who is rewarded in the after- 
life for her goodness and truthfulness. In the Far 
East, we join a couple embarked on a perilous 
journey to cure the bluebird who has suddenly 
stopped singing. At journey's end they find that 
all birds have been turned to stone. In "The Beg- 
gar and the Gazelle" a man from the Middle East 



learns about the importance of being a faithful 
friend. A weaver, and a mysterious spider web 
conclude this charming quartet of Tales. 

The Young People's Company of the Piven 
Theatre Workshop has been performing for 
twelve years. Directed by Joyce Piven, this en- 
chanting group is composed of 15 young people 
between the ages of 15 and 18 years. 

This performance is recommended for adults 
and children age 6 and older. 

Tickets: $7.00 (S5.00 members). To order tick- 
ets, see coupon on next page. /- , . 

^ ^ ° Continued — 



Events 



~X 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the museum are 
designed for families and adults. Listed below are just two of the numerous activities each 
weekend. Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

I I Saturday, March 7, 1:30pm Tibet Today (slide lecture). See Lhasa and other towns now open to 
tourists and Bhutan — "Land of the Thunder Dragon." 

□ Sunday, March 15, 2:00pm Traditional China (tour). Examine the history and hfestyles repre- 
sented by Chinese jades and other masterworks. 

I I Sunday, March 29 2:00pm Treasures from the Totem Forest (tour). A walk through Museum 
exhibits introduces the Indians of southeast Alaska and British Columbia, whose carved totem 
poles and masks proclaim their pride of rank and their mystical ties to animals and spirits. 

Saturdays and Sundays in March 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Music Communicates many different things 

to many different people. It is something that 
can be shared by aU of us, whether or not we 
have common hfestyles, beliefs, even lan- 
guages. Experience with us the music of differ- 
ent cultures. 

□ March 7, 8: Lincoln Beauchamp at 1 :00pm 

Shanta Nurullah at 3:00pm 



Phil Cohran at 1 :00pm and 
3:00pm 

Raices del Andes at 1:00pm 
and 3:00pm 

Don Moye at 1 :00pm and 
3:00pm 

The World Music Program is supported by 
Kenneth and Harle Montgomery in honor of 
E. Leland Webber, president emeritus of Field 
Museum. 



n March 14, 15: 
n March 21, 22: 
n March 28, 29: 



^ 



Registration for "Stories and Myths from Around the World" 

make checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will 



Be sure to complete all requested information on the 
ticket application. If your request is received less than 
one week before a program, tickets will be held in 
your name at the West Entrance box office. Please 

D Member D Nonmember 

American Express/Visa/MasterCard 

Card Number 



Signature 

Return complete ticket application with 
a self-addressed stamped envelope to: 

Field Museum of Natural History 
Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



Expiration Date 



be mailed upon receipt of check. Refunds will be 
made only if the program is sold out. 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone; Daytime 



Evening 



"Stories and Myths'*: Tickets — Members S5. 00, Nonmember S7. 00 



Member 

Tickets 

#Requested 


Nonmember 

Tickets 
#Requested 


Total 

Tickets 

Requested 


Amount 











Have you enclosed your self-addressed stamped envelope? 



Svents 



Thursdays in March, 1:30pm 



These programs are free 




March 5 

The Wonders of Ancient Egypt 

Frank Yurco, Doctoral Candidate in 
Egyptology, University of Chicago 

The shadows of Egypt's mysterious 
and glorious past still fascinate the 
visitor to her cities and historical 
monuments. Travel back through 
time to this land of ancient pyramids, 
tombs, and ancient ruins. 



March 12 

Canadian Holiday: A Trip Around 

Gaspe Peninsula 

Carolyn Dring, Naturalist 

Canada's northeastern provinces are 

home to some of the most scenic 

parks in North America. From Bay of 

Fundy to Cape Breton Island follow 

the seascapes that are awash with 

migratory birds. 





March 19 

China's Great Cities 

Hau Kum Kneip, Instructor, 
Continuing Education Division, 
City College of Chicago 

Mainland China is opening more and 
more to the world. Its cities reveal 
both China's future and its ancient 
culture. Enjoy this journey through 
the eyes of an experienced traveler. 



March 26 
The Culture of Japan 

Kazuko Ernst, Master, 
Ohara School oflkebana 

Despite European and Western influ- 
ence, Japanese culture remains rooted 
in its history and traditions. Experi- 
ence and enjoy the subtle beauty of 
Japan's enduring culture through a 
look at her arts, ceremonies, and 

foods. 




THE ATHAPASKAN HUNTING CANOE 

fry James W. VanStone 
Curator, North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



A 



Lmong the bark-covered watercraft employed by 
North American Indians, the so-called kayak-form 
canoe is perhaps the least familiar. It was primarily a 
hunting craft used by Athapaskan Indians on the rivers 
of interior Alaska and northwestern Canada and was 
light enough (about 40 lbs. ) to be easily portaged. These 
vessels ranged in length from 12 to 18 feet and in beam 
from 24 to 27 inches. They were extremely shallow, the 
depth seldom exceeding 12 inches. In addition to hunt- 
ing, this type of craft was also used for transporting a 
family and its possessions from one place to another. 
Such cargo canoes were longer (22 to 24 feet) but the 
basic construction was the same. 

The kayak-form canoe had largely disappeared be- 
fore the advent of modem ethnographic fieldwork and 
they are known primarily from early photographs and 
examples in museum collections. At one time the col- 
lections of Field Museum contained three full-sized 
Athapaskan canoes that had been obtained in Alaska 
along the Yukon River for the 1893 World's Columbian 
Exposition. Regrettably, these have long since dis- 
appeared, but the collections still contain three model 
canoes collected in the same area at about the same 
time, and these models make it possible to understand 
the major aspects of canoe construction. Also helpful 
are historical photographs showing kayak-form canoes 
in use and descriptions obtained by ethnographers from 
elderly Indian informants in the 1920s and 1930s. 

The manufacture of Athapaskan kayak-form hunt- 
ing canoes was one of the most complicated procedures 
in Athapaskan technology. The builders prepared most 
of the several parts before they attempted to assemble 
the canoe as a whole. Constuction of a hunting canoe 
usually began with preparing birch bark for the cover. 
Birch trees with bark suitable for canoes had straight 
limb-free trunks. Ideally the sheets of bark were equal in 
length to the canoe and only three were required. The 
thickest sheet, turned up along each side, went on the 
bottom, which was flat and diamond-shaped, though 
exceedingly elongated. Two more long pieces were then 
applied, one on each side and overlapping the tumed-up 
edges of the bottom piece. 



A floor rack, forming the bottom of the canoe, 
consisted of two outer longitudinal pieces, three or four 
inner longitudinal pieces, and three or more crosspieces. 
All of these were made from straight-grained green 
spruce. The bow and stem posts were then fashioned 
from a large root near the base of the spruce tree trunk. 

Each canoe had a pair of gunwales cut from 
straight-grained green spruce, the rough work being 
done with a stone adze and the trimming with a beaver 
tooth chisel. The gunwales, extending from the top of 
the bow post to the top of the stem post, were held apart 
by four to six thwarts. A photo taken at Anvik, an Atha- 
paskan village on the lower-middle Yukon River, in the 
early years of this century, shows a canoe at this stage in 
its construction. The completed floor rack is shown at 
one side (fig. 1). 



JamesW. VanStone, Field Museum's curator of North American archaeol- 
ogy and ethnology 





Fig.1 



National Anthropological Archives. Smithsonian Institution 



A pair of longitudinal side pieces equal in length to 
the canoe were inserted on each side and held in place 
by 1 1 to 13 ribs cut from flexible green spruce. The cen- 
ter ribs were larger, with a broad U shape, while those 
both fore and aft were smaller, becoming almost V 
shaped. The bow of the canoe, to a length of about two 
feet, was decked with a single piece of bark lashed to the 
gunwales or held in place on each side with narrow strips 
of wood pegged to the gunwales. All the lashing was 
with spruce root and the canoe was completed by ap- 
plying a coat of spruce gum on all the seams and holes of 
the bark cover. 

Ethnographers who interviewed Indian informants 
on the Yukon River in the early 1930s were told that one 
man, with reasonable minimum cooperation from his 
family, could put the various parts of a canoe together in 
about five days. To make the frame and prepare the 
bark, of course, took much longer. Other factors con- 
trolling the construction time were the craftman's skill 
and the weather. 

The three model kayak-form canoes in the 
Museum's collection appear to be accurate as far as con- 
struction is concerned, but they may not correctly re- 
flect the extremely shallow draft of these vessels as de- 
picted in historic photos. Also, each is covered with 



only one piece of bark, instead of the three customarily 
used for full-sized canoes. 

The largest of these models is 47 '/z inches long with 
a beam of 7 inches. There are six thwarts and 15 ribs. In 
the center, lashed together with spruce root, are floor 
boards on which the paddler would kneel or sit. The 
bark decking, held in place on the sides with strips of 
wood pegged to the gunwales, is ornamented with what 
appear to be simulated animal tracks in dark brown pig- 
ment (figs. 2A,B). 

The second model canoe is 32 inches long with a 
beam of 6 inches. There are six thwarts and eight ribs. 
Faintly visible on the bark decking is a hunting scene 
consisting of a hunter holding a bow and arrow, and four 
unidentified animals each with an arrow through its 
body (figs. 2C,D). 

The third model is 22 '/2 inches long with a 4 '/2-inch 
beam. There are nine ribs and originally four thwarts 
(one is missing). The thwarts and spruce-root lashing on 
the gunwales are ornamented with black pigment. On 
the bark decking is a series of dots and a fishlike creature 
in black pigment. The floor rack is clearly visible in this 
model (figs. 2E,F). 

Kayak-form canoes have been described by elderly 
Yukon River Indians as extremely unstable and capable 





Fig. 2 



Photo negatives (from top) 110268. 110268, 109178. 109177. 109178. 109177. 
Photos 2A. 2B by Diane Alexander White, photos 2C, 2D. 2E. 2F by Ron Testa. 




Fig. 4 



of holding one or two persons. The canoeman stepped 
into his vessel by first grasping both gunwales with the 
hands while placing one foot in the center of the floor 
boards. He then either knelt in the bottom of the boat or 
sat with his legs folded akimbo, controlling the tipping 
of his fragile craft largely through his knees. Paddling 
was done by taking a few strokes on one side alternately 
with strokes on the other and without touching the 
gunwale. A typical paddle had a crutch handle and 
measured seven feet overall, the pointed blade was ap- 
proximately two feet long and five inches wide. A pro- 
nounced keel ran along one side of the blade. The keel 
side was held to the rear when paddling. 

Hunting canoes similar to those described above 
were used by practically all Athapaskan-speaking peo- 
ples. The Yukon River canoes are said to have been 
lighter and more graceful than those used in the Mac- 



kenzie River drainage. A well-made Yukon River canoe 
could last as many as seven seasons, a poorly made canoe 
only one. Presumably the test came with the cold water 
of fall, which cracked bark of poorer quality. 

In addition to its use for hunting, the kayak-form 
canoe served for fishing and for visiting fish traps and 
nets. Three photos reproduced here show hunting 
canoes in use in the late nineteenth and early twentieth 
centuries and were taken near the village of Anvik. In 
the first photo, two men are dip net-fishing for silver 
salmon. They are drifting downriver with the current 
while holding long-handled nets in the water. When an 
ascending salmon was caught, it was lifted out, killed, 
and placed in the boat; then the operation was repeated. 
Good balance was required to stand in these extremely 
narrow, tippy vessels handling a heavy netted fish 
(fig. 3). 




Fig. 5 



National Anthropological Archives. Smithsonian Inslitutkxi 



In the second photo a man is checking a fish trap 
(fig*. 4)- The shallow draft of his kayak-form canoe may 
be clearly seen, a characteristic also indicated in the 
third photo, in which a hunting canoe is shown next to a 
decked wooden river boat of approximately the same 
length (fig. 5). 

Kayak-form canoes were in use on the Yukon River 
and its tributaries as late as the 1920s, but by that time 
these vessels were covered with canvas rather than birch 
bark. They were replaced by narrow wooden river boats 
which, after about 1918, were propelled with gasoline- 
powered outboard motors. These useful machines great- 
ly affected the mobility of the Indians throughout the 
entire season when the Yukon and its tributaries were 



ice-free. It would be difficult to imagine a more suc- 
cessful and practical innovation than the outboard 
motor. With it all summer and fall subsistence activities 
were facilitated and the arduous efforts associated with 
river transportation were eliminated. FH 



Note 

Additional information on Athapaskan hunting canoes can 
be found in Ingalik Material Culture, by Cornelius Osgood 
(Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 22, 
1940) and The Upper Tanana Iruiians, by Robert A. McKen- 
nan (Yale University Publications in Anthropology, no. 55, 
1959). 



10 



Field Museum' 


s Tenth Annual Spring Systematics Symposium 




"Evolutionary Ideas of Progress" 






Saturday, May 9 








Speakers 




Francisco J. Ayala 
RoyJ. Britten 
Robert Dunnell 
Stephen J. Gould 
David L. Hull 




William Provine 
David M. Raup 
Robert J. Richards 
Robert C. Richardson 


John Maynard Smith 
Adam Urbanek 
E. O. Wiley 
William Wimsatt 



^^at'lpHC 7Hi^^ See Anwittd C^ioctaO' 

by John C. Murphy 

photos by author ' 

except where noted ; ■, ; 

A go(A nuiny Qhicago-area resHjeMs, I suspect, have spent their entire lives here without having sighted a real live srxake; and 
that probably suits them just fine. Those who appreciate snakes and have no fear of them are, unfortunately, among the 
minority. All but one of the seventeen species of snakes that now occur in Cook, Lake, DuPage, Will, Kankakee, and 
McHenry counties are harmless to man. The single exception is the eastern massasauga, a rattlesnake, which in any case is 
highly local in distribution. Snakes are not only beneficial, ar\d a key to a balanced ecosystem, they also tend to go about their 
own busir^ss, preferring to keep a very low profile (no pun) in the environmental scene. In the following essay, John Murphy 
tells us just about everything we ought to know about local water snakes, which make up nine of the seventeen srmke species 
occurring here. * Mr. Murphy teaches biology at Plainfield High School, Plainfield, Illinois and has served as herpetology 
consultant for agencies such as the Illinois Department of Transportation and for the government of Trinidad and Tobago. 
-Ed. 



Northern water snake, Nerodia sipedon sipedon 




A Field Museum Feature 
On Local Naturtal History 



'The other eight snake species in the Chicago region are the 
eastern hognose snake (Heterodon platyrhinos), the western 
smooth green snake (Opheodrys vemaiis hlanchardi), the east- 
em yellowbelly racer {Coluber constrictor constrictor) , the black 
rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta), the western fox snake 
(Ekphe vulpina vulpirui), the buUsnake (Pituophis rrielanoleucus 
sayi), the eastern milk snake (Lampropeltis trianqulum trian- 
qulum), and eastern massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus cateruitus). 



11 



W W ^/ost snake species that you are apt to come upon 
in the Greater Chicago area belong to a group known as 
natricines (formally the subfamily Natricinae), better 
known as water snakes. Though some of these nine spe- 
cies are seldom seen, even by herpetologists who search 
for them, the group as a whole is abundant and, in the 
warmer months, are easily observable by anyone who 
knows where to seek them out. 



'i^e.yodia: The Northern Water Snake 

The Northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon), 
when full grown, is 23 to 42 inches (61-107cm) long, the 
record being 53 inches. Females are generally larger than 
males, but the male's tail is proportionally longer. The 
color and pattern are variable, but usually the upper sur- 
face is'brown-black, with more than 30 bands and spots 
that are lighter in color. The lower side of the body is 
often yellow, with paired dark half-moon blotches on 
each ventral scale. The scales are heavily keeled, and 
adult males usually have knobs on the dorsal scales in the 
anal region. As adults mature, the light-colored bands 
often darken, and a snake with dry skin may appear to 
lack a pattern completely; however, the pattern fre- 
quently appears when the snake is placed in water. 

Wherever water and shoreline vegetation are avail- 
able, this snake can usually be found. Winter hiberna- 
tion may occur under stream embankments, in rock 
piles, or animal burrows. Depending on the weather, the 
snake may be active until late October but it may ven- 
ture out of the hibernaculum, or winter quarters, on 
warm November-December days. January and February 
are spent in torpor, which is broken with the warming 
temperatures of March. Warm spring temperatures raise 
the snake's body temperature enough so it can become 
active for hunting and mating. 



Fish make up most of the northern water snake's 
diet. A study of a Kentucky population of this species 
showed that 42.8 percent of the diet was minnows, 28.5 
percent sunfishes, 14.3 percent frogs, and 14.3 percent 
salamanders, by volume. A study of a Kansas population 
revealed a similar diet, with 77 percent consisting of 
fish. Feeding strategies of this water snake are varied. 
Tongue flicking gathers molecules from the air and from 
whatever the snake chooses to investigate. The tongue 
transfers these molecules to a sensory organ in the roof of 
the mouth (Jacobson's organ, sometimes called the 
vomeronasal organ), and a message goes from there to 
the brain. This system is undoubtedly very important in 
natricines, but a study of captive northern water snakes 
suggests that they use at least four feeding techniques 
involving visual cues and that the tongue, in addition to 
its chemosensory function, is used in another way as 

well. 

The first feeding technique is to simply lunge open- 
mouthed at the fish, but this often fails. A second strat- 
egy is to lie motionless at the bottom of the pond or 
stream until a fish swims within two centimeters (less 
than an inch) of the snake's mouth; the fish is then easily 
captured. Occasionally the snake uses a "fishing" tech- 
nique, which succeeds more often than not — the snake 
goes after a fish, thrashing its head from side to side until 
it strikes the prey. The fourth, most sophisticated tech- 
nique has been termed "fly-casting. " Flattening its body, 
the snake floats on the surface, flicking its tongue so that 
the tip barely breaks the water's surface, enticing the 
unwary fish close enough to grab. Lingual luring, as this 
technique is known, seems to be used exclusively by 
natricines. 

The young of the northern water snake are bom in 
August and early September; most litters number be- 
tween 16 and 32. The snakes mature in about 21 to 24 
months, but most females do not reproduce until their 
third year. 



12 



Chicago- Area Wildlife Series 

This article is part of a continuing series on the wildlife of Chicago and the surrounding region. Previous articles 
have included "Chicago's Parakeets," "Lake Renwick: Unlikely Haven for the Endangered," "The Wooded Island: 
Chicago's Premier Birding Area," "Spring Wildflowers of the Chicago Area," and "Late Summer and Fall Flowers of 
the Chicago Region. " Articles scheduled to appear in the coming months cover the subjects of spring bird migra- 
tion, raising moths and butterflies, and a feature on one of our local native prairies. 

Arrangements for additional copies or reprints, past or future (including bulk quantities for classroom use), 
may be made by writing or calling (922-9410) the Bulletin editor at the Field Museum, Roosevelt Road at Lake 
Shore Drive, Chicago, II 60605. 



Occasionally, persons in the Chicago area report 
that they have sighted or perhaps killed a water mocca- 
sin (also known as the cottonmouth). The snake in 
question, however, often turns out to be the northern 
water snake, a mistake attributable to the latter's aquatic 
tendencies, dark coloration, stout body, and bad temper 
when disturbed. Except in zoos, the venomous water 
moccasin doesn't occur anywhere near Chicago. 

Regina: The Crayfish Snakes 

Four species of crayfish snakes make up the genus Regina, 
of which two are found in the Chicago region. As a 
group, these are relatively slender, brown in color, and 
striped. The common name indicates their food pref- 
erence. They are more aquatic that Nerodia, rarely 
wandering more than a few yards from the water's edge. 
Graham's crayfish snake (Regina grahamii) in- 
habits prairie marshes and ponds from central Texas and 
southwestern Nebraska to Louisiana and the Chicago 
area. The most northeastern population of this snake 
probably occurs in Lake County, Illinois. The queen 
snake (Regina septemvittata) has a distribution and habi- 
tat that somewhat compliments those of Graham's cray- 
fish snake. Queen snakes inhabit forest streams from 
southern Quebec to the Florida panhandle and from Illi- 
nois eastward to eastern Pennsylvania and central Geor- 
gia. An amateur may have trouble telling these two 
snakes apart, but the queen has a yellow side stripe on 
the first two scale rows, while Graham's has its stripe on 
the first three rows. There are also some differences in 
the belly pattern. Graham's tends to grow larger — 18 to 




Graham's crayfish snake, Regina grahamii. Note deformed head. 



28 inches (44-71cm), while queen snakes are 15 to 24 
inches (38-61 cm) in length. 

Both snakes show a decided preference for crayfish 
that have recently molted. Crayfish with a hard exo- 
skeleton would be difficult for most snakes to subdue and 
swallow, but just-molted crayfish are soft and vul- 
nerable. On hot summer days, during the early morning 
hours, it is not uncommon to see queen snakes investi- 
gating the shorelines of creeks and quarries, probing the 
undersides of rocks for the distinctive odor of molted 
crayfish. Laboratory studies of inexperienced, newborn 
queen snakes and Graham's crayfish snakes have shown 
that even from birth they are able to discriminate be- 
tween the odor of molted and nonmolted crayfish. But it 
seems improbable that these newborn could find enough 
small, newly molted crayfish to avoid starvation. More 
than likely, they supplement this diet with dragonfly and 
damselfly nymphs. 



Queen snake, Regina septemvittata 




13 




14 



Western ribbon snake, Thamnophis proximus proximus 



Graham's differs from the queen in its daily activity 
pattern. Queen snakes are decidedly diurnal, spending 
the night under rocks or in bushes or trees along the 
shoreline, while Graham's crayfish snakes are nocturnal 
in the summer, shifting to daytime activity in the fall 
and spring. This may be an artifact of the habitat differ- 
ence. Prairies are open habitats where a snake may be 
easily seen by diurnal predators, while the shrub-lined 
shores of streams provide good cover, even during the 
day. Because both snakes are relatively small and crypti- 
cally colored, they have been able to survive in and 
around cities. I have seen fishermen standing next to 
bushes containing queen snakes, oblivious to the ser- 
pent's presence. At a quarry popular with fishermen in 
the DesPlaines River Valley, 1 estimated that there was 
one queen snake for every 30 feet of shoreline. Graham's 
crayfish snake, however, may not be faring as well in the 
Chicago area. Many of the local prairie wetlands have 
been drained for agriculture or suburban development, 
seriously depleting this snake's habitat. 



Thamnophis: Garter Snakes and Ribbon Snakes 

Garter snakes and ribbon snakes are probably the best 
known snakes in America. They comprise the genus 
Thamnophis, numbering about 25 species distributed 
from southeastern Alaska and Nova Scotia to Costa 
Rica. It is the largest and most successful genus of New 
World natricines, some species attaining dense pop- 
ulation in and around cities. Three species of this group 
inhabit Chicagoland. 

The western ribbon snake, Thamnophis proximus 



proximus, is rare in the Chicago area. There are speci- 
mens from Cook County and reliable reports from Will 
County, but its status in northeastern Illinois is a mys- 
tery. It is a slender, medium-sized snake, 19 to 48 inches 
(48-123cm) long, that is black with three light stripes. 
The green-white side stripes are on the third and fourth 
scale rows; the dorsal stripe is orange. 

Ribbon snakes feed heavily on frogs and tadpoles 
and are frequently found at the margins of ponds and 
streams. In Texas a ribbon snake was seen attempting to 




Eastern plains garter snake, Thamnophis radix radix 



flush cricket frogs from cover by thrusting its head into 
clumps of grass. 

The young are probably bom in late July or in Au- 
gust; the litter size ranges from 4 to 27, the average being 
about 12. 



Eastern garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis 




The eastern garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis sirta- 
lis, and the eastern plains garter snake, Thamnophis 
radix radix, are extermely common in northeastern lUi- 
nois, including densely populated areas. In some locali- 
ties the two species live together, although the eastern 
garter snake prefers forest while the eastern plains garter 
snake prefers prairie. Both feed on a variety of animals, 
with their diets undoubtedly overlapping; but sirtalis pre- 
fers aquatic prey such as frogs and leeches while radix 
depends more on terrestrial prey, especially earthworms. 
One study suggests that radix is also a major predator of 
nestling field sparrows. 

Sirtalis has the side stripe on the second and third 
scale rows, while in radix the side stripe is on the third 
and fourth rows. Another difference is behavior when 
disturbed: sirtalis strikes repeatedly as it tries to escape; 
radix usually does not strike, but thrashes back and forth 
while releasing a foul-smelling anal musk. 

Upon emergence from hibernation in March or 
April, male garter snakes await the female outside the 
den. Females exit the den emitting a male-attracting 
pheromone from a network of capillaries in the back. 
The pheromone is probably vitellogenin, a substance 
which is converted into egg yolk. Males detect the pher- 
omone with the tongue and transport it to the Jacobson's 
organ. The pheromone is species specific; thus, there is 
little chance of interbreeding between species living 
together. The male, or males, trail the female and 
courtship follows. Courting consists of the male rubbing 
his chin up and down the female's back and aligning his 
urogenital opening with hers. During copulation the 
male supplies the female with sperm and a material made 
in the renal sex segment of his kidney. This material 
coagulates into a plug that mechanically prevents other 
males from mating with the female; it also contains a 
pheromone that makes the female unattractive to other 
males. In May or early June the female produces the 
eggs. In June the eggs are fertilized with the sperm that 
the female has stored since spring. At about this same 
time, the male is producing sperm he will need for the 
following spring. In the Chicago area most young are 




Northern redbeUy snake, Storeria occipitomaculata 
occipitomaculata 



bom in early August. This pattern of reproduction is 
very unusual in vertebrates, but may be widespread in 
natricines. 

Litter size in garter snakes is much larger than in 
most other snakes. Sirtalis litters range from 7 to 103 in- 
dividuals, and averages vary with age, older females pro- 
ducing larger litters; in radix, litters range from 5 to 92, 
with the average near 30. 

Storeria: The Brown Snake and 
The RedbeUy Snake 

Two species of Storeria occur in the Chicago area. They 
are the smallest of New World natricines, rarely exceed- 
ing 20 inches (52cm). They have 15 to 17 rows of keeled, 
dorsal scales and are usually dull brown or red. The mid- 
land brown snake, Storeria dekayi wrightorum, and the 
northern redbeUy snake, Storeria occipitomaculata occipi- 
tomaculata, are easily distinguished from one another. 
The brown snake has an indistinct light mid-dorsal 
stripe bordered by two rows of spots that have fused into 
crossbands, while the redbeUy has three spots on the 
nape of the neck, two dark stripes bordering the light 
mid-dorsal stripe, and a bright red belly. 

The midland brown snake, also called Dekay's 
snake, occurs widely in the Chicago area — in forest, 
grassland, marsh, and human-modified environments. 
Piles of roofing shingles, boards, and other man-made 
materials seem to create favorable habitats and man may 
have actually increased the brown snake's population 




Midland brown snake, Storeria dekayi wrightorum 



15 



density by discarding these materials in vacant city lots 
and suburban areas. Captive snakes readily accept 
earthworms and slugs, but turn down insects, frogs, and 
fish. 

Mating in this species has been reported to occur 
before and after hibernation. In the Chicago area most 
young are bom from late July to early August. Litter sizes 
range from 3 to 27, but most often are 11 to 18. The 
newborn are dark in color, with distinctive light-colored 
collars. 

The northern redbelly snake is not found around 
Chicago as often as the brown snake, but it is locally 
abundant. The redbelly is often considered a forest spe- 



opening. The pungent material is smeared over the 
snake's body and onto the predator by the snake's 
twisting. 

Clotwphis: Kirtland's Snake 

Kirtland's snake, Clonophis kirtlandi, is an enigma 
among North American snakes. Rarely encountered, it 
is represented by few specimens in museums, despite the 
fact that its distribution includes large midwestem cities. 
Kirtland's snake rarely exceeds 24 inches (62cm) in 
length. It has 17 to 19 rows of heavily keeled scales. On 
the back are four rows of alternating blotches that num- 




16 



cies, but it also occurs in more open habitats such as 
pastures and weedy fields. Hibernation aggregations 
have been found in ant hills. In Manitoba, 101 redbelly 
snakes were found in a single ant hill, together with 8 
eastern plains garter snakes and 148 smooth green 
snakes. Like the brown snake, the northern redbelly pre- 
fers slugs and earthworms. 

Young redbelly snakes are bom in August and Sep- 
tember. Litter sizes range from 2 to 21, with the average 
probably about 10. 

Brown snakes and redbelly snakes fall prey to a suit 
of predators because of their small size. The black widow 
spider has been reported to feed on brown snakes, and 
large wolf spiders are certainly capable of overpowering 
one of these snakes. Lizards, snakes, birds, and mammals 
also prey upon Storeria, but they have evolved some de- 
fense behaviors. When disturbed, Storeria flare their la- 
bial scales (bordering the mouth) to intimidate the pre- 
dator. If disturbance continues, the snake may writhe, 
roll over, and gape the mouth while protruding the 
tongue; the body then becomes rigid. When seized by a 
predator (or human hand) natricine snakes customarily 
release musk from two glands on either side of the anal 



ber 47 to 60, the belly is pink to brick red. The habitat is 
wet meadows, sometimes wet wooded areas. It is often 
found in newly developed areas, but specimens may be 
found years apart at one location, all of this suggesting 
that Kirtland's snake spends its life underground. 

The snake has been observed mating in early May. 
The young have been bom from late July to September 
in litters ranging from 4 to 22, with an average of about 
10. Kirtland's snake was first described by Robert Kenni- 
cott in 1856 from specimens he collected near his home 
in West Northfield (now Glenview), Illinois. ¥n 



Suggested Readings 

R. Conant: A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of East- 
em and Central North America, 429 pp., 1975, Houghton 
Mifflin. 

C. Pope: Amphibians arvi Reptiles of the Chicago Area, 275 
pp., 1944, Chicago Museum of Natural History (Field 
Museum). 

P. Smith: The Amphibians and Reptiles of Illinois, 298 pp. , 
1961, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, 
Natural History Survey Division. 



Featherwing Beetles 

And the Remarkable Discoveries 

Of Henry Dybas 

ft 



lenry Dybas (1915-81) belonged to that select group of 
curators whose entire professional life was given to Field 
Museum. He is perhaps best known for his studies on peri- 
odical cicadas (a.k.a. "17-year locusts"). His most impor- 
tant work, however, may well have been on the featherwing 
beetles, the Ptiliidae family; Dybas was, in fact, the world's 
leading authority on this extraordinary group. 

The following essay by Douglas J. Preston, which deals 
largely with Dybas and his work on the featherwings, is ex- 
erpted from the recently published Dinosaurs in the Attic: 
An Excursion into the American Museum of Natural 
History, * in which it is entitled "The History. " — Ed. 



As I write this, I am in New York City, sitting in a deck 
chair on the roof of a building physically larger than the 
Empire State Building. It is sunset. Central Park stretch- 
es before me, a cold expanse of leafless trees, winding 
paths, and dark ponds; just the tips of the bare branches 
catch the autumn light. Beyond the park is a row of 
buildings along Fifth Avenue, their windows flashing 
gold, reflecting the setting sun. To my left I can see West 
81st Street, with its row of elegant old apartment build- 
ings, and behind me stretches a patchwork of Upper 
West Side rooftops. Beyond the rooftops, straight down 
79th Street, lies the Hudson River, heaving slowly along 
like the gray back of some ancient, sluggish reptile. 

I am on the roof of the largest private museum in 
the world — the American Museum of Natural History. 
Below me lies a fantastic complex of intersecting roof- 
lines, greenhouses, Cothic arches, and towers festooned 
with granite eagles and copper globes. Far below are hid- 
den courtyards, tiny parking lots, dumpsters, and low 
roofs. 1 can see people working behind hundreds of win- 
dows grayed with Manhattan soot: hunched over desks, 
typing on computer terminals, or fussing with animals in 
aquaria. 

Beneath me, somewhere in this vast maze of build- 
ings — the largest repository of scientific collections in 
the world — is a beetle. This beetle is no bigger than a 
grain of sand; to the naked eye it is merely a brown dot, 
the size of the period at the end of this sentence. Sand- 
wiched between glass on a slide, it can be identified only 
with the aid of a microscope. 



I have chosen this fellow — perversely, you might 
think — as the starting point for our exploration of this 
gigantic and unclassifiable storehouse of nature. I have 
chosen it because it is the meanest, tiniest, and ugliest 
specimen I could find in the Museum. Indeed, the beetle 
seems to lack any redeeming quality whatsoever; aside 
from being small and insignificant, it is also boring. 

This creature is a common insect known to science 
as Bambara intricata. It belongs to the family of "feath- 
erwing" beetles, so called because they possess long 
feathery hairs on their wings. These hairs enable them to 
drift on the wind, much like dandelion seeds. This par- 
ticular specimen is locked up with moth flakes in a clean 
white cabinet along with tens of thousands of other in- 
sects. Like all the Museum's specimens, it is carefully 
preserved to last for an eternity — or at least for as long as 
modem technology can afford. 

This species spends its three-week life span buried 
in the decaying litter of the forest floor, feeding mostly 
on fungus spores. It is a peaceful insect, neither an 
annoying pest nor a crop destroyer. Although it is ex- 
tremely common (literally billions can be found in most 
continents of the world), its existence is unknown to all 
humanity save for a dozen or so entomologists; and of 
these, only two or three have any real interest in the bug. 
As I sit on the roof of this Museum and consider that 
here, beneath me, are some of the most beautiful, rare, 
and extravagant creations of nature and man, 1 wonder 
what could possibly be important enough about this 
little beetle to warrant its inclusion in the Museum's 
collections. 

To answer this question, we must look back thirty 
or so years to the discovery of Bambara intricata. This 
particular bug hails from the Bimini islands, a low, wind- 
swept string of cays in the Bahamas, not far from Florida. 
In 1947 the Museum established a research station on 
North Bimini (now closed) named the Lemer Marine 
Laboratory. Before then, the area had seen little scien- 



This essay is from Dinosaurs in the Attic: An Excursion into 
the American Museum of Natural History, by Douglas ]. 
Preston, copyri^t © 1986 by Douglas ]. Preston, St. Martins 
Press, Inc., New York. 17 




18 



The fealherwing beetle Eurygyne intricata, dorsal view left; partial 
ventral view right, showing relative size of the single egg (dotted line) . 

The beetle is about 0. 6mm in kngth — less than 1/40 inch. This arui 
seven other species comprised the new genus Eurygyne, first described 

by Dybas in 1966. 



tific exploration, and only two insects had been reported 
from the island: the mosquito (whose presence was im- 
mediately and unpleasantly apparent to the visitor) and 
a pretty species of butterfly. Thus, one of the first priori- 
ties was to do an insect "inventory" of the islands to col- 
lect and record the species that lived there. In 1951 a 
group of Museum entomologists went to Bimini and 
spent four months luring and trapping as many insects as 
they could, using nets, funnels, ultraviolet lights, and 
white sheets. When they were finished they had col- 
lected 109,718 insects and 27,839 arachnids, including 
thousands of featherwing beetles. (To capture feath- 
erwings, they used an ingenious contraption called a 
Berlese funnel, which drives tiny insects out of decaying 
leaves, bark, and soil. ) They caught so many tiny feath- 
erwings that the beetles "formed a black cloud" when the 
collecting vials of alcohol were shaken. 

Among these thousands of specimens, the Museum 
scientists found that six species of featherwing beetle 
were present on the island. Eventually the vials of alco- 
hol were transferred to the main entomology storage area 
in New York City, where for fifteen years they rested in a 
dark cabinet. 

In the mid-sixties, someone finally took an interest 



in the insects. A curator at the Field Museum of Natural 
History in Chicago, Henry Dybas, borrowed a number 
of the vials containing the featherwings for a research 
project on a strange phenomenon known as parthe- 
nogenesis — the reproduction of an animal without fer- 
tilization by the male. Dybas had evidence that many 
species of the featherwing beetle exist in all-female 
populations, reproducing without the aid of males. He 
wanted to examine a large number of specimens col- 
lected at the same time to see if indeed they were all 
female. In doing so, he developed several startling 
theories. 

Through his examination of featherwing beetles, 
Dybas was able to illuminate the complex workings of a 
small comer of the natural world. He wondered, for ex- 
ample, why the beetles were so small. He wanted to 
know why many species or populations seemed to have 
done away with males. Finally, he had observed that the 
featherwing beetles from Bimini had no feather wings, 
even though the same species on the mainland possessed 
them. After some thought, Dybas came up with an 
interesting interlocking theory that explained these 
three questions. 

First, he had reason to believe that the beetles had 
evolved from a larger into a smaller size, primarily be- 
cause they needed to be light enough to float on the 
wind, and thus to occupy a niche in which smallness was 
an advantage. In becoming small, however, the feath- 
erwings could carry fewer and fewer eggs, since the eggs 
could not be "miniaturized" the way the insect could. 
Thus, the Bimini beetles lost the ability to carry 
thousands of eggs and produce many offspring at a single 
time, as most other insects do. Indeed, they became 
so small that the female was only able to carry one egg 
at a time. That single egg became much more biologi- 
cally precious when it was the only one available — and 
thus the female had to ensure that it was fertilized and 
hatched. Unfortunately, this structure made finding a 
male to fertilize the egg quickly rather important. 
Indeed, finding a male became such a matter of incon- 
venience for the female of a species with such limited 
mobility that the population eventually did away with 
males entirely. Instead, the egg matures without being 
fertilized, by the process called parthenogensis. And 
when the males were bypassed in the reproductive pro- 
cess, they eventually died out. 

To corroborate his theory, Dybas looked to see if 
other extremely small insects had developed parthe- 
nogensis. Just as he suspected, he found other species 
that had done away with males. 

Next, he addressed the riddle of why 80 percent of 



the Bimini beetles lacked the feathery wings that were 
present on the same mainland species. The obvious 
answer came to him in a sudden flash. On a low, wind- 
swept island such as Bimini, beetles dispersed by air cur- 
rents stood a great chance of being blown out to sea and 
certain death. (On the mainland, of course, dispersal 
would be a favorable adaption, allowing the beetles to 
spread to new habitats. ) 

Dybas's research, however, did more than just 
prove his hypothesis. While researching his theories, 
Dybas examined one vial of American Museum speci- 
mens in detail, all supposedly of the same species. He 
noticed that a particular internal organ in some of them 
differed markedly from the same organ in others from the 
same vial. He realized that one of the groups was a new 
species, entirely unknown to science. 

The science of zoology has established that certain 
things must be done when a new species is discovered. In 
the first step, the discoverer must select one organism as 
the "type" specimen. The type specimen then becomes 
the physical and legal representative of all of its kind. It 
will be the actual specimen the scientist uses to describe 
what the new species looks like, and it is the individual 
that all others will be compared or contrasted with, and 
measured against, for the rest of time. Today, most spe- 
cies of animal are represented somewhere by a type speci- 
men, many of which date back several centuries or 



more. 



Thus, from the hundreds of specimens of the new 
insect, Dybas selected the most normal, the most average 
individual he could find, and designated it the type. In 



doing so, he made an utterly insignificant beetle — an 
almost invisible brown period — a scientifically priceless 
specimen. Underneath me somewhere is that tiny brown 
beetle, locked up in its cabinet, resting in perpetuity as 
the official representive of all of its kind. 

The Museum is the guardian of thousands of such 
seemingly insignificant specimens, but as each bone in 
the mighty Tyrannosaunis is just a piece in the puzzle of 
the whole, each tiny bug is an indispensable link in the 
chain of knowledge that exists in the collections of the 
American Museum. Like the beetle, virtually every 
Museum specimen is invested with significance and a 
history. (Indeed, specimens without a history are often 
thrown out. ) I opened this book with B. intricata because 
it is an example, in microcosm, of what the Museum is. 
Most of the Museum's more exciting specimens don't 
have the kind of calm, rational history that B. intricata 
possesses. Roy Chapman Andrews fought gun battles 
with Mongolian bandits to protect his dinosaur spe- 
cimens; Carl Akeley lost his life in the Belgian Congo 
collecting for the Museum's African Hall; Fitzhugh 
Green lost his mind while searching for a continent that 
didn't exist. These stories seem superficially very diffe- 
rent from the story of B. intricata — but they all are links 
in the vastly complex history of the American Museum. 



'Homo sapiens was lacking a type specimen until one waggish 
zoologist proclaimed his body as the type for the human species and 
issued directions that his body be preserved after death for the edi- 
fication of future scientists. 



Featherwing Beetles 



by Henry S. Dybas 



This essay ori^ruxlly appeared in the April 1966 Bulletin, 
vol. 37, no. 4. Later that year Dybas published the formal 
paper "Evidence for Parthenogensis in the Featherwing Bee- 
tles, with a Taxonomic Review of a New Genus and Eight 
New Species (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae)" in Fieldiana: Zoology 
(vol.51, no. 2)— Ed. 



One of my special research interests is in the smallest 
known beetles, the featherwing beetles (scientific name: 



Ptiliidae). The common name derives from the curious 
structure of the wings .... These beetles are minute; the 
smallest are only one seventy-fifth of an inch long. This 
is less than the size of some single-celled Protozoa, yet 
they have compound eyes, antennae of many segments, 
complex mouthparts, wings, and all other essential parts 
of their larger relatives. Almost none are longer than 
one twenty-fifth of an inch. They are truly remarkable 
examples of biological miniaturization. 

Because featherwing beetles are so small, most 
biologists never see them in the field, even though they 19 




Wing of the featherwing beetle Eurygyne lutea (total length of wing 0. 9mm) . The "conventional" airfoil structure of the uiing in larger insects has been 
replaced in the Ptiliidae with a featherlike structure, better utilizing the lift effect of even slight breezes. 



20 



may be very abundant. The family is world-wide in dis- 
tribution and occurs in moist places like the leaf litter of 
the forest floor, tree-holes, under bark, logs, or decaying 
seaweed on beaches. Each situation will have its own 
particular kinds of featherwing beetles. Sometimes 
several hundred can be found in a square foot of forest 
floor. It seems that they feed chiefly on spores and 
hyphal threads of molds and other fungi in decaying 
organic materials. They form a component of a complex, 
but little understood, web of life that is the biology of our 
soils. One of the attractions of investigating such little- 
known creatures is that so much remains to be dis- 
covered about them. Some of our commonest species 
have not been described or named yet, and almost noth- 
ing is known of their life-cycles, behavior, or modes of 
life. Nearly everything one learns about them is com- 
pletely new. 

Recently, I have been reviewing a genus of feath- 
erwing beetles that is very abundant in Florida and the 
adjacent Gulf States, in decay ing^ leaves and other mate- 
rials on the ground, but that has completely escaped rec- 
ord in the United states. I now know of seven species in 



Florida, and another from the nearby Bahama Islands, 
which need to be described and named for the first time. 
In large part, these new species are the result of intensive 
and specialized collecting by Dr. Walter Suter, a young 
biology professor at Carthage College in Kenosha, Wis- 
consin and by Mr. J. Harrison Steeves, Jr. , a prominent 
architect in Birmingham, Alabama. Mr. Steeves' hobby 
of collecting and studying beetles must appear remark- 
ably esoteric to his business associates. 

The main collecting technique involves the use of 
the insect funnel. The principle of the funnel is very 
simple. Moist forest floor or other debris likely to con- 
tain insects is placed in a shallow layer on a screen in a 
large funnel. Heat, usually from an electric lightbulb, is 
applied from above. As the debris gradually dries or heats 
up, the tiny insects move down deeper through the de- 
bris where, in nature, it would ordinarily be more moist 
and cool. In the funnel, though, they pass through the 
screen and fall down the steep slopes and collect in a vial 
attached to the spout. An astonishing number and vari- 
ety of tiny insects and mites can be extracted in this way 
from small amounts of debris. There may be several 



thousand in a square foot of forest floor a few inches 
thick. This simple technique, originally devised by an 
Italian entomologist named Berlese, made it possible for 
the first time to sample systematically the microhabitats 
of an area for tiny insects and related arthropods and to 
obtain adequate series for study. 

Tiny beetles like the featherwings must be prepared 
as microscope slide mounts for study. This is somewhat 
more delicate and tedious than mounting insects of 
ordinary size. But it provides a wealth of information, 
not only about the structure and relationships of these 
little animals, but indirectly about their biology. For in- 
stance, it soon became evident, in my examination of 
this genus, that there was never more than one egg in the 
abdomen of the female, for the simple reason that the 
egg was relatively huge — fully half the length of the bee- 
tle! The explanation for this phenomenon was pointed 
out for some other kinds of arthropods not too many 
years ago by the noted biologist Bernard Rensch, who 
stated that each egg needs to be provided with enough 
yolk for the embryo to develop and hatch into a self- 
sufficient larva. Hence there is a size-limit beyond which 
the egg cannot be reduced in most insects and related 
forms. Evolution of small size open up many new food 
sources and living spaces. In the process, however, the 
number of eggs that can be accommodated and matured 
in the abdomen must become fewer and fewer until, 
finally, the irreducible minimum of one egg is reached 
and a limit to further reduction in size is imposed. Pre- 
sumably, featherwing beetles are now at the size limits 
dictated by their mode of development and way of life. 
No one knows how long a female featherwing beetle can 
live and reproduce, nor how long it takes a single egg to 
mature or a larva to develop. Yet it would seem that the 
total egg output per female must be very low in com- 
parison with that of many other insects. So the abun- 
dance of featherwing beetles in some situations becomes 
something of a problem to explain. There must be some 
compensatory mechanisms such as increased speed of 
development, continuous (rather than seasonal) repro- 
duction, and other factors, but at present we know too 
little about their biology to know what these com- 
pensatory mechanisms might be. 

Another consequence of small size is its effect on 
wings and flight. The normal insect wing acts aerody- 
namically like that of a bird or airplane wing — a flow of 
air over the surfaces provides lift. In the size range of the 
featherwing beetles, though, the viscous drag forces of 
the air are evidently much greater than any possible lift 
forces, and the wings can no longer function in the same 
way. 



Flight in such microscopic forms has never been 
directly observed; it would be technically difficult. The 
long marginal hairs of the featherwing account for most 
of its expanse. If, as has been suggested, these hairs bend 
more easily on the upstroke than on the down, the lift 
forces may exceed the dragforces and the insect may be 
able to "row" its way through the air. Other very small 
insects evidently have encountered the same problems, 
because a similar "featherwing" has been evolved in- 
dependently in several unrelated groups of insects, most 
notably in tiny wasps that are parasitic in the eggs of 
other insects. Flight of featherwinged insects would 
seem possible only in still air over short distances. The 
featherwing is probably an adaptation for floating in the 
air like a dandelion seed and for dispersing over distances 
by means of air currents. Such passive dispersal implies 
wastage, because many featherwing beetles must be 
wafted to unfavorable places and lost. This adds to the 
problem of how featherwing beetles manage to get along 
with such an apparently low egg production. 

Another curious feature that emerged in the course 
of studying these tiny Florida featherwings was the com- 
plete absence of males in at least five of the new species. 
This can not be attributed to accidents of sampling be- 
cause in one species there were over 9,000 specimens 
collected in more than 30 countries, over a span of eight 
months of the year, and all were females. I was forced to 
conclude that these species were able to reproduce with- 
out males — a phenomenon that is well-known, though 
spotty, in the animal kingdom and which is termed 
parthenogensis. 

Why is there such an unusually high incidence of 
parthenogensis in these tiny animals? In the long run, 
parthenogensis is considered an evolutionary dead end 
because it precludes exchange and recombination of 
hereditary materials between different individuals 
through mating and this inhibits adaptation to changing 
circumstances. In the short run, though, there may be 
several advantages. One that is particularly relevant is 
that all the eggs produce reproductive females; none are 
wasted on males. In effect parthenogensis doubles the 
reproductive potential of a population in one jump — an 
enormous advantage to insects that mature one egg at a 
time. So I arrive at a final thesis. Obscure as they are, 
there may be a real relevance is studying such tiny in- 
sects. They are important in their own right because of 
their activities and because of their complex relations 
with other forms of life in our fields and forests. And 
because they are faced with extreme problems as a result 
of their small size, their study can provide insights into 
problems of general biological interest. 



21 



Henry Dybas 

A Eulogy 

by Rupert L. Wenzel 
Curator Emeritus of Insects 



This eulogy was delivered by Dr. Wenzel at Bond Memorial 
Chapel, the University of Chicago, on October 9, 1981, at 
memorial services for Dybas. The two men had been col- 
leagues in the Museum's Division of Insects for over four 
decades. With some emendations, it is reproduced here 
largely for the additional perspective it provides in viewing 



Henry Dybas in Panama, 1959, collecting featherwing beetles from 
mushrooms. 8895? 



22 




Dybas' s valuable contributions to parthenogensis research. It 
is also a warm, sensitive portrait of Henry Dybas, the man. — 
Ed. 

When word of Henry's death came to us in Maine, it was 
not entirely unexpected. While there was a sudden sense 
of emptiness and sadness, there was also the realization 
that just as the lives of his family, and those close to him, 
would in some ways be irrevocably changed by his going, 
our lives had been affected, in many ways irrevocably, 
too, by having known him. 

On our way home, I constantly reflected on the 
events which had brought us together nearly half a cen- 
tury ago and which inextricably interwove our lives — 
through college, courtship, marriage and families, milit- 
ary service, our professional careers, and retirement — a 
long personal and professional relationship, which like 
many marriages, had its rocky periods, but which ma- 
tured and endured. 

Henry was born in Chicago July 10, 1915. He 
attended Chicago public schools and graduated from 
Lindblom High School in 1933. He received his B.S. 
degree from the old Central YMCA College, Chicago in 
1940, and an honorary Doctor of Science from Tri-State 
University, Angola, Indiana in 1980. 

His interest in natural history developed early. In 
high school he was especially influenced by two 
teachers, Messrs. Johnston and Croft. During this time a 
close friend, Bill Neitzel, an engaging and brilliant 
young man, introduced Henry to the Division of En- 
tomology at Field Museum, which from then on played a 
major influence in shaping his life and career. He was 
much influenced by Curator William Gerhard, Assis- 
tant Curator Emil Liljblad, A. B. Wolcott of Harris Ex- 
tension, and Karl P. Schmidt, chief curator of Zoology. 

Henry and I met as a consequence of a political act. 
In 1933, some of the faculty of Crane Junior College, 
including Lillian Hirstein, a labor spokesperson and 
one-time legislator, had the "nerve" to organize a Chica- 
go teachers protest parade because they had not been 
paid (except in scrip) for a couple of years. To show his 
displeasure and to eliminate and/or disperse the faculty, 
Mayor Cermak closed Crane, citing "economic" rea- 



sons. (A year later, after getting rid of the dissidents, he 
opened three new city junior colleges. ) 

In the fall of 1933, the Federal Civil Works Educa- 
tional Service opened a temporary college at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago downtown "campus." This was cre- 
ated in order to take care of students who had been "left 
in the cold" by the closing of Crane, and to employ un- 
employed college professors. As a displaced Crane stu- 
dent, I enrolled. 

While talking to another student in the hallway be- 
tween classes one day, I was trying to describe the 
appearance of something and compared its shape to that 
of the antenna of a cecropia moth. A young man next to 
us turned around and said "What do you know about 
cecropia moths?" In this way. Hank and I were brought 
together. 

Shortly thereafter, Henry introduced me to the 
Division of Entomology, as it was then called, at Field 
Museum. In June, 1934, the CWES college was closed. 
Henry enrolled in one of the new junior colleges (Wil- 
son), and 1 began a year at the Museum as a volunteer 
in the Division of Insects. At Wilson Junior College, 
Henry's interest in insects was furthered by Dr. Frank 
Schuett. 

Following his graduation from Wilson Junior Col- 
lege, Henry got a job in the Museum Division of En- 
tomology on the Works Project Administration Program 
and was married. With his wife's encouragement, he 
continued his education at the Central YMCA College 
as a student, teaching assistant, and later as a close per- 
sonal friend and colleague of Dr. Charles Seevers. 

Following graduation, he worked temporarily at the 
Museum as an assistant in the Division of Entomology, 
and then, briefly, as a payroll clerk at Crane & Com- 
pany, before again returning to the Museum as a tempo- 
rary employee. Following military service in World War 
II, he was appointed to the regular staff, and continued 
his education part time at the University of Chicago. 
Unfortunately, circumstances did not permit him to 
complete his doctorate, but the training and guid- 
ance under Prof. Alfred Emerson and Dr. Thomas Park 
were invaluable. 

In 1980, Henry received an honorary D.Sc. from 
Tri-State University, Angola, Indiana, in recognition of 
his research contributions. A symposium dealing chiefly 
with periodical cicadas was arranged in his honor. 

Fieldwork 

One of Henry's greatest loves was fieldwork. He did field 
collecting in Panama, Mexico, Colombia, the United 
States, and Micronesia. 1 remember how jealous I was, 



when he and Charles Seevers arranged to go on their first 
foreign field collecting trip to Colombia, while 1 had to 
stay behind to continue my studies. 

Henry was an outstanding field man, one of the best 
insect collectors in the world. During World War II he 
was fortunate to be assigned to a malaria survey unit that 
was sent to the Mariannas to cope with an outbreak of 
dengue fever. By the time they arrived, the epidemic had 
subsided and there was little for the unit to do. Henry 
spent a great deal of time collecting. The collections he 
made in the Mariannas and Palaus during this time, and 
again following the war under the auspices of the Pacific 
Science Board, provided the impetus for the survey and 
the resulting volumes of the publication Insects of Mic- 
ronesia. An estimate of Henry's expertise as a collector 
may be gained from the fact that even though a number 
of other entomologists collected in Micronesia as par- 
ticipants in the survey, Henry's collections alone con- 
tained about 40 percent of all the species now known 
from these islands, and between 20 and 24 percent are 
known only from his collections. 

His greatest success as a field collector was due to 
his almost innate appreciation of ecology, especially as 
regards niche specialization and diversity. He was a born 
ecologist. 

His background of insect ecology stood him in espe- 
cially good stead when, with Dr. Monte Lloyd, the late 
Dwight David, and others, he undertook the now classic 
studies on the population ecology and evolution of peri- 
odical cicadas — perhaps his greatest scientific con- 
tributions. They are models of field observation and 
analysis. 

Henry transmitted his love of nature and biology to 
his daughters. One of them, Dr. Linda Dybas, received a 
doctorate from the University of Ulm, Germany, and is 
an assistant professor of biology at Knox College, while 
his daughter Marcia earned a degree in environmental 
biology at the University of Santa Cruz. 

Henry was a member of and supported a number of 
ecological and conservation related groups. He was an 
early critic of some of the major pesticide programs and 
was an influence in eliminating the use of DDT for mos- 
quito control in his own Mosquito Abatement District 
and in Illinois. 

Research 

Henry's research interests developed through his field- 
work. As noted before, his work on periodical cicadas 
from 1956 on, resulted in publications that were models 
in population biology and ecology. 

He was, however, primarily interested in the sys- 23 




Rupert L. Wen^ei (left) and Henry Dybas in their kbinthe Field Museum, 1947. 



tematics, biology, and evolution of ptiliid beetles. Henry 
believed that systematics required the integration of all 
sources of information — ecological, physiological, and 
anatomical — and his research on these beetles reflected 
this. 

He became especially interested in problems con- 
cerned with evolution of small size. A recent and most 
stimulating paper dealt with parthenogensis in these 
beetles. 

One of his great satisfactions was his work with his 
daughter Linda, with whom he recently co-authored a 
fascinating paper on the sperm structure of a group of 
ptiliid beetles and its relation to their taxonomy. 

Teaching 

Henry enjoyed teaching and working with students. He 

held adjunct faculty appointments at the University of 

Chicago and Northwestern University, He participated 

24 in teaching courses for the University of Chicago, 



taught in the evening division at Northwestern, was a 
visiting summer professor, teaching ecology, at Knox 
College and also at Southern Illinois University, and 
gave numerous invited seminars at various institutions. 

Professional Studies 

Henry was a member of a number of professional so- 
cfeties. He was a founding member of the Society for 
the Study of Evolution and a fellow of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. He served 
as chairman of Section A of the Entomological Society 
of America, our largest national professional entomo- 
logical organization, and served on its governing board 
for two years. 

Museum 

While the Museum played a profound role in shaping his 
life, Henry also played an important role in helping 
shape the Museum. He was an invaluable partner in 



planning and molding the revitalization and growth of 
the Division of Insects. I couldn't tell you how many 
countless hours we spent over the years discussing goals 
and means of achieving them. 

Since its inception, he served on the Schmidt Fund 
Committee, which made monetary awards to students 
and professionals who wish to study at the Museum. 

He helped plan and prepare various of the insect 
exhibits presently on display, as well as a number of tem- 
porary exhibits, including what was probably one of the 
most successfijl in the history of the Museum, the 1973 
multi-media exhibit on the periodical cicadas. He was 
also instrumental, with Rainer Zangerl, in initiating the 
Man In His Environment exhibit. One of his greatest dis- 
appointments was our inability to move ahead on the 
execution of a Hall of Insects, which we had planned in 
considerable detail. 

Henry played an active role in departmental and 
museum-wide affairs. He was an effective and con- 
structive critic. 

He prepared the first successful grant proposal to 
the National Science Foundation for support of a Field 
Museum collection. This has been renewed twice since. 

Henry as a Person 

Henry was a modest and quiet man. He abhorred blow- 
ing his own horn. He was friendly, open, very social. He 
was also strong-minded and at times could be dis- 
concertingly frank. He enjoyed conversation with 
fi-iends and colleagues, whether it be intellectual ex- 
change or tidbits of information about colleagues at the 
Museum. 

He was intellectually alert, always interested in 
new findings and developments, even to the end. He 
both stimulated and was stimulated by his colleagues and 
met with them regularly at lunchtime sessions. 

He was concerned about people and always willing 
to lend an ear to their problems, especially of the young. 
He served as a sounding board for ideas, and he was a 
valuable resource for advice and criticism — scientific, 
professional, and personal. 

He carried on an extensive correspondence and 
maintained lasting friendships with many colleagues, 
here and abroad. 

Wide Interests 

Music was a crucial need in Henry's life. He loved music 
with a passion, a love he probably inherited from his 



'Deceased 1985 



father, who still composes songs. * He shared this love 
with his wife, Milada, who as a precocious young musi- 
cian, was a gifted concert pianist and later, teacher. Mil- 
lie tells how, while courting, Henry would lie on a couch 
for hours listening to her practice. Henry studied the 
French horn under Philip Farkas, former principal horn 
player with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, and was a 
member of his high school and college symphony orches- 
tras. He and Mil belonged to a "record club" of music 
devotees, who, for many years, met socially to listen to 
good music. They formed lasting friendships through 
this group. 

He had a lively interest in politics. I well remember 
the sessions we had meeting at homes with friends on 
Saturday nights, drinking a few beers, sitting around 
telling jokes, discussing everything from music to poli- 
tics, dissecting the problems of the world and solving 
them. 

Henry helped organize the South Cook County 
Mosquito Abatement District. He was a member of its 
board of trustees for 22 years, serving as secretary, vice 
president, and president. He did much to help formulate 
its goals and policies. 

Henry played football in college. 

He also served as a Boy Scout counselor in South 
Cook County. 

Health 

Henry had been seriously ill for some time. A number 
of years ago, he had major surgery for bone cancer, an 
experience that was terribly traumatic for him physically 
and emotionally. Later, he experienced chronic pain 
which so incapacitated him that at one point we thought 
he might never return to the Museum. But he made it. 
He would be up on his feet for limited periods, then lie 
on his "pad," to read, take care of his correspondence, 
and write his manuscripts. 

A couple of years ago he became ill from Walden- 
strom's anemia, possibly as a result of X-ray treatments 
given earlier at the time of his bone cancer. He met this 
crisis with great courage. One of the, to me, astonishing 
things, for a man who had a dread of illness and found it 
difficult to discuss illness or death, was the remarkable 
way in which he was reconciled to his condition and 
made peace with himself. 

During his final illness, we had great hopes that he 
would experience a remission that would permit him to 
complete a number unfinished projects. This was not to 
be. Through all of this his life was made endurable 
through the love and support of his family, especially of 
his wife Milada. Ftl 25 




FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TOUR§^ 

Explore the 
primeval splendor 
of the Canadian 
North^vest. 

Field Museum Tours invites you on an expedition 
to the stunning Northwest, including Seattle, Prince 
Rupert, Queen Charlotte Islands, Fitzhugh Sound, 
Alert Bay, Princess Louisa Inlet and Victoria aboard 
the Society Explorer. 



PROJECT 
CANADIAN 
FJORDS & INSIDE 
PASSAGE 

Departing: 

August 16, 9 Days 

August 16, Seattle. Arrive and transfer to our deluxe 
hotel. After a reception at the University of Washing- 
ton's Burke Museum, enjoy dinner and Seattle's 
nightlife. 

August 17, Prince Rupert. Depart Seattle on morning 
flight to Prince Rupert. After a ferry crossing to Prince 
Rupert, board the Society Explorer for an evening depar- 
ture. Enjoy the captain's welcome dinner as we set sail 
at sunset for the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

August 18-19, Queen Charlotte Islands. Journeying 
south, we arrive at the unspoiled home of the Haida In- 
dian Nation where braves erected countless totem poles, 
each carved to tell its special story Today these moss- 
encrusted monuments testify to the centuries-old Haida 
way of life. We explore these islands with their brood- 
ing forests harboring ancient villages. Bald eagles, sea- 
birds. Stellar sea lions and whales provide opportunities 
for rewarding walks and beach hikes. 




Society Explorer 



26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, II 60605 



August 20, Fitzhugh Sound. This morning we sail into 
the upper Fraser Reach and Grenville Channel for a day 
of exploration among the magnificent wave-sculpted 
canyons and craggy inlets of the Canadian fjords. At 
Kwakshua Inlet, an area rich in abalone and other 
Northwest sea Hfe, hikers will enjoy exploring the 
coastal woods of 100-foot stands of red cedar, Sitka 
spruce, western hemlock and Douglas fir. Our ship sails 
south into a region of towering cliffs, and rushing 
waterfalls. 

August 21, Alert Bay. Following an afternoon cruising 
the Inside Passage, our ship puts in at Alert Bay, ances- 
tral island home of the Nimpkish, largest tribe of the 
powerful Kwakiutl Indian Nation. According to 
anthropologist Franz Boas, the word Kwakiutl means 
Smokes of the World, which alludes to their ability to 
attract huge throngs of people to their firelit potlatches 
and ceremonials. We'll visit the U'mista Cultural 
Center/ Alert Bay Museum. Here we see fine examples 
of the distinctive ceremonial masks, utensils and bent- 
wood boxes — important elements of the rich Kwakiutl 
lifestyle — and have the opportunity to purchase native 
handicrafts, jewelry and artwork. 

After lunch, we'll move into the Queen Charlotte 
Strait, the summer gathering place for close to 300 killer 
whales, uncontested top predators of Canada's northern 
waters. Roaming the protected waters of the Inside Pas- 
sage in clearly defined pods, males, females and young 
cooperate in hunting their prey. Killer whales have no 
natural enemies other than man. 



August 22, Princess Louisa Inlet. Passengers experi- 
ence a realm of snowmelt cascades and 6,000-foot 
mountains ringing this spectacular horseshoe-shaped 
fjord. Overhead, bald eagles soar, slicing through the 
coastal mists with their six-foot wing-spans. At the 
tumultuous Chatterbox Falls, we'll go ashore to walk 
alpine meadows full of lupine, dwarf dogwood and 
chocolate lily. Others may follow the trail which ends 
at the long abandoned Trapper's Cabin, built in the 
shadow of scenic Mt. Albert. 

August 23, Victoria. Midday arrival in Victoria, British 
Columbia. Victoria's distinct English flavor is reflected 
in the copper-domed Parliament buildings heralding 
our entry into the harbor. This afternoon we tour the 
Provincial Museum with its comprehensive collection 
of coastal Indian art and artifacts and its life-sized replica 
of a 19th-century frontier town. Stroll the cobbled 
streets, perhaps stopping to sip tea at the ivy-covered 
Empress Hotel. The captain hosts a farewell dinner 
tonight as we sail for Seattle. 

August 24, Seattle. Morning arrival and connection 
with homeward flights. 



This tour will be enhanced by a team of expert lecturers 
in the region's natural history, native cultures, and wild- 
life, including Dr. Scott M. Lanyon, Field Museum's assis- 
tant curator and head of the Division of Birds. 



CRUISE COST PER PERSON 



Explorer 


$1,790 


Explorer Deluxe 


$1,950 


Yacht 


$2,320 



Boat Deluxe 


$2,690 


Suite 


$3,190 


Owner's Suite 


$3,590 



Yacht Deluxe 



$2,490 Airfare (not incl. in rates) 



$190 



Rates are per person, double occupancy, and include group transfers, cruise accommoda- 
tions, all meals including a welcome cocktail and dinner party and farewell dinner, lectures 
by accompanying or visiting speakers, and all off-ship excursions. Amenities include travel 
bag, backpack, documentation wallet, comprehensive guide book and daily log. Single 
cabins are available at 1.5 times the above rates, except single suites which are 1.9 times the 
above rates. Airfare is approximate and subject to change. 



Deposit $500,000 per person 




People's Republic of China 

18 Days 
September 16 - October 3, 1987 

Customized Tour exclusively for Field Museum 

Organized and accompanied by 

Katharine Lee 




1 he itinerary for this exceptionally well conceived tour 
covers the highlights of this fascinating country. We de- 
part Chicago via Japan Air Lines. Our first stop will be 
Tokyo, where we will enjoy a city tour. Chinese cities 
to be visited include Shanghai, Wuxi, Beijing, Luoyang, 



Xi'an, and Guilin, plus a boat ride on the Li River. We'll 
exit through Hong Kong, a city full of Oriental trea- 
sures and cultural heritage. This is a "not to be missed" 
opportunity. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
7411 NORTH GREENVIEU 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



-^»1^' 



t^ELD MUSn^lW^ OFlNlATtl^jL HISTORY BUlf ^Tll| 

. ^'3>^i>^^^ *• April1987 i '( 



■■i* - / 



^\1(*^ 



-^ 4± 



r-rr*-^ 



a New Guinea 



Open% April 29 






Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. PhiUp D. Block III 
WUlard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worlcy H.Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. MuUin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
WilHam L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. EdwinJ. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

April 1987 

Volume 58, Number 4 



April Events at Field Museum 



The Ancient Villages of Southern Peru 

by Charles Stanish 



Bird Migration at the Foot of Lake Michigan 1 1 

by Kenneth]. Brock 



Texas Mushrooms Come to Field Museum 20 

by Gregory M. Mueller, Assistant Curator of Mycology 



Field Museum Tours 



26 



COVER 

The Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), a bulbous, introduced 
plant of the amaryllis family, is among the first flowers, culti- 
vated or otherwise, to let us know that spring is almost upon 
us. These were photographed in Chicago in mid-February, 
but some continue to be seen in April. 



Field Museum of Natural Hiswry Buileon (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except coitlbined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Histoty, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright © 1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions; $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membei^hip includes BuJietin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312)922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster; Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN; 0015-0703. 



Events 



■^ 




Thomas Waller 



TftcfAtic^a^iefiSMAt^ 



Saturday and Sunday, April 4 and 5, 2:00pm 
Stanley Field Hall 

Mystic Paper Beasts with performance artists and masters of disguise Melisande and Daniel Potter, 
create astonishing masks and costumes that redesign the human body and bring the inanimate to Ufe. 
Ingenious use of paper and fabric, with inventive sounds and mime, miraculously transform the two 
into a violin and sheet of music, a cow, a bear, or one enormous face. The Beasts present humor ranging 
from everyday life to Greek mythology, while transformed in completely unexpected ways. Enjoy with 
us their comic adaptation oi Rappacdni's Daughter by Nathaniel Hawthorne. This program is free with 
Museum admission and tickets are not required. 

Continued — 



J 



Stents 



~x 



A/!i/uC Tt/ed^end ^tofn€UH4^ 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed 
for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the 
Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs 
are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

April 

11 impm " Spring Wildflowers"{s[ide\QCX.ur€). 25 

Slide lecture featuring the wildflowers 

found in Chicago's woods, meadows, and 

prairies. 26 

18 2:00pm "Spring Wildflowers" (slide lecture) . 

Slide lecture featuring the wildflowers 

found in Chicago's woods, meadows, and 

prairies. 



11:30am "Ancient Egypt" {tour) . Explore 
the traditions of ancient Egypt from every- 
day life to myths and mummies. 

2:00pm "Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in 
Bronze" (slide lecture). Examine the life 
and works of Malvina Hoffman, con- 
centrating on the "Portraits of Mankind" 
collection commissioned by Field 
Museum. 



AdcdtCounM^ 



Learn techniques of Chinese ceramic glazing, delve into life in ancient Egypt, or begin to master the 
graceful movements of Tai Chi Chuan. Adult programs continue in April and May with exciting new 
six-week, three-week, and one-day classes. Course fees range from $30 to $80. Consult the April/May 
Adult Course program brochure for details to register. 



SfieciaJt CoufiAe 



"Birds in Music and Musical Aspects of Bird 
Song" 

Thursday, 7:00-9:00 pm; April 9; $7 for mem- 
bers, $10 for nonmembers. 
The aesthetic qualities of bird songs have in- 
spired composers of both classical and con- 
temporary music. Dr. James Gibson, assistant 
professor of music and amateur ornithologist, 
explores the fascinating relationship between the 
lyrical notes of bird songs and the music that re- 
flects them. 



'pecUuned Coufue 



"Crisis on the Lakefront" 

Tuesdays, 7:00-9:00 pm; April 28-June 2; $50 for 
members, $60 for nonmembers. 
Rising lake levels have brought a flurry of public 
debate over how to protect the lakefront from 
further erosion. This six-part lecture series 
brings together environmentalists, geologists, 
and other specialists to discuss causes of this nat- 
ural phenomenon and ways Chicago and other 
lakefront communities can work together to 
cope with the crisis. 



s. 



Svents 



S^^^o'^i^ S' A^^^iscCune Se^ue4^ 



The first four Thursdays in April mark the con- 
tinuation of the free Edward E. Ayer Lecture 
Series. The narrated shde programs begin at 1:30 



pm and meet in Lecture Hall 1. Included are pre- 
sentations on India, the Western National Parks 
of the United States, wildflowers, and Mexico. 



April 2 "Spring Wildflowers" 

Peter Dring, Naturalist, Cook County 
Forest Preserve. 

Welcome the coming of Spring with 
a visual walk through Illinois' wood- 
lands, prairies, and wetlands admir- 
ing and identifying a wide variety 
of spring wildflowers. Learn more 
about their natural habitats, folk 
history, their medicinal uses, and 
when they bloom in the area. 



April 9 "Western National Parks" 

Paul Sipiera, Associate Professor, De- 
partment of Physical Sciences, Harper 
College. 

Enjoy the majestic landscapes of 
America's Western National Parks 
while discovering their fascinating 
geological history. Why did the 
Grand Canyon form? How did 
Yosemite achieve its breathtaking 
beauty? Answer these questions and 
more while you tour our Western 
geologic wonders. 



April 16 "Traveling in India" 

Vincent Michael, Director of Chicago 
Programs, Landmark Preservation 
Council of Illinois. 

The art and architecture found in 
modern India reveals its enduring 
rich cultural and religious heritage. 
Visit ancient Buddhist shrines, Hin- 
du temples of the North, and the 
famous Taj Mahal at Agra, in this 
tour of India's religious temples and 
art. 

April 23 "A Modern Look at Ancient Mexico " 

Don McVicker, Professor, Department 
of Sociology and Anthropology, North 
Central College 

A visitor to modern Mexico can still 
experience the glory of cultures past. 
In southern Mexico, evidence of the 
high Mayan civilization remains 
apparent. See the monuments built 
by these remarkable people and the 
sun-baked countryside that was their 
home. 



Music communicates in many ways. It is some- 
thing that can be shared by all of us, whether or 
not we have common lifestyles, beliefs, or even 
languages. April's World Music Programs fea- 
ture the brilliant percussion of Famoudou Don 
Moye, Ravanna I3ey, and Ansari Abdul Sabur. 



All programs are at 1 :00pm and 3:00pm on Sat- 
urdays and Sundays. For a complete schedule 
call Public Program (312) 322-8854. 

The World Music Program is supported by 
Kenneth and Harle Montgomery in honor of 
E. Leland Webber, president emeritus of Field 
Museum. 



\ 



The Ancient Villages 

OF 

Southern Peru 

by Charles Stanish 



k 



according to historical legends recorded by Spanish 
chroniclers in the 16th century, the armies of the Inca 
Empire entered the vast Titicaca Basin in the latter half 
of the 15th century. For more than 2,500 years prior to 
the Inca conquest, the cultures which developed along 
the shores of Lake Titicaca and its surrounding country- 
side had dominated the entire South Central Andes, an 
area as large as modem California and encompassing 
parts of the four modem nations of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, 
and Argentina. The incorporation of the Titicaca Basin 
by the Inca Empire marked a tuming point in Andean 
history: for the first time in almost three millennia of 
human occupation, a foreign polity conquered this rich 
and populous region. 

During their expansion into the South Central 
Andes, the Incas confronted two major polities which 
together controlled the western half of the entire Titica- 
ca Basin. These two groups, known as the Lupaqa and 
CoUa, were bitter enemies. According to the Spanish 
chroniclers, the Inca took advantage of this rivalry and 
allied themselves with the Lupaqa, essentially squeezing 
their common enemy on the northern and southern 
flanks. Together, these two allies crushed the CoUa and 
surrounding populations. The Inca Empire then took 
control of the Titicaca Basin, employing a form of "in- 
direct rule," incorporating the Lupaqa into the imperial 
bureaucracy, and permanently reducing the CoUa and 
neighboring polities to the status of subject ethnic 
groups in the huge imperial system. 

Prior to the emergence of the Lupaqa and Colla in 
the 12th or the 13th century A.D. , the Titicaca Basin was 
home to a number of distinctive and dynamic polities 
throughout its history. One of the most important and 
impressive of these was Tiwanaku, located in the valley 
of the same name in modem Bolivia. 
6 A century or two after the birth of Christ, the set- 



tlement at Tiwanaku began a process of regional power 
consolidation that culminated in the development of 
the first and only autochthonous empire (i.e., ruled by 
natives of the region) in the South Central Andes. By 
approximately A.D. 400, the entire Titicaca Basin and 
surrounding areas were under the geo-political control of 
the Tiwanaku state. The Classic and Expansive Periods 
of Tiwanaku (A.D. 375-1100) were times of intense 
growth of the economic base and political power of the 
state characterized by the initiation of massive agricul- 
tural projects near the lake, the founding of major poli- 
tical centers away from the capital itself, and the expan- 
sion of economic and political networks throughout the 
South Central Andes. (See "Tiwanaku: Portrait of an 
Andean Civilization," by Alan L. Kolata, Field Museum 
Builetin, September 1982.) 

This vast, 1,000-year-old empire had virtually col- 
lapsed by A.D. 1100, and perhaps earlier. The cause (or 
causes) of the collapse of the Tiwanaku Empire remains 
one of the great mysteries in South Central Andean 
archaeology. What is clear, however, is that the fall of 
Tiwanaku ushered in a period of cultural fragmentation 
and the emergence (or reemergence) of dozens of local 
polities and ethnic groups throughout the areas of former 
control. Throughout the entire South Central Andean 
region, the primary archaeological indicator — ceramics 
— displayed a marked homogeneity during the Tiwana- 
ku Expansive Period; but the post-Tiwanaku periods are 
characterized by vigorous local traditions that are evi- 
dent in design motifs, shape, color, and overall assem- 
blage characteristics. Similar differences may be de- 
tected in settlement patterns and domestic architecture. 

Charles Stanish is a post-doctoral research fellow at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois at Chicago and in September will be assum- 
ing the position of assistant curator of Middle and South 
American Archaeology and Ethnology at Field Museum. 



Presumably, this material heterogeneity corresponded 
to differences in other nonmaterial aspects of post- 
Tiwanaku cultural life. 

The post-Tiwanaku periods in the South Central 
Andes represent almost 500 years of intensive cultural 
growth and elaboration after the collapse of a major pre- 
industrial empire. The diversity of political systems, 
economic networks, art style, artifacts, and other cul- 
tural features in this region are as vast and complex as 
any in the prehispanic New World. A major method- 
ological and conceptual problem for prehistorians, 
therefore, is how to approach this complexity in the 
archaeological record. In the past two decades, Andean 
scholars have developed a conceptual framework, 
known as zonal complementarity, which provides us 
with a means to understand these vast and complex 
changes that have occurred through time. 



Zonal Complementarity 
in the South Central Andes 

Throughout the history of modem archaeological schol- 
arship of the Titicaca Basin and South Central Andes, 
one major theme consistently stands out: the lake settle- 
ments did not exist in isolation but depended in large 
part upon access to the ecologically diverse areas of the 
lower valleys in surrounding regions. That is, the politi- 
cal and economic fortunes of the Titicaca Basin pop- 
ulations through time depended in large part upon their 
ability to construct and maintain interregional networks 
throughout the surrounding ecological zones. 

The process whereby Andean societies politically 
control populations (or access to their goods) , located in 
different ecological zones in an effort to ensure a diver- 
sified economic base, is known as "vertical control," or 
"zonal complementarity," in the anthropological litera- 
ture. The basic premise of verticality begins with the 
stark nature of Andean environments in which pro- 
ductive regions are largely a function of altitude. Com- 
munities seek to "complement" their economic base by 
gaining access to different altitudinal zones. Over time, 
the hypothetical result of such a process is a patchwork of 
colonies and/or alliance networks throughout the sur- 
rounding region, connecting diverse ecological areas 
into a single, productive, and "complementary" whole. 

This model of Andean political economy was first 
suggested by a geographer named Carl Troll in 1931 and 
developed by the Andean scholar John Murra in a series 
of articles and books beginning in the 1950s. Subsequent 
research by later scholars has expanded our empirical 
knowledge and refined our conceptual tools. Zonal com- 



BOLIVIA 




> 

X 

o 

m 



z 
> 



lOOi 



The South Central Andes 



plementarity has since become one of the most powerful 
theoretical means of understanding the history and pro- 
cess of indigenous Andean political economies. 

Since its original formulation, zonal comple- 
mentarity has been expanded to include a wider variety 
of regional interrelationships. We now speak of "direct" 
versus "indirect" control, which occur in a number of 
cultural and temporal contexts. Direct control is an ex- 
ample of the classic colonization process which involved 
the actual geo-political control of territory outside of the 
Titicaca Basin. Indirect control, on the other hand, re- 
fers to a series of mechanisms involving intenonal con- 
tacts between politically and/or ethnically independent 
groups. Examples of indirect mechanisms include elite 
marital alliance, established trading partners, military 
alliances, and so forth. 

The structure of zonal complementarity mecha- 
nisms in various contemporary and ethnohistoric pop- 






i^l! 







1 
J 







Vieu; of the Torata Valley, south oftheOtora. Lupaqa colonies were located here, according to the iisitu oj Chuxi Dic~. Photo by C. Stanish. 



ulations of the South Central Andes has been consid- 
erably researched. The dynamic or historical aspect of 
zonal complementarity, however, remains considerably 
less well understood. In an effort to define the changes in 
regional political economic configurations as under- 
stood under the concept of zonal complementarity, a 
series of archaeological research projects were developed 
and were (or are) being conducted in the Moquegua Val- 
ley of southern Peru. 

Moquegua is an ideal area to test verticality models 
because it is prominently mentioned in the Garci Diez de 
San Miguel Visita* of 1567 as an area in which Titicaca 
Basin polities held agricultural lands. This splendid 
document was the final report of a crown official to the 



* A "Visita" was an inspection of a royal province by any crown 
official. The reforms instituted by Viceroy Toledo are consid- 
ered an historical watershed in Andean society and were 
accompanied by profound changes in the cultural life of the 
native populations. 



Spanish Court on the status of the Lupaqa kingdom in 
the pre-Toledo Colonial Period. In his report, Garci Diez 
indicated (at least 23 times in fact) that the Lupaqa had 
sent mitinxae, or colonists, to grow maize and wheat in 
the lower elevations of the Moquegua Valley, crops that 
cannot be grown in the high, cold plateau country of the 
Titicaca Basin. 

This pattern of Lupaqa colonization of the maize- 
producing zones outside of the Titicaca Basin during the 
Spanish Colonial Period has been used as a model for the 
prehispanic periods in the Moquegua Drainage and 
other coastal valleys. This region, therefore, serves as an 
ideal area for testing the nature of zonal comple- 
mentarity mechanisms through time. 

The Moquegua Drainage is one of the south- 
ernmost valleys of Peru. Located at 17° latitude, the 
drainage is bounded by the deeply incised Tambo Valley 
on the north and the smaller Rio Locumba to the south. 
Rivers and tributaries of Moquegua stretch from the 
town of Ilo on the coast to the 5,000-meter peak of 



Nevada Arundane, a distance of less than 125 km. 
Several tributaries of the principal river are found in the 
upper sierra. One of these valleys, known as Otora, was 
selected for intensive archaeological investigations in 
order to test the model of zonal complementarity in the 
Moquegua Drainage. 

A Test of Zonal Complementarity 
in the Otora Valley 

The Otora Valley was chosen on the basis of preliminary 
investigations for an intensive archaeological investiga- 
tion of the nature of prehispanic zonal complementarity. 
The valley contained numerous archaeological sites, in- 
cluding several that were dated to the immediate pre- 
Inca periods by other investigators. The existence of pre- 
Inca sites therefore raised the possibility of testing zonal 
complementarity through time; that is, a test of the 
dynamic or historical component of the model in an area 
ethnohistorically identified as an important zone of Titi- 
caca Basin colonization in the Spanish Colonial periods. 

Results of the Otora Investigations 

An intensive surface survey located 17 sites in the valley 
ranging from small sherd scatters to a large pre-lnca site 
of more than 100 structures (below) . Five prehispanic 
periods were defined on the basis of ceramic and 
architectural criteria. In each of these periods the settle- 



ments in Otora maintained complementary political 
and economic relationships with the Titicaca Basin and 
coast. But in each of these periods the nature of the ver- 
ticality mechanisms differed in fundamental ways. It is 
this 400 + -year history of changing regional political 
economic configurations that serves to expand our 
understanding of the dynamics of prehispanic zonal 
complementarity in the South Central Andes. 

The earliest period of human occupation of the val- 
ley has only one site. Designated P5 and dated to the 
Tumilaca Period, it represents a localized and very late 
Tiwanaku polity in areas of former imperial control. The 
site is composed of several small rooms located on a small 
hill or knoll. P5 is completely open and presents no in- 
dications of defensive posturing, nor did excavations re- 
veal any offensive weaponry. 

P5 is best interpreted as a pioneering settlement 
during the latest phases of the local Tiwanaku occupa- 
tion of the Moquegua Drainage and which was founded 
in an area of high agricultural potential. From a broad, 
regional perspective, the site is an example of an expan- 
sion process into the upper sierra from the earlier and 
well established settlements in the lower and mid-valley. 
Embedded within a more complex political system, P5 
served to incorporate the Otora Valley into the regional 
economic system of the local Moquegua Tiwanaku 
settlements. 



The Esuujuina Period site ofPorobaya (PI) 




9 



The subsequent Otora Period falls between the 
well-defined Tumilaca and Estuquina Periods (see be- 
low) and is represented by at least five, possibly six, sites 
in the Otora Valley. Three of these sites (P4, P7, and P8) 
were permanent residential settlements which were in- 
tensively investigated. Several other sites (P9, P12, and 
P16) have been provisionally dated to this period and are 
special-activity, nonresidential sites such as quarries and 
corrals. 

The site of Cuesta Alta de Otora (P7), is on the 
flanks of a low hill at the southwest end of the valley 
where Cerro Cuajone descends into neighboring Parala- 



immediate post-Tiwanaku periods and is either contem- 
porary with or slightly later than P7. 

The site of Cuajone, or P8, has approximately 16 
domestic units located high on the hill of the same 
name. Like the other Otora Period sites in the valley, 
Cuajone is unfortified and there was no other indepen- 
dent indication of regional or local competition. Its hill- 
top location can be explained as the attempt to be near 
the extensive terraced fields immediately below the site. 
On the basis of several decorated ceramics, architecture, 
and tomb styles, Cuajone was also dated to the immedi- 
ate post-Tiwanaku periods of the Moquegua Drainage. 



Regional Political Economies 
As Reflected in the Otora Valley 


Period 


Sites 


Political Economy 


Colonial 


PIO, P11,P14 


Spanish colonial ecomienda, Toledo Reducciones, 
Lupaqa colonies in Torata Valley. 


Inca 


P11,P13,P15 


Imperial administration with marked Lupaqa 
influence. Major Inca-Lupaqa site in Torata 
Valley 


Estuquiha- 
Inca 


P1,P3,P6 


Independent polities engaged in intensive inter- 
zonal exhange. Marked Colla influence from 
Titicaca Basin. First evidence of Inca influence 
in valley. 


Estuquiiia 


PI, P2,P3 


Independent polities engaged in intensive inter- 
zonal exchange. Probably Colla influence from 
Titicaca Basin. 


Otora 


P4, P7, P8, 
P9, P12, P15 


Multi-ethnic colonization by Titicaca Basin and 
coastal polities. Chiribaya and Colla influence. 


Tumilaca 


P5 


Colony of local Tiwanaku settlers from middle 
and lower Moquequa Valley 



10 



que. Cuesta Alta developed directly out of the Tiwanaku 
hamlet of P5 as it was abandoned, a conclusion based 
upon ceramic criteria, agricultural canal use, funerary 
patterns, and domestic architecture. The site is also un- 
defended and was constructed on a very open hill flank; 
as with the Tumilaca Period hamlet, there is no evidence 
of inter- or intra-regional competition. 

Porobaya Chica, or P4, is a small, undefended resi- 
dential and cemetery site situated on a small hill several 
hundred meters up- valley from P7. Excavations at P4 re- 
vealed a number of Chiribaya-style ceramic fragments in 
both domestic and non-domestic contexts. Chiribaya is 
a post-Tiwanaku polity which developed out of its impe- 
rial predecessor. Major Chiribaya settlements are found 
throughout the Moquegua Drainage, particularly near 
the coast at Ilo. Porobaya Chica, therefore, dates to the 



The domestic architecture of P8 is quite distinctive 
from that of P5, P7, or P4. On these latter three sites, 
there is a fairly consistent pattern of rectangular, joined 
structures built on artificial terraces. On P8, however, 
the household architectural pattern consists of joined 
pairs of one large and one small room, which are further 
grouped into larger complexes spatially segregated from 
each other. There also seems to be a common patio area 
outside of the room complexes. It is curious that in the 
area of all Otora Period sites, there is ample room to 
build houses on either flat or steep land. The decision to 
terrace the residential area with individual household 
units or with clustering structures is one not dictated by 
topographic considerations, but by cultural choice. 

Continued on p. 23 





Migrating Canada geese at dawn 



Copyright © Gregory G Dimijian/Photo Researchers Inc. 



Sfinati^ Send 7Hi^natco«t 

,_.. h^ KENNETH J. BROCK 

A Field Museum Feature On Local Natural History 



"It's for you!" my wife called from the kitchen. My re- 
sponse was immediate and excited. May is a time when 
the woods abound with birds and the sightings of rarities 
reach a crescendo; a time when early morning phone 
calls invariably bring news of some extraordinary dis- 
covery. It was, therefore, with great anticipation that I 
grabbed the phone. "Ken, this is Pete. Get over to the 
harbor, a big wave has hit the lakefront." This message, 
couched in birder jargon, translated into "the lake 
Michigan shoreline at Michigan City Harbor is awash 
with migrating birds. " The voice belonged to my good 



friend Peter Grube and his measured excitement re- 
vealed that something quite unusual was occurring. 

Within minutes I joined Pete at Washington Park, 
a small lakeside park adjacent to Michigan City Harbor. 
Trees within the park were alive with flycatchers, war- 



Kenneth J. Brock is on the faculty of the Department of Geosciences, 
Irviiana University Northwest, Gary, Indiana. He is author of Birds 
of the Indiana Dunes (178 pp.), published 1986 by Indiana Univer- 
sity Press, and has led birding tours for Field Museum's Department of 
Education. 11 



biers, vireos, and orioles. Flocksof sparrows covered the 
lawns and every shrub sheltered a thrush or wren. Our 
attention was focused on the birds within the park; con- 
sequently, almost an hour passed before we noticed that 
hundreds of birds were still in the air, migrating west- 
ward along the shoreline just above the treetops. 

To better observe the airborne migrants we moved 
north of the Northern Indiana Public Service Company 
plant. This proved to be an especially good vantage 



point as the migrants, forced to veer northward around 
the power plant, converged into a narrow stream almost 
directly above our heads. Although most of the birds 
flew several yards above the ground, a few were at eye 
level. 

Periodically, a bird landed in the nearby cotton- 
wood saplings, allowing us a leisurely look; but most 
were seen only fleetingly as they passed overhead. Only 
the distinctively marked birds could be identified in 



12 



Birdwatching: 

How to Prepare Yourself 



The best places to observe spring bird migrants are as 
varied as the migrants themselves. For a thorough list- 
ing of good birding sites, how to find them and what 
birds to expect, an excellent source is Chicago Area 
Birds by Steve Mlodinow (published 1984 by Chicago 
Review Press) . This work provides detailed maps and 
descriptive material on the best birding sites in the 
Chicago area. 

Migration observers will also need binoculars to 
assist in viewing the birds. A number of excellent in- 
struments are available on today's market; unfortu- 
nately, a complexity of technical nomenclature often 
overwhelms beginning shoppers. There is no "best" 
binoculars for birding; instead, several closely related 
factors, each of which is maximized only at the ex- 
pense of others, are involved. 

There are two main types of binoculars: roof 
prism and porro prism. The former type has straight 
barrels, the latter has off-set barrels in which the 
objective (front) lenses are further apart than the eye- 
pieces. Advantages of the roof prism design are gener- 
ally higher quality optics and lighter weight; dis- 
advantages include greater cost (for top quality) and 
limitations on the closest focus distance. Porro prism 
binoculars are usually less expensive and able to focus 
to within 12 feet. Their construction does incorporate 
extra glass (the porro prisms) and accordingly they are 
typically heavier than roof prism binoculars. 

Optical power is important to consider in choos- 
ing a binocular. Binocular "size" is described by two 
numbers that are usually stamped on the instrument, 
for example, 7 X 35. The "7" represents the magnify- 
ing power, in this case reducing the observer-to-bird 
distance by 1/7. Clearly, the larger the magnification 
the closer the bird will appear. Unfortunately, as with 
cameras, magnification also narrows the field of view 




and amplifies the unsteadiness of your hand; generally, 
magnifications greater than 10 cannot be used without 
a steady rest. The second number, "35," gives the 
diameter (in millimeters) of the objective lens. The 
larger the objective lens the more light collected and 
the brighter the image. On the down side, big objec- 
tives increase two undesirable factors, weight and cost. 

Together, these two numbers determine the light 
gathering capability (exit pupil) of the binoculars. 
Exit pupil is obtained by dividing the first number into 
the second, that is 35/7 = 5. Binoculars with exit 
pupil below 5 are generally unsuited for birding, espe- 
cially for deep woods, early morning, late evening, or 
cloudy days. Modem technology has provided a partial 
solution to the light-gathering problem through the 
development of optical coatings. Coated optics allow 
more light to pass through the lenses, thereby increas- 
ing the light gathering by about 22%. 

One possible way around this number game is to 
use zoom binoculars (variable magnification). Unfor- 
tunately, reports on zoom instruments are not favor- 
able. They tend to be bulky and highly subject to de- 
fects. 

How then do you choose your binoculars? The 
best approach is to try several different models and 
magnifications. If possible, join an organized field trip; 
the participating birders are usually willing to let you 
test their glasses. Most birders usually start with 7 X 
35 porro prisms, but many ultimately graduate to 10 
power glasses. A recent survey in Great Britain, where 
birders are notoriously meticulous, reveals that the 
most popular instrument by far was the Zeiss 10 x 40 
BOAT (roof prism). The B refers to binoculars with 
fold-down rubber eye-cups for viewing with eye- 
glasses; GAT means the binoculars are coated with rub- 
ber for shock protection. 



flight. Small groups of fiery orioles streamed past, occa- 
sionally pausing to call from the saplings. Garish scarlet 
tanagers and flashing rose-breasted grosbeaks were de- 
tected in the current. Raucous scolds announced the 
presence of boisterous blue jays within the seemingly 
endless flow. Also recognized were scores of darting 
swallows, compact flocks of cedar waxwings, numerous 
blackbirds, several eastern kingbirds, and a sprinkling of 
bobolinks. The vast majority of the migrants, however, 
remained unidentified as they disappeared quickly from 
view. No attempt was made to count the birds, but they 
passed at a rate of easily several hundred per hour. I recall 
thinking how perfectly Lewis Carroll's memorable words 
fit the solution: 

And thick and fast they came at last, 
Artd more, and more, and more 

Careful counts in recent years have yielded incredi- 
ble results: 1,370 cedar waxwings in slightly more than 
an hour, 1,055 American goldfinches in four hours, 122 
northern orioles during a single morning, and 104 indigo 
buntings in less than three hours. Even higher tallies 
have been made on the lakefront in nearby Berrien 
County, Michigan. May flights of 20,000 blue jays, 
5,000 cedar waxwings, 600 northern orioles, 150 eastern 
kingbirds, and 100 rose-breasted grosbeaks have been re- 
ported at the latter site. 

The thrill of watching a massive lakefront flight is 
enhanced when one realizes that most of the passing 
birds began their marathon weeks earlier in some remote 
tropical jungle. Slight changes in the sunlight there trig- 





Baltimore oriok 



Copyright © Ron Austing/Photo Researchers Inc 



Copyright ^ 1982 Bill Dyer/Photo Researchers Inc 



gered cryptic stirrings, announcing the time to head 
north. Answering the call of subtle changes in blood 
chemistry, the birds took flight. Their journey might 
have carried them on an island-hopping course across 
the Caribbean or perhaps they skirted the Gulf, along 
Mexico's east coast. Some may even have taken the very 
risky flight directly from the Yucatan over the Gulf wa- 
ters to the Texas coast. Regardless of the route, each has 
its perils. 

Why a one-third-ounce warbler would leave a cozy 
rain forest and face the rigors of a 5,000-mile round-trip 
journey fraught with hazards, poses an intriguing ques- 
tion. Untold numbers doubtlessly perish along the fly- 
ways and many of the survivors arrive greatly emaciated. 
However, the northern latitude advantages of long sum- 
mer days, abundant food supplies, and low nest-site 
competition, apparently render the risks worthwhile. 
Despite the many dangers, the migrants sing enthusiasti- 
cally, perhaps with visions of balmy summer days in 
Canada, as they transit our area. 

A second question lakefront watchers might pon- 



13 



der is how the birds navigate the migratory track. 
Accounts of banded birds returning to the same nesting 
site year after year after year abound; some birds 
apparently also select the same winter territories. Color- 
banded golden plovers, for example, wintered on exactly 
the same Honolulu lawns for several years in a row. How 



The cause of this odd behavior remains obscure, though 
some authorities suggest that it may be related to wind 
direction. 

The spring migration of birds at the foot of Lake 
Michigan often begins with the appearance of ducks 
when the ice breaks in late February. The arrival of meti- 




Scarkt tanager 



Copyright © Leonard Lee Rue/Ptiolo Researchers Inc. 



14 



do the migrants find their way between wintering and 
breeding grounds with such unerring precision? Studies 
suggest that birds have several modes of navigation, in- 
cluding celestial (using both the sun and stars), mag- 
netic, and visual (following conspicuous geographic fea- 
tures, called "leading lines"). This navigational system 
redundancy apparently greatly increases the chances of a 
successful flight. 

Reversed migration is an intriguing local phenom- 
enon in which birds fly in the wrong direction. Several 
southwestward flights have been observed in the spring- 
time along the lakefront at Michigan City Harbor. Odd- 
ly, in each case the birds flew almost directly into a 
strong headwind. In addition to the disadvantage of 
struggling against a headwind, the southerly component 
of this course carried the birds southward, seemingly the 
direction opposite to that desired by spring migrants. 



culously plumed ring-necked ducks on the freshly 
opened ponds is a certain harbinger of spring. The ducks 
are closely followed by loons and grebes on the deep wa- 
ters of Lake Michigan. By late March, phoebes, van- 
guards of the passerine ("perching bird") migration, seek 
insects in sheltered woods, and in early April the first 
hermit thrushes peer covertly from dense thickets. 
March and April are also the months in which migrating 
hawks cleave the zephyrs above the Indiana Dunes. 

Throughout April the migration rapidly gains 
momentum. Enormous flocks of red-breasted mergansers 
appear on Lake Michigan and we see the arrival of the 
warblers. The zenith of the passerine flight occurs in 
May, as untold millions of small birds pass through, espe- 
cially on clear nights with southerly breezes. By mid- 
June the migration is virtually complete, though a few 
stragglers may linger until almost July. By this time the 



first fall shorebird migrants are already southbound. 
Thus, spring migration, which is really the composite of 
many smaller migrations, spans at least four months. 

Across much of the Midwest, observers rarely have 
the opportunity to observe actively migrating birds; 
more often, resting or feeding birds are noted only as 
they briefly pause in their journey. The shores of Lake 
Michigan provide a notable exception to this rule; day- 
time migrations occur regularly along the lakefront. In 
addition to the teeming flights at Michigan City Harbor, 
numerous diurnal migrants can be observed from the 
sand dunes in Indiana. From the dune brow, birders are 
often treated to an almost continuous procession of 
migrants. 

March flights can yield calling killdeer, hundreds of 
robins and clouds of blackbirds. Eighty-three migrating 
eastern bluebirds, detected by their mellow calls, were 
once counted on a single morning. April brings hordes of 
swallows, flickers, and meadowlarks. Hundreds, even 
thousands, of these species have been observed from the 
dune crests in a single day. Some species normally re- 
garded as sedentary are occasionally also noted migrat- 
ing along the dunes. Black-capped chickadee flights, 
with counts numbering in the hundreds, and blue jay 
counts of four figures, have been recorded by dune-top 
observers. 

These longshore flights underscore Lake Michi- 
gan's powerful influence upon the migrating birds. The 
water-land boundary in concert with idiosyncrasies of 
the passerine migration effectively concentrates these 
small birds along the lake's edge. At least two con- 
centrating mechanisms seem to operate along Lake 
Michigan's shores. The first mechanism accounts for the 
longshore flights. Migrating birds are known to follow 
geographic leading lines, including rivers, mountain 
ranges, and seacoasts. In our area the shores of Lake 
Michigan form prominent leading lines, creating air- 
ways along which myriads of birds navigate. Although 
Lake Michigan's leading lines are probably far more 
important in fall than spring, they almost certainly 
account for the diurnal flights observed in spring. 

A second concentrating mechanism might be 
termed the lake-edge effect. Most migrants apparently 
prefer to fly above land; however, in the darkness of 
night many are swept out over the lake. There are 
numerous instances of passerines landing on ships or 
boats far out on Lake Michigan. Small birds stranded 
over the lake at sunrise make the nearest shore, where 
they often descend immediately upon gaining landfall. 
This produces an unusually high density of small birds in 
lakeside parks and woods. 




The best time to observe uiarblers is in early morning. The magnificent 
Blackhwmian warbler is most often sighted in early May. 



The lake-edge effect is further enhanced if the 
parks or woodlands are isolated by factories or urban de- 
velopment. Under these circumstances the birds crowd 
into the scant cover available within these oases. Thus, 
heavy flights can transform unlikely sites such as scrubby 
lakefront woodlots or lakeside parks into cauldrons of 
birding activity. Chicago birders have long recognized 
the extraordinary quality of these locations; indeed, 
highly productive sites have been christened with 
special names — for example the "Magic Hedge" at 
Chicago's Montrose Beach — reflecting their birding 
potential. 

Weather plays a strategic role in migration, espe- 
cially on the regional scale. Radar studies indicate that 
the relatively weak flying passerines are primarily noc- 
turnal migrants. Flights of these birds are most intense 



The arrival of ring-necked ducks on the freshly opened portds is a certain 
harbinger of spring. 




Copyright © 1 977 G C, Kelley/Photo Researchers Inc. 




Pileated woodpecker 



Copyright tg 1981 Gregory Scott/Photo Researchers Inc 



16 



on clear nights when trailing winds are available. Fair 
skies and southerly winds generally prevail ahead of cold 
fronts, while north winds and inclement weather follow 
frontal passage. Accordingly, heavy spring flights usually 
precede a cold front and migration often stalls after the 
front passes. The northward movement of passerines 
from the Gulf of Mexico can then be visualized as a leap- 
frogging action, orchestrated with passing frontal sys- 
tems. This irregular progression often sweeps the birds 
into broad accumulations called waves. Once formed, a 
wave presses northward under favorable conditions and 
is grounded during adverse weather. So it behooves the 
birder to carefully monitor spring weather conditions; 
the reward of being inundated by a heavy migratory 
wave is well worth the time required to scan daily 
meteorological reports. 

Although the lake-weather alliance provides a 
migratory spectacle along the lakefront, it also holds a 
dark side. There are many accounts of massive bird kills 
on the lake. Among the most noteworthy occurred 
April 16, 1960, when a powerful thunderstorm de- 
veloped over Lake Michigan during the night. In the 



next few days more than 3,900 dead birds washed up on 
eleven miles of Indiana's beaches (remaining shoreline 
was not surveyed) . The most common species found was 
the junco, but several rare species, including a saw-whet 
owl, 14 yellow rails, 32 Henslow's sparrows, and 10 
LeConte's sparrows were also among the casualties. 
Clearly, storms take a devastating toll. 

With the exception of Lake Michigan's beaches, 
which regularly attract ruddy tumstones, sanderlings, 
semipalmated sandpipers, and dunlin, there is precious 
little reliable shorebird habitat in our area. Large num- 
bers of shorebirds do traverse southern Lake Michigan, 
however, and these birds are notoriously opportunistic. 
If spring rains create suitable habitat, shorebirds can 
appear almost anywhere. In 1978, for example, heavy 
rains flooded an athletic field in Gary. Taking full advan- 
tage of these new mudflats were hundreds of pectoral 
sandpipers and yellowlegs, scores of dowitchers, a few 
Wilson's phalaropes, and a single Hudsonian godwit. 
Birders from as far away as Indianapolis and Fort Wayne 
came to see the godwit; detailed directions to the bird 
included the final instruction, ". . . then look under the 
yellow goalpost." 

The wood warblers, called "butterflies o£ the bird 
world," by RogerTory Peterson, are the essence of spring 
migration. These delightful woodland birds are in crisp 
breeding plumage as they arrive fresh from the Central 
and South American jungles. Warblers feed almost ex- 
clusively on insects; consequently, their arrival coin- 
cides with the leafing and blossoming of local plants, the 
"real springtime" in the minds of many. Warblers also 
appear about the time most residents of the frost belt are 
thirsting for their first post-winter walk in the sunshine. 
So it is not surprising that warblers are the most popular 
of all spring migrants. For many birders the sighting of a 
splendid Blackburnian, on a frosty morning in early 
May, renders the entire migration a roaring success. The 
fascination with warblers is also reflected by the com- 
mon practice of gauging birding quality by the number of 
warbler species observed in an outing. In mid-May a 
count of 15 is about average, 20 constitutes a fine day, 
and a "25 warbler day" approaches the ultimate. 

The earliest spring warbler, the yellow-rumped 
(formerly myrtle warbler), can be expected during the 
second week of April and is a welcome sight after a long 
hard winter. The most intense warbler flights occur in 
mid-May and a few species, the furtive mourning and 
Connecticut warblers for example, do not pass through 
until the last week in May. 

Like most passerines, warblers are nocturnal mi- 
grants; birders afield at sunrise may well observe the "fall 



out" as these tiny birds descend into the trees. During 
the day they typically forage in loose flocks that invari- 
ably contain several different species. These flocks, 
which can usually be located by songs and chips, com- 
prise the key to spring warbler watching. Birders search 
for a flock, then follow the flock until each bird has been 
examined. 

For many northwestern Indiana birders the March- 
April hawk flights are the highlight of spring migration. 
The excitement of a dozen buteos soaring overhead or a 
sharpie streaking past so close that its yellow eyes are 
visible without the aid of binoculars, draws them back to 
the hawk-watch sites year after year. The occurrence of 
spring hawk flights represents another artifact of Lake 
Michigan's presence. Migrating hawks normally waft 
cross-country on clear spring days with southerly winds. 
The raptors do, however, have a strong aversion to 
flying over broad expanses of water; consequently, upon 
reaching Lake Michigan they abruptly alter course to 
avoid the lake. As a result, the hawks accumulate along 
the lake, forming a narrow flight corridor that roughly 
parallels the shoreline. This effect seems most pro- 
nounced on the southeastern comer of the lake; spring 
hawk flights are rare in Chicago and Gary. 

The passing hawks can be easily observed from the 
sand dunes along Indiana's eastern lakeshore. Any van- 
tage point allowing a wide view of the surrounding area 
will suffice, but the two most popular Indiana sites are 
Mount Baldy and Johnson Beach; both are within the 
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter consists 
of a stabilized dune immediately west of Indiana Dunes 
State Park. On some days when winds seem favorable, 
hawks fail to appear; observers do get skunked. These 
disappointments are more than compensated for when a 
"good" flight occurs. Good daily counts consist of 200 to 
300 birds; the largest recorded single day count was 
slightly less than a thousand hawks. The most common 
species are red-tailed, sharp-shinned, and broad-winged 
hawks, but all of the regular species, including northern 
goshawk, golden eagle, and peregrine falcon, have been 
observed. An additional bonus of dune-top hawkwatch- 
ing is that the birds sometimes pass remarkably close, 
allowing excellent views. Adult goshawks, red eyes blaz- 
ing, have passed within 75 feet of observers on the dune 
coast. 

The heaviest Indiana flights generally occur on 
clear days when moderately strong winds blow from the 
south. These are of course fine days to be outdoors; hawk 
observers often take lawn chairs, a thermos of coffee, 
and sunglasses and enjoy the day atop a dune. In addi- 
tion to the hawks, the aforementioned longshore migra- 



tions can be simultaneously enjoyed. Almost everything 
can appear; I still recall my delight when a pileated 
woodpecker flew past on a clear April morning. 

Even larger spring hawk flights have been observed 
in Berrien County, Michigan, where local experts Roy 
Smith and Walter Booth have recorded single day counts 
exceeding 4,000 birds. These heavy flights consist main- 
ly of broad-winged hawks, but daily counts of 300 to 500 
sharp-shinned hawks and 100 northern harriers have 
also been tallied. In contrast to Indiana, where southerly 
breezes bring the hawks, the best Michigan flights take 
place on days with east winds, which apparently sweep 
the soaring birds up against the eastern shoreline. 

An exciting element in watching the spring migra- 
tion is the possibility of spotting a rarity; indeed, it is the 
dream of most serious birders to discover a truly rare bird. 
Rarities are species that do not normally occur in our 
area, though they may be common in other parts of the 
country. Southern Lake Michigan seems to have a mag- 
netic attraction for these wanderers, as a surprising num- 
ber of rare birds have appeared over the years. Exotic 
species that have been identified along or near the shores 
of southern Lake Michigan during spring migration 



Passing raptors, such as this red-tailed hawk, may be observed from the 
sar\d dunes along Indiana's eastern lakeshore. 




Copyright © CO Harris/Photo Researchers Inc 



include: magnificent firigatebird, white-faced ibis, gar- 
gany, common eider, purple gallinule, common black- 
headed gull, arctic tern. Say's phoebe, scissor-tailed 
flycatcher, sage thrasher, Virginia's warbler, western 
tanager, painted bunting, Brewer's sparrow, and lark 
bunting. 

Rarities appear at the most unexpected moments 
and locations. I recall one May morning when I was 
struggling to identify a western sandpiper through the 
telescope. My efforts were continually thwarted by 
another sandpiper that kept walking directly across my 
line of sight obscuring the view. Finally, out of frustra- 
tion, I took a look at the intruder, which turned out to be 
a curlew sandpiper; the first ever recorded in Indiana. 
On another occasion, observers in Chicago's Olive Park 
noted an unusually drab, nondescript sparrow working 
the grassy strip at the north end of Navy Pier. Identifica- 
tion of this bird proved to be quite perplexing; finally, 
with help of Sebastian Patti and Jim Landing it was mist- 
netted and examined in hand. Measurements and 
photographs, taken before the bird was released, proved 
that it was the first Cassin's sparrow ever reported in the 
Mississippi Valley. 

My favorite rarity story, however, involves another 
of those early morning phone calls in May. This time the 
caller spoke breathlessly in a voice that contained an 
element of uncertainty, "Ken, I'm phoning from the 
parking lot at Michigan City Harbor. I'm almost certain 
that 1 have a singing Kirtland's warbler by the yacht 
basin." If true, this was a phenomenal report; Kirtland's 



warbler is a bird that is truly rare, not just an out-of-range 
common bird. Only about 400 individuals of this en- 
dangered species remain. The caller was Tim Coslet, a 
birder with keen ability but only limited experience. 
Tim's answers to several specific questions convinced me 
that his identification was indeed accurate. 

A quick drive to the harbor revealed a male Kirt- 
land's warbler hopping on the beach and flitting about 
the small shrubs along the thin strip of sand that sepa- 
rates the yacht basin from Lake Michigan. Periodically 
the bird gave forth its ringing song. The warbler was 
remarkably tame; photographers could easily approach 
so close that they were unable to bring cameras into 
focus. On one occasion, during a brief rainstorm, the 
bird hopped to within ten inches of the boot of an admir- 
er. The warbler remained on the beach for two days, 
during which scores of observers enjoyed its presence; it 
became known as the "friendliest bird on the beach. " 

Jim Bull, a staff naturalist for the Indiana Dunes 
National Lakeshore who has a penchant for the Kirt- 
land's warbler, took the bird under his wing, so to speak, 
monitoring it throughout the daylight hours of its stay. 
Jim was concerned that the trusting bird might be 
snapped up by a dog or stepped on by a passerby as it 
hopped on the sidewalk. The story apparently has a hap- 
py ending. After seeing that the warbler was properly 
tucked in on the second evening, Jim was unable to 
locate the bird at sunrise on the following morning. Pre- 
sumably, it continued northward to join others of its 
kind on the Michigan breeding grounds. FH 



Scissor-tailed flycatcher 



18 




Copyright C Charlie Ott/Photo Researchers IrK 




Kirtland's warbler 



19 



Texas Mushrooms 
Come to Field Museum 

by Gregory M. Mueller, Assistant Curator, Mycology 

photos by the author 



o, 



ne would not normally think of Texas as a para- 
dise for mushroom hunters or as a place where fungi can 
be found in abundance. When most people think of 
Texas, they conjure up thoughts of barren deserts with 
cactus, not dense forests with mushrooms. In southeast 
Texas, however, there is an area of moist forests called 
the Big Thicket, complete with wildflowers, mosses, and 
mushrooms. This area extends from the Trinity River 
east to Beaumont and up to Livingston and Jasper in the 
north. Within this area are ten major plant associations 
including bogs, swamps, hardwood stream bottoms, 
magnolia/loblolly pine forests, and arid sandy lands. 
Each of these habitats has its own particular mushroom 
flora and thus is truly a mushroom-hunter's paradise. 

Unfortunately, we do not know much about the 
mushrooms and other fungi that inhabit this area or even 
what fungi grow there. Most mycological fieldwork in 



this country has been performed in the cool, relatively 
snake-free, northern states. The fungal collections at 
Field Museum, and most other herbaria, are well sup- 
plied with fungi from the Northeast, Great Lakes states, 
and Pacific Northwest, but few herbaria have a signifi- 
cant collection of fungi from the Gulf Coast states, in- 
cluding east Texas. 

With the receipt of the first shipment of east Texas 
mushrooms from Mr. David Lewis, the first step to rec- 
tifying this problem here at Field Museum has now 
started. Dave Lewis is a chemist by profession and an 
avid mycologist by avocation. He has been collecting 
fungi for 12 years. During this time Dave has accumu- 
lated one of the finest and largest collections of fungi 
from east Texas. This collection of approximately 4,000 
specimens is especially strong in specimens of the genus 
Amanita and of members of the Boletaceae. 



20 



Amanita mus- 
caria, thefy 
aganc, beautiful 
hutmmedMe, 
(Kcurs over a 
wide area, in- 
cluding the Mid- 
west. T/k bright 
red cap is dotted 
with white 
patches. 




Dave received a MS degree in biology from Lamar 
University, for which he undertook a floristic survey of 
the mushrooms of the Big Thicket. He has done further 
graduate work at Texas A&M on boletes (pore mush- 
rooms) of east Texas. He is a founding and very active 
member of the Texas Mycological Society and a strong 
proponent of mycologists increasing their study of Gulf 
Coast fungi. Dave decided to place his valuable col- 
lection in a major museum because he wanted to ensure 
that it would be available for study by scientists from 
around the world and that it would be well maintained. 
Field Museum was chosen as the repository because it is 
acknowledged as an international center for mycology 
and it has a long-term commitment to build upon its 
already fine mycological holdings. 



Lewis. The first batch consisted of 225 collections of the 
genus Amanita. Amanita is one of the most easily recog- 
nized genera of mushrooms. It contains probably the 
most photographed mushroom, the fly agaric, Amanita 
muscaria. Almost everyone has seen a picture of this spe- 
cies with its bright red cap covered with pure white 
patches, obvious ring on the stem, and cup at its base. 
This genus also contains some of the most deadly 
mushrooms; the majority of mushroom-caused deaths in 
the U.S. are attributable to species in this genus. One 
would assume, therefore, that the identity and taxon- 
omy of such a showy and important genus would be com- 
pletely worked out by now. This, however, is not the 
case. In a paper that Dave Lewis co-authored on the 
Amanita of the Big Thicket (The Southwest Naturalist, 




David Lewis (rt. ) with 
author, at Big Thicket 
National Preserve, 
Texas. 



A collection such as the one being donated to Field 
Museum by Dave Lewis is of great scientific value. Well 
documented herbarium specimens that were collected 
over a number of years are necessary for scientists to de- 
termine what occurs in a particular area, what changes 
in species distribution has occurred over a period of time, 
and to make conjectures regarding the ecology and inter- 
specific relationships of the organisms. Such collections 
are also essential to scientists who are revising the taxon- 
omy of specific groups of fiingi. The work done so far on 
Gulf Coast fungi indicate that there are numerous spe- 
cies not yet known to science or not yet reported from 
the U.S.A. 

To give an example of our state of knowledge re- 
garding Gulf Coast fiingi, let us look at the first shipment 
of specimens that Field Museum has received from Dave 



vol. 26, 1981), 23 species were reported, 13 of these 
being reported from Texas for the first time. In this 
paper, Dave also reports that there are several groups in 
the genus that need flirther study and that very likely 
there are many more species than the 23 he reported. 
The North American expert on the genus. Dr. David 
Jenkins at University of Alabama, Birmingham, be- 
lieves that the southeastern U.S. may have the greatest 
diversity of Amanita species of any similar size region 
in the world and that there are probably many "new 
species" in the Gulf Coast area. Further collecting and 
an exhaustive study of major collections such as Dave 
Lewis's will be necessary before we know how many cur- 
rently unknown species are in the area. Only time and 
work will tell how many treasures are included within 
Field Museum's new acquisition. FM 



21 



Music and Dance in Papua Neiv Guinea 

April 29 through July 12 




22 



ijixty-five brilliant color photographs by photog- 
rapher Jordan Wright, showing traditions and changing 
lifestyles in Papua New Guinea, will be on display from 
April 29 through July 12. 

The special exhibit, "Music and Dance in Papua 
New Guinea," combines photography, everyday ob- 
jects, and tape-recorded traditional music to present 
one aspect of a little-known people. 

The exhibit has been organized by the Smithso- 
nian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) 
in cooperation with the University Museum of 
Archaeology/Anthropology of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. The show is derived from the more than 
4,000 photographs taken by Jordan Wright during the 
spring and summer of 1982. 

The highland people of Papua New Guinea were 
once divided into hostile tribes that spent much of 



their time in warfare and ritual preparation for warfare. 
Dances, elaborate costumes, and colorful body painting 
were part of this ritual. Today, however, these lavish 
displays are part of friendly competitions, and serve to 
preserve cultural behavior. 

The photographs in "Music and Dance in Papua 
New Guinea" convey the warmth and beauty of life to- 
day in the Highland Sepik villages of New Guinea. 
Highlights include exclusive photographs of the Sepik 
"welcome dance" and a series of photographs telling the 
story of a marriage. 

Jordan Wright's pictures also show the festive 
events at the annual Mt. Hagen/Goroka Fair — an ex- 
travaganza of parading, dancing and singing. The 
elaborate music and dance competitions shown give 
evidence of a traditional life that has only recently 
been touched by contact with the 20th century. 



PERUVIAN VILLAGES, con't from p. 10 

These two architectural patterns represent ideal or 
normative types of household construction which pre- 
dominate on each site in the Otora Valley. As with any 
human settlement, there is variation around this ideal. 
The first type, as found at P5, P7, and P4 and character- 
ized by domestic terraces, is common on local Tiwanaku 
and post-Tiwanaku sites throughout the Moquegua 
Drainage. The second type, as seen at P8 and later sites 
(see below) , has been reported from archaeological set- 
tlements in the circum-Titicaca Basin. 

These architectural data, the existence of above- 
ground tomb types, and the construction of an indepen- 
dent canal system, strongly suggest that Cuajone was a 
colony which originated from somewhere in the north- 
em side of the Titicaca Basin. Likewise, the discovery of 
decorated and plainware Chiribaya Pottery at P4, canal 
placement, and similarities to domestic architecture at 
known Chiribaya sites suggests that it too was a colony, 
in this case one which originated from the lower Mo- 
quegua Drainage. Presuming the validity of this recon- 
struction, the existence of these two colonies alongside 
P7 — a local settlement which developed out of the ear- 
lier Tumilaca Period hamlet — makes the Otora Period in 
the valley a classic instance of multi-ethnic land use in a 
prime agricultural area — a circumstance hypothesized by 
J. Murra in his formulation of verticality models. The 
Otora Period would therefore seem to represent a con- 
firmation of the hypothesis for the immediate post- 
Tiwanaku periods in the South Central Andes. 




Chirihaya polychrome vessel. Courtesy Instituto Naaonal de Cultura 
(Peru) — Tacna. 

The following Estuquina and Estuquina-Inca peri- 
ods are named after the type site located in the mid- 
Moquegua Valley. These periods are represented by four 
major sites in the Otora and surrounding valleys. The 







Excavation of house on Porobaya site in Otora Valley Photo by C. Stanish. 



23 



largest settlement is Porobaya (PI), a fortified, hilltop 
site with more than 100 structures. Porobaya was the 
political center of prehispanic Otora and typifies a num- 
ber of other sites throughout the Moquegua and south- 
em Tambo drainages. The site of Sajena (P3) is almost 
identical to PI, except that it is smaller and located 
higher up in the valley. Two other sites in the Otora 
Valley, Colana (P2) and Paralaque (P6), seem to be 
slightly earlier and later respectively. 

One of the principal means of dating the Estuquina 
sites was through analysis of the exotic and decorated 
ceramics discovered in domestic structure excavations, 
tombs, surface, and other contexts. Locally man- 
ufactured polychrome ceramic pieces are characterized 
by black and fugitive white linear designs over a bur- 
nished, red-slipped surface. This type has been named 
"Tricolor Porobaya" after the more general ceramic style 
known as "Tricolor del Sur." The principal exotic ce- 
ramic type is Sillustani, a northern Titicaca Basin tradi- 
tion beginning in the immediate pre-lnca periods and 
continuing on into the Late Horizon. The second larg- 
est class of decorated, exotic ceramics are Inca 
polychromes. Another style found in Moquegua Chu- 



A chulpa — stone tower or tomb typical of those found in Otora Valley, 
ca. A.D. 1200-MOO. Photo by C. Stanish. 

















*:^>*« 



-"'iC 



24 






quito ceramics. This style is associated with the Lupaqa 
kingdom in the Titicaca Basin when it was incorporated 
into the Inca Empire. Chuquito polychromes are found 
in abundance in the large site of Torata Alta south of 
Otora as well as on the Otora sites of P6, Pll, and P13. 
These are interpreted as being truly Late Horizon in 
date; that is, contemporary with Inca geo-political con- 
trol of the Moquegua Drainage. 

The Estuquina-Inca period is distinguished by the 
presence of Inca pottery on sites otherwise characterized 
by pre-lnca traits, such as fortified, hilltop locations, 
pre-lnca pottery, pre-lnca tombs, and so forth. One site, 
known as Colana (P2), has all of these pre-lnca charac- 
teristics without having any Late Horizon pottery. It 
therefore has only the Estuquina component. The rest of 
the Estuquifia sites all have later Estuquina-Inca phases. 

The accumulated evidence from the Otora excava- 
tions indicates that the Estuquina period settlements are 
autochthonous, independent polities which developed 
out of a multi-ethnic cultural context characteristic of 
the earlier Otora Period. These sites had a vigorous eco- 
nomic relationship with both the coast and the altiplano 
as indicated by fish vertebrae and the bones of certain 
mammals in the kitchen remains. Unlike their ancestors 
in the Otora Period, however, they were not colonists 
but independent groups engaged in some form of econo- 
mic exchange with these other regions. 

The intrusion of the Inca Empire into the Otora 
Valley was accompanied by profound changes in the loc- 
al culture. Two sites discovered in the valley are inter- 
preted as strictly Late Horizon (caA.D. 1475-1532), local 
settlements. Both sites have not only Inca Imperial ce- 
ramics but also Chuquito polychromes, the style associ- 
ated with the Lupaqa polity. The architecture on the 
relatively undisturbed site of Polverin (P13) is similar to 
the local Estuquifia settlements suggesting that these are 
indigenous populations who built their sites under Inca 
supervision. Sites with Chuquito polychromes are found 
only on the valley bottoms. This conforms to pre-lnca/ 
Inca settlement pattern shifts discovered in other areas 
of the Andes in which sites were moved to lower, open, 
and indefensible locations. 

Zonal Complementarity 
as Reflected in the Otora Data 

If anything, the data from Otora teaches us that the 
ancient farmers and herders of the Moquegua region 
were smarter than the archaeologists trying to study 
them. They did not conform to the neat scientific mod- 
els originally proposed to explain strategies to survive in 
the arid sierras of southern Peru. Rather, the Otora data 



indicate that the nature of the local and regional politi- 
cal economies developed by the ancient populations 
fluctuated throughout the half-millennium of human 
prehispanic occupation in the valley, demonstrating a 
sophisticated flexibility in local and regional political 
and economic organization (chart p. 10). During this time, 
both direct and indirect vertical control mechanisms 
operated to economically integrate the altiplano, sierra, 
and coast, allowing access to their ecologically specific 
agricultural and natural products. At no period in the 
entire cultural history of Otora is there any evidence of 
the valley being economically isolated from neighboring 
ecological zones. The local economy was, as it is today, 
dependent heavily upon access to the other regions. 

The first phase, Tumilaca, is an example of col- 
onization from the lower Moquegua Valley to control the 
rich and then unexploited maize zones at a key area with 
access to grazing lands. The only Otora Valley site, P5, is 
a colonial extension of the more complex settlement 
system in the post-Tiwanaku period of the Moquegua 
Valley. 

The Otora Period is a classic example of multi- 
ethnic colonization of a key maize producing zone in the 
upper sierra. In the political vacuum created by the col- 
lapse of the local Tumilaca Period settlement system in 
Moquegua and the Tiwanaku Empire in the region as a 
whole, both coastal and Titicaca Basin polities sent col- 
onists in an attempt to maintain or gain access to this 
critical area between two major ecological zones. 

The Estuquina and Estuquifia-Inca periods rep- 
resent the emergence of an autochthonous polity out of 
the multi-ethnic context of the earlier period. In spite of 
their political independence, the Otora settlements 
maintained economic contact or control of the coastal 
and highland regions. The major external influence in 
this period is from the northern side of the Lake Titicaca 
Basin, the area of the CoUa polity. The CoUa were one of 
the two major groups the Inca encountered in their ex- 
pansion into the Titicaca Basin. 

After the incorporation of the region by the Inca 
Empire, the CoUa influence was replaced by their bitter 
rival — the Lupaqa Kingdom. This is evidenced in the 
Moquegua region by the replacement of Sillustani pot- 
tery, associated with the CoUa, by Chuquito style 
sherds, geographically linked with the Lupaqa. The 
alliance between the Inca and Lupaqa that the chroni- 
cles speak of had profound implications for the Mo- 
quegua Drainage. The administrative system set up by 
the Inca was clearly influenced by their allies, the Lupa- 
qa, and is reflected in the overwhelming occurrence of 
Chuquito ceramics on the Late Horizon site of Torata 
Alta in the Torata Valley, directly south of Otora. (See 




San Miguel fioK'c/irome vessel. Courtesy Institute Nacional de Cultura 
(Peru) — Tacna. 



"Archaeological Reconnaissance in Southern Peru," by 
Charles Stanish and Irene Pritzker, in the Bulletin, June 
1983.) 

As with all scientific research, the Otora investiga- 
tions raise a dozen questions for each one they answer. 
The influence of the Lake Titicaca Basin was sustained 
and intense throughout the entire cultural sequence in 
Otora. Our future research plans therefore will focus on 
the Lake region. Specifically, we will initiate field re- 
search on the Lupaqa area in the southwestern portion of 
the Titicaca Basin. There, large sites, far more massive 
than those found in Otora, were established around A.D. 
1200. The Lupaqa eventually developed into the king- 
dom described in the 16th-century accounts. We will 
therefore begin intensive research on key Lupaqa sites in 
an effort to understand the nature of this large polity 
whose influence reached as far as the small valley in the 
upper Moquegua Drainage. FH 

Acknowledgements 

The Otora research was supported by the Henry and 
Grace Doherty Foundation, the National Science 
Foundation, the University of Chicago, Robert and 
Irene Pritzker, Victor Barua R. , Lucy Barua, the Field 
Museum, the Instituto Nacional de Cultura (Peru), the 
Museo Peruano de Ciencias de la Salud, and the Tinker 
Foundation. 25 




HELD 
MUSEUM 
TDURS^ 

Explore the 
primeval splendor 
of the Canadian 
Northw^est. 

Field Museum Tours invites you on an expedition 
to the stunning Northwest, including Seattle, Prince 
Rupert, Queen Charlotte Islands, Fitzhugh Sound, 
Alert Bay, Princess Louisa Inlet and Victoria aboard 
the Society Explorer. 



PROJECT 
CANADIAN 
FJORDS & INSIDE 
PASSAGE 

Departing: 
August 16, 9 Days 

August 16, Seattle. Arrive and transfer to our deluxe 
hotel. After a reception at the University of Washing- 
ton's Burke Museum, enjoy dinner and Seattle's 
nightlife. 

August 17, Prince Rupert. Depart Seattle on morning 
flight to Prince Rupert. After a ferry crossing to Prince 
Rupert, board the Society Explorer for an evening depar- 
ture. Enjoy the captain's welcome dinner as we set sail 
at sunset for the Queen Charlotte Islands. 

August 18-19, Queen Charlotte Islands. Journeying 
south, we arrive at the unspoiled home of the Haida In- 
dian Nation where braves erected countless totem poles, 
each carved to tell its special story. Today these moss- 
encrusted monuments testify to the centuries-old Haida 
way of life. We explore these islands with their brood- 
ing forests harboring ancient villages. Bald eagles, sea- 
birds. Stellar sea lions and whales provide opportunities 
for rewarding walks and beach hikes. 




Society Explorer 



26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



August 20, Fitzhugh Sound. This morning we sail into 
the upper Fraser Reach and Grenville Channel for a day 
of exploration among the magnificent wave-sculpted 
canyons and craggy inlets of the Canadian fjords. At 
Kwakshua Inlet, an area rich in abalone and other 
Northwest sea hfe, hikers will enjoy exploring the 
coastal woods of 100-foot stands of red cedar, Sitka 
spruce, western hemlock and Douglas fir. Our ship sails 
south into a region of towering cliffs, and rushing 
waterfalls. 

August 21, Alert Bay. Following an afternoon cruising 
the Inside Passage, our ship puts in at Alert Bay, ances- 
tral island home of the Nimpkish, largest tribe of the 
powerful Kwakiutl Indian Nation. According to 
anthropologist Franz Boas, the word Kwakiutl means 
Smokes of the World, which alludes to their ability to 
attract huge throngs of people to their firelit potlatches 
and ceremonials. We'll visit the U'mista Cultural 
Center/ Alert Bay Museum. Here we see fine examples 
of the distinctive ceremonial masks, utensils and bent- 
wood boxes — important elements of the rich Kwakiutl 
Hfestyle — and have the opportunity to purchase native 
handicrafts, jewelry and artwork. 

After lunch, we'll move into the Queen Charlotte 
Strait, the summer gathering place for close to 300 killer 
whales, uncontested top predators of Canada's northern 
waters. Roaming the protected waters of the Inside Pas- 
sage in clearly defined pods, males, females and young 
cooperate in hunting their prey. Killer whales have no 
natural enemies other than man. 

CRUISE COST PER PERSON 



August 22, Princess Louisa Inlet. Passengers experi- 
ence a realm of snowmelt cascades and 6,000-foot 
mountains ringing this spectacular horseshoe-shaped 
fjord. Overhead, bald eagles soar, slicing through the 
coastal mists with their six-foot wing-spans. At the 
tumultuous Chatterbox Falls, we'll go ashore to walk 
alpine meadows full of lupine, dwarf dogwood and 
chocolate lily. Others may follow the trail which ends 
at the long abandoned Trapper's Cabin, built in the 
shadow of scenic Mt. Albert. 

August 23, Victoria. Midday arrival in Victoria, British 
Columbia. Victoria's distinct English flavor is reflected 
in the copper-domed Parliament buildings heralding 
our entry into the harbor. This afternoon we tour the 
Provincial Museum with its comprehensive collection 
of coastal Indian art and artifacts and its life-sized replica 
of a 19th-century frontier town. Stroll the cobbled 
streets, perhaps stopping to sip tea at the ivy-covered 
Empress Hotel. The captain hosts a farewell dinner 
tonight as we sail for Seattle. 

August 24, Seattle. Morning arrival and connection 
with homeward flights. 



This tour will be enhanced by a team of expert lecturers 
in the region's natural history, native cultures, and wild- 
life, including Dr. Scott M. Lanyon, Field Museum's assis- 
tant curator and head of the Division of Birds. 



Explorer 


$1,790 


Explorer Deluxe 


$1,950 


Yacht 


$2,320 



Boat Deluxe 


$2,690 


Suite 


$3,190 


Owner's Suite 


$3,590 



Yacht Deluxe 



$2,490 Airfare (not incl. in rates) 



$190 



Rates are per person, double occupancy, and include group transfers, cruise accommoda- 
tions, all meals including a welcome cocktail and dinner party and farewell dinner, lectures 
by accompanying or visiting speakers, and all off-ship excursions. Amenities include travel 
bag, backpack, documentation wallet, comprehensive guide book and daily log. Single 
cabins are available at 1.5 times the above rates, except single suites which are 1.9 times the 
above rates. Airfare is approximate and subject to change. 



Deposit $500.00 per person 




People's Republic of China 

September 12 - October 2 

Customized Tour exclusively for Field Museum 

Organized and accompanied by 

Katharine Lee 




The itinerary for this exceptionally well conceived tour 
covers the highlights of this fascinating country. We de- 
part Chicago via Japan Air Lines. Our first stop will be 
Tokyo, where we will enjoy a city tour. Chinese cities 
to be visited include Shanghai, Wuxi, Beijing, Luoyang, 



Xi'an, and GuiHn, plus a boat ride on the Li River. We'll 
exit through Hong Kong, a city full of Oriental trea- 
sures and cultural heritage. This is a "not to be missed" 
opportunity. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
ChicasoJL 60605-2499 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
St«^ Photographer: Ron Testa 



CONTENTS 

May 1987 

Volume 58, Number 5 



May Events at Field Museum 



William H. Mitchell, 1895-1987 

In Memoriam 

by E. Leland Webber 

Field Museum President Emeritus 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chwrman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas]. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
JamesJ. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
BlaineJ. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Capital Campaign Approaches 
The $40,000,000 Mark 



The North Branch Prairies 

by Jerry Sullivan 



12 



Field Museum Tours to China, Kenya/Tanzania 



25 



COVER 

Stanley Field Hall, minutes before the Museum opens 
for the day, basks in its own warmth and atmosphere of 
banners blazing— the Capital Campaign banners at the 
north, the Donors' banner at the south — creating an excit- 
ing, yet restful, and always promising, ambience that will 
greet visitors throughout the day. For more on the Capital 
Campaign see page 7. Photo by D. Walsten. 



Field Museum of Natural History BuUean (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright © 1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptior\s; $6.00 annually $3,00 for schools. Museum memberehip includes BuiUtm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address labc! and be sent to 
Membership Depattment. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Secorwi class postage paid ar 
Chicago, Illinois. 



Events 



T 



jC^leSnacioKf 



Weekends in May 

Come hear the sounds of Mexico — from the Uvely rhythms of mariachi music to the centuries-old 
sounds of an ancient Aztec dance ceremony. Experience the colorful ballet folkloric, a Mexican 
form of folk dance. Artists demonstrate sculpture, wood cut, and weaving. Watch a clever but 
funny puppet show and find out how the puppeteer brings his puppets to life. All events are free 
with Museum admission. 



Saturday and Sunday 
May 2 and 3 
12:00noon-2:00pm 

Sra. Maria Louisa Almonte 

Brilliant handmade paper flowers enhance the 
lights, colors, sounds, smells, and fireworks of a 
fiesta. Sra. Almonte demonstrates this tradi- 
tional folk art of Mexico. 



North Shore Weavers' Guild 

The brightest and boldest woven designs of 
ancient Mexico are reproduced today by the 
North Shore Weavers' Guild on a traditional 
Mexican loom. 

ReneArceo 

The expressive prints of Rene Arceo begin as 
pictures carved in wood. Experiment with 
woodcarving tools while the artist demonstrates 
the process of woodcut printing. 

2:00pm 

IHexCceiK 'poi(U(yUc ^cutce ComfKXtuf 

A special program of music and dance features 
the colorful ballet folkloric of Mexico. Per- 
formance pieces by this 50-member company 
include the mask dances "Los Moros" and "Los 
Viejitos," as well as "Chinelos" and "Parachicos." 




Continued —>■ 



Stents 



~\. 



'Ce^ednaccoH/ 



Weekends in May 

Saturday and Sunday 

May 9 and 10 

12 :00noon-2 :00pm 

Michael Montenegro 

Practice your skill as a puppeteer as Michael 
Montenegro of Zapato Puppet Theatre works 
his particular type of magic, creating mario- 
nette, hand, rod, and shadow puppets. 

^c^ €utd 'pci^nic of TfUxcco- 

North Shore Weavers' Guild 
2:00pm 

"The Rickity Wheel Makes the Most Noise" 
Portrayed by marionettes, enormous masks, 
and more, the characters in this puppet per- 
formance range from the amusing Saldania, a 
Chilean storyteller, and his dog, Hueso, to 
La Llorona, the mythical crying woman of 
Hispanic folklore. 



Saturday and Sunday 
May 16 and 17 
12:00noon-2:00pm 

C(axf, Stone, und TiJood 

Roman Villarreal 

Sculptor Roman Villarreal brings life to clay, 
wood, and stone. As Roman works on a new 
clay sculpture, examine the tools he uses to 
transform raw materials into sculptures that 
beautify our city. 

^6^ and ^a^'tcc of THexcco- 

North Shore Weavers' Guild 
2:00pm 

t2Metfajtc<MU S^fi^^e*tdofi Afteca. 

Wearing magnificent feather headdresses and in- 
tricately beaded costumes, Quetzalcoatl Esplen- 
dor Azteca performs the ancient Indian dances 
of the Mayas, Chichimecha, Aztec, andXochi- 
pitzahua. Visually exciting and laden with 
mystery, these dances portray deities, the sun, 
the moon, the four corners of the earth, life, 
death, and one's place in the cosmos. 




\ 



Demanstraakms by North Shore Weavers' GuUd first 3 weekends in May 



Stents 



7(Jonid THu^ ^n(Uj^ficupt AduCt Cia^4e4. 



Weekends in May 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Join us for the World Music Program in May 
and enjoy folk music from South America. 
Experience the rich sounds of Raices del Ande 
and Peru Folkloric through live musical demon- 
strations and informal discussions. The World 
Music Program is supported by CityArts III and 
IV. For further information, call (312) 322-8854. 




Spring Adult Classes continue through May 
with lots of opportunities for weekend learning. 
One day, weekend classes include a special look 
at coffee complete with taste testing, a unique 
photography workshop geared towards the 
collector, and a class for adults looking for ways 
to better share the Museum with the children in 
their lives. Evening classes include a fascinating 
study of the domestic cat and the natural history 
of our Northwest National Parks. Consult the 
April/May class brochure for details. 



Cosmology and Architecture 
in Indian America 

Peter Nabokov, Fellow, 
Newberry Library 

A Broad Range of Indian Cultures across 
America are covered. Focusing on how architec- 
ture reflects understandings and relationships 
with the supernatural world, see how traditional 
philosophies speak of the sacred and inseparable 
bond between people and the land. Saturday, 
May 30; 10:00 am-4:30 pm; $50 ($40 members). 



Peter Nabokov leads May 30 seminar 



Tficuf TiJee^imcC ^no^^nam^ 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field 
Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are 
designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each 
weekend. Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



May 



11:30am "Ancient Egypt" (tour). Explore 
the traditions of ancient Egypt from 
everyday life to myths and mummies. 

1:00pm "Flowers and Food Plants from 
Latin America" (tour). In a brief tour, 
see some exotic and amazing flowering 



plants that are at home in Central and 
South America. 

10 1:00pm "Flowers and Food Plants from 
Latin America" (tour). 

23 2:00pm "Flowers and Food Plants from 
Latin America" (tour). 



William H. Mitchell 

1895-1987 



1 he death of William H. Mitchell on March 21 
marked the close of a 59-year record of service to Field 
Museum. Mr. Mitchell joined the Field Museum Board 
of Trustees in 1928. He served actively until 1980, 
when he was elected a Life Trustee. 

Mr. Mitchell attended Harvard University, then 
served as a U.S. Navy aviator during World War I as a 
member of the Navy's first stunt flying team, the "Blue 
Devils. " After a short period in the banking business, 
he co-founded the investment banking firm, Mitchell 



Trustee he served in many capacities — as a member of 
the Building, Investment, Resource Planning, and 
Executive committees. He was a generous donor over 
many years, in recognition of which he and Mrs. 
Mitchell were elected benefactors in 1974. 

Bill Mitchell was a warm and engaging person. He 
enjoyed a good story and always enjoyed telling of his 
early years as a trustee in comparison to the somewhat 
more demanding pace of later years. Although remain- 
ing a resident of Lake Forest, he and Mrs. Mitchell had 




Hutchins & Co. The firm became one of Chicago's 
leading investment houses until it was acquired by 
Paine Webber in 1977. He remained as the firm's chair- 
man until 1964 and as honorary chairman thereafter. 
He also was a director of Texaco, Inc. , the Continental 
Illinois National Bank and Trust Co. and, in the non- 
profit sector, a trustee of Northwestern University and 
of Northwestern Memorial Hospital. 

Mr. Mitchell's 59-year service as trustee and life 
trustee of Field Museum was the longest in the Mu- 
seum's history. His father, John J. Mitchell, was one of 
the founders of the Museum in 1893, continuing his tie 
with the institution as a trustee until his death in 1927. 
This extraordinary 94-year father-son tenure from the 
Museum's founding until 1987 is unequalled in Field 
Museum's history and may well be unique among Chi- 
cago institutions. During William Mitchell's years as a 



spent much of their time in Santa Barbara, California, 
in consideration of his health. Sandy Boyd, Field 
Museum's president, visited them once or twice a year 
and always reported Mr. Mitchell's continued and 
active interest in the Museum and its progress. 

William H. Mitchell's death breaks a family con- 
tinuum that takes us back to the years of Marshall Field 
I, Edward E. Ayer, Stanley Field, and the other early 
builders of Field Museum. It is a legacy that all Chica- 
goans may cherish and recall as they look forward to 
the Museum's centennial in 1993. One of the greatest 
testimonials to the leadership of Bill Mitchell, his 
father John J. Mitchell, and their colleagues through 
the years, is the calibre of those outstanding and tal- 
ented persons now continuing to build an even greater 
Field Museum on the foundation bequeathed to them. 
— E. Leland Webber, Field Museum President Emeritus. 




Like the "horse of a different color, " the purple horse in The Wizard of Oz, the campaign mascot "Denny Dinomometer" never fails to 
attract attention of visitors. The extent to which Denny is covered indicates the progress of "Time Future from Time Past. " When 
completely purple, Denny will proclaim that 100 percent of the $40'million goal has been met. Here, visitors check out the progress of 
the campaign. 

Capital Campaign Update 

The Kresge Foundation 

Issues Field Museum a 

$1.5 Million Campaign Challenge 



M 



-arathon runners say the hardest leg of any race 
is the last leg. The same could be said of an ambitious 
undertaking such as the Museum's Capital Campaign, 
"Time Future from Time Past. " The real test is still 



to come: Field Museum must raise the final ten percent 
of its goal. 

The Kresge Foundation has formally challenged 
Field Museum members to achieve what would be a 7 



new Museum fund-raising record — full funding for the 
$40 million Campaign. The challenge comes in the 
form of a challenge grant, which stipulates that when 
the Museum meets its goal, the Foundation will give 
the Museum $1.5 million to make the Campaign a 
100+ percent success. The grant, one of the largest to 
be given by the Kresge Foundation this year, is ear- 
marked for building restoration. 

"The Kresge Foundation grant is an incentive. 



"Denny Dinomometer" Registers $36 Million 

Currently the most important "dinosaur" in Field 
Museum's collection, "Denny Dinomometer" is a nine- 
by-twelve-foot replica of a tyrannosaur that tracks the 
progress of the Capital Campaign. Denny is now 90 
percent purple, indicating that the Campaign has 
reached the $36 million mark. When Denny is purple 
from head to tail, the Campaign will have met its $40 
million goal. 







Visitors Rachael BurUngham (left) and Grace Air add their names 
to history at the Banner Booth in Star^ley Field Hall. More than 
1,000 names quickly filled one banner, ar\d this second one is in 
process of being completed. 



a challenge and a vote of confidence in the Museum 
and its members all in one," says Campaign Chairman 
Richard M. Jones. "We fiiUy expect it to spark enough 
additional support to make this Campaign the most 
successful fund-raising effort ever launched by Field 
Museum. 

"With the target date for the Campaign's windup 
just around the comer, the timing of the challenge 
grant is perfect," says Thomas R. Sanders, vice presi- 
dent of Development. "It gives our members a wonder- 
fill opportunity to maximize the impact of their gifts be- 
fore the Campaign's end. 



An outgrowth of a long-range plan designed to 
prepare Field Museum for its centennial, the Capital 
Campaign seeks philanthropic support to preserve its 
structure ... to add interesting and informative new 
public exhibits and programs for the people of Chicago 
and beyond . . . and to maintain its international 
reputation as a center of scholarly research. 

Telemarketing Proves a Capital Idea for Museum 

The key to meeting the Kresge Challenge — and put- 
ting the Campaign over the top — is full member 



There's Never Been 
A Better Time to Contribute 

1/ you have not yet made your gift to the Cam- 
paign, the time to contribute is now. That's 
because your gift will increase in value as a result 
of the Kresge Foundation challenge grant, the 
payment of which is contingent upon a 100 per- 
cent success rate for the $40 million Campaign. 
The Kresge Challenge offers you an opportunity 
to maximize the impact of your gift, and to par- 
ticipate in the most important furvi-raising effort 
in Field Museum's history. To make a gift to 
the Campaign, please call Tom Sanders at 
322-8857. 





William Burlinghain 



Three of the many volunteers who have spearheaded the Capital 
Campaign are, left to right, Richard M. Jones, chairman of the 
Board of Trustees and Capital Campaign chairman; William L. 
Searle, trustee, Leadership Divisicm chairman of the Campaign, 
who led the way with a $2.5-million gift throu^ the Searle Family 
Trust; and James]. O'Connor, trustee, and immediate past chair- 
man of the Board. 



participation in the Campaign. That is the aim of the 
Museum's Capital-By-Phone program. Running con- 
current with personal solicitations by volunteers, this 
telemarketing effort, the Museum's first, has brought 
the news of the Campaign to an unprecedented number 
of members. 

Museum representatives working on behalf of 
Capital-By-Phone have contacted over 40 percent of 
all Museum members, raising over one-half million 
dollars toward the Campaign's $40 million goal. The 
Museum hopes to reach the remaining members before 
the end of the phone campaign. 

"The concept behind the phone campaign is quite 
simple," says Museum President Willard L. (Sandy) 
Boyd. "Our members are our strongest supporters, and 
we want to give all of them the opportunity to give, not 
only those we have been able to visit personally. The 
Campaign is at a critical point, and we need the 
involvement of our members to reach our goal." 

Members Invest Themselves in Campaign 

Indeed, the Campaign's tremendous progress is due in 
large part to the loyalty of the Museum's members — 

Preservation of the Museum's classic structure is one of the Capi- 
tal Campaign's primary goals. Here, workers remove balustrades 
and panels from the top of the Museum, lowering them by crane 
to the ground for cleaning and repair. 



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young and old. The Campaign banners, which hang in 
Stanley Field Hall, serve as colorful symbols of the 
Campaign's broad base of support (see cover). More 
than 2,000 visitors have decorated the banners with 
their autographs, designs, and personal "logos" for a 
contribution of $5 or more to the Campaign. Children 
are among the most frequent signers, with drawings of 
dinosaurs, rainbows, and hearts taking the lead as the 
most popular form of signature. 

"While the exciting progress toward our Cam- 
paign goal captures the spirit of growth at the Museum, 
it doesn't begin to convey the full impact of the Cam- 
paign," says Tom Sanders. "Nor does it adequately re- 
flect the personal commitment of the many members 
who have worked to make this Campaign a success. " 

Sandy Boyd agrees: "Like other Field Museum 
activities, the real vitality of this Campaign is a direct 
result of the individual and collective efforts of our 
members. They are our alumni — investing their time, 
energy, talents, and support in the Museum year after 
year. Field Museum is indebted to them. " 

Campaign Shapes Field Museum of Future 

While the restoration of the Museum's landmark home 
may be the most visible sign of the Campaign's impact, 
it is only one area where Campaign funds are already 
making an important difference. 

For example, the Museum will have a new face in- 
side as well as out as a result of the renewal of numerous 
public exhibits and programs: 

^ Through the generosity of Juli and David Grainger, 
the Museum has transformed the Gem Hall into a 
showcase that rivals the beauty of the gems it displays. 
^ The Webber Resource Center, the first of several 
such centers for in-depth exploration of Museum col- 
lections, will open this summer. 
^ "Size," an informal exhibit devoted to issues of size 
and scale, will open next fall thanks to a generous grant 
from the Oscar G. and Elsa S. Mayer Charitable Trust. 
^ 1988 will witness the opening of "Rearing Young," 
a special exhibit and visitors center funded by the 
Elizabeth Ferguson Trust. 

According to Michael Spock, vice president of Pub- 
lic Programs, these exhibits offer only a hint of the new 
educational efforts being planned by the Museum as a re- 
sult of the campaign. 

Behind the scenes, Museum research scientists are 
pursuing important new lines of inquiry with the help of 
new endowed funds, like the Elliot Donnelley Family 
Research Fund. For example, Museum scientists were 

Scaffolding on the east wall as renovation proceeds. 




Workmen pour foundation for new south steps, using a steel 
frame made especially for the project. 



recently able to make a last-minute trip into the Brazilian 
Amazon to inventory a forest before it was destroyed in 
order to make way for commercial development. The trip 
yielded an important discovery: scientists uncovered a rare 
pocket of high-diversity bird life. 

In addition to providing seed money for research ex- 
peditions, the Campaign will also make a critical differ- 
ence to the training and development of future scientists. 
The Lester Armour Family Graduate Fellowship Program 
will enable the Museum to support the work of young sci- 
entists, today and in the future, for whom the collections 
will form the basis of research. A Visiting Scholars Fund 
established by the Prince Charitable Trusts, will enable 
more scientists and scholars from around the world to 
come to Chicago to study and offer fresh interpretations of 
the Museum's collections. The result of these endowment 
fiinds and other sources of philanthropic support: The 
Museum will be able to fulfill its obligation to friture gen- 
erations to advance and preserve the knowledge of natural 
history. 

"A masterfully restored home . . . informative new 
exhibits that bring our visitors closer than ever to the 
mysteries of nature . . . research that may uncover the 
answers to tomorrow's greatest medical or environmental 
challenges . . . and ongoing operating support from our 
generous members," says Sandy Boyd. "Thanks to the tre- 
mendous response to our Capital Campaign, Field 
Museum is going to be at the forefront of the world's most 
important museums of natural history. FM 11 




Somme Woods Prairie and Savanna, seen here in the lushness of summer growth, is the largest of the areas being managed and restored 
by the North Branch Prairie Project. 



12 




The North 
Branch 

PRAIRIES 



by JERRY SULLIVAN 
Photography by Steve Packard 



0, 



n the North Branch prairies, the work starts 
promptly at nine on Sunday mornings. We work through 
the spring and fall — certain frost-proof zealots work even 
in the winter — in sunshine and rain, warmth and cold. 
"Dress appropriately for the weather" warns the printed 
work schedule that goes out to all the prairie volunteers. 
Our only concession to the elements is to call off winter 
work days when the windchill falls below zero. Building 
an ecosystem is not a job for the faint-hearted or thin- 
blooded. 

Of course, the work is usually of a nature to keep 
you warm whatever the wind chill. Felling a small tree 
with a handsaw or cutting down a buckthorn thicket 
with a lopping shears will put color in your cheeks and 
sweat on your brow during the coldest and dampest days. 

But somehow the work doesn't seem hard when 
you're doing it. This is partly because you are surrounded 
by friendly and convivial fellow workers, and it's partly 
because if you spend most of your life sitting in a chair 
shuffling papers or beating on a keyboard, manning a 
lopping shears for a day is more therapeutic than 
arduous. 

And if your back does start to ache from too much 
stoop labor, you can draw comfort from thinking about 



Chicago writer Jerry Sullivan writes frequently on natural history for the 
Bulletin. He does a column, "Field and Street, " for the Chicago Reader 
and has done features on birds for Audubon rruigazine and other natiorud 
publications. He was also editor of Chicago Area Birds, published in 
1985 fry Chicago Review Press. 



13 




Volunteer worker Judith Kiriazis examines spike of blazing star. 



14 



where all this hacking and hewing is leading: to the re- 
creation of the sublimely beautiful native landscape of 
northern Illinois. 

Some of you are probably thinking that last sen- 
tence must be a misprint. "Sublimely beautiful" is the 
sort of phrase you might use to describe, say, Big Sur, or 
Rocky Mountain National Park, or the Grand Canyon, 
but Illinois is about as sublime as a pool table. Other 
places have scenery; we have com. 

But the beauty of natural Illinois, pre-settlement 
Illinois, was less in the shape of the land than in the 
things that grew on it. Our native prairies and savannas 
held an assortment of plants and animals whose precise 
configuration was unique. A deadly combination of his- 
torical and ecological forces destroyed almost all of 
them, destroyed them so thoroughly that for a time they 
vanished from the historical memory of lUinoians, 
destroyed them so thoroughly that our ideas about what 
things were like 200 years ago must always contain an 
element of surmise. 

Our work along the North Branch of the Chicago 
River, the goal of all those rainy Sundays, is to rebuild as 
nearly as we can the ecosystem that existed there when 
the Potawatomis were evicted from the state. The North 
Branch Prairie Project, to give the organization its for- 
mal title, has been on the job for ten years, reshaping the 
plant communities at seven separate sites on Cook 
County Forest Preserve land from the Sauganash Prairie 
at Bryn Mawr and Kostner avenues in Chicago to Som- 
me Woods Prairie at Dundee and Waukegan roads in 
Northbrook. 

Our work has already made some major changes in 
the way things look. Fields that used to be weed patches 
with a few prairie plants are now weedy prairies, and that 
is a major, and hard-won, advance. The work days are 
actually fun — lunch is particularly festive — and we have 
picnics and potluck dinners besides. We have had at 
least one marriage of prairie people, and the times being 
what they are, a couple of divorces. 

Lately we have expanded into the creation of 
prairie gardens, not for decoration, but to supply us with 
seeds. We have a large garden at North Park Village Na- 
ture Center at Peterson and Pulaski in Chicago, and a 
couple of dozen volunteers are growing prairie species in 
their back yards, so far with mixed results. We collected 
the seeds for these gardens from unprotected prairie rem- 
nants within 15 miles of our North Branch prairies. By 
staying close to home, we hope to keep our ecotypes con- 
sistent. We will sow seeds collected in these gardens into 
our prairie reconstructions. 

The tall-grass prairies of Illinois amazed the first set- 



tiers with their beauty. Open, sunny, breezy, they were 
quite a change from the shady woods of the east. The 
world opened up on the prairie, the sky expanded into an 
enormous dome over the verdant earth. The wind rip- 
pled the grasses as it sped over the ground. And the flow- 
ers bloomed in numberless profusion. Today, woodlands 
are bright with hepatica and trout lily and trillium for a 
few weeks in spring, but the show ends when the leaves 
emerge from the trees. The prairies bloom from last frost 
to first frost. Every month has its specialties, from the 
bird's-foot violets of spring to the orange prairie lilies of 
July, the golden prairie docks of August, and the pale 
asters of October. 

About 300 species of plants are known to have 
grown on the Illinois prairies, and as many as 20 species 
of flowering plants could be found in a square yard of 
prairie sod. Grasses were the most common, with such 
species as big bluestem, little bluestem, and Indian grass 
acting as dominants in the community. The grasses 
might account for half — or more — of the individual 
plants on the prairie, but they represent only about 10 




Coral hairstreak butterfly on butterfly weed. The larvae feed on 
developing fruit of wild plum arui wild cherry. 



"The tall-grass prairies of Illinois amazed the first settlers widi their beauty. The 
world opened up on the prairie, the sky expanded into an enormous dome over 
the verdant earth. The wind rippled the grasses as it sped over the ground. And 
the flowers bloomed in numberless profusion." Such vistas have come close to 
total disappearance in Illinois, but a remarkable program, now in its tenth year, 

is doing much to bring them back. 



percent of the species. The remaining 90 percent were 
forbs, to give them their proper botanical designation. 
In ordinary language, we would call them wildflowers. 

Illinois also had its woodlands. They dominated the 
southern end of the state. In the northern and central 
sections, the woodlands were concentrated mainly in 
the relatively wet areas on the flood plains of rivers. 

There was a third major community in primeval 
Illinois, a savanna community that people here in the 
northern part of the state called an "oak opening. " In 
central and southern Illinois, the savannas were known 
as "barrens. " 

Savannas are intermediate in structure between an 
open prairie and a woodland. They have some trees, but 
the trees are too widely separated to shade all the ground 
beneath them. Defining the boundaries between wood- 
lands, savannas, and prairies is necessarily a somewhat 



arbitrary endeavor. According to one common defini- 
tion, if the trees shade less than 50 percent of the ground 
at noon in mid-summer, the place is a savanna. At the 
other end of the scale , some investigators have settled on 
a density of at least one tree per acre as the minimum for 
a savanna. 

Bur oaks were the most common trees in our savan- 
nas, although white oaks and hickories also occurred in 
some numbers and swamp white oak grew on wet sites. 
Since the trees were widely spaced, they developed 
broad, spreading crowns, and the lowest and largest 
limbs often branched off the trunk quite near the 
ground. 

When the pioneers began moving onto this land, 
the savannas were a prime attraction. The soils were as 
rich as the prairies; the trees provided wood for building 
and fuel, and cattle could graze on the grasses that grew 



15 



near the oaks. The open prairies went next. 

The settlers' assault on the land was unremitting 
and multifaceted. They plowed it; they paved it; they 
overgrazed it; they sowed it — usually accidentally — with 
alien weeds, and — the coup de grace — they protected it 
from fire. 

The tall'grass prairie and the oak savanna were fire- 



Smad white lady's slipper 



The prairies did little better. The few remnants that 
survive escaped the general destruction purely by acci- 
dent, and until quite recently, almost no one knew what 
these survivors were or where they were. Around the 
time of World War I, when some enlightened souls de- 
cided to set up a system of natural parks for the benefit of 
Chicagoans, they called it the Cook County Forest Pre- 




16 



dependent ecosystems. Prairie plants are almost all per- 
ennials. Their root systems live for many years. Each 
spring, they send up new green shoots to flower, set seed, 
and die. From fall until spring, the prairie is clothed in 
the russets, browns, and golds of these dead plants. It is a 
beautiful display, and incidentally, quite flammable. Be- 
fore settlement, fires, natural or man-made, could sweep 
across the state, feeding on all these plant remains. The 
fires cleared the ground for the new year's growth and 
also incinerated any cottonwood seedling temerarious 
enough to try to invade the grasslands. 

The savannas usually grew in places that were 
somewhat protected from fires. Given a few wet years 
with no flames, the oaks could climb above the sur- 
rounding grasses. Bur oaks have very thick and fire- 
resistant bark, so they could survive all but the hottest 
blazes once they gained a little height. The roots of bur 
oaks could also survive a fire, just as the roots of prairie 
grasses did, and send up new shoots the next spring. 

Assaulted from every direction at once, the savan- 
nas had practically ceased to exist by the time of the 
Civil War. They became cornfields or pastures where 
grazing animals destroyed the plants of the understory, or 
if they were left alone but protected from fire, they be- 
came closed-canopy woodlands. They survive today 
only as place names: Long Grove, Elk Grove, Downer's 
Grove, or as individual trees, the gnarled old oaks that 
decorate parks and front yards all over northeastern 
Illinois. 



serve system and set about buying woodlands. They 
totally ignored the open areas they called meadows. 

The land they bought along the North Branch of 
the Chicago was a mixture of woods, old fields, and 
former cow pastures. Much of it was covered with alien 
plants like the pestiferous shrub called European buck- 
thorn. The open fields were mostly depauperate places 
filled with weedy herbs and grasses. 

But somehow, a few forlorn bits of natural Illinois 
had managed to hang on along the North Branch, and in 
the summer of 1975, Steve Packard discovered them. 
Packard is now a field representative for the Illinois Na- 
ture Conservancy, but at that time, he was new to field 
botany. His major interest in the North Branch forest 
preserves was the bicycle trail where he rode for relaxa- 
tion in the evening. 

He made his first discovery on June 22 of that year, 
when he noticed some unusual flowers blooming near 
the trail. With some help from Roger Tory Peterson's 
wildflower guide and Robert Betz's book Prairie Plants of 
the Chicago Region, he identified them as ragged fringed 
orchids, native plants, and rather special ones. 

Other discoveries followed until he had identified 
all seven of the areas currently being managed and re- 
stored by the North Branch Prairie Project. 

Sauganash Prairie, the southernmost site, is wet 
prairie and what appears to be a wet savanna, a commu- 
nity so rare that no one has been able to find one to 
study. 



Bunker Hill Prairie at Caldwell and Devon ave- 
nues, is a diverse area supporting, among other notable 
species, a population of mountain blue-eyed grass, en- 
dangered in Illinois and known from only two sites here. 

Miami Woods and Indigo Prairies lie between 



The Milwaukee Road Prairie is a tiny but rich rem- 
nant along the Milwaukee Road railroad tracks just east 
of Wayside Woods. Its assortment of prairie species in- 
cludes such rarities as Leiberg's panic grass, prairie 
coreopsis, shooting-star, and prairie betony. 



Smooth phlox 
(pink) and hoary 
puccoon 




Oakton and Dempster streets in Morton Grove. Miami 
Woods is the other site known for mountain blue-eyed 
grass. Large old bur oaks and northern pin oaks remain 
to mark the location of an old savanna. 

Wayside Prairie is just north of Dempster Street. 
Northern dropseed grass grows there along with such 
species as purple prairie clover. 



Somme Woods Prairie and Savanna is the north- 
ernmost site and the largest. Its botanical attractions 
include cream gentian and the endangered small 
sundrops. 

Having discovered these sites, Packard decided to 
try to do something to preserve and restore them. He 
went first to Cook County Forest Preserve headquarters 



17 



in search of permission to sow the seeds of additional 
prairie species onto his remnants. Then, drawing on his 
experiences in the anti-war movement, he set about de- 
veloping a constituency for his prairies. He contacted 
groups as diverse as the Sierra Club and the Sauganash 
Garden Club and led them on tours of the North Branch 
prairies. Next he got volunteers from these groups to 
come out and help him gather and sow seeds and clean 
up trash, moves that helped the prairies and also created 
a group of people who had gotten their hands dirty and 
their feet wet working on the land. 

The Forest Preserve District had agreed not to mow 
these sensitive areas, but somehow the word didn't get 
down the chain of command, and one morning Packard 
arrived at Miami Woods Prairie and found the whole 
place had been mowed. 

"1 looked at it," he recalls, "and I knew we had 
made it. " He started to call all the people who had taken 
a tour of the prairies, and they began to call and write to 
the Forest Preserve District, asking them to stop the 
mowing. In response to all this attention, the Forest Pre- 
serve District decided to take a longer look at the North 
Branch prairies. 

Roland Eisenbeis, the superintendent of con- 



servation, and Sam Gabriel, the chief forester, toured 
the sites along with Packard and Dr. Robert Betz of 
Northeastern Illinois University, the reigning local ex- 
pert on prairies, and the man whose book had helped 
Packard discover these remnants. Betz looked them 
over, made allowances for all the weeds, and declared 
that these places were excellent examples of "incipient 
prairies. " 

So the FPD issued permits allowing the North 
Branch Prairie Project to gather and sow seeds and to use 
hand tools to clear brush and trees from places that ought 
to be prairie. 

Packard organized the first work day on August 6, 
1977, with a 13-person crew he picked up at a Sierra Club 
membership meeting. Since then nearly 600 volunteers 
have taken part in work days, gardening, and other 
project tasks, donating over 15,000 hours of labor to the 
job. We have had some ups and downs, some dis- 
appointments and some pleasant surprises. The cumula- 
tive effects of all this work are beginning to make a real 
difference in the look of the land along the North 
Branch. Fields that used to be weed patches with a few 
prairie plants hanging on in them are now prairies with a 
few weeds. Prairie grasses grow now where buckthorn 



Cutting brush from grade A prairie (fire does it better). 



18 




thickets used to cast a shade so dense that nothing could 
survive under it. Stately old oaks that were once hidden 
by the scruffy second-growth woods surrounding them 
are in the open now. And for the past three years, we 
have been working on the most ambitious savanna res- 
toration ever attempted. 

The volunteers have accumulated a vast amount of 
communal knowledge, although most of it exists mainly 
as oral tradition. Nobody has had a chance to write it 
down yet. The thing we have learned above all is to have 
patience. 

On that very first work day in 1977, Steve's 13 
volunteers spent a day gathering about 2,000 seeds of the 
smooth phlox from an unprotected prairie site. On the 
next work day, the same 13 volunteers planted those 
seeds in Bunker Hill Prairie. It was the last they saw of 
the phlox for four years. "If you are looking for instant 
gratification," Steve told me, "this is not the job for 
you." 

The disappearing phlox were just lying low. Do- 
mestic plants are bred and planted to produce seeds that 
germinate all at once; wild plants hedge their bets. Ger- 
mination is all or nothing. A seedling can't poke its 
cotyledons above ground for a look around and then 
crawl back in the seed coat if the rains stop. 

So the phlox seeds waited for the right moment. 
Some came up the first year, and some the second, and 
so on. For the first couple of years, they hid near ground, 
each plant a few tiny leaves and a two-inch stem. Prairie 
plants are conservative. They invest most of their energy 
in roots. A one-year-old plant may be two inches tall and 
have roots that reach down two feet. After four years, 
some of the phlox had a base solid enough to let them 
produce flowers. Now they bloom every year, in con- 
siderable numbers. You can see them in June. That kind 
of story can be told about most of the 200 or so species of 
prairie and savanna plants the North Branch Prairie 
Project has sown into its plots. After 10 years, those slow 
growers are starting to show up in numbers. 

In the North Branch Phrase Book, the words 
"Somebody should ... ," as in "Somebody should start 
growing these plants in his backyard," is always trans- 
lated as "I volunteer," as in "I volunteer to grow these 
plants in my backyard. " 

Preston Spinks, a volunteer who lives in Morton 
Grove near Wayside Woods Prairie, spoke more or less 
those very words one day, and thus was bom what might 
be called the North Branch captive breeding program. 
Spinks has a very green thumb. He has managed to coax 
dozens of species of prairie and savanna plants into ger- 
minating in flats in his backyard. His methods are suf- 



Take an Inventory 

Storekeepers take inventory so that supplies, 
equipment, and merchandise that is actually on 
hand can be compared to what should be on 
hand. 

Homeowners take inventory when their insur- 
ance is to be increased. 

Yet, persons with wills often forget to keep 
inventories current. When that happens, their 
families may be left with the same unnecessary 
problems that the persons who originally made 
wills intended to avoid. 

Don't take chances with your will being out of 
balance with your family's needs and your 
assets. Schedule a meeting with your attorney to 
take an inventory of what you think your will 
contains and what it may now actually contain. 
An out-of-date will is often as ineffective as no 
will at all, so don't neglect one of the most 
important inventories you will ever make. 

For suggestions on preparing or revising your 
will, mail the coupon below for the booklet 
"How to Make a Will that Works." 

clip and mail today 



To: Clifford Buzard 

Planned Giving Office 
Field Museum of Natural History 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, Illinois 60605-2496 

D Please send me a complimentary copy of "How to Make a 
Will that Works," at no obligation. 

Name 

(please print) 

Address 



City. 



. State - 



.Zip. 



Phone: (home) _ 



.(office). 



Best time to call: (day) _ 



. (hour) . 



19 




Planting phlox seed m Wayside Prairie. Some of the prairies had 
been mowed "hums, " because nearby residents had complained 
that they looked messy. The Forest Preserve District was pleased 
to let them grow when volunteers offered to restore them to good 
health. 



ficiently reliable to allow him to turn out hundreds of 
seedlings every spring. Volunteers plant these in the 
prairies using tools designed by the North Branch Prairie 
Project. Seedlings have a much better chance in life 
than seeds, and captive-bred wildflowers are now bloom- 
ing all over the North Branch. 

The captive breeding program is vital now because 
so many of the old seed sources are gone. The volunteers 
used to collect most of their seed from five unprotected 
prairies within 15 miles of the North Branch. All of 
those prairies have now been largely destroyed. Gardens 
will help to replace them. 

The group tends its own garden at North Park Vil- 
lage Nature Center, and an expanding network of back- 
yard gardeners is helping keep these gene pools alive. 

The relationship between the NBPP and FPD has 
evolved in interesting ways. There was a certain mutual 
wariness at first, but that dissipated with the passage of 
time. The district has supported the project strongly. 
Those initial grants of permits were expanded in 1981 
with a permit to bum the North Branch prairies. The 
bums are carried out by volunteer crews from the North 
Branch Prairie Project. The volunteers are bright, high- 
ly motivated, and — heading into the sixth year of burn- 
ing — experienced. Steve Packard is proud of the fact 
that "we've never burned a foot of ground we didn't want 
to bum." 

The District has also placed concrete posts at vul- 
nerable places to keep off-road vehicles out of the 
prairies. The biggest contribution has been to let this 
group of volunteers manage 200 acres of Forest Preserve 
land in the interest of recreating a piece of natural Illi- 
nois. Bureaucrats aren't usually that bold. 

The NBPP pays back this trust by being very discreet. 
Hand tools are part of that discretion — no loud motors 
in the woods. Making gradual changes in the land is 
another. "We spend years clearing places that you could 



Chicago Area Wildlife Series 

Reprints of recent articles on Chicago-area wildlife are available by writing the Bulletin editor, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2499- Titles available include: "Chicago's 
Parakeets," by David M. Walsten (May 1985); "Spring Wildflowers of the Chicago Area," by Floyd A. Swink (April 
1986); "Owls of Chicago," by Jerry Sullivan (Feb. 1987), "Water Snakes that You Might See Around Chicago," by 
John C. Murphy (March 1987); and "Spring Bird Migration at the Foot of I^e Michigan," by Kenneth J. Brock 
(April 1987). 

Prices: 1-5 copies: 75<t ea. plus 75* shipping and handling; 6-10 copies: 70<t ea. plus $1.25 shipping and 
handling; 1 1-25 copies: 65<t ea., plus $1 .50 for shipping and handling. Since supplies are limited, 25 copies is the 
maximum for a single order. Check or money order made payable to Field Museum. 



20 




Prairie Uly (orange), black-eyed susan (yeUow), ar\d pale- 
spike lobelia (blue) shown with leaves of wild quinine arvi 
prairie dock. 




Prairie white-fringed orchid, an endangered species. This plant grew from 
seed scattered in Somme Prairie, where there had been none. It took five 
years to bloom. 




Raking seed after fire, Miami Woods. 
Most fires are set in early spring, before 
migratory birds return, before sruikes, 
insects, and other creatures have 
emerged from hibernation, and before 
the growing season has begun for native 
prairie plants. A mix of more than 100 
species of rare local plants, gathered the 
previous fall, is raked into the estab- 
lished turf. In the long run, these plants 
will easily out-compete the weeds. 



21 



clear in a weekend," Ross Sweeny, one of the project's 
leaders, once told me. "People get upset when they see 
falling trees." 

The attempt is to avoid doing anything that could 
cause trouble for the District. They have enough prob- 
lems operating a system this big in a county this 
crowded. 

The big excitement on the North Branch these 
days is over savanna restoration. The natural savannas of 
our state vanished so quickly that almost nobody with 
any botanical knowledge ever had a chance to look at 
one. By the time serious botanical work started in the 
late 19th century, the savannas were either cow pastures 
or forests. The question of what grew there before settle- 
ment couldn't be conclusively answered. 

Opinion leaned to the idea that savannas were 
essentially prairies with a few trees. Experience on the 
North Branch suggested that was not the case. Prairie 
plants grew quite well away from the trees in full sun-, 
light. Back in the woods, plants like jack-in-the-pulpit 
returned on their own after fire and brush cutting re- 
moved the buckthorn. But there was a space of scattered 
trees and woodland edges, the sort of space whose mix- 
ture of light and shade would qualify it as a savanna, 
where almost nothing grew. The volunteers raked both 
prairie and woodland seeds into these sites, but they just 
wouldn't come up. A few plants appeared spontaneous- 



ly, cream gentian was one — it is now common at Somme 
Woods — yellow pimpernel was another. And some rari- 
ties showed up, eared gerardia and small sundrops. 

Using their presence as a starting point, Steve 
Packard tried to figure out what kinds of plants grew in 
the savannas. His information source was Plants of the 
Chicago Region by Floyd A. Swink and Gerould 
Wilhelm, published by Morton Arboretum. The book is 
an alphabetical listing of all the vascular plants known to 
grow in the Chicago area. Under each listing are remarks 
on habitat and lists of typical associates. Working out- 
ward from what grew in the North Branch savannas, he 
put together a hypothetical list of savanna species. 

It would have stayed hypothetical if Packard hadn't 
also discovered an article published in an 1846 issue of 
The Prairie Farmer magazine by a Dr. S. B. Mead of Han- 
cock County, Illinois. Mead's article contains a list of 
the plants Mead found growing in the "barrens" in Han- 
cock County. This is the only list we have of savanna 
species compiled by someone who actually saw a savan- 
na. Doctors got around in the days of house calls by horse 
and buggy, and Mead must have done a lot of botanizing 
along the way. His list includes 106 species. Many of 
them are also on Steve Packard's list. 

Starting in 1985, a savanna seed mix of about 100 
species began to be planted in appropriate locations 
along the North Branch. It's coming up like crazy. ¥H 



22 




Music and Dance in Papua Ncyi" Guinea 

April 29 through July 12 







ijixty-five brilliant color photographs by photog- 
rapher Jordan Wright, showing traditions and changing 
lifestyles in Papua New Guinea, will be on display from 
April 29 through July 12. 

The special exhibit, "Music and Dance in Papua 
New Guinea," combines photography, everyday ob- 
jects, and tape-recorded traditional music to present 
one aspect of a little-known people. 

The exhibit has been organized by the Smithso- 
nian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) 
in cooperation with the University Museum of 
Archaeology/Anthropology of the University of Penn- 
sylvania. The show is derived from the more than 
4,000 photographs taken by Jordan Wright during the 
spring and summer of 1982. 

The highland people of Papua New Guinea were 
once divided into hostile tribes that spent much of 



their time in warfare and ritual preparation for warfare. 
Dances, elaborate costumes, and colorful body painting 
were part of this ritual. Today, however, these lavish 
displays are part of friendly competitions, and serve to 
preserve cultural behavior. 

The photographs in "Music and Dance in Papua 
New Guinea" convey the warmth and beauty of life to- 
day in the Highland Sepik villages of New Guinea. 
Highlights include exclusive photographs of the Sepik 
"welcome dance" and a series of photographs telling the 
story of a marriage. 

Jordan Wright's pictures also show the festive 
events at the annual Mt. Hagen/Goroka Fair — an ex- 
travaganza of parading, dancing and singing. The 
elaborate music and dance competitions shown give 
evidence of a traditional life that has only recently 
been touched by contact with the 20th century. 23 




A 



natural history museum's great value, aside 
from standing as a wonderful warehouse of treasures, is 
to inspire our imagination and to arouse our curiosity in 
our environment. 

A museum helps us explain scientific discoveries 
that once seemed beyond our understanding and it in- 
spires our awe at the wonders of our everyday world. 

Join us on Members' Night at Field Museum and 
visit with our curators, researchers, and entire Museum 
staff and find out why their work is so important to you 
and to the world. 

There will be special exhibits, activities and 
entertainment all evening, including Filipino dancing 
by the Lakambini Performing Arts group; singing and 
dancing by the Varblomman Swedish Children's Club 
Vasa #45; and light classical and contemporary music 
by the Paganini Ensemble. 

If you are coming by car, you may park free of 
24 charge in the Museum's north lot or Soldier Field lot. 



Simply show your Member card or invitation. 

Free bus service will be operating between the 
Loop and our south door. These CTA buses, marked 
"Field Museum" will originate at the Canal Street 
entrance of Union Station (Canal at Jackson) and stop 
at the Canal Street entrance of Northwestern Station 
(Canal at Washington); Washington and State; Wash- 
ington and Michigan; Adams and Michigan; Balbo and 
Michigan. 

Buses will begin running at 4:45 P.M. and con- 
tinue at approximately 20-minute intervals until the 
Museum closes at 10:00 P.M. You may board the free 
"Field Museum" CTA bus by showing your Member 
card or invitation. 

Members are invited to bring family and up to four 
guests at no additional charge. Special arrangements 
for handicapped persons can be made by calling 922- 
9410 extension 453, beginning May 4. "Behind-the- 
Scenes" activities will end at 9:00 P.M. 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TDURS^ 



An Extraordinary 
Exploration of 

CHINA 



September 12 to October 2 
$4,345 per person 
Leader: Katherine Lee 




^ Marcello Berlinetti/Photo Researchers Inc 



September 12: Departure from Chicago O'Hare at 12:00 noon 
via Japan Air Lines 747 (fit. #9). We'll fly non-stop to Tokyo. 
JAL's gracious inflight service will help the time pass quickly, and 
you'll hardly notice that we lose a day crossing the International 
Date Line. 

September 13: Arrive in Tokyo at 2:40 pm. After clearing cus- 
toms, you will be met and assisted in the transfer to the Nikko 
Narita Hotel, near the airport. Your evening should be leisurely, 
and after a good night's sleep you'll be ready the next morning to 
go on to Shanghai and the delights of China. 

September 14: Depart Narita International Airport (Tokyo) at 
9:00 a.m. en route non-stop to Shanghai, arriving about 1:00 pm. 
You will be met by China International Travel Service guides and 
transferred to your hotel, the Hua Ting Sheraton. The remainder 
of the day is at leisure. Tonight you will enjoy dinner at your 
hotel. 

September 15: Today visit points of interest in Shanghai, includ- 
ing the carpet factory, jade factory, and the Jade Buddha Temple, 
in the western part of the city. Lunch at the hotel. This afternoon 
you will visit the Shanghai Museum, one of the richest in the 
country and outstanding for its bronzes and paintings. Many of 



you will remember "The Great Bronze Age of China" exhibition 
at Field Museum in 1980 which featured Shanghai Museum arti- 
facts. Dinner will be enjoyed at a local restaurant. This evening 
we will attend a performance of Chinese acrobats or folk opera. 

September 16: We will transfer to the station for our train ride to 
Suzhou. After checking into our hotel, we will have lunch there. 
Because of its extensive network of canals, Suzhou has been 
called "The Venice of the East." Suzhou is especially renowned 
for the quality of its embroidery. This afternoon we will visit the 
Silk Institute and factory. Dinner at the hotel. 

September 17: The remainder of the morning is free for brows- 
ing through shops and bazaars. Lunch will be at the hotel too, and 
in the afternoon we will visit the famed gardens of Suzhou. Din- 
ner at the hotel. 

September 18: Today we'll leave Suzhou. We'll enjoy a cruise on 
the Grand Canal to one of China's magnificent silk cities — Wuxi. 
In Wuxi, we'll be met by our guide and transferred to the hotel. 
Coming into Wuxi is like stepping into a traditional Chinese 
water painting, showing water scenery and mountains. The main 
attraction of Wuxi is Lake Taihu, China's fourth largest fresh- 
water lake. Lunch at the Lake; dinner at the hotel. 25 



£l FIELD 

MUSEUM 

TOUR3^ 



September 19: This morning we will visit the pottery factory. 
We'll return to Shanghai by train, then continue on to Beijing by 
air. Lunch will be planned too. Upon arrival in Beijing, we'll be 
met by our guide and transferred to the Jing Lun Hotel. We'll 
have dinner at a local restaurant in Beijing. 

September 20: Our morning tour will include visits to the For- 
bidden City (Old Imperial Palace), Tien An Men Square, the 
Temple of Heaven, and other points of interest. Again we have an 
opportunity to enjoy lunch in a local restaurant. This afternoon, 
visit the Summer Palace with its famous marble boat and the 
Beijing Zoo with its popular panda bears. A special dinner, 
featuring a menu prepared for the Dowager Empress will be 
served to you at the Summer Palace, after which we will return 
to the hotel. 

September 21: We will leave for our visit to the Great Wall of 
China and the nearby Ming Tombs, travelling by train and 
motorcoach. Lunch during tour — probably at the Badaling Sta- 
tion at the Great Wall. This evening we'll enjoy the now famous 
Peking duck dinner at a local restaurant. 

September 22: We'll transfer to the station for our train ride to 
Luoyang. We'll be met in Louyang and have lunch en route to the 
hotel; dinner this evening will be at our hotel. 

September 23: Although a quiet city today, during the Chou and 
Han dynasties Louyang was China's capital. It was also flourish- 
ing during the Sung Dynasty, when an impressive number of 
buddhas were carved in the caves at neighboring Longmen (A.D. 
550-600). You will see one buddha 60 feet high, as well as a cave 
containing 10,000 small buddhas. Lunch at a local restaurant near 
the caves, return to the hotel for dinner. 

September 24: We will depart to the train station. Upon arrival, 
we will transfer to the Golden Flower Hotel. Lunch will be 
scheduled at a convenient time, and we will have dinner at the 
hotel. 

September 25: Xian is the principal center of ancient Chinese cul- 
ture. We will have a full day visiting a good number of the impor- 
tant sites. Those of you who saw the exciting Chinese exhibit of 
the life-size warriors and horses at the Field Museum in 1983-84 
must surely be anticipating your visit to this site. It is here where 
the pottery figures were unearthed from guarding the Emperor's 
tomb. Nearby are the scenic Huaging Pools, the Greater and 
Lesser Wild Goose Pagodas, the Forest of Steles (the oldest and 
best collection in China and a treasure house of ancient callig- 
raphy, art classics, and stone engravings), and the Bell and Drum 
Towers. We will also visit the Banpo Museum, one of China's 
finest. We will lunch at a restaurant in Banpo village, and dinner 
at a local restaurant. 



September 26: We will continue our sightseeing adventure in 
Xian. Lunch will be at one of the sites and we will return to the 
hotel for dinner. 

September 27: Today we leave Xian. We will transfer to the air- 
port for our flight to Guilin. Lunch will be scheduled later. The 
afternoon will be spent sightseeing, including the exotic lime- 
stone caverns, museum, and the city market. Dinner will be at 
the hotel. 

September 28: You will enjoy another highlight of your trip to 
China! You'll have a full-day cruising on the beautiful Li River. 
You will observe cormorant fishing in addition to viewing the 
steep karst mountains which form the exotic terrain as seen in 
many famous Chinese paintings. A box lunch will be served en 
route; dinner at the hotel. 

September 29: Today we leave the Peoples Republic of China. 
After breakfast, we will transfer to the airport for our flight to 
Hong Kong via a connection in Guangzhou. In Hong Kong, we 
will transfer to the Shangri-La Hotel. 

September 30: This day is at leisure for pursuit of your own per- 
sonal interests — relaxing or shopping. Optional tour programs 
are available at additional cost. Tonight we will enjoy a farewell 
banquet at the hotel. 

October 1: Today we start home. We will transfer to Kai Tak 
International Airport and board our flight to Tokyo (JAL flight 
#64 leaves at 2:35 pm — arriving in Tokyo at 7:30 pm). Upon 
arrival we'll transfer to the Nikko Narita Hotel. 

October 2: We'll transfer to the airport for our homeward flight 
on Japan Air Lines flight #10, which departs Tokyo at 12:00 noon 
and arrives at Chicago O'Hare at 9:30 a.m. the same day (we re- 
gain the day lost when we crossed the International Date Line). 
Welcome Home. 

The price includes air fare and all meals while in China. Breakfast 
will be at your hotel each day. 



Kenya Tanzania Safari 

February 20 to March 10, 1988 
$5,245 per person 
Leader: Audry Faden 



February 20: Your safari begins when you board your British 
Airways flight to London this evening. 

February 21: Arrive London's Heathrow Airport this morning. 
You will be met and transferred to the Sheraton Skyline Hotel, 
where day-rooms will be provided until your British Airways 
flight to Nairobi this evening. 

February 22: Upon arrival in Nairobi, you will be met and trans- 
ferred to the luxurious Norfolk Hotel — a famous colonial land- 
mark and one-time haunt of Teddy Roosevelt, Ernest Heming- 
way, and Robert Ruark. This afternoon, enjoy a half-day tour 



26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, II 60605 



of Nairobi, visiting the colorful African market, the unique Ken- 
yatta Conference Center, Nairobi University, and the famed 
National Museum, known for its superb natural history collec- 
tion and watercolors by Joy Adamson. Continue your tour by 
driving through the suburb of Karen, where you will see Isak 
Dinesen's original home, now a museum. This evening there is a 
welcome cocktail party and dinner at the Norfolk, with guests of 
the East African Wildhfe Society. 

February 23: Today you head toward the famed Tsavo West 
National Park, Kenya's largest national park. View game 
through the park before arriving at Kilaguni Lodge for lunch. 
From the lodge, watch the game come to the nearby waterhole. 
After lunch, go out in search of the great elephant herds. Your 
drive takes you to Mzima Springs, where large pools of clear 
spring water surface at the rate of 50 million gallons a day. Oc- 
casionally hippos can be viewed from the tank and cormorants 
swim by. 

February 24: Today you drive to Amboseli National Park, justly 
famous for its big game and superb views of Kilimanjaro. The 
150 square miles of park embody four main wildlife habitats 
including open plains, acacia woodland, scrub brush, and fresh- 
water swamps. Spend the afternoon viewing animals such as 
wildebeest, zebra, giraffe, lion, cheetah, elephant, and rhino. 
Amboseh Serena Lodge. 

February 25: Start the day with a dawn game drive in this beauti- 
ful park. Early morning is also the best time to view Kilimanjaro 
before the clouds build up over the summit. Game drive in the 
late afternoon — the best time to see lion and cheetah as they begin 
to stir from the shade. 

February 26: Today you drive to Tanzania via the Namanga bor- 
der, passing through minimal immigration formalities. Continue 
on to Gibbs Farm, a small, quaint farm in the midst of coffee 
plantations. 

February 27: Today transfer to Ndutu Safari Lodge, situated on 
the shores of Lake Lgarya near the southeastern corner of 
Serengeti National Park. Here you will enjoy game-viewing 
drives both morning and afternoon. 

February 28: Today you have game-viewing drives both mor- 
ning and afternoon to explore the vast Serengeti plains. Here mil- 
lions of wildebeest and zebra mill across the plains, seeking fresh 
grasses. You see large prides of lion, perhaps a leopard resting in a 
tree, groups of hyena, a mother cheetah teaching her cubs to 
hunt, giraffe, gazelle, topi, and kongoni — the list is endless. 
Ndutu Safari Lodge. 

February 29: This morning you will drive into the Olduvai 
Gorge, the site of Dr. and Mrs. L. S. B. Leakey's famous discov- 
ery of the fossil he called "Zinjanchropus boisei" {now classified 
Australopithecus boisei). Here you will enjoy a visit to the small 
but very informative museum and a short talk by one of Mrs. 
Leakey's assistants, who will escort you to the site of the "Zinj" 
discovery. Continue on to one of the natural wonders of the 
world, the Ngorongoro Crater, a caldera created by the pre- 
historic collapse of a volcano cone. On the crater floor, herds of 
typical plains mammals live out their destinies: buffalo, zebra, 
wildebeest. Grant's Gazelle, Thomson's Gazelle, hon, and hyena. 
Ngorongoro Wildlife Lodge. 

March 1: Today we spend down in the crater, tracking and 
photographing the animals. This great caldera contains some of 
Africa's finest black-maned lion. Rhino can be seen with calves. 



and waterbuck appear not to notice the visitors, enabling photog- 
raphers to shoot at ease. On the lake in the middle of the crater, 
you can watch thousands of flamingos. 

March 2: Descend into the crater once more early this morning 
for your last game drive here. Later depart to Lake Manyara 
Hotel, set on the edge of the Great Rift Valley and overlooking 
Lake Manyara National Park. 

March 3: Enjoy a full day exploring the Lake Manyara National 
Park. This park contains five vegetation zones, thus supporting a 
large variety of fauna. Notable are the elephant herds and the 
tree-climbing lions. 

March 4: Drive to the Namanga border where your Kenyan driv- 
ers will meet you for the drive back to Nairobi. 

March 5: This morning you head northwest through undulating 
Kikuyu farming country, reaching the Aberdare Country Club in 
time for lunch. Transfer to special club vehicles for your game 
run to the Ark, which will take you into a deep forested area alive 
with some of the finest game viewing in Kenya. Driving along 
the animal trails and paths, you may suddenly come upon ele- 
phant, rhino, giant forest hog. Cape buffalo, waterbuck, bush- 
buck, warthog, colobus monkey, cerval cat, leopard, and perhaps 
the bongo antelope. The Ark is 'berthed' over a waterhole where 
the animals come to drink. From an underground dungeon you 
have an eye-to-eye view of this constantly changing scenario. 
Darkness descends, but floodlights permit game viewing well 
into the early morning hours! 

March 6: Return to the Aberdare Country Club through the for- 
est and clearings bright with clear morning light. Your safari 
driver will be at the club to greet you and you head north along 
the slopes of Mt. Kenya, then continue on, descending nearly 
6,000 feet, passing through the town of Isiolo where your vehicle 
will suddenly be surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares for you to buy, such as copper bracelets, necklaces, and 
bangles. Bargain away if you wish, it's expected. View game as 
you drive through Samburu Game Reserve to the lovely Sam- 
buru River Lodge, located on the Uaso Nyiro River. 

March 7: Today you have both morning and afternoon game 
viewing of Samburu 's typically 'northern' game — reticulated 
giraffe, Grevy's zebra, graceful long-necked gerenuk, Somali 
ostrich and vulturine guinea fowl, none of which you will see 
further south. Samburu is also a very good park for elephant and 
the elusive leopard. It is an excellent place for the photographer, 
with the park's vivid colors and the contrasts between sky, bush, 
and sand. Bird enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 
species, including the martial eagle, in this reserve. 

March 8: Board minibus and drive to the famous Mount Kenya 
Safari Club. Here you have the remainder of the day to luxuriate 
at this private club made famous by the late William Holden. 
There is golf, tennis, heated swimming pool, horseback riding, 
two lovely shops, a beauty salon, sauna, and many attractive 
rooms set aside for drinking tea or something stronger. The view 
of Mount Kenya is awesome as are the finely manicured grounds. 

March 9: Drive back to Nairobi where rooms will be provided at 
the Norfolk Hotel until your transfer to the airport for your 
flight to London. 

March 10: Arrive London, where you will connect with your 
British Airways flight to Chicago arriving later the same day. 

This tour will be operated by Abercrombie & Kent. 



We Still have space on the "Project Canadian Fjords" scheduled for August 16 to 24, 
aboard the Society Explorer. Please call for further information. Field Museum's leader is 

Dr. Scott M. Lanyon. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Depiartment 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
ChicasoJL 60605-2499 



HISS HARITA >'AXEY 
Till NORTH GREENVIEW 
CHICAGO IL 60626 




FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

June 1987 



1 




Friday Evening Features in June 
Films from Brazil 

see pages 3-5 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 

President: Willard L. Boyd 

Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WlUard L. Boyd 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Woriey H.Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
^Mlliam R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsetla 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N, Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
BlaineJ. Yarrington 

Life Trustees 

Harry O. Elercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V. Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

June 1987 

Volume 58, Number 6 



June Events at Field Museum 



Stone Tikis of the Marquesas Islands 

by Jordan M. Wright 



3 
6 



TheTiti 11 

by PhiUp Hershkovitz, Curator Emeritus of Mammals 
paintings by Staff Artist Zorica G. Dabich 



Will Chalmers, Field Museum's 
First Mineral Collector 

by Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy 



16 



1986 Volunteers Honored 



Injury and Diseases in Fossil Animals 

by Glen T. Sawyer and Bruce R. Erickson 

Field Museum Tours 



19 

20 

26 



COVER 

"The Noblest Bequest of All," or "Our Share," cartoon, ca. 
1910, by John T. McCutcheon (1870-1949), showing Field 
Museum not long after its name was changed from Field 
Columbian Museum. The cartoon depicts the original 
building, in Chicago's Jackson Park, occupied today (after 
radical reconstruction) by the Museum of Science and 
Industry. The Field Museum reopened at its present Grant 
Park location in 1921. 

Arguably the greatest political cartoonist of this cen- 
tury, McCutcheon served on the Chicago Tribune staff from 
1903 on. He won the Pulitzer Prize for cartoons in 1932 
and, as this month's cover demonstrates, did not confine 
himself to subjects of a political nature. He was perhaps 
equally noted for his warmly sympathetic depictions of 
rural Midwestern life. His best known work, "Injun Sum- 
mer" ( 1907), is republished every year around Halloween 
time in the Chicago Tribune. The original of "The Noblest 
Bequest of All" is in the Field Museum archives. 84776 



Field Museum of Natural History Bultetm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shoie Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright® 1987 Field Museum of Natural History Subscriptions: $6.00 annually $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Builelin subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312)922-9410. Notification ofaddress change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send fbcm 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at . 
Chicago, llliiK)is. 



T 



events! 



After Hours at the Field 

Fridays in June 
5:30pm, West Entrance 



FREE 



Field Museum inaugurates a new program of films fi-om around the world. Friday evenings in June feature 
films about Brazil. The series continues in July with films from Australia and New Zealand. Light refresh- 
ments are available for purchase before and after the films. Be sure to use the West Entrance to the Museum. 
For more information call (312) 322-8855. 




Bye Bye Brazil 



"One of the year's best films" — Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel, Sneak Previews 
"A rare treat. ..an earthy, exotic comedy. .hums with vitality" — Playboy. 

June 5 

1980. 110 minutes. Color. Brazil. Director: 



Carlos Diegues. Portuguese with English 
subtitles. 

This Carlos Diegues film blends the powerful 
Cinema Novo style with lively and colorful 



entertainment full of humor, sensuality, and real- 
ism. The story follows a shabby carnival group 
over 9,000 miles of lush Brazilian countryside, 
where they discover that modernization is quickly 
changing rural life styles and that past, present, 
and future must all now somehow coexist. 



Continued -— 



7' 



EVENTS 




 


^K.% 


y « '- ' ' 


B 




* 






/ 





*Hour of the Star 

June 26 

1986. 96 minutes. Color. Brazil. Director: 

Suzanna Amaral. Portuguese with English 

subtitles. 

"I am a typist and a virgin, and I like Coca-Cola." 
So Suzanna Amaral's delicately naive anti-heroine 
describes herself in the beginning of this painfully 
honest film of a poor young girl who courageous- 
ly tries to become a modern woman in the big 
city. How oj the Star'xs this year's Brazilian 
nominee for the Oscar for Best Foreign Film. 




T 



^ 



EVENTS 



Black Orpheus 

June 12 

1959. 98 minutes. Color. Brazil. Director: Marcel 

Camus. Portuguese with English subtitles. 

This classic film retells the legend of Orpheus 
and Eurydice in modern Afi-o-Brazilian Rio de 
Janeiro. Orpheus, the handsome streetcar conduc- 
tor, falls in love with the beautiful but troubled 
country girl, Eurydice, who is stalked by a 
mysterious masked killer. Winner of an Academy 
Award for Best Foreign Film for its electric and 
colorful rendering of Brazil's carnival. 



*How Tasty Was My Little 
Frenchman 

June 19 

1971. 80 minutes. Color. Brazil. Director: 
Nelson Pereira dos Santos. In Tupi (a Brazilian 
language) and French with English subtitles. 

A 16th-century Frenchman, captured by Tupi In- 
dians, tries nobly to integrate himself into the In- 
dian culture but discovers that true incorporation 
into the tribe is only possible in one way: through 
the stomach. This unusual film uses black comedy 
and vivid Brazilian scenery to make an allegorical 
point about Brazil's cultural development by 
Europeans. The cast is naked throughout as Per- 
iera dos Santos's aim is to show the innocence and 
sensuaHty of the Tupis while maintaining anthro- 
pological accuracy. 



*Short ethnographic films of the Yanomamo Indi- 
ans of Northwest Brazil and Venezuela proceed 
these films. Filmed by Timothy Asch with 
anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon. 



June Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. 
Free tours, demonstrations, and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families 
and adults. Listed below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Programs 
sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by 
a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



June 

7 



20 



2:00pm Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze 
(slide lecture). Examine the life and works of 
Malvina Hoffman, concentrating on the Por- 
traits of Mankind Collection commissioned 
by Field Museum. 

11:30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 
traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 
to myths and mummies. 



STONE TIKIS 

of the 

MARQUESAS ISLANDS 

by Jordan M. Wright 

photos by the author 





The Marquesas Islands comprise, together with the 
Society, Tuamotu/Gambier and Austral Islands, 
one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia. 
This group is made up of six main islands (Nuku Hiva, 
Ua Pou, Ua Huka, Tahuata, Hiva Oa and Fatu Hiva) 
and a half dozen small ones situated to the north of Tahi- 
ti, about 1,000 miles. The total surface of the archipela- 
go covers in all not more than 807 square miles. The 
islands are bound by dark cliffs that fall sharply into the 
sea. The principal valleys on each of the islands resemble 
great amphitheatres. 

The Marquesas has been the name of these islands 
since 1595, when they were visited by the Spaniard, 
Alvaro Mendana de Neira, who baptized them in honor 



of the viceroy of Peru's wife, the marchioness of Mendo- 
za, who had organized the expedition. They were more 
truly discovered 1600 years before by some canoe blown 
on a west wind from as far away as Samoa or Tonga. 
What they called the islands then is unknown, although 
not too long afterward the islands were referred to as 
Tettenua, Te Enata, the Land of Men. 

From 1774 to 1791, Cook, Ingraham and Marchand 
visited the islands. Before missionaries converted the 
islanders to Christianity, the Marquesans fought many 
wars among themselves and were noted cannibals, but 
the diseases and vices introduced by the white man had a 
more devastating effect on the population than earlier 
practices. The Marquesas became a French protectorate 




in 1842, after a treaty was signed between Admiral du 
Petit Thouars and the local chiefs. The population at 
one time was more than 100,000, but today is only 
5,400. 

The ancient Marquesans lived not in villages or in 
hamlets but in separate households located in the valleys 
or beside waterways. All houses were built on stone plat- 



forms, known as paepae. They are visible now among the 
coconut trees, often in ruins, symbols of how the Mar- 
quesans once were. The households in a valley would 
share a tohou, or public place, where the people danced 
and feasted. Their stone platforms were arranged around 
the tohou like grandstands, on which they built tempo- 
rary shelters. In the remotest parts of the valley were the 




me'ae (marae), where the holy men performed sacred 
rituals. Here they made offerings of pigs or breadfruit or 
their most sacred sacrifice, heanna: humans who had 
been caught to celebrate the death of a chief or the mak- 
ing of a god. 

All of the constructions were made without mortar, 
but the stones destined for visible surfaces were often 



trimmed in a way which presented a more regular 
appearance. The sacred enclosures, surrounded by low 
rectangular walls, were generally paved. The great step 
platforms observed by Captain Cook and other voyagers 
seemed to have belonged to particularly important 
me'ea of late construction. In the enclosure of the me'ea 
stood the 'unu — carved posts or planks dyed red, which 



are known only from descriptions and old illustrations. 
Certain posts were surmounted by a wooden bird, meant 
to attract or to symbolize living birds — messengers of the 
gods. Other columns, very simply carved, supported 
platforms destined to receive offerings. 

Numerous plants, ornaments, tresses, and garlands 
of coconut leaves were added to the wooden sculptures 
on ceremonial days. Sculptures in human form, only 
moderately sized examples of which have survived, 
formed a varied range, from plain posts of the human 
figure scarcely roughed out, to more or less realistic sta- 
tuettes, sometimes dressed in tapa bark cloth, which the 
Marquesans called tiki. 

Stone statues of the gods watched over the sacred 
sites. The more important tikis were kept on the me'ea 
and were used in various cannibalistic rituals. Certain of 
these tikis served as boundary signs to mark the limits of 
properties or as markers indicating an area in which the 
animal or vegetable resources were temporarily stricken 
with disease. The tikis apparently symbolized the dead 
and the divinized ancestors as a symbol of fecundity. The 
tiki appears to be a synthesis of all the signs of fertility: to 



its fetal appearance are often added feminine attributes, 
more rarely masculine. 

The tikis have common characteristics: the low 
head, elongated in the front and back, lies immediately 
on the shoulders; the face, triangular in shape, is 
finished at the base almost in a point. The features, 
which are not always clearly designed, vary from one 
example to another; but in most cases, goggle-rimmed 
eyes bulge over flaring nostrils and a half-opened mouth 
through which a tongue tip protrudes. The ears were in- 
dicated by earphone-like projections. The body is squat; 
the line of the shoulders, which is horizontal, is marked 
on either side of the head by a flat ledge, which is often 
prolonged onto the back. The tiny arms were flexed, 
while the hands, in highly stylized form, were clasped 
over the protruding abdomen. The legs — very bent — are 
scarcely marked or even non-existent on the stone tiki. 

The photos shown here were taken in Nuku Hiva in 
December 1983. The tikis may be seen beneath the ever- 
encroaching brush, arranged alone or in small groups. 
Most are about three feet high, although a couple are as 
large as six feet. 



NOLU Shoiuing: 



Music and Dance in 
Papua New Guinea 



The color photos of Jordan Wright — 65 in number — are included in the current exhibit, "Music and Dance in 
Papua New Guinea," on view in Gallery 9 through July 12. 

The exhibit combines photography, everyday objects, and tape-recorded traditional music to present 
one aspect of a little-known people. 

TTie exhibit has been organized by the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) in 
cooperation with the University Museum of Archaeology/Anthropology of the University of Pennsylvania. 
The show is derived from the more than 4,000 photographs taken by Jordan Wright during the spring and 
summer of 1982. 

The highland people of Papua New Guinea were once divided into hostile tribes that spent much of their 
time in warfare and ritual preparation for warfare. Dances, elaborate costumes, and colorful body painting 
were part of this ritual. Today, however, these lavish displays are part of friendly competitions, and serve to 
preserve cultural behavior. 

Mr. Wright's brilliant photographs convey the warmth and beauty of life today in the Highland Sepik 
villages of New Guinea. Highlights include exclusive photographs of the Sepik "welcome dance" and a series 
of photographs telling the story of a marriage. 

Jordan Wright's pictures also show the festive events at the annual Mt. Hagen/Goroka Fair — an extrava- 
ganza of parading, dancing and singing. The elaborate music and dance competitions shown give evidence of 
a traditional life that has only recently been touched by contact with the 20th century. 



10 



THE TITI 

South American monkeys remarkable for 
their monogamy and for an enduring 
union marked with special affection 



The small, colorful South 
American monkeys 
of the genus Callicebus (family 
Cebidae), commonly 
known as titis, live in tropical 
forests east of the Andes 
Mountains in Colombia, 
Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, 
Bolivia, northern Paraguay, and 
most of Brazil. 

At least ten species are _^ 

distinguishable, some of them with 
two or more subspecies. The copp- 
ery titis, illustrated here by Staff 
Artist Zorica G.Dabich, are the buff- 
headed (Callicebus cupreus cupreus) , 
the white-fronted red-handed (Callicebus 
cupreus discolor), and the white-fronted white- 
handed (Callicebus cupreus omatus). As indi- 
cated by their scientific names, the three are sub- 
species of the species Callicebus cupreus. Their 
geographic distribution is shown on the map, 
page 13. 

Titis are long-haired, long-tailed quadrupeds, 
most of them with colorful, mane-like sideburns. 
A full-grown titi of the species Callicebus cupreus 
is the size of a rabbit, and weighs about two pounds. 
An adult of the largest species, Callicebus persona' 
tus, of eastern Brazil, may weigh three pounds 
or more. Sexual dimorphism, that is, physical 
differences between the sexes, other than 
those of the reproductive system, are not apparent. 

by Philip Hershkovitz 
Curator Emeritus ofMommais 




Vfe>^, 



Mated male and female in a 
usual posture, side by side with 
tails entwined. 



All titis share a number 
of behavioral characters 
that distinguish the genus. 
Titis are monogamous, 
an uncommon relation- 
ship among primates. Most 
particular is a close 
and enduring bond 
between titi pairs 
unmatched in 
other New World 
monkeys. The 
male and female 
stay close whether 
traveling, eating, 
resting, or sleep- 
ing. They hold hands, 
grasp feet, smack lips, 
sing together, and when resting side by side 
twine their hanging tails together in what may 
seem a loving embrace. Separation causes 
great distress for both individuals that not even 
a substitute mate can alleviate. 

The normal titi group is a family unit made 
up of the parental pair and infant of the year. To 
this may be added the young of the previous 
year, and sometimes the offspring of the year be- 
fore, but this oldest one is on its way out to start 
its own family. 
The territory of one to a few acres occupied 
by a family group is jealously guarded against 
trespass by titis of neighboring groups. Home 

pointings by Zorica G. Dabich 

Staff Artist 



11 




Northern South America, with bold outUne delineating known limits of geographic range of the genus Callicebus. Dark 
shaded areas show range o/ Callicebus cupreus with its subspecies omatus, discolor, and cupreus. The light shaded areas 
include ranges of species o/ Callicebus tOFquatus, C. oenanthe, C. caligatus, C. moloch, C. brunneus, C. modestus, 
C. olallae, C. donacophilus, and C. personatus. Two species of ur\determined status are omitted. Titis may also occur in 
the unshaded area marked "?" Note gap in distribution between Callicebus cupreus omatus and C. cupreus discolor, arvi 
between Callicebus personatus arui remaining species of the genus. Map by ]ennifer Blitz. 



range limits are staked out by force of voice. At the break 
of dawn, the awakened family unit makes its stand on a 
tree limb at the periphery of its home ground. From this 
vantage point it engages in a duetting duel, pitching 
voices against response in kind by confronting neighbors 
perched in another tree at the boundary. Vocalizations 
can carry for a mile and often stimulate answering calls 
from distant groups. There is little overt aggression dur- 
ing confrontations. There may be some chasing and 
brawling, with the invader of either side quickly repel- 
led, usually with little or no damage to either party. It 
has been observed, however, that during the height of 
battle and the heat of breeding season, a gallant from 



one side may make a quick end run to the other side, 
hurriedly pay his respects to a receptive female, and 
dodge back to his lines before the momentarily dis- 
tracted consort becomes aware of any transgression. 

Duetting as performed daily by titis is a rare mam- 
malian phenomenon. Only some Asiatic gibbons among 
nonhuman primates practice it, and probably not for the 
same purpose. Duetting by a titi pair, often with 
accompaniment by offspring, ensures the exclusiveness 
and stability of the group's home range and, except for 
an occasional peccadillo, the integrity of the monog- 
amous bond. 

One young is produced each year toward the begin- 13 



Buff 'heeded titi, Callicebus cupreus cupreus 



















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White-fronted red-handed ati, Callicebus cupreus discolor 



ning of the rainy season. Gestation is roughly 5Vi 
months. The neonate, bom with eyes open, weighs 90- 
100 grams, or about a tenth of its mother's weight. Fol- 
lowing the first nursing, which occurs within 2 to 4 
hours, the infant is picked up by the father, who takes 
over completely except for the daily nursing and groom- 
ing periods provided by the mother. The young clings to 
its father's back for about a month before venturing to 
move about independently, a few minutes at a time. By 
the age of four or five months, or when weaned, the 
young is completely independent. The whitish frontal 
band characteristic of adult omatus and discolcn may not 
appear until the fifth or sixth week of postnatal develop- 
ment. Complete adulthood is attained during the third 
year. 
14 Food taken in the wild consists mainly of fruit. 



flowers, buds, and leaves. A small quantity of insects 
may be ingested, but in captivity meat in some form is 
eaten regularly. 

It is a joy to watch these beautiful, peaceful, engag- 
ing monkeys and a delight to hear them. Their activities- 
provide a wealth of knowledge of the world we live in 
and, as exemplified by a plucky female, how to live in it. 
This individual, a wild-bom captive of the subspecies 
Cdlicehus cupreus omatus, was in poor flesh and fur. It 
was losing strength rapidly despite every care received 
during six weeks in the hospital of a primate research 
center in Covington, Louisiana. As a final resort, it was 
let loose in the center's outdoor enclosure. This titi was 
last seen in the station 10 June 1968. Five months later, 
on 6 November, it was brought to the center by a local 
squirrel hunter who had shot it in a wooded area six miles 





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White'fronted uihite-harukd titi, Callicebus cupreus omatus 



to the south. The autopsy revealed a miraculous recov- 
ery. The animal was in excellent physical condition, fat, 
well-muscled, with fur coat in prime condition, and a 
voracious appetite proven by a stomach full of partially 
digested fruit, acorns, flowers, leaves, pollen, and insect 
wings. 

The most valuable sources used in the preparation 
of this article are published accounts by Dr. William A. 
Mason and Dr. Warren G. Kinzey. Dr. Mason spent most 
of 1964 in eastern Colombia in pioneer studies of titis in 
their natural habitat. His labors in comparative behavior 
continued in the primate centers of Tulane University 
and is ongoing in the University of California at Davis. 
Dr. Kinzey, of the City College of New York, initiated 
studies of wild-living Callicebus cupreus discolor and Cal- 
Ucebus torquatus in Amazonian Peru during 1974, with 



continuations into 1981. During 1977 he studied the 
eastern Brazilian Callicebus personatus in its natural habi- 
tat. My encounters with titis were in Colombia, 
Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. 

Callicebus is one of six genera of cebid monkeys 
treated in the second volume (in preparation) of my 
monograph Living New World Monkeys. The first 
volume, on marmosets, tamarins, and the callimico, was 
published in 1977 by the University of Chicago Press. * 

I am indebted to Zorica G. Dabich for the paintings 
of the three titis, each a masterpiece, and sketch of the 
tail-twining titis, and to Jennifer Blitz for the geographic 
distribution map. FM 



'Availabk at the Museum Store, $110.00, ten percent discount for 
members. 15 



WILL CHALMERS 
Field Museum's 
First Mineral 
Collector 



by Edwarck)lsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 



People collect everything. There are collectors of 
bottle caps, stamps, matchbooks, barbed wire, fos- 
sils, antique cars, beer cans, minerals, Aztec pottery, 
swizzle sticks, bubble gum cards — to list only a few. It 
seems to be some kind of instinct. Some of us return from 
a summer vacation with pockets full of pretty pebbles 
picked up from the beaches and stream bottoms of the 
world. The instinct goes far back into our history on this 
planet. A Stone Age burial site in Europe contains the 
remains of a man surrounded by a collection of pretty 
pebbles, bits of mineral crystals, and some fossils. We 
can speculate that he was buried with his personal 
collection — an early attempt to flout the maxim about 
not being able to "take it with you." 

Collections are the bread and butter of natural his- 
tory museums. Inveterate collectors regard the museum 
curator as having the ultimate job. Imagine, getting paid 
to collect! The collections in natural history museums 
are, hopefully, made more carefully than the pockets full 
of pebbles. The reasons for museum collections are more 
than just to satisfy a long-held human instinct. Natural 
history museums have become the storehouses of mate- 
rials on which a portion of the scientific community de- 
pends for its research. The curators have to know the 
materials in their collections, and know how to intel- 
ligently add to them. Adding objects to a given collec- 
tion isn't always easy. It may turn out that sources don't 
exist for some items — as, for example, some minerals 
once known from long closed-down mining operations, 
or are from parts of the world that are currently politi- 
cally unstable. 

Adding to collections is done in several ways — 
collecting yourself, purchasing required items from per- 
sons, trading with other museums or individual coUec- 
16 tors. One of the most successful ways, however, is to seek 



to become the place where serious collectors leave their 
collections, either during their lifetimes or in bequests. 
After any good collector has spent a large part of his life 
getting together a top-notch collection, sooner or later 
he becomes concerned about its future status — after he 
is no longer around. It often happens that family mem- 
bers are not particularly interested in such collections 
and it becomes clear to the collector that one day it will 
all be sold off or, worse, tossed out by an unknowledge- 
able relative. At this stage, some collectors make an 
approach to a large museum. Through its almost 
century-long history the Field Museum has been the 
repository of some outstanding collections, received in 
just this way, from collectors looking for a good home for 
them. 

When the Museum was very new, back in 1894, 
one of its first trustees was also a shrewd collector of 
mineral specimens. William J. Chalmers, known to his 
friends as Will, got into mineral collecting through his 
business operation. He was a partner in the company of 
Fraser &. Chalmers, which manufactured heavy mining 
machinery. In those days the Great American West, as 
well as much of the Middle West and the East, was 
heavily worked by numerous metal mining operations. 
In the course of selling equipment to mining companies, 
Will Chalmers traveled and visited many operating 
mines. In the process he became aware of beautiful 
minerals that are sometimes the ores being mined, but 
more often are the minerals associated with the ores — 
what miners call gangue minerals. Gradually, he picked 
up the best examples of many minerals and started what 
was to grow into a first-rate collection. 

In those days, getting together a good mineral 
collection was generally not done by midwesterners. 
Chicago is located right in the heart of a mineralogical 
wasteland! For many hundreds of miles in all directions 
around Chicago there are very few really interesting 
mineral collecting localities. East coasters, on the other 
hand, are located close to dozens of well-known mineral 
collecting localities. The difference is in the rock types 
of the region. A New Yorker can go out on a weekend to 
a dozen localities and find many fine mineral specimens. 
A Chicagoan can't. Considering his roots in Chicago, 
Will Chalmers would probably never have collected 
minerals had he not been in the mining machinery 
business. 

He was bom in 1852 on what is now the near west 
side of Chicago, the area of the present University of 
Illinois-Chicago Campus. His father, Tom Chalmers, 
had come there from Glasgow, Scotland in 1842 and was 
settled into a small enclave of Scots, Welsh, and Eng- 
lish. After high school. Will was apprenticed to the 



Eagle Works Manufacturing Co. , where he learned to be 
a skilled mechanic. His father was the general superin- 
tendent at Eagle Works. At the age of 20 he and his 
father started the business that became the Eraser & 
Chalmers Co. The company became the world's largest 
manufacturer of mining machinery. He became presi- 
dent of the company in 1891. 

Right in his own neighborhood, Will met a 
fascinating young woman. Joan Pinkerton was the 
daughter of Allan Pinkerton. She was bom in a house at 
Monroe and Laflin Streets, and lived with her family on 
what was then called Reuben Street — the present-day 
Ashland Avenue. Her father had started America's most 
famous detective agency, Pinkerton's. It was his agency, 
and he himself on many occasions, that became the first 
bodyguards of American presidents. This force of body- 
guards later evolved into the present-day Secret Service. 
Young Joan, through her father's business, met many of 
the famous men of her day. When she was young. Gener- 
al Phil Sheridan would come to visit and sit on the porch 
of the Pinkerton house, watching in wonder as Joan 
wildly raced her horse up and down Ashland Avenue! 
Sheridan, at the time, was in charge of the western 
department of the Army, which was involved in the 
tragic wars with the Plains Indians. 

Joan and Will were married in 1878 and Joan 
assumed the role of social arbiter of the Western Division 
of Chicago society. In those days there were three divi- 
sions — the West, the North and the South. Today, it 
seems strange to think of a near west side high society, 
because the area has been commercialized for so many 
years. In those days the Western Division was a force to 
be considered. It was the area of the famous Bertha Hon- 
ore, daughter of Henry H. Honore (there's a street 
named after him), who built a southern-style mansion 
plunked in the middle of a whole square block edged by 
Ashland Avenue and Jackson Boulevard. Bertha mar- 
ried Potter Palmer, and became the formidable Mrs. Pot- 
ter Palmer, the first real queen of Chicago society. 

Joan was interested in charity functions. In those 
days, Chicago was the destination of many national 
groups from Europe seeking homes and jobs. There were 
essentially no government social programs. Settlement 
depended on the efforts of people like Jane Addams, 
with funding from private individuals, especially Chi- 
cago society. Will became involved in a number of civic 
activities. He served as a director of the World's Co- 
lumbian Exposition in 1893 and was, for a time, a mem- 
ber of the Chicago Board of Education. When the Field 
Museum was formed (then called the Field Columbian 
Museum) he became a member of its board of trustees. 

His business grew, as did his mineral collection; 




William]. Chalmers 

however, as time went on, new mining operations in the 
United States were not starting up as often as in the past. 
Large regions of America were becoming more and more 
agricultural. Other mining machinery companies 
emerged and offered stiff competition. With the gradual 
change. Eraser & Chalmers began to suffer difficulties. 
Just about that time. Will Chalmers met a man named 
Edwin Reynolds. Reynolds was the senior engineer for 
the Edward P. Allis Company of Milwaukee, a company 
that manufactured heavy machinery. The result of their 
casual meeting was ultimately a merging, in 1901 , of four 
machinery companies, the Allis Co. of Milwaukee, Eras- 
er & Chalmers and the Gates Iron Works — both of 
Chicago, and the Dickson Manufacturing Co. , of Scran- 
ton, Pennsylvania. The new company was called the 
AUis-Chalmers Company. As the years went by, this 
company evolved into a leading maker of farm imple- 
ments, as well as a line of heavy industrial machines. 
Mergers of large companies often create difficulties for 
the individuals involved. After several years of problems 



17 



along the management of the four companies, Will 
Chalmers, who had become vice president of AUis- 
Chalmers, decided to resign in 1905. 

His interest in minerals continued, and his wife had 
caught the "bug" during the years of their marriage — 
they both had mineral collections! He served on the 



The 5, 900'carat Chalmers 

Topaz, on view in the 

Grainger Hall of Gems 



done with simple tools and microscopes. By the late 
1950s, however, no serious research could be done with- 
out the use of X-ray diffraction equipment. With the 
accumulated endowment earnings of the Chalmers Fund 
the Museum could easily afford to purchase an X-ray 
diffraction laboratory. From it, dozens of research papers 




18 



Field Museum Board of Trustees until his death in 1938, 
at the age of 86. In his will be bequeathed his mineral 
collection to the Field Museum, and made an initial 
endowment of funds to help with the upkeep of the 
collection, additions to the mineralogical collections, 
and research on minerals. Later, in Joan Chalmers' will, 
she also gave the Museum her mineral collection, and 
made an additional endowment fund for the same pur- 
poses. 

Over the years, the Chalmers mineral collection 
has been a strong asset to the Field Museum. Besides 
giving us great specimens for exhibit, it has provided 
faculties and students with many samples for research. 
Projects such as crystal structure determinations, crystal 
structure refinements, analytical standards, lead isotope 
measurements, and oxygen isotope homogeneity studies 
have been made using specimens from the Chalmers 
collection. The Chalmers Fund has been equally valu- 
able. In Will Chalmers' day, mineralogical research was 



have resulted, and new minerals have been discovered. 
Today, research on minerals involves the use of large 
machines like electron microprobes, analytical electron 
microscopes, electron diffraction equipment, and ion 
microprobes. These machines, ranging in price from 
$200,000 to $1.5 million, are too expensive to be sup- 
ported by any one institution, with annual upkeep costs 
that range in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. With 
Chalmers Fund monies it has been possible to pay for use 
time on this entire array of equipment in different lab- 
oratories around Chicago. The research yield, over the 
decades, has been impressive. 

Some years ago, the Museum had the chance to 
purchase a spectacular, 5,900-carat faceted topaz for its 
exhibit collection. It was purchased using earnings from 
the Chalmers Fund and was suitably given the name, the 
Chalmers Topaz. It is the centerpiece of the Museum's 
new Grainger Hall of Gems. We know that Will and 
Joan Chalmers would have been pleased with it. FM 



1986 Volunteers Honored 



Field Museum honored its 1986 volunteers at a special buf- 
fet supper on April 28 in Stanley Field Hall. It was fitting 
that the event recognizing the volunteers for their service to 
Field Museum was held during National Volunteer Week 
1987. 

In a brief ceremony, Ellen Zebrun, volunteer coordina- 
tor, welcomed the volunteers to the evening's festivities. Wil- 
lard L. Boyd, president, speaking on behalf of the trustees and 
staff, expressed the gratitude felt for the invaluable contribu- 
tion made by the volunteers. Noting the importance of the 
volunteers to the ongoing success of Field Museum, Dr. Boyd 
highlighted the volunteer activities in 1986. He then recog- 
nized the six volunteers who had given over 500 hours of 
service. 

During 1986 the volunteer contribution of 37,686 hours 
of service was the equivalent of 21 additional full-time staff 
members. Last year's special exhibit, "Te Maori: Maori Art 
from New Zealand Collections" was staffed entirely by 
volunteers. This volunteer force gave 1,900 hours of service, 
including tours of the Museum's Maori meeting house for 
30,000 visitors. 

These figures are impressive; equally impressive are the 
number of years the volunteers stay with the program. Of the 
250 current volunteers, 20 percent have been volunteering for 
over three years, 25 percent for over five years, and 1 8 percent 
for over 10 years. TTie volunteer program at Field Museum is 



now in its nineteenth year, and 4 percent of the volunteers 
have been with the program for over 15 years. 

Volunteer opportunities at Field Museum are diverse — 
volunteers work in the scientific and administrative areas as 
well as in the public areas such as the Education Department 
and Membership. Volunteers catalog, label, prepare speci- 
mens, charts, maps, and scientific illustrations, do research, 
edit, type, and file. They also lead tours for school groups and 
the public, and staff the Pawnee Earth Lodge and Place for 
Wonder. Many of the volunteers, esp)ecially those serving on 
weekends, have full-time employment in addition to their 
contribution of time and service to Field Museum; they are 
excellent role models for others to follow. 

Because of the wide range of opportunities, Field 
Museum volunteers cover a broad spectrum of experience, 
education, vocation, and interest. Some volunteers are now 
or have been executives in the private sector or educators, for 
others this is a first work experience. Most volunteers come 
from Chicago and its suburbs, but some come from downstate 
Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and northern Indiana. 

TTiere are volunteers with doctoral degrees, while others 
never finished high school. Some volunteers are still in 
school, gaining experience for their resumes; some volunteers 
are retired and looking to explore new interests. The volun- 
teer program at Field Museum has something to offer every- 
one. — E.Z. 



Volunteers with More than 500 Hours of Services 

Barbara Beardsley — Education: Jaci Tomulonis, supervisor 
Sophie Ann Brunner — Amphibians and Reptiles: Hymen Marx, 

supervisor 
David Matusik — Insects: Stephen Ashe, supervisor 
William Roder — Tours: Dorothy Roder, supervisor 
Llois Stein — Anthropology: Phillip Lewis, supervisor 
Tom Tatner — Botany: John Engel and Honora Murphy, supervisors; 

— Birds: David Willard, supervisor 

More than 400 Hours 

Sol Century — Anthropology: Bennet Bronson, supervisor 
Peter Gayford — Anthropology: Bennet Bronson, supervisor 
Frank A. Greene, Jr. — Geology: Mary Carman, supervisor 
Lillian Kreitman — Membership: Gregory Porter, supervisor 



More than 300 Hours 

Jackie Arnold — Education: Mary Ann Bloom and Marcia MacRae, 

supervisors 
Margaret Axelrod — Education: Mary Ann Bloom and Edith 

Fleming, supervisors 
Dennis Bara- -Membership: Gregory Porter, supervisor 
Larry Berman — Fishes: Terry Grande, supervisor 
Ingrid Fauci — Amphibians and Reptiles: Hymen Marx, supervisor 
Halina Goldsmith — Education: Mary Ann Bloom, supervisor 
Robert Gowland — Anthropology: Ronald Weber and Christine 

Gross, supervisors 
Margaret Martling — Botany: William Burger, supervisor 
Carolyn Moore — Anthropology: Bennet Bronson, supervisor 
Dorothy Oliver — Library: Michele Calhoun, supervisor 
Naomi Pruchnik — Botany: Stephen Dercole, supervisor 
Sara Rosenbloom — Education: Mary Ann Bloom and Philip 

Hanson, supervisors 
Carol Schneider — Botany: Michael Huft, supervisor 
Maxine Walter — Zoology: Anita del Genio, supervisor 
Mary Wenzel — Insects: Rupert Wenzel, supervisor 

A complete listing of Field Museum volunteers will be pub- 
lished in the July- August 1987 issue of the Bulletin, which is 
the 1985-86 Biennial Report. 



19 



Injury and Diseases 
In Fossil Animals 

The Intriguing Worid of Paleopathology 



try Glen T Sawyer and Bruce R. Erickson 

We must understand the past in order to arrive at a 
complete understanding of the world in which we 
live. The environments of the distant past, the plants 
and animals that existed then, their relationships to one 
another and to their surroundings — all should be con- 
sidered when studying the physical world. 

Disease states in animals that are a result of be- 
havioral characteristics or environmental factors are cer- 
tainly of interest in such studies. Any branch of pathol- 
ogy, whether it be human or veterinary pathology. 



should include an extensive in-depth investigation into 
comparative pathology. The study of the nature of dis- 
ease in the distant as well as the more recent past gives 
historical perspective and adds greatly to pathology as a 
scholarly discipline. 

Paleopathology, as a branch of vertebrate 
paleontology, has been relatively neglected in scientific 



T/iii axude is reproduced, with slig/it emendations, from Encounters, 
courtesy of the publisher, the Science Museum of Minnesota. 



I . Exhibits for analyzing a healed fracture of the tibia (large bone of lower hind leg) of the fossil crocodile Leidyosuchus: (a) positive print of X-ray, 
(b) scientific illustration, ar\d (c) photograph. The same view is presented in each case. 



20 





2. American aihgatar 
uii^ right hind foot mus- 
ing {healed amputation). 



literature. Descriptions of abnormal fossilized bones and 
teeth have usually been appended to papers on other 
subjects or merely dismissed as interesting oddities. Only 
in recent years has science come to realize the impor- 
tance of the wealth of information contained in this part 
of the fossil record. 

Paleontologists at the Science Museum of Minne- 



3. American dligator with dislocated lower jaui. 



sota have recently begun to catalog and systematically 
study all non-human vertebrate paleopathology in its 
collections. Any deviation from the "healthy," or nor- 
mal, state which has left a visible imprint on the fossil- 
ized animal remains is being considered. Some examples 
are described and illustrated here. 

These fossilized remains are parts of once living 
animals and when examined in this context, it is inevi- 
table that one question the causes of death. The most 
common causes of death in wild animals are disease and 
trauma. Trauma includes predation, environmental 




Bruce R. Erickson 




5. Motc/iing punctured fossH turtle shell with fossil crocodile teeth. 



22 



accidents, and injuries that are a result of conflicts be- 
tween individuals of the same or different species. 
Although the evidence of predation may be spectacular, 
individuals dying as a result of predation usually leave 
few remains. Their carcasses are usually consumed by the 
predator. When evidence of predation is recognized it 
usually indicates that the prey survived the encounter. 
When disease or trauma is relatively slow and/or spo- 
radic in expression, the fossil record is often remarkable. 

Non-human paleopathologic studies are often lim- 
ited because only isolated fossil bones and teeth are 
available for study. Entire fossilized skeletons are rarely 
found with soft tissues, such as muscle, heart, lungs, and 
so forth, preserved. When a research project, such as 
one which has been carried out in western North Dakota 
at Wannagan Creek Quarry during the past twelve years, 
results in a massive collection of closely associated fos- 
sils, unique opportunities are presented for the study 
of an extinct environment with many examples of 
the animals that lived there, their diseases, and their 
injuries. 

Like most tissue, bone is able to react to diseases or 
insult in only a limited number of ways. There may be 



localized or generalized excessive bone formation or a 
reduction in the amount of bone. The pattern of abnor- 
mal tissue change, its structure, and its distribution sug- 
gest the type of disease process involved. In general, 
disease processes fall into broad categories including 
traumatic (injuries), developmental, infectious, 
neoplastic ("tumors"), degenerative, metabolic, and 
vascular. The last three categories produce bone changes 

6. Section of fossil turtle shell showir^ heeded puncture wound. 




that are less specific, while traumatic, developmental, 
infectious, or neoplastic disease is somewhat easier to 
identify. There is no structural change that is absolutely 
specific for any disease, however. 

In some cases fossil evidence of injuries, such as 
amputations, fractures, or puncture wounds, are inter- 
preted after comparison to similar conditions in living 
relatives. For example, within a population of the living 
Indo Australian crocodile Crocodylus porosus, injuries 
occur more frequently in certain size groups. Young indi- 
viduals of 10 to 20 inches in length (post-hatching) and 
individuals of five feet or more in length show the great- 
est number of head, limb, and tail injuries. This is attri- 
buted to the susceptibility of the former to attack from 
larger predators such as fishes, birds, and other croco- 
diles and, in the latter case, to encounters with prey 
species or conflict with their fellows related to social 
behavior and territoriality. 

Similar circumstances resulting in injury and be- 
havior of the same kind were present 58 million years 
ago and involved the large Paleocene crocodile 
Leidyosuchus. A healed fracture of a tibia (fig. 1 ) be- 
longing to this form is typical of the type of inca- 
pacitating injury that occurs in living crocodiles as well. 
In addition to a photograph of the actual specimen, a 
technical drawing and an x-ray of the same specimen are 
shown. The drawing represents a technique useful in 
emphasizing detailed features for scientific publication 
and x-rays are, of course, helpful in scientific analysis. 
X-rays often indicate the nature and extent of a patho- 
logic process in the substance of a tissue such as bone 
that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. 

Figure 2 shows a living alligator with a right hind 
food amputation that most probably resulted from an 
encounter with another alligator or crocodile. We can 
only speculate about the coexistence of alligators and 
crocodile in the past, but today when they come 
together violent confrontations usually occur. Disloca- 
tion of an alligator's jaw, a common condition, is well 
seen in figure 3. This is most likely secondary to trauma. 

Puncture wounds are frequently found in the upper 
shells of both fossil and living turtles. This feature relates 
strongly to behavior. A living pond turtle with such a 
wound is seen in a Florida river (fig. 4). Its close associa- 
tion with alligators leaves little doubt as to the cause 
of this injury. Our research at Wannagan Creek Quarry 
reveals that the same conditions are present in fossil tur- 
tles. Such turtle shell wounds often match, in size and 



7. Heakd fracture of radius (large bone of lower fore leg) of crested dino- 
saur (indicated b^i arrow). 




23 




8. Compression fracture of dorsal vertebra of dmosaur Camptosaurus. 



9. Arthritic joint between two toe bones of fossil crocodile Leidyosuchus; 
(a) scientific illustration, (b) photo of same. 



spacing, large caniniform teeth in fossil crocodile skulls 
found in abundance in the same quarry (fig. 5). A fossil 
turtle shell with a partially healed puncture wound is 
seen in figure 6. 

Dinosaurs also sustained injuries. Figure 7 shows a 
radius (a front limb bone) of a crested dinosaur from the 
Cretaceous beds of Alberta, Canada. This bone shows a 
healed fracture. There is angulation of the shaft and 
enlargement at the point of angulation strongly suggest- 
ing the formation of a healing "callus." As this hadro- 
saurian dinosaur was bipedal and walked mostly on its 
hind legs, the injury to its forelimb probably presented 
only a minor inconvenience, whereas the fractured tibia 
of the crocodile (fig. 1), which is quadrupedal in its 
locomotion, probably caused gait difficulty during the 
healing process. 

Figure 8 shows another common dinosaur injury. 
This is a compression fracture of a back vertebra in 
Camptosaurus, a small iguanodont dinosaur that lived in 
Wyoming during the Jurassic period 140 million years 
ago. This type of fracture may often be associated with 
some localized degenerative arthritis of neighboring 
joints with excessive bone forming as spurs or lips around 
the joints. 

Degenerative arthritis is a common condition in 
many vertebrates, including humans. It usually is char- 
acterized by erosion of surfaces of weight-bearing joints, 
with associated chronic inflammatory changes. How- 
ever, localized trauma affecting a joint, such as a ver- 
tebral compression fracture, causes more wear at a joint 
than would otherwise occur. 

Fossil vertebrates often have this type of arthritis. 
The most abundant large animal at Wannagan Creek 



24 





W. Tooth abscess in lower jaui of young adult fossil bison (indicated b^i 
arrow). 



1 1 . Osteoma on hone fragment from late Cretaceous dinosaur 
(indicated by arrow). 




Quarry, the crocodile Leidyosuchus, is no exception. An 
articulated metatarsal and phalange (a portion of a foot) 
in figure 9 are selected to show marked arthritis of the 
joint with extra bone formation around the joint but no 
obvious evidence of previous fracture. 

Inflammation occurs when an injurious agent 
comes in contact with normal tissue. This defensive 
reaction by an organism may not be successful until after 
local tissue destruction creates a cavity. Attempts at re- 
pair and regeneration often follow and, in the case of 
bone, sometimes result in excess bone formation around 
or near the cavity. 

Bacterial infection of bone may produce irregular 
cavities or draining canals with or without excess bone 
formation nearby (as a reaction to the inflammation). 
Figure 10 shows the results of a tooth abscess in a bison 
specimen of late glacial times found in Steams County, 
Minnesota. The location of the pathologic process and 
the local bone destruction with irregular cavity walls 
suggest a localized bacterial infection. 

Neoplasms (or "true tumors") have been defined as 
new and abnormal tissue growths which serve no useful 
biologic function and develop at the expense of the heal- 
thy organism. Neoplasms of bone tissue may be either 
benign or malignant. Probably the most frequent neo- 
plasm found in both fossil and living vertebrate bone is 
the osteoma. This benign growth is illustrated well by 
figure 1 1 , which shows a Cretaceous dinosaur bone frag- 
ment with probable osteoma, found in Garfield County, 
Montana. 

Vertebrate paleopathological information greatly 
expands the basic pool of knowledge in general pathol- 
ogy. It is also used for paleoecological purposes. How 
plants and animals adapted to their environment, with 
their injuries and diseases, in the distant past has con- 
siderable bearing on present-day adaptation. 

Why did the dinosaurs become extinct? This is an 
intriguing question but one that cannot be yet satis- 
factorily answered despite all of the theories. What ailed 
the dinosaurs and how their longevity might have been 
affected by injury or disease are questions which might 
be answered first. When answers are not found for such 
questions, they will likely come from the comparatively 
small but expanding collections of abnormal fossils in 
the museums of the world. 



Glen T Sawyer is research associate in paleontology at the Science 
Museum of Minrwsota ar\d assistant chief, Neurology Service, at 
V. A. Medical Center, Minneapolis. BruceR. Erickson is curator of 
paleontology and head of the Science Division at the Science 
Museum of Minnesota. 



25 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TDUR3^ 



Kenya Tanzania Safari 

February 20 to March 10. 1988 
$5,245 per person 
Leader: Audrey Faden 



February 20: Your safari begins when you board your British 
Airways flight to London this evening. 

February 21: Arrive London's Heathrow Airport this morning. 
You will be met and transferred to the Sheraton Skyline Hotel, 
where day-rooms will be provided until your British Airways 
flight to Nairobi this evening. 

February 22: Upon arrival in Nairobi, you will be met and trans- 
ferred to the luxurious Norfolk Hotel — a famous colonial land- 



mark and one-time haunt of Teddy Roosevelt, Ernest Heming- 
way, and Robert Ruark. This afternoon, enjoy a half-day tour 
of Nairobi, visiting the colorful African market, the unique Ken- 
yatta Conference Center, Nairobi University, and the famed 
National Museum, known for its superb natural history collec- 
tion and watercolors by Joy Adamson. Continue your tour by 
driving through the suburb of Karen, where you will see Isak 
Dinesen's original home, now a museum. This evening there is a 
welcome cocktail party and dinner at the Norfolk, with guests of 
the East African Wildlife Society. 

February 23: Today you head toward the famed Tsavo West 
National Park, Kenya's largest national park. View game 
through the park before arriving at Kilaguni Lodge for lunch. 
From the lodge, watch the game come to the nearby waterhole. 
After lunch, go out in search of the great elephant herds. Your 
drive takes you to Mzima Springs, where large pools of clear 
spring water surface at the rate of 50 milhon gallons a day. Oc- 
casionally hippos can be viewed from the tank and cormorants 
swim by. 

February 24: Today you drive to AmboseH National Park, justly 
famous for its big game and superb views of Kilimanjaro. The 
150 square miles of park embody four main wildlife habitats 
including open plains, acacia woodland, scrub brush, and fresh- 
water swamps. Spend the afternoon viewing animals such as 
wildebeest, zebra, giraffe, lion, cheetah, elephant, and rhino. 
Amboseli Serena Lodge. 

February 25: Start the day with a dawn game drive in this beauti- 
ful park. Early morning is also the best time to view Kilimanjaro 
before the clouds build up over the summit. Game drive in the 
late afternoon — the best time to see lion and cheetah as they begin 
to stir from the shade. 



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26 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



February 26: Today you drive to Tanzania via the Namanga bor- 
der, passing through minimal immigration formahties. Continue 
on to Gibbs Farm, a small, quaint farm in the midst of coffee 
plantations. 

February 27: Today transfer to Ndutu Safari Lodge, situated on 
the shores of Lake Lgarya near the southeastern corner of 
Serengeti National Park. Here you will enjoy game-viewing 
drives both morning and afternoon. 

February 28: Today you have game-viewing drives both mor- 
ning and afternoon to explore the vast Serengeti plains. Here mil- 
lions of wildebeest and zebra mill across the plains, seeking fresh 
grasses. You see large prides of lion, perhaps a leopard resting in a 
tree, groups of hyena, a mother cheetah teaching her cubs to 
hunt, giraffe, gazelle, topi, and kongoni — the list is endless. 
Ndutu Safari Lodge. 

February 29: This morning you will drive into the Olduvai 
Gorge, the site of Dr. and Mrs. L. S. B. Leakey's famous discov- 
ery of the fossil he called "Zinjanthropus boisei" (no-w classified 
Australopithecus boisei). Here you will enjoy a visit to the small 
but very informative museum and a short talk by one of Mrs. 
Leakey's assistants, who will escort you to the site of the "Zinj" 
discovery. Continue on to one of the natural wonders of the 
world, the Ngorongoro Crater, a caldera created by the pre- 
historic collapse of a volcano cone. On the crater floor, herds of 
typical plains mammals live out their destinies: buffalo, zebra, 
wildebeest. Grant's Gazelle, Thomson's Gazelle, lion, and hyena. 
Ngorongoro Wildhfe Lodge. 

March 1: Today we spend down in the crater, tracking and 
photographing the animals. This great caldera contains some of 
Africa's finest black-maned Hon. Rhino can be seen with calves, 
and waterbuck appear not to notice the visitors, enabling photog- 
raphers to shoot at ease. On the lake in the middle of the crater, 
you can watch thousands of flamingos. 

March 2: Descend into the crater once more early this morning 
for your last game drive here. Later depart to Lake Manyara 
Hotel, set on the edge of the Great Rift Valley and overlooking 
Lake Manyara National Park. 

March 3: Enjoy a full day exploring the Lake Manyara National 
Park. This park contains five vegetation zones, thus supporting a 
large variety of fauna. Notable are the elephant herds and the 
tree-climbing lions. 

March 4: Drive to the Namanga border where your Kenyan driv- 
ers will meet you for the drive back to Nairobi. 

March 5: This morning you head northwest through undulating 
Kikuyu farming country, reaching the Aberdare Country Club in 
time for lunch. Transfer to special club vehicles for your game 
run to the Ark, which will take you into a deep forested area alive 
with some of the finest game viewing in Kenya. Driving along 
the animal trails and paths, you may suddenly come upon ele- 
phant, rhino, giant forest hog. Cape buffalo, waterbuck, bush- 
buck, warthog, colobus monkey, cerval cat, leopard, and perhaps 
the bongo antelope. The Ark is 'berthed' over a waterhole where 
the animals come to drink. From an underground dungeon you 
have an eye-to-eye view of this constantly changing scenario. 
Darkness descends, but floodlights permit game viewing well 
into the early morning hours! 

March 6: Return to the Aberdare Country Club through the for- 
est and clearings bright with clear morning light. Your safari 
driver will be at the club to greet you and you head north along 




the slopes of Mt. Kenya, then continue on, descending nearly 
6,000 feet, passing through the town of Isiolo where your vehicle 
will suddenly be surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares for you to buy, such as copper bracelets, necklaces, and 
bangles. Bargain away if you wish, it's expected. View game as 
you drive through Samburu Game Reserve to the lovely Sam- 
buru River Lodge, located on the Uaso Nyiro River. 

March 7: Today you have both morning and afternoon game 
viewing of Samburu 's typically 'northern' game — reticulated 
giraffe, Grevy's zebra, graceful long-necked gerenuk, Somali 
ostrich and vulturine guinea fowl, none of which you will see 
further south. Samburu is also a very good park for elephant and 
the elusive leopard. It is an excellent place for the photographer, 
with the park's vivid colors and the contrasts between sky, bush, 
and sand. Bird enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 
species, including the martial eagle, in this reserve. 

March 8: Board minibus and drive to the famous Mount Kenya 
Safari Club. Here you have the remainder of the day to luxuriate 
at this private club made famous by the late William Holden. 
There is golf, tennis, heated swimming pool, horseback riding, 
two lovely shops, a beauty salon, sauna, and many attractive 
rooms set aside for drinking tea or something stronger. The view 
of Mount Kenya is awesome as are the finely manicured grounds. 

March 9: Drive back to Nairobi where rooms will be provided at 
the Norfolk Hotel until your transfer to the airport for your 
flight to London. 

March 10: Arrive London, where you will connect with your 
British Airways flight to Chicago arriving later the same day. 

This tour will be operated by Abercrombie & Kent. 



We still have space on the "Project Canadian Fjords" scheduled for August 16 to 24, 
aboard the Society Explorer. Please call for further information. Field Museum's leader is 

Dr. Scott M. Lanyon. 



27 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, I L 60605-2499 



MISS MARITA MAXEY 
T'Hl NORTH GREENVIEy 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 

July/August 1987 



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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



CONTENTS 

July/August 1987 
Volume 58, Number 7 



Events 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
St<^ Photographer: Ron Testa 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Biennial Report for 1985-1986 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Cbarrman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinselta 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. MuUin 
James J. O'Connor 



Field Museum Tours 



62 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ranst^m 
John S. RunnelU 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Tlietxiore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
William V.Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



COVER 

A photo montage suggesting the breadth of activity at the Field 
Museum of Natural History during the last biennium. Each of 
the photos appears in the body of the report. 



Field Museum of hiaturai History BuUetm (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright® 1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schtxiis. Museum membership includes Btilieim subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their 
own and do not necessarily reflect thepolicy of Field Museum. Ur\solicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (M2) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to 
Membership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at 
Chicago, Illinois. 



lEVENTSi 



After Hours at the Field 



Fridays* in July 

5:30pm, West Entrance 

*no film July 3 

FREE 



Feature-length films from around thie world continue! On Friday evenings in July films from New Zealand and Australia will 
be shown. Light refreshments are available for purchase during the evening. Be sure to use the West Entrance to the 
Museum. For more information call (312) 322-8855. 



"The Last Wave" 

July 10 

1978. 106 minutes. Color 

Australia. 

Director: Peter Weir 

In this supernatural thriller, an Australian lawyer becomes 
involved in the Aboriginal spirit world when he defends five 
Aborigines accused of a ritual murder of another tribe mem- 
ber Dreamlike and fantastic, this film mesmerizes and terri- 
fies as It explores ancient Aboriginal mythology. 



"Uta" 

July 17 

1984. 104 minutes. Color 
New Zealand. 
Director: Geoff Murphy 

In the late 1800s, a Maori village is destroyed and its inhabi- 
tants massacred by colonial troops. The slaughter is dis- 
covered by Te Wheke, a Maori warrior now working for the 
soldiers. The dead are Te Wheke's own people. In grief and 
rage, the Shakespeare-quoting warrior prepares his revenge. 
Note: This film opens with graphic violence. 



"The Chant ofJimmie 
Blacksmith " 

July 24 

1978. 108 minutes. Color 

Australia. 

Director: Fred Schepisi. 

In 1900, on the eve of the birth of the Australian nation, a half- 
caste Aborigine named Jimmie Blacksmith, after enduring a 
life of racism, murders the family of his employer He then 
embarks on a bloody flight across thousands of miles of the 
breathtaking countryside of New South Wales. Based on a 
true incident, this powerful film delves into the hero's motiva- 
tions and is underscored with a pervasive sense of tribal and 
natural mystery 



"Walkabout" 

July 31 

1971. 88 minutes. Color 

Australia. 

Director: Nicolas Roeg. 

Set in Australia's outback, Walkabout is Nicolas Roeg's 
magical exploration of the rites of passage ot three young 
children and the changing world around them. Two European 
children, abandoned by their father in the desert, are found 
by a young Aborigine boy Together they enjoy the beauty of 
the unspoiled natural world until they happen upon civiliza- 
tion. 

This film is preceded by an ethnographic film on the Wal- 
biri Society of Central Austraia, A Walbiri Fire Ceremony: 
Ngatjakula, 1977 21 minutes, color directed by Roger San- 
dall, edited from a version by Kim McKenzie. 



Continued -» 



T 



EVENTS 



■^ 



Summer at the 
Field 

Hall Interpreters Programs 

Thursday through Sunday 
July and August 



Spend your summer exploring the wonders of Field 
Museum. Young and old delight in discovering fossils in the 
Museum's marble floor, participating in a shadow puppet 
performance, comparing the horns and antlers of mammals, 
and watching the many ways seeds travel. Hall interpreters, 
dressed in blue aprons and located throughout the exhibits, 
help you experience the wonders of the world. Join a hands- 
on journey through the Museum. Watch Indian food being 
prepared. Try your hand at carving, using an Indian adze. 
These exciting programs are available to all visitors Thurs- 
day through Sunday Please consult the television monitors 
throughout the Museum for activity locations. 



World Music 
Programs 

Music communicates in many ways. It is something that can 
be shared by all of us, whether or not we have common life- 
styles, beliefs, or even languages. The July and August pro- 
grams feature the lively percussion of Don Moye, the songs 
and stories of Keith Eric and Shanta Nurullah, and the blues 
of Chicago Beaux. All programs are at 1 :00pm and at 
3:00pm on Saturdays and Sundays. For more information 
call Public Programs (312) 322-8854. This program is par- 
tially supported by the Kenneth and Harle Montgomery 
Fund and a CityArts II & IV grant from the Chicago Office of 
Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



July & August Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the \Neeker\di Programs sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 



July 



11 



12 



18 



25 



1 :30pm Tibet Today and Bhutan (slide lecture). See 
Lhasa and other towns now open to the public, as well 
as Bhutan, land of the Thunder Dragon. 
12:00noon Brontosaurus Story {tour). A fascinating 
look at some of the newest discoveries about the 
"thunder lizard." 

1 :00pm Fireballs and Shooting Stars: Keys to the Uni- 
verse Hour). Discover the origins, types, sizes, and im- 
portance of meteorites. 

1 1 :30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the traditions 
of ancient Egypt from everyday life to myths and 
mummies. 

1 :30pm Tibet Today and A Faith in Exile (slide lecture). 
Investigate Lhasa and refugees in Dharmsala (home 
of the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and Sikkim. 



August 

1 1 1 :30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the traditions 
of ancient Egypt from everyday life to myths and 
mummies. 
8 1 :30pm Tibet Today and Tour of Tibet (slide lecture and 
tour). Tour through the Tibet exhibit after looking at 
Lhasa and other towns now open to the public. 
These programs are free with museum admission and tickets 
are not required. 



Field Museum of Natural History 

Biennial Report 
1985-1986 




FROM THE CHAIRMAN 



The years 1985-1986 have been significant ones for 
Field Museum of Natural History. During the past bien- 
nium, the Museum has taken two major steps into its 
future. With the completion and publication of our 
Centennial Directions study we have clearly charted 
our programmatic course. To implement that course of 
action, we have undertaken to raise $40 million for 
capital and operating support. We expect that our 
capital campaign will be completed by the end of 1987. 

In 1985 and 1986 we have set the stage for the 
Museum to continue its vital role as a center for basic 
research and public education. Now more than ever, 
we need to know more about the cultures and physical 
environments of our world. Field Museum is prepared 
to help us secure the knowledge we need in the years 
ahead. Our programmatic plans are bold. Our financial 
approach is conservative. 

We are deeply indebted to the Museum's members 
for their support, to the 223 individuals who volunteered 
their time to make projects possible throughout the 
Museum, and to the 4,759 individual, corporate, and 
foundation donors who contributed their funds to 
finance these programs. In addition, we are grateful to 



the Chicago Park District, whose core base of support 
allows us to heat, light, and maintain a structure of 
nearly one million square feet. We are also thankful for 
the support of the Illinois State Museum Grant, Illinois 
Arts Council, Illinois Humanities Council, City of Chi- 
cago Office of Fine Arts, National Science Foundation, 
National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment 
for the Humanities, and the Institute of Museum 
Services. 

The varied contributions of many people and orga- 
nizations are needed to assure that Field Museum of 
Natural History will serve even more effectively in the 
years ahead. 

Sincerely yours, 

Richard M. Jones 
Chairman 



BOARD OF TRUSTEES, December 31, 1986 



Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank William Considine 
Stanton R, Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr 



Thomas E. Donnelley I 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
Richard M. Jones 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrlngton 



LIFE TRUSTEES 

Harry 0. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin DeCosta 
Joseph N. Field* 
Clifford 0. Gregg 
William V.Kahler 
William H. Mitchell 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



'Deceased 



OFFICERS 



Richard M. Jones, 

Board Chairman 

Marshall Field, 

Vice Chairman 

Blaine J. Yarringfon, 

Vice Chairman & Treasurer 

Robert A. Pritzker, 

Vice Chairman 

Frank William Considine, 

Vice Chairman 

Richard M. Jones, 

Vice Chairman 

John S. Runnells, 

Secretary 

Willard L. Boyd, 

President 



Executive Committee 

Richard M. Jones, 

Board Chairman 

Marshall Field, 

Vice Chairman 

Blaine J. Yarrlngton, 

Vice Chairman & Treasurer 

Robert A. Pritzker, 

Vice Chairman 

Frank William Considine, 

Vice Chairman 

Richard M. Jones, 

Vice Chairman 

James J. O'Connor, 

Ex-Officio 

John S. Runnells, 

Secretary 

Willard L. Boyd, 

President, Staff 

Liaison 



Collections & Research 
Committee 

Robert A. Pritzker, 
Vice Chairman 

Henry T. Chandler 
Stanton R. Cook 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
John S. Runnells 
Theodore Van Zelst 

Harold K. Voris, 
Staff Liaison 



Development Committee 

Richard M. Jones, 
Vice Chairman 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Robert 0. Bass 
Willard L. Boyd 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Marshall Field 
Clarence E. Johnson 
James J. O'Connor 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrlngton 
Theodore Van Zelst 

Thomas R. Sanders, 
Staff Liaison 



Public Programs 
Committee 

Marshall Field, 
Vice Chairman 

Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mrs. Edwin DeCosta 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
LeoF. Mullin 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Michael Spock, 
Staff Liaison 

Marketing Subcommittee 

Marshall Field, 
Vice Chairman 

Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Ronald Gidwitz 
Leo F. Mullin 
James H. Ransom 
Mrs. Michael Bilandic 
Mrs. Newton N. Minow 
Terrence A. Santo 
Staff Liaison: 
Willard L. Boyd, 
John Economos 



Finance Committee 

Blaine J. Yarrlngton, 
Vice Chairman 

George R. Baker 
Gordon Bent 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Worley H.Clark 
Frank William Considine 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Robert H. Strotz 
E. Leiand Webber 

JimmieW. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 

Audit and Pension 
Subcommittee 

Hugo J. Melvoin, 
Vice Chairman 

George R. Baker 
E. Leiand Webber 

JimmieW. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 

Museum Services 
Committee 

Frank William Considine, 
Vice Chairman 

George R. Baker 
Harry O. Bercher 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
E. Leiand Webber 
Robert L. Wesley 

JimmieW. Croft, 
Staff Liaison 



Nominating Committee 

Marshall Field, 
Chairman 

Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
Gordon Bent 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrlngton 

Willard L. Boyd, 
Staff Liaison 



DEVELOPMENT 




A dinosaur fashioned of wood serves as a prog re; < ,.•,,■•■ ■jrttie$40 million capital campaign, begun in May. 1986. As funds mounted, 
purple coloring advanced upward from the tail of ine dinosaur, on view in Stanley Field Hall, pnoio by oiane Alexander wh,ie 84395 



Time Future From Time Past: The Campaign for Field 
Museum. "There is a Chinese proverb which states 'To 
understand a man or a nation, you have to understand 
his or their memories.' Field Museum is filled not only 
with personal memories, but also with the memories of 
men and women stretching back to the dawn of time. 

"We at the MacArthur Foundation want to be effec- 
tive partners in making Chicago a rich and rewarding 
place to live — for us, for our children, and for future 
generations. We want to help foster understanding of 
our roots, through preservation of the artifacts of the 
past, because we believe it is that process which holds 
the key to a better future. It is in this spirit that I am espe- 
cially pleased to announce that the MacArthur Foun- 



dation is making a $2.5 million challenge grant to the 
Campaign for Field Museum." — James M. Furman, 
executive vice president of the John D. and Catherine 
I MacArthur Foundation (May 15, 1986). 

Throughout 1985 and 1986, Field Museum v\/as 
deeply involved in the most ambitious fund-raising 
effort in its history Launched in 1985, "TIME FUTURE 
FROM TIME PAST; The Campaign for Field Museum" 
seeks $40,000,000 in capital, endowment, program- 
ming, and operating support. 

The success of TIME FUTURE FROM TIME PAST is 
directly attributable to the strong commitment to the 
Museum on the part of Chicago's civic, corporate, and 
philanthropic communities. In the early months of 1 985 



DEVELOPMENT 



Richard M. Jones, chairman of the Board of Trustees 
and campaign chairman, enlisted other trustees and 
community leaders to chair specific divisions of the 
campaign: William L. Searle — chairman. Leadership 
Gifts Division; Thomas E. Donnelley II — vice chairman. 
Individual Leadership Gifts; Robert A. Pritzker — vice 
chairman, Corporate Leadership Gifts; Marshall Field 
— chairman. Board Fund Division; Mrs. T Stanton Ar- 
mour — chairman. Individuals Division; Leo F Mullin — 
chairman, Corporate Division; Willard L, Boyd — 
chairman, Foundation Division; Theodore W. Van Zelst 
— chairman. Collectors Division. 

Each of these individuals enlisted a group of inter- 
ested Museum members and friends to assist in their 
efforts. In all, 225 dedicated individuals volunteered to 
help with the campaign. The divisions held organiza- 
tional meetings throughout the year, and made early 
leadership solicitations prior to the official kick-off and 
public announcement of the campaign on May 15, 
1986. 

The Chicago Park District contributed $6,700,000 
toward the Museum's restoration projects. In addition to 
the $2,500,000 from the John D. and Catherine T 
MacArthur Foundation for endowed curatorships, 
many important leadership gifts helped set the pace for 
the campaign. Notable among these were $2,500,000 
in unrestricted support from Mr and Mrs. William L. 
Searle through the Searle Family Trust, $1 ,000,000 for 
the new Gem Hall and Gallery from Mr and Mrs. David 
W. Grainger and the W.W. Grainger Foundation, and 
$1 ,000,000 for building restoration and exhibit renewal 
from The Robert R. McCormick Charitable Trust. 
Through the efforts of its many friends, by December 
31, 1986 the Museum had raised over $32,000,000— 
more than 80 percent of its goal. A complete listing of 
donors to the campaign can be found on page 46. 

The National Endowment for the Arts awarded the 
Field Museum a $500,000 challenge grant for endow- 
ment purposes. The grant recognizes the national im- 
portance of the Museum's anthropological collections. 
Endowment funds from the grant and corresponding 
matching funds campaign will enable Field Museum to 
ensure continued and proper care for these invaluable 
collections through research and conservation. 

While the Development Office, under the direction 
of Vice President Thomas R. Sanders, devoted the 
greatest percentage of its energies toward the cam- 
paign during the biennium, the office undertook a vari- 
ety of important activities of other sorts as well. The two- 
year period was marked by significant changes and 
growth in many areas. 

Annual Fund and Planned Giving 

Even with the capital campaign as top priority, the 
Annual Fund continued to provide vital operating sup- 
port for the Museum. Many of the Museum's donors 
continued their unrestricted or restricted support in 
addition to their campaign contributions. Contributions 
from Chicago's corporate community has long been a 
steady, reliable source of funding support for the 
Museum. Many corporations have taken leadership 



roles in this area, pledging continuing operating sup- 
port beyond their generous campaign gifts. 

The Founders' Council, consisting of the Museum's 
principal individual, corporate, and foundation donors, 
continued to expand in size and scope of activities. 
Henry T Chandler assumed the role of Founders' Coun- 
cil Chairman in September, 1985; he succeeded Tho- 
mas J. Eyerman, who had provided strong leadership 
for the group since the fall of 1983. Membership in the 
council grew significantly over the period, from the ini- 
tial 250 charter members in 1 983 to 355 by the end of 
1986 — a dramatic 62 fSfrcent increase. 

During 1985, the Founders' Council began an 
active schedule of programming which included 
special previews, receptions, and lectures by staff and 
distinguished visitors, and a luncheon/seminar series 
covering varied topics ranging from the unique hold- 
ings of the Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room, to bota- 
nical and ornithological research in South America.The 
highlight of the Council's year was the inauguration of 
the first "Field Museum; Ambassador to the World" pro- 
gram. During the evening cosponsored with the Mid- 
America Committee, the Founders' Council presented 
its first "Ambassador to the World" award to their very 
special guest. His Excellency Fernando Belaunde Ter- 
ry, former president of Peru. 

In early 1986, Susan E. VandenBosch, after many 
years of ably assisting the Women's Board, assumed 
staff responsibilities for the Council and all individual 
giving. The "Luncheon in the Loop" seminar series, 
hosted by First National Bank, Commonwealth Edison, 
and Borg-Warner Corporation, brought material from 
Field Museum's collections and new results from field 
research to convenient lunch-time locations for Found- 
ers' Council members during 1 986. At its annual dinner 
in September, the Council presented its "Award of 
Merit" to renowned naturalist/artist Dr. Roger Tory 
Peterson, author of the famous Peterson's Field Guides. 
The program for the evening highlighted the newly dis- 
covered cinnamon screech owl, Otus Petersoni, 
named by its discoverers (Field Museum Curator John 
W Fitzpatrick and Research Associate Glen Woolfen- 
den) in honor of Dr Peterson. 

The Planned Giving Program, under the direction 
of Clifford Buzard since its inception in 1 981 , continues 
to work with interested members and donors in arrang- 
ing for bequests or deferred gifts through the Field 
Museum Pooled Income Fund, charitable remainder 
annuity trusts, unitrusts, and life insurance. 

Sponsored Programs 

The biennium was a period of change and growth in the 
Sponsored Programs Office. Established late in 1983 
as the Grants Office, the office was expanded and re- 
named in early 1985 based on the success of its initial 
efforts and the larger role it took on for proposal 
development and prospect research. Glenn S. Pare, 
who had been the Museum's Grants Officer, assumed 
the position of director of the office following the 
restructuring. 

Sponsored Programs coordinates all grant re- 



DEVELOPMENT 




The Field Museum Women's Board 
hosted its annual Family Christmas 
Tea in December of 1985 and 1986. 
Shown here (I. to r) are the 1986 
Tea chairman, Mrs. James J. 
Glasser, Women s Board President 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith, and Tea co- 
chairman Mrs. Harrington Bischol. 

PTioto by Diane Alexander White 84646 



10 



DEVELOPMENT 



quests emanating from the Museum and is the 
Museum's chief liaison with government agencies and 
philanthropic foundations. In addition to providing the 
majority of proposals and written reports for the cam- 
paign, Sponsored Programs worked closely with the 
scientific and programmatic staff to develop funding 
and grant support for research projects, collection 
care, and programming efforts museumwide. 

The Museum has achieved a high level of success 
in this effort, even during the period of sharp govern- 
ment cutbacks; operating and restricted grant support 
from federal and state sources approached 
$3,000,000 — representing a notable increase in grant 
support over the prior period. Grant support for proj- 
ects and programs from philanthropic foundations in- 
creased significantly during the period as well. 

Membership 

Field Museum has long enjoyed the support of many 
friends through Membership. Although escalating 
operating costs mandated increases in membership 
dues during 1985, most Members continued their 
strong support of the Museum through dues. 

in 1985, Marilyn E. Cahill assumed the manage- 
ment for the Department of Membership, which offered 
a wide range of activities for Museum Members during 
1985 and 1986. Over 2,000 Members previewed the 
special exhibit, "The Art of Cameroon," on March 8, 
1985; and the 5,215 Members who attended the 
special preview of "Te Maori; Maori Art from New Zea- 
land Collections" were delighted by the enchanting 
songs and performances of the Museum's Maori 
guests. Members also enjoyed special previews of 
newly opened permanent exhibits at the Museum, 
including a two-day preview of the newly opened 
Grainger Hall of Gems in November, 1985 and the eve- 
ning preview of "Gods, Spirits, and People; The Human 
Image in Traditional Art" on November 21 , 1 986. 

More than 10,000 Members attended the popular 
Members' Nights held annually in May In 1 985, in addi- 
tion to viewing the collections and research areas 
closed to the public, Members were entertained by the 
Chicago Lion Dancers and the Susie Hanson Or- 
chestra. In 1986, the evening's entertainment included 
the Mexican Folkloric Dancers, Wesoly Lud Polish Folk 
Dancers, and the Absolute Music string quartet. 

The Women's Board 

The biennium was a lively and exciting period for the 
Women's Board. On November 1, 1985, the Women's 
Board sponsored one of the most spectacular events of 
the social season, the gala Gem Ball. The dazzling eve- 
ning celebrated the opening of the newly renovated 
Grainger Hall of Gems. Co-chaired by Mrs. Gerald S. 
Gidwitz and Mrs. Edward Byron Smith, Jr., the affair was 
especially impressive; Field Museum's own permanent 
collections of gems were augmented by outstanding 
pieces on loan from the Smithsonian Institution and 
complemented by a fabulous display by Harry Win- 
ston, Inc. of "Rare Jewels of the World." Over 1 ,000 peo- 
ple attended the ball. 



The splendor of the Gem Ball was perhaps 
matched only by the November 7, 1 986 Treasures Ball. 
The very special event, planned especially by and for 
the Women's Board, highlighted rare and exotic pieces 
from Field Museum's permanent collections. Mrs. 
Robert C. Ferris served as chairman of the committee. 
Special exhibits of unique specimens and artifacts sel- 
dom seen in public were displayed for the evening of 
the ball only 

The highlight of the biennium for the Women's 
Board was the annual meeting in July 1986. At that 
meeting. The Women's Board celebrated twenty years 
of service to Field Museum — renewing its commitment 
of support in the spirit of its founder, Mrs. Hermon Dun- 
lap Smith. At that meeting, Mrs. Philip D. Block III com- 
pleted her term of office as president, and was feted for 
her hard work and leadership into the Women's Board's 
third decade. She was succeeded as Women's Board 
president by Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith. 

Tours and Special Events 

Field Museum's Tour Program, coordinated by Dorothy 
S. Roder, sponsored 18 separate trips duhng the bien- 
nium. All of the guided tours offered through the 
Museum are intended as both enjoyable and educa- 
tional. The trips feature active itineraries of scientific 
and cultural note, and are led by scholars or scientists 
— primarily Field Museum curators — who specialize in 
one of the Museum's disciplines or have a particular 
familiarity with the region visited. 

Trips around the United States during the period 
included rafting through the Grand Canyon, sailing 
aboard the Nantucket Clipper through the Colonial 
South, birdwatching during the migration period along 
the upper Texas coast and Rio Grande Valley an Alas- 
kan trip including the Pribilof Islands, and a weekend 
"birding" excursion to Wisconsin's Horicon Marsh and 
the Crane Foundation. Trips abroad involved touring 
through China and Tibet, visiting ancient sites in Egypt, 
whale watching in Baja, sailing to the great Mayan ruins 
of Yucatan, cruising through Norway's magnificent 
fjords, taking a safari in Kenya, and discovering art and 
culture of Indonesia. 

One special tour, to New Zealand in April-May, 
1986, was arranged to correspond to the Museum's 
hosting of the special exhibit "Te Maori." Tour partici- 
pants were guests of the Museum during the ceremo- 
nies opening and closing the exhibit, and became 
close friends with the Maori people. The group has re- 
mained active within the Museum and on November 20, 
1986, the group spent the night sleeping within the 
Maori House at the Museum. 

The Collectors' Committee, established under the 
capital campaign, was also active during the period. In 
1985, the group previewed "The Art of Cameroon" ex- 
hibit and were treated to a special presentation by visit- 
ing curator Tamara Northern. In November, 1986, the 
Collector's Committee also previewed the new installa- 
tion from Field Museum's anthropological collection, 
"Gods, Spirits, and People." 



11 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




Dance headgear of the Ekpo Society, men 's secret society of the tbibio Tribe, Nigeria, on view in the exhibit "Gods, Spirits, and People, " which 
opened November 22, 1986. Gift of Calvin S. Smith (1915). Cat. 25038. Photo by R<yi Testa 109452 



12 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

Curators. Bennet Bronson, associate curator of Asian 
Archaeology and Ethnology, continued his laboratory, 
library, and field research on preindustrial metallurgy in 
Asia, resulting in articles on the history of iron in Thai- 
land, early steel production in China, and crucible steel 
processes in India, plus a short book (with P. Charoen- 
wongsa as junior author) titled Eyewitness Accounts of 
Early Mining and Metailurgy in Mainland Southeast 
Asia. Related research on early trade patterns in the 
Indian Ocean area has yielded two published articles 
thus far His current fieldwork, carried out in collabora- 
tion with and funded by the Fine Arts Department of the 
Thai government, includes survey and excavation at 
protohistoric commercial/industrial sites in southern 
and western Thailand. He has also just finished a pri- 
vately funded pilot ethnographic study of traditional 
iron smelting in Luzon, conducted jointly with staff of the 
National Museum of the Philippines. 

Glen Cole, curator of Prehistory and department 
chair through June 1986, finished study and prepara- 
tion for publication (Bahn, Paul G. and Cole, G. H., 
1986, La Prehistoire Pyreneenne aux Etats-Unis, Bulle- 
tin de la Societe Prehistorique Ariege-Pyrenees 41:95- 
149.) of Upper Paleolithic materials in Field Museum's 
collections from the Pyrenees area of southern France. 
This work was done in collaboration with Dr Paul Bahn 
of Hull, England, a specialist in the prehistory of the 
Pyrenees area. With that project completed, Cole be- 
gan preparing a symposium presentation based on 
fieldwork and museum studies of prehistoric artifactual 
materials from the Sango Hills and neighboring areas of 
southern Uganda. Also, a grant proposal was prepared 
for submission to the National Science Foundation's 
program for "Support for Systematic Anthropological 
Collections" to provide support for completion of 
cataloging of a large collection of Middle Stone Age 
artifacts from the Nelson Bay Cave on the southern Afri- 
can coast. 

Phillip H. Lewis, curator of Primitive Art and 
Melanesian Ethnology, continued research on settle- 
ment patterns and social change in New Ireland. The 
research covers a 53-year period beginning with the 
work of anthropologist Hortense Powdermaker Pow- 
dermaker conducted fieldwork at Lossu Village in 1929 
and published Life in Lesu in 1933. Lewis conducted 
fieldwork at Losau Village in 1953-54, 1970, and 1981. 
Both anthropologists mapped the village settlement 
patterns and recorded census figures. Lewis's 
research involves tracking the changes in settlement 
patterns and population and the effects these had on 
memorial ceremonies called malanggan. He is also 
studying the impact of the settlement and population 
changes on the painted, carved images made for the 
memorial ceremonies. 

In 1985 John Terrell, curator of Oceanic Archaeol- 
ogy and Ethnology, and department chairman since 
July 1986, served on the Museum's negotiating team 
that succeeded in bringing the major exhibition "Te 
Maori; Maori Art from New Zealand Collections" to Chi- 



cago during March-June 1986. Twice Fulbright Fellow 
to New Zealand (1965, 1981), Terrell's intimate knowl- 
edge of the Pacific gained over the last twenty years 
proved instrumental both in convincing the Maori to 
allow their cultural treasures to visit Chicago and in 
helping Museum staff welcome the Maori themselves 
when they came to Chicago in March 1986 for the open- 
ing of "Te Maori." In April 1986 Terrell led a delegation of 
Museum members to Tokomaru Bay on the North Island 
of New Zealand: the original locale where the 
Museum's Maori meeting house Ruatepupuke II once 
stood. This cultural mission was warmly received by the 
people of Tokomaru Bay and has helped cement the 
partnership between the Maori and the Museum initi- 
ated by the "Te Maori" exhibition. Thereafter, Terrell 
went on to the Fiji Islands to lay the foundations for a 
new field research program to study that important 
ethnic crossroads in the central Pacific. His book Pre- 
history in the Pacific Islands was published by Cam- 
bridge University Press in April 1986 and has since 
been heralded by reviewers in the scientific press as a 
"stimulating and critical assessment" {New Scientist) 
that is "a must for every scholar of Pacific prehistory" 
{Science). 

James VanStone, curator of North American 
Ethnology and Archaeology, conducted fieldwork in 
Paugvik Village, Alaska, with Dr Donald E. Dumond of 
the University of Oregon. The Paugvik site is believed to 
be one of the major native villages in the Naknek River 
region during the period of local control by Russian 
traders and missionaries (1818-67). Three large house 
pits were excavated, two more partially excavated, and 
four trenches were dug through the extensive midden 
deposit. Twenty-six boxes of excavated materials were 
shipped to Field Museum for analysis. In addition to ex- 
cavations, the precise boundaries of the site were de- 
termined and the entire area of occupation mapped. 
VanStone also completed and published a monograph 
on contemporary Athapaskan material culture (Field- 
iana: Anthropology n.s. no. 10). His study of southwest- 
ern Chippewa material culture in the Museum's collec- 
tions is near completion as is a similar study of the tech- 
nology of Nunivak Island Eskimos. VanStone also had 
an edited translation of two 19th-century Russian travel 
journals in southwest Alaska accepted for publication 
by the University of Alaska Library. 

Research Associates. Robert A. Feldman, visiting 
assistant curator (1985) and research associate (1986), 
continued archaeological fieldwork in Peru. With the 
assistance of Peruvian students from Cuzco and Are- 
quipa and of personnel of the Southern Peru Copper . 
Corporation, he conducted excavations at a cemetary 
{ca. A.D. 1200) on the Pacific coast north of llo, in far 
southern Peru. Pottery from this site shows a transition 
between two local styles: the earlier Chiribaya style and 
the late pre-lnca Estuquiha style. Feldman assisted in 
excavations directed by Or James Richardson III of the 
Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh at 
Ring Site, an 11,000-year-old shell midden located on 
the coast south of llo. And he conducted a limited site 13 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




World renowned paleoanthropologlst Donald Johanson (center), guest of the Founders ' Council, lectured on ancient man to a standing-room- 
only audience on March 23, 1985. With him are Reception Chairman Henry T. Chandler (left) and Founders' Council Chairman Thomas J. 

Eyerman. Photo by Diane Alexander While 83893 



14 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



survey around Cerro Baul, a flat-topped mesa that is 
the location of an important intrusive outpost of the Wari 
empire {ca ad. 700). Feldman continues analysis of 
artifacts from 1985 and earlier excavations in Mo- 
quegua, Peru, and has submitted tw/o articles for 
publication, one in the U.S. and one in Peru. 

David S. Reese, research associate (in residence) 
in archeozoology and paleomalacology, has been 
analyzing Field Museum archaeological bone and shell 
collections from Paugvik (Alaska), Hopewell (Ohio), 
and Kish (Iraq) in preparation for publication. He is also 
studying bone and shell collections from archaeologic- 
al sites in Tunisia, Egypt, Lebanon, Cyprus, Greece, 
and Italy and shells from sites in Libya, Turkey Syria, 
and Iran. 

Reese presented papers at the University of Virgi- 
nia, a conference on Pompeii in Washington, DC, and at 
a shell bead conference in Rochester, New York. In 
1985 and 1986 he conducted fieldwork at various 
archaeological sites in Italy Greece, and Cyprus. 

Robert L. Welsch, research associate (in resi- 
dence) in Oceanic and Southeast Asian Ethnology re- 
turned from Indonesia after 16 months of field research 
among the Mandar people of South Sulawesi. During 
his stay in Indonesia, he collected about 500 Mandar 
specimens for Field Museum's collections, including a 
collection of nearly 100 silk sarongs, three back-tension 
looms, and many other samples of Mandar textile 
motifs as well as smaller collections of baskets, knives, 
ceramics, and other specimens. This collection of tex- 
tiles is the largest in the world outside Indonesia and 
represents nearly all of the traditional motifs and many 
newer ones. 

Collections Management. From September 1985 
through 1986 Lyie Konigsberg was emioyed as a physi- 
cal anthropologist under a National Science Founda- 
tion grant. Konigsberg, a Ph.D. candidate in anthropol- 
ogy at Northwestern University, was responsible for 
inventory, redistribution, and storage of human skel- 
tons. 

During the inventory a considerable number of hu- 
man bones were identified and assigned to their cor- 
rect locations. Detailed summaries of provenience, 
age-at-death, sex, bones present, pathologies, associ- 
ated material, and problems with the cataloging were 
collected on standardized forms. These data were later 
entered into a microcomputer database and used to 
generate a new storeroom catalog as well as identify 
the correct locations for some misplaced bones. 
Because of the large size of the collection (3,964 crania 
alone were enumerated), the microcomputer files were 
later uploaded to the Museum's mainframe computer 

A 1985 Institute of Museum Services grant en- 
abled Christine Danziger, conservator, and Kathleen 
Christen, technical assistant, to clean, conserve, re- 
label, and properly store some 1,000 Peruvian Central 
Coast textiles. The project was directed at textiles 
accessioned from the 1890s-1930s, and was a con- 
tinuation of interest in and conservation of South Amer- 
ican textiles. Earlier conservation projects involved 600 
textiles from Chile and South Central Peru. 



In 1986 the National Science Foundation awarded 
the Anthropology Department $153,800 for the "Sup- 
port of New Collection Storage Facility for Pacific 
Southeast Asian and African Collections." Construction 
of the storage facility should be completed in late 1987. 

In November 1986 Janet Miller was appointed de- 
partmental archivist and registrar Miller's background 
is in art history and archival management, having 
received an M.A. in art history from the American Uni- 
versity (1978) and an M.S. in archival administration 
from Columbia University (1986). She will be respons- 
ible for all facets of information management on the de- 
partmental level. 

Among the noteworthy gifts of 1985 and 1986 were 
1,255 Japanese objects, including masks, books, 
prints, sculpture, and carvings from Katharine and the 
late Commander G. E. Boone of Monmouth, Illinois and 
180 Japanese inro with ojime and netsuke from Mr and 
Mrs. Carl A. Kroch, of Chicago. 



BOTANY 

The research effort in the Department of Botany con- 
tinued at a steady pace as reflected in the numerous 
staff publications (see page 37). A large part of 
research in Botany is concerned with the rich flora of 
the American tropics, which is fast disappearing as for- 
ests are cleared for human settlement and economic 
development. During the biennium, staff members par- 
ticipated in collecting expeditions to a number of areas 
of tropical America, including Brazil, northern Chile, 
Peru, Ecuador, Panama, and Costa Rica. 

William Burger neared completion of his intensive 
study of the Lauraceae Family for the Flora of Costa 
Rica project. The classification of this large and eco- 
nomically important but taxonomically difficult family of 
tropical trees has long presented a major challenge to 
botanists. Michael Dillon continued to pursue his stud- 
ies of the sunflower family (Compositae), with special 
emphasis on the Andean and Peruvian species. He 
completed a treatment of the large tribe Inuleae for the 
ongoing Flora of Peru. He also continued his work on 
the biogeography and evolution of the lomas forma- 
tions in the coastal deserts of Peru and Chile, and he 
initiated a survey of a relict forest in the upper Rio Zaha 
in northwestern Peru. Timothy Plowman continued his 
work on the ethnobotany of the coca plant and his tax- 
onomic studies of this family (Erythroxylaceae), con- 
centrating on the numerous species of the Amazon 
Basin and eastern Brazil. In collaboration with a group 
of anthropologists and botanists, he completed a com- 
prehensive study of the native Andean uses of plants 
in Chinchero, near Cuzco, Peru. Dr Plowman was 
selected as the new chair of the Department of Botany 
succeeding William Burger 

John Engel (with R. M. Schuster of the University of 
Massachusetts) completed the second part of a major 



15 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




16 



The new Grainger Hall of Gems opened November 5, 1985. pnoto by Ron Testa and soo« Fonseca 84i7o 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



monograph of the liverwort family Schistochilaceae, 
making that family the best known of any group of 
Hepaticae. He is proceeding with monographic studies 
in other liverwort groups of the Southern Hemisphere, 
especially Tasmania and New Zealand. Patricio Ponce 
de Leon continued to work on the puffballs and earth 
star fungi (Gasteromycetes), then retired at the end of 
1985. In August, 1985, Gregory Mueller joined the staff 
from University of Washington as assistant curator in 
Mycology He concluded his work on the North Temper- 
ate species of Laccaria (Laccariaceae) and began a 
long-term project on the biology and taxonomy of the 
Central and South American species of this large group 
of mushrooms. He also aided local physicians in 
identifying mushrooms in cases of suspected poison- 
ing. Robert Stoize, collection manager for pterido- 
phytes, completed his study of the Asplenioideae 
(Polypodiaceae) for the Flora of Ecuador and began an 
ambitious, five-year project to prepare an account of all 
the ferns and fern allies of Peru. This study undertaken 
jointly with Prof. Rolla Tryon of Harvard University is ex- 
pected to include nearly 1,000 species and will be the 
first modern pteridophyte flora for an Andean region. 

A number of visiting assistant curators augmented 
our regular staff during 1985-86. Kerry Barringer con- 
tinued his work on Orchidaceae and Scrophulariaceae 
for the Flora of Costa Rica project and also completed 
treatments of several small families for the Flora of 
Veracruz. Sylvia Feuer-Forster proceeded with her de- 
tailed studies of pollen morphology and evolution of the 
mistletoe (Loranthaceae) and protea (Proteaceae) 
families. Nancy Garwood, based in Panama, initiated a 
four-year project to prepare an illustrated manual of 
seedlings of the Panamanian rain forest, with special 
emphasis on Barro Colorado Island. Michael Huft, of 
the Missouri Botanical Garden, continued to be sta- 
tioned at Field Museum in connection with his work on 
the Flora Mesoamericana project. He completed treat- 
ments of several groups for this project, including 
Eriocaulaceae, Loganiaceae and Sm/7ax(Liliaceae), as 
well as the large family Euphorbiaceae for the Flora of 
Nicaragua. 

Our collections also saw growth and activity during 
1985-86. In 1986, Honora Murphy joined our staff from 
the Missouri Botanical Garden as collections manager, 
and she made great strides in reorganizing the collec- 
tions, reducing the backlog of unmounted specimens, 
and generally improving the level of specimen care and 
usefulness. Botany has one of the most active loan pro- 
grams in the Museum, as we strive to make our collec- 
tions available to researchers worldwide. During this 
period, we sent out 464 loans that included more than 
50,000 herbarium specimens. Our loan program alone 
occupies four staff members nearly full-time. During 
this same period, we took in more than 86,000 new 
specimens through exchanges, gifts, purchases, and 
Museum expeditions. This is more than twice the num- 
ber of specimens that were received during the previ- 
ous biennium and reflects in part a substantial increase 
in activity among botanists collecting in the tropics. 
More and more our staff are involved in the identifica- 



tion of specimens, particularly from the tropics. This 
time-consuming work is not only a vital service to our 
colleagues but also attracts significant numbers of new 
specimens for the collections. 

in June, 1986, the Museum honored Rolf Singer, 
research associate in Mycology, with a testimonial din- 
ner in appreciation of his many years of outstanding 
service to science and to Field Museum, an event 
which coincided with his 80th birthday Rolf Singer's 
contributions to the classification of fungi are exempli- 
fied by the 1986 publication of a fourth, fully revised 
edition of his monumental work Ttie Agaricales in Mod- 
ern Taxonomy. 



GEOLOGY 

The Department of Geology was involved in a wide 
range of research, collecting, and public-program 
activities. Ms. Mary Carman was hired as the collec- 
tions manager of Fossil Invertebrates and Paleobotany 
She soon added fossil vertebrates to her purview, 
becoming collections manager. Paleontology. Depart- 
ment members were notably footloose during this 
period, and several curators did research abroad for 
extended periods. Published research covered 
meteoritics, metamorphic petrology fossil vertebrates 
and invertebrates, and fossil plants. All areas of depart- 
mental collections experienced some growth, which 
was especially significant in fossil invertebrates, fishes, 
and amphibians. Department members made numer- 
ous contributions to the Museum's public programs. In 
particular. Curator Edward Olsen and Dorothy Eatough 
(collections manager, Mineralogy/Petrology) were 
heavily involved in production of the new Grainger Hall 
of Gems, and in planning the forthcoming (1987-) Tiffany 
exhibit. Peter Crane, Matthew Nitecki, and Bertram 
Woodland led Museum tours to England, the Grand 
Canyon, and northern Norway and Spitsbergen, 
respectively. 

Invertebrate Paleontology and Paleobotany. Scott 
Lidgard, assistant curator of Fossil Invertebrates, pur- 
sued research on colony evolution and biogeography 
of bryozoans ("moss animals"). Scott spent six months 
at the British Museum (Natural History) as a nato Post- 
doctoral Fellow. Matthew Nitecki, curator of Fossil In- 
vertebrates, continued his research on the 
evolution, morphology and systematics of Lower Paleo- 
zoic algae. Following his return from an extended 
research trip to the Soviet Academy of Sciences, he 
spent nine months in Oslo, Norway as a Fulbright Fel- 
low. In the midst of these activities, Nitecki continued as 
the organizer of the very successful Spring Systema- 
tics Symposia at Field Museum, which as in past years 
were supported by National Science Foundation (NSF) 
grants to him. Symposium topics were "Neutral Models 
in Evolutionary Biology" (1985) and "Evolution of Hu- 
man Hunting" (1986). Peter Crane, associate curator of 
Fossil Plants, completed papers on fossil plant remains 



17 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




Guests at the Members ' Preview of "The Art of Cameroon " exhibit (March 6-June 16. 1985) included IHarold Washington (with bool<). mayor of 
Chicago. To Mr Washington's right is Dr Tamara Northern, curator of ethnographies at Dartmouth College, who also served as curator of the 

exhibit. Ptiolo by Diane Alexander While. 



18 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age from localities 
worldwide. These studies include descriptions and dis- 
cussion of very early (Lower Cretaceous) flowers, 
which provide important data regarding the evolution of 
flowering plants, and NSF-supported studies on the 
evolution of the birches. Peter Crane may win the 
Department of Geology's Peripatetic Scholar Award for 
this period; among othertravels, he made research and 
lecture trips to the University of Arhus (Denmark), Uni- 
versity of Gdttingen (W. Germany), Halle (E. Germany), 
Montpellier (France), and the British Museum, plus a 
collecting expedition to north Texas. He served as co- 
editor of the journal Paleobiology, and as associate edi- 
tor of several other scientific journals. In 1985, Peter 
Crane was named one of 10 "Outstanding Young 
Citizens" by the Chicago Junior Association of Com- 
merce and Industry 
Vertebrate Paleontology. John Bolt, associate cura- 
tor of Fossil Reptiles and Amphibians and department 
chairman, continued research on evolution of the tetra- 
pod auditory system. He and a colleague from the Uni- 
versity of Chicago presented a paper at a conference 
on the evolution of the amphibian ear, at Bielefeld (W. 
Germany). In 1985, Bolt began a new project — collect- 
ing very early fossil amphibian material at a newly dis- 
covered locality in the Mississippian of Iowa, working 
with the Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. In 1986, he 
spent three months at the site with a crew, under a grant 
from the National Geographic Society By the end of the 
summer, some 100 drawers of specimens had been 
recovered. This (very rare) material represents the old- 
est well-preserved and abundant tetrapod fauna ever 
found in continental North America, and will make an 
important contribution to our knowledge of the early his- 
tory of land-living vertebrates. Lance Grande, assistant 
curator of Fossil Fish, continued his very successful 
program of research and collecting in the famous 
Eocene Green River deposits of Wyoming. Thanks to 
his efforts. Field Museum now has the finest collection 
in the world of this spectacularly preserved material. 
Lance also began a research and collecting program 
involving a recently discovered Cretaceous fish locality 
in southern Mexico, with David Bardack, a research 
associate of the Department of Geology who is a pro- 
fessor of biology at the University of Illinois, Chicago. 
Their work is supported by a grant from the National 
Science Foundation. Under a separate NSF grant, 
Grande is continuing to reorganize the fossil fish collec- 
tion. In addition to Grande's collecting activities, this 
collection has been augmented during the past two 
years by important donations of excellent Cretaceous 
fish specimens from northeastern Brazil. Grande has 
also spent considerable time on public programs, 
where his activities have included work on a new 
Eocene hall that will include many fossil fish speci- 
mens. He was recently appointed an associate editor of 
the Jouma/ of Vertebrate Pa/eon/o/ogy William Turnbull, 
curator of Fossil Mammals, continued his research on 
Eocene mammals from the Washakie Basin of Wyom- 
ing and on Australian fossil marsupials. The Australian 
work has been carried out jointly with one of the depart- 



ment's research associates, Ernest Lundelius of the 
University of Texas. In 1985, Turnbull spent three weeks 
in China as part of his work on Eocene mammals. The 
trip included fieldwork, as well as study in the collec- 
tions of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and 
Paleoanthropology in Beijing. 

Meteoritics, Mineralogy, and Petrology. Edward 
Olsen, curator of Mineralogy was involved in a number 
of meteorite-related and geochemical studies. These 
included investigation of the possibility that some 
meteorite samples actually come from Mars, and a 
study of the distribution of uranium isotopes in the 
Earth's crust. The uranium-isotope studies, being pur- 
sued with a colleague from Argonne National Labora- 
tory may have a major impact on dating techniques, 
because they question some of the fundamental 
assumptions on which certain isotope-dating tech- 
niques are based. Olsen has also been studying (with 
George McGhee, a Department of Geology research 
associate from Rutgers University), the possibility of a 
major extinction due to asteroid impact in the late Devo- 
nian. He became an associate editor of the journal 
Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta in 1985. In 1985, 
he was appointed chairman of the Nomenclature Com- 
mittee of the Meteoritical Society As mentioned above, 
Olsen has had major involvement in public programs in 
this period. Bertram Woodland, curator of Igneous and 
Metamorphic Petrology pursued studies on texture of 
low-grade metamorphic rocks, including samples from 
Arkansas and from Cornwall, England. A separate 
project was study of possible tidal laminations in sedi- 
ments from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Illinois. This 
reflected Woodland's continuing interest in the forma- 
tion of the famous Mazon Creek fossil deposits, of 
which the Museum has a large and important collec- 
tion. Woodland's involvement in public programs 
included leadership of a tour to northern Norway and 
Spitsbergen. 



19 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




David Lewis (rt.), shown with Greg- 
ory M. Mueller, assistant curator of 
mycology, gave Field Museum his 
collection of some 4.000 fungi, one 
of the finest collections of such 
matenal from east Texas. Such gifts 
of specimens from private collectors 
contribute immeasurably to the 
Field Museum 's holdings, and are a 
valued source of continued growth. 



20 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



ZOOLOGY 

The Department of Zoology is the largest of the 
Museum's four curatorial departments and consists of 
six divisions: Amphibians and Reptiles, Birds, Fishes, 
Insects, Invertebrates, and Mammals, staffed by 
twelve curators, six collection managers, and support 
personnel in various technical and nontechnical posi- 
tions. The department changed markedly during the 
1985-86 biennium with the appointment of two assistant 
curators, and looks forward to the appointment of two 
new curators in 1987. 

Amphibians and Reptiles. Harold Voris studied sea 
snake populations in Malaya and Borneo. He also stu- 
died aspects of the biology of sea snakes and 
developed procedures for marking live sea snakes, 
thus solving a major problem in ecological studies of 
this group. Robert Inger continued an ecological analy- 
sis of frogs of Southeast Asia and Borneo. He also com- 
pleted a key to the frogs of Sarawak and studies on 
paternal care in Sarawak frog species. Hymen Marx 
completed (with James Ashe) studies of the phylogeny 
of vipers. Research Associate Sharon Emerson studied 
the biomechanics and development of frog pectoral 
girdle morphology — work supported by a National Sci- 
ence Foundation grant. In addition, the division 
appointed two new field associates, Bruce Jayne and 
Robert Steubing. 

Birds. John Fitzpatrick was promoted to curator 
and elected chairman of the Zoology Department. De- 
spite the added administrative responsibilities, John 
completed fieldwork tor the large-scale inventory and 
analysis of bird communities in the Andean foothills, 
and made significant scientific contributions with his 
study of Florida scrub jay social systems. In recog- 
nition of these contributions, John and Research Asso- 
ciate Glen Woolfenden were awarded the Brewster 
Medal in 1985, the highest honor bestowed by the 
American Ornithologists' Union. Also in 1985, Scott 
Lanyon joined the staff as assistant curator and head of 
the division. Scott received his Ph.D. in May 1985 from 
Louisiana State University for his work on biochemical 
systematics of the Tyrannoidea. Since arriving at Field 
Museum, Scott has established a collection of frozen 
tissues to provide the material necessary for bioche- 
mical investigations of avian evolutionary history and 
began a study of the evolutionary relationships within 
the New World blackbirds (Icterinae). David Willard 
continued his long-term study of measurements of 
spring versus fall migrant birds salvaged from the Chi- 
cago area. David has also been coordinating the 
publication of a survey of the avifauna of Venezuela's 
Cerro de la Neblina jointly conducted in 1984 and 1985 
by Field Museum, the Smithsonian Institution, and the 
American Museum of Natural History Finally, the divi- 
sion is proud to announce the appointment of two new 
field associates, Manuel Plenge and Barbara Clauson; 
and three research associates, Peter Ames, William 
Beecher, and Debra Moskovits. 

Fishes. Robert Johnson continued his studies on 
the shore fishes of Belize and Honduras. As the result of 



Johnson's collecting expedition in Central America, 
Field Museum now houses the largest and most diverse 
collection of Caribbean fishes from Central America in 
the country Johnson also received an NSF grant to col- 
lect and study reef fishes from Cuba. In 1986 he 
resigned his position as curator of Fishes to join the fac- 
ulty at the College of Charleston. During 1985 and 1986, 
the division renovated its entire collection in terms of 
maintenance of specimens, housing of specimens, 
reorganization of its type collection, updating nomencl- 
ature, and building new collection management facili- 
ties and offices. The collection is now more accessible 
and workable for visiting scientists; it also provides well 
equipped modern office facilities for students and visi- 
tors. Cataloged data were entered into the division's 
computer system for its type and tank collections. A 
database system was developed for these two collec- 
tions by Terry Grande and the results were presented at 
the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpeto- 
logists meeting last year. Grande also worked with 
other collection managers of major museums through- 
out the country in setting up a computer-based 
networking system that can interface and exchange 
specimen information with all museums, thus eliminat- 
ing the need for invoices and paperwork. The division 
appointed John Clay Bruner as associate and Myriam 
Ibarra and Donald Stewart as research associates. 

Insects. James S. Ashe began a three-year study 
supported by a grant from the NSF on the systematics, 
evolution, and fungus host relationships of bolitochar- 
ine staphylinids ("rove beetles") and began a 
collaborative project (with mammalogist R. M. Timm) 
on the evolution and ecology of amblyopinine staphyli- 
nids that are supposedly parasitic on mammals. Ashe 
conducted extensive fieldwork in the United States and 
Costa Rica in connection with both projects. He also 
completed and published a monograph on phylogene- 
tic relationships of larvae of gyrophaenine staphylinids, 
as well as several smaller articles on Staphylinidae 
(with H. Marx) on the phylogeny of viperine snakes. 
John Kethley continued comparative developmental 
studies on prostigmatid soil mites with an emphasis on 
taxa found only in nutrient-poor ecosystems such as 
very sandy soils. Kethley also refined flotation tech- 
niques to collect the inactive stages of soil micro- 
arthropods and found (in a joint study with D. E. Walter 
and J. Moore, Colorado State University) the flotation 
procedure to be considerably more effective than pro- 
cedures traditionally employed by soil ecologists. 
Alfred Newton and Research Associate Margaret 
Thayer continued their long-term study of the systema- 
tics and biogeography of the poorly known staphylinoid 
beetle fauna of the Southern Hemisphere, and their first 
large publication on this subject apeared in 1985. They 
completed ten weeks of fieldwork in New Zealand in 
early 1985, collecting over 158,000 specimens of 
Staphylinoidea and began a similar survey of south- 
eastern Australia in late 1986. Newton continued stud- 
ies on the higher classification and evolution of Staphy- 
linoidea, including completion of a world generic cata- 
log of the large family Pselaphidae (with D. S. Chand- 



21 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




A fossil fish specimen intrigues a guest at ttie Treasures Ball. November 7, 1986, sponsored by the Museum Women 's Board, pnoto by Diane Alexander 



While 84604-2 



22 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



ler). Thayer published papers on two unusual North 
American species of Staphylinidae and continued work 
on the systematics and phylogeny of the subfamily 
Omaliinae. The division appointed research associates 
Warren Atyeo and Margaret Thayer 

Invertebrates. Alan Solem published Part V of his 
Camaenid Land Snails from Western and central Au- 
stralia, thus completing survey of the Kimberley 
camaenids; a report on Simultaneous Character Con- 
vergence and Divergence in Western Australian Land 
Snails'in the Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of 
London; a report coauthored with F. M. Climo on Struc- 
ture and Habitat Correlations of Sympatric New Zea- 
land Land Snail Species in Malacologica; and a review 
article Origin and diversification of pulmonate land 
snails in an Academic Press Symposium volume. In 
new research, Solem completed a 314-page review of 
Non-camaenid Land snails of the Kimberley and North- 
ern Territory Australia for the Australian Journal of Zool- 
ogy and has nearly completed a several-hundred- 
page monographic review of the South Australian 
camaenid land snails. His long-range project of 
inventorying and describing the major land snail 
groups of Western and central Australia is nearly com- 
plete and the intellectual challenge of interpreting their 
biogeographical and evolutionary patterns is under- 
way Use of a computer mapping program to summar- 
ize and interpret distributions is accelerating this pro- 
cess. Solem chaired the Curator's Colloquium and 
spoke at the Introduced Molluscs Symposium at the 9th 
International Malacological Congress, Edinburgh in 
September 1986. 

Mammals. Bruce Patterson continued work on the 
morphology and distribution of small mammals in North 
and South America. He conducted a faunal survey in 
western Brazil in 1986 and gathered further data in the 
western U.S. in 1985 for studies on the evolution of chip- 
munks. The book Island Biogeography of Mammals, 
which he co-edited, was published in 1986 by Aca- 
demic Press. Robert Timm also made collections in the 
western U.S. in 1985 for studies on gophers and ground 
squirrels and led fieldwork in Costa Rica in 1986. His 
research topics include ecology and systematics of 
Neotropical bats and the ecology and distribution of a 
group of beetles which are parasitic on Central and 
South American rodents. In 1986 he resigned his posi- 
tion as associate curator of Mammals and head of the 
Division of Mammals to join the faculty at the University 
of Kansas. 



SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT SERVICES 

Scientific Support Services includes the scientific com- 
puting, the scanning electron microscope, scientific 
illustration, the histological and biochemical labora- 
tories, and Field Museum Press. 

During 1985-86 computing at Field Museum 
underwent a number of changes. In the fall of 1985 the 
ancient PDP 11/40, supporting 8 users, was replaced 
by a VAX 11/750, supporting 40 users. The new 
machine is used principally to manage the substantial 
collection data bases, but also to support research and 
administrative functions. In late fall of 1986 the Museum 
was awarded a substantial grant from the National Sci- 
ence Foundation to improve research and collections 
computing facilities by way of an additional CPU, a lar- 
ger disk capacity for the expanding collection data, a 
tape drive, printers, and terminals. Provision was also 
made for better communication between devices such 
as terminals, printers, and personal computers via a 
local area network or similar system. When the new 
CPU is purchased, the VAX 11/750 will be used for 
administrative functions such as a development data 
base, currently undergoing testing, and a new financial 
accounting system that will be selected in the future. 
The Computing staff consisted of Rosetta Arrigo, sys- 
tem manager, and James KoeppI, system specialist. 

Chris Niezgoda of the Botany Department, with the 
help of consultant Ron Wibel from the University of Illi- 
nois, continued to coordinate the use of the scanning 
electron microscope for the benefit of all scientific staff. 
Plans are being made to find funds for the purchase of a 
badly needed new microscope. 

The Museum's scientific illustrators produce high 
quality illustrations to be used by the curatorial staff in a 
wide range of research publications. Illustrators work 
closely with scientists to develop illustrations that can 
best depict the subject matter, whether it be a speci- 
men or a process. Subject matter is as diverse as the 
world of natural history and includes new species of 
plants and animals, anthropological specimens, and 
reconstructions of extinct life forms. Illustrators also 
maintain contact with other illustrators and with printers 
in order to keep abreast of new materials, techniques, 
and printing processes. Cooperation with the manag- 
ing editor of Field Museum Press, where many illustra- 
tions are published, has also proven essential. 

Scott Lanyon, assistant curator of Birds, coordi- 
nated use of the biochemical laboratories during the 
biennium. As part of a preliminary investigation of the 
evolutionary relationships within blackbirds (Icteridae), 
Dr Lanyon used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis 
to analyze frozen tissue samples from eight blackbird 
species collected in Peru during 1985 fieldwork. 
Notification of National Science Foundation funding to 
continue this study including further analyses in the 
biochemical laboratories, was received in 1986. Some 
renovation and upgrade of the laboratories is in pro- 
gress, including purchase of a new ultra-cold freezer 
and high-speed centrifuge. 

Fieldiana, Field Museum's research journal, pub- 



23 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 




Gifts to ttie Museum Library during tine biennium included (left) An epitome of the natural tiistory of the insects of China (1798), by Edward 
Donovan, from the William Elfenbaum estate: (top) a first edition, first issue copy of Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859), from Mr and Mrs. 
Jotin Runnells: and (rigtit) 35 original watercolors of baby birds by George Sutton, from ttie Brooks and Hope B. McCormick Foundation. Phoio by 



Rot Testa, 84792 



24 



COLLECTIONS and RESEARCH 



lished 15 titles (4 in Anthropology, 2 in Botany, 1 in Ge- 
ology and 8 in Zoology) comprising a total of 1,235 
pages. Field Museum Press also reprinted two Field- 
iana: So/any volumes on the important legume family of 
plants, from the series "Flora of Peru" and "Flora of 
Guatemala" originally published in 1943 and 1946, 
respectively The staff of Field Museum Press consisted 
of Timothy C. Plowman, chair of the Department of 
Botany scientific editor; James W. VanStone, curator of 
North American archaeology and ethnology associate 
editor; and Tanisse R. Bezin, managing editor 



THE LIBRARY 

In 1985-86 over 5,500 volumes were added to the 
Library collections through a variety of means, includ- 
ing the international publications exchange program, 
the U.S. Depository System, gift, and purchase. Reg- 
ular acquisition funds were supplemented as in former 
years through endowed acquisition funds given by 
Louis A. and Frances B. Wagner, Mr and Mrs. Walter 
Cherry and Mrs. Chester Tripp. These funds have con- 
tinued to strengthen the Library resources that are 
indispensable to the Museum's scientific research pro- 
grams. The volumes held in the General, Departmental 
and Divisional Libraries now total 230,000, exclusive of 
numerous special collections. 

The Library extends its services to the public as a 
non-circulating research collection and during this 
period more than 1,700 visitors to the public Reading 
Room made use of over 9,000 volumes. The Library's 
highly specialized collections continued to be made 
available to the wider scholarly community through the 
Interlibrary Loan system, with over 1,300 loans and 
photocopies of Library materials supplied to libraries 
throughout North America for use by their patrons. The 
majority of these loans were initiated through oclc 
(Online Computer Library Center), a computerized 



bibliographic network with 6,000 member libraries 
nationwide. 

During 1986 the librarians and archivists of the 
members of The Associated Natural Sciences Institu- 
tions (tansi) met on several occasions in the course of a 
grant-funded study of the archival collections held in 
these institutions. The tansi librarians have subse- 
quently established an informal network to investigate 
cooperative activities and to maintain communications 
among our group of highly specialized libraries. 

Additions to the Rare Book Collections during this 
period began dramatically in February 1985 with the 
gift by Trustee and Mrs. John Runnells of a copy of the 
first edition, first issue of Charles Danwin's On the Origin 
of Spec/es (London, 1859). The importance of this work 
in the modern biological sciences is well known, and 
the Runnells's gift fills an important gap in the collec- 
tions held in the Mary W. Runnells Rare Book Room. A 
fine illustrated work, Edward Donovan's An epitome of 
tlie natural history of the insects of China (London, 
1798), came to the Rare Book Collections as the gift of 
the William Elfenbaum estate. Several other early works 
on insects were donated to the Rare Book Room by Dr 
Ulrich Danckers, among them a copy of the beautifully 
illustrated Entomologie, ou Histoire naturelle des In- 
sectes...Coleopteres (Paris, 1789-1808), byGuillaume 
Antoine Olivier Mr and Mrs. Robert Frank were the 
donors of a fascinating collection of 86 original photo- 
gravure printing plates for a popular sehes of nature 
illustrations known as Perry Pictures. Most of the plates 
were produced in Chicago around 1900 by the A. W. 
Mumford Co. The end of the biennium brought the gift 
from the Brooks and Hope B. McCormick Foundation of 
a collection of 35 original watercolors of baby birds by 
George Sutton, one of the finest bird illustrators of this 
century 

The past two years were not without misfortune. It 
is with regret that we note the loss to the Library and the 
Museum of Alfreda Rogowski, a veteran staff member 
who passed away in the spring of 1986. 



25 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 




"Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collections, " featuring 175 artifacts, was on view Marcfi 8 througti June 8. 1986. 34309 



26 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 



Education 

The Museum hosted 9,296 school classes during 1985 
and 1986, with 446,364 students and their teachers — 
the highest number of attendant school population 
since 1977 and 1978. Of these, 6,458 classes of 
196,706 teachers and students received special pro- 
grams to augment their classroom studies and 27,617 
participated in special festival days, such as Festival 
Mexicano, Te Maori, African Heritage Celebration, 
Dinosaur Day, and the American Indian Festival. In 
addition, 3,045 teachers borrowed 8,602 items from the 
department's free loan center, Harris Extension. 

Teacher Training was instituted as a regular ser- 
vice, fall 1986, following a successful pilot program. 
During 1985-86, 163 teachers and student-teachers 
participated in two-week training sessions, followed by 
their development and evaluation of a personal model 
field trip. Teach the Mind, Touch the Spirit: A Guide to 
Focused Field Trips was published by the department 
as a result of working with teachers in the program and 
a teacher advisory committee. By year's end, over 
3,000 copies had been given free to teachers on 
request. 

School class attendance comprises one-fifth of the 
Museum's total attendance. Concurrent with school 
programming, we offer a rich variety of courses, work- 
shops, performances, and participatory activities for 
our visitors. Over 3,000 adults enrolled in 138 multi- 
session evening or weekend courses, and 4,855 visited 
125 ecologically important Chicago area sites during 
Kroc field trips. Another 327,000 parents and children 
shared the delight of touching and exploring the struc- 
ture, size, and texture of shells, meteorites, birds, mam- 
mals, and skeletons. They learned about Chinese life 
by trying on clothes, playing a tangram game, or using 
utensils — all in the Place for Wonder Another 172,700 
experienced Pawnee Indian life in the 1850s recon- 
struction of an authentic Pawnee earth lodge. 

Former one-day festivals became month-long 
events with specific themes, such as 'Animal Antics" 
and "Come to Your Senses," and 21 different free family 
features involved 6,750 participants on weekends. 
Other highlights included "Sweet Saturday Night," per- 
formed by Brooklyn Academy of Music Company with 
dances from black America's back roads, city streets 
and ballrooms; Anne Pusey's lecture, "Cooperation 
and Conflict in Lion Societies"; the Continental Drift 
Symposium; "An Evening of Maori Song, Dance, and 
Drama"; "Conserving the Wild", Joan Embrey lecture; 
"Magical Circus from the Orient"; and Donald Johan- 
son's lecture, "Lucy and Our African Ancestors." 

The special exhibit "Te Maori; Maori Art from New 
Zealand Collections" was accompanied by 80 Maori 
elders, craftspeople, singers, and musicians who 
came for the opening ritual ceremonies. Twenty of the 
group stayed for two weeks and presented a variety of 
daily programs, met with teachers, and consulted with 
the staff in program development. "Te Maori" also pro- 
vided the Museum with the opportunity to open the 
Museum's Maori meeting house, Ruatepupuke II, within 



the exhibit. A trained group of 36 volunteers gave 2,682 
"house" tours to 29,794 visitors between March 15 and 
June 8, 1986. 

Summer and Winter Fun attracted 3,860 children 
to 215 two-hour workshops. They participated in every- 
thing from making masks, musical instruments, and fos- 
sil replicas to spending the night in the Museum. 

During 1986, the department undertook two new 
program initiatives: the "World Music " program and 
the "Hall Interpreters" program. "World Music " pre- 
sents performances, demonstrations, discussions, and 
often storytelling by Chicago musicians on weekend 
afternoons. In various exhibit areas related to a cul- 
ture's music, visitors experience the rhythmic sounds of 
an African talking drum and the melodic strains of an 
American Indian flute, among others. The "Hall Inter- 
preters" program was designed to also place people 
with objects and materials in exhibit areas to demon- 
strate various processes and provide interactive 
opportunities for our visitors Thursdays through Sun- 
days. Both programs will continue and expand in 1987 

In total, 9,584 programs were presented to 
795,012 individuals. Much of this would not have been 
possible without the volunteers who assist us and teach 
each day Another 150 volunteers work in scientific col- 
lections, public relations, development, and so forth. 
Together this volunteer support equalled 87,815 hours, 
or 48y4-man-years of work. In financial terms, this con- 
tribution was over $526,890. More importantly, each 
volunteer contributes a fresh perspective and the pub- 
lic's viewpoint to our work. As part of the Museum family 
they are also our best ambassadors to the community 
at-large. 

Outside support was extremely important to our 
program. It enabled the department to experiment and 
test new programs for visitors, and to share with and 
contribute to the museum profession at-large. Grants 
were received from the following sources: the Joyce 
Foundation for Student Teacher Internships; Te Maori 
Interpretive Programs, National Endowment for the 
Humanities; African Heritage Celebration, City Arts III/ 
IV, Chicago Office of Fine Arts; "Many Faces of Illinois," 
Adult Course, Illinois Humanities Council; Interpretive 
Hall Programs — Biology the Joyce Foundation; Inter- 
pretive Hall Programs — Anthropology the Lloyd A. Fry 
Foundation; World Music, the Kenneth and Harle 
Montgomery Fund; Muscology for Gifted High School 
Students, Chicago Public Schools; Technical Assis- 
tance for Ethnic and Folk Arts Museums, Illinois Arts 
Council; and the national program for museum educa- 
tors, curators and designers, "Museum: Agents for 
Public Education," the W.K. Kellogg Foundation. 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 




Early photo of Mexican photojoumalist Agustin Victor Casasola, whose work was featured in the exhibit "The World of Agustin Victor Casasola, 
Mexico, 1900-1938, " September 12 through November 3, 1985. 



28 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 



EXHIBITION 

During 1985 and 1986 Field Museum mounted one per- 
manent and two temporary installations of its own col- 
lections, played host to four traveling exhibitions and 
began planning the ambitious renewal of public pro- 
grams and exhibits that will reach a climax with the 
Museum's centennial in 1993. 

One hundred twenty objects and related photo- 
graphs of the "Art of Cameroon" from the Smithsonian 
Institution Traveling Exhibition Service was presented 
from March 9 through June 16, 1985. Included were 
prehistoric terra cotta sculptures, objects in different 
media of ritual and secular use, and a large number of 
masks, figural sculptures, and other objects. 

"The World of Augustin Victor Casasola, Mexico, 
1900-1938" exhibited the first major retrospective of 
 photographs of Casasola through 152 prints supplied 
by the Archive Casasola. It was on exhibit from Septem- 
ber 12 through November 3, 1985. 

Although now awaiting reinstallation in a new loca- 
tion, a diorama representing a Botany Department field 
camp in the coastal desert of Peru was opened on July 
23, 1985. Based on the fieldwork there of Associate 
Curator Michael 0. Dillon, the exhibit featured a 4- 
wheel-drive vehicle such as Dillon uses, and all the 
trappings and equipment customarily to be found on 
such a venture. A narrated videotape supplemented 
the exhibit. 

The newest addition to Field Museum's list of reno- 
vated halls is the Grainger Hall of Gems, which opened 
to the public after two years of total updating on Novem- 
ber 5, 1985. The new hall is a revolutionary departure 
from the one it succeeds; only the site remains the 
same. The gemstones and models, representing a 
fraction of those in the old hall, were chosen for their 
rarity aesthetic qualities, or educational contribution. 
Great care was invested in developing the successful 
lighting, air-conditioning and security systems for the 
dramatic C-shaped case, which houses the 500-object 
permanent exhibit, or can easily accommodate occa- 
sional temporary exhibitions in the future. Also opening 
on November 5, 1985 was the Grainger Gallery, 
designed to house a variety of special exhibits in an 
elegant space next to the gem hall. The first exhibit 
there was the 'Art of Adornment," high-lighting jewelry 
from many cultures represented in the Museum's 
anthropology collections. Both these exhibit areas 
were made possible through the generosity of David 
and Juli Grainger. 

"Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Collec- 
tions" was on view at Field Museum from March 8 
through June 8, 1986, inaugurating the Museum's new 
climate-controlled special exhibition gallery The first 
international exhibition devoted exclusively to Maori 
art, "Te Maori" owed its existence to the wisdom of the 
elders and people of the Maori tribes in New Zealand, 
who have agreed to the journey of their ancestors' trea- 
sures (taonga) far from their homelands. The carvings 
represented all periods of Maori art from about 1000 to 
1880, and were lent with the cooperation of the thirteen 



New Zealand museums which housed them. 

"Te Maori" traveled to four American cities and was 
organized by the American Federation of Arts in 
association with the New Zealand government, the 
Maori people, and the New Zealand lending museums. 
The exhibition was made possible by a grant from Mo- 
bile. Supported by the National Endowment for the 
Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, an 
indemnity from the Federal Council on the Arts and 
Humanities, Air New Zealand, the government of New 
Zealand, and the National Patrons of the American 
Federation of Arts. 

The exhibit "Gods, Spirits, and People," which 
went on view on November 22, 1986, presents a sam- 
pling of human images from Field Museum's collection 
of the traditional art of non-Western cultures. "Gods, 
Spirits, and People" was designed to update the 
Museum's old Primitive Art exhibit and clear space in 
the gallery bordering the east side of Stanley Field Hall 
for a temporary reinstallation of the African collection 
until a new comprehensive African exhibit can be 
mounted in the early 90's. 

Finally nearly 50 talented members of the Museum 
staff had a chance to exhibit their work in 'Artists at the 
Field," that ran from December 13, 1986 to January 11, 
1987. 



29 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 




Three hundred years of black American dance were celebrated by Sweet Saturday Night's company of 19 performers on Feb. 2, 1986. 



30 



PUBLIC PROGRAMS 



Public Relations 

In 1985 and 1986, the Public Relations Department's 
local, midwest, and national media contacts were 
strengthened and expanded. Particular improvement 
occurred with family-oriented, feature, and entertain- 
ment media. The Public Relations Department hosted 
press previews for five major exhibits and arranged 
numerous other smaller media meetings and private 
tours to generate publicity and build media relations. 
The department hosted the 1986 Chicago Area Broad- 
cast Public Affairs Association's annual seminar, an 
event which strengthened relations between the 
Museum and public affairs directors in the area. In 1985 
and 1986 combined, the department generated 3,364 
print articles, over 1 ,000 print calendar listings, 90 radio 
interview placements, and 89 television placements. 

A major highlight was the filming and airing of a 
special half-hour CBS television special about the Field 
Museum's scientific research explorations. Bill Kurtis, a 
Chicago CBS anchorman, and his CBS documentary 
team followed Field Museum scientists John Fitzpatrick 
and Michael Dillon into the jungles of Peru and created 
the show "Islands in the Jungle," which is part I of a new 
CBS series entitled "The New Explorers." The program 
aired September 13, 1986 in Chicago, New York, Los 
Angeles, Philadelphia, Miami, and Seattle. 

The program portrayed Field Museum as an 
institution and public museum that is alive and continu- 
ally adding to its collections and our understanding of 
the natural world. Citicorp sponsored the air-time for 
the show and is further underwriting the development 
and distribution of a teacher's kit based on the show to 
5,000 Illinois teachers. 

Other highlights of the biennium included major 
promotion and publicity for "The Art of Cameroon," 
"The vyDrld of Agustin Victor Casasola," "Gems," and 
"Te Maori" exhibits. Program, festival, and small-exhibit 
publicity included the annual Dinosaur Days, Black 
History Month programs, Festival of Masks, and the 
"Mountain Light" exhibit. The department made its first 
major effort with Chicago's Hispanic media in promot- 
ing the "Casasola" exhibit. Nearly every Hispanic 
media outlet in Chicago covered the exhibit and many 
new media relationships were formed. 

Promotion efforts for the "Te Maori" exhibit featured 
extensive television coverage of the Maori Dawn Cere- 
mony and opening events by Channel 2-WBBM along 
with 10 other Chicago and Midwest television stations 
and a tremendous amount of local, national, and inter- 
national print and radio coverage. WBBM-AM radio did 
an entire day of live remote broadcasting at Field 
Museum to celebrate the public opening of "Te Maori." 
Over 12,000 people attended the opening on March 8, 
1986. 

In May 1986, the department generated publicity 
for the kick-off of the public phase of "Time Future From 
Time Past," the Museum's $40 million capital cam- 
paign. This effort gave good visibility to the event and 
campaign and also produced follow-up stories. 

Our nationally distributed radio series "In the Field" 



was launched in AphI, 1986, followed by a fall series in 
October The two series, comprised of three- to five- 
minute programs, with one or two longer special edition 
programs, covered subjects ranging from "Halley's 
Comet: All You Ever Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to 
Ask," to "Vampire Bats; Fact or Fiction." The interview 
segments feature Field Museum research scientists 
speaking on scientific topic of interest to a general 
audience. The series is designed to be engaging, 
understandable, and relevant to the listener's life. "In 
the Field" was distributed to 200 -i- public radio stations 
in the continental United States and Hawaii. Our first 
evaluation survey told us that the two series were well 
received and were being aired frequently We hope the 
radio series will spark an interest in natural history 
topics and help in building Field Museum's national im- 
age and tourist attendance. 

To further build tourist attendance, we joined with 
Adier Planetahum and Shedd Aquarium to launch a 
summer promotion in 1985 and 1986 that would pro- 
mote all three institutions as a destination for tourists 
and day-trip visitors. Entitled "Earth, Sky and Sea, Visit 
All Three," the promotion utilized a brochure that out- 
lined mini-visits to the three institutions, local and mid- 
west advertising, and a kick-off media event. 

A final highlight was the publicity effort for Roger 
Tory Peterson who came to Chicago to receive the Field 
Museum Founder's Council Award of Merit for his tre- 
mendous contributions to ornithology. As much an ora- 
tor as a bird illustrator. Dr. Peterson delighted the 
reporters with fascinating stories of his life-long passion 
of birdwatching. Through the interviews and articles the 
Museum received national attention for the new owl 
species co-discovered by Museum scientist John Fitz- 
patrick, who named the bird Otus petersonii. This was 
the first time a bird had been named for Dr Peterson. 



31 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

statements of Assets, Liabilities and Fund Baiancei 
December 31, 1886 







Board 








Unrestricted Fund 


Unrestricted Fund 


Assets 


1986 




1985 


1986 1985 


Cash 


$ 2,312,597 




$ 1,375,246 




Accounts receivable 


379,255 




390,791 




Museum stores' inventory 


866,700 




664,901 




Prepaid expenses 


94,943 




107,732 




Deterred charges: 










Note issuance costs 










Other 


16,912 




119,321 




Investments 


6,629,362 




8,962,112 




Collections 


1 




1 




Museum property 


7,136,866 
$17,436,636 




7,136,866 
$18,756,970 






$ — $ - 


Liabilities and Fund Balances 










Accounts payable 


$ 1,251,860 




$ 1,312,652 




Accrued liabilities 


494,671 




475,432 




Accrued pension contribution 


200,898 




317,297 




Defen-ed revenue: 










Contributions 






1,500 




Pension gain 


155,843 




180,996 




Other 


38,558 




95,470 




Note payable 










Due to (from) other funds 


6,334,863 




7,450,102 


($2,171,872) ($1,749,190) 


Total liabilities 


8,476,693 




9,834,449 


( 2,171,872) (1,749,190) 


Museum property fund balance 


7,136,867 




7,136,867 




Fund balance 


1,823,076 




1,785,654 


2,171,872 1,749,190 


Total fund balance 


8,959,943 




8,922,521 


2,171,872 1,749,190 




$17,436,636 




$18,756,970 


$ - $ - 



32 



Restricted fund 
1986 1985 



Fund 

functioning 

as endowment 

1986 1985 



Endowment fund 
1986 1985 



Combined total 
1986 1985 



$ 1,548,185 


$ 764,868 










$ 2,312,597 

1,927,440 

866,700 

94,943 


$ 1,375,246 

$ 1,155,659 

664,901 

107,732 


371,343 
22,611,406 


370,606 
18,047,070 


$40,002,855 


$35,506,349 


$13,266,108 


$1 1 ,423,849 


371,343 

16,912 

82,509,731 

1 

7,136,866 

$95,236,533 


370,606 

119,321 

73,939,380 

1 

7,136,866 


$24,530,934 


$19,182,544 


$40,002,855 


$35,506,349 


$13,266,108 


$1 1 ,423,849 


$84,869,712 


$ 412,450 


$ 69,870 










$ 1,251,860 
907,121 
200,898 


$ 1,312,652 
545,302 
317,297 


8,472,798 

252,058 
17,800,000 
(2,406,372) 


5,243,044 

36,968 

. 17,800,000 

(3,974,495) 

19,175,387 

7,157 

7,157 

$19,182,544 


($ 1,756,619) 
(1,756,619) 

41,759,474 

41,759,474 

$40,002,855 


($ 1,726,417) 
(1,726,417) 

37,232,766 

37,232,766 

$35,506,349 


$13,266,108 

13,266,108 

$13,266,108 




8,472,798 

155,843 

290,616 

17,800,000 


5,244,544 

180,996 

133,438 

17,800,000 


24,530,934 





29,079,136 

7,136,867 
59,020,530 

66,157,397 

$95,236,533 


25,534,229 




$11,423,849 

11,423,849 

$1 1 ,423,849 


7,136,867 
52,198,616 


— 


59,335,483 


$24,530,934 


$84,869,712 



33 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

statements of Revenues, Expenses and Changes in Fund Balances 
Years Ended December 31, 1386 and 1985 



Revenues 
Chicago Park District property tax collections 
Government grants 
Interest and dividend income 
Net realized gain on investments sold 
Contributions 
Memberships 
Admissions 
Auxiliary enterprises (museum, stores, 

vending, tours, food services) 
Other 

Total 

Expenses: 
Research and collections 
Public programs 
Finance and museum services 
Development 
Administration 
Auxiliary enterprises (museum stores, 

vending, tours, food services) 
Capital improvement expenditures 
Note interest and amortization 
Overhead costs charged to grants 

Total expenses 

Increase (decrease) in fund balance before 

transfers and reclassification 
Add (deduct) transfers: 

Nonmandatory transfer - Board designated fund 

Transfer - Restricted fund 

Transfer - Board designated fund 

Transfer - Fund functioning as 
endowment 
Reclassification of transfer to deferred revenue 

Increase (decrease) in fund balance 
Fund balance at beginning of year 

Fund balance at end of year 



Unrestricted Fund 
1986 1985 


Board 
Designated Fund 
1986 1985 


$ 5,248,164 

574,385 

3,299,417 


$ 4,238,701 

361 ,887 

3,322,496 






1,601,139 
474,524 
851,797 


1,561,646 
477,543 
811,123 






2,575,596 
56,843 


1,744,332 
37,657 

12,555,385 

2,628,441 
1,561,140 
4,669,449 
724,758 
1 ,073,497 






14,681,865 


— 





2,667,210 
1 ,442,657 
5,489,024 
727,809 
1,480,401 


$ 8,406 

232,062 

21,840 

8,404 

27,745 


$ 87,664 
18,095 
36,556 

1,802 


2,152,799 
217,993 


1,420,414 
125,424 


24,599 




(183,450) 


(156,601) 
12,046,522 






13,994,443 


323,056 


144,117 


687,422 


508,863 


(323,056) 


(144,117) 


(650,000) 


(450,000) 


650,000 
95,738 


450,000 


37,422 
1,785,654 


58,863 
1,726,791 


422,682 
1,749,190 


305,883 
1 ,443,307 


$ 1,823,076 


$ 1,785,654 


$2,171,872 


$1,749,190 



34 







Fund 














Functioning 






1986 


1985 


Restricted Fund 


an Endowment 


Endowment Fund 


Combined 


Combined 


1986 


1985 


1986 1985 


1986 


1985 


Totai 

$ 5,248,164 


Total 

$ 4,238,701 


$ 842,862 


$ 669,361 








1,417,247 


1,031,248 


2,157,510 


640,688 


$ 231,059 $ 358,161 


$ 42,996 


$ 65,353 


5,730,982 


4,386,698 


28,131 




4,376,596 2,117,698 


1,396,216 


670,022 


5,800,943 


2,787,720 


2,927,187 


1,899,182 


1,263,886 1,994,127 


403,047 


488,931 


6,195,259 
474,524 
851,797 


5,943,886 
477,543 
811,123 



2,115,448 
8,071,138 



856,431 



4,065,662 



5,871,541 



4,469,986 



1 ,842,259 



1 ,224,306 



2,575,596 
2,172,291 

30,466,803 



1 ,744,332 
894,088 

22,315,339 



943,368 

738,482 

25,714 

517,804 

6,810 

522 

4,559,590 

851,650 

183,450 

7,827,390 



818,312 

674,600 

39,651 

299,328 

1,250 

28,293 

1,941,187 

99,283 

156,601 

4,058,505 



3,618,984 


3,534,417 


2,413,201 


2,253,835 


5,536,578 


4,745,656 


1,254,017 


1,024,086 


1,514,956 


1,076,549 


2,177,920 


1 ,448,707 


4,777,583 


2,066,611 


851 ,650 


99,283 



22,144,889 



16,249,144 



243,748 

1,500,000 
(95,738) 

(155,167) 

(1,500,000 ) 

(7,157) 
7,157 



7,157 



7,157 



$ 7,157 



5,871,541 
(1,500,000) 

155,167 



4,526,708 
37,232,766 

$41 ,759,474 



4,469,986 



1 ,842,259 



1 ,224,306 



8,321,914 



6,066,195 



4,469,986 
32,762,780 

$37,232,766 



1 ,842,259 
1 1 ,423,849 

$13,266,108 



1 ,224,306 
10,199,543 

$1 1 ,423,849 



(1 ,500,000 ) 

6,821,914 
52,198,616 

$59,020,530 



6,066,195 
46,132,421 

$52,198,616 



35 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY 



Bronson. Bennet 



36 



1985. (with W. Rostoker and M. Notis) Some insights on the "hundred 
refined" steel of ancient China, MASCA Jouma/ 34:99-1 03. 
Review article, Nagara and Commandery (P. Wheatley). South- 
East Asian Studies Newsletter 20 ^ -A. British Institute in South- 
East, Bangkok. 

Notes on the History of Iron in Thailand. Journal of the Siam 
Soc/efy 73 (1&2):205-225. 

Patterns in the Early Southeast Asian Metals Trade, in P Suchitta 
ed., Research Conference on Early Southeast Asia. Silpakorn 
University, Bangkok, pp. 58-121. 

1 986. (with P Charoenwongsa) Eyewitness Accounts of the Early /fining 
and Smelting of fi/letals in ft/lainland South East Asia. 36 pp. 
Thailand Academic Publishing Co., Bangkok. 

The Making and Selling of Wootz, a Crucible Steel of India. 
Archaeomaterials 1 (1 ): 1 3-51 . 

Seventeenth Century Chinese Trade to Southeast Asia (Abstract), 
Journal of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou. 1986:21. 

Cole. Glen 

1986. (with Paul G. Bahn) La pr6histoire Pyreneenne aux Etats-Unis, 
Bulletin de la Soci^te Prdhistorique Arlege-f\r6nees, 41 :95-1 49. 

Feldman. Roberta. 

1985. Preceramic Corporate Architecture: Evidence for the Develop- 
ment of Non-Egalitarian Social Systems in Peru, In Early Cere- 
monial Architecture in the Andes, edited by C.B. Donnan, pp. 71 - 
92. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. 

(with Charles R. Ortloff and Michael E. Moseley) Hydraulic 
Engineering and Historical Aspects of the Pre-Columbian Intraval- 
ley Canal Systems of the Moche Valley, Peru, Journal of Field 
Archaeology 1 2(1 ):77-98 

1 986. Early Textiles from the Supe Valley, Peru. In The Junius B. Bird 
Conference on Andean Textiles, edited by Ann P Rowe, pp. 31-46 
The Textile Museum, Washington, DC. 

Konigsberg. Lyle 

1986. (with Jane E. Buikstra and Jill Bullington) Fertility and the Develop- 
ment of Agriculture in the Prehistoric Midwest. American Antiquity 
51 (3): 528-546. 

Lewis. Phillip H. 

1986. "Te Maori Opens at Field Museum" (in) Pacific Arts Newsletter, No. 
23, July, pp. 17-22, Pacific Arts Association, Honolulu. 
Review of Greub, Suzanne, (ed) Authority and Ornament, Art 
of the Sepik River, (in) African Arts, vol. XX, No. 1 , November, 
pp. 91-92. 

Reese, David S. 

1985. "The Late Bronze Age to Geometric Shells from Kition." Appendix 
VIII (A) in V. Karageorghis, Excavations at KitionV/W. Nicosia: 
Department of Antiquities, 340-71. 

"The Kition Ostrich Eggshells." Appendix VIM (B) in V. Karageorg- 
his, Excavations at Kition y/W. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities, 
371-82. 

"The Kition Astragali." Appendix VIII(C) in V. Karageorghis, Ex- 
cavations atKitionVIW. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities, 382-91 . 
"Hippopotamus and Elephant Teeth from Kition." Appendix VIII(D) 
In V. Karageorghis, Excavations at KitionVIW. Nicosia: Department 
of Antiquities, 391-408. 

"The Kition Tortoise Carapace." Appendix VI 1 1(E) in V. Karageorg- 
his, Excavations at Kition y/W. Nicosia: Department of Antiquities, 
409-15. 

"Marine Shells." Appendix IV in A. Betts, "Black Desert Survey, 
Jordan: Third Preliminary Report," in LevantXS/W, 51 . 
"Molluscs from Early Bronze Age Lithares." Appendix I in 
H. Tzavella-Evjen, Lithares: An Early Bronze Age Settlement in 
Boeotia.Occ. Pap. 15. Los Angeles: (Institute of Archaeology), 
University of California, 50-53. 

"The Insects." Part lid in D. Whitehouse, L. Constantini, F Guido- 
baldi, S. Passi, P Pesabene, S. Pratt, R. Reece, and D. Reese, 



"The Schola Praeconum 11 " in Papers of the British School at Rome 
Llll, 172. 

"The Shells." In I. Nicolaou, "Excavations at the Eastern Necropolis 
at Amathous in 1984." Report of the Department of Antiquities of 
Cyprus, 270-71 
1986. "The Marine and Fresh-water Shells." Chapter 14in P McGovern, 
ed . The Late Bronze/Early Iron Age of Central Transjordan: The 
Baq'ah Valley Project, 1977-1981. Philadelphia: University 
Museum. 

"Shells at Aphrodisias" in M. S. Joukowsky Prehistoric Aphrodi- 
sias, an Account of the Excavations and Artifact Studies. Louvain: 
Archaeologica Transatlantica III, 191-96. 

(with H. K. Mienis and F R. Woodward) "On the Trade of Shells and 
Fish from the Nile River" in Bulletin of the American Schools of 
Oriental Research 264. 79-84. 

Terrell. John 

1985. "Living Together," Field Ivluseum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 56, 
no. 1 , pp. 5-10,1 9-24 (excerpt from Prehistory in the Pacific 
Islands). 

1 986. Prehistory in the Pacific Islands. A study of variation in language, 
customs, and human biology Cambridge University Press, 
Cambridge. 300 pp. 

Causal Pathways and Causal Processes: Studying the Evolution- 
ary Prehistory of Human Diversity in Language, Customs, and 
Biology Journal of Anthropological Archaeology b, pp. 187-198. 

VanStone. James W. 

1 985. The Respirator or Smoke Strainer — An Unusual Eskimo Artifact. 
Field f^useum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 23-25. 
Ornamented Coats of the Koryak. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 8-15. 

Material Culture of the Davis Inlet and Barren Ground Naskapi. 
Fieldiana: Anthropology n.s , no. 7. 

An Ethnographic Collection from Northern Sakhalin Island. Field- 
iana: Anthropology n.s, no. 8. 

1986. Stephen C. Simms as a Collector of North American Indian Mate- 
rial Culture. Field ivluseum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 57 no. 4, 
pp. 5-10. 

Robert E. Peary: Arctic Explorer and Collector for the World's 
Columbian Exposition. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 18-23. 

Miner W. Bruce: Reindeer Herder, Showman, and Collector for the 
Field Columbian Museum. Field Museum of Natural History Bulle- 
tin, vo\. 57. no. 7, pp. 19-25. 

"And he was Beautiful": Contemporary Athapaskan Material Cul- 
ture in the Collections of Field Museum of Natural History Field- 
iana: Anthropology n.s, no. 10. 

Weber, Ronald 

1985. "Amazon Basin and Eastern Brazil and the Orinoco." American 
Antiquity vol. 50, no. 1 , pp. 1 75-1 79. 

1986. Emmon's Notes on Field Museum's Collection of Northwest Coast 
Basketry Edited with an Ethnoarchaeological Analysis New Series 
No. 9. 

Photographs as Ethnographic Documents, Arctic Anthropology, 
22:1, pp. 67-78. 

Welsch, Robert L. 

1985. The Distribution of Therapeutic Knowledge in Ningerum: Implica- 
tions for Primary Health Care and the Use of Aid Posts. Papua 
New Guinea Medical Journal, vol. 28, pp. 67-72. 

Medical Pluralism in Papua New Guinea: Perceptions of Western 
Medicines in Ningerum. The 1 1th Third World Conference. 
Chicago: Third World Foundation. 

1986. Primary Health Care and Local Self Determination: Policy Implica- 
tions from Rural Papua New Guinea. Human Organization: Journal 
of the Society for Applied Anthropology vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 103- 
112. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 

Barringer. KerryA. 

1984. (Not reported in previous biennial reports.) A new species of Guat- 
teria (Annonaceae) from Panama. Annals of tfie Missouri Botanic 
Garden 71:1186-1187. 

1985 Revision of the genus Sas/stemon (Scropfiulariaceae). Systematic 
Botany 10(2):125-133. 

Two new species of Esterhazya (Scropfiulariaceae) from Brazil. 
Brittonia 37(2): 195- 198. 

A new species of Maxillaria (Orcfiidaceae) from Costa Rica. Britto- 
nia 37(1 ):44-46. 

H. Dietrich! 's Bibliographia Orchldacearum{rev\e\N). Brittonia 
37: 77. 

Three new species of Elleanthus (Orchidaceae) from Central 
America. Brittonia 37:286-290. 

Three new species of /Aga//n/s (Scrophulariaceae) from South 
America. Brittonia 37:352-354. 

1986. New species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae) from Peru. Brittonia 
38:128-132. 

Reinstatement of the genus Sanango Bunting & Duke (Buddle- 
jaceae). Phytologia 59:363-364. 

Tetranema bicolor L.O. Wms. (Scrophulariaceae) transferred to 
Nepeanthus (Gesneriaceae) from Mexico and Central America. 
Phytologia 61:361-366. 

Burger, William C. 

1985. Why are there so many kinds of flowering plants in Costa Rica? 
In: W G. D'Arcy and M. D. Correa, Eds., The Botany and Natural 
History of Panama, pp. 125-136. 

A reprint of the 1 980 article in Brenesia, with additional biblio- 
graphic references. 

1986. Family #201 Plantaginaceae in Flora Costaricensis. Fieldiana: 
Botany, N.S. No. 18:87-90. 

Dillon. Michael O. 

1985. The Silver Lining of a Very Dark Cloud — Botanical Studies in 
Coastal Peru During the 1982-83 El Nino Event. Field Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin 56(3):6-1 0. 

(with A. SagSstegui A). Four New Species of Asteraceae from 
Peru. Brittonia 37(1):6-13. 

(with A. SagAstegui A.). New species and combinations in Belloa 
(Inuleae-Asteraceae). Phytologia 58:392-400. 

1986. (with A. Sag^stegui A.). New Species and Status Changes in 
Andean Inuleae (Asteraceae). Phytologia 59(4): 227-233. 

A New Species of Flourensia (Asteraceae, Heliantheae) from 
Northern Peru. Brittonia 38(1 ):32-34, 
(with A. Sag^stegui A.). Jalcophila, a new genus of Andean In- 
uleae (Asteraceae). Brittonia 38(2): 1 62-1 67. 
(with A. SagSstegui A.). A New Species of Achyrocline (Inuleae- 
Asteraceae) from Peru. Phytologia 60: 107-1 10. 
(with S. Sundberg). Chromosome Reports. Taxon 35:409-410. 
(with A. Sag^stegui A). A New Species of Monactis (Heliantheae- 
Asteraceae) From Northern Peru. Phytologia 61(1 ):5-8. 
(with J. Jakupovic, V. P Pathak, F Bohlmann, and D. Gage). Ses- 
quiterpene Lactones from Helogyne hutctiinsonii. Phytochemistry 
25(11 ):2563-2565. 

Engel.JohnJ. 

1985. Leptophyllopsis and Leptoscyphus. In: Geissler, P. & H. Bischler, 
Eds., Index Hepaticarum 10:65-70. J. Cramer, Vaduz. 

(with R.M. Schuster). Austral Hepaticae V (2). Temperate and sub- 
antarctic Schistochilaceae of Australasia. Journal of the Hattori 
Botanical Laboratory 58:255-539, figs. 1 -76. 

Psilochlada mayor (Schust.) Engel, comb, nov (Hepaticae) from 
New Zealand. Phytologia 58:324. 

1 986. (with Benito Tano). An annotated checklist of Philippine Hepaticae. 
Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 60:283-355. 

Feuer. Sylvia M. 

1985. (with J. Kuijt). Fine structure of mistletoe pollen. VI. Small-flowered 
neotropical Loranthaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den 72:187-212. 



(with C. Niezgoda and Lonn I. Nevling, Jr). Ultrastructure of Parkia 
polyads (Mimosoideae: Leguminosae). American Journal of 
Botany 72(1 2): 1871 -1890. 
1986. Pollen morphology and evolution in the subfamilies Per- 

soonoideae, Sphalmioideae and Carnavonioideae (Proteaceae) 
Pollen et Spores 28:43-75. 

Pollen. In: H. Hopkins, Neotropical species of Parkia Flora Neotro- 
pica 43:29-41. 

Garwood. Nancy C. 

1985. (with Carol C. Horvitz). Factors limiting fruit and seed production 
of a temperate shrub, Staphylea trifolia L. (Staphyleaceae). Amer- 
ican Journal of Botany 72:453-466. 

The role of mucilage in the germination of cuipo, Cavanillesia pla- 
tanifolia (H. & B.) H.B.K. (Bombacaceae), a tropical tree. Amer- 
ican Journal of Botany 72:895-905. 
Earthquake-caused landslides in Panama: Recovery of the 
vegetation. National Geographic Society Research Reports 
21:181-184. 

1986. Constraints on the timing of seed germination in tropical forests, 
pp. 347-355. In: A. Estrada and T H. Fleming, Eds. Frugivores 
and Seed Dispersal, Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, 

The Netherlands. 

Grime, William E. 

1986. (with Timothy Plowman). Type photographs at Field Museum of 
Natural History Taxon 335:932-934. 

HuR. MichaelJ. 

1 984. (Not reported in previous biennial report.) A review of Euphorbia 
(Euphorbiaceae) in Baja California. Annals of the Missouri Botanic 
Garden 71(4):1021-1027. 

1985. A new Syngonanfhus (Eriocaulaceae) from Southern Mexico. 
Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 72(2):448-449. 

(with H. van der Werff). Observations on Chamaesyce (Euphor- 
biaceae) in the Galapagos Islands. Madrono 32: 1 43- 1 47. 

Mueller. Gregory M. 

1985. Numerical taxonomic analyses on Laccarria (Agaricales). 
Mycologia77:121-129 

1986. (with E. C. Vellinga). Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on 
Laccaria B. & Br: Laccaria amethystea, L. fraterna, L laccata, 
L. pumila, and their synonyms. Persoonia 13:27-43. 

Murphy Honora A. 

1986. A Revision of the Genus Fischeria (Asclepiadaceae). Systematic 
Botany 11(1):229-241. 

Nee. Michael 

1984. (Not reported in previous biennial report). Flora de Veracruz #39. 
Cunoniaceae. 7 pp. 

(Not reported in previous biennial report). Flora de Veracruz #40. 
Ulmaceae. 38 pp. 

(Not reported in previous biennial report), (with Dorothy L. Nash). 
Flora de Veracruz #4 1 . Verbenaceae. 1 53 pp. 

1985. Flora de Veracruz #43. Molluginaceae. 8 pp. 
Flora de Veracruz #44. Brunelliaceae. 5 pp. 

Niezgoda, Christine 

1985. (S. M. Feuer &L. I. Nevling, Jr.). Ultrastructure of Partoa polyads 
(Mimosoideae: Leguminosae). American Journal of Botany 
72(1 2): 1871 -1890. 

Plowman, Timothy 

1984. (not reported in previous biennial report). New taxa of Erythroxy- 
lum (Erythroxylaceae) from the Amazon Basin. Suplemento, Acta 
Amaz6nlca 14 (1/2):1 17-143. 

1985. (with Y. M. A. El-lman & W. C. Evans). Alkaloids of some South 
American Erythroxylum species. Phytochemistry 24:2285-2289. 
(with H. A. Lloyd, H. M. Fales, M. E. Goldman, D. M. Jerina & R. 
Schultes). Brunfelsamidine: a novel convulsant from the halluci- 
nogenic plant Brunfelsia grandiflora. Tetrahedron Letters 26:2623- 
2624. 37 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



A new species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae) from Surinam 
and Venezuela. Phytologia 58: 1 72-1 77. 
1986. (with R. K. Siegel, M. A. Elsofily, P. M. Rury & R. T. Jones). Cocaine 
in herbal tea. Journal of the American Medical Association 
255(1 ):40. 

(with L.I. Nevling, Jr). A new species of Lasiadenia 
(Thymelaeaceae) from Venezuela. Brittonia 38(2): 1 14-1 1 8. 
Coca chewing and the botanical origins of coca {Erythroxylum 
spp.) in South America, pp. 5-33. In: D. Pacini & C. Franquemont, 
Eds. Coca and Cocaine: Effects on people and policy in Latin 
America. Co-published by Cultural Survival, Cambridge, tvlassa- 
chusetts, and Latin American Studies Program, Cornell University 
Ithaca. 

Four new species of Erythroxylum from northeastern Brazil. Britto- 
nia 38(3): 189-200. 

(with WE. Grim6). Type photographs at Field Museum of Natural 
History Taxon 35:932-934. 

Stolze, Robert 

1986. Polypodlaceae-Asplenioideae. /n.- Harling & Sparre, Flora of 
Ecuador, Stockholm, Sweden, 14(6): 1-83. 

Taylor. Kent 

1983. (Not reported in previous biennial report ) Flora de Veracruz #29. 
Pedaliaceae. 5 pp. 

(Not reported in previous biennial report.) Flora de Veracruz #30. 
Martyniaceae. 1 1 pp. 

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY 

Bolt, John R. 

1 985. (with R. E. Lombard) Evolution of the Amphibian Tympanic Ear and 
the Origin of Frogs. BiotogicalJournal of the Linnean Society 
24:83-99. 

1986. (with Robert E. DeMar) Computer Simulation of Tooth Replace- 
ment with Growth in Lower Tetrapods. Journal of Vertebrate 
Paleontology 6(3):233-250. 

Crane, Peter R. 

1 985. Phylogenetic Analyses of Seed Plants and the Origin of Flowering 
Plants. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 72: 71 6-793. 
(with Soladoye, M. 0.) Systematic Palynology of Baphia 
(Sophoreae, Papilionoideae). Grana, 24: 145-160. 
Phylogenetic Relationhips in Seed Plants, Ctadlstics, 1: 329-348. 

1 986. The Morphology and Relationships of the Bennettitales. In: 

B, A. Thomas & R. A. Spicer (eds.) Systematic and Taxonomic 
Approaches in Palaeobotany pp. 163-175. London: Academic 
Press. 

Form and Function in Wind Dispersed Pollen. In: S. Blackmore & I. 
K. Ferguson (eds.) Pollen and Spores: Form and Function. 
pp. 179-202, London: Academic Press, 

(with E. M, Friis & K, R, Pedersen) Floral Evidence for Cretaceous 
Chloranthoid Angiosperms, Nature, 320: 163-164, 
(with E. M. Friis & K. R, Pedersen) Unisexual Flowers from the 
Lower Cretaceous: Fossil Evidence on the Early Radiation of the 
Dicotyledons. Science, 232: 852-854. 

(with R. A. Sfockey) Morphology and Development of Pistillate In- 
florescences in Extant and Fossil Cercidiphyllaceae. Annals of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 73: 382-393. 

Grande. Lance 

1985. Recent and Fossil Clupeomorph Fishes with Materials for Revision 
of the Subgroups of Clupoids. Bulletin American Museum of Nat- 
ural History vol, 181, no, 2, 231-373. 

The Use of Paleontology in Systematics and Biogeography and a 
Time Control Refinement for Historical Biogeography Paleobiol- 
ogy vo\. 11, no. 2, 234-243. 

Fish Fossils in the Eocene Green River Formation of Southwestern 
Wyoming. National Geographic Research Reports, vol. 21 , 201 - 
205. 



38 



(with G. Nelson) Interrelationships of Fossil and Recent Anchovies 
(Teleostei: Engrauloidea) and a Description of a New Species from 
the Miocene of Cyprus. American Museum Novitates, no. 2826, 1 - 
16. 

1986. The First Articulated Freshwater Teleost Fish from the Cretaceous 
of North America. Paleontology vol, 29, 365-371 . 
(with J. T Eastman) A Review of Antarctic Ichthyofaunas in Light of 
New Fossil Discoveries. Paleontology vol. 29, 1 13-137 

LiDGARD. Scott 

1985. Zooid and Colony Growth in Encrusting Cheilostome Bryozoans. 
Paleontology 28: 255-291 & 26-31 . 

Budding Process and Geometry in Encrusting Cheilostome Bryo- 
zoans In: Bryozoa: Ordovician to Recent, (eds. C. Nielsen & G. P. 
Larwood), Olsen &0lsen Publishers, Denmark. 175-182, 

1986. Ontogeny in Animal Colonies: A Persistent Trend in the Bryozoan 
Fossil Record. Science, vol. 232, 230-232. 

Niteckl Matthew H. 

1985. (Editor with D. F Toomey) Paleoalgology Springer-Verlag. 
(with D. F Toomey) Contemporary Research and Application in 
Paleoalgology Springer-Verlag, 9-17, 

(with Reitschel) Redescription of the holotype of Selenoids iowen- 
s/s.Owen 1852, Journal of Paleontology 59(3), 568-571. 
(with A.Y. Zhuravlev) Comparative morphology of 
archaeocyathids and receptaculitids. Paleont. Jour Moscow, 
(4):121-123 in Russian. 

Evolution of human hunting. Anthro. Newsletter 26{9):9. 

(with A. Hoffman) Reception of the osteroid hypothesis of terminal 

Cretaceous extinctions. Geo/ogy 13(1 2):884-887. 

1986. (Editor with J. A. Kitchell) Evolution of Animal Behavior Oxford Uni- 
versity Press. 

Evolution and Behavior In: Evolution of Animal Behavior, (Editor 
with J, A. Kitchell), Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 3-6. 
(Eds. with A. Hoffman) Problematic Fossil Taxa, Oxford University 
Press. 

Why and How to do Problematica in Problematic Fossil Taxa, (Eds. 
Nitecki & Hoffman), Oxford Univ. Press, pp, 5-8, 
Receptaculitids and Their Relationship to Other Problematic Fos- 
sils. In. Problematic Fossil Taxa, (eds. Hoffman & Nitecki), Oxford 
University Press, pp. 27-34. 

Olsen, Edward J. 

1985. (with Friedman, Callis, Shreiner, Hines, Orlandini, & Nelson) 
Enrichment of 235U and the Concentration of 239Pu in Volcanic 
Samples, Nature, 313, 301-303, 

(with Dodd, Clarke) The Bloomington (LL6) Chondrite and its 
Shock Melt Glasses. Meteoritics, 20, 575-581 , 
(with Wang, Crow, & Levi-Setti) High Lateral Resolution SIMS 
Mapping of Meteorite Chondrule, Nuclear Instruments and 
Methods in Physics Research, B10/11, 716-718. 

1986. (with G. R. McGhee, C, J, Orth, L, R, Quintana, J, S. Gilmore) 
Late Devonian "Kellwasser Event" Mass-Extinction Horizon in 
Germany: No Geochemical Evidence for a Large-Body impact. 
Geology 14, 776-779. 

(with G. R, McGhee, C. J. Orth, L. R, Quintana, J, S. Gilmore) 
Geochemical Analyses of the late Devonian "Kellwasser Event" 
Stratigraphic Horizon at Steinbruch-Schmidt (FR.G.) In: Lecture 
Notes in Earth Sciences, vol. 8 Global Bio Events, (ed. O. Wasser), 
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 219-224. 

Turnbull, William D. 

1985. (with Woodburne, Tedford, Archer, & Lundelius) Biochronology of 
the Continental Mammal Record of Australia and New Guinea 
Stratigraphy Paleontology Malacology Department of Mines and 
Energy Southern Australia. Special Publications #5, 347-363. 

Woodland, Bertram G. 

1985. Relationships of Concretion and Chlorite-Muscovite Porphyroblast 
to the Development of Domainal Cleavage in Low-Grade Meta- 
morphic Deformed Rocks from North Central Wales, Great Britain. 
Journal of Structural Geology 17, 205-215. 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY 



Ashe, James S. 



1985. Fecundity, development and natural history of Meronera venustula 
(Erichson) (Coleoptera; Staptiylinidae: Aleocharinae), Psyhe92 
(2-3): 181 -204, 

1986. Structural features and pfiylogenetic relationships among larvae 
of genera of gyrophaenine staphylinids (Coleoptera: Staphylini- 
dae: Aleocharinae), Fieldiana: Zoology, New Series, No, 30, 1-60. 
Seeversiella bispinosa, a new genus and species of athetine 
Aleocharinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) from North America. 
Journal of the New York Entomological Society94{4):500-5^ 1 . 
Phanerota cubensis and Phanerota brunnessa n. sp. , with key to 
the species of P/ianerote occurring in Florida (Coleoptera: Staphy- 
linidae). The Florida Entomo/og/sf 69(1 ):236-245. 

Subsocial behavior among gyrophaenine staphylinids (Coleop- 
tera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae). Soc/ob/o/ogy12(2):31 5-320. 
(with R.M. Timm). Mammals and beetles in Costa Rica. Field 
Museum oi Natural History Bulletin. 57(10):11-18. 
(with R.tVI. Timm) Host and elevational specificity of parasitic bee- 
tles (amblyopinus) on neotropical mammals (abstract of paper 
presented at annual meetings of the American Society of tVlammal- 
ogists, June, 1986). 

FiTZPATRiCK. John W. 

1985. The role of scientific collections in ecological morphology Pp. 
195-208 /nE.H. IVIiller, (ed.), Museum Collections: Their Roles and 
Future in Biological Research. British Columbia Provincial 
Museum, Occasional Paper, No. 25. 

TyrantFlycatchers. Pp. 318-321 inC. Perrinsand A.L.A. Middleton 
(eds). 7776 Encyclopedia oi Birds, Equinox (Oxford) Ltd. 
Flycatcher (2). In B. Campbell and E. Lack (eds.) A Dictionary of 
Birds. Pp. 231-233. Buteo Books, Vermillion, South Dakota, 
(with J. Haffer). Geographic variation in Some Amazonian forest 
birds. Pp. 147-168 in Buckley PA. et al. (eds.) Neotropical 
Ornithology. Monogr Amer Orn. Union, No. 36. 
Form, foraging behavior and adaptive radiation in the Tyrannidae. 
Pp. 447-470 in Buckley PA., et al., Neotropical Ornithology. 
Monogr. Amer Orn. Union, No. 36. 

1986. (with J. P O'Neill) Otus petersoni, a new screech-owl from the 
Eastern Andes, with systematic notes on O. colombianus and O. 
ingens. Wilson Bulletin. 98(1):1-14. Frontispiece by R. T Peterson, 
(with Glen E. Woolfenden) Demographic routes to cooperative 
breeding in some New World Jays. In Nitecki, M, and J. Kitchell 
(eds). Evolution of Animal Behavior paleontological and field 
approaches. Pp. 137-160. Univ Chicago Press, Chicago. 

(with Glen E. Woolfenden) Sexual asymmetries in the life history of 
the Florida Scrub Jay pp. 87-1 07 in Rubenstein, D. and R. W. 
Wrangam (eds.).. Ecological Aspects of Social Evolution: Birds 
and Mammals. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 
Evolution through Group Selection, V.C. Wynne Edwards. Science 
234:882-883 (review). 

Hershkovitz, Philip 

1985. A preliminary taxonomic review of the South American bearded 
saki monkeys genus C/?/ropotes (Cebidae, Platyrrhini), with the 
description of a new subspecies. Fieldiana: Zoology (new series), 
27:1-46. 

1986. Handbookof squirrel monkey research. The Ouarterly Review of 
Biology 61 : 286-287 (review). 

The piebald saki. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
57(2):24-25 and cover 

Inger. Robert F 

1985. A report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from the 
Ponmudi, Kerala, South India, Journal, Bombay Natural History 
SocietyVol. 81 (2) - pp. 406-427: (3) - pp. 551-570. 
Tadpoles of the forested regions of Borneo. Fieldiana: Zoology 
(N.S.), No. 26, 89 pp. 

1 986. Key to the snakes and lizards of China. By Zhao Ermi and Jiang 
Yaoming. ( A translation by Inger and Yang Datong.) Smithsonian 
Herpetological Information Service, No. 71 , 21 pp. 



(with Harold Voris and Paul Walker) Larval transport in a Bornean 
ranid frog. Copeia, 1986; 523-524. 

(with Harold Voris and P Walker) A key to the frogs of Sarawak. 
Sarawak Museum Journal 34 (1 985): 1 61 -1 82. 
(with Harold Voris and Karl J. Frogner) Organization of a commu- 
nity of tadpoles in rain forest streams in Borneo. Journal of Tropical 
Ecology 2:193-205. 

IzoR. Robert J. 

1985. (with N. E. Peterson) Notes on South American weasels. Journal of 
Mammalogy 66(4):788-790 

1 986. Sloths and other mammalian prey of the harpy eagle. Pp. 343-346 
in The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and ver- 
milinguas. (G. Gene Montgomery ed.) Smithsonian Institution 
press, Washington, D,C, 451 pp. 

Johnson. Robert K. 

1985. Variation in Vinciguerria nimbaria with Comments on the Status of 
the Red Sea Population, p. 243-256 in Proc. International Con- 
ference on Marine Science in the Red Sea. Bull. Inst. Oceanogr 
and Fish., 9. M.-F Thompson, A. FA. Latif and A.R. Bayoumi, eds., 
243-256. 

Lanyon. Scott M. 

1 985. Molecular perspective on higher level relationships in the Tyran- 
noidea (Aves). Systematic Zoology 34:404-418. 

Detecting internal inconsistencies in distance data. Systematic 
Zoology 34:397-403. 

(with A. P. Capparella) Biochemical and Morphometric analyses of 
the sympatric, neotropical, sibling species, Mionectes maccon- 
nelli and M. oleagineus. Pp. 347-355 in P. A. Buckley, et al. (eds.) 
"Neotropical Ornithology," American Ornithologists Union, 
Ornithological Monographs, no. 36. American Ornithologists 
Union. 

(with W. E. Lanyon) Generic status of Euler's Flycatcher: a morpho- 
logical and biochemical study Auk 1 03:341 -350. 
(with C. F Thompson) Site fidelity and habitat quality as determi- 
nants of settlement pattern in male Painted Buntings.- Condor 
88:206-10. 

Cladistic theory and methodology (review). Condor 85-544. 
Marx. Hymen 

1 986. (with R. Eric Lombard and George B. Rabb) Morphometries of the 
ectopterygoid in advanced snakes (Colubroidea): a concordance 
of shape and phylogeny Biological Journal Linnean Society 
27:136-164, 13 figures. 

MOSKOVITS, Debra 

1 985. (with John Fitzpatrick and David Willard) Lista preliminar das aves 
de Estacao Ecologica de Maraca, Territorio de Roraima, Brasil, e 
areas adjancentes. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 36(6):51 -68. 

NEVirroN, Alfred F, Jr 

1985. South temperate Staphylinoidea (Coleoptera): their potential for 
biogeographic analysis of austral disjunctions. Pages 180-220 in 
G. E. Ball (editor). Taxonomy phylogeny and zoogeography of 
beetles and ants. A volume dedicated to the memory of Philip 
Jackson Darlington, Jr., 1904-1983. W. Junk, TheHague, Series 
Entomologia 33. 

Patterson, Bruce D. 

1985. Distribution, ecology and evolution of mammals on Chilean coas- 
tal islands, American Philosophical Society Grantees' Reports, 
1984:39-40. 

Chilean serendipity: records of a fortuitous field season in temper- 
ate rain forests. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 56:7-22. 

(Letter) Species Loss. Science, 234:1311. 
(with Wirt Atmar) Nested subsets and the structure of insular 
mammalian faunas and archipelagos. Biological Journal of the 
Linnean Society 28:65-82. 



39 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



SoLEM.G. Alan 

1 985. Simultaneous Character Convergence and Divergence in Western 
Australian Land Snails, BiologicalJournal of the Linnean Society of 
London. 24:143-163, 8 figs., 3 tables. 

(with Frank M. Climo) Structure and Habitat Correlations of Sym- 

patric New Zealand Land Snail Species, Malacologia, 26(1-2): 

1-30, 9 text figs., 11 tables. 

Camaenid Land Snails from Western and central Australia (Mol- 

lusca; Pulmonata; Camaenidae). V. Remaining Kimberley Genera 

and Addenda to ttie Kimberley. Records of the Western Australian 

Museum. Supplement 20■.707-98^,f\gs. 181-256, tables 76-94, 

plates 64-94. 

Founders' Council Member Honored, Field f^useum of Natural 

History Bulletin. 56(8):25-26. 

1986. Origin and Diversification of Pulmonale Land Snails, in The Mol- 
lusca. 10:269-293, E.R. Trueman (ed.). Academic Press, London. 
Pupilloid Land Snails from the South and tVlidv\/est Coasts of 
Australia. Joumal of the Malacological Society of Australia. 
7(3-4): 95-124, 36 text figures. 

A Collector's Tale. Field Museum of Natural History 

Bulletin,57(6):22-25. 

Afterword A, The Streets and Their Expeditions. Field Museum of 

Natural History Bulletin, 58(1): 23-24. 

TiMM, Robert M. 

1 985. Parasites of New World Microtus. Pp. 455-534 in Biology of New 
World M/CTO/us (Robert H. Tamarin, ed.). Special Publication No. 8, 
American Society of Mammalogists. 

Artibeus phaeotis. IVIammalian Species, American Society of 
Mammalogists, 235: 1 -6. 

(with Barbara Clauson) tVlammals as evolutionary partners. Pp. 
1 01 -1 54, in Coevolution of Parasitic Arthropods and Mammals (K. 
C. Kim, ed.) John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 
(with R. D. Price) A review of Cummingsia Ferris (Mallophaga: 
Trimenoponidae), with a description of two new species. Pro- 
ceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 98(2):391 -402. 

1986. Fruits of their labors. Pp. 292-298 in Iranian adventure; The first 
Street Expedition (William S. Street, Janice K. Street and Richard 
Savi^er). Field [Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 305 pp. 
(with Luis Albuja and Barbara Clauson) Ecology distribution, 
harvest and conservation of the Amazonia manatee Trichechus 
inunguis in Ecuador. S/ofTOp/ca 18(2): 150-1 56. 

Traylor. Melvin 

1985. Species limits in the Ochthoeca diadema species-group i^Tyranni- 
dae). Pp. 431-444 in Buckley, et al. (eds.) Neotropical Ornithology. 
Monog. No. 36. American Ornithol. Union. Washington, D.C. (Plate 
VIbyJ.W. Fitzpatrick). 

(with J. V Remsen and K. C. Parkes) Range Extensions for Some 
Bolivian Birds, 1 (TinamiformestoCharadriiformes). Bull. Brit. 
Ornith. Club, ^05:^2A-^30. 

1 986. In E. tvlayr & G. W. Cottrell (eds.) Checklist of Birds of the World, 
vol. 1 1 . African species of Sylviidae (pp. 3-294), tvluscicapidae 
(pp. 295-375), Platysteiridae (pp. 367-390), and Monarchidae (pp. 
464-556). [Museum of Comparative Zoology (Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts). 

(with J.V. Remsen and K.C. Parkes) Range extensions of some 
Bolivian birds, 2 (Columbidae to Rhinocryptidae). Bull. Brit. Orn. 
Club, 106:22-32. 

VoRis, Harold K. 

1985. (with William B. Jeffries and Chang M. Yang) Growth of Octolasmis 
cor(Aurivillis, 1 892) on the gills of Scylla serrate (Forskal, 1 755). 
Biological Bulletin 1 69:291 -296. 

(with R.F. Inger and P. Walker) Larval transport in a Bornean ranid 
frog. Cope/a (2):523-525. 

Population size estimates for a sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa) in 
Malaysia. Cope/a (4): 955-961. 

1986. (with R.F. Inger and K.J. Frogner) Organization of tadpoles in rain 
forest streams in Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology 2:^93-205. 



WiLLARD. David E. 

1985. Comparative feeding ecology of twenty-two tropical piscivores. 
Pp. 788-797, in Buckley, et al. (eds). in Neotropical Ornithology 
Ornithol. Monogr, No. 36. American Ornithol. Union, Washington 
DC. 

SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT SERVICES 

Jastrzebski. Zbigniew T 

1985. Technique of making fish illustration 5. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes 1 2(2): 1 42. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 6. Environmental Biology 
o^ F/s/ies 12(4):318-319. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 7. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes ^3{2) A 24. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 9. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes 1 3(3): 1 82. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 10. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes ^3{4):252. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 1 1 . Environmental Biology 
of Fishes ^3{4):288. Dr W. Junk Publisher, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 

Scientific Illustration: A Guide for the Beginning Artist. Prentice- 
Hall, Inc., Engelwood Cliffs, New Jersey 319 pp. 

1 986. Technique of making fish illustration 1 7. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes :6{4y.256. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 20. Environmental Biology 

of Fishes :6{4):330. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 21 . Environmental Biology 

of Fishes M{:):52. Dr. W Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 23. Environmental Biology 

of Fishes 1 7(3):234. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Technique of making fish illustration 24. Environmental Biology 

of Fishes ^8{^)■.66. Dr W Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Werner, MarleneH. 

1 985. Technique of making fish illustration 1 3. Environmental Biology 
of Fishes 14(4):268. Dr W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 

The Netherlands. 

Richardson, Clara 

1 986. Technique of making fish illustration 22. Environmental Biology 
0/ F/sftes 17(2): 153-1 54. Dr W Junk Publishers, Dordrecht, 
The Netherlands. 



THE LIBRARY 

Fawcett. W. Peyton 

1 985. (with Benjamin W. Williams) Field Museum of Natural History 
Library Science and Technology Libraries 6(1-2):27-33. 

1986. Henry Field, 1902-1986. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
vol. 57(5):24-25. 

Williams. Benjamin W. 

1985. (with W. Peyton Fawcett) Field Museum of Natural History Library 
Science and Technology Libraries 6(1-2):27-33. 

1 986. Audubon's "The Birds of America" and the Remarkable History of 
Field Museum's Copy Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
Vol.57(6):7-21. 



40 



STAFF PUBLICATIONS 



THE BULLETIN 

Walsten, David M. 

1985. Chicago's Parakeets. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 
vol. 56(5):1 1-17. 

The Japanese Woodblock Print. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin, vol 56{2):7-22. 

(with Edward Olsen) A New Jewel in Field Museum's Crown. Field 
Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 56(1 1 ):8-10. 
"Contact," by Carl Sagan (review), The Chicago Tribune, Oct. 6. 
"The Mammoth Hunters," by Jean Auel (review), the Chicago 
Tribune, Nov. 1 7. 

1 986. The Legacy of Carl Akeley. Field Museum of Natural History Bulle- 
f/n vol. 57(1 ):5-25. 

Painters at Field Museum. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 
vol. 57(4):20-25. 

"The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior," by Jane 
Goodall (review). The Chicago Tribune, Oct. 10. 
"Krippendorf's Tribe," by Frank Parkin (review). The Chicago 
Tribune, Feb. 16. 

"Swift Walker: An Informal Biography of Gurdon Saltonstall Hub- 
bard," by Lloyd Wendt (review). The Chicago Tribune, Dec. 18. 

DEVELOPMENT 

BuzARD, Clifford 

1985. Year-End Giving. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 
56(10):22-24. 

1986. A Recent Bequest. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 
57(2):2. 

The New Income Tax Law and Charitable Giving. Field Museum of 
Natural History Bulletin, vol. 57(11):9-10. 



DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

Blackmon, Carolyn 

1 986. (with Maija Sedzielarz and Helen H. Voris) Teach the Mind, Touch 
the Spirit. Field Museum of Natural History, 80 pp. 

Evans, Nancy 

1986. (with Donald McVicker) Anthropology: The Human Experience. 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 57(3):21-23. 

Pickering. Robert B. 

1 985. Human Osteological Remains from Alfa Vista, Zacatecas: An Anal- 
ysis of the Isolated Bone. The Archaeology of West and Northwest 
Mesoamerica, Westview Press, Boulder. 

1986. Population Differences in the Calcaneus as Determined by Dis- 
criminant Function Analysis. Forensic Osteology, C.C. Thomas 
Press. 

Sedzielarz, Maija 

1986. (with Carolyn Blackmon and Helen H. Voris) Teach the Mind, 
Touch the Spirit. Field Museum of Natural History 80 pp. 

Voris, Helen H. 

1985. Museums as Agents for Public Education: The Kellogg Program. 
Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, vol. 57(5)6-8. 

(with Carolyn Blackmon and Maija Sedzielarz) Teach the Mind, 
Touch the Spirit. Field Museum of Natural History, 80 pp. 

Zebrun, Ellen 

1 986. Volunteers Do Make a Difference. Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulletin w\.57{6):4-5. 



41 



THE WOMEN'S BOARD 



Mrs. Keene H. Addington M 

Mrs. Edward King Aldworth M 

Mrs. Richard I Allen M 

Mrs. James W Alsdorf M 

Mrs. Angelo R. Arena M 

Mrs A Watson Armour III M 

Mrs. Laurance H. Armour, Jr M 

Mrs. P. Kelley Armour M 

Mrs. T Stanton Armour M 

Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann M 

Mrs. Thomas G. Ayers M 

Mrs. George R. Baker M 

Mrs. Claude A. Barnett M 

Mrs. Robert O. Bass M 

Mrs. George R, Beach M 

Mrs. Robert A. Beatty M 

Mrs. James H. Becker M 

Mrs. Edward H. Bennett. Jr. M 

Mrs. B. Edward Bensinger M 

Mrs. Gordon Bent M 

'Mrs. Richard Bentley M 

Mrs. Harry O Bercher M 

Mrs. Michael A, Bilandic M 

Mrs. Harrington Bischof M 

Mrs. Bowen Blair M 

Mrs. Frank W.BIatchford III Mi 

Mrs. Joseph L. Block Mi 

Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr Mi 

Mrs. Philip D. Block ill Mi 

Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist Mi 

Mrs. John J. Borland, Jr Mi 

Mrs. Arthur S Bowes Mi 

Mrs. Willard L. Boyd Mi 

Mrs. Lester Harris Brill Mi 

Mrs. Robert E, Brooker Mi 

Mrs. Cameron Brown Mi 

'Mrs. Isidore Brown Mi 

Mrs. Jennifer Martin Brown Mi 

Mrs. Roger O Brown M 

Mrs. T. von Donop Buddington M 

Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux M 

Mrs. Robert A. Carr M' 

Mrs. Robert Wells Carton Mi 

Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz Mi 

Mrs. Henry T. Chandler Mi 

Miss Nora F. Chandler Mi 

Mrs. Walter L. Cherry Mi 

Mrs. W. H. Clark, Jr Mi 

Mrs. J. Nothhelfer Connor Mi 

Mrs. Frank W. Considine Mi 

Mrs. Stanton R. Cook Mi 

Mrs. Edward A. Cooper Mi 

Mrs. James R. Coulter Mi 

Mrs. William S. Covington Mi 

Mrs. Mark Crane Mi 

Mrs. Lester Crown Ja 

Mrs. Sandra K. Crown Mi 

Mrs. Robert Lane Cruikshank Mi 

Mrs. Herschel H. Cudd Mi 

Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow Mi 

Mrs. Howard M. Dean, Jr Mi 

Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta Mi 

Mrs. Emmett Dedmon Mi 

Mrs. Robert O. Delaney M 

Mrs. Charles S. Delong M 

Mrs. Charles Dennehy M 

Mrs. Edison Dick M 

Mrs. William R. Dickinson, Jr M 



rs. Stewart S. Dixon 


Mr 


's. Wesley M. Dixon 


Mr 


'S. Gaylord Donnelley 


Mr 


's. Thomas E. Donnelley II 


Mr 


s. Maurice F Dunne, Jr. 


Mr 


s. Robert C. Edwards 


Mr 


'S. Robert Elberson 


Mr 


s. R. Winfield Ellis 


Mr 


'S. Victor Elting III 


Mr 


s. Winston Elting 


Mr 


s. Gordon R. Ewing 


Mr 


S.Thomas J. Eyerman 


Mr 


8. Calvin Fentress 


Mr 


'S. Robert C. Ferris 


Mr 


s. Robert Fesmire 


Mr 


s. Joseph N. Field 


Mr. 


s. Marshall Field 


Mr 


s. Charles Robert Foltz 


Mr. 


s. Peter B. Foreman 


Mr 


s. Francis G. Foster, Jr. 


Mr< 


s. Hubert D. Fox 


Mr. 


s. Earl J. Frederick 


Mr 


s. Gaylord A. Freeman 


Mr 


s. Marshall Front 


Mr< 


s. William D. Frost 


Mr 


's. James C. E. Fuller 


Mr 


rs. Maurice F Fulton 


Mr 


rs. John S. Garvin 


Mr 


rs. John S. Gates 


Mr 


rs. Robert H. Gayner 


Mr 


rs. Isak V. Gerson 


Mr 


rs. Gerald S. Gidwitz 


Mr 


rs. JamesJ.GIasser 


Mr 


rs. Julian R. Goldsmith 


Mr 


rs. Paul W. Goodrich 


Mr 


rs. William B. Graham 


Mr 


rs. David W. Grainger 


Mr 


rs. Donald C. Greaves 


Mr 


rs. Roger Griffin 


Mr 


rs. Robert C. Gunness 


Mr 


rs. Robert P Gwinn 


Mr 


rs. Burton W. Hales 


Mr 


rs. Corwith Hamill 


Mr 


rs. Charles L. Hardy 


Mr 


rs. King Harris 


Mr 


rs. Frederick Charles Hecht 


Mr 


rs. Ben W. Heineman 


Mr 


rs. William A. Hewitt 


MiE 


rs. Stacy H. Hill 


Mr 


rs. Edward Hines 


Mr 


rs. John L. Hines 


Mr 


rs. John H. Hobart 


Mr 


rs. Richard H. Hobbs 


Mr 


rs. Thomas D. Hodgkins 


Mr 


rs. Thomas J. Hoffmann 


Mr 


niceS. Hunt 


Mr 


rs. Chauncey Keep Hutchins 


Mr 


rs. Robert C. Hyndman 


Mr 


rs. Stanley 0. Ikenberry 


Mr 


rs. Robert S. Ingersoll 


Mr 


rs. Frederick G.Jaicks 


Mr 


'S. Clarence E. Johnson 


Mr 


rs. S.Curtis Johnson III 


Mr 


s. Richard M. Jones 


Mr 


s. JohnB. Judkins, Jr 


Mr 


s. Byron C. Karzas 


Mr 


's. John J. Kinsella 


Mr 


s. Robert 0. Kolar 


Mr 



rs. Walter A. Krafft 

rs. Bertram D. Kribben 

rs. Gordon Leadbetter 

rs. John H. Leslie 

rs. John Woodworth Leslie 

rs. Edward H. Levi 

rs. Michael S. Lewis 

rs. Chapin Litten 

rs. Glen A. Lloyd 

rs. Albert E. M. Louer 

rs. Franklin J. Lunding 

rs. Walter M Mack 

rs. John W. Madigan 

rs. James F Magin 

rs. Robert H. Malott 

rs. Philip C. Manker 

rs. Richard Marcus 

rs. David Mayer 

rs. Frank D. Mayer 

rs. Frank D. Mayer, Jr 

rs. Brooks McCormick 

rs. George Barr McCutcheon I 

rs. William J. McDonough 

rs. Andrew McKenna 

rs. Eugene J. McVoy 

rs. John C. Meeker 

rs. Henry W. Meers 

rs. Hugo J. Melvoin 

rs. J. Roscoe Miller 

rs. Philip B.Miller 

rs. Newton N. Minow 

rs. William H. Mitchell 

rs. Charles H. Montgomery 

rs. Kenneth F Montgomery 

rs. Evan G. Moore 

rs. Graham J. Morgan 

rs. Arthur T Moulding 

rs. Aidan I. Mullett 

rs. Leo F Mullin 

rs. Elita Mailers Murphy 

rs. P S. Murphy 

rs. Charles Fenger Nadler 

rs. Charles Fenger Nadler, Jr 

rs. Earl L. Neal 

rs. Edward FNeild ill 

rs. John Doane Nichols 

rs. Arthur C. Nielsen 

ss Lucille Anne Nunes 

rs. John Nuveen 

rs. James J. O'Connor 

rs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil 

rs. Harry D. Oppenheimer II 

rs. Richard C. Oughton 

rs. Donald W. Patterson 

rs O Macrae Patterson 

rs. R. Marlin Perkins 

rs. Seth Low Pierrepont 

rs. Charles S. Potter 

rs. Frederick Childs Pullman 

rs. Howard C. Reeder 

rs. Robert W. Reneker 

rs. Peter A. Repenning 

rs. Don H. Reuben 

rs. Joseph E. Rich 

rs. John M. Richman 

rs. T Clifford Rodman 

rs. Frederick Roe 

rs Edward M. Roob 



Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

Mrs. John S. Runnells 

Mrs. Patrick G. Ryan 

Mrs. George W. Ryerson 

Dr Muriel S. Savage 

Mrs. Arthur W.Schultz 

Mrs. William L. Searle 

Mrs. C. William Sidwell 

Mrs. John R. Siragusa 

Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 

Mrs. Edward Byron Smith, Jr. 

Mrs. Gordon H. Smith 

Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 

Mrs. Lyie M. Spencer 

Mrs. Gatzert Spiegel 

Mrs. JackC. Staehle 

Mrs. E. Norman Staub 

Mrs. Gardner H. Stern 

Mrs. Adiai E. Stevenson III 

Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

Mrs. William S. Street 

Mrs. Robert H Strotz 

Mrs. Barry F Sullivan 

Mrs. John W. Sullivan 

Mrs. William P Sutter 

Mrs. James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr. 

Mrs. Edward F. Swift 

Mrs. Hampden M. Swift 

Mrs. Phelps H Swift 

Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr. 

Mrs. John W. Taylor Mi 

Mrs. Edward R. Telling 

Mrs. Richard L. Thomas 

Mrs. Bruce Thorne 

Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Mrs. Theodore D, Tieken, Jr 

Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 

Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 

Mrs. Chester D. Tripp 

Mrs. C. Perin Tyler 

Mrs Theodore W. Van Zeist 

Mrs. VL.D. vonSchlegeil 

Mrs. C. A. Ward 

Mrs. Thomas M. Ware 

Mrs. Hempstead Washburne, Jr. 

Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 

Mrs. Arno'd R. Weber 

Mrs. Williani L. Weiss 

Mrs. John Paul Welling 

Mrs. John L.Welsh III 

Mrs. Henry P. Wheeler 

Mrs. Julian B. Wilkins 

Mrs. Albert W.Williams 

Mrs. Philip C.Williams 

Mrs. Norman B. Williamson 

Mrs. Paul C. Wilson 

Mrs. Robert H.Wilson 

Mrs. Wallace C. Winter 

Mrs. Arthur W.Woelfle 

Mrs. Peter Wolkonsky 

Mrs. J. Howard Wood 

Mrs. Frank H.Woods 

Mrs. William Wood-Prince 

Mrs. Blame J. Yarrington 

Mrs. George B. Young 



42 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCIL 



Indlviclual Members 

Mrs. Lester S. Abelsoln 

Mr. and Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley N. Allan 

Mr and Mrs. Jannes W. Alsdorf 

Anonymous 

Mrs. Lester Armour 

Mrs. P. Kelley Armour 

Mr and Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

Mr Vernon Armour 

Mr and Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 

Mr and Mrs. George R. Baker 

Mr and Mrs. James L. Ballard 

Mr George Barr 

Ms. Virginia! Bartholomay 

Mr and Mrs. Robert O. Bass 

Mr and Mrs. Lee A. Baumgarten 

Mr and Mrs. George R. Beachi 

Mr and Mrs. Gordon Bent 

Mr. and Mrs. Harry 0. Bercher 

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Bere 

Mr. and Mrs. Allen C. Berg 

Mr. and Mrs. Bowen Blair 

Mr and Mrs. Edward F. Blettner 

Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Phillip D. Block III 

Mrs. G. E. Boone 

Mr. and Mrs. William A. Boone 

Mr. and Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 

Mrs. Harold S. Brady 

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 

Mr. and Mrs. Bertram Z. Brodie 

Mr. and Mrs. Beckwith R. Bronson 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 

Mr. and Mrs. Cameron Brown 

Mr and Mrs. Henry A. Brown 

Ms. Jennifer Martin Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. Roger 0. Brown 

Mr. and Mrs. DeWitt W. 

Buchanan, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. 

Campbell, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. Peter Roy Carney 
Dr. and Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mr. and Mrs. Hammond E. 

Chatfetz 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mr and Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
MrandMrs. W.H.Clark, Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr and Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mr and Mrs. Richard H. Cooper 
Mr and Mrs. Donald C. Cottrell, 

Jr 
Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mr and Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mr and Mrs. William R Crawford 
Mrs. Irving Crown 
Mr and Mrs. Lester Crown 
Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Darrow 
Mr O. C. Davis 

Dr and Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. Charles S. DeLong 
Mr and Mrs. James A. 

Delaney Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Jay Delaney 
Mr and Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mr and Mrs. David Double 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert B. Dick III 
Mr. and Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mrs. Clinton O. Dicken 
Mr. and Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson, Jr 



Mr. and Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon, Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 
Mr and Mrs. James R. Donnelley 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas E. 

Donnelley II 
Mrs. George Dovenmuehle 
Mrs. Robert Drake 
Mr and Mrs. Robert P. Ekiund 
Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 
Mrs. MarjorieH. Elting 
Mr and Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Mary and Bruce Feay 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 
Mrs. Joseph N. Field 
Mr and Mrs. Marshall Field 
Mr and Mrs. Peter B. Foreman 
Mr and Mrs. Gaylord Freeman 
Mr and Mrs. William M. Freeman 
Mrs. Edmund W. Froehlich 
Mr. and Mrs. Marshall B. Front 
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice F. Fulton 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald S. Gidwitz 
Mr. Joseph L. Gidwitz 
Dr and Mrs. John G. Graham 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 
Mr George T Guernsey IV and 

Ms. Carol A. Miller 
Mr and Mrs. Robert P. Gwinn 
Mr and Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales 
Mr and Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 
Mrs. William A. Hark 
Mr and Mrs. D. Foster Harland 
Mr and Mrs. King Harris 
Mr and Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Mr and Mrs. Joseph B. Hawkes 
Mr and Mrs. Warren J. Hayford 
Mrs. William H. Hazlett 
Mr and Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Mr and Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
Mr and Mrs. Michael F. Hodous 
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Hoellen 
Mr and Mrs. Gerald V. Hollins 
Mr Carl Holzheimer 
Mrs. H. Earl Hoover 
Mr and Mrs. Robert C. Hyndman 
Mr and Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll 
Mr. and Mrs. Reinhardt H. Jahn 
Mrs. Harold James 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar D. Jannotta 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. 

Jannotta, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. S. Curtis Johnson III 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mr and Mrs. John B. Judkins, Jr 
Mr and Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Kinsella 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 
Mrs. Ray A. Kroc 
Mr and Mrs. Carl A. Kroch 
Mrs. Richard W. Leach 
Mr and Mrs. Elliot Lehman 
Mr and Mrs. John H. Leslie 
Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 
Dr. and Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 
Mr. Robert A. Lewis 
Lucia Woods Lindley 
Daniel A. Lindley Jr. 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mrs. Robert L. Lyon 
Mrs. John A. MacLean, Jr 
Mr and Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mr and Mrs. Robert H. Malott 



Mr and Mrs. Lewis Manilow 

Dr. and Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 

Mrs. Geraldine Martin 

Mrs. Harold T Martin 

Mr and Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 

Mr Michael B. McCaskey 

Mr and Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

Mrs, Remick McDowell 

Mr. Cirillo McSween 

Dr and Mrs. Steven Medgyesy 

Mr and Mrs. John C. Meeker 

Mr and Mrs. Henry W. Meers 

Mr and Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 

Mr and Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 

Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 

Mr and Mrs. Newton N. Minow 

Mr and Mrs. Stephen C. Mitchell 

Mr and Mrs. William H. Mitchell 

Mr* and Mrs. Kenneth F 

Montgomery 
Mr and Mrs. Richard M. Morrow 
Mrs. Arthur T Moulding 
Mr and Mrs. Leo R Mullin 
Miss Jeanne E. Murray 
Dr and Mrs. Charles F. Nadler 
Col. and Mrs. John B. Naser 
Mr and Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 
Mr and Mrs. John D. Nichols 
Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen, Sr. 
Mr and Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Mr WrigleyOtfield 
Mr and Mrs. Ralph Thomas 

O'Neil 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mr and Mrs. James Otis, Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 
Mr and Mrs. Richard Peterson 
Mr and Mrs. Charles S. Potter 
Mrs. A. N. Pritzker 
Mr and Mrs, Robert A. Pritzker 
Mr James H. Ransom 
Mr and Mrs. John Shedd Reed 
Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Mr and Mrs. Don H. Reuben 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas A. 

Reynolds, Jr 
Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman 
Mr and Mrs. Mark Rosenberg 
Mr and Mrs. Andrew Rosenfield 
Mr and Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 
Mr Ted Ross 
Mrs. Dorothy C. Rowley 
Mrs. Arthur Rubloff 
Mr and Mrs, John S. Runnells 
Mr and Mrs. Patrick G. Ryan 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas R. Sanders 
Mr and Mrs. Leonard B. Sax 
Mr and Mrs. Norman J. 

Schlossman 
Mr and Mrs. Charles E. 

Schroeder 
Mrs. Arthur W. Schultz 
Dr and Mrs. John S. Schweppe 
Mrs. W. W. Scott 
Mr and Mrs. John W. Seabury 
Mr and Mrs. William L. Searle 
Mr and Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr John I. Shaw 
Mr Jeffrey Shedd 
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Sheilds 
Mrs. John M. Simpson 
Mrs. Thomas B. Singleton 
Mr and Mrs. John R. Siragusa 
Mr and Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
Mr and Mrs. Edward Byron 

Smith, Jr 
Mr and Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 



43 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCIL 




On September 8. 1986, the Founders' Council honored Roger Tory Peterson tor a lifetime of distinguishea ueuicdiion to natural history. 
Peterson (at right), shown with Founders ' Council Chairman Henry T. Chandler was given the Council 's Award of Merit and a check for$1. 000. 



44 



THE FOUNDERS' COUNCIL 



Mr. Winfield S. Smith 

Mrs. George T. Spensley 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack C. Slaehle 

Mrs. Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

Mr. and Mrs. Wallace W. Steiner 

Mr and Mrs. Manfred Steinfeld 

Mrs. David B. Stern, Jr. 

Dr and Mrs. David W. Stewart 

Mrs. Robert E. Straus 

Mr. and Mrs. William S. Street 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Stuart, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bolton Sullivan 

Mr and Mrs. Jofin W. Sullivan 

Mrs. James Swartchild 

Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward F. Swift 

Mr and Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Morgan Taylor, Jr, 

Mr and Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr. 

Mr and Mrs. John W. Taylor III 

Mr and Mrs. Edward R. Telling 

Mr and Mrs. Bruce Thorne 

Mrs. Reuben Thorson 

Mr and Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 

Mr. and Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr 

Mr and Mrs. George S. Trees 

Mr. and Mrs. George S. Trees, Jr. 

Mr and Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 

Mrs. Chester D. Tripp 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Tyler 

Ms. Katherine L. Updike 

Mr. Robert Wagner 

Mr and Mrs. Theodore W. 

Van Zelst 
Mr. Glen R. Verber 
Mr and Mrs. Robert E. Vernon 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Mr and Mrs. Daniel J. Walsh 
Mr. George Warner 
Mr and Mrs. Hempstead 

Washburne, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr and Mrs. Roderick S. Webster 
Mr and Mrs. John L. Welsh III 
Mr. and Mrs. Henry P. Wheller 
Mr Gordon Wildermuth 
Mrs. Howard L. Willett, Jr. 
Ms. Nicole Williams 
Dr and Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mrs. Benton J. Winner 
Mr and Mrs. Paul C. Wilson 
Mr John W. Winn 
Mr and Mrs. Arthur W. Woelfle 
Mr and Mrs. Arnold R. Wolff 
Mr Arthur M. Wood 
Mr. and Mrs. William Wood-Prince 
Mr and Mrs. Herbert N. Woodard 
Mr. and Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 
Mr. and Mrs. George B. Young 
Mr and Mrs. George D. Young 
Mrs. Claire Zeisler 



Corporation and 
Foundation IMembers 

Abbott Laboratories 
Allegis Corporation 
Allen-Heath Memorial Foundation 
Allstate Insurance Company 
Ameritech Foundation 
Amoco Foundation, Inc. 
AMSTED Industries, Incorporated 
Aon Corporation 
Arthur Andersen & Co. 
Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
The Barker Welfare Foundation 
Baxter American Foundation 
Borg-Warner Foundation 
Boulevard Foundation 
Leo Burnett Company Inc. 
The Chase Manhattan 

Corporation 
The Chicago Community Trust 
Chicago Tribune Foundation 
Comdisco Inc. 

Commonwealth Edison Company 
Continental Coffee Products 

Company 
Continental Illinois National Bank 

and Trust Company 
The DeSoto Foundation 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 
Ernst SWhinney 
FMC Corporation 
Fel-Pro Mecklenburger 

Foundation 
First National Bank of Chicago 

Foundation 
Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Hartmarx Charitable Foundation 
Houghton Mifflin Company 
Household International 
Illinois Bell 

Illinois Tool Works Foundation 
Interlake, Inc. 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
Jewel Foundation 
Kemper Educational and 

Charitable Fund 
Kemper Financial Services, Inc. 
The James S. Kemper Foundation 
Kraft, Inc. 

Louis R. Lurie Foundation 
John D. and Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
Marshall Field's 
Robert S. McCormick Charitable 

Trust 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 
MidCon Corp. 



Molex Incorporated 
Morton Thiokol Foundation 
National Can Corporation 
The Naico Foundation 
Northern Illinois Gas 
The Northern Trust Company 
John Nuveen & Co. Incorporated 
Peat Manwick Main 
Price Waterhouse 
Prince Charitable Trusts 
The Quaker Oats Foundation 
The Regenstein Foundation 
The Rice Foundation 
S & C Electric Company 
Safety Kleen Corporation 
Sahara Coal Company 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Foundation 
Sears, Roebuck and Co. 
The Siragusa Foundation 
Skil Corporation 
Tishman Midwest Management 

Corporation 
Touche Ross & Co. 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Walgreen Co. 
Whirlpool Foundation 
Wilson & Mcllvaine 



Honorary IMembers 

Their Royal Highnesses, The Grand Duke and Duchess of Luxembourg 
Dr Stephen Joy Gould, professor of Geology at Harvard University 
Dr. Donald C. Johanson, paleoanthropologist at the Institute of Human Oriains 
Dr. Roger Tory Peterson 



45 



DONORS to the CAPITAL CAMPAIGN 



46 



INDIVIDUALS AND 
FAMILY FOUNDATIONS 

$100,000 or more 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Bent 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger 0. Brown 
Richard H. Cooper Foundation 
Dr. and Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 

(The Walter E. Heller 

Foundation) 
Elizabeth Ferguson Trust 
Jamee & Marshall Field 

Foundation 
Joseph N. Field Trust/1963 
Field Museum Women's Board 
Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 
The Regenstein Foundation 
Mr. and Mrs. William L. Searle 

(Searle Family Trust) 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
Mr and Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 

$10,000 to $99,999 

Mrs. Lester Armour 
Mrs. Pamela K. Armour 
Mr and Mrs. T Stanton Armour 
Mr Vernon Armour 
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mr. and Mrs. George Barr 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert 0. Bass 
Mr and Mrs. Harry 0. Bercher 
Mr and Mrs. Allen C. Berg 
Estate of Wm. McCormick Blair 
Mrs. Philip D. Block, Jr 
MrandMrs. Philip D. Block III 
Mr and Mrs. Willard L. Boyd 
Mrs. Jennifer Martin Brown 

(Martin Foundation, Inc.) 
Mr and Mrs. Peter Roy Carney 
Mr and Mrs. Henry T Chandler 
Mr and Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr and Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mr and Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 
Mr. and Mrs. Alberta. Dick III 
Mr and Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson, Jr 
Gaylord Donnelley Trust 1983 
Mr. and Mrs. James R. Donnelley 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas E. 

Donnelley II 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 
Mrs. Joseph N. Field 
Mr and Mrs. Marshall Front 
Mr. and Mrs. Maurice F Fulton 
Dr and Mrs. John Graham 
Mr and Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 
Mr. and Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerald V. Hollins 
The Isham Family 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar D. Jannotta 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph E. 

Jannotta, Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Clarence E. Johnson 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mr and Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 
Daniel A. Lindley Jr, 

Lucia Woods Lindley 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Louis R. Lurie Foundation 
Dr. and Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 
Mrs. Harold T Martin 



Mr. and Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

(Brooks & Hope B. McCormick 

Foundation) 
Mr. Cirilo McSween 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mr and Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Mr and Mrs. Newton Minow 

(Minow Charitable Trust) 
Mr and Mrs. Leo F. Mullin 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles F Nadler 
Col.&Mrs. JohnB. Naser 
Mr and Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 
Mr. and Mrs. John D. Nichols 
Mr. and Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Mr and Mrs. Ralph Thomas 

O'Neil 
Mr and Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr. John I. Shaw 

(Arch W. Shaw Foundation) 
Mrs. Thomas B. Singleton 
Mr and Mrs. John R. Siragusa 
Mr. Edward B. Smith Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Mr and Mrs. Jack C. Staehle 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus 
Mr and Mrs. Manfred Steinfeld 
Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Thome 
Mr. and Mrs. George S. Trees 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas S. Tyler 
Mr and Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr. and Mrs. Paul C. Wilson 



$1,000 to $9,999 

Mr. and Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 
Mr. Gordon Field Armour 
Mr Tony Armour 
Mr George Barr 

(George & Kristina Barr 

Foundation) 
Mr. and Mrs. George R. Beach, Jr. 
Mrs. G. E. Boone 
Mr and Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 
Mr. and Mrs. Beckwith R. Bronson 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux 
Mr and Mrs. Tyler Cain 
Mr. and Mrs. Donald A. 

Campbell, Jr. 
Mr and Mrs. Hammond E. 

Chaffetz 

(Chaffetz Family Foundation) 
Mr and Mrs. Worley H. Clark, Jr 
Mrs. Janet N. Connor 
Mr and Mrs. Donald C. 

Cottrell, Jr 
Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Croft 
Mr and Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 
Mr and Mrs. William W. Darrow 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert O. Delaney 
Mrs. Charles S. De Long 
Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mr and Mrs. Hugh Dryden, Jr 
Mr. Jerome L. Ettelson 
Mr and Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 
Mr and Mrs. James C. E. Fuller 
Mr and Mrs. James J. Glasser 
Mr and Mrs. William B. Graham 
Col. and Mrs. Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Burton W. Hales 
Mr. and Mrs. Warren Hayford 
Mrs. William H. Hazlett 
Mr. and Mrs. Laurin H. Healy 
Mr and Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
Mr Howard G. Krane 
Mrs. Albert E. M. Louer 
Mr and Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mrs. John A. Mac Lean, Jr. 
Nathan Manilow Foundation 

(Mr Lewis Manilow) 
Mrs. Robert C. McNamara 



Mr and Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mrs. Bernard Mitchell 

(Bernard & Majorie Mitchell 

Family Foundation) 
Mrs. Carolyn Moore 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles S. Potter 
Mr James H. Ransom 
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew M. 

Rosenfield 
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas R. Sanders 
Mr Jeffrey Shedd 
Mr and Mrs. Jackson W. 

Smart, Jr 
Mr and Mrs. Michael Spock 
Mr. and Mrs. C. M. Stanley 
Mr and Mrs. E. Norman Staub 
Dr and Mrs. David W. Stewart 
Dr Robert H.Strotz 
Mr and Mrs. Robert D. Stuart, Jr 
Mr and Mrs. Edward f. Swift III 
Mr and Mrs. John W. Taylor III 
Dr and Mrs. Harold K. Voris 
Mr and Mrs. Hempstead 

Washburne, Jr. 
Dr and Mrs. Philip C. Williams 
Mr and Mrs. Arnold R. Wolff 
Mr. Arthur M.Wood 
Mr and Mrs. George B. Young 

CORPORATE & FOUNDATION 
DONORS' GIFTS & PLEDGES 
TO THE CAPITAL CAMPAIGN 



$100,000 and More 

Amoco Foundation 
Borg-Warner Corporation 
The Chicago Community Trust 
Combined International 

Corporation (now Aon 

Corporation) 
Commonwealth Edison 
Dart & Kraft, Inc. (now Kraft, Inc.) 
Elizabeth Ferguson Trust 
Field Museum Women's Board 
First National Corporation 
Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
The John D. and Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
Robert R. McCormick Charitable 

Trust 
Prince Charitable Trust 
The Regenstein Foundation 
Dr Scholl Foundation 
Sears, Roebuck & Company 

PUBLIC ENTITIES 

The Chicago Park District 

The National Endowment for the 
Arts 

$10,000-$99,999 

Abbott Laboratories 

Allstate Foundation 

Ameritech, Inc. 

Arthur Anderson & Company 

Barker Welfare Foundation 

Baxter American Foundation (now 

Baxter Travenol Foundation) 
Boulevard Foundation 
Chase Manhattan Bank 
The Chicago Title and Trust 

Company 
Comdisco, Inc. 
The DeSoto Foundation 
R.R. Donnelley & Sons 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Hartmarx 



Illinois Tool Works 

Interlake, Inc. 

James S. Kemper Foundation 

Kemper Financial Services, Inc. 

Louis R. Lurie Foundation 

McMaster-Carr Supply Company 

Midcon Corp. 

Molex, Inc. 

Motorola 

Naico Chemical Company 

Needham Harper Worldwide (now 

DDB Needham Worldwide) 
Geraldi Norton Memorial 

Corporation (Mr Roger Ekiund) 
John Nuveen and Company 
Peat, Marwick Mitchell & 

Company (now Peat 

Marwick Main) 
Price Waterhouse & Company 
The Quaker Oats Company 
Rubloff, Inc. 

Safety-Kleen Corporation 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Sargent & Lundy Engineers 
Schal Associates 
Schwartz Paper Company 
Arch W. Shaw Foundation 
The Siragusa Foundation 
Skil Corporation 
Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 
J. Walter Thompson USA 
Touche Ross 

United Airlines Foundation 
USG Foundation 
Walgreen's 

$1,000-$9,999 

Anixter Bros. 
DBMS, Inc. 
DST Systems, Inc. 
Foote, Cone & Belding 

Foundation 
Ketone Automotive, Inc. 
LaSalle National Bank 
Ogiivy & Mather 
Tatham, Laird & Kudner 
United Conveyor Corporation 
Vance Publishing Corporation 
Vedder, Price, Kaufman & 

Kammholz 
Harry Weese & Associates 



A Note of Thanks to 
Capital Campaign Donors 

Space does not permit including 
the names of thousands of Mem- 
bers who contributed smaller gifts 
to the Capital Campaign. The 
Board of Trustees, Officers, and 
Staff are none the less grateful, 
however, for their generosity and 
many expressions of faith in the 
future of Field Museum. From the 
"Capital-By-Phone" program to 
the autographing of banners in 
Stanley Field Hall, every Member 
was given the opportunity to par- 
ticipate; for, the real vitality of the 
Campaign was found in the 
collective efforts of everyone. 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



The following roster lists ttiose donors 
who generously contributed gifts of 
$100 or more during 1985-86. Inaddi- 
tion, we are grateful for the gifts of less 
than $100, which numbered more than 
4,800 for this biennium. 

INDIVIDUALS 
$5,000 or more 

Anonymous 

Mr. & Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Bent 

Estate of E. Blake Blair 

Estate of William McCormick Blair 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur S. Bowes 

(Bowes Foundation) 
Mrs. Jennifer Martin Brown 

(Martin Foundation, Inc.) 
Mr. and Mrs. Roger 0. Brown 
Mr. DeWittW. Buchanan, Jr. 

(Buchanan Family Foundation) 
Estate of Dr. Margery Carlson 
Mr. William J. Carney 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry G. Chambers 
Mr. John Coale 
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Crane 
Mr. & Mrs. Eugene A. Davidson 

(Sterling Morton Charitable 

Trust) 
Mrs. Clinton 0. Dicken 
Mr. & Mrs. William R. 

Dickinson, Jr 
Mr. & Mrs. Gaylord Donnelley 

(Donnelley Family Foundation) 
Gaylord Donnelley Trust 1983 
Mrs. George H. Dovenmuehle 
Mrs. R. Winfield Ellis 
Mrs. Marjorie H. Eiting 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Eyerman 
Mr & Mrs. Marshall Field 

(Jamee & Marshall Field 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Joseph N. Field 

(Joseph N. Field Trust/1963) 
Ms. Nicole Williams Foster 
Dr Evelyn Frank Endowment 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Freeman 
Mrs. Edmund W. Froehlich 
Mr & Mrs. Robert W. Galvin 
Dr & Mrs. John G. Graham 
Estate of Lois D. Greene 
Estate of Mrs. Solomon Gurewitz 
Mr. & Mrs. Corwith Hamill 
Mrs. Norman R. Hanson* 
Mrs. Charles L. Hardy 

(Elliott & Ann Donnelley 

Foundation) 
Mrs. William A. Hark 
Mr & Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
Mr & Mrs, Laurin H. Healy 
Florence G. Heller Foundation 
Mr & Mrs. Reinhardt Jahn 
Mr & Mrs. Richard M. Jones 
Mr & Mrs. John H. Leslie 

(Leslie Fund) 
Mrs. Robert L. Lyon 
Mr & Mrs. Oscar G. Mayer 

(Oscar G.&Elsa S.Mayer 

Charitable Trust) 
Mr John McCortney 

(WP & HB White Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Henry W. Meers 

(Henry W. Meers Fund) 
Mr & Mrs. Charles A. Meyer 
Estate of Mildred Miller 
Mrs. William H. Mitchell 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Montgomery 
Estate of Mrs. John D. Morrow 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard M. Morrow 



Mrs. Arthur! Moulding 
Miss Jeanne E. Murray 
Mabel Green Myers Trust 
Mr. Hisazo Nagatani 
Mrs. Gilbert H. Osgood 
Mr & Mrs. Donald W. Patterson 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles S. Potter 
Mr. A. N. Pritzker* 

(Pritzker Foundation) 
Miss Ruth Regenstein 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas A. 

Reynolds, Jr. 
Mrs. T. Clifford Rodman 
Mr & Mrs. Samuel R. Rosenthal 

(D and R Fund) 
Arthur Rubloff Fund 
Mr & Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Mr Solomon B. Smith 
Mrs. George T. Spensley 
Mr&Mrs. JackC.Staehle 
Estate of Kate Staley 
Mrs. Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

(Donna Wolf Steigerwaldt 

Foundation) 
Dr & Mrs. David W. Stewart 
Mr. & Mrs. Williams. Street 
Mr & Mrs. Phelps Hoyt Swift 

(Ruth & Vernon Taylor 

Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Taylor, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward R. Telling 
Mr. & Mrs. Howard J. Trienens 
Mrs. Chester D. Tripp 
Mr. & Mrs. Louis A. Wagner 
Estate of Mrs. Clarence A. 

(MathildeH.) Wiley 
Mrs. Howard L. Willett, Jr 

(Howard L. Willett Foundation) 
Mr. John W. Winn 
Mr, & Mrs. Blaine J. Yarrington 

$1,000-$4,999 

Anonymous (1) 

Mrs. Lester S. Abelson 

(Lester S. Abelson Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Lowell E. Ackmann 
Mr. & Mrs. Stanley N.Allan 
Mr & Mrs. James W. Alsdorf 

(Alsdorf Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. A. Watson Armour III 
Mr Laurance H. Armour, Jr 
Mrs. Lester Armour 
Mrs. Pamela K. Armour 
Mrs. Edwin N. Asmann 

(0. Paul Decker Memorial 

Foundation) 
Estate of Abby K. Babcock 
Mr & Mrs. George R. Baker 
Mr & Mrs. James L. Ballard 
Mr & Mrs. Morton John Barnard 

(Lillian Molner Charitable Trust) 
Ms. B. Barney 

(A. G. Cox Charity Trust) 
Mr George Barr 

(George & Kristina Barr 

Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Robert 0. Bass 
Mr & Mrs, Lee Baumgarten 
Mr & Mrs. Harry O. Bercher 
Mr & Mrs. James F. Bere 
Mrs. Edwin A. Bergman 
Mr & Mrs. Harrington Bischof 
Mrs. Carolyn P. Blackmon 
Mr & Mrs. Bowen Blair 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward F Blettner 
Mrs, Philip D. Block, Jr 

(Block Family Foundation) 



Mrs, Philip D, Block III 

(J,B, Charitable Trust) 
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Boone 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bramsen 

(Svend & Elizabeth Bramsen 

Foundation) 
Mrs. Bertram Z. Brodie 

(Edwin J. Brach Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Brooker 
Mr & Mrs. Cameron Brown 

(Cameron Brown Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Henry A. Brown 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert A. Bruckner 
Mr & Mrs. De Witt Buchanan, Jr. 
Mr & Mrs. Donald P. Buchanan 
Mr & Mrs. Stephen J. Buck 
Mr A. C, Buehler, Jr 

(A,C.P Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. James E. Burd 
Dr&Mrs, H.C. Burkhead 
Mr&Mrs. Donald A. 

Campbell, Jr 
Dr, & Mrs. Robert Wells Carton 
Mr & Mrs. Hammond E. Chaffetz 

(Chaffetz Family Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Henry T. Chandler 
Mr & Mrs. Walter L. Cherry 
Mr & Mrs. Worley H. Clark, Jr 
Miss MarciaS. Cohn 
Mr & Mrs. Frank W. Considine 
Mr & Mrs. Stanton R. Cook 
Mrs. David R. Corbett 
Mr. & Mrs. William S. Covington 
Mr. & Mrs. William F Crawford 

(Crawford Foundation) 
Mr. & Mrs. Lester Crown 

(Arie & Ida Crown Memorial) 
Mr & Mrs. George H. Dapples 
Mr Orval C. Davis 
Mr & Mrs, James A, Delaney Jr, 
Mr & Mrs, Jay Delaney 
Mr & Mrs, Robert 0, Delaney 
Mr David A, Double 
Mr, & Mrs, Alberts, Dick III 

(Dick Family Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Edison Dick 
Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon 
Mr. & Mrs. Wesley M. Dixon, Jr. 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas E. 

Donnelley III 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Edwards 

(Woodruff & Edwards 

Foundation) 
Estate of William Elfenbaum 
Mrs. Nancy Epstein 
Miss Shirley M. Evans 
Mr & Mrs. Gordon R. Ewing 
Miss Lucy F Fairbank 
Mrs. Robert E. Fanning 
Mrs. Calvin Fentress, Jr, 
Mr. & Mrs. Peter B. Foreman 
Mrs. Virginia 0. Foreman 

(Peroke Foundation) 
Mrs. Robert B. Frank 

(Hubert & Wilma Silberman 

Charitable Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Marshall I. Frankel 

(Marshall Frankel Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Gaylord A. Freeman 
Mr & Mrs. Maurice F Fulton 
Mrs. Anne R. Gait 
Mr. Bruce M. Ganek 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Garvin 
Mr Paul J. Gerstley 
Mrs. James R. Getz 
Mr Joseph I. Gidwitz 
Marion H, Giles 
Mrs, Paul W. Goodrich 



Dr & Mrs, John S, Graettinger 

Mr & Mrs. Bruce J. Graham 

Col. Clifford C. Gregg 

Mrs. Rose B. Grosse 

Mr & Mrs. Paul W. Guenzel 

Mr & Mrs. Robert P Gwinn 

Mr & Mrs. John W. B. Hadley 

Mrs. Burton W. Hales 

Mr. & Mrs. D. Foster Harland 

Mr William W. Harris 

(Childrens Charitable Trust) 
Mr & Mrs. Ben W. Heineman 
Mr & Mrs. Michael F Hodous 
Mr & Mrs. John J. Hoellen 
Mr John J. Hoellen 

(Sulzer Family Foundation) 
Dr Helen Holt 
Mr. Carl Holzheimer 

(Holzheimer Fund) 
Mrs, H. Earl Hoover 
Mr Howard H. Howard 
Mr & Mrs. Robert C, Hyndman 
Dr & Mrs." Robert F Inger 
Mr & Mrs. Robert S. Ingersoll 
Mr & Mrs. Edgar D. Jannotta 
Mr J. E. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. S. Curtis Johnson III 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas J. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. John B. Judkins, Jr, 
Mr & Mrs. Byron C. Karzas 
Mrs. Spencer R. Keare 
Mr & Mrs. George P. Kendall, Jr 
Mrs. E. Ogden Ketting 
Mr & Mrs. John J. Kinsella 
Mr & Mrs. John E. Kirkpatrick 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Kolar 
Mr & Mrs. Carl A. Kroch 
Mr & Mrs. Henry H. Kuehn 
Mrs. Richard W. Leach 
Mr Paul H. Leffman 

(Leftman Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Elliot Lehman 
Mr Robert O. Lehmann 

(Otto W. Lehmann Foundation) 
Mrs. John Woodworth Leslie 
Dr & Mrs. Edward H. Levi 
Mr. & Mrs. Michael D. Levin 
Dr. & Mrs. Michael S. Lewis 
Mr Robert A. Lewis 
Mrs. Renee Logan 
Mr & Mrs. Robert H. Malott 
Dr & Mrs. Richard E. Marcus 

(Richard E.&FrancelleW. 

Marcus Family Foundation) 
Mr Harold M. Mayer 
Mr & Mrs. Brooks McCormick 

(Brooks & Hope B. McCormick 

Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. William J. McDonough 
Dr. L. Steven Medgysey 
Mr & Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Mrs. Bernard D. Meltzer 
Mr & Mrs. Hugo J. Melvoin 
Mrs. J. Roscoe Miller 
Mr & Mrs. Newton Minow 

(Minow Charitable Fund) 
Mr & Mrs. Frank J. Mooney 
Dr & Mrs. Evan Gregory Moore 
Mr. & Mrs. LeoF Mullin 
Mrs. Frank McLoraine 
Col.&Mrs. JohnB. Naser 
Mr & Mrs. Earl L. Neal 
Mr & Mrs. Stephen C. Neal 
Mrs. Arthur C. Nielsen 
Mrs. Gertrude B. Nielsen 
Mrs. John Nuveen 
Mr & Mrs. James J. O'Connor 
Mrs. Frances M. O'Neil 



47 



'Deceased 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



48 



Dr.- & Mrs. EricOldberg 

Mr, James Otis, Jr. 

Mrs. Richard C. Oughton 

Mr & Mrs. George A. Pagels, Jr. 

Dr Leroy A. Pesch 

Mrs. Donald Peters 

Mr & Mrs. Robert F. Picken 

Mr. & Mrs. Allan M. Pickus 

Mr Richard J. Radebaugh 

Mr James H. Ransom 

Ms. Helen Reed 

Mr & Mrs. John Shedd Reed 

Mr & Mrs. Don H. Reuben 

Mrs. Ward C. Rogers 
(Ward C. Rogers Foundation) 

Mrs. Edward M. Roob 

Mr. Mark Rosenberg 

Mr Ted Ross 

Hon. & Mrs. Daniel Rostenkowski 

Mr. A. Frank Rothschild 
(Mr & Mrs. A. Frank Rothschild 
Foundation) 

Mrs. Henry N. Rowley 

Mr & Mrs. Patrick G.Ryan 

Mr Leonard B. Sax 
(Sax Family Foundation) 

Mr & Mrs. Norman J. Schlossman 
(jocARNoFund) 

Mr Charles E. Schroeder 
(Chauncey & Marion Deering 
McCormick Foundation) 

Mr Walter E. Schuessler 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur W.Schultz 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome Schultz 
Dr & Mrs. John S. Schweppe 
Mrs. W. W. Scott 
Mr John W. Seabury 

(Seabury Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. David Sensibar 
The James G. Shakman Trust 
Mr & Mrs. Henry Shapiro 
Mr John I. Shaw 

(Arch W. Shaw Foundation) 
Mr Jeffrey Shedd 
Dr Thomas W. Shields 

(Bessie Shields Foundation) 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Byron Smith 
Mr & Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Mr Winfield S. Smith 
Dr & Mrs. Daniel Snydacker 
Mr Peter R.Sonderby 
Ms. Elizabeth Stein 
Mrs. David B. Stern, Jr 
Mrs. Robert E. Straus 
(Marjorie & Robert Straus 
Endowment Fund) 
Ambassador & Mrs. Robert D. 

Stuart, Jr 
Mr Bolton Sullivan 

(Bolton Sullivan Fund) 
Mrs. James Swartchild 

(Collier-Swartchild Foundation) 
Mrs. William G. Swartchild, Jr 
Mr&Mrs. John W.Taylor III 
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Thorne 
Mrs. Reuben Thorson 

(The Thorson Foundation) 
Mr Edmund B. Thornton 
Mr. & Mrs. Melvin A. Traylor, Jr. 
Mr & Mrs. George S. Trees, Jr. 
KatherineL. Updike & 

Robert Wagner 
Mr. & Mrs. Theodore Van Zelst 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert A. Vance 
Mr Glen R. Verber 
Dr & Mrs. Harold K. Voris 
Mr & Mrs. Hempstead 

Washburne, Jr 

"Deceased 



Mr & Mrs. E. Leiand Webber 
Mr & Mrs. William L. Weiss 
Mr John L. Welsh III 

(McCrea Foundation) 
Henry E. & Consuelo Wenger 

Foundation, Inc. 
Mr & Mrs. Henry R Wheeler 
Mrs. Harold A. White 
Mr Gordon Wildermuth 
Mr & Mrs. George F Wilhelm 
Mrs. Abra Prentice Wilkin 

(Abra Prentice Wilkin 

Charitable Trust) 
Dr&Mrs. Philip C.Williams 
Mrs. Benton J. WillnerJr 
Mr James R. Wimmer 
Mr & Mrs. J. Howard Wood 
Mr & Mrs. Herbert N. Woodward 
Mr & Mrs. George B. Young 
Mr & Mrs. George D. Young 
Miss Mary A. Young 
Mrs. Claire Zeisler 

$100-$999 

Mrs. Charles Aaron 

Richard Acker 

Mr & Mrs. L. Meredith Ackley 

Mr. & Mrs. Leiand C. Adams 

Mrs. Keene H. Addington 

R. J. Adelman 

Dr Robert Adier 

Mrs. Roberts. Adier 

Mr & Mrs. W. Raymond Ahrberg 

Mr H. BertAhrensfeld 

Mr Thomas W. Alder 

Mr & Mrs. Edward K. Aldworth 

Mr John Alexander, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. John A. Alexander 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Alexander 

Mr &Mrs. David Allen 

Mr Louis A. Allen 

Mr Richard H. Alschuler 

Ms. Patricia D. Alt 

Mrs. John D.Ames 

Mrs. Caryle E. Anderson 

Mr Corliss D. Anderson 

Dorothy & Helen Anderson 

Mr Thomas W Andrews 

Anonymous 

Mr Richard Ansel 

Mrs. Ralph W. Applegate, Sr 

Mr. Arthur T. Appleton 

Arthur T Appleton Foundation 

Mr & Mrs. Bennett Archambault 

Mrs. E. A. Archer 

Dr Julian Archie 

Dr & Mrs. Richard P Ariagno 

Mr &Mrs. LauranceH. 

Armour, Jr 
Mr George Arquilla,Jr 
Robertas Ira Asher 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Aubrey 
Mr & Mrs. Wallis Austin 
Mr & Mrs. Alfred M. Avenenti 
Mr William H. Avery 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas G. Ayers 
Dr & Mrs. Daniel L. Azarnoff 
Mr & Mrs. Robert H. Bacon, Jr 
Mrs. William T Bacon 
Mr & Mrs. Eugene C. Bailey 
Mr Paul E. Baker 
E. M. Bakwin 
Mr Charles J. Balkin 
Dr & Mrs. George E. Ball 
Mr George M. Bard 
Mr Ralph Austin Bard, Jr 
Mrs. Etta Barnett 



Ms. Jane E. Barnett 

Miss Phyllis Barnett 

Mr & Mrs. Gene J. Baroni 

Mrs. F Rose Barr 

Mr William C. Bartholomay 

Mrs. A. R. Barton 

Mrs. Helen Bashore 

Mr & Mrs. Shale D. Baskin 

Mrs. George A. Basta 

Mr James Bateman 

Mr & Mrs. George R. Beach, Jr 

Ms. Connie Beacom 

Mrs. George W. Beadle 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward A. Beamish 

Mrs. Frances Beatty 

Mr & Mrs. Robert Beatty 

Mrs. Hortense K. Becker 

Mrs. James H. Becker 

Mr Max Becker 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Becker 

Dr Helen R. Beiser 

Dr Nenad Belie 

Mr Walter Belinky 

Miss Maurine Bell 

Benefit Fund, Field Museum 

Mr & Mrs. Edward H. Bennett, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Charles A. Benson 

Mr. & Mrs. John P. Bent 

Mr & Mrs. William C. Bentley 

Dr &Mrs. Philip J. Berent 

Mr & Mrs. Eugene P Berg 

Mr & Mrs. Richard N. Bergstrom 

Mr Richard C. Berliner 

Mrs. Edward J. Bermingham 

Mr John A. Bernauer 

Mr & Mrs. Pius Bernhard 

Jacqueline Beu 

Mrs. Helen U. Bibas 

Mr Andrew R Bieber 

Mr Lee F Biedermann 

Miss Ruth A. Bieritz 

Mr & Mrs. Michael A. Bilandic 

Mr Einar L. Bjorklund 

Mr & Mrs. Edward McC. Blair 

Mr John M. Blair 

Mr&Mrs. Robert E. Blau 

Ms. Sara A. Bleeker 

Mr & Mrs. Winston Blenckstone 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph L. Block 

Mr Nelson C. Block 

Mr Samuel W. Block 

Mr & Mrs. Edwin R. Blomquist 

Mr Donald J. Bloom 

Mr & Mrs. Stephen J. Bloom 

Mr & Mrs. Walter J. Blum 

Mr & Mrs. Harold R. Blumberg 

Mr Joseph James BIy 

Mr & Mrs. George H. Bodeen 

Mr George T Bogert 

Mrs. Gilbert R Bogert 

Mr &Mrs. R. G. Bohnen 

Mr James A. Bond II 

Mr & Mrs. Daniel J. Boone 

Miss Dorothy Booth 

Mrs. Suzanne Borland 

Mr Donald D. Bordian 

Miss Ann E. Bouvier 

Mrs. Clymer S. Bowen 

Mr Robert A. Bowen 

Dr & Mrs. John R. Boyd 

Mr &Mrs. WillardL. Boyd 

Mr & Mrs. William Beaty Boyd 

Mr Paul F. Boyer 

Dr N. T Braatelien 

Mr John R. Bradley 

Mr & Mrs. Roscoe R. Braham, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. James E. Bramsen 

Dr & Mrs. Wayne G. Brandstadt 

Mr David P. Brannin 



Mr John J. Bransfield, Jr 

Mrs. D. T Braun 

Mrs. Pierce Bray 

Mr & Mrs. James L. Breeling 

Mr & Mrs. William. E. Breitzke 

Mr & Mrs. David M. Brenner 

Mrs. ElmoF Brennom 

Mrs. Paul K. Bresee 

Mr & Mrs. Gerhard Brezina 

Mr Norman M. Briggs 

Mr&Mrs. Robert D. Bright 

Mrs. Lester Harris Brill 

Mr & Mrs. Kenneth A. Bro 

Mr & Mrs. Warren G. Brockmeier 

Mr Alan R. Brodie 

Mr & Mrs. Beckwith R. Bronson 

Mr Charles L Brown, Jr 

Mr Isidore Brown 

Mrs. Murray C. Brown 

Mrs. Margaret G. Browne 

Sophie & Robert Brunner 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward A. Bruzewicz 

Mr & Mrs. Arthur E. Bryan, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. C. Lawrence 

Buchanan 
Mr & Mrs. Samuel Buchsbaum 
Mr & Mrs. George Buckman 
Mrs. T. von Donop Buddington 
Mr Robert Buehler 
Ms. Mary Ellen Buell 
Mr & Mrs. Theodore H. Buenger 
Mr & Mrs. Edward Buker 
Dr & Mrs. Andrew D. Bunta 
Buntrock Foundation 
Mr & Mrs. Gunnar Burgeson 
Mrs. Alfred L. Burke 
Mr & Mrs. Grinnell Burke 
Ms. Romana Burke 
Mr Robert W. Burmeister 
Mr & Mrs. Homer A. Burnell 
Mr Edward J. Burns 
Marie Kraemer Burnside 
Mr Robert S. Burrows 
Mrs. ErIaC. Burton 
Mr George W. Butler 
Mr John Meigs Butler, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Cadieux 
Mr Louis F Cainkar 
Mrs. Wiley N.Caldwell, Jr 
Quentin D. Calkins & Fam. 
Mr John F Calmeyn 
Mrs. Dorothy M. Cameron 
Mr & Mrs. William T Cameron 
Mr Hugh Campbell 
Mr Jean B. Garden 
Mr George T Carlin 
Mr Leo J. Carlin 
Mr & Mrs. William Carmichael 
Mr & Mrs. Peter Roy Carney 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Adams Carr 
Mrs. Robert F Carr 
Dr & Mrs. Michael E. Carroll 
Mr Philip V Carter 
Mr Silas S.Cathcart 
Mrs. Jack Cavenaugh 
Mr & Mrs. Craig J. Cero 
Mr & Mrs. Raymond M. 

Champion, Jr 
William C. Chapman 
Mrs. George S. Chappell, Jr. 
Mr Frank R Chen 
Mr Sidney Cheresh 
Mr & Mrs. Paris Chesley 
Mr Eugene J. Chesrow 
Mr W. T Chester 
Mr F Newell Childs 
Mr & Mrs. Charles Chomsky 
Dr &Mrs. CynlM. Chrabot 
Mr. & Mrs. Weston R. 

Christopherson 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



Dr. Mary Chuman 

Mrs. Freeman S. Church 

Mr. & Mrs. Allen N.CIapp 

Mr & Mrs. Donald C.Clark 

Mr George Clark 

Mr Robert L. Claus, Jr 

Mr Nornnan J. Clemetsen 

Mr & Mrs. John Clemmer 

Mr & Mrs. Donald E. Cloud 

Mr & Mrs. Harry B. Clow, Jr 

Mr William C. Clyde 

Mr & Mrs. Eric W. Cochrane 

Mr & Mrs. Robert P. Coffin 

Jacob Cohn 

Mr Robert H. Cohn 

Mr. Franklin A. Cole 

Mr Charles E. Collopy 

Mr & f\flrs. John C. Colman 

Mr & Mrs. EarleM. Combs III 

Dr & Mrs. Raymond H. Conley 

Ms. Jane Connolly 

Mr & Mrs. Donald W. Connor 

Mrs. Janet N. Connor 

Mr Louis J. Conti 

Mr John Cook 

Mr & Mrs. Charles T. Cooney 

Miss Jane I. Coons 

Mrs. Edward A. Cooper 

Drs. Daniel & Mariel Cooperman 

Dr Maxwell M. Corbett 

Mrs. Gale C.Corley 

Mr & Mrs. Donald C. Cottrell, Jr 

Mr James R. Coulter 

Ms. Jean Prien Courtright 

Miss Marion E. Cowan 

Mr/Mrs. William D. Cox 

Dr& Mrs. William A. Craig 

Mrs. Norman L. Cram 

Mr Arthur A. Cramer, Jr. 

Mrs. Wesley E. Crafty 

Mrs. Mane F Creamer 

Mrs. Elisabeth M. Crow 

Mr John Powers Crowley 

Mrs. Sandra K. Crown 

Mr Paul Cruikshank 

Mr & Mrs. Robert L. Cruikshank 

Mr & Mrs. Herschel Cudd 

Mr Tilden Cummings 

Mr Kenneth H. Currier 

Mrs. F C. Curry 

Mr. Edward A. Cushman 

Mr Paul W. Cutler 

Mr & Mrs. John E. Dabbert 

Alice R. Dakin, MD 

Mr Bruce E. Dalton 

Dr & Mrs. Tapas K. Das Gupta 

Mr & Mrs. Leonard S. Davidow 

Mr & Mrs. W. Allen Davies 

Mr. & Mrs. Orville M.Davis 

Mr Cyrus C. De Coster 

Mr & Mrs. Seymour S. De Koven 

Mrs. Charles S. De Long 

Mr Patrick A. De Moon 

Mr & Mrs. R. J. De Motte 

Mr Donald J. De Porter 

Mr. & Mrs. James R. De Stefano 

Mr Philip W.De Witt 

Mrs. Howard M. Dean, Jr 

Mrs. R. Emmett Dedmon 

Mr & Mrs. W. 8. Deeming 

Mr Louis H. T. Dehmlow 

Dr Alex Delgadillo 

William G. Demas 

Mr & Mrs. Jerry E. Dempsey 

Mr & Mrs. Charles Dennehy, Jr 

Mr Carl Devoe 

Mr & Mrs. James D. Di lorio 

Mr & Mrs. Byram E. Dickes 

Mr & Mrs. Matthew Dickie 

Mr & Mrs. Duane A. Diehl 



Mr. & Mrs. Richard L. Diemer 

Mr & Mrs. Robert L. Dietmeier 

Mr & Mrs. A. Newton Dilley 

Mr W. S. Dillon 

Mrs. Arthur Dixon 

Mr & Mrs. Stewart S. Dixon, Sr. 

Dr & Mrs. Norman S. Don 

Mrs. Alan W. Donaldson 

Mr Sidney N. Doolittle 

Ms. Ann G. Doran 

Mr Harold W. Dotts 

Dr & Mrs. Samuel R. Doughty 

Mr James H. Douglas, Jr 

Mr H. James Douglass 

Mr & Mrs. Benjamin Drew 

Dr & Mrs. Mitchell Drexler 

Mr & Mrs. Lawrence A. Du Bose 

Mr M. F Du Chateau 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Dugan 

Ms. Evelyn Duggan 

Mr & Mrs. Paul R. Duncan 

Todd H. Duncan 

Mr & Mrs. M. F Dunne, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Eugene V. Dunphy, Jr 

Ms. Rosanne M. Dusek 

Elton Dyal 

Mr & Mrs. Peter L. Dyson 

Mr Thomas E. Earle 

Mr Robert J. Eck 

Miss Florence P. Eckfeldt 

Mrs. Percy B. Eckhart 

Mr Frank E. Edelmann 

Mr Howard O. Edmonds 

Mrs. Jane H. Edwards 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Edwards 

Mark & Kitty Egan 

Ms. Barbara E. Egbert 

Mr Gerard J. Edger 

Mr. Joseph S. Ehrman, Jr 

Mr. Edmund K. Eichengreen 

Mr. & Mrs. Stephen Eisen 

Mrs. Janet Ela 

Mr. & Mrs. William J. Elbersen 

Mrs. Helen H. Elberson 

Mrs. Hannah B. Eldridge 

Mr & Mrs. William O. Eldridge 

Mr & Mrs. John W. Elias 

David P Filer 

Mr & Mrs. F Osborne Elliott 

Mr&Mrs. Russell C.Ellis 

Miss Caryl L. Elsey 

Ms. M. Caroline Emich 

Mr & Mrs. Richard E. Engler 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond Epstein 

Mr&Mrs. E.J. Erick 

Mrs. Gertrude Erickson 

Mr Harry F. Espenscheid 

Mrs. Bergen Evans 

Mr Kenneth A. Evans 

Mr & Mrs. Raymond L. Evans 

Mr Boyd N. Everett 

Mr William S. Everett 

Mr & Mrs. David L. Everhart 

Olive Faa Di Bruno 

Frank & Leah Falkoff Memorial 

Deane M. Farley 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Farrell 

Mr Peter A. Fasseas 

Mr Frederick Fechtner 

Mrs. Sig Feiger 

Mrs. R. W. Ferguson 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Ferris 

Mr & Mrs. Edward Fiedler, Jr. 

Ms. AnnC. Field 

Mr. Patrick S. Filter 

Miss Helen T. Findlay 

Miss Anne Fink 

Mrs. Robert C. Fink 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Fisher 

Mr. Morgan L. Fitch 



Mr Edward C. Floden, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. James G. Flood 

Mr & Mrs. Harold M. Florsheim 

Mrs. Leonard Florsheim 

Mrs. Leonard Florsheim, Jr 

Mr Lee J. Flory 

Mr Emil L. Fogelin 

Mr Dwight Follett 

Mr &Mrs. C. Robert Foltz 

Mrs. Robert L. Foote 

Mr. Edwin S. Ford 

Mrs. Zachary D. Ford 

Mr Harold E. Foreman, Jr. 

Mr Donald L. Fortunate 

Mr & Mrs. Frank B. Foster. 

Mrs. Hubert D. Fox 

Mr John H. Fox 

Mr & Mrs. A. A. Frank, Jr 

Jim & Karen Frank 

Zollie& Elaine Frank 

Dr. M.E. Frankel 

Dr. Christabel Frederick 

Mr & Mrs. Earl J. Frederick 

Mr & Mrs. Norman Freehling 

Mrs. Frances L. Freeman 

Mr & Mrs. Donald B. French 

Dr Stanton A. Friedberg 

Mrs Herbert A. Friedlich 

Mrs. Beatrice Friedman 

Mr. & Mrs. John W. Fritz 

Mr. & Mrs. Hellmut Fritzsche 

Mr & Mrs. William D. Frost 

Mr. & Mrs. Carlos M. Frum 

Mr E. Montford Fucik 

Mrs. Gregory L. Fugiel 

Mr W. W. Fullagar 

Mr&Mrs. Curtis Fuller 

Mr & Mrs. James C. E. Fuller 

Mr&Mrs. Eric Gabler 

Mr Rudolph R. Gabnel 

Miss Elsie Gadzinski 

Mr Joseph P. Gaffigan 

Gregory Gajda 

Mrs. Charles B. Gale 

Mrs. Nicholas Galitzine 

Tuckey-Winnetka Garden Club 

Mr Henry K. Gardner 

Mr & Mrs. Vern Garvey 

Mr & Mrs. Walter A. Gatzert 

Mr Chester M.Gaudian 

Mr. & Mrs. James J. Gavin, Jr 

Dr. John E. Gedo 

Mr Thomas A. Geldermann 

Geology Department, Field 

Museum 
Mr John B. Gerlach 
Gerlach Foundation Inc. 
Mr Louis Gershon 
Mr &Mrs. IsakV. Gerson 
Mr William J. Gibbons 
Mr & Mrs. James A. Gibbs 
Mrs. Mary Jane Gibbs 
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Gidwitz 
Dr R. Kennedy Gilchrist 
Ms. Rebecca Gilson 
Mr. J. William Gimbel 
Dr. Elizabeth Louise Girardi 
Mr Alfred E. Gladding 
Mr. & Mrs. James J. Glasser 
Mr & Mrs. Thomas T Glidden 
Mrs. Albert H.GIos 
Mr Richard Glovka 
Mr Gordon T. Goethal 
Mr & Mrs. Leonard W. Golan 
Mrs. Anna-RaeGold 
Mr & Mrs. David F Goldberg 
Mr. & Mrs. Milton D. Goldberg 
Dr & Mrs. Julian R. Goldsmith 
Mr Daniel J. Good 
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce K. Goodman 



Mr & Mrs. Sheldon Goodman 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas Goodman 

Mrs. Alexander Gorbunoff 

Mr & Mrs. E. Timothy Gorham 

Mr & Mrs. Donald E. Goss 

Mr. Alvin J. Gottlieb 

Eric I. Gottlieb 

Mr Robert R. Gowland 

Miss Mary E. Graham 

Mr & Mrs. William B. Graham 

Mr M. B. Grant 

Mr & Mrs. Gerard E. Grashom 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Gray 

Mrs. Donald C. Greaves 

Diana S. Greene 

Mr & Mrs. Edward D. Greiner 

Mr G. P Grieve 

Drs. Carl & Janet Grip 

Mr & Mrs. William O. Grossklas 

Mr & Mrs. Carl A. Grunschel 

Dr&Mrs. RolfM. Gunnar 

Mr & Mrs. Robert C. Gunness 

Mr Edward F. Gurka, Jr 

Mr Elmer T Gustafson 

Mrs. Irene Gustus 

Mr & Mrs. William N.Guthrie 

Dean & Kathleen Haas 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Haayen 

Mr Samuel S. Haber 

Mr & Mrs. Charles C. Haffner III 

Katherine L. Hagberg 

Mr J. Parker Hall III 

Mr J. Parker Hall 

Mrs. Patricia R. Hall 

Dr Carol A. Haller 

Mr & Mrs. Chalkley J. Hambleton 

Mr. Samuel Hamilton 

Mr. & Mrs. Martin Hanley 

Mr. & Mrs Allan Hansberoer 

Mr & Mrs. Robert F Hanson 

Mr Leon W. Hapke 

Miss Virginia Hardin 

Mr Jack R.Harlan- 

Mr David J. Harris 

Mr In/ing B. Harris 

Mr J. Ira Harris 

Mr. & Mrs. King W. Harris 

Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris 

Mrs. AugustinS. Hart 

Mrs. Chester C. Hart 

Mr William J. Harte 

Mr & Mrs. Irvin H. Hartman, Jr. 

Dr & Mrs. Malcolm H. Hast 

Mr Lawrence Hattenbach 

Mr Walter R. Hauschildt 

Mr Homer Havermale, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Walter Hawrysz 

Mr & Mrs. Alfred H. Hayes 

Mr. & Mrs. John F Hayward 

Mrs. William H. Hazlett 

Dr Charles Heck 

Mr & Mrs. William J. Heidemann 

Mrs. Wilfred H. Heitmann 

Mr Henry J. Henke 

Mr & Mrs. Mark Hewitt 

Mrs. John Heymann 

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel P Hidding 

Mr Howard R Hight 

Miss Dawne R. Hill 

Ms. Roberta A. Hill 

Mr E. H. Hillman 

Mr Kenneth R. Hilton 

Mr & Mrs. Edward Hines 

Mrs. Harold I. Hines, Jr. 

Mrs. John L. Hines 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald M. Hintz 

Mrs. Edwin F Hirsch 

Mr Edwin W. Hirsch 

Mr&Mrs. Joel S.Hirsch 49 

Mrs. James R. Hoatson 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



Mr. & Mrs. John Hobart 

Mrs, Richard H. Hobbs 

Ms. Peggy L. Hoberg 

Mrs. Shirley L. Hodge 

Mrs. William R. Hodgson 

Mr David B. Hoffman 

Miss Elizabeth Hoffman 

Mr & Mrs. Paul W. Hoffman 

Dr Eugene Hoffmann 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas J. Hoffmann 

Mr. & Mrs. F. H. Hollingsworth 

Mr. & Mrs. Gerald V. Hollins 

Dr & John A. Holmes 

Mr Stanley H. Holmes 

Mr Thomas Holmquest 

Mr James C Hopp 

Mrs. William D. Home, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Charles C. Horton 

Mr Leonard Horwich 

Mr R. A. Houston 

Mr & Mrs. Warren F. Hrstka 

Mr & Mrs. Lincoln B. Hubbard 

Miss Katherine J. Hudson 

Mr & Mrs. Peter H. Huizenga 

Mr & Mrs. R. B. Hulsen 

Mrs. William O. Hunt 

Mr & Mrs. William 0. Hunt, Jr. 

Judge Robert L. Hunter 

Mrs. Harvey Huston 

Mr & Mrs. Chauncey K. Hutchins 

Mr & Mrs. John B. Hutchins 

Mrs. John S. Hutchins 

Mr & Mrs. Robert A. Hutchins 

Mr & Mrs. Frank Hutchinson 

Mr & Mrs. William Hutchinson 

Dr and Farouk Idriss 

Mrs. Stanley O. Ikenberry 

Mr Sarah & Charles Iker 

Mr George M. Illich 

Mr. & Mrs. George M. Illich, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. George F 

lllingworth, Jr 
Mr Jacob Inger 
Mr James H. Ingersoll 
Mrs. Stephen L. Ingersoll 
Miss Marion F. Inkster 
Mrs. Elaine R. Irvin 
Mr Alfred Isenberg 
Mr Hans D. Isenberg 
Mr George S. Isham 
Mrs. Henry P. Isham, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Srinivasa Iyengar 
Dr & Mrs. Michael Jablon 
Mr David W. Jackson Fam. 
Mr Jacob Jacobson 
Mr Martin E. Jacobson 
Jack & Roberta Jaffe 
Seymour Jaffe 

Mr & Mrs Frederick G Jaicks 
Ms. Karen J. Jalovecky 
Mr & Mrs. Joseph E. 

Jannotta, Jr 
Dr C. Helge M. Janson 
Mr & Mrs. Willard K. Jaques 
Mr Albert E. Jenner, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Harold S. Jensen 
Mr & Mrs. William R. Jentes 
Dr George N.Jessen 
Mr Carl A. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs Clarence E. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Edward C. Johnson 
Dr Frank R. Johnson 
Mr Henry A. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. James E. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs. Robert L Johnson 
Mr Robert L. Johnson 
Mr & Mrs Robert Owen Johnson 
Mr & Mrs Stuart J. Johnson 
50 Dr James E. Jones 



Miss Mary F Jones 

Mrs. Pierce Jones 

Mrs. Robert V Jones 

Mr Theodore Jones 

Mr Robert B. Joshel 

Mr Emmett M. Joyce 

Mrs. Elizabeth Jung 

Mr Edward C. Junkunc 

Ms. Doris F. Kahn 

Mr John P. Kaiser 

Mr Phil Kaiser 

Miss Patricia M. Kammerer 

Mr Philip Kania 

Mr Burton W. Kanter 

Mr Ernest W Kaps 

Virginia K. Karnes 

Mrs. V. Kasmerchak 

Mr George F Kast 

Ms. Joan F Kasten 

Dr Margaret Katzin 

Mr Fred R. Kaufmann, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph C. Kay Jr 

Mr John Kayser 

Mr Lee B. Keating 

Mr J. L. Keeshin 

Mr & Mrs. John P Keller 

Mr&Mrs. FrankJ. Kelleylll 

Mr Russell P Kelley Jr 

Mr Donald P. Kelly 

Mr & Mrs. Frederick T. Kelsey 

Miss M. Rosalie Kempe 

Mrs. James S. Kemper 

Mr Taylor L. Kennedy 

Estate of Beatrice Kessler 

Mrs. Deirdre D. Kieckhefer, Jr. 

Mrs. Clinton King 

Mrs. Harvey W. King 

Mr Neil King 

Ms Mary Kingsbury 

Mr Davis G. Kirby 

Mr & Mrs Robert P. Kirchheimer 

Mr & Mrs. Charles T. Kirschner 

Mr Glenn E. Kischel 

Herman Klafter 

Mr & Mrs. Gunnar Klarr 

The Klefstad Family 

Mrs. John A. Klem 

Mr Roger H. Klich 

Dr & Mrs. Thornton C. Kline, Jr 

Dr & Edward F Klitenick 

Mr Philip Klutznick 

Dr & Mrs. William B. Knapp 

Mr Eugene Knight 

Mrs. Robert G. Knight 

Mr M. H. Knotts 

Mr Maurice G. Knoy 

Mrs. Shirley Koenigs 

Mr & Mrs. Martin J. Koldyke 

Mr Peter John J. Kosiba 

Mr & Mrs. Kenneth Kostal 

Mrs. David H. Kraft 

Mr Anthony R Kramer 

Evelyn F. Krause 

Lee V. Kremer 

Mrs. Bertram Kribben 

Ms. Dolores Krueger 

Mrs Maynard C Krueger 

Mrs. Allen B. Kuhlman 

Mr & Mrs. George C. 

Kuhlman, Jr 
Joseph Kukenis 
Mr Duane R. Kullberg 
Ms. Ruth Kurczewski 
Mrs. John F Kurfess 
Mr William O. Kurtz, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Charles La Bow 
Mr&Mrs. Arthur La Velle 
Mr Mark H. Labkon 
Mrs. William Ladany 



Mrs Gordon Lang 

Mrs. Walter D. Larkin 

Mr Earl D. Larsen 

Mrs. Jack A. Larsh 

Mr & Mrs. Warren Larson 

Ardith M. Lauerman 

Mr & Mrs. Leonard H. Lavin 

Mr & Mrs. Russell M. Lawall 

Mr Robert M Lavrton 

Mr & Mrs Gordon Leadbetter 

Drs. Bernard S. & Pauline P Lee 

Mr&Mrs. Richard H.Leet 

Mr & Mrs. Paul H. Leffman 

Mr&Mrs. Wilburs Legg 

Dr Murray H. Leiffer 

Mr JohnG. Leininger 

Mr Frederick K. Leisch 

Mr & Mrs. Homer G. Lemke 

Mr & Mrs. Peter Lems 

Mr Richard A. Lenon 

Mr Frederick R. Lent 

Mr Robert L. Leopold 

Mr Arthur M. Leotien 

Mr & Mrs. Ralph Lerner 

Miss Phyllis Levens 

Mr & Mrs. Lawrence R. Levin 

Mr & Mrs. Howard P. Levine 

Elvin A. Levy 

Mrs. Gloria Likins 

Mr George Lill II 

Mr & Mrs Thomas M. 

Lillard, Jr 
Mr. Le Roy A. Lindberg 
Mr Harrison C. Lingle 
Mr & Mrs. Gregory J. Linwood 
Mr Wayne E. Lippman 
Mr David E. Upson 
Mrs. R Chapin Litten 
Colonel James P. Littlejohn 
Dr W. C. Liu 

Mrs. Homer J. Livingston 
Mrs. Joseph F Lizzadro 
Mrs. Glen A. Lloyd 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Loeding 
Miss Mary Longbrake 
Miss Walma A. Lorenzen 
Mr Philip W. Lotz 
B. L. M. Louthan 
Mr M. R. Lowenstine, Jr. 
Mr & Mrs. James E. Luebchow 
Mr & Mrs. Frank W. Luerssen 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr 
Dr. & Mrs. Mark D. Lupton 
Mrs. Joan L. Lydy 
Mr & Mrs. Francis J. Lynch 
Mrs. Delores R.Lyons 
Mr & Mrs. John M MacDonald 
Mr & Mrs. David O, MacKenzie 
Allan Leigh Maca 
Mr&Mrs Walter M. Mack 
Ms. Natlie S. Mackler 
Mr J. N. Macomb, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. John W. Madigan 
Mr Bernard S. Madorin 
Mrs. Lorraine B. Madsen 
Mrs. Samuel A. Mages 
Emil L. Makar 
Mr Phillip S.Makin 
William & Ann R. Maloney 
Mr & Mrs. Jerome W. Mandell 
Mr James E. Mandler 
Mrs. Philip C. Manker 
Mr & Mrs. Fred A. Manuele 
Mr & Mrs. Steven C. March 
Mr & Mrs. Aldo Marchetti 
Mr & Mrs. S. Edward Marder 
Mr Asher J. Margolis 
Mr R. Bailey Markham 
Mrs IraG. Marks 
Mr James Marks 



Mr McKim Marriott 

Mrs. Robert F Marschner 

Dr Stanley Martin 

Mrs. Keith Masters 

Mr & Mrs. Bruce D. Mateer 

Mr Thomas N. Mathers 

Mr Hiroshi Matsuzaki 

Mr. Paul Mavros 

Mr Augustus K. Maxwell, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. L. Chester May 

Mr Leroy M. May 

Mrs Frank D. Mayer 

Mr & Mrs. George H Maze 

Mrs Lloyd A. McCarthy 

Mr. Franklin McCarty Jr 

Mr & Mrs. R. A. McClevey Jr 

Mrs. Barbara I. McClintock 

Mr Archibald McClure 

Mr & Mrs. James J. 

McClure, Jr 
Dr R M. McCray 
Dr Walter C.McCrone 
Mr & Mrs Paul D McCurry 
Mr & Mrs. G. Barr McCutcheon 
Mr & Mrs. Gordon E. McDanold 
Mr & Mrs. Robert B. McDermott 
Mr & Mrs. Clement J. McDonald 
Mrs. Remick McDowell 
Dr Ernest G. McEwen 
Mr Charies S. McGill 
Mr Arthurs. McGinn 
Mrs Thomas J. McGreevy 
Ellen & John McHugh 
Mr William B. Mcllvaine 
Mr Neil McKay 
Mr & Mrs. John C. McKenzie 
Dr & Mrs. Peter McKinney 
Mr William W. McKittrick 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. McLean 
Mr Andrew J. McMillan 
Mr James A. McMullen 
Mr Eari McNeil 

Mr & Mrs. Roland V. McPherson 
Mrs. Constance F McVoy 
Elisabeth C. Meeker 
Mr & Mrs. Henry W. Meers 
Mr & Mrs. Robert Meers & Family 
Mr Charles W. Melind 
Mr Charles Melvoin 
Mrs. Marian Menges 
Dr & James W. Merricks 
Mr & Mrs. Glenn E. Merritt 
John & Beverly Meyer 
Dr & Mrs. John E. fileyer 
Mr&Mrs. Walter J. Meyer 
Mr David R. Meyers 
Mr D. Daniel Michel 
Mr Bert H. Michelsen 
Silvia A. MichI 
Mr Paul E. Miessler 
Mr George Mihelic 
Mrs. C.Phillip Miller 
Mr & Mrs. Glenn R.Miller 
Philip B. Miller & Fam. 
Mr & Mrs. Robert E. Miller 
Dr & Mrs. Robert P Miller 
Dr Shelby A. Miller 
Mrs. Harold J. Mills 
Mr Frank R. Milnor 
Mr & Mrs. Charles Minarik 
Mr Myron Minuskin 
Mr & Mrs. Ned F. Mitchell 
Mr B. John Mix, Jr 
Mr Gilbert C. Mochel, Jr 
Mr H. G. Mojonnier 
Mr J. D. Mollendorf 
Mr Henry I. Monheimer 
Mrs Boswell Monroe 
Mr Tom Moog 
Mr & Mrs. John Mooi 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



Mr. John Mooncotch 

Mr. & Mrs. Carl E. Moore 

Mrs. James H. Moore 

Mr. Graham J. Morgan 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas 0. Morgan 

Ms. Barbara Ann Morris 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Morris 

Mr & Mrs. Robert A. Morris 

Mr. & Mrs. John H. Morrison 

Mr. George L. Morrow 

Mr Horace C. Moses, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. Lester Mouscher 

Mr & Mrs. John D. Mueller 

Mrs. Robert Mulder, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Aidan I. Mullett 

Mr & Mrs. Kevin Murphy 

Mrs. Patricias. Murphy 

Richard J. Murphy 

Dr&Mrs. Charles F.Nadler 

Mr & Mrs. Charles F. Nadler, Jr. 

Mr Roscoe C. Nash 

Mr Bernard Nath 

Mrs. Thomas Nathan 

Mr. Kenneth Nebenzahl 

Mr & Mrs. Kenneth Nebenzahl 

Mr & Mrs. Gary L. Neiman 

Mr & Mrs. William F. Neuert, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Lorin I. Nevling, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. J. Robert Newgard 

Mrs. Frances Newman 

Mr & Mrs. H. S. Newson, Jr 

Mr Frank B. Nichols 

Mr & Mrs. John D. Nichols 

Mr & Mrs. Philip H. Niederman 

Mr & Mrs. Jon E. Niehus 

Mr Arthur C. Nielsen, Jr 

Mr Charles F Nims 

Mr & Mrs. Ronald D. Niven 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Nordlund 

Mrs. Lawrence E. Norem 

Megan E. Norris 

Mr E. G. Novotny 

Ms. Lucille Ann Nunes 

Mr Karl R Nygren 

Dr&Mrs. CO. Nyman 

Michael O'Brien 

Ms. Joan E. O'Malley 

Mr Patrick L. O'Malley 

Mr & Mrs. Ralph Thomas O'Neil 

Mrs. John J. O'Shaughnessy 

Mr Michael O'Shaughnessy 

Mary Florence O'Shea 

Mr & Mrs. Ralph R. Obenchain 

Dr Edward J. Olsen 

Mr. Robert W. Olson 

Mr. W. Irving Osborne, Jr 

Mr. Charles Osicka 

Mrs. Fentress Ott 

Mr. & Mrs. Ray E. Over 

Mr. David B. Owen 

Mr Alan S. Owens 

Mrs. James H. Owens, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. R W. Oyen 

Mr Russell Packard 

Mr Robert Y. Paddock, Sr 

Mrs. Walter Paepcke 

Mr & Mrs. Lloyd J. Palmer 

Mr. Robert R. Palmer 

Mrs. Helen Palmquist 

Mrs. Marjorie S. Parcell 

Dr William L. Parish 

Mr Norman S. Parker 

William E. Parker 

Mrs. Norman G. Parry 

Mrs. J. W. Parson 

Mr Lloyd C. Partridge 

R. W. Partridge 

Dr. & Mrs. Philip Y.Paterson 

John & Audrey Paton 

Ms. Bernice Cain Patterson 



Dr Joan E. Patterson 

Mrs. O. Macrae Patterson 

Mr JohnM. Patton 

Mr William Pavey 

Mr A. J. Pavlick 

Mr. & Mrs. R. Marlin Perkins 

Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence Perlman 

Mr Michael Perlow 

Mr Ward E. Perrin 

Mr & Mrs. Julian S. Perry 

Mrs. Max W. Petacque 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Peters 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. Peterson 

Miss Susanne Petersson 

Mr & Mrs. Donald L. Petravick 

Mr Seymour Phillips 

Mr Paul Pierce, Jr 

Mr Robert R. Pierson 

Mr & Mrs. John I Pigott 

Ms. Helen O. Piros 

Mr & Mrs. Edgar J. Plachek 

Mrs. Ruth Lynott Plakias 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph B. Plauche 

Mr & Mrs. James D. Polls 

Mr Oren T Pollock 

Mrs. Harold M. Pond 

Mr George A. Poole 

Mrs. Henry Pope, Jr 

Mrs. William P. Pope 

Dr Eduard Poser 

Ms. Katherine Post 

Mr & Mrs. Newell Pottorf 

Mr Albert W. Potts 

Mr William F Potts 

Mr & Mrs. Eugene L. Powell 

Mr Michael Powers 

Mrs. George Preucil 

Joan M. Prims 

Mr. Ralph E. Projahn 

Mr. & Mrs. John A. Prosser 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Prussian 

Ms. Virginia F Pullman 

Mr & Mrs. John Pusinelli 

Mr Oliver Ouelle 

Dr & Mrs. George B. Rabb 

Mr & Mrs. James A. Radtke 

Miss Audree M. Ragan 

Mr. Frank X.RaidI 

Helene & Norman X. RaidI 

Mr. & Mrs. L. S. Raisch 

Mr George A. Ranney Sr 

Mr & Mrs. F R. Rapids 

Ms. Anna M. Rappaport 

Ms. Jean Rasmussen 

Mr & Mrs. James M. Ratcliffe 

Mr Myron F Ratcliffe 

Mr & Mrs. W. E. Rattner 

Mr John W. Rawlinson 

Ms. Catherine G. Rawson 

Mr & Mrs. Robert Reder 

Mr. William M. Redfield 

Miss Gertrude E. Reeb 

Dr & Mrs. Charles A. Reed 

Mrs. Louise Reed 

Ms. Norma C. Reed 

Mr Peter S. Reed 

Dr Clifton L. Reeder 

Mr & Mrs. Howard C. Reeder 

Mr & Mrs. William G. Reeder 

Mr & Mrs. Gunther Reese 

Mr Joseph Regenstein, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. F A. Reichelderfer 

Mr & Mrs. Harvard Reiter 

Miss Marie K. Remien 

Mrs. Robert W. Reneker 

Dr. Earl Renfroe 

Mr & Mrs. John A. Renn 

Mr Edward L. Renno 



Mr. Robert F Reusche 

Mr David W. Rewick 

Mr Stuart A. Rice 

Mrs. Joseph E. Rich 

Mrs. Harold Richardson 

Mr & Mrs. John M. Richman 

Mr M. H. W. Ritchie 

Mr Charles Ritten 

Mrs. Jack L. Robbins 

Mr Harry V. Roberts 

Mr William R Roberts 

Dr & Mrs. Raymond E. Robertson 

Mr. Scott Robertson 

Mrs. Martha R Robinson 

H. R Davis Rockwell 

Robert D. Rodgers 

Mrs, Rrederick Roe 

Mrs. Rrederick Roe 

Alma&SelmaRoeder 

Mr Ottomar D. Roeder 

Mr & Mrs. Karl V. Rohlen 

Mr & Mrs. Karl V. Rohlen 

Mr William R. Rom 

Mr Harry A. Root, Jr 

Mrs. Philip Rootberg 

Carolyn & Sol Rosen 

Mr S. Eugene Rosenbacher 

Mrs. Paul Rosenbaum 

Mr & Mrs. Harold R. Rosenson 

Mr Gerson M. Rosenthal, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph A. Rosin 

Mr William R. Rostek 

Mr & Mrs. Donald I. Roth 

Ms. Elizabeth B. Roth 

Mr & Mrs. Herbert L. Roth 

Mrs. Stephen W. Rothermel 

Aid. Rred B. Roti 

Mr Lawrence Rowan 

Ms. Harriet Rozier 

Dr Myron E. Rubnitz 

Mr Robert M. Ruckstuhl 

Don & Mary Ann Ruegg 

Mr John W. Ruettinger 

Mr Charles T. Rufener 

Dr&Mrs. John H. Rust 

Mr & Mrs. Thomas D. Rutherford 

Mrs. Robert M. Ruud 

Mrs. George W. Ryerson 

Dr Vincent J. Sacchetti 

Mr&Mrs. Roberts. Sachs 

Mr Robert W.Saigh 

Mr Ouentin E. Samuelson 

Ms. Margaret H. Sanderson 

Mr Norman L. Sandfield 

Ms. Mary Ann Sanford 

Beverly & Rilemon Santiago 

Mrs. GeneSaper 

Mr & Mrs. Robert E. Sargent 

Dr Muriel Savage 

Mr Calvin P. Sawyier 

Mr & Mrs. George Schaaf 

Mr Richard J. Schade 

Mr Roy S. Scheck 

Miss Marion H. Schenk 

Mrs. Gerhart Schild 

A. Bruce Schimberg 

Mr & Mrs. Rudolph Schmidt 

Mr & Mrs. Lawrence Schnadig 

Mr & Mrs. J. E. Schneider 

Mr & Mrs. Melvin Schneider 

Mr Ronald A. Schnura 

Mrs. Charles L. Schrager 

Rem & Barry Schrager 

Charles & Carol Schultz 

Mr. & Mrs, Joseph S. Schumacher 

Mr Edward J. Schurz, Jr 

Dr. Steven Schwartz 

Dr J. R Schweitzer 

Mr Rrank Scott 



Mr & Mrs. John Paul Scott 

Mr Rrank Sedlacek 

Mr Robert M. Seeley 

Mr&Mrs. Williams. Seeley 

Mrs. Mary S. Seidler 

Mr Edwin A. Seipp, Jr 

Miss DeniseSelz 

Mr & Mrs. Charles W. Sena 

Mr & Mrs. Richard J. L. Senior 

Mr & Mrs. Stephen Sentoff 

Mr & Mrs. C. Olin Sethness 

Mrs. Eileen G. Sexton 

DrSid J.Shafer 

Mr & Mrs. Robert M. Shannon 

Mr &Mrs. John I. Shaw 

Mr. Thomas Sheffield, Jr. 

Mrs. HueyG.Shelton 

Mr. James G. Shennan 

Mr. Robert Sheridan 

Saul & Devorah Sherman 

Dr Robert W. Shoemaker 

Mr. De Ver Sholes 

Mr William H. Short 

Mrs. Mary Shrimplin 

Mr & Mrs. Mack H. Shumate 

Mr S. N. Shure 

Mrs. C. Sidamon-Eristoff 

Mr&Mrs. C.William Sidwell 

Mr & Mrs. Daniel Silverstein 

Mr & Mrs. R. S. Singers 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Siragusa 

Mrs. Gerald A. Sivage 

Mr. Leon N. Skan 

Mr. John Slater 

Mr Louis J. Slavin 

Dr. & Mrs. Albert H.SIepyan 

Mr Irwin H. Small 

Mr Robert W. Smick 

Mrs. C.Philip Smiley 

Mrs. Charles G.Smith 

Dr Edward C. Smith 

Emily & John Smith 

Mr George D.Smith- II 

Mrs. Gertrude Scribn Smith 

Mr Goff Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon Smith 

Mr. Harold Byron Smith 

Mr Harold Byron Smith, Jr 

Mr & Mrs. John C. Smith 

Mr Matthew D. Smith 

Ms. Mildred Reed Smith 

Mrs. Muriel R. Smith 

Mr Steven E. Smith 

Mrs. S.R. Snider 

Mr James U. Snydacker 

Mrs. Paul Soderdahl 

Mrs. Harold Sofield 

Mr & Mrs. John R Sohl 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph E. Solan 

Mrs. Hugo Sonnenschein, Jr 

Mrs. James Souby 

Mr Don Spak 

Mr. & Mrs. Denton H. Sparks 

Mr & Mrs. Harold E. Spencer 

Mrs. Lyie M. Spencer 

Mrs. Clara Spiegel 

Mrs. Rrederick W. Spiegel 

Mrs. Charles A. Sprague 

Mr Charles R. Staley 

Mr Joseph J. Staniec 

Mr William E. Stanley Jr. 

Mrs. Pericles P. Stathas 

Dr Irving Stein 

Mr & Mrs. Melvyn E. Stein 

Mr Sydney Stein, Jr 

Mr Grundy Steiner 

Nancy A. Stevenson 

Mr Hal S. R. Stewart 

Mr Donald M. Stillwaugh 



51 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



Mr. & Mrs. James Stoller 

Mr Edwin H. Stone 

Mr. Lloyd Stone 

Mr Marvin Stone 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond E. Stone 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard A. Stotler 

Mrs. Edward J. Stransky 

Mrs. Harold E. Strauss 

Mrs. Herman A. Strauss 

Mr & Mrs. Ivan G. Strauss 

Dr & Mrs. Johin S. Strauss 

Dr Robert H Strotz 

Mr Erwin A. Stuebner 

Mr & Mrs. Charles J. Sugrue & 

Family 
Mrs. Audrey M. Sullivan 
Mrs. Frank L. Sulzberger 
J. B. Surpless 

Mr & Mrs. James L. Surpless 
Mr William P. Sutter 
Harold Sutton & Family 
Mr & Mrs. Edward F Swift III 
Mrs. Gustavus R Swift, Jr 
Mr J.R. Switiart 
Mr & Mrs. James B. Tafel 
Mr & Mrs. James M. Tait 
Miss Mary Tamarri 
Mr Rodger M. Tauman 
Mrs A.Thomas Taylor 
Brenda J. Taylor 
Mr J. Hall Taylor 
Mrs. Samuel G. Taylor III 
Mr & Mrs. William L. Taylor, Jr 
Mrs. Constance Tegtmeyer 
Mr & Mrs. William K. Tell 
Mr & Mrs. Ronald S. Theis 
Mr & Mrs. D. Robert Thomas 
Dr Paul A. Thomas, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Richard L. Thomas 
Mrs. Thomas M. Thomas 
Mr & Mrs. Grant Phelps 

Thompson 
Prasong Thongsai 
Mr Lynn H. Throckmorton 
Mr Fred A. Thulin 
Mr S. N. Tideman 
Mrs. Theodore Tieken, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Stanley E. Tierney 
Mr Richard H. Timler 
Mr Harold B. Tobin 
Mr Alvin V. Tollestrup 
Jan J. Toof 

Mr William J. Townsley 
Mr Cecil E. Treadway 
Mr & Mrs. George S. Trees 
Mr Edgar W. Trout 
Mr & Mrs. Alan J. Turnbull 
Dr & Mrs. William D. Turnbull 
Dr & Mrs Charles H. Tweed 
Mrs. C. P Tyler 
Mr & Mrs. Robert D. Tyler 
Mr & Mrs. Frederick C. Uhde 
Mrs. Dena Uhlenhop 
Mr Edgar J. Uihiein, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Bohus Ulicny 
Mr Norman A. Ulrich 
Elizabeth Y. Vail 
Mr & Mrs. Murray Vale 
Mr John B. Van Duzer 
Anthonie Van Ekris 
Mr & Mrs. Erie L. Van Geem 
Mrs. R. D. Van Kirk 
Mrs. Errett Van Nice 
Mr Frank A. Van Overbeke, Jr 
Mr & Mrs. Norman Vance, Jr 
Ms. Lillian Vanek 
Mr & Mrs. D. Throop Vaughan 
Mr & Mrs. Al Vega 
CO Mr M. P. Venema 

Mr & Mrs. Harry L. Vincent 



Mr & Mrs. Richard H. VIerick 
Ms Jo-Anne Vogt 



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& Mrs. E. W. Volkman 
& Mrs. Richard A. Waichler 
Edwin A. Walcher, Jr 
Charles R. Walgreen, Jr 
s. Maurice Walk 
Malcolm M. Walker 
George M. Walker & Family 
& Mrs. Walter Wallin 
& Mrs. John P Walsh 
&Mrs. GaryT Walther 



s. Cynthia Armour Ward 



s. Theron Wasson 

Richard F Watt 
s. Imy Wax 

. & Mrs. William D. Weaver 
s. Arnold R. Weber 
s. C. F Weber 

& Mrs. Norman R. Wechter 

Morris S. Weeden 

& Mrs. Carlisle Weese 

& Mrs, Charles W. Wegener 
s. Louis P. Weinberg 

& Mrs. Sol S. Weiner 

&Mrs. Louis A. Weiss 

William B. Weiss 
s. Paul A. Welbon 
s. Irene L. Weldon 
s. Donald P Welles 

Edward K. Welles 
s. John Paul Welling 

William D. Wells 

& Mrs. Arthur D. Welton, Jr 

& Mrs. R Lee H. Wendell 

Louis Werner 

& Mrs. Reinald Werrenrath, Jr. 

& Mrs. B. Kenneth West 

Roger L. Weston 
M James M. Wetzel 
s. Joseph P. Wharton, Jr 

E. Todd Wheeler 
s. Lloyd A. White 

& George D. Wilbanks 
. & Mrs. Lawrence G. Wilcox 
. & Mrs. Lydon Wild 
. Bradford Wiles 
s. Howard L. Willett Jr 
s. Alberto. Williams, Jr 

&Mrs. Albert W.Williams 

Melville C. Williams 

Orrin R. Williams 

Raymond Williams 
s. Norman B. Williamson 

& Mrs. Robert H. Wilson 

Robert M.Wilson 
s. Elwyn C. Winland 
s. Wallace C. Winter 

Michael Wirtz 

Earl Wise, Jr 

Paula D.Wise 
s. Mildred C. Wisner 

& Mrs. Richard M. Withrow 

& Mrs. William W. Wittie 

& Mrs. Arthur W. Woelfle 

John C. Wolfe 

& Mrs. Arnold R. Wolff 
s. Peter Wolkonsky 

Arthur M. Wood 

& Mrs. Henry C. Wood, 
Henry C. Wood Foundation 
s. Frank H Woods 

& Mrs. Donald P Woulfe 
s. Harriet Whght 

William Wrigley 

Del E.Yarnell 

Theodore N. Yelich 

& Mrs. John W. Yoder 

&Mrs. Gerald D.Young, Jr. 

& Mrs. Hobart P Young 



Dr & Mrs. Quentin D. Young 

Ms. Betty Younker 

Mr & Mrs. Robert P Zabel 

Mr & Mrs. Carl A Zehner 

Mr & Mrs. Willy K. Zimmermann 



CORPORATIONS 
and PHILANTHROPIC 
FOUNDATIONS 

$5,000 or more 

Abbott Laboratories Fund 
The Allstate Foundation 
Amsted Industries Foundation 
Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
AT & T Foundation 
Barker Welfare Foundation 
William Blair & Company 

Foundation 
Encyclopaedia Britannica 
Carson Pirie Scott Foundation 
Chase Manhatttan Bank 
The Chicago Community Trust 
The Chicago Tribune Company 

Foundation 
Combined International 

Corporation (now Aon Corpora- 
tion) 
Commonwealth Edison Company 
Container Corporation of America 
Continental Coffee Products 
Dart & Kraft Foundation (now 

Kraft, Inc.) 
The DeSoto Foundation 
FMC Foundation — 

FMC Corporation 
FRC Investment Corporation 
Fel-Pro-Mecklenburger 

Foundation 
Marshall Field's 
First National Bank of Chicago 

Foundation 
Lloyd A. Fry Foundation 
Gianni Versace Company 
HBB Foundation 
Harris Bank Foundation 
Walter E. Heller Foundation 
Houghton Mifflin Company 
Household Finance 
Household International 
IC Industries 

Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Interlake Foundation 
International Business Machines 

Corporation 
International Minerals & Chemi- 
cals Foundation 
Jewel Foundation 
The Joyce Foundation of Chicago 
K Mart Corporation 
WH. Kellogg Foundation 
The John D & Catherine T 

MacArthur Foundation 
McMaster-Carr Supply Company 
The Naico Foundation 
Northern Illinois Gas Company 
The Northern Trust Company 

Charitable Trust 
J. C. Penney Company Inc. 
Peoples Gas Light & Coke 

Company 
The Albert Pick, Jr, Fund 
The Rice Foundation 
Sahara Coal Company 
Sahara Enterprises, Inc. 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Foundation 
Sara Lee Foundation 



Sargent & Lundy Engineers 
Arthur J Schmitt Foundation 
S & C Electric Company 
Sears, Roebuck and Company 
John M Simpson Foundation 
William Simpson Charitable Trust 

1979 
The Siragusa Foundation 
Sterling Morton Charitable Trust 
J. Walter Thompson USA 
Walgreen Benefit Foundation 
Montgomery Ward Foundation 
The Warner Company 
Whirlpool Corporation 
Wilson & Mcllvaine 
Harry Winston, Inc. 
E.W Zimmerman Construction 

Company 

PUBLIC ENTITIES 

The Chicago Park District 
City of Chicago, Office of Fine 

Arts 
Illinois Arts Council 
Institute of Museum Services 
National Science Foundation 
State of Illinois; Department of 
Energy and Natural Resources, 
Illinois State Museum Division 



$1,000-$4,999 

Anonymous Foundation (1 ) 

Aetna Casualty & Surety Com- 
pany of Illinois 

Alcoa Foundation 

American Hospital Supply 
Corporation Foundation (now 
Baxter Travenol Foundation) 

American National Bank of 
Chicago 

Aileen S. Andrew Foundation 

Akzo Chemie Amenca 

Ashland Products Company 

Axia Incorporated 

Bankamerica Foundation 

Bankers Trust Company 

Baxter Travenol Laboratories 

Bell & Howell Foundation 

L.W Biegler Inc. 

The Brunswick Foundation 

Leo Burnett Company, Inc. 

Centel Corporation 

Central Steel & Wire Company 

Cherry Electrical Products 
Corporation 

Chicago Bears Football Club, Inc. 

Chicago Board of Trade 

Chicago Bridge & Iron Company 

Chicago and Northwestern Trans- 
portation Company 

Chicago Sun-Times Charity Trust 

Citicorp 

Clark Foundation 

Comdisco, Incorporated 

Consolidated Papers Foundation, 
Inc. 

Patrick & Anna M. Cudahy Fund 

Helene Curtis, Incorporated 

DeKalb AgResearch Corporation 

R.R. Donnelley & Sons 

The EHLCO Foundation 

Equitable Life Assurance 

Ernst & Whinney 

Federal Signal Corporation 

The Field Corporation Fund 

The Florsheim Shoe Foundation, 
Inc. 

The Fluor Foundation 



DONORS to the OPERATING FUNDS, total for 1985-86 



Foote, Cone & Beldlng 
GATX Corporation 
G & W Electric Company 
General Motors Corporation 
Geraldi Norton Memorial Fund 
Max Goldenberg Foundation 
Gould, Inc. Foundation 
GTL (Guarantee Trust Life 

Insurance) 
Hart Schaffner & Marx Charitable 

Foundation 
James C. Hemphill Foundation 
Heller International 
Illinois Tool Works Foundation 
Inland Steel-Ryerson Foundation 
Intermatic, Incorporated 
Johnson & Higgins of Illinois, Inc. 
The Mayer & Morris Kaplan Fund 

(Sealy Mattress Company) 
Kemper Financial Services 
Lester B. Knight & Associates 
Kulchins, Berg & Company 
LaSalle National Bank 
MacLean-Fogg Company 
McGraw Edison Company 
McKinsey & Company 
Masonite Corporation 
Midcon Corporation 
Molex Incorporated 
Moore Business Forms 
Morgan Stanley & Company Inc. 
Phillip Morris Incorporated 
Morton Thiokol Foundation 
National Boulevard Foundation 

(now Boulevard Foundation) 
National Can Corporation (now 

American National Can) 
Needham Harper Worldwide, Inc. 

(now DDB Needham Worldwide) 
New York Community Trust 
Ogilvy& Mather U.S. 
Phelan, Pope & John 
George Pick & Company 
Pittway Corporation 
Price Waterhouse & Company 
The Prudential Foundation 
Reliable Sheet Metal 
Rockwell International 
Rust-oleum Foundation 
Salomon, Inc. 

Scott, Foresman and Company 
Joseph E. Seagram & Sons, Inc. 
G.D. Searle and Company 
The Seattle Foundation Trust Fund 
Security Pacific Foundation 
Seyfarth Shaw Fairweather and 

Geraldson 
Shell Companies Foundation 

Incorporated 
Signode Corporation 
Spiegel, Inc. 
Square D Foundation 
Stein Roe & Farnham Foundation 
John S. Swift Company Inc. 
The Oakley L. Thome Foundation 
Tiffany and Company 
Time, Inc. 

UARCO Incorporated 
UOP Foundation 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Unibanc Trust 

United Conveyor Foundation 
Union Oil Company of California 

(now UNOCAL) 
Waste Management, Inc. 
Xerox Corooration 



$100-$999 

Alberto-Culver Company 
Alexander Building Co. 
All-Types Office Supply Co. 
Anderson Secretarial Service 
Anthony & Company 
Auto Driveway Company 
Banque Paribas 
Barton Printing Co. 
E.S. Besler&Co. 
Beslow Associates, Inc. 
Best Effort 

Beverick Corporation 
Brand Companies Charitable 

Foundation 
Brown & Root Incorporated 
Champion Parts Rebuilders 
Chicago Rawhide Manufacturing 

Company (now OR Industries) 
The Chicago Title & Trust 

Company 
R.W. Coburn & Company 
Commander Packaging 

Corporation 
Corey Charitable Foundation, Inc. 
Creative Automation Company 
D & K Foundation 
Dale Maintenance Systems 
Dana Molded Products, Inc. 
Deloitte, Haskins and Sells 
Drapers Kramer, Inc. 
The Dun & Bradstreet Corporation 

Foundation 
DanielJ. Edelman, Inc. 
Edelman Jankow 
Electro-Kinetics 
Elkay Manufacturing Company 
Faber Foundation 
Ferrara Pan Candy Company Inc. 
First Ward Democratic Committee 
Fomebords Company 
General Binding Corporation & 

Subsidiaries 
Group Four Insurance Agency 

Inc. 
Hall's Complete Rental Service, 

Inc. 
Heidrick and Struggles 
Hirsch & Lowenstein 
Household International 
Hutchinson Fox, Inc. 
Humboldt Manufacturing Co. 
Hyatt Regency Chicago 
Hyre Electric Company 
Interstate United Corporation 
James Investment Company 
The Jupiter Corporation 
Keck, Mahin and Cate Charitable 

Trust 
Kirkland & Ellis Foundation 
LaSalle National Bank 
Liquid Carbonics Corporation 
Lulu Caterers 

George R. McCoy and Associ- 
ates, Inc. 
McManus & Pellouchaud, Inc. 
Magnetrol International, Inc. 
Mail-Well Envelopes 
Manpower Temporary Services 
Market Victors Company 
Marsh & McLennon, Inc. 
Matkoy Griffin, Parsons et al 
George S. May International Co. 
Mid-City National Bank 
Milex Products, Inc. 
Monsanto Company 
TheNapervilleSun, Inc. 
The New Zealand Insurance 

Company 



Ohnrite Manufacturing Co. 
Old Republic International 
Packaging Corporation of 

America 
H.F. Philipsborn & Company 
PPG Industries Chicago Area 

Auto Glass 
The Pepper Companies 

Incorporated 
Pepsi-Cola General Bottlers, Inc. 
Recycled Paper Products, Inc. 
Richardson Electronics, Ltd. 
Safety-Kleen Corporation 
Saito Inc. 

Schussler Knitting Mills 
Silvestri Paving Company 
Skil Corporation 
Sleepeck Printing Co. 
Smith Barney & Co. 
Sourlis Masonry Restoration, Inc. 
Standard Federal Savings & Loan 

Association 
Stepan Company 
Sterling Bay Inc. 
Stocker Hinge 
Travelers Companies Foundation, 

Inc. 
The Turner Construction Com- 
pany Foundation 
Turtle Wax, Inc. 
Vance Publishing Co. 
Ventfabrics, Incorporated 
Vienna Sausage Mfg. Co. 
Harry Weese and Associates 
Westwood Management 

Corporation 
Howard L. Willett Foundation, Inc. 
Wisconsin Tool & Stamping Co. 

CORPORATIONS GIVING 
MATCHING GIFTS 

Allegheny International 

Foundation 
American National Bank & Trust 

Co. 
Ameritech Services 
Atlantic Richfield Foundation 
AT & T Foundation 
Baird & Warner Foundation 
Beatrice Companies, Inc. 
Beatrice Foundation, Inc. 
The Brunswick Corporation 
Leo Burnett Company Inc. 
Carson Pirie Scott Foundation 
Chevron USA, Inc. 
The Chicago Tribune Company 

Foundation 
Cigna Foundation 
The Consolidated Foods 

Foundation 
Continental Bank Foundation 
Continental Group Foundation 
Corning Glass Works Foundation 
CPC International 
Helene Curtis, Inc. 
Dart & Kraft, Inc. (now Kraft, Inc.) 
Digital Equipment Company 
R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company 
Emerson Electric Company 
The Equitable Life Assurance 

Society of the United States 
Fel-Pro/fVlecklenburger 

Foundation 
Follett Corporation 
Fomeboards Company 
GATX Corporation 
Great Northern Nekoosa 

Corporation 
John Hancock Charitable Trust I 
Harris Bank Foundation 



Household Finance 
Household International 
Illinois Bell Telephone Company 
Illinois Tool Works, Inc. 
International Business Machines 

Corp. 
International Minerals & Chemical 

Corp. 
lU International Corporation 
Fred S. James & Company 
Kirkland & Ellis 
Kraft, Inc. 
Lumbermens Mutual Casualty 

Co. (The Kemper Group) 
McDonald's Corp. 
McGraw-Edison Company 
Midcon Corp. 
Mobil Foundation 
Montgomery Ward Foundation 
Morton Thiokol, Inc. 
Natural Gas Pipeline of America 
Northern Illinois Gas Company 
The Northern Trust Company 
Northwest Industries (now Farley 

Northwest) 
John Nuveen & Co., Incorporated 
Oak Park-River Forest Community 

Foundation 
Pennzoil Company 
People's Gas Light & Coke 

Company 
Pfizer, Inc. 

Phillip Morris Incorporated 
Photo 60, Inc. 
Pittway Corporation Charitable 

Fund 
Quaker Oats Foundation 
R.J. Reynolds Industries, Inc. 

(now RJR Nabisco) 
Santa Fe Southern Pacific 

Company 
Sara Lee Foundation 
Signode Foundation, Inc. 
Square D Foundatiori 
Time, Inc. 

Transamerica Corporation 
TRW Foundation 
United Technologies Corporation 
USG Foundation, Inc. 
Waste Management, Inc. 
Westinghouse Electric Company 



53 



DONORS to the COLLECTIONS 



54 



ANTHROPOLOGY 

American Museum of Natural 

History 
Mr. and Mrs. Alfred M. Avenenti 
Ms. Florence Avery 
Ms. Louise Avery 
Mrs. Dodie Baumgarten 
May W. Bloom Estate 
Katharine and ttie late 

Commander G.E. Boone 
William Borkowski 
Merlin Bowen 
Dr. William C. Burger 
Mrs. T. W. Burton, Jr 
Cheney Foundation 
Mr and Mrs. Herschel Cudd 
Mrs. Leon M. Despres 
Dr John Engel 
Ms. Lisa Goldberg 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Gowland 
Bernice Gurewitz Estate 
Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Green 
Robert W. Green 
Mrs. Florence W. Hacker 
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew C. 

Hamilton 
Dr and Mrs. Jeffrey Hammer 
Bud Hildebrand 
Ruth Jewett 
Dan Joyce 

Mr. and Mrs. Gordon Kinsey 
Kraft Foods, Inc. 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl A. Kroch 
Mrs. Emilie U. Lepthien 
Mrs. Elizabeth Leslie 
Janet F Lewis 
Michael and Valerie Lewis 
Paul Lewis 
Mr R. J. Liable 
M. Liu 

Dr. Robert Loff 
Kenneth Lubowich 
Barbara Norman Makanowitzky 
H. Mertz, Jr. 
Mrs. John Mitchell 
Martha D. Moore Trust 
New Trier High School 
Robert Norman 
Dr. Timothy Plowman 
Katherine Post 
Cecelia and Michael Powers 
Ms. Pat Romano 
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Romig 
Richard M. and Donna G. 

Rosenberg 
Harry B. Rosenberg 
Mrs. George Ryerson 
Ms. Hedwig Scelonge 
Grant B. Schmalgemeier 
John R. Tambone 
Dr Robert Tichane 
Kosei Tohno 
Mrs. Dana Treister 
Ms. Andrea Vivian 
John C. Vredenburgh 
Edward Wachs 
Mrs. Parker Watt 
David Welsch — in memory of 

Mrs. Viola Rogers 
L. T. Zimmer 

BOTANY 

University of Alabama, 

Huntsville 
University of Alabama, 

University 



Arizona State University 
Queensland Herbarium, 

Australia 
Mr. Josef Bogner 
Herbario Nacional, La Paz, 

Bolivia 
Dr Willard Boyd 
C.E.PE.C, Itabuna, Bahia, 

Brazil 
Institute dePesquisas 

Agronomicas, Recife, Brazil 
Institute Florestal, Sao Paulo, 

Brazil 
Jardim Botanico do Rio de 

Janeiro, Brazil 
Florestas Rio Doce, Brazil 
Meseu Botanico Municipal, 

Curitiba, Brazil 
Reserva Ecologica do IBGE, 

Brasilia, Brazil 
Universidade Estadual de 

Feira de Santana, Bahia, 

Brazil 
Universidade Federal da 

Bahia, Salvador, Brazil 
Universidade Federal de 

Piaui, Brazil 
Universidade Federal do 

Ceara, Brazil 
Universidade de Sao Paulo, 

Brazil 
University of California at 

Berkeley 
University of California at 

Davis 
Dr Cesar M. Campadre 
University of Lethbridge, 

Alberta, Canada 
Biosystematics Research 

Center, Ottawa, Canada 
University of British Columbia, 

Canada 
Universidad de Caldas, 

Colombia 
University of Colorado at 

Boulder 
University of Connecticut 
Mr W.B. Cooke 
Museo Nacional de Costa 

Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica 
Dr Allison Cusick 
Dr Diane Davidson 
Dr E. Wade Davis 
Dr Michael O. Dillon 
Jardin Botanico Nacional, 

Santo Domingo, Dominican 

Republic 
Pontifica Universidad 

Catolica, Quito, Ecuador 
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, 

Finland 
Fairchild Tropical Gardens, 

Miami, FL 
University of Florida at 

Gainesville 
Dr Robin Foster 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes en 

Science Sociales, Paris, 

France 
Ms. Christine Franquemont 
Botanisches Institut, 

Gottingen, Germany 
Universitat Hamburg, 

Germany 
Univ. Munchen, Germany 
Westfalische Wilhelms- 

Universitat, Munster, 

Germany 



Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 

Great Britain 
Dr Francisco Guanchez 
Centre QRSTOM, Caynne, 

Guyana 
Dr Gary Hartshorn 
National Park Service, 

Honolulu 
University of Hawaii at 

Honolulu 
Chicago Public Library 
Illinois Natural History Survey 
University of Illinois at 

Chicago 
Indiana University at 

Bloomington 
Bogor Botanical Gardens, 

Indonesia 
Mr Peter Jansen 
Tokyo University of 

Agriculture, Japan 
Renalto M. de Jesus 
Mr Kelly Kindscher 
Dr Robert Lawton 
Louisiana State University at 

Baton Rouge 
Tulane University New 

Orleans, LA. 
Harvard University, 

Cambridge, MA. 
Ms. Melba Mayo 
Centre de Investigaciones de 

Quintana Roo, Mexico 
Universidad de Guadalajara, 

Mexico 
Asociacion Mexicana de 

Orquideologia, Mexico 
University of Michigan at 

Ann Arbor 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 

St. Louis 
Dr Robin Moran 
College of Great Falls, 

Great Falls, MT 
Dr Gregory Mueller 
Dr Michael Nee 
Institute for Systematic Botany 

Utrecht, Netherlands 
New Mexico State University 

Las Cruces 
Cornell University Ithaca, NY 
New York Botanical Garden 
Ohio State University 
Dr. Christine Padoch 
Carnegie Museum of Natural 

History Pittsburgh, PA 
Universidad Nacional Pedro 

Ruiz Gallo, Chiclayo, Peru . 
Dr Timothy Plowman 
Dr Santos Llatas Quiros 
Ms. Alfreida Rehling 
Dr Ursula Rowlatt 
Messrs. Peter & Richard 

Schwartz 
Royal Botanic Garden, 

Edinburgh, Scotland 
Dr A.J. Sharp 
Dr Rolf Singer 
Dr Charles Sheviak 
Dr David Smith 
Dr Daniel Snydacker 
University of Cape Town, 

South Africa 
Stanford University 
Mr. Kevin Swagel 
University of Goteborg, 

Sweden 
University of Uppsala, 

Sweden 



Conservatoire et Jardin 

Botaniques, Geneva, 

Switzerland 
Ms. MaryS. Taylor 
Dr Richard Taylor 
University of Texas at Austin 
Herbario Ovalles, Universidad 

Central, Caracas, 

Venezuela 
Institute Botanico, Caracas, 

Venezuela 
Herbario Universitaria, 

Guanare, Venezuela 
Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, DC. 
Washington State University 

Pullman 
Dr L.O.Williams 
University of Wisconsin at 

Madison 

GEOLOGY 

Dr Gordon Baird 

Dr Mike Bell 

Ms. Margaret Bentley 

Edward Biba 

Dr Jose Bonaparte 

Dr Milton Blander 

David P. Bradbury 

Dr Fred Broadhurst 

Robert W. Burmeister 

Paul Caponera 

Paul Campanero 

Ms. Mary Carman 

Ceres Corporation 

John Chapman 

Dr Sankar Chatterjee 

Chicago Shell Club 

University of Chicago 

W. Claeys 

John Clarkson 

Bob Cozzi 

J. Lester Cunningham 

W. R. Daily 

Bruce Dod 

L. S. Eliuk 

Dr Sharon Emerson 

Field Museum Education 

Department 
Dr Terrence Frest 
Mike Garvey 
Richad J. Gentile 
Rudy Gomez 
Frank Greene 
Ms. Cecily Gregory 
Dr Tu Guangzhi 
Robert A. Haag 
Roy Hall 
Bill Hawes 
Darryl L. Hearns 
Mary Helmus 
Lloyd E. Hill 
G. Huss, American 

Meteorite Laboratory 
David Starr Jordan 
Rev. Charles Keim 
Craig Kohn 
Scott Kwiatkowski 
Conrad Labandeira 
Ted A. Lewtas 
Walter Lietz 
Bob Lipinski 
Dr. Richard Lund 
Dr. John G. Lundberg 
Dr Frank K. McKinney 
Robert MacGregor 
Dr Kenneth Maier 



DONORS to the COLLECTIONS 



Dr. John G. Malsey 

Dr. Steven R. Manchester 

Dr. David Martill 

Ed Molese 

Dr Paul Moore 

Ragnar Nordlof 

Dr. Everett C. Olson 

Mrs. Anne Orvieto 

Mr Brad Orvieto 

Dr John H. Ostrom 

Lanny Passaro 

CD. Peacock 

Mrs. Mildred Othmer 

Peterson 
Dr. David C. Rilling 
L. Rogers 
Dr Gary Rollefson 
Charles A. Ross 
Joan and Lewis Savinar 
Harold Savinar 
Hyman and Beverly Savinar 
Dr Jim Schwade 
Dr Paul Sipiera 
Dr Nils Spjeldnaes 
Dr. Wilhelm Sturmer 
Dr G.H. Swihart 
James E. Tynsky 
William Blue Vaughan 
Mrs. S. Weiss 
Mrs. H. Wiley 
Perry Wingerter 
Alan Woodland 
Dr William J. Zinsmeister 

ZOOLOGY 

Dr. Kraig Adier 
Dr Pere Alberch 
Dr Edgar F.AIlin 
Dr Sydney Anderson 
Anti-Cruelty Society 
Arizona Game & Fish 
Jean Armour 
RosettaArrigo 
Dr. James S. Ashe 
Dr James Bacon 
Paul Baker 
Karl Bartel 
James Barzyk 
Dr J. Baskin 
Dr Robert E. Batie 
Anthony Bogadek 
Bombay Natural History 

Society 
Alvin Breisch 
Judith Bronstein 
Brookfield Zoo 
Barbara Burkhardt 
Dr Donald Chandler 
Chicago Zoological Society 
Chicago Shell Club 
Barbara Clauson 
Dale Clayton 
Dr Frank M. Climo 
Dr. David R. Cook 
Dr Timothy Crowe 
Donald R. Dann 
Anita Del Genio 
Bunjamin Dharma 
Dr Michael Dillon 
Peter Dzialo 
Dr. K. C. Emerson 
Dr Sharon Emerson 
EIke Erb 
Nancy Fagin 
Frederick Fechtner 
Donna M. Field 
Dr LujanM. Filemon 
Dr John Fitzpatrick 



James Fitzpatrick 

Dr H. Frank 

Andrea Gaski 

Gay Giordan 

Dr E. Gittenberger 

Justine Glover 

Vincent Goa 

Dr D. L. Gomez 

Mark E. Gordon 

Ralph Haag 

Ralph Haag 

Andrew Henderson 

Dr Dannie Hensley 

Philip Hershkovitz 

Dr Harold Higgens 

Peter Hocking 

Dr James E. Hoffman 

Houston Zoological Society 

Dr Henry Howden 

Dr Miguel Ibanex 

International Bird House 

Dr Micahel E. Irwin 

Dr Michael ivie 

Robert J. Izor 

Dr Bruce Jayne 

Dr Clarence D. Johnson 

Gail Johnston 

Vince Kessner 

Dr. John Kethley 

Dr David H. Kistner 

Dr J. Klapperich 

Dr A. N. Kotlyar 

P. Kovarki 

N. L. Krauss 

Lincoln Park Zoological 

Gardens 
Lincoln Park Zoo 
Dr Monty Lloyd 
Dr R. B. Loomis Estate 
Dr R. Ludwig 
Bartholomew Lysy 
Robert D. Maina 
Borys Malkin 
Walter Marclsz 
Dr R. E. Martin 
Hymen Marx 
David Matusik 
M. Dianne Maurer 
Timothy McCarthy 
Larry McKinney 
Ken Mierzwa 
Dr Walter B. Miller 
Milwaukee Public Museum 
Dr Sherman Minton 
Dr Edward 0. Moll 
Dr. Debra Moskovits 
Russell E. Mumford 
John Murphy 
Dr Charles Nadler 
Edna Naranjo-Garcia 
Dr Michael Nee 
Gloria Needlman 
Dr. Gareth Nelson 
Ken Nomuras 
Dr Alfred Newton 
Dr Roy Norton 
Dr. Gertrude Novak 
Dr Mueno Okiyama 
Dr. G. Orces 
Mitchel Pakosz 
Dr. Bruce D. Patterson 
Dr J. Patton 
Ray Pawley 
Dr 0. Pearson 
Dr. Luis E. Pena 
A. Townsend Peterson 
Dr Ronald Pine 
Dr. Timothy Plowman 
Dr J. Rawlins 



Michael Reed 

Dr David Reichle 

Dr. Adolph Reidel 

Dr Scott Robinson 

Dr. M. Rosario 

Dr. Ursula Rowlatt 

Frank Rusdorf 

Dr A. Ryvkin 

San Diego Zoo 

Dr. Milton Sanderson 

Beverly Scott 

Dr H.Bradley Shaffer 

Michael Shea 

Shedd Aguarium 

Tony Silva 

Qr G.Alan Solem 

Dr William E. Southern 

Karl Stephan 

Dr. H, Stockwell 

Douglas Stotz 

Mrs. Nawangsari Sugiri 

Daniel Summers 

Dr Walter Suter 

Dr Camm Swift 

Dr Jun Takayama 

Thomas Tatner 

Dr. Margaret Thayer 

Dr T Thew 

Dr Fred Thompson 

Dr Robert M. Tlmm 

MelvinTraylor 

Dr. A. E. Treat 

U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service 

University of Mississippi 

Dr R. W. Van Devender 

Dr. R. Vari 

Dr C. Vaughn 

Dr John A, Wagner 

David H. Walker 

Dr William Warner 

Dr Richard Wassersug 

Dr Stan Weitzman 

Western Australian Museum 

Dr David E. Willard 

Dr T Wooley 

Bruce A. Young 

Dr Frank Young 

Dr. Robert Zink 



LIBRARY 

Mary Applehof 
R. H. Arnold 
Martin Baerlocher 
Bruce M. Beehler 
Carolyn Blackmon 
Bolerium Books 
Comdr G. E. & Katherine 

Boone 
Dr Willard L. Boyd 
Dr William C, Burger 
Marcia Carey 
Colorado Springs Fine 

Arts Center 
H. B. S. Cooke 
Mr & Mrs. Earl Cornwell 
Current Events Class 

Of Evanston 
Dr Ulrich Danckers 
Dr Michael D. Dillon 
William Elfenbaum Estate 
Jane Embertson 
Environmental Learning 

Center 
Nancy Fagin 
W. Peyton Fawcett 
Dr Robert A. Feldman 
Mary Frances Fenton 



Dr. John Fitzpatrick 

John Fowler 

Mr & Mrs, Robert Frank 

E. L. Girardi 

Dr S. R Glassman 

Dr Maria Yolanda Manga 

Gonzalez 
Willis A. Gortner 
Kenneth Grabowski 
Dr Lance Grande 
Raymond Graumlich 
Paul Gritis 

Mr & Mrs. Donald Harvie 
Mrs. William Randolph 

Hearst, Jr 
Robert D. Henry 
Philip Hershkovitz 
David F Hess 
Illinois State Geological 

Survey 
Institute De Estudios 

llerdenses 
Mrs. Earl G. Jacobsen 
Thor Janson 
Japan Marine Fisheries 

Resource Research Center 
Richard I. &MarrianG. 

Johnson 
Joliet Study Club 
Keisuke Kobayashi 
International Cultural 

Society Of Korea 
Gunther Kunkel 
Dr Kenneth F. Lampe 
M. W. Lefor 
Dr Phillip Lewis 
Dr Kubet Luchterhand 
Bartholomew M. Lysy 
Brooks & Hope B. McCormick 

Foundation 
Robert Marschner 
Hymen Marx 

Mr & Mrs. John C. Meeker 
Missouri Botanical Garden 
M. A. Moron Rios 
Museo Ecuatoriano De 

Ciencias Naturales 
Musee Kwok On 
Dr Imre Nagy 
National Museum Of New 

Zealand 
Dr Lorin I. Nevling, Jr. 
Dr Matthew H.Nitecki 
Dr Robert Pickering 
Dr Georg Pilleri 
Mr & Mrs. Philip Pinsof 
Dr Timothy Plowman 
Dr. Patricio Ponce de Leon 
F Dale Pontius 
Jose Ramirez-Pulido 
Dr Charles A. Reed 
Donald Richards 
Ursula Rowlatt 
Royal Scottish Museum 
Mr & Mrs. John S. Runnells 
Yale S. Sedman 
Wayne Serven 
Jeheskel Shoshani 
Societe Zoologique De 

Ouebec 
Sociedad Mexicana De 

Cactologia 
Dr Alan Solem 
Barbara Stuark 
Dr John Terrell 
Dr Robert Timm 
Edward Valauskas 
Dr James VanStone 
Dr Bruno Viertel 
E. Leiand Webber 
Dr. Rupert L. Wenzel 



55 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



56 



WillardL. Boyd: 
President 

Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Ph.D.: 
Director 

JimmieW. Croft, M.S.: 
Vice President. Finance & 
Museum Services 

Thomas R. Sanders, B.S.: 
Vice President, 
Development 

Michael Spock, B.A.: 
Vice President, 
Public Programs 

HaroldK. Voris, Ph.D.: 
Vice President, 
Collections & Research 



OFFICE Of the 
PRESIDENT 

JohnG. Economos: 

Consultant 
Margaret Piscltelli, B.A.: 

Secretary to the president 
Elizabeth Murphy, B.F.A.: 

Secretary 

COL.UECTIONS & 
RESEARCH 

Harold K. Voris, Ph.D.: 

Vice President 
Lucy Bukowski, B.S.: 

Administrative Assistant 
Darlene Pederson: 

Secretary to the 

vice president 

Department of 
Anthropology 

John E. Terrell, Ph.D.: 

Chairman: Curator of 

Oceanic Archaeology and 

Ethnology 
SherylL. Heidenreich, B.S.: 

Administrative Assistant 
HiilaryA. Lewis, B.S.: 

Department Secretary 
Ruth I. Andris: 

Restorer 
Bennet Bronson, Ph.D.: 

Associate Curator of Asian 

Archaeology and Ethnology 
GlenH. Cole, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Prehistory 
Donald Collier, Ph.D.: 

Curator Emeritus of fVliddle 

and South American 

Archaeology and Ethnology 
Christines. Danziger, M.S.: 

Conservator 
Christine Gross, B.A.: 

Acting Collections Manager 
Lyie Konigsberg, M.A.: 

Consultant in Physical 

Anthropology 
Phillip H. Lewis, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Primitive Art and 

Melanesian Ethnology 
JanetL. Miller, M.A., M.S.: 

Registrar/A rchivist 



Lillian Novak, B.A.:* 

Registrar/Archivist 
Loran Hartshorne Recchia: 

Technical Assistant 
Catherine Sease, B.Sc: 

Associate Conservator 
James W. VanStone, Ph.D.: 

Curator of North America 

Archaeology and Ethnology 



Department 
of Botany 

Timothy C. Plowman, Ph.D.: 

Chairman: Associate 

Curator of Vascular Plants 
Elizabeth A. Moore: 

Department Secretary 
Mary Lou Grein, MA. 

Secretary 
Birthel Atkinson, Freddie 

Robinson: 

Preparators 
William C. Burger, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Vascular Plants 
Stephen P Dercole, B.S.: 
Nancy Pliml, B.S.: Alfreida 
Rehling: Kevin A. Swagel, 
B.S.; Kent P Taylor, B. A.: 

Herbarium Assistants 
Michael O. Dillon, Ph.D.: 

Associate Curator of 

Vascular Plants 
John J. Engel.Ph.D.: 

Curator of Bryology 
Nancy C. Garwood, Ph.D.: 

Visiting Assistant Curator 
Michael Huft, Ph.D.: 

Visiting Assistant Curator 
Gregory M. Mueller, Ph.D.: 

Assistant Curator 

of Mycology 
Honora C. Murphy M.S.: 

Collections Manager 
Christine J. Niezgoda, M.S.: 

Research Assistant 
Patricio Ponce de Leon, Ph.D.' 

Associate Curator of 

Cryptogams 
Robert G.StoIze, B.S.: 

Collections Manager of 

Pteridophyte Herbarium 
LouisO. Williams, Ph.D.: 

Curator Emeritus of 

Vascular Plants 



Department 
of Geology 

JohnR. Bolt, Ph.D.: 

Chairman: Associate 

Curator of Fossil 

Reptiles and Amphibians 
Monica A. Mikulski, A. A.: 

Department Secretary 
Elaine Zeiger, Ba.Mus.: 

Secretary. Manuscript 

Typist 
Demetrios Betinnis, B.F.A.: 

Curatorial Assistant, Fossil 

Fishes 
Peter Crane, Ph.D.: 

Associate Curator of 

Paleobotany 
Mary R. Carman, M.S.: 

Collections Manager 

Paleontology 



MatthewA. Cotton, B.S.: 

Curatorial Assistant 
Dorothy Eatough, M.A.: 

Collections Manager 

Mineralogy/Petrology 
R. Lance Grande, Ph.D.: 

Assistant Curator 

of Fossil Fishes 
John P Harris: 

Preparator 
Catherine D.Hult: 

Laboratory Assistant, 

Paleobotany 
Paul K. Johnson, B.A.: 

Research Assistant 
Scott H.Lidgard, Ph.D.: 

Assistant Curator of Fossil 

Invertebrates 
Thomas R Ladshaw: 

Preparator. Fossil Fishes 
Richards. McBride, B.S.: 

Research Assistant, 

Paleobotany 
Matthew H. Nitecki, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Fossil 

Invertebrates 
Edward J. Olsen, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Mineralogy 
William F. Simpson, B.S.: 

Chief Preparator 
William D.Turnbull, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Fossil Mammals 
Bertram G. Woodland, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Petrology 
RainerZangerl, Ph.D.: 

Curator Emeritus of 

Fossil Fishes 



Department 
of Zoology 

JohnW. FitzpatrickPh.D.: 
Chairman: Curator of Birds 

Anita Del Genio: 
Department Secretary 

Division of 
Ampliibians 
and Reptiles 

Hymen Marx, B.S.: 

Head: Curator of 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Molly M.Ozaki: 

Division Secretary 
Robert F. Inger, Ph.D.: 

Curator of Amphibians  

and Reptiles 
Gary Mazurek, B.A.: 

Collection Manager 

Division of Birds 

Scott M.Lanyon, Ph.D.: 

Head: Assistant Curator 

of Birds 
M. Dianne Maurer, B.A.: 

Assistant 
Debra Moskovits, Ph.D.: 

Research Assistant 
David E.Willard, Ph.D.: 

Collection Manager 

Division of Fishes 

Theresa C. Grande, M.A.: 
Collection Manager 

Kregg Salvino, B.S.: 
Technical Assistant 



Division of Insects 

James S. Ashe, Ph.D.: 

Head: Assistant Curator 

of Insects 
John Kethley Ph.D.: 

Associate Curator of Insects 
Thomas G. Mooney B.S.: 

Technical Assistant 
CynthiaL. Milkint, B.S.: 

Technical Assistant 
Harry G. Nelson, Ph.D.: 

Summer Curator 
Alfred F. Newton, Jr, Ph.D.: 

Assistant Curator of Insects 
Daniel Summers, M.S.: 

Collection Manager. 

Division of 
Invertebrates 

G. AlanSolem, Ph.D.: 

Head: Curator of 

Invertebrates 
Margaret L. Baker, B.S.; 
Victoria B. Huff, B.S.: 

Collection Managers 
Linnea M. Lahlum, B.A.: 

Scientific Illustrator 

Division of Mammals 

Bruce D. Patterson, Ph.D.: 

Head: Associate Curator of 

Mammals 
Gregory A. Guliuzza: 

Preparator 
Philip Hershkovitz, M.S.: 

Curator Emeritus 

of Mammals 
Robert J. Izor, B.S.: 

Collection Manager 
Sophie Andris, Barbara E. 
Brown, B.S.; Julian Kerbis, 
M.S.; Stella Maquiraya, B.S.: 

Technical Assistants 

The Library 

W. Peyton Fawcett, B.A.: 

Librarian 
Benjamin W. Williams, B.A.: 

Associate Librarian. 

Librarian— Special 

Collections 
Michele Calhoun, M.S.L.S.: 

Reference Librarian 
Chih-weiPan,M.S.: 

Cataloger 
Alfreda Rogowski*: 

Acquisitions 
Raymond Graumlich, M.A.; 
Kenneth Grabowski, M.S.: 
Florence Hales Testa, B.A.; 
Denise D. Rogers, B.A.; 
Janeen Schmidt, B.A.; 

Library Assistants 



Scientific Support 
Services 

James W KoeppI, Ph.D.: 

Computer Operations 

Specialist 
JohnJ.Engel.Ph.D.: 

Supervisor. Scientific 

Illustrators 
Zbigniew Jastrzebski, M.F.A.: 

Senior Scientific Illustrator 



'retired 



FIELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Zorica Dabich, B.F.A.; Clara 
L. Simpson, M.S.; Marlene 
Werner, A. A.: 

Scientific Illustrators 
Christine J. Niezgoda, M.A.: 

SEM Coordinator 
Ronald G. Wibel: 

SEM Technician 
Scott Lanyon, Ph.D.: 

Coordinator, Biochemical & 

Histology Laboratories 
Timothy C. Plowman, Ph.D.: 

Scientific Editor, Field 

Museum Press 
James W. VanStone, Ph.D.: 

Assoc. Scientific Editor, 

Field Museum Press 
Tanisse R. Bezin: 

Managing Editor, Field 

Museum Press 



DEVELOPMENT 

Thomas R. Sanders, B.S.: 

Vice President 
Irma L. Castaneda: 

Secretary to the 

vice president 
Veronica A. May B.S.: 

Secretary 
ElsieF. Bates, M.S.: 

Secretary 
Margaret Curran: 

Secretary — Individual 

Giving 
CarlaAxt, B.A.: 

Administrative Assistant — 

Capital Campaign 
Clifford Buzard, M.S., M.Div.: 

Planned Giving Officer 
GlennS. Pare, B.A.: 

Director of 

Sponsored Programs 
Constance Koch, B.S.: 

Sponsored Programs 

Specialist 
Robert B. Pickering, Ph.D.; 
LisaH. Plotkin, B.A.: 

Development Writers 
Susan E. VandenBosch, B.A.: 

Director of Individual Giving 
Suzanne S. Borland, Ph.D.: 

Development Research 

Coordinator 
Lynn M.James, M.S.W.: 

Director of Corporate and 

Foundation Gifts 
Veitrice L. Thompson: 

Data Entry/Records 

Coordinator 

Membership 

Marilyn E.Cahill,M.A.: 

Manager 
Carolyn Brinkman, B.A.: 

Administrative Assistant 
Madeline Greenlee, B.A.: 

Division Secretary 
Alice H. Crawford: 

Data Entry/Records 

Coordinator 
Joyce L. Czerwin, 
Pearl M. Delacoma: 

Telephone Solicitors 
Mary H. Millsap, 
Loretta Reyes: 

Clerks III 



Gregory K. Porter, B.A.: 
Information Booth 
Coordinator 

TobyD. Rajput, B.A.: 
Telephone Solicitation 
Coordinator 

Maria Teresa Duncan, 

Robyn D. Thymes: 
Information Booth 
Representatives 

Tours 

Dorothy S. Roder: 

Manager 
Christine Anne: 

Division Secretary 



FINANCE & 
MUSEUM SERVICES 

JimmieW. Croft, M.S.: 

Vice President 
Patricia N. Phillips: 

Secretary to the 

vice president 

Department of 
Financial Operations 

Karl Dytrych, M.B.A.: 

Manager 
Alix M. Alexandre: 

Accounting Clerk 
Darlene Brox: 

Head Cashier — Finance 
Alexander R. Friesel, B.G.S.: 

Chief Accountant 
Gloria T Hardison: 

Payroll Coordinator 
Timothy L. Johnson, B.A.: 

Grants Accountant 
Gregory J. Kotulski: 

Data Processing 

Specialist — Finance 
Kenneth A. Michaels: 

Special Project Accountant/ 

Financial Analyst 
Doris S. Thompson: 

Accounting Clerk 
Dora G. Vallejo: 

Weekend Cashier — Finance 

Department of 
Facility Planning 
& Operations 

Norman R Radtke: 

Manager 
Andris Pavasars, M.S.: 

Administrative Assistant 
Sharon Cook, B.A.: 

Department Secretary 
Rudolph Dentino: 

Chief Engineer 
Jacques L. Pulizzi: 

Building Maintenance 

Supervisor 
Paul Schneider, B.S.: 
GeraldJ. Struck, B.S., 

Project Engineers/ 

Construction Coordinators 



Engineering Division 

Robert J. Battaglia: 

Assistant Chief Engineer 
Floyd D. Bluntson, Manuel 
Gomez, Kevin Kirby Terrence 
A. Marshall, Larry 0. 
Thompson: 

Assistant Engineers 
Earl W. Duncan, Joseph A. Ne- 
jasnic, Edward J. Penciak, 
Raymond D. Roberts, Harry 
Rayborn, Jr., Timothy Tryba: 

Stationary Engineers 
Edward D. Rick: 

Craftsman III— Electrician 

Audlovisuai Division 

Ronald R. Hall: 

LeadAV Technician 
Bruce K. Sayers: 

AV Technician 

IMaintenance Division 

Louis M. Hobe: 

Craftsman IV— Plasterer 
Stanley B. Konopka, George 
C. Petrik: 

Craftsman IV~Carpenters 
Dale S. Akin, Ernst R 
Toussaint: 

Craftsman III — Carpenters 
George Schneider, Jr., Henry 
Tucker, Jr.: 

Craftsman III— Painters 
Robert D. Vinson: 

Craftsman II — Painter 
Daniel J. Geary Librado 
Salazar, Theodore G. Sharkey: 

Craftsman I — Painters 

Housekeeping Division 

Harold A. Anderson, Edward 
J. Jurzak, Lucinda Pierre- 
Louis: 

Housekeepers III 
Ramon Alba, Cleola Davis, 
Claudia Gracia, Elsie Guy, 
Dewayne Jamison, Gerard 
Kernizan, Jose Mendez, 
Ermite Nazaire, Louis R 
Phipps, Kettly Lamarre, Leroy 
P Thomas, Dieudaide M. Vic- 
tor, Anthony D. Valentino: 

Housekeepers II 
Samir M. Abdellatif, Rodolfo 
Amarillas, James A. Atkinson, 
Marcolina Diaz, Luis G. Fer- 
nandez, Theodore J. Green, 
Pablo Gallegos, Louis Guy 
Kwan-Soo Han, LaVlda R. 
Johnson, Joni Khoshaba, 
Javier Ordaz, Georgia Stanley, 
Raul A. Pledra, MIeczyslaw 
Witek: 

Housekeepers I 

Department of 
Special Services 

Gustav A. Noren: 

Manager, Special Services 
Rosemarie Upton: 

Department Secretary 
Susan M. Olson, Linda 
Peterson: 

Special Services 

Coordinators II 



MichaelA. Croon, B.A.: 

Special Services 

Coordinator I 
Gale Asikin: 

Vending Room Operator 
Tyrone R. Askins: 

Food Service Aide 
James Kern, M.A.: 

Aux. Food Serv. Operator 

Division of 
Photography 

Ronald Testa, M.F.A.: 

Head, Photography 
Diane Alexander White, B.A.: 

Photographer 
Nina M. Cummings, B.A.: 

Photo Researcher 

Department of 
General Services 

ThomasW. Geary B.S.: 
Manager General Services: 
Purchasing Agent 

Lorraine Petkus: 
Administrative Assistant 

Division of 
Publications 

Roger L. Buelow: 

Head, Publications 
Lorraine H. Hobe, 
Frantz Eliacin: 

Clerks III 
Cynthia J. Gulley: 

Clerk II 

Division of 
Printing 

George C. Sebela-: 

Print Shop Supervisor 
Edward D. Czerwin: 

Printer 
Pamela Stearns, B.A.: 

Print Production 

Coordinator 

Department of 
Human Resources 

JimmieW. Croft, M.S.: 

Acting Manager 
Sandra D.Agharese: 

Department Secretary 
Barbara J. Hudson, B.B.A., 
KathrynHill, B.A.: 

Employment Coordinators 
JillV. Knudsen, B.A.: 

Human Resources Rep. 
Helen A. Mallna, B.A.: 

Benefits Coordinator 
Nadine M. Phillips: 

Clerk I 

Department 
of Public 
Merctiandising 

Barbara I. Stuark, B.S., C.B.A.: 

Manager 
Barbara B. Robinson, B.S.: 

Assistant Manager 
John R Stuart, B.S.: 

Store Supervisor 
Dolores E. Marler: 

Weekend Supervisor 



57 



nELD MUSEUM STAFF 



Meseret Gelaw: 

Department Secretary 
Helen Cooper: 

Sales Clerk III 
Gloria Clayton, Lavertia Short, 
Louise Waters: 

Sales Clerks II 
Candy Chin, Mara L. Cosillo- 
Johnson, Kathleen A. Chris- 
ton, B.S.; Ernesto Gomez; Kim 
Michellen Holmes; Deborah A. 
Kyne, Fern E. Konyar, De- 
sariee T. Moore, Maria S, Pied- 
ra, Delisa V Retrigue, Andre 
Charles Smith, Elise Willough- 
by Lorraine Lockart: 

Sales Clerks I 
Robert T Chelmowski, Betty J. 
Green: 

Sales Support Assistants 



Department 

of Security 

and Visitor Services 

Hugh P Hamill: 

Manager 
Tina I. Gulley 

Department Secretary 
Kathleen Q. McCollum, B.A.; 
Richard H. Leigh: 

Senior Security Supervisors 
Arnold C, Barnes, Jr., B,A.; 
Craig Bolton, Rudolph 
Gomez, Jeffrey Konyar, Will 
Washington: 

Security Supervisors 
Dale R. Johnson, A, A.: 

Temp. Security Superv. 
Willie J. Brimage, Marcia 
Susan Carr, B.S.; Geraldine 
Havranek, Jose Preciado: 

Security Specialists 
Clifford Augustus, Larry J. 
Banaszak, Chirkina I. Chirkina, 
Lionel 0. Dunn, Jesse Gomez, 
Steven A. Grissom, Michael C. 
Holt, Charles M. Johnson, 
Howard Langford, Jr, Charles 
Lozano, Derek McGlorthan, 
Karlyn Morris, Cozzetta 
Morris, Rosemarie Rhyne, 
Emanuel Russell, Jr: 

Senior Security Officers 
Andrew J. Bluntson, Melvin 
C. Cosey Kaletha Edwards, 
Rosalie J. Croon, Richard D. 
Groh, A. A.; Stanley Haynes, 
Norman Hammond, Michael 
A. Jones, Mirielle M. Laforest, 
Rodney L. Moore, Scott G, 
Mattera, B.FA.; Paul J, Pierre- 
Louis, Jaime Piedra, Josie 
Poole, Edmund L. Steward, 
Joe W. Vallejo, Julio Villasenor: 

Security Officer II 
Helena Brown, Josef M, 
Duanah, Rodolfo Flores, 
Robert G. French, William G. 
Grewe, B.A.; Janet Khoshaba, 
Carolyn M. Moon, Daniel E. 
Morgan, William J. Phillips, 
Clifford S. Rusnak, Norris J. 
Smith, Otto R. Vilimek, Laura J. 
Weinman, Keith Williams, B.A.: 
c-r. Security Officers I 



Katie Davis, James N. Ham- 
mond, Susan A. Koziol, 
Chantal L. Charles, Irma 
Sanchez, Nancy Adams, 
Pauline N. Zolp: 

Admissions Cashiers 
William F. Thompson: 

Info Bootfi Attendant 

iVIuseum Archives 

Mary Ann Johnson: 

Archivist 
Pamela Sims: 

Department Secretary 



PUBLIC PROGRAIMS 

Michael Spook, B.A.: 

Vice President 
Deborah Cooke: 

Administrative Assistant 
Janet A, Kamien, M.F.A,: 

Master Developer 
Phyllis G, Rabineau, M.A.: 

Senior Developer 
Robert A. Feldman, Ph.D.: 

Developer 
Renee L. de la Cruz, B.A.; 
Richards. Faron, B.F.A.; 
Calvin Gray B.A.: 

Assistant Developers 
John G. Paterson, M.F.A.: 

Project Assistant 

Public Relations 

Sherry L. Isaac, B.A,: 

Manager 
Connie J, Rogers, B.A.: 

Department Secretary 
OllieE. Hartsfield, M.S. 

Public Relations Associate 
Christine M. Ott, B.A.: 

PR. Information Coord. 

Department 
of Education 

Carolyn P Blackmon, B.S.: 

Chairman 
Norann C. Michaels: 

Department Secretary 
Lesa A. Bowman, B.A.; Julie E. 
Katz, B.A.: Jessie Speaks: 

Secretaries 
Philip C.Hanson, M.S.: 

Head, Group Programs 
Susan E.Stob, B.A.: 

Head, Public Programs 
Susan M. Curran, B.S.: Nancy 
L. Evans, B.A.; Marcia Z. Mac- 
Rae, B.A.: Michael J. McColly 
M.A.; Jacqueline Tomulonis, 
M.S.; Alexia Trzyna, B.F.A.: 

Program Developers 
Mary Ann Bloom, M.S.E.E., 
Elizabeth B. Deis," M.S.; 
MarieS.Feltus'.M.A.; Edith 
Fleming, M.A.; Theresa J. Rus- 
sell, B.S.; Judith D.Vismara, 
M.A.: 

Instructors 
Robert Cantu.A.A.; Rick 
Cortez, SueG. Rizzo, 
Clifford Zigler: 

Resource Coordinators 
Ellen L. Zebrun, M.F.A.: 

Volunteer Coordinator 



Teresa K. LaMaster, M.A.: 

Program Coordinator— 

Kellogg Foundation 
LisaC. Roberts, M.A.; Helen 
H.Voris, M.S.: 

Researchers/Writers 
Maija L. Sedzielarz, B.A.: 

Teacher Trng. Coord. 
Earl Lock, M.F.A. : 

Preparator 
William D. Hampton, B.S.; 
Linda M. Koch, B.S.; 
Patricia L. Messersmith, B.A.; 
Victoria L. Rovine, B.A.: 

Hall Interpreters 

Department of 
Exhibition 

DonaldR. Skinner, M.F.A.: 

Chairman 
Beverly C, Scott, B.S.C.: 

Department Secretary 
Carol E. Hagleman, B.S.; 
Jessica A. Newman: 

Secretary 
Donald P Emery B.F.A.: 

Exhibit Designer III 
Louise M. Belmont-Skinner. 
B.A.: 

Exhibit Designer II 
Lisa A. McKernin, B.A., 

Asst. Exhibit Designer 
John K. Cannon, M.F.A.: 

Coordinator Exhib. Prod. 
Harvey M. Matthew, B.S.E.E., 
M.B.A.: 

Exhib. Budget Controller 
Richard T Pearson, B.A.: 

Supervisor of Exhib. Prod. 
Daniel L. Weinstock, B.F.A.: 

Coordinator Exhib. Services 
Howard J. Bezin, B.F.A.; Jeff 
E. Hoke, B.F.A.: 

Exhibit Preparators III 
Mark Staff BrandLB. FA.; 
TamaraK. Biggs, B.A.; 
MichaelE. Paha, B.F.A.; 
Cameron A. Zebrun, M.F.A.: 

Exhibit Preparators II 
Paul 0. Brunsvold, B.A.; Robin 
L. Faulkner, B.F.A.; Patricia 
A. Guizetti, M.F.A.; James T 
Komar, B.F.A.; Raymond J. 
Leo, Steve Randall Skinner, 
B.F.A.; William E. Skodje, 
M.F.A.; Gary W. Schirmer, ' 
B.A.;JeffryTWrona, M.F.A.: 

Exhibit Preparators I 
Lynn B. Hobbs, B.F.A.: 

Graphic Design Superv. 
Michael M. Delfini, B.A.: 

Graphic Designer I 
Inigo Manglano-Ovalle, B.A.: 

Graphic Prod. Specialist 

Bulletin 

David M. Walsten, B.S., 
Editor 



'retired 



DEPARTMENT OF 
ANTHROPOLOGY 

Research Associates 

RobertJ. Braidwood, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
WilliamJ. Conklin, M.A., 

Peruvian Architecture & 

Textiles 
PhillipJ.C. Dark. Ph.D., 

African Ethnology 
Richard D. De Puma, Ph.D., 

Etruscan Archaeology 
FredR. Eggan, Ph.D.. 

Ethnology 
Patricias. Essenpreis, Ph.D., 

North American Archaeology 
Robert Feldman, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
Bill Holm, M.F.A, 

North American Native Art 
F Clark How/ell, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
Maxine R. Kleindienst, Ph.D., 

Old World Prehistory 
AlanL. Kolata, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 6 

Ethnography 
W. Frederick Lange, Ph.D., 

Meso American Archaeology 
Donald W. Lathrap, Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
Michael A. Malpass, Ph.D., 

Andean Arctiaeology 
Michael E. Moseley Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
Charles R. Ortloff, M.Ae.E., 

Peruvian Archaeology 
Jeffrey Quilter. Ph.D., 

South American Archaeology 
George 1. Quimby A.B./A.M. 

North American Archeology & 

Ethnography 
David Reese, A.B., 

Archeozoology and 

Paleomalacology 
Donalds. Rice, Ph.D., 

Latin American Prehistory & 

Ethnohistory 
Prudence E. MacDermod Rice, 

Ph.D.. Meso American 

Archaeology 
William Rostoker, Ph.D., 

Metallurgy 
Ronald L. Weber, Ph.D., 

Amazon Basin, Northwest 

Coast Archaeology and 

Ehnology 
RobertL. Welsch, Ph.D., 

New Guinean/lndonesian 

Ethnology 

Associates 

Connie Crane, A.B., 

North American Ethnology 
Colonel Millard E. Rada, E.E., 

Museology 
Llois Stein, 

Oceanic Material Cultures 



DEPARTMENT OF 
BOTANY 

Research Associates 

Kerry A. Barringer, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Robert F Betz, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
William T. Crowe, 

Archeobotany 
Robin B. Foster Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Sidney F, Classman. Ph.D. 

Vascular Plants 
Arturo Gomez-Pompa, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Carol Henry Ph.D., 

Mycology 
Rogers McVaugh, Ph.D., 

Vacular Plants 
Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
RichardW. Pohl, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Patricio P. Ponce de Leon, Ph.D., 

Mycology 
Ursula Rowlatt, D.M., 

Vascular Plants 
Abundio Sagastegui, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Rudolf M. Schuster, Ph.D., 

Bryology 
Rolf Singer, Ph.D., 

Mycology 
Djaja doel Soejarto, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
Tod FStuessy Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 
James Arthur Teeri, Ph.D., 

Vascular Plants 

Field Associates 

Sandra Knapp. 

Vascular Plants 
Marko Lewis, 

Bryology 
Ing. Agr Antonio Molina R., 

Vascular Plants 



DEPARTMENT OF 
GEOLOGY 

Research Associates 

Edgar FAIIin,M.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
David Bardack, Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Herbert R. Barghusen, Ph.D.. 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Frank M. Carpenter, Sc.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Robert Clayton, 

Geology 
Albert Dahlberg, D.D.S., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Andrew Davis, 

Geology 
Robert DeMar. Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
GaryJ. Galbreath, Ph.D.. 

Geology 
Lawrence Grossman, Ph.D., 

Meteoritics 
Antoni Hoffman, Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 



James A. Hopson, Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
David Jablonski, Ph.D., 

Geology 
RiccardoLevi-Setti, Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Kubet Luchterhand, Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Ernest L. Lundelius, Jr., Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Frank K. McKinney Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Everett C.Olson, Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 
David M.Raup, Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
J. JohnSepkoski, Ph.D., 

Fossil Invertebrates 
PaulSipiera, Ph.D., 

Meteorites 
John V Smith, Ph.D., 

Mineralogy 
Leigh Van Valen, Ph.D., 

Fossil Vertebrates 



DEPARTMENT OF 
ZOOLOGY 

Research Associates 

PeterL. Ames, Ph.D., 

Birds 
Warren Atyeo, Ph.D., 

Insects 
WilliamJ. Beecher, Ph.D., 

Birds 
DavidR. Cook, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Joel Cracraft, Ph.D., 

Birds 
Gustavo A. Cruz, M.Sc. 

Fishes 
Sharon Emerson, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
JackFooden, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Karl J. Frogner, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Elizabeth-Louise Girardi, Ph.D., 

Invertebrates 
David Greenfield, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
Lawrence R. Heaney Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Myriam Ibarra, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
WilliamB. Jeffnes, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
A. RossKeister, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
DavidH. Kistner, Ph.D., 

Insects 
George Lauder, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
R. Enc Lombard, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Fritz S. Lukoschus, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Robert E. Martin, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Peter L. Meserve, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Lee Miller, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Debra Moskovits, Ph.D., 

Birds 
W.Wayne Moss, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Roy A. Norton, Ph.D., 

Insects 



Ronald Pine, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
George Rabb, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Charles Reed, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
H.Bradley Shaffer, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Donald Stewart, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
Margaret Thayer, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Jamie Thomerson, Ph.D., 

Fishes 
Robert M. Timm, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Robert Traub, Ph.D., 

Insects 
John Wagner, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Richard Wassersug, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Glen Woolfenden, Ph.D., 

Birds 

Field Associates 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Aslin, 

Invertebrates 
James P. Bacon, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Barbara Clauson, M.S., 

Mammals 
John F Douglass, M.S., 

Zoology 
MiltonH. Gallardo, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
Kiew Bong Heang, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Bruce Jayne, Ph.D.,. 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Thomas O. Lemke, Ph.D., 

Mammals 
David Matusik, 

Insects 
EdwardO. Moll, Ph.D., 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Manuel A. Plenge, 

Birds 
Laurie Price, 

Invertebrates 
Janice K. Street, 

Mammals 
Williams S. Street, 

Mammals 
Robert Stuebing, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
WalterR. Suter, Ph.D., 

Insects 
Donald Taphorn, M.A., 

Fishes 
Chang Man Yang, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 

Associates 

John Clay Bruner, M.S., 

Fishes 
Sophie Ann Brunner, 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
Teresa Arambula Greenfield, 

M.A., Fishes 
Dorothy T Karall, 

Invertebrates 
Harry G. Nelson. Ph.D., 

Insects 
Lorain Stephens, 

Birds 



59 



Neil Abarbanell 
Joan Adamczyk 
Paul Adier 
Karen Alcock 
Dolores Arbanas 
Jacqueline Arnold 
Margaret Axelrod 
Beverly Baker 
Jean Baldwin-Herbert 
Dennis Bara 
Lucia Barba 
Gwen Barnett 
Winifred Batson 
Dodie Baumgarten 
Barbara Beardsley 
Linda Bedard 
Carol Benzing 
Lawrence Berman 
Elaine Bernstein 
Frieda Bernstein 
Joan Biba 
Jennifer Blitz 
Blanche Blumenthal 
Suzanne Borland 
Cyntfiia Borowy 
Sopfiie Boudarel 
Michael Bouska 
Charles Braner 
Carol Briscoe 
Caroline Brna 
Laura Brodsky 
Irene Broede 
Garland Brown 
Sophie Ann Brunner 
Karen Bryze 
Teddy Buddington 
Adam Burck 
James Burd 
Nancy Burke 
Audrey Burns 
Joseph Cablk 
Louva Calhoun 
RickCapitulo 
Linda Celesia 
Sol Century 
Michael Chaneske 
Trace Clark-Petravick 
Joyce Clements 
Connie Crane 
Marie Cuevas 
Ellie De Koven 
Jeanette De Laney 
Violet Diacou 
Pat Dodson 
Millie Drower 
John Dunn 
Stan Dvorak 
Milada Dvbas 
Linda Egebrecht 
Anne Ekman 
Jennifer Elliott 
Agatha Elmes 
Bonnie Engel 
Nancy Fagin 
Lena Fagnani 
Elisabeth Farwell 
Martha Farwell 
Ingrid Fauci 
Marie FischI 
Joseph Fisher 



Arden Frederick 
Shirley Fuller 
Bernice Gardner 
Peter Gayford 
Donald Gemmel 
Pat Georgouses 
Ann Gerber 
Marty Germann 
Phyllis Ginardi 
Dr Elizabeth Louise 

Girardi 
Delores Glasbrenner 
Dorothy Gnilka 
Halina Goldsmith 
MelanieGoldstine 
Bea Goo 
Evelyn Gottlieb 
Robert Gowland 
Deborah Green 
Loretta Green 
Frank A. Greene, Jr 
Henry Greenwald 
Cecily Gregory 
Ann Grimes 
Greg Guliuzza 
Ken Hahn 
Michael Hall 
Meg Halsey 
Judith Hannah 
Pat Hansen 
Nancy Harlan 
Curtis Harrell 
Mattie Harris 
Shirley Hattis 
Audrey Hiller 
Clarissa Hinton 
Tina Fung Holder 
Dr Harold Honor 
Zelda Honor 
Scott Houtteman 
Claxton Howard* 
Ruth Howard 
Ellen Hyndman 
Connie Jacobs 
Bette Jarz 
Mabel Johnson 
Malcolm Jones 
Carol Kacin 
Rosemary Kalin 
Michelle Kaput 
Dorothy Karall 
Fran Keefer 
Susan Kennedy 
Julian Kerbis 
Dennis Kinzig 
Alida Klaud 
Mitchell Klein 
Sharon Knight 
Susan Knoll 
Connie Koch 
Lillian Kreitman 
John Kuntz 
Rosemarie La Pidus 
Brian Lachell 
Carol Landow 
Teresa Lemon 
Frank Leslie 
Jane Levin 
Joseph Levin 
Lou Levine 



Ruth Lew 
Sandra Lewis 
Valerie Lewis 
Victor Lieberman 
Julia Liesse 
Mary Jo Lucas-Healy 
Lucy Lyon 
Maria Mangano 
Gabby Margo 
Marta Marquez 
Jeanne Martineau 
Margaret Martling 
Cliff Massoth 
Britta Mather 
Selwyn Mather 
Marita Maxey 
David Matusik 
Joyce Matuszewich 
Melba Mayo 
Sam Mayo 
Lauri McCleneghan 
Lynda McCracken 
Louise McEachran 
Carole McMahon 
Withrow Meeker 
Beverly Meyer 
Lauren Michals 
Roseanne Miezio 
Lawrence Misiaiek 
Barbara Milott 
Sharon Mitchiner 
Dan Monteith 
Carolyn Moore 
George Morse 
Charlita Nachtrab 
Mary Naunton 
John Nelson 
Lisa Nelson 
Mary Nelson 
Louise Neuert 
Natalie Newberger 
Ernest Newton 
Herta Newfton 
Doris Nitecki 
Dennis O'Donnell 
Karen Ohiand 
Randolph Olive 
Dorothy Oliver 
Jean Oiler 
Forman Onderdonk 
Joan Opila 

Marianne O'Shaugnessy 
Gary Ossewaarde 
China Oughton 
Marcella Owens 
Anita Padnos 
Susan Parker 
Mary Anne Peruchini 
Dorothea Phipps-Cruz 
Charles Plasil 
Jacquelyn Prine 
Naomi Pruchnik 
Elizabeth Rada 
Ernest Reed 
Sheila Reynolds 
Henry Rich 
Lucille Rich 
Elly Ripp 
Stephen Robinet 
Earl Robinson 



Rhonda Rochambeau 
William Roder 
Lolita Rogers 
Barbara Roob 
Susan Brown Roop 
Beverly Rosen 
Sarah Rosenbloom 
Anne Ross 
Ann Rubeck 
Helen Ruch 
Diana Rudaitis 
Lenore Ruehr 
Janet Russell 
Gladys Ruzich 
Bruce Saipe 
Linda Sanchez 
Marian Saska 
Beth Scheckman 
Everett Schellpfeffer 
Kurt Schenk 
Marianne Schenker 
Carol Schneider 
Esther Schwartz 
Rosemarie Seitz 
Nicholas Selch 
Florence Seiko 
Pat Sershon 
Lanet Sharp 
Judy Sherry 
Martha Singer 
Joan Skager 
James Skorcz 
Daniel Snydacker 
Beth Spencer 
Irene Spensely 
Matthew Stec 
Llois Stein 
Sue Stoize 
Betty Strack 
Ruby Suzuki 
Thomas Tatner 
Jane Thain 
Dr. Margaret Thayer 
Pat Thomas 
Paul Thomas 
Lisa Thoms 
Cathy TIapa 

Kathleen North Tomczyk 
Janet Ujvari 
Karen Urnezis 
Lillian Vanek 
Barbara Vear 
Roseanne Veith 
Charles Vischulis 
Jean Vischulis 
David Walker 
Sue Walker-Waber 
Maxine Walter 
Hal Waterman 
Myra Waterman 
Gerda Watson 
David Weiss 
Mary Wenzel 
Kristy Weston 
IrmaWetherton 
Anne Wicker 
Char Wiss 
Reeva Wolfson 
Zinette Yacker 
Edward Yastrow 
Ben Zajac 



'Deceased 



60 



VOLUNTEERS 




Bette Jarz (left) and Trace Clark-Petravick, here processing a newly acquired collection of fossils, were among a large number of volunteers 
who assisted staff in a wide variety of activities. 84652 



61 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TDUKS^ 



Kenya Tanzania Safari 

February 20 to March 10. 1988 
$5,245 per person 
Leader: Audrey Faden 



February 20: Your safari begins when you board your British 
Airways flight to London this evening. 

February 21: Arrive London's Heathrow Airport this morning. 
You will be met and transferred to the Sheraton Skyline Hotel, 
where day-rooms will be provided until your British Airways 
flight to Nairobi this evening. 

February 22: Upon arrival in Nairobi, you will be met and trans- 
ferred to the luxurious Norfolk Hotel — a famous colonial land- 



mark and one-time haunt of Teddy Roosevelt, Ernest Heming- 
way, and Robert Ruark. This afternoon, enjoy a half-day tour 
of Nairobi, visiting the colorful African market, the unique Ken- 
yatta Conference Center, Nairobi University, and the famed 
National Museum, known for its superb natural history collec- 
tion and watercolors by Joy Adamson. Continue your tour by 
driving through the suburb of Karen, where you will see Isak 
Dinesen's original home, now a museum. This evening there is a 
welcome cocktail party and dinner at the Norfolk, with guests of 
the East African Wildlife Society. 

February 23: Today you head toward the famed Tsavo West 
National Park, Kenya's largest national park. View game 
through the park before arriving at Kilaguni Lodge for lunch. 
From the lodge, watch the game come to the nearby waterhole. 
After lunch, go out in search of the great elephant herds. Your 
drive takes you to Mzima Springs, where large pools of clear 
spring water surface at the rate of 50 million gallons a day. Oc- 
casionally hippos can be viewed from the tank and cormorants 
swim by. 

February 24: Today you drive to Amboseli National Park, justly 
famous for its big game and superb views of Kilimanjaro. The 
150 square miles of park embody four main wildlife habitats 
including open plains, acacia woodland, scrub brush, and fresh- 
water swamps. Spend the afternoon viewing animals such as 
wildebeest, zebra, giraffe, lion, cheetah, elephant, and rhino. 
Amboseli Serena Lodge. 

February 25: Start the day with a dawn game drive in this beauti- 
ful park. Early morning is also the best time to view Kilimanjaro 
before the clouds build up over the summit. Game drive in the 
late afternoon — the best time to see lion and cheetah as they begin 
to stir from the shade. 



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62 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



February 26: Today you drive to Tanzania via the Namanga bor- 
der, passing through minimal immigration formahties. Continue 
on to Gibbs Farm, a small, quaint farm in the midst of coffee 
plantations. 

February 27: Today transfer to Ndutu Safari Lodge, situated on 
the shores of Lake Lgarya near the southeastern corner of 
Serengeti National Park. Here you will enjoy game-viewing 
drives both morning and afternoon. 

February 28: Today you have game-viewing drives both mor- 
ning and afternoon to explore the vast Serengeti plains. Here mil- 
lions of wildebeest and zebra mill across the plains, seeking fresh 
grasses. You see large prides of lion, perhaps a leopard resting in a 
tree, groups of hyena, a mother cheetah teaching her cubs to 
hunt, giraffe, gazelle, topi, and kongoni — the list is endless. 
Ndutu Safari Lodge. 

February 29: This morning you will drive into the Olduvai 
Gorge, the site of Dr. and Mrs. L. S. B. Leakey's famous discov- 
ery of the fossil he called "Zinjanthropus boisei" (now classified 
Australopithecus boisei). Here you will enjoy a visit to the small 
but very informative museum and a short talk by one of Mrs. 
Leakey's assistants, who will escort you to the site of the "Zinj" 
discovery. Continue on to one of the natural wonders of the 
world, the Ngorongoro Crater, a caldera created by the pre- 
historic collapse of a volcano cone. On the crater floor, herds of 
typical plains mammals Hve out their destinies: buffalo, zebra, 
wildebeest. Grant's Gazelle, Thomson's Gazelle, lion, and hyena. 
Ngorongoro Wildlife Lodge. 

March 1: Today we spend down in the crater, tracking and 
photographing the animals. This great caldera contains some of 
Africa's finest black-maned lion. Rhino can be seen with calves, 
and waterbuck appear not to notice the visitors, enabhng photog- 
raphers to shoot at ease. On the lake in the middle of the crater, 
you can watch thousands of flamingos. 

March 2: Descend into the crater once more early this morning 
for your last game drive here. Later depart to Lake Manyara 
Hotel, set on the edge of the Great Rift Valley and overlooking 
Lake Manyara National Park. 

March 3: Enjoy a full day exploring the Lake Manyara National 
Park. This park contains five vegetation zones, thus supporting a 
large variety of fauna. Notable are the elephant herds and the 
tree-climbing lions. 

March 4: Drive to the Namanga border where your Kenyan driv- 
ers will meet you for the drive back to Nairobi. 

March 5: This morning you head northwest through undulating 
Kikuyu farming country, reaching the Aberdare Country Club in 
time for lunch. Transfer to special club vehicles for your game 
run to the Ark, which will take you into a deep forested area alive 
with some of the finest game viewing in Kenya. Driving along 
the animal trails and paths, you may suddenly come upon ele- 
phant, rhino, giant forest hog. Cape buffalo, waterbuck, bush- 
buck, warthog, colobus monkey, cerval cat, leopard, and perhaps 
the bongo antelope. The Ark is 'berthed' over a waterhole where 
the animals come to drink. From an underground dungeon you 
have an eye-to-eye view of this constantly changing scenario. 
Darkness descends, but floodhghts permit game viewing well 
into the early morning hours! 

March 6: Return to the Aberdare Country Club through the for- 
est and clearings bright with clear morning light. Your safari 
driver will be at the club to greet you and you head north along 




the slopes of Mt. Kenya, then continue on, descending nearly 
6,000 feet, passing through the town of Isiolo where your vehicle 
will suddenly be surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares for you to buy, such as copper bracelets, necklaces, and 
bangles. Bargain away if you wish, it's expected. View game as 
you drive through Samburu Game Reserve to the lovely Sam- 
buru River Lodge, located on the Uaso Nyiro River. 

March 7: Today you have both morning and afternoon game 
viewing of Samburu's typically 'northern' game — reticulated 
giraffe, Grevy's zebra, graceful long-necked gerenuk, Somali 
ostrich and vulturine guinea fowl, none of which you will sec 
further south. Samburu is also a very good park for elephant and 
the elusive leopard. It is an excellent place for the photographer, 
with the park's vivid colors and the contrasts between sky, bush, 
and sand. Bird enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 
species, including the martial eagle, in this reserve. 

March 8: Board minibus and drive to the famous Mount Kenya 
Safari Club. Here you have the remainder of the day to luxuriate 
at this private club made famous by the late William Holden. 
There is golf, tennis, heated swimming pool, horseback riding, 
two lovely shops, a beauty salon, sauna, and many attractive 
rooms set aside for drinking tea or something stronger. The view 
of Mount Kenya is awesome as are the finely manicured grounds. 

March 9: Drive back to Nairobi where rooms will be provided at 
the Norfolk Hotel until your transfer to the airport for your 
flight to London. 

March 10: Arrive London, where you will connect with your 
British Airways flight to Chicago arriving later the same day. 

This tour will be operated by Abercrombie & Kent. 



We still have space on the "Project Canadian Fjords" scheduled for August 16 to 24, 
aboard the Society Explorer. Please call for further information. Field Museum's leader is 

Dr. Scott M. Lanyon. 



63 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



CAROLYN P BLACKMON 
1715 N PARK AVE «4 
CHICAGO IL 6C614 





^J^bber Resource^Cent 
icated tqj^tive Cultures of the Americas 

ing September 19 



I 



Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Su^ Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chamnan 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block 111 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald]. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mis. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leiand Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
William V. Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J . Howard Wood 



Costa Rican Forest Preserve Evening 

Co-Hosted by 

Field Museum and the Chicago Botanic Garden 

On Thursday, September 10, at the Chicago Botanic Gar- 
den, Dr. William Burger will speak on "Where Clouds and 
Mountains Collide: The Magnificent Forests of Costa Rica." 
Dr. Burger is curator of botany at Field Museum, and the 
event is a fund-raiser for the San Ramon Forest Preserve in 
Costa Rica. Dr. Thomas M. Antonio, research taxonomist 
at the Botanic Garden, will speak on the San Ramon Pre- 
serve. The event occurs during World Rain Forest Week, 
September 7-13. 

Dr. Burger's lecture, introduced by Willard L. Boyd, 
president of Field Museum, will be preceded by refresh- 
ments, with cash bar, from 7:00 to 8:00 pm. Dr. Roy Taylor, 
director of the Botanic Garden, will also speak. The event 
will take place in the Education Center of the Botanic Gar- 
den, in Glencoe, one half mile east of the Edens Expressway 
on Lake-Cook Road. 

Reservations may be made by sending a minimum $20 
donation for the San Ramon Forest Preserve to the Tropical 
Project, Chicago Botanic Garden, P.O. Box 400, Glencoe, 
II. 60022. Donations are tax-deductible. Dr. Antonio, at 
835-8268, can provide additional information. 



CONTENTS 

September 1987 
Volume 58, Number 8 



September Events at Field Museum 



The Webber Resource Center 

The spacious new facility offers visitors a variety of 
ways to study and experience Native American cultures 
by Nancy Evans, Developer, Webber Resource Center 



Woodland Birds of Illinois 

by Scott K. Robinson 



15 



Tenth Anniversary for Pawnee Earth Lodge 22 

by Mary Ann Bloom, Coordinator, Pawnee Earth Lodge 



The Geopolitics of America's Corn Belt 27 

by Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy 



Field Museum Tours 



30 



COVER 

The Webber Resource Center formally opens September 
19. Photos by Diane Alexander White (top left GN84830- 
10, center right GN84829-6), Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik 
(top right GN84834, center left GN84835, lower left 
GN84890-21), D. Walsten (lower right). See pp. 8-14. 



Field Museum ofNaturai Hiswry BuUerin {USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ 
August issue, by Field Museum ofNaturai History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 
60605-2496. Copyright ©1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for 
schools. Museum membership includes BuUetm subscription. Opinions expressed by authors are their own 
and do not necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum 
phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Mem- 
bership Department. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 ro Field Museum ofNaturai History, Roosevelt 
Road at Lake Shore Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



lEVENTSl 



Indians of the Americas 

Weekends in September 

Celebrate THE Heritage of the Indian peoples of 

the Americas. Experience their centuries-old tradi- 
tions which have been passed from mother to daugh- 
ter and father to son for many generations. Listen to 
stories, talk with artisans, and listen to the rhythmic 
strains of Native American music. 

Saturday and Sunday 
September 12 and 13 
Potawatomi Days 

In celebration of Chicago's 150th birthday, meet and 
talk with people of the Potawatomi tribe, the last In- 
dian tribe to make Chicago its homeland. 

* Storytellinghy Leroy Wesaw, from 1 :00 to 2:00 pm. 
Hs Demonstrations: God's Eyes by Gloria Gilpin, and 
Fingerweaving by Joy Yoshida, from 1 :00 to 3:30 pm. 

Saturday, September 19 
Webber Resource Center for 
native Cultures of the Americas 

Join in our grand opening celebration of Field 
Museum's new Webber Resource Center. Explore 
the Resource Center's many books, videotapes, 
maps, photographs, and artifacts that can help you 
learn more about the Indian peoples of the Americas. 
10:00- 1 1 :00am: Hispanic and American Indian 

Opening Ceremony 
ll:00am-12:00noon: Recognition of 

Webber Resource Center Development Team 
12:00noon-4:00pm: Indians of the Americas — 

Native American Films 
l:00pm-3:00pm: Demonstrations — silversmithing by 

Sam Begay and beadu/ork by Pauline Begay 

Saturday and Sunday 
September 26 and 27 
American Indian Days 

The Culture of America's Indian peoples has been 
preserved in their artistic traditions. Watch Amer- 
ican Indian artisans as they demonstrate their crafts. 

* Woodland Indian Pottery, by Frank Ettawageshik 
12 :00noon-2 :00pm 

Join Frank Ettawageshik as he creates pottery using 
the tools and designs of his Ottawa Indian ancestors. 

Continued —■ 




T 



^ 



EVENTS 



Saturday and Sunday, Sept. 26 and 27 
American Indian Days 

* Arts of Chicago Indian Peoples 

12:00noon'2:00pm 

Chicago is blessed with many talented Indian peo- 
ples. Talk with these local craftspeople as they share 
their heritage with you. 
k* Becdwor/c — Zena Reeves 
i^ Basketry — Annie Linn 
P^ Applique — Alice Ness 
J^ Ribbon Work — -.Sarah Keahna 
l^ Dance Shawls — Alberta O'Shogay 
J«^ Moccasins — Mary EUenwood 
^^ Roaches — Horace Whitebreast 

H< Medicine Wheels 

l:00pm'3:00pm 

Find out how the Plains Indians used medicine 

wheels in this participatory activity. 

Hall Interpretive 
Program 

Thursday through Sunday, September 

Take A Hands-on Journey through Field Museum 

this September. Unearth the links to our past while 
participating in an archeological dig, learn a string 
game from the Arctic and create a coil basket. Hall 
interpreters, located throughout the exhibits, help 
you experience the wonders of the world. Compare 
the footprints of Apatosaurns to your own; detect 
fossils in the Museum's floor; and examine birds' 
nests and eggs. Please consult video monitors for 
activity locations. This program is partially supported 
by the Joyce Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry 
Foundation. 






World Music Program 

Weekends in September 
1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Join us for live musical demonstrations and informal 

discussions with the artists. 

D September 5,6 1 :00: Chinese Music Society of 

North America 

3:00pm: Don Pate on bass 
D September 12, 13 1:00pm: CfiineseMitsic 

Society of North America 

3:00pm: Thai Classical Dance 
n September 19 1:00pm and 3:00pm: Raices del 

Ande playing Latin American 

folk music 
n September 26, 27 1:00 and 3:00pm: Don Mo}ie, 

African percussion 

The World Music Program is supported by the Ken- 
neth and Earle Montgomery Foundation, and City 
Arts III and IV, Chicago Office of Fine Arts. 





T 



EVENTS 



^ 



Adult Programs 

Courses 

Read the literature of the Ancient Egyptians, learn 
about Chicago's Potawatomi Indians, or delve into 
Darwin's fascinating evolutionary theories. Adult 
courses begin again in September with an exceptional 
schedule of 6-week, 3-week, 1-day, and weekend pro- 
grams. Consult the September/October program 
brochure for details. 

Featured Courses 

The cultural heritage of Japan is featured in adult pro- 
grams this September and October. Learn the art of 
dwarfing a bonsai tree, look backwards in time to 
Japan's culturally rich Edo period, or perhaps explore 
the development of the Buddhist tradition. Experi- 
ence the history and arts of this ancient land in these 
courses and more, beginning in September. 

Edward E. Ayer Lecture Series 

September 10 marks the beginning of the Edward E. 
Ayer Lecture Series. The narrated slide programs, 
free with Museum admission, begin at 1:30 p.m. and 
run for eight consecutive Thursdays. September's 
schedule includes: 



n September 10 
"Tihei Today" 

by Elaine Bernstein, Volunteer, Department of 
Education, Field Museum. 

Journey to the majestic Himalayan Mountains for a 
glimpse of everyday life in Tibet. See how Tibet has 
been influenced by the modern world while still re- 
taining its ancient heritage and culture. 

n September 17 
"Changing Chicago" 

by Irving Cutler, Professor Emeritus, Department of 
Geography, Chicago State University. 
Take A Trip back in time to the early days of Chicago. 
See why Chicago's physical setting and its great and 
changing diversity of people create a flurry of eco- 
nomic activity, unique neighborhoods, and inter- 
esting future. 

n September 24 

"Life and Death in Bali" 

by Vincent Michael, Director of Chicago Programs, 

Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois. 

Explore the Lush Landscape and fertile culture of 

the Indonesian island of Bali. Journey from a massive 
cremation ceremony to ancient volcanoes, from holy 
healing springs to the black sand beaches of this 
Hindu paradise. 

The series continues through October. 



September Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, 
demonstrations and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed 
below are only a few of the numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival 
for the complete schedule and program locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the 
Illinois Arts Council. 
September 

12 1:30pm Tibet Today and Bhutan (slide lec- 
ture). See Lhasa and other towns now open 
to the public, as well as Bhutan, Land of the 
Thunder Dragon. 

19 1 1 :30am Ancient Egypt (tour). Explore the 

traditions of ancient Egypt from everyday life 
to myths and mummies. 

These programs are free with museum admission and 
tickets are not required. 



T 



EVENTS 



^ 



* After Hours— Films at the Field * 

FREE! 



Fridays in September, beginning Sept. 11 
West Entrance 



"The Makioka Sisters" shown on September 1 1 



After Hours continues its international film series in 
September, featuring films from Japan. Highlighted 
October films will be by and about Indians of the 
Americas. 

Doors open at 4:30 p.m. Light fare and beverages 
from Convito Italiano are available throughout the 
evening. Films begin at 6:00 p.m. Be sure to use the 
West Entrance. 

For further information call (312) 322-8855. 

D September 11 

"The Malcioloi Sisters" 

1983. 140 minutes. Color. Japan. Director: Kon 

Ichikawa. 

Japanese with English subtitles. 

This visually stunning film chronicles the lives of 
four aristrocratic sisters living in Osaka on the brink 
of the Second World War. As their genteel and re- 
fined world slowly slips away, they must learn to 
adapt, endure, and weather the changes from without 
and within. 



n September 25 

"Middji Rifer" 

1981 . 105 minutes. Black and white. Japan. Director: 

Kohei Oguri. 

Japanese with English subtitles. 

Oguri details the experiences of a young boy grow- 
ing up in an Osaka backwater in 1956, capturing the 
stillness and tension of a suspended moment. It is a 
tale of a child caught between the worlds of children 
and adults, and of a Japan suspended between post- 
war disillusionment and economic boom. 



n September 18 

"The Fam(/;y Game" 

1984. 107 minutes. Color. Japan. Director: Yoshimit- 

su Morita. 

Japanese with English subtitles. 

SHIGEYUKI, the youngest son of a contemporary 
Japanese family, is not living up to his parents' ex- 
pectations. They want him to qualify for the best 
local high school, but he has no interest in 
academics. Famiiji Game is a brilliant deadpan com- 
edy about Japan's affluent middle class and its obses- 
sion with success at any cost. Wickedly satirical, the 
film has a "theatre of the absurd" liveliness, mixing 
exquisite visuals, harsh realism, crazed surrealism, 
and outright slapstick. 



n October 2 

"The Go \Aasiercs" 

1982. 123 minutes. Color. Japan/People's Republic of 

China. Directors: Junya Sato and Duan Ji-Shun. 

Japanese with English subtitles. 

The Go Masters is the first film to be co-produced 
by Japan and the People's Republic of China. Go is a 
3,500-year-old Chinese board game popular in both 
China and Japan. In 1924, a Chinese boy is sent to 
Japan to study go with a Japanese master. Because of 
political confrontations, he is forced to stay in Japan 
against his will and loses contact with his family. The 
rest of the film follows the characters in their search 
for each other. Photographed against the magnificent 
landscapes of old Japan and old China, The Go 
}Aas,ters is a beautifully portrayed mix of two ancient 
cultures. 




The Webber ResoORe Center 



Sophia Anaslasiou-Wasik 08'1835 



A spacious new facility, dedicated to 
native cultures of the Americas, now 
offers visitors a variety of fresh experi- 
ences: the use of audio and videotapes, 
a library, the chance to examine arti- 
facts more closely, and the opportunity 
to see researchers as well as craftsmen at 
their work 



by Nancy Evans 

Developer, Webber Resource Center 




H 



The Webber Resource library features a wide variety of books and periodicals for children, adults, teachers, and the casual browser. 



I ave you ever wondered why there are people on 
top of the Field Museum's Pawnee earth lodge? Or how 
the Porno Indians of California make such exquisite bas- 
kets? Have you ever had a question about an American 
Indian exhibit but did not know who to ask or how to 
find the answer? The Field Museum now has a unique 
facility where you can bring all your questions about In- 
dians of the Americas; staff persons there will help you 
discover the answers. The Webber Resource Center for 
Native Cultures of the Americas is stocked with books, 
audio and videotapes, Indian artifacts, photographs, 
and maps which can assist teachers planning Indian 
study units, students researching papers, and Museum 
visitors inspired to know more about America's native 
peoples. 

The spacious new facility which will eventually 
occupy the area of an entire exhibit hall, opened in June, 
and is the first of many changes — large and small — to 
occur as we get ready for the Field Museum's centennial 
celebration in 1993. In approaching its second century, 
the Museum conducted an exhaustive self-study — 
"Centennial Directions" — in 1984-85 to assess the effec- 



tiveness of its public and research programs (see October 
1986 Bulletin). Centennial Directions made it clear that 
fresh new ways of exhibiting materials and informing 
visitors about natural history are needed. 

Accordingly, a new program consisting of three 
exhibit formats was set up: 

"'Informal, interactive exhibits and programs, which will 
be directly accessible to virtually any visitor. 
'Major thematic exhibits, which will provide broad over- 
views of their subjects and highlight the Museum's col- 
lections. 

'Study halls, which will make available in-depth re- 
sources on specific subjects, for the visitor seeking a 
more comprehensive picture of the subject matter and 
collections." 

Upon E. Leland Webber's retirement as Museum 
president in 1981, the Board of Trustees established a 
fund to develop an exhibit honoring Mr. Webber and 
recognizing his 31 years of service. In 1986 it was decided 
that a fitting tribute to Mr. Webber would be the cre- 
ation of the Museum's first study hall out of these 
monies. 




The lounge area invites Museum visitors to sit, relax, read, or study in comfort. 



10 



The concept of the study hall, though new to Field 
Museum, is nothing new in the world of 
museums. The Boston Children's Museum Re- 
source Center features a library and a collection 
of hands-on objects to aid visitors in learning more about 
American Indians, Asian peoples, and other subject 
areas featured in the museum's exhibits. In the Chil- 
dren's Museum's American Indian and Japanese exhibits 
are glassed-in storerooms for artifacts, giving visitors a 
chance to see a part of the museum's behind-the-scenes 
areas. 

The Naturalist Center of the National Museum of 
Natural History of the Smithsonian, in Washington, 
D.C., is an artifact-rich resource center. Study col- 
lections of anthropological artifacts and natural history 
specimens help visiting collectors to identify the fossils, 
shells, insects, or projectile points in their personal col- 
lections. Reference books can also be found near these 
study collections to help visitors learn more about their 
own specimens. 

The National Zoo, also in Washington, has estab- 
lished resource centers, such as the HerpLab, at various 



sites in the park. The HerpLab provides the opportunity 
to explore the world of amphibians and reptiles beyond 
just observing them from the other side of a glass wall. 
Visitors can participate in a research project concerning 
color-changing in chameleons or they can simply exam- 
ine live turtles and snakes up close. 

The Webber Resource Center has many features in 
common with these other centers — but it offers much 
more. It is unique in that its study collections and hands- 
on objects are combined not just with books (the situa- 
tion at other resource centers), but with audio and 
videotapes, archival photo albums, and a collection of 
maps. 

The Webber Resource Center's library has a full 
range of books on the native peoples of the Western 
Hemisphere. Current periodicals, including tribal news- 
papers, give coverage to issues concerning Native Amer- 
icans today. Curriculum aids are available for teachers in 
planning study units on American Indians, a shelf of 
books just for kids is there, as well as a collection of 
maps, conveniently arranged and easy to consult. 




Above: In soundproof 
audio-video booths, 
visitors can listen to 
music of Indians of the 
Amazon or v^/atch a 
videotape about life on 
a reservation. Below: 
Nevi/spapers and 
magazines published 
by Native Americans 
offer visitors insights 
into issues facing 
Indian peoples today. 



11 



12 





Left and above: Artifacts made by Eastern Woodlands Indians fiave 
been moved from storage into public view. Left below: Tfie antfiropolo- 



gy lab gives the visitor a glimpse of befiind-tfie-scenes scientific 
research and conservation work. 



Among the Center's special features is its col- 
lection of nearly 100 audio and videotapes, 
which can be heard or viewed in comfortable 
booths. Several of the videotapes were pro- 
duced by American Indians themselves, giving them the 
opportunity to tell their own stories. Families can enjoy 
a videotape produced especially for kids. They can see 
and hear the experience of growing up on a reservation 
in the Southwest or get an idea of what life is like for the 
Arctic Eskimo. Persons wishing to watch a videotape or 
listen to a tape of Indian music may select one at the 
Center's information desk. 

And there are other materials available at the desk: 
Activity boxes, containing artifacts that can be held and 
closely examined; photo albums from the archives of the 



Department of Anthropology, offering views of the past 
and showing how Native Americans lived in the 
nineteenth century or as recently as a generation ago. 

Display cases in the Center contain a great many 
artifacts that have been out of sight in anthropology 
storerooms for decades. (Less than half of the Museum's 
American Indian artifacts are currently on view in the 
exhibit halls. ) But this area of the Resource Center now 
provides visitors with views of collections that the 
Museum has, for reasons of space, not been able to dis- 
play. And there are drawers loaded with archaeological 
artifacts which can be helpful to visitors who wish to 
identify an arrowhead — or whatever — that has lain for 
years in their attic. Identification guides in the Resource 
Center library provide further help to such visitors. 



13 




The "Ottawa Machine" is a breakthrough in conservation technology. It 
maintains a constant humidity in the Resource Center's collections 
cases to prolong the life of the artifacts, d waisien 



14 



The anthropology lab is another of the Center's 
special features. For many years, Museum members have 
been given the special opportunity, on Members' Night, 
to roam through the building's scientific research areas, 
observing science in action and getting a glimpse of new- 
ly acquired collections. The Resource Center's anthro- 
pology lab can now provide that same opportunity for 
many other visitors who may be unaware that research 
goes on behind the scenes at Field Museum. Periodically, 
Department of Anthropology staff will work in the lab, 
cleaning and repairing artifacts; visiting scholars will 
conduct their research on collection materials in the 
presence of interested visitors. 

The Museum hopes that visitors will find the new 
Center useful and exciting, but since the facility is an 
adventure into new territory, it is uncertain how it will 
work, how people will use it, or, in fact, if the resources 
and facility will satisfy a genuine need. 

Accordingly, the Center is being constructed in 
two phases. With phase 1, completed in June, about 60 
percent of the planned Center was ready for use. 

A period of evaluation, phase I, will last for at least 
several months — until we have a clear picture of how the 
Center is being used, what areas are most popular with 
visitors, which should be expanded. If the audio and 
videotapes prove to be popular, more will be added in 
phase II; if visitors want to see more artifacts, additional 
collection cases will be installed in phase II. 



At the end of June, the Resource Center quiet- 
ly opened to the public. There was no public 
opening ceremony. The summer months 
have now provided ample time to observe 
how visitors use the Center and to make some adjust- 
ments for smoother operation. Now we are ready to cele- 
brate the addition of this exciting, new facility in grand 
fashion. All Field Museum members are invited to 
attend the Grand Opening Celebration to he held on 
Saturday, September26, from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. 
Watch Indian artisans demonstrate their skills and sam- 
ple some of the fine tapes in the Webber Resource Cen- 
ter's video library. (For complete schedule see p. 3 . ) 

If you are unable to join in the September celebra- 
tion, plan to stop by the Webber Resource Center on 
your next Museum visit. Come in and read a book, 
examine an artifact, look through some of the photo 
albums, listen to Indian music, ask questions, browse, sit 
and relax. The Webber Resource Center staff will be 
glad to help you learn more about the extraordinary na- 
tive peoples of the Americans. Fli 



Woodland Birds 
OF Illinois 

Questions and (Some) Answers 
About Why Their Numbers Change 



by Scott K. Robinson 



Even though IHinois is commonly regarded as a 
prairie state, as much as 40 percent of its lands were 
covered with forests when the pioneers arrived. 
Most forested areas were in the southern portion of the 
state, but there were also extensive forests along the ma- 
jor rivers and in northwestern Illinois. 

As these forests were cleared for timber and agricul- 
ture, the bird community underwent drastic changes. 
Several formerly abundant species such as the passenger 
pigeon and Carolina parakeet became extinct, while 
others such as the pileated woodpecker retreated to a few 
strongholds in areas that were too wet or hilly to cut. 
Now, the remaining wooded areas are small and scat- 
tered, and only about ten percent of the state is forested. 
The largest unbroken forest tracts are in the Shawnee 
Hills of the southern tip of Illinois and these comprise 
areas of only a few thousand acres. What is the effect of 
this habitat reduction and fragmentation on the remain- 
ing wildlife? Which species thrive and which species suf- 
fer in a fragmented landscape? Are small woodlots net 
producers or importers of young birds? These and other 
questions have been the subject of intensive investiga- 
tions here in Illinois and elsewhere in the country. 

Evidence is accumulating that forest fragmentation 
has a negative impact on many forest birds. Small wood- 
lots have a number of features in common that make life 
difficult for many birds. First, small woodlots are often 
islands in a sea of com, soybeans, and residential areas. 
Any bird populations that become locally extinct must 



Scott K. Robinson, who earned his Ph. D. at Princeton University, 
is an ornithologist with the Illinois Natural History Survey 



be recolonized from other wooded areas, which are often 
far away. Because populations in fragmented woodlots 
are also small, such local extinctions can occur regularly. 
Second, wooded islands, to a much greater extent 
than oceanic islands, are profoundly affected by their 
surroundings. In agricultural areas, the waste corn left in 
the field provides abundant food for many potential nest 
predators such as raccoons, opossums, and squirrels, all 
of which thrive in small woodlots. Data gathered in 
Maryland, Connecticut, and Maine suggest that nest 
predation is much higher in small woodlands than in 
large forests. Neighborhood cats and blue jays take se- 
vere toll of eggs, nestlings, and fledglings. Blue jays have 
become an especially severe problem over the last few 
decades because their populations have increased 



The brown-headed cowbird, a brood parasite known to lay 
eggs in the nests of more than 200 other species, has In- 
creased greatly in numbers In recent times, due to the clearing 
of land and the spread of cattle farming. 




15 



The birds shown on pages 16 through 2 1 are mounted speci- 
mens in the Field Museum collection. 



nationwide as a result of the increased popularity of bird 
feeders. 

Third, small woodlots have proportionately more 
edge habitat than larger woodlands. Edge habitat is 
favorable for many species of birds and for wildlife 
in general. Many familiar birds such as cardinals, rufous- 



other species (the host). Cowbirds parasitize more than 
200 species of birds, including most Illinois woodland 
songbirds. A few species such as northern (Baltimore) 
orioles, robins, and brown thrashers have evolved de- 
fenses against cowbirds — they simply throw out any "for- 
eign" eggs placed in their nests, or abandon a parasitized 
nest and start over. Most species, however, accept cow- 




The blue jay has become a problem in some areas as the result of the increased popularity of bird feeders. 

81697 



16 



sided towhees, indigo buntings and brown thrashers are 
much commoner along forest edges than in the forest 
interior. All of these species are probably much com- 
moner now than they were before the pioneers arrived. 
Yet, edge habitat also creates severe problems for many 
species that nest in the forest interior. The reduced pop- 
ulations of forest interior birds in small woodlots may be 
partially due to competition with "edge" species, though 
this thesis may be difficult to prove. Nest predation has 
also been shown to be higher along habitat edges than in 
the forest interior, mostly because many potential nest 
predators favor habitat edges. 

Fourth, and for many species the most severe prob- 
lem of nesting in small woodlots, is the brown-headed 
cowbird, a brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nests of 



bird eggs and raise the young as if they were their own. 
Because cowbird chicks hatch early, grow faster, and are 
usually larger than host chicks, a parasitized nest often 
produces no, or very few, host young. Therefore, cow- 
bird parasitism can have a disastrous effect on many host 
species if parasitism rates are very high. 

Cowbird populations have increased dramatically in 
recent times due to the clearing of land and the 
spread of cattle farming. Cowbirds search for nests 
to parasitize in all habitats but usually feed on bare soil or 
in short grass where there are cattle or other livestock. 
Cowbirds may fly as far as five miles to a cattle feedlot to 
forage in the afternoon after a morning of nest searching. 
Small woodlots in agricultural areas are therefore ex- 



tremely vulnerable. The area surrounding woodlots can 
support many cowbirds, all of which must find places to 
search for nests. In some woodlots, cowbirds are the 
commonest species, and because each female lays 20 to 
40 eggs a season, cowbirds can potentially parasitize 
every nest in an area. Larger woodlands, on the other 
hand, are less vulnerable because cowbirds have to travel 
further to and from foraging areas. Studies in Wisconsin 
and Maryland have shown that parasitism rates are much 
higher along the edges of large forests than in the interi- 
or. Large forests such as those in the White Mountains of 
New Hampshire and the Great Smoky Mountains of 
Tennessee have virtually no cowbird parasitism. 

Taken together, these observations suggest that 
large forested areas are much safer places for many song- 
birds to nest. In many areas, however, only small forest 
patches remain. What has happened to songbirds in 
these areas? Data from the East show that many forest 
interior species such as warblers and vireos have declined 
precipitously within small woodlots. Similarly, small 
forested islands often lack many species for which there 
is apparently suitable habitat. These observations have 
led some to suggest that forest fragmentation is causing a 
nationwide decline in songbirds, especially those that 
migrate to North America from the neotropics. These 
long-distance migrants arrive late and have only one or 
two opportunities to nest in a given season. The loss of a 
nest to predators or any effort wasted on raising cowbirds 
therefore has a much greater effect on migrants than on 




The ovenbird maintains healthy populations in some areas, de- 
spite cowbird predation. The reasons for this are unclear. s^<aA 



The brown thrasher — like the robin and Baltimore oriole — de- 
fends itself against cowbird predation by removing cowbird 
eggs from its nest or by starting a new nest elsewhere, aigc? 




17 



Geology Hall Changes 

The Field Museum is planning a major new exhibit, "The 
Pacific." This exhibit will be interdisciplinary, covering all 
aspects of the Pacific Ocean Basin — the geological forma- 
tion of its island groups, the biology of these islands and the 
seas surrounding them, and the many and diverse peoples of 
the islands, their cultures, and their art. 

This exhibit will occupy over 17,000 square feet of 
space, created by joining the existing Halls 35 and 36. Hall 
35 now houses a systematic display of minerals and me- 
teorites. Hall 36 exhibits economic ore minerals and the pro- 
ducts made from them. These exhibits will be eliminated in 
order to make room for the Pacific exhibit. 

At present, an adjacent hall. Hall 34, displays general 
geological features and processes. The contents of this hall 
will be removed temporarily and the hall painted and car- 
peted. Hall 34 is scheduled to be reinstalled early in 1988. In 
that reinstallation, portions of the exhibit elements formerly 
shown in Halls 35 and 36 will be incorporated. This single 
geology hall will then show aspects of the original three 
physical geological halls (34, 35,36). 



year-round residents, which nest many times a season. 
Most neotropical migrants also build simple "open cup" 
nests, which are especially vulnerable to cowbird para- 
sitism. Cowbirds do not parasitize hole-nesting birds 
such as the black-capped chickadee, tufted titmouse, 
and white-breasted nuthatch, all of which thrive in 
small woodlots. 

With these problems in mind, a team of researchers 
from the Illinois Natural History Survey has begun a 
long term study of the bird communities in a complex 
archipelago of small woodlots and thickets bordering 
Lake Shelbyville in central Illinois. These woodlots, 
which are dominated by white, red, and black oaks, are 
mostly small (20-150 acres) and abound in edge habitat. 
The largest woodlot ( 150 acres) is surrounded by over 10 
miles of edge, including 7 miles of lake edge and 3 miles 
of edge along agriculture fields. No part of any wooded 
area is more than 250 yards from an edge. 

It is clear that these woodlands have all of the prob- 
lems associated with fragmented habitats described 
above. Blue jays abound everywhere, with early summer 
populations approaching 80 individuals per 100 acres; 
most of these bluejays search for bird nests as well as 
insects. Raccoons, opossums, squirrels, and skunks are 



18 




Robin 80576 



Baltimore Oriole 71204 



frequently observed both in the forest and in the agri- 
cultural fields where they often feed. Forest edge species 
also nest abundantly along forest boundaries and regular- 
ly foray into the forest interior in search of food. Perhaps 
most ominously, brown-headed cowbirds are generally 
the commonest species recorded in the forest on cen- 



recorded. What is more, most parasitized nests were 
multiply parasitized — they averaged 2.6 cowbird eggs 
and only 2.3 host eggs per clutch. Clearly, in the face of 
such overwhelming predation and parasitism the 
chances for nest success are very slim. Censuses con- 
ducted late in the breeding season turn up very few 




The black-capped chickadee, a hole-nesting species, is safe from the predatlons of the cowbird and is thus able to thrive in 
small woodlots. //mi 



suses and in mist nets, which are used to capture birds for 
study. In 1986, for example, cowbirds were recorded on 
over 90 percent of the census stops in all habitats. No 
other bird is as ubiquitous or abundant. 

The data on nesting success of woodland birds from 
the Shelbyville area show the difficulty of raising 
young in the face of such adversity. The overall pre- 
dation rate on 145 nests located in 1985 and 1986 was 
over 80 percent, a figure nearly twice as high as the usual 
predation rate on songbird nests. In addition, over 73 
percent of all nests of species that accept cowbird eggs 
were parasitized, one of the highest parasitism rates ever 



young of species that are vulnerable to parasitism. 

The wood thrush, a bird best known for its beautiful 
song, provides us with an especially grim demographic 
picture. Wood thrushes nest in most woodlands, but 
accept cowbird eggs and have only one or two opportuni- 
ties to breed before they return to their winter grounds in 
the tropical forests of Central America. In 1985 we made 
a concerted effort to find wood thrush nests in two small 
woodlots. Of the 15 wood thrush nests located, each 
contained at least one cowbird egg. One had 1 1 cowbird 
eggs, the world record for this species; the female dutiful- 
ly incubated this huge clutch but hatched only a single 
cowbird. Overall, these nests averaged 3.8 cowbird and 



19 



20 



only 1.1 thrush eggs per nest, and fledged 11 cowbird, 
but only 2 wood thrush young. It seems very unlikely 
that this wood thrush population could be producing 
enough young to replace itself. 

Given these formidable problems and the highly 
fragmented nature of the habitat at Lake Shelbyville, it 
is remarkable that any migrant song birds nest there. Yet, 
extensive censuses of the area reveal relatively high pop- 
ulations of many species known to be "area-sensitive," 
i. e. , to occur only in larger woodlots elsewhere in the 
country. For example, wood thrushes nest commonly in 
spite of their very low reproductive output, and there are 
several small populations of ovenbirds, a warbler usually 
considered as a good indicator of forest interior habitat. 
In fact, throughout the Shelbyville area, most species 
nest in any area where there is suitable habitat, though 
populations fluctuate locally. 

Herein lies a mystery of sorts: how can these pop- 
ulations persist when they produce so few young and 
from where do new birds come if they are not locally 
produced? One possibility is that the birds that nest in 
the Shelbyville woodlots are produced in larger, less 
fragmented forests elsewhere. If this is true, then these 
birds must be dispersing very great distances indeed 
because there are no large, unbroken forests within a 
100-mile radius of Lake Shelbyville. Nevertheless, it is 
possible that small woodlots such as those around Shel- 
byville represent dispersal "sinks" or "traps" where dis- 
persing young settle, but fail to produce enough young to 
replace themselves. Another possibility is that the nests 
we find are those that cowbirds also find because they are 
poorly hidden. Better hidden nests may have a much 
higher success rate than our data indicate. In fact, Illi- 
nois woodland birds hide their nests extremely well — 
even experienced observers can spend an entire day 
searching for nests with no success. Although frustrating 
for researchers, the cryptic behavior of most forest birds 
may be the only way they can avoid attracting the atten- 
tion of predators and nest parasites (cowbirds). There- 
fore, the observed parasitism and predation rates may be 
higher than the actual rates. 

uch of the current research conducted in Illinois 
I and elsewhere in the country seeks to determine 
lunder what conditions a woodlot becomes a 
net producer and exporter of young and under what 
conditions a woodlot becomes a population "sink" 
where dispersing young are lured to breed with little 
chance of success. Once these questions are answered, 
we can begin to design nature preserves and forest man- 
agement practices that create as many productive areas 
as possible. 




There are several more points that should be made 
before closing this discussion of the effects of forest frag- 
mentation on birds. First, the importance of woodlots 
for migrant birds cannot be overemphasized. As any 
birdwatcher can tell you, the smaller and more isolated a 
woodlot is, the higher the concentration of migrants in 
it. Tiny woodlots in central Illinois and along the Chi- 
cago lakefront are famous migrant "traps" where bird- 
watchers and birds occur at fantastic population densi- 
ties during migration. Even if small woodlots prove to be 
population "sinks," the beneficial effect on the 
thousands of birds that use them during migration should 
far outweigh the costs to the few birds that breed in 
them. 

Second, the rate of destruction of different kinds of 
forest habitats has not been equal. Bottomland and 



The white-breasted nuthatch, like the black-capped chick- 
adee, is safe from cowbirds because of Its hole-nesting habit. 





The prothonotary warbler, a formerly common bottomland species, is now rare and local throughout Illinois, eiwo 



floodplain forests, by far the richest wooded habitat for 
birds in Illinois, have been more severely affected than 
drier upland oak/hickory forests. Only a few extensive 
bottomland tracts remain, chiefly in southern Illinois, 
and they are in constant danger of being cut for timber or 
to clear land for soybeans. Many formerly common bot- 
tomland species such as cerulean and prothonotary 
warblers are now rare and local throughout the state and 
others such as the Swainson's warbler have statewide 
populations of only a few pairs. 

Third, there is increasing evidence that at least a 
few songbird species have remarkably specific habitat re- 
quirements. The obscure worm-eating warbler, for ex- 
ample, is restricted almost entirely to steep north or east- 
facing slopes along ravines in Illinois. Yellow-throated 
warblers depend chiefly on sycamores and conifers, and 
Swainson's warblers require canebreaks, which are com- 
prised of a northern member of the bamboo family. Many 
other species such as Acadian flycatchers and Louisiana 
waterthrushes require streams or standing water, where- 
as ovenbirds favor dry, relatively flat, wooded ridgetops. 
Regardless of size, forest tracts that lack these habitat 
features will also lack these specialized species. In gener- 



al, however, the larger a wooded area, the more likely it 
is to contain several different kinds of forest. Clearly, it is 
important to consider both forest size and composition 
when planning strategies to preserve forest birds. 

Finally, not all of the problems faced by migrants 
occur on the breeding grounds. Species that winter in 
tropical forests have a potentially more serious problem 
— habitat destruction in Central and South America. 
Most of "our" birds winter in a surprisingly small section 
of the neotropics, from southern Mexico to northern 
South America and in the Caribbean. In winter, mi- 
grants pack into areas much smaller than their breeding 
ranges, often less than a fifth the area. Therefore, clear- 
ing a square mile of tropical forest is equivalent to clear- 
ing five or more square miles of forest in North America. 
If tropical deforestation continues at its current rate, the 
time will come when some species such as the wood 
thrush will decline regardless of what happens on their 
breeding grounds. This does not mean that we will be 
excused from worrying about what happens in Illinois. It 
does, however, demonstrate the importance of con- 
sidering the year-round needs of migrant birds in a in- 
creasingly fragmented environment. 



21 



f*». 



4 



ti: 



Inside the earth lodge. 

Coordinator Mary Ann 

Bloom explains materials 

to schoolchildren. 




Pawnee earth (oage buiit at the St. Louis Exposition of 1904. Photo by former Field fVluseum photographer Charles Carpenter. 

Pciv\^nee Earth Lodge 



Marks 10th Anniversary 



I 



by Mary Ann Bloom 
Coordinator, Pawnee Earth Lodge 



n 1987 nearly 100,000 visitors will walk into the 
traditional lifestyle of the Pawnee Indians as they tour 
Field Museum's full size replica of a Pawnee Earth 
Lodge. 

While sitting on buffalo robes inside the earth 
lodge, visitors learn about Pawnee life as it was in the 
1850 s. Volunteers tell the story of an exciting buffalo 
hunt or describe the rijuals of the medicine men. 
Spoons formed from buffalo horns, a child's sled made 
of buffalo ribs, and a feather-covered war shirt are just 
a sampling of the touchable artifacts which fill this 
hands-on exhibit. 

October 1987 marks the 10th anniversary of the 
Pawnee Earth Lodge. Members of the Pawnee tribe 
will come to Field Museum to perform a private lodge 
rededication ceremony. The Pawnee worked closely 
with Museum staff in the planning and design of the 
lodge. We look forward to the return to Chicago of 
our Pawnee friends and invite everyone to join us for 



our special 10th anniversary activities. 

* Thursday, Oct. 22 and Friday, Oct. 23 

10:00 a.m. to 1 :00 p.m. Pawnee craft demonstrations. 
10:30 a. m. Pawnee dance performance. 

* Saturday, Oct. 24 and Sunday, Oct. 25 

J2:00 noon to 3:00 p. m. Pawnee craft demonstrations. 
2:00 p.m. Pawnee dance performance. 

Tickets are not required, activities are free to 
the general public with Museum admission. School 
groups attending should make advance registration in 
writing. 

Throughout the year volunteers present pro- 
grams daily in the lodge. Call (312) 322-8852 for in- 
formation regarding current program schedules. 

Dolores Arbanas, Eleanor DeKoven, Anne 
Ekman, Michael Hall, Shirley Hattis, Gabby Margo, 
Mary and John Nelson, Mary Anne Peruchini, Judith 
Sherry and Karen Umezis will also celebrate their 
10th anniversary as Pawnee Earth Lodge volunteers. 



23 



< 1 11 / 1 ^ . 'Ik >r uM .11 




24 




Above: Pawnee Tribe 
members in 1976 
gather with Field 
Museum's former coor- 
dinator of the Native 
American Program, 
John White (rt.). to dis- 
cuss model of the earth 
lodge (foreground), 
ouiit by Kevin Williams 
iieft). Se/ow.- Early 
in 1977 the lodge 
framework was 
completed. 




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Above: Life-size mannequins atop the lodge. Below: Lodge interior, shiowing ceremonial objects. 




25 



Ron Testa 106164 




Above: Volunteer Forman Onderdonk (left) explains furnishings 
to visitors. Below: Lodge interior. The lodge is 38 feet in diameter 
and 18 feet high at the center. Groups of 35 can be accommo- 
dated for formal programs. Some of the furnishings were made 



especially for the Museum lodge by Pawnee Tribe members who 
also participated in taping seasonal activities and ceremonies 
for use in Museum programs. 



26 




Ron Testa 106165 



THE 



GEOPOLITICS 
AMERICA'S 





where the past ice age glacier sat 

affects mid'america's food production — even its politics 



by Edward Olsen 
Curator of Mineralogy 



As you fly over the combelt of America's Mid- 
west you might think it all looks pretty much 
the same from a plane window. On the ground, 
if you pay attention to details, you can see the 
difference. 

Going south from Chicago through Illinois you can 
easily be convinced the earth is flat — that a cup of water 
poured on the ground would sort of meander around, not 
knowing which way to flow it's so flat. In the summer the 
com is lush and green, the stalks are tall and stand close 
together, and the soil is rich and dark. Things look 
pretty good. 

About two-thirds of the way down the state the pic- 
ture changes. The com is not quite so tall and lush look- 
ing, and the soil is lighter colored. The land is generally 
more hilly, and tilling it is more difficult for farmers. 
Generally, things don't look quite as good as they did 
farther north. 

The same change can be seen as you travel through 
Indiana from Gary to Evansville. What you see is the 
result of the past ice age that made the present middle 
western landscape — and its economy, and even some of 
its politics. 

Our lives are short compared to geological activi- 
ties, so we tend to think that what is going on now is the 
way it always was. Every once in a while a geological 
event takes place on a short time scale and we get some 
idea of what big changes can take place. An earthquake 



lets go or a volcano blasts its top off and crisis is with us. 
Ice ages don't have such speedy time scales, but when 
they get going, they are a force of tremendous power. 

Over a million and a half years ago the climate of 
the Northern Hemisphere began a serious change. Sum- 
mers in places like northern Canada became colder and 
the onset of rotten winter weather started sooner. 
Within the first few hundred years permanent snow 
fields grew that didn't go away during the cool summers. 
As snow piled on snow, the layers at the bottom were 
squeezed tighter and tighter, and large ice crystals 
formed. When all this was stacked high enough the pres- 
sure at the bottom got so great that ice crystals slowly 
deformed and squeezed past other ice crystals and the 
whole mass began to ooze southward. As it moved it 
picked up soil and gravel and rocks — billions of tons of 
them. The ice grew to be over two miles thick and 
covered most of the midwestern states. 

Then things changed — the climate began to warm 
up slightly. The ice continued to move forward, but at 
the edge of the ice sheet melting went on at a great rate. 
The ice wasted away faster than it pushed southward, 
with the effect that the ice edge slowly moved back 
north. Four times in the last million years the ice ad- 
vanced and then retreated. Each time it advanced south- 
ward it eventually halted and the edge melted back. The 
last retreat began around 15,000 years ago. The melt- 
back uncovered most of northern Canada except parts of 



27 



the Canadian Artie and Greenland, which are still ice 
covered year 'round. 

Each time the ice melted hack it let down the hil- 
lions of tons of soil and rock that it had scraped up farther 
north. Low places in the landscape were filled in, so the 
land surface hecame flatter than flat. If the ice hadn't 
overridden Illinois, towns like Chicago would have the 
topography of the huried bedrock, with ravines and 
bluffs and cozy glens. It would be a lot prettier, but the 
ecoilomy would be very different. 

At each retreat the melting ice let down tons of rich 
soil. Each of the four advances of the ice sheet went 
through this cycle of wasting away, letting down rich 
soils and rock carried in it, filling in and smoothing the 



A. The dotted line indicates the 
southern edge of the last ice 
sheet. The shaded area indi- 
cates the area of the highest 
density of grain elevators 
with capacities of at least 
400,000 tons. 



farms look pretty well off inside the line of the glacial 
advance, and why life looks somewhat leaner outside of 
that line. Other facts show up, too. 

In the glacially covered areas land values and total 
farm values are higher than in adjacent areas outside the 
old glacial cover. On the other side of the coin, in the 
areas not covered by the last glacier more land is unim- 
proved, and over twice as much land is left as woodlands. 
Unimproved woodlands have environmental advan- 
tages, but they don't yield income for the farmers who 
own them. When the Middle West was first settled no 
one had any idea a glacier had been there. It was just luck 
for some families that settled on the high-yield lands. 

There is another curious situation; Most everyone 




topography under it. The good soils left behind by each 
ice advance were overrun and partly ruined by each fol- 
lowing advance. The last advance, however, left behind 
its load of good stuff and no fifth advance has arrived yet 
to override it. That's the key to the present landscape. 

A geologist, roving around the Middle West, can 
plot on a map the rich glacial deposits and from this can 
see the outline of the last ice sheet. It turns out he could 
get a similar result by plotting differences in the crop and 
economic conditions in the Middle West. If the areas 
under the old glacial cover have the better soils on land 
that is generally flatter and easier to farm it should show 
up in better crop yields. Map A shows a plot of the high- 
est density of grain elevators with capacities of 400,000 
tons of grain or more for the states of Illinois, Indiana, 
and Iowa. This leaves out all of the elevators with small 
capacities. The dotted line indicates the edge of the last 
ice sheet in these states, as mapped by geologists. It's a 
pretty good fit. 
28 That's why the com is so thick and healthy, and the 



in Chicago refers to southern Illinoisans as "downstate 
Republicans." The same thing is said by people in Gary, 
Indiana about their downstate voters. It's partly true, but 
if you go far enough south in either state, you run across a 
lot of Democrats. 



Going over the last ten presidential elections, for- 
ty years' worth, it's clear that some counties go 
for Republican candidates over 90 percent of 
the time. Other counties go for Democrat 
candidates over 90 percent of the time. Many counties 
waffle back and forth. If you plot the counties that vote 
Republican 90 percent of the time or more on a map 
(Map B), in Illinois and Indiana most Republicans end 
up under the old glacial ice, and most Democrats outside 
of it. This excludes, of course, the densely populated 
urban counties of Cook (Chicago) in Illinois and Lake 
(Gary) in Indiana. 

This fits the stereotypes of these two parties. If you 



have a farm that's on good land, and you're doing well, 
you want very little government mucking around, and 
you probably oppose heavy government spending. You 
vote for the Republicans. If things aren't quite so good, 
you may be more partial to the government helping out, 
and you want the kinds of programs usually identified 
with the Democrats. 

It makes a pretty neat story except for Iowa, where 
it doesn't work at all. Iowa is very heavily Republican 
throughout. Only five counties ever record many Demo- 
cratic votes — two of them are way outside the glaciated 
area, and two are at the edge. No county in Iowa ever 
votes Democratic as high as 90 percent of the time. All 
but three of the strongest Republican counties are out- 



result of shorter growing seasons. The crisis for human 
populations would be worse than any natural disaster 
ever known. If you polled the same experts today, they 
wouldn't be quite so sure about this prediction. 

It turns out that there is a geological force no one had 
reckoned with before — huge human populations us- 
ing fossil fuels. As fuels are burned to drive auto- 
mobiles, heat and cool houses, cook food, heat 
water, and run industries, the biggest combustion prod- 
uct, carbon dioxide, is being released into the atmo- 
sphere. Although colorless, it acts like a filter for the 
sun's rays to build up the heat content of the air — little 
by little. 



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B. The dotted line indicates the 
southem edge of the last ice 
sheet. The shaded areas indi- 
cate counties in Iowa, Illinois, 
and Indiana that have voted 
Republican at least 90% of the 
time in the last 10 presidential 
elections. 



side the crop-rich area also. 

Obviously there are many reasons people vote for 
candidates. With the much publicized current crisis in 
the farming communities all over Iowa, it's going to be 
interesting to plot the results of the election of 1988 on 
this map. Perhaps those with the glacially enriched land 
may pop out as still solid Republicans, and the rest of 
Iowa will join downstate Illinoisans and Hoosiers as 
Democrats. 

About twenty years ago many geologists predicted 
that small changes they were measuring in seawater 
composition and temperature, along with other signs, 
warned that a fifth advance of the North American gla- 
cier was only 8,000 years away— a long time in our lives, 
but geologically not very long at all. Clouds carry water 
from the oceans onto the lands. When this water, falling 
as snow or rain, becomes converted to permanent ice 
and does not return to the ocean again, sea level gradual- 
ly falls. Countries like the U.S.A., Canada, and the 
U.S.S.R. would gradually suffer food shortages as the 



Right now, no one knows for certain, but mankind 
might actually have stopped the next glacial advance by 
substituting in its place a heating trend. Don't count 
your blessings. The warmup could run wild in the oppo- 
site direction causing hotter climates in many places in 
the world, changing rainfall patterns, reducing crop 
yields in North America, no matter how good the soil. 
Worse yet, the remaining ice caps in the Arctic and 
Antarctic would partly melt, raising sea levels to wipe 
out such places as most of New York City, all of Florida, 
much of Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, and 
Central California. Southern Illinois, for example, 
would become a seaport. There are some signs that this 
process is starting. 

The earth sits at a balance point, oscillating be- 
tween ice ages and warm ages. Human beings, although 
relatively little creatures, may be enough in total to tip 
things in the direction of a hotter age. If it starts along 
that path there will be a lot of changes — not only in 
voting patterns. FM 



29 




FIELD 

MUSEUM 
TOUKS^ 



Kenya Tanzania Safari 

February 20 to March 10, 1988 
$5,245 per person 
Leader: Audrey Faden 



February 20: Your safari begins when you board your British 
Airways flight to London this evening. 

February 21: Arrive London's Heathrow Airport this morning. 
You will be met and transferred to the Sheraton Skyline Hotel, 
where day-rooms will be provided until your British Airways 
flight to Nairobi this evening. 

February 22: Upon arrival in Nairobi, you will be met and trans- 
ferred to the luxurious Norfolk Hotel — a famous colonial land- 



mark and one-time haunt of Teddy Roosevelt, Ernest Heming- 
way, and Robert Ruark. This afternoon, enjoy a half-day tour 
of Nairobi, visiting the colorful African market, the unique Ken- 
yatta Conference Center, Nairobi University, and the famed 
National Museum, known for its superb natural history collec- 
tion and watercolors by Joy Adamson. Continue your tour by 
driving through the suburb of Karen, where you will see Isak 
Dinesen's original home, now a museum. This evening there is a 
welcome cocktail party and dinner at the Norfolk, with guests of 
the East African Wildlife Society. 

February 23: Today you head toward the famed Tsavo West 
National Park, Kenya's largest national park. View game 
through the park before arriving at Kilaguni Lodge for lunch. 
From the lodge, watch the game conie to the nearby waterhole. 
After lunch, go out in search of the great elephant herds. Your 
drive takes you to Mzima Springs, where large pools of clear 
spring water surface at the rate of 50 million gallons a day. Oc- 
casionally hippos can be viewed from the tank and cormorants 
swim by. 

February 24: Today you drive to Amboseli National Park, justly 
famous for its big game and superb views of Kilimanjaro. The 
150 square miles of park embody four main wildlife habitats 
including open plains, acacia woodland, scrub brush, and fresh- 
water swamps. Spend the afternoon viewing animals such as 
wildebeest, zebra, giraffe, lion, cheetah, elephant, and rhino. 
Amboseli Serena Lodge. 

February 25: Start the day with a dawn game drive in this beauti- 
ful park. Early morning is also the best time to view Kilimanjaro 
before the clouds build up over the summit. Game drive in the 
late afternoon — the best time to see lion and cheetah as they begin 
to stir from the shade. 




30 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr. , Chicago, II 60605 



February 26: Today you drive to Tanzania via the Namanga bor- 
der, passing tiirough minimal immigration formalities. Continue 
on to Gibbs Farm, a small, quaint farm in the midst of coffee 
plantations. 

February 27: Today transfer to Ndutu Safari Lodge, situated on 
the shores of Lake Lgarya near the southeastern corner of 
Serengeti National Park. Here you will enjoy game-viewing 
drives both morning and afternoon. 

February 28: Today you have game-viewing drives both mor- 
ning and afternoon to explore the vast Serengeti plains. Here mil- 
lions of wildebeest and zebra mill across the plains, seeking fresh 
grasses. You see large prides of lion, perhaps a leopard resting in a 
tree, groups of hyena, a mother cheetah teaching her cubs to 
hunt, giraffe, gazelle, topi, and kongoni — the list is endless. 
Ndutu Safari Lodge. 

February 29: This morning you will drive into the Olduvai 
Gorge, the site of Dr. and Mrs. L. S. B. Leakey's famous discov- 
ery of the fossil he called "Zinjanchropus boisei" (now classified 
Australopithecus boisei). Here you will enjoy a visit to the small 
but very informative museum and a short talk by one of Mrs. 
Leakey's assistants, who will escort you to the site of the "Zinj" 
discovery. Continue on to one of the natural wonders of the 
world, the Ngorongoro Crater, a caldera created by the pre- 
historic collapse of a volcano cone. On the crater floor, herds of 
typical plains mammals live out their destinies: buffalo, zebra, 
wildebeest. Grant's Gazelle, Thomson's Gazelle, lion, and hyena. 
Ngorongoro Wildlife Lodge. 

March 1: Today we spend down in the crater, tracking and 
photographing the animals. This great caldera contains some of 
Africa's finest black-maned lion. Rhino can be seen with calves, 
and waterbuck appear not to notice the visitors, enabling photog- 
raphers to shoot at case. On the lake in the middle of the crater, 
you can watch thousands of flamingos. 

March 2: Descend into the crater once more early this morning 
for your last game drive here. Later depart to Lake Manyara 
Hotel, set on the edge of the Great Rift Valley and overlooking 
Lake Manyara National Park. 

March 3: Enjoy a full day exploring the Lake Manyara National 
Park. This park contains five vegetation zones, thus supporting a 
large variety of fauna. Notable are the elephant herds and the 
tree-climbing lions. 

March 4: Drive to the Namanga border where your Kenyan driv- 
ers will meet you for the drive back to Nairobi. 

March 5: This morning you head northwest through undulating 
Kikuyu farming country, reaching the Aberdare Country Club in 
time for lunch. Transfer to special club vehicles for your game 
run to the Ark, which will take you into a deep forested area alive 
with some of the finest game viewing in Kenya. Driving along 
the animal trails and paths, you may suddenly come upon ele- 
phant, rhino, giant forest hog. Cape buffalo, waterbuck, bush- 
buck, warthog, colobus monkey, cerval cat, leopard, and perhaps 
the bongo antelope. The Ark is 'berthed' over a waterhole where 
the animals come to drink. From an underground dungeon you 
have an eye-to-eye view of this constantly changing scenario. 
Darkness descends, but floodlights permit game viewing well 
into the early morning hours! 

March 6: Return to the Aberdare Country Club through the for- 
est and clearings bright with clear morning light. Your safari 
driver will be at the club to greet you and you head north along 




the slopes of Mt. Kenya, then continue on, descending nearly 
6,000 feet, passing through the town of Isiolo where your vehicle 
will suddenly be surrounded by smiling Kenyans holding out 
wares for you to buy, such as copper bracelets, necklaces, and 
bangles. Bargain away if you wish, it's expected. View game as 
you drive through Samburu Game Reserve to the lovely Sam- 
buru River Lodge, located on the Uaso Nyiro River. 

March 7: Today you have both morning and afternoon game 
viewing of Samburu's typically 'northern' game — reticulated 
giraffe, Grevy's zebra, graceful long-necked gerenuk, Somali 
ostrich and vulturine guinea fowl, none of which you will see 
further south. Samburu is also a very good park for elephant and 
the elusive leopard. It is an excellent place for the photographer, 
with the park's vivid colors and the contrasts between sky, bush, 
and sand. Bird enthusiasts will be well rewarded with over 300 
species, including the martial eagle, in this reserve. 

March 8: Board minibus and drive to the famous Mount Kenya 
Safari Club. Here you have the remainder of the day to luxuriate 
at this private club made famous by the late William Holden. 
There is golf, tennis, heated swimming pool, horseback riding, 
two lovely shops, a beauty salon, sauna, and many attractive 
rooms set aside for drinking tea or something stronger. The view 
of Mount Kenya is awesome as are the finely manicured grounds. 

March 9: Drive back to Nairobi where rooms will be provided at 
the Norfolk Hotel until your transfer to the airport for your 
flight to London. 

March 10: Arrive London, where you will connect with your 
British Airways flight to Chicago arriving later the same day. 

This tour will be operated by Abercrombie & Kent. 



31 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, I L 60605-2499 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



October 1987 



-!. ^*li>-' 



gnp 4 


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i-- 







Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



CONTENTS 

October 1987 
Volume 58, Number 9 



October Events at Field Museum 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Etruscan Gold Jewelry Techniques 

by Richard Daniel De Puma 

Research Associate, Department of Anthropology 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T Stanton Armout 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandiei 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley 11 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Conrwr 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Ruruiells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O- Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mis. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
William V. Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



Woven Porcupine Quill Decoration 

Among Indians of the Canadian Northwest 1 6 

by James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



Japanese Lacquer Wares 22 

Inro and Netsuke from the Carl and 

Jeanette Kroch Collection 

by Lisa Adler, Benr\et Branson, Irerxe Chong, and SaUy Kurth 



Field Museum Tours 



31 



COVER 

Japanese inro, from the Carl and Jeanette Kroch Col- 
lection. See pages 22-30. Photo by Ron Testa and Sophia 
Anastasiou-Wasik. 



Parking During Bears' 
Home Games 

Museum visitors can come to Field Museum by car and 
park at the adjacent lots even on days when the Chicago 
Bears are playing at Soldier Field. Parking is available on 
those days for a $5.00 fee at the North Lot, the East Lot, 
or the Soldier Field Lot. Home games in October are 
October 11 and 18. 



Fidti Museum ofKaturd History BuHean (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natural Histocy, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shote Drive. Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright CI987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum memberehip includes BtJUan subscription. Opinions exptessed by authors arc their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should iiKlude address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmaster Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore I>ive, (Hiicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. Second class postage paid at Chicago, Illinois. 



lEVENTSl 



The Peking Puppet Theatre 

Saturday, October 17, 2:00pm 

James Simpson Theatre, West Entrance 

Imagine that You Are Sitting in a darkened theatre watching 
life-sized puppets, dressed in dazzling bright costumes, as 
they enact the age-old tale of the battle between the Eight 
Immortals and the Dragon Demon. Or perhaps you are en- 
chanted by the graceful, yet comic, story of the Crane and 
the Turtle. Maybe you are delighted by the pageantry and 
passion of the Lion Dance. If these tales intrigue you, you are 
one of the thousands the world over who are fans of The Pek- 
ing Puppet Theatre. 

This unique theatre, from the People's Republic of 
China, is now making its first nationwide tour of the United 
States. The master puppeteers of this craft have passed on 
the tradition of puppetry from parent to child for 1 ,000 years, 
preserving a vast repertoire of Chinese legends and folk- 
tales. 

P87201 The Puppet Theatre 

Tickets: $12:00 (Members: $10.00) 

Seating is general admission. Theatre doors open one hour prior 

to performance. 





Registration by mail 

Please use coupon on the back of this page to order tickets by 
mail. Be sure to complete the requested information and make 
checks payable to Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon re- 
ceipt of check. Refunds are made only if the program is sold out. 
By Phone 

Register by phone with American ExpressA/isa/MasterCard/ 
Discover. Call Monday through Friday 9:00am-4:00pm. 
(312) 322-8854. 



Pawnee Earth Lodge 
10th Anniversary 

Thursday through Sunday 
October 22 -25 

Join Field Museum in celebrating the 10th anniversary of the 
opening of the Pawnee earth lodge, a life-size replica of a 
traditional Pawnee home and ceremonial center. Festivities 
center around the visit of the Pawnee elders who advised in 
the planning and construction of the earth lodge in 1977. Dur- 
ing the four-day celebration, elders meet with visitors in the 
lodge and craft people demonstrate traditional crafts in the 
exhibit areas. Dance performances will be at 10:30am on 
Thursday and Friday, and 2:00pm on Saturday and Sunday 
All events are free with Museum admission. 



T 



^ 



EVENTS 



October Weekend Programs 



Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Programs Sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and pro- 
gram locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

OCTOBER 

4 12:00noon: Brontosaurus Story(tour). Look at some of 
the newest discoveries about the "thunder lizard" and other 
larger dinosaurs. 

10 1 :30pm: Tibet Today (slide lecture and tour). Slide 
lecture shows Lhasa and other towns now open to tourists. 



followed by a tour of our Tibet collection. 

Hall Interpreters Program 

Thursdays through Sundays 
October 

Take a Hands-on Journey through Field Museum this fall. 
Unearth the links to our past while participating in an 
archeological dig, learn a string game from the Arctic, dis- 
cover Native American tools and their uses, and create a coil 
basket. Hall interpreters, located throughout the exhibits, 
help you and your friends experience the wonders of the 
world. Compare the teeth of shark and elephant, decipher 
hieroglyphs, and discover dinosaur tracks and their tales. 
These exciting programs are available to all Museum visitors 
Thursday through Sunday, and on Columbus Day (Oct. 12). 
Please consult video monitors throughout the Museum for 
activity locations. This program is partially supported by the 
Joyce Foundation and the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation. 



1 2:00pm: Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze (slide lec- 
ture). Slide lecture on the life and works of Malvina Hoffman, 
concentrating on the Portraits of Mankind Collection com- 
missioned by Field Museum. 

These programs are free with Museum admission and no 
tickets are required. 

World Music Program 

Weekends in October 

1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Join us for live musical demonstrations and informal dis- 
cussions with the artists. 

Octobers, 4 1:00pm — Chinese Music Society of North 
America demonstrating instruments of the 
Chinese orchestra. 
3:00pm — Light Henry Huff and his harp. 

October 10, 1 1 1:00pm — Chinese Music Society of North 
America demonstrating instruments of the 
Chinese orchestra. 

October 17 1:00 and 3:00pm — Raices del Ande, play- 

ing Latin American folk music. 

October 24, 25 1:00pm — Keith Eric, Jamaican songs and 
stories 
3:00pm — Light Henry Huff and his harp. 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 
Harle Montogomery Foundation and a grant from City Arts III/ 
IV, Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural 
Affairs. 



Peking Puppet Theatre 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this ticket 
application. If your request is received less than one week 
before the program, tickets will be held in your name at the 



West Entrance box office. Please make checks payble to 
Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 
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Edward E. Ayer Series 

Thursdays in October 

1:30 p.m., James Simpson Theatre 

Lectures are free and refreshments are served. 

The Edward E. Ayer Series continues through October at 1 :30 
p.m. on Thursdays. The narrated slide series features pro- 
grams on the island of Yap, ancient Egypt, New Zealand, 
Ethiopia, and local birds. 

n October 1 

"Yap — The Island of Stone Money" 

Robert Pickering, Anthropological Consultant 

Yap is a tiny island in the Pacific, located between Guam and 

New Guinea. An old and traditional culture, the men fish and 

the women farm. Meet these ancient people known for their 

seafaring skills and the use of enormous stone wheels for 

money. 

n Octobers 

"The Pyramids of Egypt" 

Frank Yurco, Doctoral Candidate in Egyptology, Department 
of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, University of 
Chicago 

As they dominate the horizon of Cairo, so pyramids dominate 
the popular view of ancient Egypt. Learn why these majestic 
monuments were really built and about the fascinating cul- 
ture of the ancient people who built them. 

n October 15 

"New Zealand: A Geologic Journey" 

Paul Sipiera, Associate Professor, Department of Physical 
Sciences, Harper College 

New Zealand is a country of diverse geology occurring in 
a small area. Explore the glaciers of Mt. Cook, the depths 
of Milford Sound, the Moeraki Boulders, and the Rotorua 
geysers and hot springs. From the active volcanoes of North 
Island to the serene beauty of the southern Alps on South 
Island, discover the mystique of the "Land of the Long 
White Cloud." 

n October 22 

"High In the Horn of Africa" 

William Burger, Curator, Department of Botany, Field 
Museum 

The landscapes of eastern Ethiopia range from dry desert 
grasslands and thornbush to high alpine meadows. This 
broad range of environments is home to a great variety of 
plants and animals and two very distinct groups of people: 
nomadic herders and settled farmers. Join us for a close look 
at the natural history of this intriguing land. 

D October 29 
"Chlcagoland Birds" 

Peter Dring, Naturalist, Cook County Forest Preserve District 
The Chicago area is host to an abundance of different birds 
throughout the year. Meet some of the permanent residents 
and seasonal migrants. Discover the habits and habitats of 
these sometimes fleeting but always fascinating creatures. 



After Hours: Films at the Field 

A free international film series 

After Hours — F/ZmsaffheF/e/dcontinues through October. 
This month the free Friday evening films feature Indians of 
the Americas. Light fare and beverages are available from 
Convito Italiano beginning at 4:30 p.m. Films start at 6:00 
p.m. 

D October 9 
"Aguirre, The Wrath of God" 

1973. 94 minutes. Color. Germany Director: Werner Herzog. 
German with English subtitles. 

In the mid-1500s, a Spanish expedition searching for the 
mythical city of Eldorado detaches a small party to explore 
an Amazon tributary but they never return. Herzog uses this 
obscure historical incident to chronicle the greedy lawless- 
ness of the conquistadors who ravaged South America and 
Indian cultures in their lust for land and gold. Klaus Kinski de- 
livers a powerful performance creating the dark comic char- 
acter of Aguirre, who dreams of stealing the entire continent 
for himself. 

"How Hollywood Wins The West" 

1980. 30 minutes. Color. United States. Producers: Robert 
Hagopian, Phil Lucas. Narrator: Will Sampson. 
This is a part of a series of documentary films dealing with 
the one-sided presentation of Indian history despite the fre- 
quent use of Indian culture in Hollywood films. 

n October 16 
"Little Big Man" 

1970. 137 minutes. Color. United States. Director: Arthur 
Penn. 

Little Big Man follows the typical story line used in the past by 
so many Hollywood films about Indians: boy's parents are 
killed by Indians as they are traveling west; Indians adopt the 
young boy and teach him their ways and make him brave 
and honorable. Despite the obvious stereotyping and ques- 
tionable history Dustin Hoffman and the "tongue in cheek" 
tone make this one of the first feature films from Hollywood 
that attempts to portray Indians as real people. 

"Harold of Orange" 

1984. 30 minutes. Color. United States. Written by: Jim 

Vizenor. 

A parody of modern Indian-White relations in which a 

modern-day Indian "trickster" succeeds at getting funding 

for his reservation projects. This short film pokes fun at the 

way stereotypes of Indians still persist even among the 

"good liberals" wanting to help the disadvantaged Indians. 

D October 23 

'The Chicago Story" 

1950. 20 minutes. Black and white. Filmed by the U.S. 
Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

In the 1950s, the U.S. government relocated thousands of In- 
dians from their reservations into larger cities. They were to 
be assimilated into the mainstream American culture and 
learn trades. This classic piece of governmental propaganda 
shows how wonderful city life will be for the Indians. 



Continued [> 



T 



EVENTS 



^ 



n October 23 
"Dreamspeaker" 

1978. 75 minutes. Color. Canada. Director: Claude Jutra. 
This award-winning film from Canada tells of a young boy 
with serious emotional problems. He runs away from home 
and encounters an Indian medicine man, who tries to heal 
the boy by using tribal methods. The boy, however, decides 
to end his life. The film looks at traditional Indian ways and 
the Western ways that are threatening to take their place. 

D October 30 
"W/ndwaZ/fer" 

1980. 108 minutes. Color. United States. Director: Kieth Mer- 
rill. Cheyenne and Crow languages with English subtitles. 
This beautifully filmed feature provides an unusually authen- 



tic treatment of Indian culture. Except for an occasional 
voice-over narration in English, all spoken language is in 
Crow or Cheyenne. The action takes place in the 18th cen- 
tury and there are no non-Indian characters. All the actors 
are Indian except for Trevor Howard, as the old Cheyenne 
man, Windwalker, who recounts his life as he lies dying. 

The Spirit of the Navajo" 

1966. 20 minutes. Black and white. Silent. United States. 

Filmed by: Maxine and Mary Jane Tsotie. 

This film is part of a film project where Navajos were taught 

the technology of film-making and encouraged to choose 

their own subjects. Two women filmed their grandfather, a 

medicine man, gathering roots and herbs for a ceremony 




Scene from "Dreamspeaker," showing October 23. 









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by Richard Daniel De Puma 



Etruscan gold necklace, 4th or 3rd century, B.C. Cat. no. 
239188. Sophia Anastaslou-Wasik 110412 




2. Etruscan gold necklace, 4th or 3rd century, B.C. Cat. no. 
239188 (detail). Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik 1 10409C 



Since 1828 people have been fascinated by the unex- 
pected refinement of ancient Etruscan jewelry. At 
Vulci that year, an Italian tenant farmer accidentally 
destroyed the roof of a subterranean Etruscan tomb 
with his plow. The owner of the property was Lucien 
Bonaparte, Prince of Canino and brother of Napoleon. 
This fortuitous discovery encouraged Bonaparte to 
explore further; before long, numerous Etruscan tombs 
were being mined. Soon the Princess of Canino 
appeared at elegant parties wearing the rich harvest of 
Etruscan jewelry from the tombs on her husband's 
lands. 

Such discoveries encouraged continued explora- 
tion. Throughout the 19th century the splendid con- 
tents of more and more Etruscan tombs were brought to 
light: the Regolini-Galassi Tomb at Cerveteri in 1836, 
the Isis Tomb at Vulci in 1839, the Barberini and Ber- 
nardini Tombs at Palestrina in 1855 and 1876, to name 
only the most famous. Although these tombs, not to 
mention the important series of painted chamber- 
tombs at Tarquinia, yielded hundreds of precious vases, 
bronzes, and ivories, it was their gold jewelry that cap- 
tured public attention. 

What is it about this jewelry that so fascinates us? 



Richard Daniel De Puma is professor of classical archaeology in the 
School of Art and Art History, University of Iowa, and a Field Museum 
research associate. He recently published Etruscan Tomb-Groups: 
Ancient Pottery and Bronzes in Chicago's Field Museum of Natural 
8 History and a book on engraved Etruscan mirrors. 



Certainly, antiquity is one factor: The Etruscans 
dominated central Italy from ca. 700 B.C. until their 
absorption by the Romans beginning in the 4th cen- 
tury B.C. Theirfinest jewelry was produced ca. 650 B.C. 
but much of it is as fresh as the day it was buried. Other 
qualities of the jewelry are its originality of form, its 
inventive decorative motifs or its ornamental and apot- 
ropaic (intended to turn away evil) functions. Many of 
us are immediately drawn to anything made of gold, a 
metal which has always excited human passions. But 
for me and others who enjoy studying Etruscan jewelry, 
it is the degree of technical refinement which elicits 
our greatest admiration. Obviously, any of these fea- 
tures could be the subject of lengthy study. A thorough 
discussion of Etruscan jewelry would have to deal with 
all of them. Here 1 will treat only the major aspects of 
Etruscan gold jewelry techniques. Examples from Field 
Museum's fine collection, mostly acquired between 
1895 and 1912 but still virtually unpublished, will illus- 
trate the various techniques. 

By way of introduction, let me say something 
about gold itself. Pure gold is the most chemically 
stable, malleable, and ductile of all metals. Its chemi- 
cal stability ensures that its characteristic glitter will 
not fade with time. Its malleability was well known to 
the ancients: Pliny the Elder, the first-century Roman 
encyclopedist, tells us that a single ounce of gold could 
be beaten into 750 sheets or "leaves," each about three 
inches square (a total area of more than 46 square 
feet!). Roman craftsmen produced leaves only 
0.0002mm (about 1/127,000") thick, a significant im- 
provement on the 0.001mm foils of the Egyptians. To- 
day, through a combination of beating and rolling, 
sophisticated machines produce incredibly thin leaves 
approaching thicknesses of only 0.00001mm. 

The astonishing ductility of pure gold allows it to 
be drawn into fine wires. Again, Pliny mentions hav- 
ing seen Nero's mother, the Empress Agrippina (A.D. 
15-59), dressed in "cloth of gold" woven from thread- 
like filaments of the metal. In our own time, a single 
gram of gold has been drawn into a fine wire approx- 
imately 3.2km (2 miles) long. 

These versatile properties of pure gold are serious- 
ly diminished by impurities. Native gold is never pure, 
although gold of 99.9 percent purity was discovered in 
California and occurs occasionally elsewhere. Typical- 
ly, native gold contains some silver and copper. 
Ancient jewelers preferred nearly-pure gold because it 
is more malleable, more ductile, and has a higher melt- 
ing point. In general, chemical analyses for pieces of 
ancient jewelry show that they have a very high gold 



content, unlike the more durable, but less pure, gold 
alloys used by modem jewelers. Relatively few pieces of 
Etruscan jewelry have been analyzed, but there appears 
to be a high percentage of silver in pieces produced in 
the 7th century B.C. 

Probably early humans first noticed gold sand or 
nuggets which had washed down to a river bed from a 
higher vein. This "alluvial gold" is the easiest to 
recover and requires no refining. Man's greed for gold 
inevitably led to the more difficult task of mining "reef 
gold" — uneven deposits of the metal often imbedded in 
quartz veins. 

Etruria, the heartland of Etruscan civilization, is 
bordered on the north by the Amo River and on the 
east and south by the Tiber. In land area it is about the 
size of New Hampshire. But, despite its small size, it 
possessed the central Mediterranean's richest supplies 
of tin, copper, and iron ore. These resources, coupled 
with Etruria's fertile farmland, ensured the growth of a 
major civilization on its soil. 

By Roman times Italy's gold supply was virtually 
depleted. Five thousand Romans mined a significant 
deposit at Victumulae, near modem Vercelli (midway 
between Turin and Milan) , but most Roman gold came 
from Spain. Although there is much evidence of earlier 
Etruscan mining operations, we are not certain of their 
sources of gold. Surely, alluvial deposits existed along 
the banks of Mignone and further north in the Pennine 
Alps, to which Etruscan culture spread. While the 
lands controlled by the Etruscans may not have been 
especially rich in gold, other supplies of the metal pro- 
bably came from overseas in exchange for the copper, 
tin, iron ore, and agricultural products so eagerly pur- 
chased by the Greeks and Phoenicians. 

What evidence do we have for understanding the 
technical processes in the creation of Etruscan jewelry? 
There is no extant Etruscan literature on the subject. 
Greek and Latin authors speak of jewelry, but they are 
often vague or inaccurate and usually silent on tech- 
nical matters. Only one fragmentary technical treatise 
survives: the so-called "Leyden Papyrus X" from 4th 
century A. D. Egypt. 

Have the remains of an Etruscan goldworking 
establishment been discovered? Not yet. We have a 
few goldsmith's tools and implements, often from other 
cultures but probably similar to ones employed by 
ancient jewelers everywhere. Normally, these merely 
corroborate evidence from the best source of all: the 
surviving jewelry itself. Most of our knowledge of 
Etruscan goldsmithing techniques is from close exam- 
ination of the actual jewelry, often with microscope. 



spectroscope, or electron microprobe. Modern 
attempts to duplicate various features have proved to 
be especially helpful. A survey of these findings is now 
in order. 

Decorative Techniques: Repousse and Chasing 

The simplest and oldest gold decorative technique in- 
volves the hammering, stamping, or punching of a thin 
gold sheet. Since gold is so malleable, this rarely re- 
quires the effort suggested by the word "hammering. " 
In fact, a gentle tapping is usually sufficient. Repousse 
is the French term used to describe the pushing out of 
forms from the back of a sheet of gold. Thus, relief ele- 
ments are raised on the front of the sheet. Often a 
carved punch or stamp (made of bronze, wood, bone, 
etc. ) can be used to create a series of the same decora- 
tive elements. An excellent example of this kind of 
work appears on a 7th century B.C. Etruscan gold 
pendant, the earliest article of Etruscan jewelry in 
Field Museum (no. 239203), shown in figure 3, below. 
A piece of sheet gold was cut into a "figure-eight" shape 
then, after being decorated, was bent around a short 
bronze tube which formed the suspension channel. 
The two halves of the "figure-eight" were then 
"stitched" together with a flat gold wire, some sections 
of which still remain. Decoration consists of five bosses 
raised on each side and numerous fine chasings. 
Chased lines (simply incised rather than engraved) 
form chevrons on the suspension tube, zigzags, and 
concentric circles around the pendant's perimeter and 
the five bosses, four small zigzag crosses, and a group of 
four concentric squares. 

3. Etruscan gold pendant, 7tti century B.C. Cat. no. 239203. R. D. 
De Puma 




10 



Examples of repousse decoration made from a 
stamp may be seen on a series of small gold discs (nos. 
239137-1 through 4), figure 4. Each is stamped with a 
wreath-like frame enclosing a youthful male head 
shown in left profile. These are identical and obviously 
produced with the same stamp. Precise parallels for the 
motif appear on the related series from Vulci now in the 
Vatican Museums. It is quite likely that the examples 
in Field Museum were made in the same workshop and 
probably came from Vulci. Both series date to ca. 425- 
400 B.C. 

A logical extension of the repousse technique is 
the stamping of symmetrical halves of an element, cut- 
ting them out of their gold sheet and then joining the 
two halves to form a single, hollow element in the 
round. The many fanciful creatures that parade across 
much of Etruscan jewelry were created in this way. 
Often the seams of the two halves are hidden by an 
attached wire or row of granulation but, under magni- 
fication, they are usually visible. The tiny gold pen- 
dants of a fine necklace from the 4th or 3rd century B.C. 
(no. 239188), shown in figures 1 and 2, were produced 
in this manner. In several instances the pendants have 
been dented, with a resulting rupture of the seams. A 
set of Hellenistic bronze stamps for making similar 
jewelry elements was excavated at Galjub in Egypt. 

Filigree 

Filigree may be defined as the process of decorating a 
piece of jewelry with metallic wires, cut and shaped to 
form various motifs or designs. Obviously, the signifi- 
cant feature here is wire. How did the Etruscans pro- 
duce fine gold wires? Microscopic examination of a 
number of ancient samples has suggested several possi- 
bilities to modern researchers. In a valuable study, 
Andrew Oddy ' demonstrated four possible methods of 
producing fine gold wires. A drawing adapted from 
Oddy's microphotographs will help to clarify these 
processes. 

The most obvious method, is simply to pound a 
piece of gold into a roughly elongated wire (fig. 5, A). 
"Hammering" produces a solid but irregular cross- 
section as well as an uneven surface and diameter. 
Some of these problems could be minimized by rolling 
the irregular wire between two hard, flat surfaces. A 
second process, "block-twisting," begins with a gold 



'"The Production of Gold Wire in Antiquity" in Gold Bulletin JO, 3 
(1977)79-87. 




4. Gold discs with repousse decoration, ca. 425-400 B.C. Cat. 
nos. 239137, 1-4. Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik 110413 

rod that is square in section (Bl). Gold rods can easily 
be made from a gold sheet by cutting small strips whose 
widths equal the sheet's thickness. The rods are twisted 
tightly (B2-3) and then rolled between flat surfaces to 
produce wires with round cross-sections and uniform 
diameters (B4). Unlike the hammered wires, these 
have smooth surfaces and four spiral grooves which 
may be detected under magnification. 

The last two methods involve gold strips that are 
pulled through a draw-plate, a metal die pierced with 
graduated, tapering holes. There has been considerable 
discussion about when draw-plates were first used and 
whether such devices were known to the ancients. 
Although the question cannot be answered to every- 
one's satisfaction, recent experiments have demon- 
strated that wire can be drawn through a "soft" draw- 
plate made of the same metal as the wire and that the 
characteristic parallel scratches made by a metal draw- 
plate not only appear on many authentic ancient wires 
but can be duplicated by easier methods than once sug- 
gested. 

To return to methods of making gold wire, the 
third process, "strip-drawing," requires that a small 
strip of gold be pulled through a simple draw-plate. 
This curls the strip into a hollow tube whose seams 
overlap but may be irregular (CI). Further draws 
through smaller holes reduce the diameter and even- 
tually produce a closed, round tube with a single longi- 
tudinal seam (C2). "Strip-twisting," the fourth 
method, is clearly related to "strip-drawing." Here a 



strip of gold is first twisted over a previously made wire 
and then removed. This helix ribbon reminds one of an 
undone paper drinking straw (Dl). As the helix is 
twisted tighter, the seams touch, then overlap while 
the diameter decreases. The wire may be smoothed 
further by pulling it through a draw-plate. The final 
product is essentially uniform, is hollow with a round 
section, and has a single helical seam (D2). All four 
methods, but especially the last three, produce wires 
which are round in section. Two such wires can be 
twisted around each other to form a cable or rope; two 
"ropes" twisted in opposite directions then placed be- 
side each other and aligned create a "braid. " Wire ropes 
and braids are clearly visible along the edges of several 
Field Museum earrings from the 4th and 3rd centuries 
B.C. (nos. 239066, 239068), figures 6, 7. The ancients 
also used "beaded" wire, but exactly how this was pro- 
duced is debated. In fact, the word filigree, which com- 
es from Latin filum ("wire") and granum ("grain" or 
"bead"), may allude to beaded decorative wires. 

The Etruscans used their decorative gold wires in a 
variety of ways. On several 7th century B.C. bracelets 
from Marsigliana', serpentine wires form lace-like 
bands that alternate with narrow ribbons of gold. The 
openwork of filigree of these bracelets makes them 
among the most delicate and intricate articles from this 
rich period. It is far more common for wires to decorate 
the surfaces of jewelry, especially earrings, already 
formed by the repousse process described earlier. A 
good example (no. 239066) shows two reclining re- 
pousse lions at the top of each earring; their tails are 
made of tiny twisted wires. Scores of twisted wires are 
arranged to form various designs on other earrings 
(e.g., no. 239068). On still others, small coiled wires 
(made by simply winding the wire tightly around a rod 
and then sliding it off to form a spiral) are arranged in 
floral patterns or flattened to form a looped border (no. 
239067), figure 8. Wires are also often used to form 
"loop-in-loop" chains like the complex braided neck- 
lace, no. 239163, figure 9. 

The Etruscans, then, used filigree in four basic 
ways: (1) to form an openwork border (e.g., Marsig- 
liana bracelets); (2) to create independent design ele- 
ments on a gold background or repousse relief (e.g., 
nos. 239188, 239066, 239068); (3) to outline or frame 
independent elements (no. 239067 and most earrings 
of this type); (4) to form loop-in-loop chains of varying 



*M. Cristofani, ed., L'Oro degli Etruschi (Novara, 1985), no. 47, 
pp. 107 and 266. 



A 
B 1 



C 1 



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5. Several types of gold wires, as fashioned by Etruscan artisans 
(see text). 

complexity (no. 239163). Of course, a single piece of 
jewelry often combines several of these basic applica- 
tions. 

Granulation 

Granulation describes the decoration of metal objects 
with tiny metal spheres, or "grains." Of all the tech- 
nical processes treated here it is the most characteristic 
of Etruscan jewelry and has caused the widest admira- 
tion, discussion, and controversy. The technique was 
developed ca. 2500 B.C. in the Near East and appears 
with varying degrees of quality in all the ancient 
Mediterranean cultures. The Etruscans probably 
learned about granulation from Eastern Greeks, but 
they quickly refined the technique and soon surpassed 
all others with the excellent quality of their granulated 
jewelry. My discussion of granulation is divided into 
three parts: first, how the grains were produced; 
second, how the grains were joined to the gold base; 
third, how granulation was used to decorate jewelry. 
The discussion is limited to gold, although silver gra- 
nulation is also known. 1 1 




6. Pair of gold earrings, 4th or 3rd cent. B.C. Cat. no. 239066. R. 
D. De Puma 



8. Pair of gold earrings, 4tfi or 3rd cent. B.C. Cat. no. 239067. R. D. 
De Puma 




12 



7. Pair of gold earrings, 4tfi or 3rd cent. B.C. Cat. no. 239068 R 
D. De Puma 



Etruscan gold grains are solid and usually near- 
perfect spheres. They range in size from ca. 0.5mm to 
less than 0. 14mm in diameter. Some grains are so fine 
that they are frequently termed /)u/viscoIo,. or "dust" gra- 
nulation. Those on the elegant gold disc ornament, 
possibly an earring (no. 239153), figure 10, are only 
0. 1 6mm in diameter or about 150 per inch and certain- 
ly qualify for this distinction. A larger and smaller pair 
of elaborate discs is in the Field Museum collection 
(nos. 239153-4), figure 12. All illustrate the incredible 
skill with which the ancient jeweler combined granula- 
tion with filigree (see drawing, figure 11). 

How were such tiny grains produced? At first 
sight, one is amazed that ancient craftsmen could man- 
ufacture such minute but perfect spheres. Actually, 
their production is the easiest part of the operation, 
owing to a law of nature that makes small metal parti- 
cles assume spherical shape when they melt. Two basic 
methods of achieving this were probably known to the 
ancients. First, one can pour a stream of molten gold 
onto a hard, flat surface or into cold water or into pow- 
dered charcoal. The process can be facilitated by pour- 
ing the stream through a broom of new birch twigs to 
help disperse the gold or by rapidly stirring the cold 



9. Braided gold necklace, Cat. no. 239163. R. D. De Puma 



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11 . Schematic drawing of gold ornament in Fig. 10, showing four 
types of wire: A, "beaded" wire; B, "twisted" wire; C, flat serpentine 
wire placed vertically; D, plain wire. Stippling indicates "dust" 
granulation. 



12. Elaborate gold discs with fine granulation. Cat. nos. 
239153-4. R. D. De Puma 



water. In any of these variations, the molten metal is 
broken up into small particles which cool quickly and 
form spheres of various sizes. 

The second method is more complicated. One 
first cuts gold wire into small pieces of uniform size. 
These are then placed in a crucible where they are kept 
apart by layers of ash. When the crucible is heated the 
wire bits melt into spheres. This method requires more 
time and fuel but it is the only one which produces 
grains of uniform size. Grains made by one of the pour- 
ing methods would have to be sorted, but this could be 
accomplished easily with graduated sieves. 

Soldering Processes 

Having produced gold grains of various sizes, how did 
the Etruscans attach them to the jewelry they wished to 
decorate? Soldering each tiny sphere individually 
would, of course, be blindingly difficult. In fact, 
although metallic solder can be seen on granulated 
work from Egypt and other areas, it is not detectable on 
most Etruscan jewelry. Modem researchers now be- 
lieve that a non-metallic solder was most likely used. In 
the "copper-salt process," for example, an animal or 




13 



fish glue was applied to the gold base (or "substitute") 
to be decorated. This could then be "dipped" into a 
container of grains of the desired size, or depending on 
the area to be decorated, the grains could be sprinkled 
onto the substrate. The grains adhering to the glued 
area could, if necessary, be adjusted at this point to 
form more precise patterns. 

Mixed with the glue was a powdered copper com- 
pound such as malachite, whose Greek name chrysokol- 
la means "gold-solder" or "gold-joiner." Malachite 
reacts violently when heated and can mar or even eat 
through thin metal; it had to be combined with other 
ingredients before it could safely be used to solder deli- 
cate jewelry. Pliny {Natural History XXXlll, 29, 93) 
records a gold-solder recipe which dilutes malachite 
with Cyprian verdigris (copper acetate pentahydrate, 
the product of bronze corrosion), nitrum (a compound 
of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sul- 
phate) and child's urine (probably used to thin the mix- 
ture; prepubescent urine is low in zinc). It is especially 
interesting that Pliny speaks of this formula as some- 
thing foreign and whose name in Latin is santema, a 
word which has been shown to be Etruscan in origin. It 
is almost certain that the same recipe or one very sim- 
ilar was used by the Etruscan goldsmiths who handed it 
down to the Romans of Pliny's time. 

When the decorative patterns have been "drawn" 
with this special glue, the grains may be applied. Once 
the glue is dry the grains are secure; additional areas of 
the object may be decorated without disturbing the first 
application. When the completed piece is heated the 
organic glue carbonizes and releases water. The 
malachite (basic copper carbonate) becomes copper 
oxide which, at about 850°C, with the help of carbon 
from the glue, reduces to copper. It is this metallic cop- 
per which replaces the glue compound and solders the 
grains to the substrate. It is important to realize that 
diffusion of this metallic copper in the microscopic area 
between grain and contact point on the substrate re- 
sults in a new alloy with a much lower melting point 
(about 890°C) than the grain or substrate proper 
(about 1,000°C). In other words, there is no danger 
that the grains themselves will melt before they are per- 
manently fixed by the new copper alloy solder. 

Electron microprobe analysis has recently demon- 
strated that the joins between grains and substrate on 
some 7th century B.C. Etruscan jewelry are indeed rich 
in copper. In the pieces sampled, the average alloy con- 
tent for both grain and substrate was approximately 68 
percent gold, 30 percent silver, and 1.3 percent cop- 
14 per; the joins, however, showed heavier con- 



centrations of copper, as high as five percent. This 
proves that the copper-salt, non-metallic (or "colloid") 
soldering process described above was definitely used 
for at least some of the granulated jewelry made by the 
Etruscans during the 7th century. Unlike metallic 
soldering, a distinct advantage of this copper-salt 
method is that all the joining need not be done at one 
time. New areas of granulation or filigree may be added 
in several stages without harm to elements attached 
earlier. This feature is particularly important in the 
production of complex designs. 

"Sintering" is another joining method proposed 
for Etruscan granulation. In this process grains are 
again attached to the substrate with glue, then the 
piece is heated until the glue volatizes. Finally, at a 
critical point, the gold surfaces begin to melt. If the 
piece is removed from the furnace at this time, before 
the grains themselves melt, joins will have formed be- 
tween grains and substrate. These joins are not copper- 
enriched. Sintering requires rigorous temperature con- 
trol and works only on objects with high gold content. 
The Etruscans may have known both this and the 
copper-salt process but, at this time, only the latter is 
proven. 

Types of Granulation 

Etruscan goldsmiths employed five types of granula- 
tion, often using more than one kind on the same 
piece. In "massed" granulation the grains form a scintil- 
lating background for figures in repousse; sometimes 
this massing simply creates a textural difference to indi- 
cate hair or beard or to distinguish various parts of a 
complicated element such as a lotus blossom or to dif- 
ferentiate patterns in a complex design (nos. 239153- 
4). An excellent example of massed granulation 
appears on a 5th-century beaded necklace (no. 
239189), figure 13. It is used to enliven the hair of 
alternating satyr and human heads; the smaller human 
heads are only 6.5mm tall. Less energetic Etruscan 
goldsmiths imitated the appearance of massed granula- 
tion with repousse dots, especially in the 4th century. 

"Silhouette" granulation uses masses of grains to 
form figures against a blank gold background. It is espe- 
cially popular on 7th-century pins and rarely appears 
on later Etruscan jewelry. Such a pin (no. 239148), 
figure 14, in the Field Museum shows two swans ren- 
dered in silhouette granulation. 

"Linear" granulation is by far the type most fre- 
quently used by the Etruscans. Here either single or, 
more often, double rows of grains form figures or 




13. Beaded gold necklace, 5th cent. B.C. (detail). Cat. no. 239189. 
Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik 1 10409C 



14. Seventh century gold pin, with swans rendered in silhouette 
granulation. Cat. no. 239148. R. D. De Puma 




geometric designs. The rows may be joined directly to a 
flat substrate but typically follow tiny repousse grooves. 
Linear granulation often articulates the three- 
dimensional gold animals perched on so many Orienta- 
lizing pieces or the hollow gold beads of objects like no. 
239169. The gold beads on this last piece are only 8mm 
in diameter; yet each hemisphere is elaborately deco- 
rated with a frieze of palmettes and volutes executed in 
double-row linear granulation. Triple rows of grains are 
used for the biconical beads of another necklace (no. 
239159) of ca. 650 B.C. 

Two other types of granulation are not as common 
in Etruscan work: "Point" granulation is simply the use 
of isolated, usually large, grains to punctuate an indi- 
vidual element. Such treatment is most common on a 
haule ("valise-shaped") earrings such as those discussed 
earlier (nos. 239066-8). "Cluster" granulation uses 
grains set upon each other to build tiny pyramids. In its 
simplest form, three grains support a centrally placed 
fourth grain, the apex of the pyramid. Such clusters are 
usually combined with linear granulation and are often 
isolated from each other. 

This brief outline of the basic techniques of Etrus- 
can gold jewelry should, 1 hope, dispell some of the 
"mystery" so often associated with this art and the cul- 
ture which produced it. At the same time, we cannot 
fail to be impressed with Etruscan goldsmith skills. Few 
ancient works can rival these for elegance of design and 
delicacy of execution. That point will remain true no 
matter how well we come to understand the various 
techniques. FM 



15 




Among Indians of the Canadian Northwest 

by James W. VanStone 

Curator of North American Archaeology and Ethnology 



16 



n 1971 Field Museum acquired a decorated 
cloth pouch for gun shot identified only as 
being from "Northwestern North America." It 
is in excellent condition and is ornamented 
with the extremely fine loom-woven quillwork 
designs characteristic of Athapaskan Indians of 
interior Alaska and northwestern Canada and 
the Cree-speaking peoples of western and 
northwestern Canada. Although this shot pouch lacks 
precise provenience, it has been of special interest 
because of its excellent condition and the fine quality of 
its workmanship. Indians of the northwest have always 
been considered among the finest native American 
craftsmen in the working of porcupine quills and one of 
the few peoples to have perfected the weaving technique 
with this material. There seemed little likelihood, 
however, that a more precise provenience could be de- 
termined for this particular specimen. 

In 1985 a similar cloth shot pouch was seen in the 
collections of the Peabody Museum at Harvard Univer- 
sity. The documentation for this pouch is sketchy, but it 
is said to have been collected among Cree Indians before 
1819 by Roderick McKenzie and acquired by the Pea- 
body Museum in 1890 from the American Antiquarian 
Society, of Worcester, Massachusetts. Although the 
Peabody Museum pouch is in relatively poor condition, 
it is sufficiently similar to the Field Museum pouch to 
suggest that both are of Cree manufacture. 

Bags and pouches were of considerable importance 



to people like the Cree, who traditionally did not pro- 
vide their garments with pockets, and a number of differ- 
ent forms were adapted to suit a variety of purposes. The 
pouches described here contained lead shot for muzzle- 
loading weapons. Early paintings and drawings indicate 
that these pouches were worn around the neck and hung 
down across the chest. 

When the collector of an ethnographic object is 
well known, the possibility of determining where the ob- 
ject was collected is considerably enhanced, since the 
residence or movements of the collector are often 
documented in published or unpublished historical 
documents. In the case of the Peabody Museum pouch, 
with its presumed early nineteenth-century date, we can 
assume that the collector, Roderick McKenzie, was 
probably associated with one of the fur trading com- 
panies operating throughout western and northern 
Canada at that time. Unfortunately for our purposes, 
there were no less than five men named Roderick 
McKenzie associated with the Hudson's Bay Company 
and its competitors during the first half of the nineteenth 
century, a fact attributable to the tendency at that time 
for young men from Scotland to migrate to Canada and 
enter the service of trading companies. 

The best known Roderick McKenzie seems likely, 
on the basis of location and time of service, to have been 
the collector of the cloth pouch in the Peabody 
Museum. Bom in Scotland about 1761, he was a first 
cousin of the famous explorer Sir Alexander MacKenzie 



and came to Canada in 1784. The following year he en- 
tered the service of Gregory, McLeod and Company, a 
firm in which his cousin was a partner. This company, 
which had previously traded at Detroit and Michili- 
mackinac (on Mackinac Island) in northern Michigan, 
entered the trade along the Saskatchewan, Churchill, 
and Athabasca rivers (fig. 1 ) and in 1785 sent out its first 
fur trading brigades to the northwest. Roderick McKen- 
zie spent the winter of 1785-86 in charge of the com- 
pany's depot at Grand Portage on the north shore of Lake 
Superior, then joined his cousin Alexander at Ile-a-la- 
Crosse in west-central Saskatchewan. In 1786-87 he 
wintered at an outpost he built at Lac des Serpents below 
Ile-a-la-Crosse Lake. 

In 1787 Gregory, McLeod and Company joined 
with the old North West Company to form a new firm 
with the latter's name. The following year Roderick was 
sent to build a post on the south shore of Lake Athabasca 
which he named Fort Chipewyan and it was from there 
in June, 1789 that his cousin Alexander set off to explore 
the great river flowing into the Arctic Ocean that today 
bears his name. The length of Roderick's stay at Fort 
Chipewyan cannot be determined with certainty, but he 
was there in 1792 when Alexander began his second ma- 
jor exploring expedition, this time to the Pacific Ocean. 
The prospects of trade led Roderick McKenzie to con- 
struct a winter post on a small island at the entrance to 
the Mackenzie River in 1790 and he was also stationed at 
Great Slave Lake in the spring of 1792 in the hope of 
establishing trade relations with the Athapaskan- 
speaking Slavey Indians living west of the lake. 



n 1800 Alexander MacKenzie left the North 
West Company to join the newly established 
XY Company, but his cousin did not follow 
him. Instead he was named a partner of McTav- 
ish, Frobisher and Company and was one of the 
agents of that firm at Grand Portage in 1800. 
Roderick McKenzie retired from active par- 
3r ticipation in the trade in 1801 and lived in 
Quebec until his death in 1844. 

McKenzie was a man of considerable literary inter- 
ests and is said to have established a fine library at Fort 
Chipewyan. After his retirement from the fur trade, he 
devoted himself to gathering information for a history of 
Indian tribes of the Northwest as well as a history of the 
North West Company. In order to obtain the necessary 
materials for these works he sent out printed circulars to 
many of the wintering partners and clerks of the North 
West Company requesting them to send him letters, 




1. Map of northern Saskatchewan with a portion of northern Alberta 
and the southern Northwest Territories. 



journals, and other information relating to company 
activities and to the life of the native peoples near the 
posts where they were stationed. Some of this informa- 
tion was later published by McKenzie's son-in-law, L.R. 
Masson. ' 

In addition to his documented interest in the cul- 
tures of native peoples, it is certain that Roderick 
McKenzie, during his active years in the fur trade, was 
also interested in collecting objects of native man- 
ufacture. In a letter dated March 2, 1791 Alexander 
MacKenzie at Fort Chipewyan wrote to his cousin who 
was then on Great Slave Lake: "I find by your journal, 
that you have purchased some curiosities; I wish you will 
miss nothing in that way, as you know, I am destitute of 
those articles. It would be unbecoming a North- Wester 
to appear below so impoverished in that line."^ 
Although nothing is known concerning the "curiosities" 
McKenzie was able to collect, either at Great Slave Lake 
or while stationed at other posts further south, it is possi- 
ble that the shot pouch now in the Peabody museum was 
part of his collection. 

The Peabody Museum pouch (cat. no. 49319), 



1. L.R. Masson, "Les Bourgeois de la compagnie duNord-Ouest 
recits de voyages, lettres et rapports inedits relatives au Nord-Ouest 
Canadien." 2 vols. New York: Antiquarian Press Ltd., I960 (origi- 
nally published in 1895). 

2. Masson, 1960, vol. 1, p. 36. 17 



18 




2. Shot pouch (49319). Peabody Museum, Harvard University nmi Burger N31159 




3. The woven quillwork technique without sewing (from: W.C. Orchard, "The Technique of Porcupine Quill Decoration among the Indians of 
North America. "Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1971). 



measuring 29 x 16 cm, is constructed from a single rec- 
tangular piece of English red wool stroud folded over so 
that the back extends above the front (fig. 2). The sides 
are sewn with coarse thread to form a single deep pouch 
edged on three sides with brown cotton cloth. At the 
upper end is a piece of appliqued white silk, the lower 
edge of which is cut into irregular V-shaped designs. 

The major decoration on the front of this pouch 
consists of a pair of rectangular panels of woven porcu- 
pine quills mounted on separate pieces of light-colored 
wool Stroud. Both the warp and weft elements appear to 
be of coarse thread. The woven technique, in which no 
sewing is involved except when the weave is finished, 
was confined to northern Athapaskan tribes, the Cree, 
Indians of the Great Lakes region, and the Iroquois. 

The process of weaving consists of first stretching 
the warp strands on a wooden bow loom in the same 
manner as a bow string would be strung. As a spreader for 
the warp strands, two pieces of birch bark are placed at 
each extremity of the warp elements. These bark pieces 
are perforated with a straight row of small holes through 
which the warp strands run. The distance between these 
perforations corresponds to the width of a flattened por- 
cupine quill. 




weft strand is attached to the outside warp 
strand and then passed alternately over and 
under the warp, by means of a small wooden 
itei* ir- shuttle, to the opposite side where it is turned 
and crossed over again. At the same time, the porcupine 
quills, inserted with the fingers, are woven between the 
warp strands and over and under the weft elements. As 
the end of a quill is reached, the final portion protrudes 
at the back. Then another flattened quill is inserted and 
the weaving is continued (fig. 3). Moistened quills are 
used because they are more pliable. On the loom illus- 
trated here (fig. 4), the piece of bark at the left can be 
moved up and down the warp strands, indicating that it 
served as a weave sword or beater to tighten the quills 
and insure a straight line across the weave. 

On the Peabody Museum pouch a row of white 
beads entirely surrounds each quillwork panel and at the 
ends are rows of green beads inside the white beads. 
These rows of beads are strung separately from the warp 
and weft elements. The two decorative quillwork panels 
are identical. Since the dyed quills are badly faded the 
colors cannot be determined with certainty, but the 
motifs appear to be geometric with diamond shapes pre- 
dominating. 




4. A bow loom (from: Orchard, 1971). 



19 




I 



20 E. 



5. Shot pouch in Field Museum's collections. Ron Testa 



Below each quillwork panel is a fringe of quill- 
wrapped cloth strips. The quill wrapping includes bands 
of blue, white, and brown-dyed quills. At the lower end 
of each fringe strand is a metal dangler from the lower 
end of which extends raveled, red-dyed trade cloth as a 
substitute for caribou or deer hair. To hold the fringe in 
place, each strand is sewn to the front of the pouch just 
above the dangler. 

Between the two decorative panels and fringes is a 
wide band of blue silk cloth sewn to the wool stroud. It 
covers the entire width of the pouch. 

The shot pouch in Fi€ld Museum's collection (cat. 
no. 197) measures 24 x 16.5 cm. It resembles the Pea- 
body Museum pouch in almost all respects but consists of 
two rectangular pieces of black wool stroud sewn 
together with coarse thread along three sides rather than 
of a single folded piece (fig. 5). The back piece extends 
above the front and the inside is lined with white cotton 
cloth. All seams are edged with green cotton cloth and 
there is a carrying strap of the same material. 

Decoration on the front of this pouch also consists 
of a pair of rectangular panels of woven, dyed porcupine 
quills with warp and weft elements of coarse thread. 
These panels are not mounted on pieces of stroud, as are 
those on the Peabody pouch, but simply sewn to the 
pouch at either end with the ends of the warp threads. 
Across the top they are sewn through the selvage edges, 
but the bottom edges are not sewn to the pouch. On the 
three sewn sides the panels are edged with unflattened 
quills wrapped with flattened quills. 

The decorative motifs are geometric and may dupli- 
cate almost precisely those on the Peabody Museum 
pouch. Figures 5 and 6 show details of the weaving and 
the variety of colors used. Most are bright and clear 
although the yellow is somewhat faded. Extending be- 
low each panel is a narrow piece of white wool stroud cut 
in narrow strips to form a fringe over which dentalium 
seashells (tooth shells) have been fitted. Tufts of red- 
dyed caribou or deer hair extend from the end of each 
shell. The lower ends of the shells are held together by 
strands of thread which extend across the entire fringe. 

Although both pouches appear to be of con- 
siderable age, the Indians who made them already had 
access to a variety of European trade materials. The wool 
stroud from which both pouches are made, replacing 
tanned animal hide, was widely distributed by traders 
across North America at an early date. Glass trade beads 
began to replace porcupine quills as the major element in 
decoration early in the nineteenth century and their 
introduction eventually resulted in a shift from geomet- 
ric motifs to predominately floral patterns. Beads per- 
mitted greater flexibility of design and were much easier 





6. Detail of Field Museum 's shot pouch showing woven quiltwork dec- 
oration. Ron Testa 



to use than porcupine quills. The use of thread for sewing 
and weaving rather than sinew and the presence of metal 
danglers on the Peabody Museum pouch are further in- 
dications of European influence. The dentalium shells 
on the Field Museum pouch were obtained in aboriginal 
times from the northwest coast by direct or indirect 
trade. After European contact they were imported by the 
Hudson's Bay Company and other traders. 



ith reference to a possible provenience for 
both pouches, it seems likely, based pri- 
marily on documentation for the Peabody 
Museum specimen and the known travels 
of Roderick McKenzie, that they were made by Cree In- 
dians. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth cen- 
turies, the Western Woods Cree occupied the full boreal 
forest west of Hudson and James bays, including the 
northern portions of Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatch- 
ewan, and Alberta. The Peabody Museum specimen was 
probably collected in the extreme western section of this 
area, possibly while Roderick McKenzie was on lle-a-la- 
Crosse Lake, at Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, or 
on Great Slave Lake. In fact, he may have collected the 
pouch in response to his cousin's request for objects of 
native manufacture. All this is highly conjectural, of 
course, but a Cree origin for both pouches is strongly 
indicated. The Peabody Museum pouch would appear 
to date from the end of the nineteenth century, while 
Field Museum's specimen may date somewhat later. 
Both are fine examples of North American Indian 
craftsmanship. 



21 



Japanese Lacquer Wares 




Inro and Netsuke 
From the Carl and Jeanette Kroch Collection 

By Lisa Adler, Bennet Bronson, Irene Chong, and Sally Kurth 
Photos by Sophia Anastasiou-Wasik and Ron Testa 



22 



The Museum is fortunate to have received last 
year a collection of some sixty Japanese inro 
with attached ojime and netsuke, donated by 
Carl and Jeanette Kroch of Chicago. The collection 
is a fine one. When combined with pieces given 
in the past by other donors, especially the late John 
Woodward Leslie of Evanston, the Krochs' gift gives 
the Museum real strength in the areas of Japanese 
netsuke, inro, and lacquer work in general. 

The illustrations for this article are of inro and 
netsuke from the Kroch collection. Most of the pieces 



donated by the Krochs, including all of those shown 
here, will be on exhibit for the first time this fall. 
Many will later be transferred to the cases of the 
regular Japanese and Chinese lacquer exhibit in 
Hall 32; 



Bennet Bronson is associate curator of Asian archaeology ar\d ethnol- 
ogy; Lisa Adkr, Irene Chong, and Sally Kurth are volunteers in the 
Department of Anthropology Sophia Aruistasiou-Wasik is a staff 
photographer arul Ron Testa is head of the Division of Photography. 



That exhibit and a previous article in the Bulletin 
(May 1979) give a general introduction to Asian 
lacquer wares. For readers who have not seen the 
exhibit or read the article, a short review of the 
subject may be useful. 



First of all, what are inro and netsuke? An into 
is a type of small Japanese container, divided into 
several horizontal sections but otherwise rather like 
an old-fashioned tobacco can: rectangular in side view 
and oval as seen from above. It is designed to be 




I Birds in Togidaslii Technique. These are fine examples of togi- 

dashi maki-e, one of the most difficult of lacquer decorating tech- 
niques. The design, flush with the surface rather than raised in relief 
as in takamaki-e and hiramaki-e work, is achieved by first building 
up a design by sprinkling metal powders over layers of lacquer, then 
covering the design and background with a thick coating of opaque 
lacquer, and finally polishing the entire surface down until the de- 
sign emerges through the covering layer Both are signed with the 
name of Shiomi Masanari (also known as Masanobu), a well known 
lacquer artist of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. 
It is possible that both were actually made by him, though his signa- 
ture was often used by later artists. 

Left A flying snow heron over a scattering of reeds. Height 9.0 
cm. (284422). Right A wagtail perched in a kingfisher-like pose on a 
stump overlooking a body of water Height 6.3 cm. (284371 ). 



 Enjoying Nature. Both inro, in high relief or takamaki-e technique, 
show people enjoying the pleasures of nature: in one, two noblemen 
and a servant view maple trees in autumn; in the other, a group of 
men and women admire cherry blossoms in spring. Although the 
Japanese have long appreciated the charms of being alone in the 
midst of natural beauty communing with nature is not always a soli- 
tary activity Cherry blossoms in particular are meant to be viewed in 
company 

Left Unusually large gourd-shaped inro. The faces and heads 
are emphasized with inlaid ivory mother of pearl, and tortoise 
shell. Signed Heian Bunshu, or Bunshu of Kyoto. Height 10.3 cm. 
(284308). Rigtit Signed Kajikawa Bunryusai. The first artist of that 
name was the third Kajikawa (late 1 7th c), but the signature was 
used by at least one later artist (early 19th c). Height 8.2 cm. 
(284347). 



23 




Inro Attached to Ojime and Netsuke. When inro were still in use, 
they were invariably attached by a silk cord to a bead-like ojime and 
a netsuke. A modern collector often strives to assemble matching 
ensembles of these three items. The inro, ojime, and netsuke may 
be matched by feeling, by theme, by material, color, and/or texture, 
by artists, or by any combination of these. 

The ensemble on the left is entirely of lacquer The inro depicts a 
lady in Heian period costume and is signed Koma Koryu (late 18th- 
early 1 9th c). The ojime represents a toy ball. The netsuke is in the 
form of an inu-bariko, a papier-mache dog figure given to infants to 
bring them luck and protect them from evil influences. The signature 
on it is that of one Takamasu (ca. 1 800). (284344, 284345, 284346) 

The ensemble in the center has an autumnal theme. The inro is 
decorated in low relief on a smooth black ground, showing a les- 



pedeza ("bush clover") plant with several insects above a stream. It 
is signed Koma Kyuhaku, a name used by several lacquer artists of 
the 1 8th century The unsigned ojime is of gold, with insects and 
autumn plants. The ivory netsuke is signed Ryoko (20th c) and 
represents a toad on a sandal made of straw. (284440, 284396, 
284442) 

The ensemble on the right is composed of pieces that simply look 
well together The inro shows the celebrated poet-saint Hitomaro at 
the bay of Akashi, in a medallion set into a gold flake ground. His 
face is in ivory inlay It is signed Yoyusai (1772-1845). The ojime is a 
simple coral bead. The unsigned "bun-shaped" netsuke is of ivory; 
the figure is a tennin, one of the celestial beings who inhabit the 
Buddhist paradise. (284380, 284381 , 284379) 



24 



carried while suspended from a cord. The cord is tied 
in an elaborate bowknot at the bottom. At the top, 
the inro is held closed by a bead, or ojime, that slides 
along the cord. The cord is terminated by a toggle, or 
netsuke. In the days when inro were used as costume 
accessories, they were hung from a sash or belt around 
the waist; the cord was passed under the belt and kept 
from slipping out by the netsuke. 

Netsuke are small three-dimensional objects 



made to go on the end of a cord, acting both as a 
counterweight and as a stop to prevent the cord from 
slipping. A number of East Asian peoples have tradi- 
tionally used netsuke-like objects on the cords and 
straps of their belt pouches, knife and chopstick cases, 
and tobacco containers. The Manchurian, Mongol, 
and northern Chinese versions of such objects are 
known in English by the rather confusing term, tog- 
gle. The term netsuke, although it shows signs of be- 



coming adopted as an English word, is not yet in 
general use for toggles and counterweights that are 
not Japanese. 

Inro are said to have originally served as con- 
tainers for medicines. However, they lost this func- 
tion at about the time they began to be widely used in 
Japan, during the seventeenth century. Their new 
function was one that anthropologists consider more 
basic and interesting than mere health: that is, per- 
sonal adornment. Like other East Asians, Japanese 
men did not traditionally wear jewelry. In earlier 
times the need for status display had been filled partly 
by clothing and partly by ornaments on personal 
weapons as well as by the weapons themselves. By the 
seventeenth century, however, new levels of middle- 
class prosperity, along with strictly enforced laws con- 



cerning who was allowed to carry weapons, gave rise 
to an intense demand for new kinds of wearable status 
goods. Japanese artisans met this demand by creating 
ornaments not from gems and precious metals but 
from inexpensive raw materials, exquisitely crafted. 
Most inro were made from lacquer. Netsuke were 
generally made from lacquer, ivory, or wood. 

The word "lacquer" can cause confusion. 
Oriental lacquer must be distinguished from ( 1 ) shel- 
lac, made from a resin-like substance deposited by the 
lac insect; (2) varnish, made from various tree resins 
dissolved in turpentine; and (3) American lacquer, 
which is just a glossy type of paint. Genuine Oriental 
lacquer is a quite different product: a natural polymer 
— essentially, a plastic — derived from the sap of one 
among several species of Asian tree, including Rhus 



The Legend of the Tongue-Cut Sparrow. Once there was an elder- 
ly couple who had a pet sparrow. One day the sparrow ate some of 
the old woman's laundry starch. In a fury she cut its tongue and 
drove it off into the woods. The old man, who loved the bird dearly 
went searching for it. At last he found it. He and the sparrow greeted 
each other joyfully and the sparrow entertained him in its splendid 
home. As he was leaving, the sparrow offered a choice of baskets 
as a parting gift, one large and the other small. The old man chose 
the smaller one. On arriving home he found it was filled with silver 
and gold. The old woman scolded him and went to visit the sparrow 



herself. She too was offered a choice of baskets. She took the larger 
one and carried it off greedily But when she opened it, a horde of 
goblins sprang out and began to torment her The old man lived 
happily ever after 

Both are in low relief hiramaki-e. The scenes on them are very 
similar, showing that lacquer artists did not hesitate to use a good 
idea more than once. They are signed Koma Kansai, a name used 
by three generations of lacquer artists (late 18th-mid 19th c). Left 
Height 7.0 cm. (284431 ). Right. Height 6.0 cm. (284401 ). 




25 



vemicifera and R. succedanea, which are close relatives 
of poison ivy and poison sumac, and Melanorrhoea laC' 
cifera and M. usutata. The latter are the sources of the 
lacquer used in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam. Rhus 
vemicifera, the gishu or ch' i-shu of the Chinese and the 
urushi of the Japanese, is considered by most experts 
to be the "true" lacquer tree. 

Urushi tree sap has three unusual properties. 
First, like the sap of related plants here in North 
America, it induces very strong allergic reactions 
in most people. Second, it "dries" best under moist 
conditions, forming a solid polymer when exposed 
to humid air and to warmth but not to high heat. 
Third, solidified lacquer is fairly tough, reasonably 
strong, and extremely resistant to chemical damage. 



Although it can be injured by burning and even by 
long exposure to a dry atmosphere and ultraviolet 
light, it is unaffected by water and most other chemi- 
cal solvents. It is therefore often found even in very 
early archaeological sites. For all its seeming delicacy, 
lacquer is an eminently practical material: probably 
the finest industrial polymer known before the twen- 
tieth century. 

Incidentally, we do not know whether lacquer 
can be made from the American species of Rhus. 
Poison ivy, oak, and sumac, however, exude large 
quantities of thick grayish sap when cut, and this 
hardens into a resinous mass over time. Considering 
that lacquer comes from several separate Asian spe- 
cies, it seems possible that the sap of at least one 



26 



Two Inro of the Shibayama School. Both are signed Shibayama, 
the name of a family of lacquer worl<ers (late 1 8th-1 9th c) and of a 
technique popularized by them, involving incrustation with various 
materials in mosaic-like patterns. Shibayama work is currently held 
in low regard by many collectors. Its ornate character has even led 
some to claim that such work was made exclusively for export, 
apparently because they believe that traditional Japanese taste 
eschewed everything that was so gaud,ily ornamented. In reality. 



taste in Japan — as elsewhere in the world — was variable. Many Shi- 
bayama pieces were made for and used by Japanese. 

Left. A dancer dressed as a Tengu, a mythical forest-dwelling 
creature with a long nose. The foreground shows a toy cart loaded 
with a fish. Of ivory inlaid and overlaid with shell and coral. Height 
8.6 cm. (284353). Right. A richly caparisoned elephant of ivory 
metal, and shell on a dull gold lacquer ground. It is signed with two 
names, Shibayama and Kajikawa. Height 8.6 cm. (284359). 





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Celebrated Places. These two inro show scenic spots long fre- 
quented by tourists: Mount Fuji and the countryside around Kyoto. 
Mount Fuji, of course, is famed for its beauty as well as its sacred 
character The Kyoto area contains many noted attractions, a num- 
ber of which appear on the inro on the right. The small rectangles 
with written Kany/ characters give place names, suggesting that the 



inro could have served as a guide for travelers and pilgrims. Both 
are made by the high relief or takamaki-e technique. . 

Left A railing, swallows and willows are in the foreground. Signed 
Koma KoryO (end of 18th-early 19th c). Height 8.3 cm. (284437). 
Right. Signed Shosensai (19th c). Height 9.0 cm. (284368). 



American species, if filtered arid kept away from sun- 
light and air before use, would behave like lacquer as 
well. Readers who are immune to the poison and have 
backyards full of Rhus might find the experiment 
worth trying. 

Lacquer was originally used as a relatively thin 
waterproof coating over wood. It appeared first in 
China in the Shang period, about 3,500 years ago. By 
the Han period, 2,000 years ago, Chinese lacquer- 
making was carried out on an industrial scale and ob- 
jects were being made mainly of lacquer, by building 
up thick layers of that substance over thin shells of 
cloth or wood. Large government lacquer factories 
existed. Quantities of finished lacquer wares were 
shipped to customers as far away as Korea. By the 
middle Tang period, about A. D. 650-850, Chinese 
lacquer wares had reached very high levels of techni- 
cal proficiency and were widely exported. The Japa- 
nese were among China's best customers for lacquer. 



They are said to have imported entire lacquered wood 
buildings during Tang times. 

A significant change began to occur at some 
point between A.D. 900 and 1000, however. Japanese 
imports from China declined and Japanese production 
of lacquer improved very rapidly in quality while 
moving away from simple imitation of the Chinese 
product. By 1 100 or even before then, the distinctive 
built-up maki-e techniques had been developed and 
Japan was already making some of the finest lacquer 
ware in the world. 

Over the first few centuries of the second millen- 
nium A.D., the Japanese continued to be deeply inter- 
ested in lacquer — perhaps more interested than most 
of their neighbors. Japan had no monopoly on cre- 
ativity. A number of new techniques for working lac- 
quer were invented by Chinese craftsmen during this 
period and subsequently borrowed by the Japanese; 
yet the latter continued to show extraordinary skill, 27 



28 



--f 



i^i 



■^ 




i Pictures of Folk Art. This kind of conceptual play, with designs 
connposed of pictures that represent pictures rather than things, 
was already long established in Japanese decorative arts by the 
time Zeshin designed these two inro. The woman is Otafuku, a 
plump person of legend whose picture is carried on bamboo rakes 
during the folk festival of Tori no tviachi. She symbolizes good luck. 
Both inro bear the signature of Shibata Zeshin (1 807-91 ). One of the 
greatest of recent lacquer artists, he was noted for complex textures 
and highly original design effects. 

Left The insets show Otafuku, dice, money and white beans, 
symbolizing good wishes for the New Year The background sim- 
ulates either leather or blackened cast iron. Height 8.0 cm. 
(284434), Right Two insets of folklore subjects may be seen, a fan- 
shaped Otafuku picture and an ema, a plaque with a painted horse 
used as an offering at shrines. Height 7.0 cm. (28431 4). 



*■ The Legend of Takasago. These three inro depict different 
scenes from the same story, that of a couple who have come to 
represent longevity and wedded bliss. Jo, the husband, and Uba, 
the wife, lived by gathering pine needles. They died at a great age, 
in the same hour of the same day Their spirits then came to inhabit a 
pair of intertwined pine trees. Until 1931 these pines could still be 
seen near the shore at Takasago on the Inland Sea. 

Left Jo with his rake. Unsigned. Gold and black lacquer with in- 
laid gold and silver metal. 8.5 cm. (284287). Center. A broom and 
rake under a pine tree. Signed Zeshin (1 807-91 ). Gold lacquer with 
inlaid silver metal and shell. Height 8.5 cm. (284329). Rigfit Two 
pines with their branches intertwined. Signed Jokasai (late 1 8th- 
early 1 9th c). Black, gold and silver lacquer with Inlaid abalone or 
pearl shell. Height 6.0 cm. (284410). 



i Seasonal Flowers by Kajikawa School Artists. Many lacquer 
artists signed their work with the name Kajikawa. Some were actual 
members of the family of that name, which started making objects of 
lacquer in the 1 7th century and continued through the 1 9th century 
Some were apprentices, sons-in-law, or others who earned the right 
to use the name, and some were outright forgers who appropriated 
a signature to which they were not entitled either by custom or by 
skill. Jokasai was the leading apprentice of the original Kajikawa. He 
too had many successors who used his name. Each of these de- 
picts a more or less naturalistic floral scene. The chrysanthemums 
symbolize autumn and the peonies, spring. The flowers with butter- 
flies connote summer All three inro are in the medium- or high-relief 
technique called takamaki-e. 

Left Chrysanthemums and mist. Signed Kajikawa (1 7th-19th c). 
height 8.7 cm. (284281). Center. Peonies and dogs. Signed Kajika- 
wa. Height 8.5 cm. (284326). Right Flowers and butterflies, the lat- 
ter with inlay of silver and pearl shell. Signed Jokasai (late 1 8th-early 
19th c). Height 8.7 cm. (284302). 



often surpassing their counterparts from China and 
elsewhere in the precision with which their work was 
executed and in the general quality of their product. 
By the time Europeans first reached eastern Asia in 
the sixteenth century, there was no question in any- 
one's mind who made the most desirable lacquer 
wares. By far the best on the international market of 
the 1600s were Japanese, as shown by the large 
quantities of lacquer boxes, cases, chests, cups, desks, 
stools, tables, tea-trays, writing boxes, and so forth 
that are recorded as having been carried from Japan to 
Southeast Asia, India, Europe, and even to China. 

Thus, the first inro appeared in the context of a 
highly developed and long established industry. Most 
of the principal lacquer-working techniques were 29 




Netsuke of Ivory and Lacquer. Top row, 1 . to r.: Lacquer netsuke in 
the form of an oni, a Japanese demon. Tfie tectinique used is called 
negoro: a layer of red lacquer is applied over black lacquer and 
plain wood, then partly rubbed off. Unsigned. Height 5.8 cm. 
(284313). Lacquer netsuke portraying the Rabbit in the Moon. In 
Japanese and Chinese folklore the moon is inhabited by a rabbit 
(technically a hare) who formerly sacrificed himself to become food 
for the Buddha Sakyamuni and was rewarded with everlasting life. 
Here he is shown leaning on the moon; in his other paw he holds the 
pestle with which he prepares the Elixir of Immortality Signed Tat- 
suke Takamasu (late 18th-early 19th c). Height 3.7 cm. (284445). 
Lacquer netsuke with a lid depicting a ho-o (phoenix) bird in flight. 
The Japanese-Chinese phoenix is a powerful supernatural creature 
and a symbol of the feminine aspect of the universe. It is quite differ- 
ent in symbolic meaning from the phoenix of European tradition, 
which is not specifically female and which stands for self-sacrifice 
and regeneration. Unsigned. Height 2.4 cm. (284409). Ivory net- 
suke representing a cat chasing a rat hiding in a paper lantern. The 
rat actually moves. Signed Ryoko (20th c). Height 3.0 cm. (284307). 



Center row: Lacquer netsuke in the form of a square of silk 
brocade wrapped with cord. Unsigned. Height 3.4 cm. (28431 6). 
Lacquer-covered wooden netsuke in the form of a shishi, or Bud- 
dhist lion. Characterized by fierce expressions and curly mane, 
shishi figures often serve as guardians at doors and gates. Signed 
Shugetsu(18thc). Height 3.2 cm. (284391). Ivory netsuke. The 
figure's costume and hairdo are those of a European, perhaps a 
Dutchman. Yet he holds a miniature Buddhist deity in one hand and 
a toad in the other He may be Jiraiya, a legendary robber chief, but 
the symbolism involved is unclear Signed Kuya (1881 -1961). Height 
3.0 cm. (284289). 

Bottom row: Lacquer netsuke representing a child playing with 
a shishi (lion) mask. With the signature of Taishan (1825-1903), an 
outstanding pupil of Zeshin known for the refinement of his work. 
Height 4.5 cm. (284343). Lacquer netsuke in bun shape. The cutout 
forms are tea ceremony utensils. Unsigned. Height 1 .8 cm. 
(284400). Lacquer netsuke in the shape of a boat with a painting of 
a crane on its roof. Signed Yoyusai (1 772-1 845). Length 6.0 cm. 
(284430). Ivory netsuke. A tree branch with two loquat fruit. Un- 
signed. Height 4.2 cm. (284304). 



30 



already in existence by the mid-seventeenth century. 
Japanese ideas of design in the decorative arts, with 
their distinctive emphasis on contrast, asymmetry, 
and visual surprise, were well worked out by then. A 
strong demand existed due to the increasing wealth 
and size of the middle classes. So it is no surprise that 
into proliferated. Their function as status symbols in a 
very fashion-conscious society meant that quality of 
workmanship was of great importance and that ex- 
treme efforts were made to achieve novel effects in 
surface treatment and design. 

This emphasis on richness and novelty has not 
always been easy for foreign commentators to appreci- 
ate. Perhaps under the impression that the essence of 
all Japanese art is chaste simplicity, writers on the sub- 



ject have complained that in the Edo period (1615- 
1868), "lacquer ware lost its simple artistic effect and 
degenerated into detailed overomate pictorial designs 
as a result of the lavish demands of the rich merchant 
class. " The present authors do not doubt that this is 
partly true. And yet we confess that the gulf that sup- 
posedly separates the early simple lacquer made for 
the aristocracy from the late ornate lacquer made for 
the bourgeoisie is not always obvious to us. Many lac- 
quer objects of the Edo period, including many inro, 
are not at all showy or vulgar. Whether or not the 
people who used them were mere merchants, such 
objects rank with the more brilliantly simple of all 
known examples of decorative design. Ml 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
TDUR3^ 



Voyage to 
Patagonia and 
Cape Horn 

Including the Falklands 
and the Majestic Fjords 
of the Southern Andes 

Aboard the lUiria 
March 9 '19, 1988 
Accompanied by Dr. James S. Ashe, 
Field Museum Zoologist 



ITINERARY 

Day 1: March 9 
USA/Santiago 

Depart USA on a regularly scheduled flight to 
Santiago. 

Day 2: March 10 
Santiago 

Morning arrival in Santiago with transfer to Hotel 
San Cristobal Sheraton. Balance of the day at 
leisure. This evening attend a welcome cocktail 
reception and dinner at a local restaurant. 

Day 3: March 11 
Santiago 

In the morning tour cosmopolitan Santiago, 
situated at an impressive location below peaks 
that rise to 18,000 feet. Founded in 1541, San- 
tiago is the nation's modern, bustling capital. 
Visit the museum of natural history with its 
collection of Indian folk art; Santa Lucia Hill, 
where Santiago was founded; colonial San 
Francisco Church with its art treasures; and 
San Cristobal Hill, which affords panoramic 
views of the city and the Andes Mountains. 
Afternoon at leisure. 



Day 4: March 12 

Santiago/Punta Arenas/Embarkation on 

'llliria" 

Morning flight to Punta Arenas, the Patagonian 
city on the northern shore of the Strait of Magel- 
lan. Board the llliria and sail in the afternoon. 
Cruise westward on the waterway separating 
the Atlantic from the Pacific Ocean, and con- 
tinue along the Patagonian coast. 

Located between the Andes and the Paci- 
fic Ocean, the Pacific coast of Patagonia is one 
of the most spectacular areas in the world. The 
countless islands, which create a maze of 
channels and passages, combined with the 
grandeur of the ice-capped southern Andes 
which drop precipitously to the sea, make 
a ship journey here an unforgettable travel 
experience. 

Day 5: March 13 

Bay of Mountains/ 

Strait of Magellan/Beagle Channel 

From Puerto Natales, the llliria vj'iW proceed to 
the Bay of Mountains, a steep fjord, and con- 
tinue to the Strait of Magellan. This famed 
waterway which winds for about 360 miles in 
widths ranging from 2 to 20 miles, separates 
the land mass of South America from Tierra del 
Fuego, an archipelago of the continent's south- 
ern tip. Enter the Beagle Channel. Here, the im- 
pressive mountains of the Cordillera Darwin rise 
sharply from the sea to create one of the world's 
most breathtaking fjords. Explore some of the 
area's spectacular glaciers by zodiac (rubber 
boats) including Garibaldi Glacier. If conditions 
permit, land on brilliant white Alemania Glacier. 

Day 6: March 14 

Ushuaia/ 

Tierra del Fuego National Park 

Ushuaia, Argentina's center in Tierra del Fuego 
and the most southerly town in the world, has 
steep streets leading to the mountains, against 
which the town is built. Many vantage points in 
the town offer fine views of the nearby snow- 
covered peaks, rivers, woods, and waterfalls. 

An excursion travels to the Tierra del 
Fuego National Park, comprised of 154,000 
acres of mountains and lakes. The park is home 
to many species of birds and over 500 types of 
flowering plants. Enjoy a picnic lunch amidst 
this breathtaking scenery 

Day 7: March 15 
Cape Horn 

Early in the morning, reach Cape Horn and, 
weather permitting, make a landing on this 
landmark, first rounded in 1616 by the Dutch 
navigator Willem Cornelius Schouten. Born in 
Hoorn, Netherlands, Schouten appropriately 
named the cape after his hometown. Cape 
Horn, a steep rocky headland on Horn Island, 
marks the southernmost extremity of South 
America. Depart Cape Horn and continue 
cruising toward the Falkland Islands. 



Day 8 and Day 9: March Wand 17 
Port Stanley/Carcass Island/ 
West Point Island, Falkland Islands 

In the early afternoon of Day 8, arrive in Port 
Stanley the main town of the Falklands. First 
visited in 1592 by the English navigator Cap- 
tain John Davis, the Falklands changed hands 
several times between England, France, and 
Spain. Since 1832 they have been administered 
by England (despite Argentina's claim which 
culminated in 1982), and thus most of the 
approximately 2,000 inhabitants are exclusively 
of British descent. In their early history the is- 
lands were stopping-off places for whalers and 
sealers bound for Antarctica. While in Port 
Stanley see the impressive hulks of clipper 
ships which took refuge in the Falklands. For 
years, scientists have been attracted to the is- 
lands' rich wildlife, which is indeed among the 
most spectacular in the world. This is due to 
both the lack of human intrusion and the is- 
lands' diverse landscape, which ranges from 
inland moors, lakes, and mountains, to dramat- 
ic coastlines, characterized by abrupt cliffs 
and rocky beaches. Penguins alone include 
rockhoppers, magellenic, and king. The tame- 
ness of the birds of the Falklands is remarkable 
and there are over 50 species. Large colonies 
of sea lions and fur seals are found on the 
beaches. During our stay in the Falklands, visit 
the rich wildlife sanctuaries on Carcass and 
West Point Islands. 

Day 10: March 18 

At Sea 

Spend the day at sea cruising toward the South 

American continent. 

Day 11: March 19 
Punta Arenas/USA 

Early in the morning, the ////'r/awill enter the 
Eastern entrance of the Strait of Magellan and 
wind its way to Punta Arenas. Disembark for a 
tour of Punta Arenas which includes the Pata- 
gonia Institute and the Silesian Museum, with 
exhibits relating to the region's Indians and ani- 
mal and bird life. Continue to the airport for the 
flight to Santiago. Enjoy dinner in Santiago be- 
fore flying to the USA with arrival early the next 
morning. 



Rates: $2,795 - $4,295 per person 

(double occupancy) Single cabins are 

available. 

These rates do not include air fare 

These rates do include a $200.00 

contribution to Field Museunn of 

Natural History. 

Optional Extensions: 

Pre-Cruise: Rio De Janeiro and Iguassu 

Falls 

Post-Cruise: Easter Island 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr., Chicago, II 60605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicaso, IL 60605-2499 



MISS HARITA MAXEY 
T^^ll NORTH GREENVIEU 
CHICAGO IL 60626 



Cultural Energy" 

Photos of North and South American Cultures by John Collier Jr. 
Through November 1, in Hall 9 

"Cultural energy describes the flow essential to the survival of all human organization," says John Collier Jr , whose photo- 
graphic exhibit "Cultural Energy" opened in Hall 9 on September 19. Approximately 145 black-and-white photos depict the 
vitality of six distinct North and South American cultures. Through this moving, slice-of-life photography. Collier helps preserve 
the cultural identity of ethnic groups struggling to maintain their personality in a homogenized modern world. 

"Cultural Energy" documents the life flow of such people as the Navajo Dineh, a tribal nation which speaks an Athabaskan 
language and lives in the desert and mountain land. Spanish Americans are also included in the exhibit. Collier studies a group 
of New Mexicans whose presence in that region dates back 400 years. Today they are caught midway between their Spanish 
past and their present Anglo-dominated environment. 

Other cultures include Portuguese fishermen of Provincetown Massachusetts, French-speaking Acadians from the back- 
woods of Maine, Indians of the Andes and Venezuelan farmers. "My photographic assignments, from the Eskimos of Alaska to 
the Indians of the Peruvian Andes, have shown me that it is the cultural base that preserves personality," says Collier It is this 
"personality" that emanates so vividly from Collier's photos. The exhibit is free with regular Museum admission. 




New Permanent Exhibit Opens October i o 

In the world of the living, things are the size they are for natural reasons. Although fictional characters such as Godzilla and 
Thumbellina can be exciting, their exaggerated sizes could never be achieved in the real world. 

Field Museum's new exhibit "Sizes" explores issues and concepts of size and scale in the natural world. An interactive 
exhibit, "Sizes" is designed to stimulate visitors with thoughts about their own size in relation to the rest of the world. The exhibit 
is designed for informal use, with no necessary sequence to follow. Children and adults will enjoy exploring their way through 
15 units, studying one aspect of the natural world and having some fun in the process. 

Among the displays is an oversized table which is set with oversized disfies and eating utensils. Visitors are welcome to 
sit at the table and experience everyday objects proportioned to a different scale than what they are used to. A specially con- 
structed room with angled floors, walls, and ceiling demonstrates how size perceptions can be affected by tricking the senses. 
From some areas of the room children will seem adult-size, while across the way their parents might appear very small. 

Other exhibit units explore the metabolism and body mechanics of different sized animals. Visitors are made conscious of 
their own size by trying on different articles of clothing including Chicago Bears' William Perry's shoulder pads. Exhibit free with 
regular Museum admission. 



Coming in November: 

*Tiff any: 150 Years of Gems and Jewelry '^ 

November 7 through February 6 

Be sure to see this spectacular exhibition of Tiffany & Co. jewels and American gemstones. A special exhibit highlight will be the 
famed 128 carat Tiffany Diamond, the world's largest and finest canary diamond. Members' Preview, Saturday, November 7, 
5:00-10:00 p.m. 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY BULLETIN 



November 1987 



150 Years of Gems and Jewelry 

November 7 through February 6 



Field Museum 

of Natural History 

Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
Willard L. Boyd. 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, Jr. 
Thomas E. Donnelley II 
Thomas J. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Kinsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J. O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Leland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 
Bowen Blair 
Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 
Mrs. David W. Grainger 
Clifford C. Gregg 
Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 
William V. Kahler 
Edward Byron Smith 
John W. Sullivan 
J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

November 1987 
Volume 58, Number 10 



NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER EVENTS AT FIELD MUSEUM 3 

TIFFANY: 150 YEARS OF GEMS AND JEWELRY 

On view November 7 (Members' preview) through February 6. 

Edward Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy, 

writes on "The Tiffany Connection" 9 

"THE STUFF OF DREAMS: NATIVE AMERICAN DOLLS" 

122 dolls — prehistoric figurines to contemporary 

souvenirs on view November 18 through January 15 18 

THE FAMILY OF RUATEPUPUKE 

Reviving a Maori Meetinghouse, by Tory Light 25 

Field Museum Joins International Union for 

Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 30 

FIELD MUSEUM TOURS 

Voyage to Patagonia and Cape Horn 31 

COVER PHOTO 

Brooch containing 10 Montana sapphires, 1 1 pearls, and 102 
brilliant-cut diamonds. On view with more than 100 other ob- 
jects in the exhibition "Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and Jewel- 
ry," November 7 through February 6. See p. 9. 



Field Museum ofUoxvjai Hutopy BuUehn (USPS 898-940) is published tnonrhly. except combined July/ August issue, by Field Museum of Natutai History. Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes BtJieiin subscription. Opinions expressed by aurhors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone; (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Depanment. Postmaster: Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 




Life Among the Dinosaurs 

John Homer, Curator of Paleontology, 
Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University 

Saturday, November 14, 2:00pm 



In 1978 AN Amateur Paleontologist made a remarkable find in 
the Rockies of Western Montana: the fossilized remains of 1 5 
hadrosaurs (duck-billed dinosaurs). These fossils have led to 
one of the most exciting discoveries about dinosaur behavior in 
recent years. 

Near the original discovery site and in one other site in Mon- 
tana, John Horner and his colleagues have since unearthed 
more hadrosaur fossils as well as complete fossilized eggs. 
The presence of baby skeletal remains of the hadrosaurs show 
that these dinosaurs took care of their young in nests for sever- 
al months. Horner concludes that what is being found is not just 
a few random nest sites, but evidence that the hadrosaurs 
nested in colonies for protection against predators, and per- 
haps that they even traveled in herds. Never before have 
paleontologists found such overwhelming evidence of how 
dinosaurs nested and took care of their young. In another site 
Horner found nests with what appear to be baby hypsilopho- 
dontid dinosaurs, which clearly show that these animals re- 
turned there year after year. 

John Horner is curator of paleontology at the Museum of the 
Rockies in Bozeman, Montana and adjunct professor of geol- 
ogy at Montana State University His discoveries of dinosaur 
nesting grounds and fossilized baby dinosaur skeletons have 



stirred considerable interest around the world in the field of 
paleontology He has published widely on his findings and 
been featured on ABC's "20-20." In 1 986 he received a MacAr- 
thur Foundation fellowship for his studies of dinosaur behavior. 
Join John Horner as he shares his recent fieldwork findings 
and discusses his new theories on the evolution and behavior 
of dinosaurs. 

L87201 Life Among the Dinosaurs 

Tickets: $6.00 ($4.00 members). 

This program is funded in part by the Ray A. Kroc Environmen- 
tal Foundation. 



Registration by mail 

Please use coupon on page 4 to order tickets by mail. Be sure to 
complete the requested information and make checks payable to 
Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. Re- 
funds are made only if the program is sold out. 
By Phone 

Register by phone with American Express/Visa/MasterCard/ 
Discover Call Monday through Friday 9:00am-4:00pm. 
(312) 322-8854. 




Dinosaur Days 

November 7 and 8, 14 and 15, and 21 

The Roar of the "Thunder Lizard" is heard once again. Dino- 
saurs reigned the earth for 1 50 million years and then dis- 
appeared. Why? Investigate the birth, life, and extinction of 
these prehistoric creatures. Visit a dinosaur nesting site and 
a paleontologist's field camp. Find out why continental drift 
and the temperature of dinosaur blood are "heated" issues. 
Take a look at dinosaur types and consider why some found 
horns, frills, plates, and crests to be their style. Discover what 
it's like to dig in a fossil bone bed or how to prepare a fossil 
for study. 

All Dinosaur Days events are free with Museum admission. 
Saturdays, November 7, 14, and 21 
1:00-3 :00pm 

"Picture This!" 

Paint yourself a dinosaur-sized picture of Earth's prehistoric 
past. 



Saturday and Sunday, November 7 and 8 
1:00-4:00 pm 
Extinction Wars 

Whatever happened to the dinosaurs? There are many hotly 
contended theories. Using large picture dioramas, find out 
some of the leading ideas. 

Hot- and Cold-Blooded Dinosaurs 

Old assumptions that dinosaurs were reptiles may not be 
true. New evidence, presented in this demonstration, shows 
that dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded. 

Nests and Footprints — Dinosaur Behavior 

Giant trackways (trails of fossilized footprints) and fossilized 
nests tell us many things about dinosaurs: what good par- 
ents they were, who was predator and who was prey how 
big they were, and how fast they ran. 

The Fossil Process 

Through this demonstration and activity discover the unique 
processes of fossilization. 

Dinosaurian Epicure 

Examine the skulls and teeth of herbivores and carnivores, 
and cast a dinosaur tooth of your own. 

Continental Drift 

Find out how, for millions of years, continents have moved 
across the earth's surface. 



Life Among the Dinosaurs 

Registration 

Be sure to complete all requested information on this ticket 
application. If your request is received less than one week 
before the program, tickets will be held in your name at the 



West Entrance box office. Please make checks payable to 
Field Museum. Tickets will be mailed upon receipt of check. 
Refunds will be made only if the program is sold out. 



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addressed stamped envelope to: 

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Public Programs: Department of Education 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
Chicago, IL 60605-2497 



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L87201 Life among 

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"THE FAR SIDE" cartoon by Gary Larson is 

reprinted by permission of Ctnronicle Features. San Francisco 



Dinosaur Days 



Saturday and Sunday, November 14 and 15 
11:00-1 1:30am; 12:00noon-12:30pm 

Tales of the Prehistoric 

Listen and look at some of everyone's favorite dinosaur sto- 
ries, including Maia: A Dinosaur Grows Up, Danny and the 
Dinosaur, A Pterodactyl, the Story of a Flying Reptile, and 
Patrick's Dinosaurs. 

l:00-4:00pm 

Field Camp: Fossils from Field to Lab 

Explore our simulated paleontologists' field camp. Discover 
at various stations new facts about finding fossils in the field, 
excavating tfiem, protecting them for the long trip to the lab, 
and preparing them for scientific study: bone beds and fossil 
finds; coal ball peels: a close-up look at fossil plants; fossil 
fish preparation; field jackets: protecting the fossil; lab prep- 
aration; trackvi/ays. 

Saturday, November 21 
11:00am, 1:00pm, and 3:00pm 
Lifestyles of the Extinct and Fossilized 

A satiric revue of the habits, idiosyncracies and appearance 
of Mesozoic creatures. 

l:00-4:00pm 

Living Fossils 

Discover the prehistoric creatures still alive today 

Coal Ball Peels 

A close-up look at fossil plants. 




Ttie real reason dinosaurs became extinct 



Continued 



T 



^ 




Adult Courses 

"Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and Jewelry." 

This exhibit presents the evolution of jewelry design in the 
United States, focusing on Tiffany's unparalleled role as 
designer, manufacturer, and purveyor of fine jewelry. High- 
lighting the Tiffany exhibit, this featured lecture series intro- 
duces the study of gems and explores the significant con- 
tribution of Tiffany & Co. tothe jewelry field in the past 150 
years. 

n November 17 
"The Geology of Gems" 

Paul Sipiera, associate professor of Earth Sciences, Harper 
College. 

D November 24 

"A Gemologist's View" 

Tedd W. Payne, graduate gemologist 

n December 1 
"Tiffany" 

Wallace Steiner, divisional vice president, Tiffany & Co., 

Chicago. 

AC 87401 

Tuesdays, 7:00-9:00pm, November 17-December 1 
(3 sessions) 
$50 ($40 members) 

For further information on this and other adult programs, con- 
tact the Department of Education at (312) 322-8855. 




Brooch containing 10 Montana sapphires, 1 1 
Mississippi pearls, and 1 02 brilliant diamonds; 
1901. On view in the exhibit "Tiffany: 150 Years 
of Gems and Jewelry," November 7 through 
February 6. 



November and December Weekend Programs 

Each Saturday and Sunday you are invited to explore the world of natural history at Field Museum. Free tours, demonstrations, 
and films related to ongoing exhibits at the Museum are designed for families and adults. Listed below are only a few of the 
numerous activities each weekend. Check the Weekend Programs sheet upon arrival for the complete schedule and program 
locations. The programs are partially supported by a grant from the Illinois Arts Council. 

NOVEMBER 

7 1 :30pm: Tibet Today and A Faith in Exile (slide lec- 
ture). Investigate Lhasa and refugees in Dharmsala (home of 
the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and Sikkim. 

21 1 :30pm: Tibet Today and Bhutan (slide lecture). See 
Lhasa and other towns now open to the public, as well as 
Bhutan, Land of the Thunder Dragon. 

DECEMBER 

1 2 1 :30pm: Tibet Today and A Faith in Exile (slide lec- 
ture). Investigate Lhasa and refugees in Dharmsala (home of 
the Dalai Lama), Darjeeling, and Sikkim. 
1 1 2:00pm: Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze (slide 
lecture). Examine the life and works of Malvina Hoffman, con- 
centrating on the Portraits of Mankind Collection com- 
missioned by Field Museum. 

These programs are free with museum admission, no tickets 
required. 



Wintertime Tales 



Storytelling has been the path that civilizations throughout 
the world have used to pass on heritage, custom, religion, 
and explanations of the unbelievable. Join some of Chi- 
cago's best storytellers and hear about the exciting world 
around us. 

December 27, 1 2:00noon and 2:00pm 
Tales of the Caribbean with Keith Eric 
December 28, 12:00noon and 2:00pm 
Traditional African folk tales with Shanta 
December 29, 2:00pm 

Traditional African folk tales with Nora Blakely 
December 30, 2:00pm 

Traditional Thai tales told through dance by the Thai 
Classical Dancers 
These programs are free with Museum admission. 



Children Play: 

Games Around the World 

Saturday, December 5, 12, and 19 
l:00-3:00pm 

Discover the Fun and Excitement children around the world 
enjoy by playing their games. Take off those winter galoshes 
and let your feet fly in Philippine tininkling, Chinese jump- 
rope, Eskimo seal races, and more. 



Winter at the Field 

Hall interpretive Program 

Thursday through Sunday 
November and December 

During November and December, you can compare the size of 
Apatosaurus to Compsognathus, discover the differences in 
right- and left-spiraled shells, learn a string game from the 
Arctic, play a Native American dice game, and more. Hall 
Interpreters, dressed in blue aprons and located throughout 
the exhibit halls, help young and old to experience the won- 
ders of Field Museum. 

These exciting activities are available to all Museum visi- 
tors Thursdays through Sundays, and everyday during the 
holiday periods. Please consult the television monitors 
throughout the Museum for activity locations. 

The Hall Interpretive Program is supported by grants from 
the Lloyd A. Fry Foundation and the Joyce Foundation. 



World Music 

Weekends in November and December 

1:00pm and 3:00pm 

Music Communicates in Many Ways. It is something that can 
be shared by all of us, whether or not we have common life- 
styles, beliefs, or even languages. From the spiritual harp of 
Light Henry Huff to the lively songs and stories of Shanta, 
November and December are musical celebrations at Field 
Museum. 

November 7 and 8 

1 :00pm~Alas Poets 

3:00pm— Light Henry Huff, harp 

November 14 and 15 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm— Don Pate, jazz bass 

November 21 

1:00pm and 3:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsu, zheng, Chinese zither 

November 28 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm — Manu and Nageree, traditional African 

music 

December 5 and 6 

1 :00pm — Light Henry Huff, harp 

3:00pm— Alas Poets 

December 12 and 13 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm — Don Moye, African percussion 

December 19 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm— Thai Classical Dance 

December 26 

1 :00pm and 3:00pm — Light Henry Huff, harp 

December 27 

1 :00pm — Manu and Nageree, traditional African music 

3:00pm — Librado Salazar, classical Spanish guitar 

December 28 

1 :00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers, African percussion 

2:00pm — Fan Wei-Tsu, Chinese zither 

3:00pm — Thunder Sky Drummers, African percussion 

December 29 

1 :00pm — Amira, African Shakere 

2:00pm — Amira, African Shakere 

3:00pm— Light Henry Huff, harp 

December 30 

1 :00pm — Shanta, storyteller 

2:00pm— Light Henry Huff, harp 

3:00pm — Shanta, storyteller 

The World Music Program is supported by the Kenneth and 

Harle Montgomery Fund and a City Arts lll/IV grant from the 

Chicago Office of Fine Arts, Department of Cultural Affairs. 



Ljoiir I II letnoev S ^7m.'iUillon lo 



Tiffaiiv: 150 Years of'Cieins and Jewelrv 



"^^^ 



^ W't 



^^pa^ 



You arc cordially invited to attend tiic Members Preview ol 
TitTan\ : 150 Years ofGems and Jewelrv at E-'ield Museum on 
Saturday evening. November 7, 5:(K) until l():(H) p.m. 

Because of the limited capacity ol the hall, a ticketing sys- 
tem lo regulate admission to the exhibit will be implemented 
that evening. Tickets will be given out at the central btnith in 
Stanley Field Hall. 

Light refreshments will be available for purchase from 
Con\ ito Italiano as well as beverages from the cash bar. Ihe 
■new" museum store will remain open util 4:45 p.m. 

Special arrangements for handicapped persons can be 
made by calling 422-9410. e\t. 45.^. The CTA #146 
Marine/Museum bus services Field Museum. Call CTA 
(8.^6-7(K)0) for schedules. 



The Tiffany Diamond, tfie larg- 
est and finest canary diamond 
in tfie world: 128.51 carats. 



Tiffany 

150 Years of Gems and Jewelry 

November 7 through February 6 




or more 
than a 
century, 
'Tiffany & Co. has 
dazzled the world 
with their highly 
imaginative and 
exquisitely crafted 
jewelry. Throughout their 
history, Tiffany &. Co. has 
delighted us with their 
uniquely American style in 
jewelry design; a style inspired by 
nature, the selection of superior gem- 
stones and a true love of design. 

Now, for the first time in their 150-year history, a 
stunning retrospective of Tiffany &. Co. jewels and 
American gemstones has been created, and Chicago is 
the first to see it. 

The exhibition "Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and 
Jewelry" is filled with over 100 breathtaking gems and 
jewelry objects showing the evolution of jewelry design 
in America and the unparalleled role Tiffany has played 
in this history. Most of the jewelry pieces belong to 
private collectors and have never before been publicly 
displayed. A special exhibition highlight will be the 
famed 128-carat Tiffany Diamond, the world's largest 
and finest canary diamond. 

Field Museum is proud to host this once-in-a- 
lifetime exhibition in celebration of Tiffany &. Co.'s 
150th Anniversary. 



Bracelet, with rubies, sapphires, diamonds, emeralds, and platinum; 
late 1 920s. This magnificent bracelet represents one of the most opu- 
lent and masterful jewelry styles of all time. In the late 1920s, Tiffany 
was supplying their patrons in New York and Paris with jewelry and 
other objects inspired by the decorative arts of many civilizations: 
Islamic, Chinese, French, and Egyptian. 




» • * • 




THE TIFFANY CONNECTION 




he association 
of the Field 
Museum with 
America's oldest 
jeweler, Tiffany & 
Co., began back in 
1893. Tiffany made a 
cash contribution to the 
Museum's original endow- 
ment. Also, it was one of the 
newly appointed Museum trus- 
tees, Harlow N. Higinbotham, who 



purchased the gems and jewels that had been exhibited 
by Tiffany at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 
and donated them to the (then) new Museum. This 
collection became the original gem exhibit. Although 
many new objects have been added to the collection 
over the past 94 years, those original pieces are the core 
of the present beautiful Grainger Hall of Gems. 

The special exhibit "Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems 
and Jewelry" renews the Field Museum's association 
with this estimable company. A restrospective exhibit, 
it will display examples of innovative jewelry design 
and gemstone useage from America's oldest, con- 
tinuously operated house of opulent jewels. — Edward]. 
Olsen, Curator of Mineralogy and Co-Curator, "Tiffany: 
150 Years of Gems arvi Jewelry" 



Iris corsage ornament. Gold, sapphires, 
diannonds, topaz, and garnets; height 
9.5 cm. 1 900. On loan from the Walters 
Art Gallery, Baltimore, Md. This natural 
size iris corsage ornament was included 
in Tiffany's exhibit at the Paris Exposition 
Universelle in 1900. The blossom is set 
with 139 sapphires from Montana and, 
for contrast, tiny diamonds line the cen- 
ter of each petal; a yellow topaz ter- 
minates each of the three falls. Green 
demantoid garnets convey the natural 
color of the leaves. 





Small dandelion vase; yellow and green enamel, gold. Early 1900s. 



Opal sunburst brooch pendant: opals, diamonds, gold, and platinum. Late 19th century. 




Pink flower brooch (above), made of enamel, diamonds, and gold; ca. 1889. Tfiistle stickpin, made of enamel and gold; ca. 1889. 



<\ Donald Claflin disk brooch; ivory, rubies, sapphires, cabochon emerald, turquoise, diamonds, and gold. 1 970s. 



15 




Ivory inkwell, ivory seal, and ivory card case. These lovely ornamental ob- 
jects from the late 1800s were designed to bring the grace associated with 
the Japanese into daily American life. They display a variety of influences, 
including the trailing plant patterns of Islamic mosaics and carpets, small 
eroti from rococo sculpture and decorative objects, and the naturalistic 
forms of European art nouveau. 



16 



Dog collar, made of gold, enamel, turquoise, pearls, and diamonds. 

Early 20th century 




A Special invitation to Museum Members to 

A FAMILY CHRISTMAS TEA AT FIELD MUSEUM 

Thursday, December 10 





"Che 





emotive 
AMerican 




Left to right: Cuna curing doll from Panama; dressed as 
European doctor, possibly because European medi- 
cine was believed to be especially efficacious; Ojibwa 
wooden figure used by a Midewiwin practitioner for cur- 
ing the ill; wooden doll used by Eskimo shaman; Tlingit 
figure, possibly of shaman himself, carved from antler; 
Aymara doll representing god of good fortune in the 
Andean highlands. 





Left to right: Bella Bella puppet; KwakiutI doll with eyes of abalone; Gitksan puppet. 








U 



Left: Blackfeel doll with wooden head 

and cloth body. Right: Chiricahua 

Apache doll wearing classic two-piece 

woman's hide dress. 



The stuff of Dreams 

native American Dolls 

by Mary Jane Lenz 

Exhibit opens November 18 



"We are such stuff as dreams are made on. " 

William Shakespeare, The Tempest 

^-^ /^ hakespeare's poetic metaphor for human 

/ \^"^"'% existence also holds true for those small 

V \/ / replicas of human beings we call "dolls." 

^^fc„^^^^^ In the wildest sense, all dolls are created 

in response to dreams: the imagination of children, the 

visions of shamans and sorcerers, the creative energy of 

individual artists. The great leap of the imagination 

which inspired the creation of an image of the self is a 

human gift alone and part of the human experience 

everywhere. 

To think of a doll as "a child's toy; a puppet," as 
the dictionary defines the term, is to take a narrow view 
of these small representations of the human form. 
Antonia Fraser suggests that "doll" may derive from the 
Greek eidolon, from which the word "idol" has also 
developed.' She points out that in the Chinese and 
Korean languages the word for "doll" and the word 
"idol" or "fetish" come from the same root. 

In English, the word "doll" was not in common 
use until about 1450, but dolls themselves existed long 
before that time and far beyond the boundaries of the 
English language. The "Venus" figurines of the Upper 
Paleolithic period; the ushabti figures of ancient Egypt 
left in tombs to serve the dead; the toy dolls of Greek 
and Roman girls, placed on a goddess' altar on the eve 
before marriage; the Hina dolls of Japan displayed dur- 
ing the yearly doll festival — these and many other dolls 
have been part of the human heritage since the begin- 
nings of art, more than 25,000 years ago. 

This exhibition of Native American dolls shows 
that in our hemisphere dolls, in the broad sense of the 



Mary Jane Lenz is also curator of the exhibit, "The Stuff of 
Dreams: Native American Dolls." 




Kiowa doll with china head 



Reproduced from The Stuff of Dreams: Native American Dolls, 
by Mary Jane Lenz, copyright © 1986 by the Museum of the 
American Indian, and reprinted here courtesy of the author. 21 




Tanaina shaman's doll, Ccxjk Inlet, Alaska. 



22 




Clay dolls: Yuma (left), and Mohave. 



word, have taken many forms: toys for children, sacred 
and magical figurines, props and performers in drama 
and dance and in recent years, items manufactured for 
sale. Made of twigs or cloth, ivory or stone, roughly 
carved with a few knife strokes or made with exquisite 
care and attention to detail, the dolls share one essen- 
tial quality — each presents an image of what it means 
to be human. 

For many people, the miniaturization of form rep- 
resented by a doll makes it an object with a special 
appeal and presence. This appeal may explain the wide 
distribution of dolls in time and space throughout the 
world. Levi-Strauss argues that miniatures — small- 
scale models of objects — may represent the universal 
type of what is commonly referred to as art. He suggests 
that the reduction in scale helps us not only to see what 
is the whole but also, in a sense, to master it by making 
it less formidable and easier to comprehend. " A child's 
doll," he writes, "is no longer an enemy, a rival, or even 
an interlocutor. In it and through it a person is made 
into a subject."^ In other words dolls provide a way of 
mastering and comprehending our own humanity. 



They are also a means of personifying and making man- 
ageable the mysterious forces of the unknown — natural 
catastrophes, sickness, sorrow, and death. If so, dolls as 
metaphors of mystery and power may speak to deep and 
hidden needs in the human psyche, and may be indeed 
"the stuff of dreams. " 

The exhibition focuses on the ways in which dolls 
have been created and used by the Native Americans 
throughout the Western Hemisphere, in the past as 
well as the present. The dolls from the collections of 
the Museum of the American Indian show a geographic 
range from Alaska and Greenland to Chile, and a tem- 
poral span of more than 4000 years. The oldest is a 
prehistoric ceramic figure from Valdivia, Ecuador; the 
most recent is aLaguna Pueblo Storyteller doll made in 
New Mexico in 1984. The great variety of materials 
and form reflects the richness and diversity of Native 
American cultures, for just as each group has its own 
artifacts so it also has its own lifeways. 

In one sense dolls illustrate how people see them- 
selves and others. The details they choose to emphasize 
their dolls — body paint, clothing, hair styles. 



in 



23 




24 



Mapuche man on horse (Araucanian Indians of Chile) 



accessories, posture or stance — offer us a way of seeing 
some of the essentials of differing world views. 

The variety of materials used to make dolls reflects 
the wide differences in Native American environ- 
ments. Eskimo dolls are made from walrus tusk ivory. 
Iroquois dolls are fashioned from comhusks. Tapirape 
dolls of the Amazon Basin are constructed from bees- 
wax and the brilliantly colored feathers of tropical 
birds. 

Dolls of the Americas are made not only of 
indigenous materials but of goods introduced by 
foreigners who began trading and settling 500 years 



ago. European and Oriental glass beads adorn both play 
dolls and shaman figures. Silk ribbon, wool flannel, 
and bright calicos decorate doll clothing as they do 
people's clothing. Bits of glass became the eyes for a 
Tree Dweller figure from the eastern Plains. French 
trading tokens hang from the beaded belt of a wooden 
doll from Alaska. Indians laced European dolls into toy 
baby carriers and played with them, or wrapped them 
in special medicine bundles to invoke love medicine. 
We can see in the physical composition of these dolls 
the blending of several cultural traditions and the 
waves of a world market lapping even at the most iso- 
lated shores of the Americas. 



1. Fraser, Antonia, Dolls. London: Weidenfeld and Nicol- 
son. 1963. pp.7ff. 

2. Levi-Strauss, Claude. The Savage Mind: The University of 
Chicago Press. 1966. Originally published as La Pensee sauv- 
age, Librairie Plon, Paris, 1962. p. 23. 



Quiche man (Guatemala) 




THE FAMILY OF RUATEPUPUKE 

Reviving a Maori Meetinghouse 



by Tory Light 

photos by James L. Ballard 
except where noted 



"Once YOU'RE a Maori, you're always part of the 
family," exclaim Jane Connolly and Barbara Ballard 
about their friendships among the native people of 
New Zealand. Connolly and Ballard participated in 
Field Museum's tour to New Zealand, April 14 to May 
4, 1986. Led by Dr. John Terrell, curator of Oceanic 
archaeology and ethnology, they and 16 other Museum 
members embarked on a journey that turned out to be 
much more than "just a vacation." 



Organized by Field Museum Tours Manager 
Dorothy Roder and guided by Marina Ropiha of Maori 
International, the trip began as an extension of the 
exhibit "Te Maori: Maori Art from New Zealand Col- 
lections," on view during the spring of 1986. The 
itinerary sought to cover the Polynesian and British 
history of New Zealand. But then Dr. Terrell and the 
tour group defined two specific goals. The first was to 
reciprocate the visit of more than 75 Maori to Field 



Museum staff and New Zealand tour participants before ttie [Museum's Maou meetingfiouse as they prepare for a "sleep-in." Seated 
(I. to r.): John Terrell, Dorothy Roder, Irene Schultz; standing: Tamara Biggs, Frances Osgood, Delbert Yarnell, Cap Sease, John 
Cook, Donald Cameron, Dorothy Cameron, Bruce Feay, fVlary Feay, Bill Roder, Barbara Ballard, Jane Connelly, John McDonald, 
Dagmara Nyman, Sharon Par6, Glenn Pare, and Jerome Schultz. ai 10424 




25 




John Terrell, curator of Oceanic archaeology and ethnology, and 
Maori elder Mrs. Iranui ("Auntie Ada") Haig. aiicm2o 



26 



Museum, where they had been invited to participate in 
the opening and closing ceremonies of "Te Maori." 
The second aim was to investigate the origins of Ruate- 
pupuke II, the Museum's own Maori meetinghouse, 
possibly the only authentic structure of its kind outside 
of New Zealand. 

Now known to have been carved and erected in 
the village of Tokomaru Bay, New Zealand, in about 
1861, this family-owned house was sold in the 1880s by 
Mokena Romio, a village leader, without his family's 
consent; the selling price is not known. Because Maori 
custom forbids the sale of inherited possessions, 
Romio's act brought about a major tribal rift that re- 
mained unhealed until his brother's granddaughter 
made a reconciliation at the house at "Te Maori," near- 
ly a century later. 

The original buyer of the meetinghouse was a Mr. 
Hindmarsh, a dealer in Maori curios. (His family today 
owns the Hindmarsh Motor Coach Company, which 
takes passengers to New Zealand tour sites. ) 

In 1902, a German curio dealer, J.F.G. Umlauff, 
bought the house and installed it in his Hamburg gal- 
lery. Three years later. Dr. George A. Dorsey, then 
curator of Anthropology of Field Museum, purchased it 



for the sum of 65,600 marks ($5,000 at the 1905 ex- 
change rate).' The house has been on view at the 
Museum since 1924. It is currently a popular feature of 
the exhibit "Gods, Spirits and People." 

In New Zealand the Field Museum tour group 
learned that the Maori regard their meetinghouse with 
much more significance than we Westerners regard our 
own houses, schools, or places of worship. Most Maori 
communities in New Zealand have built such houses, 
which for more than a century have functioned as a 
combination council hall/dormitory and sometimes 
church. 

It is especially meaningful that such carved houses 
represent specific ancestors, usually men of legendary 
status. Each such structure is the embodiment, sym- 
bolically and literally, of the ancestor it represents and 
all his mythical and real descendants. In other words, 
one's whakapapa, or genealogy — from which a Maori 
draws his or her identity and mauri (ethos) — is embod- 
ied in these special houses. By selling Ruatepupuke 
Romio had in effect pawned his own forebears, thus 
relinquishing his family sense of turangawaewae (the 
right to belong). 

The carved head on the front apex of the roof of a 
meetinghouse is said to be the ancestor's head. The 
roof boards along the front are his open, welcoming 
arms. The doorway is his mouth. The tahuhu (ridge- 
pole) is his spine; its length from front to back rep- 
resents one's life journey from birth to death. The heke 
(rafters) are his ribs. The spacious interior of the house 
is the ancestor's belly, and the central potokomanawa 
post is his heart. 

Carved into stylized faces, with luminescent paua 
(abalone) shells for eyes, arepoupou, the upright boards 
that line the inside walls. These panels represent more 
recent ancestors, or those of other tribes to whom visi- 
tors can relate. A meetinghouse represents a family's 
ancestors in more than name and form. In fact, it is 
standard practice for a speech delivered on the marae 
(the ceremonial courtyard immediately in front of the 
meetinghouse) of a local community to begin with 
words addressed to the meetinghouse, before the hu- 
man audience is greeted. 

It is known that there have been three houses 
named after the ancestor Ruatepupuke. According to 
local account, Ruatepupuke was the legendary figure 
who obtained the art of wood carving for all Maori from 
the sea god Tangaroa. The first house built at Toko- 
maru Bay in memory of Ruatepupuke was dismantled 
and buried by the villagers during a tribal raid around 
1828. 



Koromiria Ngawehenga, whose initials appear on 
the carved and painted roof boards, may have crafted 
Ruatepupuke II, the one sold by Romio.^ Then, in 
1934, descendants of the family Te O Ruatapare built 
Ruatepupke III, a large meetinghouse with a modem 
dining hall, in use today at Tokomaru Bay. 

Among the Maori who came to Chicago last year 
for the Te Maori ceremonies were two Tokomaru el- 
ders, Mr. Taiawhio Pewhairangi and Mrs. Iranui Haig. 
Some years after her great-uncle sold Ruatepupuke II, 
it became the responsibility of Haig (also known as 
"Auntie Ada") to keep the family peace. As a child, her 
grandfather appointed her to heal the wound. She al- 
ways took the outcast's hand at family gatherings, 
while the others shunned him.' 

Just weeks after the opening of the Te Maori 
exhibit in Chicago, the 19 representatives of the 
Museum left for New Zealand. Welcomed as guests to 
four active marae and a Maori dairy farm, among other 
activities, the tour group gained an appreciation for the 
significance of Maori family networks in maintaining 
their cultural identity, in fostering social activities, and 
in managing financial affairs. Tour participant Irene 
Schultz later made observations on the Maori family 
system: 

We were so taken with the receptiveness they [the Maori] 
showed to us, to their own families and extended fami- 
lies AW the family participates in activities. You would be 

introduced to someone like this: 'Meet my niece's husband's 
brother's boy. ' We might not even know that person in our 
own family. But they iru:lude everybody. They are loving 
and they lean on each other. 

Jim Littlejohn, another tour member, recalls 
meeting Maori Joe Malcolm, a man who had many 
children but whose two brothers had none. Malcolm 
gave each brother one of his own children. All the chil- 
dren live and play near each other and receive much 
attention from parents and adoptive parents alike. 

While visiting each marae, tour members 
observed this same closeness, which in turn affected 
their own experiences in New Zealand. "Since we were 
perceived and welcomed by the Maori as one unit, 
representative of both Field Museum and the United 
States, we came to see ourselves that way and as indi- 
viduals with possibly conflicting interests," observes 
Barbara Ballard. 

Don and Dorothy Cameron add: 
Some of the families so appreciated our visits, because sel- 
dom before had pakehas [New Zealand British or other 
Westerners] sought them out as friends, rather than as a 
tourist attraction. Our trip was historically significant 



because we made a commitment to them, to restore this 
house, and to help increase the world's understanding of 
them. 

Was it only the hospitality at each marae that 
made the tour group feel like part of the family? "No," 
says Mr. Cameron. "There is a specific, traditional 
ceremony of induction, called a hui, which means sim- 
ply 'a gathering. ' A village would honor a visiting tribe 
by 'adopting' it into the Maori community. We went 
through several of these hui, and began to feel included 
ourselves — as the Family of Ruatepupuke." 

Clearly, the highlight of the trip was the visit to 
Tokomaru Bay. Located on the east coast of New Zea- 
land's North Island, "Toko" is a small village seldom 
sought out by pakehas. Most villagers are of both Maori 
and pakeha descent. Although they lead typically 
western-type lifestyles, their outlook is vitally Maori, 
as the tour members learned when they and their hosts 
embraced each other's offers of friendship. 

Here in Tokomaru began the next step in 
investigating the history and provenience of the 
Museum's meetinghouse. Dr. Terrell and the tour 
members hoped to establish beyond a doubt that this 
was where Ruatepupuke II had once stood. Commu- 
nity leaders Phil and Doris Aspinall, Auntie Ada, and 
others had always believed that the house at the Field 
was their whare hui (meetinghouse), but they, too, wel- 
comed further proof. 

For years there had been confusion at Field 
Museum about its original location as well. When 
Umlauff bought the house 85 years ago, it came with a 
manuscript written by Romio that referred to a 
meetinghouse called Huiteananui. However, as Maori 
scholar Dr. Sidney Mead recently has pointed out, 
Huiteananui is really the name of the mythological 
"first" carved house owned by the sea god Tangaroa.'' 

To compound this confusion. New Zealand schol- 
ar W.J. Phillipps, in 1944, identified the house at Field 
Museum as one from Tolaga Bay, not Tokomaru Bay, 1 7 
miles distant.' An 1880s photo accompanying Phil- 
lipps' article, however, shows conclusively that Ruate- 
pupuke II is indeed from Tokomaru Bay: the horizon 
contour to the left of the house roof is clearly that of the 
foothills behind the village (compare the photos repro- 
duced here). 

The Museum group also participated in a meeting 
with Maori elders one night at Tokomaru Bay, de- 
scribed here by tour member Delbert Yarnell: 
Some of the Maori said to us, 'Why should we help your 
museum restore our house? It was sold irresponsibly to 
pakehas and it should never have left our people. In fact, we 27 




Visual proof that Field Museum's Maori meetinghouse originated at 
Tokomaru Bay: The skyline at the left of the photo above, taken in the 
1 880s, is identical to that in a recent photo (below) taken at Tokomaru 
Bay. The building is the Field Museum's Maori meetinghouse as it 
appeared more than a century ago. 109613 



28 




should try to retrieve it — it is the house oj our arxcestry. ' Our 
group just listened, tongue-tied. We weren' t expecting this 
reaction from these people who were otherwise so gracious 
to us. 

Then another elder remarked, 'Well, the house is just 
not coming back to us, so there's no point in discussing that. 
The question is what can we all do about the house? ' At that 
point, John Terrell spoke up and said that Ruatepupuke and 
the trip meant a great deal to him and to us, and that the 
Museum will safeguard and respect the house on behalf of 
the Maori people. 

Following this accord between the Tokomaru Bay 
Maori and their American visitors, the tour group re- 
turned to Chicago with many ideas about Ruatepupuke 
and about "what it means to be a Maori," or to be from 
any other culture, for that matter. 

Tour member Jack MacDonald has observed that 
the trip provoked the members to question their no- 
tions about nonwestem peoples and their art once the 
Chicagoans had learned firsthand about Maori tradi- 
tions and crafts that are firmly rooted in the past but are 
attuned to the needs of modern life. 

Other preconceptions that were challenged by the 
journey to the land of the Maori concerned the idea of 
"family." Does family necessarily mean a nuclear unit, 
or can it also refer to extended kin? Or even to a net- 
work of unrelated individuals, separated by an ocean, 
perhaps, but bonded by mutual commitment? In this 




Tokomaru Bay Maoris greet their American friends in Maori style, aiicm22 



latter sense, the tour group has become a part of the 
whakapapa (genealogy) of Ruatepupuke. 

Inspired by their glimpse of the Maori gotten dur- 
ing their "anthropological fieldwork experience," the 
Chicago branch of the Family of Ruatepupuke has 
stayed together for over a year now, meeting at one 
another's homes and at the Museum. On behalf of the 
group's members, their leader Don Cameron and secre- 
tary Barbara Ballard keep in touch with their Maori 
friends and with the Museum staff who will design and 
execute the future restoration of the meetinghouse. 

Meanwhile, some mysteries about the house re- 
main unsolved. For instance, there seems to be a miss- 
ing poupou board. (Remember, this is not just any 
board; it is also a family ancestor. And this ancestor 
may be missing. 1 mean this rather seriously.) But, 
quite by accident. Dr. Terrell recently came upon a 
poupou board on display at Peabody Museum in Salem, 
Massachusetts. Its style — of the Waiapu school of carv- 
ing — is identical to that of our house. Further col- 



Tory Light was a 1987 summer intern in the Department of 
Anthropology. She expresses her gratitude to Dr. Robert L. 
Welsch, research associate in Anthropology, for his advice 
about ethnographic interviewing. 



laboration with the Peabody will establish whether this 
poupou board is the missing ancestral figure. 

The journey to New Zealand developed into a 
"cultural mission" for the tour members. Their 
research, personal explorations, and relationships with 
Maori and with each other are just the beginning of a 
"living marae" at Field Museum. "It is only when a 
work stays with a people, when it is touched, wept, and 
talked over. . . that it. . . stays alive," writes Anne Sal- 
mond, a New Zealand authority on Maori culture. '' 
May Ruatepupuke II engender this feeling of tar- 
angawaewae (belonging) in all its visitors. WH 



References 



1. Letter, J.F.G. Umlauff to George A. Dorsey, July 24, 
1905. 

2. Sidney Moko Mead, "Ruatepupuke: The Maori House in 
the Field Museum," unpublished report, 1975. 
Daily News, Springfield, Mass. April 19, 1986. 
Sidney Moko Mead, "The Morgan Manuscripts," unpub- 
lished report, 1975. 

W.J. Phillipps, "Carved Maori Houses of the Eastern Dis- 
tricts of the North Island," Records of the Dominion 
Museum, vol. 1. Wellington, 1944, p. HO. 

6. Anne Salmond, "Nga Huarahi O Te Ao Maori: Pathways 
in the Maori World." Field Museum of Natural History 
Bulktin, March, 1986, p. 18. 29 



Field Museum Joins 
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 



Field Museum of Natural History has been admitted to mem- 
bership of lUCN, the International Union for Conservation 
of Nature and Natural Resources, a union of member states, 
government agencies, and nongovernmental organizations 
concerned with the development, promotion, and im- 
plementation of scientifically based action towards con- 
servation and sustainable use of the world's living resources. 
Its mission is to provide international leadership for promot- 
ing effective conservation of nature and natural resources. 

lUCN is an independent international organization, 
founded in 1948 at Fontainebleau, France, under the 
sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scientific 
and Cultural Organization (Unesco) and the Government of 
France. Its secretariat, now based at Gland, Switzerland, is 
responsible for developing the program of work for the var- 
ious lUCN components as approved by members meeting in 
General Assembly every three years. The work of six com- 
missions (Ecology; Education; Environmental Planning; En- 
vironmental Policy, Law and Adminstration; National 
Parks and Protected Areas; and Species Survival) and var- 
ious advisory groups is coordinated to support the Union's 
program and to serve as a network for conservation action 
around the world. 

An Operations Division develops and manages con- 
servation projects, based upon external funding, worldwide 
in collaboration with partner organizations, and three cen- 
ters (the Conservation Monitoring Centre; Environmental 
Law Centre; and Conservation for Development Centre) 
develop and provide a data base and mechanisms needed for 
implementing conservation activities. In addition, lUCN 
provides service for international conventions, such as Ram- 
sar and World Heritage. 

With the advice, cooperation, and financial assistance 
of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 
and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), and in 
collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of 



the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educa- 
tional, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco), 
lUCN was responsible for the preparation of the World Con- 
servation Strategy (WCS). Published in 1980, the Strategy 
provides the principles on which conservation should be 
based, linking conservation with development. 

The WCS defines conservation as "the management of 
human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest 
sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining 
its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future gen- 
erations." The major objectives of conservation reflected in 
the Strategy are: 

n maintenance of essential ecological processes and life- 
support systems 
D preservation of genetic diversity 
□ sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems. 

Development is defined in the Strategy as "the mod- 
ification of the biosphere and the application of human, 
financial, living and nonliving resources to satisfy human 
needs and improve the quality of human life." For develop- 
ment to be sustainable, it must take account of social and 
ecological factors as well as economic ones; of the living 
and nonliving resource base; and of the long-term as well 
as short-term advantages and disadvantages of alternative 
actions. 

The lUCN philosophy is also appropriately reflected in 
the World Charter for Nature, which was adopted by the 
United Nations General Assembly in 1982. 

On becoming a member of lUCN, the Field Museum 
endorsed the objectives of the Union, as indicated in the 
statutes, and elaborated in the aforesaid World Conservation 
Strategy and the World Charter for Nature. 

lUCN's membership currently stands at: 58 states, 122 
government agencies, 351 national nongovernmental or- 
ganizations, 29 international nongovernmental organiza- 
tions, and 19 affiliates, giving a total of 579 members in 117 
countries. 



30 




FIELD 
MUSEUM 
70UR3^ 



Voyage to 
Patagonia and 
Cape Horn 

Including the Talklands 
and the Majestic Tjords 
of the Southern Andes 

Aboard the lUiria 
March 9 -19, 1988 
Accompai\ied by Dr. James S. Ashe, 
Field Museum Zoologist 



ITINERARY 

Day 1: March 9 
USA/Santiago 

Depart USA on a regularly scheduled flight to 
Santiago. 

Day 2: March 10 
Santiago 

Morning arrival in Santiago with transfer to Hotel 
San Cristobal Sheraton. Balance of the day at 
leisure. This evening attend a welcome cocktail 
reception and dinner at a local restaurant. 

Day 3: March 11 
Santiago 

In the morning tour cosmopolitan Santiago, 
situated at an impressive location below peaks 
that rise to 18,000 feet. Founded in 1541, San- 
tiago is the nation's modern, bustling capital. 
Visit the museum of natural history with its 
collection of Indian folk art; Santa Lucia Hill, 
where Santiago was founded; colonial San 
Francisco Church with its art treasures; and 
San Cristobal Hill, which affords panoramic 
views of the city and the Andes Mountains. 
Afternoon at leisure. 



Day 4: March 12 

Santiago/Punta Arenas/Embarkation on 

Wiria" 

Morning flight to Punta Arenas, the Patagonian 
city on the northern shore of the Strait of Magel- 
lan. Board the llliria and sail in the afternoon. 
Cruise westward on the waterway separating 
the Atlantic from the Pacific Ocean, and con- 
tinue along the Patagonian coast. 

Located between the Andes and the Paci- 
fic Ocean, the Pacific coast of Patagonia is one 
of the most spectacular areas in the world. The 
countless islands, which create a maze of 
channels and passages, combined with the 
grandeur of the ice-capped southern Andes 
which drop precipitously to the sea, make 
a ship journey here an unforgettable travel 
experience. 

Day 5: March 13 

Bay of Mountains/ 

Strait of Magellan/Beagle Channel 

From Puerto Natales, the llliria W\\\ proceed to 
the Bay of Mountains, a steep fjord, and con- 
tinue to the Strait of Magellan. This famed 
waterway, which winds for about 360 miles in 
widths ranging from 2 to 20 miles, separates 
the land mass of South America from Tierra del 
Fuego, an archipelago of the continent's south- 
ern tip. Enter the Beagle Channel. Here, the im- 
pressive mountains of the Cordillera Darwin rise 
sharply from the sea to create one of the world's 
most breathtaking fjords. Explore some of the 
area's spectacular glaciers by zodiac (rubber 
boats) including Garibaldi Glacier. If conditions 
permit, land on brilliant white Alemania Glacier. 

Day 6: March 14 

Ushuala/ 

Tierra del Fuego National Park 

Ushuala, Argentina's center in Tierra del Fuego 
and the most southerly town in the world, has 
steep streets leading to the mountains, against 
which the town is built. Many vantage points in 
the town offer fine views of the nearby snow- 
covered peaks, rivers, woods, and waterfalls. 

An excursion travels to the Tierra del 
Fuego National Park, comprised of 154,000 
acres of mountains and lakes. The park is home 
to many species of birds and over 500 types of 
flowering plants. Enjoy a picnic lunch amidst 
this breathtaking scenery. 

Day 7: March 15 
Cape Horn 

Early in the morning, reach Cape Horn and, 
weather permitting, make a landing on this 
landmark, first rounded in 1616 by the Dutch 
navigator Willem Cornelius Schouten. Born in 
Hoorn, Netherlands, Schouten appropriately 
named the cape after his hometown. Cape 
Horn, a steep rocky headland on Horn Island, 
marks the southernmost extremity of South 
America. Depart Cape Horn and continue 
cruising toward the Falkland Islands. 



Day 8 and Day 9: March 16 and 17 
Port Stanley/Carcass Island/ 
West Point Island, Falkland Islands 

In the early afternoon of Day 8, arrive in Port 
Stanley the main town of the Falklands. First 
visited in 1592 by the English navigator Cap- 
tain John Davis, the Falklands changed hands 
several times between England, France, and 
Spain. Since 1832 they have been administered 
by England (despite Argentina's claim which 
culminated in 1982), and thus most of the 
approximately 2,000 inhabitants are exclusively 
of British descent. In their early history the is- 
lands were stopping-off places for whalers and 
sealers bound for Antarctica. While in Port 
Stanley see the impressive hulks of clipper 
ships which took refuge in the Falklands, For 
years, scientists have been attracted to the is- 
lands' rich wildlife, which is indeed among the 
most spectacular in the world. This is due to 
both the lack of human intrusion and the is- 
lands' diverse landscape, which ranges from 
inland moors, lakes, and mountains, to dramat- 
ic coastlines, characterized by abrupt cliffs 
and rocky beaches. Penguins alone include 
rockhoppers, magellenic, and king. The lame- 
ness of the birds of the Falklands is remarkable 
and there are over 50 species. Large colonies 
of sea lions and fur seals are found on the 
beaches. Duhng our stay in the Falklands, visit 
the rich wildlife sanctuaries on Carcass and 
West Point Islands. 

Day 10: March 18 
At Sea 

Spend the day at sea cruising toward the South 
American continent. 

Day 11: March 19 
Punta Arenas/USA 

Early in the morning, the llliria vi\\\ enter the 
Eastern entrance of the Strait of Magellan and 
wind its way to Punta Arenas. Disembark for a 
tour of Punta Arenas which includes the Pata- 
gonia Institute and the Silesian Museum, with 
exhibits relating to the region's Indians and ani- 
mal and bird life. Continue to the airport for the 
flight to Santiago. Enjoy dinner in Santiago be- 
fore flying to the USA with arrival early the next 
morning. 



Rates: $2,795 - $4,295 per person 

(double occupancy) Single cabins are 

available. 

These rates do not include air fare 

These rates do include a $200.00 

contribution to Field Museunn of 

Natural History 

Optional Extensions: 

Pre-Cruise: Rio De Janeiro and Iguassu 

Falls 

Post-Cruise: Easter Island 



For reservations, call or write Dorothy Roder (322-8862), Tours Manager, Field Museum, 
Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Dr , Chicago, 1160605 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
ChicasoJL 60605-2499 




lUusmakm by Col Kock 



Jump into the world's 

largest pair of blue jeans, 

learn how to eat like a horse 

(and get away with it!), 

add inches to your height, 

and conquer Godzilla. 

You can do all this and more in our newest, fun-packed exhibit SIZES! 

Jump into Sizes and you and your whole family can explore and learn 

how all living things have special sizes for special reasons. 

Field Museum 

CHICAGO'S LIVING MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY. 






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Field Museum 
of Natural History 
Bulletin 

Published since 1930 by 

Field Museum of Natural History 

Founded 1893 



Editor/Designer: David M. Walsten 
Production Liaison: Pamela Steams 
Staff Photographer: Ron Testa 



Board of Trustees 

Richard M. Jones, 

Chairman 
Mrs. T. Stanton Armour 
George R. Baker 
Robert O. Bass 
Gordon Bent 
Mrs. Philip D. Block III 
WiUard L. Boyd, 

President 
Robert D. Cadieux 
Henry T. Chandler 
Worley H. Clark 
Frank W. Considine 
Stanton R. Cook 
William R. Dickinson, jr. 
Tliomas E. Donnelley II 
TliomasJ. Eyerman 
Marshall Field 
Ronald J. Gidwitz 
Clarence E. Johnson 
John James Ktnsella 
Hugo J. Melvoin 
Leo F. Mullin 
James J . O'Connor 



Robert A. Pritzker 
James H. Ransom 
John S. Runnells 
Patrick G. Ryan 
William L. Searle 
Mrs. Malcolm N. Smith 
Robert H. Strotz 
Mrs. Theodore D. Tieken 
E. Uland Webber 
Blaine J. Yarrington 



Life Trustees 

Harry O. Bercher 

Bowen Blair 

Mrs. Edwin J. DeCosta 

Mrs. David W. Grainger 

Clifford C. Gregg 

Mrs. Robert S. Hartman 

William V. Kahler 

Edward Byron Smith 

John W. Sullivan 

J. Howard Wood 



CONTENTS 

December 1987 
Volume 58, Number 1 1 



1988 CALENDAR featuring 'round the seasons in Chicago and near- 
by: the Indiana Dunes and Michigan's Warren Woods. Both areas 
are within 90 minutes' drive from downtown Chicago. The cover 
photo and those for January, February, July and the remaining 
months were shot in Indiana Dunes State Park or along the railroad 
right-of-way at its southern edge. The March photo was taken in 
Chicago's Jackson Park, just south of the Museum of Science and 
Industry; those for April, May, and June were taken in or near 
Warren Woods. 

Arrangements for custom prints of any of these photos may be 
made by calling or writing the Bulletin office. Additional copies of 
the calendar are available at $4.00 each, postpaid, from the Bulletin 
office or the Membership Department. Ten copies or more: $3.00 
each. 

Shooting data: Cover — camera: Fujica GSW690 (6x9cm), lens: 65mm f/5.6 at f/32, film: 
Ektachrome KPR 220 (ISO 64);January and February — camera, lens and aperture: same as for 
cover photo, film: Ektachrome F.PN 220 (ISC) 100); March — camera and lens: same except for 
aperture: f/5.6, film: EPR 220: April and May — camera: Canon T90, lens: Canon FD 35-105 
f/3. 5-4.5, April film: Kodacolor V'RG-100(ISO 100); May film: Kodachrome 25 (ISO 2S);June 
— camera: Fujica GSW690, lens: 65mm f/5.6 at f/32, film: Ektachrome F'PR 2V);July — camera: 
Canon AF.-l Program, lens: Canon FD 50mm f/1.2, film: Kcxiacolor VR-1(H1;/1h^(«; — camera: 
Fujica GSW690, lens 65mm f/5.6 at f/32, film: F^ktachrome EPN 220; September, October, Novem- 
ber, and December — camera: F'ujica GSW690, lens: 65mm f/5.6 at f/32, Septemlier and October 
film: Ektachrome EPR 220. November and December film: Ektachrome F^PN 220. 

Dave Walsten photographer 



Permanent New Exhibits 



Ownership Management, and Circulation 

Filing date: Sept. 10, 1987. Title: Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. Publication no. 
898940. Frequency of publication: Monthly except for combined July/August issue. Number 
of issues publistied annually: 1 1 . Annual subscription price: $6.00. Office: Roosevelt Rd. at 
Lake Shore Dr, Chicago. IL 60605 

Publisher: Field f^useum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd., at Lake Shore Dr, Chicago, !L 
60605. Editor: David M. V\felsten, Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr , Chicago, IL 60605. Owner: Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake 
Shore Dr., Chicago, IL 60605. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders: 
none. The purpose, function, and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status 
for Federal income tax purposes has not changed during the preceding 12 months. 

Average number Actual number 

of copies each of copies single 

issue preceding issue nearest 

12 months to filing date 

Total copies printed 27,500 27,200 

Paid circulation (sales through dealers, vendors, carriers) none none 

Paid circulation (mail subscriptions) 24,916 24,088 

Total paid circulation 24,916 24,088 

Free distribution 576 614 

Total distribution 25,492 24,702 

Office use, left over 2,008 2,498 

Return from news agent none none 

Total 27.500 27,200 

I certify that the statements made by me above are correct and complete. Jimmie W. Croft. 
vice president for Finance and Museum Services. 



n "The Webber Resource Center, " dedicated to native cultures of the 
Americas, Formally opened in September, 

n "Sizes, " a fun, family exhibit. Opened October, 

Temporary Exhibits 

□ "Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and Jewelry. " On view through February 6. ^ 

D "The Stuff of Dreams: Native American Dolls. " On view through 
January 15. 

December Events 

n "Children Play: Games Around the World. " Participatory activity on 
Saturdays, Dec. 5, 12, and 19, l:00-3:00pm. 

D "Wintertime Tales. " Storytelling on Dec. 27, 28, 29, and 30. 

n "World Music. " A variety of ethnic music performances on weekends. 

n "Weekend Programs. " Slide lectures on "Tibet Today and a Faith in 
Exile" (Dec. 12, 1:30pm) and "Malvina Hoffman: Portraits in Bronze" (Dec. 
13, 2:00pm) 

All events described here are free with museum admission, no tickets re- 
quired. Check No\embeT Bulletin or call 322-8855 for further information. 



Field Museum ofNcuuTd Hislory Bulletin (USPS 898-940) is published monthly, except combined July/August issue, by Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. 
Copyright ©1987 Field Museum of Natural History. Subscriptions: $6.00 annually. $3.00 for schools. Museum membership includes Builerin subscription. Opiniorts expressed by authors are their own and do not 
necessarily reflect the policy of Field Museum. Unsolicited manuscripts are welcome. Museum phone: (312) 922-9410. Notification of address change should include address label and be sent to Membership 
Department. Postmastet; Please send form 3579 to Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605-2496. ISSN: 0015-0703. 



Typography by Tele/Typography, Inc. 



Index to Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, Volume 58 (1987) 



Articles 

Absorbed in Sponges, by Mary R. Cannen 
and Susan Brown Roop: Feb. 22 

Ancient Villages of Southern Peru, The, by 
Charles Stanish: April 6 

Athapaskan Hunting Canoe, The, by James 
W. VanStone: March 6 

Biennial Report for 1985-86: July-August 

Bird Migration at the Foot of Lake Michi- 
gan, by Kenneth J. Brock: April 1 1 

Bushman and the Presbyterian Missionar- 
ies, by Marion F. Miller: Feb. 6 

Capital Campaign Approaches the 
$40,000,000 Mark: May 7 

Etruscan Gold Jewelry Techniques, by 
Richard D. De Puma: Oct. 7 

Family of Ruatepupuke , The, by Tory 
Light: Nov. 25 

Featherwing Beetles, by Henry S. Dybas: 
March 19 

Featherwing Beetles and the Remarkable 
Discoveries of Henry Dybas, by Douglas 
J. Preston: March 17 

Field Museum Joins International Union 
for Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources: Nov. 30 

Geopolitics of America's Corn Belt, The, 
by Edward Olsen: Sept. 27 

Gods, Spirits and People: The Human Im- 
age in Traditional Art, by Robert A. 
Feldman: Jan. 10 

Henry Dybas: A Eulogy; by Rupert L. 
Wenzel: March 22 

Injury and Diseases in Fossil Animals, by 
Glen T. Sawyer and Bruce R. Erickson; 
June 20 

Japanese Lacquer Wares, by Lisa Adler, 
Bennet Bronson, Irene Chong, and Sally 
Kurth: Oct. 22 

1986 Volunteers Honored: June 19 

North Branch Prairies, The, by Jerry Sulli- 
van: May 12 

Owls of Chicago, by Jerry Sullivan: Feb. 7 

Road to Paris, by William S . Street and 
Janice K. Street: Jan. 6 

Scenes of the Women's Board Treasures 
Ball: Jan. 4 

Stone Tikis of the Marquesas Islands, by 
Jordan M. Wright: June 6 



Stuff of Dreams, The: Native American 

Dolls, by Mary Jane Lenz: Nov. 18 
Tenth Anniversary for Pawnee Earth 

Lodge, by Mary Ann Bloom: Sept. 22 
Texas Mushrooms Come to Field Museum, 

by Gregory M. Mueller: April 20 
Tiffany Connection, The, by Edward 

Olsen: Nov. 10 
Tiffany: 150 Years of Gems and Jewelry: 

Nov. 9 
Titi, The, by Philip Hershkovitz: June 1 1 
Water Snakes, by John C. Murphy: March 

11 
Webber Resource Center, The, by Nancy 

Evans: Sept. 8 
Will Chalmers, Field Museum' s First 

Mineral Collector, by Edward Olsen: 

June 16 
William H. Mitchell, 1895-1987, by E. Le- 

land Webber: May 6 
Woodland Birds of Illinois, by Scott K. 

Robinson: Sept. 15 
Woven Porcupine Quill Decoration among 

Indians of the Canadian Northwest, by 

James W. VanStone: Oct. 16 



Authors 

Adler, Lisa (co-author): Japanese Lacquer 
Wares: Oct. 22 

Bloom, Mary Ann: Tenth Anniversary for 
Pawnee Earth Lodge: Sept. 22 

Brock, Kenneth }.; Bird Migration at the 
Foot of Lake Michigan: April 1 1 

Bronson, Bennet (co-author): Japanese 
Lacquer Wares: Oct. 22 

Cannen, Mary R. (co-author): Absorbed in 
Sponges: Feb. 22 

Chong, Irene {co-a\ithoT): Japanese Lac- 
quer Wares: Oct. 22 

De Puma, Richard D.: Etruscan Gold 
Jewelry Techniques: Oct. 7 

Dybas, Henry S.: Featherwing Beetles: 
March 19 

Erickson, Bruce R. (co-author): Injury and 
Diseases in Fossil Animals: June 20 

Evans, Nancy: The Webber Resource Cen- 
ter: Sept. 8 



Feldman, Robert A.: Gods, Spirits and 
People: Jan. 10 

Hershkovitz, Philip: The Titi: June 1 1 

Kurth, Sally (co-author): Japanese Lac- 
quer Wares: Oct. 22 

Lenz, Mary Jane: The Stuff of Dreams: Na- 
tive American Dolls: Nov. 18 

Light, Tory: The Family of Ruatepupuke: 
Nov. 25 

Miller, Marion F. : Bushman and the Pre- 
sbyterian Missionaries: Feb. 6 

Mueller, Gregory M.: Texas Mushrooms 
Come to Field Museum: April 20 

Murphy, John C: Water Snakes: March 1 1 

Olsen, Edward: The Geopolitics of Amer- 
ica's Corn Belt: Sept. 27 

: The Tiffany Connection: 



Nov. 10 



Will Chalmers, Field 



Museum's First Mineral Collector: June 
16 

Preston, Douglas J.: Featherwing Beetles 
and the Remarkable Discoveries of Hen- 
ry Dybas: March 17 

Robinson, Scott K.: Woodland Birds of 
Illinois: Sept. 15 

Roop, Susan B. (co-author): Absorbed in ^^ 

Sponges: Feb. 22 ^^ 

Sawyer, Glen T. (co-author): Injury and 
Diseases in Fossil Animals: June 20 

Stanish, Charles: The Ancient Villages of 
Southern Peru: April 6 

Street, Janice K. (co-author): Road to 
Paris: Jan. 6 

Street, William S. (co-author): Road to 
Paris: Jan. 6 

Sullivan, Jerry: The North Branch Prai- 
ries: May 12 

: Owls of Chicago: Feb. 7 

VanStone, James W.: The Athapaskan 
Hunting Canoe: March 6 

: Woven Porcupine Quill 

Decoration among Indians of the Cana- 
dian Northwest: Oct. 16 

Webber, E. Leland: William H. Mitchell, 
I895-I987: May 6 

Wenzel , Rupert L. : Henry Dybas: A Eu- 
logy: March 22 

Wright, Jordan M.: Stone Tikis of the Mar- 
quesas Islands: June 6 




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sunrise 6:58am. sunset 5: 13pm 


13 

sunrise 6:49am. sunset 5:21 pm 


20 

sunrise 6:39am. sunset 5:30pm 


27 

sunrise 6 28am, sunset 5 38pm 


March 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 '2 

13 14 15 16 17 18 ir-- 

20 21 22 23 24 25 .?r 

27 28 29 30 31 


5 

sunrise 6:59am, sunset 5: 1 1 pm 


12 

LINCOLN'S BIRTHDAY 

sunrise 6.50am, sunset 5: 1 9pm 


19 

sunrise 6:4lam, sunset 5:28pm 


26 

sunrise 6:30am, sunset 5:37pm 


January 

S H^ T W T F S 

1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


4 

sunrise 7:00am, sunset 5;10pm 


11 

sunnse 6:52am. sunset 5: 18pm 


18 

sunrise 6:42am, sunset 5:27pm 


25 

sunrise6:31am, sunset 5:36pm 




3 

sunrise 7:01am, sunset 5:09pm 


10 

3 

last quarter 

sunrise 6:53am, sunset 5: 1 7pm 


17 

Chinese New Year 

• 

new moon 

sunrise 6 43am. sunset 5-26pm 


24 

c 

first quarter 

sunrise 6:33am, sunset 5:35pm 


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2 

Groundhog Day 

o 

full moon 

sunrise 7 02am, sunset 5:07pm 


9 

sunrise 6:54am, sunset 5: 1 6pm 


16 

sunrise 6:45am, sunset 5:25pm 


23 

sunrise 6:35wn, sunset 5:33pm 




1 1 g 


8 

sunrise 6:55am. sunset 5- 1 4pm 


15 

PRESIDENTS' DAY 

sunrise 6:46am. sunset 5,23pm 


22 

sunnse 6:36am, sunset 5:32pm 


29 

sunrise 6:25am, sunset 5:41 pm 




7 

sunnse 6:57am. sunset 5:13pm 


14 

Valentine's Day 

sunrise 6 48am, sunset 5 22pm 


21 

sunrise 6 38am, sunset 5:3t pm 


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PASSOVER 

o 

full moon 

sunrise 5 31 am. sunset ft18pm 


9 

last quarter 

sunrises I9am. sunset 6:25pm 


16 

• 

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sunnse 5.08am, sunset 6.33pm 


23 

c 

first quarter 

sunrise 4 57am. sunset 6 4 1 pm 




1 

Good Friday 

sunrise 5:33am. sunset 6:17pm 


8 

sunrise 5.21 am. sunset 6 ?4pm 


15 

sunrise 5.09am. sunset 6:32pm 


22 

sunrise 4 58am. sunset b 40pm 


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7 

sunrise 5:22am. sunset 6 23pm 


14 

sunrise 5: 1 1 am, sunset 6 31 pm 


21 

Lyrid meteor shower, 10-15 per 
hr.; max. rate may vary 1-2 
days 

sunrise 5:00am. sunset 6 38pm 


28 

Sunrise 4 50am. sunset 6 46pm 




6 

sunrise 5:24am. sunset 6.22pm 


13 

sunnse 5: 1 2am, sunset 6 29pm 


20 

sunrise 5:01 am. sunset 6:37pm 


^» .1 


Times for sunrise and sunset 
are for Chicago, Central 
Standard Time. For Daylight 
Savings Time add 1 hour. 


5 

sunrise 5 26am. sunset 6 20pm 


12 

sunrise 5 Mam. sunset 6:28pm 


19 

sunrise 5:03am, sunset 6:36pm 


26 

sunrise 4 b2am. sunset 6.44pm 


May 

S (^ T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 6 7 

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


4 

sunrise 5 27am. sunset 6 19pm 


11 

sunrise 5:16am, sunset 6:27pm 


18 

sunrise 5:04am, sunset 6 35pm 


25 

sunnse 4.54am. sunset 6 43pm 


March 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 29 30 31 


3 

EASTER 

Daylight Savings Time 
begins 

sunrise 5 29am. sunset 6:18pm 


10 

sunrise 5- 1 7am, sunset 6 26pm 


17 

sunrise 5 06am. sunset 6:34pm 


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sunrise 4:38am, sunset 6;56pm 


14 

sunrise4:3lam, sunset 7 03pm 


21 

sunrise 4 25am. sunset 7 10pm 


28 

sunrise 4:20am. sunset 7:15pm 


June 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 
5 6 7 8 9 10 < ' 
12 13 14 15 16 17 T 
19 20 21 22 23 2 i - 
26 27 28 29 30 


6 

sunrise 4:39am, sunset 6:55pm 


13 

sunrise 4:32am, sunset 7 02pm 


20 

sunrise4 25am, sunset 709pm 


27 

sunrise 4:2 lam, sunset 7 14pm 


April 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 


5 

sunrise4:40am, sunset 6:54pm 


12 

sunrise 4:33am, sunset 7 02pm 


19 

sunrise 4 26am, sunset 7 l38pm 


26 

sunrise 4 22am, sunset 7: 13pm 


Times for sunrise and sunset 
are for Chicago, Central 
Standard Time, For Dayligtit 
Savings Time add 1 tiour 


4 

Eta Aquarid meteor shower, 
10-40 per fir; max. rate may 
vary 1-2 days 

sunrise 4.43afTi, sunset 6-53pm 


11 

sunrise4:34am, sunset 7:00pm 


18 

sunnse 4 27am, sunset 7 07pm 


25 

surjrise 4:22am, sunset 7: 1 2pm 


9 


3 

sunrise 4 ;44am, sunset 6:52pm 


10 

sunnse 4:35am. sunset 6'59pm 


17 

sunrise 4 28am, sunset 7:06pm 


24 

sunrise 4: 1 9am. sunset 7: 1 7pm 


31 

o 

full moon 

sunrise4 18am, sunset 7 18pm 


2 

Field Museum opened 1921 
(Grant Park) 

sunrise 4:45am, sunset 651 pm 


9 

sunrise 4;37am. sunset 6 58pm 


16 

sunrise 4:29am. sunset 7 05pm 


23 

© 

first quarter 

sunrise 4:23am. sunset 7:11pm 


30 

MEMORIAL DAY 

sunrise4 19am, sunset 7 17pm 


1 

o 

full moon 

sunrise 4:47am, sunset 6;S0pm 


8 

Mother's Day 

last quarter 

sunrise 4 37am, sunset 6:57pm 


15 

• 

new moon 

Sunrise 4 30am sunset 7 04pm 


22 

sunrise 4 24am. sunset 7 1 1 pm 


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6 

sunrise 4:49am, sunset 7 03pm 


13 

Islamic New Year 
(begins at sunset) 

sunrise 4 55am, sunset 6 54pm 


20 

first quarter 

sunrise 5 02am, sunset 6 43pfn 


27 

Lunar eclipse (partial), visible 
In most of N, Am. 

O full moon 

sunrise 5 10am, sunsel 6:32pm 




5 

sunrise 4:47am, sunset 7:04pm 


12 

• 

new moon 

sunrise 4 55am. sunset 6:55pm 


19 

sunrise 5 Oiam, sunset 6 45pm 


26 

sunrise 5 09am, sunsel 6 34pm 


September 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 

25 26 27 28 29 30 


4 

last quarter 

sunrise 4 46am, sunset 7:05pm 


11 

Perseid meteor stiower, 50-100 
pertir;max, rate may vary 1 -2 
days 

sunrise 4 54am, sunset 6:56pm 


18 

sunrise 5 OOam, sunsel 6 46pm 


25 

sunrise 5:08am, sunsel 6 35pm 


July 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 
24 25 26 27 28 29 30 
31 


3 

sunrise 4 45am, sunset 7:07pm 


10 

sunrise 4:53am, sunset 6:58pm 


17 

sunrise 4 59am. sunset 6 48pm 


24 

sunrise 5:07am, sunset 6:37pm 


31 

sunrise 5 14am, sunset 6:25pm 


2 

sunrise 4:44am, sunset 7;0epm 


9 

sunrise 4 52am. sunset 6:59pm 


16 

sunrise 4:58am, sunset 6:49pm 


23 

sunrise 5:05am, sunset 6:38pm 


30 

sunrise 5. 1 Sam, sunset 6:27pm 


1 

sunrise 4:43am, sunset 7:09pm 


8 

sunrise 4:51am, sunset 7:00pm 


15 

sunrise 4.57am, sunset 6 51pm 


22 

sunrise 5;04am. sunset 6;40pm 


29 

sunrise 5 12am, sunsel 6 29pm 


Times for sunrise and sunset 
are for CInicago, Central 
Standard Time, For Dayligtil 
Savings Time add 1 tnour 


7 

sunrise 4 50am. sunset 7:02pm 


14 

sunrise 4 56am, sunset 6,52pm 


21 

sunrise 5:03am, sunset 6 42pm 


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sunrise 5: 1 7am, sunset 6:20pm 


10 

• 

new moon 

sunrise 5:25am, sunset 6:09pm 


17 

sunnse 5:32am, sunset 5:57pm 


24 

Minrise 5:39am. sunset 5:45pm 




2 

3 

last quarter 

sunrise 5:16am, sunset 6;22pm 


9 

sunrise 5:23am, sunset 6: 1 1 pm 


16 

Field Museum founded 1893 

sunrise 5:3lam, sunset 5:59pm 


23 

Native American Day 

sunrise 5:38am. sunset 5:46pm 


30 

sunrise 5 46am, sunset 5 34pm 


1 

sunrise 5: 1 Sam, sunset 6:24pm 


8 

sunrise 5:22am, sunset 6: 1 3pm 


15 

sunrise 5:30am, sunset 6:00pm 


22 

Fall begins 

sunrise 5:37am, sunset 5:48pm 


29 

sunrise 5:45am, sunset 5.36pm 




7 

sunrise 5:21am. sunset 6: 1 4pm 


14 

sunrise 5:29am, sunset 6:02pm 


21 

YOM KIPPUR 

sunrise 5:36am, sunset 5:50pm 


28 

sunrise 5:44am, sunset 5:37pm 


Times for sunrise and sunset 
are for Cfiicago, Central 
Standard Time. For Dayligfit 
Savings Time add 1 fiour 


6 

sunrise 5:20am, sunset 6: 1 5pm 


13 

sunrise 5:28am, sunset 6:04pm 


20 

sunrise 5:35am, sunset 5:52pm 


27 

sunrise 5:43am, sunset 5:39pm 


October 

S M T W T F S 

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 

30 31 


5 

LABOR DAY 

sunrise 5:1 9am, sunset 6: 1 7pm 


12 

ROSH HASHANA 

sunrise 5:27am, sunset 6:06pm 


19 

sunrise 5:34am, sunset 5:53pm 


26 

Sept. 26, 27 Mats brigfitest 
since 1971—36,000,000 miles 
away 

sunrise 5:42am, sunset 5 4 1 pm 


August 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 6 

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 

28 29 30 31 


4 

sunrise 5: 1 8am. sunset 6:1 9pm 


11 

sunrise 5:26am, sunset 6:07pm 


18 

© 

first quarter 

sunrise 5:33am. sunset 5:55pm 


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sunrise 5:55am, sunsel 5 20pm 


15 

Sunrise 6 02am, sunsel 5:09pm 


22 

sunrise 6 10am, sunset 4 58pm 


9i 1 




7 

sunrise 5:54am, sunset 5 22pm 


14 

sunnse 6 01 am, sunset 5 1 0pm 


21 

sunrise 6 09am, sunset 4 59pm 


28 

sunrise 6 1 7am, sunset 4 49pm 




6 

sunrise 5:53am, sunset 5:24pm 


13 

sunrise 5:59am, sunset 5:12pm 


20 

Orionid meteor shower, 10-70 
per hr; max. ratemay vary 1-2 
days 

sunrise 6 08am. sunset 5 01pm 


27 

sunrise 6 16am, sunset 4 51pm 




5 

sunrise 5:51am. sunset 5:25pm 


12 

sunrise 5 58am, sunset 5 1 4pm 


19 

sunrise 6 06am, sunset 5 02pm 


^ 4 


Times for sunrise and sunset 
are for Chicago, Central 
Standard Time. For Daylight 
Savings Time add 1 hour. 


4 

sunrise 5:50am. sunset 5:27pm 


11 

sunrise 5:58am, sunset 5: 15pm 


18 

c 

first quarter 

sunrise 6 05am. sunset 5 04pm 


25 

sunrise 6 1 4am. sunset 4 54pm 


November 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 29 30 


3 

sunrise 5:49am, sunset 5:29pm 


10 

Columbus Day 

• 

new moon 

sunrise 5 57am. sunset 5: 1 7pm 


17 

sunrise 6 04am, sunset 5 06pm 




September 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 3 

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 

25 26 27 28 29 30 


2 

3 

last quarter 

sunrise 5 48am. sunset 5:31pm 


9 

Draconid meteor showier, 10 
per hr.; max. rate may vary 1-2 
days 

sunrise 5 56am. sunset 5 19pm 


16 

sunrise 6 03am, sunsel 5 07pm 





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3 

sunrise 7:00am, sunset 4:19pm 


10 

sunnse 706am, sunsel 4:19pm 


17 

sunrise 7 1 2am, sunset 4 20pm 


24 

sunnse 7:15am. sunsel 4 23pm 


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2 

sunrise 6:59am. sunset 4:20pm 


9 

• 

new moon 

sunrise 7:05am, sunset 4:19pm 


16 

c 

first quarter 

sunrise 7 1 tam, sunset 4:20pm 


23 

o 

full moon 

sunrise 7 15am, sunset 4 23pm 


30 

3 

last quarter 

sunrise 7 1 7am, sunsel 4 27pm 


1 

last quarter 

sunrise 6:58am, sunset 4:20pm 


8 

sunrise 7:05am, sunsel 4:19pm 


15 

sunrise 7:10am, sunset4:19pm 


22 

Ursid meteor shower, 10-15 per 
hr: max. rate may vary 1-2 
days 

sunrise 7 1 Sam, sunset 4:22pm 


29 

sunrise 7 1 7am, sunsel 4 27pm 




7 

sunrise 7:04am, sunset 4:19pm 


14 

sunrise 7:10am, sunsel4:19pm 


21 

Winter begins 

sunrise 7 Ham, sunsel 4:22pm 


WW d 

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6 

sunrise 7:03am, sunset 4: 19pm 


13 

Geminid meteor shower, 50-80 
per hr.; max. rate may vary 1-2 
days 

sunnse 7:09am, sunset 4:19pm 


20 

sunrise 7 1 Sam, sunset 4:21 nm 


27 

sunrise 7: 1 7am. sunset 4 25pm 


January 1989 

S M T W T F S 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 

29 30 31 


5 

sunrise 7:02am, sunset 4:19pm 


12 

sunrise 7:08am, sunset 4:19pm 


19 

sunnse 7 1 2am, sunset 4:20pm 


26 

sunrise 7 1 6am. sunset 4 24pm 


November 

S M T W T F S 

12 3 4 5 

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 

20 21 22 23 24 25 26 

27 28 29 30 


4 

HANUKKAH 

sunrise 7:01am, sunset 4:19pm 


11 

sunrise 7 07am, sunset 4: 1 9pm 


18 

sunrise 7- 1 2am, sunset 4 20pm 


25 

CHRISTMAS 

(Museum closed) 

sunnse 7 l6am, sunset 4 24pm 



Field Museum of Natural History 
Membership Department 
Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive 
ChicasoJL 60605-2499 




niustraaon by Cari Kock 



Jump into the world's 

largest pair of blue jeans, 

learn how to eat like a horse 

(and get away with it!), 

add inches to your height, 

and conquer Godzilla. 

You can do all this and more in our newest, fun-packed exhibit SIZES! 

Jump into Sizes and you and your whole family can explore and learn 

how all living things have special sizes for special reasons. 

Field M useum 

CHICAGO'S LIVING MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY